Nakatake, K; Oda, K; Yoshitake, A; Fujita, K; Nakajima, A [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering
The interaction force induced to hull by steering is important for prediction of control performance of ships. The control interaction force coefficient dependent on the steering has been investigated through the rudder angle tests using three small model ships with a length of 2.5 m, i.e., mathematical type of ship, cargo type of ship, and tanker type of ship. The interaction forces acting on the hull, propeller, and rudder were determined by measuring the lateral force as well as the forward force of the hydrodynamic forces acting on the rudder. These forces were compared with the theoretically calculated values. Prior to the rudder angle tests, the self propulsion factor and the number of revolution of propeller were determined from the results of the open water tests, resistance tests, and self propulsion tests by the changing load method. The rudder angle tests were conducted under this number of revolution of propeller as a standard condition, and under those increasing and decreasing by 15%. Consequently, the interaction forces determined from the rudder angle tests agreed well with those determined from the other tests. When comparing the control hydrodynamic forces determined from the tests with those theoretically calculated, a similar trend was observed. Effectiveness of the theoretical model was confirmed. 4 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs.
Kagemoto, H.; Fujino, M.; Zhu, T. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)
A floating structure such as an international airport is anticipated to have a length of about 5,000 m and a width of about 1,000 m. A singular point method may be used as a method to estimate force that such a floating body is subjected to from waves. In order to derive a solution with practically sufficient accuracy, 1250 elements are required in the length direction and 250 elements in the width direction, or a total of 312,500 elements. Calculating this number of elements should use finally a linear equation system handling complex coefficients comprising 312,500 elements, which would require a huge amount of calculation time. This paper proposes a method to derive solution on wave forces acting on a super-large floating structure or fluid force coefficients such as added mass coefficients and decay coefficients at a practically workable calculation amount and still without degrading the accuracy. The structure was assumed to be a box-shaped structure. Strengths of the singular points to be distributed on each element were assumed to be almost constant except for edges in lateral, oblique and longitudinal waves. Under this assumption, the interior of the floating structure excepting its edges was represented by several large elements to have reduced the number of elements. A calculation method proposed based on this conception was verified of its effectiveness. 2 refs., 25 figs., 3 tabs.
Yukawa, K; Kijima, K [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering
With types of general cargo vessel and VLCC vessel as the object of discussion, a method was discussed to estimate fluid force acting theoretically on a hull during maneuvering movement, taking frame line shape into consideration. A vortex model was improved by giving consideration of time-based decay on intensity of discrete vortex lines based on the Rankine vortex. Modeling of flow fields around a hull was attempted to deal with movements in which width and draft are small as compared with the ship length, and turning angle speed and deviation angle are small. It was assumed that the ship speed is slow and effects of waves can be disregarded. Specular images of the hull were taken with regard to free surface, and handled as a double body model. Speed potential to express flow fields around a hull is required to satisfy the following five boundary conditions of Laplace, substance surface, free vortex layers, infinity and exfoliation. The potential may be handled as a two-dimensional problem in a field near the hull by using assumption of a slender and long body and conformal mapping. It was found possible to estimate hull fluid force with relatively good accuracy. Fine linear coefficients derived from the estimation were used to have performed highly accurate determination on course stabilization. 5 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.
Kijima, K; Yukawa, K [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Maekawa, K [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan). Faculty of Fisheries
Estimation of the maneuvering performance of ships is very important from the viewpoint of safe navigation. Using three types of VLCCs (SR221A, B, C) with locally different stern frame lines as computational models, the estimation method of hull hydrodynamic force in turning motion was studied theoretically taking frame line shapes into account. The unstable behavior of courses was also studied using linear differential coefficients obtained from the estimation result on hull hydrodynamic force in oblique navigation and turning motion. As a result, the estimation result on hull hydrodynamic force was slightly different quantitatively from model test results in a range of large drift angle or turning angular velocity, while that was relatively well agreed with test results in a range of small such angle and velocity. As the study result on the unstable behavior of courses by using linear differential coefficients obtained from the estimation result on hull hydrodynamic force, determination of a course stability was possible by considering local difference in hull shape. 4 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.
En analyse af den japanske robot-menneske teaterstykke Hataraku Watashi med fokus på Austins og Butlers begreb om performativitet.......En analyse af den japanske robot-menneske teaterstykke Hataraku Watashi med fokus på Austins og Butlers begreb om performativitet....
The process and quality indicators of Korean soju,as well as the history development of Korean soju and its typical representative of Chamisul soju were introduced.%介绍了用鲜玉米汁为主要原料发酵生产酒精饮料的工艺流程和操作方法及质量标准.
Urata, E. [Kanagawa University, Kanagawa (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Yamashina, C. [Ebara Research Co. Ltd., Kanagawa (Japan)
In this paper flow force due to nozzle flow and its influence on the flapper-nozzle system for water hydraulic servovalves are discussed. The flow force acting on the flapper is estimated using the momentum theory, and expressed as a function of the nozzle pressure and flapper-nozzle gap. Analysis shows that the double nozzle flapper gives a quasilinear characteristic to the relationship between the force on the flapper, the flapper gap and the spool velocity. The numerical result based on the theory is used to estimate accuracy of the classical linear approximation. The flow force reduces the magnitude of the change of the nozzle back pressures which drive the spool of the water hydraulic valve, because the input moment acting on the armature is resisted by the moment due to the flow force. Experimental verification of the theory is also given. 7 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.
Hoshino, K; Kato, S [Ship Research Inst., Tokyo (Japan); Koterayama, W [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Research Inst. for Applied Mechanics
In the design of various floating offshore structures (FOS), the functionality, safety and amenity of FOSs were examined by estimating responses of FOSs to environmental external forces such as wave, wind and flow. In this paper, the estimation method of drag acting on the whole FOS was established by combining previous study results on hydrodynamic force acting on various bodies such as Reynolds number effect (RNE), 3-D effect (TDE) and interference effect (IE). This hydrodynamic force was also compared with that obtained from the experiment result on a FOS model for TLP to confirm the applicability of this estimation method. The estimation result on the drag coefficient in steady flow by considering RNE, TDE and IE well agreed with experimental one. The drag coefficient acting on FOSs in heaving could be estimated in practically sufficient accuracy by considering drag acting on not columns but only square columns. The estimation result on the drag coefficient acting on FOSs in surging by considering RNE, TDE and IE well agreed with experimental one. 12 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.
Masuyama, Y.; Fukasawa, T. [Kanazawa Institute of Technology, Ishikawa (Japan); Kitazaki, T. [DMW Corp., Tokyo (Japan)
Sailing forces are measured with a 10.3m long full-scale sailing boat, equipped with a sail force dynamometer, CCD camera for sail shape measurement and an instrument for detecting sailing conditions of the hull, in order to obtain highly reliable performance data of a sailing yacht. The vortex lattice method is used for step-by-step numerical calculations, and the results are compared with the observed ones. The test results clearly show performance changing with slight changes in relative wind directions and sail shapes, which are not clearly obtained by the traditional wind tunnel tests. The calculated results, although deviating from the observed ones to some extent, well represent trends of performance changing with wind directions and sail shapes. In particular, changed performance caused by slight changes in draft at the main sail is clearly demonstrated. The numerical calculation is considered to be useful for searching for sail trim conditions. 17 refs., 18 figs., 1 tab.
Sohn, Jong Gi
Developments of radioprotective agents are important issues for minimizing the troubles and the effective treatments in radiotherapy. But few agents are useful in clinical and practical fields. It was shown that trace elements in alcohol beverages might have radioprotective effect. In this study, the types of cell death of lymphocytes according to the commercial alcohol beverage was investigated. Normal healthy volunteers ingested distilled water, beer or soju containing 8.15 mg·dl -1 ethyl ahcohol, respectively. After 2 hours, their blood were sampled with their consents. Fraction of lymphocytes was isolated by density gradient method with Histopaque-1077 (Sigma) and irradiated with dose from 0.5 to 5 Gy. After 60 hour incubation, the cells were harvested and analysed by flow cytometry. Cell viability was decreased by dose dependent manner. Cell viability of beer group was reduced about 15% compared with control group. Apoptosis in soju group was reduced about 20% compared with control group. Apoptosis of beer and control groups are similar. Necrosis of soju group significantly increased about 35% compared with control group. Early apoptosis of beer group was increased compared with control group. Early apoptosis of soju group was decreased about 25% compared with control group. Late apoptosis of beer and control group was increased by dose dependent manner. Late apoptosis of soju group was increased about 20-30% compared with control group. Late apoptosis of soju was increased and the radioprotective effect of soju was minimal because late apoptosis induced the cell necrosis. In case of soju trace elements, total cell apoptosis was decreased about 20% and early cell apoptosis was remarkably low. In this case, mitotic cells death may be dominant mechanism. Therefore, trace elements in soju may not be effective radioprotective agents
Ryu, Dayeon; Choi, Bogyoung; Kim, Eunjoo; Park, Seri; Paeng, Hwijin; Kim, Cho-Il; Lee, Jee-Yeon; Yoon, Hae Jung; Koh, Eunmi
Ethyl carbamate (EC) classified as a probable human carcinogen (Group 2A) is naturally formed in alcoholic beverages and fermented foods during fermentation process and/or during storage. The objective of this study was to analyze EC in 34 food items including 14 alcoholic beverages and 20 fermented foods sold in Korea. Each food was collected from 18 supermarkets in 9 metropolitan cities in Korea, and then made into composite. According to food composition and alcohol content, samples were divided into four matrices such as apple juice, milk, Soju (liquor containing about 20% alcohol), and rice porridge. The maximum EC value of 151.06 µg/kg was found in Maesilju (liquor made from Maesil and Soju). Whisky and Bokbunjaju (Korean black raspberry wine) contained 9.90 µg/kg and 6.30 µg/kg, respectively. EC was not detected in other alcoholic beverages. Of 20 fermented foods, Japanese-style soy sauce had highest level of 15.59 µg/kg and traditional one contained 4.18 µg/kg. Soybean paste had 1.18 µg/kg, however, EC was not found in other fermented foods.
Kim, Young Kwan; Moon, Jeong Seop; Ryu, Soo Hyung; Lee, Jung Hwan; Kim, You Sun
The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of heartburn produced by beverages available in Korea and to clarify the mechanism causing heartburn. We measured pH, titratable acidity, and osmolality of 35 beverages in vitro and correlated them with the severity of heartburn reported by questionnaire in 382 patients from November 2004 to June 2005. Coffee (1.15) and soju (1.12) showed the highest heartburn score, while oolong tea (0.17) and carrot juice (0.18) showed the lowest heartburn score among all beverages. Titratable acidity of citrus juices correlated with heartburn (r=0.78; p=0.023). Soft drinks had the lowest pH, which was unrelated with heartburn scores (r=-0.54; p=0.460). Increasing pH among alcoholic beverages was correlated with heartburn scores (r=0.84; p=0.037), and osmolality was inversely associated with heartburn scores (r=-0.86; p=0.028). The heartburn score of decaffeinated coffee was significantly lower than that of regular coffee (pheartburn than low-fat milk (p=0.008). Our findings provide dietary information that helps to select appropriate beverages to the patients with heartburn.
Bang, Hyung-Ae; Kwon, Young-Hwan; Lee, Myeong-Jin; Lee, Won-Chang
Alcohol consumption and related alcohol liver disease (ALD) have substantially increased in Korea during the last decade. The objective of this study was to evaluate the trends in the epidemiological aspects and mortality rate (MR) of Korea in the decade between 2000 and 2009. The raw data analyzed in this study were obtained from the website of "the ALD" managed by Korea Center for Disease Control and Prevention (KCDC), Korea Public Health Association (KPHA), and statistics website of Statistics Korea. The data analyses were performed using Excel 2007 statistical software (Microsoft Corp., USA). The amount of alcohol-consumption-per-capita-per-year (ACCY) in Korea was 8.38 L in 2000 and 8.54 L in 2009. The most taken alcoholic beverage was soju, followed by beer. There were a total of 1,403 case-fatalities (CF) with an MR of 2.98 per 100,000 populations of ALD in 2000, while a total of 3,588 CF with an MR of 7.21 in 2009 (P mistress/students/jobless (MSJ) were the most risky group. The comparison of overall CF and MR of ALD by six key classifications (International Classification of Diseases (ICD)) showed that alcoholic cirrhosis (229 CF and 16.3%) in 2000 tended to be increased in 2009 (2,803 CF and 78.1%), while alcoholic fibrosis and sclerosis (607 CF and 43.3%) in 2000 significantly decreased in 2009 (120 CF and 3.3%), respectively. ALD is one of the most severe diseases in Korea, as indicated by its high CF and MR in this study. As over-consumption of alcoholic beverages is relatively common in Korea, more efforts should be made toward prevention of ALD by raising awareness of the risk factors of ALD by public health education.