WorldWideScience

Sample records for hatching

  1. Hatching synchrony in birds

    OpenAIRE

    Tippeltová, Zuzana

    2011-01-01

    This bachelor thesis is about hatching synchrony in birds. Generally, among birds there are two types of hatching - asynchronous and synchronous- and the type of hatching is primarily determined by the time of the onset of incubation. In many bird species, including most precocial ones, incubation does not begin until the last egg has been laid, which results in hatching of all the eggs within a few hours. In synchronously-hatched broods, all the chicks are about the same age. Thus no single ...

  2. Does hatching failure breed infidelity?

    OpenAIRE

    Malika Ihle; Bart Kempenaers; Wolfgang Forstmeier

    2013-01-01

    In socially monogamous species, the reasons for female infidelity are still controversial. It has been suggested that females could seek extra-pair copulations as an insurance against hatching failure caused by male infertility or incompatibility. In species where couples breed repeatedly, females could use previous hatching success as a cue to assess their partner’s infertility (or incompatibility). Hence, it has been predicted that females should increase their infidelity after experiencing...

  3. Glassfrog embryos hatch early after parental desertion

    OpenAIRE

    Delia, Jesse R. J.; Ramírez-Bautista, Aurelio; Summers, Kyle

    2014-01-01

    Both parental care and hatching plasticity can improve embryo survival. Research has found that parents can alter hatching time owing to a direct effect of care on embryogenesis or via forms of care that cue the hatching process. Because parental care alters conditions critical for offspring development, hatching plasticity could allow embryos to exploit variation in parental behaviour. However, this interaction of parental care and hatching plasticity remains largely unexplored. We tested th...

  4. The Hatch-Smolensk exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sproles, A.

    1993-01-01

    During summer 1992, the World Association of Nuclear Operators (WANO) sponsored an exchange visit between Georgia Power Company's Edwin I. Hatch nuclear plant, a two-unit boiling water reactor site, and the Smolensk atomic energy station, a three-unit RBMK (graphite-moderated and light-water-cooled) plant located 350 km west of Moscow, in Desnogorsk, Russia. The Plant Hatch team included Glenn Goode, manager of engineering support; Curtis Coggin, manager of training and emergency preparedness; Wayne Kirkley, manager of health physics and chemistry; John Lewis, manager of operations; Ray Baker, coordinator of nuclear fuels and contracts; and Bruce McLeod, manager of nuclear maintenance support. Also traveling with the team was Jerald Towgood, of WANO's Atlanta Centre. The Hatch team visited the Smolensk plant during the week of July 27, 1992

  5. Learning hatching for pen-and-ink illustration of surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Kalogerakis, Evangelos; Nowrouzezahrai, Derek; Breslav, Simon; Hertzmann, Aaron

    2012-01-01

    This article presents an algorithm for learning hatching styles from line drawings. An artist draws a single hatching illustration of a 3D object. Her strokes are analyzed to extract the following per-pixel properties: hatching level (hatching

  6. Glassfrog embryos hatch early after parental desertion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delia, Jesse R J; Ramírez-Bautista, Aurelio; Summers, Kyle

    2014-06-22

    Both parental care and hatching plasticity can improve embryo survival. Research has found that parents can alter hatching time owing to a direct effect of care on embryogenesis or via forms of care that cue the hatching process. Because parental care alters conditions critical for offspring development, hatching plasticity could allow embryos to exploit variation in parental behaviour. However, this interaction of parental care and hatching plasticity remains largely unexplored. We tested the hypothesis that embryos hatch early to cope with paternal abandonment in the glassfrog Hyalinobatrachium fleischmanni (Centrolenidae). We conducted male-removal experiments in a wild population, and examined embryos' response to conditions with and without fathers. Embryos hatched early when abandoned, but extended development in the egg stage when fathers continued care. Paternal care had no effect on developmental rate. Rather, hatching plasticity was due to embryos actively hatching at different developmental stages, probably in response to deteriorating conditions without fathers. Our experimental results are supported by a significant correlation between the natural timing of abandonment and hatching in an unmanipulated population. This study demonstrates that embryos can respond to conditions resulting from parental abandonment, and provides insights into how variation in care can affect selection on egg-stage adaptations.

  7. Glassfrog embryos hatch early after parental desertion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delia, Jesse R. J.; Ramírez-Bautista, Aurelio; Summers, Kyle

    2014-01-01

    Both parental care and hatching plasticity can improve embryo survival. Research has found that parents can alter hatching time owing to a direct effect of care on embryogenesis or via forms of care that cue the hatching process. Because parental care alters conditions critical for offspring development, hatching plasticity could allow embryos to exploit variation in parental behaviour. However, this interaction of parental care and hatching plasticity remains largely unexplored. We tested the hypothesis that embryos hatch early to cope with paternal abandonment in the glassfrog Hyalinobatrachium fleischmanni (Centrolenidae). We conducted male-removal experiments in a wild population, and examined embryos' response to conditions with and without fathers. Embryos hatched early when abandoned, but extended development in the egg stage when fathers continued care. Paternal care had no effect on developmental rate. Rather, hatching plasticity was due to embryos actively hatching at different developmental stages, probably in response to deteriorating conditions without fathers. Our experimental results are supported by a significant correlation between the natural timing of abandonment and hatching in an unmanipulated population. This study demonstrates that embryos can respond to conditions resulting from parental abandonment, and provides insights into how variation in care can affect selection on egg-stage adaptations. PMID:24789892

  8. Worldwide Spacecraft Crew Hatch History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Gary

    2009-01-01

    The JSC Flight Safety Office has developed this compilation of historical information on spacecraft crew hatches to assist the Safety Tech Authority in the evaluation and analysis of worldwide spacecraft crew hatch design and performance. The document is prepared by SAIC s Gary Johnson, former NASA JSC S&MA Associate Director for Technical. Mr. Johnson s previous experience brings expert knowledge to assess the relevancy of data presented. He has experience with six (6) of the NASA spacecraft programs that are covered in this document: Apollo; Skylab; Apollo Soyuz Test Project (ASTP), Space Shuttle, ISS and the Shuttle/Mir Program. Mr. Johnson is also intimately familiar with the JSC Design and Procedures Standard, JPR 8080.5, having been one of its original developers. The observations and findings are presented first by country and organized within each country section by program in chronological order of emergence. A host of reference sources used to augment the personal observations and comments of the author are named within the text and/or listed in the reference section of this document. Careful attention to the selection and inclusion of photos, drawings and diagrams is used to give visual association and clarity to the topic areas examined.

  9. Feeding activity in Groups of Newly Hatched Broiler Chicks: Effects of strain and hatching time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Birte Lindstrøm; Juul-Madsen, Helle Risdahl; Steenfeldt, Sanna

    2010-01-01

    The feeding activity of 2 strains of broiler chickens was investigated during their first week of life in relation to their hatching time. Fast (Ross 308) and slow-growing (LB) strains were allocated to 1 of 3 (early, middle, or late hatch) single-strain groups of 80 to 100 as-hatched birds in 4...

  10. Perinatal broiler physiology between hatching and chick collection in 2 hatching systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ven, van de L.J.F.; Wagenberg, van A.V.; Decuypere, E.; Kemp, B.; Brand, van den H.

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about physiological responses of early- versus late-hatching chicks to early posthatch conditions in broiler practice. We investigated effects of hatching time on perinatal broiler physiology in 2 hatching systems, differing in conditions: a conventional hatcher, where chicks are

  11. Adaptive hatching hypotheses do not explain asynchronous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    At the core of the suite of adaptive hatching hypotheses advanced to explain asynchronous hatching in birds is the assumption that if food is not limited then all the hatchlings will develop normally to adulthood. In this study Brown-headed Parrot Poicephalus cryptoxanthus chicks were hand fed and weighed on a daily basis.

  12. Broiler adaptation to post-hatching period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maiorka Alex

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In the latest years more attention has been given to mechanisms for bird adaptation at post-hatching period by management of environmental conditions and formulations of diets offered during this period when digestive, immune, and thermo-regulating systems suffer slight changes. In post-hatching period, digestive system is anatomically complete, but its functionality is still immature in relation to adult birds. The chick immunity depends on maternal antibodies transferred to egg just before laying. In addition, variations within thermal comfort zone might affect initial development of chick. For example, high temperatures may induce hyperthermia with dehydration, while low temperatures may lead to hypothermia responsible by pulmonary hypertension syndrome. In conclusion, productivity might be enhanced when good conditions are offered to chicks during the period from last embryo development to first days after hatching.

  13. Transfer of spontaneously hatching or hatched blastocyst yields better pregnancy rates than expanded blastocyst transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natachandra M Chimote

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Blastocyst stage embryo transfer (ET has become routine practice in recent years. However, probably due to limitations of assisted hatching techniques, expanded blastocyst transfer (EBT is still the preferred mode. Inexplicably, not much consideration has been given to spontaneously hatching/hatched blastocyst transfer (SHBT. Aim: This study aimed to investigate developmental potential of spontaneously hatching/hatched blastocyst against EBT in in vitro fertilization (IVF cycles. Settings and Design: Prospective study of 146 women undergoing their first IVF- ET cycle. SUBJECTS AND Methods: On the basis of blastocyst status, women were classified into SHBT and EBT groups. Intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles were excluded to remove male factor bias. Implantation rate (IR, clinical pregnancy rate, and live birth rate were the main outcome measures. Statistical Analysis: Graph-pad Prism 5 statistical package. Results: SHBT group showed significantly higher blastocyst formation rate (53.3 ± 17.5 vs. 43.1 ± 14.5%, P = 0.0098, top-quality blastocysts (71.8 vs. 53.7%, P = 0.0436, IR (43.6 vs. 27.9%, P = 0.0408, pregnancy rate (59.4 vs. 45.1%, P = 0.0173, and live birth rate (36.8 vs. 22.8%, P = 0.003 compared to EBT group. Multiple pregnancy rates remained comparable between the two groups. Implantation correlated strongly with top-quality blastocysts (Pearson, r = 0.4441 in SHBT group, while the correlation was nonsignificant in EBT group. Conclusion: Extending culture of expanded blastocysts by a few hours to allow transfer of spontaneously hatching/hatched blastocysts gives higher implantation and pregnancy rates with no added risk of multiple gestations. Spontaneously hatching/hatched blastocysts have a better potential to implant and develop into a positive pregnancy.

  14. essential oil as hatching egg disinfectant

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-04-26

    Apr 26, 2010 ... disinfectant for hatching egg obtained from broiler breeder flock. Oregano essential ... contamination rate, hatchability of fertile egg, body weight at 21 and 42 days, body weight gain and total feed ... successful healthy hatchlings. Several ...... Insecticidal properties of essential plant oils against the mosquito.

  15. Consequences of Hatch Phenology on Stages of Fish Recruitment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M Bogner

    Full Text Available Little is known about how hatch phenology (e.g., the start, peak, and duration of hatching could influence subsequent recruitment of freshwater fishes into a population. We used two commonly sympatric fish species that exhibit different hatching phenologies to examine recruitment across multiple life stages. Nine yellow perch (Perca flavescens and bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus annual cohorts were sampled from 2004 through 2013 across larval, age-0, age-1, and age-2 life stages in a Nebraska (U.S.A. Sandhill lake. Yellow perch hatched earlier in the season and displayed a more truncated hatch duration compared to bluegill. The timing of hatch influenced recruitment dynamics for both species but important hatching metrics were not similar between species across life stages. A longer hatch duration resulted in greater larval yellow perch abundance but greater age-1 bluegill abundance. In contrast, bluegill larval and age-0 abundances were greater during years when hatching duration was shorter and commenced earlier, whereas age-0 yellow perch abundance was greater when hatching occurred earlier. As a result of hatch phenology, yellow perch recruitment variability was minimized sooner (age-0 life stage than bluegill (age-1 life stage. Collectively, hatch phenology influenced recruitment dynamics across multiple life stages but was unique for each species. Understanding the complexities of when progeny enter an environment and how this influences eventual recruitment into a population will be critical in the face of ongoing climate change.

  16. In vitro hatching of Trichuris suis eggs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejzagic, Nermina; Thamsborg, Stig Milan; Kringel, Helene

    2015-01-01

    Eggs of the pig whipworm, Trichuris suis ova (TSO), are currently tested in human clinical trials for their potential immunomodulatory capacity. The biological potency of TSO (egg viability and infectivity) is traditionally assessed in Göttingen minipigs as the establishment of intestinal larvae...... after inoculation with a known number of eggs. To minimize testing in animal models, development of an in vitro egg hatching assay is proposed as a reliable, cost-effective, and a faster alternative to test the egg viability. The present study aimed to investigate the influence of different chemical......, physical, and biological factors on egg hatching. Thus, in a series of experiments and in different combinations, the eggs were stimulated with glass beads, artificial gastric juice, bile salt and trypsin solution, fermentation gut medium, or stimulated with mucosal scrapings from the ileum and the large...

  17. Learning hatching for pen-and-ink illustration of surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Kalogerakis, Evangelos

    2012-01-01

    This article presents an algorithm for learning hatching styles from line drawings. An artist draws a single hatching illustration of a 3D object. Her strokes are analyzed to extract the following per-pixel properties: hatching level (hatching, cross-hatching, or no strokes), stroke orientation, spacing, intensity, length, and thickness. A mapping is learned from input geometric, contextual, and shading features of the 3D object to these hatching properties, using classification, regression, and clustering techniques. Then, a new illustration can be generated in the artist\\'s style, as follows. First, given a new view of a 3D object, the learned mapping is applied to synthesize target stroke properties for each pixel. A new illustration is then generated by synthesizing hatching strokes according to the target properties. © 2012 ACM.

  18. ZZ HATCHES-18, Database for radiochemical modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heath, T.G.

    2008-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: HATCHES is a referenced, quality assured, thermodynamic database, developed by Serco Assurance for Nirex. Although originally compiled for use in radiochemical modelling work, HATCHES also includes data suitable for many other applications e.g. toxic waste disposal, effluent treatment and chemical processing. It is used in conjunction with chemical and geochemical computer programs, to simulate a wide variety of reactions in aqueous environments. The database includes thermodynamic data (the log formation constant and the enthalpy of formation for the chemical species) for the actinides, fission products and decay products. The datasets for Ni, Tc, U, Np, Pu and Am are based on the NEA reviews of the chemical thermodynamics of these elements. The data sets for these elements with oxalate, citrate and EDTA are based on the NEA-selected values. For iso-saccharinic acid, additional data (non-selected values) have been included from the NEA review as well as data derived from other sources. HATCHES also includes data for many toxic metals and for elements commonly found in groundwaters or geological materials. HARPHRQ operates by reference to the PHREEQE master species list. Thus the thermodynamic information supplied is: a) the log equilibrium constant for the formation reaction of the requested species from the PHREEQE master species for the corresponding elements; b) the enthalpy of reaction for the formation reaction of the requested species from the PHREEQE master species for the corresponding elements. This version of HATCHES has been updated since the previous release to provide consistency with the selected data from two recent publications in the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency series on chemical thermodynamics: Chemical Thermodynamics Series Volume 7 (2005): Chemical Thermodynamics of Selenium by Aeke Olin (Chairman), Bengt Nolaeng, Lars-Olof Oehman, Evgeniy Osadchii and Erik Rosen and Chemical Thermodynamics Series Volume 8

  19. The hatching larva of the priapulid worm Halicryptus spinulosus

    OpenAIRE

    Janssen, Ralf; Wennberg, Sofia A; Budd, Graham E

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Despite their increasing evolutionary importance, basic knowledge about the priapulid worms remains limited. In particular, priapulid development has only been partially documented. Following previous description of hatching and the earliest larval stages of Priapulus caudatus, we here describe the hatching larva of Halicryptus spinulosus. Comparison of the P. caudatus and the H. spinulosus hatching larvae allows us to attempt to reconstruct the ground pattern of priapulid developmen...

  20. Copepod recruitment and food composition : Do diatoms affect hatching success?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonasdottir, Sigrun; Kiørboe, Thomas

    1996-01-01

    was fed several different diets while egg production and hatching success were monitored. The diet was analysed for fatty acid content as an indicator of food quality. Both egg production and hatching were found to be affected by the nutritional quality of the food. Hatching was also highly dependent......Laboratory experiments were conducted to differentiate between factors controlling the hatching success of copepod eggs. Factors that could affect viability of eggs; viz food quality, female condition and external factors were investigated. In a series of experiments the copepod Acartia tonsa Dana...

  1. Salmonella contamination of hatching and table eggs: a comparison.

    OpenAIRE

    Poppe, C; Duncan, C L; Mazzocco, A

    1998-01-01

    This study determined and compared Salmonella contamination rates of pools of surplus, early and culled hatching eggs from layer and broiler breeder flocks, and of pools of early and regular table eggs from layer flocks. Each pool contained 6 eggs. Five methods were used for the isolation of Salmonella. Nine of 126 pools of culled layer hatching eggs, 2 of 126 pools of surplus layer hatching eggs, and one of 126 pools of early layer hatching eggs were contaminated with Salmonella. All 126 poo...

  2. Ovulation order mediates a trade-off between pre-hatching and post-hatching viability in an altricial bird.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith W Sockman

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Simultaneously dependent siblings often compete for parentally provided resources. This competition may lead to mortality, the probability of which may be a function, in part, of the individual offspring's production order. In birds, serial ovulation followed by hatching asynchrony of simultaneous dependents leads to differences in post-hatching survival that largely depend on ovulation (laying order. This has led to the widespread assumption that early-laid eggs are of greater value and therefore should possess different maternally manipulated characteristics than later-laid eggs. However, this perspective ignores the potential effect of laying order on pre-hatching viability, an effect which some studies suggest should offset the effect of laying order on post-hatching viability. I examined the relationship between laying order and hatching and fledging probability in wild, free-living Lincoln's sparrows (Melospiza lincolnii. In broods with complete hatching success, first-laid and therefore first-hatched offspring had the highest probability of fledging, and fledging probability declined with increasing laying order. However, first-laid eggs were less likely than later-laid eggs to hatch. This effect of laying order on pre-hatching viability seemed to offset that on post-hatching viability, and, consistently, maternal investment in egg size varied little if at all with respect to laying order. These results suggest that ovulation order mediates a trade-off between pre-hatching and post-hatching viability and should encourage a re-evaluation of the solitary role post-embryonic survival often plays when researchers make assumptions about the value of propagules based on the order in which they are produced.

  3. Preliminary examination of hatching season and growth of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The hatching period and the growth of Malawian cyprinid Engraulicypris sardella larvae and juveniles collected from two sites along the southwestern shoreline of Lake Malawi were investigated using otolith increment information. The lapillus was used to determine the age in days following previous studies. The hatching ...

  4. 29 CFR 780.211 - Contract production of hatching eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Contract production of hatching eggs. 780.211 Section 780... eggs. It is common practice for hatcherymen to enter into arrangements with farmer poultry raisers for the production of hatching eggs which the hatchery agrees to buy. Ordinarily, the farmer furnishes the...

  5. How to hatch from the Common Cuckoo (Cuculus canorus) egg: implications of strong eggshells for the hatching muscle (musculus complexus)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Honza, Marcel; Feikusová, Kateřina; Procházka, Petr; Picman, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 156, č. 3 (2015), s. 679-685 ISSN 0021-8375 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP506/12/2404; GA AV ČR IAA6093203 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Brood parasitism * Common Cuckoo * Coevolution * Adaptations * Hatching muscle * Hatching Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.419, year: 2015

  6. Bleach Solution Requirement for Hatching of Daphnia magna Resting Eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catur Retnaningdyah

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Daphnia (water fleas belong to the zooplankton group called Cladocerans have sexual reproduction when conditions less favorable that produce diapausing eggs are enclosed in the ephippium. Hatching ephippial eggs in the laboratory is important in ecological, toxicology, genetical, and evolutionary studies. This study aims to improve the current methods of egg hatching from ephippium. Each of 50 ephippium were treated together by placing them in a glass jar and adding 50 mL bleach solution (sodium hypochlorite. Concentrations of sodium hypochlorite used in this experiment were 0%, 0.5%, 1%, 2%, 4% and 8%. These concentration treatments were crossed with the following exposure times (1, 2, 4, 8, 16, and 32 minutes. Culturing was done in 80 mL of artificial Daphnia medium, incubated in constant light and temperatures 20°C for 25 days. There were two repetitions in this experiment that were run at the same time. Result of this experiment showed that pretreatment with 0.5-8% bleach solution significantly increases the yield of total hatch rate of Daphnia magna resting eggs by about 21% over unbleached control. However, there was no significant difference among the bleach treatments. Concentration of bleach solution 0.5%, 1% and 4% significantly accelerated the time period until the first hatching (first day hatching. Difference of exposure time (1 - 32 minutes at each concentration treatments were not influence the yield of total hatch and the time period until first hatching.

  7. The hatching larva of the priapulid worm Halicryptus spinulosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budd Graham E

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Despite their increasing evolutionary importance, basic knowledge about the priapulid worms remains limited. In particular, priapulid development has only been partially documented. Following previous description of hatching and the earliest larval stages of Priapulus caudatus, we here describe the hatching larva of Halicryptus spinulosus. Comparison of the P. caudatus and the H. spinulosus hatching larvae allows us to attempt to reconstruct the ground pattern of priapulid development. These findings may further help unravelling the phylogenetic position of the Priapulida within the Scalidophora and hence contribute to the elucidation of the nature of the ecdysozoan ancestor.

  8. The hatching larva of the priapulid worm Halicryptus spinulosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Ralf; Wennberg, Sofia A; Budd, Graham E

    2009-05-26

    Despite their increasing evolutionary importance, basic knowledge about the priapulid worms remains limited. In particular, priapulid development has only been partially documented. Following previous description of hatching and the earliest larval stages of Priapulus caudatus, we here describe the hatching larva of Halicryptus spinulosus. Comparison of the P. caudatus and the H. spinulosus hatching larvae allows us to attempt to reconstruct the ground pattern of priapulid development. These findings may further help unravelling the phylogenetic position of the Priapulida within the Scalidophora and hence contribute to the elucidation of the nature of the ecdysozoan ancestor.

  9. HATCHES - a thermodynamic database and management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cross, J.E.; Ewart, F.T.

    1990-03-01

    The Nirex Safety Assessment Research Programme has been compiling the thermodynamic data necessary to allow simulations of the aqueous behaviour of the elements important to radioactive waste disposal to be made. These data have been obtained from the literature, when available, and validated for the conditions of interest by experiment. In order to maintain these data in an accessible form and to satisfy quality assurance on all data used for assessments, a database has been constructed which resides on a personal computer operating under MS-DOS using the Ashton-Tate dBase III program. This database contains all the input data fields required by the PHREEQE program and, in addition, a body of text which describes the source of the data and the derivation of the PHREEQE input parameters from the source data. The HATCHES system consists of this database, a suite of programs to facilitate the searching and listing of data and a further suite of programs to convert the dBase III files to PHREEQE database format. (Author)

  10. Cyst quality and hatching in parthenogenetic brine shrimp, Artemia

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Royan, J.P.; Sumitra-Vijayaraghavan; Krishnakumari, L.; Ramaiah, N.

    ) enhance the percentage of hatching of the cysts. On the basis of naupliar size, low ash content and high protein content it can be suggested that this strain is likely to be preferred by predators...

  11. Effects of Different Hatcher Temperatures on Hatching Traits of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    selcuk

    of genetic improvements in the modern broilers, the incubation conditions and ... development of the different organs and body structures of the embryo in time, and .... (hatching time, hatchability of fertile eggs, mortality stages and embryo ...

  12. Bacteria stimulate hatching of yellow fever mosquito eggs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loganathan Ponnusamy

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Aedes aegypti Linnaeus is a peridomestic mosquito that lays desiccation-resistant eggs in water-filled human-made containers. Previous investigations connected egg hatching with declining dissolved oxygen (DO that is associated with bacterial growth. However, past studies failed to uncouple DO from other potential stimulatory factors and they contained little quantitative information about the microbial community; consequently, a direct role for bacteria or compounds associated with bacteria in stimulating egg hatching cannot be dismissed. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Environmental factors stimulating hatch of Ae. aegypti eggs were investigated using non-sterile and sterile white oak leaf (WOL infusions and a bacterial culture composed of a mix of 14 species originally isolated from bamboo leaf infusion. In WOL infusion with active microbes, 92.4% of eggs hatched in 2-h at an average DO concentration of 2.4 ppm. A 24-h old bacterial culture with a DO concentration of 0.73 ppm also stimulated 95.2% of eggs hatch within 1-h. In contrast, only 4.0% of eggs hatched in sterile infusion, whose DO averaged 7.4 ppm. Effects of bacteria were uncoupled from DO by exposing eggs to bacterial cells suspended in NaCl solution. Over a 4-h exposure period, 93.8% of eggs hatched while DO concentration changed minimally from 7.62 to 7.50 ppm. Removal of bacteria by ultra-filtration and cell-free filtrate resulted in only 52.0% of eggs hatching after 4-h at an average DO concentration of 5.5 ppm. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Collectively, the results provide compelling evidence that bacteria or water-soluble compounds secreted by bacteria, not just low DO concentration, stimulate hatching of Ae. aegypti eggs. However, the specific cues involved remain to be identified. These research findings contribute new insight into an important aspect of the oviposition biology of Ae. aegypti, a virus vector of global importance, providing the basis for a new

  13. Should we maintain baby hatches in our society?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asai Atsushi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A baby hatch called the “Stork’s Cradle” has been in place at Jikei Hospital in Kumamoto City, Japan, since May 10, 2007. Babyklappes were first established in Germany in 2000, and there are currently more than 90 locations. Attitudes regarding baby hatches are divided in Japan and neither opinions for nor against baby hatches have thus far been overwhelming. To consider the appropriateness of baby hatches, we present and examine the validity of each major objection to establishing baby hatches. Discussion There are various objections to baby hatches as follows: It violates a child’s right to know the identity of his or her biological parents by allowing anonymous birth; it neglects fulfillment of the biological parents’ basic obligation to raise their child and its very availability induces abandonment of infants; some people abuse it for very selfish reasons; it cannot save babies’ lives; the rights of one parent can be ignored if the other surrenders a child without his or her consent; it puts a baby in medical jeopardy; and it has no clear legal basis. The authors would argue that there are many plausible refutations for each objection mainly based on priority of child’s right to life, pregnant women’s vulnerability and necessity of anonymity, social responsibility to protect and raise children, differences between dropping a child off at a baby hatch and child neglect, limited function of social childcare center, inevitability of abuse by a minority of people, necessary distinction between outcomes that occur only because baby hatches exist and those that occur regardless of their existence, important local direct and upmost measures for women in trouble, and difference between ambiguous legality and illegality. Summary We argue that a certain number of baby hatches should continue to be established as a last resort, in a form that can maintain anonymity if the parent dropping the child off so desires. It

  14. Diapause in Calanoid Copepods: within-clutch hatching patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart T. DE STASIO

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Diapause is a major life history feature of many invertebrate organisms. Determining the phenology of diapause is critical for understanding survival and reproductive success of individuals as well as the long-term viability of many populations. The time spent in dormancy by individuals and variability among offspring in the duration of dormancy are two important aspects of invertebrate life histories. Some data are available, especially on duration of diapause, for plants and insects, but little information is available concerning variability among offspring in diapause traits. This is especially true for crustacean zooplankton, where essentially no information has been published on duration of diapause or variability among offspring in diapause timing or dynamics. Here I present data on the duration of diapause, and variability among offspring for diapause characteristics. The freshwater calanoid copepod Onychodiaptomus sanguineus, an obligately sexual species, was collected from Bullhead Pond, Rhode Island, U.S.A., and raised under conditions in the laboratory to induce production of diapausing eggs. One hundred clutches of these diapausing eggs (920 total eggs were incubated for over two years in a full-factorial experiment testing the effects of temperature and photoperiod cycles on the hatching dynamics and duration of diapause. Overall hatching success was highest (approximately 86% for eggs exposed to simultaneous temperature and photoperiod cycles mimicking natural changes, and was lowest (approximately 20% when eggs were incubated at constant temperature (4 °C and in constant dark conditions. The highest fraction of eggs hatched at approximately 550 days of age, but the age of eggs at hatching was highly variable among clutches. There was also large variability within clutches for hatching patterns, with some clutches containing eggs that all hatched synchronously and others in which eggs hatched more continuously throughout the

  15. Temperature effects on copepod egg hatching: does acclimatization matter?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Benni Winding; Drillet, Guillaume; Kozmér, A.

    2010-01-01

    This report investigates female sizes, egg sizes and egg hatching rates in relation to temperature for the near-shore calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa cultured at 6, 9, 14 and 24°C for several generations to achieve acclimatization. Inverse size relationships of eggs and females were revealed...... with increasing temperature. Eggs produced at 6°C were 85 ± 4 µm in diameter, but decreased to 80 ± 3 µm at 24°C. Female cephalothorax length was 840 ± 52 and 692 ± 39 µm at 9 and 24°C, respectively. Parallel hatching experiments were performed between non-acclimatized and acclimatized cultures across a range...... of temperatures reflecting natural conditions in Danish waters. A greater fraction of eggs enter quiescence as temperature declines. Eggs were able to hatch at temperatures as low as 1.5°C. Final egg hatching success increased with temperature. Acclimatization of the copepods resulted in a lower maximum hatching...

  16. Effect of Egg Orientation on Malposition in Hatching Eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmail Durmuş

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted to determine the effects of orientation in the hatching eggs on hatching results and position disorders, so the eggs were placed in incubator for 3 groups as orientation of normal, horizontal and small end up. In this study, 1680 hatching eggs were divided into 3 groups with 7 replicates of 80 eggs in each. Hatchability of fertile eggs, malformation ratio, malposition ratio, weight loss ratio, chick quality, embryo death ratios in the early, middle and late stage of embriogenesis and mortality ratio were investigated in this research. There were significant differences among the groups in terms of egg weight loss ratio, embryo death in the late stage of embriogenesis, malposition ratio, hatching rate , whereas no significant differences among the groups in respect to malformation ratio, chick quality, embryo death in early and late embriogenesis. It was determined that the late embrionic mortality increased because of the position errors in case of hatching eggs orientation and the head of the embryo in small end up of eggs.

  17. The Effect of Eggshell Thickness on Hatching Traits of Partridges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    US Yamak

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Incubation is an important factor in poultry production, particularly in species with relatively low fertility and hatchability rates. This study examined the effect of eggshell thickness on hatching traits of partridges (A. chukar. A total of 462 eggs from intensively reared partridges were separated into three groups according to eggshell thickness, which was measured ultrasonically before incubation. Hatchability, chick weight, and chick length were assessed at the end of the incubation period. Hatching times were recorded during hatching. Embryonic mortalities in unhatched eggs were classified according to mortality stage at the end of incubation. The effect of eggshell thickness on hatchability was found to be insignificant for all groups. Moreover, eggshell thickness had no significant effect on chick weight or length.

  18. Hatch ability, growth and some blood biochemical parameters in hatching quails following the exposure of incubated eggs to red laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abu Taleb, A.M.

    2003-01-01

    A total number of 600 Japanese quail eggs were used this study. The eggs were divided into three groups then incubated. Eggs of groups one (G1) and two (G2) were exposed to 30 and 60 minutes, respectively, to the red laser rays (Laser Pointer LD-300) at 0, 7 and 14 days of embryogenesis,while group three (G3) was not treated and served as control. Hatch ability body weight and mortality were recorded weekly for each group. Furthermore, five blood samples were collected from one day old chicks at hatching and at six weeks of age from each group to determine some hematological parameters including RBCs, WBCs, PCV and Hb. Liver enzyme activities (GPT and GOT), kidney function (uric acid and creatinine), cholesterol and total lipids were determined for the 6 weeks old chicks only. The present results indicated that exposure to red to significant increase in hatch ability percentage and promoted early hatch ability and decreased embryonic mortality in treated groups (G1) and (G2) than control (G3). Significant decreases in RBCs counts, cholesterol and total lipids were found in G1 and G2. Exposure of developing embryos to red laser radiation had no significant effect on PCV in one day old hatching chicks, or RBCs and WBCs counts, PCV, GOT, uric acid creatinine in six weeks old birds. At the same time, significant increases in Hb and WBCs counts were occurred in one day old chicks and Hb and GPT in six weeks old birds. It could be concluded from the reported findings that exposure to red laser radiation may affect some factors that accelerate hatch ability and cause changes in some biochemical parameters in Japanese quails

  19. The influence of encapsulated embryos on the timing of hatching in the brooding gastropod Crepipatella dilatata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade-Villagrán, P. V.; Baria, K. S.; Montory, J. A.; Pechenik, J. A.; Chaparro, O. R.

    2018-01-01

    Encapsulated embryos are generally thought to play an active role in escaping from egg capsules or egg masses. However, for species that brood their egg capsules, the factors controlling the timing of hatching are largely unclear, particularly the degree to which hatching is controlled by the embryos rather than by the mother, and the degree to which the hatching of one egg capsule influences the hatching of sister egg capsules within the same egg mass. We studied aspects of hatching using the direct-developing gastropod Crepipatella dilatata, which includes nurse eggs in its egg capsules and broods clusters of egg capsules for at least several weeks before metamorphosed juveniles are released. Isolated egg capsules were able to hatch successfully, in the absence of the mother. Moreover, the hatching of one capsule did not cause adjacent sister capsules to hatch. Hatched and un-hatched sister egg capsules from the same egg mass differed significantly in the number of metamorphosed juveniles, average shell size, offspring biomass (juveniles + veliger larvae), and the number of nurse eggs remaining per egg capsule. Differences in when egg capsules hatched within a single egg mass were not explained by differences in egg capsule age. Hatching occurred only after most nurse eggs had been ingested, most offspring had metamorphosed into juveniles, and juveniles had reached a mean shell length > 1.36 mm. Whether the mother has any role to play in coordinating the hatching process or juvenile release remains to be determined.

  20. 45 CFR 1226.10 - Hatch Act restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hatch Act restrictions. 1226.10 Section 1226.10 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY... candidates on canvassing or speaking tours. (12) Participation in or organizing a political parade. (13...

  1. Influence of incubation management on pipping position, hatching ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influence of incubation management on pipping position, hatching ability and survival of ostrich chicks. Z Brand, SWP Cloete, IA Malecki, CR Brown. Abstract. Despite numerous studies, the effect of artificial incubation on the hatchability and survival of near-term ostrich chicks is still not well understood. Records from 13 975 ...

  2. effects of hatching egg weight and length of storage period

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    metinpetek

    There were no significant effects of egg storage period on body weight and feed ... chicks from all groups were reared under the same growing conditions in battery ... on hatching time, apparent fertility, hatchability of fertile and total eggs data ...

  3. Efficiency of assisted hatching of the cryopreserved–melted embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Pitko

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To measure outcomes of clinical research of efficiency of assisted hatching of cryopreserved embryos. Materials and methods. Patients who had un successful cycles IVF/ICSI with transfer of fresh embryos have been selected for participation in the research between 2014 and 2016 years. Patients were distributed in a random way for participation in the experiment and control groups. Results of embryos transfer of one or two cryopreserved and melted embryos were considered only. Embryos were cryopreserved at a stage of blastocyst, 5 days after extraction of oocytes by method of vitrification. Melting procedure was conducted in the morning of a day of embryos transfer following the instructions of the vitrification medium producer Cryotech (Japan. Assisted hatching was conducted with use of micropipettes of Holding Pipette Cook Medical (Australia and Assisted Hatching/Zona Drilling Pipette Cook Medical (Australia. The treated embryos were cultivated up to a repeated estimation of morphology of embryos before transfer. Transfer of embryos has been conducted by a standard method with the use of catheter for non-invasive transfer of embryo Sydney IVF Cook Medical (Australia. The quantity of the transferred embryos varied from one to two. Results. 100 cryopreserved embryos were transferred which have been distributed in a random way either to the group with the assisted hatching or to the control group (without assisted hatching. A number of parameters of patients from both groups was analyzed, i.e. age of the patient at the time of melting of embryos, duration of infertility, causes of infertility, quantity of previous unsuccessful cycles IVF/ICSI. Any essential differences between patients within two groups based on the aforementioned parameters were not revealed. Also, there were no essential differences in number of the melted embryos, survival rate of embryos, quantity of the embryos transferred to patients. However, at the same time

  4. ORION - Crew Module Side Hatch: Proof Pressure Test Anomaly Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evernden, Brent A.; Guzman, Oscar J.

    2018-01-01

    The Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle program was performing a proof pressure test on an engineering development unit (EDU) of the Orion Crew Module Side Hatch (CMSH) assembly. The purpose of the proof test was to demonstrate structural capability, with margin, at 1.5 times the maximum design pressure, before integrating the CMSH to the Orion Crew Module structural test article for subsequent pressure testing. The pressure test was performed at lower pressures of 3 psig, 10 psig and 15.75 psig with no apparent abnormal behavior or leaking. During pressurization to proof pressure of 23.32 psig, a loud 'pop' was heard at 21.3 psig. Upon review into the test cell, it was noted that the hatch had prematurely separated from the proof test fixture, thus immediately ending the test. The proof pressure test was expected be a simple verification but has since evolved into a significant joint failure investigation from both Lockheed Martin and NASA.

  5. Hatchery waste: nutritional evaluation of non-hatched eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, M L; Jokl, L; da Silva, J M; Vieira, E C

    1978-12-01

    Hen's non-hatched eggs were processed by boiling for 30 minutes, milling in a meat grinder, and drying at 60 degrees C with continuous ventilation. The product contained 36% of protein, 27% of ether extract, 17% of ash, 10% of calcium, and 0.6% of phosphorus. The quality of the protein was comparable to that of a reference casein and of fresh egg meal, as determined by protein efficiency ratio and apparent net protein utilization.

  6. 1,10-Phenanthroline and its derivatives are novel hatching stimulants for soybean cyst nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonaka, Shiori; Katsuyama, Tsutomu; Kondo, Tatsuhiko; Sasaki, Yasuyuki; Asami, Tadao; Yajima, Shunsuke; Ito, Shinsaku

    2016-11-01

    Soybean cyst nematode (SCN), Heterodera glycines Ichinohe, is a plant-parasitic nematode and one of the most serious soybean pests. Herein, we present the heterocyclic compound 1,10-phenanthroline (Phen) and its derivatives as novel hatching stimulants for SCN. Phen treatment promoted hatching of second-stage juveniles of SCNs in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, the hatching of SCNs following treatment with Phen occurred more rapidly than that following treatment with the known hatching stimulant, glycinoeclepin A (GEA). Furthermore, the co-application of Phen and GEA enhanced SCN hatching rate compared with that of Phen or GEA alone. A structure-activity relationship study for Phen derivatives suggested that 2,2'-bipyridine is the essential structure of the SCN-hatching stimulants. These results suggest that Phen and its derivatives activate different hatching pathways of SCNs from GEA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. [Immunocytochemical studies on the phase of differentiation of hatching gland cells in brine shrimp, Artemia salina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ling; Fan, Ting Jun; Wang, Xiao Feng; Cong, Ri Shan; Yu, Qiu Tao; Zhong, Qi Wang

    2004-04-01

    Hatching enzyme (HE), synthesized in hatching gland cells (HGCs), plays vital roles in animal hatching. Immunocytochemical techniques employing anti-GST-UVS.2 antiserum, prepared from Xenopus HE and with specificity to brine shrimp HE, were first used to investigate the differentiation and variability of hatching gland cells (HGCs) in the hatching process of embryos of brine shrimp, Artemia salina, in this study. HGCs with immunoreactivity to anti-GST-UVS.2 antiserum were identified, for the first time, in brine shrimp embryos during hatching process. Immunocytochemical staining results showed that, (1) HE-positive immunoreactivity is really specific to Artemia HE, and its appearance and disappearance are closely correlated with the hatching process of Artemia salina. (2) Artemia HGCs, first appeared in embryos 5 hours before hatching and disappeared 4 hours after hatching, were also a transient type of cells, with an existence period of 9 hours. (3) The head portion of Artemia embryo is probably the initial position of HE secretion, and likely to be the main position of HE secretion as well. The detailed process and mechanism need to be studied. (4) The appearance of HGCs is in a synchronous mode from places all over the embryos, and their disappearance is also in a synchronous mode. (5) The number of HGCs increased gradually along with embryo development process and reached a maximum number at hatching. Contrarily, the number of HGCs decreased gradually after hatching, and HGCs disappeared 5 hours after hatching. However, the intensity of HE-positive reaction was almost at the same level at the period of HGCs'presence. (6) Artemia HGCs were distributed throughout the body of embryos at all time during their presence. Therefore, it can concluded that Artemia HGCs, as a transient type of cells, first appeared in embryos 4 hours before hatching and disappeared in embryos 5 hours after hatching, and with distinguished patterns of appearance, disappearance and

  8. Unity hatch closed in preparation for launch on STS-88

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Workers in the Space Station Processing Facility close the access hatch to the Unity connecting module, part of the International Space Station, before its launch aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour on STS-88 in December. Unity will now undergo a series of leak checks before a final purge of clean, dry air inside the module to ready it for initial operations in space. Other testing includes the common berthing mechanism to which other space station elements will dock and the Pad Demonstration Test to verify the compatibility of the module with the Space Shuttle as well as the ability of the astronauts to send and receive commands to Unity from the flight deck of the orbiter. The next time the hatch will be opened it will be by astronauts on orbit. Unity is expected to be ready for installation into the payload canister on Oct. 25, and transported to Launch Pad 39-A on Oct. 27. The Unity will be mated to the Russian-built Zarya control module which should already be in orbit at that time.

  9. Cosmonaut Gidzenko Near Hatch Between Unity and Destiny

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    Cosmonaut Yuri P. Gidzenko, Expedition One Soyuz commander, stands near the hatch leading from the Unity node into the newly-attached Destiny laboratory aboard the International Space Station (ISS). The Node 1, or Unity, serves as a cornecting passageway to Space Station modules. The U.S.-built Unity module was launched aboard the Orbiter Endeavour (STS-88 mission) on December 4, 1998, and connected to Zarya, the Russian-built Functional Cargo Block (FGB). The U.S. Laboratory (Destiny) module is the centerpiece of the ISS, where science experiments will be performed in the near-zero gravity in space. The Destiny Module was launched aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis (STS-98 mission) on February 7, 2001. The aluminum module is 8.5 meters (28 feet) long and 4.3 meters (14 feet) in diameter. The laboratory consists of three cylindrical sections and two endcones with hatches that will be mated to other station components. A 50.9-centimeter- (20-inch-) diameter window is located on one side of the center module segment. This pressurized module is designed to accommodate pressurized payloads. It has a capacity of 24 rack locations, and payload racks will occupy 13 locations especially designed to support experiments.

  10. Spawning and hatching of endangered Gila Chub in captivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Andrew A.; Bonar, Scott A.

    2016-01-01

    Information on reproductive characteristics of the endangered Gila Chub Gila intermedia is largely limited and qualitative, and culture techniques and requirements are virtually unknown. Here we provide the first published data on spawning and selected reproductive and developmental characteristics of Gila Chub. Fish were brought to the laboratory in March 2003 from Sabino Creek, Arizona (12.3°C). Fish were then warmed slowly and spawned at 14.9°C, 10 d after collection. Following this initial spawning, Gila Chub spawned consistently in the laboratory without hormonal, chemical, photoperiod, temperature, or substrate manipulation during all times of the year. Spawns were noted at temperatures ranging from about 15°C to 26°C; however, we noted that Gila Chub spawned less frequently at temperatures above 24°C. Multiple spawning attempts per year per individual are probable. There was a strong, inverse relationship between time to hatch and incubation temperature. The hatch rate of eggs was high (mean = 99.43%), and larval Gila Chub accepted a variety of natural and formulated diets at first feeding. The future of Gila Chub may someday depend in part on hatchery propagation to provide specimens for restocking formerly occupied habitats and establishing refuge populations. Information from our study can aid future efforts to successfully spawn and rear Gila Chub and related species.

  11. Effect of electron irradiation in hatching eggs experimentally inoculated with salmonella enteriditis, on hatch ability and broiler performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castaneda S, M.P.

    1995-01-01

    The effect of four doses of electrons irradaition on bacteriologic population in hatching egg following experimental shell contamination with Salmonella enteriditis phage type 13 was investigated. Fresh, whole, intact raw eggs were inoculated with 10 9 Colony-Forming Units of Salmonella enteriditis, eggs were irradiated with a beam electron source at either: 0.5, 1, 2 and 3 KGy. The bacteriologic evaluation was made with Gentry's and Williams' technic. After the irradiation the groups were taken to commercial hatchery and were incubated in satndards conditions. The bacteriologic evaluation of the shell showed a significant 2.8 log reduction on the group of eggs that were irradiated with 1 KGy as compared with 0.5 KGy doses group and control group (P<0.05). A negative correlation (r=-0.93) between irradiation doses and CFU (P<0.05) was also observed. Bacteriologic evaluation of the internal shell membrane exhibited a highly significant inactivation (P<0.01) of S. enteriditis of 100% in the group of eggs irradiated at 2 and 3 kGy. A high negative correlation (r=-0.90) between irradiation doses and samples of internal structures (P<0.05) was observed. The results obtained suggested that the electrons irradiation may be use like a control system of salmonelosis on egg and like desinfection system on hatching eggs because it did not cause any effect on hatchability and broiler performance. (Author)

  12. Cell and genetic predictors of human blastocyst hatching success in assisted reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syrkasheva, Anastasiya G; Dolgushina, Nataliya V; Romanov, Andrey Yu; Burmenskaya, Olga V; Makarova, Nataliya P; Ibragimova, Espet O; Kalinina, Elena A; Sukhikh, Gennady T

    2017-10-01

    The aim was to identify cell and genetic predictors of human blastocyst hatching success in assisted reproduction programmes via a prospective case-control study. Blastocysts, donated by couples in assisted reproduction programmes were used. Hatching success assessment was performed after 144-146 h post-fertilization. The mRNA expression levels of cathepsin V (CTSV), GATA-binding protein 3 (GATA3) and human chorionic gonadotropin beta subunit 3, 5, 7 and 8 (CGB) genes were detected by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The odds ratio (OR) of hatching due to zona pellucida (ZP) thickness, oocyte and sperm quality, embryo quality and mRNA expression of CTSV, GATA3 and CGB genes in blastocysts was determined. From 62 blastocysts included in the study, 47 (75.8%) were unable to hatch spontaneously. The ZP thickening, and oocyte and sperm quality did not affect human blastocyst ability to hatch, except the combination of cytoplasmic and extracytoplasmic oocyte dysmorphisms (OR = 1.25; 95% confidence interval = 1.08, 1.45). Hatching-capable blastocysts had higher Gardner scale grade and mRNA expression of CTSV, GATA3 and CGB genes than hatching-incapable blastocysts. The human blastocyst hatching success depends on the blastocyst Gardner grade, but not on ZP and gamete quality. Blastocyst development was regulated by CTSV, GATA3 and CGB gene expression.

  13. Inheritance and world variation in thermal requirements for egg hatch in Lymantria dispar (Lepidoptera: Erebidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.A. Keena

    2016-01-01

    Mode of inheritance of hatch traits in Lymantria dispar L. was determined by crossing populations nearly fixed for the phenotypic extremes. The nondiapausing phenotype was inherited via a single recessive gene and the phenotype with reduced low temperature exposure requirements before hatch was inherited via a single dominant gene. There was no...

  14. Suspension of Egg Hatching Caused by High Humidity and Submergence in Spider Mites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubara, Masashi; Osakabe, Masahiro

    2015-08-01

    We tested the effects of high humidity and submergence on egg hatching of spider mites. In both the high humidity and submergence treatments, many Tetranychus and Panonychus eggs did not hatch until after the hatching peak of the lower humidity or unsubmerged controls. However, after humidity decreased or water was drained, many eggs hatched within 1-3 h. This was observed regardless of when high humidity or submergence treatments were implemented: either immediately after oviposition or immediately before hatching was due. Normal eyespot formation was observed in most eggs in the high humidity and submergence treatments, which indicates that spider mite embryos develop even when eggs are underwater. Therefore, delays in hatching are not caused by delayed embryonic development. A delay in hatching was always observed in Panonychus citri (McGregor) but was more variable in Tetranychus urticae Koch and Tetranychus kanzawai Kishida. The high humidity and submergence treatments affected but did not suppress larval development in these species. In contrast, many Oligonychus eggs died following the high humidity treatments. In Tetranychus and Panonychus spider mites, suspension of egg hatching may mitigate the adverse effects of rainfall. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MASS OF NEWLY HATCHED INDIVIDUALS AND COCOON MASS IN LUMBRICID EARTHWORMS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruus, Marianne; Bjerre, Arne

    1991-01-01

    Earthworm cocoons from laboratory cultures were collected and their mass was determined. When hatched, the mass of the young worms was found. Cocoon mass and the mass of hatchlings varied considerably within species. The hygromass of newly hatched earthworms was found to correlate linearly...

  16. Effect of hatch location and diet density on footpad dermatitis and growth performance in broiler chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de I.C.; Lourens, A.; Harn, van J.

    2015-01-01

    The effect of hatch location and diet density on the prevalence of footpad dermatitis and growth performance in broiler chickenswas studied.Broilers (Ross 308), incubated at 2 different hatch locations but originating from the same parent stock,were subjected to 2 feeding programs differing in

  17. Hatching and larval export of the intertidal crab Neohelice granulata in Mar Chiquita coastal lagoon, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermina Sánchez Vuichard

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Synchronization in the events of the reproductive cycle in female Neohelice granulata Dana, 1851 were studied from samples taken weekly and biweekly from September to December 2006 in the Laguna Mar Chiquita. The timing and larval hatching and synchronicity were inferred from numbers of ovigerous females and observing the stages of embryonic development. Synchronization in larval hatching also was observed in females in experiments in dark for a period of 48 hours, at three different salinities (10, 23 and 33 ppm. In addition plankton sampling were performed in order to study larval exportation at the field and its link to the tidal and light/dark cycles. We found that ovigerous females of N. granulata have a marked synchronization in embryonic development which results in that most of berried females are close to hatching within a period of maximum tidal range (days. Within this period, there is a synchronization of hatching at a time scale of hours, governed by environmental conditions. The salinity range used in this study (10-32‰ did not affect hatching synchronicity neither time to hatch. Hatching was synchronized according to endogenous rhythms governed mainly by the tidal cycle and secondarily by the breadth of it. It is also conditioned by the light-dark cycle through an exogenous cycle, so that the hatchings would occur mostly at night high tides.

  18. Host Status of Different Potato (Solanum tuberosum) Varieties and Hatching in Root Diffusates of Globodera ellingtonae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zasada, Inga A; Peetz, Amy; Wade, Nadine; Navarre, Roy A; Ingham, Russ E

    2013-09-01

    Globodera ellingtonae was detected in Oregon in 2008. In order to make decisions regarding the regulation of this nematode, knowledge of its biology is required. We determined the host status of a diversity of potato (Solanum tuberosum) varieties in soil-based experiments and identified hatching stimulants in in vitro hatching assays. 'Russet Burbank,' 'Desiree,' 'Modac,' 'Norland,' 'Umatilla,' and 'Yukon Gold' were good hosts (RF > 14) for G. ellingtonae. Potato varieties 'Maris Piper,' 'Atlantic,' and 'Satina,' all which contain the Ro1 gene that confers resistance to G. rostochiensis, were not hosts for G. ellingtonae. In in vitro hatching assays, G. ellingtonae hatched readily in the presence of diffusates from potato (PRD) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum; TRD). Egg hatch occurred in an average of between 87% and 90% of exposed cysts, with an average of between 144 and 164 juveniles emerging per cyst, from PRD- and TRD-treated cysts, respectively. This nematode hatched rapidly in the presence of PRD and TRD, with at least 66% of total hatch occurring by day 3 of exposure. There was no dose-response of egg hatch to concentrations of PRD or TRD ranging from 1:5 to 1:100 diffusate to water. When G. ellingtonae was exposed to root diffusates from 21 different plants, hatch occurred in 0% to 70% of exposed cysts, with an average of between 0 to 27 juveniles emerging per cyst. When root diffusate-exposed cysts were subsequently transferred to PRD to test viability, root diffusates from arugula (Eruca sativa), sudangrass (Sorghum bicolor subsp. drummondii), and common vetch (Vicia sativa) continued to inhibit egg hatch compared with the other root diffusates or water in which hatch occurred readily (60 to 182 juveniles emerging per cyst). Previously known hatching stimulants of G. rostochiensis and G. pallida, sodium metavanadate, sodium orthovanadate, and sodium thiocyanate, stimulated some egg hatch. Although, Globodera ellingtonae hatched readily in PRD and TRD

  19. UJI PERBEDAAN SALINITAS TERHADAP DAYA TETAS TELUR (Hatching Rate KEPITING BAKAU (Scylla serrata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budi Mulyawan

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Mud crabs (Scylla sp. is one of marine commodities that is profitable. Mangrove crabs are able to hatch and breed within large variety of salinity. One of the main factors affecting hatching rate and also breeding is salinity. This research is aimed to know the effect of salinity to hatching rate of mud crabs. The design used was complete random sampling through three treatments: those are 15%o, 25%o and 30%o with 3 repetitions. Result of this research shows that hatching rate of mud crabs is affected by salinity. Treatment B (25 %o is significantly different with treatment A (15%o and C (30%o. The most appropriate hatching condition is gained from treatment B with average value 91.8%.Keywords: mud crab, Scylla sp, mangroves

  20. Delayed egg hatching of Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae) pending water agitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Babak; Shakibi, Sanam; Foster, Woodbridge A

    2014-05-01

    Mosquito eggs laid on water surfaces typically hatch spontaneously soon after the embryos within them become fully formed first-instar larvae. However, we have found that Anopheles gambiae Giles, an important vector of malaria in Africa, exhibits delayed hatching until the water surface is agitated, a feature overlooked in most laboratory colonies. Agitation within 24 h postoviposition, before embryonation was complete, failed to stimulate delayed postembryonic hatching of isolated eggs on the following day (day 2), when < 1% had hatched spontaneously. However, 5 min of water agitation of these dormant pharate first-instar larvae on day 2 resulted in an almost immediate hatch of 63.3 versus 0% of nonagitated controls, plus another 3.9 versus 0.3%, respectively, during the following 24 h. With daily agitation, installment hatching occurred mainly during 2-6 d postoviposition. The mean cumulative hatch after 7 d of daily agitation was 83.1 versus 1.1% of nonagitated eggs. Experiments with eggs in groups demonstrated that egg density and activity of already-hatched larvae had no stimulatory effect. Eggs stored 1-4 wk at 25.5 or at 15.5 degrees C, and then agitated daily for 6 d at 25.5 degrees C, showed a gradual decline in viability. Viability was sustained longer at the lower temperature. Implications of agitation-induced egg hatching for rainy-season and dry-season ecology of An. gambiae are discussed. Suspended hatching and cool storage already are proving convenient for efficient mass rearing and accurate modeling of weather-based population dynamics.

  1. 46 CFR 35.30-10 - Cargo tank hatches, ullage holes, and Butterworth plates-TB/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo tank hatches, ullage holes, and Butterworth plates... OPERATIONS General Safety Rules § 35.30-10 Cargo tank hatches, ullage holes, and Butterworth plates—TB/ALL. No cargo tank hatches, ullage holes, or Butterworth plates shall be opened or shall remain open...

  2. DIFFERENCES IN POST HATCH METABOLIC RATE AND DEVELOPMENTAL RATE IN ATLANTIC SALMON (SALMO SALAR L): EVIDENCE FOR COMPENSATORY GROWTH?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffensen, John Fleng

    2010-01-01

    had higher VO2 compared to early hatching individuals at T1, but not at T2. Early and late hatchers were equally developed at T1and T2. Intra-family variation in time to hatching, suggests inherited parts of individual developmental rate. That late hatching larvae reached same level of development...

  3. Hatching asynchrony aggravates inbreeding depression in a songbird (Serinus canaria): an inbreeding-environment interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, Raïssa A; Eens, Marcel; Fransen, Erik; Müller, Wendt

    2015-04-01

    Understanding how the intensity of inbreeding depression is influenced by stressful environmental conditions is an important area of enquiry in various fields of biology. In birds, environmental stress during early development is often related to hatching asynchrony; differences in age, and thus size, impose a gradient in conditions ranging from benign (first hatched chick) to harsh (last hatched chick). Here, we compared the effect of hatching order on growth rate in inbred (parents are full siblings) and outbred (parents are unrelated) canary chicks (Serinus canaria). We found that inbreeding depression was more severe under more stressful conditions, being most evident in later hatched chicks. Thus, consideration of inbreeding-environment interactions is of vital importance for our understanding of the biological significance of inbreeding depression and hatching asynchrony. The latter is particularly relevant given that hatching asynchrony is a widespread phenomenon, occurring in many bird species. The exact causes of the observed inbreeding-environment interaction are as yet unknown, but may be related to a decrease in maternal investment in egg contents with laying position (i.e. prehatching environment), or to performance of the chicks during sibling competition and/or their resilience to food shortage (i.e. posthatching environment). © 2015 The Author(s).

  4. Factors affecting hatch success of hawksbill sea turtles on Long Island, Antigua, West Indies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Allan Ditmer

    Full Text Available Current understanding of the factors influencing hawksbill sea turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata hatch success is disparate and based on relatively short-term studies or limited sample sizes. Because global populations of hawksbills are heavily depleted, evaluating the parameters that impact hatch success is important to their conservation and recovery. Here, we use data collected by the Jumby Bay Hawksbill Project (JBHP to investigate hatch success. The JBHP implements saturation tagging protocols to study a hawksbill rookery in Antigua, West Indies. Habitat data, which reflect the varied nesting beaches, are collected at egg deposition, and nest contents are exhumed and categorized post-emergence. We analyzed hatch success using mixed-model analyses with explanatory and predictive datasets. We incorporated a random effect for turtle identity and evaluated environmental, temporal and individual-based reproductive variables. Hatch success averaged 78.6% (SD: 21.2% during the study period. Highly supported models included multiple covariates, including distance to vegetation, deposition date, individual intra-seasonal nest number, clutch size, organic content, and sand grain size. Nests located in open sand were predicted to produce 10.4 more viable hatchlings per clutch than nests located >1.5 m into vegetation. For an individual first nesting in early July, the fourth nest of the season yielded 13.2 more viable hatchlings than the initial clutch. Generalized beach section and inter-annual variation were also supported in our explanatory dataset, suggesting that gaps remain in our understanding of hatch success. Our findings illustrate that evaluating hatch success is a complex process, involving multiple environmental and individual variables. Although distance to vegetation and hatch success were inversely related, vegetation is an important component of hawksbill nesting habitat, and a more complete assessment of the impacts of specific

  5. Cold storage effects on egg hatch in laboratory-reared Culicoides variipennis sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, G J; Tabachnick, W J

    1995-09-01

    The effects of cold storage (5 degrees C) on the hatching rates of laboratory-reared Culicoides variipennis sonorensis eggs were examined. Mortality increased with storage time. Average maximum embryo survivorship for 4 trials was 55.0 +/- 4.2 (+/- SEM) days. Alternating daily cycles of high and then low mean hatching rates occurred and possibly were due to location differences in temperature within the temperature-controlled rearing system. During cold storage at 5 degrees C, C. v. sonorensis eggs may be kept for ca. 28 days with an anticipated hatching rate of about 50%.

  6. Abundance of specific mRNA transcripts impacts hatching success in European eel, Anguilla anguilla L

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rozenfeld, Christoffer; Butts, Ian A.E.; Tomkiewicz, Jonna

    2016-01-01

    -tubulin, insulin-like growth factor 2 (igf2), nucleoplasmin (npm2), prohibitin 2 (phb2), phosphatidylinositol glycan biosynthesis class F protein 5 (pigf5), and carnitine O-palmitoyltransferase liver isoform-like 1 (cpt1) are associated with embryonic developmental competence in other teleosts. Here, the relations...... and no hatching groups for any of the selected genes at 0, 2.5, and 5 HPF. However, at 30 HPF the hatch group showed significantly higher abundance of cpt1a, cpt1b, β-tubulin, phb2, and pigf5 transcripts than the no hatch group. Therefore, these results indicate that up-regulation of the transcription...

  7. Metal stress in zooplankton diapause production: post-hatching response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aránguiz-Acuña, Adriana; Pérez-Portilla, Pablo

    2017-04-01

    Aquatic organisms commonly respond to harsh conditions by forming diapausing stages, which enable populations to survive adverse periods forming egg banks. Production of diapausing eggs is frequently observed in monogonont rotifers, previously changing from asexual to partial sexual reproduction (mixis). In despite that zooplankton are frequently used in ecotoxicological assessment because of their sensitivity to various toxicants and their important role in the ecosystems, toxicity evaluations often consider the directly exposed population produced by parthenogenetic reproduction, exclusively. We assessed experimentally effects of exposure to metals on mixis delay and fitness of hatchlings of the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis obtained from a brackish water lagoon with high metal content, especially copper. We show that sub-lethal concentrations of copper affected traits related to sexual reproduction and diapausing egg production in the rotifer. Copper addition did not delay the start of mixis, suggesting that rapid initiation of mixis is promoted in risky environments, according to the hypothesis of mixis as an escape strategy. Higher investment in mixis was obtained when individuals were exposed to metal. Addition of copper negatively affected the hatching success of diapausing eggs and performance of hatchlings. Nevertheless, these effects were greater for individuals formed in non-metal conditions, suggesting an adaptive advantage of populations from natural sediments exposed to copper. These results highlight the ecological and evolutionary consequences of the presence of metals in freshwater environments by modulating diapause adaptive efficacy and the selective process in egg banks.

  8. High Pressure Coolant Injection system risk-based inspection guide for Hatch Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DiBiasio, A.M.

    1993-05-01

    A review of the operating experience for the High Pressure Coolant Injection (HPCI) system at the Hatch Nuclear Power Station, Units 1 and 2, is described in this report. The information for this review was obtained from Hatch Licensee Event Reports (LERs) that were generated between 1980 and 1992. These LERs have been categorized into 23 failure modes that have been prioritized based on probabilistic risk assessment considerations. In addition, the results of the Hatch operating experience review have been compared with the results of a similar, industry wide operating, experience review. This comparison provides an indication of areas in the Hatch HPCI system that should be given increased attention in the prioritization of inspection resources

  9. The effect of low changes in radiation dose on the hatching data of rainbow trout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buehringer, H.; Kellermann, H.J.

    1993-01-01

    Radiation hormesis hypothesis refers to the occurrence of a biphasic dose-respond relationship in which higher doses cause an inhibitory effect and lower doses cause a stimulatory effect. By extrapolation of this thesis there could be suggested a radiation damage effect below normal background radiation doses. Rainbow trout eggs, which are very radiation sensitive, were fertilized and incubated in environments with abient radiation (Hamburg), increased doses of radiation and decreased level of radiation doses (ASSE II). Hatching data (incubation time, hatching time, hatching success, number and kind of malformations, length of larvae) were examined for a hormesis effect. Only in hatching success a statistically significant effect of radiation dose was noticeable. (orig.) [de

  10. Hatching success in brackish water of Perca fluviatilis eggs obtained from the western Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Emil Aputsiaq Flindt; Skovrind, Mikkel; Olsen, Morten Tange

    2016-01-01

    tolerance of the eggs in vivo, and the salinities at which some populations spawn in situ (7 vs. 9.6 ‰). In the present study, hatching success of perch was determined in vivo for a Danish, western Baltic, brackish water population at salinities of 4, 7, 10 and 12 ‰. Furthermore, in order to place...... the population genetically among other European perch populations, individual egg samples were sequenced for a 390 base pair fragment of the mtDNA Dloop region. Hatching occurred at all four salinities, with no statistical differences among treatments. Successful hatching at 12 ‰ is well above salinities of 7......‰, which has previously been the highest reported from in vivo studies. This discrepancy is likely to be a result of methodological differences (e.g. different temperature) or perhaps interspecific variability in egg hatching abilities among perch populations. The perch from the present study consisted...

  11. Fathers modify thermal reaction norms for hatching success in Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlke, Flemming T.; Politis, Sebastian Nikitas; Butts, Ian

    2016-01-01

    hatching success significantly decreased towards thermal extremes. However, half-sibling families varied in their response to different incubation temperatures as indicated by significant paternity × temperature interactions and crossing of reaction norms. The influence of paternity itself was highly...... survival among half-sibling families and temperature treatments was observed during blastula and gastrulation stages (until 100% epiboly), while almost no mortality occurred during subsequent development and throughout the hatching period. The observed magnitude of genetic variation underlying thermal...

  12. Effect of neutron irradiation on hatching rate of eggs and growth rate of chicken

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yubin; Zhao Jide; Liu Shengdian; Xy Xiuwei

    1995-01-01

    It was proved through 3 years of experiments and productions that after the eggs of AA meat chickens being irradiated by 14 MeV fast neutron, the hatching rate and the survival rate as well the weight of commercial chickens increased greatly. In addition it is found that the optimum neutron fluence for hatching and growth rate is 6.2 x 10 5 n·cm -2

  13. The effect of lake sediment on the hatching success of Daphnia ephippial eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Radzikowski

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A large proportion of lake-Daphnia ephippia which are shed by females in the water column sink to the bottom, where they form an assemblage of dormant stages known as an egg bank. Although the quantity of zooplankton eggs in such assemblages may exceed tens of thousands per square meter, the annual hatch from this bank is usually extremely low (from zero to a few dozens animals per square meter per year. This low-hatching phenomenon may be caused by isolation from hatching stimuli by water or sediment layers, a mechanical barrier formed by sediment that does not allow hatchlings to reach the water, or by a bet-hedging strategy of the resting eggs. The aim of our study was to determine the extent to which coverage by lake sediment may affect the hatching of Daphnia dormant eggs. The ephippia of lake-Daphnia (longispina species complex, covered by sterilized lake sediment of different thicknesses (0, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2 and 4 cm; 4 replicates per treatment, were incubated for 8 weeks in lab controlled conditions. The results indicate that even the thinnest tested layer (0.25 cm may completely inhibit hatching of ephippial eggs. A few Daphnia neonates were observed in two (of five sediment treatments, while dozens of animals hatched in the control one. In the second experiment we determined that the sediment sterilization process did not affect the hatching proportion of ephippial eggs (when compared to the treatment with unsterilized sediments. We hypothesize that the observed inhibition of Daphnia hatching in the main experiment, which may cause a serious problem for Cladoceran populations in lakes where no sediment mixing occurs, may be caused by low light intensity, anoxic conditions or a physical barrier created by the sediment.

  14. Structural analysis of hatch cover plates on Fuels and Materials Examination Facility high bay mezzanine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixson, G.E.

    1997-01-01

    In order to move the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA) trailer into position for testing on the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility (FMEF) 42 ft level mezzanine one of the trailer's wheels will have to sit on a circular hatch cover fabricated from one-inch thick steel plate. The attached calculations verify that the hatch cover plate is strong enough to support the weight of the INEL LDUA trailer's wheel

  15. Effects of egg weight on hatchability, chick hatch-weight and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Egg weight was positively and strongly correlated with egg hatchability (r2 = 0.727) and chick hatch-weight (r2 = 0.953). Heavier-sized eggs hatched chicks had higher mortality rates. Growth rate and live weight of the chickens were optimized at different egg weights of 56 (r2 = 0.657) and 60 (r2 = 0.870) g, respectively, ...

  16. Heavier chicks at hatch improves marketing body weight by enhancing skeletal muscle growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sklan, D; Heifetz, S; Halevy, O

    2003-11-01

    This study examined some of the factors connected with the greater marketing weight observed in chicks hatching with higher BW. Examination of chicks hatching from maternal flocks of different ages indicated that BW at hatch increased quadratically and yolk sac weight linearly with age, whereas components of the gastrointestinal tract showed no significant trend. Growth of pectoralis muscles and gastrointestinal tract were compared in chicks hatching at the same weight from maternal flocks of 28 and 64 wk of age and in chicks from the same maternal flock (44 wk old) hatching at different weights. The results indicated that no differences were found among chicks hatching with the same weight from maternal flocks of different ages. In contrast, in chicks from the same maternal flock hatching at different weights the gastrointestinal tract tended to compose a smaller proportion of BW in large chicks, and its growth was not correlated with performance. Liver proportions were greater in heavier chicks. Pectoralis growth and satellite cell numbers and activity were greater in heavier chicks through 5 d posthatch, and pectoralis muscles were heavier at marketing. Examination of some of the growth factors involved suggested that in heavier chicks satellite cells underwent higher proliferation and earlier differentiation during their critical period of activity in the immediate posthatch days. To determine when these differences in activity were established, examination of 15-d embryonic myoblast activity indicated that at this stage activity was already greater in the heavier eggs. This finding suggests that programming of muscle growth may be completed in late embryonic stages. This study suggests that enhanced satellite cell activity is involved in increased growth of chicks hatching with higher BW.

  17. Critical review of the equipment hatch of a large dry steel containment. The DEFENDER IMPROVEMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mantega, F.; Penno, E.; Vanini, P.

    1994-01-01

    Performances of the Containment System under Severe Accident conditions depend on a number of different features and components. The equipment hatch may be considered a critical component because it is a potential main contributor to the total Containment leak rate during a Severe accident and a potential (depending on the design) direct leak path between the containment atmosphere and the environment. The analytical study performed to anticipate the response of the equipment hatch of a large dry steel containment under Severe Accident condition has pointed out some questions of concern. The possible leak tightness failure mechanism are related to: the gaskets elastic characteristics degradation due to thermal and radiological aging; the deformation of the hatch sleeve induced by the containment wall; and the differential expansion between gasket material and steel. Beside, the equipment hatch may be considered a single barrier and although it is equipped with two gaskets, it is not difficult to demonstrate that a backup function cannot be assigned to the external gasket. For these reason it seems to be necessary to realize a wider application of the 'Defence in Depth' criteria in the design of this component. The DEFENDER (DEFENce in Depth Equipment hatch Requalification) might be a solution to increase the margin of safety of the equipment hatch under the Severe Accident condition. (author)

  18. Variation in the hatching response of Ochlerotatus albifasciatus egg batches (Diptera: Culicidae in temperate Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Ernesto Campos

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Egg hatching of winter-collected Ochlerotatus albifasciatus was studied for six months. Batches of eggs were divided into two groups, one of them was stored in the laboratory at 23°C and 12:12 photoperiod, and the other in the field under dead leaves. Every month, from July to December, eggs from the two groups were flooded under both laboratory and field conditions. Unhatched eggs were returned to the original condition and flooded two more times separated by ten-day intervals. Results show that egg diapause is expressed in different intensities, not only on eggs exposed to different conditions but also in those exposed to the same condition, even when they were laid by the same female. Successive inundations yielded incomplete hatches of eggs, and favored the hatching response in the next flooding. Low environmental temperatures before and during the flooding depressed hatching response. This shows that eggs need a warm period before flooding as well as warm temperatures during flooding, to hatch. As drought period was longer hatching response increased, but this was also accompanied by warmer environmental conditions. The experiment performed in laboratory did not show that increment. Field studies showed that a layer of dead leaves protected eggs from extreme temperatures.

  19. Egg clutch dehydration induces early hatching in red-eyed treefrogs, Agalychnis callidryas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María José Salica

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Terrestrial eggs have evolved repeatedly in tropical anurans exposing embryos to the new threat of dehydration. Red-eyed treefrogs, Agalychnis callidryas, lay eggs on plants over water. Maternally provided water allows shaded eggs in humid sites to develop to hatching without rainfall, but unshaded eggs and those in less humid sites can die from dehydration. Hatching responses of amphibian eggs to dry conditions are known from two lineages with independent origins of terrestrial eggs. Here, we experimentally tested for dehydration-induced early hatching in another lineage (Agalychnis callidryas, Phyllomedusidae, representing a third independent origin of terrestrial eggs. We also investigated how dehydration affected egg and clutch structure, and egg mortality. We collected clutches from a pond in Gamboa, Panama, and randomly allocated them to wet or dry treatments at age 1 day. Embryos hatched earlier from dry clutches than from wet clutches, accelerating hatching by ∼11%. Clutch thickness and egg diameter were affected by dehydration, diverging between treatments over time. Meanwhile, mortality in dry clutches was six-fold higher than in control clutches. With this study, early hatching responses to escape mortality from egg dehydration are now known from three anuran lineages with independent origins of terrestrial eggs, suggesting they may be widespread. Further studies are needed to understand how terrestrial amphibian eggs can respond to, or will be affected by, rapid changes in climate over the next decades.

  20. Organic and inorganic selenium in Aseel chicken diets: Effect on hatching traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M T; Mahmud, A; Zahoor, I; Javed, K

    2017-05-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary selenium (Se) sources (organic and inorganic Se at 0.30 ppm and basal diet at 0 ppm level of supplemented Se) on hatching traits in four varieties of Aseel chicken, Lakha, Mushki, Peshawari, and Mianwali. In total, 84 adult molted hens (50 wk old), 21 from each variety, were randomly assigned to 12 treatment groups in a 3 (Se diets) × 4 (Aseel varieties) factorial arrangement under a randomized complete block design. Each treatment was replicated 7 times with individual hens in each. Settable egg, fertility, hatch of fertile eggs, hatchability, A-grade chick, and embryonic mortality parameters were evaluated. The results indicated that the birds fed an organic Se supplemented diet had greater (P < 0.05) settable eggs, fertility, hatch of fertile eggs, hatchability, and A-grade chicks and reduced embryonic mortality than those fed inorganic or no Se. Among varieties, Mushki had lower (P < 0.05) fertility, hatch of fertile eggs, hatchability, and A-grade chicks than rest of three varieties. Interaction of Se sources and varieties indicated that dietary organic Se supplementation improved (P < 0.05) hatch of fertile eggs in Peshawari and Mianwali, whereas hatchability only in Peshawari variety and reduced embryonic mortality in Mianwali. It was concluded that dietary supplementation of organic Se could be used to improve hatching traits as well as reduce embryonic mortality in native Aseel chicken. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  1. 49 CFR 231.28 - Box and other house cars with roof hatches built or placed in service after October 1, 1966.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Box and other house cars with roof hatches built... RAILROAD SAFETY APPLIANCE STANDARDS § 231.28 Box and other house cars with roof hatches built or placed in... other house cars with roof hatches. Box and other house cars with roof hatches built on or before April...

  2. Effects of a combined hatching and brooding system on hatchability, chick weight, and mortality in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Ven, L J F; van Wagenberg, A V; Groot Koerkamp, P W G; Kemp, B; van den Brand, H

    2009-11-01

    Chicks hatch over a time window of approximately 36 to 48 h and are removed from the hatchers only when the majority of the chicks has hatched. Consequently, chicks are exposed to prolonged posthatch holding periods and delays in feed and water access, leading to dehydration and impaired posthatch performance. It is questionable whether the physiological requirements of the hatchlings can be met with current hatching systems. An alternative system that may better match the requirements of the hatchlings is a system that combines the hatching and brooding phase, so that feed and water can be provided immediately after hatch. Such a system, named Patio, was developed in the Netherlands and tested from 2006 to 2008, to evaluate effects on hatchability and early performance of broilers. This paper describes the Patio system and the results from these tests. A total of 21 broiler production trials (780,686 eggs) in the Patio system were evaluated at 3 locations and compared with control hatches of eggs of the same parental flock in the hatchery. Hatchability in the Patio was on average 1.45, 1.83, and 1.86% higher at location 1, 2, and 3, respectively. However, in the calculation of the hatchability in the Patio, possible second grade chicks were included, whereas these were excluded in the calculation of hatchability in the hatchery. Additionally, in the hatchery, the hatching process was interrupted earlier than in the Patio, meaning that possible late hatching chicks remained in the flock in the Patio, but not in the hatchery. In 3 trials, the Patio chicks were 11.6 to 16.3% heavier at d 0, when the hatchery chicks were placed in the broiler house. Mean cumulative 7-d mortality was only assessed in the Patio and was 1.27, 1.09, and 1.43% at location 1, 2, and 3, respectively. The Patio system appears to function as an alternative to current hatching and brooding systems. Further studies are required to determine to what extent the higher hatchability is due to second

  3. Eight-Shaped Hatching Increases the Risk of Inner Cell Mass Splitting in Extended Mouse Embryo Culture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Yan

    Full Text Available Increased risk of monozygotic twinning (MZT has been shown to be associated with assisted reproduction techniques, particularly blastocyst culture. Interestingly, inner cell mass (ICM splitting in human '8'-shaped hatching blastocysts that resulted in MZT was reported. However, the underlying cause of MZT is not known. In this study, we investigated in a mouse model whether in vitro culture leads to ICM splitting and its association with hatching types. Blastocyst hatching was observed in: (i in vivo developed blastocysts and (ii-iii in vitro cultured blastocysts following in vivo or in vitro fertilization. We found that '8'-shaped hatching occurred with significantly higher frequency in the two groups of in vitro cultured blastocysts than in the group of in vivo developed blastocysts (24.4% and 20.4% versus 0.8%, respectively; n = 805, P < 0.01. Moreover, Oct4 immunofluorescence staining was performed to identify the ICM in the hatching and hatched blastocysts. Scattered and split distribution of ICM cells was observed around the small zona opening of '8'-shaped hatching blastocysts. This occurred at a high frequency in the in vitro cultured groups. Furthermore, we found more double OCT4-positive masses, suggestive of increased ICM splitting in '8'-shaped hatching and hatched blastocysts than in 'U'-shaped hatching and hatched blastocysts (12.5% versus 1.9%, respectively; n = 838, P < 0.01. Therefore, our results demonstrate that extended in vitro culture can cause high frequencies of '8'-shaped hatching, and '8'-shaped hatching that may disturb ICM herniation leading to increased risk of ICM splitting in mouse blastocysts. These results may provide insights into the increased risk of human MZT after in vitro fertilization and blastocyst transfer.

  4. Survey of Hatching Spines of Bee Larvae Including Those of Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apoidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozen, Jerome G; Shepard Smith, Corey; Cane, James H

    2017-07-01

    This article explores the occurrence of hatching spines among bee taxa and how these structures enable a larva on hatching to extricate itself from the egg chorion. These spines, arranged in a linear sequence along the sides of the first instar just dorsal to the spiracles, have been observed and recorded in certain groups of solitary and cleptoparasitic bee taxa. After eclosion, the first instar remains loosely covered by the egg chorion. The fact that this form of eclosion has been detected in five families (Table 1 identifies four of the families. The fifth family is the Andrenidae for which the presence of hatching spines in the Oxaeinae will soon be announced.) of bees invites speculation as to whether it is a fundamental characteristic of bees, or at least of solitary and some cleptoparasitic bees. The wide occurrence of these spines has prompted the authors to explore and discover their presence in the highly eusocial Apis mellifera L. Hatching spines were indeed discovered on first instar A. mellifera. The honey bee hatching process appears to differ in that the spines are displayed somewhat differently though still along the sides of the body, and the chorion, instead of splitting along the sides of the elongate egg, seems to quickly disintegrate from the emerging first instar in association with the nearly simultaneous removal of the serosa that covers and separates the first instar from the chorion. Unexpected observations of spherical bodies of various sizes perhaps containing dissolving enzymes being discharged from spiracular openings during hatching may shed future light on the process of how A. mellifera effects chorion removal during eclosion. Whereas hatching spines occur among many groups of bees, they appear to be entirely absent in the Nomadinae and parasitic Apinae, an indication of a different eclosion process. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  5. A Big Bang or small bangs? Effects of biotic environment on hatching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina MANCA

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The beginning and end of diapause are two important transition points in cladoceran life history. The influence of environmental variables on the dynamics of these processes still deserves attention, especially as concerns the role of biotic factors. In this paper we focus on emergence from diapause, testing (1 whether ephippia of Daphnia obtusa Kurz can assess the presence in the water of typical planktivorous fish or ostracods, and (2 whether such an assessment results in changes in hatching strategy. Total number of hatchlings from D. obtusa ephippial eggs did not differ between the control and the treatments in which the presence of fish or ostracods could be detected (ANOVA, P = 0.884. However, hatching dynamics were different: most of the eggs hatched synchronously at day 4 (83.3% of the total hatchlings number in the control, while only a low proportion of eggs hatched on day 4 in the fish (38.3%, and ostracod treatments (24.0% of the total. Mean hatching time was longer, and variability larger, in the treatments than in the control; differences resulted statistically significant (ANOVA, P = 0.005. With respect to the control, representing a simple microcosm controlled by abiotic variables only, the treatments may be regarded as relatively complex environments, in which Daphnia is also exposed to biotic cues. Under these more complex conditions, the same number of hatchlings is obtained through different hatching dynamics. In the treatments, the first hatchlings appeared later and the hatching rate was more variable than in the control. These observations confirm previously observed patterns from laboratory experiments which tested the effect of competition and fluctuating environmental conditions (light:dark, temperature regimes on D. obtusa reproductive and demographic parameters. They are also in agreement with recently obtained evidence concerning the importance of biotic cues for hatching of ephippial eggs. Overall, the evidence

  6. Social Support, Depression, Self-Esteem, and Coping Among LGBTQ Adolescents Participating in Hatch Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkerson, J Michael; Schick, Vanessa R; Romijnders, Kim A; Bauldry, Jessica; Butame, Seyram A

    2017-05-01

    Evidence-based interventions that increase social support have the potential to improve the health of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) youth. Hatch Youth is a group-level intervention that provides services four nights a week to LGBTQ youth between 13 and 20 years of age. Each Hatch Youth meeting is organized into three 1-hour sections: unstructured social time, consciousness-raising (education), and a youth-led peer support group. Youth attending a Hatch Youth meeting between March and June 2014 (N = 108) completed a cross-sectional survey. Covariate adjusted regression models were used to examine the association between attendance, perceived social support, depressive symptomology, self-esteem, and coping ability. Compared to those who attended Hatch Youth for less than 1 month, participants who attended 1 to 6 months or more than 6 months reported higher social support (β 1-6mo. = 0.57 [0.07, 1.07]; β 6+mo. = 0.44, 95% confidence interval [CI; 0.14, 0.75], respectively). Increased social support was associated with decreased depressive symptomology (β = -4.84, 95% CI [-6.56, -3.12]), increased self-esteem (β = 0.72, 95% CI [0.38, 1.06]), and improved coping ability (β = 1.00, 95% CI [0.66, 1.35]). Hatch Youth is a promising intervention that has the potential to improve the mental health and reduce risk behavior of LGBTQ youth.

  7. Characteristics of Skeletal Musculature of Pheasants Hatched from Eggs of Different Eggshell Colour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Zikic

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to examine morphodinamics of development of skeletal musculature of pheasants hatched from eggs of different eggshell colour. Four groups of pheasant eggs (dark brown, light brown, brown/green and blue/green were incubated. Samples of skeletal musculature of leg and breast were taken during the embryonic and neonatal period of development. From taken samples histological preparations were made. In pheasants hatched from blue/green eggs the smaller diameter of leg and breast muscle cells and the higher volume density of connective tissue in leg and breast muscles were recorded. It was concluded that pheasants hatched from blue/green eggs had the weakest development of skeletal musculature, which can be related to structural differences of eggshell of various colour.

  8. Assessing the role of food quality in the production and hatching of Temora longicornis eggs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonasdottir, Sigrun; Visser, Andre; Jespersen, C.

    2009-01-01

    We utilized the varying fatty acid composition of phytoplankton to create 19 different food treatments based on different ratios of 5 potentially important fatty acids and offered these to the copepod Temora longicornis. Egg production and hatching was monitored and related to ingested carbon......, dietary fatty acids and the utilization of maternal fatty acid reserves. Egg production rates depended on ingested carbon and the fatty acid 20:5n-3 from the diet and from the female reserves. Hatching success showed a significant dependence on the ingested and maternal fatty acids 22:6n-3, 18:5n-3 and 18......:3n-3. Production of nauplii as a combination of egg production and hatching was highly dependent on the fatty acid 22:6n-3 and carbon ingestion. The study confirms the importance of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids for copepod reproduction and indicates that the female differentially utilizes its...

  9. Intraspecific priority effects modify compensatory responses to changes in hatching phenology in an amphibian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murillo-Rincón, Andrea P; Kolter, Nora A; Laurila, Anssi; Orizaola, Germán

    2017-01-01

    In seasonal environments, modifications in the phenology of life-history events can alter the strength of time constraints experienced by organisms. Offspring can compensate for a change in timing of hatching by modifying their growth and development trajectories. However, intra- and interspecific interactions may affect these compensatory responses, in particular if differences in phenology between cohorts lead to significant priority effects (i.e. the competitive advantage that early-hatching individuals have over late-hatching ones). Here, we conducted a factorial experiment to determine whether intraspecific priority effects can alter compensatory phenotypic responses to hatching delay in a synchronic breeder by rearing moor frog (Rana arvalis) tadpoles in different combinations of phenological delay and food abundance. Tadpoles compensated for the hatching delay by speeding up their development, but only when reared in groups of individuals with identical hatching phenology. In mixed phenology groups, strong competitive effects by non-delayed tadpoles prevented the compensatory responses and delayed larvae metamorphosed later than in single phenology treatments. Non-delayed individuals gained advantage from developing with delayed larvae by increasing their developmental and growth rates as compared to single phenology groups. Food shortage prolonged larval period and reduced mass at metamorphosis in all treatments, but it did not prevent compensatory developmental responses in larvae reared in single phenology groups. This study demonstrates that strong intraspecific priority effects can constrain the compensatory growth and developmental responses to phenological change, and that priority effects can be an important factor explaining the maintenance of synchronic life histories (i.e. explosive breeding) in seasonal environments. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2016 British Ecological Society.

  10. Blood vessels segmentation of hatching eggs based on fully convolutional networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Lei; Qiu, Ling; Wu, Jun; Xiao, Zhitao

    2018-04-01

    FCN, trained end-to-end, pixels-to-pixels, predict result of each pixel. It has been widely used for semantic segmentation. In order to realize the blood vessels segmentation of hatching eggs, a method based on FCN is proposed in this paper. The training datasets are composed of patches extracted from very few images to augment data. The network combines with lower layer and deconvolution to enables precise segmentation. The proposed method frees from the problem that training deep networks need large scale samples. Experimental results on hatching eggs demonstrate that this method can yield more accurate segmentation outputs than previous researches. It provides a convenient reference for fertility detection subsequently.

  11. The radiological evaluation of a prototype posting-in hatch under conditions of high alpha activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.I.; Hollick, R.C.

    1987-07-01

    A prototype posting-in hatch, mounted vertically in the top panel of a highly active glovebox has been radiologically evaluated in the Fuels Laboratory, AEEW. This simple, air-lock type system of 100 mm diameter has pneumatically operated and interlocked lids and a low velocity, inward purge, supplied by the glovebox depression. The hatch proved extremely reliable and very easy to operate. More than 1200 simulated posting movements were carried out and a > 8 order of magnitude reduction in aerosol concentration was recorded from the active glovebox to the monitoring environment. (author)

  12. 76 FR 32188 - Hatch Solar Energy Center 1, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER11-3635-000] Hatch Solar Energy Center 1, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... Hatch Solar Energy Center 1, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying...

  13. 9 CFR 94.6 - Carcasses, parts or products of carcasses, and eggs (other than hatching eggs) of poultry, game...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... carcasses, and eggs (other than hatching eggs) of poultry, game birds, or other birds; importations from..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS... § 94.6 Carcasses, parts or products of carcasses, and eggs (other than hatching eggs) of poultry, game...

  14. Artificial incubation of muscovy duck eggs : Why some eggs hatch and others do not

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harun, MAS; Veeneklaas, RJ; Visser, GH; Van Kampen, M

    This study was designed to gain insight into the influence of spraying and cooling, during artificial incubation, on the embryo metabolic rate and hatching ability of Muscovy duck eggs. Three times a week 93 incubated eggs were sprayed and cooled for 0.5 h at room temperature. Daily embryo metabolic

  15. Effects of Essential Oils and Plant Extracts on Hatching, Migration and Mortality of Meloidogyne incognita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.K. Ibrahim.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The nematicidal activity of the essential oil/pure components and plant extracts of naturally grown aromatic plant species against hatching, migration and mortality of the root knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita was investigated. The pure components carvacrol, thymol, and linalool at 1, 2 and 4 mg liter-1 concentrations were the most toxic against M. incognita second-stage juveniles (J2s followed by terpineol and menthone. Hatching was completely inhibited at low concentrations (2, 4 mg liter-1 of carvacrol, thymol, and linalool. Clove extracts (1 mg liter-1 of Allium sativum significantly reduced hatching activity to below 8%, followed by flower extracts of Foeniculum vulgare which reduced hatching to below 25%. These extracts were also toxic against J2s of M. incognita (LC50 43 followed by leaf extracts of Pinus pinea, Origanum syriacum, Mentha microcorphylla, Eucalyptus spp. and Citrus sinensis with an estimated LC50 of 44, 50, 65, 66 and 121 ppm respectively. Flower extracts of F. vulgare had the highest effect on J2 mortality in sand (86%. The highest concentration of essential oils (6% was detected in leaf extracts of Origanium syriacum. Over 30 major components were identified in all the plant extracts tested.

  16. MicroRNA-276 promotes egg-hatching synchrony by up-regulating brm in locusts

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jing; Chen, Qianquan; Wei, Yuanyuan; Jiang, Feng; Yang, Meiling; Hao, Shuguang; Guo, Xiaojiao; Chen, Dahua; Kang, Le

    2016-01-01

    Developmental synchrony, the basis of uniform swarming, migration, and sexual maturation, is an important strategy for social animals to adapt to variable environments. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying developmental synchrony are largely unexplored. The migratory locust exhibits polyphenism between gregarious and solitarious individuals, with the former displaying more synchronous sexual maturation and migration than the latter. Here, we found that the egg-hatching time of gregarious locusts was more uniform compared with solitarious locusts and that microRNA-276 (miR-276) was expressed significantly higher in both ovaries and eggs of gregarious locusts than in solitarious locusts. Interestingly, inhibiting miR-276 in gregarious females and overexpressing it in solitarious females, respectively, caused more heterochronic and synchronous hatching of progeny eggs. Moreover, miR-276 directly targeted a transcription coactivator gene, brahma (brm), resulting in its up-regulation. Knockdown of brm not only resulted in asynchronous egg hatching in gregarious locusts but also impaired the miR-276–induced synchronous egg hatching in solitarious locusts. Mechanistically, miR-276 mediated brm activation in a manner that depended on the secondary structure of brm, namely, a stem-loop around the binding site of miR-276. Collectively, our results unravel a mechanism by which miR-276 enhances brm expression to promote developmental synchrony and provide insight into regulation of developmental homeostasis and population sustaining that are closely related to biological synchrony. PMID:26729868

  17. Phenology of three coexisting annual fish species: seasonal patterns in hatching dates

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    García, D.; Loureiro, M.; Machín, E.; Reichard, Martin

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 809, č. 1 (2018), s. 323-337 ISSN 0018-8158 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Birth date * Climate change * Hatching synchrony * Intraguild predation * Killifish * Otoliths Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.056, year: 2016

  18. Hatching system and time effects on broiler physiology and posthatch growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ven, van de L.J.F.; Wagenberg, van A.V.; Debonne, M.; Decuypere, E.; Kemp, B.; Brand, van den H.

    2011-01-01

    A multilevel housing system for broilers was developed, named Patio (Vencomatic BV, Eersel, the Netherlands), in which the hatching and brooding phase are combined. In a Patio system, climate conditions differ from those provided in the hatchers currently in use. We compared the physiology of

  19. Selection for high levamisole resistance in Haemonchus contortus monitored with an egg-hatch assay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, R.; Borgsteede, F.H.M.; Boersema, J.H.; Roos, M.H.

    1997-01-01

    To investigate the characteristics of selection for levamisole resistance in Haemonchus contortus, the consecutive nematode generations of an in vivo selection were monitored with a newly developed egg-hatch assay. The in vivo selection was started with a population not previously exposed to any

  20. Enterobacteriaceae and Salmonella recovered from non-sanitized and sanitized broiler hatching eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanitizing hatching eggs may reduce the chances that a flock will become colonized with Salmonella and reduce the numbers of other microorganisms, such as Enterobacteriaceae, that can depress hatchability. An experiment was conducted to determine if a quaternary-biguanide sanitizer applied as foam ...

  1. Analysis of survival and hatching transcriptomes from potato cyst nematodes, Globodera rostochiensis and G. pallida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duceppe, Marc-Olivier; Lafond-Lapalme, Joël; Palomares-Rius, Juan Emilio; Sabeh, Michaël; Blok, Vivian; Moffett, Peter; Mimee, Benjamin

    2017-06-20

    Potato cyst nematodes (PCNs), Globodera rostochiensis and G. pallida, cause important economic losses. They are hard to manage because of their ability to remain dormant in soil for many years. Although general knowledge about these plant parasitic nematodes has considerably increased over the past decades, very little is known about molecular events involved in cyst dormancy and hatching, two key steps of their development. Here, we have studied the progression of PCN transcriptomes from dry cysts to hatched juveniles using RNA-Seq. We found that several cell detoxification-related genes were highly active in the dry cysts. Many genes linked to an increase of calcium and water uptake were up-regulated during transition from dormancy to hydration. Exposure of hydrated cysts to host plant root exudates resulted in different transcriptional response between species. After 48 h of exposure, G. pallida cysts showed no significant modulation of gene expression while G. rostochiensis had 278 differentially expressed genes. The first G. rostochiensis significantly up-regulated gene was observed after 8 h and was coding for a transmembrane metalloprotease. This enzyme is able to activate/inactivate peptide hormones and could be involved in a cascade of events leading to hatching. Several known effector genes were also up-regulated during hatching.

  2. Effect of Formalin on the Hatching Rate of eggs and Survival of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    1, and 1000 mgl-1 of formalin resulted in total egg mortality (0% hatching rate). In the definitive ... treatment of fish disease, particularly fungi, as in this study, where it effectively reduced fungi on eggs and larvae of ... salmon held for spawning).

  3. Effects of Injected Methylmercury on the Hatching of Common Loon (Gavia immer) Eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    To determine the level of in ovo methylmercury (MeHg) exposure that results in detrimental effects on fitness and survival of loon embryos and hatched chicks, we conducted a field study in which we injected eggs with various doses of MeHg on day 4 of incubation. Eggs were collect...

  4. Chick Development and Asynchroneous Hatching in the Zebra Finch (Taeniopygia guttata castanotis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikebuchi, Maki; Okanoya, Kazuo; Hasegawa, Toshikazu; Bischof, Hans-Joachim

    2017-10-01

    The mode of hatching in birds has important impacts on both parents and chicks, including the costs and risks of breeding for parents, and sibling competition in a clutch. Birds with multiple eggs in a single clutch often begin incubating when most eggs are laid, thereby reducing time of incubation, nursing burden, and sibling competition. In some songbirds and some other species, however, incubation starts immediately after the first egg is laid, and the chicks thus hatch asynchronously. This may result in differences in parental care and in sibling competition based on body size differences among older and younger chicks, which in turn might produce asynchronous development among siblings favoring the first hatchling, and further affect the development and fitness of the chicks after fledging. To determine whether such processes in fact occur in the zebra finch, we observed chick development in 18 clutches of zebra finches. We found that there were effects of asynchronous hatching, but these were smaller than expected and mostly not significant. Our observations suggest that the amount of care given to each chick may be equated with such factors as a camouflage effect of the down feathers, and that the low illumination within the nest also complicates the determination of the hatching order by the parents.

  5. Periodical low eggshell temperatures during incubation and post hatch dietary arginine supplementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Afsarian, O.; Shahir, M.H.; Akhlaghi, A.; Lotfolahian, H.; Hoseini, A.; Lourens, A.

    2016-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of a periodically low eggshell temperature exposure during incubation and dietary supplementation of arginine on performance, ascites incidence, and cold tolerance acquisition in broilers. A total of 2,400 hatching eggs were randomly assigned to

  6. Mortality of Parental Mountain Plovers (Charadrius montanus during the Post-hatching Stage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria J. Dreitz

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring, management, and conservation of grassland birds are topics of importance because of widespread population declines. Annual estimates of survival are available for many species, however knowledge of how survival varies on a seasonal basis remains poor. Information on the relative effects of breeding, overwintering, and migratory periods on population dynamics is necessary for effective management. Mortality risks often vary with the stage of the breeding cycle. In precocial species, mortality risks of adult birds are often higher during post-hatching care than prehatching. Using a multistate modeling approach, I investigated the influence of both environmental characteristics, measured by habitat, and individual characteristics, measured by sex and body mass, on post-hatching parental mortality of a declining grassland species, the Mountain Plover (Charadrius montanus. I found minimal evidence to support the effect of habitat, sex, or body mass on post-hatching parental mortality. Daily parental mortality was 0.0037 (SE = 0.0007, CI = 0.0026, 0.0053 and survival during the 30-day post-hatching period was 0.8943 (SE = 0.0187, CI = 0.8512, 0.9255. The findings from this study provide an understanding of the associations with today's grassland habitats and the dynamics of Mountain Plovers during the breeding season. Prior to assessing if alterations in habitats are acting more on post-hatching than the other stages of the annual cycle for the Mountain Plover, information on survival during other breeding stages and during migration is needed to assist in developing effective conservation and management plans.

  7. Maternal manipulation of hatching asynchrony limits sibling cannibalism in the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schausberger, P; Hoffmann, D

    2008-11-01

    1. Sibling cannibalism is a common phenomenon in the animal kingdom but entails a high risk of direct and inclusive fitness loss for the mother and her offspring. Therefore, mechanisms limiting sibling cannibalism are expected to be selected for. One way of maternal manipulation of sibling cannibalism is to influence hatching asynchrony between nearby laid eggs. This has rarely been tested experimentally. 2. We examined the ability of ovipositing females of the cannibalistic predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis to influence the occurrence of sibling cannibalism among offspring by manipulating hatching asynchrony of nearby laid eggs. 3. In the first experiment, we assessed the occurrence of sibling cannibalism in relation to the hatching interval (24 h and 48 h) between nearby laid eggs. In the second experiment, we tested whether ovipositing females discriminate sites containing young (24-h old) and old (48-h old) eggs, fresh and old traces (metabolic waste products and possibly pheromones) left by the same female (24 h and 48 h ago), or young eggs plus fresh female traces and old eggs plus old female traces. Both experiments were conducted with and without prey. 4. Without prey, siblings were more likely to cannibalize each other if the hatching interval between nearby laid eggs was short (24 h). Cannibalism occurred less often when senior siblings (protonymphs) experienced a delay in the opportunity to cannibalize junior siblings (larvae). 5. Independent of prey availability, females preferentially added new eggs to sites containing old eggs plus old female traces but did neither distinguish between young and old eggs presented without own traces nor between fresh and old traces presented without eggs. 6. We discuss cue perception and use by P. persimilis females and contrast the outcome of our experiments and theoretical predictions of sibling cannibalism. We conclude that P. persimilis mothers increase hatching asynchrony of nearby laid eggs to prevent

  8. Falcon Nest Occupancy and Hatch Success Near Two Diamond Mines in the Southern Arctic, Northwest Territories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel W. Coulton

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Sensitivity to anthropogenic disturbance in conjunction with slow population recovery has raised conservation concerns over impacts to raptor species from industrial development in pristine areas of their North American breeding range. We evaluated whether the presence of two diamond mines resulted in negative effects to nest use and hatch success of breeding falcons in the southern Arctic barren-grounds of the Northwest Territories. A total of 20 nest sites of Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus and Gyrfalcon (Falco rusticolus breeding within 26 km of the Diavik and Ekati diamond mines were monitored annually during 1998 to 2010. The objective of the study was to test the effects of distance from mines, relative nest age, rainfall, small mammal abundance, and mine activity levels on nest occupancy and hatch rates. Model selection results indicated that nests that were older were more likely and consistently used than nests that were established more recently. A decrease in nest use associated with the mines was not detected. Hatch success was best explained by a positive association with distance from development and a negative trend over the study period, however, these effects were weak. Hatch success of nests within and beyond an estimated 5.9 km distance threshold was similar, and for nest sites within this distance was unrelated to annual changes in accumulated mine footprint area through time. Hatch success for nest sites near Diavik was unrelated to changes in this mine's activity through time. Although natural and anthropogenic effects were generally weak, the lines of evidence suggested that the observed patterns were more likely the result of natural factors operating at a regional scale than more localized effects from the activity of two diamond mines.

  9. Effect of cadmium, lead and arsenic on the oviposition, hatching and embryonic survival of Biomphalaria glabrata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ansaldo, Martin; Nahabedian, Daniel E.; Di Fonzo, Carla; Wider, Eva A.

    2009-01-01

    Biomphalaria glabrata is a widespread freshwater gastropod mollusc. The easy aquaculture of these organisms allow its use as an accessible tool for contamination bioassays. B. glabrata showed marked metabolic responses when exposed to cadmium, lead and arsenic. Those responses could also affect the reproduction of the snails. Taking into account this hypothesis, B. glabrata were exposed for 96 h (acute laboratory bioassays) to different concentrations of cadmium (0.1, 0.05 and 0 mg/L), lead (0.5, 0.1, 0.05 and 0 mg/L) and arsenic (0.5, 0.1, 0.05 and 0 mg/L). Snails were removed from the aquaria while eggs were left in the same contaminant concentrations. The effect of the assayed toxicants on snail reproduction was registered as the alterations of the total number of laid eggs (TNLE), hatching time and embryonic survival. At 0.10 mg/L cadmium significantly decreased the TNLE (p < 0.05) and no embryos survived. The lowest assayed level (0.05 mg/L) of cadmium, delayed the hatching time twice when it was compared with the control group (p < 0.01). Lead decreased the TNLE at 0.5 mg/L level (p < 0.01). The other assayed doses (0.05 and 0.10 mg/L) also decreased embryonic survival significantly (p < 0.05 and p < 0.01 respectively) and extended twice the time to hatching (p < 0.01). The 0.50 mg/L level killed all embryos. Arsenic at all studied concentrations decreased the TNLE (p < 0.05) while the hatching time was increased by 50%. Embryo survival only decreased at the highest level (0.5 mg/L) of arsenic assayed. In summary, the acute exposure (96 h) to cadmium lead and arsenic, altered the reproduction of B. glabrata, modifying the TNLE, hatching time and embryonic survival

  10. Interannual differences in growth and hatch-date distributions of early juvenile European anchovy in the Bay of Biscay: implications for recruitment

    KAUST Repository

    Aldanondo, Naroa; Cotano, Unai; Goikoetxea, Nerea; Boyra, Guillermo; Ibaibarriaga, Leire; Irigoien, Xabier

    2016-01-01

    trajectories and hatch-date distributions were inferred over a 3-year period based on otolith microstructure analysis. Otolith growth trajectories showed a characteristic shape depending on their hatch-date timing. Earlier-born juveniles had notably broader

  11. 49 CFR 231.27 - Box and other house cars without roof hatches or placed in service after October 1, 1966.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Box and other house cars without roof hatches or... SAFETY APPLIANCE STANDARDS § 231.27 Box and other house cars without roof hatches or placed in service...) Number. (i) Each box or other house car without roof hatches shall be equipped with an efficient vertical...

  12. Inter-sexual differences in T-cell-mediated immunity of black-headed gull chicks (Larus ridibundus) depend on the hatching order

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mueller, Wendt; Dijkstra, C; Groothuis, TGG

    2003-01-01

    Hatching asynchrony in avian species leads to age and size differences between nestlings within a brood, handicapping last-hatched chicks in the sibling rivalry. Starvation due to this competitive disadvantage has been regarded as the primary cause of an increase in mortality with hatching order.

  13. Histological Characteristics of Leg Muscles of 56-Day Old Pheasants Hatched from Eggs of Different Eggshell Colour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Zikic

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to examine the histological characteristics of leg muscles of pheasants hatched from eggs of a different colour. From muscle samples (M. biceps femoris of 56-day old pheasants hatched from eggs of different colour (dark brown, light brown, brown/green, blue/green histological preparations were made. Following parameters were examined: diameter of muscle cells, volume density of connective tissue in muscles, nucleo-cytoplasmatic ratio of muscle cells. Results showed that diameter of muscle cells was smaller in pheasants hatched from blue/green eggs compared to all other examinated groups. There was no differences in volume density of connective tissue in muscles between groups. Nucleo-cytoplasmatic ratio of muscle cells was higher in pheasants hatched from blue/green eggs compared to all other examinated groups. From obtained results it can be concluded that pheasants hatched from blue/green eggs had weaker muscle development than pheasants hatched from eggs of other eggshell colour. Cause of this could be related to structural differences of eggshells of various colour. This leads to weaker development of embryos and chicks hatched from blue/green eggs which reflects on differences in development of leg muscles.

  14. Modelling the effect of temperature on hatching and settlement patterns of meroplanktonic organisms: the case of octopus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stelios Katsanevakis

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The duration of embryonic development and the planktonic stage of meroplanktonic species is highly temperature dependent and thus the seasonal temperature oscillations of temperate regions greatly affect the patterns of hatching and benthic settlement. Based on data from the literature on embryonic development and planktonic duration of Octopus vulgaris (common octopus in relation to temperature, and on observed temperature patterns, several models of hatching and settlement patterns were created. There was a good fit between observed settlement patterns and model predictions. Based on these models we concluded that in temperate regions: (1 when temperature is increasing (from early spring to mid summer the hatching and settlement periods tend to shorten, while when the temperature is decreasing (during autumn the hatching and settlement periods tend to lengthen; (2 hatching and settlement peaks are narrower and more intense than a spring spawning peak but wider and less intense than an autumn spawning peak; (3 at lower latitudes, hatching and settlement patterns tend to follow the spawning pattern more closely, (4 the periodic temperature pattern of temperate areas has the potential to cause a convergence of hatching during spring.

  15. The light cycle controls the hatching rhythm in Bombyx mori via negative feedback loop of the circadian oscillator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Hui; Li, Xue; Qiu, Jian-Feng; Liu, Heng-Jiang; Zhang, Da-Yan; Chu, Feng; Sima, Yanghu; Xu, Shi-Qing

    2017-10-01

    Hatching behavior is a key target in silkworm (Bombyx mori) rearing, especially for the control of Lepidoptera pests. According to previous research, hatching rhythms appear to be controlled by a clock mechanism that restricts or "gates" hatching to a particular time. However, the underlying mechanism remains elusive. Under 12-h light:12-h dark photoperiod (LD) conditions, the transcriptional levels of the chitinase5 (Cht5) and hatching enzyme-like (Hel) genes, as well as the enzymatic activities of their gene products, oscillated in time with ambient light cycles, as did the transcriptional levels of the cryptochrome 1, cryptochrome 2, period (per), and timeless genes, which are key components of the negative feedback loop of the circadian rhythm. These changes were related to the expression profile of the ecdysteroid receptor gene and the hatching behavior of B. mori eggs. However, under continuous light or dark conditions, the hatching behavior, the expression levels of Cht5 and Hel, as well as the enzymatic activities of their gene products, were not synchronized unlike under LD conditions. In addition, immunohistochemistry experiments showed that light promoted the translocation of PER from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. In conclusion, LD cycles regulate the hatching rhythm of B. mori via negative feedback loop of the circadian oscillator. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Interactions between hatch dates, growth rates, and mortality of Age-0 native Rainbow Smelt and nonnative Alewife in Lake Champlain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrish, Donna; Simonin, Paul W.; Rudstam, Lars G.; Pientka, Bernard; Sullivan, Patrick J.

    2016-01-01

    Timing of hatch in fish populations can be critical for first-year survival and, therefore, year-class strength and subsequent species interactions. We compared hatch timing, growth rates, and subsequent mortality of age-0 Rainbow Smelt Osmerus mordax and Alewife Alosa pseudoharengus, two common open-water fish species of northern North America. In our study site, Lake Champlain, Rainbow Smelt hatched (beginning May 26) almost a month earlier than Alewives (June 20). Abundance in the sampling area was highest in July for age-0 Rainbow Smelt and August for age-0 Alewives. Late-hatching individuals of both species grew faster than those hatching earlier (0.6 mm/d versus 0.4 for Rainbow Smelt; 0.7 mm/d versus 0.6 for Alewives). Mean mortality rate during the first 45 d of life was 3.4%/d for age-0 Rainbow Smelt and was 5.5%/d for age-0 Alewives. Alewife mortality rates did not differ with hatch timing but daily mortality rates of Rainbow Smelt were highest for early-hatching fish. Cannibalism is probably the primary mortality source for age-0 Rainbow Smelt in this lake. Therefore, hatching earlier may not be advantageous because the overlap of adult and age-0 Rainbow Smelt is highest earlier in the season. However, Alewives, first documented in Lake Champlain in 2003, may increase the mortality of age-0 Rainbow Smelt in the summer, which should favor selection for earlier hatching.

  17. Effect of in ovo injection of corticotropin-releasing hormone on the timing of hatching in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Yugo; Grommen, Sylvia V H; De Groef, Bert

    2017-09-01

    In chicken embryos, intravenous injection of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) causes the release of both corticosteroids and thyroid hormones. These hormones initiate and enhance the hatching process, raising the possibility that CRH treatment of the late chicken embryo could accelerate hatching and/or decrease the spread of hatching. We performed a series of exploratory tests to investigate whether in ovo delivery methods of CRH other than intravenous injection that are more practical in a commercial setting, affect hatching time in broilers. Corticotropin-releasing hormone was injected into the air cell, albumen, or amniotic fluid of broiler breeder eggs, in the last week of embryonic development. Average incubation duration was significantly decreased by 22 h when 2 μg of CRH was injected into the air cell on embryonic day 18 (E18) of Cobb eggs. Acceleration of hatching (but only by 8 h) was also seen for Ross chicks when CRH was injected daily into the albumen between E10 and E18. However, repeats of both experiments did not show consistent effects of CRH on hatching time; in most experiments performed, CRH did not affect hatching time. We speculate that the effectiveness of CRH uptake via these delivery methods and/or the duration and magnitude of the thyroxine and corticosterone response to CRH is not sufficient to have a substantial effect on hatching time. We therefore conclude that in ovo CRH treatment does not seem a feasible option as a practical tool to increase hatchery productivity or to investigate the effects of CRH agonists and antagonists on hatching. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  18. Egg Hatch Rate and Nymphal Survival of the Bed Bug (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) After Exposure to Insecticide Sprays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinson, K R; Benson, E P; Zungoli, P A; Bridges, W C; Ellis, B R

    2016-12-01

    Few studies have addressed the efficacy of insecticides used against eggs and first-instar nymphs of the bed bug, Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae). Insect eggs are often resistant to insecticides; therefore, information on which products are effective is important. We evaluated the efficacy of four commonly used insecticide sprays applied directly to bed bug eggs. We also evaluated the efficacy of these insecticides to first-instar nymphs exposed to residuals resulting from directly spraying eggs. Temprid SC (beta-cyfluthrin, imidacloprid) was the most effective insecticide at preventing egg hatch (13% hatch rate) for pyrethroid-resistant, field-strain (Jersey City) bed bugs compared with a control (water [99% hatch rate]), Bedlam (MGK-264, sumithrin [84% hatch rate]), Demand CS (lambda-cyhalothrin [91% hatch rate]), and Phantom SC (chlorfenapyr [95% hatch rate]). Demand CS and Temprid SC were most effective at preventing egg hatch (0%) for an insecticide-susceptible (Harold Harlan) strain, followed by Bedlam (28%). Phantom SC produced a hatch rate similar to the control (97% and 96%, respectively). Harold Harlan-strain nymphs showed 100% survival for the control but 0% survival for Bedlam and Phantom SC. Jersey City-strain nymphs showed 100% survival for the control, 99% survival for Bedlam, 0% survival for Demand CS, 4% survival for Phantom SC, and 38% survival for Temprid SC. Demand CS was less effective at preventing hatch (91% hatch rate) of Jersey City-strain nymphs but was the only product to kill all nymphs (0% survival). One of the least effective products for preventing Jersey City-strain egg hatch (Phantom SC, 95% hatch rate) was the second most effective at killing nymphs, leaving only six of 141 alive. These findings indicate that survival of directly sprayed eggs and residually exposed, first-instar nymphs varies by strain, life stage, and product used. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological

  19. Effect of vacuum packing and temperature on survival and hatching of strongyle eggs in faecal samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sengupta, Mita Eva; Thapa, Sundar; Thamsborg, Stig Milan

    2016-01-01

    Strongyle eggs of helminths of livestock usually hatch within a few hours or days after deposition with faeces. This poses a problem when faecal sampling is performed in the field. As oxygen is needed for embryonic development, it is recommended to reduce air supply during transport and refrigerate....... The present study therefore investigated the combined effect of vacuum packing and temperature on survival of strongyle eggs and their subsequent ability to hatch and develop into L3. Fresh faecal samples were collected from calves infected with Cooperia oncophora, pigs infected with Oesophagostomum dentatum......, and horses infected with Strongylus vulgaris and cyathostomins. The samples were allocated into four treatments: vacuum packing and storage at 5 °C or 20 °C (5 V and 20 V); normal packing in plastic gloves closed with a loose knot and storage at 5 °C or 20 °C (5 N and 20 N). The number of eggs per gram...

  20. Impact of egg disinfection of hatching eggs on the eggshell microbiome and bacterial load

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, R.; Kudirkiene, E.; Thofner, I.

    2017-01-01

    Disinfection of hatching eggs is essential to ensure high quality production of broilers. Different protocols are followed in different hatcheries; however, only limited scientific evidence on how the disinfection procedures impact the microbiome is available. The aim of the present study...... was to characterize the microbiome and aerobic bacterial load of hatching eggs before disinfection and during the subsequent disinfection steps. The study included a group of visibly clean and a group of visibly dirty eggs. For dirty eggs, an initial wash in chlorine was performed, hereafter all eggs were submitted...... to two times fumigation and finally spray disinfection. The eggshell microbiome was characterized by sequencing of the total amount of 16S rRNA extracted from each sample, consisting of shell surface swabs of five eggs from the same group. In addition, the number of colony forming units (cfu) under...

  1. Bacteria-induced egg hatching differs for Trichuris muris and Trichuris suis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejzagic, Nermina; Adelfio, Roberto; Keiser, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Eggs of the porcine whipworm Trichuris suis are currently explored in human clinical trials as a treatment of immune-mediated diseases. In this context, only the infective, embryonated eggs, constitute the Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient (API). The rodent whipworm, Trichuris muris...... is commonly used as a laboratory model to study Trichuris biology. The embryonated eggs (containing a fully developed larva) are biologically active and will invade the large intestinal mucosa of the host. This study aims to assess the in vitro hatching of T. muris and T. suis eggs in various bacterial...... cultures as a measure for their biological activity. METHODS: Eggs of T. muris and T. suis were incubated with Escherichia coli strain (BL-21) at three concentrations in a slightly modified in vitro egg hatching assay previously developed for T. muris. Additionally, E. coli strains (M15, SG13009, PMC103...

  2. Hatching rate and growth rate of Nothobranchius guentheri fertilized eggs after space flight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Mingzhong; Zheng Leyun; Lin Guangji; Zhong Jianxing; Yang Huosheng; Zheng Yangfu

    2012-01-01

    Hatching, abnormal, growth and survival rate of the fertilized eggs of Nothobranchius guentheri were carried by Shenzhou 7 spacecraft were studied. The results indicated that the hatching and abnormal rate were no significant difference between the spaceflight group (99.3% and 16.8%) and ground group (97.2% and 10.4%); but the growth rate of male fish from spaceflight group was significant higher (0.094 g/d) than that of ground group (0.059 g/d), leading to the significant bigger of the male fish from spaceflight group. The survival rate of spaceflight group (66.7%) was higher than the ground group (47.9%). It was concluded that there was a higher growth and survival rate of Nothobranchius guentheri fertilized eggs after space flight. (authors)

  3. The effect of gamma irradiation on fertile eggs and hatched chick performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mekkawy, S.H.

    1995-01-01

    Two handier fertile white arber acers eggs were exposed to gamma irradiation (Co 6 0) at the following levels 0, 100, 150 and 200 rad. They Were then hatched with the control eggs and hatchability, growth rate, feed consumption, feed conversion, carcass quality, carcass analysis and the blood analysis were determined. Hatchability was reduced gradually with increased radiation, but significantly, no differences in body weight between irradiated and control chicks were apparent at hatching time. At the end of the experimental 45 days, the mean heavight was that of the irradiation dose of 150 rad. The feed conversion efficiency was enhanced by the irradiation treatments, especially with the dose of 200 rad. There were no differences in the carcass quality and carcass composition between the treated and non-treated birds. The results demonstrated that, the irradiation treatments had no effects on the blood analysis of the birds. 7 tabs

  4. Monitoring System and Temperature Controlling on PID Based Poultry Hatching Incubator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiudin, S.; Kholis, N.

    2018-04-01

    Poultry hatching cultivation is essential to be observed in terms of temperature stability by using artificial penetration incubator which applies On/Off control. The On/Off control produces relatively long response time to reach steady-state conditions. Moreover, how the system works makes the component worn out because the lamp is on-off periodically. Besides, the cultivation in the market is less suitable to be used in an environment which has fluctuating temperature because it may influence plant’s temperature stability. The study aims to design automatic poultry hatching cultivation that can repair the temperature’s response of plant incubator to keep stable and in line with the intended set-point temperature value by using PID controller. The method used in PID controlling is designed to identify plant using ARX (Auto Regressive eXogenous) MATLAB which is dynamic/non-linear to obtain mathematical model and PID constants value that is appropriate to system. The hardware design for PID-based egg incubator uses Arduino Uno R3, as the main controller that includes PID source, and PWM, to keep plant temperature stability, which is integrated with incandescent light actuators and sensors where DHTI 1 sensor as the reader as temperature condition and plant humidity. The result of the study showed that PID constants value of each plant is different. For parallel 15 Watt plant, Kp = 3.9956, Ki = 0.361, Kd = 0, while for parallel 25 Watt plant, the value of Kp = 5.714, Ki = 0.351, Kd = 0. The PID constants value were capable to produce stable system response which is based on set-point with steady state error’s value is around 5%, that is 2.7%. With hatching percentage of 70-80%, the hatching process is successful in air-conditioned environment (changeable).

  5. Edwin I. Hatch Nuclear Plant, Unit 2. License application, general information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    An application for a direct cycle BWR is presented. The reactor will be located about 11 miles north of Baxley, Ga., near the south bank of the Ultamaha River in Appling County close to Hatch-1 Reactor. The core thermal power level will be 2537 MW(t) and the electrical power level will be 795 MW(e). Mechanical cooling towers will be utilized

  6. An evolutionary insight into the hatching strategies of pipefish and seahorse embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Mari; Nakano, Yuko; Kawahara-Miki, Ryouka; Inokuchi, Mayu; Yorifuji, Makiko; Okubo, Ryohei; Nagasawa, Tatsuki; Hiroi, Junya; Kono, Tomohiro; Kaneko, Toyoji

    2016-03-01

    Syngnathiform fishes carry their eggs in a brood structure found in males. The brood structure differs from species to species: seahorses carry eggs within enclosed brood pouch, messmate pipefish carry eggs in the semi-brood pouch, and alligator pipefish carry eggs in the egg compartment on abdomen. These egg protection strategies were established during syngnathiform evolution. In the present study, we compared the hatching mode of protected embryos of three species. Electron microscopic observations revealed that alligator pipefish and messmate pipefish egg envelopes were thicker than those of seahorses, suggesting that the seahorse produces a weaker envelope. Furthermore, molecular genetic analysis revealed that these two pipefishes possessed the egg envelope-digesting enzymes, high choriolytic enzyme (HCE), and low choriolytic enzyme (LCE), as do many euteleosts. In seahorses, however, only HCE gene expression was detected. When searching the entire seahorse genome by high-throughput DNA sequencing, we did not find a functional LCE gene and only a trace of the LCE gene exon was found, confirming that the seahorse LCE gene was pseudogenized during evolution. Finally, we estimated the size and number of hatching gland cells expressing hatching enzyme genes by whole-mount in situ hybridization. The seahorse cells were the smallest of the three species, while they had the greatest number. These results suggest that the isolation of eggs from the external environment by paternal bearing might bring the egg envelope thin, and then, the hatching enzyme genes became pseudogenized. J. Exp. Zool. (Mol. Dev. Evol.) 9999B:XX-XX, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Embryo malposition as a potential mechanism for mercury-induced hatching failure in bird eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, G.; Ackerman, Joshua T.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.

    2010-01-01

    We examined the prevalence of embryo malpositions and deformities in relation to total mercury (THg) and selenium (Se) concentrations in American avocet (Recurvirostra americana), black-necked stilt (Himantopus mexicanus), and Forster's tern (Sterna forsteri) eggs in San Francisco Bay (CA, USA) during 2005 to 2007. Overall, 11% of embryos were malpositioned in eggs ???18 d of age (n=282) and 2% of embryos were deformed in eggs ???13 d of age (n=470). Considering only those eggs that failed to hatch (n=62), malpositions occurred in 24% of eggs ???18 d of age and deformities occurred in 7% of eggs ???13 d of age. The probability of an embryo being malpositioned increased with egg THg concentrations in Forster's terns, but not in avocets or stilts. The probability of embryo deformity was not related to egg THg concentrations in any species. Using a reduced dataset with both Se and THg concentrations measured in eggs (n=87), we found no interaction between Se and THg on the probability of an embryo being malpositioned or deformed. Results of the present study indicate that embryo malpositions were prevalent in waterbird eggs that failed to hatch and the likelihood of an embryo being malpositioned increased with egg THg concentrations in Forster's terns. We hypothesize that malpositioning of avian embryos may be one reason for mercury-related hatching failure that occurs late in incubation, but further research is needed to elucidate this potential mechanism. ?? 2010 SETAC.

  8. Effect of Some Egg Quality Traits on Hatching Results in Brown Pure Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmail Durmuş

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the influence of eggshell thickness, albumen height, yolk height and haugh unit on hatching results. A total of 746 eggs, which were obtained and evaluated for egg quality parameters from 100 brown pure line hens of 42 weeks of age, were used. Eggs were collected from each hen for 12 days and individual incubation was carried out. Eggs were grouped based on quality parameters and evaluated accordingly. The findings suggested that hatchability, hatchability of fertile eggs, early, mid and late embryonic mortality did not differ in terms of haugh unit, albumen height, eggshell thickness and yolk height groups. However, early embryonic mortality was found different between the yolk height groups. No relationship was determined among albumen height, haugh unit, eggshell thickness and hatching results. There was no relation between yolk height and hatchability of fertile eggs, hatchability, mid and late embryonic mortalities but was a positive correlation with early embryonic mortality. The results of the present study demonstrate that egg quality parameters studied here had no influence on hatching results except that early embryonic mortality increased with the yolk height.

  9. Nervous system disruption and concomitant behavioral abnormality in early hatched pufferfish larvae exposed to heavy oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Masahumi; Sugahara, Yuki; Watanabe, Tomoe; Irie, Kouta; Ishida, Minoru; Kurokawa, Daisuke; Kitamura, Shin-Ichi; Takata, Hiromi; Handoh, Itsuki C; Nakayama, Kei; Murakami, Yasunori

    2011-08-01

    Spills of heavy oil (HO) over the oceans have been proven to have an adverse effect on marine life. It has been hypothesized that exposure of early larvae of sinking eggs to HO leads largely to normal morphology, whereas abnormal organization of the developing neural scaffold is likely to be found. HO-induced disruption of the nervous system, which controls animal behavior, may in turn cause abnormalities in the swimming behavior of hatched larvae. To clarify the toxicological effects of HO, we performed exposure experiments and morphological and behavioral analyses in pufferfish (Takifugu rubripes) larvae. Fertilized eggs of pufferfish were exposed to 50 mg/L of HO for 8 days and transferred to fresh seawater before hatching. The hatched larvae were observed for their swimming behavior, morphological appearance, and construction of muscles and nervous system. In HO-exposed larvae, we did not detect any anomaly of body morphology. However, they showed an abnormal swimming pattern and disorganized midbrain, a higher center controlling movement. Our results suggest that HO-exposed fishes suffer developmental disorder of the brain that triggers an abnormal swimming behavior and that HO may be selectively toxic to the brain and cause physical disability throughout the life span of these fishes.

  10. Commercially laid eggs vs. discarded hatching eggs: contamination by Salmonella spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottwitz, Luciana B M; Leão, Joice Aparecida; Back, Alberto; Rodrigues, Dalia dos P; Magnani, Marciane; de Oliveira, Tereza C R M

    2013-01-01

    Salmonella enterica is frequently associated with outbreaks of human salmonellosis, and products of avian origin, such as eggs and chicken meat, are the main vehicles of its transmission. The present study describes the occurrence of different serovars of Salmonella enterica and phagotypes of S. enterica serovar Enteritidis in eggs destined for human consumption. Four thousand eggs obtained from commercial egg laying farms and one thousand discarded hatching eggs from broiler farms, which were acquired at farmers' markets and informal shops, were analyzed. Salmonella spp. was isolated from 52.0% of the discarded hatching eggs, in which the predominant serovar was Enteritidis (84.6%), and the predominant Salmonella Enteritidis phagotype (PT) was PT7 (26.9%). Salmonella spp. was not isolated from eggs obtained from commercial egg laying farms. The antimicrobial resistance profile showed that 23.1% (n = 6) of the SE strains were resistant to nalidixic acid. The results suggest that the consumption of discarded hatching eggs represents an important source of Salmonella transmission to humans.

  11. Assessing the prevalence of Salmonella enterica in poultry hatcheries by using hatched eggshell membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, M-R; Hsien, C-H; Yeh, C-M; Chou, S-J; Chu, C; Su, Y-C; Yu, C-Y

    2007-08-01

    Salmonella enterica causes a number of significant poultry diseases and is also a major pathogen in humans. Most poultry infected by Salmonella become carriers; infection may also be fatal, depending on the particular serovar and the age of the bird at infection. Younger birds are more susceptible to infection by Salmonella, so it is critical that hatcheries monitor birds. We developed a method to use hatched eggshell membranes (HEM) to assess contamination by Salmonella in poultry hatching cabinets and to evaluate the prevalence of Salmonella in a goose hatchery and rearing farm. Comparison of the Salmonella isolation rate in hatching cabinets using 3 sampling methods showed that the highest Salmonella contamination was detected in HEM, and that these results differed significantly from those obtained from fluff samples and cabinet swab samples (P chicken, and duck hatcheries. The lowest Salmonella-positive rate was found for the chicken hatchery, followed by the goose and the duck hatcheries (P hatcheries: A, B, C1, C2, D, and E. The distribution of these serogroups differed among the hatcheries. Salmonella serogroup C1 was the major serogroup found in geese, compared with serogroup B in chickens and ducks. However, Salmonella Typhimurium was dominant in 1 goose hatchery and also in geese from this hatchery that had been transferred to a farm. Antibiotic susceptibility analysis showed that Salmonella Typhimurium strains isolated from the farm geese with diarrhea showed significantly higher resistance to doxycycline, colistin, sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprin, and cephalothin than those isolated from the hatchery (P hatcheries and rearing farms.

  12. Correlative and dynamic imaging of the hatching biology of Schistosoma japonicum from eggs prepared by high pressure freezing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malcolm K Jones

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Schistosome eggs must traverse tissues of the intestine or bladder to escape the human host and further the life cycle. Escape from host tissues is facilitated by secretion of immuno-reactive molecules by eggs and the formation of an intense strong granulomatous response by the host which acts to exclude the egg into gut or bladder lumens. Schistosome eggs hatch on contact with freshwater, but the mechanisms of activation and hatching are poorly understood. In view of the lack of knowledge of the behaviour of egg hatching in schistosomes, we undertook a detailed dynamic and correlative study of the hatching biology of Schistosoma japonicum. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Hatching eggs of S. japonicum were studied using correlative light and electron microscopy (EM. The hatching behaviour was recorded by video microscopy. EM preparative methods incorporating high pressure freezing and cryo-substitution were used to investigate ultrastructural features of the miracidium and extra-embryonic envelopes in pre-activated and activated eggs, and immediately after eggshell rupture. Lectin cytochemistry was performed on egg tissues to investigate subcellular location of specific carbohydrate groups. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The hatching of S. japonicum eggs is a striking phenomenon, whereby the larva is liberated explosively while still encapsulated within its sub-shell envelopes. The major alterations that occur in the egg during activation are scission of the outer envelope-eggshell boundary, autolysis of the cellular inner envelope, and likely hydration of abundant complex and simple polysaccharides in the lacunal space between the miracidial larva and surrounding envelopes. These observations on hatching provide insight into the dynamic activity of the eggs and the biology of schistosomes within the host.

  13. Entrainment of the Circadian Rhythm in Egg Hatching of the Crab Dyspanopeus sayi by Chemical Cues from Ovigerous Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forward, Richard B; Sanchez, Kevin G; Riley, Paul P

    2016-02-01

    The subtidal crab Dyspanopeus sayi has a circadian rhythm in larval release with a free-running period of 24.1 h. Under constant conditions, eggs hatch primarily in the 4-h interval after the time of sunset. The study tested the new model for entrainment in subtidal crabs, which proposes that the female perceives the environmental cycles and entrains the endogenous rhythm in the embryos. Results verified the model for D. sayi. Hatching by embryos collected from the field when they had not yet developed eye pigments, and were kept in constant conditions attached to their mother, exhibited the circadian hatching rhythm. Attached embryos could also be entrained to a new photoperiod in the laboratory before they developed eye pigments. Further, mature embryos removed from the female hatched rhythmically, indicating that a circadian rhythm resides in the embryos. However, if mature embryos with eye pigments were removed from the female and exposed to a new light-dark cycle, they could not be entrained to the new cycle; rather, they hatched according to the timing of the original light-dark cycle. Nevertheless, detached, mature embryos would entrain to a new light-dark cycle if they were in chemical, but not physical, contact with the female. Thus, the female perceives the light-dark cycle, and uses chemical cues to entrain the circadian rhythm of hatching by the embryos. © 2016 Marine Biological Laboratory.

  14. Sex Differences in Brain Thyroid Hormone Levels during Early Post-Hatching Development in Zebra Finch (Taeniopygia guttata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinji Yamaguchi

    Full Text Available Thyroid hormones are closely linked to the hatching process in precocial birds. Previously, we showed that thyroid hormones in brain had a strong impact on filial imprinting, an early learning behavior in newly hatched chicks; brain 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3 peaks around hatching and imprinting training induces additional T3 release, thus, extending the sensitive period for imprinting and enabling subsequent other learning. On the other hand, blood thyroid hormone levels have been reported to increase gradually after hatching in altricial species, but it remains unknown how the brain thyroid hormone levels change during post-hatching development of altricial birds. Here, we determined the changes in serum and brain thyroid hormone levels of a passerine songbird species, the zebra finch using radioimmunoassay. In the serum, we found a gradual increase in thyroid hormone levels during post-hatching development, as well as differences between male and female finches. In the brain, there was clear surge in the hormone levels during development in males and females coinciding with the time of fledging, but the onset of the surge of thyroxine (T4 in males preceded that of females, whereas the onset of the surge of T3 in males succeeded that of females. These findings provide a basis for understanding the functions of thyroid hormones during early development and learning in altricial birds.

  15. Sex Differences in Brain Thyroid Hormone Levels during Early Post-Hatching Development in Zebra Finch (Taeniopygia guttata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Shinji; Hayase, Shin; Aoki, Naoya; Takehara, Akihiko; Ishigohoka, Jun; Matsushima, Toshiya; Wada, Kazuhiro; Homma, Koichi J

    2017-01-01

    Thyroid hormones are closely linked to the hatching process in precocial birds. Previously, we showed that thyroid hormones in brain had a strong impact on filial imprinting, an early learning behavior in newly hatched chicks; brain 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3) peaks around hatching and imprinting training induces additional T3 release, thus, extending the sensitive period for imprinting and enabling subsequent other learning. On the other hand, blood thyroid hormone levels have been reported to increase gradually after hatching in altricial species, but it remains unknown how the brain thyroid hormone levels change during post-hatching development of altricial birds. Here, we determined the changes in serum and brain thyroid hormone levels of a passerine songbird species, the zebra finch using radioimmunoassay. In the serum, we found a gradual increase in thyroid hormone levels during post-hatching development, as well as differences between male and female finches. In the brain, there was clear surge in the hormone levels during development in males and females coinciding with the time of fledging, but the onset of the surge of thyroxine (T4) in males preceded that of females, whereas the onset of the surge of T3 in males succeeded that of females. These findings provide a basis for understanding the functions of thyroid hormones during early development and learning in altricial birds.

  16. Heart Rate Responses to Unaided Orion Side Hatch Egress in the Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Kirk L.; Hwang Emma Y.; Ryder, Jeffrey W.; Kelly, Cody; Walker, Thomas; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori L.

    2016-01-01

    NASA is developing the Orion capsule as a vehicle for transporting crewmembers to and from the International Space Station (ISS) and for future human space exploration missions. Orion and other commercial vehicles are designed to splash down in the ocean where nominally support personnel will assist crewmembers in egressing the vehicle. However, off-nominal scenarios will require crewmembers to egress the vehicle unaided, deploy survival equipment, and ingress a life raft. PURPOSE: To determine the heart rate (HR) responses to unaided Orion side hatch egress and raft ingress as a part of the NASA Crew Survival Engineering Team's evaluation of the PORT Orion mockup in the Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (NBL). METHODS: Nineteen test subjects, including four astronauts (N=19, 14 males/5 females, 38.6+/-8.4 y, 174.4+/-9.6 cm, 75.7+/-13.1 kg), completed a graded maximal test on a cycle ergometer to determine VO2peak and HRpeak and were divided into five crews of four members each; one subject served on two crews. Each crew was required to deploy a life raft, egress the Orion vehicle from the side hatch, and ingress the life raft with two 8 kg emergency packs per crew. Each crew performed this activity one to three times; a total of ten full egresses were completed. Subjects wore a suit that was similar in form, mass, and function to the Modified Advanced Crew Escape Suit (MACES) including helmet, gloves, boots, supplemental O2 bottles, and a CO2-inflated life preserver (approx.18 kg); subjects began each trial seated supine in the PORT Orion mockup with seat belts and mockup O2 and communication connections and ended each trial with all four crewmembers inside the life raft. RESULTS: VO2peak was 40.8+/-6.8 mL/kg/min (3.1+/-0.7 L/min); HRpeak was 181+/-10 bpm. Total egress time across trials was 5.0+/-1.6 min (range: 2.8-8.0 min); all subjects were able to successfully complete all trials. Average maximum HR at activity start, at the hatch opening, in the water, and in the

  17. Concentration of Proteins and Protein Fractions in Blood Plasma of Chickens Hatched from Eggs Irradiated with Low Level Gamma Rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraljevic, P.; Vilic, M.; Simpraga, M.; Matisic, D.; Miljanic, S.

    2011-01-01

    In literature there are many results which have shown that low dose radiation can stimulate many physiological processes of living organism. In our earlier paper it was shown that low dose of gamma radiation has a stimulative effect upon metabolic process in chickens hatched from eggs irradiated before incubation. This was proved by increase of body weight gain and body weight, as well as by increase of two enzymes activities in blood plasma (aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase) which play an important role in protein metabolism. Therefore, an attempt was made to determine the effect of eggs irradiation by low dose gamma rays upon concentration of total proteins and protein fractions in the blood plasma of chickens hatched from irradiated eggs. The eggs of heavy breed chickens were irradiated with a dose of 0.15 Gy gamma radiation (60Co) before incubation. Along with the chickens which were hatched from irradiated eggs, there was a control group of chickens hatched from nonirradiated eggs. All other conditions were the same for both groups of chickens. Blood samples were taken from the right jugular vein on the 1 s t and 3 r d day, or from the wing vein on days 5 and 7 after hatching. The total proteins concentration in the blood plasma was determined by the biuret method using Boehringer Mannheim GmbH optimized kits. The protein fractions (albumin, α 1 -globulin, α 2 -globulin, β- and γ-globulins) were estimated electrophoretically on Cellogel strips. The total proteins concentration was significantly decreased in blood plasma of chickens hatched from irradiated eggs on days 3 (P t h day (P 2 -globulin was decreased on days 1 (P t h day of life. Obtained results indicate that low dose of gamma radiation has mostly inhibitory effect upon concentration of total proteins and protein fractions in the blood plasma of chickens hatched from irradiated eggs before incubation. (author)

  18. Asynchronous hatching provides females with a means for increasing male care but incurs a cost by reducing offspring fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, L E; Smiseth, P T

    2016-02-01

    In species with biparental care, sexual conflict occurs because the benefit of care depends on the total amount of care provided by the two parents while the cost of care depends on each parent's own contribution. Asynchronous hatching may play a role in mediating the resolution of this conflict over parental care. The sexual conflict hypothesis for the evolution of asynchronous hatching suggests that females adjust hatching patterns in order to increase male parental effort relative to female effort. We tested this hypothesis in the burying beetle Nicrophorus vespilloides by setting up experimental broods with three different hatching patterns: synchronous, asynchronous and highly asynchronous broods. As predicted, we found that males provided care for longer in asynchronous broods whereas the opposite was true of females. However, we did not find any benefit to females of reducing their duration of care in terms of increased lifespan or reduced mass loss during breeding. We found substantial negative effects of hatching asynchrony on offspring fitness as larval mass was lower and fewer larvae survived to dispersal in highly asynchronous broods compared to synchronous or asynchronous broods. Our results suggest that, even though females can increase male parental effort by hatching their broods more asynchronously, females pay a substantial cost from doing so in terms of reducing offspring growth and survival. Thus, females should be under selection to produce a hatching pattern that provides the best possible trade-off between the benefits of increased male parental effort and the costs due to reduced offspring fitness. © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  19. Transferases activity in blood plasma of chickens hatched from eggs irradiated during incubation by low dose gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraljevic, P.; Vilic, M.; Miljanic, S.; Simpraga, M.

    2005-01-01

    In our earlier studies chickens hatched from eggs irradiated with 0.15 Gy gamma rays before incubation showed a significantly higher growth than controls during the fattening period (1-42 days). The activity of aspartate-aminotransferase (AST), alanine-aminotransferase (ALT) and plasma glucose in the same chickens were also significantly higher. These results suggested that low-dose gamma-radiation stimulated certain metabolic processes in chickens hatched from eggs irradiated before incubation. The goal of this study was to determine the effects of low-dose ionising radiation on AST and ALT activity in the blood plasma of chickens hatched from eggs irradiated during incubation. The eggs of heavy breeding chickens (Avian, line 34) were exposed to 0.15 Gy of gamma-radiation (6 0C o) on the seventh day of incubation, i.e. at the time when the organogenesis in chickens is completed. The control group of chickens hatched from non-irradiated eggs. All other conditions were the same for both groups. After hatching, blood samples were taken from the wing vein on days 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, 20, 32 and 42. The activity of both enzymes was determined spectrophotometrically using Boehringer Mannheim GmbH optimised kits. On day 10, AST and ALT activity were significantly higher in the blood plasma of chickens hatched from irradiated eggs, but it significantly dropped for both enzymes on day 20. Our results indicate that exposure of eggs to low-dose gamma-radiation on the seventh day of incubation affects AST and ALT activity in the blood plasma of chickens hatched from irradiated eggs. However, this effect is somewhat different from the effects of egg exposure to low-dose gamma radiation before incubation.(author)

  20. Production traits of artificially and naturally hatched geese in intensive and free-range systems: I. Growth traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boz, M A; Sarica, M; Yamak, U S

    2017-04-01

    1. This study investigated the effect of incubation type and production system on geese growth traits. 2. A total of 216 geese were either naturally (114) or artificially (102) hatched and reared in intensive or free-range production systems (4 replicates each) until 18 weeks of age. 3. Weights of naturally hatched goslings (NHG) were significantly higher than artificially hatched goslings (AHG) at 2 weeks (644 vs. 536 g); however, weights of AHG were significantly higher than NHG at both 6 weeks (3245 vs. 3010 g) and 18 weeks (5212 vs. 4353 g). 4. AHG had better feed conversion ratios (FCRs) than NHG (6.21 vs. 6.46 at 18 weeks). Feed consumption of naturally hatched geese was found higher in first 4 weeks when compared to artificially hatched geese and artificially hatched geese consumed more feed than naturally hatched geese after 8 weeks. 5. Production system had insignificant effects on feed consumption, FCRs, viability and mutilation rates. 6. Slipped wings were more frequent in NHG than AHG (8.32% vs. 1.68% at 6 weeks; 23.84% vs. 5.12% between 7 and 18 weeks) and in free-range production when compared to intensive production (17.88% vs. 11.08% over the course of the production period). 7. The study results indicate that both artificially and NHG can be reared in free-range production systems without any loss in performance and in deference to animal welfare.

  1. The first hop: Use of Beaufort Sea deltas by hatch-year semipalmated sandpipers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churchwell, Roy T.; Kendall, Steve J.; Brown, Stephen C.; Blanchard, Arny L.; Hollmen, Tuula E.; Powell, Abby

    2018-01-01

    River deltas along Alaska’s Beaufort Sea coast are used by hatch-year semipalmated sandpipers (Calidris pusilla) after leaving their terrestrial natal sites, but the drivers of their use of these stopover sites on the first “hop” of fall migration are unknown. We quantified sandpiper temporal distribution and abundance as related to food resources at three river deltas during the beginning of their fall migration (post-breeding period) to compare the habitat quality among these deltas. We conducted population counts, sampled invertebrates, and captured birds to collect blood samples from individuals for triglyceride and stable isotope analyses to determine fattening rates and diet. Patterns of sandpiper and invertebrate abundance were complex and varied among deltas and within seasons. River deltas were used by sandpipers from late July to late August, and peak sandpiper counts ranged from 1000 to 4000 individuals, of which 98% were hatch-year semipalmated sandpipers. Isotopic signatures from blood plasma samples indicated that birds switched from a diet of upland tundra to delta invertebrate taxa as the migration season progressed, suggesting a dependence on delta invertebrates. Despite differences in diet among deltas, we found no differences in fattening rates of juvenile sandpipers as indicated by triglyceride levels. The number of sandpipers was positively associated with abundance of Amphipoda and Oligochaeta at the Jago and Okpilak-Hulahula deltas; an isotopic mixing model indicated that sandpipers consumed Amphipoda and Oligochaeta at Jago, mostly Chironomidae at Okpilak-Hulahula and Spionidae at Canning. Regardless of the difference in sandpiper diets at the Beaufort Sea deltas, their similar fattening rates throughout the season indicate that all of these stopover sites provide a critical food resource for hatch-year sandpipers beginning their first migration.

  2. Conservation of the egg envelope digestion mechanism of hatching enzyme in euteleostean fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Mari; Yasumasu, Shigeki; Shimizu, Akio; Sano, Kaori; Iuchi, Ichiro; Nishida, Mutsumi

    2010-12-01

    We purified two hatching enzymes, namely high choriolytic enzyme (HCE; EC 3.4.24.67) and low choriolytic enzyme (LCE; EC 3.4.24.66), from the hatching liquid of Fundulus heteroclitus, which were named Fundulus HCE (FHCE) and Fundulus LCE (FLCE). FHCE swelled the inner layer of egg envelope, and FLCE completely digested the FHCE-swollen envelope. In addition, we cloned three Fundulus cDNAs orthologous to cDNAs for the medaka precursors of egg envelope subunit proteins (i.e. choriogenins H, H minor and L) from the female liver. Cleavage sites of FHCE and FLCE on egg envelope subunit proteins were determined by comparing the N-terminal amino acid sequences of digests with the sequences deduced from the cDNAs for egg envelope subunit proteins. FHCE and FLCE cleaved different sites of the subunit proteins. FHCE efficiently cleaved the Pro-X-Y repeat regions into tripeptides to dodecapeptides to swell the envelope, whereas FLCE cleaved the inside of the zona pellucida domain, the core structure of egg envelope subunit protein, to completely digest the FHCE-swollen envelope. A comparison showed that the positions of hatching enzyme cleavage sites on egg envelope subunit proteins were strictly conserved between Fundulus and medaka. Finally, we extended such a comparison to three other euteleosts (i.e. three-spined stickleback, spotted halibut and rainbow trout) and found that the egg envelope digestion mechanism was well conserved among them. During evolution, the egg envelope digestion by HCE and LCE orthologs was established in the lineage of euteleosts, and the mechanism is suggested to be conserved. © 2010 The Authors Journal compilation © 2010 FEBS.

  3. Ixodes pacificus Ticks Maintain Embryogenesis and Egg Hatching after Antibiotic Treatment of Rickettsia Endosymbiont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurlovs, Andre H.; Li, Jinze; Cheng, Du; Zhong, Jianmin

    2014-01-01

    Rickettsia is a genus of intracellular bacteria that causes a variety of diseases in humans and other mammals and associates with a diverse group of arthropods. Although Rickettsia appears to be common in ticks, most Rickettsia-tick relationships remain generally uncharacterized. The most intimate of these associations is Rickettsia species phylotype G021, a maternally and transstadially transmitted endosymbiont that resides in 100% of I. pacificus in California. We investigated the effects of this Rickettsia phylotype on I. pacificus reproductive fitness using selective antibiotic treatment. Ciprofloxacin was 10-fold more effective than tetracycline in eliminating Rickettsia from I. pacificus, and quantitative PCR results showed that eggs from the ciprofloxacin-treated ticks contained an average of 0.02 Rickettsia per egg cell as opposed to the average of 0.2 in the tetracycline-treated ticks. Ampicillin did not significantly affect the number of Rickettsia per tick cell in adults or eggs compared to the water-injected control ticks. We found no relationship between tick embryogenesis and rickettsial density in engorged I. pacificus females. Tetracycline treatment significantly delayed oviposition of I. pacificus ticks, but the antibiotic’s effect was unlikely related to Rickettsia. We also demonstrated that Rickettsia-free eggs could successfully develop into larvae without any significant decrease in hatching compared to eggs containing Rickettsia. No significant differences in the incubation period, egg hatching rate, and the number of larvae were found between any of the antibiotic-treated groups and the water-injected tick control. We concluded that Rickettsia species phylotype G021 does not have an apparent effect on embryogenesis, oviposition, and egg hatching of I. pacificus. PMID:25105893

  4. Physiological responses of newly hatched broiler chicks to increasing journey distance during road transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heshmatollah Khosravinia

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to examine the effects on weight loss (WL, residual yolk (RY utilization and serum biochemical parameters of transport distance (TD in newly hatched broiler chicks. Just after hatching, 200 Ross 308 broiler chicks were traveled over 1000 km. At hatchery and after 200, 400, 600, 800 and 1000 km journey, a random sample of 20 birds were killed for blood collection, WL and yolk weight assessment. Live weight decreased linearly by 0.42 and 0.48 g per 100 km of journey in males and female chicks, respectively. Yolk sac residual utilized by 0.071 and 0.069 g per 100 km of travel in males and females chicks, respectively, over journey distances up to 800 km. Extended journey from 800 to 1000 km caused a great decline of 0.51 and 0.58 g per 100 km in yolk weight in male and female chicks, respectively. Serum Ca concentration reduced in TDs up to 400 km, then increased for longer journeys (P<0.05. Over 1000 km journey, serum GLU level of 196.24 mg/dL at hatchery was decreased to 117.31 mg/dL at the end of journey. Serum urea, uric acid and cholesterol concentrations were increased with the extended TDs (P<0.05. In conclusion increasing transportation distance causes intensified physiological stress in broiler chicks with varying effect on different stress indicators. Stress indicators in newly hatched chicks in transit may differ from those proposed for replaced chicks and the broiler chicken at later ages.

  5. Effect of electron irradiation on hatchability and broiler performance of hatching eggs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castaneda, S.M.P.; Tellez, I.G.; Sanchez, R.E.; Quintana, L.J.A.; Bustos, R.E.

    1996-01-01

    The irradiation of foods employs the electromagnetic ionizing energy, and the gamma ray, the X ray and the electrons are used. The electrons are reduced mass particles and have negative electric charge. The difference between the gamma rays, X-ray and electron is the penetration level. The effective range on penetration of electron accelerator depends on the energy level, in practice the penetation of an electron beam in the foods is 5 mm for MeV. The objectives of this work were to evaluate the effects of electron irradiation on the hatchability, and to evaluate the productive parameters of chicken hatching from egg irradiated with electrons. (author). 15 refs., 6 tabs

  6. Examination of overlay pipe weldments removed from the Hatch-2 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J.Y.; Kupperman, D.S.; Shack, W.J.

    1985-02-01

    Laboratory ultrasonic examination (UT), dye penetrant examination (PT), metallography, and sensitization measurements were performed on Type 304 stainless steel overlay pipe weldments from the Hatch-2 BWR to determine the effectiveness of UT through overlays and the effects of the overlays on crack propagation in the weldments. Little correlation was observed between the results of earlier in-service ultrasonic inspection and the results of PT and destructive examination. Considerable difficulty was encountered in correctly detecting the presence of cracks by UT in the laboratory. Blunting of the crack tip by the weld overlay was observed, but there was no evidence of tearing or throughwall extension of the crack beyond the blunted region

  7. Drug discovery and the impact of the safe harbor provision of the Hatch- Waxman Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodson, Susanne H

    2010-01-01

    Many facets of drug discovery involve the use of patented materials and methods, subjecting the researcher to potential liability from infringement of the underlying patents. Enacted in 1984, the Hatch-Waxman Act established a “safe harbor” for activities that would otherwise constitute infringement of a patented invention, if those activities were “solely for uses reasonably related to the development and submission of information under a Federal law which regulates the manufacture, use, or sale of drugs or veterinary biological products”. This article examines the major court decisions interpreting the scope of the safe harbor and their application to various activities in drug development.

  8. Aerial radiological survey of the area surrounding the Edwin I. Hatch Nuclear Plant, Baxley, Georgia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilton, L.K.

    1978-11-01

    An airborne radiological survey of a 2146 km 2 area surrounding the Edwin I. Hatch Nuclear Plant was made 28-31 March 1977. Detected radioisotopes, and their associated gamma ray exposure rates, were consistent with that expected from the normal background emitters. Count rates observed at 152 m altitude are converted to equivalent exposure rates at 1 m above the ground, and are presented in the form of an isopleth map. Exposure rates measured with small portable instruments and soil sample analysis showed agreement with the airborne data

  9. Edwin I. Hatch Nuclear Plant, Unit 1. Semiannual operating report, September 12--December 31, 1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    Hatch-1 achieved initial criticality on September 12, 1974, and initial synchronization on November 11, 1974. The unit is a BWR of 813 MW(e) and has generated 50,775.6 MWH since September 12 with the generator on line 865.62 hours. Net plant efficiency was 20.88 percent with plant availability of 28.32 percent. Information is presented concerning operations, changes, tests, safety related maintenance, primary coolant chemistry, occupational personnel radiation doses, and radioactive effluent releases. (U.S.)

  10. Post-hatching development of the porcine and bovine embryo-defining criteria for expected development in vivo and in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejlsted, Morten; Du, Yutao; Vajta, Gábor

    2006-01-01

    ) Somite stage(s) where paraxial mesoderm gradually condensates to form somites. Post-hatching development of bovine embryos in vitro is compromised and although hatching occurs and elongation can be physically provoked by culture in agarose tunnels, the embryonic disk characterizing the pre-streak stage 1......Particular attention has been paid to the pre-hatching period of embryonic development although blastocyst development is a poor indicator of embryo viability. Post-hatching embryonic dev elopment in vitro would allow for establishment of more accurate tools for evaluating developmental potential...... without the need for transfer to recipient animals. Such a system would require (1) definition of milestones of expected post-hatching embryonic development in vivo; and (2) development of adequate culture systems. We propose a stereomicroscopical staging system for post-hatching embryos defining...

  11. Fertilisation and hatching success of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) eggs when exposed to various concentrations of produced water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, D.; Lyons, M.; Burridge, L.; Lee, K.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the fertilization and hatching success of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) eggs that were exposed to various dilutions of produced water from a natural gas production platform. A control group of eggs was fertilized in sea water without any produced water. Another set of eggs were fertilized in sea water with 4 different concentrations of produced water and held their respective concentrations for 24 hours to evaluate the success of the fertilization. Viable fertilized eggs were transferred to 96 well plates containing fresh sea water and incubated in the dark at approximately 6 degrees C until hatch. Eggs began hatching about 14 days after fertilization (DPF), peaked at about 17 DPF, then finished hatching by 21 DPF. Analysis of PAH content in the diluted produced water showed that at 0.32 percent, 1.08 percent and 3.6 percent concentrations, the fertilization success was greater than or equal to that of the control group. However, for the 12 percent concentration, there were no viable fertilized eggs present after the 24 hour period. Survivability of eggs during sea water incubation was similar for the 0 percent, 0.32 percent and 1.08 percent treatment groups, but egg mortality increased for the 3.60 percent concentration group, to about 61.5 percent mean cumulative mortality at 6 DPF, then remained constant. The mean hatching success for all dilutions was presented.

  12. Spawning Characteristics and Artificial Hatching of Female Mottled Skate, Beringraja pulchra in the West Coast of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hee-Woong; Jo, Yeong-Rok; Kang, Duk-Yong; Jeong, Gyeong-Suk; Jo, Hyun-Su

    2013-09-01

    The gonadsomatic index (GSI) of mottled skate was the highest in April, GSI and HSI showed a reverse phase for its reproductive cycle. The fish had one pair of egg capsules, having 1 to 7 fertilized eggs, and spawned all the year round. When surveying the reproductive characteristics of females over 63 ㎝ in disc width, we found the spawning peak was between April to June, and the appearance ratio of egg capsules was the highest in May (32.1%). The eggs were hatched at 8°C, 13°C, 18°C, water temperature (12.8 to 24.2°C), and the best hatching temperature was 18°C. The number of fish hatched was 4 to 5 fish/egg capsules, and the hatching rate was 100%. The sex ratios of hatching larvae were 45.5% female and 54.5% male. Therefore this study will provide fundamental data and information for artificial reproduction of the mottled skate.

  13. High temperatures and absence of light affect the hatching of resting eggs of Daphnia in the tropics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thécia A.S.V. Paes

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Temperature and light are acknowledged as important factors for hatching of resting eggs. The knowledge of how they affect hatching rates of this type of egg is important for the comprehension of the consequences of warming waters in recolonization of aquatic ecosystems dependent on dormant populations. This study aimed at comparing the influence of different temperature and light conditions on hatching rates of Daphnia ambigua andDaphnia laevis resting eggs from tropical environments. The ephippia were collected in the sediment of three aquatic ecosystems, in southeastern Brazil. For each lake, the resting eggs were exposed to temperatures of 20, 24, 28 and 32 °C, under light (12 h photoperiod and dark conditions. The results showed that the absence of light and high temperatures have a negative influence on the hatching rates. Statistical differences for hatching rates were also found when comparing the studied ecosystems (ranging from 0.6 to 31%, indicating the importance of local environmental factors for diapause and maintenance of active populations.

  14. Seasonal variations in larval biomass and biochemical composition of brown shrimp, Crangon crangon (Decapoda, Caridea), at hatching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urzúa, Ángel; Anger, Klaus

    2013-06-01

    The "brown shrimp", Crangon crangon (Linnaeus 1758), is a benthic key species in the North Sea ecosystem, supporting an intense commercial fishery. Its reproductive pattern is characterized by a continuous spawning season from mid-winter to early autumn. During this extended period, C. crangon shows significant seasonal variations in egg size and embryonic biomass, which may influence larval quality at hatching. In the present study, we quantified seasonal changes in dry weight (W) and chemical composition (CHN, protein and lipid) of newly hatched larvae of C. crangon. Our data revealed significant variations, with maximum biomass values at the beginning of the hatching season (February-March), a decrease throughout spring (April-May) and a minimum in summer (June-September). While all absolute values of biomass and biochemical constituents per larva showed highly significant differences between months ( P larvae" hatching from larger "winter eggs" showed higher initial values of biomass compared to "summer larvae" originating from smaller "summer eggs". This indicates carry-over effects persisting from the embryonic to the larval phase. Since "winter larvae" are more likely exposed to poor nutritional conditions, intraspecific variability in larval biomass at hatching is interpreted as part of an adaptive reproductive strategy compensating for strong seasonality in plankton production and transitory periods of larval food limitation.

  15. Garlic essential oil increases rates of eggs fertilization and hatching of Rhamdia quelen larvae in an artificial incubation system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilton Garcia Marengoni

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of garlic (Allium sativum essential oil on the rates of eggs fertilization and hatching and on the normal development of larvae of artificially incubated silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen. The experiment was carried out using a completely randomized experimental design with four treatments and five replicates. The treatments consisted of introducing garlic essential oil into the incubators, which used a closed system of water recirculation, at concentrations of 0, 1, 3, and 5mg L-1. Rates of eggs fertilization and larval hatching were determined at 10 and 24h after the beginning of eggs hydration. Morphology of larvae was assessed with the aid of a stereo microscope to determine the rate of normal development. The concentration of 5mg L-1 promoted better rates of eggs fertilization and larval hatching. Concentrations of garlic essential oil had a linear effect on eggs fertilization rates and larval hatching. Garlic oil did not influence the morphology of the larvae (P>0.05. It is recommended to use 5mg L-1 of garlic essential oil to promote better rates of eggs fertilization and larval hatching of artificially incubated silver catfish.

  16. Advanced Oxidation Process sanitization of hatching eggs reduces Salmonella in broiler chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehkopf, A C; Byrd, J A; Coufal, C D; Duong, T

    2017-10-01

    The microbial quality of eggs entering the hatchery is an important critical control point for biosecurity, pathogen reduction, and food safety programs in poultry production. Developing interventions to reduce Salmonella contamination of eggs is important to improving the microbial food safety of poultry and poultry products. The hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and ultraviolet light (UV) Advanced Oxidation Process (AOP) has been previously demonstrated to be effective in reducing Salmonella on the surface of experimentally contaminated eggs. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of treating eggs with an egg-sanitizing apparatus using the H2O2/UV AOP on Salmonella contamination during incubation, hatching, and in broiler chicks during grow-out. Experimentally contaminated eggs were treated using the automated H2O2/UV AOP egg sanitizer and incubated for 21 d. AOP sanitization reduced Salmonella up to 7 log10 cfu egg-1 (P Salmonella positive eggs by up to 75% (P Salmonella-positive eggs during incubation. Additionally, Salmonella was recovered from more chicks hatched from untreated eggs than from eggs treated using the H2O2/UV AOP egg sanitizer (P Salmonella contamination on the surface of eggs using the H2O2/UV AOP egg sanitizer prior to incubation may reduce the gastrointestinal colonization of chicks by Salmonella. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  17. Sexual differences in post-hatching Saunders's gulls: size, locomotor activity, and foraging skill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jongmin; Lee, Seung-Hee; Joo, Eun-Jin; Na, Ki-Jeong; Park, Shi-Ryong

    2013-04-01

    Various selection pressures induce the degree and direction of sexual size dimorphism in animals. Selection favors either larger males for contests over mates or resources, or smaller males are favored for maneuverability; whereas larger females are favored for higher fecundity, or smaller females for earlier maturation for reproduction. In the genus of Larus (seagulls), adult males are generally known to be larger in size than adult females. However, the ontogeny of sexual size dimorphism is not well understood, compared to that in adults. The present study investigates the ontogeny of sexual size dimorphism in Saunders's gulls (Larus saundersi) in captivity. We artificially incubated fresh eggs collected in Incheon, South Korea, and measured body size, locomotor activity, and foraging skill in post-hatching chicks in captivity. Our results indicated that the sexual differences in size and locomotor activity occurred with the post-hatching development. Also, larger males exhibited greater foraging skills for food acquisition than smaller females at 200 days of age. Future studies should assess how the adaptive significance of the sexual size dimorphism in juveniles is linked with sexual divergence in survival rates, intrasexual contests, or parental effort in sexes.

  18. Susceptibility of in vitro produced hatched bovine blastocysts to infection with bluetongue virus serotype 8

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandaele Leen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Bluetongue virus serotype 8 (BTV-8, which caused an epidemic in ruminants in central Western Europe in 2006 and 2007, seems to differ from other bluetongue serotypes in that it can spread transplacentally and has been associated with an increased incidence of abortion and other reproductive problems. For these reasons, and also because BTV-8 is threatening to spread to other parts of the world, there is a need for more information on the consequences of infection during pregnancy. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether hatched (i.e. zona pellucida-free in vitro produced bovine blastocysts at 8-9 days post insemination are susceptible to BTV-8 and whether such infection induces cell death as indicated by apoptosis. Exposure of hatched in vitro produced bovine blastocysts for 1 h to a medium containing 103.8 or 104.9 TCID50 of the virus resulted in active viral replication in between 25 and 100% of the cells at 72 h post exposure. The infected blastocysts also showed growth arrest as evidenced by lower total cell numbers and a significant level of cellular apoptosis. We conclude from this in vitro study that some of the reproductive problems that are reported when cattle herds are infected with BTV-8 may be attributed to direct infection of blastocysts and other early-stage embryos in utero.

  19. Chemical characteristics and thickness of Podocnemis expansa post-hatching eggshells (Testudines, Podocnemididae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caio Henrique Ferreira

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge on chemical components of the post-hatching eggshell of reptiles may provide indicators of the quality of the diet offered to females kept in captivity. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the chemical characteristics of the calcareous layer, as well as the thickness of Podocnemis expansa post-hatching eggshells. Eggshell thickness was 183±1.405 µm. This value is similar to that of the eggs of other Testudines with flexible eggshells. As for the chemical composition, the following percentages were observed: nitrogen 7.983 ± 0.054; crude protein 49.91 ± 0.324; crude fat 0.068 ± 0.002; mineral matter 20.302 ± 0.807; calcium 13.374 ± 0.647; and phosphorus 0.176 ± 0.003. Knowledge on chemical composition of the eggshell may aid the nutrition of P. expansa raised in commercial facilities, once this species is an alternative and promising source of exotic meat.

  20. Post-hatching development of the porcine and bovine embryo-defining criteria for expected development in vivo and in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejlsted, Morten; Du, Yutao; Vajta, Gábor

    2006-01-01

    without the need for transfer to recipient animals. Such a system would require (1) definition of milestones of expected post-hatching embryonic development in vivo; and (2) development of adequate culture systems. We propose a stereomicroscopical staging system for post-hatching embryos defining......Particular attention has been paid to the pre-hatching period of embryonic development although blastocyst development is a poor indicator of embryo viability. Post-hatching embryonic dev elopment in vitro would allow for establishment of more accurate tools for evaluating developmental potential...

  1. Control of egg hatch ability and adult emergence of three fruit fly species in papayas by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resilva, S.S.; Pasion, W.B.; Moy, J.H.

    1991-01-01

    The effects of gamma radiation on the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera Dorsalis (Hendel), melon fly, Bactrocera Cucurbitae (Coquilett), and Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis Capitata (Weidemann) were studied. Melon fly was determined to be the most susceptible of the three species. A dosage of 550 Gy rendered the eggs 100% sterile when irradiated in papayas at 4-6 hours before hatching. Oriental and mediterranean fruit flies were found to be more resistant, requiring doses of 750 and 850 Gy, respectively. A dose of only 100 Gy was needed to inhibit adult eclosion when the three species were treated at third instar larvae. Warm water treatment at 49 0 C for 20 minutes was found sufficient in preventing the hatching of any egg in the infested papaya fruits. However, since eggs may hatch before the warm-water treatment can be applied, a combination of irradiation treatment using 100 Gy is recommended for disinfestation of papaya fruits. (author). 17 refs.; 3 tabs

  2. Larval morphology of Hoplias lacerdae Miranda Ribeiro, 1908 (Characiformes, Erythrinidae, from hatching to metamorphosis, related to exogenous food capture ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Maria Reis Raposo Maciel

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available For the accomplishment of this work, 510 specimens of Hoplias lacerdae were used from one to 30 days after hatching, with the objective of studying the mesoscopic morphological characteristics that enable this species, in the initial phases of its development, to present adaptations for movement and the capture of exogenous food. The yolk sac larvae at 11 days after hatching have the potentiality to capture exogenous food, i.e. prey, even before the total yolk absorption which happens at 12 days, presenting in this phase: an open mouth at one day after hatching, displaying the terminal position at four days; notochord flexion, that takes place at seven days and provides greater efficiency of movement; pectoral fins, also developed at seven days, which facilitate its balance and direction in the water column; formation of the dorsal and anal fins at eight days and the pelvic ones, at 11 days.

  3. Hatching success in salamanders and chorus frogs at two sites in Colorado, USA: Effects of acidic deposition and climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muths, E.; Campbell, D.H.; Corn, P.S.

    2003-01-01

    The snowpack in the vicinity of the Mount Zirkel Wilderness Area is among the most acidic in the western United States. We analyzed water chemistry and examined hatching success in tiger salamanders and chorus frogs at ponds there and at nearby Rabbit Ears Pass (Dumont) to determine whether acid deposition affects amphibians or their breeding habitats at these potentially sensitive locations. We found a wide range of acid neutralizing capacity among ponds within sites; the minimum pH recorded during the experiment was 5.4 at one of 12 ponds with all others at pH ??? 5.7. At Dumont, hatching success for chorus frogs was greater in ponds with low acid neutralizing capacity; however, lowest pHs were >5.8. At current levels of acid deposition, weather and pond characteristics are likely more important than acidity in influencing hatching success in amphibian larvae at these sites.

  4. Nest site selection and hatching success of hawksbill and loggerhead sea turtles (Testudines, Cheloniidae at Arembepe Beach, northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Zagonel Serafini

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Nest site selection influences the hatching success of sea turtles and represents a crucial aspect of their reproductive process. Arembepe Beach, in the State of Bahia, northeastern Brazil, is a known nest site for Caretta caretta and Eretmochelys imbricata. For the nesting seasons in 2004/2005 and 2005/2006, we analyzed the influence of beach profile and amount of beach vegetation cover on nest site selection and the hatching success for both species. Loggerhead turtles nested preferentially in the sand zone, while hawksbill turtles demonstrated no preferences for either sand or vegetation zone. Beach vegetation was important in the modulation of nest site selection behavior for both species, but the amount of beach vegetation cover influenced (negatively hatching success only for the hawksbill, mainly via the increment of non-hatched eggs.Hatching success, outside the tide risk zone, was not influenced by the position of the nests along the beach profile. The pattern of nest distribution by species indicated that management of nests at risk of inundation and erosion by the tide is more important for loggerhead turtles than for hawksbill turtles. Beach vegetation is animportant factor in the conservation of these sea turtle species. Nests that are at risk due to tidal inundation and erosion can be translocated to any position along the beach profile without producing any significant effect on hatching success, as long as highdensities of beach vegetation cover are avoided for hawksbill nests. It is important to point out that the pattern we report here for distribution of hawksbill nests along the beach profile could be due in part to the influence of pure and hybrid individuals, since there are reports of hybridization among hawksbills and loggerheads to the study site.

  5. Effect of cryopreservation on the pre-hatching behavior in the Mexican fruit fly Anastrepha ludens Loew (Diptera, Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajamohan, Arun; Rinehart, Joseph P; Leopold, Roger A

    2018-02-01

    In a sampling of untreated embryos of the economically important fruit pest species, Anastrepha ludens, the cumulative hatch percentage in the lab was noted to be ∼85%. Approximately 70% of the larvae had eclosed through the posterior pole of the egg. This process is effected by the act of Pole Reversal (PR) of the fully developed pre-hatch larva from the wider anterior to the narrower posterior pole of the egg. Investigation of the effects of cryopreservation and various pretreatments prior to cryostorage on the PR behavior was prompted by the observation of significantly lower proportion of cryopreserved embryos exhibiting the PR behavior. Pretreatments (dechorionation and permeabilization) followed by vitrification resulted in delayed hatching, reflecting a slower embryonic development rate of ∼10 h. A smaller proportion of the treated embryos either eclosed from the anterior end of the egg or did not eclose at all despite complete development and prehatch gnawing activity. In the untreated controls, 24.0% of the embryos eclosed from the anterior pole. After permeabilization and cryopreservation, 83% and 55% (adjusted hatch) of the embryos were noted to hatch this way, respectively. An analysis of the hatch count after the treatments shows that factors contributing to the embryos' inability to properly invert polarity is not solely due to cryopreservation but also due to the pretreatment procedures including dechorionation and permeabilization. In fact, the permeabilization pre-treatment contributed the highest to this phenomenon lending support to the view that chemical toxicity rather than physical effects of cryopreservation play a major role in post-cryopreservation effects. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Thermal and maternal environments shape the value of early hatching in a natural population of a strongly cannibalistic freshwater fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagel, T.; Bekkevold, Dorte; Pohlmeier, S.

    2015-01-01

    Hatching early in the season is often assumed to elevate fitness, particularly in cannibalistic fish in which size-dependent predation mortality is a major selective force. While the importance of the thermal environment for the growth of fish is undisputed, the relevance of maternal effects...... represented by juvenile growth rate), but not female total length, to jointly contribute to explain within- and among-season size variation in juvenile pike. While there was no statistical evidence for maternal effects on offspring growth rate, fast female juvenile growth positively correlated...... in the wild and that early hatching does not generally produce size advantages in light of stochastically varying temperature conditions...

  7. The presence of lysylpyridinoline in the hypertrophic cartilage of newly hatched chicks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, M. W.; Martinez, D. A.; Cook, M. E.; Vailas, A. C.

    1993-01-01

    The presence of lysylpyridinoline (LP) as a nonreducible cross-link in appreciable quantities has primarily been limited to the mineralized tissues, bone and dentin. However, the results reported here show that LP is not only present in the hypertrophic cartilage of the tibiotarsus isolated from newly hatched broiler chicks, but it is approx. 4-fold as concentrated as hydroxylysylpyridinoline (HP). Bone and articular cartilage surrounding the hypertrophic cartilage do not contain measurable quantities of LP. Purified LP has a fluorescent scan similar to purified HP and literature values, confirming that we indeed were measuring LP. Also, the cartilage lesion produced by immature chondrocytes from birds with tibial dyschondroplasia had LP but the HP:LP ratio was > 1. Thus, the low HP:LP ratio could be a marker for hypertrophic cartilage in avians.

  8. Mom's shadow: structure-from-motion in newly hatched chicks as revealed by an imprinting procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascalzoni, Elena; Regolin, Lucia; Vallortigara, Giorgio

    2009-03-01

    The ability to recognize three-dimensional objects from two-dimensional (2-D) displays was investigated in domestic chicks, focusing on the role of the object's motion. In Experiment 1 newly hatched chicks, imprinted on a three-dimensional (3-D) object, were allowed to choose between the shadows of the familiar object and of an object never seen before. In Experiments 2 and 3 random-dot displays were used to produce the perception of a solid shape only when set in motion. Overall, the results showed that domestic chicks were able to recognize familiar shapes from 2-D motion stimuli. It is likely that similar general mechanisms underlying the perception of structure-from-motion and the extraction of 3-D information are shared by humans and animals. The present data shows that they occur similarly in birds as known for mammals, two separate vertebrate classes; this possibly indicates a common phylogenetic origin of these processes.

  9. When Eggs Don't Hatch. The Benefits of the Sterile Insect Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilian, Lizette

    2012-01-01

    Insect pests, such as the medfly, tsetse flies and carob moth can devastate crops and infect herds, causing severe economic hardship. To suppress the insect pest population and protect their livestock and crops, farmers usually use large quantities of pesticides. However, these pesticides are expensive, a risk to public health and cause environmental damage. Another technique, however, can reduce the insect pest population using natural means that do not require toxic chemicals: the sterile insect technique, or SIT. When female insect pests mate with male partners that have been radiation sterilized, the insemination produces eggs that cannot hatch. Since mating does not produce offspring, the insect population decreases naturally. The pest population can be suppressed with little or no use of pesticides. With the help of the IAEA, farmers have applied SIT successfully in over 20 countries on five continents, for over 15 insect species worldwide.

  10. Mobile Incubation in Waved Albatross (Phoebastria irrorata: Associated Hatching Failure and Artificial Mitigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill A. Awkerman

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Waved albatrosses often relocate their eggs during incubation by placing the egg between the tarsi and shuffling forward. This behavior frequently results in eggs becoming lodged between rocks, accounting for at least 10%, and perhaps as much as 80%, of breeding failures. Because albatross populations worldwide are currently threatened, artificial means of augmenting reproductive success may be necessary to mitigate losses caused by anthropogenic effects. We characterize the frequency and extent of egg movement; test several hypotheses related to microhabitat, timing, and incubation location to explain the behavior; and investigate the utility of repositioning lodged eggs in a location in which breeding birds might resume incubation. Egg rescue increased both the likelihood of continued incubation as well as the hatching rate in our experiment, and provides an efficient, low-cost management option for this species.

  11. Embryos in the fast lane: high-temperature heart rates of turtles decline after hatching.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Guo Du

    Full Text Available In ectotherms such as turtles, the relationship between cardiovascular function and temperature may be subject to different selective pressures in different life-history stages. Because embryos benefit by developing as rapidly as possible, and can "afford" to expend energy to do so (because they have access to the yolk for nutrition, they benefit from rapid heart (and thus, developmental rates. In contrast, hatchlings do not have a guaranteed food supply, and maximal growth rates may not enhance fitness--and so, we might expect a lower heart rate, especially at high temperatures where metabolic costs are greatest. Our data on two species of emydid turtles, Chrysemys picta, and Graptemys pseudogeographica kohnii, support these predictions. Heart rates of embryos and hatchlings were similar at low temperatures, but heart rates at higher temperatures were much greater before than after hatching.

  12. Microscopic morphology and apoptosis of ovarian tissue after cryopreservation using a vitrification method in post-hatching turkey poults, Meleagris gallopavo

    Science.gov (United States)

    1. Microscopic morphology of ovarian tissue in post-hatching turkey poults at various ages was investigated. 2. Hematoxylin and eosin staining were used and the diameter of the oocytes and follicles were measured using microphotography. 3. Immediately after hatching, oocytes in one-day turkey pou...

  13. Dietary Chlorella supplementation effect on immune responses and growth performances of broiler chickens exposed to post hatch holding time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sugiharto, S; Lauridsen, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    The study was carried out to investigate the effect of dietary Chlorella sp. supplementation on immune response and growth performance of broiler chickens exposed to post hatch holding time. Allotted in 36 pens, a total of 180 newly hatched chicks were assigned in a 3 × 2 factorial design, with d...

  14. Screening of non-tuber bearing Solanaceae for resistance to and induction of juvenile hatch of potato cyst nematodes and their potential for trap cropping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholte, K.

    2000-01-01

    Ninety accessions of non-tuber bearing Solanaceae were screened for (i) resistance to and (ii) stimulatory effect on juvenile hatch of potato cyst nematodes, and (iii) their growth under temperate climatic conditions. All plant species belonging to the genus Solanum tested induced hatching but this

  15. R404A condensing under forced flow conditions inside smooth, microfin and cross-hatched horizontal tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Infante Ferreira, C A; Nan, X [Delft University of Technology (Netherlands). Laboratory for Refrigeration and Indoor Climate Control; Newell, T A; Chato, J C [University of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Dept. of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering

    2003-06-01

    Two-phase heat transfer coefficient characteristics of R404A condensing under forced flow conditions inside smooth, microfin and cross-hatched horizontal tubes are experimentally investigated. Experimental parameters include a lubricating polyol ester oil concentration varied from 0 to 4%. The test runs were done at average inlet saturated condensing temperatures of 40{sup o}C. The inlet vapor was kept at saturation (quality = 1.0). The mass fluxes were between 200 and 600 kg/m{sup 2}s, and the heat fluxes were selected to obtain a quality of 0.0 at the outlet of the test section, varying from 5 to 45 kW/m{sup 2}. The heat transfer enhancement factor varied between 1.8 and 2.4 for both microfin and cross-hatched tubes. The larger values applied for larger mass fluxes for the cross-hatched tube and smaller mass fluxes for the microfin tube. Enhancement factors increased as oil concentration increased up to oil concentrations of 2%. For higher oil concentrations the enhancement decreased especially at high mass fluxes, the cross-hatched tube being less sensitive to oil contamination. Pressure drop in the test section increased by approximately 25% as the oil concentration increased from 0 to 4%. The results from the experiments are compared with those calculated from correlations reported in the literature. Moreover, modified correlations for the condensation heat transfer coefficient are proposed for practical applications. (author)

  16. Effect of temperature on incubation period, embryonic mortality, hatch rate, egg water loss and partridge chick weight (Rhynchotus rufescens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakage ES

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effects of incubation temperature (34.5; 35.5; 36.5; 37.5 and 38.5ºC, on incubation period, embryonic mortality, hatching rate, water loss and chick weight at hatch, using daily incubation of partridge (Rhynchotus rufescens eggs. The highest hatching percentage was obtained between 35.5 and 36.5ºC. Incubation length and temperature were inversely proportional. Water loss was lower in eggs incubated at low temperatures as compared to high temperatures. There was no difference among incubation temperatures in absolute and relative hatchling weights. Early embryonic mortality increased at low temperatures (36.5ºC. Our results show that, under conditions of daily incubation of eggs in the same incubator, higher hatching rate can be obtained using temperatures between 35.5ºC and 36.5ºC; incubation temperature is inversely proportional to incubation length, and absolute and relative weights of partridge chicks are not affected by incubation temperature.

  17. Theoretical and empirical studies on temperature and moisture loss of hatching eggs during the pre-incubation period

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijerhof, R.

    1994-01-01

    In the Netherlands, approximately 800 million hatching eggs per year are produced on highly specialized broiler breeder farms. On this farms, the eggs are produced and stored for several days. Normally once or twice a week the eggs are collected from the farms and transported to the

  18. Effects of catechins and low temperature on embryonic development and hatching in Heterodera glycines and Meloidogyne incognita

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimics of two natural influences, a chemical similar to one present in cyst nematodes and low temperature exposure of nematode eggs, were evaluated for their effects on quantitative and qualitative features of embryonic development and hatching. The polyphenol epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), an ana...

  19. Diet composition and quality for Calanus finmarchicus egg production and hatching success off south-west Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonasdottir, Sigrun; Gudfinnsson, H.G.; Gislason, A.

    2002-01-01

    Egg production and hatching success of the copepod Calanus finmarchicus was measured during spring and summer in the waters south-west of Iceland. Egg-production rates varied greatly, both temporally and spatially, with highest average rates found at a station with low chlorophyll-a concentrations...

  20. Aridity promotes bet hedging via delayed hatching: a case study with two temporary pond crustaceans along a latitudinal gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinceel, Tom; Vanschoenwinkel, Bram; Hawinkel, Wouter; Tuytens, Karen; Brendonck, Luc

    2017-05-01

    Climate change does affect not only average rainfall and temperature but also their variation, which can reduce the predictability of suitable conditions for growth and reproduction. This situation is problematic for inhabitants of temporary waters whose reproductive success depends on rainfall and evaporation that determine the length of the aquatic phase. For organisms with long-lived dormant life stages, bet hedging models suggest that a fraction of these should stay dormant during each growing season to buffer against the probability of total reproductive failure in variable environments. Thus far, however, little empirical evidence supports this prediction in aquatic organisms. We study geographic variation in delayed hatching of dormant eggs in natural populations of two crustaceans, Branchinella longirostris and Paralimnadia badia, that occur in temporary rock pools along a 725 km latitudinal aridity gradient in Western Australia. Consistent with bet hedging theory, populations of both species were characterised by delayed hatching under common garden conditions and hatching fractions decreased towards the drier end of the gradient where the probability of reproductive success was shown to be lower. This decrease was most pronounced in the species with the longer maturation time, presumably because it is more sensitive to the higher prevalence of short inundations. Overall, these findings illustrate that regional variation in climate can be reflected in differential investment in bet hedging and hints at a higher importance of delayed hatching to persist when the climate becomes harsher. Such strategies could become exceedingly relevant as determinants of vulnerability under climate change.

  1. Effect of brood size and hatching sequence on prefledging mortality of Sandwich terns: why lay two eggs?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stienen, E.W.M.; Brenninkmeijer, A.

    2006-01-01

    The mortality of Sandwich tern Sterna sandvicensis chicks held in enclosures was studied in colonies on Griend, in the Dutch Wadden Sea, from 1992 to 1999, and on Hirsholm, in the Danish Kattegat, in 1997. Survival of chicks until fledging was 73% for chicks hatching from first-laid eggs or

  2. Effect of brood size and hatching sequence on prefledging mortality of Sandwich terns : why lay two eggs?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stienen, Eric W. M.; Brenninkmeijer, Alex

    2006-01-01

    The mortality of Sandwich tern Sterna sandvicensis chicks held in enclosures was studied in colonies on Griend, in the Dutch Wadden Sea, from 1992 to 1999, and on Hirsholm, in the Danish Kattegat, in 1997. Survival of chicks until fledging was 73% for chicks hatching from first-laid eggs or

  3. Evaluation of disinfectants and antiseptics to eliminate bacteria from the surface of turkey eggs and hatch gnotobiotic poults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird eggs and are in contact with intestinal microbiota prior to oviposition, but are protected from bacterial translocation by a glycoprotein cuticle layer, the shell and internal membranes. In a preliminary study, turkey eggs were hatched in a germ-free environment. Firmicutes 16S rRNA gene was de...

  4. Recovery of salmonella serovar enteritidis from inoculated broiler hatching eggs using shell rinse and shell crush sampling methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study compared the recovery of Salmonella from hatching eggs using three sampling methods (eggshell rinsing, eggshell crush following a previous rinse, and eggshell crush without previous rinse). Eggshells were drop-inoculated with approximately 10, 100, or 1,000 cfu/eggshell of S. Enteritidis...

  5. Hatching response to temperature along a latitudinal gradient by the fairy shrimp Branchinecta lindahli (Crustacea; Branchiopoda; Anostraca in culture conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Christopher Rogers

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Branchinecta lindahli is a broadly distributed fairy shrimp, reported from a range of temporary wetland habitat types in arid western North America. This species’ eggs hatch after the habitat dries, refills from seasonal rain, and receives a strong cold shock during the winter low temperatures. I studied phenotypic variation in temperature responses in cultures collected from four populations across 8° of latitude with low average temperatures ranging from -8 to 8°C. Time to maturation, mature body size and first clutch size decreased, as temperature increased, with only minor body size variability at mortality, regardless of culture origin. No variation in individual egg size was observed, demonstrating that body size is sacrificed to produce at least a few normal eggs during unfavourable years. Latitudinal variation in hatching temperature demonstrated a pattern of adaptive significance, with some overlap between regional temperature hatching cues.  Phenotypic hatching temperature and growth rate responses may cause genetic segregation, selecting one cohort for warmer, dryer years and one cohort for cooler, wetter years.  Drier year selected cohorts can exploit habitats that have shorter hydroperiods even in wet years. This may lead to population specialisation and speciation by adapting to more extreme habitats

  6. Evaluation of disinfectants and antiseptics to eliminate bacteria from the surface of turkey eggs and hatch gnotobiotic poults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylte, M J; Chandra, L C; Looft, T

    2017-07-01

    Bird eggs are in contact with intestinal microbiota at or after oviposition, but are protected from bacterial translocation by a glycoprotein cuticle layer, the shell, and internal membranes. In a preliminary study, turkey eggs were hatched in a germ-free environment. Firmicutes 16S rRNA gene was detected in the cecal microbiota of hatched poults, suggesting that poults may acquire spore-formers by exposure to shell contents during hatching. Generating gnotobiotic poults for research requires elimination of bacteria from the egg's surface without damaging the developing embryo. The ability of different disinfectants and antiseptics to eliminate eggshell bacteria without harming the developing embryo was tested. Different classes of disinfectants and antiseptics (halogens, biguanidines, and oxidants) were selected to target spores and vegetative bacteria likely present on the egg's surface. Eggs were treated by fully immersing in heated antiseptic (betadine or chlorhexidine) or disinfectant (alkaline bleach, acidified bleach, chlorine dioxide, Oxysept-333, or Virkon S) solutions for up to 15 minutes. Shells were aseptically harvested for aerobic and anaerobic culturing of bacteria. Toxicity to the developing embryo was assessed by gross evaluation of developmental changes in treated eggs incubated up to 27 d of embryonation. Halogen disinfectants acidified bleach and chlorine dioxide, and oxidants Oxysept-333 and Virkon-S eliminated viable bacteria from eggshells. However, addition of oxidants, alone or in combination with other treatments, produced significant (P eliminated viable bacteria from whole turkey eggs, and produced hatched poults in a gnotobiotic isolator. As a control, eggs were treated with PBS, incubated, and hatched under germ-replete conditions. After hatching, poults were euthanized and treated poults had no detectable bacterial growth or 16S rRNA gene qPCR amplification, demonstrating that acidified sodium hypochlorite, chlorine dioxide, and

  7. Reproductive behavior and physiology of Dacus oleae: egg hatch in females mated successively with normal and gamma sterilized males and vice versa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Economopoulos, A.P.; Giannakakis, A.; Voyadjoglou, A.V.

    1976-01-01

    In Dacus oleae (Gmelin), a 2nd mating by an 8-krad gamma ray-sterilized male reduced egg hatch immediately to zero or near-zero in ca. 40-55 percent of individually-tested females. In another 50 percent of females, egg hatch was reduced to between 5 to 70 percent, while in fewer than 10 percent of females, egg hatch showed no change. The above was true for females reared on artificial diet for more than 50 generations and mated with same type males, as well as females reared on olives for 6 to 8 generations and mated first with same type males and 2nd with artificially-reared sterilized males. When the 2nd males were treated at 15 krad the effect on egg hatch was smaller. When the 2nd males were treated at 8 krad and had depleted their sperm, by repeated matings, they produced small or no-effect on egg hatch. When artificially-reared females mated first with a sterilized and second with a normal same type male, egg hatch increased from 0 to 5 percent to 70 to 100 percent in 50 to 55 percent of the cases. In another 43 percent of cases, egg hatch increased to levels between 5 to 70 percent. The combined findings from the 2 mating sequence types are as follows. After females mated first with normal males, egg hatch was above 80 percent in the population; a 2nd mating with 8-krad-sterilized males produced an immediate decrease of egg hatch to ca. 25 percent, decreasing slowly thereafter. When the 1st male was sterilized and the 2nd normal, egg hatch increased to ca. 70 percent, decreasing slowly thereafter

  8. Hatching time and alevin growth prior to the onset of exogenous feeding in farmed, wild and hybrid Norwegian Atlantic salmon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Favnebøe Solberg

    Full Text Available The onset of exogenous feeding, when juveniles emerge from the gravel, is a critical event for salmonids where early emergence and large size provide a competitive advantage in the wild. Studying 131 farmed, hybrid and wild Norwegian Atlantic salmon families, originating from four wild populations and two commercial strains, we investigated whether approximately 10 generations of selection for faster growth has also resulted in increased somatic growth prior to the onset of exogenous feeding. In addition, we tested whether relaxed selection in farms has allowed for alterations in hatching time between farmed and wild salmon. Across three cohorts, wild salmon families hatched earlier than farmed salmon families, while hybrid families displayed intermediate hatching times. While the observed differences were small, i.e., 1-15 degree-days (0-3 days, as water temperatures were c. 5-6°C, these data suggest additive genetic variation for hatching time. Alevin length prior to exogenous feeding was positively related to egg size. After removal of egg size effects, no systematic differences in alevin length were observed between the wild and farmed salmon families. While these results indicate additive genetic variation for egg development timing, and wild salmon families consistently hatched earlier than farmed salmon families, these differences were so small they are unlikely to significantly influence early life history competition of farmed and wild salmon in the natural environment. This is especially the case given that the timing of spawning among females can vary by several weeks in some rivers. The general lack of difference in size between farmed and wild alevins, strongly suggest that the documented differences in somatic growth rate between wild and farmed Norwegian Atlantic salmon under hatchery conditions are first detectable after the onset of exogenous feeding.

  9. Concentration of total proteins in blood plasma of chickens hatched from irradiated eggs with low dose gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilic, M.; Kraljevic, P.; Miljanic, S.; Simpraga, M.

    2005-01-01

    It is known that low-dose ionising radiation may have stimulating effects on chickens. Low doses may also cause changes in the concentration of blood plasma total proteins, glucose and cholesterol in chickens. This study investigates the effects of low dose gamma-radiation on the concentration of total proteins in the blood plasma of chickens hatched from eggs irradiated with a dose of 0.15 Gy on incubation days 7 and 19. Results were compared with the control group (chickens hatched from non-irradiated eggs). After hatching, all other conditions were the same for both groups. Blood samples were drawn from the heart, and later from the wing vein on days 1, 3, 5, 7,10, 20, 30 and 42. The concentration of total proteins was determined spectrophotometrically using Boehringer Mannheim GmbH optimised kits. The concentration of total proteins in blood plasma in chickens hatched from eggs irradiated with 0.15 Gy on incubation day 7 showed a statistically significant decrease on the sampling day 3 (P less than 0.05) and 7 (P less than 0.01). The concentration of total proteins in blood plasma in chickens hatched from eggs irradiated with 0.15 Gy on incubation day 19 showed a statistically significant increase only on sampling day 1 (P less than 0.05). These results suggest that exposure of eggs to 0.15 Gy of gamma-radiation on the 7th and 19th day of incubation could produce different effects on the protein metabolism in chickens.(author)

  10. Long term exposure to low dose neurotoxic pesticides affects hatching, viability and cholinesterase activity of Artemia sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambardella, Chiara; Nichino, Daniela; Iacometti, Camillo; Ferrando, Sara; Falugi, Carla; Faimali, Marco

    2018-03-01

    The brine shrimp Artemia was used as a model organism to test toxicity of several neuroactive pesticides (chlorpyrifos (CLP), chlorpyrifos oxon (CLP ox), diazinon (DZN), carbaryl (CBR)) following exposure to far below than lethal doses. Cysts were exposed to the pesticides in order to test a scenario similar to actual coastal environment contamination, by analyzing different responses. Cysts were rehydrated in water containing the pesticides at concentrations ranging from 10 -11 to 10 -5  M, for 72, 96 and 192 h, respectively. For these exposure times, morpho-functional and biochemical parameters, such as hatching speed and viability were investigated in the larvae together with cholinesterase (ChE) activity quantification and histochemical localization. Finally, ChE inhibition was also compared with conventional selective ChE inhibitors. Results showed that CLP ox and CBR caused a significant dose-dependent decrease in hatching speed, followed by high percentages of larval death, while CLP and DZN were responsible for irregular hatching patterns. In addition, the pesticides mostly caused larval death some days post-hatching, whereas this effect was negligible for the specific ChE inhibitors, suggesting that part of pesticide toxicity may be due to molecules other than the primary target. ChE activity was observed in the protocerebrum lobes, linked to the development of pair eyes. Such activity was inhibited in larvae exposed to all pesticides. When compared to conventional selective inhibitors of ChE activities, this inhibition demonstrated that the selected pesticides mainly affect acetylcholinesterase and, to a lesser extent, pseudocholinesterases. In conclusion, the brine shrimp is a good model to test the environmental toxicity of long term exposure to cholinergic pesticides, since changes in hatching speed, viability and ChE activity were observed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Hatching phenology and voltinism of Heterocypris barbara (Crustacea: Ostracoda from Lampedusa (Sicily, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Rossi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The persistence of crustacean populations in ephemeral ponds requires appropriate adaptations in life history strategies (e.g. in hatching phenology. Organisms take advantage of pond filling when it occurs and hedge their bets for the possibility to complete one or more life cycles or to produce resting stages that ensure that the population will not go extinct. We carried out laboratory experiments to investigate the dynamics of a sexual population of Heterocypris barbara from a vernal pool in Lampedusa Island (Sicily. Experimental organisms were obtained hydrating sediments from Aria Rossa temporary pond. Recruitment from resting eggs, voltinism, mean body size and sex ratio were observed in microcosms at different conductivities (high 2.0-2.7 mS cm-1, intermediate 1.0-1.1 mS cm-1 and low 0.5-0.6 mS cm-1. Microcosms were kept in laboratory controlled conditions: constant (24°C 12:12 L:D and 16°C 10:14 L:D photoperiod or fluctuating thermal regimes. The experiment lasted 7 months. Resting and non-resting egg production and up to a bivoltine life cycle were observed. Recruitment events from egg bank and voltinism varied by thermal regime and conductivity. A prolonged recruitment phase occurred in conditions that could be considered a proxy of a rainy season (16°C, 10:14 L:D and low conductivity or of long hydroperiods (spring thermal fluctuating regime and intermediate conductivity. At 24°C, age at reproduction of females from resting eggs almost doubled at low conductivity (in comparison with high conductivity. Low conductivity also reduced hatching time of resting eggs while it increased development time and age at maturity. In thermal fluctuating regime, degree-days to reproduction were about double than at constant 24°C. Males, observed in all microcosms, reached maturity faster and had a shorter life span than females. Males initially outnumbered females, but later in the experiments females became dominant. We also evaluated the

  12. Production traits of artificially and naturally hatched geese in intensive and free-range systems - II: slaughter, carcass and meat quality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boz, M A; Sarıca, M; Yamak, U S

    2017-04-01

    1. This study investigates the slaughter, carcass and meat quality traits of artificially and naturally hatched geese in intensive and free-range production systems. 2. The study was conducted with 114 naturally hatched and 102 artificially hatched geese. From each replicate of the intensive and free-range systems, one female and one male goose were slaughtered at the ages of 14, 16 and 18 weeks (a total of 32 geese per slaughter week). 3. Artificially hatched geese had higher slaughter weights (5280 vs. 4404 g), carcass weights (3520 vs. 2863), dressing percentages (66.6-65.2% vs. 65.0-63.6%) and carcass part, feather and edible inner organ weights. The ratio of both edible inner organs and abdominal fat was higher in naturally hatched geese. Breast meat L*, a* and pH values and thigh meat dry matter values were higher in artificially hatched geese, whereas thigh meat b* and pH values were higher in naturally hatched geese. 4. Intensively reared geese had higher slaughter weights (4900 vs. 4783 g), carcass weights (3253 vs. 3130 g) and abdominal fat weights (280 vs. 250 g), as well as higher dressing percentages (66.3-64.9% vs. 65.3-63.9%). Breast meat b* and thigh meat L* values were higher in the intensive system, while breast and thigh pH values, dripping loss and cooking loss were higher in the free-range system. Water-holding capacity was higher in the intensive system. 5. In conclusion, artificially hatched, intensively reared geese had the highest slaughter weights; however, both artificially and naturally hatched geese raised in a free-range system reached acceptable slaughter weights and can thus be recommended for use with this type of production system.

  13. An insight into the heat and mass transfer mechanisms of eggshells hatching broiler chicks and its effects to the hatcher environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanini, C E B; Exadaktylos, V; Hong, S W; Tong, Q; McGonnell, I; Demmers, T G M; Bergoug, H; Guinebretière, M; Eterradossi, N; Roulston, N; Verhelst, R; Bahr, C; Berckmans, D

    2015-02-01

    Thermodynamic study of incubated eggs is an important component in the optimisation of incubation processes. However, research on the interaction of heat and moisture transfer mechanisms in eggs is rather limited and does not focus on the hatching stage of incubation. During hatch, both the recently hatched chick and the broken eggshell add extra heat and moisture contents to the hatcher environment. In this study, we have proposed a novel way to estimate thermodynamically the amount of water evaporated from a broken eggshell during hatch. The hypothesis of this study considers that previously reported drops in eggshell temperature during hatching of chicks is the result remaining water content evaporating from the eggshell, released on the inner membrane by the recently hatched wet chick, just before hatch. To reproduce this process, water was sprayed on eggshells to mimic the water-fluid from the wet body of a chick. For each sample of eggshell, the shell geometry and weight, surface area and eggshell temperature were measured. Water evaporation losses and convection coefficient were calculated using a novel model approach considering the simultaneous heat and mass transfer profiles in an eggshell. The calculated average convective coefficient was 23.9 ± 7.5 W/m(2) °C, similar to previously reported coefficients in literature as a function of 0.5-1m/s air speed range. Comparison between measured and calculated values for the water evaporation showed 68% probability accuracy, associated to the use of an experimentally derived single heat transfer coefficient. The results support our proposed modelling approach of heat and mass transfer mechanisms. Furthermore, by estimating the amount of evaporated water in an eggshell post-hatch, air humidity levels inside the hatcher can be optimised to ensure wet chicks dry properly while not dehydrating early hatching chicks. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of temperature and salinity on egg hatching and description of the life cycle of Lernanthropus latis (Copepoda: Lernanthropidae) infecting barramundi, Lates calcarifer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazenor, Alexander K; Hutson, Kate S

    2013-10-01

    The parasite Lernanthropus latis (Copepoda: Lernanthropidae) is a major threat to the sustained mariculture of barramundi, Lates calcarifer (Perciformes: Latidae). We investigated the effect of water temperature and salinity on egg hatching success of L. latis and describe the life cycle for the first time. Wild and sea-caged L. calcarifer examined in tropical north Australia exhibited similar parasite prevalence (range: 80-100%) and mean parasite intensity (range: 3-6), whereas land-based maricultured fish were not infected. Hatching success and time to first and last hatch was determined for a range of water temperature (22, 30, 32 and 34°C) and salinity (0, 11, 22, 35 and 40‰) combinations representing current and predicted climate conditions. There was a significant interaction between water temperature and salinity on the hatching success of L. latis nauplii. Eggs hatched in all temperature treatments, with the greatest hatching success at 30°C and 32°C (98 and 92% success, respectively) in 35‰. Hatching did not occur at 0‰ and was severely reduced at 11‰ (1.6% success). Hatching began within 6h at all water temperatures with >95% of eggs hatched within 30h at 30, 32 and 34°C and within 60h at 22°C. Adult parasites differed from the original description by the presence of the parabasal flagellum, small setae on the legs and caudal rami and minor incongruences regarding morphological measurements. The life cycle of L. latis includes three free living stages and five parasitic stages. Although L. latis exhibits broad environmental tolerance, freshwater can be used as an effective management strategy to break the life cycle in aquaculture. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Notes on the hatching phases and the size of the juveniles in the Snake-eyed skink Ablepharus kitaibelii (Bibron & Bory de Saint-Vincent, 1833)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergilov, Vladislav; Natchev, Nikolay

    2018-03-01

    Most of the studies dealing with the Snake-eyed skink (Ablepharus kitaibelii) treat predominantly aspects of the distribution and taxonomy of the species. In the present study we provide information concerning the mechanism of hatching in the Snake-eyed skink and the dimensions of the hatched specimens. We collected data from wild animals, as well as from indoor incubated juveniles. The present study provides the first data concerning the weight of the newly hatched juveniles of the species and discuss on potential misleading data concerning the size of the juveniles in A. kitaibelii.

  16. A Short History of the Hatching Enzyme Studies in Medaka(Development of Medaka Biology in Japan-Part II)

    OpenAIRE

    Yamagami, Kenjiro

    1997-01-01

    The studies on the hatching enzyme of the medaka, Oryzias latipes, have a history of about 50 years, which is only a half of whole history of the studies on the hatching enzyme in animals since the first conjecture of it in a lung fish in 1900. Medaka, however, has served as the material most intensively studied for the enzyme, and the studies have given invaluable information to establish some significant concepts in the field of developmental and cell biology as well as the hatching biology...

  17. Anthelmintic activity of acetone extracts from South African plants used on egg hatching of Haemonchus contortus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerda Fouche

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The nematode, Haemonchus contortus, is responsible for major economic losses in the livestock industry. The management of parasites such as H. contortus has been through the use of synthetic parasiticides. This has resulted in the presence of residues in meat and milk, which affects food safety. The development of resistance to available anthelmintics coupled with their high cost has further complicated matters. This has led to the investigation of alternative methods to manage nematodes, including the use of plants and plant extracts as a potential source of novel anthelmintics. Acetone extracts were prepared from 15 South African plant species and their anthelmintic activity determined using the egg hatch assay (EHA. The leaf extract of Cleome gynandra had the best inhibitory activity (68% ± 3% at a concentration of 2.5 mg/mL, followed by the stem extract of Maerua angolensis (65% ± 5%. The extracts had a relatively low toxicity on Vero cells determined by the MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5- diphenyltetrazolium bromide cellular assay.

  18. Ultradian activity rhythms in large groups of newly hatched chicks (Gallus gallus domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, B L; Erhard, H W; Friggens, N C; McLeod, J E

    2008-07-01

    A clutch of young chicks housed with a mother hen exhibit ultradian (within day) rhythms of activity corresponding to the brooding cycle of the hen. In the present study clear evidence was found of ultradian activity rhythms in newly hatched domestic chicks housed in groups larger than natural clutch size without a mother hen or any other obvious external time-keeper. No consistent synchrony was found between groups housed in different pens within the same room. The ultradian rhythms disappeared with time and little evidence of group rhythmicity remained by the third night. This disappearance over time suggests that the presence of a mother hen may be pivotal for the long-term maintenance of these rhythms. The ultradian rhythm of the chicks may also play an important role in the initiation of brooding cycles during the behavioural transition of the mother hen from incubation to brooding. Computer simulations of individual activity rhythms were found to reproduce the observations made on a group basis. This was achievable even when individual chick rhythms were modelled as independent of each other, thus no assumptions of social facilitation are necessary to obtain ultradian activity rhythms on a group level.

  19. The outcome of assisted hatching and defragmentation in patients with poor quality embryos on IVF outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Zeki Işık

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the effects of assisted hatching in combination with defragmentation applied to day 3 poor quality human embryos, on implantation and pregnancy rates. Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed in patients (n=168 of all ages with no good quality transferable embryos (Veeck classification embryos >grade 1 and/or >10% fragmentation. The first group was consisted of cycles in which mAHA was performed to all transferred grade 2 embryos. The second group included transfer cycles where all the embryos were highly fragmented (between 10-50% fragmentations, grade 3 and aAHA and microsurgical fragment removal were applied to all of them. Results: In first group positive βhCG was 33%, clinical pregnancy (fetal heart beat rate was 27% and implantation rate was 11,28%. These rates were 37, 1%; 28, 8% and %16,19 respectively in the aAHA plus defragmentation group. In cases over 35 years of age in aAHA plus defragmentation group acceptable implantation (14,46% and clinical pregnancy (31,58% rates were achieved. Conclusion: In patients with no good quality transferable embryos AHA combined with defragmentation can be utilised with acceptable success rates in laboratories where there are experienced personnel available for this procedure otherwise only AHA can be the best option.

  20. Molecular identification of fungal isolates and hatching success of green turtle (Chelonia mydas) nests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candan, Esra Deniz

    2018-02-26

    The aim of this study is to investigate the fungal diversity of green turtle nests and to examine phylogenetic relationships among these isolates. During the nesting season, samples of intra-nest sand and failed eggs were collected from 25% of the surviving nests in Sugözü Beaches, which are amongst the most important nesting beaches for endangered green turtles in the Mediterranean. Twenty-three fungi were identified by molecular techniques. Fungal isolates belonged to genera Aspergillus, Emericella, Rhizopus, Actinomucor and Apophysomyces with two undescribed species. Aspergillus variecolor, Aspergillus quadrilinieatus, Aspergillus tubingensis, Rhizopus oryzae, Actinomucor elegans and Apophysomyces variabilis were firstly detected in all sea turtle nests within this study. Our results demonstrate that 36.4% of the nests had fungal contamination. Also hatching success of the nests contaminated by fungi were significantly lower than the uncontaminated nests (P = 0.029). Also, this may represent a threat to marine turtles and a risk for the health of conservation workers. This study is the first molecular phylogenetic study associated with sea turtle nests in the eastern Mediterranean coast and contributes to the wider body of literature on fungal invasion of sea turtle nests with firstly isolated species. These findings are important for improving potential conservation measures for the nest sites.

  1. Performance of japanese quail chickens injected with monosodium glutamate in the early post hatch period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fahmy, M.O.; Ezzat, I.E. and others

    2002-01-01

    Neo hatched Japanese quails chicks were divided equally into three groups (G1, G2 and G3) and injected once subcutaneously with monosodium glutamate (MSG) at 0,2 or 4 mg/g body weight for G1, G2 and G3 respectively. The obtained results clear that, 1-At-marketing stage, body weight increased by about 4% and 6%, feed conversion ratio reduced by 8.7% and 5.7% in-groups G2 and G3 respectively. 2-MSG had no significant effect on male and female serum T4 as well as male serum T3. The injection with 2-mg MSG per gram body weight increased female serum T3 significantly. 3-MSG increased significantly fat % DM in the male and female quails. This treatment in was positively correlated with the amount of injected MSG. Ash % DM and protein % DM were decreased significantly in both injected males and females and the reduction was dose dependent. 5-in males, weights of heart, spleen and testes besides weights and lengths of gastrointestinal tract regions were not significantly affected by MSG administration. 6-in females, the injection with MSG (2 mg/g body weight) significantly reduced the weight as percent body weight, moreover, the administration of MSG had no significant effect on the weights or the lengths of the remain parameters of the females gastrointestinal tract regions, ovary, oviduct, heart and spleen

  2. Face recognition in newly hatched chicks at the onset of vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Samantha M W; Wood, Justin N

    2015-04-01

    How does face recognition emerge in the newborn brain? To address this question, we used an automated controlled-rearing method with a newborn animal model: the domestic chick (Gallus gallus). This automated method allowed us to examine chicks' face recognition abilities at the onset of both face experience and object experience. In the first week of life, newly hatched chicks were raised in controlled-rearing chambers that contained no objects other than a single virtual human face. In the second week of life, we used an automated forced-choice testing procedure to examine whether chicks could distinguish that familiar face from a variety of unfamiliar faces. Chicks successfully distinguished the familiar face from most of the unfamiliar faces-for example, chicks were sensitive to changes in the face's age, gender, and orientation (upright vs. inverted). Thus, chicks can build an accurate representation of the first face they see in their life. These results show that the initial state of face recognition is surprisingly powerful: Newborn visual systems can begin encoding and recognizing faces at the onset of vision. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Watching sexy displays improves hatching success and offspring growth through maternal allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loyau, Adeline; Lacroix, Frédéric

    2010-11-22

    Male attractiveness can have tremendous effects on the fitness of his offspring via good genes, but also via enhanced maternal allocation of resources. Yet the proximate mechanisms influencing differential maternal allocation in relation to male sexiness are poorly known. Here, we studied the importance of visual stimulation for maternal allocation in the Houbara bustard, a vulnerable bird species bred in captivity to support wild populations. Artificial insemination allowed controlling for potential confounding factors, such as a male's territory quality, social interactions or sperm quality/quantity, probably linked to mate attractiveness. We show that artificially inseminated females stimulated by highly displaying males increased their hatching success, owing to increased fertilization success. The females also increased the allocation of maternal androgens in their eggs, leading to an increase of circulating testosterone and growth rate in chicks. Hence, visual stimulation of the females can promote differential maternal allocation and favour offspring fitness. Our results further suggest that using artificial insemination for species conservation without appropriate stimulation of the breeding females probably has negative impacts on their breeding performance and therefore on population viability.

  4. Interannual variations in the hatching pattern, larval growth and otolith size of a sand-dwelling fish from central Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Valentino, Camilo; Landaeta, Mauricio F.; Castillo-Hidalgo, Gissella; Bustos, Claudia A.; Plaza, Guido; Ojeda, F. Patricio

    2015-09-01

    The interannual variation (2010-2013) of larval abundance, growth and hatching patterns of the Chilean sand stargazer Sindoscopus australis (Pisces: Dactyloscopidae) was investigated through otolith microstructure analysis from samples collected nearshore (otolith size (radius, perimeter and area), related to body length of larvae, significantly decreased from 2010 to 2012, but increases significantly in 2013. Although the mean values of microincrement widths of sagitta otoliths were similar between 2010 and 2011 (around 0.6-0.7 μm), the interindividual variability increases in 2011 and 2013, suggesting large environmental variability experienced by larvae during these years. Finally, the hatching pattern of S. australis changed significantly from semi-lunar to lunar cycle after 2012.

  5. Comparative oxygen consumption rates of subitaneous and delayed hatching eggs of the calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa (Dana)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Benni Winding; Drillet, Guillaume

    2013-01-01

    nanorespirometry to monitor initial oxygen consumption rate of individual eggs of the ubiquitous neritic calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa to distinguish between subitaneous and DHE. We hypothesized that subitaneous eggs exhibit higher initial oxygen consumption rates than DHE, and that initial egg oxygen consumption...... rate is correlated to the time for the individual egg to hatch. Subitaneous eggs exhibited higher initial oxygen consumption rates than DHE and there were no pattern in initial oxygen consumption rates vs. time to hatch or die from the eggs. Variability in initial oxygen consumption rates within...... batches of both subitaneous and DHE, as well as between these egg types, is prevalent. There was a continuum from sluggish- to fast metabolising eggs considering initial oxygen consumption rates most likely reflecting phenotypic variation within cohorts. No matter the individual initial egg oxygen...

  6. Development of the generic drug industry in the US after the Hatch-Waxman Act of 1984

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garth Boehm

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The key events in the development of the US generic drug industry after the Hatch-Waxman Act of 1984 are systematically reviewed, including the process of approval for generic drugs, bioequivalence issues including “switchability”, bioequivalence for complicated dosage forms, patent extension, generic drug safety, generic substitution and low-cost generics. The backlog in generic review, generic drug user fees, and “quality by design” for generic drugs is also discussed. The evolution of the US generic drug industry after the Hatch-Waxman Act in 1984 has afforded several lessons of great benefit to other countries wishing to establish or re-establish a domestic generic drug industry.

  7. Combined Effects of Egg Age and Gamma Radiation Dosage on egg hatch of Scolytus Amygdali/guer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tadros, A.W.; Abdallah, F.F.; Abdelsalam, K.A.; Hashem, A.G.

    1992-01-01

    Eggs of Scolytus Amygdali were irradiated with 5 to 300 gray of gamma radiation at a dose rate of 7.87 rad/second. One-to five-day-old eggs were used. Results showed that one-and-tow-day-old eggs were the most sensitive as 100% mortality were obtained at 40 and 50 gray, respectively. Three-day-old-eggs required 100 gray to prevent hatch ability; while 300 gray were needed to prevent the 4-and 5-day-old eggs from hatching. There was 7.2-fold increase in resistance as eggs matured from 1 to 5 days measured by dosages required to produce LD 50. 2 fig

  8. Information needs, sources, and decision-making by hatching egg and broiler chicken producers: A qualitative study in Alberta, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anholt, R Michele; Russell, Margaret; Inglis, Tom; Mitevski, Darko; Hall, David

    2017-05-01

    Understanding the sources and use of information from hatching egg and broiler chicken producers, their constraints, and unmet information needs can help define future research agendas. This report presents the results from a qualitative study using interviews of 11 hatching egg producers and 12 broiler producers in Alberta, Canada. Patterns were reported and described using thematic analysis. Producers recognized that there were numerous sources of information available to them for managing disease in their flocks. Complex disease issues such as early mortality were discussed, but many producers did not believe they had any influence over the outcomes and did not see a benefit from additional information to improve outcomes. Producers described their experience, trust in the information source, and the usefulness of the information for decision-making as necessary for information uptake.

  9. Effects of γ-rays on hatching of the eggs and survival period of the fry of Cyprinus carpio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrivastava, R.S.; Dwivedi, P.

    1980-01-01

    Eggs of the common carp, Cyprinus carpio, were exposed to 0.0258, 0.129, 0.258, 0.516, and 1.29 C/kg, respectively, 60 Co γ-radiation. The time between spawning and hatching of the fry was 48 to 56 hours compared to 72 to 79 hours in the untreated controls. With increasing exposure the hatching rates were 36, 24, 28, 30 and 34%; the survival periods were 11, 9, 8, 7 and 6 days and the 50% mortality period was 8, 7, 6, 4 and 4 days, respectively. With increasing radiation doses the fry exhibited increasing deformations of the body, especially of the postanal region, as well as unbalanced movements

  10. Numerical simulation of an equipment hatch for a steel containment vessel to loading beyond the design basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulak, R.F.; Hsieh, B.J.; Ash, J.E.; Kennedy, J.M.; McLennan, G.A.

    1985-01-01

    A preliminary analysis of the sealing deformations of a large equipment hatch with a pressure-seated gasket due to overpressurization was performed. An axisymmetric finite element analysis of the penetration sleeve revealed that its surface can undergo large rotations; values for sealing surface rotation of 7 0 were computed. Estimates for the order of magnitude of leakage due to the sealing surface rotation were made. 10 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

  11. Tributyltin induces premature hatching and reduces locomotor activity in zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos/larvae at environmentally relevant levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xuefang; Souders, Christopher L; Zhang, Jiliang; Martyniuk, Christopher J

    2017-12-01

    Tributyltin (TBT) is an organotin compound that is the active ingredient of many biocides and antifouling agents. In addition to its well established role as an endocrine disruptor, TBT is also associated with adverse effects on the nervous system and behavior. In this study, zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos were exposed to environmentally relevant concentrations of TBT (0.01, 0.1, 1 nM) to determine how low levels affected development and behavior. Fish exposed to 1 nM TBT hatched earlier when compared to controls. Following a 96-h exposure, total swimming distance, velocity, and activity of zebrafish larvae were reduced compared to controls. To identify putative mechanisms for these altered endpoints, we assessed embryo bioenergetics and gene expression. We reasoned that the accelerated hatch time could be related to ATP production and energy, thus embryos were exposed to TBT for 24 and 48-h exposure prior to hatch. There were no differences among groups for endpoints related to bioenergetics (i.e. basal, ATP-dependent, and maximal respiration). To address mechanisms related to changes in behavioral activity, we measured transcripts associated with muscle function (myf6, myoD, and myoG) and dopamine signaling (th, dat, dopamine receptors) as dopamine regulates behavior. No transcript was altered in expression by TBT in larvae, suggesting that other mechanisms exist that may explain changes in higher level endpoints. These results suggest that endpoints related to the whole animal (i.e. timing of hatch and locomotor behavior) are more sensitive to environmentally-relevant concentrations of TBT compared to the molecular and metabolic endpoints examined here. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Temperature during the last week of incubation. I. Effects on hatching pattern and broiler chicken embryonic organ development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maatjens, C.M.; Roovert-Reijrink, van I.A.M.; Engel, B.; Pol, van der C.W.; Kemp, B.; Brand, van den H.

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effects of an eggshell temperature (EST) of 35.6, 36.7, 37.8, and 38.9°C applied from d of incubation (E) 15, E17, and E19 on hatching pattern and embryonic organ development. A total of 2,850 first-grade eggs of a 43-week-old Ross 308 broiler breeder flock were incubated at an

  13. Morphometry study on pre and post-hatching nerve cell bodies of lumbar spinal ganglia of Gallus domesticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio A. Ferraz de Carvalho

    1983-09-01

    Full Text Available A cytomorphometric study was performed in lumbar spinal ganglia neurons of Gallus domesticus on the 10th and 18th incubation days and 8th, 35th, 61st, and 120th post-hatching days. The absolute volume of nucleus and relative volume of cytoplasm were respectively estimated by the Bach² caryometric method and by point-counting volumetry, carried out in 0.5mm thick araldite sections. The relative volume, the surface-to-volume ratio and the total surface of RER, SER, mitochondria, dense bodies, Golgi complex and the relative volume of hyaloplasm inside and outside the Nissl bodies were estimated from electronmicrographs by the Weibel et al.58 method. The conclusions were: a there was an increase of the cell volume and a decrease of the nucleo-cytoplasmic ratio, particularly between the first two ages; b the relative volumes of RER and SER change inversely with respect to each other: the RER increases before hatching, decreasing progressively afterwards; the changes of relative volume of dense bodies are similar to those of the RER, and the mitochondria show relatively small variations concerning the same parameter; c the relative volume of hyaloplasm inside the Nissl bodies decreases while those outside increases; d the surface-to-volume ratio drops sharply for all organelles from the 10th to the 18th day of incubation; after hatching, a tendency to increase is observed; e the membrane surface-to-cytoplasmic volume ratio decreases for all organelles from the 10th to the 18th day of incubation; after hatching, this ratio increases slightly for mitochondria and Golgi complex, sharply for SER, dropping for dense bodies. The RER values alternate regularly.

  14. Ecotoxicological studies with newly hatched larvae of Concholepas concholepas (Mollusca, Gastropoda): bioassay with secondary-treated kraft pulp mill effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manríquez, Patricio H; Llanos-Rivera, Alejandra; Galaz, Sylvana; Camaño, Andrés

    2013-12-01

    The Chilean abalone or "loco" (Concholepas concholepas, Bruguière 1789) represent the most economically important marine recourse exploited from inner inshore Management and Exploitation Areas for Benthic Resources along the Chilean coast. In this study, newly-hatched larvae of C. concholepas were investigated as a potential model species for marine ecotoxicological studies. The study developed a behavioral standard protocol for assessing the impact that kraft pulp mill effluents after secondary treatment have on C. concholepas larvae. Under controlled laboratory conditions, newly-hatched larvae were exposed to a series of different concentrations of kraft pulp mill effluents with secondary treatment (Pinus spp. and Eucalyptus spp.), potassium dichromate as standard reference toxicant and effluent-free control conditions. Regardless of the type of effluent the results indicated that diluted kraft pulp effluent with secondary treatment had reduced effect on larval survival. Low larval survivals were only recorded when they were exposed to high concentrations of the reference toxicant. This suggests that C. concholepas larval bioassay is a simple method for monitoring the effects of kraft pulp mill effluents with secondary treatment discharged into the sea. The results indicated that dilution of ca. 1% of the effluent with an elemental chlorine free (ECF) secondary treatment is appropriate for achieving low larval mortalities, such as those obtained under control conditions with filtered seawater, and to minimize their impact on early ontogenetic stages of marine invertebrates such as newly-hatched larvae of C. concholepas. The methodological aspects of toxicological testing and behavioral responses described here with newly-hatched larvae of C. concholepas can be used to evaluate in the future the potential effects of other stressful conditions as other pollutants or changes in seawater pH associated with ocean acidification. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  15. Effects of egg incubation condition on the post-hatching growth and performance of the snapping turtle, Chelydra serpentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, Kathleen M. [State Univ. of New York (SUNY),Buffalo, NY (United States)

    1990-12-01

    The effect of incubation temperature on the post-hatching growth and performance capacities of the common snapping turtle, Chelydra serpentina was investigated in the laboratory. Turtle eggs were collected from four sites in New York State and randomly assigned to four incubation temperature treatments to produce males (constant 26°C and downshifted 30-26-30°C) and females (constant 30°C and upshifted 26-30-26°C) under constant and altered temperature regimes. The incubation conditions resulted in 92% males from the constant 26°C group and 93% males from the downshifted group. 100% females resulted from both the constant 30°C group and the upshifted group. Turtles hatching from eggs incubated constantly at 26°C were significantly larger than hatchlings from eggs incubated at a constant 30°C or downshifted. Hatchlings were raised in individual aquaria at 25°C and fed earthworms and fish. After a 9-month growth period, turtles which had been incubated at a constant 30°C gained significantly more mass than did turtles from eggs which had been downshifted or upshifted. There was no extended effect of incubation condition on Post-hatching performance and learning ability as measured by righting and feeding responses. Thus, the mass gain differences seen in this study suggest that physiological differences do result as the consequence of incubation condition. However, these physiological differences are not reflected in normal locomotive or feeding behavior.

  16. Effects of egg incubation condition on the post-hatching growth and performance of the snapping turtle, Chelydra serpentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, K.M.

    1990-12-01

    The effect of incubation temperature on the post-hatching growth and performance capacities of the common snapping turtle, Chelydra serpentina was investigated in the laboratory. Turtle eggs were collected from four sites in New York State and randomly assigned to four incubation temperature treatments to produce males (constant 26[degree]C and downshifted 30-26-30[degree]C) and females (constant 30[degree]C and upshifted 26-30-26[degree]C) under constant and altered temperature regimes. The incubation conditions resulted in 92% males from the constant 26[degree]C group and 93% males from the downshifted group. 100% females resulted from both the constant 30[degree]C group and the upshifted group. Turtles hatching from eggs incubated constantly at 26[degree]C were significantly larger than hatchlings from eggs incubated at a constant 30[degree]C or downshifted. Hatchlings were raised in individual aquaria at 25[degree]C and fed earthworms and fish. After a 9-month growth period, turtles which had been incubated at a constant 30[degree]C gained significantly more mass than did turtles from eggs which had been downshifted or upshifted. There was no extended effect of incubation condition on Post-hatching performance and learning ability as measured by righting and feeding responses. Thus, the mass gain differences seen in this study suggest that physiological differences do result as the consequence of incubation condition. However, these physiological differences are not reflected in normal locomotive or feeding behavior.

  17. Fly ash effect on hatching, mortality and penetration of root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita in pumpkin roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gufran Ahmad

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to observe the effect of fly ash on hatching, mortality and penetration of root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita in pumpkin roots. For hatching experiment different fly ash-extract concentrations (5, 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50% were prepared. Hatching was significantly reduced in all concentrations, maximum being at 50% concentration. The mortality (% of juveniles was observed in 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7th days with different levels (5, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 % of fly ash-extract. All the levels were found harmful to juveniles. As the level was increased, the killing percentage of juveniles was also increased. Highest mortality was observed in 7th day with 50% level.For the penetration experiment, fly ash was mixed with soil to prepare different concentrations (5, 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50%. Seeds of pumpkin were grown in coffee cups filled with different mixtures. At two leaf stage, seedlings were inoculated with 2000 larvae. The penetrated larvae in roots were observed after 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7 days. Root penetration was found inversely proportional to concentration. Significant results in the suppression of nematode penetration were noted up to 40% concentration. However, none of the juveniles was penetrated at 50% concentration.International Journal of Environment Vol.5(3 2016, pp.66-73

  18. The Biophysical Characteristics Of Hatching Habitat Of Lekang Turtle (Lepidhochelys olivacea) Eggs In Turtle Conservation And Education Center, Bali

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryono; Ario, R.; Wibowo, E.; Handoyo, G.

    2018-02-01

    Lekang turtle (Lepidhochelys olivacea) is one of the fauna that is protected as an endangered population. This marine reptile was able to migrate in great distance along the Indian Ocean, the Pacific Ocean, and South East Asia. Its existence has long been threatened, either by nature or human activities that endangered the population directly or indirectly. The decreasing number of sea turtle population that nest in Bali area is one indication of the reducing number of Lekang turtle in Indonesia. If left unchecked, it will result in the loss of Lekang turtle. This study aims to determine the successful percentage of conservation techniques and Lekang turtle hatching eggs (olive ridley sea turtle) in TCEC, Bali. The method used in this research is the method of observation or direct observation done in the field. Data collection is done by direct observation in the field. The results showed that the turtle breeding site is located in an area that is less strategic because too far from the sea, so that the temperature and humidity cannot be stable. Water content is most an important factor in the growth of embryo and egg hatching. This will lead to the decrease of hatching percentage of turtle eggs.

  19. Pre- and post-hatch trophic egg production in the subsocial burrower bug, Canthophorus niveimarginatus (Heteroptera: Cydnidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippi, Lisa; Baba, Narumi; Inadomi, Koichi; Yanagi, Takao; Hironaka, Mantaro; Nomakuchi, Shintaro

    2009-02-01

    In recent years, three terrestrial bugs, Adomerus triguttulus and Sehirus cinctus (Cydnidae) and the closely related Parastrachia japonensis (Parastrachiidae), have been the focus of several fascinating studies because of the remarkable, extensive parental care they were found to display. This care includes egg and nymph guarding, production of trophic eggs, unfertilized, low cost eggs that are used as food by newly hatched nymphs, and progressive provisioning of the host seed. In this study, we have investigated yet a third related Asian cydnid, Canthophorus niveimarginatus, with regard to the possible occurrence of some or all of these complex traits in order to assess how widespread these maternal investment patterns are in this group of insects and to better understand the implications of their manifestations from an evolutionary context. Manipulative experiments were carried out in the lab to determine whether females provision nests. Observational and egg removal studies were carried out to determine whether trophic eggs are produced, and, if they are, their possible impact on nymphal success. The findings revealed that C. niveimarginatus does, in fact, progressively provision young, and this species also displays all of the other behaviors associated with extended parental care in subsocial insects. Moreover, unlike the other two related species, which place trophic eggs on the surface of the original egg mass, C. niveimarginatus produces both pre- and post-hatch trophic eggs. Nymphs deprived of access to post-hatch trophic eggs had significantly lower body weight and survival rate than those that fed on them. To our knowledge, this is the first time the production of both pre- and post-hatch trophic eggs has been demonstrated in insects outside the Hymenoptera. In this paper, we qualitatively and quantitatively demonstrate the provisioning behavior and patterns of trophic egg production in C. niveimarginatus. When and how trophic eggs are produced and

  20. Anthelminthic activity of methanol extracts of Diospyros anisandra and Petiveria alliacea on cyathostomin (Nematoda: Cyathostominae) larval development and egg hatching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flota-Burgos, G J; Rosado-Aguilar, J A; Rodríguez-Vivas, R I; Arjona-Cambranes, K A

    2017-12-15

    Methanol extracts of plant structures are promising alternatives to traditional pharmaceutical anthelminthic treatments. An in vitro evaluation was done of how methanol extracts of Diospyros anisandra bark and leaves, and Petiveria alliacea stems and leaves, collected during the rainy and dry seasons, effected cyathostomin larval development and egg hatching. Seven concentrations (600, 300, 150, 75, 37.5, 18.7 and 9.3μg/ml) were tested using the egg hatch assay. An ANOVA was applied to identify differences between the concentrations and the controls. Fifty percent lethal concentration (LC 50 ) and the 95% confidence interval were calculated with a probit analysis. At and above 37.5μg/ml, the D. anisandra bark extracts from both seasons exhibited ≥95% egg hatch inhibition (EHI), while the D. anisandra leaf extracts had >90% EHI at and above 75μg/ml. For P. alliacea, the extracts from leaves and stems from either season exhibited >97% EHI at and above 300μg/ml, although similar efficacy was also observed at lower concentrations with the rainy season stems (75μg/ml) and leaves (150μg/ml). Values for LC 50 were lowest for the rainy season D. anisandra bark (10.2μg/ml) and leaf extracts (18.4μg/ml), followed by the rainy season P. alliacea stems extract (28.2μg/ml). In the D. anisandra extracts, EHI was largely due to its ovicidal activity (≥96% beginning at 37.5μg/ml), whereas in the P. alliacea extracts it was due to L 1 larval hatch failure (≥90% beginning at 75μg/ml). Overall, the rainy season D. anisandra bark extracts had a strong in vitro anthelminthic effect against cyathostomins by inhibiting larval development, and the rainy season P. alliacea stem extracts had a strong effect by preventing egg hatching. Both are possible control alternatives for these nematodes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Choline requirements of White Pekin ducks from hatch to 21 days of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Z G; Tang, J; Hou, S S; Guo, Y M; Huang, W; Xie, M

    2014-12-01

    A dose-response experiment with 8 dietary choline levels (302, 496, 778, 990, 1,182, 1,414, 1,625, and 1,832 mg/kg) was conducted with male White Pekin ducks to estimate the choline requirement from hatch to 21 d of age. Three hundred eighty-four 1-d-old male White Pekin ducks were randomly assigned to 8 dietary treatments, each containing 6 replicate pens with 8 birds per pen. At 21 d of age, weight gain, feed intake, and feed/gain from each pen were calculated for feeding period, and 2 ducks selected randomly from each pen were euthanized and the liver was collected to determine total lipids, triglycerides, and phospholipids. In our study, perosis, poor growth, and high liver fat were all observed in choline-deficient ducks and incidence of perosis was zero when dietary choline was 1,182 mg/kg. As dietary choline increased, the weight gain and feed intake increased linearly or quadratically (P < 0.05). On the other hand, as dietary choline increased, the total lipid and triglyceride in liver decreased linearly and liver phospholipid increased linearly (P < 0.05), and the lipotropic activity of choline may be associated with increasing phospholipid at a high dietary choline level. According to broken-line regression, the choline requirements for weight gain and feed intake were 810 and 823 mg/kg, respectively, but higher requirement should be considered to prevent perosis and excess liver lipid deposition completely. ©2014 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  2. Eggs hatching and oncomiracidia lifespan of Dawestrema cycloancistrium, a monogenean parasitic on Arapaima gigas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciel, Patricia Oliveira; Muniz, Celli Rodrigues; Alves, Rosiana Rodrigues

    2017-11-30

    Within the production chain of the Arapaima gigas (pirarucu), sanitary issues are still faced at the fingerling phase regarding infestations by the monogenean Dawestrema cycloancistrium. The present study had the objectives of describing the morphology and development phases of this parasite's eggs and oncomiracidia and determining the hatching time and lifespan of the oncomiracidia at different temperatures. D. cycloancistrium eggs were oval and elongated and had a single long appendage at one pole. The egg development was divided into four phases: embryonated egg, developing egg, larva appearance and ecloded egg. They were found in four forms: isolated in gill filaments; grouped in clusters that were anchored in a gill filament; grouped in clusters and entangled in part of a dead adult monogenean; and grouped in clusters in the environment, fixed to a substrate. Eclosion occurred after 72-96h, with faster development at 29°C and 32°C than at 24°C. The morphology of the oncomiracidia were rounded and elongated. They had two pairs of pigmented eye-spots as well as two ciliated areas located on each lateral part of the body and another on the anterior part of the body. The lifespan of the D. cycloancistrium oncomiracidia were 50 and 58h at 24°C and 27°C, respectively. Larvae were found in the mucus, indicating that the oncomiracidia penetrated the host integument. Understanding reproductive aspects of the D. cycloancistrium monogenean is important for developing specific prophylactic management strategies in aquaculture and providing valuable data for further studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of transgenic sterilization constructs and their repressor compounds on hatch, developmental rate and early survival of electroporated channel catfish embryos and fry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Baofeng; Shang, Mei; Li, Chao; Perera, Dayan A; Pinkert, Carl A; Irwin, Michael H; Peatman, Eric; Grewe, Peter; Patil, Jawahar G; Dunham, Rex A

    2015-04-01

    Channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) embryos were electroporated with sterilization constructs targeting primordial germ cell proteins or with buffer. Some embryos then were treated with repressor compounds, cadmium chloride, copper sulfate, sodium chloride or doxycycline, to prevent expression of the transgene constructs. Promoters included channel catfish nanos and vasa, salmon transferrin (TF), modified yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae copper transport protein (MCTR) and zebrafish racemase (RM). Knock-down systems were the Tet-off (nanos and vasa constructs), MCTR, RM and TF systems. Knock-down genes included shRNAi targeting 5' nanos (N1), 3' nanos (N2) or dead end (DND), or double-stranded nanos RNA (dsRNA) for overexpression of nanos mRNA. These constructs previously were demonstrated to knock down nanos, vasa and dead end, with the repressors having variable success. Exogenous DNA affected percentage hatch (% hatch), as all 14 constructs, except for the TF dsRNA, TF N1 (T), RM DND (C), vasa DND (C), vasa N1 (C) and vasa N2 (C), had lower % hatch than the control electroporated with buffer. The MCTR and RM DND (T) constructs resulted in delayed hatch, and the vasa and nanos constructs had minimal effects on time of hatch (P nanos constructs, doxycycline greatly delayed hatch (P < 0.05). Adverse effects of the transgenes and repressors continued for several treatments for the first 6 days after hatch, but only in a few treatments during the next 10 days. Repressors and gene expression impacted the yield of putative transgenic channel catfish fry, and need to be considered and accounted for in the hatchery phase of producing transgenically sterilized catfish fry and their fertile counterparts. This fry output should be considered to ensure that sufficient numbers of transgenic fish are produced for future applications and for defining repressor systems that are the most successful.

  4. The effects of waterborne uranium on the hatching success, development, and survival of early life stages of zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourrachot, Stephanie; Simon, Olivier; Gilbin, Rodolphe

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of the radioactive metal uranium (U) on the embryonic development, hatching success, growth rate, and survival of juvenile zebrafish (Danio rerio). We studied the effects of depleted uranium (20-500 μg L -1 of DU), inducing mainly chemical toxicity due to its low specific activity, and the combined effects of chemical and radiological toxicity by using a higher specific activity uranium isotope (20 and 100 μg L -1 of 233 U). Results showed that early life stages are significantly affected by uranium exposure through both chemical and combined (chemical and radiological) toxicity. Experiments showed significant effects of U on hatching success starting at the concentration of 250 μg L -1 of DU, causing a 42% delay in median hatching times relative to control. Furthermore, a reduction of growth (decrease in body length and weight) was observed followed by a high mortality of pro-larvae stage (up to 100% at DU concentrations of 250 μg L -1 upon a 15 day exposure). Bioaccumulation measurements highlighted that U was mainly localised in the chorion but penetrated in the embryo inside eggs at a higher concentration. The effects differed depending on the isotopic composition of the uranium: sublethal defects in the tail detachment process were more pronounced for 233 U than DU exposure, while the presence of 233 U specifically affected embryo development and led to higher mortality rates of the prolarvae. The results from this study showed that the early life stages of zebrafish seems to be more sensitive to uranium contamination than more mature stages, and underline the importance of including pro-larval stages into toxicity tests in order to improve the relevancy for environmental risk assessments

  5. Presence of antimicrobial resistance in coliform bacteria from hatching broiler eggs with emphasis on ESBL/AmpC-producing bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezhoud, H; Chantziaras, I; Iguer-Ouada, M; Moula, N; Garmyn, A; Martel, A; Touati, A; Smet, A; Haesebrouck, F; Boyen, F

    2016-08-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is recognized as one of the most important global health challenges. Broilers are an important reservoir of antimicrobial resistant bacteria in general and, more particularly, extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL)/AmpC-producing Enterobacteriaceae. Since contamination of 1-day-old chicks is a potential risk factor for the introduction of antimicrobial resistant Enterobacteriaceae in the broiler production chain, the presence of antimicrobial resistant coliform bacteria in broiler hatching eggs was explored in the present study. Samples from 186 hatching eggs, collected from 11 broiler breeder farms, were inoculated on MacConkey agar with or without ceftiofur and investigated for the presence of antimicrobial resistant lactose-positive Enterobacteriaceae, particularly, ESBL/AmpC-producers. Escherichia coli and Enterobacter cloacae were obtained from the eggshells in 10 out of 11 (10/11) sampled farms. The majority of the isolates were recovered from crushed eggshells after external decontamination suggesting that these bacteria are concealed from the disinfectants in the egg shell pores. Antimicrobial resistance testing revealed that approximately 30% of the isolates showed resistance to ampicillin, tetracycline, trimethoprim and sulphonamides, while the majority of isolates were susceptible to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, nitrofurantoin, aminoglycosides, florfenicol, neomycin and apramycin. Resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins was detected in eight Enterobacteriaceae isolates from five different broiler breeder farms. The ESBL phenotype was confirmed by the double disk synergy test and blaSHV-12, blaTEM-52 and blaACT-39 resistance genes were detected by PCR. This report is the first to present broiler hatching eggs as carriers and a potential source of ESBL/AmpC-producing Enterobacteriaceae for broiler chicks.

  6. Ocean Warming Enhances Malformations, Premature Hatching, Metabolic Suppression and Oxidative Stress in the Early Life Stages of a Keystone Squid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Rui; Pimentel, Marta S.; Boavida-Portugal, Joana; Teixeira, Tatiana; Trübenbach, Katja; Diniz, Mário

    2012-01-01

    Background The knowledge about the capacity of organisms’ early life stages to adapt to elevated temperatures is very limited but crucial to understand how marine biota will respond to global warming. Here we provide a comprehensive and integrated view of biological responses to future warming during the early ontogeny of a keystone invertebrate, the squid Loligo vulgaris. Methodology/Principal Findings Recently-spawned egg masses were collected and reared until hatching at present day and projected near future (+2°C) temperatures, to investigate the ability of early stages to undergo thermal acclimation, namely phenotypic altering of morphological, behavioural, biochemical and physiological features. Our findings showed that under the projected near-future warming, the abiotic conditions inside the eggs promoted metabolic suppression, which was followed by premature hatching. Concomitantly, the less developed newborns showed greater incidence of malformations. After hatching, the metabolic burst associated with the transition from an encapsulated embryo to a planktonic stage increased linearly with temperature. However, the greater exposure to environmental stress by the hatchlings seemed to be compensated by physiological mechanisms that reduce the negative effects on fitness. Heat shock proteins (HSP70/HSC70) and antioxidant enzymes activities constituted an integrated stress response to ocean warming in hatchlings (but not in embryos). Conclusions/Significance The stressful abiotic conditions inside eggs are expected to be aggravated under the projected near-future ocean warming, with deleterious effects on embryo survival and growth. Greater feeding challenges and the lower thermal tolerance limits of the hatchlings are strictly connected to high metabolic demands associated with the planktonic life strategy. Yet, we found some evidence that, in the future, the early stages might support higher energy demands by adjusting some cellular functional properties

  7. Impact of environmental factors on recruitment and hatching patterns of Horse Mackerel (L. collected in a nearshore rocky reef system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Klein

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus, Linnaeus, 1758 is a highly exploited fish species, common throughout the North-East Atlantic. As a pelagic-neritic fish it typically occurs over the shelf at 100-200 m depth on sandy bottom and most research has focused on adults or early life stages (eggs and larvae, caught or examined in deeper waters. Nevertheless, larvae and early stages of Trachurus species have been observed in the nearshore environment of a rocky reef system in Portugal. More research is needed in order to understand the importance of nearshore environments for horse mackerel. In addition little is known on how environmental processes might affect early life parameters of this species. In this study we monitored the arrival of early juvenile horse mackerel to the reef environment at a fine time scale, and analyzed the relationship of environmental factors with patterns of recruitment and hatching, revealed by otolith microstructure analysis. In total around 2500 fish were collected with Standard Monitoring Units for the Recruitment of Fish (SMURF and a distinct depth preference was recorded as 99% of fish were sampled with surface SMURFs. A GAM and GAMM analysis of the recruitment and hatching pattern, respectively, revealed a strong relationship with the lunar cycle and local up-welling. Both recruitment and hatching had a periodic pattern with peaks near the new moon; upwelling had a negative impact. Further, the study indicated that the nearshore environment might be an important nursery area for the post-larval growth of horse mackerel.

  8. Latex constituents from Calotropis procera (R. Br. display toxicity upon egg hatching and larvae of Aedes aegypti (Linn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Viana Ramos

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Calotropis procera R. Br. (Asclepiadaceae is a well-known medicinal plant with leaves, roots, and bark being exploited by popular medicine to fight many human and animal diseases. This work deals with the fractionation of the crude latex produced by the green parts of the plant and aims to evaluate its toxic effects upon egg hatching and larval development of Aedes aegypti. The whole latex was shown to cause 100% mortality of 3rd instars within 5 min. It was fractionated into water-soluble dialyzable (DF and non-dialyzable (NDF rubber-free materials. Both fractions were partially effective to prevent egg hatching and most of individuals growing under experimental conditions died before reaching 2nd instars or stayed in 1st instars. Besides, the fractions were very toxic to 3rd instars causing 100% mortality within 24 h. When both fractions were submitted to heat-treatment the toxic effects were diminished considerably suggesting low thermostability of the toxic compounds. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of both fractions and their newly fractionated peaks obtained through ion exchange chromatography or desalting attested the presence of proteins in both materials. When submitted to protease digestion prior to larvicidal assays NDF lost most of its toxicity but DF was still strongly active. It may be possible that the highly toxic effects of the whole latex from C. procera upon egg hatching and larvae development should be at least in part due to its protein content found in NDF. However the toxicity seems also to involve non protein molecules present in DF.

  9. Effect of Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonate on Mortality, Hatching Rate of Eggs and Abnormality of Catfish (Pangasius hypophthalmus Sauvage Larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Supriyono

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS surfactant in the water can affecting fish in all developmental stages.  This study was aimed to observe the effect of LAS on mortality, hatching rate of eggs, and abnormality of patin catfish (Pangasius hypophthalmus Sauvage larvae.   Fertilized eggs were incubated in water containing LAS at the dosages of 0.0, 0.5, 1.5, 3.0, 9.0, and 18.0 mg/L.  Eggs mortality was observed every 6 hours until larvae hatched (24 hours.  The results of study showed that the exposure of 18.0 mg LAS per liter water could put to death all the fertilized eggs and larvae be abnormal.  The exposure of LAS at concentration of 9.0 mg/L could kill 98% of eggs and hatching rate was only 2%.  The abnormality in larvae was bending in the body and tails. Keywords: patin catfish, Pangasius, Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonate, LAS, abnormality   ABSTRAK Surfaktan Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonate (LAS yang masuk ke dalam perairan sangat berpengaruh terhadap ikan dari stadia awal hidup ikan sampai dewasa. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh LAS terhadap mortalitas, daya tetas telur dan abnormalitas larva ikan patin (Pangasius hypophthalmus Sauvage.  Telur ikan patin yang telah dibuahi di rendam dalam air yang mengandung LAS dengan konsentrasi 0,0; 0,5; 1,5; 3,0; 9,0 dan 18,0 mg/L.  Mortalitas telur dicatat setiap 6 jam sampai menetas (24 jam.  Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa konsentrasi LAS sebesar 18,0 mg/L dapat mengakibatkan mortalitas telur dan abnormalitas pada larva secara total.  Konsentrasi LAS sebesar 9,0 mg/L dapat mematikan telur hingga 98% dan hanya menghasilkan daya tetas sebanyak 2%. Abnormalitas pada larva berupa pembengkokan pada tubuh dan ekor. Kata kunci: ikan patin, Pangasius, Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonate, LAS dan abnormalitas

  10. Embryo Development and Post-Hatch Performances of Kampung Chicken by in Ovo Feeding of L-Arginine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Azhar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted to evaluate embryo development, post-hatch performances, and growth rate of kampung chicken treated in-ovo feeding of L-Arginine. A total of 135 kampung chicken fertile eggs (weight 42-43 g were used and divided into 5 treatment groups of three replications. They were placed in the semi-automatic incubator. The first group was without in-ovo feeding (negative control; the second group was in-ovo feeding of saline 0.9% (positive control; the 3, 4, and 5 groups were in-ovo feeding of 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5% L-Arginine, respectively. In-ovo feeding of L-Arginine were injected into albumen on day 10 of incubation period using automatic syringe in the narrow end side of egg by inserting needle through a small hole at 10 mm depth. After hatching, all day old chicks were placed in floor pens (1 x 0.5 x 0.5 m accordance with the previous egg groups. The results showed that in-ovo feeding of L-Arginine increased weight and circumference of the embryo, but did not affect the length of embryo. In-ovo feeding of L-Arginine resulted in a higher body weight gain and a lower feed conversion even though feed intake was not significantly different compared to the control groups. The growth rate performance up to 6 weeks rearing increased significantly by increasing L-Arginine administration to 1.0%. It can be concluded that embryo development and post-hatch performances of kampung chicken were markedly increased by in-ovo feeding of L-arginine.

  11. Embryonic exposure of medaka (Oryzias latipes) to propylparaben: Effects on early development and post-hatching growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    González-Doncel, Miguel; García-Mauriño, José Enrique; San Segundo, Laura; Beltrán, Eulalia M.; Sastre, Salvador; Fernández Torija, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Here we proposed a battery of non-invasive biomarkers and a histological survey to examine physiological/anatomical features in embryos, eleutheroembryos (13 days post-fertilization, dpf), and larvae (28–42 dpf) of medaka to investigate the effects of embryonic exposure to propylparaben (PrP). Concentrations <1000 μg PrP/L didn't exert early or late toxic effects. However, survivorship was affected at 4000 μg/L in eleutheroembryos and at ≥1000 μg/L in larvae. Histological alterations were found in 37.5% of eleutheroembryos exposed to 4000 μg PrP/L. Morphometric analysis of the gallbladder revealed significant dilation at ≥400 μg/L throughout embryo development. Ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD), as indicator of cytochrome P4501A activity, didn't reveal induction/inhibition although its combination with a P4501A agonist (i.e. β-naphthoflavone) resulted in a synergic EROD response. Results suggest a low toxicity of PrP for fish and support the use of fish embryos and eleutheroembryos as alternatives of in vivo biomarkers indicative of exposure/toxicity. -- Highlights: • Addressing pre- and post-hatch effects from medaka embryo exposure to propylparaben. • Macroscopical effects (length, mortality) seen primarily after hatch at ≥400 μg/L. • Synergic EROD embryonic response when propylparaben combined with a CYP1A agonist. • Significant gallbladder dilation seen at ≥400 μg PrP/L and as soon as discernible. • Histological harm to eleutheroembryos in peritoneal cavity, liver, kidney and brain. -- PrP resulted in low toxicity based on non-invasive biomarkers and histological tools to analyze pre- and post-hatch effects after medaka embryo exposure

  12. Technical evaluation of RETS-required reports for the Edwin I. Hatch Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, T.E.; Magleby, E.H.

    1985-01-01

    A review of the reports required by federal regulations and the plant-specific Radiological Effluent Technical Specifications (RETS) for operations conducted during 1983 was performed. The periodic reports reviewed for the Edwin I. Hatch Nuclear Plant were the Annual Radiological Environmental Operating Report for 1983 and the Semiannual Radioactive Effluent Release Reports for 1983. The principal review guidelines were the plant's specific RETS, NUREG-0133, ''Preparation of Radiological Effluent Technical Specifications for Nuclear Power Plants'', and NRC Guidance on the Review of the Process Control Programs. The Licensee's submitted reports were found to be reasonably complete and consistent with the review guidelines. 7 refs

  13. Studies on improving ostrich egg hatch ability and its relation with some factors affecting embryonic development during artificial incubation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amer, N.S.I.

    2012-01-01

    The present study was carried out in co-operation between the Ostrich Production Farm, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo, Egypt and the Faculty of Agriculture, AL-Azhar University, Nasr City, Cairo, Egypt. Ostrich eggs were obtained from Resk Company for Ostrich Production and set for incubation at ElShfie Farm, Belbas, Sharkia, Egypt. The objectives are:1- To follow up changes in some vital physiological parameters and blood components associated with ostrich embryonic development during incubation and to provide reference blood biochemical baseline values for future studies of avian species and to document novel information on some normal changes associated with growth of the developing ostrich embryo during the incubation, as no similar and complete data could be found on this aspect in the literature. 2- In an effort to improve the hatch ability and hatching performance of ostrich eggs by testing the effect of in ovo injection of several nutrients. Two trials were carried out: 1-First trial To follow up changes in some vital physiological parameters and blood components associated with ostrich embryonic development during incubation. A total number of 60 ostrich eggs weighed between 1300 and 1500 g were obtained from from Resk Company for Ostrich Production. Eggs were collected weekly in patches of 25 eggs and Egg incubation was performed in ElShfie Farm, Belbas, Egypt. Egg weight and egg weight loss during incubation were determined on each eggs.2- Second Trial In vivo injection In an effort to improve the hatch ability and hatching performance of ostrich eggs by testing the effect of in ovo injection of several nutrients. A total of 100 fertile ostrich eggs weighed between 1300 and 1500 g were obtained from from Resk Company for Ostrich Production. Eggs were collected weekly in patches of 25 eggs and egg incubation was performed in ElShfie Farm, Belbas, Egypt. Eggs were injected at the 7 th day of incubation to deposit test material in

  14. InGaAs Quantum Dots on Cross-Hatch Patterns as a Host for Diluted Magnetic Semiconductor Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teeravat Limwongse

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Storage density on magnetic medium is increasing at an exponential rate. The magnetic region that stores one bit of information is correspondingly decreasing in size and will ultimately reach quantum dimensions. Magnetic quantum dots (QDs can be grown using semiconductor as a host and magnetic constituents added to give them magnetic properties. Our results show how molecular beam epitaxy and, particularly, lattice-mismatched heteroepitaxy can be used to form laterally aligned, high-density semiconducting host in a single growth run without any use of lithography or etching. Representative results of how semiconductor QD hosts arrange themselves on various stripes and cross-hatch patterns are reported.

  15. Effect of post-hatch transportation duration and parental age on broiler chicken quality, welfare, and productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Leonie; Delezie, Evelyne; Duchateau, Luc; Goethals, Klara; Ampe, Bart; Lambrecht, Evelien; Gellynck, Xavier; Tuyttens, Frank A M

    2016-09-01

    Broiler chicks are transported to production sites within one to 2 d post-hatch. Possible effects of this transportation are poorly understood and could vary among chicks from breeder flocks of different ages. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of transportation duration and parental flock age on chick welfare, productivity, and quality. After hatch in a commercial hatchery, 1,620 mixed-sex chicks from 29-wk old (young) and 1,620 chicks from 60-wk old (old) breeders were subjected to transportation of 1.5 h or 11 h duration. After transportation, 2,800 chicks were divided among 100 pens, with each pen containing 28 chicks from one transportation crate (2 or 3 pens per crate). From the remaining chicks, on average 6 chicks (min 4, max 8) per crate (n = 228) were randomly selected and assessed for chick quality, weighed, and culled for yolk sac weighing (one d). Chicks that had not been assigned to pens or were not used for post-transportation measurements, were removed from the experiment (n = 212). Mortality, ADG, BW, and feed conversion ( FC: ) of the experimental chicks were recorded until 41 d. Meat quality was measured for breast fillets (n = 47). No interaction effect of parental age and transportation duration was found for any variables. BW and yolk sac weight at one d were lower for chicks transported 11 h than 1.5 h and for chicks from young versus old breeders. The effect of parental flock age on BW persisted until slaughter. Additionally, parental age positively affected ADG until slaughter. Chick quality was lower in chicks from old versus young breeders. Chick quality and productivity were not affected by transportation duration. Mortality and meat quality were not affected by either parental age or transportation duration. To conclude, no long-term detrimental effects were found from long post-hatch transportation in chicks from young or old parent flocks. Based on these results, we suggest that 11 h post-hatch

  16. Effect of electron irradiation in hatching eggs experimentally inoculated with salmonella enteriditis, on hatch ability and broiler performance; Efecto de la irradiacion con electrones en huevos fertiles inoculados experimentalmente con salmonella enteriditis sobre la incubabilidad y desarrollo productivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castaneda S, M P

    1996-12-31

    The effect of four doses of electrons irradaition on bacteriologic population in hatching egg following experimental shell contamination with Salmonella enteriditis phage type 13 was investigated. Fresh, whole, intact raw eggs were inoculated with 10{sup 9} Colony-Forming Units of Salmonella enteriditis, eggs were irradiated with a beam electron source at either: 0.5, 1, 2 and 3 KGy. The bacteriologic evaluation was made with Gentry`s and Williams` technic. After the irradiation the groups were taken to commercial hatchery and were incubated in satndards conditions. The bacteriologic evaluation of the shell showed a significant 2.8 log reduction on the group of eggs that were irradiated with 1 KGy as compared with 0.5 KGy doses group and control group (P<0.05). A negative correlation (r=-0.93) between irradiation doses and CFU (P<0.05) was also observed. Bacteriologic evaluation of the internal shell membrane exhibited a highly significant inactivation (P<0.01) of S. enteriditis of 100% in the group of eggs irradiated at 2 and 3 kGy. A high negative correlation (r=-0.90) between irradiation doses and samples of internal structures (P<0.05) was observed. The results obtained suggested that the electrons irradiation may be use like a control system of salmonelosis on egg and like desinfection system on hatching eggs because it did not cause any effect on hatchability and broiler performance. (Author).

  17. Interannual differences in growth and hatch-date distributions of early juvenile European anchovy in the Bay of Biscay: implications for recruitment

    KAUST Repository

    Aldanondo, Naroa

    2016-01-22

    © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd. In order to understand better the recruitment variability in European anchovy in the Bay of Biscay, it is important to investigate the processes that affect survival during the early life stages. Anchovy juvenile growth trajectories and hatch-date distributions were inferred over a 3-year period based on otolith microstructure analysis. Otolith growth trajectories showed a characteristic shape depending on their hatch-date timing. Earlier-born juveniles had notably broader maximum increments than later born conspecifics, resulting in higher growth rates. This observation suggests that early hatching would be beneficial for larval and juvenile growth, and, therefore, survival. The estimated juvenile hatch-date distributions were relatively narrow compared with the extended anchovy spawning season (March-August) in the Bay of Biscay and indicated that only individuals originated mainly from the summer months (June-August) survived until autumn. Hatch-date distributions were markedly different among years and seemed to influence the interannual recruitment strength of anchovy. We conclude that years characterized by juvenile survivors originating from the peak spawning period (May and June) would lead to considerable recruitment success. Downwelling events during the peak spawning period seem to affect larval survival.

  18. Olive Ridley Sea Turtle Hatching Success as a Function of Microbial Abundance and the Microenvironment of In Situ Nest Sand at Ostional, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa S. Bézy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sea turtle hatching success at mass nesting beaches is typically lower than at solitary nesting beaches, presumably due in part to high rates of microbial metabolism resulting from the large input of organic matter from turtle eggs. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that hatching success varies across areas of the beach in conjunction with differences in the physical nest environment and microbial abundance of in situ olive ridley sea turtle nests at Ostional, Costa Rica. We marked natural nests in high-density, low-density, and tidal-wash nesting areas of the beach and monitored clutch pO2 and temperature throughout the incubation period. We quantified hatching success and collected samples of nest sand during nest excavations. We quantified microbial abundance (bacteria and fungi with a quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR analysis. Hatching success was lower in nests with lower pO2, higher temperatures, higher organic matter content, and higher microbial abundance. Our results suggest that the lower oxygen within the nest environment is likely a result of the high microbial abundance and rates of decomposition in the nest sand and that these factors, along with increased temperature of clutches in the high-density nesting area, are collectively responsible for the low hatching success at Ostional.

  19. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of ZHE1, a hatching enzyme from the zebrafish Danio rerio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, Akitoshi; Nagata, Koji; Sano, Kaori; Yasumasu, Shigeki; Kubota, Keiko; Ohtsuka, Jun; Iuchi, Ichiro; Tanokura, Masaru

    2009-01-01

    The hatching enzyme of zebrafish, ZHE1, was expressed, purified and crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystal belonged to space group P2 1 2 1 2 1 and diffracted X-rays to a resolution of 1.14 Å. The hatching enzyme of the zebrafish, ZHE1 (29.3 kDa), is a zinc metalloprotease that catalyzes digestion of the egg envelope (chorion). ZHE1 was heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli, purified and crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method using PEG 3350 as the precipitant. Two diffraction data sets with resolution ranges 50.0–1.80 and 50.0–1.14 Å were independently collected from two crystals and were merged to give a highly complete data set over the full resolution range 50.0–1.14 Å. The space group was assigned as primitive orthorhombic P2 1 2 1 2 1 , with unit-cell parameters a = 32.9, b = 62.5, c = 87.4 Å. The crystal contained one ZHE1 molecule in the asymmetric unit

  20. Maternal thyroid hormones enhance hatching success but decrease nestling body mass in the rock pigeon (Columba livia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Bin-Yan; Dijkstra, Cor; Darras, Veerle M; de Vries, Bonnie; Groothuis, Ton G G

    2017-01-01

    Thyroid hormones (THs) - triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) - are essential for embryonic development in vertebrates. All vertebrate embryos are exposed to THs from maternal origin. As maternal TH levels are known to be essential to embryonic development, the natural variation of maternal THs probably represents a pathway of maternal effects that can modify offspring phenotype. However, potential fitness consequences of variation of maternal TH exposure within the normal physiological range and without confounding effects of the mother have never been experimentally investigated. We experimentally manipulated the levels of yolk T3 and T4 within the physiological range in a species in which the embryo develops outside the mother's body, the Rock Pigeon (Columba livia) eggs. Making use of the natural difference of yolk testosterone between the two eggs of pigeon clutches, we were also able to investigate the potential interaction between THs and testosterone. Elevated yolk TH levels enhanced embryonic development and hatching success, and reduced body mass but not tarsus length between day 14 and fledging. The yolk hormones increased plasma T4 concentrations in females but reduced it in males, in line with the effect on metabolic rate at hatching. Plasma concentrations of T3 and testosterone were not significantly affected. The effects of treatment did not differ between eggs with high or low testosterone levels. Our data indicate that natural variation in maternal yolk TH levels affects offspring phenotype and embryonic survival, potentially influencing maternal and chick fitness. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Antimicrobial resistance of Escherichia coli isolated in newly-hatched chickens and effect of amoxicillin treatment during their growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Belenguer, Ana; Doménech, Eva; Villagrá, Arantxa; Fenollar, Alejandro; Ferrús, Maria Antonia

    2016-08-01

    The use of antimicrobials in food animals is the major determinant for the propagation of resistant bacteria in the animal reservoir. However, other factors may also play a part, and in particular vertical spread between the generations has been suggested to be an important transmission pathway. The objective of this paper was to determine the resistance patterns of Escherichia coli isolated from newly-hatched chickens as well as to study the antibiotic pressure effect when amoxicillin was administered during their growing period. With this aim, meconium from 22 one-day-old Ross chickens was analysed. In addition, during their growth period, amoxicillin treatments at days 7, 21 and 35 were carried out. Results showed a high number of E. coli-resistant strains were isolated from the treated one-day-old chickens, and were the highest for β-lactams group, followed by quinolone and tetracyclines. After treatment with amoxicillin, the highest percentage of resistances were detected for this antibiotic compared to the others analysed, with significant differences in resistance percentages between control and treated broilers detected in relation to ampicillin, cephalothin, streptomycin, kanamycin, gentamicin, chloramphenicol and tetracycline. Differences in resistances to ciprofloxacin and nalidixic acid between control and treated animals were not observed and there was lack of resistance for amikacin and ceftriaxone. These results suggest the possibility of vertical transmission of resistant strains to newly-hatched chicks from parent flocks, and seem to indicate that the treatment with amoxicillin increased the resistance of E. coli to other antibiotics.

  2. Influence of natural inshore and offshore thermal regimes on egg development and time of hatch in American lobsters, Homarus americanus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Jason S; Watson, Winsor H

    2015-02-01

    Some egg-bearing (ovigerous) American lobsters (Homarus americanus) make seasonal inshore-to-offshore movements, subjecting their eggs to different thermal regimes than those of eggs carried by lobsters that do not make these movements. Our goal was to determine if differences in thermal regimes influence the rate of egg development and the subsequent time of hatch. We subjected ovigerous lobsters to typical inshore or offshore water temperatures from September to August in the laboratory (n=8 inshore and 8 offshore, each year) and in the field (n=8 each, inshore and offshore), over 2 successive years. Although the rate of egg development did not differ significantly between treatments in the fall (P∼0.570), eggs exposed to inshore thermal regimes developed faster in the spring (Plobsters exposed to offshore thermal regimes accumulated more GDD in the winter than did eggs carried by inshore lobsters, while eggs exposed to inshore temperatures acquired them more rapidly in the spring. Results suggest that seasonal movements of ovigerous lobsters influence the time and location of hatching, and thus the transport and recruitment of larvae to coastal and offshore locations. © 2015 Marine Biological Laboratory.

  3. From facultative to obligatory parental care: Interspecific variation in offspring dependency on post-hatching care in burying beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capodeanu-Nägler, Alexandra; Keppner, Eva M.; Vogel, Heiko; Ayasse, Manfred; Eggert, Anne-Katrin; Sakaluk, Scott K.; Steiger, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Studies on the evolution of parental care have focused primarily on the costs and benefits of parental care and the life-history attributes that favour it. However, once care evolves, offspring in some taxa appear to become increasingly dependent on their parents. Although offspring dependency is a central theme in family life, the evolutionary dynamics leading to it are not fully understood. Beetles of the genus Nicrophorus are well known for their elaborate biparental care, including provisioning of their young. By manipulating the occurrence of pre- or post-hatching care, we show that the offspring of three burying beetle species, N. orbicollis, N. pustulatus, and N. vespilloides, show striking variation in their reliance on parental care. Our results demonstrate that this variation within one genus arises through a differential dependency of larvae on parental feeding, but not on pre-hatching care. In N. pustulatus, larvae appear to be nutritionally independent of their parents, but in N. orbicollis, larvae do not survive in the absence of parental feeding. We consider evolutionary scenarios by which nutritional dependency may have evolved, highlighting the role of brood size regulation via infanticide in this genus. PMID:27378180

  4. Hatching delays in great tits and blue tits in response to an extreme cold spell: a long-term study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glądalski, Michał; Bańbura, Mirosława; Kaliński, Adam; Markowski, Marcin; Skwarska, Joanna; Wawrzyniak, Jarosław; Zieliński, Piotr; Bańbura, Jerzy

    2018-04-01

    Variation in ambient temperature affects various life stages of organisms. It has been suggested that climate change not only implies higher global temperatures but also more unpredictable weather and more frequent extreme weather events. Temperature has a major influence on the optimal laying-incubation-hatching dates of insectivorous passerines, because it poses energetic constraints and affects the timing of food abundance. We have been studying breeding characteristics of great tits Parus major and blue tits Cyanistes caeruleus in two areas, an urban parkland and a deciduous forest, around the city of Łódź since 2002. During the egg-laying period in 2017, both tit species at both study areas faced an unusual cold spell as reflected by a sudden decrease in the mean ambient temperature to ca. 2-3 °C for about 5 days, which caused mean hatching delays of up to 6 days. Since flexibility of behavior plays a major role in adjusting to unpredictable weather conditions, examining its limits may be an important goal for future research.

  5. Successful hatching from eggs carried by females and naturally removed from incubant males in Belostoma spp. water bugs (Heteroptera: Belostomatidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lía Estévez

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Within Belostomatinae water bug species (Heteroptera, Belostomatidae it has been hitherto believed that the completion of embryonic development is successful only if eggs are incubated on male hemelytra. Nevertheless, we found egg successful hatching from a back- brooding Belostoma elegans (Mayr and B. micantulum (Stål females, as well as from fertilized eggs kicked off from four back-brooder B. elegans males. One "encumbered" B. elongatum Montandon female was also recorded, but eggs did not hatch after she removed them. Rev. Biol. Trop. 54(2: 515-517. Epub 2006 Jun 01.Se considera que el desarrollo embrionario y la emergencia de las ninfas de las especies de Belostomatinae (Heteroptera, Belostomatidae se cumplen con éxito si los huevos son incubados sobre el espacio dorsal de machos adultos. No obstante, hemos registrado eclosiones exitosas a partir de dos hembras grávidas portando huevos sobre su dorso; una de ellas de la especie Belostoma elegans (Mayr, la otra de B. micantulum (Stål. Se registra la eclosión de huevos, previamente removidos del área de postura por los propios machos incubantes de B. elegans (N=4 y la presencia de una hembra de B. elongatum Montandon, portando huevos sobre sus hemiélitros, los cuales no eclosionaron después de haber sido removidos por la propia hembra.

  6. Effect of Low Dose Gamma Radiation Upon Phosphatase Activity in Blood Plasma of Chicken Hatched from Eggs Irradiated on the Seventh Day of Incubation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraljevic, P.; Vilic, M.; Miljanic, S.; Simpraga, M.

    2008-01-01

    In our earlier studies chickens hatched from eggs irradiated with 0.15 Gy gamma rays before incubation showed a significantly higher growth than controls during the fattening period (1-42 days). The activity of aspartate-aminotransferase (AST), alanine-aminotransferase (ALT), acid phosphatase (ACP) and plasma glucose in the same chickens were also significantly higher. These results suggested that low-dose gamma-radiation stimulated certain metabolic processes in chickens hatched from eggs irradiated before incubation. Investigating the effect of low dose gamma radiation upon transferases activity in blood plasma of chickens hatched from eggs irradiated on the 7th day of incubation, i.e. in the time when organogenesis is completely finished, we found that on day 10, AST and ALT activity was significantly higher in the blood plasma of those chickens, whereas it significantly dropped for both enzymes on day 20. This time the goal of study was to determine the effect of low-dose gamma radiation on ACP and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in the blood plasma of chickens hatched from eggs irradiated on the 7th day of incubation. The eggs of heavy breeding chickens (Avian, line 34) were exposed to 0.15 Gy of gamma radiation (60Co) on the seventh day of incubation. The control group included chickens hatched from non-irradiated eggs. All other conditions were the same for both groups. After hatching, blood samples were taken from the wing vein on days 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, 20, 32 and 42. The activity of both enzymes was determined spectrophotometrically using Boehringer Mannheim GmbH optimised kits. ACP activity was significantly lower in the blood plasma of chickens hatched from irradiated eggs on day 3 (P<0,01), 5 (P<0,05) and 10 (P<0,05). Throughout the experimental period ALP activity did not statistically significantly change. Our results indicate that exposure of eggs to low-dose gamma radiation on the seventh day of incubation reduces ACP activity in the blood plasma

  7. Exposure to waterborne Cu inhibits cutaneous Na⁺ uptake in post-hatch larval rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, Alex M; Brauner, Colin J; Wood, Chris M

    2014-05-01

    In freshwater rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), two common responses to acute waterborne copper (Cu) exposure are reductions in ammonia excretion and Na(+) uptake at the gills, with the latter representing the likely lethal mechanism of action for Cu in adult fish. Larval fish, however, lack a functional gill following hatch and rely predominantly on cutaneous exchange, yet represent the most Cu-sensitive life stage. It is not known if Cu toxicity in larval fish occurs via the skin or gills. The present study utilized divided chambers to assess cutaneous and branchial Cu toxicity over larval development, using disruptions in ammonia excretion (Jamm) and Na(+) uptake (Jin(Na)) as toxicological endpoints. Early in development (early; 3 days post-hatch; dph), approximately 95% of Jamm and 78% of Jin(Na) occurred cutaneously, while in the late developmental stage (late; 25 dph), the gills were the dominant site of exchange (83 and 87% of Jamm and Jin(Na), respectively). Exposure to 50 μg/l Cu led to a 49% inhibition of Jamm in the late developmental stage only, while in the early and middle developmental (mid; 17 dph) stages, Cu had no effect on Jamm. Jin(Na), however, was significantly inhibited by Cu exposure at the early (53% reduction) and late (47% reduction) stages. Inhibition at the early stage of development was mediated by a reduction in cutaneous uptake, representing the first evidence of cutaneous metal toxicity in an intact aquatic organism. The inhibitions of both Jamm and Jin(Na) in the late developmental stage occurred via a reduction in branchial exchange only. The differential responses of the skin and gills to Cu exposure suggest that the mechanisms of Jamm and Jin(Na) and/or Cu toxicity differ between these tissues. Exposure to 20μg/l Cu revealed that Jamm is the more Cu-sensitive process. The results presented here have important implications in predicting metal toxicity in larval fish. The Biotic Ligand Model (BLM) is currently used to predict

  8. MicroXRF tomographic visualization of zinc and iron in the zebrafish embryo at the onset of the hatching period

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourassa, Daisy; Gleber, Sophie-Charlotte; Vogt, Stefan; Shin, Chong Hyun; Fahrni, Christoph J.

    2016-01-01

    Transition metals such as zinc, copper, and iron play key roles in cellular proliferation, cell differentiation, growth, and development. Over the past decade, advances in synchrotron X-ray fluorescence instrumentation presented new opportunities for the three-dimensional mapping of trace metal distributions within intact specimens. Taking advantage of microXRF tomography, we visualized the 3D distribution of zinc and iron in a zebrafish embryo at the onset of the hatching period. The reconstructed volumetric data revealed distinct differences in the elemental distributions, with zinc predominantly localized to the yolk and yolk extension, and iron to various regions of the brain as well as the myotome extending along the dorsal side of the embryo. The data set complements an earlier tomographic study of an embryo at the pharyngula stage (24 hpf), thus offering new insights into the trace metal distribution at key stages of embryonic development.

  9. Influence of post hatch dietary supplementation of fat on performance, carcass cuts and biochemical profile in Ven Cobb broiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komal Prasad Rai

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present experiment was conducted to study the effect of post hatch dietary fat supplementation on performance of broiler chicken. Materials and Methods: A total of 120 day-old Ven Cobb broiler chicks were randomly assigned to 4 treatment groups of 30 chicks in each (three replicates of 10 birds/treatment. The trial lasted for 35 days. The experimental design was a completely randomized design. Four types of diet were formulated for 1st week: T1, T2, T3 and T4 contained control diet with no added fat, 2.5, 5 and 7.5% fat, respectively. After 1st week post-hatch period chicks were fed ad libitum with the normal basal diet as per Bureau of Indian Standard recommendations till completion of the experiment (8-35 days. Results: Significantly higher (p<0.05 body weight and improved feed conversion ratio (FCR was recorded in birds fed 5% dietary fat at the end of the experiment whereas, feed intake was not significantly affected. Significantly (p<0.05 higher dressed weight was observed due to 5% fat supplementation than other groups whereas, it was not significant for other carcass cuts. No significant differences were observed in moisture, protein and lipid content of breast and thigh muscle of broiler due to supplemented fat whereas, 2.5% dietary fat significantly (p<0.05 increase the serum HI titer on day 28th. In biochemical profile, higher serum albumin (g/dl was recorded due to 5% fat supplementation whereas other biochemical components did not show any significance difference among treatments. Conclusion: It may be concluded that supplementation of fat in broilers diet improves the overall FCR, dressing percentage and gain more body weight.

  10. Linking sex differences in corticosterone with individual reproductive behaviour and hatch success in two species of uniparental shorebirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Darryl B; Chin, Eunice H; Burness, Gary; Gilchrist, H Grant; Schulte-Hostedde, Albrecht I

    2013-09-01

    In birds, corticosterone (CORT) appears to facilitate reproductive activity because baseline and stress-induced CORT levels are elevated in breeding individuals compared with other times of the year. In particular, CORT is lower in the sex providing most of the parental care (i.e., incubation), which could be an important adaptation to tolerate stressors that result in abandoning reproduction. Therefore, one explanation for sex differences in CORT is that lower levels are favoured during the incubation/parental phase of reproduction. Using two species of uniparental shorebird - polyandrous red phalaropes (Phalaropus fulicarius) and polygynous white-rumped sandpipers (Calidris fuscicollis) - we predicted that the incubating sex would have lower baseline and stress-induced CORT, and incubating individuals with lower CORT would more effectively defend nests against a simulated intrusion, would return more quickly afterwards, and would ultimately have higher hatch success. We found that phalaropes followed the predicted pattern: incubating individuals (males) had lower baseline and stress-induced CORT than females but for baseline CORT these differences existed prior to males commencing incubation. Incubating male phalaropes with lower baseline and stress-induced CORT returned to incubate more quickly after a disturbance and there was non-significant tendency for baseline CORT to be lower in successful nests. In sandpipers, we observed no sex differences and no significant relationships between individual CORT levels and nest defence behaviours or hatch success. Our results demonstrate that in phalaropes at least, selection favours lower baseline and stress-induced CORT during the nesting period. These results can explain sex differences in stress-induced levels of CORT, however sex differences in baseline CORT were present prior to incubation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The effect of egg versus seston quality on hatching success, naupliar metabolism and survival of Calanus finmarchicus in mesocosms dominated by Phaeocystis and diatoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koski, Marja; Yebra, L.; Dutz, Jörg

    2012-01-01

    We studied the effect of a developing Skeletonema marinoi/Phaeocystis spp. bloom on Calanus finmarchicus hatching success, early naupliar survival and metabolism. Our focus was (1) on the development of reproductive rates during a bloom initiation, peak and decline in relation to the production o...

  12. Effects of in ovo injection of organic trace minerals and post-hatch holding time on broiler performance and bone characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effects of the in ovo injection of organic Mn, Zn, and Cu in association with post-hatch (POH) feed and water restriction on the performance and physical-chemical bone parameters of male Ross × Ross 708 broilers were examined. On 17 d of incubation, a total of 1,872 eggs were subjected to in ovo inj...

  13. License renewal - an idea whose time has come. Hatch nuclear plant license renewal program: an actual example of application of the license renewal rule to the Intake Structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandiwala, F.; Evans, W.P.

    1999-01-01

    After the NRC issued a revised license renewal rule in May 1995, the nuclear industry focussed on developing generic industry for implementing the rule and testing the guidance through various demonstration programs and work products in conjunction with the NRC. In addition, plant-specific programs also proceeded forward. These activities show that implementation issues continue to exist. Since the issuance of the rule, the NRC has issued a draft standard review plan for license renewal (SRP-LR), working draft, September 1997. Southern Nuclear Operating Company (SNC) has begun development work on a license renewal application for Plant Hatch Units 1 and 2. Plant Hatch Units 1 and 2 are BWR 4, Mark I plants whose operating licenses expire in 2014 and 2018, respectively. The Plant Hatch initiative also involves teaming with other boiling water reactors (BWRs) to develop the license renewal technology within the BWR fleet, and to support Plant Hatch by providing an oversight role for the application process. The teaming effort involved two other utilities, each being assigned to prepare a common report on a mechanical system or a structure. The common report could be presented to the NRC with modifications to suit the individual plants, thereby saving time and money, and hopefully resulting in quicker approval by the NRC. The desired license renewal process end result is a renewed license with up to a 20 year extension (10CFR 54.31(b)). (orig.)

  14. A meta-analysis of effects of post-hatch food and water deprivation on development, performance and welfare of chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de I.C.; Riel, van J.W.; Bracke, M.B.M.; Brand, van den H.

    2017-01-01

    A ‘meta-analysis’ was performed to determine effects of post-hatch food and water deprivation (PHFWD) on chicken development, performance and welfare (including health). Two types of meta-analysis were performed on peer-reviewed scientific publications: a quantitative ‘meta-analysis’ (MA) and a

  15. Shell Properties, Water Vapor Loss, and Hatching Success of Eggs from a Rain Forest Population of the Pearly-eyed Thrasher (Margarops fuscatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    WAYNE J. ARENDT

    2005-01-01

    I calculated various shell properties, water vapor loss, and hatching success of eggs of the Pearly-eyed Thrasher (Margarops fuscatus) using measurements obtained during a long-term study in the Luquillo Mountains, Puerto Rico. Empirical results were comparable to standard reference formulae, demonstrating that published formulae can be used with confidence by field...

  16. No maternal or direct effects of ocean acidification on egg hatching in the Arctic copepod Calanus glacialis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thor, Peter; Vermandele, Fanny; Carignan, Marie-Helene; Jacque, Sarah; Calosi, Piero

    2018-01-01

    Widespread ocean acidification (OA) is transforming the chemistry of the global ocean and the Arctic is recognised as the region where this transformation will occur at the fastest rate. Moreover, many Arctic species are considered less capable of tolerating OA due to their lower capacity for acid-base regulation. This inability may put severe restraints on many fundamental functions, such as growth and reproductive investments, which ultimately may result in reduced fitness. However, maternal effects may alleviate severe effects on the offspring rendering them more tolerant to OA. In a highly replicated experiment we studied maternal and direct effects of OA predicted for the Arctic shelf seas on egg hatching time and success in the keystone copepod species Calanus glacialis. We incubated females at present day conditions (pHT 8.0) and year 2100 extreme conditions (pHT 7.5) during oogenesis and subsequently reciprocally transplanted laid eggs between these two conditions. Statistical tests showed no effects of maternal or direct exposure to OA at this level. We hypothesise that C. glacialis may be physiologically adapted to egg production at low pH since oogenesis can also take place at conditions of potentially low haemolymph pH of the mother during hibernation in the deep.

  17. Productive Performance of Broiler after Pre and /or Post-hatching Injection of Thyroid and Growth Hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamal, M.H.; El-Gendi, G.M.

    2003-01-01

    A total number of 1340 eggs from Arbor Acres parent breed were used in this study. Eggs were divided into two division according to the incubation relative humidity (48% and 52%). Eggs of each division were than subdivided into ten groups, eggs of 1 st , 2 nd and 3 rd groups were injected with 0.05, 0.10 and 0.15μg eltroxin, respectively, those of the 4 th , 5 th and 6 th groups were injected with 0.05, 0.10 and 0.15 mg Carbimazole, respectively, while eggs of the 7 th , 8 th and 9 th groups were injected with 0.005, 0.02 and 0.04 I.U. growth hormone, respectively. Eggs of the 10 th group were injected with distilled water and used as control group. Each group was divided into two divisions, eggs of the first division were injected just before incubation (into the air cell) and those of the second division were injected at the 9 th day of incubation period (into the embryonic allantoic cavity). A total number of 960 hatched chicks were randomly selected (24 chicks of cach group), wing banded, individually weighted, vaccinated and standard conditions of management, environment, hygiene and nutrition

  18. Performance of Chicks Submitted to Fasting Post-Hatching and with Maltodextrine Supplementing to Diet as Hydrating and Energetic Additive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CA Machado

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to evaluate the effect of maltodextrin on performance of chicks passed through four fasting periods. A completely randomized design was performed, consisting of three treatments (1 - control, 2 - 4% saccharose; 3-4% maltodextrin 20 and four fasting periods after hatching (0, 12, 24 and 36 hours with four replications, totaling 1920 birds of both sexes. The studied variables were: water intake in the first 12 hours, average food intake, average body weight and real feed conversion. Data was submitted to analysis of variance and means were compared with each other by Dunnett test at 5% significance. The use of additives and imposing of different fasting periods did not influence the performance at 42 days old. Therefore, fasted chicks consumed significantly more water. At 7 days old, chicks fasted showed higher body weight and higher feed intake, however, the viability did not suffer any influence, the weight remained higher after 21days with the fast imposition and there was no influence on other variables. There was no effect of fasting on broiler chiken's performance at 42 days old. The inclusion of sucrose and maltodextrin to drinking water stimulated the chick´s water intake and provided higher viability after seven days old.

  19. Egg production and hatching success of Paracartia grani (Copepoda, Calanoida, Acartiidae) in two hypersaline ponds of a Tunisian Solar Saltern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annabi-Trabelsi, Neila; Rebai, Rayda Kobbi; Ali, Mohammad; Subrahmanyam, M. N. V.; Belmonte, Genuario; Ayadi, Habib

    2018-04-01

    Reproductive traits of Paracartia grani [percentage of spawning females, egg production rate (EPR), and hatching success (HS)] were investigated for the first time at high salinities (39-121 psu) to examine the impact of such a particular situation. The study was done in two hypersaline ponds [A1 (39-46 psu) and C31 (70-121 psu)] in Sfax Solar Saltern, central-eastern coast of Tunisia. These ponds also differed in terms of the composition and concentrations of nutritional parameters. The EPR differed significantly between the ponds (ANOVA, F = 29.45, p eggs female- 1 day- 1 (7 December 2009) and 14 ± 1 eggs female- 1 day- 1 (19 January 2010) with an average of 13.3 ± 0.44 eggs female- 1 day- 1. HS after 48 h of incubation were significantly higher than those after 24 h. The mean values of HS after 48 h were 42.72 ± 2.58% at pond A1 and 41.67 ± 3.92% at pond C31. The two peaks of HS (after 48 h) were observed at 15 °C in pond A1 (21 December 2009, 45.18% nauplii eggs- 1) and in C31 (4 January 2010, 48.78%) at the same temperature. This study confirms that a broad salinity tolerance allows P. grani to settle itself in environments, which are normally hostile to the development of other Acartiidae.

  20. Physical, Chemical, Ecological, and Age Data and Trench Logs from Surficial Deposits at Hatch Point, Southeastern Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Harland L.; Miller, Mark E.; Yount, James C.; Reheis, Marith C.; Reynolds, Richard L.; Belnap, Jayne; Lamothe, Paul J.; McGeehan, John P.

    2009-01-01

    This report presents data and describes the methodology for physical, chemical and ecological measurements of sediment, soil, and vegetation, as well as age determinations of surficial deposits at Hatch Point, Canyon Rims area, Colorado Plateau, southeastern Utah. The results presented in this report support a study that examines geomorphic and soil factors that may influence boundaries between shrubland and grassland ecosystems in the study area. Shrubland ecosystems dominated by sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) and grassland ecosystems dominated by native perennial grasses (for example, Hilaria jamesii and Sporabolis sp.) are high-priority conservation targets for the Federal Bureau of Land Management (BLM) and other resource managers because of their diversity, productivity, and vital importance as wildlife habitat. These ecosystems have been recognized as imperiled on a regional scale since at least the mid-1990s due to habitat loss (type conversions), land-use practices, and invasive exotic plants. In the Intermountain West, the exotic annual cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) is recognized as one of the most pervasive and serious threats to the health of native sagebrush and grassland ecosystems through effects on fire regimes and resource conditions experienced by native species.

  1. The First Zoeal Stages of Parapanope euagora and Halimede fragifer (Decapoda: Pilumnoidea: Galenidae Hatched in the Laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee, Seok Hyun

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The first zoeas of Parapanope euagora and Halimede fragifer hatched in the laboratory from two ovigerous galenid crabs of Pilumnoidea were collected from Jindo Island, Jeolanam-do, southern Korea. Their morphologies are described in P. euagora for the first time in the world and re-described in H. fragifer with the color images of live zoeas. In this study, they show a general morphology of Pilumnoidea by having a long antennal exopod, an endopod of the maxillule with 1, 2+4 setae, an endopod of the maxilla with 3+5 setae, and a fork of the telson with two lateral armatures. However, the first zoea of P. euagora differs from other known zoeas of pilumnoid species including H. fragifer by having a long antennal exopod with a medial seta and spine, not two spines, and a fork of telson with two lateral setae, not a seta and spine. Such characteristics of the antennal exopod and the fork of telson are reported for the first time in the pilumnoid zoeas. A comparison between the first zoeal stage of H. fragifer in this study and that of Terada shows minute differences in the characteristics of the antennule and the fork of telson.

  2. First evidence of dinosaurian secondary cartilage in the post-hatching skull of Hypacrosaurus stebingeri (Dinosauria, Ornithischia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alida M Bailleul

    Full Text Available Bone and calcified cartilage can be fossilized and preserved for hundreds of millions of years. While primary cartilage is fairly well studied in extant and fossilized organisms, nothing is known about secondary cartilage in fossils. In extant birds, secondary cartilage arises after bone formation during embryonic life at articulations, sutures and muscular attachments in order to accommodate mechanical stress. Considering the phylogenetic inclusion of birds within the Dinosauria, we hypothesized a dinosaurian origin for this "avian" tissue. Therefore, histological thin sectioning was used to investigate secondary chondrogenesis in disarticulated craniofacial elements of several post-hatching specimens of the non-avian dinosaur Hypacrosaurus stebingeri (Ornithischia, Lambeosaurinae. Secondary cartilage was found on three membrane bones directly involved with masticatory function: (1 as nodules on the dorso-caudal face of a surangular; and (2 on the bucco-caudal face of a maxilla; and (3 between teeth as islets in the alveolar processes of a dentary. Secondary chondrogenesis at these sites is consistent with the locations of secondary cartilage in extant birds and with the induction of the cartilage by different mechanical factors - stress generated by the articulation of the quadrate, stress of a ligamentous or muscular insertion, and stress of tooth formation. Thus, our study reveals the first evidence of "avian" secondary cartilage in a non-avian dinosaur. It pushes the origin of this "avian" tissue deep into dinosaurian ancestry, suggesting the creation of the more appropriate term "dinosaurian" secondary cartilage.

  3. Acute toxicity of water soluble fraction of petroleum, diesel and gasoline for newly hatched larvae of marine pejerrey Odontesthes Argentinensis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, Ricardo V.; Miranda-Filho, Kleber C.; Gusmao, Emeline P.; Moreira, Caue B.; Santos, Renato A.; Oliveira, Marcelo G.; Sampaio, Luis Andre [Fundacao Universidade do Rio Grande (FURG), RS (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The hydrocarbons of petroleum are the main aquatic pollutants and can cause toxicity to aquatic organisms, however, only a few toxicological studies were already conducted with early life stages of fish. The aim of this work was to determine the toxicity (LC50-96h) of water soluble fraction (WSF) of petroleum, diesel and gasoline for newly hatched larvae of marine pejerrey Odontesthes argentinensis. During the experiments the concentrations tested were: to petroleum (5%, 10%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% of), to diesel (1%, 2%, 4%, 8%, 16%, 32%, e 64% of WSF) and to gasoline (1%, 2.5%, 5%, 10%, and 20% of WSF) plus a control to each pollutant. All treatments were done with 3 repetitions and 30 larvae. During the experiments the water quality were maintained at temperature 22,5 deg C, salinity 30, pH 7.95 and dissolved oxygen approximately around 4mg/L. The petroleum presented an CL50-96h equal to 70.68% (65.73 - 76.01), while the diesel and gasoline presented the toxicity values of 13.46% (10.19-17.79) and 5.48% (4.85-6.20), respectively. The results demonstrated a higher toxicity of light fuels (diesel and gasoline) compared to heavy petroleum. (author)

  4. THE EFFECT OF IMMERSION LENGTH IN PAPAYA LEAF SOLUTION (CARICA PAPAYA L. TOWARD FERTILIZATION AND HATCHING OF IRIDESCENT SHARKS (PANGASIANODON HYPOPHTHALMUS S.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eka S.H.

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Iridescent sharks is one kind of freshwater fish that is quite economical. However, the availability of the fish eggs is rather problematic due to the hatcheries, i.e. the adhesive nature of the eggs. Papaya leaves contain papain enzymes that can reduce the adhesive nature of eggs. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of papaya leaf solution with different immersion period on the successful hatching of the iridescent sharks (P. hypophthalmus. This study was conducted experimentally using a complete randomized design. There were five treatments, i.e. (K 0 seconds, (A 30 seconds, (B 60 seconds, (C 90 seconds, (D 120 seconds, and (E 150 seconds with three-time repetition. The result of this study shows that the best hatching (80.31% happens to the eggs immersed in papaya leaf solution for 60 seconds (treatment B.

  5. Comparing an in vivo egg reduction test and in vitro egg hatching assay for different anthelmintics against Fasciola species, in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arafa, Waleed M; Shokeir, Khalid M; Khateib, Abdelrahman M

    2015-11-30

    This study aimed to compare between the efficiency of in vivo fecal egg reduction test (FERT) and in vitro egg hatching assay (EHA) in evaluating of the anti-Fasciola activity of albendazole, triclabendazole, oxyclozanide and praziquantel. A field trial was carried out on fifty naturally Fasciola infected cattle that were divided equally into 5 groups (A-E). On day zero; groups A-D were drenched with albendazole, triclabendazole, oxyclozanide or praziquantel, respectively, while the remaining one, group E, was kept as untreated control. Fecal egg counts of the different groups were conducted weekly over a period of one month post-treatment. In vitro, commercial albendazole and oxyclozanide were diluted to 0.0002, 0.002, 0.02, 0.2 and 2.0 μg/ml, while commercial triclabendazole and praziquantel were diluted to concentrations of 25, 50, 75 and 100 μg/ml with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). In vivo, at the 2nd week post-treatment, triclabendazole and oxyclozanide showed 100% fecal egg reduction (FER), and albendazole had a maximum of 73.7% reduction (P egg counts. In vitro, triclabendazole treated Fasciola gigantica eggs showed early embryonic lysis with zero% hatching at the different concentrations (P egg development and hatching percentage of oxyclozanide or praziquantel treated groups. In conclusion, the efficacy of triclabendazole and albendazole as fasciolicdes could be predicted by Egg Hatching Assay (EHA). Meanwhile fasciolicide activity of oxyclozanide could not be assessed with EHA. Based on in vivo and in vitro findings, paraziquantel did not show any fasciolicide effect. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. A novel model of early development in the brine shrimp, Artemia franciscana, and its use in assessing the effects of environmental variables on development, emergence, and hatching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumeyer, Courtney H; Gerlach, Jamie L; Ruggiero, Kristin M; Covi, Joseph A

    2015-03-01

    The brine shrimp, Artemia (Crustacea, Anostraca), is a zooplankton that is commonly used in both basic and applied research. Unfortunately, Artemia embryos are often cultured under conditions that alter early development, and reports based on these cultures oversimplify or fail to describe morphological phenotypes. This is due in part to the lack of a comprehensive developmental model that is applicable to observations of live specimens. The objective of this study was to build and test a descriptive model of post-diapause development in Artemia franciscana using observations made with a standard dissecting microscope. The working model presented is the first to comprehensively place all known "abnormal" embryonic and naupliar phenotypes within the context of a classic hatching profile. Contrary to previous reports, embryos and nauplii with aberrant phenotypes often recover and develop normally. Oval prenauplii may emerge as normal prenauplii (E2 stage). A delay of this transition leads to incomplete hatching or direct hatching of first instar larvae with a curved thoracoabdomen. When hatching is incomplete, retained cuticular remnants are shed during the next molt, and a "normal" second instar larva is produced. By differentiating between molting events and gross embryonic patterning in live embryos, this new model facilitates fine time-scale analyses of chemical and environmental impacts on early development. A small increase in salinity within what is commonly believed to be a permissive range (20‰-35‰) produced aberrant morphology by delaying emergence without slowing development. A similar effect was observed by decreasing culture density within a range commonly applied in toxicological studies. These findings clearly demonstrate that morphological data from end-point studies are highly dependent on the time points chosen. An alternate assessment method is proposed, and the potential impact of heavy metals, hexachlorobenzene, Mirex, and cis

  7. EFFECT OF STORAGE TEMPERATURE PERCENTAGE OF EGG HATCHING OF AEDES AEGYPTI IN LABORATORY=PENGARUH SUHU PENYIMPANAN TERHADAP PRESENTASE TETAS TELUR Aedes aegypti DI LABORATORIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riyani Setiyaningsih

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available EnglishABSTRACTAedes aegypti is the vector of Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF in Indonesia. Ae. aegypti has a high reproductive capacity, one female mosquitoes can lay 100-150 eggs. Eggs of Ae. aegypti can survive on dry temperatures within a few months, thus increasing the chances of transmission of dengue virus The aim of the study was to determine the effect of temperature on egg hatching percentage of Ae. aegypti. Eggs Ae. aegypti colonization in laboratory results are stored at room temperature and refrigerator temperature. Observations percentage of eggs hatching was observed at month zero, one, two, third, fourth, fifth, and sixth. The results of the study until the sixth month percentage of hatching eggs at room temperature was 63,17, 59,26, 24,33, 13,62, 10, and 0%. While storage on egg hatching refrigerator not occur in the first to sixth.INDONESIANAedes aegypti merupakan vektor Demam Berdarah Dengue (DBD di Indonesia. Ae. aegypti memiliki kemampuan reproduksi yang tinggi, satu ekor nyamuk betina dapat bertelur 100-150 butir telur. Telur Ae. aegypti mampu bertahan hidup pada suhu kering dalam beberapa bulan sehingga memperbesar peluang terjadinnya proses penularan virus DBD. Tujuan penelitian adalah mengetahui pengaruh suhu dan lama penyimpanan terhadap presentase penetasan telur Ae. aegypti. Telur Ae. aegypti hasil kolonisasi di laboratorium disimpan pada suhu ruang dan suhu refrigerator. Pengamatan presentase penetasan telur diamati pada bulan ke nol, kesatu, kedua, ketiga, keempat, kelima, dan keenam. Hasil penelitian pada bulan bertama sampai keenam presentase penetasan telur pada suhu ruang adalah 63,17, 59,26, 24,33, 13,62, 10, dan 0%. Sedangkan penyimpanan pada suhu kukas tidak terjadi penetasan telur pada bulan pertama sampai keenam.

  8. Draft environmental statement: Related to operation of the Edwin I. Hatch Nuclear Plant Unit No. 2, Georgia Power Company: Docket No. 50-366

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-04-01

    The proposed action is the issuance of an operation license to the Georgia Power Company for the startup and operation of the Edwin I. Hatch Nuclear Plant, Unit No. 2 (Docket No. 50-366), located on the Altamaha River in Appling County, approximately 11 miles north from Baxley, Georgia. The information in this Statement represents the second, assessment of the environmental impact associated with the Edwin I. Hatch Nuclear Plant, Unit No. 2, pursuant to the guidelines of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) and 10 CFR Part 51 of the Commission's Regulations. After receipt of an application, in 1970, to construct this plant, the staff carried out a review of impact that would occur during the construction and operation of this plant. That evaluation was issued as a Final Environmental Statement in October 1972. As the result of that environmental review, a safety review, an evaluation by the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards, and a public hearing in Baxley, Georgia and Washington, D.C., the AEC (now NRC) issued a permit in December 1972, for the construction of Unit No. 2 of the Edwin I. Hatch Nuclear Plant. As of February 1977, the construction of Unit No. 2 was 70% complete. With a proposed fuel-loading date of April 1978 for Unit No. 2, the applicant has petitioned for license to operate Unit No. 2 and has submitted (July 1975) the required safety and environmental reports to substantiate this petition. 97 refs., 18 figs., 37 tabs

  9. An egg injection technique to evaluate the effect of polychlorinated biphenyls on the hatching success of the snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina serpentina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnars, Jeanette L; Voss, Margaret A; Stauffer, Jay R

    2011-04-01

    Embryos of oviparous organisms are exposed to contaminants by two pathways: contaminant uptake from the surrounding environment, and the transfer from female to offspring (maternal transfer). The initial source of contaminant exposure for most embryos is likely to be maternal transfer; therefore, maternal transfer studies are critical in determining the effects of contaminants on future populations. Injection of contaminants directly into eggs is one route of experimental contaminant exposure that permits controlled doses and potential reliable replication. This technique, however, has been used in the past with little success in reptiles. The objective of the present study was to evaluate egg injection as a means of mimicking maternal transfer of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) to snapping turtle eggs. Eggs from several clutches were injected with a PCB solution and incubated at several temperatures and moisture levels to measure interactive effects of injection, environmental condition, and contaminant load on hatching success. The injection technique allowed for application of consistent and specific doses among replicates. Overall hatching success in this study was 61% and was as high as 71% within specific treatments. Hatching success was much higher in this study than in other studies using egg injections to mimic maternal transfer in chelonians and crocodilians. Copyright © 2010 SETAC.

  10. An endocrine disruptor, bisphenol A, affects development in the protochordate Ciona intestinalis: Hatching rates and swimming behavior alter in a dose-dependent manner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsushima, Ayami; Ryan, Kerrianne; Shimohigashi, Yasuyuki; Meinertzhagen, Ian A.

    2013-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is widely used industrially to produce polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins. Numerous studies document the harmful effects caused by low-dose BPA exposure especially on nervous systems and behavior in experimental animals such as mice and rats. Here, we exposed embryos of a model chordate, Ciona intestinalis, to seawater containing BPA to evaluate adverse effects on embryonic development and on the swimming behavior of subsequent larvae. Ciona is ideal because its larva develops rapidly and has few cells. The rate of larval hatching decreased in a dose-dependent manner with exposures to BPA above 3 μM; swimming behavior was also affected in larvae emerging from embryos exposed to 1 μM BPA. Adverse effects were most severe on fertilized eggs exposed to BPA within 7 h post-fertilization. Ciona shares twelve nuclear receptors with mammals, and BPA is proposed to disturb the physiological functions of one or more of these. - Highlights: ► Embryos of Ciona intestinalis were exposed to BPA to evaluate its developmental effects. ► The rate of larval hatching decreased in a dose-dependent manner. ► Swimming behavior was affected in larvae that emerge from embryos exposed to 1 μM BPA. ► Our findings will support a new strategy to analyze the developmental effects induced by BPA. - Exposure of fertilized Ciona embryos to BPA decreased their hatch rate in a dose-dependent manner and led to abnormal larval swimming behavior.

  11. Effect of quercetin on the number of blastomeres, zona pellucida thickness, and hatching rate of mouse embryos exposed to actinomycin D: An experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Sameni

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Quercetin is a flavonoid with the ability to improve the growth of embryos in vitro, and actinomycin D is an inducer of apoptosis in embryonic cells. Objective: The aim was to evaluate the effect of quercetin on the number of viable and apoptotic cells, the zona pellucida (ZP thickness and the hatching rate of preimplantation embryos exposed to actinomycin D in mice. Materials and Methods: Two-cell embryos were randomly divided into four groups (Control, Quercetin, actinomycin D, and Quercetin + actinomycin D group. Blastocysts percentage, hatched blastocysts, and ZP thickness of blastocysts was measured. The number of blastomeres was counted by Hoechst and propidium iodide staining and the apoptotic cells number was counted by TUNEL assay. Results: The results showed that the use of quercetin significantly improved the growth of embryos compared to the control group (p=0.037. Moreover, quercetin reduced the destructive effects of actinomycin D on the growth of embryos significantly (p=0.026. Conclusion: quercetin may protect the embryos against actinomycin D so that increases the number of viable cells and decreases the number of apoptotic cells, which can help the expansion of the blastocysts, thinning of the ZP thickness and increasing the hatching rate in mouse embryos.

  12. Effects of ocean acidification on hatch size and larval growth of walleye pollock (Theragra chalcogramma) from laboratory experiment studies from 2010-03-01 to 2011-05-31 (NODC Accession 0125007)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This archival package contains laboratory experiment data that were collected to examine the effects of ocean acidification on hatch size and larval growth of...

  13. Effects of in ovo feeding of cationic amino acids on hatchability, hatch weights, and organ developments in domestic pigeon squabs (Columba livia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X Y; Li, L L; Miao, L P; Zhang, N N; Zou, X T

    2018-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of in ovo feeding of cationic amino acids on hatchability, hatch weights, and organ developments in pigeon squabs. Two experiments were conducted in this study. Eggs in Exp. 1 were subjected to modification of in ovo feeding in pigeons. Optimal time was determined by checking amniotic fluid volume, and suitable length was confirmed through ink injection. Results showed that the optimum time of in ovo feeding was on d 13 of embryonic development, and the suitable injected length was 20 mm to reach the amniotic cavity of the embryo. Eggs in Exp. 2 were transferred to access in ovo feeding of cationic amino acids. A total of 75 fertile pigeon eggs was randomly distributed into 5 treatments of 15 replicate eggs. Treatments in Exp. 2 consisted of non-injected controls (Control), a sterile buffered solution (0.75% saline), or a cationic amino acid mixture (> 98.5% purity crystalline L-arginine, > 98% purity crystalline L-lysine, and > 98.5% purity L-histidine) containing 0.1, 1, or 10% concentration (Conc.), which were relative to their total content in the eggs, respectively. The crystalline amino acids were dissolved in 200 μL buffered solution prior to in ovo feeding. After hatching, hatch weight (HW) and organ weight (OW) of the squabs were measured immediately. In ovo feeding of cationic amino acids increased the proportions of yolk-free hatch weight to hatch weight (YFHW/HW) (quadratic P = 0.01), and those of OW to YFHW including the heart (quadratic P = 0.01), kidney (quadratic P < 0.01), and liver (quadratic P = 0.02) compared to the control group, and the levels of those ratios were maximized in the 1% Conc group. Also, a proportion of small intestine weight to YFHW improved (linear P = 0.02, quadratic P = 0.05) after in ovo feeding. The organ weight of the head, leg, heart, lung, kidney, proventriculus, pancreas, liver, and small intestine correlated with YFHW positively (0.4 < correlation coefficient < 0

  14. Pengaruh Selang Waktu Peletakkan Terhadap Keberhasilan Penetasan Telur Penyu Hijau (Chelonia mydas L. (Effect of Planting Time on Egg Hatching Success of Green Turtle (Chelonia mydas L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edi Wibowo Kushartono

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Salah satu usaha konservasi melindungi Penyu hijau (Chelonia mydas L. yaitu dengan tindakan relokasi dengan memindahkan telur dari sarang alami ke tempat penetasan semi alami. Waktu pemindahan dan peletakan telur yang tepat sangat diperlukan untuk memperoleh daya tetas maksimal. Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mengetahui pengaruh selang waktu peletakan telur Penyu Hijau terhadap keberhasilan penetasannya. Rancangan penelitian adalah Rancangan Acak Kelompok berdasarkan 3 induk yang berbeda dengan perlakuan selang waktu peletakan yaitu 2, 7 dan 12 jam. Pengukuran dan pengamatan kondisi lingkungan dilakukan selama inkubasi. Pengamatan munculnya tukik mulai dilakukan pada hari ke 50 masa inkubasi.  Pembongkaran sarang dilakukan pada hari ke 60 masa inkubasi kemudian dilakukan pembedahan secara manual untuk mengamati telur yang gagal menetas. Hasil menunjukkan bahwa tidak ada pengaruh nyata secara signifikan adanya perbedaan selang waktu peletakan terhadap keberhasilan penetasan dan keberhasilan kemunculan. Namun selang waktu peletakan dengan nilai yang baik ditunjukkan pada 2 jam, dilanjutkan dengan 12 jam dan 7 jam. Kata kunci: penetasan, penyu hijau (Chelonia mydas L., semi alami One of the conservation efforts undertaken to protect the green turtle (C. mydas L. is by relocation of the nest where the eggs are removed from natural to semi-natural hatchery. A right time for the removal and burial of eggs are needed to obtain maximum hatching rate. The purpose of this study is to determine the impact of interval laying period on the hatching success of the green turtle eggs. Randomized block design is used which is based on three different turtles with treatment interval of burying, which is 2, 7, and 12 h. Measurements and observations were made during the environmental conditions of the incubation period. Observations hatchling emergence started on day 50 of incubation. Nest destruction was conducted on the 60th day incubation then eggs that failed to

  15. Joint Effect of Solar UVB and Heat Stress on the Seasonal Change of Egg Hatching Success in the Herbivorous False Spider Mite (Acari: Tenuipalpidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudo, M; Osakabe, M

    2015-12-01

    Seasonal population dynamics of an herbivorous mite has been documented in terms of the relationship between thermoresponses and temporal biological factors such as resource availability or predation risk. Although recent studies emphasize the deleterious effects of solar ultraviolet-B (UVB; 280-320 nm wavelengths) radiation on plant-dwelling mites, how UVB affects mite population remains largely unknown. On a wild shrub Viburnum erosum var. punctatum in Kyoto, an herbivorous false spider mite, Brevipalpus obovatus Donnadieu, occurs only in autumn. Females of this species lay one-third of their eggs on upper leaf surfaces. Oviposition on upper surfaces is beneficial for avoiding predation by phytoseiids, but exposes eggs to solar UVB and heat stress. To test the hypothesis that the seasonal occurrence of this mite is determined by interactions between solar UVB radiation and temperature, we examined variation in egg hatching success under near-ambient and UV-attenuated sunlight conditions from spring to autumn. The UV-attenuation significantly improved hatching success. However, most eggs died under heat stress regardless of UV treatments in July and August. We established a deterministic heat stress-cumulative UVB dose-egg hatching success response model, which we applied to meteorological data. The model analyses illustrated lower and higher survivability peaks in late May and October, respectively, which partly corresponded to data for annual field occurrence, indicating the importance of solar UVB radiation and heat stress as determinants of the seasonal occurrence of this mite. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Egg production and hatching success of Calanus chilensis and Acartia tonsa in the northern Chile upwelling zone (23°S), Humboldt Current System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruz, Paula M.; Hidalgo, Pamela; Yáñez, Sonia; Escribano, Rubén; Keister, Julie E.

    2015-08-01

    Oxygen Minimum Zones (OMZ's) are expanding and intensifying as result of climate change, affecting Eastern Boundary Upwelling Systems. Local effects of vertical movements of OMZ's that result from changes in upwelling intensity could reduce or expand the oxygenated surface layer that most zooplanktonic species inhabit in coastal areas. Using the copepods Calanus chilensis and Acartia tonsa as model organisms, an experimental test of the impact of different dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations (between 0.5 and 5 ml L- 1) on egg production and hatching success was carried out and compared with field estimations of egg production, female and egg abundance in Mejillones Bay (23°S). Abundance of C. chilensis was highly variability and no consistent pattern in egg production and hatching success was found across DO levels, whereas A. tonsa egg production had maximum values between 2.6 and 4.7 ml O2 L- 1 and hatching success was positively correlated with DO (r = 0.75). In the field, temperature was the main factor controlling the dynamics of both species, while Chl-a and DO were also correlated with C. chilensis and A. tonsa, respectively. Principal Component Analysis showed that abundances of both copepods were controlled by temperature, stratification, OMZ depth, and Ekman transport, which together explained more than 70% of the total variance and were the main factors that modulated the populations of C. chilensis and A. tonsa in the upwelling zone of northern Chile (23°S). The differential responses of C. chilensis and A. tonsa to changes in DO concentrations associated with vertical movements of the OMZ suggest that C. chilensis may be better adapted to hypoxic conditions than A. tonsa, however both species are successful and persistent all year-round. We suggest that physiological responses of copepods could be used to evaluate population dynamics affected by the shoaling of OMZ's and the repercussions to trophic food webs of eastern boundary current systems.

  17. Effects of water salinity on hatching of egg, growth and survival of larvae and fingerlings of snake head fish, Channa striatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thumronk Amornsakun

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A study on the effect of water salinity ranging from 0-30 ppt on hatching success of snake head fish, Channa striatus was conducted in a 15-liter glass aquarium (water volume 10 liters containing 500 eggs for various levels of water salinity. Fertilization rates at 0, 5, 10, 11, 12, 13 and 14 ppt were 69.33, 72.67, 71.33, 72.67, 82.00, 73.33 and 10.67%, respectively. The fertilization rate at 12-13 ppt salinity was significantly (P0.05 among 0, 5 and 10 ppt.

  18. Snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina) as bioindicators in Canadian Areas of Concern in the Great Lakes Basin. II. Changes in hatching success and hatchling deformities in relation to persistent organic pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solla, S.R. de , [Population Assessment Unit, Canadian Wildlife Service, Environment Canada, 867 Lakeshore Road, Box 5050, Burlington, ON, L7R 4A6 (Canada); Fernie, K J; Ashpole, S [Population Assessment Unit, Canadian Wildlife Service, Environment Canada, 867 Lakeshore Road, Box 5050, Burlington, ON, L7R 4A6 (Canada)

    2008-06-15

    Hatching success and deformities in snapping turtle hatchlings (Chelydra serpentina) were evaluated using eggs collected from 14 sites in the Canadian lower Great Lakes, including Areas of Concern (AOC), between 2001 and 2004. Eggs were analyzed for PCBs, PBDEs, and pesticides. Between 2002 and 2004, hatchling deformity rates were highest in two AOCs (18.3-28.3%) compared to the reference sites (5.3-11.3%). Hatching success was poorest in three AOCs (71.3-73.1%) compared to the reference sites (86.0-92.7%). Hatching success and deformity rates were generally poorer in 2001 compared to 2002-2004, irrespective of the study location and could be due to egg handling stress in 2001. Hatching success and deformities were generally worst from the Wheatley Harbour, St. Lawrence River (Cornwall), Detroit River, and Hamilton Harbour AOCs. Associations between contaminant burdens with embryonic development were sufficiently poor that the biological relevance is questionable. Stressors not measured may have contributed to development abnormalities. - Hatching success and deformities of snapping turtle eggs varied among Great Lake Areas of Concern, but were not attributable to specific chemical exposure.

  19. Snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina) as bioindicators in Canadian Areas of Concern in the Great Lakes Basin. II. Changes in hatching success and hatchling deformities in relation to persistent organic pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solla, S.R. de; Fernie, K.J.; Ashpole, S.

    2008-01-01

    Hatching success and deformities in snapping turtle hatchlings (Chelydra serpentina) were evaluated using eggs collected from 14 sites in the Canadian lower Great Lakes, including Areas of Concern (AOC), between 2001 and 2004. Eggs were analyzed for PCBs, PBDEs, and pesticides. Between 2002 and 2004, hatchling deformity rates were highest in two AOCs (18.3-28.3%) compared to the reference sites (5.3-11.3%). Hatching success was poorest in three AOCs (71.3-73.1%) compared to the reference sites (86.0-92.7%). Hatching success and deformity rates were generally poorer in 2001 compared to 2002-2004, irrespective of the study location and could be due to egg handling stress in 2001. Hatching success and deformities were generally worst from the Wheatley Harbour, St. Lawrence River (Cornwall), Detroit River, and Hamilton Harbour AOCs. Associations between contaminant burdens with embryonic development were sufficiently poor that the biological relevance is questionable. Stressors not measured may have contributed to development abnormalities. - Hatching success and deformities of snapping turtle eggs varied among Great Lake Areas of Concern, but were not attributable to specific chemical exposure

  20. Assisted Hatching and Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection are not Associated with Improved Outcomes in ART Cycles for Diminished Ovarian Reserve: An Analysis of US Cycles from 2004–2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butts, Samantha F.; Owen, Carter; Mainigi, Monica; Senapati, Suneeta; Seifer, David B.; Dokras, Anuja

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the impact of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) and assisted hatching (AH) on ART outcomes in cycles with diminished ovarian reserve (DOR) as the primary diagnosis. Design Retrospective cohort study of cycles from the SART-CORS database. Setting NA. Patient(s) A total of 422,949 fresh, non-donor, initial ART cycles of which 8,597 were diagnosed with only elevated FSH and 38,926 were diagnosed with only DOR according to the SART DOR categorization. Intervention(s) None. Main Outcome Measure(s) Live birth and clinical pregnancy rates. Result(s) ICSI and AH were associated with diminished odds of live birth in SART DOR only cycles (AOR, 95% CI 0.88, 0.81–0.96 for ICSI; AOR, 95% CI 0.77 0.71–0.84 for AH). No association between either ICSI or AH in Elevated FSH only cycles was observed. The combination of ICSI and AH resulted in significantly lower odds of live birth in SART DOR only cycles but not in Elevated FSH only cycles. Conclusion(s) In initial ART cycles for which the only indication relates to a diagnosis of diminished ovarian reserve, assisted hatching and ICSI are not associated with improved live birth rates. PMID:25086790

  1. Transport stress induces heart damage in newly hatched chicks via blocking the cytoprotective heat shock response and augmenting nitric oxide production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, F; Zuo, Y-Z; Ge, J; Xia, J; Li, X-N; Lin, J; Zhang, C; Xu, H-L; Li, J-L

    2018-04-20

    Transport stress affects the animal's metabolism and psychological state. As a pro-survival pathway, the heat shock response (HSR) protects healthy cells from stressors. However, it is unclear whether the HSR plays a role in transport stress-induced heart damage. To evaluate the effects of transport stress on heart damage and HSR protection, newly hatched chicks were treated with transport stress for 2 h, 4 h and 8 h. Transport stress caused decreases in body weight and increases in serum creatine kinase (CK) activity, nitric oxide (NO) content in heart tissue, cardiac nitric oxide syntheses (NOS) activity and NOS isoforms transcription. The mRNA expression of heat shock factors (HSFs, including HSF1-3) and heat shock proteins (HSPs, including HSP25, HSP40, HSP47, HSP60, HSP70, HSP90 and HSP110) in the heart of 2 h transport-treated chicks was upregulated. After 8 h of transport stress in chicks, the transcription levels of the same HSPs and HSF2 were reduced in the heart. It was also found that the changes in the HSP60, HSP70 and HSP90 protein levels had similar tendencies. These results suggested that transport stress augmented NO generation through enhancing the activity of NOS and the transcription of NOS isoforms. Therefore, this study provides new evidence that transport stress induces heart damage in the newly hatched chicks by blocking the cytoprotective HSR and augmenting NO production.

  2. Effect of in ovo supplementation of nano forms of zinc, copper, and selenium on post-hatch performance of broiler chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Patric Joshua

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Nanoparticles can bypass conventional physiological ways of nutrient distribution and transport across tissue and cell membranes, as well as protect compounds against destruction prior to reaching their targets. In ovo administration of nanoparticles, may be seen as a new method of nano-nutrition, providing embryos with an additional quantity of nutrients. The aim of the study is to examine the effect of in ovo supplementation of nano forms of zinc, copper and selenium on the hatchability and post hatch performance of broiler chicken. Materials and Methods: Nano form of zinc at 20, 40, 60 and 80 μg/egg, nano form of copper at 4, 8, 12 and 16 μg/egg and nano form of selenium at 0.075, 0.15, 0.225 and 0.3 μg/egg were in ovo supplemented (18th day incubation, amniotic route in fertile broiler eggs. Control group in ovo fed with normal saline alone was also maintained. Each treatment had thirty replicates. Parameters such as hatchability, hatch weight and post hatch performance were studied. Results: In ovo feeding of nano minerals were not harmful to the developing embryo and did not influence the hatchability. Significantly (p<0.05 best feed efficiency for nano forms of zinc (2.16, copper (2.46 and selenium (2.51 were observed, when 40, 4 and 0.225 μg/egg respectively were in ovo supplemented. Except in nano form of copper at 12 μg per egg which had significantly (p<0.05 highest breast muscle percentage there was no distinct trend to indicate that dressing percentage or breast muscle yield was influenced in other treatments. Conclusion: Nano forms of zinc, copper and selenium can be prepared at laboratory conditions. In ovo feeding of nano forms of zinc, copper and selenium at 18th day of incubation through amniotic route does not harm the developing embryo, does not affect hatchability.

  3. Effects of in ovo feeding of l-arginine on hatchability, hatching time, early posthatch development, and carcass traits in domestic pigeons (Columba livia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X Y; Wan, X P; Miao, L P; Zou, X T; Dong, X Y

    2017-10-01

    The objective of this research was to test the hypothesis that in ovo feeding of arginine (Arg) may improve hatchability and posthatch performance in domestic pigeons (). A completely randomized design ( = 3) with an Arg feeding treatment (Arg group, 1.14 mg Arg dissolved in 200 μL of 0.75% NaCl buffered saline as 1% concentration compared to total Arg in the egg), a buffered saline feeding treatment (SC group, 7.5 g NaCl dissolved in 1 L sterile distilled water as the concentration of poultry physiological saline), and a nonfeeding treatment (NC group) was used. Six squabs from each treatment were randomly sampled on day of hatch (DOH), posthatch d 7 (D7), and posthatch d 14 (D14), respectively. Hatchability, hatch time, BW, organ development, and carcass traits were examined. Results showed that in ovo feeding of the Arg solution increased ( < 0.05) the hatchability and advanced ( < 0.05) the hatching time in comparison with those of the other groups. Body weight of pigeon squabs that received Arg in ovo feeding was heavier ( < 0.05) on DOH and D14 than that of the NC group, and a greater ( < 0.05) BW gain from DOH to D14 and D7 to D14 was observed. Three clusters of 12 organs were classified according to the changes of organ indices. Squabs provided the Arg in ovo feeding treatment gained a priority in organ development. The heart index and gizzard index on D7 and the proventriculus index on D14 of squabs receiving Arg in ovo feeding were increased ( < 0.05) compared to those of the other groups. The brain index on DOH, the small intestine index and pancreas index on D7, and the liver index, pancreas index, and spleen index on D14 of squabs fed Arg were higher ( < 0.05) than those of the NC group. The spleen index on D7 and the small intestine index on D14 of squabs provided the Arg feeding treatment were enhanced ( < 0.05) compared with those of the SC group. The semieviscerated carcass weight of squabs receiving Arg was higher ( < 0.05) on D14 than that of

  4. Protein turnover in the breast muscle of broiler chicks and studies addressing chlorine dioxide sanitation of hatching eggs, poultry leg problems and wheat middling diets for laying hens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, P.H.

    1988-01-01

    Developmental changes occurred in breast muscle Ks measured by 14 C-tyrosine incorporation at 10, 16, 22 and 34 days of age. Protein synthesis rates decreased as the birds matures: 30 to 11.2%/d between 10 and 34 days of age. In a second study birds fed diets low in lysine or protein-energy had reduced fractional rates of protein synthesis and free tyrosine, branched chain and large neutral amino acid concentrations as compared to control birds the same body weight. Artificial weight loading and reduced dietary protein levels were used to study the effects of body weight on the severity of leg deformities in chicks and poults. Experiments investigating the practicality of wheat middlings as an alternate feedstuff for laying hens suggested that high levels in the diet will reduce egg production, feed conversion, hen livability and egg yolk color. Lastly, chlorine dioxide foam and dipping solutions were compared with formaldehyde fumigation for sanitizing hatching eggs

  5. In vitro effects of aqueous extract from Maytenus senegalensis (Lam.) Exell stem bark on egg hatching, larval migration and adult worms of Haemonchus contortus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zangueu, Calvin Bogning; Olounlade, Abiodoun Pascal; Ossokomack, Marlyse; Djouatsa, Yolande Noelle Nangue; Alowanou, Goue Géorcelin; Azebaze, Anatole Guy Blaise; Llorent-Martínez, Eulogio José; de Córdova, Maria Luisa Fernández; Dongmo, Alain Bertrand; Hounzangbe-Adote, Mawulé Sylvie

    2018-05-02

    Maytenus senegalensis is a common shrub which is scattered in tropical Africa. Different parts of this plant have been reported to be useful in traditional medicine against gastrointestinal disorders and intestinal worms. This study evaluated the anthelmintic activity of the aqueous stem bark extract of M. senegalensis using egg hatch assay (EHA), larval migration inhibition assay (LMIA) and adult worms' motility inhibition assay (AMIA). On EHA, the extract concentrations tested resulted in a significant (p  50%). These in vitro results suggest the presence of some anthelmintic properties in M. senegalensis extract, which is traditionally used by small farmers in west and central Africa. These effects may be due to the flavonoids and proanthocyanidins present in the extract and need to be studied under in vivo conditions.

  6. The evolution of size of the uropygial gland: mutualistic feather mites and uropygial secretion reduce bacterial loads of eggshells and hatching failures of European birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler, J J; Peralta-Sánchez, J M; Martín-Platero, A M; Martín-Vivaldi, M; Martínez-Bueno, M; Møller, A P

    2012-09-01

    Potentially, pathogenic bacteria are one of the main infective agents against which a battery of chemical and physical barriers has evolved in animals. Among these are the secretions by the exocrine uropygial gland in birds. The antimicrobial properties of uropygial secretions may prevent colonization and growth of microorganisms on feathers, skin and eggshells. However, uropygial gland secretions also favour the proliferation of feather mites that feed on secretions and microorganisms living on feathers that would otherwise reach eggshells during incubation if not consumed by feather mites. Therefore, at the interspecific level, uropygial gland size (as an index of volume of uropygial secretion) should be positively related to eggshell bacterial load (i.e. the risk of egg infection), whereas eggshell bacterial loads may be negatively related to abundance of feather mites eating bacteria. Here, we explore these previously untested predictions in a comparative framework using information on eggshell bacterial loads, uropygial gland size, diversity and abundance of feather mites and hatching success of 22 species of birds. The size of the uropygial gland was positively related to eggshell bacterial loads (mesophilic bacteria and Enterobacteriaceae), and bird species with higher diversity and abundance of feather mites harboured lower bacterial density on their eggshells (Enterococcus and Staphylococcus), in accordance with the hypothesis. Importantly, eggshell bacterial loads of mesophilic bacteria, Enterococcus and Enterobacteriaceae were negatively associated with hatching success, allowing us to interpret these interspecific relationships in a functional scenario, where both uropygial glands and mutualistic feather mites independently reduce the negative effects of pathogenic bacteria on avian fitness. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2012 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  7. Egg hatching response to a range of ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation doses for four predatory mites and the herbivorous spider mite Tetranychus urticae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koveos, Dimitrios S; Suzuki, Takeshi; Terzidou, Anastasia; Kokkari, Anastasia; Floros, George; Damos, Petros; Kouloussis, Nikos A

    2017-01-01

    Egg hatchability of four predatory mites-Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot, Iphiseius [Amblyseius] degenerans Berlese, Amblyseius swirskii Athias-Henriot, and Euseius finlandicus Oudemans (Acari: Phytoseiidae)-and the spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) was determined under various UV-B doses either in constant darkness (DD) or with simultaneous irradiation using white light. Under UV-B irradiation and DD or simultaneous irradiation with white light, the predator's eggs hatched in significantly lower percentages than in the control non-exposed eggs, which indicates deleterious effects of UV-B on embryonic development. In addition, higher hatchability percentages were observed under UV-B irradiation and DD in eggs of the predatory mites than in eggs of T. urticae. This might be caused by a higher involvement of an antioxidant system, shield effects by pigments or a mere shorter duration of embryonic development in predatory mites than in T. urticae, thus avoiding accumulative effects of UV-B. Although no eggs of T. urticae hatched under UV-B irradiation and DD, variable hatchability percentages were observed under simultaneous irradiation with white light, which suggests the involvement of a photoreactivation system that reduces UV-B damages. Under the same doses with simultaneous irradiation with white light, eggs of T. urticae displayed higher photoreactivation and were more tolerant to UV-B than eggs of the predatory mites. Among predators variation regarding the tolerance to UV-B effects was observed, with eggs of P. persimilis and I. degenerans being more tolerant to UV-B radiation than eggs of A. swirskii and E. finlandicus.

  8. Post-hatching development of mitochondrial function, organ mass and metabolic rate in two ectotherms, the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis and the common snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah K. G. Sirsat

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The ontogeny of endothermy in birds is associated with disproportionate growth of thermogenic organs and increased mitochondrial oxidative capacity. However, no similar study has been made of the development of these traits in ectotherms. For comparison, we therefore investigated the metabolism, growth and muscle mitochondrial function in hatchlings of a turtle and a crocodilian, two ectotherms that never develop endothermy. Metabolic rate did not increase substantially in either species by 30 days post-hatching. Yolk-free body mass and heart mass did not change through 30 days in alligators and heart mass was a constant proportion of body mass, even after 1 year. Yolk-free body mass and liver mass grew 36% and 27%, respectively, in turtles during the first 30 days post-hatch. The mass-specific oxidative phosphorylation capacity of mitochondria, assessed using permeabilized muscle fibers, increased by a non-significant 47% in alligator thigh and a non-significant 50% in turtle thigh over 30 days, but did not increase in the heart. This developmental trajectory of mitochondrial function is slower and shallower than that previously observed in ducks, which demonstrate a 90% increase in mass-specific oxidative phosphorylation capacity in thigh muscles over just a few days, a 60% increase in mass-specific oxidative phosphorylation capacity of the heart over a few days, and disproportionate growth of the heart and other organs. Our data thus support the hypothesis that these developmental changes in ducks represent mechanistic drivers for attaining endothermy.

  9. Post-hatching development of mitochondrial function, organ mass and metabolic rate in two ectotherms, the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) and the common snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirsat, Sarah K G; Sirsat, Tushar S; Price, Edwin R; Dzialowski, Edward M

    2016-04-15

    The ontogeny of endothermy in birds is associated with disproportionate growth of thermogenic organs and increased mitochondrial oxidative capacity. However, no similar study has been made of the development of these traits in ectotherms. For comparison, we therefore investigated the metabolism, growth and muscle mitochondrial function in hatchlings of a turtle and a crocodilian, two ectotherms that never develop endothermy. Metabolic rate did not increase substantially in either species by 30 days post-hatching. Yolk-free body mass and heart mass did not change through 30 days in alligators and heart mass was a constant proportion of body mass, even after 1 year. Yolk-free body mass and liver mass grew 36% and 27%, respectively, in turtles during the first 30 days post-hatch. The mass-specific oxidative phosphorylation capacity of mitochondria, assessed using permeabilized muscle fibers, increased by a non-significant 47% in alligator thigh and a non-significant 50% in turtle thigh over 30 days, but did not increase in the heart. This developmental trajectory of mitochondrial function is slower and shallower than that previously observed in ducks, which demonstrate a 90% increase in mass-specific oxidative phosphorylation capacity in thigh muscles over just a few days, a 60% increase in mass-specific oxidative phosphorylation capacity of the heart over a few days, and disproportionate growth of the heart and other organs. Our data thus support the hypothesis that these developmental changes in ducks represent mechanistic drivers for attaining endothermy. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  10. Factors affecting the duration of nestling period and fledging order in Tengmalm's owl (Aegolius funereus: effect of wing length and hatching sequence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Kouba

    Full Text Available In altricial birds, the nestling period is an important part of the breeding phase because the juveniles may spend quite a long time in the nest, with associated high energy costs for the parents. The length of the nestling period can be variable and its duration may be influenced by both biotic and abiotic factors; however, studies of this have mostly been undertaken on passerine birds. We studied individual duration of nestling period of 98 Tengmalm's owl chicks (Aegolius funereus at 27 nests during five breeding seasons using a camera and chip system and radio-telemetry. We found the nestlings stayed in the nest box for 27 - 38 days from hatching (mean ± SD, 32.4 ± 2.2 days. The individual duration of nestling period was negatively related to wing length, but no formally significant effect was found for body weight, sex, prey availability and/or weather conditions. The fledging sequence of individual nestlings was primarily related to hatching order; no relationship with wing length and/or other factors was found in this case. We suggest the length of wing is the most important measure of body condition and individual quality in Tengmalm's owl young determining the duration of the nestling period. Other differences from passerines (e.g., the lack of effect of weather or prey availability on nestling period are considered likely to be due to different life-history traits, in particular different food habits and nesting sites and greater risk of nest predation among passerines.

  11. Snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina) as bioindicators in Canadian areas of concern in the Great Lakes Basin. II. Changes in hatching success and hatchling deformities in relation to persistent organic pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Solla, S R; Fernie, K J; Ashpole, S

    2008-06-01

    Hatching success and deformities in snapping turtle hatchlings (Chelydra serpentina) were evaluated using eggs collected from 14 sites in the Canadian lower Great Lakes, including Areas of Concern (AOC), between 2001 and 2004. Eggs were analyzed for PCBs, PBDEs, and pesticides. Between 2002 and 2004, hatchling deformity rates were highest in two AOCs (18.3-28.3%) compared to the reference sites (5.3-11.3%). Hatching success was poorest in three AOCs (71.3-73.1%) compared to the reference sites (86.0-92.7%). Hatching success and deformity rates were generally poorer in 2001 compared to 2002-2004, irrespective of the study location and could be due to egg handling stress in 2001. Hatching success and deformities were generally worst from the Wheatley Harbour, St. Lawrence River (Cornwall), Detroit River, and Hamilton Harbour AOCs. Associations between contaminant burdens with embryonic development were sufficiently poor that the biological relevance is questionable. Stressors not measured may have contributed to development abnormalities.

  12. Comparison of different grading schemes in InGaAs metamorphic buffers on GaAs substrate: Tilt dependence on cross-hatch irregularities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Rahul, E-mail: rkp203@gmail.com [Advanced Technology Development Centre, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721302 (India); Bag, Ankush [Advanced Technology Development Centre, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721302 (India); Mukhopadhyay, Partha [Rajendra Mishra School of Engineering Entrepreneurship, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721302 (India); Das, Subhashis [Advanced Technology Development Centre, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721302 (India); Biswas, Dhrubes [Department of Electronics & Electrical Communication Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721 302 (India)

    2015-12-01

    Highlights: • InGaAs graded MBs with different grading scheme has been grown by MBE on GaAs. • Continuously graded MB exhibits smoother surface morphology. • Grading scheme has been found to have little impact on lattice relaxation. • Grading schemeaffects the lattice tilt significantly. • Cross-hatch surface irregularities affect the crystallographic tilt. - Abstract: InGaAs graded metamorphic buffers (MBs) with different grading strategies have been grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) on GaAs (0 0 1) substrate. A detailed comparative analysis of surface using atomic force microscopy (AFM), and bulk properties using high resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD) and room temperature photoluminescence (RTPL) of grown MBs have been presented to comprehend the effectiveness of different grading scheme on InGaAs MBs. Conventional, statistical and fractal analysis on measured AFM data has been performed for in-depth investigation of these surfaces. The grading scheme has been found to have little impact on residual strain while it affects the epitaxial tilt significantly. Moreover, the tilt has been found to depend on growth front irregularities. Tilt magnitude in a graded MB has been found to vary with composition while tilt azimuth has been found to be almost same in the graded layers. PL Intensity and a shift in the PL peaks have been used to study the quality of the MB and residual strain comparatively.

  13. Chemical composition and efficacy in the egg-hatching inhibition of essential oil of Piper aduncum against Haemonchus contortus from sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele Lopes Oliveira

    Full Text Available Piper aduncum L., Piperaceae, has been used to treat mainly inflammatory diseases and has shown several biological activities such as insecticidal and larvicidal. The aim of this study was to analyze the chemical composition of essential oil of P. aduncum and its efficacy to egg-hatching inhibition of Haemonchus contortus from sheep. The essential oil was obtained from leaves and analysed by gas chromatography coupled to flame ionization detector and gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. It was possible to characterize 22 different substances, among them monoterpenes (80.6% and sesquiterpenes (13.9%. The major compound was identified as 1,8-cineole (55.8%. Eggs of the nematode were exposed to four concentrations of the essential oil. Levamisole phosphate was used as positive control. The essential oil showed to be effective in inhibiting H. contortus hatchability and the LC90 was calculated as 8.9 mg.ml-1. These results can point out the P. aduncumessential oil and its chemical components as potential alternative to control of H. contortus

  14. Increasing salinity drastically reduces hatching success of crustaceans from depression wetlands of the semi-arid Eastern Cape Karoo region, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabidi, Annah; Bird, Matthew S; Perissinotto, Renzo

    2018-04-13

    Salinity is an important factor affecting freshwater aquatic species distribution and diversity. The semi-arid Eastern Cape Karoo region of South Africa has been earmarked for shale gas development through hydraulic fracturing. The process uses large amounts of water and produces briny wastewater. When not managed properly, these wastewaters may lead to salinisation of surface freshwater bodies in the region. Therefore, the effect of salinity on the hatching success of crustacean resting eggs was examined using sediments from four depression wetlands found in the region. The sediments were exposed for 28 days to salinity levels of 0.5 g L -1 , 2.5 g L -1 , 5 g L -1 and 10 g L -1 . Control aquaria in which no salt was added were also set up. There was a significant decrease in the emerged taxa richness and abundances at salinities of 2.5 g L -1 and above. Anostraca, Notostraca and Spinicaudata hatchlings were abundant at salinities of 0.5 g L -1 and below, while Copepoda, Daphniidae (Cladocera) and Ostracoda were observed in the highest salinity, but their densities were still lower with increased salinities. Given the importance of large branchiopods in the trophic balance of depression wetlands, their loss may alter the ecological balance and function of these ecosystems.

  15. Effect of pre and or post-hatching treatment of broiler eggs with thyroxin and growth hormones on thyroid histology and function of growing chicks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamal, M.H.; El-Gendi, G.M.

    2003-01-01

    A total number of 1340 eggs from arbor acres parent breed were used in this study. Eggs were divided into two divisions were then sub divided according to the incubation relative humidity (48% and 52%). Eggs of each division were then subdivided into ten groups, eggs of 1 s t, 2 n d groups were injected with 0.05, 0.10 and 0.15 MU elroxin, respectively, those of the 4 t h, 5 t h, and 6 t h groups wereinjectived with 0.05, 0.10 and 0.15 mg carbimazole, respectively, while eggs of the 7 t h, 8 t h and 9 t h groups were injected with 0.005, 0.02 and 0.04 I.U. growth hormone respectively. Eggs of the 10 t h group was injected with distilled water and used as control group. Each group was divided into two divisions, eggs of the first division were injected just before incubation (into the air cell) and those of the second division were injected at the 9 t h day of incubation period (into the embryonic allantoic cavity). A total number of 960 hatched chicks were randomly selected (24chicks of each group)

  16. Comparison of different grading schemes in InGaAs metamorphic buffers on GaAs substrate: Tilt dependence on cross-hatch irregularities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Rahul; Bag, Ankush; Mukhopadhyay, Partha; Das, Subhashis; Biswas, Dhrubes

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • InGaAs graded MBs with different grading scheme has been grown by MBE on GaAs. • Continuously graded MB exhibits smoother surface morphology. • Grading scheme has been found to have little impact on lattice relaxation. • Grading schemeaffects the lattice tilt significantly. • Cross-hatch surface irregularities affect the crystallographic tilt. - Abstract: InGaAs graded metamorphic buffers (MBs) with different grading strategies have been grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) on GaAs (0 0 1) substrate. A detailed comparative analysis of surface using atomic force microscopy (AFM), and bulk properties using high resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD) and room temperature photoluminescence (RTPL) of grown MBs have been presented to comprehend the effectiveness of different grading scheme on InGaAs MBs. Conventional, statistical and fractal analysis on measured AFM data has been performed for in-depth investigation of these surfaces. The grading scheme has been found to have little impact on residual strain while it affects the epitaxial tilt significantly. Moreover, the tilt has been found to depend on growth front irregularities. Tilt magnitude in a graded MB has been found to vary with composition while tilt azimuth has been found to be almost same in the graded layers. PL Intensity and a shift in the PL peaks have been used to study the quality of the MB and residual strain comparatively.

  17. IMPACT OF HATCH-DATE ON EARLY LIFE GROWTH AND SURVIVAL OF MUELLER’S PEARLSIDE (MAUROLICUS MUELLERI) LARVAE, AND LIFE-HISTORY CONSEQUENCES

    KAUST Repository

    Folkvord, Arild

    2015-08-11

    Growth and survival of Maurolicus muelleri larvae in Herdlefjorden, Norway were investigated by daily otolith increment analysis. While high egg densities were generally observed throughout the spawning season, three cohorts each with a narrow window of hatching dates were identified. The first of these cohorts was characterized by low growth and poor morphometric condition and disappeared from the fjord during autumn. High resolution drift modeling indicated that Herdlefjorden had a net export of larvae and negligible import in the period cohort 1 disappeared. Yet, the advective loss rate of larvae was not considered high enough to explain the near complete disappearance of the first cohort. An otolith based growth chronology indicated that growth conditions in Herdlefjorden improved noticeably around mid-September, and remained favorable the following month. The analysis of daily otolith increments could thus be used to document within-season variability in larval growth and survival. The low and variable survival due to short term fluctuations in environmental conditions indicate that multiple batch spawning is an adequately evolved life history strategy for marine planktivorous fish such as M. muelleri.

  18. Stress Levels, Mortality, Intestinal Morphometry and Histomorphology of Chabro Broiler Birds Subjected to Varying Degrees of Post Hatch Delay in Feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakeel, Irfan; Khan, Azmat Alam; Qureshi, Saim; Adil, S; Wani, B M; Din, Mir Mehraj; Amin, Umer

    Kashmir is a part of Jammu and Kashmir State of India where a large chunk of day old chicks are procured from outside the state and these chicks are transported across a distance of hundreds of kilometers over a period of several days. The long distance transport without any access to feed not only subjects the birds to early life stress but also affects their gut morphological development. Therefore, a study was conducted to evaluate the effect of delayed feeding on stress levels, mortality, intestinal morphometry and histomorphology of chabro broiler chicken. A total of 400 day old chabro chicks were randomly divided into 5 groups, each group comprising of four replicates of 20 birds. Chicks allotted to group-1 (G 1) were offered feed at hatchery itself whereas feeding in groups G 2, G 3, G 4 and G 5 were initiated at the farm after the delay of 12, 24, 48 and 72 h, respectively. The results revealed that the heterophil count showed a steady increase from G 1-G 5 and significantly (p0.05) lower in G 4 and G 5 compared to G 1. The duration of post hatch feeding delay gradually increased the stress level and mortality of birds and also decreased the length of different segments of small intestine in birds. No adverse effect on histomorphology was observed at the end of trial. Feeding at hatchery itself or feeding during transportation of birds would be a viable strategy to overcome the negative effects of delayed feeding in chicken.

  19. Component failure experiments of the seal casing for the multiple-row bolted connection of the containment equipment hatch of the nuclear power plant Philippsburg II; Experimente zum Versagen des Dichtkastens fuer die Materialschleusenverschraubung im Containment des KKW Philippsburg II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Messemer, G.

    2008-06-15

    For the weakness analysis of the containment under internal pressure a question that arose was at what pressure the seal casing for the equipment hatch will fail. For this investigation model strips of the seal casing cross section were manufactured as tensile specimens. Variations of the seal plates welding seams were considered and tested. The type of failure and the associated deformations and resulting forces were measured for 6 specimens. (orig.)

  20. Suplementos utilizados como hidratantes nas fases pré-alojamento e pós-alojamento para pintos recém eclodidos Supplements used as hydrating agents in pre- and post-lodging phases to newly-hatched chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Ayres Pedroso

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Dois experimentos foram conduzidos, para avaliar hidratantes em pintos oriundos de matrizes, em início de vida produtiva. O primeiro experimento estudou o efeito de hidratante comercial, na fase pré-alojamento, em pintos oriundos de matrizes com 25 semanas de idade, submetidos a dois intervalos entre nascimento e alojamento (0 e 48 horas; o agente não apresentou qualquer efeito favorável sobre a desidratação, a mortalidade e o desempenho até 21 dias. No segundo experimento, foi utilizado o bicarbonato de sódio como hidratante. A solução foi fornecida, durante 24 horas, a pintos oriundos de matrizes com 27 semanas de idade, após 0, 24 e 48 horas de intervalo entre nascimento e alojamento. Foi observada melhora na integridade do intestino, representada pelo aumento na densidade intestinal e peso do órgão com a suplementação eletrolítica. O aumento no intervalo entre nascimento e alojamento diminuiu o saco vitelino. Em ambos os experimentos, o aumento no intervalo entre o nascimento e o alojamento aumentou a desidratação e a mortalidade das aves, mas propiciou melhora no desempenho aos 21 dias, não tendo sido observados efeitos positivos dos hidratantes testados.Two experiments were carried out to evaluate hydrating agents to newly hatched chicks from breeders in early production life. The first experiment studied the effect of commercial hydrating agents in pre-lodging phase in chicks from breeders with 25 weeks of age and submitted to two intervals between hatching and lodging (0 and 48 hours. Agent did not show any favorable effects on dehydration, mortality and performance until 21 days of age. In he second experiment, sodium bicarbonate was used as hydrating agent. The solution was supplied for 24 hours, after 0, 24 and 48 hours intervals between hatching and lodging, to chicks from breeder of 27 weeks of age. The intestinal integrity increased, based on intestinal density and organ weight increment obtained with

  1. Effects of dietary energy and lysine levels on growth performance and carcass yields of Pekin ducks from hatch to 21 days of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Z G; Rasolofomanana, T J; Tang, J; Jiang, Y; Xie, M; Yang, P L; Hou, S S

    2017-09-01

    A 2 × 6 factorial experiment, using 2 dietary apparent metabolizable energy (AME) levels (2,750 and 3,050 Kcal/kg) and 6 supplemental lysine (Lys) levels (0, 0.10, 0.20, 0.30, 0.40, and 0.50%), was conducted to study the effects of dietary energy and lysine levels on growth performance and carcass yields of Pekin ducks from hatch to 21 d of age. A total of 576 one-day-old male White Pekin ducks was randomly allotted to 12 dietary treatments, each containing 6 replicate pens with 8 birds per pen. At 21 d of age, body weight gain, feed intake, and feed/gain were measured, and then 2 ducks selected randomly from each pen were slaughtered to evaluate the yields of abdominal fat, breast meat, and leg meat. As a result, birds that were fed basal diets with no Lys supplementation showed growth depression, and significant positive effects of dietary Lys supplementation on body weight gain (P 0.05), but feed intake (P = 0.001) and feed/gain (P = 0.009) decreased significantly between the groups. Dietary Lys levels influenced the yields of breast (P ducks significantly (P = 0.004). According to the broken-line regression analysis, Lys requirements of Pekin ducks for weight gain at 2,750 and 3,050 Kcal of AME/kg were 0.94 and 0.98%, respectively. It suggested that Lys requirement was higher at 3,050 Kcal of AME/kg than at 2,750 Kcal of AME/kg. Dietary energy content determined feed intake of the ducks, and high-energy diets will require a higher amino acid concentration to compensate for a lower feed intake. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  2. Single and multiple stressor effect of road deicers and Cu on Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) alevins from hatching till swim-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahrosh, Urma; Rosseland, Bjørn Olav; Salbu, Brit; Teien, Hans-Christian

    2018-04-01

    Road salts are frequently used for deicing of roads in the Nordic countries. During snow-melt, the road run-off containing high concentrations of road salt and various metals such as Cu remobilized from sand, silt and dust may negatively influence organisms in downstream receiving water bodies. The present work focuses on the impact of road salt (NaCl) and Cu, separately and in mixtures on Atlantic salmon alevins from hatching till swim-up. The results showed that high road salt concentrations could induce a series of negative effects in alevins such as reduced growth, deformities, delayed swim-up and mortality. For alevins exposed to all tested road salt concentrations (100-1000mg/L), mortality was significantly higher compared to control. In exposure to Cu solutions (5-20μgCu/L), no effects on growth, morphology, swim-up or mortality of alevins compared to control were observed. In mixture solutions (road salt and Cu), ultrafiltration of the exposure water demonstrated that only 20%-40% of Cu was present as positively charged low molecular mass (LMM) Cu species assumed to be bioavailable. When exposed to road salt and Cu mixtures, negative effects in alevins such as reduced growth, deformities, delayed swim-up and mortality were observed. The overall results indicated that the road salt application could seriously affect sensitive life stages of Atlantic salmon, and application of road salt should be avoided during the late winter-early spring period. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. The prevalence of embryonic remnants following the recovery of post-hatching bovine embryos produced in vitro or by somatic cell nuclear transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexopoulos, Natalie I; French, Andrew J

    2009-08-01

    The reliable collection of peri-implantation embryos in the bovine has important ramifications to post-transfer consequences, particularly in the elucidation of mechanisms associated with post-hatching embryo development and to perturbations in developmental growth following transfer. This study analyzed both in vitro produced (IVP) and somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryo-like structures (ELS) recovered at Day (D) 14 and D21. The recovered ELS were subsequently processed for histological examination. At D14 and D21, many of the embryos recovered in the IVP group conformed to the appropriate stage of development. However, a significant number of anomalies were present in the SCNT groups when examined in more detail. Histological examination revealed that irrespective of whether these embryos had undergone trophoblast expansion to an ovoid, tubular or filamentous morphology, many had a degenerated hypoblast layer and a large proportion did not possess an epiblast and therefore could not differentiate into any of the three germ layers as would be expected at the neural groove or somite stage. The prevalence of this developmental pattern was random and did not correlate with treatment (IVP or SCNT) or with types of structures recovered. The rapid embryo elongation period also coincides with the time of greatest embryonic loss and these observations could have important implications for assessing the recovery of embryos post-transfer where incorrect morphological assessment could lead to false implantation and pregnancy determination rates. The implementation of additional methodology is required to adequately characterize the quality of IVP and SCNT-derived embryos collected post-transfer.

  4. MSTN, mTOR and FoxO4 are involved in the enhancement of breast muscle growth by methionine in broilers with lower hatching weight.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Wen

    Full Text Available Broilers with lower hatching weight (HW present poorer performance than those with high HW, but there is limited research on the growth regulation of broilers with lower HW. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of dietary methionine (Met levels on the growth performance and breast muscle yield of broilers with different HW and underlying mechanisms. A total of 192 one-day-old Arbor Acres broiler chicks with different HW (heavy: 48.3±0.1 g, and light: 41.7±0.1 g were allocated to a 2×2 factorial arrangement with 6 replicates of 8 chicks per replicate cage. Control starter (1-21 d and finisher (22-42 d diets were formulated to contain 0.50% and 0.43% Met, respectively. Corresponding values for a high Met treatment were 0.60% and 0.53%. Light chicks had lower body weight gain (BWG and breast muscle yield than heavy chicks when the broilers were fed the control diets. High Met diets improved BWG, gain to feed ratio and breast muscle yield in light but not heavy chicks. Decreased DNA content and increased RNA/DNA and protein/DNA ratios in breast muscle were induced by high Met diets only in light chicks. MSTN mRNA level was decreased by high Met diets only in light chicks, and this decrease was accompanied by a significant increase in MSTN gene exon 1 methylation. In addition, high Met diets increased mTOR phosphorylation, but decreased FoxO4 phosphorylation in breast muscle of light chicks. In conclusion, the BWG and breast muscle yield of light chicks were improved by increasing dietary Met levels probably through alterations of MSTN transcription and phosphorylation of mTOR and FoxO4.

  5. Hatch, survival and sensory perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    The need to understand the functional biology of nematodes is central both to fundamental science and to practical aspects. Research on the biology of economically important cyst nematodes has frequently had the declared aim of identifying novel control targets based on disruption of the nematode li...

  6. Triple-Frequency Code-Phase Combination Determination: A Comparison with the Hatch-Melbourne-Wübbena Combination Using BDS Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenlong Deng

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Considering the influence of the ionosphere, troposphere, and other systematic errors on double-differenced ambiguity resolution (AR, we present an optimal triple-frequency code-phase combination determination method driven by both the model and the real data. The new method makes full use of triple-frequency code measurements (especially the low-noise of the code on the B3 signal to minimize the total noise level and achieve the largest AR success rate (model-driven under different ionosphere residual situations (data-driven, thus speeding up the AR by directly rounding. With the triple-frequency Beidou Navigation Satellite System (BDS data collected at five stations from a continuously-operating reference station network in Guangdong Province of China, different testing scenarios are defined (a medium baseline, whose distance is between 20 km and 50 km; a medium-long baseline, whose distance is between 50 km and 100 km; and a long baseline, whose distance is larger than 100 km. The efficiency of the optimal code-phase combination on the AR success rate was compared with that of the geometry-free and ionosphere-free (GIF combination and the Hatch-Melbourne-Wübbena (HMW combination. Results show that the optimal combinations can always achieve better results than the HMW combination with B2 and B3 signals, especially when the satellite elevation angle is larger than 45°. For the wide-lane AR which aims to obtain decimeter-level kinematic positioning service, the standard deviation (STD of ambiguity residuals for the suboptimal combination are only about 0.2 cycles, and the AR success rate by directly rounding can be up to 99%. Compared with the HMW combinations using B1 and B2 signals and using B1 and B3 signals, the suboptimal combination achieves the best results in all baselines, with an overall improvement of about 40% and 20%, respectively. Additionally, the STD difference between the optimal and the GIF code-phase combinations decreases

  7. Effect of high-dose phytase supplementation in broilers from 22 to 42 days post-hatch given diets severely limited in available phosphorus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taheri, H R; Heidari, A; Shahir, M H

    2015-01-01

    1. Two trials were conducted from 22 to 42 d post-hatch to evaluate the effectiveness of high concentrations of supplemental phytase in maize-soya bean meal-based diets severely limited in available phosphorus (P). Growth performance, plasma P and tibia ash (TA) were measured. 2. Each trial used 220 21-d-old male broilers in 20 pens with 11 birds per pen. Dietary treatments included a positive control [PC, 4.3 g/kg nonphytate P (NPP)], negative control [NC, 2.3 g/kg NPP (Trial 1) or 1.4 g/kg NPP (Trial 2)] and NC plus 1000, 2000 or 4000 phytase U/kg of the diet. 3. Birds fed on the PC diet had higher average daily gain (ADG), gain to feed ratio (G:F), plasma P (Trials 1 and 2) and TA (Trial 2) than those fed on the NC. 4. In Trial 1, ADG and G:F values of the NC plus 1000, 2000 or 4000 phytase U/kg reached those of the PC. Plasma P values of the NC plus 2000 or 4000 phytase U/kg reached that of the PC. Although TA values of the NC, NC + 1000 or NC + 2000 reached that of the PC, TA of the NC + 4000 was more than that of the PC. 5. In Trial 2, ADG and G:F values of the NC plus 4000 phytase U/kg reached those of the PC; nevertheless, plasma P values of the NC diets did not come up to that of the PC. While TA values of the NC, NC + 1000 or NC + 2000 did not reach that of the PC, TA of the NC + 4000 was greater than that of the PC. 6. Results of this study showed that, in the diets with 2.3 and 1.4 g/kg NPP, respectively, 1000 and 4000 phytase U/kg can be sufficient to obtain a comparable performance in broilers to those given diets adequate in available P.

  8. Relationship between weight, age and hatching success and the concentration of heavy metals in nestling blue macaw (Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus Latham, 1790 in the Pantanal,Mato Grosso do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Drago Marchesi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The concentration of heavy metals (Cr, Fe, Al, As, Cd, Cu, Pb, Mo, Ni, Se and Zn was evaluated in the blood of nestling blue macaws (Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus captured in the Pantanal, Mato Grosso do Sul (n=26 in 2012; this was based on the hypothesis that these birds exhibit levels of these heavy metals in their organism and that these interfere in hatching success, weight and age of the chicks. Blood samples were digested with nitric acid and hydrochloric acid and the quantification of metals was performed by ICP-OES (Optical Emission Spectroscopy and Inductively Coupled Plasma. Blood samples of nestlings showed concentrations of Cr (0.10μg/g Fe (3.06μg/g Al (3.46μg/g, Cd (0.25μg/g Cu (0.74μg/g, Mo (0.33μg/g, Ni (0.61μg/g, Se (0.98μg/g, and Zn (2.08μg/g. The levels of heavy metals found were not associated with weight, age and hatching success of the chicks.

  9. Establishment of the fatty acid profile of the brain of the king penguin (Aptenodytes patagonicus) at hatch: effects of a yolk that is naturally rich in n-3 polyunsaturates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speake, Brian K; Decrock, Frederic; Surai, Peter F; Wood, Nicholas A R; Groscolas, René

    2003-01-01

    Because the yolk lipids of the king penguin (Aptenodytes patagonicus) contain the highest concentrations of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids yet reported for an avian species, the consequences for the establishment of the brain's fatty acid profile in the embryo were investigated. To place the results in context, the fatty acid compositions of yolk lipid and brain phospholipid of the king penguin were compared with those from three other species of free-living birds. The proportions of docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3; DHA) in the total lipid of the initial yolks for the Canada goose (Branta canadensis), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), moorhen (Gallinula chloropus), and king penguin were (% w/w of fatty acids) 1.0+/-0.1, 1.9+/-0.2, 3.3+/-0.1, and 5.9+/-0.2, respectively. The respective concentrations of DHA (% w/w of phospholipid fatty acids) in brains of the newly hatched chicks of these same species were 18.5+/-0.2, 19.6+/-0.7, 16.9+/-0.4, and 17.6+/-0.1. Thus, the natural interspecies diversity in yolk fatty acid profiles does not necessarily produce major differences in the DHA content of the developing brain. Only about 1% of the amount of DHA initially present in the yolk was recovered in the brain of the penguin at hatch. There was no preferential uptake of DHA from the yolk during development of the king penguin.

  10. An Administrative Meter Maid: Using Inter Partes Review and Post-Grant Review to Curb Exclusivity Parking via the "Failure to Market" Provision of the Hatch-Waxman Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apel, Brian T

    2015-01-01

    Congress created the unique Hatch-Waxman framework in 1984 to increase the availability of low-cost generic drugs while preserving patent incentives for new drug development. The Hatch-Waxman Act rewards generic drug companies that successfully challenge a pharmaceutical patent: 180 days of market exclusivity before any other generic firm can enter the market. When a generic firm obtains this reward, sometimes drug developers agree to pay generic firms to delay entering the market. These pay-for-delay agreements give rise to exclusivity parking and run counter to congressional intent by delaying full generic drug competition. The Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act created several statutory forfeiture provisions that proved only marginally effective at curbing the practice of exclusivity parking. More recently, Congress created new quasi-judicial administrative proceedings that effectively replace certain kinds of district court patent litigation. This Note describes the complex statutory scheme that gave rise to exclusivity parking, explains why previous and current attempts to curtail exclusivity parking were and remain ineffective, and suggests amending the "failure to market" provision to include these new administrative proceedings as a way to help curb exclusivity parking.

  11. Review on the acute Daphnia magna toxicity test – Evaluation of the sensitivity and the precision of assays performed with organisms from laboratory cultures or hatched from dormant eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Persoone G.

    2009-08-01

    “Culture/maintenance free” aquatic microbiotests with species of different phylogenetic groups were developed in the early 1990s at the Laboratory for Environmental Toxicology and Aquatic Ecology at the Ghent University in Belgium. These assays which were given the generic name “Toxkits”, are unique in that they employ dormant stages (“cryptobiotic eggs” of the test species, which can be stored for long periods of time and “hatched” at the time of performance of the assays. One of these microbiotests is the Daphtoxkit F magna, which is currently used in many laboratories worldwide for research as well as for toxicity monitoring purposes. The microbiotest technology has several advantages in comparison to the “traditional” tests based on laboratory cultures, especially its independence of the stock culturing burden. However, the acceptance (or possible non-acceptance of performing assays with test organisms obtained from “dormant eggs” should be clearly dictated by the “sensitivity” and “precision” criteria of the former assays in comparison to the latter. The first part of this review therefore thoroughly reviews the scientific literature and of data obtained from various laboratories for assays performed with either D. magna test organisms obtained from lab cultures or hatched from dormant eggs. Attention has focused on data of quality control tests performed on reference chemicals, and in particular on potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7 for which an acceptability range of 0.6–2.1 mg·L–1 has been set in ISO standard 6341 for the 24 h EC50 of the acute D. magna assay. Mean EC50s, standard deviations and variation coefficients were calculated from the collected data, all of which are presented in tables and figures and discussed in detail. The major conclusions drawn from the analysis of the large number of quality control (QC data on the acute D. magna toxicity test are that : (1 Virtually all results from assays performed with

  12. How nest translocation-time, clutch size and presence of yolkless eggs affected hatching success in Dermochelys coriacea (Linnaeus, 1766 (Testudines: Dermochelyidae, at Projeto Tamar-Ibama, Espirito Santo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dal Pont Morisso, Eduardo

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available En este estudio se analizó el manejo de los nidos de la especie Dermochelys coriacea, utilizados por el Proyecto Tamar-Ibama entre las temporadas reproductivas de 1989/1990 a 1998/1999, para verificación del éxito de la eclosión en relación a los tiempos de traslación. El estudio se realizó en el litoral norte del Estado de Espírito Santo. Existió tendencia a que el tiempo de traslación influencie el éxito de eclosión de los nidos. Los nidos trasladados entre 6 y más de 24 horas presentaron mayor cantidad de huevos sin desarrollo embrionario. No se encontró relación entre el número de huevos inviables trasladados y el tamaño de la postura, con el porcentual de eclosión. Se sugiere que la traslación sea realizada hasta las 6 horas, o 15 días después de la oviposición. The results of managing Dermochelys coriacea (Linnaeus, 1766 nests by Projeto TAMAR - IBAMA, in Northern Espírito Santo, Brazil, during the nesting seasons from 1989/90 to 1998/99 are analyzed. The influence of the translocation time on hatching success of the studied nests is discussed. The time translocation, in relation to natural oviposition, seems to increase the number of non-developed eggs found in each nest if translocated between 6 hours and 15 days post egg-laying. There was no relationship established between either the number of yolkless eggs in a translocated nest or the clutch size, with hatching success. The translocation of Dermochelys nests either within 6 hours or after 15 days from natural oviposition is recommended.

  13. Review on the acute Daphnia magna toxicity test – Evaluation of the sensitivity and the precision of assays performed with organisms from laboratory cultures or hatched from dormant eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Persoone

    2009-08-01

    performance of the assays.One of these microbiotests is the Daphtoxkit F magna, which is currently used in many laboratories worldwide for research as well as for toxicity monitoring purposes.The microbiotest technology has several advantages in comparison to the “traditional” tests based on laboratory cultures, especially its independence of the stock culturing burden. However, the acceptance (or possible non-acceptance of performing assays with test organisms obtained from “dormant eggs” should be clearly dictated by the “sensitivity” and “precision” criteria of the former assays in comparison to the latter.The first part of this review therefore thoroughly reviews the scientific literature and of data obtained from various laboratories for assays performed with either D. magna test organisms obtained from lab cultures or hatched from dormant eggs.Attention has focused on data of quality control tests performed on reference chemicals, and in particular on potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7 for which an acceptability range of 0.6–2.1 mg·L–1 has been set in ISO standard 6341 for the 24 h EC50 of the acute D. magna assay.Mean EC50s, standard deviations and variation coefficients were calculated from the collected data, all of which are presented in tables and figures and discussed in detail.The major conclusions drawn from the analysis of the large number of quality control (QC data on the acute D. magna toxicity test are that :(1 Virtually all results from assays performed with Daphnias taken from lab cultures or with Daphnia microbiotests are within the acceptability range set by ISO standard 6341 for the reference chemical potassium dichromate.(2 The mean 24 h EC50s of the Daphnia microbiotests performed in different laboratories are within the range of the mean EC50s of the assays based on lab cultures, and the variation coefficients (20 to 30% are similar.(3 The precision – in terms of the long term in house variability – of the quality control Daphnia

  14. Five-month comparative efficacy evaluation of three ectoparasiticides against adult cat fleas (Ctenocephalides felis), flea egg hatch and emergence, and adult brown dog ticks (Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato) on dogs housed outdoors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varloud, Marie; Hodgkins, Elizabeth

    2015-03-01

    This study was designed to compare the efficacy of three topical combinations on dogs in outdoor conditions against adult cat fleas (Ctenocephalides felis), flea egg hatch and emergence, and against adult brown dog ticks (Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato). Treatment was performed on day 0 with a placebo; dinotefuran, pyriproxifen and permethrin (DPP); fipronil and (S)-methoprene (FM) or imidacloprid and permethrin (IP). Dogs (n = 32), housed outdoors for 7 months, were treated monthly for four consecutive months (on days 0, 30, 60 and 90) and infested with ~100 unfed adult fleas on days 14, 55, 74, 115 and 150 and with ~50 unfed adult ticks on days 28, 44, 88 and 104. Adult fleas were counted and removed 24 h after infestation. Immediately after flea removal, dogs were reinfested with ~100 new adult fleas 72 h prior to egg collection for up to 48 h. Flea eggs were incubated for 32 days, and newly emerged adults were counted. Ticks were counted and removed 48 h after each infestation. FM had >90 % efficacy against fleas at each time point and variable efficacy against ticks (38.0-99.6 %). Efficacy of IP was 60 days after the last treatment. Despite challenging weather conditions, DPP was highly effective, providing >90 % efficacy against adult ticks as well as adult and immature fleas at every time point of the study.

  15. Phytoseiid mites in protected crops: the effect of humidity and food availability on egg hatch and adult life span of Iphiseius degenerans, Neoseiulus cucumeris, N. californicus and Phytoseiulus persimilis (Acari: Phytoseiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Courcy Williams, Michael E; Kravar-Garde, Lidija; Fenlon, John S; Sunderland, Keith D

    2004-01-01

    The effect of relative humidity on egg hatch success for Iphiseius degenerans, Neoseiulus californicus and N. cucumeris was described by a binomial model with a parallel slope. The shape of the response differed for Phytoseiulus persimilis and a model with separate parameters gave a significantly better fit. Fitted response curves showed that I. degenerans, N. cucumeris, N. californicus and P. persimilis were ranked by decreasing tolerance to low humidity, with egg mortalities of persimilis egg duration was significantly longer at 60 and 70% than for either 82 or 90% RH. No effect of relative humidity was found on the mean life span of adult females when food was available continuously to the mites. N. californicus lived significantly longer (58 days after the first egg was laid) than the other species. No significant difference was observed in mean life span between adult females of I. degenerans and N. cucumeris (25 and 28 days respectively). The mean life span of adult female P. persimilis (19 days) was significantly shorter than the other species. In the absence of both food and water, the survival of adult female mites was reduced to 2-4 days. Survival time was at least doubled when free water was available in the absence of food. Mean survival of adult female mites with water but without food was 10 days for N. cucumeris, 18 days for N. californicus, 6 days for P. persimilis and 4 days for I. degenerans. Survival of adult female N. cucumeris and N. californicus was increased significantly, to 20 and 22 days respectively, when fungal hyphae were present along with water but in the absence of other food.

  16. Hatching the behavioral addiction egg: Reward Deficiency Solution System (RDSS)™ as a function of dopaminergic neurogenetics and brain functional connectivity linking all addictions under a common rubric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Kenneth; Febo, Marcelo; McLaughlin, Thomas; Cronjé, Frans J; Han, David; Gold, S Mark

    2014-09-01

    Following the first association between the dopamine D2 receptor gene polymorphism and severe alcoholism, there has been an explosion of research reports in the psychiatric and behavioral addiction literature and neurogenetics. With this increased knowledge, the field has been rife with controversy. Moreover, with the advent of Whole Genome-Wide Studies (GWAS) and Whole Exome Sequencing (WES), along with Functional Genome Convergence, the multiple-candidate gene approach still has merit and is considered by many as the most prudent approach. However, it is the combination of these two approaches that will ultimately define real, genetic allelic relationships, in terms of both risk and etiology. Since 1996, our laboratory has coined the umbrella term Reward Deficiency Syndrome (RDS) to explain the common neurochemical and genetic mechanisms involved with both substance and non-substance, addictive behaviors. This is a selective review of peer-reviewed papers primary listed in Pubmed and Medline. A review of the available evidence indicates the importance of dopaminergic pathways and resting-state, functional connectivity of brain reward circuits. Importantly, the proposal is that the real phenotype is RDS and impairments in the brain's reward cascade, either genetically or environmentally (epigenetically) induced, influence both substance and non-substance, addictive behaviors. Understanding shared common mechanisms will ultimately lead to better diagnosis, treatment and prevention of relapse. While, at this juncture, we cannot as yet state that we have "hatched the behavioral addiction egg", we are beginning to ask the correct questions and through an intense global effort will hopefully find a way of "redeeming joy" and permitting homo sapiens live a life, free of addiction and pain.

  17. A refratariedade das aves ao "Trypanosoma (Schizotrypanum cruzi" II - refratariedade das galinhas desde o nascimento; persistência da refratariedade após Bursectomia; infecções em ovos embrionados The refractory state of birds toward the Trypanosoma (Schizotrypanum cruzi: II - the refractory state begins at hatching and persists after bursectomy, Infections of embryonnated eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Nery-Guimarães

    1972-01-01

    Full Text Available "A refratariedade das galinhas ao T. (S. cruzi, ocorre desde o nascimento e não é eliminada pela bursectomia hormonal. Noventa e oito pintos de 1 a 15 dias de vida (normais ou tratados com testosterona inoculados com o T. (S. cruzi foram negativos. Deste modo, dificilmente a refratariedade poderia ser interpretada como decorrência de um "anticorpo natural", uma vez que a bursectomia provoca uma queda na produção de anticorpos e das gamaglobulinas. Em cerca de 50% de ovos embrionados (normais ou tratados com o hormônio foram vistos flagelados do 4º ao 12º dia de inoculação, observando-se ninhos de amastigotos em alguns embriões. Os pintos nascidos dos mesmos grupos dos ovos examinados e positivos, foram sistematicamente negativos pelo exame do sangue. Um deles sacrificado horas depois de nascido, mostrou amastigotos no coração, mas esses parasitos pareciam degenerados. Provavelmente, se alguns chegam a evoluir para tripomastigotos, estes são destruídos á medida que as células hospedeiras se rompem, e assim jamais são encontrados no sangue circulante.It has already been shown that the refractory state of chickens toward "T. (S. cruzi" appears early at time of hatch. Fifty-four normal newly hatched and inoculated chicks were negative. it has also been verified that this refractory state persists even after hormonal bursectomy (eggs being injected with 2.5 mg of testosterone. Forty-four bursectomized and inoculated newly hatched chicks were negative. If we consider the fact that bursectomy causes a deficiency in the production of antibodies and gammaglobulins, the refractory state seems not to occur on account of a "natural antibody". Inoculations of "T. (S. cruzi" made in 153 eggs (normal or treated with testosterone produced infections of variable intensity in about 50% of them. Although chicks newly hatched from the same groups were always negative. As we have some embryos to be positive until the 21st day of incubation it seems

  18. Hatch 1:100000 Quad Hydrography DLGs

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Digital line graph (DLG) data are digital representations of cartographic information. DLG's of map features are converted to digital form from maps and related...

  19. Tarantula: Killing driver bugs before they hatch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawall, Julia Laetitia; Muller, Gilles; Urunuela, Richard

    2005-01-01

    The Linux operating system is undergoing continual evolution. Evolution in the kernel and generic driver modules often triggers the need for corresponding evolutions in specific device drivers. Such collateral evolutions are tedious, because of the large number of device drivers, and error......-prone, because of the complexity of the code modifications involved. We propose an automatic tool, Tarantula, to aid in this process. In this paper, we examine some recent evolutions in Linux and the collateral evolutions they trigger, and assess the corresponding requirements on Tarantula....

  20. The use of artificial spawning substrates in order to understand the factors influencing the spawning site selection, depth of egg strands deposition and hatching time of perch (Perca fluviatilis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Kubečka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of egg strands of perch Perca fluviatilis and factors affecting this distribution, in terms of spawning sites and spawning depths used, was studied in spring 2010 in Chabařovice Lake, Czech Republic, using areas with an artificial spawning substrate (A.S.S. and control areas outside the A.S.S. Perch significantly preferred a calm shore instead of a windward shore for spawning. The depths at which perch egg strands were found increased significantly during the spawning period in both A.S.S. areas and in areas outside the A.S.S. (on average from 4.9 m at the beginning to 12.3 m at the end of the spawning period. With increasing depth of deposition the size of the egg strands decreased significantly. The mean depth of egg strands on individual dates corresponded to the position of 10-12°C water layers. From the third week onward, however, egg strands were deposited in much deeper and colder water. A strong relationship was found between the depth at which egg strands were deposited and the duration of the daylight period, indicating that, at the end of the spawning season, perch do not react to the actual temperature of the water column but that they follow their inner clock, assuming that "normally" the shallower depth layers are too warm for successful embryo development. Factors influencing the depth distribution of egg strands were identified as waves, temperature and duration of the daylight period. Factors influencing the selection of spawning sites were identified as wind inducing current, internal seiches and temperature instability of the water column. The first perch larvae were present in the open water of Chabařovice Lake before mid-May, and the latest larvae not earlier than the beginning of July, since warming of the water in deeper layers was very slow. It appears that with prolonged spawning and hatching periods and with spawning occurring at various depths and temperatures, perch have evolved a powerful

  1. Incubação artificial dos ovos e processo de eclosão em Trachemys dorbignyi (Duméril & Bibron (Reptilia, Testudines, Emydidae Artificial egg incubation and hatching proccess in Trachemys dorbignyi (Duméril & Bibron (Reptilia, Testudimes, Emydidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavio de Barros Molina

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Artificial incubation of 558 eggs from 70 clutches of Trachemys dorbignyi (Duméril & Bibron, 1835 were performed at São Paulo Zoo during 1992 and 1993. Hatching occurred when eggs were incubated between 25 and 31.5oC. Incubation time varied from 54 (at 31.5oC to 120 days (at 25oC, similarly to Trachemys scripla sspp. Hatchling used the caruncle to made small incisions in the egg shell, latter enlarged by movements of the head and forefeet. Hatching usually lasted from one to two days. Newborn's carapace and plastron showed their natural form few hours after the emergence from the egg shell. During the third or fourth week, caruncle usually disappeared, and yolk sac was completely absorbed. Average (x±sd measures of newborn were 3.55±0.18cm of carapace length, 3.35±0.17cm of plastron length, and 10.73±1.36g of weight.

  2. Does magnesium hardness in hatching waters affect the fertilization and hatching success of hybrid catfish eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Embryonic development is deemed to be the most sensitive stage in the life cycle of a teleost. As egg development takes outside the fish’s body, water hardness is one abioitic parameter, suggested to have a major effect on egg development and embryo survival. Ca2+ and Mg2+ contribute to water har...

  3. Effects of mannan-oligosaccharides' supplementation on hatching ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... completely randomized design (15 ♂ : 5 ♀). The birds were a fed corn-based basal diet (group D) or basal diet supplemented with MOS at the levels of 0.25 % (group A), 0.5 % (group B) and 1.0 % (group C) for 15 weeks. The collected data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA techniques using Statistical Analysis System.

  4. HATCH-OUT ANALYSIS AND REPEATABILITY ESTIMATES OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AGROSEARCH UIL

    quantifying the problem areas that cause low hatchability (Mauldin, 2003). It allows the hatchery ... (Map data, 2013). The eggs collected from each .... of egg size on heat production and the transition of energy from egg to hatchling. Poult. Sci.,.

  5. Developmental imaging: the avian embryo hatches to the challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulesa, Paul M; McKinney, Mary C; McLennan, Rebecca

    2013-06-01

    The avian embryo provides a multifaceted model to study developmental mechanisms because of its accessibility to microsurgery, fluorescence cell labeling, in vivo imaging, and molecular manipulation. Early two-dimensional planar growth of the avian embryo mimics human development and provides unique access to complex cell migration patterns using light microscopy. Later developmental events continue to permit access to both light and other imaging modalities, making the avian embryo an excellent model for developmental imaging. For example, significant insights into cell and tissue behaviors within the primitive streak, craniofacial region, and cardiovascular and peripheral nervous systems have come from avian embryo studies. In this review, we provide an update to recent advances in embryo and tissue slice culture and imaging, fluorescence cell labeling, and gene profiling. We focus on how technical advances in the chick and quail provide a clearer understanding of how embryonic cell dynamics are beautifully choreographed in space and time to sculpt cells into functioning structures. We summarize how these technical advances help us to better understand basic developmental mechanisms that may lead to clinical research into human birth defects and tissue repair. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Influence of incubation management on pipping position, hatching ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information Technology

    Despite numerous studies, the effect of artificial incubation on the .... effects of environmental factors such as production year, season, female age, ... Eggs were obtained from the commercial ostrich breeding flock maintained at the Oudtshoorn.

  7. 46 CFR 78.17-35 - Hatches and other openings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... be kept closed while the vessel is being navigated, and shall be closed before the vessel commences a.... (4) On ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes vessels of 150 gross tons and over, all opening type port...

  8. Cocoon production, morphology, hatching pattern and fecundity in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Based on our field studies, the ecological category, habit, habitat and size relationship of these earthworms are presented in table 1. 2.1 Culturing methods. Earthworms were not subjected to any controlled condi- tion in the laboratory. Clay pots (4⋅5 l) containing suita- ble food (culture medium), were used for rearing of.

  9. Microbial interference with hatch and survival of European eel larvae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Sune Riis; Lauesen; Tomkiewicz, Jonna

    Recent research has significantly improved our knowledge and capabilities in the field of in vitro production of yolk sac larvae from European eel (Anguilla anguilla). Female broodstock European eels are matured by weekly administration of pituitary extract and male eels with hCG (human chorionic...... larviculture should not only focus on optimizing physical incubation conditions, but certainly also on the control over microbial interference....

  10. Cocoon production, morphology, hatching pattern and fecundity in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    increase in cocoon production by most earthworm species of Tripura in the summer and .... factor. 2.3 Incubation of cocoons. After isolation, freshly laid cocoons were kept on moist ...... ecosystem; VII National symposium on soil biology and.

  11. Relationship between Egg weight, Hatch weight and Subsequent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sola

    plumage, they are known for their adaptation superiority in terms of their ... tribe and they are best preserved because of the cultural lifestyle of the Fulani ... A. A. Toye, Department of Animal Production, University of Ilorin, Kwara state, Nigeria.

  12. Astronaut Scott Parazynski in hatch of CCT during training

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Astronaut Scott E. Parazynski, STS-66 mission specialist, poses near the hatchway of the crew compartment trainer (CCT) (out of frame) in JSC's Shuttle mockup and integration laboratory. Crew members were about to begin a rehearsal of procedures to be followed during the launch and entry phases of their flight. That rehearsal was followed by a training session on emergency egress procedures.

  13. Selected egg parameters and hatching time of African catfish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Egg weight, diameter and mean number per gram were determined for fertilized eggs from broodfish of Clarias gariepinus and Heterobranchus longifilis and F1, hybrid broodfish (C. gariepinus x H. longifilis). Mean egg weight was least in C. gariepinus (1.30 mg) followed by H. longifilis (1.80 mg) and highest in the F1 hybrid ...

  14. 9 CFR 147.22 - Hatching egg sanitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... cleaned and disinfected after use. Cleaning and disinfection procedures should be as outlined in § 147.24..., heater, and humidifier should be cleaned and disinfected after every egg pickup. Cleaning and disinfection procedures should be as outlined in § 147.24. (d) The egg processing area should be cleaned and...

  15. 78 FR 6173 - Diana Del Grosso, Ray Smith, Joseph Hatch, Cheryl Hatch, Kathleen Kelley, Andrew Wilklund, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-29

    ... submissions by the parties may be submitted via the Board's e-filing format or in the traditional paper format. Any person using e-filing should attach a document and otherwise comply with the instructions at the E... proceeding under 49 U.S.C. 721 and 5 U.S.C. 554(e). Petitioners request that the Board declare that specific...

  16. Efeito do tempo de jejum pós-eclosão, valores energéticos e inclusão do ovo desidratado em dietas pré-iniciais e iniciais de pintos de corte Effect of post-starvation hatching time, energy levels and addition of dried egg in pre-initial and initial diets for broiler chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisanie Neiva Magalhães Teixeira

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Dois experimentos foram realizados para determinar o valor nutricional do ovo desidratado (OD, o efeito do tempo de jejum pós-eclosão (TJPe e a inclusão do ovo desidratado em rações para frangos de corte. No primeiro experimento, 120 pintos de corte machos, linhagem Ross-308, foram alojados em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com três tratamentos e cinco repetições de oito aves. As coletas de excretas foram realizadas no período de 24 a 29 dias de idade, pela manhã e à tarde. No segundo experimento, um lote misto de 810 pintos da linhagem Cobb-500, com peso vivo inicial 33,41 ± 0,53, foi alojado em boxes de 1,0 × 1,5 m. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado com 9 tratamentos e 6 repetições de 15 aves, em esquema fatorial 3 × 3, com três níveis de ovo desdratado (0, 2 e 4% e três tempos de jejum pós-eclosão (28, 40 e 52 horas, correpondentes a 0, 12 e 24 horas de jejum pós-alojamento, respectivamente. O ovo desidratado apresentou 51,54% de PB e 4.278 kcal EMAn. Na fase de 1 a 7 dias, o peso vivo, o ganho de peso e o consumo de ração entre as aves submetidas a jejum de 40 e 52 horas foram inferiores aos daquelas alimentadas mais cedo (às 28 horas do tempo de jejum pós-eclosão, enquanto as aves submetidas a 52 horas de jejum pós-eclosão (24 horas de jejum pós alojamento apresentaram os piores resultados. O nível de 4% de ovo desidratado na ração pré-inicial melhorou o peso vivo no segundo e terceiro dia de idade dos pintinhos. No período de 1 a 21 dias, o ovo desidratado pode ser utlizado na alimentação de frangos, pois não prejudica o desempenho das aves.Two experiments were carried out to determine the nutritional value of the dried egg (DEGG, and the effect of the post-starvation hatching time (PSHT and the inclusion of dried egg powder in the diet of broiler chicks. In experiment 1, 120 male Ross-308 broiler chicks were housed according to a completely randomized design

  17. Hypnosis Antenatal Training for Childbirth (HATCh: a randomised controlled trial [NCT00282204

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baghurst Peter

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although medical interventions play an important role in preserving lives and maternal comfort they have become increasingly routine in normal childbirth. This may increase the risk of associated complications and a less satisfactory birth experience. Antenatal hypnosis is associated with a reduced need for pharmacological interventions during childbirth. This trial seeks to determine the efficacy or otherwise of antenatal group hypnosis preparation for childbirth in late pregnancy. Methods/design A single centre, randomised controlled trial using a 3 arm parallel group design in the largest tertiary maternity unit in South Australia. Group 1 participants receive antenatal hypnosis training in preparation for childbirth administered by a qualified hypnotherapist with the use of an audio compact disc on hypnosis for re-enforcement; Group 2 consists of antenatal hypnosis training in preparation for childbirth using an audio compact disc on hypnosis administered by a nurse with no training in hypnotherapy; Group 3 participants continue with their usual preparation for childbirth with no additional intervention. Women > 34 and Discussion If effective, hypnosis would be a simple, inexpensive way to improve the childbirth experience, reduce complications associated with pharmacological interventions, yield cost savings in maternity care, and this trial will provide evidence to guide clinical practice.

  18. Hypnosis Antenatal Training for Childbirth (HATCh): a randomised controlled trial [NCT00282204].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyna, Allan M; Andrew, Marion I; Robinson, Jeffrey S; Crowther, Caroline A; Baghurst, Peter; Turnbull, Deborah; Wicks, Graham; Whittle, Celia

    2006-03-05

    Although medical interventions play an important role in preserving lives and maternal comfort they have become increasingly routine in normal childbirth. This may increase the risk of associated complications and a less satisfactory birth experience. Antenatal hypnosis is associated with a reduced need for pharmacological interventions during childbirth. This trial seeks to determine the efficacy or otherwise of antenatal group hypnosis preparation for childbirth in late pregnancy. A single centre, randomised controlled trial using a 3 arm parallel group design in the largest tertiary maternity unit in South Australia. Group 1 participants receive antenatal hypnosis training in preparation for childbirth administered by a qualified hypnotherapist with the use of an audio compact disc on hypnosis for re-enforcement; Group 2 consists of antenatal hypnosis training in preparation for childbirth using an audio compact disc on hypnosis administered by a nurse with no training in hypnotherapy; Group 3 participants continue with their usual preparation for childbirth with no additional intervention. Women > 34 and training as near as possible to 37 weeks gestation. Treatment allocations are concealed from treating obstetricians, anaesthetists, midwives and those personnel collecting and analysing data. Our sample size of 135 women/group gives the study 80% power to detect a clinically relevant fall of 20% in the number of women requiring pharmacological analgesia - the primary endpoint. We estimate that approximately 5-10% of women will deliver prior to receiving their allocated intervention. We plan to recruit 150 women/group and perform sequential interim analyses when 150 and 300 participants have been recruited. All participant data will be analysed, by a researcher blinded to treatment allocation, according to the "Intention to treat" principle with comprehensive pre-planned cost- benefit and subgroup analyses. If effective, hypnosis would be a simple, inexpensive way to improve the childbirth experience, reduce complications associated with pharmacological interventions, yield cost savings in maternity care, and this trial will provide evidence to guide clinical practice.

  19. Behavioural consequences of visual deprivation occurring at hatch or in the early life of chickens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hocking, Paul M.; Haldane, Kirsty-Anne; Davidson, Emma M.

    2015-01-01

    characteristic behaviours of both blind and sighted birds. Individual behaviour, group aggregation and behavioural synchrony were compared at 1, 5 and 9 weeks of age (experiment 1) and in the parents of these chicks at 9–13 months of age (experiment 2). Responses to visual and physical isolation were assessed...... at 1, 5 and 9 weeks. Analyses of home-pen behaviour showed that both rdd and beg had difficulty locating or consuming food during the first week of life. WL and rdd did not engage in abnormal behaviour (circle walking, air pecking, star gazing) at 1, 5 and 9 weeks whereas both beg and rdd adults did so...... visual isolation from conspecifics rdd chicks behaved like blind birds in some respects (e.g. decreased movement) and as sighted birds in others (e.g. peeping). The vision of rdd was apparently diminished compared with sighted controls (WL) even from an early age. It was concluded that abnormal...

  20. Individual birds advance offspring hatching in response to increased temperature after the start of laying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vedder, Oscar

    In seasonally reproducing organisms, timing reproduction to match food availability is key to individual fitness. Ambient temperature functions as an important cue for the timing of the food peak in temperate-zone birds. After laying start, individual birds may still improve synchrony between

  1. In-transit temperature extremes could have negative effects on ladybird (Coleomegilla maculata) hatch rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    The shipment of mass-produced natural enemies for augmentative release is a standard procedure used by the biological control industry. Yet there has been insufficient research on the effects of temperature change, experienced during shipment, on the quality of predators as they arrive at release si...

  2. Echoes of Bedford: a 20-year social psychology memoir on participatory action research hatched behind bars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fine, Michelle

    2013-11-01

    Responding to Martin Luther King Jr.'s 1968 address at the American Psychological Association calling for a psychology that would educate Whites about racial injustice, this article challenges the widening epistemological gap between those who suffer from inequality and those who conduct social policy research on inequality. In this 20-year memoir on the echoes of a single piece of participatory policy research, Changing Minds: The Impact of College in a Maximum-Security Prison (Fine et al., 2001), readers are invited to explore how deep critical participation by a collaborative team of university and prisoner researchers has facilitated theoretical and methodological complexity, enhanced contextual and construct validity, thickened commitments to ethics and action, and fueled the political sustainability and generalizability of the findings over time and space.

  3. Effect of cobalt 60 gamma-ray irradiation on the hatching process of chicken eggs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohkuma, Yoshikazu

    1981-01-01

    An experiment on fertilized chicken eggs was carried out to determine the effects of 60 Co irradiation on the embryos, their fatality, and growth impairment or deformity, in particular. The experimental groups, consisting of 10 eggs each, recieved a 60 Co irradiation of 50 to 2,000 rads on any one day between day 0 and day 20 of incubation. The larger the irradiation dose, the greater was the number of dead embryos. The fatality was higher in the groups receiving irradiation in the earlier stage (1st week). The resultant death was a chronic one. The irradiation also caused body weight decrease and growth impairment. A decrease in the brain and liver weights was noted, suggesting insufficiency in these organs. Deformity occurred in 4%, most of which involved impairments of skeletal growth, of the bones of the extremities and the bill, in particular. Administration of the SH amino acid, cysteine tended to alleviate the adverse effects of the 60 Co irradiation. These results for fertilized chicken eggs suggest the possibility of abortion and the occurrence of deformities in human fetuses if they should be subjected to 60 Co irradiation. (author)

  4. Influence of hatching order and brood size on growth in jackass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1991-06-26

    Jun 26, 1991 ... Percy FitzPatrick Institute of African Ornithology, University of Cape Town, Private Bag, Rondebosch, ... Singletons showed only a non-significant trend towards faster growth in mass ... may adversely affect rates of provisioning to chicks, food ..... tions were so bad as to result in chick mortality (van Heezik.

  5. Otolith microstructure analysis to resolve seasonal patterns of hatching and settlement in western Baltic cod

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehberg-Haas, Sabine; Hammer, Cornelius; Hillgruber, Nicola

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies showed that Baltic cod (Gadus morhua) settle to demersal life at a given size, while the annulus is formed seasonally, irrespective of size. The goal of this study was to examine the timing of check formation in juvenile Baltic cod otoliths to validate macrostructural ageing...... and to differentiate between true annuli and secondary structures such as settlement checks. Otoliths were collected from fish off Fehmarn Island in 2008 and 2009, and were examined for macrostructural and microstructural patterns using light and scanning electron microscopy. All fish examined were age-0. Back...

  6. Embryotoxicity of quantum dots in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss during hatching period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nijolė Kazlauskienė

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Research on quantum dots (QD has become a major interdisciplinary area of science. Unique physic-chemical properties of QD significantly expanded areas of their application and increased the potential impact on hydrosystems. The objectives of complex study (using toxicological, physical, chemical methods were: to determine the toxicity of QD to rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss during ontogenesis (embryos, larvae depending on the duration of exposure; to estimate QD stability; to investigate QD uptake routes, distribution, accumulation, localization in tissues and different organs of embryos and larvae. This study examined the toxic effects of CdSe/ZnS-COOH at sublethal concentration. Bioassay testing was carried out under controlled laboratory conditions. Short-term (24-, 96-hour and long-term toxicity tests (14-day on fish at early stages of development (starting from “eye-egg” embryos were performed under static conditions. Mortality, physiological parameters, blood circulatory system, development disorders, behavioural responses and growth parameters of larvae were investigated. The results indicated that toxic effects of QD to rainbow trout in early life stages of development depended on the duration of exposure. Long-term exposure of QD induced remarkable deleterious changes in various systems of the developing fish organism: increased mortality, alterations in cardio-respiratory system, disturbed behavioural responses, caused developmental disorders and adversely affected the growth of larvae. Using physical methods it was determined: QD stability, uptake routes, distribution, accumulation and localization in tissues as well as in different organs of embryos and larvae of rainbow trout. Fish toxicity tests results will help to understand ecotoxicity of nanoparticles and will be used as nanoparticle embryotoxicity model in humans and other organisms.

  7. Effect of short-term pre-hatch heat shock of incubating eggs on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The six-week live weight of the heat-treated group (2098 ± 12.0 g) was significantly lower than that of the control (2143 ± 12.2 g). The 1-6 ... 1.77 ± 0.03 for the treatment vs. control groups, respectively, but the ... Metrics powered by PLOS ALM

  8. Wolbachia endosymbiont is essential for egg hatching in a parthenogenetic arthropod.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmermans, M.J.T.N.; Ellers, J.

    2009-01-01

    Wolbachia pipientis can induce a range of sex ratio distortions including parthenogenesis. Recently Wolbachia has been detected in the diploid, parthenogenetic, collembolan species Folsomia candida. In this paper we address the effect of Wolbachia on reproduction in F. candida. Wolbachia infection

  9. AFSC/RACE/SAP/Swiney: Primiparous and multiparous Tanner crab egg extrusion, embryo development and hatching

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This study compares timing of egg extrusion, embryo development, timing and duration of eclosion, and incubation periods of Kodiak, Alaska primiparous and...

  10. Hatching date variability in wild populations of four coexisting species of African annual fishes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Reichard, Martin; Blažek, Radim; Polačik, Matej; Vrtílek, Milan

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 246, č. 11 (2017), s. 827-837 ISSN 1058-8388 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-00291S Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : developmental synchrony * diapause * Nothobranchius Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Developmental biology Impact factor: 2.004, year: 2016

  11. Hatching Plans: Pedagogy and Discourse within an El Sistema-Inspired Music Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    In this article, I draw on my experience as an instrumental tutor with a music program inspired by and explicitly linked to El Sistema, to explore new perspectives on Sistema-based pedagogy and management. Detailed ethnographic description of an orchestral session provides a first-hand account of the program's pedagogy, which I then contextualize…

  12. Arrested embryonic development: a review of strategies to delay hatching in egg-laying reptiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafferty, Anthony R.; Reina, Richard D.

    2012-01-01

    Arrested embryonic development involves the downregulation or cessation of active cell division and metabolic activity, and the capability of an animal to arrest embryonic development results in temporal plasticity of the duration of embryonic period. Arrested embryonic development is an important reproductive strategy for egg-laying animals that provide no parental care after oviposition. In this review, we discuss each type of embryonic developmental arrest used by oviparous reptiles. Environmental pressures that might have directed the evolution of arrest are addressed and we present previously undiscussed environmentally dependent physiological processes that may occur in the egg to bring about arrest. Areas for future research are proposed to clarify how ecology affects the phenotype of developing embryos. We hypothesize that oviparous reptilian mothers are capable of providing their embryos with a level of phenotypic adaptation to local environmental conditions by incorporating maternal factors into the internal environment of the egg that result in different levels of developmental sensitivity to environmental conditions after they are laid. PMID:22438503

  13. Broiler performance, hatching egg, and age relationships of progeny from standard and dwarf broiler dams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahir, M; Cervantes, H; Farmer, C W; Shim, M Y; Pesti, G M

    2011-06-01

    The relationship of egg and chick weights to the performance of broiler chickens from two 42-wk-old flocks (standard and dwarf dams) having male parents from the same genetic stock was investigated in this study. Fertility (91.7 vs. 94.7%) and hatchability (95.2 vs. 96.3%) were not significantly (P > 0.10) different for eggs from standard and dwarf dams, respectively. Egg weight contributed significantly to the variation in BW [BW = β(0) + β(i) (egg weight) + β(i) (dam) + β(i) (sex)]. Body weight as a function of chick weight was not significant. However, chick weight was significant when included in a model with egg weight, suggesting that significant differences in BW at 50 d could be attributed to both egg and chick weights. The negative coefficient for chick weight indicated that between the 2 broilers of the same egg weight, the one with the greater chick weight would have the smaller 50-d BW. Chick weight was a linear function of egg weight. Similarly, the effect of egg or chick weight on broiler BW at 35 or 50 d was best represented by a single linear function. Dam genotype did not contribute significantly to variation in 50-d BW after variation attributable to egg weight was removed from the model. Differences in BW attributable to egg weight increased with broiler age. The coefficients of egg weight and chick weight showed that the differences in BW per gram of egg were 1.43, 3.06, 6.24, and 7.61 g and those per gram of chick were 1.87, 3.99, 8.14, and 9.93 g, respectively, at 7, 21, 35, and 50 d. Body weight increased by 0.1563 times egg weight (and 0.2092 times chick weight) with each additional day of age for both sexes and genotypes. Clearly, both egg and chick weights are important for modeling or predicting market-age broiler BW and economic returns. The relatively small relationship between BW and egg weight demonstrates that genetic selection over the past 3 decades has decreased the influence of egg weight on broiler growth. The present dwarf broiler breeder dams may produce progeny comparable in performance with standard dams.

  14. Temperature, paternity and asynchronous hatching influence early developmental characteristics of larval Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Politis, Sebastian Nikitas; Dahlke, Flemming T.; Butts, Ian A.E.

    2014-01-01

    Offspring, especially during early development, are influenced by both intrinsic properties endowed to them by their parents, extrinsic environmental factors as well as the interplay between genes and the environment. We investigated the effects of paternity (P), temperature (T), and asynchronous...

  15. Advanced Oxidation Process sanitation of hatching eggs reduces Salmonella in broiler chicks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reduction of Salmonella contamination of eggs is important in improving the microbial food safety of poultry and poultry products. Developing interventions to reduce Salmonella contamination of eggs is important to improving the microbial quality of eggs entering the hatchery. Previously, the hydr...

  16. Effects of suspended sediment on the development and hatching of herring (Clupea harengus) eggs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiørboe, Thomas; Frantsen, Erik; Jensen, Carsten

    1981-01-01

    made to test the effect of the increased turbidity near marine mining, spoil disposal or dredging operations. Embryonic development was unaffected by suspended silt. Mortality rates varied significantly between aquaria, but the variation was unrelated to the experimental treatment with silt. Refs....

  17. Demonstrating Nonhexavelent Chrome Steel Conversion Coatings on Stryker High Hard Armor Steel Hatches

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    that there are interim steps in both cases that involve applying a flash rust suppressor , which is a temporary corrosion inhibitor and not meant to...intended to replace the temporary flash rust suppressor step in the process and, thus, will not require additional steps to the current process. In...susceptible to flash rust prior to applying the primer. This creates immediate cosmetic corrosion problems and also increases the need for additional

  18. Anthelmintic activity of acetone extracts from South African plants used on egg hatching of Haemonchus contortus

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sakong, BM

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available , C.M.L., Moraes, S.M. & Vieira, L.S., 1999, ‘In vitro ovicidal and larvicidal effect of the plants Spigelia anthelmia and Momordica charantia against the nematode Haemonchus contortus’, Ciência Animal 9, 67–73. Bizimenyera, E.S., Githiori, J... ruminants of semi-arid Brazilian northeast’, Ciência Animal 10, 294–300. Mendoza de Gives, P., Crespo, J.F., Rodriguez, D.H., Prats, V.V., Hernandez, E.L. & Fernandez, G.E.O., 1998, ‘Biological control of Haemonchus contortus infective larvae in ovine...

  19. Edwin I. Hatch Nuclear Plant, Unit 1. Annual operating report, 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    Net electrical power generated was 3,102,479 MWh(e) with the reactor on line 6,159 hrs. Information is presented concerning power generation, shutdowns, corrective maintenance, reactor coolant chemistry tests, occupational radiation exposure, release of radioactive materials, reportable occurrences, and primary containment local leak rate tests

  20. Effect of short-term pre-hatch heat shock of incubating eggs on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These results suggest that prenatal thermal conditioning is not detrimental to broiler growth under standard rearing conditions in the absence of thermal stress. However, survival rate was improved but live weight and FCR were in some cases significantly poorer. Keywords: Heat stress, incubation, parent age, live weight, ...

  1. How to hatch from an egg of great structural strength. A study of the common cuckoo

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Honza, Marcel; Picman, J.; Grim, T.; Novák, V.; Čapek Jr., Miroslav; Mrlík, Vojtěch

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 3 (2001), s. 249-255 ISSN 0908-8857 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6087801 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6093917 Keywords : Cuculus canorus * eggs Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.353, year: 2001

  2. First zoeal stage of Macrocoeloma subparallelum (Stimpson, 1860 (Decapoda: Brachyura: Majoidea described from laboratory hatched material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jéssica Colavite

    Full Text Available Abstract The morphology of the first zoeal stage of the decorator crab Macrocoeloma subparallelum (Stimpson, 1860 from Cuba is described and compared with the available descriptions for the genus. Among Macrocoeloma Miers, 1879 species, the first zoea of M. subparallelum can be differentiated only by the number of aesthetascs and setae of the antennule (4 and 2, respectively. Recently, Macrocoeloma has been placed as an incertae sedis genus in Majoidea, closely allied to other Epialtidae and Pisinae members. The distinct spine in the distal segment of the endopod of the first maxilliped in the zoeal stages of Macrocoeloma is similar to what we observe in other Epialtidae genera, a character that supports the recent phylogenetic findings.

  3. First zoeal stage of Macrocoeloma subparallelum (Stimpson, 1860) (Decapoda: Brachyura: Majoidea) described from laboratory hatched material

    OpenAIRE

    Colavite,Jéssica; López,Regulo; Hernández,Jesús; Bolaños,Juan; Santana,William

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The morphology of the first zoeal stage of the decorator crab Macrocoeloma subparallelum (Stimpson, 1860) from Cuba is described and compared with the available descriptions for the genus. Among Macrocoeloma Miers, 1879 species, the first zoea of M. subparallelum can be differentiated only by the number of aesthetascs and setae of the antennule (4 and 2, respectively). Recently, Macrocoeloma has been placed as an incertae sedis genus in Majoidea, closely allied to other Epialtidae an...

  4. Cryopreservation of European catfish Silurus glanis sperm: Sperm motility, viability and hatching success of embryos

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Linhart, Otomar; Rodina, Marek; Flajšhans, Martin; Gela, David; Kocour, Martin

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 3 (2005), s. 250-261 ISSN 0011-2240 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/03/0178; GA AV ČR IBS5045314 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : fish * sperm * aquaculture Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.765, year: 2005

  5. Storage of Hatching Eggs : Effects of storage and early incubation conditions on egg characteristics, embryonic development, hatchability, and chicken quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijrink, I.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    Key words: egg storage, embryonic development, albumen quality, hatchability, chick quality

    It is well known that an increase in the storage duration increases incubation duration and decreases hatchability and chick quality. The negative effects of prolonged egg storage (> 7 days)

  6. 76 FR 19744 - Final Tropic to Hatch 138 kV Transmission Line Project Environmental Impact Statement and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-08

    ... area currently designated as Primitive Zone in the Monument Management Plan, and (b) changing the... information--may be made publicly available at any time. While you can ask us in your protest to withhold your...

  7. 76 FR 56791 - Notice of Availability of Record of Decision for the Tropic To Hatch (Garkane) 138 kV...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-14

    ... zoning decision in the MMP from Primitive Zone to a 300-foot-wide Passage Zone to accommodate an existing... the time your appeal is being reviewed by the Interior Board of Appeals, the petition for a stay must...

  8. Vitamin C supplementation enhances compact morulae formation but reduces the hatching blastocyst rate of bovine somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qian; Wang, Yong-Sheng; Wang, Li-Jun; Zhang, Hui; Li, Rui-Zhe; Cui, Chen-Chen; Li, Wen-Zhe; Zhang, Yong; Jin, Ya-Ping

    2014-08-01

    Vitamin C, an antioxidant that reduces reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cells, is capable of significantly improving the developmental competence of porcine and mouse somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryos, both in vitro and in vivo. In the present study, the effects of vitamin C on the developmental competence of bovine SCNT embryos were investigated. The results indicated that vitamin C (40 μg/mL) positively affected the scavenging of intracellular ROS, cleavage rate at 24 h (76.67 vs. 68.26%, pvitamin C supplementation did not significantly affect the blastocyst formation rate and proportion of inner cell mass over total cells per blastocyst on day 7. Moreover, vitamin C supplementation obviously impaired the total cell numbers per blastocyst (97.20 ± 11.35 vs. 88.57 ± 10.43, pVitamin C supplementation preferentially improved the viability of bovine SCNT embryos prior to the blastocyst stage, but did not enhance the formation and quality of blastocysts in vitro. In conclusion, the effect of vitamin C on the development of bovine SCNT embryos is complex, and vitamin C is not a suitable antioxidant chemical for the in vitro culture of bovine SCNT embryos.

  9. Effects of vitamin C on percent neurulation, hatch, growth, and survival of hybrid catfish challenged with virulent Edwardsiella ictaluri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) is an essential micronutrient involved in several physiological processes such as growth, reproduction, and immune response. Requirements of vitamin C during gamete formation and early life stages of catfish are not known. Ascorbic acid (1 mg/mL/kg BW) was administered in...

  10. Principle and design of hatch operation system for fish migrating upstream-downstream of the discharge sill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Răzvan G.Voicu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available To improve fish migration and restore local lotic ecosystems, it is necessary to consider the various current hydro-construction methods. There have been partial successes in systems that improve fish passage over various obstacles but new approaches that present more efficient solutions and international collaboration among specialists are required. This article deals with European themes of great interest; issues related to interruption of longitudinal connectivity in heavily modified water courses, and improving the ecological status of damaged lotic systems, with the goal of achieving the environmental objectives set forth by the Water Framework Directive 2000/60/EC (WFD and the national legislative framework regarding water policy (which reflects the European directives Water Law no. 107, with subsequent amendments, NT No. / 2006 OM 1163/2007, and discusses the obligation to ensure that construction works protect fish migration to maintain ecological balance in the reservoirs. It is possible to use this system in almost any fish-bearing stream, both upstream and downstream of maximum circulation, which makes the system an excellent solution for assisting and improving migration.

  11. Cryopreservation of turkey semen: effect of breeding line and freezing method on post-thaw sperm quality, fertilization, and hatching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cryopreservation methods for poultry semen are not reliable for germplasm preservation, especially for turkeys, where fertility rates from frozen/thawed semen are particularly low. The objective was to evaluate cryopreservation methods for effectiveness in promoting cryosurvival and post-thaw funct...

  12. Accelerated hatching of southern leopard frog (Rana sphenocephala) eggs in response to the presence of a crayfish Procambarus nigrocinctus predator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel Saenz; James B. Johnson; Cory K. Adams; Gage H. Dayton

    2003-01-01

    Phenotypic plasticity, such as morphological and behavioral changes in response to predators, is common in larval anurans. Less is known about inducible defenses in the embryonic stages of development. We investigated the predation risk imposed by crayfish (Procambarus nigrocinctus) on southern leopard frog (Rana sphenocephala)...

  13. AFSC/RACE/FBEP/Hurst: Effects of ocean acidification on hatch size and larval growth of walleye pollock (Theragra chalcogramma)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset is from laboratory experiments that examined the direct effects of projected levels of ocean acidification on the eggs and larvae of walleye pollock.

  14. Maternal thyroid hormones enhance hatching success but decrease nestling body mass in the rock pigeon (Columba livia)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hsu, Bin-Yan; Dijkstra, Cor; Darras, Veerle M.; Vries, de Bonnie; Groothuis, Ton G. G.

    2017-01-01

    Thyroid hormones (THs) - triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) - are essential for embryonic development in vertebrates. All vertebrate embryos are exposed to THs from maternal origin. As maternal TH levels are known to be essential to embryonic development, the natural variation of maternal THs

  15. 9 CFR 82.8 - Interstate movement of eggs, other than hatching eggs, from a quarantined area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... arrival of the eggs at the facility. (b) Any flats or cases intended for reuse after being used to move... part 71 of this chapter before being moved to a premises where birds or poultry are kept. [61 FR 56883... be moved interstate from a quarantined area only if: (1) The eggs are accompanied by a permit...

  16. Intraembryonic avian leukosis virus subgroup C (ALV-C) inoculation producing wasting disease in ducks soon after hatching

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stepanets, Volodymyr; Vernerová, Z.; Vilhelmová, Miloslava; Geryk, Josef; Plachý, Jiří; Hejnar, Jiří; Weichold, F.; Svoboda, Jan

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 2003, č. 49 (2003), s. 100-109 ISSN 0015-5500 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5052915 Keywords : Rous- sarcoma * virus * transformation Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.527, year: 2003

  17. Effect of storage in vitro and in soil on the hatch from cysts of the pigeonpea cyst nematode, Heterodera cajani

    OpenAIRE

    Gaur, H.S.; Beane, J.; Perry, R.N.

    1996-01-01

    L'éclosion et l'infestivité des juvéniles de deuxième stade (J2) issus de kystes du nématode à kyste du pois d'Angole, #Heterodera cajani$, ont été testées après que les kystes ont été exposés à une humidité relative (RH) de 0, 60, 80 et 100% pendant 3 semaines ou après avoir été stockés pendant au moins 12 mois dans un sol séché à l'air. Un retard dans l'éclosion a pu être mis en relation avec le temps de stockage et la RH. Les RH 80 et 100% ont moins d'influence sur l'éclosion que les RH 0 ...

  18. Protein Profiles for Muscle Development and Intramuscular Fat Accumulation at Different Post-Hatching Ages in Chickens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Liu

    Full Text Available Muscle development and growth influences the efficiency of poultry meat production, and is closely related to deposition of intramuscular fat (IMF, which is crucial in meat quality. To clarify the molecular mechanisms underlying muscle development and IMF deposition in chickens, protein expression profiles were examined in the breast muscle of Beijing-You chickens at ages 1, 56, 98 and 140 days, using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ. Two hundred and four of 494 proteins were expressed differentially. The expression profile at day 1 differed greatly from those at day 56, 98 and 140. KEGG pathway analysis of differential protein expression from pair-wise comparisons (day 1 vs. 56; 56 vs. 98; 98 vs. 140, showed that the fatty acid degradation pathway was more active during the stage from day 1 to 56 than at other periods. This was consistent with the change in IMF content, which was highest at day 1 and declined dramatically thereafter. When muscle growth was most rapid (days 56-98, pathways involved in muscle development were dominant, including hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, dilated cardiomyopathy, cardiac muscle contraction, tight junctions and focal adhesion. In contrast with hatchlings, the fatty acid degradation pathway was downregulated from day 98 to 140, which was consistent with the period for IMF deposition following rapid muscle growth. Changes in some key specific proteins, including fast skeletal muscle troponin T isoform, aldehyde dehydrogenase 1A1 and apolipoprotein A1, were verified by Western blotting, and could be potential biomarkers for IMF deposition in chickens. Protein-protein interaction networks showed that ribosome-related functional modules were clustered in all three stages. However, the functional module involved in the metabolic pathway was only clustered in the first stage (day 1 vs. 56. This study improves our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying muscle development and IMF deposition in chickens.

  19. Anticipating the free amino acid concentrations in newly hatched pelagic fish larvae based on recently fertilized eggs and temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rayner, Thomas Allan; Hwang, Jiang-Shiou; Hansen, Benni Winding

    2017-01-01

    between the species for different FAAs was low, and the most outstanding essential FAAs were leucine, lysine, valine and isoleucine while alanine and serine dominated non-essential FAAs. Overall, leucine could be regarded as the most important among all species due to its common occurrence in newly...... spawned eggs and fast rate of decay. Based on the functions considered in the present study, it is possible to anticipate the availability of FAA diet needed in the form of live feed for pelagic first feeding marine fish larvae in aquaculture at different temperatures....

  20. Effects of preincubation heating of broiler hatching eggs during storage, flock age, and length of storage period on hatchability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gucbilmez, M; Ozlü, S; Shiranjang, R; Elibol, O; Brake, J

    2013-12-01

    The effects of heating of eggs during storage, broiler breeder age, and length of egg storage on hatchability of fertile eggs were examined in this study. Eggs were collected from Ross 344 male × Ross 308 broiler breeders on paper flats, held overnight (1 d) at 18°C and 75% RH, and then transferred to plastic trays. In experiment 1, eggs were obtained at 28, 38, and 53 wk of flock age. During a further 10 d of storage, eggs either remained in the storage room (control) or were subjected to a heat treatment regimen of 26°C for 2 h, 37.8°C for 3 h, and 26°C for 2 h in a setter at d 5 of storage. In experiment 2, eggs from a flock at 28 wk of age were heated for 1 d of a 6-d storage period. Eggs from a 29-wk-old flock were either heated at d 1 or 5 of an 11-d storage period in experiment 3. In experiment 4, 27-wk-old flock eggs were heated twice at d 1 and 5 of an 11-d storage period. Control eggs stored for 6 or 11 d were coincubated as appropriate in each experiment. Heating eggs at d 5 of an 11-d storage period increased hatchability in experiment 1. Although no benefit of heating 28-wk-old flock eggs during 6 d of storage in experiment 2 was observed, heating eggs from a 29-wk-old flock at d 1 or 5 of an 11-d storage period increased hatchability in experiment 3. Further, heating eggs from a 27-wk-old flock twice during 11 d of storage increased hatchability in experiment 4. These effects were probably due to the fact that eggs from younger flocks had been reported to have many embryos at a stage of development where the hypoblast had not yet fully developed (less than EG-K12 to EG-K13), such that heating during extended storage advanced these embryos to a more resistant stage.

  1. Effects of pyriproxyfen and buprofezin on immature development, female oviposition, and egg-hatching in the stable fly

    Science.gov (United States)

    The stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae), is one of the most economically significant biting flies affecting cattle. Use of traditional insecticides have only limited success in control of stable flies largely due to the stable fly’s unique feeding behaviors and immature developm...

  2. Identification of Salmonella typhimurium Genes Required for Colonization of the Chicken Alimentary Tract and for Virulence in Newly Hatched Chicks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Arthur K.; Lovell, Margaret A.; Hulme, Scott D.; Zhang-Barber, Li; Barrow, Paul A.

    1998-01-01

    From a collection of 2,800 Tn5-TC1 transposon mutants of Salmonella typhimurium F98, 18 that showed reduced intestinal colonization of 3-week-old chicks were identified. The sites of transposon insertion were determined for most of the mutants and included insertions in the lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis genes rfaK, rfaY, rfbK, and rfbB and the genes dksA, clpB, hupA, and sipC. In addition, identification was made of an insertion into a novel gene that encodes a protein showing similarity to the IIC component of the mannose class of phosphoenolpyruvate-carbohydrate phosphotransferase systems, which we putatively called ptsC. Transduction of most of the transposon mutations to a fresh S. typhimurium F98 genetic background and construction of defined mutations in the rfbK, dksA, hupA, sipC, and ptsC genes of S. typhimurium F98 supported the role in colonization of all but the pts locus. The virulence of the rfbK, dksA, hupA, sipC, and ptsC defined mutants and clpB and rfaY transductants in 1-day-old chicks was tested. All but the ptsC and rfaY mutants were attenuated for virulence. A number of other phenotypes associated with some of the mutations are described. PMID:9573095

  3. 75 FR 3761 - Southern Nuclear Operating Company, Inc., Edwin I. Hatch Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-22

    ... effluents that affect radiation exposures to plant workers and members of the public. Therefore, no changes... socioeconomic resources. Therefore, no changes to or different types of non-radiological environmental impacts...

  4. 75 FR 69137 - Southern Nuclear Operating Company Inc. Edwin I. Hatch Nuclear Plant, Unit No. 2 Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-10

    ... no change to radioactive effluents that affect radiation exposures to plant workers and members of... socioeconomic conditions in the region. Therefore, no changes to or different types of non-radiological...

  5. Leaf litter of invasive Chinese tallow (Triadica sebifera) negatively affects hatching success of an aquatic breeding anuran, the southern leopard frog (Lithobates sphenocephalus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    C.K. Adams; D. Saenz

    2012-01-01

    Chinese tallow (Triadica sebifera (L.) Small) is an aggressive invasive tree species that can be abundant in parts of its non-native range. This tree species has the capability of producing monocultures, by outcompeting native trees, which can be in or near wetlands that are utilized by breeding amphibians. Existing research suggests that leaf litter from invasive...

  6. Studying respiratory rhythm generation in a developing bird: Hatching a new experimental model using the classic in vitro brainstem-spinal cord preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincen-Brown, Michael A; Whitesitt, Kaitlyn C; Quick, Forrest G; Pilarski, Jason Q

    2016-04-01

    It has been more than thirty years since the in vitro brainstem-spinal cord preparation was first presented as a method to study automatic breathing behaviors in the neonatal rat. This straightforward preparation has led to an incredible burst of information about the location and coordination of several spontaneously active microcircuits that form the ventrolateral respiratory network of the brainstem. Despite these advances, our knowledge of the mechanisms that regulate central breathing behaviors is still incomplete. Investigations into the nature of spontaneous breathing rhythmicity have almost exclusively focused on mammals, and there is a need for comparative experimental models to evaluate several unresolved issues from a different perspective. With this in mind, we sought to develop a new avian in vitro model with the long term goal to better understand questions associated with the ontogeny of respiratory rhythm generation, neuroplasticity, and whether multiple, independent oscillators drive the major phases of breathing. The fact that birds develop in ovo provides unparalleled access to central neuronal networks throughout the prenatal period - from embryo to hatchling - that are free from confounding interactions with mother. Previous studies using in vitro avian models have been strictly limited to the early embryonic period. Consequently, the details and even the presence of brainstem derived breathing-related rhythmogenesis in birds have never been described. In the present study, we used the altricial zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) and show robust spontaneous motor outflow through cranial motor nerve IX, which is first detectable on embryonic day four and continues through prenatal and early postnatal development without interruption. We also show that brainstem oscillations change dramatically over the course of prenatal development, sometimes within hours, which suggests rapid maturational modifications in growth and connectivity. We propose that this experimental preparation will be useful for a variety of studies aimed at testing the biophysical and synaptic properties of neurons that participate in the unique spatiotemporal patterns of avian breathing behaviors, especially in the context of early development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Diet of two invading gobiid species (Proterorhinus semilunaris and Neogobius melanostomus) during the breeding and hatching season: No field evidence of extensive predation on fish eggs and fry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vašek, Mojmír; Všetičková, Lucie; Roche, Kevin Francis; Jurajda, Pavel

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 46, March (2014), s. 31-36 ISSN 0075-9511 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP505/11/1768 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Invasive species * Trophic niche * Diet overlap * Egg predation * Competition * Ecological impact * Habitat modification Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.800, year: 2014

  8. Monozygotic twinning after in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection treatment is not related to advanced maternal age, intracytoplasmic sperm injection, assisted hatching, or blastocyst transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Wu

    2014-09-01

    Conclusion: Until definite conclusions are drawn from larger trials, patients receiving IVF should not be overly concerned about the increase in MZT risk when proceeding to various assisted reproductive procedures (i.e., ICSI, AH, and blastocyst transfer. However, there is some evidence that the incidence of monochorionic–monoamniotic twins may be significantly increased after IVF/ICSI cycles. Patients should be informed about the possible obstetric complications regarding this rare type of MZT.

  9. The Gene Ontology Differs in Bursa of Fabricius Between Two Breeds of Ducks Post Hatching by Enriching the Differentially Expressed Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Liu

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The bursa of Fabricius (BF is the central humoral immune organ unique to birds. The present study investigated the possible difference on a molecular level between two duck breeds. The digital gene expression profiling (DGE technology was used to enrich the differentially expressed genes (DEGs in BF between the Jianchang and Nonghua-P strains of ducks. DGE data identified 195 DEGs in the bursa. Gene Ontology (GO analysis suggested that DEGs were mainly enriched in the metabolic pathways and ribosome components. Pathways analysis identified the spliceosome, RNA transport, RNA degradation process, Jak-STAT signaling pathway, TNF signaling pathway and B cell receptor signaling pathway. The results indicated that the main difference in the BF between the two duck strains was in the capabilities of protein formation and B cell development. These data have revealed the main divergence in the BF on a molecular level between genetically different duck breeds and may help to perform molecular breeding programs in poultry in the future.

  10. Growth heterogeneity in broiler breeder pullets is settled before the onset of feed restriction but is not predicted by size at hatch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindholm, C.; Jönsson, J.; Calais, A.; Middelkoop, A.; Yngwe, N.; Berndtson, E.; Lees, J.J.; Hult, E.; Altimiras, J.

    2017-01-01

    Uniform growth is a desirable trait in all large-scale animal production systems because it simplifies animal management and increases profitability. In parental broiler flocks, so-called broiler breeders, low growth uniformity is largely attributed to the feed competition that arises from

  11. "His works forsake him as the birds forsake the nest in which they were hatched": on art, renouncement and death in Goethe’s Elective Affinities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Lasch

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available At the beginning of the second part of Goethe’s Elective Affinities the narrator draws a parallel between life and the stroke of art in the poet in order to replace, in an epic poem, the protagonists for figures hitherto scarcely observed, thereby justifying the increasing importance of the architect in the sequence of the novel. This young artist links to his art a hope for permanence, for survival. Ottilie disagrees in the notes of her diary. She sees in the ruins of the churches and the wreckage of the gravestones not only proof of the transitoriness of this life, but also of the extinction of a second existence post mortem: "Time will not allow itself to be cheated of its rights over men or over monuments". Based on Walter Benjamin’s essay on the Elective Affinities and considering another magnum opus by Goethe, Faust, this article discusses the aspects of art, renouncement and death in the poet’s work.

  12. Rates of oxygen uptake increase independently of changes in heart rate in late stages of development and at hatching in the green iguana, Iguana iguana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartori, Marina R; Abe, Augusto S; Crossley, Dane A; Taylor, Edwin W

    2017-03-01

    Oxygen consumption (VO 2 ), heart rate (f H ), heart mass (M h ) and body mass (M b ) were measured during embryonic incubation and in hatchlings of green iguana (Iguana iguana). Mean f H and VO 2 were unvarying in early stage embryos. VO 2 increased exponentially during the later stages of embryonic development, doubling by the end of incubation, while f H was constant, resulting in a 2.7-fold increase in oxygen pulse. Compared to late stage embryos, the mean inactive level of VO 2 in hatchlings was 1.7 fold higher, while f H was reduced by half resulting in a further 3.6 fold increase in oxygen pulse. There was an overall negative correlation between mean f H and VO 2 when data from hatchlings was included. Thus, predicting metabolic rate as VO 2 from measurements of f H is not possible in embryonic reptiles. Convective transport of oxygen to supply metabolism during embryonic incubation was more reliably indicated as an index of cardiac output (CO i ) derived from the product of f H and M h . However, a thorough analysis of factors determining rates of oxygen supply during development and eclosion in reptiles will require cannulation of blood vessels that proved impossible in the present study, to determine oxygen carrying capacity by the blood and arteriovenous oxygen content difference (A-V diff), plus patterns of blood flow. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Identification of differentially expressed genes in sexed pig embryos during post-hatching development in primiparous sows exposed to differing intermittent suckling and breeding strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Tsoi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of commercial pig breeding programs is to maximize the number of pigs produced per sow per year. Given that sows exhibit an estrus during lactation is a potential means of increasing productivity of a pig breeding herd without reducing in lactation length, conventionally, weaning of piglets at a relatively young age is often related to post-weaning piglet performance which compromises piglet welfare. Therefore, intermittent suckling (IS is a management technique in which lactating sows are separated from their piglets for a fixed period of the days and allowing sows to continue nursing piglets while exhibiting estrus and being breed during lactation, thereby promoting both piglet well-being and sow reproductive performance [1]. For this study, primiparous sows (PP were exposed to 28 day (D28 lactation with intermittent suckling (IS during the final week prior to weaning. The sows detected to be in estrus during lactation were either bred at this first estrus (FE during lactation (IS21FE, or were “skipped” and bred at their second estrus which occurred after final weaning at D28 (IS21SE. Despite the benefits of IS, the effects of the maternal physiology related to breeding during lactation on embryonic transcriptome are largely unknown. Recent advances in the ability to assess embryonic gene expression in both sexes have made these analyses possible. Here, we describe the experimental procedures of two color microarray analyses and annotation of differentially expressed (DE genes in detail corresponding to data deposited at NCBI in the Gene Expression Omnibus under accession number GSE53576 and GSE73020 for day 9 embryos (D9E and day 30 embryos (D30E respectively. Although only a few DE genes were discovered between IS21FE and IS21SE in both sexes from D9E or D30E, the raw data are still valuable for future use to understand the gene expression profiling from two different developmental stages.

  14. Effects of geolocators on hatching success, return rates, breeding movements, and change in body mass in 16 species of Arctic-breeding shorebirds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weiser, Emily L; Lanctot, Richard B.; Brown, Stephen C; Alves, José A.; Battley, Phil; Bentzen, Rebecca; Bêty, Joël; Bishop, Mary Anne; Boldenow, Megan; Bollache, Loïc; Casler, Bruce; Christie, Maureen; T. Coleman, Jonathan; Conklin, Jesse; B. English, Willow; Gates, H. River; Gilg, Olivier; Giroux, Marie-Andrée; Gosbell, Ken; Hassell, Chris J.; Helmericks, Jim; Johnson, Andrew; Katrínardóttir, Borgný; Koivula, Kari; Kwon, Eunbi; Lamarre, Jean-Francois; Lang, Johannes; Lank, David B.; Lecomte, Nicolas; Liebezeit, Joe; Loverti, Vanessa; McKinnon, Laura; Minton, Clive D. T.; Mizrahi, David; Minton, Clive D. T.; Nol, Erica; Pakanen, Veli-Matti; Perz, Johanna; Porter, Ron; Rausch, Jennie; Reneerkens, Jeroen; Rönkä, Nelli; Saalfeld, Sarah; Senner, Nathan; Sittler, Benoit; Smith, Paul A.; Sowl, Kristine; Taylor, Audrey; Ward, David H.; Yezerinac, Stephen; Sandercock, Brett K.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Geolocators are useful for tracking movements of long-distance migrants, but potential negative effects on birds have not been well studied. We tested for effects of geolocators (0.8–2.0 g total, representing 0.1–3.9 % of mean body mass) on 16 species of migratory shorebirds, including

  15. Histopathological responses of newly hatched larvae of whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus s.l.) to UV-B induced toxicity of retene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haekkinen, Jani; Vehniaeinen, Eeva; Oikari, Aimo

    2003-04-10

    Positively phototactic fish larvae may be exposed to increased ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation alone or, potentially and in addition, to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) such as retene (7-isopropyl-1-methylphenanthrene) at the egg or larval stages. Suspended and sedimental particulate material near pulp and paper mills may act as sources of retene in chemically contaminated lake areas. In laboratory conditions whitefish larvae were pre-exposed to retene (10, 32 and 100 {mu}g/l), with relevant controls, and irradiated in semi-static tests for 3 h once a day (2 consecutive days) with two UV-B doses (CIE-weighted 2.8 or 5.4 kJ per m{sup 2} per day) or with visible light only. These UV-B doses correspond with slightly subambient and 80% increases relative to the natural maximum daily doses of the solar UV-B in Finland in early May. The UV-B radiation alone increased mortality only slightly (2.7 and 4.0%, respectively). Similarly, no mortality was observed due to retene alone. On the contrary, simultaneous UV-B and retene exposure caused very high mortality to whitefish and all larvae died in the highest retene concentration. The photoinduced acute LC{sub 50} for retene was 13.3 {mu}g/l. Retene treated fish exhibited signs of behavioral irritation and hypoxia during and after the exposure to UV light. Severe skin damages were detected in larvae exposed simultaneously to retene and UV-B. The structural signs of sunburn could also be seen in UV-B and solvent controls (DMSO) with UV-B. Even at the lowest retene concentration, the number of mucous cells increased significantly in simultaneous chemical and UV-B treatment. We consider the tissue reaction as protective response against UV induced retene toxicity. Further, regarding liver parenchyma, fish exposed to retene with UV-B had lesions, revealing hepatotoxicity. We suggest that synergism of the UV-B radiation and the photoactivating pollutants such as retene is a potential risk factor to be taken into consideration in lake areas chemically contaminated by the pulp and paper industry.

  16. Histopathological responses of newly hatched larvae of whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus s.l.) to UV-B induced toxicity of retene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haekkinen, Jani; Vehniaeinen, Eeva; Oikari, Aimo

    2003-01-01

    Positively phototactic fish larvae may be exposed to increased ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation alone or, potentially and in addition, to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) such as retene (7-isopropyl-1-methylphenanthrene) at the egg or larval stages. Suspended and sedimental particulate material near pulp and paper mills may act as sources of retene in chemically contaminated lake areas. In laboratory conditions whitefish larvae were pre-exposed to retene (10, 32 and 100 μg/l), with relevant controls, and irradiated in semi-static tests for 3 h once a day (2 consecutive days) with two UV-B doses (CIE-weighted 2.8 or 5.4 kJ per m 2 per day) or with visible light only. These UV-B doses correspond with slightly subambient and 80% increases relative to the natural maximum daily doses of the solar UV-B in Finland in early May. The UV-B radiation alone increased mortality only slightly (2.7 and 4.0%, respectively). Similarly, no mortality was observed due to retene alone. On the contrary, simultaneous UV-B and retene exposure caused very high mortality to whitefish and all larvae died in the highest retene concentration. The photoinduced acute LC 50 for retene was 13.3 μg/l. Retene treated fish exhibited signs of behavioral irritation and hypoxia during and after the exposure to UV light. Severe skin damages were detected in larvae exposed simultaneously to retene and UV-B. The structural signs of sunburn could also be seen in UV-B and solvent controls (DMSO) with UV-B. Even at the lowest retene concentration, the number of mucous cells increased significantly in simultaneous chemical and UV-B treatment. We consider the tissue reaction as protective response against UV induced retene toxicity. Further, regarding liver parenchyma, fish exposed to retene with UV-B had lesions, revealing hepatotoxicity. We suggest that synergism of the UV-B radiation and the photoactivating pollutants such as retene is a potential risk factor to be taken into consideration in lake areas chemically contaminated by the pulp and paper industry

  17. IMPACT OF HATCH-DATE ON EARLY LIFE GROWTH AND SURVIVAL OF MUELLER’S PEARLSIDE (MAUROLICUS MUELLERI) LARVAE, AND LIFE-HISTORY CONSEQUENCES

    KAUST Repository

    Folkvord, Arild; Gundersen, Geir; Albretsen, Jon; Asplin, Lars L; Kaartvedt, Stein; Giske, Jarl

    2015-01-01

    and variable survival due to short term fluctuations in environmental conditions indicate that multiple batch spawning is an adequately evolved life history strategy for marine planktivorous fish such as M. muelleri.

  18. Shifts in hatch dates do not provide pied flycatchers with a rapid ontogenetic route to adjust offspring time schedules to climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ouwehand, Janne; Burger, Claudia; Both, Christiaan

    1. Environments change rapidly, and it is unclear whether organisms with complex life-styles, such as avian migrants, are able to adjust sufficiently. For understanding human impacts on ecosystem functioning, it is crucial to understand how well, and by which mechanisms species are able to adapt. 2.

  19. Comparison of percent hatch and fungal infestation in channel catfish eggs after copper sulfate, diquat bromide, formalin, and hydrogen peroxide treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reduced survival is often a result of fungal (Saprolegnia spp.) infestation of fish eggs. However, timely chemical treatments often limit these infestations and increase survival. The effect of copper sulfate pentahydrate (CSP - 10 mg/L), diquat bromide (25 mg/L diquat cation), formalin (433 mg/L)...

  20. Egg production and hatching success in the calanoid copepods Calanus helgolandicus and Calanus finmarchicus in the North Sea from March to September 2001

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonasdottir, Sigrun; Trung, N. H.; Hansen, F.

    2005-01-01

    of seston fatty acids. Seasonal and spatial distribution and production differed between the species. Calanus finmarchicus was found only offshore of the 50-m isobath, with decreasing E-r (37-28 eggs female(-1) day(-1)) from March to July. Calanus helgolandicus had two abundance peaks, in spring and autumn...

  1. Effects of hatching asynchrony on sibling negotiation, begging, jostling for position and within-brood food allocation in the barn owl Tyto alba

    OpenAIRE

    Roulin, A.

    2004-01-01

    When siblings differ markedly in their need for food, they may benefit from signalling to each other their willingness to contest the next indivisible food item delivered by the parents. This sib-sib communication system, referred to as 'sibling negotiation', may allow them to adjust optimally to investment in begging. Using barn owl (Two alba) broods. I assessed the role of within-brood age hierarchy on sibling negotiation, and in turn on jostling for position where parents predictably deliv...

  2. The determination of the real nano-scale sizes of bacteria in chernozem during microbial succession by means of hatching of a soil in aerobic and anaerobic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorbacheva, M.

    2012-04-01

    M.A. Gorbacheva,L.M. Polyanskaya The Faculty of Soil Science, Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory, GSP-1, Moscow,119991,Russia In recent years there's been particular attention paid to the smallest life's forms- bacteria which size can be measured in nanometer. These are the forms of bacteria with diameter of 5-200 nm. Theoretical calculations based on the content of the minimum number of DNA, enzyme, lipids in and ribosome in cells indicates impossibility of existence of a living cells within diameter less than 300 nm. It is theoretically possible for a living cell to exist within possible diameter of approximately 140 nm. Using a fluorescence microscope there's been indicated in a number of samples from lakes, rivers, soil, snow and rain water that 200 nm is the smallest diameter of a living cell. Supposingly, such a small size of bacteria in soil is determined by natural conditions which limit their development by nutritious substances and stress-factors. Rejuvenescence of nanobacteria under unfavourable natural conditions and stress-factors is studied in laboratory environment. The object of the current study has become the samples of typical arable chernozem of the Central Chernozem State Biosphere Reserve in Kursk. The detailed morphological description of the soil profile and its basic analytical characteristics are widely represented in scientific publications. The soil is characterized by a high carbon content which makes up 3,96% ,3,8% , and 2,9% for the upper layers of the A horizon, and 0,79% for the layer of the B horizon. A microbial succession was studied under aerobic and anaerobic conditions by means of experiments with microcosms in upper A horizons and B horizon of a chernozem. The final aim is to identify the cells size of bacteria in aerobic and anaerobic soil conditions in chernozem during the microbial succession, by dampening and application of chitin by means of «cascade filtration» method. The study of the microcosms is important for understanding natural mechanisms in soil and will be useful for the development of new soil models in laboratory. Thus, by means of «cascade filtration» method there've been made some results on true size, quantity and biomass of bacteria. Development of a bacteria in various soil horizons and their layers in aerobic and anaerobic conditions and calculations of biomass of bacteria in upper layer horizon A and lower layer horizon B have also become the subjects of the studies. It was identified that the quantity of bacteria in aerobic conditions increase during the microbial succession while bacteria sized 230 and 380 nm were dominating. In anaerobic conditions the process of connecting cells sized 170 nm and bacteria is observed. Biomass of bacteria is higher in anaerobic conditions in upper layer horizon A because of elevated variety of bacteria. In horizon B in anaerobic conditions it is of maximum because of anaerobic situation in situ. Thus, distribution of bacteria's size depends on aeration of soil. That helps to acknowledge the receipt of theory of a great number of researchers about that fact that the size of bacteria in the soil in anaerobic conditions decrease under stress-factors. This work touches upon such a poorly investigated subject as nanobacteria in the soil. But this knowledge plays a significant role in land reclamation oil-cut and prognostication pollution of the soil by pathogenic bacteria.

  3. Correlations among the Main Body Measurements in Pikeperch Larvae from 10 to 25 Days Post-Hatch, Obtained Out-Of-Season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Grozea

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The pikeperch (Sander lucioperca is one of the most valuable carnivorous fish species in Europe, and in Romania as well. In the literature there are no relevant data on growth dynamic and correlation among the main body measurements in pikeperch larvae obtained out-of-season and reared in recirculated aquaculture system (RAS. The aim of this study was to bring information for clarifying some of these aspects. Our results emphasized that correlation coefficient between maximum body high (H and total length (TL together with standard length (SL decrease linear from 10 to 25 DPH. The correlation coefficients between the main length measurements (TL and SL reveal a very high correlation between the two traits in pikeperch larvae. High correlations between body weight (BW and the other length measurements were observed.

  4. Development, Hatching, and Intestinal Establishment of Trichuris suis, - in vivo and in vitro Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejzagic, Nermina

    Trichuris suis, the pig whipworm is a nematode parasite located in the large intestine of pigs. Embryonated eggs of T. suis (T. suis ova = TSO) constitute the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) in a new medicinal product, which is currently tested in human clinical trials as a potential treat...

  5. The use of artificial spawning substrates in order to understand the factors influencing the spawning site selection, depth of egg strands deposition and hatching time of perch (Perca fluviatilis L.)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čech, Martin; Vejřík, L.; Peterka, Jiří; Říha, Milan; Muška, Milan; Jůza, Tomáš; Draštík, Vladislav; Kratochvíl, Michal; Kubečka, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 71, č. 1 (2012), s. 170-179 ISSN 1129-5767 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP206/09/P266 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : SCUBA diving * aquatic vegetation * lake management * common stonewort Chara vulgaris * Eurasian water milfoil Myriophyllum spicatum Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.473, year: 2012

  6. Response of male turkeys hatched from first-cycle and force-molted breeder hens to a regimen providing progressive feeds by weight and the value of increased lysine prior to marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, E T; Krueger, K K; Acar, N

    1992-11-01

    Male poults originating from 41- and 85-wk-old Nicholas Large White breeder turkey hens were compared using a six-feed system provided on the basis of weight. Each source of poult was compared further in its response to lysine at .65 and .80% in the final feed (14.5% CP and 3.40 kcal AMEn/g) before marketing at 18 wk of age. Poults from 85-wk-old hens were heavier at placement than those from 41-wk-old hens. Equalization of body weights occurred once the allotment of starting feed had been consumed and for the most part remained similar thereafter. Increasing lysine content of the final feed did not improve body weight of both sources of birds at marketing (P < .13). Feed conversions included accrued mortality, and treatment differences were not apparent. Commercial processing of the flock and measurements on sample birds indicated no ready differences in chilled carcass yield nor proportions of parts occurred among treatments. The overall effects of breeder age with the progeny were negligible, and the .65% level of lysine that presently serves as the 1984 National Research Council minimum requirement when associated with 14% CP and 3.30 kcal/g appears to be adequate for the Nicholas strain of turkey from 16 to 18 wk of age.

  7. Effects of feed access after hatch and inclusion of fish oil and medium chain fatty acids in a pre-starter diet on broiler chicken growth performance and humoral immunity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamot, D.M.; Klein, van der S.A.S.; Linde, van de I.B.; Wijtten, P.J.A.; Kemp, B.; Brand, van den H.; Lammers, A.

    2016-01-01

    Delayed feed and water access is known to impair growth performance of day old broiler chickens. Although effects of feed access on growth performance and immune function of broilers have been examined before, effects of dietary composition and its potential interaction with feed access are

  8. The 1984 ARI Survey of Army Recruits: Tabular Description of NPS Army Reserve Accessions. Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-05-01

    12 PROB. 0.1867 I 186 T261 — NATCH TV PROG’NBA BASKETBALL NARK ONE LETTER FOR EACH OF THE FOLLOWING PROGRAMS OR PROGRAMMING TYPES ON TV: NBA ...Major league baseball — regular seaaon games 105. Major league baaaball playoffs 106. World Series 107. NBA baaketball 106. College basketball 109...BASEBALL PLAYOFFS HATCH TV PROG:WORLD SERIES HATCH TV PROG:NBA BASKETBALL HATCH TV PROG:COLLEGE BASKETBALL HATCH TV PROG:NHL HOCKEY HATCH TV

  9. Effect of pre-incubation and incubation conditions on hatchability

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    Mukono Zonal Agricultural Research and Development Institute (MUZARDI),. P. O. Box 164 ... affect hatch time, hatchability and hatch window (temperature, humidity, turning, and ventilation) ..... were significantly heavier at market age; but this ...

  10. Life-cycle of the African nightcrawler, Eudrilus eugeniae (Oligochaeta)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1988-03-31

    Mar 31, 1988 ... producer, the life history of this species was studied. The development ... hatching success of 84% and 2,7 hatchlings per cocoon that hatched. Sexual ... The experimental work was conducted ... Sartorius analytical balance.

  11. 29 CFR Appendix V to Part 1918 - Basic Elements of a First Aid Training Program (Non-mandatory)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... principles and first aid intervention in: a. human and animal (especially dog and snake) bites. b. bites and...) Pontoons .43(a)(1), (e) Hatch, Protection around Open Hatch .35 Hazard Communication .1(b)(4), .90...

  12. Effects of reservoir hydrology on reproduction by largemouth bass and spotted bass in Normandy Reservoir, Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammons, S.M.; Dorsey, L.G.; Bettoli, P.W.; Fiss, F.C.

    1999-01-01

    Age-O largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides and spotted bass M. punctulatus were collected from Normandy Reservoir, Tennessee, 1992-1996, to evaluate effects of reservoir hydrology and hatching of shad Dorosoma spp. on hatching and first-year growth and survival of these two species. Fish were collected in cove rotenone samples in early August and electrofishing samples biweekly throughout the summer; hatch dates and age-specific growth for both species were determined from cove samples with sagittal otoliths. Hatching of both species ranged from early April to early June. Initiation of largemouth bass spawning, but not spotted bass spawning, was positively related to the first day water levels achieved full pool. Mean hatch dates of both species were positively related to the first day of full pool. Timing of spawning for both species was not related to water temperature, Largemouth bass exhibited bimodal length-frequency distributions by midsummer in two wet years and length frequencies were unimodal in dry years; spotted bass always formed unimodal length-frequency distributions. When largemouth bass exhibited bimodal length distributions, earlier hatched fish grew faster than later hatched fish. Spotted bass grew at similar rates, regardless of hatch date, every year except during 1992 when later hatched fish grew faster than earlier hatched fish. Weekly survival of largemouth bass in their first summer was positively related to reservoir water level. First-year growth of both species was not directly affected by the timing of threadfin shad D. petenense or gizzard shad D. cepedianum hatching.

  13. PENERAPAN SISTEM KAWIN SODOK DAN MESIN TETAS MENINGKATKAN PRODUKTIVITAS AYAM BURAS SEBAGAI HEWAN UPAKARA DI DESA JIMBARAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wirapartha M

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This community service was conducted under the litle “Aplication Of Hand Breeding Systems and Hatching Machine Tecnology in an Effort to Reduce Raising Costs and Improve Productivity of Domestic Chicken (Buras Chiken as Ceremony Poultry in Jimbaran Village” on Friday, September 16 , 2011. Education and training aims to improve knowledge and skills of raisers in the village of Jimbaran in intoducing and applying hand breeding system and use of technology in domestic poultry hatching machine. In achieving this goal, the methodes used by 1 providing information about the hand breeding system in domestic chickens, hatching machine technologi and its benefits, 2 training on how to use hand breeding system to domestic chiken and use of hatching machine correctly and practically, 3 giving assistance in the form of papers on the management of the use of hatching machines, providing hatching eggs, chiken hatching machine, observation of chicken eggs, chicken hatching machine, observation of chicken eggs, roosters and hens. The result of this training with 40 participants was very good. All participants who were present, as people in Br. Mekar Sari Simpangan, Jimbaran Village, Bandung had never seen this system before and never applied the breeding system and hatching machine technology. People were very enthusiastic, it was proven from the questions asked and in general the participants were able to understand such technology on how to use hatching machine and the hand breeding system in domestic poultry.

  14. Toxicities of diuron and irgarol on the hatchability and early stage development of Artemia salina

    OpenAIRE

    ALYÜRÜK, Hakan; ÇAVAŞ, Levent

    2013-01-01

    Booster biocides are widely used in antifouling paints as bioactive agents against fouling organisms. In previously published reports, acute toxicity tests on Artemia salina (Linnaeus, 1758) were only focused on a part of the life cycle of the organism. The aim of this study was to investigate the toxicities of diuron and irgarol on the hatching stage of A. salina. According to the results, diuron significantly decreased the hatching percentage of A. salina cysts and prevented the hatching of...

  15. First week nutrition for broiler chickens

    OpenAIRE

    Lamot, David

    2017-01-01

    During the first week of life, broiler chickens undergo various developmental changes that are already initiated during incubation. Ongoing development of organs such as the gastro- intestinal tract and the immune system may affect the nutritional requirements during this age period. Despite the residual yolk that is available at hatch and that may provide nutritional support during the first days after hatch, the growth performance may be affected by the time in between hatch and first feed ...

  16. Airlocks in the containment of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    An equipment hatch according to this regulator is a pressure-resisting and technically gas-tight hollow body which is connected with the containment and has got two doors, the inner door connecting the inner space of the hatch with the interior of the containment and the outer door connecting the inner space of the hatch with the exterior. It is exclusively destinied for the transport of material or objects and not of persons. (orig./HP) [de

  17. Dry season juvenile growth and physiological parameters in exotic and Nigerian indigenous chicken

    OpenAIRE

    Oke, O.E.; Obanla, L.O.; Onagbesan, O.M.

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated early growth and plasma hormonal profile in exotic strains of broiler and Nigerian indigenous chicken. A total of 1200 hatching eggs, 300 each from four strains of chicken were used for this study. The strains included the Nigerian indigenous chicken (NIC), the Arbor acre, Hubbard, and Marshall broiler strains. Chicks weights were monitored weekly. Blood samples were collected at hatch (day-old), weeks 1, 2, 3 and 4 post-hatch for triiodothyronine (T3) and corticosterone ...

  18. PENGARUH PENAMBAHAN MEKAINISME PEMUTAR PADA LAJU PEMBALIKAN TELUR TETAS

    OpenAIRE

    Sunaryo, Sunaryo

    2016-01-01

    One of the success factor for hatching egg was egg turning on home made egg hatcher classification. These were average four egg turnings needed to hatching egg during 70% days of hatching times. For egg turning, if conducted one by one, there were opportunities off falling off, moreover leads to failure and longer period of time. Using hollistic approach on egg turning, that were added on egg turning tools, the egg turning can be done as whole series in less than two seconds.

  19. Pengaruh Penambahan Mekainisme Pemutar pada Laju Pembalikan Telur Tetas

    OpenAIRE

    Sunaryo, Sunaryo

    2015-01-01

    One of the success factor for hatching egg was egg turning on home made egg hatcher classification. These were average four egg turnings needed to hatching egg during 70% days of hatching times. For egg turning, if conducted one by one, there were opportunities off falling off, moreover leads to failure and longer period of time. Using hollistic approach on egg turning, that were added on egg turning tools, the egg turning can be done as whole series in less than two seconds.

  20. Development of Adaptive Management Tools to Guide Habitat Allocations for At-Risk Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    J. Saccheri, R. Leblois, S. J. Kemp, D. J. Thompson. 2007. Compatible genetic and ecological estimates of dispersal rates in insect (Coenagrion...a fixed probability to determine mortality, nest predation and successful hatching . The father of each egg is selected randomly with replacement...professional judgment Successful hatch Probability of an egg hatching successfully Probability Constant 0.79 Landers et al. 1980, Butler and Hull 1996, Demuth

  1. Effects on the Growth and Survival of Eggs and Embryos of the California Grunion (Leuresthes tenuis) Exposed to Trace Levels of Tributyltin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-05-01

    postfertilization exposure of grunion eggs to low doses of TBT has no effect on hatch success or notochord length at time of hatch. 2. No = exposure of...grunion eggs and sperm during fertilization and sub- sequent low-level dose incubation has no effect on fertilization, hatch suc- cess, or notochord ...clean glass vials for stor- -.- - age. Ten randomly selected larvae from each replicate were also measured for notochord length and examined for

  2. Xenopus laevis embryos and tadpoles as models for testing for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The toxicity of bio available Zn, Cu, Pb, and Cd on the life stages of Xenopus laevis embryos and tadpoles was investigated. Cu and Cd were found to affect the hatching success of the embryos, with a strong negative relationship existing between the increase in Cu concentrations and the hatching of the embryos.

  3. Effects of Methanolic Extracts from the Leaves of Brimstone, Cassia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of Methanolic Extracts from the Leaves of Brimstone, Cassia, Lemon Grass and Chanca Piedra on Meloidogyne Incognita in the Laboratory. ... and the highest level (20%) of aqueous extracts of all test plants completely inhibited egg hatch while the control (distilled water only) recorded 93% commulative egg hatch.

  4. 50 CFR 15.23 - Permits for zoological breeding or display programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... parental birds, and hatch date; and (ii) If the applicant is not the breeder, documentation showing the... disposition of the exotic birds and any progeny. (5) A description of the care and maintenance of the exotic... records for the last two years, including hatching, survival, and mortality records; and (iii) Causes of...

  5. 50 CFR 15.24 - Permits for cooperative breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... breeder, when known, the identity of the parental birds and hatch date; and (ii) If the applicant is not... species from stock available in the United States; (7) A description of the care and maintenance of the...) Hatching, survival, and mortality records; (iii) Causes of any mortalities and efforts made to correct any...

  6. Visual Showcase: An Illustrative Data Graphic in an 18th-19th Century Style

    OpenAIRE

    Dragicevic, Pierre; Bach, Benjamin; Dufournaud, Nicole; Huron, Samuel; Isenberg, Petra; Jansen, Yvonne; Perin, Charles; Spritzer, André; Vuillemot, Romain; Willett, Wesley; Isenberg, Tobias

    2013-01-01

    Extended abstract and exhibition piece; International audience; We exhibit an data graphic poster that emulates the style of historic hand-made visualizations of the 18th -19th century. Our visualization uses real data and employs style elements such as an emulation of ink lines, hatching and cross-hatching, appropriate typesetting, and unique style of computer-assisted facial drawings.

  7. Development of homeothermy in chicks of sub-Antarctic burrowing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    On average, chicks of grey petrels, great-winged petrels and Salvin's prions attained homeothermy within five days of hatching, but some individuals exhibited well-developed homeothermy within 24 h of hatching. Chicks demonstrated a high capacity for heat production and maximum cold-induced oxygen consumptions ...

  8. Contaminated Larval and Adult Lesser Mealworms, Alphitobius diaperinus (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae)can Transmit Salmonella Typhimurium in a Broiler Flock

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ability of the lesser mealworm, Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer), commonly known as the darkling beetle, to transmit a marker strain Salmonella Typhimurium to day-of-hatch broiler chicks was evaluated, as well as the spread to non-challenged pen mates. Day-of-hatch chicks were orally gavaged wit...

  9. Studies on transplantation of marine turtle nests at Karachi coast (Sindh), Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Firdous, F.

    2011-01-01

    Egg clutches of two species of marine turtles, namely Chelonia mydas and Lepidochelys olivacea, were collected during 1974 to 1997 and transplanted to the protected enclosures. The emerging hatching were released to the natural environment. The experiment helped to produce an average of 19495.5 hatch lings per year of green and 1174.5 per year of olive ridley turtles. (author)

  10. Sperm depletion does not account for undeveloped eggs in blue tits Cyanistes caeruleus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schut, Elske; Vedder, Oscar; Komdeur, Jan; Magrath, Michael J. L.

    Hatching failure negatively impacts reproductive success in birds. One reason why eggs fail to hatch is that they are not fertilized, which may be because they receive insufficient sperm. In most passerines, copulation declines in frequency or ceases altogether after the laying of the first egg, so

  11. Pathogenecity of Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    two spotted spider mites, Tetranychus urticae, effect of temperature on virulence, as well as ... It has become a big challenge to maintain quality of products and compete in ... Data were collected on the number of hatched and un-hatched eggs.

  12. RESEARCH NOTE THE LIKELY EFFICMNCY OF PRENATAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A solution to this problem is to estimate the energy content of the animal body at birth e.g.by the use of a regression equation relating birth mass and body ... adiabetic bomb calorimeter, and 38 were hatched in an incubator. Of the latter 30 were infertile, 6 died during incubation, while only 2 eggs hatched. In spite of this.

  13. Learning to Teach--Gill's Story

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatch, Gill; Rowland, Tim

    2006-01-01

    Gill Hatch was a very fine mathematician. Indeed, following her undergraduate studies in Cambridge in the late 1950s, she was one of the elite who went on to the notoriously difficult Part III of the Mathematical Tripos. In this article, the author describes the autobiographical accounts of Hatch during her teaching career in teacher education, as…

  14. Stress Effects in Channel Catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) Fry on Pond Survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Results from previous studies suggested that channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) fry that were housed in very high traffic areas from hatch until reaching 9 g in size were able to survive experimental challenge with Edwardsiella ictaluri better than siblings who were hatched and raised in very low...

  15. Effects of nymph-overwintering grasshopper density on Ageneotettix deorum survival in a northern mixed grassland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although most pest grasshopper species in North America hatch in late spring or early summer, some species hatch in late summer and become adults in late spring. It is not well understood how they impact densities of later developing pest grasshopper species. In an earlier study examining temporall...

  16. Anthelminthic efficacy of aqueous extracts of Garcina kola seed and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    At the 100mg/ml concentration of each extract, the reduction in egg hatch was comparable to those obtained with various dilutions of levamisole and albendazole both of which showed 100% reduction in egg hatch. The extracts therefore showed promise for use as possible anthelminthic for the regular treatment and control ...

  17. Effects of gamma radiation on codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), eggs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansour, M.; Mohamad, F

    2005-01-01

    The radiosensitivity of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), eggs in different stages of development was studied. Eggs ranging in age from 1-24 to 97-120 h were exposed, at 24 h intervals, to gamma radiation doses ranging from 10 to 350 Gy. The effects of gamma radiation on egg hatch, pupation and adult emergence was examined. Results showed that the radiosensitivity of codling moth eggs decreased with increasing age. Egg hatch in 1-24 h old eggs was significantly affected at 20 Gy dose and at 60 Gy dose, egg hatch decreased to about 1%. At the age of 25-48 h, however, egg hatch at 60 Gy dose was about 10%, and egg sensitivity to gamma irradiation decreased significantly in the 49-72 h age group; 60 Gy dose had no significant effect on egg hatch. Eggs irradiated few hours before hatch (at the blackhead stage), were the most resistant ones; 100 Gy had no significant effect on egg hatch and at 350 Gy dose over 56% of the eggs hatched. When adult emergence was used as a criterion for measuring effectiveness, however, the effect of gamma radiation was very sever. A dose of 60 Gy completely prevented adult emergence and at 100 Gy dose all resulted larvae died before pupation. (Author)

  18. Effects of gamma radiation on codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), eggs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansour, M.; Mohamad, F.

    2004-01-01

    The radiosensitivity of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), eggs in different stages of development was studied. Eggs ranging in age from 1-24 to 97-120 h were exposed, at 24 h intervals, to gamma radiation doses ranging from 10 to 350 Gy. The effects of gamma radiation on egg hatch, pupation and adult emergence was examined. Results showed that the radiosensitivity of codling moth eggs decreased with increasing age. Egg hatch in 1-24 h old eggs was significantly affected at 20 Gy dose and at 60 Gy dose, egg hatch decreased to about 1%. At the age of 25-48 h, however, egg hatch at 60 Gy dose was about 10%, and egg sensitivity to gamma irradiation decreased significantly in the 49-72 h age group; 60 Gy dose had no significant effect on egg hatch. Eggs irradiated few hours before hatch (at the blackhead stage), were the most resistant ones; 100 Gy had no significant effect on egg hatch and at 350 Gy dose over 56% of the eggs hatched. When adult emergence was used as a criterion for measuring effectiveness, however, the effect of gamma radiation was very sever. A dose of 60 Gy completely prevented adult emergence and at 100 Gy dose all resulted larvae died before pupation

  19. Seasonal dynamics of Daphnia laevisBirge, 1878 ephippia in a tropical lake with a description of a new methodology for in situ evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LPM Brandão

    Full Text Available The effect of dormancy in zooplankton populations is still unknown, largely because of the lack of methods to estimate hatching and production of the dormant stages. This study aimed to compare the production and hatching rates of ephippia of Daphnia laevis between thermal stratification and mixing periods in Jacaré Lake (Middle Rio Doce, Minas Gerais, Brazil. For this, we collected ephippia on the sediment with core sampler and we created a device called the “Ephippial Collector”. There was a significant difference in ephippia hatching in situ between stratification and mixing periods (Pearson's Chi-squared test p <0.001, being higher in the second one. Significant differences in the hatching rates between periods was observed in the laboratory only for ephippia collected with Ephippial Collectors (Pearson's Chi-squared test p <0.001, being higher during the mixing period (∼8%. The core sample allows the collection of a certain fraction of the sediment that may contain a mixture of ephippia produced in different periods, i.e., may contain old and not viable ephippia, which masks the hatching rate. Thus, seasonality in hatching rates of ephippia was reported only by Ephippial Collectors. The higher hatching rate observed during the mixing period in the lake suggests that individuals hatched from ephippia may contribute to the increase in the population of D. laevis in the water column at this time.

  20. Effects of territory quality, food availability and sibling competition on the fledging success of oystercatchers (Haematopus ostralegus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heg, Dik; van der Velde, Marco

    We investigated the fledging probability of oystercatcher, Haematopus ostralegus, chicks as a function of hatching order, brood size, territory quality and food availability. Sibling dominance was related to the hatching order in both low- ('leapfrogs') and high-quality ('residents') territories.

  1. Embryonic cold storage capability from seven strains of Acartia spp. isolated in different geographical areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Benni Winding; Buttino, Isabella; Cunha, Maria Emilia

    2016-01-01

    practically for establishing an egg bank, where embryos can be kept alive and hatched at a later time. The stored embryos can be shipped to end-users and the hatched nauplii used directly as live feed as well as they can be used to establish new copepod cultures. Acartia tonsa (Dana) is a cosmopolite...

  2. Penguin Chicks Benefit from Elevated Yolk Androgen Levels under Sibling Competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poisbleau, Maud; Mueller, Wendt; Carslake, David; Demongin, Laurent; Groothuis, Ton G. G.; Van Camp, Jeff; Eens, Marcel; Müller, Martina S.; Roelofs, Yvonne; Erikstad, Kjell Einar; Deschner, Tobias; Müller, Wendt; Reina, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Crested penguins (genus Eudyptes) have a peculiar hatching pattern, with the first-laid egg (A-egg) hatching after the second-laid egg (B-egg) and chicks from A-eggs typically having a much lower survival probability. Maternal yolk androgens have been suggested to contribute to the competitive

  3. Early development of Calanus glacialis and C. finmarchicus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jung-Madsen, Signe; Nielsen, Torkel Gissel

    2015-01-01

    was highly significant (r2> 0.99). There was little difference between hatching and development rates of the two species; however, the egg hatching rate at low temperatures was faster than predicted from measurements made in other areas. Also nauplii development times at 0 °C were similar, with C. glacialis...

  4. Great tit hatchling sex ratios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lessells, C.M.; Mateman, A.C.; Visser, J.

    1996-01-01

    The sex of Great Tit Parus major nestlings was determined using PCR RAPDs. Because this technique requires minute amounts of DNA, chicks could be sampled soon (0-2d) after hatching, before any nestling mortality occurred. The proportion of males among 752 chicks hatching in 102 broods (98.9% of

  5. Environment Assessment for Grand Bay Range, Bemiss Field, and Moody Explosive Ordnance Disposal Range Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    were potentially linked to a mass hatch failure of Sooty Terns on the Dry Tortugas (Austin et al. 1970). The cause of the failure was not certain, but...W.B. Robertson, Jr., and G.B. Wolfenden. 1970. Mass Hatching Failure in Dry Tortugas Sooty Terns (Sterna fuscata). Proceedings of the XVth

  6. Pathogenecity of Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    emulsifiable formulation on two-spotted spider mite, T. urticae. Weibin and. Mingguang (2004) found that both B. bassiana and Paecilomyces fumosoroseus infections decreased the hatch rates of Tetranychus cinnanarinus eggs and the higher the conidial concentrations resulted in greater reduction in the hatch rates.

  7. Seasonal variation in food supply and breeding success in European Coots Fulica atra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinkhof, M.W.G.

    1997-01-01

    Chick survival in the European Coot typically shows a convex seasonal pattern. Previous experiments revealed that this pattern is directly linked to hatching date and that food supply within the first ten days after hatching is a causal factor in this relationship. However, the precise mechanism

  8. Are all eggs equal?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nangsuay, A.

    2016-01-01

    Hatching eggs, supplied to hatcheries are originating from different origins varying in breed, strain, and breeder age. These hatching eggs can be different in size, composition and eggshell properties, which might influence nutrient and O2 availability and consequently could affect embryonic

  9. Performance of Pekin ducks subjected to qualitative feed restriction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lysine diet was the high mortality rate. If this can be overcome ... consumed is well below the requirement of the bird for lysine. (Lee, Gulliver & Morris .... The hatch was taken off on the 29th day. Egg numbers, infertile eggs, fertile eggs, dead embryos and ducklings hatched were recorded for each of the pens. Where possible ...

  10. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ansistf-lewis

    However, this is the recommended procedure for rearing spring-hatched birds in non- ... And so the normal advice for lighting spring-hatched pullets kept .... After 40 weeks of age, each group had its allocation reduced by 5 g/bird for each 5% decline in rate of lay. There were no significant interactions of feeding treatment ...

  11. Miracidial infectivity of snail host ( Bulinus truncatus ) in the laboratory

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Miracidial infectivity rate of snail Bulinus truncatus collected from Agulu Lake was studied in the laboratory. The snails were maintained in the laboratory and eggs deposited were allowed to hatch and dates noted until snails of different ages were produced. These snails were consequently exposed to miracidia hatched ...

  12. Reproductive ecology of the Cattle Egret ( Bubulcus ibis ) at Sidi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... 0.18 chicks per nest survived to 12–15d of age. Growth curves of developing nestlings were estimated from repeated measurements of mass, tarsus, head and beak length, and wingspan. The last chicks (C- and D-chicks) to hatch had lower growth rates and/or survivorship than the first (A-) or second (B-) hatched chicks.

  13. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aa

    Hatchability of fertile eggs (%) = (Number of poults hatched / Number of fertile eggs) x 100;. Surplus poult rate (%) = (Number of surplus poults / Number of fertile eggs) x 100;. Abnormality rate (%) = (Number of poults with abnormalities / Total number of poults hatched) x 100;. The South African Journal of Animal Science is ...

  14. Early and late feathering in Turkey and chicken

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derks, Martijn F.L.; Herrero-Medrano, Juan M.; Crooijmans, Richard P.M.A.; Vereijken, Addie; Long, Julie A.; Megens, Hendrik Jan; Groenen, Martien A.M.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Sex-linked slow (SF) and fast (FF) feathering rates at hatch have been widely used in poultry breeding for autosexing at hatch. In chicken, the sex-linked K (SF) and k+ (FF) alleles are responsible for the feathering rate phenotype. Allele K is dominant and a partial duplication of the

  15. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Schalk Cloete

    Selection for an increased reproduction rate would thus not lead to an unwanted (downwards) correlated ... for reproduction rate, whereby male and female progeny of pairs with a good reproduction rate were the ... averaged within hatching years and regressed on year of hatch, to indicate genetic progress in the flock. No.

  16. evaluation of layer type chickens under reciprocal recurrent

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    Percentage heterosis for ASM was negative for all crossbred groups and was ... have identical gene frequency which causes the ... effect of ith hatch eij. = random error (error terms were assumed to be randomly and normally distributed with expectation equals to zero). Where hatch was found to have a significant effect,.

  17. THE SHELF LIFE OF BIRD EGGS: TESTING EGG VIABILITY USING A TROPICAL CLIMATE GRADIENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    STEVEN R. BEISSINGER; MARK I. COOK; WAYNE J. ARENDT

    2005-01-01

    Avian parents influence the onset of development, hatching synchrony, and likelihood of brood reduction through the onset of incubation. Studies testing adaptive functions of brood reduction assume that eggs are protected by their shells and waiting for parents to initiate incubation in a manner that creates optimal hatching patterns, but the viability of early laid...

  18. Microbial infection affects egg viability and incubation behavior in a tropical passerine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark I. Cook; Steven R. Beissinger; Gary A. Toranzos; Roberto A. Arendt Rodriguez

    2004-01-01

    Many avian species initiate incubation before clutch completion, which causes eggs to hatch asynchronously. This influences brood competitive dynamics and often results in nestling mortality. The prevailing hypotheses contend that parents incubate early because asynchronous hatching provides fitness benefits to parents or surviving offspring. An alternative idea is...

  19. Modeling winter moth Operophtera brumata egg phenology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salis, Lucia; Lof, Marjolein; Asch, van Margriet; Visser, Marcel E.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the relationship between an insect's developmental rate and temperature is crucial to forecast insect phenology under climate change. In the winter moth Operophtera brumata timing of egg-hatching has severe fitness consequences on growth and reproduction as egg-hatching has to match

  20. Modeling winter moth Operophtera brumata egg phenology: nonlinear effects of temperature and developmental stage on developmental rate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salis, Lucia; Lof, Marjolein; Van Asch, M.; Visser, Marcel E.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the relationship between an insect's developmental rate and temperature is crucial to forecast insect phenology under climate change. In the winter moth Operophtera brumata timing of egg-hatching has severe fitness consequences on growth and reproduction as egg-hatching has to match

  1. 77 FR 28638 - OSC Forms And Survey Renewal for FY 2012-Request for Comment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-15

    ... employees; and (2) the interpretation and enforcement of Hatch Act provisions on political activity in... Possible Prohibited Political Activity (Violation of the Hatch Act)); (4) Office of Special Counsel (OSC... seeking assistance was fully apprised of their rights; (2) determine whether the individual was successful...

  2. 75 FR 27456 - Standards of Conduct

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-17

    ... communication rules. 9. Proposed Removal of Current 11 CFR 7.11--Political and Organization Activity The Hatch... political activity by Commissioners and Commission employees has been supplanted by the Hatch Act Reform....2(d) would operate similarly. Proposed section 7.2(e) defines ``ex parte communication'' for the...

  3. Resting egg production induced by food limitation in the calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drillet, Guillaume; Hansen, Benni W.; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Three populations of the copepod Acartia tonsa, two from the Baltic Sea and one from the U.S. East Coast, were compared for resting egg production at conditions of saturating and limiting food availability. All three populations produced eggs that hatched within 72 h when incubated at 17°C...... (subitaneous eggs), but the two Baltic populations in addition produced eggs that hatched at a much slower rate, in the course of a month (delayed hatching eggs [DHE]). Such eggs were not produced by the U.S. population. The fraction of DHE increased when food was limiting. Females from a Baltic population...... that were incubated individually all produced subitaneous eggs, but about half the females consistently also produced DHE. Cold storage that mimicked boreal winter conditions synchronized the hatching of DHE after extended storage, indicating that spring hatching of DHE might seed the water column...

  4. Umur glas eel (Anguilla spp. yang masuk muara Sungai Progo Yogyakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agung Budiharjo

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The leptocephalus drift with sea currents and moving from spawning area into coastal area near mouth of Progo River. In thecoastal area, leptocephalus metamorfosed into glass eel, after that glass eel migrated to river. The aims of this research were to estimate glass eels age and predict hatching dates. Glass eels sampled on new moon during Februari 2007-Mei 2009 at mouth of Progo River.Glass eel ages estimated using their otolith micro structure. Hatching dates predicted with back calculation of glass eels age. We collected 1.082 glass eels. The ages of glass eel at recruit ranged from 58 to 190 days, and divided into 5 age groups. Glass eels are migrated to river hatched on a "new moon" from July to January. Glass eels are migrated to river during October-January hatched during July-October. Glass eels are migrated to river during February-Juny hatched during November-January.

  5. Changes of Protein and Lipid Contents, Amino Acid and Fatty Acid Compositions in Eggs and Yolk-Sac Larvae of American Shad ( Alosa sapidissima)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhifeng; Gao, Xiaoqiang; Yu, Jiuxiang; Wang, Yaohui; Guo, Zhenglong; Huang, Bin; Liu, Baoliang; Hong, Lei

    2018-04-01

    To investigate the changes of the biochemical composition of American shad ( Alosa sapidissima) eggs and larvae at embryonic and early larval stages, samples were collected at different development stages from artificial fertilization to the end of yolk absorption including 2 h, 12 h and 30 h after fertilization and newly hatched larvae including 1 and 3 days after hatching. The composition of lipid, fatty acids, protein and amino acids were analyzed. The content of total protein exhibited a decreasing trend during embryogenesis and larval development, and a significant reduction was detected after hatching ( P acids after hatching except for glycine ( P fatty acids remained stable during the period of embryogenesis. But after hatching, a significant decrease was found in the content of C18:2n-6, C18:3n-6, SFA and ratio of EPA/ARA ( P acids.

  6. Thermal and Hydraulic Conditions Supporting the Recruitment of Asian Carp in Seiche Affected Rivers of Lake Erie Basin - A Case Study of the Lower Sandusky River in Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soong, D. T.; Santacruz, S.; Jones, L.; Garcia, T.; Kočovský, P. M.; Embke, H.

    2017-12-01

    Grass Carp Ctenopharyngodon idella (Cyprinidae) is an invasive fish species that spawns in rivers during high-flow events. In their native range, it is believed eggs must hatch within the riverine environment in order to eventually result in production of adult fish. The lower Sandusky River is approximately 26 km long extending from its confluence with Sandusky Bay upstream to the Ballville Dam, which is impassible for Grass Carp. Grass Carp are known to have spawned in the Sandusky River, a tributary to Lake Erie, in 2011, 2013, 2015, and 2017. This study characterizes the thermal and hydraulic conditions under which these eggs could hatch in the lower Sandusky River, a relatively short river reach for egg hatching. Grass Carp eggs collected in 2015 were previously analyzed for hatching locations using a one-dimensional steady-state HEC-RAS hydraulic model. In this study we refine estimates of hatching locations by incorporating the influence of fluctuating water levels downstream due to seiches in Lake Erie and overland and tributary inflows using an unsteady 1D/2D HEC-RAS hydraulic model. Additionally, conditions conducive to successful hatching, which occurs when eggs reach the hatching stage within the river, were analyzed from nine high-flow events between 2011 and 2015. Simulated hydraulic and water temperature data were used as inputs to the Fluvial Egg Drift Simulator (FluEgg) model, which was used to analyze the transport and dispersal of Grass carp eggs until hatching. We will describe the differences in steady- and unsteady-state hydraulic modeling in predicting hatching locations of Grass Carp eggs for the 2015 spawning events. Results will also include hydraulic and temperature variables that contribute to the successful/unsuccessful in-river hatching for the nine flow events simulated.

  7. Within-clutch variation in yolk testosterone as an adaptive maternal effect to modulate avian sibling competition: evidence from a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Martina; Groothuis, Ton G G

    2013-01-01

    In many species, embryos are exposed to maternal hormones in utero, in the egg, or in the seed. In birds, mothers deposit substantial testosterone into their eggs, which enhances competitive ability of offspring. These maternal testosterone concentrations vary systematically within clutches in different patterns and may enable mothers to adaptively fine-tune competitive hierarchies within broods. We performed a comparative analysis to investigate this hypothesis using a broad set of avian species. We expected species with small size differences among siblings (arising from small hatching asynchrony or slow growth rates) to aim for survival of the whole brood in good years and therefore compensate last-hatching eggs with relatively more testosterone. We expected species with large size differences among siblings (large hatching asynchrony or fast growth rates) to produce surplus young as insurance against failed offspring and to facilitate elimination of redundant surplus young by bestowing last-hatching eggs with relatively less testosterone. As predicted, we found that maternal testosterone compensation to last-hatching eggs is stronger when size differences among siblings become smaller. Maternal testosterone compensation to last-hatching eggs also correlated negatively with hatching asynchrony and growth rates. These findings provide evidence for correlated evolution of several maternal effects that together support different maternal reproductive strategies.

  8. Variations in early life history traits of Japanese anchovy Engraulis japonicus in the Yangtze River Estuary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chunlong; Xian, Weiwei; Liu, Shude; Chen, Yifeng

    2018-01-01

    Resources of Japanese anchovy ( Engraulis japonicus Temminck & Schlegel, 1846) are undergoing dramatic recessions in China as the consequence of intensifying anthropogenic activities. Elucidating the influences of local-scale environmental factors on early life history traits is of great importance to design strategies conserving and restoring the declining anchovy resources. In this research, we studied hatching date and early growth of anchovy in the Yangtze River Estuary (YRE) using information obtained from otolith microstructure. Onset of hatching season and growth rates of anchovy was compared to populations in Japan and Taiwan. In YRE, the hatching date of anchovy ranged from February 26th to April 6th and mean growth rate ranged from 0.27 to 0.77 mm/d. Anchovies hatching later had higher growth rates than individuals hatching earlier before the 25th day. Among populations, hatching onsets of anchovy from the higher latitude were later than populations in the lower latitude, and growth rates of anchovy in YRE were much lower than populations in Japan and Taiwan. Variations in hatching onsets and early growth patterns of anchovy thus provide important knowledge on understanding the adaptation of anchovy in YRE and designing management strategies on conserving China's anchovy resources.

  9. Infanticide and within-clutch competition select for reproductive synchrony in a cooperative bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riehl, Christina

    2016-08-01

    Reproduction among members of social animal groups is often highly synchronized, but neither the selective advantages nor the proximate causes of synchrony are fully understood. Here I investigate the evolution of hatching synchrony in the Greater Ani (Crotophaga major), a communally nesting bird in which several unrelated females contribute eggs to a large, shared clutch. Hatching synchrony is variable, ranging from complete synchrony to moderate asynchrony, and is determined by the onset of incubation of the communal clutch. Data from a 10-year field study indicate that individual reproductive success is highest in synchronous groups, and that nestlings that hatch in the middle of the hatching sequence are most likely to survive. Nestling mortality is high in asynchronous clutches because early-hatching nestlings are more likely to be killed by adult group members, whereas late-hatching nestlings are more likely to starve due competition with their older nest-mates. Therefore, the timing of hatching appears to be under stabilizing selection from infanticide and resource competition acting in concert. These results provide empirical support for models predicting that synchrony may evolve as an adaptive counter-strategy to infanticide, and they highlight the importance of competition in shaping the timing of reproduction in social groups. © 2016 The Author(s). Evolution © 2016 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  10. Stable isotopic investigations of early development in extant and fossil chambered cephalopods I. Oxygen isotopic composition of eggwater and carbon isotopic composition of siphuncle organic matter in Nautilus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocker, Kimberley C.; DeNiro, Michael J.; Ward, Peter D.

    1985-12-01

    Eggwaters from the chambered cephalopod Nautilus are depleted in both 18O and deuterium relative to ambient seawater. Eggwaters from six other species, including the related chambered cephalopod Sepia, do not show such depletion. These observations indicate that the previously observed step towards more positive δ 18O values in calcium carbonate laid down after Nautilus hatches, relative to carbonate precipitated prior to hatching, can be explained by equilibration of the carbonate with water in the egg before hatching and with seawater after hatching. The presence of an oxygen isotope difference between eggwater and seawater for Nautilus and its absence for Sepia suggest that hatching will be recorded in the δ 18O values of shell carbonates for some but not all extinct and extant chambered cephalopods. The δ 13C values of the organic fraction of the siphuncle in Nautilus do not show any consistent pattern with regard to the time of formation before or after hatching. This observation suggests that the minimum in δ 13C values previously observed for calcium carbonate precipitated after Nautilus hatches is not caused by a change in food sources once the animal becomes free-swimming, as has been suggested.

  11. The articulations of the neurocranium in the postnatal skeleton of the domestic fowl (Gallus gallus domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogg, D A

    1978-09-01

    In the neurocranium of the domestic fowl the centres of ossification present at hatching and appearing susbequently have been investigated and illustrated. The controversy over centres around the orbit is reviewed and it is concluded that paired laterally placed pleurosphenoids are present by the time of hatching, while paired orbitosphenoids situated near the midline and dorsal to the optic foramen do not appear until between 70 and 91 days after hatching. No additional "presphenoid" centres were detected. The neurocranial articulations were studied: 27, many of them paired, were identified. The sequence and timing of synostosis were determined.

  12. Variability in growth rates of larval haddock in the northern North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gallego, A.; Heath, M.R.; Basford, D.J.

    1999-01-01

    of the spring plankton production bloom, and a likely explanation for the absence of environmental effects on larval growth was high food availability and larval feeding rates. Nevertheless, differences in growth were observed between cohorts, with larvae hatched later in the spring displaying higher growth...... at age than those hatched earlier. Particle-tracking modelling suggested that differences in temperature history between cohorts, on their own or compounded by a potential interaction between temperature and the development of plankton production, may explain the higher growth rate of the larvae hatched...

  13. 76 FR 31295 - Nectarines and Peaches Grown in California; Notice of Withdrawal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-31

    ... forms to collect information related to the Federal marketing orders for nectarines and peaches grown in... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Andrew Hatch, Supervisory Marketing Specialist, Marketing Order... Email: [email protected] . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Marketing Order Nos. 916 and 917...

  14. 78 FR 44922 - Vegetable and Specialty Crop Marketing Orders; Notice of Request for Extension and Revision of a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-25

    ... Approved Information Collection AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice and request... assured of consideration. Additional Information or Comments: Contact Andrew Hatch, Supervisory Marketing....regulations.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Vegetable and Specialty Crop Marketing Orders. OMB Number...

  15. Untitled

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the largest families of flowering plans withalat ... and stimulant and as remedy for fever, colic .... resulting solution was boiled a yellow colouration .... control. Triplicate determinations were made. Ten shrimps. initially hatched from its eggs in ...

  16. 29 CFR 1915.116 - Use of gear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... manually or by a crane, winch, hoist, or derrick, shall be completely opened. The beam or pontoon left in... employees are in the square of the hatch below. (p) Before loads or empty lifting gear are raised, lowered...

  17. Vol 39 2011 Art 2.pub

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p2613611

    plants, which gives these fibres properties found in none of the other cellulosic fibres. ... student in textile technology (textile chemistry) at the. SSM College of ... on fabric design and inoculum size (Hatch, 1993:168; Neely &. Maley, 2000).

  18. 26 CFR 31.3121(g)-1 - Agricultural labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... agricultural labor: (i) The cultivation of the soil; (ii) The raising, shearing, feeding, caring for, training... mushrooms, or in connection with the hatching of poultry constitute agricultural labor only if such services...

  19. 26 CFR 31.3306(k)-1 - Agricultural labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... following activities constitute agricultural labor: (1) The cultivation of the soil; (2) The raising... of cotton; (2) The hatching of poultry; (3) The raising or harvesting of mushrooms; (4) The operation...

  20. Using Trichogramma Westwood (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) for insect pest biological control in cotton crops: an Australian perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trichogramma Westwood egg parasitoids alone generally fail to suppress heliothine pests when released in established cotton growing regions. Factors hindering their success include indiscriminate use of detrimental insecticides, compensation for minimal pest larval hatch due to their activity via re...

  1. 29 CFR 1918.91 - Housekeeping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... progress. (b) Slippery surfaces. The employer shall eliminate conditions causing slippery walking and... safe reach of employees. (e) Coaming clearance. Dunnage, hatch beams, tarpaulins or gear not in use...

  2. Change in the radiation responses of oogonia in the embryos and fry of the fish Oryzias latipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamaguchi, S.

    1976-01-01

    Embryos of the fish Oryzias latipes were irradiated with 1000 R of X-rays 1 day before hatching, and the post-irradiation change in the female germ-cell population was observed. Scarcely any reduction in the number of oogonia was observed, but their proliferation was inhibited. Repopulation occurred between 12 and 20 days after hatching. These responses were quite different from those of germ cells in the irradiated fry. Embryos and/or fry were also exposed to 1000 R of X-rays 1 day before hatching and 0, 1, 2, and 3 days after hatching. A comparison of their responses suggested that the change in the radiation responses of oogonia is correlated with the initiation of meiosis. (author)

  3. Induced breeding of Labeo rohita through single application of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    C on the number of eggs/kg, fertilization rate and hatching percentage at a private fish hatchery and research center at Faisalabad, Pakistan, during May to June 2008, on Labeo rohita (Rohu). Studied fish specimens were spawned ...

  4. African Journal of Biotechnology - Vol 9, No 17 (2010)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Use of oregano (Origanum onites L.) essential oil as hatching egg ... Antioxidant and antimutagenic activities of Viscum album fruit ethanolic extract in human ... The ultrasonic effect on the mechanism of cholesterol oxidase production by ...

  5. Fulltext PDF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vernalization: the flower school. 79. Area selection .... Members of opposite sex mutually regulate gonadal recru- descence in the ... Hatching success. Cocoon ..... Single gene. Sex and the single gene: Meiotic silencing by unpaired DNA. 633.

  6. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Timothy Ademakinwa

    Keywords: Incubator, Biogas, Chicken egg, Temperature, Relative humidity, Hatchability. ABSTRACT. 219 ... hatching results are obtained with normal atmospheric air, which usually ... mixture of animal manures (cow dung, poultry and swine ...

  7. Trichuris trichiura egg (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is the classical appearance of the Trichuria (whipworm) egg. The eggs are highly infectious. After a person eats contaminated food, the worms hatch from the eggs and live in the intestine, causing vomiting and ...

  8. AFSC/RACE/EcoFOCI - Otolith measurements and analyses performed in support of FOCI assessment surveys and ecosystem observations in the Bering, Beaufort, and Chukchi Seas and the Gulf of Alaska. 1995 - Present

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Otolith data are collected to measure age and growth of larval pollock. They are used to determine whether growth rate, hatch data and/or temperature influence fish...

  9. 78 FR 27184 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Importation of Table...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-09

    ... contained in 9 CFR parts 92 through 98. In part 94, Sec. 94.6 governs the importation of carcasses, meat, parts or products of carcasses, and eggs (other than hatching eggs) of poultry, game birds, and other...

  10. 77 FR 65854 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Importation of Products...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-31

    ... products of carcasses, and eggs (other than hatching eggs) of poultry, game birds, and other birds to... importation apply. The regulations in Sec. 94.6 include provisions that allow poultry meat that originates in...

  11. 78 FR 37549 - Cooperative Agreement To Support the North Carolina State University, Prestage Department of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-21

    ... breeders, and incubation capacity to hatch more than 52,000 eggs at one time utilizing both [[Page 37551... years, contingent upon satisfactory performance in the achievement of project and program reporting...

  12. Uitkomen kuikens in een traditionele vleeskuikenstal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harn, van J.; Lourens, A.; Gunnink, H.

    2014-01-01

    This report describes the results of a study where a comparison was made between broilers hatched in the broiler house and in the hatchery. Performance results, carcass yields, litter quality, broiler quality and gait score were measured.

  13. Turbidity-induced changes in feeding strategies of fish in estuaries

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1991-11-12

    Nov 12, 1991 ... in hatching success (Rosenthal & Alderdice 1976), egg sur- .... ther turbidity reduces feeding rate and thirdly whether turbi- dity reduces the reactive ...... composition and suspended sediment on insect predation by the torrent ...

  14. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAGHAVENDRA

    silk ratio of silkworm races were registered from one time two times bed .... silkworm (Bombyx mori), a monophagous insect, feeds on only mulberry .... fecundity and egg hatching with lower larval and pupal durations ...... In: Success with Value.

  15. 424 Comparative Studies on the Larvicidal Action of Novaluron ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FIRST LADY

    2011-01-18

    Jan 18, 2011 ... Although, successful control of mosquito vectors with. Malathion ... containing 500mls of distilled water and allowed to hatch to 1st instar larvae and kept to .... and the rate of inhibition of emergence increased with increased.

  16. essential oil extract from moringa oleifera roots as cowpea seed

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    of adult insects (topical application) resulted in the highest mortality (100%) at 72 hours after application, ... other parts of the world, successful .... Data on percentage adult mortality were ..... hatched; therefore, reducing larval feeding, this.

  17. Biological and technological effects of some mulberry varieties and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    egyptian hak

    The powder of C. frutescens had the highest mortality rate of ... plants were toxic to adult moths and also prevent hatching of the eggs of S. cerealella. ... Despite success in controlling insect pests using synthetic insecticides, there have been.

  18. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 101 - 150 of 781 ... ... strains of chicken embryo during incubation and their post-hatch growth, Abstract .... Degradation of Crude Protein in Groundnut Cake, Guinea Grass ... of ovarian activities in buffalo using a simple fiberscope, Abstract.

  19. Trichinella spiralis in human muscle (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is the parasite Trichinella spiralis in human muscle tissue. The parasite is transmitted by eating undercooked meats, especially pork. The cysts hatch in the intestines and produce large numbers of larvae that migrate into muscle tissue. The cysts ...

  20. Cladocera in the estuarine and coastal waters of south-west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Madhupratap, M.

    high saline premonsoon period and tolerance to low salinity. Since the resting eggs of cladocera can be successfully hatched in the laboratory and reproduce at a very high rate, they form ideal organisms for mass culture...