Sample records for hassanzadeh palaeogeography palaeoclimatology

  1. Evolution of anuran assemblages in the Tertiary and Quaternary of Europe, in the context of palaeoclimate and palaeogeography

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rage, J.C.; Roček, Zbyněk


    Roč. 24, č. 2 (2003), s. 133-167 ISSN 0173-5373 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6013701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3013912 Keywords : Anura * evolution * Palaeogeography and palaeoclimatology Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.417, year: 2003

  2. Southeast Asia’s changing palaeogeography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hall, R.


    Geology provides the basis for understanding distributions of faunas and floras in Southeast Asia but only via a complex interplay of plate movements, palaeogeography, ocean circulation and climate. Southeast Asia grew incrementally by the addition of continental fragments, mainly rifted from

  3. The effects of changing solar activity on climate: contributions from palaeoclimatological studies

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    Engels Stefan


    Full Text Available Natural climate change currently acts in concert with human-induced changes in the climate system. To disentangle the natural variability in the climate system and the human-induced effects on the global climate, a critical analysis of climate change in the past may offer a better understanding of the processes that drive the global climate system. In this review paper, we present palaeoclimatological evidence for the past influence of solar variability on Earth’s climate, highlighting the effects of solar forcing on a range of timescales. On a decadal timescale, instrumental measurements as well as historical records show the effects of the 11-year Schwabe cycle on climate. The variation in total solar irradiance that is associated with a Schwabe cycle is only ~1 W m−2 between a solar minimum and a maximum, but winter and spring temperatures on the Northern Hemisphere show a response even to this small-scale variability. There is a large body of evidence from palaeoclimatic reconstructions that shows the influence of solar activity on a centennial to millennial timescale. We highlight a period of low solar activity starting at 2800 years before present when Europe experienced a shift to colder and wetter climate conditions. The spatial pattern of climate change that can be recognized in the palaeoclimatological data is in line with the suggested pattern of climate change as simulated by climate models. Millennial-scale climate oscillations can be recognized in sediment records from the Atlantic Ocean as well as in records of lake-level fluctuations in southeastern France. These oscillations coincide with variation in 14C production as recognized in the atmospheric 14C record (which is a proxy-record for solar activity, suggesting that Earth’s climate is sensitive to changes in solar activity on a millennial timescale as well.

  4. The palaeogeography of Sundaland and Wallacea since the Late Jurassic

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    Robert Hall


    terrane concept of slicing fragments from New Guinea followed by multiple collisions in Wallacea is implausible. Neogene subduction drove extension and fragmentation of Wallacea that caused both subsidence of deep marine basins and elevation of land; bathymetry changed very rapidly, especially during the Pliocene, but the detailed palaeogeography of this region remains uncertain.

  5. Reply to: Terry, J. and Goff, J. comment on “Late Cenozoic sea level and the rise of modern rimmed atolls” by Toomey et al. (2016), Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 4 51: 73–83. (United States)

    Toomey, Michael; Ashton, Andrew; Raymo, Maureen E.; Perron, J. Taylor


    We appreciate Terry and Goff's thoughtful comment in response to our proposed atoll development model. Flank collapse of reef-built slopes likely does affect plan-form atoll morphology in some locations and potentially poses a tsunami hazard to low-lying Pacific islands (Terry and Goff, 2013). However, given the often rapid rates of lagoon infill (> 1 mm/yr; Montaggioni, 2005), such failure events would likely need to be frequent and widespread in order to leave a morphologic imprint on modern western Pacific atoll lagoon depths. Few atoll flank collapse features have been dated but many of the arcuate bight-like structures (ABLS) identified could be inherited from scars incised into the initial volcanic edifice (e.g. Terry and Goff, 2013 and refs. therein) — submarine mass wasting has been extensively documented on young hotspot islands (e.g. Hawaiian Islands: Moore et al., 1989; Reunion: Oehler et al., 2008). Atolls in the Marshall Islands, where our main study site Enewetak Atoll is located, are likely ~ 50–100 million years old (Larson et al., 1995) and dating of adjacent deep-water turbidite aprons in the Nauru Basin (DSDP Site 462; Schlanger and Silva, 1986) suggests that large atoll flank collapse events have been relatively infrequent there since the mid-Miocene (wasting events, will be essential for exploring the plan-form and 3D shapes of atolls. To our knowledge, no quantitative model of long-term atoll development has explicitly linked lagoon restriction/sedimentation to episodic flank collapse events (e.g. Montaggioni et al., 2015; Paterson et al., 2006; Quinn, 1991; Warrlich et al., 2002). Testing Terry and Goff's proposed conceptual model for how rim failure processes affect atoll morphology in a numerical context will require deep drilling along arcuate bight-like structures, as well as adjacent, unaffected, rim and lagoon areas, in order quantify how often failures occur and how quickly the rim/lagoon is rebuilt afterwards. The model we present here provides a general framework capable of integrating atoll flank collapse processes once they are sufficiently constrained by such observational datasets.

  6. Lithofacies palaeogeography of the Late Permian Wujiaping Age in the Middle and Upper Yangtze Region, China

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    Jin-Xiong Luo


    Full Text Available The lithofacies palaeogeography of the Late Permian Wujiaping Age in Middle and Upper Yangtze Region was studied based on petrography and the “single factor analysis and multifactor comprehensive mapping” method. The Upper Permian Wujiaping Stage in the Middle and Upper Yangtze Region is mainly composed of carbonate rocks and clastic rocks, with lesser amounts of siliceous rocks, pyroclastic rocks, volcanic rocks and coal. The rocks can be divided into three types, including clastic rock, clastic rock–limestone and limestone–siliceous rock, and four fundamental ecological types and four fossil assemblages are recognized in the Wujiaping Stage. Based on a petrological and palaeoecological study, six single factors were selected, namely, thickness (m, content (% of marine rocks, content (% of shallow water carbonate rocks, content (% of biograins with limemud, content (% of thin-bedded siliceous rocks and content (% of deep water sedimentary rocks. Six single factors maps of the Wujiaping Stage and one lithofacies palaeogeography map of the Wujiaping Age were composed. Palaeogeographic units from west to east include an eroded area, an alluvial plain, a clastic rock platform, a carbonate rock platform where biocrowds developed, a slope and a basin. In addition, a clastic rock platform exists in the southeast of the study area. Hydrocarbon source rock and reservoir conditions were preliminarily analyzed based on lithofacies palaeogeography. Sedimentary environments have obvious controls over the development of the resource rocks. With regard to the abundance of organic matter, the hydrocarbon potential of the coastal swamp environment is the best, followed by the basin environment and the carbonate rock platform. The gas reservoir types of the Wujiaping Stage can be classified as conventional and unconventional gas reservoirs, like coal bed gas and shale gas; all of them have well exploration prospects.

  7. Holocene transgression of the Rhine river-mouth area, The Netherlands/Southern North Sea: palaeogeography and sequence stratigraphy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hijma, M.P.; Cohen, K.M.


    We present a detailed reconstruction of the palaeogeography of the Rhine valley (western Netherlands) during the Holocene transgression with systems tracts placed in a precise sea-level context. A high level of detail could be reached because of 1) favourable antecedent topography and subsidence

  8. Holocene transgression of the Rhine river mouth area, The Netherlands/Southern North Sea: palaeogeography and sequence stratigraphy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen, K.M.; Hijma, M.P.


    This study presents a detailed reconstruction of the palaeogeography of the Rhine valley (western Netherlands) during the Holocene transgression with systems tracts placed in a precise sea-level context. This approach permits comparison of actual versus conceptual boundaries of the lowstand,

  9. Mesozoic lithofacies palaeogeography and petroleum prospectivity in North Carnarvon Basin, Australia

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    Tao Chongzhi


    Full Text Available The North Carnarvon Basin, which lies in the North West Shelf of Australia, is highly rich in gas resources. As a typical passive marginal basin, it experienced the pre-rifting, early rifting, main rifting, late rifting, post-rifting sagging and passive margin stages. The basin was mainly filled with thick Mesozoic-Cenozoic sediments, of which the Mesozoic hosts the principal source, reservoir and seal intervals. Mesozoic palaeogeography has an important control on the oil and gas distribution. Triassic gas-prone source rocks of deltaic origin determine the high endowment of natural gases in the North Carnarvon Basin. The more restricted distribution of oil accumulations is controlled by oil source rocks in the Upper Jurassic Dingo Claystone. The Muderong Shale deposited in the Early Cretaceous marine transgression provides the effective regional seal for the underlying oil and gas reservoirs.

  10. Neogene palaeogeography and basin evolution of the Western Carpathians, Northern Pannonian domain and adjoining areas (United States)

    Kováč, Michal; Márton, Emő; Oszczypko, Nestor; Vojtko, Rastislav; Hók, Jozef; Králiková, Silvia; Plašienka, Dušan; Klučiar, Tomáš; Hudáčková, Natália; Oszczypko-Clowes, Marta


    The data on the Neogene geodynamics, palaeogeography, and basin evolution of the Western Carpathians, Northern Pannonian domain and adjoining areas (ALCAPA Mega-unit) are summarized, re-evaluated, supplemented, and newly interpreted. The proposed concept is illustrated by a series of palinspastic and palaeotopographic maps. The Miocene development of the Outer Carpathians reflects the vanishing subduction of the residual oceanic and/or thinned continental crust. A compression perpendicular to the front of the orogenic system led to the closing of residual flysch troughs and to accretionary wedge growth, as well as to the development of a foredeep on the margin of the European Platform. Docking of the Outer Western Carpathians accretionary wedge, together with the Central Western Carpathians and Northern Pannonian domain, was accompanied by stretching of the overriding microplate. An orogen parallel and perpendicular extension was associated with the opening and subsidence of the Early and Middle Miocene hinterland (back-arc) basin system that compensated counter-clockwise rotations of the individual crustal fragments of ALCAPA. The Late Miocene development relates to the opening of the Pannonian Basin System. This process was coupled with common stretching of both ALCAPA and Tisza-Dacia Mega-units due to the pull exerted by subduction rollback in front of the Eastern Carpathians. The filling up of the hinterland basin system was associated with thermal subsidence and was followed by the Pliocene tectonic inversion and consequent erosion of the basin system margins, as well as part of the interior.

  11. Lithofacies palaeogeography of the Upper Permian Changxing Stage in the Middle and Upper Yangtze Region, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Youbin


    Full Text Available Based on the petrological study, according to single factor analysis and multifactor comprehensive mapping method, the quantitative lithofacies palaeogeography of the Upper Permian Changxing Stage of the Middle and Upper Yangtze Region was studied. The Changxing Stage in the Middle and Upper Yangtze Region is mainly composed of carbonate rocks; in addition, clastic and siliceous rocks occur with rare coals and pyroclastic rocks. Lithofacies can be divided into five types, including clastic rock assemblage, clastic rock–limestone assemblage, limestone assemblage, limestone–siliceous rock assemblage, and siliceous rock–clastic rock assemblage. Four fundamental ecological types and five fossil assemblages were recognized in the Changxing Stage. On the basis of the petrological and palaeoecological study, eight single factors were chosen including thickness, content of marine rocks, content of shallow water carbonate rocks, content of bioclasts with limemud matrix, content of bioclasts with sparry cement, distribution of reefs, content of thin bedded siliceous rocks and content of deep water sedimentary rocks. And eight single factor maps and one lithofacies paleogeographic map of the Changxing Stage were compiled. Paleoenvironments from west to east include an erosional area, fluvial plain, clastic platform, carbonate platform and reefs that developed there, slope and basin, low energy organic banks, and high energy organic banks. Sedimentary environments have an obvious control on the development of the source rocks, and the excellent source rocks are developed in the Dalong Formation. Changxing Stage reservoirs should be dominated by the reef and platform surrounding the Guangyuan–Liangping Basin rim area, and is the most favorable exploration area of the reef petroleum reservoirs of the Changxing Formation.

  12. An evaluation of palaeogeography and palaeoecology in the Most Basin (Czech Republic) and Saxony (Germany) from the late Oligocene to the early Miocene

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mach, K.; Teodoridis, V.; Matys Grygar, Tomáš; Kvaček, Z.; Suhr, P.; Standke, G.


    Roč. 272, č. 1 (2014), s. 13-45 ISSN 0077-7749 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP210/11/1357 Institutional support: RVO:61388980 Keywords : palaeogeography * geochemistry * floras * Most Basin Subject RIV: DD - Geochemistry Impact factor: 0.519, year: 2014

  13. Reconstructing Holocene shore displacement and Stone Age palaeogeography from a foredune sequence on Ruhnu Island, Gulf of Riga, Baltic Sea (United States)

    Muru, Merle; Rosentau, Alar; Preusser, Frank; Plado, Jüri; Sibul, Ivo; Jõeleht, Argo; Bjursäter, Stefan; Aunap, Raivo; Kriiska, Aivar


    Holocene shore displacement and the palaeogeography of Late Mesolithic and Late Neolithic settlements on Ruhnu Island, Gulf of Riga, were reconstructed using foredune sequence luminescence dating, sedimentological data supported by ground-penetrating radar analysis, and GIS-based landscape modelling. The foredune ridges consist of very well to well sorted fine- to medium-grained aeolian sand and are underlain by seaward dipping foreshore sediments. The studied sequence of 38 ridges was formed between 6.91 ± 0.58 ka and 2.54 ± 0.19 ka ago, and represents a period of falling relative sea level. Foredune plain progradation, with average rates of 0.3-0.6 m per year, was controlled by isostatic land uplift, which caused a continuous withdrawal of shorelines to lower elevations. The dated foredune succession was used to reconstruct the coastal palaeogeography of the island. Palaeogeographical reconstructions show that during two phases of Late Mesolithic habitation, at ca. 7.2 cal. ka BP and 6.2 cal. ka BP, seal hunters settled the coastal zone of Ruhnu Island. Based on tool material and pottery type they could have originated from Saaremaa Island, which according to palaeoreconstruction of the Gulf of Riga, was located approximately 70 km northwest of Ruhnu Island during the Late Mesolithic. Later signs of human occupation, radiocarbon dated to ca. 4.7 cal. ka BP, were from the centre of the island, hundreds of metres away from the shore at about 8 m above its contemporary sea level. This Late Neolithic habitation shows a clearly different pattern than earlier coastal settlement, and suggests a shift in subsistence strategy towards agriculture and animal husbandry.

  14. Palaeo-ethnology, palaeo-environment and palaeo-climatology of Piaui, Brazil: palynological studies on human coprolites collected at the ''Pedra Furada'' site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaves, S.; Renault-Miskovsky, J.


    Fossil human faeces were collected from the rock-shelter of ''Pedra Furada'' (Piaui, Brazil), which is considered nowadays as one of the most ancient prehistoric sites in America. These dated coprolites range from 8,500 to 7,000 BP and are evidence of an occupation phase connected with ''Serra Talhada'' cultural traditions I and II. These coprolites were analysed by palynological studies. The results have given palaeo-climatological and palaeo-environmental data with an emphasis on palaeo-ethnological aspects. Evidence emerges regarding the range of medicinal and food plants of the prehistoric humans who inhabited the site for some 1,500 years. (authors). 32 refs., 3 figs

  15. Reply to the comment on "Geochemistry of buried river sediments from Ghaggar Plains, NW India: Multi-proxy records of variations in provenance, paleoclimate, and paleovegetation patterns in the Late Quaternary" by Singh et al. (2016), Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 449 (2016) 85-100

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Ajit; Paul, Debajyoti; Sinha, Rajiv


    of these sediments. Moreover, we note that whereas our paper considers a similar to 75 ka fluvial depositional record, their comment is only based on the post-Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) record. When considering the longer record, their arguments do not negate the main conclusions of our original paper. (c) 2016...

  16. Reply to the comment on "Geochemistry of buried river sediments from Ghaggar Plains, NW India: Multi-proxy records of variations in provenance, paleoclimate, and paleovegetation patterns in the Late Quaternary" by Singh et al. (2016), Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 449 (2016) 85-100

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Ajit; Paul, Debajyoti; Sinha, Rajiv


    In the comment on our paper (this issue), Clift et al. (2016) compared our recently reported radiogenic Nd-isotopic record in two drill cores (Singh et al., 2016) with those from the Hakra floodplain sediments and Indus Delta sediments. While they agree with the concept of erosion patterns...... of these sediments. Moreover, we note that whereas our paper considers a similar to 75 ka fluvial depositional record, their comment is only based on the post-Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) record. When considering the longer record, their arguments do not negate the main conclusions of our original paper. (c) 2016...

  17. The sedimentary facies characteristics and lithofacies palaeogeography during Middle-Late Cambrian, Sichuan Basin and adjacent area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feifan Lu


    Full Text Available Combined with the regional strata filling characteristics of Middle-Upper Cambrian, the present paper conducts a systematic research on sedimentary facies in the basin and its peripheral area by utilizing 164 field outcrops and drilling and coring data. Further, the method of “multi-factor comprehensive synthesis based on single-factor analysis” was employed to investigate the sedimentary facies and palaeogeography of the study area and establish the sedimentary facies model. Stratigraphic reveals that the study area represents the pattern of thin-northwest and thick-southeast by stretching northeast-southwest. Within the present basin, the pattern of “one thin and two thick” predominates, while outside the basin “four thin and three thick” filling feature was found. Sedimentary facies shows that the study area was featured by rimmed carbonate platform. Specifically, carbonate platform, slope and northeastern corner Qinling paleooceanic Basin and southeastern corner Jiangnan Bain was identified from the west to the east. The carbonate platform contains restricted platform, evaporation-restricted platform, semi-restricted platform and the platform margin. Single factor analysis and lithofacies palaeogeographic characteristics manifests that during Middle-Late Cambrian, the western Old land evolved into peneplain stage, and that the eastern and southwestern sub-sags remained connected to the open-sea to some extent. At the time, the shllow seawater circulation was relatively restricted, while the ancient seabed tended to be flat and evaporation characteristics significantly diminished. Secondary sea-level fluctuation intensively influenced the development of scaled grain beach. It is suggested that tide marginal beach, intraplatform shoal subfacies zone, along with Shiqian-SangZhi in southeast and Zhenba-Xinshan in northeast platform-margin beach subfacies zone to be preferable targets for the favorable reservoir facies zone and

  18. Eesti kivimid aitasid lahendada iidse jääaja mõistatust / Tiit Kändler

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kändler, Tiit, 1948-


    Ajakirjas Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology ilmunud artiklist, milles lahatakse jääaja tekkimise põhjusi. Autorite seas on ka USA Indiana ülikooli teadlane Seth Young ja Dimitri Kaljo TTÜ geoloogia instituudist

  19. Late quaternary hillslope evolution recorded in eastern South African colluvial badlands

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Clarke, ML


    Full Text Available -8-03 Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 197 (2003) 199^212 dates for calcrete nodules which formed post-dep- ositionally within the sequences and which could not constrain individual depositional or pedogenic events. As a..., the earlier ones of which correlate with the calculated changes in latitudinal insolation. As identi?ed by Thomas and Thorp (1995), the PALAEO 3146 4-8-03 M.L. Clarke et al. / Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 197 (2003) 199^212 timing...

  20. Palaeo-ethnology, palaeo-environment and palaeo-climatology of Piaui, Brazil: palynological studies on human coprolites collected at the ``Pedra Furada`` site; Paleoethnologie, paleoenvironnement et paleoclimatologie du Piaui, Bresil: apport de l`etude pollinique de coprolithes humains recueillis dans le gisement prehistorique de ``Pedra Furada``

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaves, S.; Renault-Miskovsky, J. [Institut de Paleontologie, 75 - Paris (France)]|[Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)


    Fossil human faeces were collected from the rock-shelter of ``Pedra Furada`` (Piaui, Brazil), which is considered nowadays as one of the most ancient prehistoric sites in America. These dated coprolites range from 8,500 to 7,000 BP and are evidence of an occupation phase connected with ``Serra Talhada`` cultural traditions I and II. These coprolites were analysed by palynological studies. The results have given palaeo-climatological and palaeo-environmental data with an emphasis on palaeo-ethnological aspects. Evidence emerges regarding the range of medicinal and food plants of the prehistoric humans who inhabited the site for some 1,500 years. (authors). 32 refs., 3 figs.

  1. Quaternary palaeoceanography and palaeogeography in Northern Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Karen Luise; Conradsen, Keld; Heier‐Nielsen, Susanne


    Palaeoenvironmental reconstructions from the Skagen record contribute to the understanding of Late Quaternary climatic changes and variations in the oceanographic circulation pattern in the entire North Atlantic region. The Skagen cores penetrated c. 192 m of Quaternary sediments comprising two...... the Holocene, including the Pleistocene-Holocene transition. Results from the study of lithology, foraminifera, stable isotope measurements and radiocarbon dates are reviewed while emphasizing the most important contributions to the general understanding of the North Atlantic Quaternary history....

  2. The potential of perennial cave ice in isotope palaeoclimatology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yonge, Charles J.; MacDonald, William D.


    Perennial ice from caves on and to the east of the Canadian Great Divide yield delta O 18 and delta D values which are usually high measurements where compared with the average precipitation for the region. Furthermore, these ice data fall below and along lines of lower slope than the Global Meteoric Water Line. To explain the observed relationships, we propose the following process. a vapour-ice isotopic fractionation mechanism operates on warm season vapour when it precipitates as hoar ice on entering the caves. The subsequent fall of hoar to the cave floor through mechanical overloading along with ice derived from ground-water seepage (with a mean annual isotopic composition), results in massive ice formation of a mixed composition. This mixed composition is what is observed in the characteristic relationships found here. Such findings suggest that a warm versus cold climate interpretation for ancient cave ice may be the opposite of that found in the more familiar polar and glacial ice caves. (Author) 3 figs., 1 tab., 12 refs

  3. Mass spectrometry in oceanography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aggarwal, Suresh K.


    Mass spectrometry plays an important role in oceanography for various applications. Different types of inorganic as well as organic mass spectrometric techniques are being exploited world-wide to understand the different aspects of marine science, for palaeogeography, palaeoclimatology and palaeoecology, for isotopic composition and concentrations of different elements as well as for speciation studies. The present paper reviews some of the applications of atomic mass spectrometric techniques in the area of oceanography

  4. A dinosaur community composition dataset for the Late Cretaceous Nemegt Basin of Mongolia

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    G.F. Funston


    Full Text Available Dinosaur community composition data for eleven fossil localities in the Late Cretaceous Nemegt Basin of Mongolia are compiled from field observations and records in the literature. Counts were generated from skeletons and represent numbers of individuals preserved in each locality. These data were used in the analyses of Funston et al. [1] “Oviraptorosaur anatomy, diversity, and ecology in the Nemegt Basin” in the Nemegt Ecosystems Special Issue of Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, where the results are discussed.

  5. Antarctica, supercontinents and the palaeogeography of the Cambrian 'explosion' (United States)

    Dalziel, Ian


    Laurentia is bordered by latest Precambrian-Cambrian rifted margins and must therefore have been located within a Precambrian supercontinent. Geochronologic and geochemical evidence indicates that it was attached to parts of the East Antarctic craton within the Rodinian supercontinent in the late Mesoproterozoic. The Mawson craton of Antarctica rifted from the proto-Pacific margin of Laurentia during the Neooproterozoic, colliding with the present 'southern cone' of Laurentia at ~600 Ma along the Shackleton Range suture zone as Gondwana and Laurentia amalgamated to form the ephemeral Pannotia supercontinental assembly at the end of the Precambrian. The abrupt appearance of almost all animal phyla in the fossil record is often colloquially referred to as the Cambrian 'explosion' of life on Earth. It is also named 'Darwin's dilemma,' as he appreciated that this seemingly mysterious event posed a major problem for his theory of evolution by natural selection. It coincided with a time of major marine transgression over all the continents. Although the metazoan 'explosion' is now seen as more protracted than formerly recognized, it is still regarded one of the most critical events in the history of the biosphere. One of the most striking aspects of the earliest Cambrian fossils is geographic differentiation. In particular, the first benthic trilobite faunas on Laurentia, ancestral North America, and the newly amalgamated southern supercontinent of Gondwana are distinctly different. This has led to the suggestion of an unknown vicariant event intervening between an ancestral trilobite clade and higher members that are represented in the fossil record, possibly one related to the breakup of a supercontinent. Igneous rocks along the Panthalassic margin of Gondwana, including South America, southernmost Africa and the Ellsworth-Whitmore crustal block of Antarctica, and along the proto-Appalachian margin of Laurentia indicate that final separation of Laurentia from Antarctica occurred just prior to the first appearance of trilobites in the fossil record. This event would have separated the Olenellid trilobite fauna of Laurentia from the Redlichiid fauna of Gondwana by opening a major oceanic connection between the developing Iapetus and pre-existing Pacific ocean basins with profound global environmental effects at the time of the Cambrian 'explosion,' including expansion of continental shelves. The paleogeographic settings of the two great transgressions of the Phanerozoic, the Cambrian and Cretaceous, are remarkably similar. Both seem to have involved comparatively rapid increase in ridge crest length within the ocean basins.

  6. Glacial to Holocene fluctuations in hydrography and productivity along the southwestern continental margin of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Thamban, M.; Rao, V.P.; Schneider, R.R.; Grootes, P.M.

    was highly reduced (S.W.A. Naqvi, personal communication). during 13–6 ka BP, when the intensity of summer Secondly, the dynamics of the upwelling system monsoon is expected to be high. We suggest that along the southwest coast of India oVers an past changes...: S0031-0182(00)00156-5 114 M. Thamban et al. / Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 165 (2001) 113–127 during the early to mid-Holocene period, following and Malmgren, 1996; Naqvi and Fairbanks, 1996; Overpeck et al., 1996; Zonneveld et...

  7. Palaeoecological and palaeoclimatological implications of the Eocene Northern Hemisphere Azolla phenomenon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barke, J.


    The high abundances and cyclic distribution of remains of the freshwater fern Azolla in early middle Eocene sediments from the Arctic Ocean have previously been related to episodic surface water freshening, which was speculated to be orbitally modulated. Our integrated palynological and

  8. Late Quaternary palaeoecological and palaeoclimatological reconstruction in the Gutaiului Mountains, northwest Romania (United States)

    Feurdean, Angelica; Bennike, Ole


    Macrofossil, pollen, lithostratigraphy, mineral magnetic measurements (SIRM and magnetic susceptibility), loss-on-ignition, and AMS radiocarbon dating on sediments from two former crater lakes, situated at moderate altitudes in the Gutaiului Mountains of northwest Romania, allow reconstruction of Late Quaternary climate and environment. Shrubs and herbs with steppe and montane affinities along with stands of Betula and Pinus, colonised the surroundings of the sites prior to 14 700 cal. yr BP and the inferred climatic conditions were cold and dry. The gradual transition to open Pinus-Betula forests, slightly higher lake water temperatures, and higher lake productivity, indicate more stable environmental conditions between 14 700 and 14 100 cal. yr BP. This development was interrupted by cooler and drier climatic conditions between 14 100 and 13 800 cal. yr BP, as inferred from a reduction of open forests to patches, or stands, of Pinus, Betula, Larix, Salix and Populus. The expansion of a denser boreal forest, dominated by Picea, but including Pinus, Larix, Betula, Salix, and Ulmus started at 13 800 cal. yr BP, although the forest density seems to have been reduced between 13400 and 13200cal.yrBP. Air temperature and moisture availability gradually increased, but a change towards drier conditions is seen at 13400cal.yrBP. A distinct decrease in temperature and humidity between 12900 and 11500cal.yrBP led to a return of open vegetation, with patches of Betula, Larix, Salix, Pinus and Alnus and individuals of Picea. Macrofossils and pollen of aquatic plants indicate rising lake water temperatures and increased aquatic productivity already by ca. 11800cal.yrBP, 300 years earlier than documented by the terrestrial plant communities. At the onset of the Holocene, 11500cal.yrBP, forests dominated by Betula, Pinus and Larix expanded and were followed by dense Ulmus forests with Picea, Betula and Pinus at 11250cal.yrBP. Larix pollen was not found, but macrofossil evidence indicates that Larix was an important forest constituent at the onset of the Holocene. Moister conditions were followed by a dry period starting about 10600cal.yrBP, which was more pronounced between 8600 and 8200cal.yrBP, as inferred from aquatic macrofossils. The maximum expansion of Tilia, Quercus, Fraxinus and Acer between 10700 and 8600cal.yrBP may reflect a more continental climate. A drier and/or cooler climate could have been responsible for the late expansion (10300cal.yrBP) and late maximum (9300cal.yrBP) of Corylus. Increased water stress, and possibly cooler conditions around 8600cal.yrBP, may have caused a reduction of Ulmus, Tilia, Quercus and Fraxinus. After 8200cal.yrBP moisture increased and the forests included Picea, Tilia, Quercus and Fraxinus. Copyright

  9. Palaeopedogenic features and their palaeoclimatological significance for the nevremont formation (Lower Givetian), the Northern Ardennes, Belgium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molenaar, N.


    The lower member of the Nèvremont Formation is characterized by the frequent occurrence of pedogenic features, which suggest intermittent exposure of the fluvial depositional environment. The evidence for pedogenesis comprises horizons of calcite glaebules and nodular calcrete, haematite

  10. Tracing the oxygen triple isotopic composition of tropospheric molecular oxygen in biogenic apatite - a new tool for palaeoclimatology (United States)

    Pack, A.; Süssenberger, A.; Gehler, A.; Wotzlaw, J.


    It has been demonstrated that tropospheric molecular oxygen posses a significant isotope anomaly [1, 2 and refs. therein]. Relative to the rocks- and minerals-defined terrestrial fractionation line (TFL), tropospheric O2 has an anomaly of -0.35‰ [2]. Because almost all oxygen on Earth is contained in rocks, we suggest that the rocks- and minerals-defined TFL [3] should be used as reference when reporting isotope anomalies with ∆17O = δ'17OSMOW - βTFL δ'18OSMOW. We have developed a new technique for the determination of δ17O and δ18O of silicates by means of laser fluorination GC-CF-irmMS. We have determined βTFL to 0.5247 (N > 100), which is identical to the value reported by other laboratories and techniques [2, 3]. The uncertainty in ∆17O is ±0.03 (1σ) for a single analysis. It was suggested that ∆17O of tropospheric O2 can be used as proxy for the global bioactivity rate [GBR, 1] as well as for past atmospheric CO2 concentrations [4]. Past ∆17O of tropospheric O2 can be determined by analyzing O2 trapped in ice [1, 5] or by analyzing sulfates from terrestrial sulphide oxidation [4]. Disadvantage of ice core data is the limitation in time back mammals of different body mass (Mb) from Northern Germany (except Indian Elephant). The ∆17O of apatite varies between -0.16‰ for a wood mouse (Apodemus sylvaticus) and +0.04‰ for a wild boar (Sus scrofa). Samples were analyzed between 5 and 7 times in order to reduce the analytical uncertainty to ±0.012-0.025‰. Our data confirm the prediction from mass balance that animals inherit a ∆17O signature from anomalous air O2. We have developed a detailed mass balance for mammals with respect to ∆17O. The mass balance considers the oxygen fluxes (drinking and food water, respired O2, metabolic water, excrements, evaporated water and exhaled CO2). The fractionation in δ18O and ∆17O (from associated β-value) was considered for each of the fluxes. The result is an allometric scaling model for ∆17O as function of log Mb. Predicted and measured data agree within the uncertainty of the model and the measurements, respectively. Small mammals with their high specific metabolic rate show the greatest portion of oxygen from air O2 in their body water and in their bones and teeth. With this approach, ∆17O of air O2 can be determined with an uncertainty in the range of 0.05-0.1‰. This is more precise than what can be obtained from analyses of terrigene sulfate. With well-preserved fossil material, it may be possible to determine ∆17O of air O2 beyond the time limit of ice core data. The high precision of our approach may allow identifying variations in ∆17O of air O2 between glacial and interglacial periods. With mammal material, we will construct a ∆17O-profile of tropospheric O2 back to the Palaeogene. Using the same approach with reptile apatite, we expect to be able to extend the database beyond the Cretaceous/Palaeogene boundary. Correct interpretation of ∆17O of biogenic apatite, however, requires knowledge of the metabolic parameters for the analyzed groups as well as the β-values for all isotope fractionation processes involved. [1] Luz B. et al. (1999) Nature, 400, 547-550. [2] Pack A. et al. (2007) Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry, 21, 3721-3728. [3] Rumble D. et al. (2007) Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 71, 3592-3600. [4] Bao H. et al. (2008) Nature, 453, 504-506. [5] Blunier T. et al. (2002) Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 16, 3-1-15. [6] Bryant J. D. and Froelich P. N. (1995) Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 59, 4523-4537.

  11. Precipitation, groundwater and surface waters. Control of climate parameters on their isotopic composition and their utilization as palaeoclimatological tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gat, J.R.


    The isotopic composition of precipitation is correlated with climatic parameters such as mean temperature and humidity both in the source areas of the atmospheric moisture and along the storm trajectories. However, additional meteorological variables such as seasonal distributions of rainfall, convection patterns in the cloud and intensity, duration and intermittency of rain influence the isotopic composition. It is shown in this context that the isotopic composition of Negev and Sinai palaeowaters is consistent with the notion of summer rains in this area arising from Atlantic-based storm centres. (author)

  12. Late quaternary palaeo-oceanography and palaeo-climatology from sediment cores of the eastern Arctic Ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pagels, U.; Koehler, S.


    Box cores recovered along a N-S transect in the Eurasian Basin allow the establishment of a time scale for the Late Quaternary history of the Arctic Ocean, based on stable oxygen isotope stratigraphy and AMS 14 C dating of planktonic foraminifers (N. pachyderma I.c.). This high resolution stratigraphy, in combination with sedimentological investigations (e.g. coarse fraction analysis, carbonate content, productivity of foraminifers), was carried out to reconstruct the glacial and inter-glacial Arctic Ocean palaeo-environment The sediment cores, which can be correlated throughout the sampling area in the Eastern Arctic Ocean, were dated as representing oxygen isotope stages 1 to 4/5. The sedimentation rates varied between a few mm/ka in glacials and approximately one cm/ka during the Holocene. The sediments allow a detailed sedimentological description of the depositional regime and the palaeo-oceanography of the Eastern Arctic Ocean. Changing ratios of biogenic and lithogenic components in the sediments reflect variations in the oceanographic circulation pattern in the Eurasian Basin during the Late Quaternary. Carbonate content (1-9wt.%), productivity of foraminifers (high in interglacial, low in glacial stages) and the terrigenous components are in good correlation with glacial and inter-glacial climatic fluctuations

  13. The Lower Cambrian of Scandinavia: Depositional environment, sequence stratigraphy and palaeogeography (United States)

    Nielsen, Arne Thorshøj; Schovsbo, Niels Hemmingsen


    Lower Cambrian successions described from Scandinavia are reviewed and subjected to sequence stratigraphical analysis; comparisons are also made with successions described from northeast Poland, Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. The treated stratigraphic interval is bounded upwards by a regional unconformity ascribed to the Hawke Bay Event. The East European regional stage classification, comprising the Rovnian, Lontovan, Dominopolian, Ljubomlian, Vergalian, Rausvian and Kibartian, is adopted for the Lower Cambrian of Scandinavia. These units are approximately equivalent to the Terreneuvian and Cambrian provisional series 2. The Rovnian and Lontovan stages are pre-trilobitic. The Dominopolian and 'Ljubomlian' stages encompass the ' Rusophycus' and Schmidtiellus mickwitzi zones; whether the former zone is of pre-trilobitic age is uncertain but possible. The 'Ljubomlian' is treated informally because the definition adopted in this paper does not correspond to the original concept of the stage. The Vergalian and Rausvian are for the time being classified as one combined stage. The lower main part of the Vergalian-Rausvian corresponds to the new informal Holmia kjerulfi- 'Ornamentaspis' linnarssoni zone, whereas the upper part is separated as the new informal Comluella?-Ellipsocephalus lunatus zone. This zone also includes the Kibartian Stage. Volborthella and poorly known olenellid trilobites range into the Kibartian and the stage is considered of Early Cambrian age. The Holmia inusitata Zone is abandoned; it is contemporaneous with the traditional ' O.' linnarssoni Zone. The autochthonous strata underlying the Hawke Bay unconformity in the Laisvall sector, Swedish Lapland, are assigned to the Laisberg and Grammajukku formations and it is proposed to abandon the Laisvall and Såvvare formations. The Laisberg Fm can locally be divided into the Ackerselet, Saivatj, Maiva, Kautsky Ore, Tjalek, Nadok Ore and Assjatj members. The Vakkejokk Breccia near Luopakte is likely impact related. Sequences are defined as transgressive-regressive depositional cycles bounded by maximum regressive surfaces and their correlative conformities. Sea-level rises are identified by fining-upward lithologies, cratonwards shifts in facies and depocentres, formation of widespread thin lime- and ironstones as well as precipitation of phosphorite and glaucony; the latter formed at remarkably shallow depth in comparison with the modern world. Sea-level falls are identified by coarsening-upwards lithologies, basinwards shifts in facies and gaps in the sedimentary record relating to non-deposition/erosion during falling stage and lowstand. Due to the pronounced clastic starvation neither lowstand nor highstand system tracts are developed subsequent to the earliest transgressive phases and eustasy was the primary control on depth changes. The Lower Cambrian comprises two supersequences (2nd order sequences), separated by regional subaerial unconformities reflecting the Rispebjerg Lowstand (new name) and the Hawke Bay Event. The Rispebjerg Lowstand was likely glacio-eustatic. Supersequence 1 (Rovnian-Lontovan-Dominopolian-'Ljubomlian') comprises about nine 3rd order sequences but the exact number of sequences in the Lontovan is unsettled. Supersequence 2 (Vergalian-Rausvian-lower Kibartian) comprises five sequences. Two or more subsequences (new term = 4th order sequences) are recognized in all sequences but long-distance correlation is usually difficult. The sequence stratigraphical resolution of the Lower Cambrian is more than twice as high as the acritarch biozonation. Baltica became intensively peneplained during the Neoproterozoic and was by and large completely flat at the dawn of the Cambrian. The profound Early Cambrian sea-level rise, comprising a series of individual 3rd order drowning events, was associated with step-wise transgression of Baltoscandia and concomitantly the sedimentary supply declined. The sequence stratigraphical analysis indicates onset of marine deposition in northernmost Germany and the most distal Middle Allochthon of southern Norway possibly during the Rovnian and in Scania-Bornholm, NE Poland, Jämtland (Lower Allochthon) and Valdres (Lower Allochthon) during the Lontovan. Marine deposition commenced in the Mjøsa District (Lower Allochthon) as well as in Swedish Lapland (Autochthon) during the Dominopolian, and the transgression reached southernmost Gotland early in the Vergalian-Rausvian, whereas Öland, northern Gotland, central Sweden and the Autochthon of the Mjøsa District and Jämtland-western Dalarna were flooded slightly later. The northern Baltic Sea-Bothnian Bay and western Finland were flooded lastly (late Vergalian-Rausvian). A narrow land area straddled the axis of mainland Sweden even during maximum transgression in the latest Early Cambrian. The Digermul area was essentially inundated all through the late Ediacaran-Early Cambrian and represents a Timanide foreland basin. The first Cambrian transgression in the East Baltic area took place in a post-rift sag-basin that formed above the Volhyn-Orcha Rift System during the Rovnian-Lontovan. The rift system inverted during the Dominopolian associated with the formation of a narrow marginal trough centred in the easternmost Baltic Sea. This event was in turn followed by the formation of a wider secondary marginal trough during the early Vergalian-Rausvian, affecting the Öland-Gotland area, and at the same time causing mild uplift of the primary marginal trough in the East Baltic sector. A third sub-regional subsidence event during the late Vergalian-Rausvian stage was centred in the Bothnian Sea and also affected western Finland, parts of south-central Sweden, and the northern Baltic Sea. The Hedmark Basin in southern Norway was seemingly also subjected to mild inversion during the earliest Cambrian. The mentioned subsidence and uplift events were in the size order of a few tens of metres to maximum a few hundreds of metres. The flooding pattern is illustrated in a series of 10 palaeogeographical maps reconstructed for Scandinavia and the East Baltic area including western Russia, western Belorussia, northeast Poland and northwestern Ukraine. The mapping is based on assessment of some 700 data-points in the region. Isopach maps for selected units have also been compiled. The mapping reveals that several of the tectonic windows in the Norwegian-Swedish mountain chain represent original basement highs. The most significant 3rd order sea-level changes are named for easy reference, including the Hadeborg Drowning (Lontovan), Brantevik Drowning (basal Dominopolian), Snogebæk Lowstand (Dominopolian), Norretorp-1 Drowning (Dominopolian), Mid Norretorp Lowstand (terminal Dominopolian), Norretorp-2 Drowning (basal 'Ljubomlian'), Rispebjerg Lowstand (end 'Ljubomlian'), Gislöv Drowning (basal Vergalian-Rausvian), Evjevik-1 Drowning (Vergalian-Rausvian), Evjevik-2 Drowning (Vergalian-Rausvian) and the När Lowstand (Rausvian/Kibartian transition).

  14. Relationships between palaeogeography and opal occurrence in Australia: A data-mining approach (United States)

    Landgrebe, T. C. W.; Merdith, A.; Dutkiewicz, A.; Müller, R. D.


    Age-coded multi-layered geological datasets are becoming increasingly prevalent with the surge in open-access geodata, yet there are few methodologies for extracting geological information and knowledge from these data. We present a novel methodology, based on the open-source GPlates software in which age-coded digital palaeogeographic maps are used to “data-mine” spatio-temporal patterns related to the occurrence of Australian opal. Our aim is to test the concept that only a particular sequence of depositional/erosional environments may lead to conditions suitable for the formation of gem quality sedimentary opal. Time-varying geographic environment properties are extracted from a digital palaeogeographic dataset of the eastern Australian Great Artesian Basin (GAB) at 1036 opal localities. We obtain a total of 52 independent ordinal sequences sampling 19 time slices from the Early Cretaceous to the present-day. We find that 95% of the known opal deposits are tied to only 27 sequences all comprising fluvial and shallow marine depositional sequences followed by a prolonged phase of erosion. We then map the total area of the GAB that matches these 27 opal-specific sequences, resulting in an opal-prospective region of only about 10% of the total area of the basin. The key patterns underlying this association involve only a small number of key environmental transitions. We demonstrate that these key associations are generally absent at arbitrary locations in the basin. This new methodology allows for the simplification of a complex time-varying geological dataset into a single map view, enabling straightforward application for opal exploration and for future co-assessment with other datasets/geological criteria. This approach may help unravel the poorly understood opal formation process using an empirical spatio-temporal data-mining methodology and readily available datasets to aid hypothesis testing.

  15. A review of the Late Cambrian (Furongian) palaeogeography in the western Mediterranean region, NW Gondwana (United States)

    Álvaro, J. Javier; Ferretti, Annalisa; González-Gómez, Cristina; Serpagli, Enrico; Tortello, M. Franco; Vecoli, Marco; Vizcaïno, Daniel


    The Cambrian-Ordovician transition of the western Mediterranean region (NW Gondwana) is characterized by the record of major erosive unconformities with gaps that range from a chronostratigraphic stage to a series. The hiatii are diachronous and involved progressively younger strata along the Gondwanan margin, from SW (Morocco) to NE (Montagne Noire). They can be related to development of a multi-stage rifting (further North), currently connected to the opening of the Rheic Ocean, and concomitant erosion on southern rift shoulders. The platforms of this margin of Gondwana occupied temperate-water, mid latitudes and were dominated by siliciclastic sedimentation, while carbonate factories were only episodically active in the Montagne-Noire platform. The Upper Cambrian is devoid of significant gaps in the southern Montagne Noire and the Iberian Chains. There, the sedimentation took place in a transgressive-dominated depositional system, with common offshore deposits and clayey substrates, and was bracketed by two major regressive trends. The Late Cambrian is also associated with the record of volcanic activity ( e.g., in the Cantabrian and Ossa-Morena zones, and the northern Montagne Noire), and widespread development of a tectonic instability that led to the episodic establishment of palaeotopographies and record of slope-related facies associations. Several immigration events are recognized throughout the latest Middle Cambrian, Late Cambrian and Tremadocian. The trilobites show a stepwise replacement of Acado-Baltic-type families ( e.g., the conocoryphid-paradoxidid-solenopleurid assemblage) characterized by: (i) a late Languedocian (latest Middle Cambrian) co-occurrence of Middle Cambrian trilobite families with the first anomocarid, dorypygid and proasaphiscid invaders; (ii) a Late Cambrian immigration replacing previous faunas, composed of trilobites (aphelaspidids, catillicephalids, ceratopygids, damesellids, eulomids, idahoiids, linchakephalids, lisariids, onchonotinids, and pagodiids), linguliformean brachiopods (acrotretids, obolids, scaphelasmatids, siphonotretids, and zhanatellids), echinoderms (mitrates, glyptocystitid cystoids, and stromatocystoids), and conodonts belonging to the lower Peltura Zone; and (iii) the subsequent input of new trilobites (asaphids, calymenids, catillicephalids, nileids and remopleurids), which marks the base of the Proteuloma geinitzi Zone, associated with pelmatozoan holdfasts ( Oryctoconus), and a distinct input of late Tremadocian conodonts ( Paltodus deltifer Zone). The biogeographic distribution of latest Middle and Late Cambrian trilobites supports brachiopod data indicating strong affinities between the western Mediterranean region, East Gondwana (North China/Korea, South China, Australia, and Antarctica) and Kazakhstania during the late Languedocian, which became significantly stronger during the Late Cambrian. This major shift may suggest modification in oceanic circulation patterns throughout Gondwana across the Middle-Late Cambrian transition.

  16. Lithofacies palaeogeography of the Carboniferous and Permian in the Qinshui Basin, Shanxi Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long-Yi Shao


    The Xiashihezi, Shangshihezi, and Shiqianfeng Formations consist mainly of red mudstones with thick-interbedded sandstones. During the deposition of these formations, most areas of the basin were occupied by a fluvial channel, resulting in palaeogeographic units that include fluvial channel zones and flood basins. The fluvial channel deposits consist mainly of relatively-thick sandstones, which could have potential for exploration of tight sandstone gas.

  17. Late Ordovician palaeogeography and the positions of the Kazakh terranes through analysis of their brachiopod faunas (United States)

    Popov, Leonid E.; Cocks, Robin M.


    Detailed biogeographical and biofacies analyses of the Late Ordovician brachiopod faunas with 160 genera, grouped into 94 faunas from individual lithotectonic units within the Kazakh Orogen strongly support an archipelago model for that time in that area. The Kazakh island arcs and microcontinents within several separate clusters were located in the tropics on both sides of the Equator. Key units, from which the Late Ordovician faunas are now well known, include the Boshchekul, Chingiz-Tarbagatai, and Chu-Ili terranes. The development of brachiopod biogeography within the nearly ten million year time span of the Late Ordovician from about 458 to 443 Ma (Sandbian, Katian, and Hirnantian), is supported by much new data, including our revised identifications from the Kazakh Orogen and elsewhere. The Kazakh archipelago was west of the Australasian segment of the Gondwana Supercontinent, and relatively near the Tarim, South China and North China continents, apart from the Atashu-Zhamshi Microcontinent, which probably occupied a relatively isolated position on the south-western margin of the archipelago. Distinct faunal signatures indicate that the Kazakh terranes were far away from Baltica and Siberia throughout the Ordovician. Although some earlier terranes had joined each other before the Middle Ordovician, the amalgamation of Kazakh terranes into the single continent of Kazakhstania by the end of the Ordovician is very unlikely. The Late Ordovician brachiopods from the other continents are also compared with the Kazakh faunas and global provincialisation statistically determined.

  18. Development of amino resins for emulsion paint formulation: effect of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Mirmohseni and Hassanzadeh, 2000). The resins were ... of absorption, slight changes occurred. ..... Urethane-Modified Alumina – Filled Polyesteramide Anticorrosive ... of Polyurethanes Using Ammonium Polyphosphate. J. Appl.

  19. A constrained African craton source for the Cenozoic Numidian Flysch: Implications for the palaeogeography of the western Mediterranean basin (United States)

    Thomas, M. F. H.; Bodin, S.; Redfern, J.; Irving, D. H. B.


    The provenance of the Numidian Flysch in the western Mediterranean remains a controversial subject which hinders understanding of this regionally widespread depositional system. The Numidian Flysch is a deep marine formation dated as Oligocene to Miocene which outcrops throughout the Maghreb and into Italy. Evidence that is widely used for provenance analysis has not previously been reviewed within the context of the Maghrebian Flysch Basin as a whole. The structural location within the Alpine belt indicates deposition proximal to the African margin, while the uniformity of the Numidian Flysch petrofacies suggests a single cratonic source, in stark contrast to heterolithic and immature flysch formations from the north of the basin. Detrital zircon ages constrain a source region with Pan-African and Eburnian age rocks, unaffected by either Hercynian or Alpine tectonic events, which precludes the European basement blocks to the north of the basin. Palaeocurrent trends which suggest a northern source are unreliable given foreland basin analogues and observed structural complications. An African craton source remains the only viable option once these data are reviewed in their entirety, and the Numidian Flysch therefore represents a major Cenozoic drainage system on the North African margin. Deposition is concurrent with regional Atlas uplift phases, and coincidental with globally cooling climates and high sea levels. The Numidian Flysch is therefore interpreted to represent a highstand passive margin deposit, with timing of deposition controlled primarily by hinterland uplift and climatic fluctuations.

  20. Lithofacies palaeogeography and biostratigraphy of the lowermost horizons of the Middle Triassic Hallstatt Limestones (Argolis Peninsula, Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fotini A. Pomoni


    Taking into consideration the present location of the Hallstatt Formation, in the context of the Hellenides, an area suitable for the deposition of the Hallstatt Limestones, should be located between the sub-Pelagonian (western part of the Pelagonian zone and Pindos geotectonic zones, which during the Triassic corresponded to a platform slope and a deep ocean, respectively. The widespread Middle Triassic Han Bulog Limestones (ammonoid-bearing pelagic limestones from Triassic successions of the Eastern Alps (Dinarides, Hellenides may have formed partly in similar slope environments.

  1. Calcareous nannofossil events in the pre-evaporitic Messinian (United States)

    Negri, Alessandra; Lozar, Francesca


    During the Messinian (7.2 to 5.3 Ma) the Mediterranean area experienced fast and deep climatic and eustatic structural changes. The stratigraphic framework for this interval is relatively well constrained and the beginning of the Messinian salinity crisis dated at 5.97 Ma determine a duration of at least 1.2 Ma for the pre-evaporitic Messinian that is object of this study. Several sites (Faneromeni, Pissouri, Polemi Fanantello borehole, Lemme, Pollenzo, Govone, Moncalvo; Wade and Bown, 2006; Kouwenhoven et al 2006, Morigi et al 2007, Lozar et al 2010, Dela Pierre et al 2011) show similar calcareous nannofossil record behavior, with several Sphenolithus spp. peaks recognised at different quotes in each of the sections. Aim of the present work is to compare the calcareous nannofossil data achieved in the above mentioned sections: interestingly, the occurrence of strongly oligotypic assemblages related to high salinity and unstable environments, appear to correlate precisely among the investigated sites and occur immediately before the onset of the Messinian salinity crisis, then offering the possibility to use them as bioevents for regional correlation. References Dela Pierre, F., Bernardi, E., Cavagna, S., Clari, P., Gennari, R., Irace, A., Lozar, F., Lugli, S., Manzi, V., Natalicchio, M., Roveri, M., Violanti, D., 2011. The record of the Messinian salinity crisis in the Tertiary Piedmont Basin (NW Italy): The Alba section revisited. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 310, 238-255. Kouwenhoven, T.J., Morigi, C., Negri, A., Giunta, S., Krijgsman, W., Rouchy, J.M., 2006 Paleoenvironmental evolution of the eastern Mediterranean during the Messinian: Constraints from integrated microfossil data of the Pissouri Basin (Cyprus). Marine Micropaleontology 60, 17-44. Lozar, F., Violanti, D., Dela Pierre, F., Bernardi, E., Cavagna, S., Clari, P., Irace, A., Martinetto, E., Trenkwalder, S., 2010. Calcareous nannofossils and foraminifers herald the Messinian

  2. Problems in palaeoclimatology : A. E. M. Nairn (Editor). Interscience, New York, N.Y., 1963, 705 pp., £ 7.7.0

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manten, A.A.


    This book, containing the proceedings of the NATO Palaeoclimates Institute held at the University of Newcastle upon Tyne, January 7-12, 1963, comprises no less than 54 contributions, divided over thirteen chapters. The nature of the papers varies from strictly local studies to studies of

  3. Mesozoic authigenic carbonate deposition in the Arctic: Do glendonites record gas hydrate destabilization during the Jurassic? (United States)

    Morales, Chloe; Suan, Guillaume; Wierzbowski, Hubert; Rogov, Mikhail; Teichert, Barbara; Kienhuis, Michiel V. M.; Polerecky, Lubos; Middelburg, Jack B. M.; Reichart, Gert-Jan; van de Schootbrugge, Bas


    considered. These results however caution the use of glendonites as a proxy for near-freezing conditions. References: Spielhagen, R.F., Tripati, A., 2009. Evidence from Svalbard for near-freezing temperatures and climate oscillations in the Arctic during the Paleocene and Eocene. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 278, 48-56. Teichert, B.M.A., Luppold, F.W., 2013. Glendonites from an Early Jurassic methane seep'Climate or methane indicators? Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 390, 81-93.

  4. PaleoGeo: a Web based GIS database for paleoenvironmental studies (United States)

    Song, Wonsuh; Kondo, Yasuhisa; Oguchi, Takashi


    Paleoenvironmental studies cover various fields such as paleohydrology, geomorphology, paleooceanology, paleobiology, paleoclimatology, and chronology. It is difficult for an individual researcher to collect and compile enormous data regarding these fields. We have been compiling portal data and presenting them using a web-based geographical information system (Web-GIS) called PaleoGeo for the multidisciplinary project 'Replacement of Neanderthals by Modern Humans'. The aim of the project is to reconstruct the distribution of Neanderthals and modern humans in time and space in relation to past climate change. We have been collecting information from almost three thousand articles of 13 journals regarding paleoenvironmental research (i.e., Boreas, Catena, Climatic Change, Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, Geomorphology, Journal of Quaternary Science, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, and Palaeoecology, Quaternary International, Quaternary Research, Quaternary Science Reviews, The Holocene, and The Journal of Geology). The topics of the articles were classified into six themes (paleohydrology, earth surface processes and materials, paleooceanology, paleobiology, palaeoclimatology, and chronology) and 19 subthemes (hydrology, flood, fluvial, glacier, fluvial/glacier, sedimentology, soil, slope process, periglacial, peat land, eolian, sea-level, biology, vegetation, zoology, vegetation/zoology, archaeology, climate, atmosphere, and chronology). The collected data consist of the journal name, information about each paper (authors, title, volume, year, and page numbers), site location (country name, longitude, and latitude), theme, subtheme, keywords, DOI (Digital Object Identifier), and period (era). Location data are indispensable for paleoenvironmental studies. The PaleoGeo shows information with a map, which is an advantage of this database system. However, the number of the paleoenvironmental studies is growing rapidly and we have to effectively cover them as

  5. Environmental change during the Late Berriasian - Early Valanginian: a prelude to the late Early Valanginian carbon-isotope event? (United States)

    Morales, Chloé; Schnyder, Johann; Spangenberg, Jorge; Adatte, Thierry; Westermann, Stephane; Föllmi, Karl


    European basins show that the climate became more humid during the Late Berriasian (Hallam et al., 1991, Schnyder et al., 2009). The aim of this project is to precisely characterize and date paleoenvironmental and paleoclimatic change during the latest Berriasian-Early Valanginian time interval in order to decipher if they can be viewed as precursor events, linked with the late Early Valanginian δ13C event. Three key sections have been studied: Capriolo (N Italy), Montclus (SE France) and Musfallen (E Switzerland) located in the Lombardian and Vocontian basins and on the Helvetic platform, respectively. Phosphorus and stable-isotope analyses have been performed, in addition to clay-mineralogy and facies determinations. The three sections show similar and comparable trends: The phosphorus content (in ppm) is higher in Late Berriasian sediments (compared to Early Berriasian and Valanginian deposits) and this period is also characterised by a decrease in δ13C values. This is interpreted as the result of enhanced continental weathering, which would be coeval with a change to a more humid climate during the Late Berriasian (Schnyder et al., 2009). References: Bornemann, A. and Mutterlose, J. (2008). "Calcareous nannofossil and d13C records from the Early Cretaceous of the Western Atlantic ocean: evidence of enhanced fertilization accross the Berriasian-Valanginian transition." palaios 23: 821-832. Duchamp-Alphonse, S., Gardin, S., Fiet, N., Bartolini, A., Blamart, D. and Pagel, M. (2007). "Fertilization of the northwestern Tethys (Vocontian basin, SE France) during the Valanginian carbon isotope perturbation: Evidence from calcareous nannofossils and trace element data." Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 243(1-2): 132-151. Föllmi, K.B., Weissert, H., Bisping, M. & Funk, H. 1994: Phosphogenesis, carbon-isotope stratigraphy, and carbonate-platform evolution along the Lower Cretaceous northern tethyan margin. Geological Society of America, Bulletin 106, 729

  6. The Cambrian to Devonian odyssey of the Brabant Massif within Avalonia: A review with new zircon ages, geochemistry, Sm-Nd isotopes, stratigraphy and palaeogeography (United States)

    Linnemann, Ulf; Herbosch, Alain; Liégeois, Jean-Paul; Pin, Christian; Gärtner, Andreas; Hofmann, Mandy


    This study provides an up-to-date and comprehensive review of the Early Palaeozoic evolution of the Brabant Massif belonging to the Anglo-Brabant Deformation Belt. Situated at the southeastern side of Avalonia microplate, it is the only well-known part of the northern passive margin of the Rheic Ocean. The Cambrian-Silurian sedimentary pile is > 13 km thick, with > 9 km for the Cambrian only. The unraveling of this continuous registration reflects the successive rifting and drifting of Avalonia from the Gondwana mainland, followed by soft-collisional processes with Baltica and finally the formation of Laurussia. Based on recently established detailed stratigraphy, sedimentology and basin development, on U-Pb LA-ICP-MS analyses of igneous and detrital zircon grains along with geochemical data including Sm-Nd isotopes, a new geodynamic and palaeogeographic evolution is proposed. Brabant Megasequence 1 (lower Cambrian to lowermost Ordovician, > 9 km thick) represents an embayment of the peri-Gondwanan rift from which the Rheic Ocean has evolved. Detrital zircon ages demonstrate that the Brabant is a typical peri-Gondwanan terrane with a major Pan-African (Neoproterozoic age) and a mixed West African and Amazonian source (Palaeoproterozoic, Archaean and some Mesoproterozoic age). The transition towards the Avalonia drifting is marked by an unconformity and a short volcanic episode. The northward drift of Avalonia towards Baltica is recorded by the Megasequence 2 (Middle to Upper Ordovician, 1.3 km thick). The source for Mesoproterozoic zircons vanished, as the result of the Rheic Ocean opening and the isolation from Amazonian sources. The transition to Megasequence 3 is marked by a drastic change in palaeobathymetry and an important (sub)volcanic episode during a tectonic instability period (460-430 Ma), reflecting the Avalonia-Baltica soft docking as also shown by the reappearance of Mesoproterozoic detrital zircons, typical of Baltica. Unradiogenic Nd isotope signature (ɛNd - 4/- 5) and TDM model ages (1.3-1.7 Ga) for Brabant magmatic rocks indicate an old recycled component. Megasequence 3 (uppermost Ordovician to lowermost Devonian; > 3.5 km thick) includes the onset of a Silurian foreland basin that reflects the tectonic inversion of the core of the massif (Brabantian orogeny) in response to the Baltica-Avalonia-Laurentia collision. Finally, the comparison with the strikingly similar Cambrian successions of the Harlech Dome (Wales, Avalonia) and the Meguma terrane (Nova Scotia, peri-Gondwana) allows the construction of a new Early Cambrian palaeogeographic model for the whole Avalonia microplate, in which the Meguma terrane is included.

  7. Sedimentary architecture and palaeogeography of lower Slochteren Aeolian cycles from the Rotliegend desert-lake margin (Permian), the Markham area, Southern North Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belt, F.J.G. van den; Hulten, F.F.N. van


    The Rotliegend gas play in the Southern Permian Basin has yielded over 200 gas fields in the Netherlands; they are found in an E-W fairway along the southern flank of the basin. Sandstones generally pinch out basinward, but localized, isolated sands are present north of the main fairway. The

  8. Analysis of reworked sediments as a basis of the Palaeogene-Neogene palaeogeography reinterpretation: Case study of the Roztocze region (SE Poland) (United States)

    Margielewski, Włodzimierz; Jankowski, Leszek; Krąpiec, Marek; Garecka, Małgorzata; Hałas, Stanisław; Urban, Jan


    Radiometric K/Ar dating of glauconite and nanno- and micropaleontologic analyses of calcareous nannoplankton, foraminifers and dinoflagellates isolated from the Miocene rocks in the Polish part of the Roztocze region, a northeastern part of the fore-bulge of the Carpathian Foreland Basin System - CFBS), SE Poland, reveal that these strata contain numerous microfossils and glauconite grains of the Upper Eocene and Lower Oligocene age. Such occurrences clearly indicate that these materials were redeposited from the Upper Eocene and Lower Oligocene marine rocks that must have originally covered most of the Roztocze and the surrounding area. It is therefore proposed herein that the geographical extent of the boreal, epi-continental basin during the Eocene-Oligocene was much greater than previously considered. Moreover, it appears that this basin was connected with the back-bulge zone of the warm Carpathian Basin (originally a northern part of the Tethys Basin which since Eocene/Oligocene boundary remained isolated as the Paratethys Basin). Hence, it is unlikely that the Roztocze region was uplifted during the Palaeogene as part of the Meta-Carpathian Swell, as it was earlied hypothesized. Instead, the Roztocze Swell formed during the Sarmatian, in the last stage of the development of the fore-bulge structure in the foreland of the up-thrust Carpathian orogenic belt. Multiple redeposition of sediments is the reason that the absolute dating (K/Ar) of glauconite, as well as incomprehensive palaeontological analysis could result in erroneous stratigraphic and palaeogeographic interpretations.

  9. Biostratigraphy, palaeoecology and palaeogeography of the mainly marine Ager Formation (Upper Paleocene — Lower Eocene) in the Tremp Basin, Central-South Pyrenees, Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaemers, Pieter A.M.


    During the greater part of the Palaeogene the Tremp Basin was an area which underwent rapid subsidence as compared with the axial zone of the Pyrenees to the north, and the Ebro Massif to the south. As a result the sea occupied this area for a long time and deposition of the Ager Formation took

  10. The tide-influenced Pétervására sandstone, early Miocene, Northern Hungary : sedimentology, palaeogeography and basin development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sztanó, O.


    The objectives of this thesis are: - to determine the main sedimentary units, the dominant depositional processes, and to reconstruct the depositional environment of the Lower Miocene Petervasara Sandstone (Chapter 3), - to show the pattern of sediment dispersal in connection with the potential

  11. Non-marine carbonate facies, facies models and palaeogeographies of the Purbeck Formation (Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous) of Dorset (Southern England). (United States)

    Gallois, Arnaud; Bosence, Dan; Burgess, Peter


    Non-marine carbonates are relatively poorly understood compared with their more abundant marine counterparts. Sedimentary facies and basin architecture are controlled by a range of environmental parameters such as climate, hydrology and tectonic setting but facies models are few and limited in their predictive value. Following the discovery of extensive Early Cretaceous, non-marine carbonate hydrocarbon reservoirs in the South Atlantic, the interest of understanding such complex deposits has increased during recent years. This study is developing a new depositional model for non-marine carbonates in a semi-arid climate setting in an extensional basin; the Purbeck Formation (Upper Jurassic - Lower Cretaceous) in Dorset (Southern England). Outcrop study coupled with subsurface data analysis and petrographic study (sedimentology and early diagenesis) aims to constrain and improve published models of depositional settings. Facies models for brackish water and hypersaline water conditions of these lacustrine to palustrine carbonates deposited in the syn-rift phase of the Wessex Basin will be presented. Particular attention focusses on the factors that control the accumulation of in-situ microbialite mounds that occur within bedded inter-mound packstones-grainstones in the lower Purbeck. The microbialite mounds are located in three units (locally known as the Skull Cap, the Hard Cap and the Soft Cap) separated by three fossil soils (locally known as the Basal, the Lower and the Great Dirt Beds) respectively within three shallowing upward lacustrine sequences. These complex microbialite mounds (up to 4m high), are composed of tabular small-scale mounds (flat and long, up to 50cm high) divided into four subfacies. Many of these small-scale mounds developed around trees and branches which are preserved as moulds (or silicified wood) which are surrounded by a burrowed mudstone-wackestone collar. Subsequently a thrombolite framework developed on the upper part only within bedded inter-mound packestones-grainstones. Finally a discontinuous basal laminated subfacies can be found overlaying the fossil soils. The overall control on facies and their distribution is the tectonic control as highlighted by the activity of the two main extensional faults during Purbeck times. The tectonic control on development of microbialite mounds is indicated by their relationship with the relay ramp. Their occurrence is controlled by palaeotopography generated on sub-aerial exposure surfaces, palaesols and early conifer trees and developed mainly on the shallowest area of the lake as indicated by their relationship with the inter-mound packstone-grainstone facies and the palaeosols. The new depositional models developed in this study integrate sedimentological facies models with the syn-rift setting of the Wessex Basin to explain the distribution of the microbialite mounds.

  12. The Main Ostrava Whetstone: composition, sedimentary processes, palaeogeography and geochronology of a major Mississippian volcaniclastic unit of the Upper Silesian Basin (Poland and Czech Republic)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jirásek, J.; Hýlová, L.; Sivek, M.; Jureczka, J.; Martínek, K.; Sýkorová, Ivana; Schmitz, M.


    Roč. 102, č. 4 (2013), s. 989-1006 ISSN 1437-3254 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : Carboniferous * chronostratigraphy * sedimentology Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 2.084, year: 2013

  13. Pliocene paleoenvironment evolution as interpreted from 3D-seismic data in the southern North Sea, Dutch offshore sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhlmann, Gesa [Faculty of Earth Sciences, Utrecht University, Budapestlaan 4, 3584 CD Utrecht (Netherlands); Wong, Theo E. [Faculty of Earth Sciences, Utrecht University, Budapestlaan 4, 3584 CD Utrecht (Netherlands); TNO-NITG, National Geological Survey of the Netherlands, Princetonlaan 6, 3584 CB Utrecht (Netherlands)


    A high-resolution 3D-seismic survey from the Dutch offshore sector has been interpreted and subsequently correlated with existing regional seismo-stratigraphic concepts derived from conventional 2D-seismic data sets. The interpreted 13 seismic units have been related to a newly established chrono-stratigraphic framework [Kuhlmann et al., 2006a, b. Chronostratigraphy of Late Neogene sediments in the southern North Sea Basin and paleoenvironmental interpretations. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 239, 426-455; Integrated chronostratigraphy of the Pliocene-Pleistocene interval and its relation to the regional stratigraphical stages in the southern North Sea region. Netherlands Journal of Geosciences-Geologie en Mijnbouw, 85(1), 19-35] resulting in up-dated age control for the seismic units. The generation of amplitude maps, time slices and isopach maps from the 3D-seismic data enabled detailed spatial and temporal reconstruction regarding the paleoenvironmental and climatological development as depicted by Kuhlmann et al. [2006a. Chronostratigraphy of Late Neogene sediments in the southern North Sea Basin and paleoenvironmental interpretations. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 239, 426-455]. The lowermost seismic units S1-S4 comprise condensed Middle Miocene to Piacencian sediments, deposited under warm open marine conditions. These sediments show a uniform seismic facies of low-amplitude reflectors. The boundary of seismic unit S4-S5 (around 2.6 Ma) delineates a shift towards generally colder climate conditions that are connected to the onset of Northern Hemisphere Glaciation. Seismic unit S5 includes alternations of warmer and colder periods. During warmer periods, bottom currents generated elongated structures (2.5-4 km long, 300-500 m wide) on the horizon display. These layers show as well shallow gas accumulations with a more regional extent and are related to coarser-grained sediments sealed by clayey sediments of the cold

  14. Holocene Millennial Time Scale Hydrological Changes In Central-east Africa (United States)

    Jolly, D.; Bonnefille, R.; Beaufort, L.

    (Sirocko et al., 1996) and the Holocene. References Bond et al., Science,278, 1257 (1997) Bond et al., Science,294, 2130 (2001) Bonnefille &Umer, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 109, 331 (1994) Gillespie et al., Nature, 306, 680 (1983) Schulz et al., Geophysical Research Letters, 26, 3385 (1999) Sirocko et al., Nature, 364, 322 (1993) Sirocko et al., Science, 272, 526 (1996) Wijmstra et al., Acta Botanica Neerlandica, 33, 547 (1984)

  15. A new age model for the Late Ordovician bentonites in Oslo, Norway (United States)

    Gottschalk Ballo, Eirik; Eivind Augland, Lars; Hammer, Øyvind; Svensen, Henrik


    -bentonites) from the Oslo-Asker district". In: Norsk Geologisk Tidsskrift 35, pp. 29-52. Svensen, H. H., Hammer, Ø., and Corfu, F. (2015). "Astronomically forced cyclicity in the Upper Ordovician and U-Pb ages of interlayered tephra, Oslo Region, Norway". In: Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 418, pp. 150-159.

  16. The Top Chron C27n Event in the Western Atlantic: Evidence for a transient perturbation of the carbon cycle in the Late Danian? (United States)

    Schulte, Peter; Bornemann, André; Speijer, Robert P.


    excursion is very similar to the results for the LDE in the Tethys and at Zumaia. In conclusion, our results demonstrate a supra-regional transient perturbation of the carbon cycle during the LDE in the Tethyan realm, the Atlantic, and possibly the Pacific Ocean. Arenillas, I. et al., 2008, Terra Nova v. 20, p. 38-44. Bornemann, A. et al., 2009, Journal of the Geological Society, London v. 166, p. 1135-1142. Speijer, R.P., 2003, GSA Special Paper v. 369, p. 275-290. Westerhold, T. et al., 2007, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology v. 257, p. 377-403.

  17. Miocene oceanographic changes of the western equatorial Atlantic (Ceara Rise) based on calcareous dinoflagellate cysts (United States)

    Heinrich, S.; Zonneveld, K. A. F.; Willems, H.


    The middle- and upper Miocene represent a time-interval of major changes in palaeoceanography that favoured the cooling of the climate and culminated in the Northern Hemisphere Glaciation (NHG). The basis for the development of the modern deepwater circulation pattern, e.g. thermohaline circulation, was hereby established. Tectonic events played a key role in the progressing Miocene oceanography, such as the narrowing of the Panama gateway (e.g. Duque-Caro 1990) and the possible linked changes in North Atlantic Deep Water formation (Lear et al. 2003). However, the complex interaction between the closing of the Panama Gateway, the development of NADW, and thus the oceanographic progression towards our present day circulation is far from being fully understood. We want to improve the understanding of these processes by establishing a detailed palaeoceanographic reconstruction of the western equatorial Atlantic Ocean on the basis of calcareous dinoflagellate cyst (dinocyst) associations. Within this study, we investigated sediment samples from ODP Site 926A by defining the calcareous dinocyst assemblage. Site 926A is located at the southwestern flank of the Ceara Rise, an area of highest sensitivity to global deep water circulation changes. At about 12 Ma, when NADW production increased (e.g. Wright et al. 1992), we see a distinct increase in the absolute abundances of the calcareous dinocysts. This might be related to enhanced productivity or to better carbonate preservation. At 11.3 Ma, Leonella granifera, a species known to be strongly related to terrestrial input occurs. This could be a signal for the initiation of the Amazon River as a transcontinental river with the development of the Amazon fan (11.8 - 11.3 Ma; Figueiredo et al. 2009) in relation to Andean tectonism. References: Duque-Caro, H. (1990): Neogene stratigraphy, paleoceanography and palebiology in Northwest South America and the evolution of the Panama Seaway. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology

  18. Cyclostratigraphic analysis of the Middle to lower Upper Ordovician Postolonnec Formation in the Armorican Massif (France): integrating pXRF, gammay-ray and lithological data (United States)

    Sinnesael, Matthias; Loi, Alfredo; Dabard, Marie-Pierre; Vandenbroucke, Thijs; Claeys, Philippe


    these sections, but would help to resolve temporal uncertainties and confirm our interpretations. The relative strength of the potential obliquity and precession-eccentricity signals also can provide further insights in the global glaciation history of the Middle to Late Ordovician given that a larger obliquity component can be expected if there was a more developed polar ice sheet on the Gondwanan palaeocontinent. Dabard M.P., Loi A., Paris, F., Ghienne J.F., Pistis M., and Vidal M. (2015): Sea-level curve for the Middle to early Late Ordovician in the Armorican Massif (western France): Icehouse third-order glacio-eustatic cycles. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeocology, 436, 96-111, doi:10.106/j.palaeo.2015.06.038

  19. Gratkorn - A new late Middle Miocene vertebrate fauna from Styria (Late Sarmatian, Austria) (United States)

    Gross, M.; Böhme, M.; Prieto, J.


    Paratethys (Late Middle Miocene/Early Late Miocene; Styrian Basin; Austria).- Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 264/3-4: 263-276. Harzhauser, M., Gross, M. & Binder, H., 2008. Biostratigraphy of Middle Miocene (Sarmatian) wetland systems in an Eastern Alpine intramontane basin (Gratkorn Basin, Austria): the terrestrial gastropod approach.- Geologica Carpathica, 59/1: 45-58.

  20. Detailed Sea Level Record from Barbados Spanning 13,000 to 11,000 Years Before Present (United States)

    Abdul, N. A.; Mortlock, R. A.; Wright, J. D.; Fairbanks, R. G.


    ,000 years BP provided abundant moisture for waning ice sheets causing regional advances in some ice sheets such as the Fennoscandian Ice Sheet during the broad-scale Northern Hemisphere deglaciation (Ruddiman and McIntyre, 1981). Ruddiman, W., and McIntyre, A., 1981, The North Atlantic Ocean during the last deglaciation: Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, v. 35, p. 145-214.

  1. Anxiety, Self-Efficacy, and College Exam Grades (United States)

    Barrows, Jennifer; Dunn, Samantha; Lloyd, Carrie A.


    A student's level of self-efficacy and test anxiety directly impacts their academic success (Abdi, Bageri, Shoghi, Goodarzi, & Hosseinzadeh, 2012; Hassanzadeh, Ebrahimi, & Mahdinejad, 2012). When a student doubts themself and their own ability to test well, the students' sole focus becomes worrying about poor grades and cannot focus on…

  2. reactive blending of methylol urea with soybean oil

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Mar 19, 2007 ... cast on Petri dishes by using solution casting method (Mirmohseni and hassanzadeh .... expected to improve the stability, modify water absorption ..... Studies on. Urethane-Modified Alumina – Filled Polyesteramide Anticorrosive ... Curable Reactive Diluent Containing Quaternary Ammonium Salts for.

  3. Sodium storage in deep paleoweathering profiles beneath the Paleozoic-Triassic unconformity (United States)

    Thiry, M.; Parcerisa, D.; Ricordel-Prognon, C.; Schmitt, J.-M.


    in potassium. The Na+ enrichment is most likely linked with the peculiar geochemical setting of the Triassic environment where for instance halite moulds are very common in transgressive epicontinental deposits. The leaching of such salts, the role of salty marine aerosols, or a periodic/episodic contribution of seawater or evaporative solutions may be equally invoked. Mass balance Taking into account the surpergene origin of albitization and its widespread development on the Paleozoic basement rocks (from Morocco to Scandinavia) means that high amounts of Na+ have been stored in the deep paleoweathering profiles of the Triassic continents. This sodium storage in weathering profiles has to be taken in consideration in addition to the major sodium chloride accumulation in the basins during the Permo-Triassic times. Further investigations are needed to demonstrate the extent of these paleoweathering profiles and then to estimate the amount of this continental sodium storage. References Cathelineau M (1986) The hydrothermal alkali metasomatism effects on granitic rocks: Quartz dissolution and related sub-solidus changes. Jour. Petrol., 27: 945-965. Hay, W.W.; Migdisov, A.; Balukhovsky, A.N.; Wold, C.N.; Flogel, S., Soding, E. (2006) Evaporites and the salinity of the ocean during the Phanerozoic: Implications for climate, ocean circulation and life. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 240/1-2: 3-46. Parcerisa D., Thiry M., Schmitt J.-M. (2009) Albitisation related to the Triassic unconformity in igneous rocks of the Morvan Massif (France), International Journal of Earth Sciences, DOI: 10.1007/s00531-008-0405-1. Petersson J, Eliasson T (1997) Mineral evolution and element mobility during episyenitization (dequartzification) and albitization in the postkinematic Bohus granite, southwest Sweden. Lithos, 42: 123-146. Ricordel C, Parcerisa D, Thiry M, Moreau M-G, Gómez-Gras D (2007) Triassic magnetic overprints related to albitization in granites from the

  4. The use of molecular chemistry (pyrolysis-GC/MS) in the environmental interpretation of peat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellekens, J.


      The molecular composition of organic matter in peatlands reflects local conditions and stores information about botanical composition (plant source) as well as the degree of and conditions during decomposition. A reliable hydrological (and hence palaeoclimatological) interpretation of source

  5. The late Pleistocene to Holocene palaeogeographic evolution of the Porto Conte area: Clues for a better understanding of human colonization of Sardinia and faunal dynamics during the last 30 ka

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palombo, M.R.; Antonioli, F.; Lo Presti, V.; Mannino, M.A.; Melis, R.T.; Orru, P.; Stocchi, P.; Talamo, S.; Quarta, G.; Calcagnile, L.; Deiana, G.; Altamura, S.


    The timing of the colonization of Sardinia by mammalian fauna and anatomically modern humans (AMH) is currently under debate. The understanding of the geological and palaeoclimatological conditions that characterized the Late Pleistocene and the Holocene is essential to investigate colonization

  6. Ocean currents generate large footprints in marine palaeoclimate proxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Sebille, E.; Scussolini, P.; Durgadoo, J.V.; Peeters, F.J.C.; Biastoch, A.; Weijer, W.; Turney, C.; Paris, C.B.; Zahn, R.


    Fossils of marine microorganisms such as planktic foraminifera are among the cornerstones of palaeoclimatological studies. It is often assumed that the proxies derived from their shells represent ocean conditions above the location where they were deposited. Planktic foraminifera, however, are

  7. Coniacian flora of the Sudetes (south-western Poland): Palaeoecological and palaeoclimatic interpretations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kvaček, J.; Halamski, A. T.; Svobodová, Marcela; Durska, E.


    Roč. 436, 15 October (2015), s. 178-187 ISSN 0031-0182 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : Late Cretaceous * fossil plants * palynomorphs * palaeofloristics * palaeoclimatology * CLAMP Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 2.525, year: 2015

  8. Record of palaeoenvironmental changes in the Mid-Polish Basin during the Valanginian Event (United States)

    Morales, Chloé; Kujau, Ariane; Heimhofer, Ulrich; Mutterlose, Joerg; Spangenberg, Jorge; Adatte, Thierry; Ploch, Isabela; Föllmi, Karl B.


    closed to the early-late Valanginian boundary. This is associated to a decoupling of the δ13Ccarb and δ13Corg, which is interpreted as a change in atmospheric pCO2. References Erba, E., Bartolini, A. and Larson, L.R. (2004) Valanginian Weissert oceanic anoxic event. Geology, 32, 149-152. Föllmi, K.B., Bodin, S., Godet, A., Linder, P. and van de Schootbrugge, B. (2007) Unlocking paleo-environmental information from Early Cretaceous shelf sediments in the Helvetic Alps: stratigraphy is the key! Swiss journal of geosciences, 100, 349-369. Kujau, A., Heimhofer, U., Ostertag-Henning, C., Gréselle, B. and Mutterlose, J. (2012) No evidence for anoxia during the Valanginian carbon isotope event - an organic-geochemical study from the Vocontian Basin, SE France. Global and Planetary Change, doi: 10.1016/j.gloplacha.2012.04.007. Weissert, H., Lini, A., Föllmi, K.B. and Kuhn, O. (1998) Correlation of Early Cretaceous carbon isotope stratigraphy and platform drowning events: a possible link? Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 137, 189-203. Westermann, S., Caron, M., Fiet, N., Fleitmann, D., Matera, V., Adatte, T. and Föllmi, K.B. (2010) Evidence for oxic conditions during oceanic anoxic event 2 in the northern Tethyan pelagic realm. Cretaceous Research.

  9. Retarded deglaciation of north-Spitsbergen fjords during the last glacial - an example of bathymetric controls on the dynamics of retreating glaciers (United States)

    Forwick, M.; Vorren, T. O.; Hass, H.; Vogt, C. M.


    Billefjorden, Svalbard. In: Howe, J.A., Austin, W.E.N, Forwick, M. & Paetzel, M. (eds.): Fjord Systems and Archives. Geological Society, London, Special Publication, 344, 207-223. Forwick, M. & Vorren, T.O., 2009. Late Weichselian and Holocene sedimentary environments and ice rafting in Isfjorden, Spitsbergen. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 280, 258-274. Forwick, M. & Vorren, T.O., 2011. Stratigraphy and deglaciation of the Isfjorden area, Spitsbergen. Norwegian Journal of Geology 90, 163-179. Ottesen, D., Dowdeswell, J.A., Rise, L., 2005. Submarine landforms and the reconstruction of fast-flowing ice streams within a large Quaternary ice sheet: The 2500-km-long Norwegian-Svalbard margin (57°-80°N). Geological Society of America Bulletin 117, 1033-1050.

  10. Integrated orbital time scale of the Valanginian-Hauterivian (Early Cretaceous): Chronological relationships between Paraná-Etendeka LIP, Weissert and Faraoni events (United States)

    Martinez, Mathieu; Deconinck, Jean-François; Pellenard, Pierre; Riquier, Laurent; Company, Miguel; Moiroud, Mathieu; Reboulet, Stéphane


    Event started at -138.3 ± 1.5 Ma and lasted for 5.8 myr. The Faraoni Event started at -129.8 ± 1.5 Ma and lasted for 0.1 myr. The activity of the Paraná-Etendeka LIP activity started at -134.6 ± 0.6 Ma, and lasted for 1 myr (Thiede and Vasconcelos, 2010). Thus, the Paraná-Etendeka LIP activity could not be responsible for the onset of the Weissert and the Faraoni events. The Paraná-Etendeka activity only coincides with the smooth decreasing trend of the δ13C values and with the end of the cooling phase observed at the end of the Valanginian Stage. References: Aguirre-Urreta, M.B., Pazos, P.J., Lazo, D.G., Fanning, C.M., Litvak, V.D., 2008. First U-Pb SHRIMP age of the Hauterivian stage, Neuquén Basin, Argentina. Journal of South American Earth Sciences 26, 91-99. Martinez, M., Deconinck, J.-F., Pellenard, P., Reboulet, S., Riquier, L., 2013. Astrochronology of the Valanginian Stage from reference sections (Vocontian Basin, France) and palaeoenvironmental implications for the Weissert Event. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 376, 91-102. Thiede, D.S., Vasconcelos, P.M., 2010. Paraná flood basalts: Rapid extrusion hypothesis confirmed by new 40Ar/39Ar results. Geology 38, 747-750.

  11. Benthic foraminiferal assemblages: a clue to the palaeoecology and palaeoenvironment of the Pliensbachian- Toarcian transition of Peniche (Lusitanian Basin, Portugal) (United States)

    Rita, Patrícia; Reolid, Matias; Duarte, Luís V.


    sequence stratigraphic interpretation of the series (e.g. Duarte, 2007) and the proliferation of opportunistic forms in some levels could be a reflex of the turbiditic sedimentation that took place in this area during this period (Wright & Wilson, 1984), which promotes the oxygenation of the sea-bottom. References Duarte, L.V. (2007). In R. B. Rocha (Ed.): The Peniche section (Portugal). Contributions to the definition of the Toarcian GSSP. International Subcommission on Jurassic Stratigraphy, ISBN 978-972-8893-14-9, 17-23; Hesselbo, S. P., Kenkyns, H. C., Duarte, L.V., Oliveira, L. C. V. (2007). Carbon-isotope record of the Early Jurassic (Toarcian) Oceanic Anoxic Event from fossil wood and marine carbonate (Lusitanian Basin, Portugal). Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 253: 455-470. Reolid, M., Sebane, A., Rodríguez-Tovar, F. J., Marok, A. (2012). Foraminiferal morphogroups as a tool to approach the Toarcian Anoxic Event in the Western Saharan Atlas (Algeria). Palaeogeography Palaeoclimatology Palaeoecology, 323-325: 87-99. Wright, V.P. & Wilson, R.C.L. (1984). A carbonate submarine-fan sequence from the Jurassic of Portugal, Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, 54: 394-412.

  12. Numerical analysis of palynological data from Neogene fluvial sediments as evidence for rainforest dynamics in western Amazonia (United States)

    Salamanca, Sonia; van Manen, Milan; Hoorn, Carina


    associations, and b) estimate the palynological diversity along the sampled interval. Together these data suggest that the marine incursion altered the vegetation composition, but did not dramatically alter the diversity. After the marine incursion the vegetation returned to a modified version of the former floodplain forest. As yet no clear analogue has been found for this ancestral forest, but the palynological composition suggests a tropical rain forest to woody savanna. References Friendly, M., 2002. Correlograms: Exploratory Displays for Correlation Matrices. The American Statistician, 56, 316-324. Hoorn, 1994. Hoorn, C. (1994). Fluvial palaeoenvironments in the intracratonic Amazonas Basin (Early Miocene-early Middle Miocene, Colomnbian). Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology , vol 109, 1-54. Oksanen, J., Blanchet, F.G., Kindt, R., Legendre, P., Minchin, P.R., O'Hara, R. B., Simpson, G.L., Solymos, P., Henry, M. Stevensand, H., Wagner, H., 2013. Vegan: Community Ecology Package. R package version 2.0-8., J. 2012. R: A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing, R Foundation for Statistical Computing, 2013

  13. Early Cretaceous climate change (Hauterivian - Early Aptian): Learning from the past to prevent modern reefs decline (United States)

    Godet, Alexis; Bodin, Stéphane; Adatte, Thierry; Föllmi, Karl B.


    Kieselkalk Formation (Fm), is dated as Hauterivian; it consists of a quartz-bearing crinoidal limestone with bryozoans (Föllmi et al., 2007). The Lidernen Member (Mb; glauconitic and phosphatic interval) splits the Kieselkalk Fm into a lower and an upper part. Following on top of the Kieselkalk Fm, the Altmann Mb represents a second phase of slow-down or even cessation in the platform ecosystem activity, when the PAR values are the highest in basinal sections. This suggests that high trophic levels control the disappearance of healthy carbonate ecosystems; this hypothesis is testified by the rise of Urgonian-type carbonates during time of low nutrient input in the Late Barremian (Schrattenkalk Fm from the Gerhardtia sartousiana ammonozone upward). Interestingly, the same evolutionary pattern is recovered in the western Swiss Jura, where heterozoan association characterizes the Pierre Jaune de Neuchâtel (Hauterivian), whereas the Urgonien Blanc (Late Barremian - earliest Aptian), corresponds to photozoan carbonates deposited under oligotrophic conditions, as is suggested by the presence of rudists and corals. References Bodin et al., 2006. "The late Hauterivian Faraoni oceanic anoxic event in the western Tethys: Evidence from phosphorus burial rates." Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 235: 245-264. Bryant et al., 1998. Reefs at Risk: A Map-Based Indicator of Potential Threats to the World's Coral Reefs. Washington D.C. Föllmi et al., 2007. "Unlocking paleo-environmental interaction from Early Cretceous shelf sediments in the Helvetic Alps: stratigraphy is the key!" Swiss Journal of Geosciences 100: 349-369. Godet et al., 2008. "Platform-induced clay-mineral fractionation along a northern Tethyan basin-platform transect: implications for the interpretation of Early Cretaceous climate change (Late Hauterivian-Early Aptian)." Cretaceous Research 29: 830-847.

  14. Le graben de l'Anti-Atlas occidental (Maroc) : contrôle tectonique de la paléogéographie et des séquences au Cambrien inférieurThe Lower-Cambrian western Anti-Atlasic graben: tectonic control of palaeogeography and sequential organisation (United States)

    Benssaou, Mohammed; Hamoumi, Naı̈ma


    In the Moroccan western Anti-Atlas, the combined extensive tectonic events with a long-term sea-level rise is the main factor on building vertical stacking transgressive-regressive sequences. In the Ait Abdallah-Boussafene axis, the subsidence processes, relayed by a brutal platform tilting generated an elongated NE-SW graben. This is an evidence of the persistence of the Anti-Atlasic rifting process during the last part of the Lower-Cambrian succession.

  15. Generic diversity and distributional dynamics of the Palaeobatrachidae (Amphibia: Anura)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wuttke, M.; Přikryl, Tomáš; Ratnikov, V. Y.; Dvořák, Z.; Roček, Zbyněk


    Roč. 92, č. 3 (2012), s. 367-395 ISSN 1867-1594 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : Anura * Anura (Europe) * evolution * osteology * Palaeobatrachidae * palaeogeography Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  16. Nouvelles données biostratigraphiques et sédimentologiques des formations carbonifères de la région de Bouqachmir (Maroc central). Implications sur la paléogéographie des bassins carbonifères nord-mésétiensNew biostratigraphic and sedimentological data of the Carboniferous formations in the Bouqachmir area (central Morocco). Implications on the palaeogeography of the north Mesetian Carboniferous basins (United States)

    Izart, Alain; Tahiri, Abdelfatah; El Boursoumi, Abdou; Vachard, Daniel; Saidi, Mariam; Chèvremont, Philippe; Berkhli, Mostafa


    New Visean formations and biozones of foraminifera were defined on the Bouqachmir map. The new biozonation concerns the Moroccan biozone, Cfm1, which is subdivided into two subzones, Cfm1a and Cfm1b. This map exhibited, from north-west to south-east, the Tilouine, Bouqachmir-Tougouroulmès and Fourhal turbiditic basins. The first one, from Tournaisian to Late Visean, was the equivalent of the Sidi Bettache basin, located westwards. The second extended the Tilouine basin eastwards during the Visean. The third was a basin from Visean to Westphalian. They were separated by the Zaer-Oulmes and El Hammam horsts, else emerged or immersed, bordered by faults and with materials feeding chaotic deposits.

  17. The development of the Middle Triassic tectonical controlled Germanic Basin of Central Europe and the palaeoenvironmental related distribution of marine and terrestrial reptiles (United States)

    Diedrich, Cajus G.


    -Italy). Bolletino della Società Paleontologica Italiana, 41 (1), 37-40. Bachmann, G.H. and Aref, M.A.M., 2005. A seismite in Triassic gypsum deposits (Grabfeld Formation, Ladinian), Southwest Germany. Sedimentary Geology 180, 75-89. De Zanche, V. and Farabegoli, E. 1988. Anisian paleogeographic evolution in the Central-Western Southern Alps. Memoirs Scientifique Geologique 40, 399-411. Demathieu, G.R. 1985. Trace fossil assemblages in Middle Triassic marginal marine deposits, eastern border of the Massif Central, France. Societe Economie Paléontologie et Mineralogie, Special Publications, 35, 53-66. Diedrich, C. 2005. Actuopalaeontological trackway experiments with Iguana on intertidal flat carbonates of the Arabian Gulf - a comparison to fossil Rhynchosauroides tracks of Triassic carbonate tidal flat megatracksites in the European Germanic Basin. Senckenbergiana maritime, 35 (2), 203-220. Diedrich, C. 2008a. Millions of reptile tracks - Early to Middle Triassic carbonate tidal flat migration bridges of Central Europe. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 259, 410-423. Diedrich, C. 2008b. Palaeogeographic evolution of the marine Middle Triassic marine Germanic Basin changements - with emphasis on the carbonate tidal flat and shallow marine habitats of reptiles in Central Pangaea. Global and Planetary Change, 65 (2009), 27-55. Diedrich, C. 2009a. The vertebrates of the Anisian/Ladinian boundary (Middle Triassic) from Bissendorf (NW Germany) and their contribution to the anatomy, palaeoecology, and palaeobiogeography of the Germanic Basin reptiles. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 273 (2009), 1-16. Diedrich, C. 2009b. Die Saurierspuren-Grabung im basalen Mittleren Muschelkalk (Anis, Mitteltrias) von Bernburg (Sachsen-Anhalt). Archäologie in Sachsen-Anhalt, Sonderband 2009, 1-62. Diedrich, 2010a. Palaeoecology of Placodus gigas (Reptilia) and other placodontids - macroalgae feeder of the Middle Triassic in the Germanic Basin of Central Europe and

  18. Process-based modelling of fluvial system response to rapid climate change: 2. application to the River Maas (The Netherlands) during the Last Glacial-Interglacial Transition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogaart, P.W.; Balen, van R.T.; Kasse, C.; Vandenberghe, J.


    A comprehensive process-based numerical model of catchment hydrology and alluvial channel dynamics is applied to the evolution of the river Maas during the Last Glacial-Interglacial Transition. Palaeo-climatological reconstructions based on a number of climatic and environmental proxies are combined

  19. Cruising an archive: On the palaeoclimatic value of the Lena Delta

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Büntgen, Ulf; Kirdyanov, A. V.; Hellmann, L.; Nikolaev, A. N.; Tegel, W.


    Roč. 24, č. 5 (2014), s. 627-630 ISSN 0959-6836 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0248 Keywords : arctic driftwood * dendroclimatology * eastern Siberia * high-resolution palaeoclimatology * proxy archives * subfossil wood Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 2.283, year: 2014

  20. Prof. Rengaswamy Ramesh

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Fellowship. Fellow Profile. Elected: 2001 Section: Earth & Planetary Sciences. Ramesh, Prof. Rengaswamy Ph.D. (Gujarat), FNA, FNASc, FTWAS Council Service: 2016 - April 2018. Date of birth: 2 June 1956. Date of death: 2 April 2018. Specialization: Palaeoclimatology & Climate Modelling, Mass Spectrometry, ...

  1. Sea-level changes vs. organic productivity as controls on Early and Middle Devonian bioevents: Facies- and gamma-ray based sequence-stratigraphic correlation of the Prague Basin, Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bábek, O.; Faměra, M.; Šimíček, D.; Weinerová, H.; Hladil, Jindřich; Kalvoda, J.


    Roč. 160, January (2018), s. 75-95 ISSN 0921-8181 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-18183S Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : Devonian * carbonates * sequence stratigraphy * bioevents * eustatic cyclicity * palaeoclimatology Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy OBOR OECD: Paleontology Impact factor: 3.915, year: 2016

  2. Timing of Early Aptian demise of northern Tethyan carbonate platforms - chemostratigraphic versus biostratigraphic evidence (United States)

    Huck, Stefan; Immenhauser, Adrian; Heimhofer, Ulrich; Rameil, Niels


    platform related to the unfolding oceanic anoxic event 1a (« Selli event »). Revue de Paléobiologie, 27, 461-468. Gradstein, F.M., Ogg, J.G., Smith, A.G., Bleeker, W. and Lourens, L.J. (2004) A new Geologic Time Scale, with special reference to Precambrian and Neogene. Episodes, 27, 83-100. Huck, S., Rameil, N., Korbar, T., Heimhofer, U., Wieczorek, T.D. and Immenhauser, A. (2010) Latitudinally different responses of Tethyan shoal-water carbonate systems to the Early Aptian oceanic anoxic event (OAE 1a). Sedimentology (pending acceptance of revised version). Moreno-Bedmar, J.A., Company, M., Bover-Arnal, T., Salas, R., Delanoy, G., Martinez, R. and Grauges, A. (2009) Biostratigraphic characterization by means of ammonoids of the lower Aptian Oceanic Anoxic Event (OAE 1a) in the eastern Iberian Chain (Maestrat Basin, eastern Spain). Cretaceous Research, 30, 864-872. Rameil, N., Immenhauser, A., Warrlich, G.M.D., Vahrenkamp, V.C., Hillgärtner, H., Droste, H.J., Al-Mahruqi, I., Buhl, D., Schulte, U. and Kunkel, C. (2009) Chemostratigraphy-based correlation of Lower Shu'aiba Formation platform sections (Early Aptian, Sultanate of Oman). In: Aptian Stratigraphy and Petroleum Habitat of the Eastern Arabian Plate (Eds F.S.P. van Buchem, M.I. Al-Husseini, F. Maurer and H.J. Droste), 4. GeoArabia Special Publication (in press), Gulf PetroLink, Bahrain. Weissert, H., Lini, A., Föllmi, K.B. and Kuhn, O. (1998) Correlation of Early Cretaceous carbon isotope stratigraphy and platform drowning events: a possible link? Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 137, 189-203.

  3. Petrological, geochemical and isotopic characteristics of lignite and calcified lignite from mining area Pesje, Velenje Basin, Slovenia (United States)

    Vrabec, Mirijam; Markič, Miloš; Vrabec, Marko; Jaćimović, Radojko; Kanduč, Tjaša


    energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy at the Department of Ceramics at the Jožef Stefan Institute. Geochemical characteristics of major and trace elements indicate that the values of major and trace elements are comparable to world average coal (Zhang et al., 2004). Isotopic composition of carbon and isotopic composition of nitrogen of investigated samples indicate values from to -29.4o to -23.7o and 1.8o to 5.9o respectively. Lower value of isotopic composition of carbon indicates higher gelification (values up to -29.4) and higher value of isotopic composition of nitrogen (values up to 5.9) indicate higher mineralization. The results of SEM/EDXS microscopy revealed that in calcified lignite chemical composition of calcite prevails. Traces of diagenetic pyrite were also found, indicating localized anoxic conditions during sedimentation. Values of isotopic composition of CCaCO3 range from -2 to +13 and indicate temperature of precipitation from 17.3 to 35 deg C, which is similar to results obtained in previous studies (Kanduč et al., 2012). References Krantz, D.E., Williams, D.F., Jones, D.S., 1987: Ecological and paleoenvironmental information using stable isotope profiles from living and fossil mollusks. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 58, 249-266. Kanduč T., Markič M., Zavšek S., McIntosh J. 2012: carbon cycling in the Pliocene Velenje Coal Basin, Slovenia, inferred from stable carbon isotopes. International Journal of Coal Geology 89, 70-83. Jaćimović, R., Lazaru, A., Mihajlović, D., Ilić, R., Stafilov, T., 2002: Determination of major and trace elements in some minerals by k0-instrumental neutron activation analysis. Journal of Radioanalytical Nuclear Chemistry, 253, 427-434. McCrea, JM., 1950. On the isotopic chemistry of carbonates and a paleotemperature scale. Journal of Chemical Physics 18, 849. Ward C.R. (Ed.), 1984: Coal Geology and Coal Technology. Black-well, Oxford, 345 pp. Zhang J.Y., Zheng C.G., Ren D.Y., Chou C.L., Zheng R

  4. Benthic faunal assemblages from the Holocene middle shelf of the South Evoikos Gulf, central Greece, and their palaeoenvironmental implications (United States)

    Asimina Louvari, Markella; Tsourou, Theodora; Drinia, Hara; Anastasakis, George


    sedimentary history of the Bounty Trough, east of New Zealand. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 211(1-2), 59-93, doi:10.1016/j.palaeo.2004.04.007 Sgarrella, F. & Moncharmon-Zei, M. 1993. Benthic foraminifera in the Gulf of Naples (Italy): systematic and autoecology, Boll. Soc. Palaeont. Ital. 32, 145-264. This research has been co-financed by the European Union (European Social Fund - ESF) and Greek national funds through the Operational Program "Education and Lifelong Learning" of the National Strategic Reference Framework (NSRF) - Research Funding Program: THALIS -UOA-70/3/11669.

  5. U-Pbdating on detrital zircon and Nd and Hf isotopes related to the provenance of siliciclastic rocks of the Amazon Basin: Implications for the origin of Proto-Amazonas River (United States)

    Dantas, Elton Luiz; Silva Souza, Valmir; Nogueira, Afonso C. R.; Ventura Santos, Roberto; Poitrasson, Franck; Vieira Cruz, Lucieth; Mendes Conceição, Anderson


    provenance dominated by Mesoproterozoic sources (1.0, 1.2 Ga) and subordinate Neoproterozoic(550-800 Ma) and Archean derivation (2.67 Ga). On the other hand, detrital zircon and Hf and NdTDM model ages for the Cretaceous Alter do Chão Formation yielded a unique Paleoproterozoicages between 2.0 and 2.3 Ga that can be correlated to sources derived from Maroni-Itacaiúnas and Central Amazonian basement provinces. The contribution of Precambrian and Paleozoic rocks exposed during the installationof the Amazonas drainage were probably significant .Such a large contribution from Neoproterozoic and Mesoproterozoic sources are not common in the proximal Amazon Craton basement .This new proposal open new perspectives to understand better the initial history of Amazon River with indication of the probable source areas during Late Cenozoic. Campbell Jr.; Frailey,C.D.; Romero-Pittman, G. 2006. The Pan-Amazonian UcayliPeneplain, late Neogenesedimentacion in Amazonia, and the Birth on the Modern Amazon River system.Palaeogeography,Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology. 239 (2006) 166-219 Figueiredo, J.,Hoorn, C., Van der Vem, P., Soares, E. 2009. Late Miocene onset of the Amazon River and the Amazon deep-sea fan: Evidence from the Fozdo Amazonas Basin. Geology, 37(7):619-622. Hoorn,C.; Guerrero, J.; Sarmiento, G. 1995. Andean tectonics as a cause for changing drainage patterns in Miocene Northern South America. Geology, v.23, p-237-240. Nogueira, A.C.R.; Silveira, R.R.; Guimarães, J.T.F. 2013. Neogene-Quaternary sedimentary and paleovegetation history of the eastern Solimões Basin, central Amazon region.Journal of South American Earth Sciences , v. 46, p. 89-99, 2013. Potter, P.E. 1997. The Mesozoic and Cenozoic paleodrainage of South America: a natural history. Journal of South American Earth Science.v.10. p.331-344 Wesselingh, F. P., et al., 2002. Lake-Pebas: a palaeocological reconstruction of a Miocene long-lived lake comples in Western Amazônia. Cainozoic Research 1 (1-2), 35-81.

  6. Diplodon shells from Northwest Patagonia as continental proxy archives: Oxygen isotopic results and sclerochronological analyses (United States)

    Soldati, A. L.; Beierlein, L.; Jacob, D. E.


    precipitation records in the region (from the NOAA database, station: airport of S.C. de Bariloche: 41°S-71°W). D. ch. patagonicus exhibit very well developed annual growth lines, which allow calibrating a precise temporal scale with calendar years in the shell (Soldati et al., 2008). Extremely wide increments (e.g. years 2000-2001 and 1978-1979), related to distinct periods (so-called benchmark increments) are present in all specimens and can be used to anchor the growth curves in order to create a master curve for the lake. ^18Oshell varies seasonally, presenting minima during the warm season (November/March) and maxima in the austral autumn/winter (April/October), reproducing the temperature fluctuations in the region. The resolution of the ^18Oshell measurement varies for each year: samples obtained from larger annual increments (>1 mm, generally mussels younger than 10 years old) allow a resolution of ca. 2 months (5-7 samples per year), and sometimes even give a 5 weeks resolution, while thinner annual increments (between 1 and 0.1 mm, generally older than 10 years) allow only a 4-6 month resolution (2-3 points per sampled year). Because of their long live span of ca. 100 years, Diplodon shells are useful to construct an accurate climatological archive for Patagonia with time windows of around a century, resolving the environmental signal annually and even seasonally. References: CASTELLANOS Z.A. (1960). Almejas nacaríferas de la República Argentina. Género Diplodon. Secretaría de Agricultura, Publicación Miscelánea, 421: 1-40. KAANDORP R.J.G., VONHOF H.B., WESSELINGH F.P., PITTMAN L.R., KROON D. & HINTE J.E.V. (2005). Seasonal Amazonian rainfall variation in the Miocene Climate Optimum. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 221: 1-6. SOLDATI A.L., JACOB D.E., SCHÖNE B.R., BIANCHI M.M., HAJDUK A. (2008). Seasonal periodicity of growth and composition in valves of Diplodon chilensis patagonicus (D'Orbigny, 1835). Journal of Molluscan Studies, doi:10

  7. Geomorphological stability of Permo-Triassic albitized profiles - case study of the Montseny-Guilleries High (NE Iberia) (United States)

    Parcerisa, D.; Casas, L.; Franke, C.; Gomez-Gras, D.; Lacasa, G.; Nunez, J. A.; Thiry, M.


    could draw the link of the paleosurface preservation to its albitisation [Battiau-Queney, 1996; Widdowson, 1997]. Anadón, P., Colombo, F., Esteban, M., Marzo, M., Robles, S., Santanach, P., Solé-Sugrañes, L.., 1979. Evolución tectonostratigráfica de los Catalánides. Acta Geológica Hispánica, 14: 242-270. Battiau-Queney Y., 1996, A tentative classification of paleoweathering formations based on geomorphological criteria. Geomorphology, 16, p. 87-102. Gómez-Gras, D., 1993. El Permotrias de la Cordillera Costero Catalana: facies y petrologia sedimentaria (Parte I). Boletin Geologico y Minero, 104(2): 115-161. Gómez-Gras, D., Ferrer, C., 1999. Caracterización petrológica de perfiles de meteorización antiguos desarrollados en granitos tardihercínicos de la Cordillera Costero Catalana. Revista de la Sociedad Geológica de España, 12(2): 281-299. Parcerisa, D., Thiry, M., Schmitt, J.M., 2009. Albitisation related to the Triassic unconformity in igneous rocks of the Morvan Massif (France). International Journal of Earth Sciences (Geol Rundsch). DOI 10.1007/s00531-008-0405-1 Ricordel, C., Parcerisa, D., Thiry, M., Moreau, M.G., Gómez-Gras, D., 2007. Triassic magnetic overprints related to albitization in granites from the Morvan massif (France). Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 251: 268-282. Schmitt J.M., 1992, Triassic albitization in southern France : an unusual mineralogical record from a major continental paleosurface. in : Mineralogical and geochemical records of paleoweathering, IGCP 317, Schmitt J.M., Gall Q., (eds), E.N.S.M.P. Mém. Sc. de la Terre, 18, p. 115-132. Widdowson M., 1997, The geomorphological and geological importance of palaeosurfaces. in: Widdowson M. (ed.), Palaeosurfaces: recognition, reconstruction and palaeoenvironmental interpretation. Geol. Soc. Special Publ., 120, p. 1-12.

  8. Stratigraphy of Guichon Formation (lower cretaceous) in litoral basin, Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goso, C.; Perea, D.; Perinotto, J.


    This report is about the stratigraphic al analysis of the Guichon Formation (lower cretaceous, litoral basin in Uruguay). The facies association is represented by conglomerates mainly fine sandstones and mud stones wi ch is interpreted as an alluvial system. A regional palaeogeography and a new geochronological alternative are established for this formation. (author).

  9. Permian fauna of the Krkonoše Piedmont Basin (Bohemian Massif, Central Europe)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zajíc, Jaroslav


    Roč. 70, 3/4 (2014), s. 131-142 ISSN 0036-5343 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : faunal lists * palaeogeography * palaeoenvironment * stratigraphy * Early Permian * Krkonoše Piedmont Basin * Bohemian Massif Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  10. Timing, cause and impact of the late Eocene stepwise sea retreat from the Tarim Basin (west China)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosboom, R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/322947359; Dupont-Nivet, G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/313092559; Grothe, A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/338017712; Brinkhuis, H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/095046097; Villa, G.; Mandic, O.; Stoica, M.; Kouwenhoven, T.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/191377406; Huang, W.; Yang, W.; Guo, Z.


    A vast shallow epicontinental sea extended across Eurasia and was well-connected to the Western Tethys before it retreated westward and became isolated as the Paratethys Sea. However, the palaeogeography and the timing of this westward retreat are too poorly constrained to determine potential wider

  11. Evolution of the Atmosphere and Oceans: Evidence from Geological ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The proto-ocean owes its origin to condensation of water vapour from the ...... ter SO /- is -20 0/00)' This change is considered to be a conse- quence of either ... Earth's climate and the origin of the oceans, Palaeogeography, 146,33-. 51.

  12. On the palaeoclimatic potential of a millennium-long oak ring width chronology from Slovakia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Prokop, O.; Kolář, Tomáš; Büntgen, Ulf; Kyncl, J.; Bošela, M.; Choma, M.; Barta, P.; Rybníček, Michal


    Roč. 40, DEC (2016), s. 93-101 ISSN 1125-7865 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415; GA ČR GA13-04291S Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Composite tree-ring chronology * European oak * Palaeoclimatology * Random update sampling * Ring width * Slovakia Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.259, year: 2016

  13. Disappearance of the last lions and hyenas of Europe in the Late Quaternary - a chain reaction of large mammal prey migration, extinction and human antagonism (United States)

    Diedrich, Cajus G.


    . in prep. Coelodonta antiquitatis (Blumenbach 1799) hunters and scavengers - the Late Pleistocene spotted hyena Crocuta crocuta spelaea (Goldfuss 1823) and its feeding strategy on its most important prey in Europe. Diedrich, C. in review a. A diseased Panthera leo spelaea (Goldfuss, 1810) lioness from a forest elephant graveyard in the Late Pleistocene (Eemian) interglacial lake at Neumark-Nord, Central Germany. Quaternary International. Diedrich, C. in review b. Late Pleistocene steppe lion Panthera leo spelaea (Goldfuss, 1810) remains from the open air hyena den Emscher River terrace site Bottrop and other sites of northern Germany - new proves for hyena-lion antagonism. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology. DIEDRICH, C. in review c. The Crocuta crocuta spelaea (GOLDFUSS 1823) population and its prey from the Upper Pleistocene Teufelskammer Cave hyena den site in the Neandertal (NRW, NW Germany). Annales de Paléontologie. Diedrich, C. in review d. The Late Pleistocene Crocuta crocuta spelaea (Goldfuss, 1823) population from the Late Pleistocene hyena open air Emscher River terrace den near Bottrop (NWGermany) and other sites in the Westphalian Bay and its mammoth and woolly rhinoceros prey. Quaternary International. Diedrich, C. and Rathgeber, T. in review. Late Pleistocene steppe lion Panthera leo spelaea (Goldfuss, 1810) skeleton remains of the Upper Rhine valley (SW Germany) and contribution to their palaeobiogeography, sexual dimorphism and palaeoecology. Palaeogeography Palaeoclimatology Palaeoecology. Diedrich, C. AND Žák, K. 2006. Prey deposits and den sites of the Upper Pleistocene hyena Crocuta crocuta spelaea (Goldfuss, 1823) in horizontal and vertical caves of the Bohemian Karst (Czech Republic). Bulletin of Geosciences, 81 (4), 237-276. Günther, K. 1964. Die altsteinzeitlichen Funde der Balve Höhle. Bodenaltertümer Westfalens, 8, 1-165. Günther, K. 1988. Alt- und Mittelsteinzeitliche Fundplätze in Westfalen. Teil 2. Einführung in

  14. Quantifying time in sedimentary successions by radio-isotopic dating of ash beds (United States)

    Schaltegger, Urs


    global environmental and biotic disturbance (from ash bed analysis in biostratigraphically or cyclostratigraphically well constrained marine sections) with volcanic activity; examples are the Triassic-Jurassic boundary and the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (Schoene et al. 2010), or the lower Toarcian oceanic anoxic event and the Karoo Province volcanism (Sell et al. in prep.). High-precision temporal correlations may also be obtained by combining high-precision U-Pb dating with biochronology in the Middle Triassic (Ovtcharova et al., in prep.), or by comparing U-Pb dates with astronomical timescales in the Upper Miocene (Wotzlaw et al., in prep.). References Guex, J., Schoene, B., Bartolini, A., Spangenberg, J., Schaltegger, U., O'Dogherty, L., et al. (2012). Geochronological constraints on post-extinction recovery of the ammonoids and carbon cycle perturbations during the Early Jurassic. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 346-347(C), 1-11. Ovtcharova, M., Bucher, H., Schaltegger, U., Galfetti, T., Brayard, A., & Guex, J. (2006). New Early to Middle Triassic U-Pb ages from South China: Calibration with ammonoid biochronozones and implications for the timing of the Triassic biotic recovery. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 243(3-4), 463-475. Ovtcharova, M., Goudemand, N., Galfetti, Th., Guodun, K., Hammer, O., Schaltegger, U., Bucher, H. Improving accuracy and precision of radio-isotopic and biochronological approaches in dating geological boundaries: The Early-Middle Triassic boundary case. In preparation. Schoene, B., Schaltegger, U., Brack, P., Latkoczy, C., Stracke, A., & Günther, D. (2012). Rates of magma differentiation and emplacement in a ballooning pluton recorded by U-Pb TIMS-TEA, Adamello batholith, Italy. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 355-356, 162-173. Schoene, B., Latkoczy, C., Schaltegger, U., & Günther, D. (2010). A new method integrating high-precision U-Pb geochronology with zircon trace element analysis (U-Pb TIMS

  15. An oxygen isotope study of quartz veins within eclogites from the Dabie terrane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI; Yiliang


    Bulletin, 1999, 44 (supplement 1): 20-25.[12]Ding, Z. L., Yu, Z. W., Rutter, N. W. et al., Towards an orbital time scale for Chinese loess deposits, Quaternary Science Review, 1994,13: 39-70.[13]Duchaufour, Ph., Pedologie, Tome 1: Pedogenese et Classification, Paris-New York-Barcelone-Milan: Masson, 1983, 1-477.[14]Singer, M. J., Bowen, L. H., Verosub, K. L. et al., Mossbauer spectroscopic evidence for citrate-bicarbonate-dithionite ex-traction of maghemite from soils, Clays and Clay Minerals,1995, 43: 1-7.[15]Hunt, C. P., Singer, M. J., Kletetschka, G. et al., Effect of citrate-bicarbonate-dithionite treatment on fine-grained mag-netite and maghemite, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 1995, 130: 87-94.[16]Mehra, O., Jackson, M. L., Iron oxide removal from soil and clay by a dithionite-citrate system buffered with sodium bi-carbonate, Clay and Clay Minerals, 1960, 7: 317-327.[17]McKeague, J. A., Manual on soil sampling and methods of analysis, Toronto: Canadian Society of Soil Science, 1981, 1-212.[18]Kukla, G., An, Z. S., Melice, J. L. et al., Magnetic susceptibility record of Chinese loess, Transaction of Royal Society of Edinburgh, Earth Sciences, 1990, 81: 263-288.[19]Guo, Z. T., Wei, L. Y., Lu, H. Y. et al., Changes in the composition of Late Pleistocene aeolian dust and the environmental significance, Quaternary Sciences (in Chinese), 1999, 19(1): 41-48.[20]Heller, F., Liu, X. M., Liu, T. S. et al., Magnetic susceptibility of loess in China, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 1991,103: 301-310.[21]Yang, J. D., Chen, J., An, Z. S. et al., Variations in 87Sr/86Sr Ratios of calcites in Chinese loess: A proxy for chemical weathering associated with the East Asian Summer monsoon, Palaeogeography Palaeoclimatology Palaeoecology, 2000,157: 151-159.[22]Verosub, K. L., Fine, P., Singer, M. J. et al., Pedogenesis and paleoclimate: Interpretation of the magnetic susceptibility record of Chinese loess-paleosol sequences, Geology, 1993, 21

  16. Glacial recession in the Tropical Andes from the Little Ice Age: the case of Ampato Volcanic Complex (Southern Peru (United States)

    Alcalá, J.; Palacios, D.; Zamorano, J. J.


    Europa (Cordillera Cantábrica, NO de España). Análisis morfológico y reconstrucción del avance glaciar histórico. Rev. C & G., 19 (3-4), 79-94. Hastenrath, S. L. (2009): Past glaciation in the tropics. Quaternary Science Reviews, 28: 790-798. Jomelli, V.; Favier, V.; Rabatel, A.; Brunstein, D.; Hoffmann, G.; and Francou, B. (2009): Fluctuations of glaciers in the tropical Andes over the last millennium and palaeoclimatic implications: A review. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, doi: 10.1016/j.palaeo.2008.10.033. Kaser, G., Osmaston, H.A., 2002. Tropical glaciers. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. Mark, B. (2008): Tracing tropical Andean glaciers over space and time: Some lessons and transdisciplinary implications. Global and Planetary Change, 60: 101-114. Osmaston, H. (2005): Estimates of glacier equilibrium line altitudes by the Area _ Altitude, the Area _ Altitude Balance Ratio and the Area _ Altitude Balance Index Methods and their validation. Quaternary International, 138-139: 22-31. Rabatel, A., Jomelli, V., Naveau, P., Francou, B., Grancher, D. (2005). Dating of Little Ice Age glacier fluctuations in the tropical Andes: Charquini glaciers, Bolivia, 16ºS. C. R. Geoscience, 337: 1311-1322. Rabatel, A., Francou, B., Jomelli, V., Naveau, P., Grancher, D. (2008). A chronology of the Little Ice Age in the tropical Andes of Bolivia (16º S) and its implications for climate reconstruction. Quaternary Research, 70: 198-212. Ramirez, E., Francou, B., Ribstein, P., Descloitres, M., Guerin, R., Mendoza, J., Gallaire, R., Pouyaud, B., Jordan, E., 2001. Small glaciers disappearing in the tropical Andes: a case study in Bolivia: Glaciar Chacaltaya (16°S). Journal of Glaciology 47 (157), 187-194. Soruco, A.; Vincent, C.; Francou, B.; Ribstein, P.; Berger, T.; Sicart, J. E.; Wagnon, P.; Arnaud, Y.; Favier, V.; and Lejeune, Y. (2009): Mass balance of Glacier Zongo, Bolivia, between 1956 and 2006, using glaciological, hydrological and geodetic methods

  17. Spotted hyena and steppe lion predation behaviours on cave bears of Europe - ?Late Quaternary cave bear extinction as result of predator stress (United States)

    Diedrich, Cajus G.


    . (in review). Cave bear killers and scavengers from the last European Ice Age. Palaeogeography Palaeoclimatology Palaeoecology. Diedrich, C., Žák, K. 2006. Prey deposits and den sites of the Upper Pleistocene hyena Crocuta crocuta spelaea (Goldfuss, 1823) in horizontal and vertical caves of the Bohemian Karst (Czech Republic). Bulletin of Geosciences, 81 (4), 237-276. Diedrich, C., Robu, M., Dragusin, V., Constantin, S., Moldovan, O., 2009. New Upper Pleistocene steppe lion skeleton finds between the cave bear hibernation plateaus of the Ursilor Cave bear den, Romania. Abstractc 15th International Cave Bear Symposium, Spisska Nova Ves Slovakia, 10. Diedrich, C., Moldovan, O., Constantin, S. 2009. Cave bear tracks, scratch marks, hair traces and hibernation nests in the Ursilor Cave (Transylvania, Romania) - preliminary report from a famous European cave bear den. - Stalactite, 58 (2): 48-52. Diedrich, C., Moldovan, O. 2010. Ichnological and ethological studies in one of Europe's famous bear den in the Ursilor Cave (Carpathians, Romania). - Quarternary International (accepted). Rabeder, G., Nagel, D., Pacher, M., 2000. Der Höhlenbär. Stuttgart: Thorbecke.

  18. Climate sensitivity of Mediterranean pine growth reveals distinct east-west dipole

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Seim, A.; Treydte, K.; Trouet, V.; Frank, D.; Fonti, P.; Tegel, W.; Panayotov, M.; Fernandez-Donado, L.; Krusic, P.; Büntgen, Ulf


    Roč. 35, č. 9 (2015), s. 2503-2513 ISSN 0899-8418 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0248 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : tree-ring width * scots pine * wood formation * ice core * variability * drought * precipitation * reconstructions * circulation * dynamics * climate dynamics * dendroclimatology * drought response * Mediterranean east-west dipole * palaeoclimatology * Pinus spp * principal component analysis * tree-ring width Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 3.609, year: 2015

  19. Simultaneous determination of stable carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen isotopes in cellulose. (United States)

    Loader, N J; Street-Perrott, F A; Daley, T J; Hughes, P D M; Kimak, A; Levanič, T; Mallon, G; Mauquoy, D; Robertson, I; Roland, T P; van Bellen, S; Ziehmer, M M; Leuenberger, M


    A technological development is described through which the stable carbon-, oxygen-, and nonexchangeable hydrogen-isotopic ratios (δ(13)C, δ(18)O, δ(2)H) are determined on a single carbohydrate (cellulose) sample with precision equivalent to conventional techniques (δ(13)C 0.15‰, δ(18)O 0.30‰, δ(2)H 3.0‰). This triple-isotope approach offers significant new research opportunities, most notably in physiology and medicine, isotope biogeochemistry, forensic science, and palaeoclimatology, when isotopic analysis of a common sample is desirable or when sample material is limited.

  20. The hydrogeochemical characteristics of the certain uranium deposit and their relationship with uranium mineralization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Huanguang


    On the basis of previous work, this paper studies characteristics of the stratum,lithology,structure, ore bodies, ore and wall rocks and the relations between hydrochemical characteristics and uranium mineraliztion are stressed and anaysed.The environmental index of hydrogeochemisty is closely related with the uranium form, migration,and precipitation. According to negative ion, the ground water is classified into HCO3-,SO42-, HCO3--SO42-and HCO3-Cl-. For deposit genesis, uranium source comes from two parts; there are five mineralizations such as leaching, adsorption, hydrogeochemistry, palaeo-climatology and geothermal mineralization. Hydrogeochemical mineralization is the key process.. (authors)

  1. Reconciling late Quaternary transgressions in the Bohai Sea, China to the global sea level changes, and new linkage of sedimentary records to three astronomical rhythms (United States)

    Yi, Liang


    Terminations. Science 326, 248-252. Ding, Z.L., Yu, Z.W., Rutter, N.W., Liu, T.S., 1994. Towards an orbital time scale for chinese loess deposits. Quaternary Science Reviews 13, 39-70. IOCAS (Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences), 1985. Bohai Sea Geology. Science Press, Beijing, China. Liu, T., 2009. Loess and Arid Environment. Anhui Science & Techonology Press, Hefei, China. Wang, Y., Cheng, H., Edwards, R.L., An, Z., Wu, J., Chen, C.-C., Dorale, J.A., 2001. A High-Resolution Absolute-Dated Late Pleistocene Monsoon Record from Hulu Cave, China. Science 294, 2345-2348. Wang, Y., Cheng, H., Edwards, R.L., Kong, X., Shao, X., Chen, S., Wu, J., Jiang, X., Wang, X., An, Z., 2008. Millennial- and orbital-scale changes in the East Asian monsoon over the past 224,000 years. Nature 451, 1090-1093. Yi, L., Yu, H., Ortiz, J.D., Xu, X., Chen, S., Ge, J., Hao, Q., Yao, J., Shi, X., Peng, S., 2012a. Late Quaternary linkage of sedimentary records to three astronomical rhythms and the Asian monsoon, inferred from a coastal borehole in the south Bohai Sea, China. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 329-310, 101-117. Yi, L., Lai, Z.P., Yu, H.J., Xu, X.Y., Su, Q., Yao, J., Wang, X.L., Shi, X., 2012b. Chronologies of sedimentary changes in the south Bohai Sea, China: Constraints from luminescence and radiocarbon dating. Boreas, doi: 10.1111/j.1502-3885.2012.00271.x. Yi, L., Yu, H.J., Ortiz, J.D., Xu, X.Y., Qiang, X.K., Huang, H.J., Shi, X., Deng, C.L., 2012c. A reconstruction of late Pleistocene relative sea level in the south Bohai Sea, China, based on sediment grain-size analysis. Sedimentary Geology 281, 88-100. Zhao, S., Yang, G., Cang, S., Zhang, H., Huang, Q., Xia, D., Wang, Y., Liu, F., Liu, C., 1978. Transgression's stratas and shoreline changes in the south coast of Bohai Bay, China. Oceanologia et Limnologia Sinica 9, 15-25.

  2. Reduced-Order Modeling of 3D Rayleigh-Benard Turbulent Convection (United States)

    Hassanzadeh, Pedram; Grover, Piyush; Nabi, Saleh


    Accurate Reduced-Order Models (ROMs) of turbulent geophysical flows have broad applications in science and engineering; for example, to study the climate system or to perform real-time flow control/optimization in energy systems. Here we focus on 3D Rayleigh-Benard turbulent convection at the Rayleigh number of 106 as a prototype for turbulent geophysical flows, which are dominantly buoyancy driven. The purpose of the study is to evaluate and improve the performance of different model reduction techniques using this setting. One-dimensional ROMs for horizontally averaged temperature are calculated using several methods. Specifically, the Linear Response Function (LRF) of the system is calculated from a large DNS dataset using Dynamic Mode Decomposition (DMD) and Fluctuation-Dissipation Theorem (FDT). The LRF is also calculated using the Green's function method of Hassanzadeh and Kuang (2016, J. Atmos. Sci.), which is based on using numerous forced DNS runs. The performance of these LRFs in estimating the system's response to weak external forcings or controlling the time-mean flow are compared and contrasted. The spectral properties of the LRFs and the scaling of the accuracy with the length of the dataset (for the data-driven methods) are also discussed.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina O. Leibman


    Full Text Available This paper is based on field data obtained during short visits to a newly formed permafrost feature in a form of relatively narrow, deep crater. Excluding impossible and improbable versions of the crater’s development, the authors conclude that it originated from warmerground temperatures and an increase in unfrozen water content, leading to an increase in pressure from gas emissions from permafrost and ground ice. This conclusion is also supported by known processes in the palaeo-geography of Yamal lakes and recent studies of gas-hydrate behavior and subsea processes in gas-bearing provinces.

  4. Were sauropod dinosaurs responsible for the warm Mesozoic climate?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.J. (Tom van Loon


    Full Text Available It was recently postulated that methane production by the giant Mesozoic sauropod dinosaurs was larger than the present-day release of this greenhouse gas by nature and man-induced activities jointly, thus contributing to the warm Mesozoic climate. This conclusion was reached by correct calculations, but these calculations were based on unrealistic assumptions: the researchers who postulated this dinosaur-induced warm climate did take into account neither the biomass production required for the sauropods' food, nor the constraints for the habitats in which the dinosaurs lived, thus neglecting the palaeogeographic conditions. This underlines the importance of palaeogeography for a good understanding of the Earth's geological history.

  5. On palaeogeographic map

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeng-Zhao Feng


    Full Text Available The palaeogeographic map is a graphic representation of physical geographical characteristics in geological history periods and human history periods. It is the most important result of palaeogeographic study. The author, as the Editor-in-Chief of Journal of Palaeogeography, Chinese Edition and English Edition, aimed at the problems of the articles submitted to and published in the Journal of Palaeogeography in recent years and the relevant papers and books of others, and integrated with his practice of palaeogeographic study and mapping, wrote this paper. The content mainly includes the data of palaeogeographic mapping, the problems of palaeogeographic mapping method, the “Single factor analysis and multifactor comprehensive mapping method —— Methodology of quantitative lithofacies palaeogeography”, i.e., the “4 steps mapping method”, the nomenclature of each palaeogeographic unit in palaeogeographic map, the explanation of each palaeogeographic unit in palaeogeographic map, the explanation of significance of palaeogeographic map and palaeogeographic article, the evaluative standards of palaeogeographic map and palaeogeographic article, and the self-evaluation. Criticisms and corrections are welcome.

  6. Toward the laboratory identification of the not-so-simple NS2 neutral and anion isomers (United States)

    Fortenberry, Ryan C.; Thackston, Russell; Francisco, Joseph S.; Lee, Timothy J.


    The NS2 radical is a simple arrangement of atoms with a complex electronic structure. This molecule was first reported by Hassanzadeh and Andrew's group [J. Am. Chem. Soc. 114, 83 (1992)] through Ar matrix isolation experiments. In the quarter century since this seminal work was published, almost nothing has been reported about nitrogen disulfide even though NS2 is isovalent with the common NO2. The present study aims to shed new insight into possible challenges with the characterization of this radical. No less than three potential energy surfaces all intersect in the C2v region of the SNS radical isomer. A type-C Renner-Teller molecule is present for the linear 2Πu state where the potential energy surface is fully contained within the 2.05 kcal/mol lower energy X ˜ 2A1 state. A C2v, 1 2B1 state is present in this same region, but a double excitation is required to access this state from the X ˜ 2A1 state of SNS. Additionally, a 1 2A' NSS isomer is also present but with notable differences in the geometry from the global minimum. Consequently, the rovibronic spectrum of these NS2 isomers is quite complicated. While the present theory and previous Ar matrix experiments agree well on isotopic shifts, they differ notably for the absolute fundamental vibrational frequency transitions. These differences are likely a combination of matrix shifts and issues associated with the neglect of non-adiabatic coupling in the computations. In either case, it is clear that high-resolution gas phase experimental observations will be complicated to sort. The present computations should aid in their analysis.

  7. Can laser treatment improve quality of life of hirsute women?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alizadeh N


    Full Text Available Narges Alizadeh,1 Sharad Ayyoubi,2 Mohammadreza Naghipour,3 Rasool Hassanzadeh,2 Zahra Mohtasham-Amiri,3 Shirin Zaresharifi,4 Kaveh Gharaei Nejad1 1Dermatology Department, School of Medicine, Guilan University of Medical Sciences, 2General Practice, School of Medicine, Guilan University of Medical Sciences, 3Community Medicine Department, School of Medicine, Guilan University of Medical Sciences, Rasht, 4General Practitioner, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran Background: Hirsutism can have negative impacts on psychosocial aspects of women’s lives and reduce their quality of life (QOL. The aim of this study was to assess the QOL of these women during laser treatment. Patients and methods: Eighty-eight women with unwanted facial hair underwent laser therapy. Each patient completed a questionnaire consisting of a modified Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI and visual analog scale (VAS before the first, third, and fifth sessions of laser therapy. Interval between the sessions was 4–6 weeks. Statistical analyses were done using SPSS software version18. Results: The DLQI scores before treatment, and at third and fifth sessions were 7.75±2.36, 5.55±1.88, and 4.14±0.64, respectively (P<0.0001. Also, VAS scores had a decreasing trend between the first and second treatment sessions as the mean patient VAS score fell from 10±0.04 to 5.53±2.41 (P<0.0001. The DLQI scores were significantly different according to areas of hair growth and number of involved areas. There were no significant differences with regard to response to treatment and mean of DLQI score according to the level of education, marital status, and employment status. Conclusion: Hair removal with laser therapy can improve the QOL in hirsute women. Also, socioeconomic status does not affect the satisfaction rate of laser therapy for hair removal. Keywords: hirsutism, laser, quality of life, satisfaction, psychosocial

  8. A regime shift in the Sun-Climate connection with the end of the Medieval Climate Anomaly. (United States)

    Smirnov, D A; Breitenbach, S F M; Feulner, G; Lechleitner, F A; Prufer, K M; Baldini, J U L; Marwan, N; Kurths, J


    Understanding the influence of changes in solar activity on Earth's climate and distinguishing it from other forcings, such as volcanic activity, remains a major challenge for palaeoclimatology. This problem is best approached by investigating how these variables influenced past climate conditions as recorded in high precision paleoclimate archives. In particular, determining if the climate system response to these forcings changes through time is critical. Here we use the Wiener-Granger causality approach along with well-established cross-correlation analysis to investigate the causal relationship between solar activity, volcanic forcing, and climate as reflected in well-established Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) rainfall proxy records from Yok Balum Cave, southern Belize. Our analysis reveals a consistent influence of volcanic activity on regional Central American climate over the last two millennia. However, the coupling between solar variability and local climate varied with time, with a regime shift around 1000-1300 CE after which the solar-climate coupling weakened considerably.

  9. Procedures for extraction and purification of leaf wax biomarkers from peats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.E. Nichols


    Full Text Available Palaeoecological and palaeoclimate reconstruction, using leaf wax biomarkers, is a relatively new sub-discipline of peatland science. The ability to process large numbers of samples rapidly for biomarkers makes this type of analysis particularly appealing. This review is a guide to the preparation of leaf waxes for analysis by gas chromatography. The main phases of preparation are extraction of soluble organic compounds from sediment, separation of the total extract into fractions of differing polarity, and the derivatisation of polar functional groups. The procedures described here are not meant be exhaustive of all organic geochemical possibilities in peatlands, but a distillation of methods for the preparation of leaf waxes that are commonly and increasingly being used in palaeoecological and palaeoclimatological studies.

  10. Using data assimilation to study extratropical Northern Hemisphere climate over the last millennium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Widmann


    Full Text Available Climate proxy data provide noisy, and spatially incomplete information on some aspects of past climate states, whereas palaeosimulations with climate models provide global, multi-variable states, which may however differ from the true states due to unpredictable internal variability not related to climate forcings, as well as due to model deficiencies. Using data assimilation for combining the empirical information from proxy data with the physical understanding of the climate system represented by the equations in a climate model is in principle a promising way to obtain better estimates for the climate of the past.

    Data assimilation has been used for a long time in weather forecasting and atmospheric analyses to control the states in atmospheric General Circulation Models such that they are in agreement with observation from surface, upper air, and satellite measurements. Here we discuss the similarities and the differences between the data assimilation problem in palaeoclimatology and in weather forecasting, and present and conceptually compare three data assimilation methods that have been developed in recent years for applications in palaeoclimatology. All three methods (selection of ensemble members, Forcing Singular Vectors, and Pattern Nudging are illustrated by examples that are related to climate variability over the extratropical Northern Hemisphere during the last millennium. In particular it is shown that all three methods suggest that the cold period over Scandinavia during 1790–1820 is linked to anomalous northerly or easterly atmospheric flow, which in turn is related to a pressure anomaly that resembles a negative state of the Northern Annular Mode.

  11. Biodiversity, biogeography and phylogeography of Ordovician rhynchonelliform brachiopods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harper, David A. T.; Mac Ørum Rasmussen, Christian; Liljeroth, Maria


    -levels were high. Pivotal to the entire diversification is the role of gamma (inter-provincial) diversity and by implication the spread of the continents and frequency of island arcs and microcontinents. The phylogeographical analysis demonstrates that this new palaeogeographical configuration...... with local biodiversity epicentres, notably on the South China Palaeoplate; low-latitude porambonitoid-dominated faunas with early plectambonitoid and clitambonitoid representatives, as well as high-latitude assemblages mostly dominated by orthoids, can be recognized, but many taxa are rooted in Late......The phylogeographical evolution and the consequent changing distribution and diversity of rhynchonelliform brachiopods through the Ordovician are linked to the dynamic palaeogeography of the period. The Early Ordovician (Tremadocian and Floian) is characterized by globally low-diversity faunas...

  12. Research on metallogenetic system and palaeo-hydrodynamic analysis on exogenic uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Liang; Wang Ping


    The research and current development trends of sandstone-type uranium deposit at home and abroad are analyzed. A new study idea is put forward in the view of evolution of metallogenetic system i.e. taking the dynamics of matter transportation as main clue to restore the regional palaeo- topography at pre-ore stage, ore forming stage and post-ore stage under the principle of system theory in the way of background evolution of regional geology, especially tectonic dynamic evolution and lithofacies and palaeogeography. Palaeo-flowing field at different geological periods in the processing of regional evolution is reestablished by the usage of palaeohydrogeological analysis combined with the theory of groundwater flowing system. Dynamical process of source-transportation-accumulation- reservation of metallogenetic matter is focused on region scale. (authors)

  13. Impacts of natural events and processes on groundwater flow conditions: a case study in the Horonobe Area, Hokkaido, Northern Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niizato, T.; Yasue, K.I.; Kurikami, H.


    In order to assess the long-term stability of the geological environments for over several hundred thousand years, it is important to consider the influence of natural events and processes, such as uplift, subsidence, denudation and climate change, on the geological environments, especially in an active region such as Japan. This study presents a conceptual model related to the future natural events and processes which have potential impacts on the groundwater flow conditions in the Horonobe area, Hokkaido, northern Japan on the basis of the neo-tectonics, palaeogeography, palaeo-climate, historical development of landform, and present state of groundwater flow conditions. We conclude that it is important to consider interactions among natural events and processes on the describing of the best-possible approximation of the time-variation of geological environment. (authors)

  14. Facies-succession and architecture of the third-order sequences and their stratigraphic framework of the Devonian in Yunnan-Guizhou-Guangxi area, South China

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    Mei Mingxiang


    Full Text Available The Caledonian orogeny at the end of the Silurian resulted in great changes in the palaeogeography in the Yunnan-Guizhou-Guangxi area of South China; the continental area of the Early Paleozoic evolved into the extensive Dian-Qian-Gui Sea in the Late Paleozoic. Early in the Devonian, as a result of a major transgression, seawater encroached gradually from the south to the north and clastic facies were deposited. Carbonate deposition was then established in the Yunnan-Guizhou-Guangxi area, with a palaeogeography marked by attached platforms, isolated platforms and narrow basins. As a result of the Ziyun movement towards the end of the Devonian, the Upper Devonian strata are regressive and thin out from the open-sea to the land areas. A study of the nature and distribution of sedimentary facies in space and time recognises 13 third-order sequences in the Devonian strata in Yunnan-Guizhou-Guangxi area, and these form two second-order sequences. The strata of the Lower Devonian comprise 5 third-order sequences (SQ1 to SQ5, which are dominated by transgressive clastics. 4 third-order sequences (SQ6 to SQ9 in the Middle Devonian are characterized by alternations of transgressive clastics and highstand carbonates. In the Upper Devonian, carbonates constitute 4 third-order sequences (SQ10 to SQ13, which are generally marked by the transgressive limestones and highstand dolomites. On the basis of earlier biostratigraphic studies, sea-level changes represented by the third-order sequences with their different facies successions are explored, and the sequence stratigraphic framework is established. Therefore, the Devonian strata in the study area provide an example for further understanding of depositional trends within the sequence-stratigraphic framework.

  15. Atmospheric and oceanic impacts of Antarctic glaciation across the Eocene-Oligocene transition. (United States)

    Kennedy, A T; Farnsworth, A; Lunt, D J; Lear, C H; Markwick, P J


    The glaciation of Antarctica at the Eocene-Oligocene transition (approx. 34 million years ago) was a major shift in the Earth's climate system, but the mechanisms that caused the glaciation, and its effects, remain highly debated. A number of recent studies have used coupled atmosphere-ocean climate models to assess the climatic effects of Antarctic glacial inception, with often contrasting results. Here, using the HadCM3L model, we show that the global atmosphere and ocean response to growth of the Antarctic ice sheet is sensitive to subtle variations in palaeogeography, using two reconstructions representing Eocene and Oligocene geological stages. The earlier stage (Eocene; Priabonian), which has a relatively constricted Tasman Seaway, shows a major increase in sea surface temperature over the Pacific sector of the Southern Ocean in response to the ice sheet. This response does not occur for the later stage (Oligocene; Rupelian), which has a more open Tasman Seaway. This difference in temperature response is attributed to reorganization of ocean currents between the stages. Following ice sheet expansion in the earlier stage, the large Ross Sea gyre circulation decreases in size. Stronger zonal flow through the Tasman Seaway allows salinities to increase in the Ross Sea, deep-water formation initiates and multiple feedbacks then occur amplifying the temperature response. This is potentially a model-dependent result, but it highlights the sensitive nature of model simulations to subtle variations in palaeogeography, and highlights the need for coupled ice sheet-climate simulations to properly represent and investigate feedback processes acting on these time scales. © 2015 The Author(s).

  16. 70 fechas para una cueva : revisión crítica de 70 dataciones C14 del Pleistoceno Superior y Holoceno de la Cueva de Nerja (Málaga, Andalucía, España

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    Jesús Francisco Jordá Pardo


    , Neolithic and Cooper Age. In this deposit, different archaeological teams have been obtained 70 C14 dates, that in this work are valued the first time all together, submitting them to an validity analysis, rejecting 29 dates. The 41 remaining dates have been calibrated using the CalPal program obtaining a chronological extension for the archaeological record of Nerja Cave that spreads between 30.000 and 3.900 years cal. BP. The results of the calibration have been compared, as a hole set and for his archaeological contexts, with the palaeoclimatological curves provided by the cores obtained in the ices of Greenland (GISP2 and GRIP and in Alborán Sea (MD95-2043. This has allowed us to verify our previous palaeoclimatological interpretations of the sequence, establish a narrower correlation between the main palaeoclimatological events detected in Alborán Sea and the occupational episodes of the cave, and to advance in the consideration of the archaeological record of the cavity as a unit, in the territorial context of the South of the prehistoric Iberia.

  17. The nature of Ordovician limestone-marl alternations in the Oslo-Asker District (Norway): witnesses of primary glacio-eustasy or diagenetic rhythms? (United States)

    Amberg, Chloé E. A.; Collart, Tim; Salenbien, Wout; Egger, Lisa M.; Munnecke, Axel; Nielsen, Arne T.; Monnet, Claude; Hammer, Øyvind; Vandenbroucke, Thijs R. A.


    Ordovician limestone-marl alternations in the Oslo-Asker District have been interpreted as signaling glacio-eustatic lowstands, which would support a prolonged “Early Palaeozoic Icehouse”. However, these rhythmites could alternatively reflect differential diagenesis, without sedimentary trigger. Here, we test both hypotheses through one Darriwilian and three Katian sections. Our methodology consists of a bed-by-bed analysis of palynological (chitinozoan) and geochemical (XRF) data, to evaluate whether the limestone/marl couplets reflect an original cyclic signal. The results reveal similar palynomorph assemblages in limestones and marls. Exceptions, which could be interpreted as reflecting palaeoclimatological fluctuations, exist at the species level: Ancyrochitina bornholmensis seems to be more abundant in the marl samples from the lower Frognerkilen Formation on Nakkholmen Island. However, these rare cases where chitinozoans differ between limestone/marl facies are deemed insufficient for the identification of original cyclicity. The geochemical data show a near-perfect correlation between insoluble elements in the limestone and the marls, which indicates a similar composition of the potential precursor sediment, also in the Frognerkilen Formation. This is consistent with the palynological data. Although an original cyclic pattern could still be recorded by other, uninvestigated parameters, our palaeontological and geochemical data combined do not support the presence of such a signal.

  18. Peat humification and climate change: a multi-site comparison from mires in south-east Alaska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.J. Payne


    Full Text Available Peatland records of Holocene palaeoclimate have been widely used in Europe. Their potential in western North America remains largely unexploited despite an abundance of candidate sites. Peat humification analysis is a widely used technique for palaeoclimatic inference from peatlands. This study attempts to demonstrate a climatic role in determining peat humification by comparing low-resolution peat humification records from five mires in south-east Alaska. Humification was determined by alkali extraction and colorimetry and records dated by radiocarbon and tephrochronology. Testate amoebae analysis was carried out across a major humification-inferred wet shift in three of the sites. The humification results show variability down the length of the cores but there is only limited agreement between records from different sites. Many general trends in the data appear to be out of phase and periods of proxy 'complacency' are shown. This study does not provide strong evidence for climatic forcing of humification in these sites. Methodological issues including possible problems with the age-depth models and the role of a peat-forming plant species signal in the humification data are discussed. The results support previous studies in suggesting the value of employing a multi-proxy, multi-site, and possibly multi-core approach in peat-based palaeoclimatology.

  19. Paleoclimatological revision of climate evolution in Spain since the middle pleistocene from travertine and speleothems studies; Aportaciones al conociiento de la evolucion paleoclimatica y paleoambiental en la pensinsula iberica durante los dos ultimos millones de anos a partir del estudio de travertinos y espeleotemas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, T; Barettino, D; Canoira, L; Cobo, R; Garcia-Cortes, A; Grun, R; Hoyos, M; Julia, R; Llamas, R


    This paper deals on the main results of the Project: ``Paleoclimatological revision since the Middle Pleistocene from geochronological and isotope analysis of spanish travertine`` (CEC-F12W-CT91-0075 ``Paleoclimatological revision of climate evolution in the Western Mediterranean Region, evaluation of altered scenarios). Four travertine deposition areas and a karstic zone were selected according to their geographical signification. Travertine deposits areas were: Priego and Rio Blanco: fluvial travertine; Banyoles and Rio Blanco: lacustrine deposits; Tolox: Alluvial fan deposits. The Cueva del Reguerillo was the karstic area selected. In spite of travertine and speleothems are warm climate indicators, important paleoenvironmental and palaeoclimatological data were obtained, which are in short: Through geomorphology and dating (palaeomagnetism, U/Th, Electro spin resonance and amino acid racemization analysis) the fluvial history of Priego, Rio Blanco and el Reguerillo cave, where a neotectonic and palaeosismicity phenomena were also dated. The oldest ESR dating method age obtained was of 950ka; and the oldest Priego deposits AARD dated were 750 ka old. Through dating, sedimentology, stable isotope analysis and palinology some aspects of climatic evolution of the Iberian Peninsula were determined. A net correlation found between palinology and stable isotope ratios in the Banyoles lake drill hole, allowed to validate the results. Some cualitative data on fluvial and karstic systems water input were determined also.

  20. Multiple origins of large hummock deposits in Alai Valley, Northern Pamir: Implications for palaeoclimate reconstructions (United States)

    Reznichenko, N. V.; Andrews, G. R.; Geater, R. E.; Strom, A.


    This paper interprets the origin of several of the largest hummocky landform assemblages in the Alai Valley, Northern Pamir - a formerly glaciated intermontane depression. The vast hummocky deposits in the Koman-Suu and Achik-Tash river catchments are found to be of two contrasting modes of formation: glacial hummocks deposited during Koman and Lenin Glaciers withdraw and avalanche hummocks produced during catastrophic Koman and Lenin rock avalanches. The origins of the deposits we assessed through remote and field-based geomorphological mapping, as well as sedimentological investigations, which included clast analysis and the identification of micro-scale agglomerates indicative of rock avalanche emplacement. Both the Koman and Lenin rock avalanches were large, catastrophic events (with run-outs of 34 and 24 km, respectively, and a volume over 1 × 109 m3 each) that occurred subsequent to glacier withdrawal from the area. The complex conditions on the moment of the rock avalanche emplacement promoted unusual deposits geomorphology and extensive run-outs. The landslide landforms formed over the pre-existing glacial hummocks and fluvial deposits, and are geomorphologically and sedimentologically distinct from the larger glacial hummocks. The reconstruction of this sequence of events has implications for how hummock dating should be interpreted. This research illustrates large scale catastrophic landsliding in the glacial environment, and adds to the ongoing debate about the misidentification of rock avalanche deposits as of glacial origin, and their relevance to palaeoclimatological and palaeoseismological reconstructions.

  1. A living fossil tale of Pangaean biogeography. (United States)

    Murienne, Jerome; Daniels, Savel R; Buckley, Thomas R; Mayer, Georg; Giribet, Gonzalo


    The current distributions of widespread groups of terrestrial animals and plants are supposedly the result of a mixture of either vicariance owing to continental split or more recent trans-oceanic dispersal. For organisms exhibiting a vicariant biogeographic pattern-achieving their current distribution by riding on the plates of former supercontinents-this view is largely inspired by the belief that Pangaea lacked geographical or ecological barriers, or that extinctions and dispersal would have erased any biogeographic signal since the early Mesozoic. We here present a time-calibrated molecular phylogeny of Onychophora (velvet worms), an ancient and exclusively terrestrial panarthropod group distributed throughout former Pangaean landmasses. Our data not only demonstrate that trans-oceanic dispersal does not need be invoked to explain contemporary distributions, but also reveal that the early diversification of the group pre-dates the break-up of Pangaea, maintaining regionalization even in landmasses that have remained contiguous throughout the history of the group. These results corroborate a growing body of evidence from palaeontology, palaeogeography and palaeoclimatic modelling depicting ancient biogeographic regionalization over the continuous landmass of Pangaea.

  2. An analysis of dinosaurian biogeography: evidence for the existence of vicariance and dispersal patterns caused by geological events. (United States)

    Upchurch, Paul; Hunn, Craig A; Norman, David B


    As the supercontinent Pangaea fragmented during the Mesozoic era, dinosaur faunas were divided into isolated populations living on separate continents. It has been predicted, therefore, that dinosaur distributions should display a branching ('vicariance') pattern that corresponds with the sequence and timing of continental break-up. Several recent studies, however, minimize the importance of plate tectonics and instead suggest that dispersal and regional extinction were the main controls on dinosaur biogeography. Here, in order to test the vicariance hypothesis, we apply a cladistic biogeographical method to a large dataset on dinosaur relationships and distributions. We also introduce a methodological refinement termed 'time-slicing', which is shown to be a key step in the detection of ancient biogeographical patterns. These analyses reveal biogeographical patterns that closely correlate with palaeogeography. The results provide the first statistically robust evidence that, from Middle Jurassic to mid-Cretaceous times, tectonic events had a major role in determining where and when particular dinosaur groups flourished. The fact that evolutionary trees for extinct organisms preserve such distribution patterns opens up a new and fruitful direction for palaeobiogeographical research.

  3. Review of research in internal-wave and internal-tide deposits of China: Discussion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Shanmugam


    Full Text Available This discussion of a review article by [27], published in the Journal of Palaeogeography (2(1: 56– 65, is aimed at illustrating that interpretations of ten ancient examples in China and one in the central Appalachians (USA as deep-water deposits of internal waves and internal tides are unsustainable. This critical assessment is based on an in-depth evaluation of oceanographic and sedimentologic data on internal waves and internal tides derived from 332 print and online published works during 1838–January 2013, which include empirical data on the physical characteristics of modern internal waves and internal tides from 51 regions of the world’s oceans [108]. In addition, core and outcrop descriptions of deep-water strata from 35 case studies worldwide carried out by the author during 1974–2011, and a selected number of case studies published by other researchers are evaluated for identifying the sedimentological challenges associated with distinguishing types of bottom-current reworked sands in the ancient sedimentary record. The emerging conclusion is that any interpretation of ancient strata as deposits of internal waves and internal tides is premature.

  4. Synchronic historical patterns of species diversification in seasonal aplocheiloid killifishes of the semi-arid Brazilian Caatinga. (United States)

    Costa, Wilson J E M; Amorim, Pedro F; Mattos, José Leonardo O


    The Caatinga is the largest nucleus of seasonally dry tropical forests in South America, but little is known about the evolutionary history and biogeography of endemic organisms. Evolutionary diversification and distribution of terrestrial vertebrates endemic to the Caatinga have been explained by palaeogeographical Neogene episodes, mostly related to changes in the course of the São Francisco River, the largest river in the region. Our objective is to estimate the timing of divergence of two endemic groups of short-lived seasonal killifishes inhabiting all ecoregions of the Caatinga, testing the occurrence of synchronic events of spatial diversification in light of available data on regional palaeogeography. We performed independent time-calibrated phylogenetic molecular analyses for two clades of sympatric and geographically widespread seasonal killifishes endemic to the Caatinga, the Hypsolebias antenori group and the Cynolebias alpha-clade. Our results consistently indicate that species diversification took place synchronically in both groups, as well as it is contemporary to diversification of other organisms adapted to life in the semi-arid Caatinga, including lizards and small mammals. Both groups originated during the Miocene, but species diversification started between the Late Miocene and Early Pliocene, when global cooling probably favoured the expansion of semi-arid areas. Synchronic diversification patterns found are chronologically related to Tertiary palaeogeographical reorganizations associated to continental drift and to Quaternary climatic changes, corroborating the recent proposal that South American biodiversity has been continuously shaped between the Late Paleogene and Pleistocene.

  5. Synchronic historical patterns of species diversification in seasonal aplocheiloid killifishes of the semi-arid Brazilian Caatinga.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson J E M Costa

    Full Text Available The Caatinga is the largest nucleus of seasonally dry tropical forests in South America, but little is known about the evolutionary history and biogeography of endemic organisms. Evolutionary diversification and distribution of terrestrial vertebrates endemic to the Caatinga have been explained by palaeogeographical Neogene episodes, mostly related to changes in the course of the São Francisco River, the largest river in the region. Our objective is to estimate the timing of divergence of two endemic groups of short-lived seasonal killifishes inhabiting all ecoregions of the Caatinga, testing the occurrence of synchronic events of spatial diversification in light of available data on regional palaeogeography. We performed independent time-calibrated phylogenetic molecular analyses for two clades of sympatric and geographically widespread seasonal killifishes endemic to the Caatinga, the Hypsolebias antenori group and the Cynolebias alpha-clade. Our results consistently indicate that species diversification took place synchronically in both groups, as well as it is contemporary to diversification of other organisms adapted to life in the semi-arid Caatinga, including lizards and small mammals. Both groups originated during the Miocene, but species diversification started between the Late Miocene and Early Pliocene, when global cooling probably favoured the expansion of semi-arid areas. Synchronic diversification patterns found are chronologically related to Tertiary palaeogeographical reorganizations associated to continental drift and to Quaternary climatic changes, corroborating the recent proposal that South American biodiversity has been continuously shaped between the Late Paleogene and Pleistocene.

  6. Late Quaternary stratigraphy, sedimentology, and geochemistry of an underfilled lake basin in the Puna (north-west Argentina) (United States)

    McGlue, Michael M.; Cohen, Andrew S.; Ellis, Geoffrey S.; Kowler, Andrew L.


    Depositional models of ancient lakes in thin-skinned retroarc foreland basins rarely benefit from appropriate Quaternary analogues. To address this, we present new stratigraphic, sedimentological and geochemical analyses of four radiocarbon-dated sediment cores from the Pozuelos Basin (PB; northwest Argentina) that capture the evolution of this low-accommodation Puna basin over the past ca. 43 cal kyr. Strata from the PB are interpreted as accumulations of a highly variable, underfilled lake system represented by lake-plain/littoral, profundal, palustrine, saline lake and playa facies associations. The vertical stacking of facies is asymmetric, with transgressive and thin organic-rich highstand deposits underlying thicker, organic-poor regressive deposits. The major controls on depositional architecture and basin palaeogeography are tectonics and climate. Accommodation space was derived from piggyback basin-forming flexural subsidence and Miocene-Quaternary normal faulting associated with incorporation of the basin into the Andean hinterland. Sediment and water supply was modulated by variability in the South American summer monsoon, and perennial lake deposits correlate in time with several well-known late Pleistocene wet periods on the Altiplano/Puna plateau. Our results shed new light on lake expansion–contraction dynamics in the PB in particular and provide a deeper understanding of Puna basin lakes in general.

  7. An ant genus-group (Prenolepis) illuminates the biogeography and drivers of insect diversification in the Indo-Pacific. (United States)

    Matos-Maraví, Pável; Clouse, Ronald M; Sarnat, Eli M; Economo, Evan P; LaPolla, John S; Borovanska, Michaela; Rabeling, Christian; Czekanski-Moir, Jesse; Latumahina, Fransina; Wilson, Edward O; Janda, Milan


    The Malay Archipelago and the tropical South Pacific (hereafter the Indo-Pacific region) are considered biodiversity hotspots, yet a general understanding of the origins and diversification of species-rich groups in the region remains elusive. We aimed to test hypotheses for the evolutionary processes driving insect species diversity in the Indo-Pacific using a higher-level and comprehensive phylogenetic hypothesis for an ant clade consisting of seven genera. We estimated divergence times and reconstructed the biogeographical history of ant species in the Prenolepis genus-group (Formicidae: Formicinae: Lasiini). We used a fossil-calibrated phylogeny to infer ancestral geographical ranges utilizing a biogeographic model that includes founder-event speciation. Ancestral state reconstructions of the ants' ecological preferences, and diversification rates were estimated for selected Indo-Pacific clades. Overall, we report that faunal interchange between Asia and Australia has occurred since at least 20-25 Ma, and early dispersal to the Fijian Basin happened during the early and mid-Miocene (ca. 10-20 Ma). Differences in diversification rates across Indo-Pacific clades may be related to ecological preference breadth, which in turn may have facilitated geographical range expansions. Ancient dispersal routes suggested by our results agree with the palaeogeography of the region. For this particular group of ants, the rapid orogenesis in New Guinea and possibly subsequent ecological shifts may have promoted their rapid diversification and widespread distribution across the Indo-Pacific. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Large-Scale Features of Pliocene Climate: Results from the Pliocene Model Intercomparison Project (United States)

    Haywood, A. M.; Hill, D.J.; Dolan, A. M.; Otto-Bliesner, B. L.; Bragg, F.; Chan, W.-L.; Chandler, M. A.; Contoux, C.; Dowsett, H. J.; Jost, A.; hide


    Climate and environments of the mid-Pliocene warm period (3.264 to 3.025 Ma) have been extensively studied.Whilst numerical models have shed light on the nature of climate at the time, uncertainties in their predictions have not been systematically examined. The Pliocene Model Intercomparison Project quantifies uncertainties in model outputs through a coordinated multi-model and multi-mode data intercomparison. Whilst commonalities in model outputs for the Pliocene are clearly evident, we show substantial variation in the sensitivity of models to the implementation of Pliocene boundary conditions. Models appear able to reproduce many regional changes in temperature reconstructed from geological proxies. However, data model comparison highlights that models potentially underestimate polar amplification. To assert this conclusion with greater confidence, limitations in the time-averaged proxy data currently available must be addressed. Furthermore, sensitivity tests exploring the known unknowns in modelling Pliocene climate specifically relevant to the high latitudes are essential (e.g. palaeogeography, gateways, orbital forcing and trace gasses). Estimates of longer-term sensitivity to CO2 (also known as Earth System Sensitivity; ESS), support previous work suggesting that ESS is greater than Climate Sensitivity (CS), and suggest that the ratio of ESS to CS is between 1 and 2, with a "best" estimate of 1.5.

  9. Original geochemical types and epigenetic alteration of rocks in prospecting target stratum for uranium deposit in the southeast of Songliao basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Jinrong; Tian Hua; Dong Wenming; Xia Yuliang; Qi Daneng; Yao Shancong; Zheng Jiwei


    By comprehensive analysis on informations of regional geology and evaluating drillhole works of uranium resources in the southeast of Songliao basin, lithofacies-palaeogeography features, lithologies and sandbody characteristics of target layes in Quantou formation, Yaojia formation and Sifangtai formation have been basically found out. By research on geochemical environment of rocks in target layez, types of original geochemistry and epigenetic alteration have been identified and classified. The types of original geochemistry have been divided into types of original oxidation and original reduction, and the types of epigenetic alteration have been divided into types of reduction by oil-gas and coalbed gas and epigenetic oxidation. By comparative study on mineral and chemical characteristics of original geochemistry and epigenetic oxidation, identification marks for oil-gas and coalbed gas reduced epigenetic oxidation have been proposed. It is proposed that uranium was strongly pre-concentrated in original sandstone that bearing carboniferous matter, and reduction by oil-gas and coalbed gas made uranium superimpose and concentrate in alterated rocks. (authors)

  10. A reappraisal of the stratigraphy and chronology of Early Pliocene palaeontological sites from Lanzarote Island containing fossil terrestrial animals (United States)

    Lomoschitz, Alejandro; Sánchez Marco, Antonio; Huertas, María José; Betancort, Juan F.; Isern, Arnau; Sanz, Elena; Meco, Joaquín


    The Famara massif, in the north of Lanzarote Island, constitutes the remains of a former island inhabited by the oldest known vertebrate fauna of the Canary archipelago off the coast of Africa. In this study, new ages are offered for the underlying and overlying basaltic lava flows of two paleontological sites. The island's three major palaeontological sites, which contain remains of this ancient fauna (Valle Grande, Valle Chico and Fuente de Gusa), are intercorrelated according to their lithologies, sedimentology, palaeontological content and geochronology. The new K/Ar age interval for the fossiliferous sedimentary deposits ranges between 4.3 ± 0.7 and 3.78 ± 0.71 Ma, within the Early Pliocene, and shows that the first known terrestrial animals in Lanzarote were present on the island for about 500 ka. The principal component of the deposits is a bioclastic calcarenite of aeolian origin (sand sheet deposits), which is present in all three sites and constitutes 65% of the beds. The remaining 35% is of fluvial-aeolian origin (mainly stream deposits). All the beds contain the same fossils (insect egg pods, land snails, avian eggshells and tortoise eggshells). The local palaeogeography and the formation of the deposits were conditioned by a flat plain, larger than 16 km2, over which aeolian sands moved freely with a prevailing NNE-WSW wind direction. In agreement with previous investigations, the palaeoclimate in this interval (ca. 4.3 to 3.8 Ma) must have been mainly dry with some rainy episodes.

  11. Antarctic glaciation caused ocean circulation changes at the Eocene-Oligocene transition. (United States)

    Goldner, A; Herold, N; Huber, M


    Two main hypotheses compete to explain global cooling and the abrupt growth of the Antarctic ice sheet across the Eocene-Oligocene transition about 34 million years ago: thermal isolation of Antarctica due to southern ocean gateway opening, and declining atmospheric CO2 (refs 5, 6). Increases in ocean thermal stratification and circulation in proxies across the Eocene-Oligocene transition have been interpreted as a unique signature of gateway opening, but at present both mechanisms remain possible. Here, using a coupled ocean-atmosphere model, we show that the rise of Antarctic glaciation, rather than altered palaeogeography, is best able to explain the observed oceanographic changes. We find that growth of the Antarctic ice sheet caused enhanced northward transport of Antarctic intermediate water and invigorated the formation of Antarctic bottom water, fundamentally reorganizing ocean circulation. Conversely, gateway openings had much less impact on ocean thermal stratification and circulation. Our results support available evidence that CO2 drawdown--not gateway opening--caused Antarctic ice sheet growth, and further show that these feedbacks in turn altered ocean circulation. The precise timing and rate of glaciation, and thus its impacts on ocean circulation, reflect the balance between potentially positive feedbacks (increases in sea ice extent and enhanced primary productivity) and negative feedbacks (stronger southward heat transport and localized high-latitude warming). The Antarctic ice sheet had a complex, dynamic role in ocean circulation and heat fluxes during its initiation, and these processes are likely to operate in the future.

  12. Characterization of fluid inclusions and sulfur isotopes in the Iju porphyry copper deposit, North West of Shahr-e-Babak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malihe Golestani


    Full Text Available Introduction The Iju porphyry copper deposit is located in the southern part of the Urumieh-Dokhtar magmatic arc (Dehaj-Sarduieh belt within the Kerman copper belt (Dimitrijevic, 1973. The Porphyry Copper mineralization in the Iranian plate occurs dominantly along the Urumieh-Dokhtar arc, which has resulted from the subduction of the Arabian plate beneath the central Iran and the closure of the Neo-Tethys Ocean during the Alpine orogeny (Hassanzadeh, 1993. The Iju porphyry copper deposit with 25 million tons of ore reserves is one of the main copper deposits within the Kerman copper belt. The mining area is composed of upper Miocene volcanic and subvolcanic rocks (mineralized and barren subvolcanic rocks and quaternary deposits. Two hydrothermal alteration zones of quartz-sericite-pyrite and propylitic zones can be identified in the Iju area. The copper mineralization in the Iju deposit occurs as disseminated, stockwork and hydrothermal breccia. In the hypogene zone, the mineral paragenesis include chalcopyrite, pyrite, with minor occurrences of bornite and magnetite. This paper reports geological, mineralogical, fluid inclusion and S isotope data from the Iju deposit in order to investigate ore-bearing fluids’ characteristics and the mechanisms of ore deposition. Materials and methods Fifteen samples of syngenetic quartz+pyrite bearing veinlets within the quartz-sericite-pyrite zone were selected from different depths across the seven boreholes. Quartz was used for double-polished thin sections and pyrite was used for sulfur isotope analysis. Fluid inclusion studies were performed using the Linkam cooling and heating stage, the THMSG 600 model. The syngenetic pyrite with thermometry quartz sample was used for the sulfur isotope experiments. Stable isotope analysis was performed at the Hatch Stable Isotope Laboratory in the University of Ottawa, Canada. Results The fluid inclusions of the Iju deposit represent a wide range in the

  13. Isotope techniques in water resources development 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    Water resources are scarce in many parts of the world. Often, the only water resource is groundwater. Overuse usually invites a rapid decline in groundwater resources which are recharged insufficiently, or not at all, by prevailing climatic conditions. These and other problems currently encountered in hydrology and associated environmental fields have prompted an increasing demand for the utilization of isotope methods. Such methods have been recognized as being indispensable for solving problems such as the identification of pollution sources, characterization of palaeowater resources, evaluation of recharge and evaporative discharge under arid and semi-arid conditions, reconstruction of past climates, study of the interrelationships between surface and groundwater, dating of groundwater and validation of contaminant transport models. Moreover, in combination with other hydrogeological and geochemical methods, isotope techniques can provide useful hydrological information, such as data on the origin, replenishment and dynamics of groundwater. It was against this background that the International Atomic Energy Agency, in co-operation with the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization and the International Association of Hydrological Sciences, organized this symposium on the Use of Isotope Techniques in Water Resources Development, which took place in Vienna from 11 to 15 March 1991. The main themes of the symposium were the use of isotope techniques in solving practical problems of water resources assessment and development, particularly with respect to groundwater protection, and in studying environmental problems related to water, including palaeohydrological and palaeoclimatological problems. A substantial part of the oral presentations was concerned with the present state and trends in groundwater dating, and with some methodological aspects. These proceedings contain the papers of 37 oral and the extended synopses of 47 poster

  14. Gratkorn: A benchmark locality for the continental Sarmatian s.str. of the Central Paratethys (United States)

    Gross, M.; Böhme, M.; Prieto, J.


    This paper presents one of the richest and most complete vertebrate faunas of the late Middle Miocene (~12 Ma) of Central Europe. Up to now, sixty-two vertebrate taxa, comprising all major groups (fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, mammals), have been recorded. Based on sedimentological and palaeobiological evidences, this Fossillagerstätte is assumed to originate from a floodplain paleosol formed on top of a braided river sequence. The fauna points to a highly structured, somewhat vegetated landscape with a wide array of habitats (e.g., fluvial channels, sporadically moist floodplains, short-lived ponds, savannah-like open areas and screes). It was preserved due to a rapid drowning and the switch to a freshwater lake environment. Palaeoclimatological data, derived from pedogenic features as well as from biota, indicate an overall semi-arid, subtropical climate with distinct seasonality (mean annual precipitation 486 ± 252 mm, mean annual temperature ~15°C). This underlines the late Middle/early Late Miocene dry-spell in Central Europe. From taphonomical point of view, the irregularly distributed but roughly associated larger vertebrate remains refer to an in situ accumulation of the bone bed. Splintered bones, gnawing marks as well as rhizoconcretions and root corrosion structures record some pre- and post-burial modification of the taphocoenose. However, the findings of pellet remains argue for a very fast burial and thus to a low degree of time-averaging. For this reason, the fossil fauna reflects the original vertebrate community rather well and is a cornerstone for the understanding of late Middle Miocene terrestrial ecosystems in this region. Certainly, Gratkorn will be one of the key faunas for a high-resolution continental biostratigraphy and the comprehension of Europe's faunal interchanges near the Middle/Late Miocene transition.

  15. Low-frequency and high-frequency changes in temperature and effective humidity during the Holocene in south-central Sweden: implications for atmospheric and oceanic forcings of climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seppae, H. [University of Helsinki, Department of Geology, 64, Helsinki (Finland); Hammarlund, D. [Lund University, GeoBiosphere Science Centre, Quaternary Sciences, Lund (Sweden); Antonsson, K. [Uppsala University, Department of Earth Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden)


    An integrated use of independent palaeoclimatological proxy techniques that reflect different components of the climate system provides a potential key for functional analysis of past climate changes. Here we report a 10,000 year quantitative record of annual mean temperature (T{sub ann}), based on pollen-climate transfer functions and pollen-stratigraphical data from Lake Flarken, south-central Sweden. The pollen-based temperature reconstruction is compared with a reconstruction of effective humidity, as reflected by a {delta}{sup 18}O record obtained on stratigraphy of lacustrine carbonates from Lake Igelsjoen, c. 10 km from Lake Flarken, which gives evidence of pronounced changes in effective humidity. The relatively low T{sub ann}, and high effective humidity as reflected by a low evaporation/inflow ratio suggest a maritime early Holocene climate (10,000-8,300 cal year BP), seemingly incompatible with the highly seasonal solar insolation configuration. We argue that the maritime climate was due to the stronger-than-present zonal flow, enhanced by the high early Holocene sea-surface temperatures in the North Atlantic. The maritime climate mode was disrupted by the abrupt cold event at 8,200 cal year BP, followed at 8,000 cal year BP by a stable Holocene Thermal Maximum. The latter was characterized by T{sub ann} values about 2.5 C higher than at present and markedly dry conditions, indicative of stable summer-time anti-cyclonic circulation, possibly corresponding with modern blocking anticyclonic conditions. The last 4,300 year period is characterized by an increasingly cold, moist, and unstable climate. The results demonstrate the value of combining two independent palaeoclimatic proxies in enhancing the reliability, generality, and interpretability of the palaeoclimatic results. Further methodological refinements especially in resolving past seasonal climatic contrasts are needed to better understand the role of different forcing factors in driving millennial

  16. March-June temperature reconstruction in the Czech Lands based on cereal harvest dates in the 1501-2008 period (United States)

    Brázdil, Rudolf; Možný, Martin; Dobrovolný, Petr; Trnka, Mirek


    Cereal crop harvests reflect the weather patterns of the period immediately preceding them, and thus the dates at which they begin may be used as a source of proxy data on regional climate. Using systematic phenological observations in the Czech Lands (now known as the Czech Republic) after 1848, together with exploration of further surviving documentary evidence (chronicles, diaries, financial accounts etc.), it has proved possible to create series of winter wheat harvest dates for the period 1501-2008. Employing linear regression, the harvesting dates of the main cereal species (wheat, rye, barley, oats) were first converted to winter wheat harvest days and then normalised to the same altitude above sea level. The next step consisted of using series of winter wheat harvest dates to reconstruct mean March-June temperatures in the Czech Lands, applying standard palaeoclimatological methods. Series reconstructed by linear regression explain 70% of temperature variability. A profound cold period corresponding with late winter wheat harvests was noted between 1659 and 1705. In contrast, warm periods (i.e. early winter wheat harvests) were found for the periods of 1517-1542, 1788-1834 and 1946-2008. The period after 1951 is the warmest of all throughout the entire 1501-2008 period. Comparisons with other European temperature reconstructions derived from documentary sources (including grape harvest dates), tree-ring and instrumental data reveal generally close agreement, with significant correlations. Lower correlations around A.D. 1650 and 1750 may be partly related to deterioration of socio-economic conditions in the Czech Lands resulting from prolonged wars. The results obtained demonstrate that it is possible to use widely-available cereal harvest data for climate analysis and also that such data constitute an independent proxy data series for the region of Central Europe crucial to further studies of the potential impact of climatic variability and climate change

  17. Aligning and synchronization of MIS5 proxy records from Lake Ohrid (FYROM) with independently dated Mediterranean archives: implications for DEEP core chronology (United States)

    Zanchetta, Giovanni; Regattieri, Eleonora; Giaccio, Biagio; Wagner, Bernd; Sulpizio, Roberto; Francke, Alex; Vogel, Hendrik; Sadori, Laura; Masi, Alessia; Sinopoli, Gaia; Lacey, Jack H.; Leng, Melanie J.; Leicher, Niklas


    The DEEP site sediment sequence obtained during the ICDP SCOPSCO project at Lake Ohrid was dated using tephrostratigraphic information, cyclostratigraphy, and orbital tuning through the marine isotope stages (MIS) 15-1. Although this approach is suitable for the generation of a general chronological framework of the long succession, it is insufficient to resolve more detailed palaeoclimatological questions, such as leads and lags of climate events between marine and terrestrial records or between different regions. Here, we demonstrate how the use of different tie points can affect cyclostratigraphy and orbital tuning for the period between ca. 140 and 70 ka and how the results can be correlated with directly/indirectly radiometrically dated Mediterranean marine and continental proxy records. The alternative age model presented here shows consistent differences with that initially proposed by Francke et al. (2015) for the same interval, in particular at the level of the MIS6-5e transition. According to this new age model, different proxies from the DEEP site sediment record support an increase of temperatures between glacial to interglacial conditions, which is almost synchronous with a rapid increase in sea surface temperature observed in the western Mediterranean. The results show how a detailed study of independent chronological tie points is important to align different records and to highlight asynchronisms of climate events. Moreover, Francke et al. (2016) have incorporated the new chronology proposed for tephra OH-DP-0499 in the final DEEP age model. This has reduced substantially the chronological discrepancies between the DEEP site age model and the model proposed here for the last glacial-interglacial transition.

  18. Using Oxygen and Carbon Isotopic Signatures in Order to Infer Climatic and Dietary Information in Roman Edessa, Greece (United States)

    Michael, Dimitra-Ermioni; Dotsika, Elissavet


    as palaeoclimatological and palaeodietary tools respectively.

  19. Report of International Workshop on tracing isotopic composition of past and present precipitation - opportunities for climate and water studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The Workshop on Tracing Isotopic Composition of Past and Present Precipitation - Opportunities for Climate and Water Studies, was jointly organized by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Past Global Changes (PAGES) - a core project of the International Geosphere - Biosphere Programme (IGBP), and the International Association of Hydrological Sciences (IAHS). The Global Network ``Isotopes in Precipitation`` (GNIP) was initiated by IAEA in 1958 and became operational in 1961. The main objective was to collect systematic data on isotopic content of precipitation on a global scale and to establish temporal and spatial variations of environmental isotopes in precipitation. The network is now expected to serve additional purposes, namely as a benchmark for the interpretation of paleo-records, as a validation tool for Global Circulation Models, and for establishing large-scale regional (and continental-scale) waster balances. Furthermore, the structure of GNIP should be strengthened. This includes the build-up of: stations located close to major natural climatic archives (e.g. Greenland, mountain areas); stations which represent climatically sensitive areas (indicated by GCM`s and biome models). Isotope monitoring of river outflow from major continental basins should be initiated. This could be realized in co-operation with the UNEP/WHO Global Environmental Monitoring System-Water (GEMS-Water). The deuterium excess parameter ({delta}) is of particular importance in climate modelling and in the understanding of hydro-meteorological pathways. The use of the deuterium excess imposes strict requirements on the accuracy of deuterium and oxygen-18 analysis. A GNIP-based worldwide documentation of quality control regarding sampling, shipping and measurements is needed. The IAEA/WMO database and other isotope data sets should be included in the World Data Center A for palaeo-climatology. Refs, figs, tabs.

  20. Evaluating multiplexed next-generation sequencing as a method in palynology for mixed pollen samples. (United States)

    Keller, A; Danner, N; Grimmer, G; Ankenbrand, M; von der Ohe, K; von der Ohe, W; Rost, S; Härtel, S; Steffan-Dewenter, I


    The identification of pollen plays an important role in ecology, palaeo-climatology, honey quality control and other areas. Currently, expert knowledge and reference collections are essential to identify pollen origin through light microscopy. Pollen identification through molecular sequencing and DNA barcoding has been proposed as an alternative approach, but the assessment of mixed pollen samples originating from multiple plant species is still a tedious and error-prone task. Next-generation sequencing has been proposed to avoid this hindrance. In this study we assessed mixed pollen probes through next-generation sequencing of amplicons from the highly variable, species-specific internal transcribed spacer 2 region of nuclear ribosomal DNA. Further, we developed a bioinformatic workflow to analyse these high-throughput data with a newly created reference database. To evaluate the feasibility, we compared results from classical identification based on light microscopy from the same samples with our sequencing results. We assessed in total 16 mixed pollen samples, 14 originated from honeybee colonies and two from solitary bee nests. The sequencing technique resulted in higher taxon richness (deeper assignments and more identified taxa) compared to light microscopy. Abundance estimations from sequencing data were significantly correlated with counted abundances through light microscopy. Simulation analyses of taxon specificity and sensitivity indicate that 96% of taxa present in the database are correctly identifiable at the genus level and 70% at the species level. Next-generation sequencing thus presents a useful and efficient workflow to identify pollen at the genus and species level without requiring specialised palynological expert knowledge. © 2014 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  1. Late Pliocene and Quaternary Eurasian locust infestations in the Canary Archipelago (United States)

    Meco, J.; Muhs, D.R.; Fontugne, M.; Ramos, A.J.; Lomoschitz, A.; Patterson, D.


    The Canary Archipelago has long been a sensitive location to record climate changes of the past. Interbedded with its basalt lavas are marine deposits from the principal Pleistocene interglacials, as well as aeolian sands with intercalated palaeosols. The palaeosols contain African dust and innumerable relict egg pods of a temperate-region locust (cf. Dociostaurus maroccanusThunberg 1815). New ecological and stratigraphical information reveals the geological history of locust plagues (or infestations) and their palaeoclimatic significance. Here, we show that the first arrival of the plagues to the Canary Islands from Africa took place near the end of the Pliocene, ca. 3Ma, and reappeared with immense strength during the middle Late Pleistocene preceding MIS (marine isotope stage) 11 (ca. 420ka), MIS 5.5 (ca. 125ka) and probably during other warm interglacials of the late Middle Pleistocene and the Late Pleistocene. During the Early Holocene, locust plagues may have coincided with a brief cool period in the current interglacial. Climatically, locust plagues on the Canaries are a link in the chain of full-glacial arid-cold climate (calcareous dunes), early interglacial arid-sub-humid climate (African dust inputs and locust plagues), peak interglacial warm-humid climate (marine deposits with Senegalese fauna), transitional arid-temperate climate (pedogenic calcretes), and again full-glacial arid-cold climate (calcareous dunes) oscillations. During the principal interglacials of the Pleistocene, the Canary Islands recorded the migrations of warm Senegalese marine faunas to the north, crossing latitudes in the Euro-African Atlantic. However, this northward marine faunal migration was preceded in the terrestrial realm by interglacial infestations of locusts. ??? Locust plagues, Canary Islands, Late Pliocene, Pleistocene, Holocene, palaeoclimatology. ?? 2010 The Authors, Lethaia ?? 2010 The Lethaia Foundation.

  2. Last nine-thousand years of temperature variability in Northern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Seppä


    Full Text Available The threat of future global warming has generated a major interest in quantifying past climate variability on centennial and millennial time-scales. However, palaeoclimatological records are often noisy and arguments about past variability are only possible if they are based on reproducible features in several reliably dated datasets. Here we focus on the last 9000 years, explore the results of 36 Holocene pollen-based July mean and annual mean temperature reconstructions from Northern Europe by stacking them to create summary curves, and compare them with a high-resolution, summary chironomid-based temperature record and other independent palaeoclimate records. The stacked records show that the "Holocene Thermal Maximum" in the region dates to 8000 to 4800 cal yr BP and that the "8.2 event" and the "Little Ice Age" at 500–100 cal yr BP are the clearest cold episodes during the Holocene. In addition, a more detailed analysis of the last 5000 years pinpoints centennial-scale climate variability with cold anomalies at 3800–3000 and 500–100 cal yr BP, a long, warmer period around 2000 cal yr BP, and a marked warming since the mid 19th century. The colder (warmer anomalies are associated with increased (decreased humidity over the northern European mainland, consistent with the modern high correlation between cold (warm and humid (dry modes of summer weather in the region. A comparison with the key proxy records reflecting the main forcing factors does not support the hypothesis that solar variability is the cause of the late-Holocene centennial-scale temperature changes. We suggest that the reconstructed anomalies are typical of Northern Europe and their occurrence may be related to the oceanic and atmospheric circulation variability in the North Atlantic – North-European region.

  3. Modelling tree ring cellulose δ18O variations in two temperature-sensitive tree species from North and South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Lavergne


    Full Text Available Oxygen isotopes in tree rings (δ18OTR are widely used to reconstruct past climates. However, the complexity of climatic and biological processes controlling isotopic fractionation is not yet fully understood. Here, we use the MAIDENiso model to decipher the variability in δ18OTR of two temperature-sensitive species of relevant palaeoclimatological interest (Picea mariana and Nothofagus pumilio and growing at cold high latitudes in North and South America. In this first modelling study on δ18OTR values in both northeastern Canada (53.86° N and western Argentina (41.10° S, we specifically aim at (1 evaluating the predictive skill of MAIDENiso to simulate δ18OTR values, (2 identifying the physical processes controlling δ18OTR by mechanistic modelling and (3 defining the origin of the temperature signal recorded in the two species. Although the linear regression models used here to predict daily δ18O of precipitation (δ18OP may need to be improved in the future, the resulting daily δ18OP values adequately reproduce observed (from weather stations and simulated (by global circulation model δ18OP series. The δ18OTR values of the two species are correctly simulated using the δ18OP estimation as MAIDENiso input, although some offset in mean δ18OTR levels is observed for the South American site. For both species, the variability in δ18OTR series is primarily linked to the effect of temperature on isotopic enrichment of the leaf water. We show that MAIDENiso is a powerful tool for investigating isotopic fractionation processes but that the lack of a denser isotope-enabled monitoring network recording oxygen fractionation in the soil–vegetation–atmosphere compartments limits our capacity to decipher the processes at play. This study proves that the eco-physiological modelling of δ18OTR values is necessary to interpret the recorded climate signal more reliably.

  4. Are there pre-Quaternary geological analogues for a future greenhouse warming? (United States)

    Haywood, A.M.; Ridgwell, A.; Lunt, D.J.; Hill, D.J.; Pound, M.J.; Dowsett, H.J.; Dolan, A.M.; Francis, J.E.; Williams, M.


    Given the inherent uncertainties in predicting how climate and environments will respond to anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases, it would be beneficial to society if science could identify geological analogues to the human race's current grand climate experiment. This has been a focus of the geological and palaeoclimate communities over the last 30 years, with many scientific papers claiming that intervals in Earth history can be used as an analogue for future climate change. Using a coupled ocean-atmosphere modelling approach, we test this assertion for the most probable pre-Quaternary candidates of the last 100 million years: the Mid- and Late Cretaceous, the Palaeocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM), the Early Eocene, as well as warm intervals within the Miocene and Pliocene epochs. These intervals fail as true direct analogues since they either represent equilibrium climate states to a long-term CO2 forcing-whereas anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases provide a progressive (transient) forcing on climate-or the sensitivity of the climate system itself to CO2 was different. While no close geological analogue exists, past warm intervals in Earth history provide a unique opportunity to investigate processes that operated during warm (high CO2) climate states. Palaeoclimate and environmental reconstruction/modelling are facilitating the assessment and calculation of the response of global temperatures to increasing CO2 concentrations in the longer term (multiple centuries); this is now referred to as the Earth System Sensitivity, which is critical in identifying CO2 thresholds in the atmosphere that must not be crossed to avoid dangerous levels of climate change in the long term. Palaeoclimatology also provides a unique and independent way to evaluate the qualities of climate and Earth system models used to predict future climate. ?? 2011 The Royal Society.

  5. A general theory on frequency and time-frequency analysis of irregularly sampled time series based on projection methods - Part 2: Extension to time-frequency analysis (United States)

    Lenoir, Guillaume; Crucifix, Michel


    Geophysical time series are sometimes sampled irregularly along the time axis. The situation is particularly frequent in palaeoclimatology. Yet, there is so far no general framework for handling the continuous wavelet transform when the time sampling is irregular. Here we provide such a framework. To this end, we define the scalogram as the continuous-wavelet-transform equivalent of the extended Lomb-Scargle periodogram defined in Part 1 of this study (Lenoir and Crucifix, 2018). The signal being analysed is modelled as the sum of a locally periodic component in the time-frequency plane, a polynomial trend, and a background noise. The mother wavelet adopted here is the Morlet wavelet classically used in geophysical applications. The background noise model is a stationary Gaussian continuous autoregressive-moving-average (CARMA) process, which is more general than the traditional Gaussian white and red noise processes. The scalogram is smoothed by averaging over neighbouring times in order to reduce its variance. The Shannon-Nyquist exclusion zone is however defined as the area corrupted by local aliasing issues. The local amplitude in the time-frequency plane is then estimated with least-squares methods. We also derive an approximate formula linking the squared amplitude and the scalogram. Based on this property, we define a new analysis tool: the weighted smoothed scalogram, which we recommend for most analyses. The estimated signal amplitude also gives access to band and ridge filtering. Finally, we design a test of significance for the weighted smoothed scalogram against the stationary Gaussian CARMA background noise, and provide algorithms for computing confidence levels, either analytically or with Monte Carlo Markov chain methods. All the analysis tools presented in this article are available to the reader in the Python package WAVEPAL.

  6. The silence of the layers: Archaeological site visibility in the Pleistocene-Holocene transition at the Ebro Basin (United States)

    Alday, Alfonso; Domingo, Rafael; Sebastián, María; Soto, Adriana; Aranbarri, Josu; González-Sampériz, Penélope; Sampietro-Vattuone, María Marta; Utrilla, Pilar; Montes, Lourdes; Peña-Monné, José Luis


    The Ebro Basin constitutes one of the most representative territories in SW Europe for the study of prehistoric societies during the Pleistocene-Holocene transition. The correlation of palaeoenvironmental and geomorphological proxies obtained from sedimentary records with chronologically well-constrained reference archaeological sites has allowed defining this time frame precisely, such that three main pilot areas haven been broadly depicted: the Alavese region, the Pre-Pyrenees and the Bajo Aragón. Overall, the human imprint in the Ebro Basin was rare during the Upper Palaeolithic, but more visible from the Upper Magdalenian (14500-13500 cal BP) to Neolithic times (up to 5500 cal BP). Local environmental resources were continuously managed by the prehistoric communities in the different areas of study. In fact, the Ebro Basin acted during those millennia as a whole, developing the same cultural trends, industrial techniques and settlement patterns in parallel throughout the territory. However, some gaps exist in the 14C frequency curve (SCDPD curve). This is partially related to prehistoric sites in particular lithologies and geological structures that could have partly been lost by erosional processes, especially during the Early Holocene. In addition, this gap also parallels the reconstructed climate trend for the Pre-Pyrenean and the Bajo Aragón areas, which are defined by high frequencies of xerophilous flora until ca. 9500 cal BP, suggesting that continental climate features could have hampered the presence of well-established human communities in inland regions. The interdisciplinary research (archaeology, geomorphology and palaeoclimatology) discussed in this paper offers clues to understand the existence of fills and gaps in the archaeological record of the Ebro Basin, and can be applied in other territories with similar geographic and climate patterns.

  7. Report of International Workshop on tracing isotopic composition of past and present precipitation - opportunities for climate and water studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The Workshop on Tracing Isotopic Composition of Past and Present Precipitation - Opportunities for Climate and Water Studies, was jointly organized by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Past Global Changes (PAGES) - a core project of the International Geosphere - Biosphere Programme (IGBP), and the International Association of Hydrological Sciences (IAHS). The Global Network ''Isotopes in Precipitation'' (GNIP) was initiated by IAEA in 1958 and became operational in 1961. The main objective was to collect systematic data on isotopic content of precipitation on a global scale and to establish temporal and spatial variations of environmental isotopes in precipitation. The network is now expected to serve additional purposes, namely as a benchmark for the interpretation of paleo-records, as a validation tool for Global Circulation Models, and for establishing large-scale regional (and continental-scale) waster balances. Furthermore, the structure of GNIP should be strengthened. This includes the build-up of: stations located close to major natural climatic archives (e.g. Greenland, mountain areas); stations which represent climatically sensitive areas (indicated by GCM's and biome models). Isotope monitoring of river outflow from major continental basins should be initiated. This could be realized in co-operation with the UNEP/WHO Global Environmental Monitoring System-Water (GEMS-Water). The deuterium excess parameter (δ) is of particular importance in climate modelling and in the understanding of hydro-meteorological pathways. The use of the deuterium excess imposes strict requirements on the accuracy of deuterium and oxygen-18 analysis. A GNIP-based worldwide documentation of quality control regarding sampling, shipping and measurements is needed. The IAEA/WMO database and other isotope data sets should be included in the World Data Center A for palaeo-climatology. Refs, figs, tabs

  8. Sedimentary architecture and chronostratigraphy of a late Quaternary incised-valley fill: A case study of the late Middle and Late Pleistocene Rhine system in the Netherlands (United States)

    Peeters, J.; Busschers, F. S.; Stouthamer, E.; Bosch, J. H. A.; Van den Berg, M. W.; Wallinga, J.; Versendaal, A. J.; Bunnik, F. P. M.; Middelkoop, H.


    This paper describes the sedimentary architecture, chronostratigraphy and palaeogeography of the late Middle and Late Pleistocene (Marine Isotope Stage/MIS 6-2) incised Rhine-valley fill in the central Netherlands based on six geological transects, luminescence dating, biostratigraphical data and a 3D geological model. The incised-valley fill consists of a ca. 50 m thick and 10-20 km wide sand-dominated succession and includes a well-developed sequence dating from the Last Interglacial: known as the Eemian in northwest Europe. The lower part of the valley fill contains coarse-grained fluvio-glacial and fluvial Rhine sediments that were deposited under Late Saalian (MIS 6) cold-climatic periglacial conditions and during the transition into the warm Eemian interglacial (MIS 5e-d). This unit is overlain by fine-grained fresh-water flood-basin deposits, which are transgressed by a fine-grained estuarine unit that formed during marine high-stand. This ca. 10 m thick sequence reflects gradual drowning of the Eemian interglacial fluvial Rhine system and transformation into an estuary due to relative sea-level rise. The chronological data suggests a delay in timing of regional Eemian interglacial transgression and sea-level high-stand of several thousand years, when compared to eustatic sea-level. As a result of this glacio-isostatic controlled delay, formation of the interglacial lower deltaic system took only place for a relative short period of time: progradation was therefore limited. During the cooler Weichselian Early Glacial period (MIS 5d-a) deposition of deltaic sediments continued and extensive westward progradation of the Rhine system occurred. Major parts of the Eemian and Weichselian Early Glacial deposits were eroded and buried as a result of sea-level lowering and climate cooling during the early Middle Weichselian (MIS 4-3). Near complete sedimentary preservation occurred along the margins of the incised valley allowing the detailed reconstruction presented

  9. The legacy of a vanished sea: a high level of diversification within a European freshwater amphipod species complex driven by 15 My of Paratethys regression. (United States)

    Mamos, Tomasz; Wattier, Remi; Burzyński, Artur; Grabowski, Michał


    The formation of continental Europe in the Neogene was due to the regression of the Tethys Ocean and of the Paratethys Sea. The dynamic geology of the area and repetitious transitions between marine and freshwater conditions presented opportunities for the colonization of newly emerging hydrological networks and diversification of aquatic biota. Implementing mitochondrial and nuclear markers in conjunction with a large-scale sampling strategy, we investigated the impact of this spatiotemporal framework on the evolutionary history of a freshwater crustacean morphospecies. The Gammarus balcanicus species complex is widely distributed in the area previously occupied by the Paratethys Sea. Our results revealed its high diversification and polyphyly in relation to a number of other morphospecies. The distribution of the studied amphipod is generally characterized by very high local endemism and divergence. The Bayesian time-calibrated reconstruction of phylogeny and geographical distribution of ancestral nodes indicates that this species complex started to diversify in the Early Miocene in the central Balkans, partially in the shallow epicontinental sea. It is possible that there were several episodes of inland water colonization by local brackish water lineages. Subsequent diversification within clades and spread to new areas could have been induced by Alpine orogeny in the Miocene/Pliocene and, finally, by Pleistocene glaciations. The present distribution of clades, in many cases, still reflects Miocene palaeogeography of the area. Our results point out that investigations of the historical aspect of cryptic diversity in other taxa may help in a general understanding of the origins of freshwater invertebrate fauna of Europe. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Drowning unconformity of lacustrine rift basins: A case study from the Dongying Sag in Bohai Bay Basin, China (United States)

    Chen, R.; Fan, J.


    The concept of drowning unconformity of lacustrine rift basins was proposed in this paper. This paper utilized 3D seismic data, well-log and the principles methods associated with structural geology, sedimentology and geochemistry, to analyze the drowning unconformity and discuss the origins of drowning unconformity in Dongying Sag in Bohai Bay Basin.Researching on it is not only important for a better understanding of tectonic evolution, palaeogeography and sedimentation of hydrocarbon source rocks, but also a vital guiding significance for the exploration of beach-bar sandstone reservoirs and shale oil.1. The concept of drowning unconformity of lacustrine rift basins is defined. With the consequences of rapid tectonic subsidence in basin, the sharp rise of lake-level and the increased rate of accommodation(A) in basin exceeded the rate of sediment supply(S),namely A>>S, the basin suddenly transformed into deep-water settings from shallow-water settings with sudden change of sediment transport and sediment dispersal patterns. 2.The sequence surface between Sha4 and Sha3 Member of Shahejie Formation is the drowning unconformity(43.5Ma). There are the sedimentary association of the reefs in shallow lacustrine, beach-bar sandstones and glutenite fan bodies under the surface. By contrast, there are the sedimentary association of deep-lake oil shales and shales over the surface. The drowning unconformity in Dongying Sag is a tectonic revolution surface which is changed from extensional tectonics to transtensional tectonics and it is also the surface of discontinuity from shallow lacustrine to deep lacustrine. The responses to sudden changes appeared in the parameters of geophysics, geochemistry and paleontology. 3. With the penetration of India into Asia plate in NNE trending,the subduction zones of Pacific Plate retreated. It caused the rapid downwelling of asthenospheric mantle, followed by the extensive drowning unconformity.

  11. Geochemistry of the triassic-Jurassic alpine continental deposits: origin and geodynamic implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poinssot, Ch.; Goffe, B.; Toulhoat, P.


    Mid-Triassic to mid-Jurassic Alpine continental deposits are known all along the former Brianconnais peninsula. They constitutes small karstic pockets on the thick Triassic calcareous series and their chemistry evolves between bauxites s.s. and aluminous argilites. Most of them were deeply buried during the Alpine orogenesis as recorded by HP-LT metamorphism. Only the deposits of the Pre-Alps were submitted to lower PT conditions (diagenesis-anchizone boundary) during their incorporation in the thrust wedge of the 'Prealpes Medianes'. These formations are known for containing traces of light elements (Li, F) and heavy elements (Zn, REE...). In order to understand the possible origin of these elements, we studied the geochemistry (major and trace elements) of two representative deposits, one in Vanoise which underwent a HP-LT metamorphism, the other one in the Pre-Alps, which was only submitted to diagenesis. Trace elements patterns allow us to preclude an autochthonous origin for these formations as well as the intervention of metasomatism, and demonstrate a granitic origin. Moreover, discrimination diagrams for granites indicate an obvious alkaline granitic origin for these deposits. In the framework of the Alpine palaeogeography, we then discuss the possible granitic sources. Two main sources can be invoked: either a Brianconnais s.s. formation (crystalline or sediments), which supposes a more intense erosion as classically admitted, or more distant sources such as the Corso-Sardinian alkaline acid-rocks, which supposes a complex palaeo-hydrography. This confirms the sedimentary origin of the light elements in these rocks and precludes the intervention of light elements-rich hydrothermal fluids migrating through Alpine metamorphic units. (author)

  12. Phanerozoic environments of black shale deposition and the Wilson Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Trabucho-Alexandre


    Full Text Available The spatial and temporal distribution of black shales is related to the development of environments in which they accumulate and to a propitious combination of environmental variables. In recent years, much has been done to improve our understanding of the mechanisms behind the temporal distribution of black shales in the Phanerozoic and of the environmental variables that result in their deposition. However, the interpretation of ancient black shale depositional environments is dominated by an oversimplistic set of three depositional models that do not capture their complexity and dynamics. These three models, the restricted circulation, the (open ocean oxygen minimum and the continental shelf models, are an oversimplification of the variety of black shale depositional environments that arise and coexist throughout the course of a basin's Wilson Cycle, i.e. the dynamic sequence of events and stages that characterise the evolution of an ocean basin, from the opening continental rift to the closing orogeny. We examine the spatial distribution of black shales in the context of the Wilson Cycle using examples from the Phanerozoic. It is shown that the geographical distribution of environments of black shale deposition and the position of black shales in the basin infill sequence strongly depend on basin evolution, which controls the development of sedimentary environments where black shales may be deposited. The nature of the black shales that are deposited, i.e. lithology and type of organic matter, also depends on basin evolution and palaeogeography. We propose that in studies of black shales more attention should be given to the sedimentary processes that have led to their formation and to the interpretation of their sedimentary environments.

  13. Tilting of Lake Pielinen, eastern Finland – an example of extreme transgressions and regressions caused by differential post-glacial isostatic uplift

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    Heikki Seppä


    Full Text Available Tilting of large lakes due to differential isostatic uplift in the glaciated regions of the Northern Hemisphere is a well-documented process. With the help of accurate digital elevation models and spatial GIS analysis techniques, the resulting hydro­logical changes, including shifts in the outlets and changes in the size and configuration of lakes, can now be mapped and calculated more precisely than before. As a case study to highlight the magnitude of such changes in Fennoscandia, we investigated and reinterpreted the Holocene palaeogeography and palaeohydrology of Lake Pielinen in eastern Finland. This lake is currently 99 km long and located parallel to the direction of land uplift, being thus particularly sensitive to the impacts of tilting. Our results show that the lake was formed at the end of the regional deglaciation, following drainage of a local ice-dammed lake. In its initial stage until 10 200 cal yr BP, the outlet of the newly-formed lake was located in its northwestern end, but the tilting led to a major water level transgression in the basin, eventually causing formation of a new outlet over the southeastern threshold. The lake area was 143 km long and its area was 1998 km2 at the time of formation of the southeastern outlet at 10 200 cal yr BP. The lake level has been regressive throughout the basin during the last 10 200 years. This regression will continue for approximately another 10 000 years until all the glacial isostatic adjustment has occurred, after which Lake Pielinen will be only 89 km long and 565 km2 in area.

  14. A new age model for the early-middle Miocene in the North Alpine Foreland Basin (United States)

    Reichenbacher, Bettina; Krijgsman, Wout; Pippèrr, Martina; Sant, Karin; Kirscher, Uwe


    The establishment of high-resolution age models for sedimentary successions is crucial for numerous research questions in the geosciences and related disciplines. Such models provide an absolute chronology that permits precise dating of depositional episodes and related processes such as mountain uplift or climate change. Recently, our work in the Miocene sediments of the North Alpine Foreland Basin (NAFB) has revealed a significantly younger age (16.6 Myr) for sediments that were thought to have been deposited 18 Myr ago. This implies that a fundamentally revised new age model is needed for the entire suite of lower-middle Miocene sedimentary rocks in the NAFB (20 to 15-Myr). Our new data also indicate that previously published reconstructions of early-middle Miocene palaeogeography, sedimentation dynamics, mountain uplift and climate change in the NAFB all require a critical review and revision. Further, the time-span addressed is of special interest, since it encompasses the onset of a global warming phase. However, it appears that a fundamentally revised new age model for the entire suite of lower-middle Miocene sedimentary rocks in the NAFB can only be achieved based on a 500 m deep drilling in the NAFB for which we currently seek collaboration partners to develop a grant application to the International Continental Deep Drilling Program (ICDP). Reference: Reichenbacher, B., W. Krijgsman, Y. Lataster, M. Pippèrr, C. G. C. Van Baak, L. Chang, D. Kälin, J. Jost, G. Doppler, D. Jung, J. Prieto, H. Abdul Aziz, M. Böhme, J. Garnish, U. Kirscher, and V. Bachtadse. 2013. A new magnetostratigraphic framework for the Lower Miocene (Burdigalian/Ottnangian, Karpatian) in the North Alpine Foreland Basin. Swiss Journal of Geosciences 106:309-334.

  15. Permian of Southeast Asia: an overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fontaine, H.


    Permian rocks are widely distributed throughout Southeast Asia. Because of the tropical-equatorial climate the rocks are commonly deeply weathered and covered by dense vegetation over much of the region. Elsewhere, Permian rocks are well exposed and easy to access, particularly where limestone outcrops have weathered to form spectacular, castellated, tower karst. Many limestone outcrops, containing abundant fusulinaceans, were recognized early on to be of Permian age, but many outcrops without fusulinaceans, erroneously assigned to the Permian, were found subsequently to be of Triassic age, and more careful studies have established the Permian age of rocks of other lithologies. Different depositional environments are represented by the Permian deposits in various parts of the region. Massive limestones, throughout the region represent extensive carbonate platforms; local occurrences of thick bedded cherts indicate deposition in deep marine environments, coal, bauxite and clastic sediments with vertebrate remains in North Vietnam and Laos indicate deposition in a continental environment, and pebbly mudstones in Myanmar, Peninsular Thailand, northwest Malaysia and Sumatra, are considered to have been formed in a glacial environment. Volcanic rocks are not found in northwest Peninsular Malaysia and Peninsular Thailand, but are extensively developed in North Vietnam, Sumatra, the eastern Malay Peninsula and Timor. Fossils are often prolific in Permian sediments, with fusulinaceans, for example, occurring in large numbers in many limestone outcrops. Age-diagnostic fossils demonstrate that the whole of the Permian is represented in different areas of Southeast Asia. Fossil faunal and floral assemblages have been used to establish climatic conditions and environments of deposition, to define distinct crustal blocks and to provide the basis for reconstructing the palaeogeography during Permian times.

  16. Permian of Southeast Asia: an overview (United States)

    Fontaine, Henri


    Permian rocks are widely distributed throughout Southeast Asia. Because of the tropical-equatorial climate the rocks are commonly deeply weathered and covered by dense vegetation over much of the region. Elsewhere, Permian rocks are well exposed and easy to access, particularly where limestone outcrops have weathered to form spectacular, castellated, tower karst. Many limestone outcrops, containing abundant fusulinaceans, were early recognized to be of Permian age, but many outcrops without fusulinaceans, erroneously assigned to the Permian, were found subsequently to be of Triassic age, and more careful studies have established the Permian age of rocks of other lithologies. It is now recognized that different depositional environments are represented by the Permian deposits in various parts of the region. Massive limestones, widespread throughout the region, represent extensive carbonate platforms; local occurrences of thick bedded cherts indicate deposition in deep marine environments, coal, bauxite and clastic sediments with vertebrate remains in North Vietnam and Laos indicate deposition in a continental environment, and pebbly mudstones in Myanmar, Peninsular Thailand, northwest Malaysia and Sumatra, are considered to have been formed in a glacial environment. Volcanic rocks are absent in northwest Peninsular Malaysia and Peninsular Thailand, but are extensively developed in North Vietnam, Sumatra, the eastern Malay Peninsula and Timor. Fossils, representing many fossil groups, are often prolific in Permian sediments, with fusulinaceans, for example, occurring in astronomical numbers in many limestone outcrops. Age-diagnostic fossils demonstrate that the whole of the Permian is represented in different areas of Southeast Asia. Fossil faunal and floral assemblages have been used to establish climatic conditions and environments of deposition, to define distinct crustal blocks and to provide the basis for reconstructing the palaeogeography during Permian times.

  17. The sedimentological characteristics of microbialites of the Cambrian in the vicinity of Beijing, China

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    Yin-Ye Wu


    Full Text Available With oil and gas exploration transferring to deeper and more ancient marine strata, more researches have been conducted about the Meso–Neoproterozoic and Cambrian microbial carbonate rocks by petroleum geologists. The Cambrian deposits experienced the first transgression of the Paleozoic, with shallow marine facies depositing in most areas, which are favorable for different kinds of biological reproduction. The Lower Cambrian in Beijing area is lithologically dominated by purple red shales interbedded with limestones, the Middle Cambrian is mainly composed of thick oolitic limestones, and the Upper Cambrian consists of thin limestones and flat-pebble conglomerates. Two beds of microbial carbonate rocks were discovered in the Cambrian outcrops in the vicinity of Beijing. One is from the Zhangxia Formation of Middle Cambrian, and the other is from the Gushan Formation of Upper Cambrian. The microbialites are characterized by combination of multiple stromatolites forming different bioherms. The bioherms are mostly in oval shape and with different sizes, which are 3–4 m long, and 1–3 m high. The surrounding strata beneath the bioherms are oolitic limestones. A central core of flat-pebble conglomerates occurred within each bioherm. Wavy or columnar stromatolites grow on the basis of flat-pebble conglomerates, with dentate erosional surfaces. The bioherm carbonate rocks are interpreted as products from a deep ramp sedimentary environment where potential oil and gas reservoirs can be found. The analysis of sedimentological characteristics of bioherm carbonate rocks and its lithofacies palaeogeography has significant implication for petroleum exploration. Research on geological record of microbialites is beneficial to investigating the Earth evolution, biodiversity, palaeoenvironment and palaeoclimate change, as well as biological extinction event during geological transitions. It also gives warning to human beings of modern biological crisis.

  18. The Shale Gas potential of Lower Carboniferous Sediments in Germany (United States)

    Kerschke, D.; Mihailovic, A.; Schulz, H., -M.; Horsfield, B.


    Organic-rich Carboniferous sediments are proven source rocks for conventional gas systems in NW Europe and are likely gas shale candidates. Within the framework of GeoEnergie, an initiative to strengthen scientific excellence, funded by the German Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF), the influence of palaeogeography and basin dynamics on sedimentology and diagenesis is being investigated. Our aim is to unravel the evolution of shale gas-relevant properties which control gas prospectivity and production parameters like porosity, brittleness, etc. for the Lower Carboniferous in Germany. Northern Germany is underlain by thick, mudstone-bearing Carboniferous successions with a wide range of thermal maturities. Some of these mudstone horizons are rich in organic carbon which is either of marine and/or terrigenous origin. During the Carboniferous deposition of fine-grained, TOC-rich basinal sediments changed into shallow marine to paralic siliciclastic sediments (carbonates during the Lower Carboniferous) in the north, and grade into coarse-grained sediments close to the uprising Variscan mountains in the south. As a result different architectural elements including TOC-rich fine-grained sediments like basinal shales, fine-grained parts of turbidites, and shallow marine mudstones occur in both the Lower and the Upper Carboniferous section. A high shale gas potential occurs in basinal shales of Namurian age with marine organic material and TOC contents of up to 8 % (Rhenish Alum Shales). Such sediments with thermal maturities between 1.3 to 3.0 % vitrinite reflectance and sufficient quartz contents occur in wide areas of present-day Central European Basins System (CEBS), and are at favourable depth for shale gas exploration predominantly along the southern CEBS margin.

  19. Detrital zircon dating and tracing the provenance of dinosaur bone beds from the Late Cretaceous Wangshi Group in Zhucheng, Shandong, East China

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    Wei An


    Full Text Available The mass burial of dinosaur bone fossils in the Late Cretaceous Wangshi Group in Zhucheng, Shandong Province has been a research focus in recent years. However, the provenance of the dinosaur bone fossils and the accurate depositional age of the bone beds remain ambiguous. Through U–Pb dating of detrital zircons collected from six conglomerate samples from the dinosaur bone beds, we found that the youngest single grain age (YSG of sample 090414-24-D was 77.3 Ma, representing the maximum depositional age of the dinosaur fossil beds and sediments. This also indicates that the Hongtuya Formation was deposited during the Campanian. Dating results revealed an age peak of 120–110 Ma, which corresponds with the peak age of volcanic rocks of the Lower Cretaceous Qingshan Group. The volcanic rocks of the Qingshan Group are mainly exposed in Laiyang, to the north of Zhucheng, although a few also appear to the south and northwest. Through analysis of conglomerate composition and palaeocurrents in the sediments containing the bone beds, we found that the three different data sets of gravel compositions of the conglomerates were mainly composed of volcanic or pyroclastic rocks. Three different data sets of palaeocurrents suggested that the main sediment source of the Wangshi Group dinosaur bone beds was from the north−northwest of the Basin. Only one data set had a provenance south of the basin. This study revealed that the areas of Laiyang and the Yishu Fault Zone were the main provenance areas of both the dinosaur bone fossils and the sediments of the Wangshi Group in Zhucheng. The southern margin of the Zhucheng Basin may be a secondary source area. This research provides an important basis for judging the deposition time and the sediment source of fossil layers in the Wangshi Group, as well as reconstructing the palaeogeography of the Wangshi Group in the Jiaolai Basin.

  20. Dry calving processes at the ice cliff of an antarctic local glacier: the study case of Strandline Glacier (Northern Victoria Land, Antarctica) (United States)

    Smiraglia, C.; Motta, M.; Vassena, G.; Diolaiuti, G.


    changes in ice cliff position (a retreat of 10 m in the central part of the front on 15 days) caused by crack propagation from the glacier surface and calving of ice flakes from the cliff face; during the warmest days also melting occurred along glacier surface and on the cliff. In the same period of 15 days ice thickness near the cliff boundary decreased about 30 cm. The collected measures regard also surface velocities and meteorological data . This work was carried out within the framework of the Project on Glaciology and Palaeoclimatology of the Programma Nazionale Ricerche in Antartide (PNRA), national co-ordinator Prof. G. Orombelli.

  1. Glacial chronology and palaeoclimate in the Bystra catchment, Western Tatra Mountains (Poland) during the Late Pleistocene (United States)

    Makos, Michał; Rinterknecht, Vincent; Braucher, Régis; Żarnowski, Michał


    Deglaciation chronology of the Bystra catchment (Western Tatra Mountains) has been reconstructed based on 10Be exposure age dating. Fourteen rock samples were collected from boulders located on three moraines that limit the horizontal extent of the LGM maximum advance and the Lateglacial recessional stage. The oldest preserved, maximum moraine was dated at 15.5 ± 0.8 ka, an age that could be explained more likely by post-depositional erosion of the moraine. Such scenario is supported by geomorphologic and palaeoclimatological evidence. The younger cold stage is represented by well-preserved termino-lateral moraine systems in the Kondratowa and Sucha Kasprowa valleys. The distribution of the moraine ridges in both valleys suggest a complex history of deglaciation of the area. The first Late-glacial re-advance (LG1) was followed by a cold oscillation (LG2), that occurred at around 14.0 ± 0.7-13.7 ± 1.2 ka. Glaciers during both stages had nearly the same horizontal extent, however, their thickness and geometry changed significantly, mainly due to local climatic conditions triggered by topography, controlling the exposition to solar radiation. The LG1 stage occurred probably during the pre-Bølling cold stage (Greenland Stadial 2.1a), however, the LG2 stage can be correlated with the cooling at around 14 ka during the Greenland Interstadial 1 (GI-1d - Older Dryas). This is the first chronological evidence of the Older Dryas in the Tatra Mountains. The ELA of the maximum Bystra glacier was located at 1480 m a.s.l. in accordance with the ELA in the High Tatra Mountains during the LGM. During the LG1 and LG2 stages, the ELA in the catchment rose up to 1520-1530 m a.s.l. and was located approximately 100-150 m lower than in the eastern part of the massif. Climate modelling results show that the Bystra glacier (maximum advance) could have advanced in the catchment when mean annual temperature was lower than today by 11-12 °C and precipitation was reduced by 40-60%. This

  2. Mid- to late Holocene Indian Ocean Monsoon variability recorded in four speleothems from Socotra Island, Yemen (United States)

    Van Rampelbergh, Maïté; Fleitmann, Dominik; Verheyden, Sophie; Cheng, Hai; Edwards, Lawrence; De Geest, Peter; De Vleeschouwer, David; Burns, Stephen J.; Matter, Albert; Claeys, Philippe; Keppens, Eddy


    Four stalagmites covering the last 7.0 ka were sampled on Socotra, an island in the northern Indian Ocean to investigate the evolution of the northeast Indian Ocean Monsoon (IOM) since the mid Holocene. On Socotra, rain is delivered at the start of the southwest IOM in May-June and at the start of the northeast IOM from September to December. The Haggeher Mountains act as a barrier forcing precipitation brought by the northeast winds to fall preferentially on the eastern side of the island, where the studied caves are located. δ18O and δ13C and Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca signals in the stalagmites reflect precipitation amounts brought by the northeast winds. For stalagmite STM6, this amount effect is amplified by kinetic effects during calcite deposition. Combined interpretation of the stalagmites' signals suggest a weakening of the northeast precipitation between 6.0 and 3.8 ka. After 3.8 ka precipitation intensities remain constant with two superimposed drier periods, between 0 and 0.6 ka and from 2.2 to 3.8 ka. No link can be established with Greenland ice cores and with the summer IOM variability. In contrast to the stable northeast rainy season suggested by the records in this study, speleothem records from western Socotra indicate a wettening of the southwest rainy season on Socotra after 4.4 ka. The local wettening of western Socotra could relate to a more southerly path (more over the Indian Ocean) taken by the southwest winds. Stalagmite STM5, sampled at the fringe between both rain areas displays intermediate δ18O values. After 6.2 ka, similar precipitation changes are seen between eastern Socotra and northern Oman indicating that both regions are affected similarly by the monsoon. Different palaeoclimatologic records from the Arabian Peninsula currently located outside the ITCZ migration pathway display an abrupt drying around 6 ka due to their disconnection from the southwest rain influence. Records that are nowadays still receiving rain by the southwest winds

  3. On the origin and evolution of Antarctic Peracarida (Crustacea, Malacostraca

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    Angelika Brandt


    Full Text Available The early separation of Gondwana and the subsequent isolation of Antarctica caused a long evolutionary history of its fauna. Both, long environmental stability over millions of years and habitat heterogeneity, due to an abundance of sessile suspension feeders on the continental shelf, favoured evolutionary processes of preadapted taxa, like for example the Peracarida. This taxon performs brood protection and this might be one of the most important reasons why it is very successful (i.e. abundant and diverse in most terrestrial and aquatic environments, with some species even occupying deserts. The extinction of many decapod crustaceans in the Cenozoic might have allowed the Peracarida to find and use free ecological niches. Therefore the palaeogeographic, palaeoclimatologic, and palaeo-hydrographic changes since the Palaeocene (at least since about 60 Ma ago and the evolutionary success of some peracarid taxa (e.g. Amphipoda, Isopoda led to the evolution of many endemic species in the Antarctic. Based on a phylogenetic analysis of the Antarctic Tanaidacea, Sieg (1988 demonstrated that the tanaid fauna of the Antarctic is mainly represented by phylogenetically younger taxa, and data from other crustacean taxa led Sieg (1988 to conclude that the recent Antarctic crustacean fauna must be comparatively young. His arguments are scrutinized on the basis of more recent data on the phylogeny and biodiversity of crustacean taxa, namely the Ostracoda, Decapoda, Mysidacea, Cumacea, Amphipoda, and Isopoda. This analysis demonstrates that the origin of the Antarctic fauna probably has different roots: an adaptive radiation of descendants from old Gondwanian ancestors was hypothesized for the isopod families Serolidae and Arcturidae, an evolution and radiation of phylogenetically old taxa in Antarctica could also be shown for the Ostracoda and the amphipod family Iphimediidae. A recolonization via the Scotia Arc appears possible for some species, though it is

  4. Peruvian sediments as recorders of an evolving hiatus for the last 22 thousand years (United States)

    Erdem, Zeynep; Schönfeld, Joachim; Glock, Nicolaas; Dengler, Marcus; Mosch, Thomas; Sommer, Stefan; Elger, Judith; Eisenhauer, Anton


    The Peruvian continental margin is characterized by the presence of one of the strongest and most distinct Oxygen Minimum Zones (OMZs) in today's oceans. Therefore, it has long been in the focus of oceanographic and geological investigations. Observations indicate that OMZs are expanding in relation with currently changing climate. To advance understanding of the temporal evolution of OMZs and climate change, complete paleoceanographic and palaeoclimatological reconstructions are needed. However, the development of paleoenvironmental scenarios for the period since the Last Glacial Maximum at this region was hampered by a ubiquitous hiatus and short-term interruptions of the stratigraphical record. In the present study, we combined the stratigraphical information from 31 sediment cores from the Peruvian margin located between 3 and 18°S and water depths of 90 to 1300 m within and below today's OMZ, in order to determine the extent of the hiatus and assess the responsible mechanisms. A widespread unconformity and related erosional features, omission surfaces and phosphorites, were observed in sediment cores from the area south of 7°S, depicting a prograding feature on the continental slope from south to north during the deglaciation. Combining recent oceanographic and sedimentological observations, it is inferred that, tide-topography interaction and resulting non-linear internal waves (NLIWs) shape the slope by erosion, carry sediments upslope or downslope and leave widespread phosphoritic lag sediments, while the Peru Chile Undercurrent (PCUC) transports the resuspended sediments southward causing non-deposition. This exceptional sedimentary regime makes the Peruvian margin a modern analogue for such environments. Overall, our compilation of downcore records showed that enhanced bottom currents due to tide-topography interaction were progressively evolving and affected a wider area with the onset of the last deglaciation. Elevated tidal amplitudes and variability

  5. Developing a visual moraine classification scheme to support investigations into the Holocene glacier chronology of the Southern Alps, New Zealand (United States)

    Kaufung, Eva; Winkler, Stefan


    The Southern Alps of New Zealand have provided one of only a few suitable study sites for investigating Holocene glacier chronologies in the mid-latitudinal Southern Hemisphere. Although a considerable number of studies have been conducted during the past few decades, these generally focus on a very limited number of glacier forelands. Additionally, those glaciers studied have often been selected because of their accessibility rather than their representativeness for the whole region. A common drawback of many regional studies is the lack of attention to glacial geomorphology and the mode of moraine formation with the dating of such landforms in chronological context. With the Southern Alps characterized by very dynamic geomorphological process-systems and a high seismic activity, this seems unfortunate as it causes a relatively high potential "geomorphological uncertainty" with any published glacier chronology and its subsequent palaeoclimatological interpretation. Future investigations into the Holocene glacier chronology in the Southern Alps need to address those existing shortcomings and, consequently, should achieve a representative spatial distribution of study sites in order to overcome the current strong data bias towards few, albeit relatively well-studied glacier forelands. The specific regional geomorphological environment of the Southern Alps requires, furthermore, a thorough assessment of any moraine selected for the subsequent dating in consideration of its "reliability" if it is considered as evidence of specific former glacier variations. With more than 3000 potential glacier forelands in the entire mountain range, careful selection of future targets for successful chronological field work is essential. We present the preliminary results of an ongoing, time-efficient study to apply different remote sensing sources (aerial photography, Google Earth, satellite images) to evaluate the potential of certain glacier forelands for detailed ground

  6. Bottom current processes along the Iberian continental margin; Procesos sedimentarios por corrientes de fondo a lo largo del margen continental iberico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Llave, E.; Hernandez-Molina, F. J.; Ercilla, G.; Roque, C.; Van Rooij, D.; Garcia, M.; Juan, C.; Mena, A.; Brackenridge, R.; Jane, G.; Stow, D.; Gomez-Ballesteros, M.


    -slope processes and their sedimentary impact around the Iberian margin. Despite the numerous examples of bottom current processes recorded, there remains a number of challenges to understanding CDSs around the Iberian margin including: 1) evidencing their important scientific implications (stratigraphy, sedimentology, palaeoceanography and palaeoclimatology); assess- ing their geological hazard and their economic potential (for mineral and energy resources); and 3) using them to create conceptual models for CDS formation. There is a lack of complete knowledge about the different oceanographic processes that may drive bottom currents, and there is also the need to document the great variety of contourite features (processes and products) and facies models, along with their evolution over time and space. Therefore advances, both in new technologies and integrated studies (Geology, Physical Oceanography and Benthic/planktonic Biology), are anticipated. (Author)

  7. Effect of different fertilizer resources on yield and yield components of grain maize (Zea mays L. affected by tillage managements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Ghasemi


    , the root growth limited during the first year of no tillage. Organic Food Systems (green manure and animal manure provide the mineral food for plants. However, the low rate of mineralization in the early stages of root development can limit the nutrient availability. Nevertheless, these limits are removed over time. Integration of green manure, animal manure, and chemical fertilizer with conventional tillage not only strengthens the initial growth but it also accelerates the mineralization. In general, it can be concluded that application of green, animal, and chemical manures and conventional tillage for corn production can both reduce chemical fertilizer and environmental pollution and play a positive role in increasing the yield of maize. Keywords: Barley, Ear length, 1000- Grain weight, Harvest index, No tillage References Nuralvandy, T., Ardekani, M.R., Kashani, H., Vazan, S., and Sadeghi Shoa, M. 2011. Effect of chemical and organic fertilizers on morphological characteristics and yield of sweet corn. Agronomy Journal 7(3: 1-12. (In Persian with English Summary Tajbakhsh, M., Hassanzadeh Ghurttape, H., and Darvishzadeh, B. 2005. Green manures in sustainable agriculture. Printing 1, Publishing Jihad Uromia University 215 pp. (In Persian

  8. Miocene transgression in the central and eastern parts of the Sivas Basin (Central Anatolia, Turkey) and the Cenozoic palaeogeographical evolution (United States)

    Poisson, André; Vrielynck, Bruno; Wernli, Roland; Negri, Alessandra; Bassetti, Maria-Angela; Büyükmeriç, Yesim; Özer, Sacit; Guillou, Hervé; Kavak, Kaan S.; Temiz, Haluk; Orszag-Sperber, Fabienne


    We present here a reappraisal of the tectonic setting, stratigraphy and palaeogeography of the central part of the Sivas Basin from Palaeocene to late Miocene. The Sivas Basin is located in the collision zone between the Pontides (southern Eurasia) and Anatolia (a continental block rifted from Gondwana). The basin overlies ophiolites that were obducted onto Anatolia from Tethys to the north. The Central Anatolian Crystalline Complex (CACC) experienced similar ophiolite obduction during Campanian time, followed by exhumation and thrusting onto previously emplaced units during Maastrichtian time. To the east, crustal extension related to exhumation of the CACC created grabens during the early Tertiary, including the Sivas Basin. The Sivas Basin underwent several tectonic events during Paleogene-Neogene. The basin fill varies, with several sub-basins, each being characterised by a distinctive sequence, especially during Oligocene and Miocene. Evaporite deposition in the central part of the basin during early Oligocene was followed by mid-late Oligocene fluvio-lacustrine deposition. The weight of overlying fluvial sediments triggered salt tectonics and salt diapir formation. Lacustrine layers that are interbedded within the fluviatile sediments have locally yielded charophytes of late Oligocene age. Emergent areas including the pre-existing Sivas Basin and neighbouring areas were then flooded from the east by a shallow sea, giving rise to a range of open-marine sub-basins, coralgal reef barriers and subsiding, restricted-marine sub-basins. Utilising new data from foraminifera, molluscs, corals and nannoplankton, the age of the marine transgression is reassessed as Aquitanian. Specifically, age-diagnostic nannoplankton assemblages of classical type occur at the base of the transgressive sequence. However, classical stratigraphic markers have not been found within the planktic foraminiferal assemblages, even in the open-marine settings. In the restricted-marine sediments

  9. Kontekst stratygraficzny zastosowania różnych odmian metody termoluminescencyjnej w datowaniu lessów z terenu Polski południowo-wschodniej i Ukrainy północno-zachodniej (United States)

    Kusiak, Jarosław


    Loess profiles contain a complex but usually incomplete sequence of deposits. In order to chronologically organize deposit layers accessible in different exposures it is necessary to use absolute dating methods. The 14C, TL and OSL methods are widely used for dating of the Upper Pleistocene deposits whereas to older Pleistocene deposits only luminescence methods are applied. Some attempts are made to use the OSL method for dating of the deposits older than the Upper Pleistocene. However, the OSL ages seem to be consistently lower than the TL ages, and also considerably underestimated with reference to stratigraphic interpretation. This fact indicates that the TL method should be used above all. The possibility of TL dating of loesses is connected with their aeolian origin. The obtained TL age should correspond to geological time when mineral grains constituting deposit were exposed to sunlight before deposition. Such exactly condition is met in case of loess deposits. There are many variants of thermoluminescence method because different measuring procedures can be used. Depending on the used procedure, the TL ages obtained for the same sample can be considerably different. The manner of equivalent dose determination is decisive for the obtained TL ages. The factors influencing the value of equivalent dose are presented in this paper. The equivalent dose is determined by comparison of thermoluminescence measured for a given sample with thermoluminescence of the same sample after irradiation in laboratory with known doses of ionizing radiation. The following criteria should be taken into account: size of mineral grains, relation between thermoluminescence and heating temperature, way of reduction of unstable thermoluminescence, and the results of plateau test. The variant of thermoluminescence method used in the TL Laboratory of the Department of Physical Geography and Palaeogeography, Maria Curie-Skłodowska University in Lublin is as follows. The dose rate is

  10. Identification of the relationship between Chinese Adiantum reniforme var. sinense and Canary Adiantum reniforme. (United States)

    Wang, Ai-Hua; Sun, Ye; Schneider, Harald; Zhai, Jun-Wen; Liu, Dong-Ming; Zhou, Jin-Song; Xing, Fu-Wu; Chen, Hong-Feng; Wang, Fa-Guo


    approve Adiantum nelumboides X. C. Zhang, nom. & stat. nov. as a legal name instead of the former Adiantum reniforme var. sinense. China was determined to be the most probable evolution centre based on the results of phylogenetic analyses, divergence estimation, relative palaeogeography and palaeoclimate materials.

  11. Sensitivity of the Eocene climate to CO2 and orbital variability (United States)

    Keery, John S.; Holden, Philip B.; Edwards, Neil R.


    The early Eocene, from about 56 Ma, with high atmospheric CO2 levels, offers an analogue for the response of the Earth's climate system to anthropogenic fossil fuel burning. In this study, we present an ensemble of 50 Earth system model runs with an early Eocene palaeogeography and variation in the forcing values of atmospheric CO2 and the Earth's orbital parameters. Relationships between simple summary metrics of model outputs and the forcing parameters are identified by linear modelling, providing estimates of the relative magnitudes of the effects of atmospheric CO2 and each of the orbital parameters on important climatic features, including tropical-polar temperature difference, ocean-land temperature contrast, Asian, African and South (S.) American monsoon rains, and climate sensitivity. Our results indicate that although CO2 exerts a dominant control on most of the climatic features examined in this study, the orbital parameters also strongly influence important components of the ocean-atmosphere system in a greenhouse Earth. In our ensemble, atmospheric CO2 spans the range 280-3000 ppm, and this variation accounts for over 90 % of the effects on mean air temperature, southern winter high-latitude ocean-land temperature contrast and northern winter tropical-polar temperature difference. However, the variation of precession accounts for over 80 % of the influence of the forcing parameters on the Asian and African monsoon rainfall, and obliquity variation accounts for over 65 % of the effects on winter ocean-land temperature contrast in high northern latitudes and northern summer tropical-polar temperature difference. Our results indicate a bimodal climate sensitivity, with values of 4.36 and 2.54 °C, dependent on low or high states of atmospheric CO2 concentration, respectively, with a threshold at approximately 1000 ppm in this model, and due to a saturated vegetation-albedo feedback. Our method gives a quantitative ranking of the influence of each of the

  12. Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AHM Zahirul Alam


    .............................................................307 Abdul Aziz Ahmad, Ibrahim Ali Noorbatcha, Hamzah Mohd. Salleh   CIVIL AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING DIMINISHING SEISMIC EFFECT ON BUILDINGS USING BEARING ISOLATION....................................................... 59 A. B. M. Saiful Islam ELECTRICAL, COMPUTER AND COMMUNICATIONS ENGINEERING A DISTRIBUTED ENERGY EFFICIENT CLUSTERING ALGORITHM FOR DATA AGGREGATION IN WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS.................................................................................. 72 Seyed Mohammad Bagher Musavi Shirazi, Maryam Sabet, Mohammad Reza Pajoohan POWER QUALITY IMPROVEMENT WITH CASCADED MULTILEVEL CONVERTER BASED STATCOM................. 91 Mahdi Heidari, Abdonnabi Kovsarian, S. Ghodratollah Seifossadat THE EFFECTS OF CABLE CHARACTERISTICS ON MAXIMUM OVERVOLTAGE IN COMBINED OVERHEAD/CABLE LINES PROTECTED BY SURGE ARRESTERS.............................................................................. 104 Reza Alizadeh, Mohammad Mirzaie SMART PORTABLE CRYOTHERAPY SYSTEM REPHRASED I.E. WITH CONTROLLED THERMOELECTRIC COOLING MODULES FOR MEDICAL APPLICATIONS................................................................................................ 117 Abbas Rahmani, Reza Hassanzadeh Pack Rezaee, Naser Kordani STATIC PIPELINE NETWORK PERFORMANCE OPTIMISATION USING DUAL INTERLEAVE ROUTING ALGORITHM     129 Siva Kumar Subramaniam1, Shariq Mahmood Khan, Anhar Titik, Rajagopal Nilavalan A MODIFIED MODEL BASED ON FLOWER POLLINATION ALGORITHM AND K-NEAREST NEIGHBOR FOR DIAGNOSING DISEASES........................................................................ 144 Mehdi Zekriyapanah Gashti A SINGLE LC TANK BASED ACTIVE VOLTAGE BALANCING CIRCUIT FOR BATTERY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM .158 A K M Ahasan Habib, S. M. A. Motakabber, Muhammad Ibn. Ibrahimy, A. H. M. Zahirul Alam ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS AND APPLIED SCIENCE ON THE CONTROL OF HEAT CONDUCTION.......................................... 168 Fayziev Yusuf Ergashevich MATERIALS AND MANUFACTURING ENGINEERING GREEN

  13. Pollen-based reconstruction of Holocene climate variability in the Eifel region evaluated with stable isotopes (United States)

    Kühl, Norbert; Moschen, Robert; Wagner, Stefanie


    sediments might strongly react to anthropogenic deforestation, as carbon isotope time series from the adjacent Lake Holzmaar suggest. Reconstructions based on pollen with the pdf-method are robust to the human impact during the last 4000 years, but do not reproduce the fine scale climate variability that can be derived from the stable isotope series (Kühl et al., in press). In contrast, reconstructions on the basis of pollen data show relatively pronounced climate variability (here: January temperature) during the Mid-Holocene, which is known from many other European records. The oxygen isotope time series as available now indicate that at least some of the observed variability indeed reflects climate variability. However, stable carbon isotopes show little concordance. At this stage our results point in the direction that 1) the isotopic composition might reflect a shift in influencing factors during the Holocene, 2) climate trends can robustly be reconstructed with the pdf method and 3) fine scale climate variability can potentially be reconstructed using the pdf-method, given that climate sensitive taxa at their distribution limit are present. The latter two conclusions are of particular importance for the reconstruction of climatic trends and variability of interglacials older than the Holocene, when sites are rare and pollen is often the only suitable proxy in terrestrial records. Kühl, N., Moschen, R., Wagner, S., Brewer, S., Peyron, O., in press. A multiproxy record of Late Holocene natural and anthropogenic environmental change from the Sphagnum peat bog Dürres Maar, Germany: implications for quantitative climate reconstructions based on pollen. J. Quat. Sci., DOI: 10.1002/jqs.1342. Available online. Moschen, R., Kühl, N., Rehberger, I., Lücke, A., 2009. Stable carbon and oxygen isotopes in sub-fossil Sphagnum: Assessment of their applicability for palaeoclimatology. Chemical Geology 259, 262-272.

  14. Stable isotopic analysis of fossil chironomids as an approach to environmental reconstruction: state of development and future challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Heiri


    chironomid remains have the potential to provide reconstructions of past climatic change (H, O and insights into past food web structure, methane production and pollution of lake ecosystems (N, C. Future efforts will be necessary to develop these approaches including more detailed analyses of the effects of sample pretreatment on stable isotope measurements on chitinous fossils, more extensive laboratory studies constraining the effects of external factors (e.g., isotopic composition of food and ambient water, temperature on stable isotopes in chironomid larvae, and surveys exploring seasonal changes in the isotopic composition of chironomid larvae and assessing how this seasonality influences fossil assemblages. Finally, multi-site field studies relating chironomid δD, δ15N, δ13C and δ18O to parameters such as δ18O of precipitation, air and water temperatures, and nutrient and greenhouse gas concentrations in lakes will be necessary to assess the extent to which these stable isotopic approaches can provide quantitative reconstructions of parameters of interest for palaeoclimatological and palaeoenvironmental research.doi: 10.5324/fn.v31i0.1436.Published online: 17 October 2012.

  15. Geographical and climatic limits of needle types of one- and two-needled pinyon pines (United States)

    Cole, K.L.; Fisher, J.; Arundel, S.T.; Cannella, J.; Swift, S.


    Aim: The geographical extent and climatic tolerances of one- and two-needled pinyon pines (Pinus subsect. Cembroides) are the focus of questions in taxonomy, palaeoclimatology and modelling of future distributions. The identification of these pines, traditionally classified by one- versus two-needled fascicles, is complicated by populations with both one- and two-needled fascicles on the same tree, and the description of two more recently described one-needled varieties: the fallax-type and californiarum-type. Because previous studies have suggested correlations between needle anatomy and climate, including anatomical plasticity reflecting annual precipitation, we approached this study at the level of the anatomy of individual pine needles rather than species. Location: Western North America. Methods: We synthesized available and new data from field and herbarium collections of needles to compile maps of their current distributions across western North America. Annual frequencies of needle types were compared with local precipitation histories for some stands. Historical North American climates were modelled on a c. 1-km grid using monthly temperature and precipitation values. A geospatial model (ClimLim), which analyses the effect of climate-modulated physiological and ecosystem processes, was used to rank the importance of seasonal climate variables in limiting the distributions of anatomical needle types. Results: The pinyon needles were classified into four distinct types based upon the number of needles per fascicle, needle thickness and the number of stomatal rows and resin canals. The individual needles fit well into four categories of needle types, whereas some trees exhibit a mixture of two needle types. Trees from central Arizona containing a mixture of Pinus edulis and fallax-type needles increased their percentage of fallax-type needles following dry years. All four needle types occupy broader geographical regions with distinctive precipitation regimes

  16. Petrographic and geochemical analysis of the Givetian-Frasnian sandstones in the Kuh-e-Tizi section, southeastern Central Iran (United States)

    Hejazi, S. H.; Adabi, M. H.; Moussavi Harami, S. R.; Khosro Tehrani, K.


    .P., Ramasamy, S., 2004. Geochemistry of sandstones from the Upper Miocene Kudankulam Formation, southern India: implication for provenance, weathering and tectonic setting. J. Sediment. Res. 74, 285-297. Basu, A., Young, S.W., Suttner, L.J., James, W.C., Mack, G.H., 1975. Re-evaluation of the use of undulatory extinction and polycrystallinity in detrital quartz for provenance interpretation. J. Sed. Petrol. 45, 873-882. Bhatia, M.R., 1983. Plate tectonics and geochemical composition of sandstones. J. Geol. 91, 611-627. Bhatia, M.R., Crook, K.A.W., 1986. Trace element characteristics of graywackes and tectonic setting discrimination of sedimentary basins. Contrib. Mineral. Petrol. 92, 181-193. Dickinson, W.R., Beard, L.S., Brakenridge, G.R., Erjavec, J.L., Ferguson, R.C., Inman, K.F., Knepp, R.A., Lindberg, F.A., Ryberg, P.T., 1983. Provenance of North American Phanerozoic sandstones in relation to tectonic setting. Bull. Am. Geol. Soc. 94, 222-235. Kroonenberg, S.B., 1994. Effects of provenance, sorting and weathering on the geochemistry of fluvial sands from different tectonic and climatic environments. Proceedings of the 29th International Geological Congress, Part A, 69-81. Roser, B.P., Korsch, R.J., 1986. Determination of tectonic setting of sandstonemudstone suites using SiO2 content and K2O/Na2O ratio. J. Geol. 94, 635-650. Wendt, J., Kaufmann, B., Belka, Z., Farsan, N. & Karimi bavandpur, A. 2002. Devonian/Lower Carboniferous stratigraphy, facies patterns and palaeogeography of Iran. Part I. Southeastern Iran. Acta Geol. Polo. 52, 129-168.

  17. Record of Carcharocles megalodon in the Eastern Guadalquivir Basin (Upper Miocene, South Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reolid, M.


    Full Text Available Tortonian diatomites of the San Felix Quarry (Porcuna, in the Eastern Guadalquivir Basin, have given isolated marine vertebrate remains that include a large shark tooth (123.96 mm from apex to the baseline of the root. The large size of the crown height (92.2 mm, the triangular shape, the broad serrated crown, the convex lingual face and flat labial face, and the robust, thick angled root determine that this specimen corresponds to Carcharocles megalodon. The symmetry with low slant shows it to be an upper anterior tooth. The total length estimated from the tooth crown height is calculated by means of different methods, and comparison is made with Carcharodon carcharias. The final inferred total length of around 11 m classifies this specimen in the upper size range of the known C. megalodon specimens. The palaeogeography of the Guadalquivir Basin close to the North Betic Strait, which connected the Atlantic Ocean to the Mediterranean Sea, favoured the interaction of the cold nutrient-rich Atlantic waters with warmer Mediterranean waters. The presence of diatomites indicates potential upwelling currents in this context, as well as high productivity favouring the presence of large vertebrates such as mysticetid whales, pinnipeds and small sharks (Isurus. These large vertebrates recorded in the Eastern Guadalquivir Basin were potential prey of C. megalodon.Las diatomitas tortonienses de la antigua Cantera de San Félix (Porcuna, Jaén, en el sector oriental de la Cuenca del Guadalquivir, han proporcionado restos aislados de vertebrados marinos entre los que destaca un gran diente de tiburón (123.96 mm desde el ápice hasta la línea basal de la raiz. La altura de la corona (92.2 mm, su forma triangular con bordes aserrados, la presencia de una cara lingual convexa y una labial plana, conjuntamente con la raíz angulosa y robusta, permiten determinar que este diente perteneció a un ejemplar de Carcharocles megalodon. La alta simetría de la pieza

  18. Palaeoenvironmental drivers of vertebrate community composition in the Belly River Group (Campanian) of Alberta, Canada, with implications for dinosaur biogeography. (United States)

    Cullen, Thomas M; Evans, David C


    The Belly River Group of southern Alberta is one of the best-sampled Late Cretaceous terrestrial faunal assemblages in the world. This system provides a high-resolution biostratigraphic record of terrestrial vertebrate diversity and faunal turnover, and it has considerable potential to be a model system for testing hypotheses of dinosaur palaeoecological dynamics, including important aspects of palaeoecommunity structure, trophic interactions, and responses to environmental change. Vertebrate fossil microsites (assemblages of small bones and teeth concentrated together over a relatively short time and thought to be representative of community composition) offer an unparalleled dataset to better test these hypotheses by ameliorating problems of sample size, geography, and chronostratigraphic control that hamper other palaeoecological analyses. Here, we assembled a comprehensive relative abundance dataset of microsites sampled from the entire Belly River Group and performed a series of analyses to test the influence of environmental factors on site and taxon clustering, and assess the stability of faunal assemblages both temporally and spatially. We also test the long-held idea that populations of large dinosaur taxa were particularly sensitive to small-scale environmental gradients, such as the paralic (coastal) to alluvial (inland) regimes present within the time-equivalent depositional basin of the upper Oldman and lower Dinosaur Park Formations. Palaeoenvironment (i.e. reconstructed environmental conditions, related to relative amount of alluvial, fluvial, and coastal influence in associated sedimentary strata) was found to be strongly associated with clustering of sites by relative-abundance faunal assemblages, particularly in relation to changes in faunal assemblage composition and marine-terrestrial environmental transitions. Palaeogeography/palaeolandscape were moderately associated to site relative abundance assemblage clustering, with depositional setting

  19. The landslide problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Shanmugam


    Full Text Available The synonymous use of the general term “landslide”, with a built-in reference to a sliding motion, for all varieties of mass-transport deposits (MTD, which include slides, slumps, debrites, topples, creeps, debris avalanches etc. in subaerial, sublacustrine, submarine, and extraterrestrial environments has created a multitude of conceptual and nomenclatural problems. In addition, concepts of triggers and long-runout mechanisms of mass movements are loosely applied without rigor. These problems have enormous implications for studies in process sedimentology, sequence stratigraphy, palaeogeography, petroleum geology, and engineering geology. Therefore, the objective of this critical review is to identify key problems and to provide conceptual clarity and possible solutions. Specific issues are the following: (1 According to “limit equilibrium analyses” in soil mechanics, sediment failure with a sliding motion is initiated over a shear surface when the factor of safety for slope stability (F is less than 1. However, the term landslide is not meaningful for debris flows with a flowing motion. (2 Sliding motion can be measured in oriented core and outcrop, but such measurement is not practical on seismic profiles or radar images. (3 Although 79 MTD types exist in the geological and engineering literature, only slides, slumps, and debrites are viable depositional facies for interpreting ancient stratigraphic records. (4 The use of the term landslide for highvelocity debris avalanches is inappropriate because velocities of mass-transport processes cannot be determined in the rock record. (5 Of the 21 potential triggering mechanisms of sediment failures, frequent short-term events that last for only a few minutes to several hours or days (e.g., earthquakes, meteorite impacts, tsunamis, tropical cyclones, etc. are more relevant in controlling deposition of deep-water sands than sporadic long-term events that last for thousands to millions of

  20. Warm mid-Cretaceous high-latitude sea-surface temperatures from the southern Tethys Ocean and cool high-latitude sea-surface temperatures from the Arctic Ocean: asymmetric worldwide distribution of dinoflagellates (United States)

    Masure, Edwige; Desmares, Delphine; Vrielynck, Bruno


    constraints. In the Northern Hemisphere the oceanic heat transport was stopped by continental masses located between the Tethys, Central Atlantic and Arctic Oceans while the heat transport in the Southern Hemisphere was not limited in the Tethys Ocean. Late Albian Boreal dinoflagellates inhabited the Western Interior Sea Way, with the warming and the sea level rise Late Cenomanian Tethyan species have been recorded up to 45°N. The estimation of temperatures requirements of dinoflagellates is modelled by combining the latitudinal distribution of species, with the estimated temperatures from δ18O or TEX86 ratios related to latitude. The Early Aptian subtropical dinoflagellates inhabited water masses with temperatures higher than 22°C. Late Albian subtropical dinoflagellates lived in water masses with temperatures of 24°C and tropical species in those in temperature up to 28°C. The Late Albian arctic dinoflagellates lived in water masses with temperature lower than 19°C. Biogeography of planktonic micro-organisms coupled with temperatures estimated from δ18O or TEX86 ratios increases their potential as palaeo-oceanographic proxies for a qualitative estimation of sea-surface temperatures and palaeo-biodiversity of world water masses and improves precision in biochronology. Masure E, Vrielynck B. 2009. Late Albian dinoflagellate cyst paleobiogeography as indicator of asymmetric sea surface temperature gradient on both hemispheres with southern high latitudes warmer than northern ones. Marine Micropaleontology 70, 120-133. Masure E, Aumar A-M, Vrielynck B. 2013. World palaeogeography of Aptian and Late Albian dinoflagellates cysts: Implications for sea surface temperature gradient and palaeoclimate in Lewis, JM, Marret F, Bradley L (eds). Biological and Geological Perspectives of Dinoflagellates. The Micropalaeontological Society, Special Publications. Geological Society, London, 97-125.

  1. Linking Tengchong Terrane in SW Yunnan with Lhasa Terrane in southern Tibet through magmatic correlation (United States)

    Xie, Jincheng; Zhu, Dicheng; Dong, Guochen; Zhao, Zhidan; Wang, Qing


    . Lithos 206-207, 384-399. Xu, Y.G., Yang, Q.J., Lan, J.B., Luo, Z.Y., Huang, X.L., Shi, Y.R., Xie, L.W., 2012. Temporal-spatial distribution and tectonic implications of the batholiths in the Gaoligong-Tengliang-Yingjiang area, western Yunnan: Constraints from zircon U-Pb ages and Hf isotopes. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences 53, 151-175. Zhang, Y.C., Shi, G.R., Shen, S.Z., 2013. A review of Permian stratigraphy, paleobiogeography and palaeogeography of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Gondwana Research 24, 55-76.

  2. Factors controlling carbon isotopic composition of land snail shells estimated from lab culturing experiment (United States)

    Zhang, Naizhong; Yamada, Keita; Yoshida, Naohiro


    contribution of different carbon sources for each snail individual: to cabbage (C3 plant) fed groups, the contributions of diet, atmospheric CO2 and ingested limestone vary in a range of 66~80%, 16~24% and 0~13%, respectively. And to corn (C4 plant) fed groups, because of the possible food stress (lower consumption ability of C4 plant), they vary in 56~64%, 18~20% and 16~26%, respectively. We will discuss how these results could be consistent to the observations, which suggests our calculations are suitable and believable. In addition, we will discuss the carbon isotope fractionation during egg laying and hatching of land snails, too. [1] Goodfriend, 1992, Quaternary Sciences Reviews. 11, 665-685 [2] Yanes et al. 2009. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 73, 4077-4099 [3] Yanes et al., 2013. Palaeogeography, Plaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 378, 91-102 [4] Goodfriend and Hood, 1983. Radiocarbon, 25, 810-830 [5] Goodfriend and Stipp, 1983. Geology, 11, 575-577 [6] Stott, 2002. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 195, 249-259 [7] Metref et al., 2003. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 211, 381-393 [8] Romaniello et al., 2008. Quaternary Geochronology, 3, 68-75

  3. Land - Ocean Climate Linkages and the Human Evolution - New ICDP and IODP Drilling Initiatives in the East African Rift Valley and SW Indian Ocean (United States)

    Zahn, R.; Feibel, C.; Co-Pis, Icdp/Iodp


    The past 5 Ma were marked by systematic shifts towards colder climates and concomitant reorganizations in ocean circulation and marine heat transports. Some of the changes involved plate-tectonic shifts such as the closure of the Panamanian Isthmus and restructuring of the Indonesian archipelago that affected inter-ocean communications and altered the world ocean circulation. These changes induced ocean-atmosphere feedbacks with consequences for climates globally and locally. Two new ICDP and IODP drilling initiatives target these developments from the perspectives of marine and terrestrial palaeoclimatology and the human evolution. The ICDP drilling initiative HSPDP ("Hominid Sites and Paleolakes Drilling Project"; ICDP ref. no. 10/07) targets lacustrine depocentres in Ethiopia (Hadar) and Kenya (West Turkana, Olorgesailie, Magadi) to retrieve sedimentary sequences close to the places and times where various species of hominins lived over currently available outcrop records. The records will provide a spatially resolved record of the East African environmental history in conjunction with climate variability at orbital (Milankovitch) and sub-orbital (ENSO decadal) time scales. HSPDP specifically aims at (1) compiling master chronologies for outcrops around each of the depocentres; (2) assessing which aspects of the paleoenvironmental records are a function of local origin (hydrology, hydrogeology) and which are linked with regional or larger-scale signals; (3) correlating broad-scale patterns of hominin phylogeny with the global beat of climate variability and (4) correlating regional shifts in the hominin fossil and archaeological record with more local patterns of paleoenvironmental change. Ultimately the aim is to test hypotheses that link physical and cultural adaptations in the course of the hominin evolution to local environmental change and variability. The IODP initiative SAFARI ("Southern African Climates, Agulhas Warm Water Transports and Retroflection

  4. XRF core scanners as a quick and good screening tool for detecting pollution in sediment cores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belén Rubio


    Full Text Available The capabilities of X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF core scanners, to acquire high-resolution geochemical data sets in relatively short time, have made them an increasingly popular geochemical screening tool to study sediment cores for palaeoclimatologic and palaeoceanographic purposes (Peck et al., 2007; Rebolledo et al., 2008. These scanners are able to obtain optical images, X-ray radiographs, and continuous geochemical data with a maximum resolution of 200 µm directly from sediment cores (Croudace et al., 2006. Geochemical results are obtained as peak areas of counts per second that are proportional to element concentrations in the sediment, and thus the assumed semi-quantitative nature of these analyses have hampered the use of this type of instruments to monitor and detect pollution at large; where the availability of a fast screening tool that could substantially cut analytical and time costs will certainly be an advantage. This study explores the sensitivity of a ITRAX core scanner (Cox Analytical Systems on sedimentary records from estuarine-like environments in NW (Rías Baixas Galicia and SW Spain (Ría de Huelva. The Galician Rías Baixas sediments are characterized by high contents of organic matter, but in general terms, are not heavily polluted. We have selected one core in the Marín harbour (Ría de Pontevedra and another in the intertidal area of San Simón Bay (inner Ría de Vigo, close to a ceramic factory, which is relatively highly polluted by lead. By the contrary, the Ría de Huelva is one of the most polluted areas in western Europe because of the high acid mining activity together with the chemical industries located in its margins. We have selected a core in the Padre Santo Channel in the confluence of the Odiel and Tinto rivers. ITRAX sensitivity was obtained by establishing equivalences between peak areas and concentrations obtained by traditional analytical techniques such as ICP-MS, ICP-OES and/or conventional XRF of

  5. A reevaluation of the lineage development of Pararotalia and Praepararotalia including new material from the Rupelian of the southern Upper Rhine Graben (United States)

    Pirkenseer, C.; Spezzaferri, S.


    in Brazilian coastal and paralic environments. - Journal of Foraminiferal Research, 31, 2: 152-163. HOTTINGER, L., HALICZ, E. & REISS, Z. (1991): The foraminiferal genera Pararotalia, Neorotalia, and Calcarina: taxonomic revision. - Journal of Paleontology, 65, 1: 18-33. LIU, C., OLSSON, R. K. & HUBERT, B. T. (1998): A benthic paleohabitat for Praepararotalia gen. nov. and Antarcticella Loeblich and Tappan. - Journal of Foraminiferal Research, 28, 1: 3-18. MANCIN, N., PIRINI, C. & LANFRANCHINI, P.L. (2000): New species of Pararotalia LE CALVEZ, in Pliocene sediments of the Lower Valsesia and Western Liguria. - Bollettina della Società Paleontologica Italiana, 39, 3: 341-350. PIRKENSEER, C. (2007): Foraminifera, Ostracoda and other microfossils of the Southern Upper Rhine Graben - Palaeoecology, biostratigraphy, palaeogeography and geodynamic implications. - PhD thesis: 340p, Fribourg.

  6. Siberia, the wandering northern terrane, and its changing geography through the Palaeozoic (United States)

    Cocks, L. Robin M.; Torsvik, Trond H.


    terranes in the northern hemisphere. The Cambrian and Ordovician maps are provisional for the Altai-Sayan and Mongolian areas, whose geology is highly complex and whose detailed palaeogeography is unresolved. The terms "Altaids" and "Paleo-Asian Ocean" have been used in so many different ways by so many different authors over so many geological periods that we reject their use. Wider issues considered include the possible links between the Cambrian Radiation (often wrongly termed "Explosion"), when metazoan animals first gained hard parts, and True Polar Wander (TPW). New Early Cambrian palaeomagnetic data from Siberia do not show rapid APW (< 10 cm/yr.) or dramatic velocity changes (< 4 cm/yr). It is concluded that the Cambrian Radiation occurred over a period approaching 20 Myr, and that rapid and large-scale TPW did not take place in the Cambrian. In addition, there are no traces of glaciogenic deposits in the very large area of Siberia during the Neoproterozoic, casting some doubt on the "Snowball Earth" hypothesis.

  7. Calcareous nannofossil evidence for Marine Isotope Stage 31 (1 Ma) in the AND-1B Core, ANDRILL McMurdo Ice Shelf Project (Antarctica). (United States)

    Villa, G.; Persico, D.; Wise, S. W.; Gadaleta, A.


    calcareous nannofossils to the margins of Antarctica. The warm interval during the Jaramillo Subchron shows that these areas were more climatically dynamic than previously thought and calls into questions the notion that the EAIS has remained in a stable polar condition since the late Neogene. The warm surface water event reported here is especially significant given its proximal position to the Antarctic ice sheet. References Naish, T., Powell, R., Levy R., Henrys S., Krissek L., Niessen F., Pompilio M., Scherer R., Wilson G. & the ANDRIL-MIS Science Team, 2007. - Synthesis of the Initial Scientific Results of the MIS Project (AND-1B Core), Victoria Land Basin, antartica. Terra Antartica, 14(3), 317-327. Scherer, R., Bohaty, S., Dunbar, R.B., Esper, O., Flores, J.A., Gersonde, R., Harwood, D.M., Roberts, A.P., Taviani, M., 2008. Antarctic records of precession-paced insolation-driven warming during early Pleistocene Marine Isotope Stage 31. Geophys. Res. Lett., vol. 35, L03505, doi: 10.1029/2007GL032254. Villa G. and Wise S.W., 1998 - Quaternary calcareous nannofossils from the Antarctic region. Terra Antartica, 5(3), 479-484. Villa G., Lupi, C., Cobianchi, M., Florindo, F., Pekar, S.F., 2008. A Pleistocene warming event at 1 Ma in Prydz Bay, East Antarctica: evidence from ODP Site 1165. Palaeogeography, Palaoeclimatology, Palaeoecology, doi:10.1016/J.palaeo.2007.08.017. Wilson G., Levy R., Browne G., Dunbar, N., Florindo F., Henrys S., Graham I., McIntosh W., McKay R., Naish T., Ohneiser C., Powell R., Ross J., Sagnotti L., Scherer R., Sjunneskog C., Strong C.P. Taviani M., Winter D., & the ANDRILL MIS-Science Team, 2007. Preliminary Integrated Chronostratigraphy of AND-1B Drill Core, ANDRILL McMurdo Ice Shelf Project, Antarctica. Terra Antartica 14 (3), 297-316.

  8. Petrogenesis and zircon U-Pb dating of skarnified pyroxene-bearing dioritic rocks in Bisheh area, south of Birjand, eastern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malihe Nakhaei


    during the melting of the source (Reagan and Gill, 1989. This pattern followed that of calc-alkaline magmas derived from a sub-arc mantle, with scarce or no garnet in the source. Furthermore, Bisheh subvolcanic bodies were enriched in Rb, Ba and Th, indicating that they had experienced interaction with the continental crust (Kuşcu et al., 2002. The chondrite-normalized rare earth element pattern of the studied rocks shows a high ratio of light rare earth elements (LREE to heavy rare earth elements (HREE. All the samples have been plotted in the VAG field. The dioritic rocks from the Bisheh have relatively high Mg# (0.4-0.56, which is consistent with derivation from mantle melts contaminated by continental crust (Rapp and Watson, 1995. The initial 87Sr/86Sr of Bisheh pyroxene diorite porphyry was 0.70606 and the (143Nd/144Ndi isotope compositions and εNd value of these rocks was 0.512424 and -3.05, respectively. These values show that the magma originated from an enriched mantle with crustal contamination. Acknowledgements The authors are grateful to Professor Sun-Lin Chung from the Department of Geosciences, National Taiwan University, for supporting the researchers in the use of U-Th-Pb zircon age dating. References Berberian, M. and King, G.C., 1981. Towards a palaeogeography and tectonics evolution of Iran. Canadian Journal of Earth Science, 18(2: 210–265. Esmaeily, D., Nedelec, A., Valizadeh, M.V., Moore, F. and Cotton, J., 2005. Petrology of the Jurassic Shah-Kuh granite (eastern Iran, with reference to tin mineralization. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, 25(6: 961-980. Tarkian, M., Lotfi, M. and Baumann, A., 1983. Tectonic, magmatism and the formation of mineral deposits in the central Lut, east Iran. Geological Survey of Iran, geodynamic project (geotraverse in Iran, Tehran, Report 51, 519 pp. Moradi Noghondar, M., Karimpour, M.H., Farmer, G.L. and Stern, C.R., 2011-2012. Sr-Nd isotopic characteristic, U-Pb zircon geochronology, and petrogenesis of Najmabad

  9. Rb-Sr and Nd-Sr isotope geochemistry and petrogenesis of the Misho Mountains mafic dikes (NW Iran

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    Maryam Ahankoub


    the mafic dike. Discussion Geochemistry data indicate that Misho mafic dikes are similar to calc-alkaline basalts of the oceanic island basalts (OIB whereas Nb and Ti negative anomalies of the trace elements patterns are similar to crustal contamination. Negative amount of the εNd(T indicated depleted mantel source (array mantel with some continental crust contamination during AFC processes . Base on the results of analysis, the upper crust is the best candidates for magma contamination of the mafic dikes in Misho. Isotopic data indicated to replace mafic dike 232ma years ago by closing of paleotethys and forming the extension zone (break up in active continental margin. Acknowledgement We thank Professor Yamamoto, head of geochemistry department of the Nagoya University for help .We are grateful to professor Karimpour, Chief Editor of the Journal of Economic Geology, and three anonymous reviewers for their constructive suggestions and comments. Reference Ahankoub, M., 2012. Petrogenesis and geochemistry east Misho granitoides (NW of Iran. Ph.D. Thesis, Tabriz University, Tabriz, Iran, 171 pp. (in Persian with English abstract Eftekharnejad, J., 1981. Tectonic division of Iran with respect to sedimentary basins. Journal of Iran Petroleum Society, 82(3: 19–28. (in Persian with English abstract Martin, H, 1999. Adakitic magmas: modern analogues of Archaean granitoids. Lithos, 46(3: 411–429. Metcalfe, I., 2006. Paleozoic and Mesozoic tectonic evolution and palaeogeography of East Asian crustal fragments: the Korean Peninsula in context. Gondwana Research, 9(1-2: 24–46. Moayyed, M. and Hossainzade, G., 2011. Petrology and petroghraphy of A- type Granitoides of the East-Misho Mountain with theory on its geodynamic importance. Journal of Mineralogy and Crystalography, 3(19: 529–544. (in Persian with English abstract Sun, S.S. and McDonough, W.F., 1989. Chemical and isotopic systematic of ocean basalts: implications for mantle composition and process. In: A

  10. Pleistocene lake level changes in Western Mongolia (United States)

    Borodavko, P. S.


    .Petersburg, Nauka, 304 p. 4. Tarasov, P.E., Harrison, S.P., Saarse, L., Pushenko, M.Ya., Andreev, A.A., Aleshinskaya, Z.V., Davydova, N.N., Dorofeyuk, N.I., Efremov, Yu.V., Khomutova, V.I., Sevastyanov, D.V., Tamosaitis, J., Dorofeyuk, N.I., Efremov, Yu.V., Khomutova, V.I., Sevastyanov, D.V., Tamosaitis, J.,Uspenskaya, O.N., Yakushko, O.F. and Tarasova, I.V., 1994. Lake status records from the Former Soviet Union and Mongolia: Data Base Documentation, World Data Center -A for Paleoclimatology NOAA Paleoclimatology Program, Paleoclimatology Publications Series Report No 2, Boulder, Colorado USA, 274 p. 5. Tserensodnom, Zh., 1971. Mongol orny Nuur. Ulaanbaatar, TUAH, 202 p. 6. Vipper, P., Dorofeyuk, N., Liiva, A., Meteltseva, E., and Sokolovskaya, V., 1981. Palaeogeography of the Central Mongolia during the upper Pleistocene and Holocene. Izv. Akad. Nauk ESSR, Ser. Biol., vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 74-82.

  11. Final results on the Jurassic-Cretaceous boundary in the Gresten Klippenbelt (Austria): Macro-, micro-, nannofossils, isotopes, geochemistry, susceptibility, gamma-log and palaeomagnetic data as environmental proxies of the early Penninic Ocean history (United States)

    Lukeneder, A.; Halásová, E.; Kroh, A.; Mayrhofer, S.; Pruner, P.; Reháková, D.; Schnabl, P.; Sprovieri, M.


    -6 SI and the intensity of the natural remanent magnetization (NRM) varies between 31 and 615×10-6 A/m. The samples display a two- to three-component remanence. The average sampling density for the whole section was around two samples per 1 m of true thickness of limestone strata in these preliminary results. The next step of investigation will be to precisely determine the boundaries of magnetozones M19 and M20 including narrow reverse subzones with the high resolution sampling density for the whole section. Stable isotope data (C, O, Sr). High-resolution reconstruction of the carbon cycle, by isotope stratigraphy, is the key for drawing conclusions on the palaeooceanography of the Nutzhof area. The approach using oxygen isotope analysis, by constraining diagenesis impacts, will yield a picture of the Lower Cretaceous palaeoclimatology here. The investigations on istopes will be rigorously linked and networked with measurements and results of cyclostratigraphy and lithostratigraphy. C-istopes are extremely important calibration tools between ammonoids and magnetostratigraphy (Henning et al. 1999). Cyclostratigraphy is crucial in comparing the lithologic appearance of different units and the carbon isotope records. A detailed cyclostratigraphic reconstruction of the record will be carried out by comparing (1) the results obtained by time series analysis of the collected faunal and isotope proxy records with (2) the reconstructed lithologic cycle patterns of the studied sedimentary sections. A first-order floating cyclostratigraphy will be refined using a tentative calibration of the record to the available numerical solutions of the insolation curve. This approach should provide an absolute age for the different stratigraphic events recognised throughout the record. Gamma-log and Geochemistry. We conducted geochemical analyses of the carbonate, sulphur and organic carbon content in the limestones and marls of the different lithological units. The gamma log measures the

  12. Braidplain, floodplain and playa lake, alluvial-fan, aeolian and palaeosol facies composing a diversified lithogenetical sequence in the permian and triassic of South Devon (England) (United States)

    Mader, Detlef

    and neoformation of mud during illuviation, conversion of colour to blue-violet by significant hematite growth and pedoturbation being frequently restricted to the initial stages or even being totally suppressed. Root tubes testify to the colonization of soils by vegetation. Crystallization of syngenetic carbonates in aeolian sands forming dikaka horizons is of considerable importance for enhancing their preservation potential by stabilization against both fluvial erosion and aeolian deflation. The coexistence of aeolian sands and calcrete palaeosols (in contrast to their mutually exclusive occurrence in the Upper Buntsandstein of the German Basin) is the result of the limited maturity of the pedogenic horizons with preservation of sandy matrix thus still permitting reasonable winnowing at least in parts of the depositional area, and restriction of atmospheric precipitation to shorter phases alternating with longer dry periods that allow desiccation of the surface and migration of aeolian bedforms. Bröckelbank carbonate breccias representing reworking horizons of calcrete palaeosols are indirect indicators of pedogenesis in the alluvial plain even in case of subsequently complete removal of in situ pedogenic features from the depositional record. Calcrete palaeosol formation overprints almost all the sedimentary units in the alluvial plain regardless of their composition, but is particularly frequent and well-developed in fluvial and aeolian substrates. The sequence of alluvial fans and fluvial braidplains with associated aeolian dune fields and intertonguing with fluvial floodplains to playa lakes in time and space, interrupted by various palaeotectonical and palaeoclimatological events, results in a very diversified depositional history in the Permian and Triassic part of the New Red Sandstone in South Devon.