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Sample records for hash function crush

  1. Cryptanalysis of an Iterated Halving-based hash function: CRUSH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagheri, Nasour; Henricksen, Matt; Knudsen, Lars Ramkilde

    2009-01-01

    Iterated Halving has been suggested as a replacement to the Merkle–Damgård (MD) construction in 2004 anticipating the attacks on the MDx family of hash functions. The CRUSH hash function provides a specific instantiation of the block cipher for Iterated Halving. The authors identify structural pr...

  2. Perceptual Audio Hashing Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emin Anarım

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Perceptual hash functions provide a tool for fast and reliable identification of content. We present new audio hash functions based on summarization of the time-frequency spectral characteristics of an audio document. The proposed hash functions are based on the periodicity series of the fundamental frequency and on singular-value description of the cepstral frequencies. They are found, on one hand, to perform very satisfactorily in identification and verification tests, and on the other hand, to be very resilient to a large variety of attacks. Moreover, we address the issue of security of hashes and propose a keying technique, and thereby a key-dependent hash function.

  3. The Grindahl Hash Functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Lars Ramkilde; Rechberger, Christian; Thomsen, Søren Steffen

    2007-01-01

    to the state. We propose two concrete hash functions, Grindahl-256 and Grindahl-512 with claimed security levels with respect to collision, preimage and second preimage attacks of 2^128 and 2^256, respectively. Both proposals have lower memory requirements than other hash functions at comparable speeds...

  4. The hash function BLAKE

    CERN Document Server

    Aumasson, Jean-Philippe; Phan, Raphael; Henzen, Luca

    2014-01-01

    This is a comprehensive description of the cryptographic hash function BLAKE, one of the five final contenders in the NIST SHA3 competition, and of BLAKE2, an improved version popular among developers. It describes how BLAKE was designed and why BLAKE2 was developed, and it offers guidelines on implementing and using BLAKE, with a focus on software implementation.   In the first two chapters, the authors offer a short introduction to cryptographic hashing, the SHA3 competition, and BLAKE. They review applications of cryptographic hashing, they describe some basic notions such as security de

  5. Cryptographic Hash Functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gauravaram, Praveen; Knudsen, Lars Ramkilde

    2010-01-01

    functions, also called message authentication codes (MACs) serve data integrity and data origin authentication in the secret key setting. The building blocks of hash functions can be designed using block ciphers, modular arithmetic or from scratch. The design principles of the popular Merkle...

  6. Proposals for Iterated Hash Functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Lars Ramkilde; Thomsen, Søren Steffen

    2008-01-01

    The past few years have seen an increase in the number of attacks on cryptographic hash functions. These include attacks directed at specific hash functions, and generic attacks on the typical method of constructing hash functions. In this paper we discuss possible methods for protecting against...... some generic attacks. We also give a concrete proposal for a new hash function construction, given a secure compression function which, unlike in typical existing constructions, is not required to be resistant to all types of collisions. Finally, we show how members of the SHA-family can be turned...

  7. Proposals for iterated hash functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Lars Ramkilde; Thomsen, Søren Steffen

    2006-01-01

    The past few years have seen an increase in the number of attacks on cryptographic hash functions. These include attacks directed at specific hash functions, and generic attacks on the typical method of constructing hash functions. In this paper we discuss possible methods for protecting against...... some generic attacks. We also give a concrete proposal for a new hash function construction, given a secure compression function which, unlike in typical existing constructions, is not required to be resistant to all types of collisions. Finally, we show how members of the SHA-family can be turned...

  8. On hash functions using checksums

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gauravaram, Praveen; Kelsey, John; Knudsen, Lars Ramkilde

    2010-01-01

    We analyse the security of iterated hash functions that compute an input dependent checksum which is processed as part of the hash computation. We show that a large class of such schemes, including those using non-linear or even one-way checksum functions, is not secure against the second preimag...

  9. On hash functions using checksums

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gauravaram, Praveen; Kelsey, John; Knudsen, Lars Ramkilde

    2008-01-01

    We analyse the security of iterated hash functions that compute an input dependent checksum which is processed as part of the hash computation. We show that a large class of such schemes, including those using non-linear or even one-way checksum functions, is not secure against the second preimag...

  10. Spongent: A lightweight hash function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogdanov, Andrey; Knežević, Miroslav; Leander, Gregor

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes spongent - a family of lightweight hash functions with hash sizes of 88 (for preimage resistance only), 128, 160, 224, and 256 bits based on a sponge construction instantiated with a present-type permutation, following the hermetic sponge strategy. Its smallest implementations...

  11. DEVELOPMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION OF HASH FUNCTION FOR GENERATING HASHED MESSAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Ghaeedi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Steganography is a method of sending confidential information in a way that the existence of the channel in this communication remains secret. A collaborative approach between steganography and digital signature provides a high secure hidden data. Unfortunately, there are wide varieties of attacks that affect the quality of image steganography. Two issues that required to be addressed are large size of the ciphered data in digital signature and high bandwidth. The aim of the research is to propose a new method for producing a dynamic hashed message algorithm in digital signature and then embedded into image for enhancing robustness of image steganography with reduced bandwidth. A digital signature with smaller hash size than other hash algorithms was developed for authentication purposes. A hash function is used in the digital signature generation. The encoder function encoded the hashed message to generate the digital signature and then embedded into an image as a stego-image. In enhancing the robustness of the digital signature, we compressed or encoded it or performed both operations before embedding the data into the image. This encryption algorithm is also computationally efficient whereby for messages with the sizes less than 1600 bytes, the hashed file reduced the original file up to 8.51%.

  12. The Usefulness of Multilevel Hash Tables with Multiple Hash Functions in Large Databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.T. Akinwale

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work, attempt is made to select three good hash functions which uniformly distribute hash values that permute their internal states and allow the input bits to generate different output bits. These functions are used in different levels of hash tables that are coded in Java Programming Language and a quite number of data records serve as primary data for testing the performances. The result shows that the two-level hash tables with three different hash functions give a superior performance over one-level hash table with two hash functions or zero-level hash table with one function in term of reducing the conflict keys and quick lookup for a particular element. The result assists to reduce the complexity of join operation in query language from O( n2 to O( 1 by placing larger query result, if any, in multilevel hash tables with multiple hash functions and generate shorter query result.

  13. Cryptanalysis of Tav-128 hash function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumar, Ashish; Sanadhya, Somitra Kumar; Gauravaram, Praveen

    2010-01-01

    Many RFID protocols use cryptographic hash functions for their security. The resource constrained nature of RFID systems forces the use of light weight cryptographic algorithms. Tav-128 is one such 128-bit light weight hash function proposed by Peris-Lopez et al. for a low-cost RFID tag authentic...

  14. Hash function based on chaotic map lattices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shihong; Hu, Gang

    2007-06-01

    A new hash function system, based on coupled chaotic map dynamics, is suggested. By combining floating point computation of chaos and some simple algebraic operations, the system reaches very high bit confusion and diffusion rates, and this enables the system to have desired statistical properties and strong collision resistance. The chaos-based hash function has its advantages for high security and fast performance, and it serves as one of the most highly competitive candidates for practical applications of hash function for software realization and secure information communications in computer networks.

  15. Cryptanalysis of Tav-128 hash function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Many RFID protocols use cryptographic hash functions for their security. The resource constrained nature of RFID systems forces the use of light weight cryptographic algorithms. Tav-128 is one such 128-bit light weight hash function proposed by Peris-Lopez et al. for a low-cost RFID tag...... authentication protocol. Apart from some statistical tests for randomness by the designers themselves, Tav-128 has not undergone any other thorough security analysis. Based on these tests, the designers claimed that Tav-128 does not posses any trivial weaknesses. In this article, we carry out the first third...... party security analysis of Tav-128 and show that this hash function is neither collision resistant nor second preimage resistant. Firstly, we show a practical collision attack on Tav-128 having a complexity of 237 calls to the compression function and produce message pairs of arbitrary length which...

  16. Incremental cryptography and security of public hash functions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An investigation of incremental algorithms for crytographic functions was initiated. The problem, for collision-free hashing, is to design a scheme for which there exists an efficient “update” algorithm: this algorithm is given the hash function H, the hash h = H(M) of message M and the “replacement request” (j, m), and outputs ...

  17. Parallel keyed hash function construction based on chaotic maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Di; Liao Xiaofeng; Deng Shaojiang

    2008-01-01

    Recently, a variety of chaos-based hash functions have been proposed. Nevertheless, none of them works efficiently in parallel computing environment. In this Letter, an algorithm for parallel keyed hash function construction is proposed, whose structure can ensure the uniform sensitivity of hash value to the message. By means of the mechanism of both changeable-parameter and self-synchronization, the keystream establishes a close relation with the algorithm key, the content and the order of each message block. The entire message is modulated into the chaotic iteration orbit, and the coarse-graining trajectory is extracted as the hash value. Theoretical analysis and computer simulation indicate that the proposed algorithm can satisfy the performance requirements of hash function. It is simple, efficient, practicable, and reliable. These properties make it a good choice for hash on parallel computing platform

  18. Chaos-based hash function (CBHF) for cryptographic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amin, Mohamed; Faragallah, Osama S.; Abd El-Latif, Ahmed A.

    2009-01-01

    As the core of cryptography, hash is the basic technique for information security. Many of the hash functions generate the message digest through a randomizing process of the original message. Subsequently, a chaos system also generates a random behavior, but at the same time a chaos system is completely deterministic. In this paper, an algorithm for one-way hash function construction based on chaos theory is introduced. Theoretical analysis and computer simulation indicate that the algorithm can satisfy all performance requirements of hash function in an efficient and flexible manner and secure against birthday attacks or meet-in-the-middle attacks, which is good choice for data integrity or authentication.

  19. Chaos-based hash function (CBHF) for cryptographic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amin, Mohamed [Dept. of Mathematics and Computer Science, Faculty of Science, Menoufia University, Shebin El-Koom 32511 (Egypt)], E-mail: mamin04@yahoo.com; Faragallah, Osama S. [Dept. of Computer Science and Engineering, Faculty of Electronic Engineering, Menoufia University, Menouf 32952 (Egypt)], E-mail: osam_sal@yahoo.com; Abd El-Latif, Ahmed A. [Dept. of Mathematics and Computer Science, Faculty of Science, Menoufia University, Shebin El-Koom 32511 (Egypt)], E-mail: ahmed_rahiem@yahoo.com

    2009-10-30

    As the core of cryptography, hash is the basic technique for information security. Many of the hash functions generate the message digest through a randomizing process of the original message. Subsequently, a chaos system also generates a random behavior, but at the same time a chaos system is completely deterministic. In this paper, an algorithm for one-way hash function construction based on chaos theory is introduced. Theoretical analysis and computer simulation indicate that the algorithm can satisfy all performance requirements of hash function in an efficient and flexible manner and secure against birthday attacks or meet-in-the-middle attacks, which is good choice for data integrity or authentication.

  20. Gene function prediction based on Gene Ontology Hierarchy Preserving Hashing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yingwen; Fu, Guangyuan; Wang, Jun; Guo, Maozu; Yu, Guoxian

    2018-02-23

    Gene Ontology (GO) uses structured vocabularies (or terms) to describe the molecular functions, biological roles, and cellular locations of gene products in a hierarchical ontology. GO annotations associate genes with GO terms and indicate the given gene products carrying out the biological functions described by the relevant terms. However, predicting correct GO annotations for genes from a massive set of GO terms as defined by GO is a difficult challenge. To combat with this challenge, we introduce a Gene Ontology Hierarchy Preserving Hashing (HPHash) based semantic method for gene function prediction. HPHash firstly measures the taxonomic similarity between GO terms. It then uses a hierarchy preserving hashing technique to keep the hierarchical order between GO terms, and to optimize a series of hashing functions to encode massive GO terms via compact binary codes. After that, HPHash utilizes these hashing functions to project the gene-term association matrix into a low-dimensional one and performs semantic similarity based gene function prediction in the low-dimensional space. Experimental results on three model species (Homo sapiens, Mus musculus and Rattus norvegicus) for interspecies gene function prediction show that HPHash performs better than other related approaches and it is robust to the number of hash functions. In addition, we also take HPHash as a plugin for BLAST based gene function prediction. From the experimental results, HPHash again significantly improves the prediction performance. The codes of HPHash are available at: http://mlda.swu.edu.cn/codes.php?name=HPHash. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Hash function based on piecewise nonlinear chaotic map

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhavan, A.; Samsudin, A.; Akhshani, A.

    2009-01-01

    Chaos-based cryptography appeared recently in the early 1990s as an original application of nonlinear dynamics in the chaotic regime. In this paper, an algorithm for one-way hash function construction based on piecewise nonlinear chaotic map with a variant probability parameter is proposed. Also the proposed algorithm is an attempt to present a new chaotic hash function based on multithreaded programming. In this chaotic scheme, the message is connected to the chaotic map using probability parameter and other parameters of chaotic map such as control parameter and initial condition, so that the generated hash value is highly sensitive to the message. Simulation results indicate that the proposed algorithm presented several interesting features, such as high flexibility, good statistical properties, high key sensitivity and message sensitivity. These properties make the scheme a suitable choice for practical applications.

  2. Hash function construction using weighted complex dynamical networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Yu-Rong; Jiang Guo-Ping

    2013-01-01

    A novel scheme to construct a hash function based on a weighted complex dynamical network (WCDN) generated from an original message is proposed in this paper. First, the original message is divided into blocks. Then, each block is divided into components, and the nodes and weighted edges are well defined from these components and their relations. Namely, the WCDN closely related to the original message is established. Furthermore, the node dynamics of the WCDN are chosen as a chaotic map. After chaotic iterations, quantization and exclusive-or operations, the fixed-length hash value is obtained. This scheme has the property that any tiny change in message can be diffused rapidly through the WCDN, leading to very different hash values. Analysis and simulation show that the scheme possesses good statistical properties, excellent confusion and diffusion, strong collision resistance and high efficiency. (general)

  3. Final report for LDRD Project 93633 : new hash function for data protection.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Draelos, Timothy John; Dautenhahn, Nathan; Schroeppel, Richard Crabtree; Tolk, Keith Michael; Orman, Hilarie (PurpleStreak, Inc.); Walker, Andrea Mae; Malone, Sean; Lee, Eric; Neumann, William Douglas; Cordwell, William R.; Torgerson, Mark Dolan; Anderson, Eric; Lanzone, Andrew J.; Collins, Michael Joseph; McDonald, Timothy Scott; Caskey, Susan Adele

    2009-03-01

    The security of the widely-used cryptographic hash function SHA1 has been impugned. We have developed two replacement hash functions. The first, SHA1X, is a drop-in replacement for SHA1. The second, SANDstorm, has been submitted as a candidate to the NIST-sponsored SHA3 Hash Function competition.

  4. Practical Attacks on AES-like Cryptographic Hash Functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kölbl, Stefan; Rechberger, Christian

    2015-01-01

    to drastically reduce the complexity of attacks to very practical values for reduced-round versions. Furthermore, we describe new and practical attacks on Whirlpool and the recently proposed GOST R hash function with one or more of the following properties: more rounds, less time/memory complexity, and more...

  5. The FPGA realization of the general cellular automata based cryptographic hash functions: Performance and effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. G. Klyucharev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper the author considers hardware implementation of the GRACE-H family general cellular automata based cryptographic hash functions. VHDL is used as a language and Altera FPGA as a platform for hardware implementation. Performance and effectiveness of the FPGA implementations of GRACE-H hash functions were compared with Keccak (SHA-3, SHA-256, BLAKE, Groestl, JH, Skein hash functions. According to the performed tests, performance of the hardware implementation of GRACE-H family hash functions significantly (up to 12 times exceeded performance of the hardware implementation of previously known hash functions, and effectiveness of that hardware implementation was also better (up to 4 times.

  6. Remarks on Gödel's Code as a Hash Function

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mikuš, M.; Savický, Petr

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 3 (2010), s. 67-80 ISSN 1210-3195 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP202/10/1333 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : Gödel numbering function * hash function * rational reconstruction * integer relation algorithm Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics http://www.sav.sk/journals/uploads/0317151904m-s.pdf

  7. Improving the security of a parallel keyed hash function based on chaotic maps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao Di, E-mail: xiaodi_cqu@hotmail.co [College of Computer Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Liao Xiaofeng [College of Computer Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Wang Yong [College of Computer Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China)] [College of Economy and Management, Chongqing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Chongqing 400065 (China)

    2009-11-23

    In this Letter, we analyze the cause of vulnerability of the original parallel keyed hash function based on chaotic maps in detail, and then propose the corresponding enhancement measures. Theoretical analysis and computer simulation indicate that the modified hash function is more secure than the original one. At the same time, it can keep the parallel merit and satisfy the other performance requirements of hash function.

  8. Improving the security of a parallel keyed hash function based on chaotic maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Di; Liao Xiaofeng; Wang Yong

    2009-01-01

    In this Letter, we analyze the cause of vulnerability of the original parallel keyed hash function based on chaotic maps in detail, and then propose the corresponding enhancement measures. Theoretical analysis and computer simulation indicate that the modified hash function is more secure than the original one. At the same time, it can keep the parallel merit and satisfy the other performance requirements of hash function.

  9. Collision analysis of one kind of chaos-based hash function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Di; Peng Wenbing; Liao Xiaofeng; Xiang Tao

    2010-01-01

    In the last decade, various chaos-based hash functions have been proposed. Nevertheless, the corresponding analyses of them lag far behind. In this Letter, we firstly take a chaos-based hash function proposed very recently in Amin, Faragallah and Abd El-Latif (2009) as a sample to analyze its computational collision problem, and then generalize the construction method of one kind of chaos-based hash function and summarize some attentions to avoid the collision problem. It is beneficial to the hash function design based on chaos in the future.

  10. One-way hash function construction based on the spatiotemporal chaotic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Yu-Ling; Du Ming-Hui

    2012-01-01

    Based on the spatiotemporal chaotic system, a novel algorithm for constructing a one-way hash function is proposed and analysed. The message is divided into fixed length blocks. Each message block is processed by the hash compression function in parallel. The hash compression is constructed based on the spatiotemporal chaos. In each message block, the ASCII code and its position in the whole message block chain constitute the initial conditions and the key of the hash compression function. The final hash value is generated by further compressing the mixed result of all the hash compression values. Theoretic analyses and numerical simulations show that the proposed algorithm presents high sensitivity to the message and key, good statistical properties, and strong collision resistance. (general)

  11. One-way hash function based on hyper-chaotic cellular neural network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Qunting; Gao Tiegang

    2008-01-01

    The design of an efficient one-way hash function with good performance is a hot spot in modern cryptography researches. In this paper, a hash function construction method based on cell neural network with hyper-chaos characteristics is proposed. First, the chaos sequence is gotten by iterating cellular neural network with Runge–Kutta algorithm, and then the chaos sequence is iterated with the message. The hash code is obtained through the corresponding transform of the latter chaos sequence. Simulation and analysis demonstrate that the new method has the merit of convenience, high sensitivity to initial values, good hash performance, especially the strong stability. (general)

  12. Cryptanalysis of the 10-Round Hash and Full Compression Function of SHAvite-3-512

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gauravaram, Praveen; Leurent, Gaëtan; Mendel, Florian

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze SHAvite-3-512 hash function, as proposed for round 2 of the SHA-3 competition. We present cryptanalytic results on 10 out of 14 rounds of the hash function SHAvite-3-512, and on the full 14 round compression function of SHAvite-3-512. We show a second preimage attack on ...

  13. Cryptanalysis of Lin et al.'s Efficient Block-Cipher-Based Hash Function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Bozhong; Gong, Zheng; Chen, Xiaohong; Qiu, Weidong; Zheng, Dong

    2010-01-01

    Hash functions are widely used in authentication. In this paper, the security of Lin et al.'s efficient block-cipher-based hash function is reviewed. By using Joux's multicollisions and Kelsey et al.'s expandable message techniques, we find the scheme is vulnerable to collision, preimage and second

  14. Authentication codes from ε-ASU hash functions with partially secret keys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, S.L.; Tilborg, van H.C.A.; Weng, J.; Chen, Kefei

    2014-01-01

    An authentication code can be constructed with a family of e-Almost strong universal (e-ASU) hash functions, with the index of hash functions as the authentication key. This paper considers the performance of authentication codes from e-ASU, when the authentication key is only partially secret. We

  15. The suffix-free-prefix-free hash function construction and its indifferentiability security analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagheri, Nasour; Gauravaram, Praveen; Knudsen, Lars R.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we observe that in the seminal work on indifferentiability analysis of iterated hash functions by Coron et al. and in subsequent works, the initial value $$(IV)$$ of hash functions is fixed. In addition, these indifferentiability results do not depend on the Merkle–Damgård (MD) str...

  16. A novel method for one-way hash function construction based on spatiotemporal chaos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren Haijun; Wang Yong; Xie Qing; Yang Huaqian

    2009-01-01

    A novel hash algorithm based on a spatiotemporal chaos is proposed. The original message is first padded with zeros if needed. Then it is divided into a number of blocks each contains 32 bytes. In the hashing process, each block is partitioned into eight 32-bit values and input into the spatiotemporal chaotic system. Then, after iterating the system for four times, the next block is processed by the same way. To enhance the confusion and diffusion effect, the cipher block chaining (CBC) mode is adopted in the algorithm. The hash value is obtained from the final state value of the spatiotemporal chaotic system. Theoretic analyses and numerical simulations both show that the proposed hash algorithm possesses good statistical properties, strong collision resistance and high efficiency, as required by practical keyed hash functions.

  17. A novel method for one-way hash function construction based on spatiotemporal chaos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren Haijun [College of Software Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); State Key Laboratory of Power Transmission Equipment and System Security and New Technology, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China)], E-mail: jhren@cqu.edu.cn; Wang Yong; Xie Qing [Key Laboratory of Electronic Commerce and Logistics of Chongqing, Chongqing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Chongqing 400065 (China); Yang Huaqian [Department of Computer and Modern Education Technology, Chongqing Education of College, Chongqing 400067 (China)

    2009-11-30

    A novel hash algorithm based on a spatiotemporal chaos is proposed. The original message is first padded with zeros if needed. Then it is divided into a number of blocks each contains 32 bytes. In the hashing process, each block is partitioned into eight 32-bit values and input into the spatiotemporal chaotic system. Then, after iterating the system for four times, the next block is processed by the same way. To enhance the confusion and diffusion effect, the cipher block chaining (CBC) mode is adopted in the algorithm. The hash value is obtained from the final state value of the spatiotemporal chaotic system. Theoretic analyses and numerical simulations both show that the proposed hash algorithm possesses good statistical properties, strong collision resistance and high efficiency, as required by practical keyed hash functions.

  18. On Randomizing Hash Functions to Strengthen the Security of Digital Signatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halevi and Krawczyk proposed a message randomization algorithm called RMX as a front-end tool to the hash-then-sign digital signature schemes such as DSS and RSA in order to free their reliance on the collision resistance property of the hash functions. They have shown that to forge a RMX-hash-th...... that use Davies-Meyer schemes and a variant of RMX published by NIST in its Draft Special Publication (SP) 800-106. We discuss some important applications of our attack....

  19. On randomizing hash functions to strengthen the security of digital signatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gauravaram, Praveen; Knudsen, Lars Ramkilde

    2009-01-01

    Halevi and Krawczyk proposed a message randomization algorithm called RMX as a front-end tool to the hash-then-sign digital signature schemes such as DSS and RSA in order to free their reliance on the collision resistance property of the hash functions. They have shown that to forge a RMX-hash-th...... schemes that use Davies-Meyer schemes and a variant of RMX published by NIST in its Draft Special Publication (SP) 800-106. We discuss some important applications of our attack....

  20. Constructing a one-way hash function based on the unified chaotic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long Min; Peng Fei; Chen Guanrong

    2008-01-01

    A new one-way hash function based on the unified chaotic system is constructed. With different values of a key parameter, the unified chaotic system represents different chaotic systems, based on which the one-way hash function algorithm is constructed with three round operations and an initial vector on an input message. In each round operation, the parameters are processed by three different chaotic systems generated from the unified chaotic system. Feed-forwards are used at the end of each round operation and at the end of each element of the message processing. Meanwhile, in each round operation, parameter-exchanging operations are implemented. Then, the hash value of length 160 bits is obtained from the last six parameters. Simulation and analysis both demonstrate that the algorithm has great flexibility, satisfactory hash performance, weak collision property, and high security. (general)

  1. One-way hash function construction based on chaotic map network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Huaqian; Wong, K.-W.; Liao Xiaofeng; Wang Yong; Yang Degang

    2009-01-01

    A novel chaotic hash algorithm based on a network structure formed by 16 chaotic maps is proposed. The original message is first padded with zeros to make the length a multiple of four. Then it is divided into a number of blocks each contains 4 bytes. In the hashing process, the blocks are mixed together by the chaotic map network since the initial value and the control parameter of each tent map are dynamically determined by the output of its neighbors. To enhance the confusion and diffusion effect, the cipher block chaining (CBC) mode is adopted in the algorithm. Theoretic analyses and numerical simulations both show that the proposed hash algorithm possesses good statistical properties, strong collision resistance and high flexibility, as required by practical keyed hash functions.

  2. Cache-Oblivious Hashing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagh, Rasmus; Wei, Zhewei; Yi, Ke

    2014-01-01

    The hash table, especially its external memory version, is one of the most important index structures in large databases. Assuming a truly random hash function, it is known that in a standard external hash table with block size b, searching for a particular key only takes expected average t q =1...

  3. Internal differential collision attacks on the reduced-round Grøstl-0 hash function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ideguchi, Kota; Tischhauser, Elmar Wolfgang; Preneel, Bart

    2014-01-01

    . This results in collision attacks and semi-free-start collision attacks on the Grøstl-0 hash function and compression function with reduced rounds. Specifically, we show collision attacks on the Grøstl-0-256 hash function reduced to 5 and 6 out of 10 rounds with time complexities 248 and 2112 and on the Grøstl......-0-512 hash function reduced to 6 out of 14 rounds with time complexity 2183. Furthermore, we demonstrate semi-free-start collision attacks on the Grøstl-0-256 compression function reduced to 8 rounds and the Grøstl-0-512 compression function reduced to 9 rounds. Finally, we show improved...

  4. One-way Hash function construction based on the chaotic map with changeable-parameter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Di; Liao Xiaofeng; Deng Shaojiang

    2005-01-01

    An algorithm for one-way Hash function construction based on the chaotic map with changeable-parameter is proposed in this paper. A piecewise linear chaotic map with changeable-parameter P is chosen, and cipher block chaining mode (CBC) is introduced to ensure that the parameter P in each iteration is dynamically decided by the last-time iteration value and the corresponding message bit in different positions. The final Hash value is obtained by means of the linear transform on the iteration sequence. Theoretical analysis and computer simulation indicate that our algorithm can satisfy all the performance requirements of Hash function in an efficient and flexible manner. It is practicable and reliable, with high potential to be adopted for E-commerce

  5. One-way Hash function construction based on the chaotic map with changeable-parameter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao Di [College of Computer Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China) and College of Mechanical Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China)]. E-mail: xiaodi_cqu@hotmail.com; Liao Xiaofeng [College of Computer Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China)]. E-mail: xfliao@cqu.edu.cn; Deng Shaojiang [College of Computer Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China)

    2005-04-01

    An algorithm for one-way Hash function construction based on the chaotic map with changeable-parameter is proposed in this paper. A piecewise linear chaotic map with changeable-parameter P is chosen, and cipher block chaining mode (CBC) is introduced to ensure that the parameter P in each iteration is dynamically decided by the last-time iteration value and the corresponding message bit in different positions. The final Hash value is obtained by means of the linear transform on the iteration sequence. Theoretical analysis and computer simulation indicate that our algorithm can satisfy all the performance requirements of Hash function in an efficient and flexible manner. It is practicable and reliable, with high potential to be adopted for E-commerce.

  6. Rebound Attacks on the Reduced Grøstl Hash Function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mendel, Florian; Rechberger, C.; Schlaffer, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Grøstl is one of 14 second round candidates of the NIST SHA-3 competition. Cryptanalytic results on the wide-pipe compression function of Grøstl-256 have already been published. However, little is known about the hash function, arguably a much more interesting cryptanalytic setting. Also, Grøstl...

  7. Construction of secure and fast hash functions using nonbinary error-correcting codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Lars Ramkilde; Preneel, Bart

    2002-01-01

    constructions based on block ciphers such as the Data Encryption Standard (DES), where the key size is slightly smaller than the block size; IDEA, where the key size is twice the block size; Advanced Encryption Standard (AES), with a variable key size; and to MD4-like hash functions. Under reasonable...

  8. Security analysis of a one-way hash function based on spatiotemporal chaos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Shi-Hong; Shan Peng-Yang

    2011-01-01

    The collision and statistical properties of a one-way hash function based on spatiotemporal chaos are investigated. Analysis and simulation results indicate that collisions exist in the original algorithm and, therefore, the original algorithm is insecure and vulnerable. An improved algorithm is proposed to avoid the collisions. (general)

  9. Quantum Hash function and its application to privacy amplification in quantum key distribution, pseudo-random number generation and image encryption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yu-Guang; Xu, Peng; Yang, Rui; Zhou, Yi-Hua; Shi, Wei-Min

    2016-01-01

    Quantum information and quantum computation have achieved a huge success during the last years. In this paper, we investigate the capability of quantum Hash function, which can be constructed by subtly modifying quantum walks, a famous quantum computation model. It is found that quantum Hash function can act as a hash function for the privacy amplification process of quantum key distribution systems with higher security. As a byproduct, quantum Hash function can also be used for pseudo-random number generation due to its inherent chaotic dynamics. Further we discuss the application of quantum Hash function to image encryption and propose a novel image encryption algorithm. Numerical simulations and performance comparisons show that quantum Hash function is eligible for privacy amplification in quantum key distribution, pseudo-random number generation and image encryption in terms of various hash tests and randomness tests. It extends the scope of application of quantum computation and quantum information.

  10. Quantum Hash function and its application to privacy amplification in quantum key distribution, pseudo-random number generation and image encryption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yu-Guang; Xu, Peng; Yang, Rui; Zhou, Yi-Hua; Shi, Wei-Min

    2016-01-01

    Quantum information and quantum computation have achieved a huge success during the last years. In this paper, we investigate the capability of quantum Hash function, which can be constructed by subtly modifying quantum walks, a famous quantum computation model. It is found that quantum Hash function can act as a hash function for the privacy amplification process of quantum key distribution systems with higher security. As a byproduct, quantum Hash function can also be used for pseudo-random number generation due to its inherent chaotic dynamics. Further we discuss the application of quantum Hash function to image encryption and propose a novel image encryption algorithm. Numerical simulations and performance comparisons show that quantum Hash function is eligible for privacy amplification in quantum key distribution, pseudo-random number generation and image encryption in terms of various hash tests and randomness tests. It extends the scope of application of quantum computation and quantum information. PMID:26823196

  11. Efficient computation of hashes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopes, Raul H C; Franqueira, Virginia N L; Hobson, Peter R

    2014-01-01

    The sequential computation of hashes at the core of many distributed storage systems and found, for example, in grid services can hinder efficiency in service quality and even pose security challenges that can only be addressed by the use of parallel hash tree modes. The main contributions of this paper are, first, the identification of several efficiency and security challenges posed by the use of sequential hash computation based on the Merkle-Damgard engine. In addition, alternatives for the parallel computation of hash trees are discussed, and a prototype for a new parallel implementation of the Keccak function, the SHA-3 winner, is introduced.

  12. Analysis and Implementation of Cryptographic Hash Functions in Programmable Logic Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tautvydas Brukštus

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this day’s world, more and more focused on data pro-tection. For data protection using cryptographic science. It is also important for the safe storage of passwords for this uses a cryp-tographic hash function. In this article has been selected the SHA-256 cryptographic hash function to implement and explore, based on fact that it is now a popular and safe. SHA-256 cryp-tographic function did not find any theoretical gaps or conflict situations. Also SHA-256 cryptographic hash function used cryptographic currencies. Currently cryptographic currency is popular and their value is high. For the measurements have been chosen programmable logic integrated circuits as they less effi-ciency then ASIC. We chose Altera Corporation produced prog-rammable logic integrated circuits. Counting speed will be inves-tigated by three programmable logic integrated circuit. We will use programmable logic integrated circuits belong to the same family, but different generations. Each programmable logic integ-rated circuit made using different dimension technology. Choo-sing these programmable logic integrated circuits: EP3C16, EP4CE115 and 5CSEMA5F31. To compare calculations perfor-mances parameters are provided in the tables and graphs. Re-search show the calculation speed and stability of different prog-rammable logic circuits.

  13. Cryptanalysis on a parallel keyed hash function based on chaotic maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Wei; Wang Xiaoming; He Dake; Cao Yang

    2009-01-01

    This Letter analyzes the security of a novel parallel keyed hash function based on chaotic maps, proposed by Xiao et al. to improve the efficiency in parallel computing environment. We show how to devise forgery attacks on Xiao's scheme with differential cryptanalysis and give the experiment results of two kinds of forgery attacks firstly. Furthermore, we discuss the problem of weak keys in the scheme and demonstrate how to utilize weak keys to construct collision.

  14. Cryptographic quantum hashing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ablayev, F. M.; Vasiliev, A. V.

    2014-02-01

    We present a version of quantum hash functions based on non-binary discrete functions. The proposed quantum procedure is ‘classical-quantum’, that is, it takes a classical bit string as an input and produces a quantum state. The resulting function has the property of a one-way function (pre-image resistance); in addition it has properties analogous to classical cryptographic hash second pre-image resistance and collision resistance. We also show that the proposed function can be naturally used in a quantum digital signature protocol.

  15. Cryptographic quantum hashing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ablayev, F M; Vasiliev, A V

    2014-01-01

    We present a version of quantum hash functions based on non-binary discrete functions. The proposed quantum procedure is ‘classical-quantum’, that is, it takes a classical bit string as an input and produces a quantum state. The resulting function has the property of a one-way function (pre-image resistance); in addition it has properties analogous to classical cryptographic hash second pre-image resistance and collision resistance. We also show that the proposed function can be naturally used in a quantum digital signature protocol. (letter)

  16. An Access Control Protocol for Wireless Sensor Network Using Double Trapdoor Chameleon Hash Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tejeshwari Thakur

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor network (WSN, a type of communication system, is normally deployed into the unattended environment where the intended user can get access to the network. The sensor nodes collect data from this environment. If the data are valuable and confidential, then security measures are needed to protect them from the unauthorized access. This situation requires an access control protocol (ACP in the design of sensor network because of sensor nodes which are vulnerable to various malicious attacks during the authentication and key establishment and the new node addition phase. In this paper, we propose a secured ACP for such WSN. This protocol is based on Elliptic Curve Discrete Log Problem (ECDLP and double trapdoor chameleon hash function which secures the WSN from malicious attacks such as node masquerading attack, replay attack, man-in-the-middle attack, and forgery attacks. Proposed ACP has a special feature known as session key security. Also, the proposed ACP is more efficient as it requires only one modular multiplication during the initialization phase.

  17. A Robust and Effective Smart-Card-Based Remote User Authentication Mechanism Using Hash Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odelu, Vanga; Goswami, Adrijit

    2014-01-01

    In a remote user authentication scheme, a remote server verifies whether a login user is genuine and trustworthy, and also for mutual authentication purpose a login user validates whether the remote server is genuine and trustworthy. Several remote user authentication schemes using the password, the biometrics, and the smart card have been proposed in the literature. However, most schemes proposed in the literature are either computationally expensive or insecure against several known attacks. In this paper, we aim to propose a new robust and effective password-based remote user authentication scheme using smart card. Our scheme is efficient, because our scheme uses only efficient one-way hash function and bitwise XOR operations. Through the rigorous informal and formal security analysis, we show that our scheme is secure against possible known attacks. We perform the simulation for the formal security analysis using the widely accepted AVISPA (Automated Validation Internet Security Protocols and Applications) tool to ensure that our scheme is secure against passive and active attacks. Furthermore, our scheme supports efficiently the password change phase always locally without contacting the remote server and correctly. In addition, our scheme performs significantly better than other existing schemes in terms of communication, computational overheads, security, and features provided by our scheme. PMID:24892078

  18. A Robust and Effective Smart-Card-Based Remote User Authentication Mechanism Using Hash Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Kumar Das

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In a remote user authentication scheme, a remote server verifies whether a login user is genuine and trustworthy, and also for mutual authentication purpose a login user validates whether the remote server is genuine and trustworthy. Several remote user authentication schemes using the password, the biometrics, and the smart card have been proposed in the literature. However, most schemes proposed in the literature are either computationally expensive or insecure against several known attacks. In this paper, we aim to propose a new robust and effective password-based remote user authentication scheme using smart card. Our scheme is efficient, because our scheme uses only efficient one-way hash function and bitwise XOR operations. Through the rigorous informal and formal security analysis, we show that our scheme is secure against possible known attacks. We perform the simulation for the formal security analysis using the widely accepted AVISPA (Automated Validation Internet Security Protocols and Applications tool to ensure that our scheme is secure against passive and active attacks. Furthermore, our scheme supports efficiently the password change phase always locally without contacting the remote server and correctly. In addition, our scheme performs significantly better than other existing schemes in terms of communication, computational overheads, security, and features provided by our scheme.

  19. A robust and effective smart-card-based remote user authentication mechanism using hash function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Ashok Kumar; Odelu, Vanga; Goswami, Adrijit

    2014-01-01

    In a remote user authentication scheme, a remote server verifies whether a login user is genuine and trustworthy, and also for mutual authentication purpose a login user validates whether the remote server is genuine and trustworthy. Several remote user authentication schemes using the password, the biometrics, and the smart card have been proposed in the literature. However, most schemes proposed in the literature are either computationally expensive or insecure against several known attacks. In this paper, we aim to propose a new robust and effective password-based remote user authentication scheme using smart card. Our scheme is efficient, because our scheme uses only efficient one-way hash function and bitwise XOR operations. Through the rigorous informal and formal security analysis, we show that our scheme is secure against possible known attacks. We perform the simulation for the formal security analysis using the widely accepted AVISPA (Automated Validation Internet Security Protocols and Applications) tool to ensure that our scheme is secure against passive and active attacks. Furthermore, our scheme supports efficiently the password change phase always locally without contacting the remote server and correctly. In addition, our scheme performs significantly better than other existing schemes in terms of communication, computational overheads, security, and features provided by our scheme.

  20. An enhanced biometric authentication scheme for telecare medicine information systems with nonce using chaotic hash function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Ashok Kumar; Goswami, Adrijit

    2014-06-01

    Recently, Awasthi and Srivastava proposed a novel biometric remote user authentication scheme for the telecare medicine information system (TMIS) with nonce. Their scheme is very efficient as it is based on efficient chaotic one-way hash function and bitwise XOR operations. In this paper, we first analyze Awasthi-Srivastava's scheme and then show that their scheme has several drawbacks: (1) incorrect password change phase, (2) fails to preserve user anonymity property, (3) fails to establish a secret session key beween a legal user and the server, (4) fails to protect strong replay attack, and (5) lacks rigorous formal security analysis. We then a propose a novel and secure biometric-based remote user authentication scheme in order to withstand the security flaw found in Awasthi-Srivastava's scheme and enhance the features required for an idle user authentication scheme. Through the rigorous informal and formal security analysis, we show that our scheme is secure against possible known attacks. In addition, we simulate our scheme for the formal security verification using the widely-accepted AVISPA (Automated Validation of Internet Security Protocols and Applications) tool and show that our scheme is secure against passive and active attacks, including the replay and man-in-the-middle attacks. Our scheme is also efficient as compared to Awasthi-Srivastava's scheme.

  1. Refined repetitive sequence searches utilizing a fast hash function and cross species information retrievals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reneker Jeff

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Searching for small tandem/disperse repetitive DNA sequences streamlines many biomedical research processes. For instance, whole genomic array analysis in yeast has revealed 22 PHO-regulated genes. The promoter regions of all but one of them contain at least one of the two core Pho4p binding sites, CACGTG and CACGTT. In humans, microsatellites play a role in a number of rare neurodegenerative diseases such as spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 (SCA1. SCA1 is a hereditary neurodegenerative disease caused by an expanded CAG repeat in the coding sequence of the gene. In bacterial pathogens, microsatellites are proposed to regulate expression of some virulence factors. For example, bacteria commonly generate intra-strain diversity through phase variation which is strongly associated with virulence determinants. A recent analysis of the complete sequences of the Helicobacter pylori strains 26695 and J99 has identified 46 putative phase-variable genes among the two genomes through their association with homopolymeric tracts and dinucleotide repeats. Life scientists are increasingly interested in studying the function of small sequences of DNA. However, current search algorithms often generate thousands of matches – most of which are irrelevant to the researcher. Results We present our hash function as well as our search algorithm to locate small sequences of DNA within multiple genomes. Our system applies information retrieval algorithms to discover knowledge of cross-species conservation of repeat sequences. We discuss our incorporation of the Gene Ontology (GO database into these algorithms. We conduct an exhaustive time analysis of our system for various repetitive sequence lengths. For instance, a search for eight bases of sequence within 3.224 GBases on 49 different chromosomes takes 1.147 seconds on average. To illustrate the relevance of the search results, we conduct a search with and without added annotation terms for the

  2. Structure Sensitive Hashing With Adaptive Product Quantization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xianglong; Du, Bowen; Deng, Cheng; Liu, Ming; Lang, Bo

    2016-10-01

    Hashing has been proved as an attractive solution to approximate nearest neighbor search, owing to its theoretical guarantee and computational efficiency. Though most of prior hashing algorithms can achieve low memory and computation consumption by pursuing compact hash codes, however, they are still far beyond the capability of learning discriminative hash functions from the data with complex inherent structure among them. To address this issue, in this paper, we propose a structure sensitive hashing based on cluster prototypes, which explicitly exploits both global and local structures. An alternating optimization algorithm, respectively, minimizing the quantization loss and spectral embedding loss, is presented to simultaneously discover the cluster prototypes for each hash function, and optimally assign unique binary codes to them satisfying the affinity alignment between them. For hash codes of a desired length, an adaptive bit assignment is further appended to the product quantization of the subspaces, approximating the Hamming distances and meanwhile balancing the variance among hash functions. Experimental results on four large-scale benchmarks CIFAR-10, NUS-WIDE, SIFT1M, and GIST1M demonstrate that our approach significantly outperforms state-of-the-art hashing methods in terms of semantic and metric neighbor search.

  3. Celecoxib accelerates functional recovery after sciatic nerve crush in the rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández-Garza Nancy E

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The inflammatory response appears to be essential in the modulation of the degeneration and regeneration process after peripheral nerve injury. In injured nerves, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 is strongly upregulated around the injury site, possibly playing a role in the regulation of the inflammatory response. In this study we investigated the effect of celecoxib, a COX-2 inhibitor, on functional recovery after sciatic nerve crush in rats. Unilateral sciatic nerve crush injury was performed on 10 male Wistar rats. Animals on the experimental group (n = 5 received celecoxib (10 mg/kg ip immediately before the crush injury and daily for 7 days after the injury. Control group (n = 5 received normal saline at equal regimen. A sham group (n = 5, where sciatic nerve was exposed but not crushed, was also evaluated. Functional recovery was then assessed by calculating the sciatic functional index (SFI on days 0,1,7,14 and 21 in all groups, and registering the day of motor and walking onset. In comparison with control group, celecoxib treatment (experimental group had significant beneficial effects on SFI, with a significantly better score on day 7. Anti-inflammatory drug celecoxib should be considered in the treatment of peripheral nerve injuries, but further studies are needed to explain the mechanism of its neuroprotective effects.

  4. Large-Scale Unsupervised Hashing with Shared Structure Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xianglong; Mu, Yadong; Zhang, Danchen; Lang, Bo; Li, Xuelong

    2015-09-01

    Hashing methods are effective in generating compact binary signatures for images and videos. This paper addresses an important open issue in the literature, i.e., how to learn compact hash codes by enhancing the complementarity among different hash functions. Most of prior studies solve this problem either by adopting time-consuming sequential learning algorithms or by generating the hash functions which are subject to some deliberately-designed constraints (e.g., enforcing hash functions orthogonal to one another). We analyze the drawbacks of past works and propose a new solution to this problem. Our idea is to decompose the feature space into a subspace shared by all hash functions and its complementary subspace. On one hand, the shared subspace, corresponding to the common structure across different hash functions, conveys most relevant information for the hashing task. Similar to data de-noising, irrelevant information is explicitly suppressed during hash function generation. On the other hand, in case that the complementary subspace also contains useful information for specific hash functions, the final form of our proposed hashing scheme is a compromise between these two kinds of subspaces. To make hash functions not only preserve the local neighborhood structure but also capture the global cluster distribution of the whole data, an objective function incorporating spectral embedding loss, binary quantization loss, and shared subspace contribution is introduced to guide the hash function learning. We propose an efficient alternating optimization method to simultaneously learn both the shared structure and the hash functions. Experimental results on three well-known benchmarks CIFAR-10, NUS-WIDE, and a-TRECVID demonstrate that our approach significantly outperforms state-of-the-art hashing methods.

  5. Hash3: Proofs, Analysis and Implementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gauravaram, Praveen

    2009-01-01

    This report outlines the talks presented at the winter school on Hash3: Proofs, Analysis, and Implementation, ECRYPT II Event on Hash Functions. In general, speakers may not write everything what they talk on the slides. So, this report also outlines such findings following the understanding of t...

  6. Meet-in-the-Middle Preimage Attacks on Hash Modes of Generalized Feistel and Misty Schemes with SP Round Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Dukjae; Hong, Deukjo; Kwon, Daesung; Hong, Seokhie

    We assume that the domain extender is the Merkle-Damgård (MD) scheme and he message is padded by a ‘1’, and minimum number of ‘0’s, followed by a fixed size length information so that the length of padded message is multiple of block length. Under this assumption, we analyze securities of the hash mode when the compression function follows the Davies-Meyer (DM) scheme and the underlying block cipher is one of the plain Feistel or Misty scheme or the generalized Feistel or Misty schemes with Substitution-Permutation (SP) round function. We do this work based on Meet-in-the-Middle (MitM) preimage attack techniques, and develop several useful initial structures.

  7. Fast and powerful hashing using tabulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorup, Mikkel

    2017-01-01

    Randomized algorithms are often enjoyed for their simplicity, but the hash functions employed to yield the desired probabilistic guarantees are often too complicated to be practical. Here, we survey recent results on how simple hashing schemes based on tabulation provide unexpectedly strong......, linear probing and Cuckoo hashing. Next, we consider twisted tabulation where one input character is "twisted" in a simple way. The resulting hash function has powerful distributional properties: Chernoffstyle tail bounds and a very small bias for minwise hashing. This is also yields an extremely fast...... pseudorandom number generator that is provably good for many classic randomized algorithms and data-structures. Finally, we consider double tabulation where we compose two simple tabulation functions, applying one to the output of the other, and show that this yields very high independence in the classic...

  8. Whole and crushed nutlets of chia (Salvia hispanica from Mexico as a source of functional gums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maira Segura-Campos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to characterize the chemical and functional properties of Mexican chia (Salvia hispanica gums extracted from defatted whole and crushed nutlets using the Soxhlet and SFE-CO2 methods. Chia gums have interesting chemical and functional properties for the food industry. The oil and gum yields were in the range of 1.98-16.42% and 5.81-12.60%, respectively. The defatting procedure did not affect significantly the oil and gum extraction; the nutlet type (whole or crushed was the only parameter influencing the yield. The proximate composition and the protein and fiber contents of chia gum were evaluated. Low contents of protein and fiber and high NFE levels were found in whole nutlet gums. The functional properties of chia gum extracted from whole and crushed nutlets with the Soxhlet and SFE-COs methods showed the following ranges of water absorption capacity of 62.64 to 143.66 g/g, water adsorption capacity of 0.69 to 1.35 g/g, and water and oil holding capacity of 100 to 149.28 g/g and19.5 to 40.4 g/g, respectively. The rheological behavior exhibited by the gums was pseudoplastic or shear thinning. From a functional perspective, chia gum is an important food component due its emulsifier and stabilizer potentials.

  9. Side channel analysis of some hash based MACs: A response to SHA-3 requirements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gauravaram, Praveen; Okeya, Katsuyuki

    2008-01-01

    The forthcoming NIST's Advanced Hash Standard (AHS) competition to select SHA-3 hash function requires that each candidate hash function submission must have at least one construction to support FIPS 198 HMAC application. As part of its evaluation, NIST is aiming to select either a candidate hash...

  10. Security Analysis of Randomize-Hash-then-Sign Digital Signatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gauravaram, Praveen; Knudsen, Lars Ramkilde

    2012-01-01

    At CRYPTO 2006, Halevi and Krawczyk proposed two randomized hash function modes and analyzed the security of digital signature algorithms based on these constructions. They showed that the security of signature schemes based on the two randomized hash function modes relies on properties similar...... functions, such as for the Davies-Meyer construction used in the popular hash functions such as MD5 designed by Rivest and the SHA family of hash functions designed by the National Security Agency (NSA), USA and published by NIST in the Federal Information Processing Standards (FIPS). We show an online...... 800-106. We discuss some important applications of our attacks and discuss their applicability on signature schemes based on hash functions with ‘built-in’ randomization. Finally, we compare our attacks on randomize-hash-then-sign schemes with the generic forgery attacks on the standard hash...

  11. Experimental Characterization of the Energy Absorption of Functionally Graded Foam Filled Tubes Under Axial Crushing Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Saeed; Vahdatazad, Nader; Liaghat, Gholamhossein

    2018-03-01

    This paper deals with the energy absorption characterization of functionally graded foam (FGF) filled tubes under axial crushing loads by experimental method. The FGF tubes are filled axially by gradient layers of polyurethane foams with different densities. The mechanical properties of the polyurethane foams are firstly obtained from axial compressive tests. Then, the quasi-static compressive tests are carried out for empty tubes, uniform foam filled tubes and FGF filled tubes. Before to present the experimental test results, a nonlinear FEM simulation of the FGF filled tube is carried out in ABAQUS software to gain more insight into the crush deformation patterns, as well as the energy absorption capability of the FGF filled tube. A good agreement between the experimental and simulation results is observed. Finally, the results of experimental test show that an FGF filled tube has excellent energy absorption capacity compared to the ordinary uniform foam-filled tube with the same weight.

  12. 76 FR 11433 - Federal Transition To Secure Hash Algorithm (SHA)-256

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-02

    ... ADMINISTRATION [FAR-N-2011-01; Docket No. 2011-0083; Sequence 1] Federal Transition To Secure Hash Algorithm (SHA... acquisition community to transition to Secure Hash Algorithm SHA-256. SHA-256 is a cryptographic hash function... persons attending. Please cite ``Federal Transition to Secure Hash Algorithm SHA-256'' in all...

  13. Multiview alignment hashing for efficient image search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li; Yu, Mengyang; Shao, Ling

    2015-03-01

    Hashing is a popular and efficient method for nearest neighbor search in large-scale data spaces by embedding high-dimensional feature descriptors into a similarity preserving Hamming space with a low dimension. For most hashing methods, the performance of retrieval heavily depends on the choice of the high-dimensional feature descriptor. Furthermore, a single type of feature cannot be descriptive enough for different images when it is used for hashing. Thus, how to combine multiple representations for learning effective hashing functions is an imminent task. In this paper, we present a novel unsupervised multiview alignment hashing approach based on regularized kernel nonnegative matrix factorization, which can find a compact representation uncovering the hidden semantics and simultaneously respecting the joint probability distribution of data. In particular, we aim to seek a matrix factorization to effectively fuse the multiple information sources meanwhile discarding the feature redundancy. Since the raised problem is regarded as nonconvex and discrete, our objective function is then optimized via an alternate way with relaxation and converges to a locally optimal solution. After finding the low-dimensional representation, the hashing functions are finally obtained through multivariable logistic regression. The proposed method is systematically evaluated on three data sets: 1) Caltech-256; 2) CIFAR-10; and 3) CIFAR-20, and the results show that our method significantly outperforms the state-of-the-art multiview hashing techniques.

  14. Curcumin promotes nerve regeneration and functional recovery after sciatic nerve crush injury in diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Junxiong; Yu, Hailong; Liu, Jun; Chen, Yu; Wang, Qi; Xiang, Liangbi

    2016-01-01

    Curcumin is capable of promoting peripheral nerve regeneration in normal condition. However, it is unclear whether its beneficial effect on nerve regeneration still exists under diabetic mellitus. The present study was designed to investigate such a possibility. Diabetes in rats was developed by a single dose of streptozotocin at 50 mg/kg. Immediately after nerve crush injury, the diabetic rats were intraperitoneally administrated daily for 4 weeks with curcumin (50 mg/kg, 100 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg), or normal saline, respectively. The axonal regeneration was investigated by morphometric analysis and retrograde labeling. The functional recovery was evaluated by electrophysiological studies and behavioral analysis. Axonal regeneration and functional recovery was significantly enhanced by curcumin, which were significantly better than those in vehicle saline group. In addition, high doses of curcumin (100 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg) achieved better axonal regeneration and functional recovery than low dose (50 mg/kg). In conclusion, curcumin is capable of promoting nerve regeneration after sciatic nerve crush injury in diabetes mellitus, highlighting its therapeutic values as a neuroprotective agent for peripheral nerve injury repair in diabetes mellitus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Authenticated hash tables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Triandopoulos, Nikolaos; Papamanthou, Charalampos; Tamassia, Roberto

    2008-01-01

    Hash tables are fundamental data structures that optimally answer membership queries. Suppose a client stores n elements in a hash table that is outsourced at a remote server so that the client can save space or achieve load balancing. Authenticating the hash table functionality, i.e., verifying...... to a scheme that achieves different trade-offs---namely, constant update time and O(nε/logκε n) query time for fixed ε > 0 and κ > 0. An experimental evaluation of our solution shows very good scalability....

  16. Online Hashing for Scalable Remote Sensing Image Retrieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Li

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Recently, hashing-based large-scale remote sensing (RS image retrieval has attracted much attention. Many new hashing algorithms have been developed and successfully applied to fast RS image retrieval tasks. However, there exists an important problem rarely addressed in the research literature of RS image hashing. The RS images are practically produced in a streaming manner in many real-world applications, which means the data distribution keeps changing over time. Most existing RS image hashing methods are batch-based models whose hash functions are learned once for all and kept fixed all the time. Therefore, the pre-trained hash functions might not fit the ever-growing new RS images. Moreover, the batch-based models have to load all the training images into memory for model learning, which consumes many computing and memory resources. To address the above deficiencies, we propose a new online hashing method, which learns and adapts its hashing functions with respect to the newly incoming RS images in terms of a novel online partial random learning scheme. Our hash model is updated in a sequential mode such that the representative power of the learned binary codes for RS images are improved accordingly. Moreover, benefiting from the online learning strategy, our proposed hashing approach is quite suitable for scalable real-world remote sensing image retrieval. Extensive experiments on two large-scale RS image databases under online setting demonstrated the efficacy and effectiveness of the proposed method.

  17. Architecture-Conscious Hashing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Zukowski (Marcin); S. Héman (Sándor); P.A. Boncz (Peter)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractHashing is one of the fundamental techniques used to implement query processing operators such as grouping, aggregation and join. This paper studies the interaction between modern computer architecture and hash-based query processing techniques. First, we focus on extracting maximum

  18. Miconazole enhances nerve regeneration and functional recovery after sciatic nerve crush injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tao; Qiu, Shuai; Yan, Liwei; Zhu, Shuang; Zheng, Canbin; Zhu, Qingtang; Liu, Xiaolin

    2018-05-01

    Improving axonal outgrowth and remyelination is crucial for peripheral nerve regeneration. Miconazole appears to enhance remyelination in the central nervous system. In this study we assess the effect of miconazole on axonal regeneration using a sciatic nerve crush injury model in rats. Fifty Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into control and miconazole groups. Nerve regeneration and myelination were determined using histological and electrophysiological assessment. Evaluation of sensory and motor recovery was performed using the pinprick assay and sciatic functional index. The Cell Counting Kit-8 assay and Western blotting were used to assess the proliferation and neurotrophic expression of RSC 96 Schwann cells. Miconazole promoted axonal regrowth, increased myelinated nerve fibers, improved sensory recovery and walking behavior, enhanced stimulated amplitude and nerve conduction velocity, and elevated proliferation and neurotrophic expression of RSC 96 Schwann cells. Miconazole was beneficial for nerve regeneration and functional recovery after peripheral nerve injury. Muscle Nerve 57: 821-828, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Efficient hash tables for network applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zink, Thomas; Waldvogel, Marcel

    2015-01-01

    Hashing has yet to be widely accepted as a component of hard real-time systems and hardware implementations, due to still existing prejudices concerning the unpredictability of space and time requirements resulting from collisions. While in theory perfect hashing can provide optimal mapping, in practice, finding a perfect hash function is too expensive, especially in the context of high-speed applications. The introduction of hashing with multiple choices, d-left hashing and probabilistic table summaries, has caused a shift towards deterministic DRAM access. However, high amounts of rare and expensive high-speed SRAM need to be traded off for predictability, which is infeasible for many applications. In this paper we show that previous suggestions suffer from the false precondition of full generality. Our approach exploits four individual degrees of freedom available in many practical applications, especially hardware and high-speed lookups. This reduces the requirement of on-chip memory up to an order of magnitude and guarantees constant lookup and update time at the cost of only minute amounts of additional hardware. Our design makes efficient hash table implementations cheaper, more predictable, and more practical.

  20. Exercise training improves functional recovery and motor nerve conduction velocity after sciatic nerve crush lesion in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gispen, W.H.; Meeteren, N.L.U.; Brakkee, J.H.; Hamers, F.P.T.; Helders, P.J.M.

    1997-01-01

    Objective: To observe the effects of exercise training on recuperation of sensorimotor function in the early phase of regeneration, and to monitor the long-term effects of exercise on electrophysiological aspects of the regenerating nerve. Design: After sciatic nerve crush in 20 male Wistar rats,

  1. Practical Pseudo-collisions for Hash Functions ARIRANG-224/384

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Jian; Matusiewicz, Krystian; Knudsen, Lars Ramkilde

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we analyse the security of the SHA-3 candidate ARIRANG. We show that bitwise complementation of whole registers turns out to be very useful for constructing high-probability differential characteristics in the function. We use this approach to find near-collisions with Hamming weigh...

  2. Crush Grinding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, T.Q.

    2005-01-01

    Crush Grinding is a special process used at the Kansas City Plant to finish stem sections of reservoir products. In this process, a precise profile of the desired product is formed on a tungsten carbide roll. This roll slowly transfers a mirror image of the profile onto the grinding surface of a wheel. The transfer rate of the profile is between 0.001 and 0.010 inches per minute. Crush grinding is desirable since it provides consistent surface finishes and thin walls at a high production rate. In addition, it generates very sharp fillet radii. However, crush grinding is a complex process since many variables affect the final product. Therefore, the process requires more attention and knowledge beyond basic metal removal practices. While the Kansas City Plant began using these machines in 1995, a formal study regarding crush grinding has not been conducted there. In addition, very little literature is available in the grinding industry regarding this process. As a result, new engineers at the Kansas City Plant must learn the process through trial and error. The purpose of this document is to address this literature deficit while specifically promoting a better understanding of the stem crush grinding process at the Kansas City Plant.

  3. Linear Subspace Ranking Hashing for Cross-Modal Retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kai; Qi, Guo-Jun; Ye, Jun; Hua, Kien A

    2017-09-01

    Hashing has attracted a great deal of research in recent years due to its effectiveness for the retrieval and indexing of large-scale high-dimensional multimedia data. In this paper, we propose a novel ranking-based hashing framework that maps data from different modalities into a common Hamming space where the cross-modal similarity can be measured using Hamming distance. Unlike existing cross-modal hashing algorithms where the learned hash functions are binary space partitioning functions, such as the sign and threshold function, the proposed hashing scheme takes advantage of a new class of hash functions closely related to rank correlation measures which are known to be scale-invariant, numerically stable, and highly nonlinear. Specifically, we jointly learn two groups of linear subspaces, one for each modality, so that features' ranking orders in different linear subspaces maximally preserve the cross-modal similarities. We show that the ranking-based hash function has a natural probabilistic approximation which transforms the original highly discontinuous optimization problem into one that can be efficiently solved using simple gradient descent algorithms. The proposed hashing framework is also flexible in the sense that the optimization procedures are not tied up to any specific form of loss function, which is typical for existing cross-modal hashing methods, but rather we can flexibly accommodate different loss functions with minimal changes to the learning steps. We demonstrate through extensive experiments on four widely-used real-world multimodal datasets that the proposed cross-modal hashing method can achieve competitive performance against several state-of-the-arts with only moderate training and testing time.

  4. Neighborhood Discriminant Hashing for Large-Scale Image Retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jinhui; Li, Zechao; Wang, Meng; Zhao, Ruizhen

    2015-09-01

    With the proliferation of large-scale community-contributed images, hashing-based approximate nearest neighbor search in huge databases has aroused considerable interest from the fields of computer vision and multimedia in recent years because of its computational and memory efficiency. In this paper, we propose a novel hashing method named neighborhood discriminant hashing (NDH) (for short) to implement approximate similarity search. Different from the previous work, we propose to learn a discriminant hashing function by exploiting local discriminative information, i.e., the labels of a sample can be inherited from the neighbor samples it selects. The hashing function is expected to be orthogonal to avoid redundancy in the learned hashing bits as much as possible, while an information theoretic regularization is jointly exploited using maximum entropy principle. As a consequence, the learned hashing function is compact and nonredundant among bits, while each bit is highly informative. Extensive experiments are carried out on four publicly available data sets and the comparison results demonstrate the outperforming performance of the proposed NDH method over state-of-the-art hashing techniques.

  5. Hashing for Statistics over K-Partitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlgaard, Soren; Knudsen, Mathias Baek Tejs; Rotenberg, Eva

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we analyze a hash function for k-partitioning a set into bins, obtaining strong concentration bounds for standard algorithms combining statistics from each bin. This generic method was originally introduced by Flajolet and Martin [FOCS'83] in order to save a factor Ω(k) of time per...... concentration bounds on the most popular applications of k-partitioning similar to those we would get using a truly random hash function. The analysis is very involved and implies several new results of independent interest for both simple and double tabulation, e.g. A simple and efficient construction...

  6. Gallic acid and exercise training improve motor function, nerve conduction velocity but not pain sense reflex after experimental sciatic nerve crush in male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Hajimoradi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of present study was to evaluate the effects of oral administration of gallic acid (GA for 21 days alone and in combination with exercise on nerve conduction velocity and sensory and motor functions in rats with sciatic nerve crush. Materials and Methods: Seventy adult male Wistar rats (250-300 g were divided randomly into 7 groups with 10 in each: 1 Control (Cont, 2 Crushed + Vehicle (Cr +Veh, 3-5 Crushed + gallic acid (Cr+GA (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg/2 mL, orally, 6 Crushed + exercise (Cr+Exe, and 7 Crushed + exercise + effective dose of gallic acid (Cr+Exe +GA200 for 21 days. In order to establish an animal model of sciatic nerve crush, equivalent to 7 kg of force pressed on 2-3 mm of sciatic nerve for 30 s, three times with 30 s intervals. Pain sense reflex in hot plate, motor coordination in rotarod, and sciatic nerve conduction velocity (SNCV in all groups were tested. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey’s post hoc test and pResults: Pain threshold was increased significantly in untreated crushed rats while motor function and SNCV were decreased in all groups with nerve crush (p

  7. Cryptanalysis of the LAKE Hash Family

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biryukov, Alex; Gauravaram, Praveen; Guo, Jian

    2009-01-01

    We analyse the security of the cryptographic hash function LAKE-256 proposed at FSE 2008 by Aumasson, Meier and Phan. By exploiting non-injectivity of some of the building primitives of LAKE, we show three different collision and near-collision attacks on the compression function. The first attac...

  8. Feature hashing for fast image retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Lingyu; Fu, Jiarun; Zhang, Hongxin; Yuan, Lu; Xu, Hui

    2018-03-01

    Currently, researches on content based image retrieval mainly focus on robust feature extraction. However, due to the exponential growth of online images, it is necessary to consider searching among large scale images, which is very timeconsuming and unscalable. Hence, we need to pay much attention to the efficiency of image retrieval. In this paper, we propose a feature hashing method for image retrieval which not only generates compact fingerprint for image representation, but also prevents huge semantic loss during the process of hashing. To generate the fingerprint, an objective function of semantic loss is constructed and minimized, which combine the influence of both the neighborhood structure of feature data and mapping error. Since the machine learning based hashing effectively preserves neighborhood structure of data, it yields visual words with strong discriminability. Furthermore, the generated binary codes leads image representation building to be of low-complexity, making it efficient and scalable to large scale databases. Experimental results show good performance of our approach.

  9. Quantum hashing is maximally secure against classical leakage

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Cupjin; Shi, Yaoyun

    2017-01-01

    Cryptographic hash functions are fundamental primitives widely used in practice. For such a function $f:\\{0, 1\\}^n\\to\\{0, 1\\}^m$, it is nearly impossible for an adversary to produce the hash $f(x)$ without knowing the secret message $x\\in\\{0, 1\\}^n$. Unfortunately, all hash functions are vulnerable under the side-channel attack, which is a grave concern for information security in practice. This is because typically $m\\ll n$ and an adversary needs only $m$ bits of information to pass the veri...

  10. Hierarchical Recurrent Neural Hashing for Image Retrieval With Hierarchical Convolutional Features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiaoqiang; Chen, Yaxiong; Li, Xuelong

    Hashing has been an important and effective technology in image retrieval due to its computational efficiency and fast search speed. The traditional hashing methods usually learn hash functions to obtain binary codes by exploiting hand-crafted features, which cannot optimally represent the information of the sample. Recently, deep learning methods can achieve better performance, since deep learning architectures can learn more effective image representation features. However, these methods only use semantic features to generate hash codes by shallow projection but ignore texture details. In this paper, we proposed a novel hashing method, namely hierarchical recurrent neural hashing (HRNH), to exploit hierarchical recurrent neural network to generate effective hash codes. There are three contributions of this paper. First, a deep hashing method is proposed to extensively exploit both spatial details and semantic information, in which, we leverage hierarchical convolutional features to construct image pyramid representation. Second, our proposed deep network can exploit directly convolutional feature maps as input to preserve the spatial structure of convolutional feature maps. Finally, we propose a new loss function that considers the quantization error of binarizing the continuous embeddings into the discrete binary codes, and simultaneously maintains the semantic similarity and balanceable property of hash codes. Experimental results on four widely used data sets demonstrate that the proposed HRNH can achieve superior performance over other state-of-the-art hashing methods.Hashing has been an important and effective technology in image retrieval due to its computational efficiency and fast search speed. The traditional hashing methods usually learn hash functions to obtain binary codes by exploiting hand-crafted features, which cannot optimally represent the information of the sample. Recently, deep learning methods can achieve better performance, since deep

  11. FSH: fast spaced seed hashing exploiting adjacent hashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girotto, Samuele; Comin, Matteo; Pizzi, Cinzia

    2018-01-01

    Patterns with wildcards in specified positions, namely spaced seeds , are increasingly used instead of k -mers in many bioinformatics applications that require indexing, querying and rapid similarity search, as they can provide better sensitivity. Many of these applications require to compute the hashing of each position in the input sequences with respect to the given spaced seed, or to multiple spaced seeds. While the hashing of k -mers can be rapidly computed by exploiting the large overlap between consecutive k -mers, spaced seeds hashing is usually computed from scratch for each position in the input sequence, thus resulting in slower processing. The method proposed in this paper, fast spaced-seed hashing (FSH), exploits the similarity of the hash values of spaced seeds computed at adjacent positions in the input sequence. In our experiments we compute the hash for each positions of metagenomics reads from several datasets, with respect to different spaced seeds. We also propose a generalized version of the algorithm for the simultaneous computation of multiple spaced seeds hashing. In the experiments, our algorithm can compute the hashing values of spaced seeds with a speedup, with respect to the traditional approach, between 1.6[Formula: see text] to 5.3[Formula: see text], depending on the structure of the spaced seed. Spaced seed hashing is a routine task for several bioinformatics application. FSH allows to perform this task efficiently and raise the question of whether other hashing can be exploited to further improve the speed up. This has the potential of major impact in the field, making spaced seed applications not only accurate, but also faster and more efficient. The software FSH is freely available for academic use at: https://bitbucket.org/samu661/fsh/overview.

  12. Gallic acid and exercise training improve motor function, nerve conduction velocity but not pain sense reflex after experimental sciatic nerve crush in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajimoradi, Maryam; Fazilati, Mohammad; Gharib-Naseri, Mohammad Kazem; Sarkaki, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    The aim of present study was to evaluate the effects of oral administration of gallic acid (GA) for 21 days alone and in combination with exercise on nerve conduction velocity and sensory and motor functions in rats with sciatic nerve crush. Seventy adult male Wistar rats (250-300 g) were divided randomly into 7 groups with 10 in each: 1) Control (Cont), 2) Crushed + Vehicle (Cr +Veh), 3-5) Crushed + gallic acid (Cr+GA) (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg/2 mL, orally), 6) Crushed + exercise (Cr+Exe), and 7) Crushed + exercise + effective dose of gallic acid (Cr+Exe +GA200) for 21 days. In order to establish an animal model of sciatic nerve crush, equivalent to 7 kg of force pressed on 2-3 mm of sciatic nerve for 30 s, three times with 30 s intervals. Pain sense reflex in hot plate, motor coordination in rotarod, and sciatic nerve conduction velocity (SNCV) in all groups were tested. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey's post hoc test and preflex latency was not changed in treated groups. Motor coordination and SNCV were improved in groups Cr+GA200 and Cr+Exe + GA200 (p<0.05, p<0.01 vs. Cr+Veh). GA, dose-dependently, may have therapeutic potential to improve the peripheral nerve degeneration, which is most likely related, at least in part, to its antioxidant and therapeutic properties.

  13. Implementation of 4-way Superscalar Hash MIPS Processor Using FPGA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahib Omran, Safaa; Fouad Jumma, Laith

    2018-05-01

    Due to the quick advancements in the personal communications systems and wireless communications, giving data security has turned into a more essential subject. This security idea turns into a more confounded subject when next-generation system requirements and constant calculation speed are considered in real-time. Hash functions are among the most essential cryptographic primitives and utilized as a part of the many fields of signature authentication and communication integrity. These functions are utilized to acquire a settled size unique fingerprint or hash value of an arbitrary length of message. In this paper, Secure Hash Algorithms (SHA) of types SHA-1, SHA-2 (SHA-224, SHA-256) and SHA-3 (BLAKE) are implemented on Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) in a processor structure. The design is described and implemented using a hardware description language, namely VHSIC “Very High Speed Integrated Circuit” Hardware Description Language (VHDL). Since the logical operation of the hash types of (SHA-1, SHA-224, SHA-256 and SHA-3) are 32-bits, so a Superscalar Hash Microprocessor without Interlocked Pipelines (MIPS) processor are designed with only few instructions that were required in invoking the desired Hash algorithms, when the four types of hash algorithms executed sequentially using the designed processor, the total time required equal to approximately 342 us, with a throughput of 4.8 Mbps while the required to execute the same four hash algorithms using the designed four-way superscalar is reduced to 237 us with improved the throughput to 5.1 Mbps.

  14. Ranking Based Locality Sensitive Hashing Enabled Cancelable Biometrics: Index-of-Max Hashing

    OpenAIRE

    Jin, Zhe; Lai, Yen-Lung; Hwang, Jung-Yeon; Kim, Soohyung; Teoh, Andrew Beng Jin

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a ranking based locality sensitive hashing inspired two-factor cancelable biometrics, dubbed "Index-of-Max" (IoM) hashing for biometric template protection. With externally generated random parameters, IoM hashing transforms a real-valued biometric feature vector into discrete index (max ranked) hashed code. We demonstrate two realizations from IoM hashing notion, namely Gaussian Random Projection based and Uniformly Random Permutation based hashing schemes. The disc...

  15. Side channel analysis of some hash based MACs:A response to SHA-3 requirements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The forthcoming NIST's Advanced Hash Standard (AHS) competition to select SHA-3 hash function requires that each candidate hash function submission must have at least one construction to support FIPS 198 HMAC application. As part of its evaluation, NIST is aiming to select either a candidate hash...... function which is more resistant to known side channel attacks (SCA) when plugged into HMAC, or that has an alternative MAC mode which is more resistant to known SCA than the other submitted alternatives. In response to this, we perform differential power analysis (DPA) on the possible smart card...... implementations of some of the recently proposed MAC alternatives to NMAC (a fully analyzed variant of HMAC) and HMAC algorithms and NMAC/HMAC versions of some recently proposed hash and compression function modes. We show that the recently proposed BNMAC and KMDP MAC schemes are even weaker than NMAC...

  16. An Ad Hoc Adaptive Hashing Technique forNon-Uniformly Distributed IP Address Lookup in Computer Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Martinez

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Hashing algorithms long have been widely adopted to design a fast address look-up process which involves a search through a large database to find a record associated with a given key. Hashing algorithms involve transforming a key inside each target data to a hash value hoping that the hashing would render the database a uniform distribution with respect to this new hash value. The close the final distribution is to uniform, the less search time would be required when a query is made. When the database is already key-wise uniformly distributed, any regular hashing algorithm, such as bit-extraction, bit-group XOR, etc., would easily lead to a statistically perfect uniform distribution after the hashing. On the other hand, if records in the database are instead not uniformly distributed as in almost all known practical applications, then even different regular hash functions would lead to very different performance. When the target database has a key with a highly skewed distributed value, performance delivered by regular hashing algorithms usually becomes far from desirable. This paper aims at designing a hashing algorithm to achieve the highest probability in leading to a uniformly distributed hash result from a non-uniformly distributed database. An analytical pre-process on the original database is first performed to extract critical information that would significantly benefit the design of a better hashing algorithm. This process includes sorting on the bits of the key to prioritize the use of them in the XOR hashing sequence, or in simple bit extraction, or even a combination of both. Such an ad hoc hash design is critical to adapting to all real-time situations when there exists a changing (and/or expanding database with an irregular non-uniform distribution. Significant improvement from simulation results is obtained in randomly generated data as well as real data.

  17. Forensic hash for multimedia information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wenjun; Varna, Avinash L.; Wu, Min

    2010-01-01

    Digital multimedia such as images and videos are prevalent on today's internet and cause significant social impact, which can be evidenced by the proliferation of social networking sites with user generated contents. Due to the ease of generating and modifying images and videos, it is critical to establish trustworthiness for online multimedia information. In this paper, we propose novel approaches to perform multimedia forensics using compact side information to reconstruct the processing history of a document. We refer to this as FASHION, standing for Forensic hASH for informatION assurance. Based on the Radon transform and scale space theory, the proposed forensic hash is compact and can effectively estimate the parameters of geometric transforms and detect local tampering that an image may have undergone. Forensic hash is designed to answer a broader range of questions regarding the processing history of multimedia data than the simple binary decision from traditional robust image hashing, and also offers more efficient and accurate forensic analysis than multimedia forensic techniques that do not use any side information.

  18. Robust visual hashing via ICA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fournel, Thierry; Coltuc, Daniela

    2010-01-01

    Designed to maximize information transmission in the presence of noise, independent component analysis (ICA) could appear in certain circumstances as a statistics-based tool for robust visual hashing. Several ICA-based scenarios can attempt to reach this goal. A first one is here considered.

  19. SPONGENT: The Design Space of Lightweight Cryptographic Hashing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogdanov, Andrey; Knezevic, Miroslav; Leander, Gregor

    2013-01-01

    construction instantiated with present-type permutations. The resulting family of hash functions is called spongent. We propose 13 spongent variants--or different levels of collision and (second) preimage resistance as well as for various implementation constraints. For each of them, we provide several ASIC...

  20. Locality-sensitive Hashing without False Negatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagh, Rasmus

    2016-01-01

    We consider a new construction of locality-sensitive hash functions for Hamming space that is covering in the sense that is it guaranteed to produce a collision for every pair of vectors within a given radius r. The construction is efficient in the sense that the expected number of hash collisions......(n)/k, where n is the number of points in the data set and k ∊ N, and differs from it by at most a factor ln(4) in the exponent for general values of cr. As a consequence, LSH-based similarity search in Hamming space can avoid the problem of false negatives at little or no cost in efficiency. Read More: http...... between vectors at distance cr, for a given c > 1, comes close to that of the best possible data independent LSH without the covering guarantee, namely, the seminal LSH construction of Indyk and Motwani (FOCS ′98). The efficiency of the new construction essentially matches their bound if cr = log...

  1. The LabelHash algorithm for substructure matching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryant Drew H

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is an increasing number of proteins with known structure but unknown function. Determining their function would have a significant impact on understanding diseases and designing new therapeutics. However, experimental protein function determination is expensive and very time-consuming. Computational methods can facilitate function determination by identifying proteins that have high structural and chemical similarity. Results We present LabelHash, a novel algorithm for matching substructural motifs to large collections of protein structures. The algorithm consists of two phases. In the first phase the proteins are preprocessed in a fashion that allows for instant lookup of partial matches to any motif. In the second phase, partial matches for a given motif are expanded to complete matches. The general applicability of the algorithm is demonstrated with three different case studies. First, we show that we can accurately identify members of the enolase superfamily with a single motif. Next, we demonstrate how LabelHash can complement SOIPPA, an algorithm for motif identification and pairwise substructure alignment. Finally, a large collection of Catalytic Site Atlas motifs is used to benchmark the performance of the algorithm. LabelHash runs very efficiently in parallel; matching a motif against all proteins in the 95% sequence identity filtered non-redundant Protein Data Bank typically takes no more than a few minutes. The LabelHash algorithm is available through a web server and as a suite of standalone programs at http://labelhash.kavrakilab.org. The output of the LabelHash algorithm can be further analyzed with Chimera through a plugin that we developed for this purpose. Conclusions LabelHash is an efficient, versatile algorithm for large-scale substructure matching. When LabelHash is running in parallel, motifs can typically be matched against the entire PDB on the order of minutes. The algorithm is able to identify

  2. Deficient functional recovery after facial nerve crush in rats is associated with restricted rearrangements of synaptic terminals in the facial nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hundeshagen, G; Szameit, K; Thieme, H; Finkensieper, M; Angelov, D N; Guntinas-Lichius, O; Irintchev, A

    2013-09-17

    Crush injuries of peripheral nerves typically lead to axonotmesis, axonal damage without disruption of connective tissue sheaths. Generally, human patients and experimental animals recover well after axonotmesis and the favorable outcome has been attributed to precise axonal reinnervation of the original peripheral targets. Here we assessed functionally and morphologically the long-term consequences of facial nerve axonotmesis in rats. Expectedly, we found that 5 months after crush or cryogenic nerve lesion, the numbers of motoneurons with regenerated axons and their projection pattern into the main branches of the facial nerve were similar to those in control animals suggesting precise target reinnervation. Unexpectedly, however, we found that functional recovery, estimated by vibrissal motion analysis, was incomplete at 2 months after injury and did not improve thereafter. The maximum amplitude of whisking remained substantially, by more than 30% lower than control values even 5 months after axonotmesis. Morphological analyses showed that the facial motoneurons ipsilateral to injury were innervated by lower numbers of glutamatergic terminals (-15%) and cholinergic perisomatic boutons (-26%) compared with the contralateral non-injured motoneurons. The structural deficits were correlated with functional performance of individual animals and associated with microgliosis in the facial nucleus but not with polyinnervation of muscle fibers. These results support the idea that restricted CNS plasticity and insufficient afferent inputs to motoneurons may substantially contribute to functional deficits after facial nerve injuries, possibly including pathologic conditions in humans like axonotmesis in idiopathic facial nerve (Bell's) palsy. Copyright © 2013 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Classic crush and DK crush stenting techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun-Jie; Chen, Shao-Liang

    2015-01-01

    Clinical data have supported the advantages of the double kissing (DK) crush technique, which consists of stenting the side branch (SB), balloon crush, first kissing, stenting the main vessel (MV) and final kissing balloon inflation, for complex coronary bifurcation lesions compared to other stenting techniques. Careful rewiring from the proximal cell of the MV stent to make sure the wire is in the true lumen of the SB stent is key to acquiring optimal angiographic results. Balloon anchoring from the MV, alternative inflation and each kissing inflation using large enough non-compliant balloons at high pressure, and the proximal optimisation technique are mandatory to improve both angiographic and clinical outcomes. Stratification of a given bifurcation lesion is recommended before decision making.

  4. Crushed Stone Operations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This map layer includes crushed stone operations in the United States. These data were obtained from information reported voluntarily to the USGS by the aggregate...

  5. Thermophysical properties of reconsolidating crushed salt.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, Stephen J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Urquhart, Alexander [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-03-01

    Reconsolidated crushed salt is being considered as a backfilling material placed upon nuclear waste within a salt repository environment. In-depth knowledge of thermal and mechanical properties of the crushed salt as it reconsolidates is critical to thermal/mechanical modeling of the reconsolidation process. An experimental study was completed to quantitatively evaluate the thermal conductivity of reconsolidated crushed salt as a function of porosity and temperature. The crushed salt for this study came from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). In this work the thermal conductivity of crushed salt with porosity ranging from 1% to 40% was determined from room temperature up to 300°C, using two different experimental methods. Thermal properties (including thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity and specific heat) of single-crystal salt were determined for the same temperature range. The salt was observed to dewater during heating; weight loss from the dewatering was quantified. The thermal conductivity of reconsolidated crushed salt decreases with increasing porosity; conversely, thermal conductivity increases as the salt consolidates. The thermal conductivity of reconsolidated crushed salt for a given porosity decreases with increasing temperature. A simple mixture theory model is presented to predict and compare to the data developed in this study.

  6. Robust hashing for 3D models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berchtold, Waldemar; Schäfer, Marcel; Rettig, Michael; Steinebach, Martin

    2014-02-01

    3D models and applications are of utmost interest in both science and industry. With the increment of their usage, their number and thereby the challenge to correctly identify them increases. Content identification is commonly done by cryptographic hashes. However, they fail as a solution in application scenarios such as computer aided design (CAD), scientific visualization or video games, because even the smallest alteration of the 3D model, e.g. conversion or compression operations, massively changes the cryptographic hash as well. Therefore, this work presents a robust hashing algorithm for 3D mesh data. The algorithm applies several different bit extraction methods. They are built to resist desired alterations of the model as well as malicious attacks intending to prevent correct allocation. The different bit extraction methods are tested against each other and, as far as possible, the hashing algorithm is compared to the state of the art. The parameters tested are robustness, security and runtime performance as well as False Acceptance Rate (FAR) and False Rejection Rate (FRR), also the probability calculation of hash collision is included. The introduced hashing algorithm is kept adaptive e.g. in hash length, to serve as a proper tool for all applications in practice.

  7. Speaker Linking and Applications using Non-Parametric Hashing Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-08

    nonparametric estimate of a multivariate density function,” The Annals of Math- ematical Statistics , vol. 36, no. 3, pp. 1049–1051, 1965. [9] E. A. Patrick...Speaker Linking and Applications using Non-Parametric Hashing Methods† Douglas Sturim and William M. Campbell MIT Lincoln Laboratory, Lexington, MA...with many approaches [1, 2]. For this paper, we focus on using i-vectors [2], but the methods apply to any embedding. For the task of speaker QBE and

  8. Crushed Salt Constitutive Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callahan, G.D.

    1999-01-01

    The constitutive model used to describe the deformation of crushed salt is presented in this report. Two mechanisms -- dislocation creep and grain boundary diffusional pressure solution -- are combined to form the basis for the constitutive model governing the deformation of crushed salt. The constitutive model is generalized to represent three-dimensional states of stress. Upon complete consolidation, the crushed-salt model reproduces the Multimechanism Deformation (M-D) model typically used for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) host geological formation salt. New shear consolidation tests are combined with an existing database that includes hydrostatic consolidation and shear consolidation tests conducted on WIPP and southeastern New Mexico salt. Nonlinear least-squares model fitting to the database produced two sets of material parameter values for the model -- one for the shear consolidation tests and one for a combination of the shear and hydrostatic consolidation tests. Using the parameter values determined from the fitted database, the constitutive model is validated against constant strain-rate tests. Shaft seal problems are analyzed to demonstrate model-predicted consolidation of the shaft seal crushed-salt component. Based on the fitting statistics, the ability of the model to predict the test data, and the ability of the model to predict load paths and test data outside of the fitted database, the model appears to capture the creep consolidation behavior of crushed salt reasonably well

  9. HashDist: Reproducible, Relocatable, Customizable, Cross-Platform Software Stacks for Open Hydrological Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadia, A. J.; Kees, C. E.

    2014-12-01

    Developing scientific software is a continuous balance between not reinventing the wheel and getting fragile codes to interoperate with one another. Binary software distributions such as Anaconda provide a robust starting point for many scientific software packages, but this solution alone is insufficient for many scientific software developers. HashDist provides a critical component of the development workflow, enabling highly customizable, source-driven, and reproducible builds for scientific software stacks, available from both the IPython Notebook and the command line. To address these issues, the Coastal and Hydraulics Laboratory at the US Army Engineer Research and Development Center has funded the development of HashDist in collaboration with Simula Research Laboratories and the University of Texas at Austin. HashDist is motivated by a functional approach to package build management, and features intelligent caching of sources and builds, parametrized build specifications, and the ability to interoperate with system compilers and packages. HashDist enables the easy specification of "software stacks", which allow both the novice user to install a default environment and the advanced user to configure every aspect of their build in a modular fashion. As an advanced feature, HashDist builds can be made relocatable, allowing the easy redistribution of binaries on all three major operating systems as well as cloud, and supercomputing platforms. As a final benefit, all HashDist builds are reproducible, with a build hash specifying exactly how each component of the software stack was installed. This talk discusses the role of HashDist in the hydrological sciences, including its use by the Coastal and Hydraulics Laboratory in the development and deployment of the Proteus Toolkit as well as the Rapid Operational Access and Maneuver Support project. We demonstrate HashDist in action, and show how it can effectively support development, deployment, teaching, and

  10. Cracking PwdHash: A Bruteforce Attack on Client-side Password Hashing

    OpenAIRE

    Llewellyn-Jones, David; Rymer, Graham Matthew

    2017-01-01

    PwdHash is a widely-used tool for client-side password hashing. Originally released as a browser extension, it replaces the user’s password with a hash that combines both the password and the website’s domain. As a result, while the user only remembers a single secret, the passwords received are all unique for each site. We demonstrate how the hashcat password recovery tool can be extended to allow passwords generated using PwdHash to be identified and recovered, revealing the user’s master p...

  11. Five Performance Enhancements for Hybrid Hash Join

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Graefe, Goetz

    1992-01-01

    .... We discuss five performance enhancements for hybrid hash join algorithms, namely data compression, large cluster sizes and multi-level recursion, role reversal of build and probe inputs, histogram...

  12. Compact binary hashing for music retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jin S.

    2014-03-01

    With the huge volume of music clips available for protection, browsing, and indexing, there is an increased attention to retrieve the information contents of the music archives. Music-similarity computation is an essential building block for browsing, retrieval, and indexing of digital music archives. In practice, as the number of songs available for searching and indexing is increased, so the storage cost in retrieval systems is becoming a serious problem. This paper deals with the storage problem by extending the supervector concept with the binary hashing. We utilize the similarity-preserving binary embedding in generating a hash code from the supervector of each music clip. Especially we compare the performance of the various binary hashing methods for music retrieval tasks on the widely-used genre dataset and the in-house singer dataset. Through the evaluation, we find an effective way of generating hash codes for music similarity estimation which improves the retrieval performance.

  13. Ultrasound-guided plasma rich in growth factors injections and scaffolds hasten motor nerve functional recovery in an ovine model of nerve crush injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Mikel; Anitua, E; Delgado, D; Prado, R; Sánchez, P; Fiz, N; Guadilla, J; Azofra, J; Pompei, O; Orive, G; Ortega, M; Yoshioka, T; Padilla, S

    2017-05-01

    In the present study we evaluated the motor recovery process of peripheral nerve injury (PNI), based on electrophysiological and histomorphometric criteria, after treatment with plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF) injections and scaffolds in an ovine model. Three groups of sheep underwent a nerve crush lesion: the first group (n = 3) was left to recover spontaneously (SR); the second group was administered saline injections (SI; n = 5) and a third group (n = 6) received PRGF injections and scaffolds immediately after the crush injury. At post-intervention week 8, 70% of sheep in the PRGF group were CMAP-positive, with no electrophysiological response in the rest of the groups. Histomorphometric analysis 12 weeks after the surgical intervention revealed that the average axonal density of the SR (1184 ± 864 axons/µm 2 ) and SI (3109 ± 2450 axons/µm 2 ) groups was significantly inferior to the control (8427 ± 2433 axons/µm 2 ) and also inferior to the PRGF group (5276 ± 4148 axons/µm 2 ), showing no significant differences between the control and PRGF groups. The axonal size of the SR and SI groups was significantly smaller compared with the control group (18 ± 4 µm 2 ), whereas the axonal size of the PRGF group (6 ± 5 µm 2 ) did not show statistical differences from the control. Morphometry of the target muscles indicated that the PRGF group had the lowest percentage volume reduction 12 weeks after the crush injury. The PRGF group had larger muscle fibre areas than the SI and SR groups, although the differences did not reach statistical significance. Overall, these data suggest that the PRGF injections and scaffolds hastened functional axon recovery and dampened atrophy of the target muscles in an ovine model. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Efficient tabling of structured data with enhanced hash-consing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Neng-Fa; Have, Christian Theil

    2012-01-01

    techniques, called input sharing and hash code memoization, for reducing the time complexity by avoiding computing hash codes for certain terms. The improved system is able to eliminate the extra linear factor in the old system for processing sequences, thus significantly enhancing the scalability...... uses hash tables, but also systems that use tries such as XSB and YAP. In this paper, we apply hash-consing to tabling structured data in B-Prolog. While hash-consing can reduce the space consumption when sharing is effective, it does not change the time complexity. We enhance hash-consing with two...

  15. Building Modern GPU Brute-Force Collision Resistible Hash Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Nadeinsky

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The article considers methods of fixing storing passwords in hashed form security vulnerability. Suggested hashing algorithm is based on the specifics of architecture of modern graphics processors.

  16. Scalable Packet Classification with Hash Tables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pi-Chung

    In the last decade, the technique of packet classification has been widely deployed in various network devices, including routers, firewalls and network intrusion detection systems. In this work, we improve the performance of packet classification by using multiple hash tables. The existing hash-based algorithms have superior scalability with respect to the required space; however, their search performance may not be comparable to other algorithms. To improve the search performance, we propose a tuple reordering algorithm to minimize the number of accessed hash tables with the aid of bitmaps. We also use pre-computation to ensure the accuracy of our search procedure. Performance evaluation based on both real and synthetic filter databases shows that our scheme is effective and scalable and the pre-computation cost is moderate.

  17. Quicksort, largest bucket, and min-wise hashing with limited independence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Mathias Bæk Tejs; Stöckel, Morten

    2015-01-01

    Randomized algorithms and data structures are often analyzed under the assumption of access to a perfect source of randomness. The most fundamental metric used to measure how “random” a hash function or a random number generator is, is its independence: a sequence of random variables is said...... to be k-independent if every variable is uniform and every size k subset is independent. In this paper we consider three classic algorithms under limited independence. Besides the theoretical interest in removing the unrealistic assumption of full independence, the work is motivated by lower independence...... being more practical. We provide new bounds for randomized quicksort, min-wise hashing and largest bucket size under limited independence. Our results can be summarized as follows. Randomized Quicksort. When pivot elements are computed using a 5-independent hash function, Karloff and Raghavan, J.ACM’93...

  18. Discriminative Projection Selection Based Face Image Hashing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabat, Cagatay; Erdogan, Hakan

    Face image hashing is an emerging method used in biometric verification systems. In this paper, we propose a novel face image hashing method based on a new technique called discriminative projection selection. We apply the Fisher criterion for selecting the rows of a random projection matrix in a user-dependent fashion. Moreover, another contribution of this paper is to employ a bimodal Gaussian mixture model at the quantization step. Our simulation results on three different databases demonstrate that the proposed method has superior performance in comparison to previously proposed random projection based methods.

  19. Dakota - hashing from a combination of modular arithmetic and symmetric cryptography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Knudsen, Lars Ramkilde; Thomsen, Søren Steffen

    In this paper a cryptographic hash function is proposed, where collision resistance is based upon an assumption that involves squaring modulo an RSA modulus in combination with a one-way function that does not compress its input, and may therefore be constructed from standard techniques and assum...

  20. Dakota – Hashing from a Combination of Modular Arithmetic and Symmetric Cryptography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Knudsen, Lars Ramkilde; Thomsen, Søren Steffen

    2008-01-01

    In this paper a cryptographic hash function is proposed, where collision resistance is based upon an assumption that involves squaring modulo an RSA modulus in combination with a one-way function that does not compress its input, and may therefore be constructed from standard techniques and assum...

  1. ANALISA FUNGSI HASH DALAM ENKRIPSI IDEA UNTUK KEAMANAN RECORD INFORMASI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramen Antonov Purba

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Issues of security and confidentiality of data is very important to organization or individual. If the data in a network of computers connected with a public network such as the Internet. Of course a very important data is viewed or hijacked by unauthorized persons. Because if this happens we will probably corrupted data can be lost even that will cause huge material losses. This research discusses the security system of sending messages/data using the encryption aims to maintain access of security a message from the people who are not authorized/ eligible. Because of this delivery system is very extensive security with the scope then this section is limited only parsing the IDEA Algorithm with hash functions, which include encryption, decryption. By combining the encryption IDEA methods (International Data Encryption Algorithm to encrypt the contents of the messages/data with the hash function to detect changes the content of messages/data is expected security level to be better. Results from this study a software that can perform encryption and decryption of messages/data, generate the security key based on the message/data is encrypted.

  2. [Experimental study on establishment of a simple model of rats crush injury-crush syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Liu, Yuehong; Xu, Wei; Qin, Tingwu; Zhao, Luping; Liu, Shuping; Zhang, Yi; Tan, Hong; Zhou, Yu

    2013-01-01

    To establish a repeatable, simple, and effective model of rat crush injury and crush syndrome. A total of 42 female Sprague Dawley rats (2-month-old, (CS) so as to lay a foundation for further study on CS. weighing 160-180 g) were divided randomly into the control group (n=6) and experimental group (n=36). The rats of the experimental group were used to establish the crush injury and CS model in both lower limbs by self-made crush injury mould. The survival rate and hematuria rate were observed after decompression. The biochemical indexes of blood were measured at 2, 4, 8, 12, 24, and 48 hours after decompression. The samples of muscle, kidney, and heart were harvested for morphological observation. There was no treatment in the control group, and the same tests were performed. Seven rats died and 15 rats had hematuria during compression in the experimental group. Swelling of the lower limb and muscle tissue was observed in the survival rats after reperfusion. The liver function test results showed that the levels of alanine transaminase and aspartate aminotransferase in the experimental group were significantly higher than those in the control group (P congestion and swelling, renal tubular epithelial cell degeneration, edema, necrosis, and myoglobin tube type were found in the kidneys; and myocardial structure had no obvious changes. The method of the crush injury and CS model by self-made crush injury mould is a simple and effective procedure and the experimental result is stable. It is a simple method to establish an effective model of rats crush injury and CS.

  3. Hashing in computer science fifty years of slicing and dicing

    CERN Document Server

    Konheim, Alan G

    2009-01-01

    Written by one of the developers of the technology, Hashing is both a historical document on the development of hashing and an analysis of the applications of hashing in a society increasingly concerned with security. The material in this book is based on courses taught by the author, and key points are reinforced in sample problems and an accompanying instructor s manual. Graduate students and researchers in mathematics, cryptography, and security will benefit from this overview of hashing and the complicated mathematics that it requires

  4. Hash functions and information theoretic security

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagheri, Nasoor; Knudsen, Lars Ramkilde; Naderi, Majid

    2009-01-01

    Information theoretic security is an important security notion in cryptography as it provides a true lower bound for attack complexities. However, in practice attacks often have a higher cost than the information theoretic bound. In this paper we study the relationship between information theoretic...

  5. Local Deep Hashing Matching of Aerial Images Based on Relative Distance and Absolute Distance Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suting Chen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Aerial images have features of high resolution, complex background, and usually require large amounts of calculation, however, most algorithms used in matching of aerial images adopt the shallow hand-crafted features expressed as floating-point descriptors (e.g., SIFT (Scale-invariant Feature Transform, SURF (Speeded Up Robust Features, which may suffer from poor matching speed and are not well represented in the literature. Here, we propose a novel Local Deep Hashing Matching (LDHM method for matching of aerial images with large size and with lower complexity or fast matching speed. The basic idea of the proposed algorithm is to utilize the deep network model in the local area of the aerial images, and study the local features, as well as the hash function of the images. Firstly, according to the course overlap rate of aerial images, the algorithm extracts the local areas for matching to avoid the processing of redundant information. Secondly, a triplet network structure is proposed to mine the deep features of the patches of the local image, and the learned features are imported to the hash layer, thus obtaining the representation of a binary hash code. Thirdly, the constraints of the positive samples to the absolute distance are added on the basis of the triplet loss, a new objective function is constructed to optimize the parameters of the network and enhance the discriminating capabilities of image patch features. Finally, the obtained deep hash code of each image patch is used for the similarity comparison of the image patches in the Hamming space to complete the matching of aerial images. The proposed LDHM algorithm evaluates the UltraCam-D dataset and a set of actual aerial images, simulation result demonstrates that it may significantly outperform the state-of-the-art algorithm in terms of the efficiency and performance.

  6. 21 CFR 137.195 - Crushed wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Crushed wheat. 137.195 Section 137.195 Food and... Related Products § 137.195 Crushed wheat. Crushed wheat, coarse ground wheat, is the food prepared by so crushing cleaned wheat other than durum wheat and red durum wheat that, when tested by the method...

  7. A Novel Perceptual Hash Algorithm for Multispectral Image Authentication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaimeng Ding

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The perceptual hash algorithm is a technique to authenticate the integrity of images. While a few scholars have worked on mono-spectral image perceptual hashing, there is limited research on multispectral image perceptual hashing. In this paper, we propose a perceptual hash algorithm for the content authentication of a multispectral remote sensing image based on the synthetic characteristics of each band: firstly, the multispectral remote sensing image is preprocessed with band clustering and grid partition; secondly, the edge feature of the band subsets is extracted by band fusion-based edge feature extraction; thirdly, the perceptual feature of the same region of the band subsets is compressed and normalized to generate the perceptual hash value. The authentication procedure is achieved via the normalized Hamming distance between the perceptual hash value of the recomputed perceptual hash value and the original hash value. The experiments indicated that our proposed algorithm is robust compared to content-preserved operations and it efficiently authenticates the integrity of multispectral remote sensing images.

  8. Distributed hash table theory, platforms and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Hao; Xie, Haiyong; Yu, Nenghai

    2013-01-01

    This SpringerBrief summarizes the development of Distributed Hash Table in both academic and industrial fields. It covers the main theory, platforms and applications of this key part in distributed systems and applications, especially in large-scale distributed environments. The authors teach the principles of several popular DHT platforms that can solve practical problems such as load balance, multiple replicas, consistency and latency. They also propose DHT-based applications including multicast, anycast, distributed file systems, search, storage, content delivery network, file sharing and c

  9. Rotation invariant deep binary hashing for fast image retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Lai; Liu, Jianming; Jiang, Aiwen

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, we study how to compactly represent image's characteristics for fast image retrieval. We propose supervised rotation invariant compact discriminative binary descriptors through combining convolutional neural network with hashing. In the proposed network, binary codes are learned by employing a hidden layer for representing latent concepts that dominate on class labels. A loss function is proposed to minimize the difference between binary descriptors that describe reference image and the rotated one. Compared with some other supervised methods, the proposed network doesn't have to require pair-wised inputs for binary code learning. Experimental results show that our method is effective and achieves state-of-the-art results on the CIFAR-10 and MNIST datasets.

  10. Deep Constrained Siamese Hash Coding Network and Load-Balanced Locality-Sensitive Hashing for Near Duplicate Image Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Weiming; Fan, Yabo; Xing, Junliang; Sun, Liang; Cai, Zhaoquan; Maybank, Stephen

    2018-09-01

    We construct a new efficient near duplicate image detection method using a hierarchical hash code learning neural network and load-balanced locality-sensitive hashing (LSH) indexing. We propose a deep constrained siamese hash coding neural network combined with deep feature learning. Our neural network is able to extract effective features for near duplicate image detection. The extracted features are used to construct a LSH-based index. We propose a load-balanced LSH method to produce load-balanced buckets in the hashing process. The load-balanced LSH significantly reduces the query time. Based on the proposed load-balanced LSH, we design an effective and feasible algorithm for near duplicate image detection. Extensive experiments on three benchmark data sets demonstrate the effectiveness of our deep siamese hash encoding network and load-balanced LSH.

  11. Crushing Strength of Ship Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cerup-Simonsen, Bo; Abramowicz, W.; Høstgaard-Brene, C.N.S.

    1999-01-01

    The crushing response of ship structures is of primary importance to the designers and practicing engineers concerned with accidental loading and accident reconstruction of marine vehicles. Ship to-ship collisions, ship-harbor infrastructure interaction or ship-offshore structure interaction are ...

  12. Data Collision Prevention with Overflow Hashing Technique in Closed Hash Searching Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahim, Robbi; Nurjamiyah; Rafika Dewi, Arie

    2017-12-01

    Hash search is a method that can be used for various search processes such as search engines, sorting, machine learning, neural network and so on, in the search process the possibility of collision data can happen and to prevent the occurrence of collision can be done in several ways one of them is to use Overflow technique, the use of this technique perform with varying length of data and this technique can prevent the occurrence of data collisions.

  13. Behead, Burn, Crucify, Crush

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Simone Molin

    2017-01-01

    displays of violence that have facilitated the creation of the global spectacle: the Islamic State’s technological skills and professional use of media (technology); the Islamic State’s mobilization of acts of violence that transgress prevailing sensibilities (transgression); and the violent acts’ function...

  14. Handwriting: Feature Correlation Analysis for Biometric Hashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vielhauer, Claus; Steinmetz, Ralf

    2004-12-01

    In the application domain of electronic commerce, biometric authentication can provide one possible solution for the key management problem. Besides server-based approaches, methods of deriving digital keys directly from biometric measures appear to be advantageous. In this paper, we analyze one of our recently published specific algorithms of this category based on behavioral biometrics of handwriting, the biometric hash. Our interest is to investigate to which degree each of the underlying feature parameters contributes to the overall intrapersonal stability and interpersonal value space. We will briefly discuss related work in feature evaluation and introduce a new methodology based on three components: the intrapersonal scatter (deviation), the interpersonal entropy, and the correlation between both measures. Evaluation of the technique is presented based on two data sets of different size. The method presented will allow determination of effects of parameterization of the biometric system, estimation of value space boundaries, and comparison with other feature selection approaches.

  15. Handwriting: Feature Correlation Analysis for Biometric Hashes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf Steinmetz

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available In the application domain of electronic commerce, biometric authentication can provide one possible solution for the key management problem. Besides server-based approaches, methods of deriving digital keys directly from biometric measures appear to be advantageous. In this paper, we analyze one of our recently published specific algorithms of this category based on behavioral biometrics of handwriting, the biometric hash. Our interest is to investigate to which degree each of the underlying feature parameters contributes to the overall intrapersonal stability and interpersonal value space. We will briefly discuss related work in feature evaluation and introduce a new methodology based on three components: the intrapersonal scatter (deviation, the interpersonal entropy, and the correlation between both measures. Evaluation of the technique is presented based on two data sets of different size. The method presented will allow determination of effects of parameterization of the biometric system, estimation of value space boundaries, and comparison with other feature selection approaches.

  16. FBC: a flat binary code scheme for fast Manhattan hash retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Yan; Wu, Fuzhang; Gao, Lifa; Wu, Yanjun

    2018-04-01

    Hash coding is a widely used technique in approximate nearest neighbor (ANN) search, especially in document search and multimedia (such as image and video) retrieval. Based on the difference of distance measurement, hash methods are generally classified into two categories: Hamming hashing and Manhattan hashing. Benefitting from better neighborhood structure preservation, Manhattan hashing methods outperform earlier methods in search effectiveness. However, due to using decimal arithmetic operations instead of bit operations, Manhattan hashing becomes a more time-consuming process, which significantly decreases the whole search efficiency. To solve this problem, we present an intuitive hash scheme which uses Flat Binary Code (FBC) to encode the data points. As a result, the decimal arithmetic used in previous Manhattan hashing can be replaced by more efficient XOR operator. The final experiments show that with a reasonable memory space growth, our FBC speeds up more than 80% averagely without any search accuracy loss when comparing to the state-of-art Manhattan hashing methods.

  17. Crush Testing at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldman, Matthew R.

    2011-01-01

    The dynamic crush test is required in the certification testing of some small Type B transportation packages. International Atomic Energy Agency regulations state that the test article must be 'subjected to a dynamic crush test by positioning the specimen on the target so as to suffer maximum damage.' Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Transportation Technologies Group performs testing of Type B transportation packages, including the crush test, at the National Transportation Research Center in Knoxville, Tennessee (United States). This paper documents ORNL's experiences performing crush tests on several different Type B packages. ORNL has crush tested five different drum-type package designs, continuing its 60 year history of RAM package testing. A total of 26 crush tests have been performed in a wide variety of package orientations and crush plate CG alignments. In all cases, the deformation of the outer drum created by the crush test was significantly greater than the deformation damage caused by the 9 m drop test. The crush test is a highly effective means for testing structural soundness of smaller nondense Type B shipping package designs. Further regulatory guidance could alleviate the need to perform the crush test in a wide range of orientations and crush plate CG alignments.

  18. Preparation-induced errors in EPR dosimetry of enamel: pre- and post-crushing sensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haskell, E.H.; Hayes, R.B.; Kenner, G.H.

    1996-01-01

    Errors in dose estimation as a function of grain size for tooth enamel has been previously shown for beta irradiation after crushing. We tested the effect of gamma radiation applied to specimens before and after crushing. We extend the previous work in that we found that post-crushing irradiation altered the slope of the dose-response curve of the hydroxyapatite signal and produced a grain-size dependent offset. No changes in the slope of the dose-response curve were seen in enamel caps irradiated before crushing

  19. Probabilistic hypergraph based hash codes for social image search

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi XIE; Hui-min YU; Roland HU

    2014-01-01

    With the rapid development of the Internet, recent years have seen the explosive growth of social media. This brings great challenges in performing efficient and accurate image retrieval on a large scale. Recent work shows that using hashing methods to embed high-dimensional image features and tag information into Hamming space provides a powerful way to index large collections of social images. By learning hash codes through a spectral graph partitioning algorithm, spectral hashing (SH) has shown promising performance among various hashing approaches. However, it is incomplete to model the relations among images only by pairwise simple graphs which ignore the relationship in a higher order. In this paper, we utilize a probabilistic hypergraph model to learn hash codes for social image retrieval. A probabilistic hypergraph model offers a higher order repre-sentation among social images by connecting more than two images in one hyperedge. Unlike a normal hypergraph model, a probabilistic hypergraph model considers not only the grouping information, but also the similarities between vertices in hy-peredges. Experiments on Flickr image datasets verify the performance of our proposed approach.

  20. Thermal conductivity of crushed salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuehn, K.

    Heat transfer through an annular space filled with crushed salt depends primarily on the thermal conductivity, lambda, of the material. This report gives a formula with which lambda can be computed. The formula includes two quantities that can be influenced through screening of the salt smalls: the porosity, psi, and the fraction, alpha, of the more highly resistive heat-flow paths. The report computes and presents graphically the thermal conductivities for various values of psi and alpha. Heat-transfer properties are computed and compared for an annular space filled with crushed salt and for an air gap. The comparison shows that the properties of the annular space are larger only up to a certain temperature, because the properties of the air gap increase exponentially while those f the annular space increase only in an approximately linear way. Experimental results from Project Salt Vault in the U.S. are in good agreement with the calculations performed. Trials in Temperature Experimental Field 2 at the Asse II salt mine will provide an additional check on the calculations. 3 figures, 3 tables

  1. Deep Hashing Based Fusing Index Method for Large-Scale Image Retrieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijuan Duan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hashing has been widely deployed to perform the Approximate Nearest Neighbor (ANN search for the large-scale image retrieval to solve the problem of storage and retrieval efficiency. Recently, deep hashing methods have been proposed to perform the simultaneous feature learning and the hash code learning with deep neural networks. Even though deep hashing has shown the better performance than traditional hashing methods with handcrafted features, the learned compact hash code from one deep hashing network may not provide the full representation of an image. In this paper, we propose a novel hashing indexing method, called the Deep Hashing based Fusing Index (DHFI, to generate a more compact hash code which has stronger expression ability and distinction capability. In our method, we train two different architecture’s deep hashing subnetworks and fuse the hash codes generated by the two subnetworks together to unify images. Experiments on two real datasets show that our method can outperform state-of-the-art image retrieval applications.

  2. MiMC: Efficient encryption and cryptographic hashing with minimal multiplicative complexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrecht, Martin; Grassi, Lorenzo; Rechberger, Christian

    2016-01-01

    and cryptographic hash functions is to reconsider and simplify the round function of the Knudsen-Nyberg cipher from 1995. The mapping F(x) := x3 is used as the main component there and is also the main component of our family of proposals called “MiMC”. We study various attack vectors for this construction and give...... a new attack vector that outperforms others in relevant settings. Due to its very low number of multiplications, the design lends itself well to a large class of applications, especially when the depth does not matter but the total number of multiplications in the circuit dominates all aspects...

  3. Research for the development of the crushed sand (II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Chul Whan; Kang, Sun Duck; Min, Jeong Sik; Synn, Joong Ho; Park, Chan [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    The sand obtained from river is not sufficient in amount for the demand of construction industry. The production of sand from sea and mountain is rapidly increasing for the substitution of the river sand. The industry of the crushed sand has recently been bricked for the above. Crushing, classification and dewatering are the main processes in the crushed sand production. This report concentrates the improvement of classification technology and the quality of ready mixed concrete. Air separator with testing size for the classification in the process of dry system was developed by the Yeung Nam university. This plant has the excellent efficiency for the collection of fine powder, but needs the improvement for separating function. The collection efficiency of the testing size air separator is reached to 99% in the condition of high revolution and low feeding speed. The classification efficiency is checked about 50% maximum in the condition of 200 rpm and dry sample. Energy saving test was carried out in the production process of the dry system with the rock samples of 14-17% of water content. The classification efficiency for dewatering sample passed the heating process was analysed 91.5%. But that for high water content sample skipped the heating process was analysed more or less 77%. Even though the heating process causes the classification efficiency being high, the energy consumption can also cause the price of the crushed sand high. Water content of sample as the effective element for the optimization of classification efficiency and energy saving should be studied next year. The quality of crushed sand in the mixing design. The test was carried out with the various content in mixing, the strength of ready mixed concrete has the maximum for the mould with 50-60% content of crushed sand. This strength is higher by 5-30% than 30% content and by 20-32% than 0% content, which means that the industry has the possibility of progress. (author). 10 refs., 31 tabs., 49

  4. A scalable lock-free hash table with open addressing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper Puge; Karlsson, Sven

    2016-01-01

    and concurrent operations without any locks. In this paper, we present a new fully lock-free open addressed hash table with a simpler design than prior published work. We split hash table insertions into two atomic phases: first inserting a value ignoring other concurrent operations, then in the second phase......Concurrent data structures synchronized with locks do not scale well with the number of threads. As more scalable alternatives, concurrent data structures and algorithms based on widely available, however advanced, atomic operations have been proposed. These data structures allow for correct...

  5. Crushed stone production plant for NPP building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obolenskij, V.Ya.

    1982-01-01

    The project of the granite-crushed stone quarry - the large modern plant producing building materials, is presented. The quarry is designated for providing NPP and other power objects building with high-strength crushed stone. The plant consists of: quarry; crushing-sorting plant with maintenance objects arranged on its ground; basis and service stores of explosive materials; tail facility and purifying systems; water supply purifying stations; water storage basin. The plant is reserved for 2335 thousand m 3 yearly utoput of crushed stone; the staff consists of 535 persons, the budgeted cost of building is 26.6 million rubles. Physicochemical characteristics of granosyenites of the ''Granitnoye'' deposit - the raw material resource base of the plant and technological scheme of the crushing-sorting plant are given. Planned measures on building organization and recultivation of disturbed grounds are presented

  6. Visual hashing of digital video : applications and techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostveen, J.; Kalker, A.A.C.M.; Haitsma, J.A.; Tescher, A.G.

    2001-01-01

    his paper present the concept of robust video hashing as a tool for video identification. We present considerations and a technique for (i) extracting essential perceptual features from a moving image sequences and (ii) for identifying any sufficiently long unknown video segment by efficiently

  7. Toward Optimal Manifold Hashing via Discrete Locally Linear Embedding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rongrong Ji; Hong Liu; Liujuan Cao; Di Liu; Yongjian Wu; Feiyue Huang

    2017-11-01

    Binary code learning, also known as hashing, has received increasing attention in large-scale visual search. By transforming high-dimensional features to binary codes, the original Euclidean distance is approximated via Hamming distance. More recently, it is advocated that it is the manifold distance, rather than the Euclidean distance, that should be preserved in the Hamming space. However, it retains as an open problem to directly preserve the manifold structure by hashing. In particular, it first needs to build the local linear embedding in the original feature space, and then quantize such embedding to binary codes. Such a two-step coding is problematic and less optimized. Besides, the off-line learning is extremely time and memory consuming, which needs to calculate the similarity matrix of the original data. In this paper, we propose a novel hashing algorithm, termed discrete locality linear embedding hashing (DLLH), which well addresses the above challenges. The DLLH directly reconstructs the manifold structure in the Hamming space, which learns optimal hash codes to maintain the local linear relationship of data points. To learn discrete locally linear embeddingcodes, we further propose a discrete optimization algorithm with an iterative parameters updating scheme. Moreover, an anchor-based acceleration scheme, termed Anchor-DLLH, is further introduced, which approximates the large similarity matrix by the product of two low-rank matrices. Experimental results on three widely used benchmark data sets, i.e., CIFAR10, NUS-WIDE, and YouTube Face, have shown superior performance of the proposed DLLH over the state-of-the-art approaches.

  8. A Hash Based Remote User Authentication and Authenticated Key Agreement Scheme for the Integrated EPR Information System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chun-Ta; Weng, Chi-Yao; Lee, Cheng-Chi; Wang, Chun-Cheng

    2015-11-01

    To protect patient privacy and ensure authorized access to remote medical services, many remote user authentication schemes for the integrated electronic patient record (EPR) information system have been proposed in the literature. In a recent paper, Das proposed a hash based remote user authentication scheme using passwords and smart cards for the integrated EPR information system, and claimed that the proposed scheme could resist various passive and active attacks. However, in this paper, we found that Das's authentication scheme is still vulnerable to modification and user duplication attacks. Thereafter we propose a secure and efficient authentication scheme for the integrated EPR information system based on lightweight hash function and bitwise exclusive-or (XOR) operations. The security proof and performance analysis show our new scheme is well-suited to adoption in remote medical healthcare services.

  9. Automation for Crushing and Screening Equipment to Produce Graded Paving Crushed Stone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhonov, Anatoly; Velichkin, Vladimir

    2017-10-01

    This paper offers analysis of factors related to production and storage of graded crushed stone, which adversely impact the service life and wear resistance of asphalt-concrete motor road pavements. The paper describes external and technology-related parameters that may cause changes of the preset ratio in graded crushed stone. Control factors are described that ensure the formulated fraction ratio in crushed stone by controlling the operation mode of the crushing and screening equipment. The paper also contains an ACS flow chart for crushing and screening equipment engaged in continuous closed-cycle two-stage technology. Performance of the ACS to maintain the preset fractionated crushed stone ratio has been confirmed with a mathematical model.

  10. Determination of dispersity of crushed granite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Dejun; Fan Xianhua; Zhang Yingjie; Yao Jun; Zhou Duo; Wang Yong

    2004-01-01

    The experimental crushed granite column breakthrough curves, using 99 Tc as spike tracer and 3 H as invariant tracer, are analyzed by different linear regression techniques. Dispersity of crushed granite and retardation factor of 99 TcO 4 - on the crushed granite are determined simultaneously by one linear regression technique. Dispersity of crushed granite is also obtained with 3 H as invariant tracer by the other linear regression technique. The dispersities found by spike source and invariant source methods are compared. The experimental results show that the dispersity found by spike source method is close to that found by invariant source method. It indicates that dispersity is only the characteristic of dispersion medium

  11. Determination of dispersity of crushed granite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, D.J.; Fan, X.H.

    2005-01-01

    Experimental crushed granite column breakthrough curves, using 99 Tc as spike tracer and 3 H as invariant tracer, were analyzed by different linear regression techniques. Dispersity of crushed granite and the retardation factor of 99 TcO 4 - on the crushed granite were determined simultaneously by one linear regression. Dispersity of crushed granite was also obtained with 3 H as invariant tracer by the other linear regression. The dispersities found by spike source and invariant source methods are compared. Experimental results show that the dispersity found by the spike source method is close to that found by the invariant source method. This indicates that dispersity is only a characteristic of the dispersion medium. (author)

  12. Flowability in crushed sand mortar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cabrera, O. A.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The present experimental study explored the relationship between mortar flowability and the voids content in crushed sand to determine the effect of grain shape and surface texture as well as dust content on the behaviour of fresh mortar. The findings revealed a close correlation between voids content and the volume of paste needed for mortar to begin to flow as a continuous material, mortar flowability and the water content needed to attain a given flowability. The comparison of the empirical findings to the results obtained with the Larrard (1, 2 model provided further information on the effect of sand grain morphology on fresh mortars.

    En el presente trabajo se plantea un estudio experimental de la fluidez de morteros basado en el contenido de vacíos de arenas machacadas, para comprender la influencia de la forma y textura superficial de los granos de arena y del contenido de polvo de las mismas sobre el estado fresco de morteros. Los resultados muestran la estrecha relación entre el contenido de vacíos entre granos y los volúmenes de pasta necesarios para iniciar el escurrimiento como un material continuo, la fluidez de los morteros, el contenido de agua para alcanzar una determinada fluidez, etc. El comportamiento evaluado se compara con resultados obtenidos aplicando el modelo de F. de Larrard (1, 2, permitiendo de este modo obtener mayor información de la influencia de la morfología de los granos de la arena sobre el estado fresco de los morteros.

  13. Characterizing large strain crush response of redwood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cramer, S.M.; Hermanson, J.C.

    1996-12-01

    Containers for the transportation of hazardous and radioactive materials incorporate redwood in impact limiters. Redwood is an excellent energy absorber, but only the most rudimentary information exists on its crush properties. The objectives of the study were to fill the information gap by collecting triaxial load-deformation data for redwood; to use these data to characterize redwood crush, assess current wood failure theories, provide developments toward a complete stress-strain theory for redwood; and to review the literature on strain-rate effects on redwood crush performance. The load-deformation responses of redwood at temperature conditions corresponding to ambient (70 degrees F), 150 degrees F, and -20 degrees F conditions were measured in approximately 100 confined compression tests for crush levels leading to material densification. Data analysis provided a more complete description of redwood crush performance and a basis for assessing proposed general orthotropic stress-strain relationships for redwood. A review of existing literature indicated that strain-rate effects cause at most a 20 percent increase in crush stress parallel to grain

  14. Comparison between two-dimensional and three-dimensional quantitative coronary angiography for the prediction of functional severity in true bifurcation lesions: Insights from the randomized DK-CRUSH II, III, and IV trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yao-Jun; Zhu, Hao; Shi, Shun-Yi; Muramatsu, Takashi; Pan, Dao-Rong; Ye, Fei; Zhang, Jun-Jie; Tian, Nai-Liang; Bourantas, Christos V; Chen, Shao-Liang

    2016-03-01

    This study investigated the diagnostic accuracy of three-dimensional quantitative coronary angiography (3D-QCA) compared with conventional 2D-QCA for predicting functional severity assessed by fractional flow reserve (FFR) for true bifurcation lesions. Based on pooled data from the randomized DK-CRUSH II, III, and IV trials, we evaluated the patients with true bifurcation lesions who underwent coronary angiography together with functional evaluations using FFR in both the main vessel and the side branch. Off-line 2D- and 3D-QCA analyses were conducted using dedicated bifurcation QCA analysis software. Measurements of minimum lumen diameter (MLD), percentage diameter stenosis (% DS), and minimum lumen area (MLA) were compared between 2D- and 3D-QCA, and we evaluated their predictive values of functionally significant FFR. Ninety patients were eligible for enrollment in the present study. In the main vessel, MLA measured by 3D-QCA was the most accurate predictor of FFR <0.75 (C statistic 0.85, P < 0.001), while MLD measured by 2D-QCA was a similarly accurate predictor (C statistic 0.85, P < 0.001). In the side branch, the best metrics for predicting FFR <0.75 were % DS measured by 2D-QCA with a C statistic value of 0.91 (P < 0.001) and MLA measured by 3D-QCA with a C statistic value of 0.81 (P < 0.001). However, both 2D- and 3D-QCA metrics exhibited low accuracies for predicting FFR <0.75 in intermediate bifurcation lesions. 3D-QCA analysis for true bifurcation lesions did not improve the predictive accuracy of functionally significant FFR compared with 2D-QCA analysis. In lesions with intermediate stenosis, the diagnostic performance of both 2D- and 3D-QCA-derived measurements in differentiating functional severity is limited. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Robust Image Hashing Using Radon Transform and Invariant Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.L. Liu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A robust image hashing method based on radon transform and invariant features is proposed for image authentication, image retrieval, and image detection. Specifically, an input image is firstly converted into a counterpart with a normalized size. Then the invariant centroid algorithm is applied to obtain the invariant feature point and the surrounding circular area, and the radon transform is employed to acquire the mapping coefficient matrix of the area. Finally, the hashing sequence is generated by combining the feature vectors and the invariant moments calculated from the coefficient matrix. Experimental results show that this method not only can resist against the normal image processing operations, but also some geometric distortions. Comparisons of receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve indicate that the proposed method outperforms some existing methods in classification between perceptual robustness and discrimination.

  16. Simultenious binary hash and features learning for image retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frantc, V. A.; Makov, S. V.; Voronin, V. V.; Marchuk, V. I.; Semenishchev, E. A.; Egiazarian, K. O.; Agaian, S.

    2016-05-01

    Content-based image retrieval systems have plenty of applications in modern world. The most important one is the image search by query image or by semantic description. Approaches to this problem are employed in personal photo-collection management systems, web-scale image search engines, medical systems, etc. Automatic analysis of large unlabeled image datasets is virtually impossible without satisfactory image-retrieval technique. It's the main reason why this kind of automatic image processing has attracted so much attention during recent years. Despite rather huge progress in the field, semantically meaningful image retrieval still remains a challenging task. The main issue here is the demand to provide reliable results in short amount of time. This paper addresses the problem by novel technique for simultaneous learning of global image features and binary hash codes. Our approach provide mapping of pixel-based image representation to hash-value space simultaneously trying to save as much of semantic image content as possible. We use deep learning methodology to generate image description with properties of similarity preservation and statistical independence. The main advantage of our approach in contrast to existing is ability to fine-tune retrieval procedure for very specific application which allow us to provide better results in comparison to general techniques. Presented in the paper framework for data- dependent image hashing is based on use two different kinds of neural networks: convolutional neural networks for image description and autoencoder for feature to hash space mapping. Experimental results confirmed that our approach has shown promising results in compare to other state-of-the-art methods.

  17. The legal response to illegal "hash clubs" in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmussen, V.; Moesby-Johansen, C.

    2004-01-01

    Fra midten af 1990'erne er der skudt en række hashklubber op i Danmark. Overordnet er der to slags klubber: salgssteder og væresteder. De første klubber er udelukkende organiseret om salget af hash, mens de andre er klubber, hvor man både kan købe hashen og opholde sig på stedet for at deltage i ...

  18. Crushing method for nuclear fuel powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Shin-ichi; Tsuchiya, Haruo.

    1997-01-01

    A crushing medium is contained in mill pots disposed at the circumferential periphery of a main axis. The diameter of each mill pot is determined such that powdery nuclear fuels containing aggregated powders and ground and mixed powders do not reach criticality. A plurality of mill pots are revolved in the direction of the main axis while each pots rotating on its axis. Powdery nuclear fuels containing aggregated powders are conveyed to a supply portion of the moll pot, and an inert gas is supplied to the supply portion. The powdery nuclear fuels are supplied from the supply portion to the inside of the mill pots, and the powdery nuclear fuels containing aggregated powders are crushed by centrifugal force caused by the rotation and the revolving of the mill pots by means of the crushing medium. UO 2 powder in uranium oxide fuels can be crushed continuously. PuO 2 powder and UO 2 powder in MOX fuels can be crushed and mixed continuously. (I.N.)

  19. Calculation of density and permeability of compacted crushed salt within an engineered shaft sealing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loken, M.; Statham, W.

    1997-01-01

    Crushed salt from the host Salado Formation is proposed as a sealing material in one component of a multicomponent seal system design for the shafts of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a mined geological repository for storage and disposal of transuranic radioactive wastes located near Carlsbad, New Mexico. The crushed salt will be compacted and placed at a density approaching 90% of the intact density of the host Salado salt. Creep closure of the shaft will further compact the crushed salt over time, thereby reducing the crushed-salt permeability from the initial state and creating an effective long-term seal. A structural model and a fluid flow model have been developed to provide an estimate of crushed-salt reconsolidation rate as a function of depth, time, and pore pressure. Model results are obtained in terms of crushed-salt permeability as a function of time and depth within the salt column. Model results indicate that average salt column permeability will be reduced to 3.3 x 10 -20 m 2 in about 100 years, which provides for an acceptable long-term seal component

  20. Evaluation of constitutive models for crushed salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callahan, G.D.; Loken, M.C.; Hurtado, L.D.; Hansen, F.D.

    1996-01-01

    Three constitutive models are recommended as candidates for describing the deformation of crushed salt. These models are generalized to three-dimensional states of stress to include the effects of mean and deviatoric stress and modified to include effects of temperature, grain size, and moisture content. A database including hydrostatic consolidation and shear consolidation tests conducted on Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) and southeastern New Mexico salt is used to determine material parameters for the models. To evaluate the capability of the models, parameter values obtained from fitting the complete database are used to predict the individual tests. Finite element calculations of a WIPP shaft with emplaced crushed salt demonstrate the model predictions

  1. Range-efficient consistent sampling and locality-sensitive hashing for polygons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, Joachim; Pagh, Rasmus

    2017-01-01

    Locality-sensitive hashing (LSH) is a fundamental technique for similarity search and similarity estimation in high-dimensional spaces. The basic idea is that similar objects should produce hash collisions with probability significantly larger than objects with low similarity. We consider LSH for...... or union of a set of preprocessed polygons. Curiously, our consistent sampling method uses transformation to a geometric problem....

  2. Linear-XOR and Additive Checksums Don't Protect Damgard-Merkle Hashes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gauravaram, Praveen; Kelsey, John

    2008-01-01

    We consider the security of Damg\\aa{}rd-Merkle variants which compute linear-XOR or additive checksums over message blocks, intermediate hash values, or both, and process these checksums in computing the final hash value. We show that these Damg\\aa{}rd-Merkle variants gain almost no security...

  3. HashLearn Now: Mobile Tutoring in India

    OpenAIRE

    Arun Kumar Agariya; Binay Krishna Shivam; Shashank Murali; Jyoti Tikoria

    2016-01-01

    Looking at today’s competitive exams scenario, a single mark may lead to a differentiation of rank in multiples of hundreds or even thousands. Looking at this problem from student’s perspective this article discusses the role of anywhere, anytime help for the students in getting answers for their problems on a real-time basis from the application known as HashLearn Now. The smart phones usage by students clearly signifies the importance of this application for getting their queries answered b...

  4. A model of quantum communication device for quantum hashing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasiliev, A

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we consider a model of quantum communications between classical computers aided with quantum processors, connected by a classical and a quantum channel. This type of communications implying both classical and quantum messages with moderate use of quantum processing is implicitly used in many quantum protocols, such as quantum key distribution or quantum digital signature. We show that using the model of a quantum processor on multiatomic ensembles in the common QED cavity we can speed up quantum hashing, which can be the basis of quantum digital signature and other communication protocols. (paper)

  5. Studies on various characteristics of concrete structures using crushed sand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mimatsu, Makoto; Sugita, Hideaki; Yonemura, Masataka.

    1985-01-01

    With the recent advances of construction industry, the demands for concrete, hence for aggregate, are rising. The sand as such is in extreme shortage due to the exhaustion of river sand. Under the situation, the recent trends are for the use of crushed sand, i.e. the artificial sand obtained by crushing rocks, which have advantages of stabilized quality and adequate supplies. In building of nuclear power plants requiring large amounts of concrete, the usage of crushed sand is now unavoidable. The following are described : the situation of aggregate in Kyushu. production method of crushed sand and the quality standards, rocks used for crushed stone and sand and the properties, quality survey on crushed sand and the basic tests, characteristic tests of crushed-stone and -sand mixed concrete, the application of crushed sand in structures of the Sendai Nuclear Power Station. (Mori, K.)

  6. Reduced Renshaw Recurrent Inhibition after Neonatal Sciatic Nerve Crush in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Shu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Renshaw recurrent inhibition (RI plays an important gated role in spinal motion circuit. Peripheral nerve injury is a common disease in clinic. Our current research was designed to investigate the change of the recurrent inhibitory function in the spinal cord after the peripheral nerve crush injury in neonatal rat. Sciatic nerve crush was performed on 5-day-old rat puppies and the recurrent inhibition between lateral gastrocnemius-soleus (LG-S and medial gastrocnemius (MG motor pools was assessed by conditioning monosynaptic reflexes (MSR elicited from the sectioned dorsal roots and recorded either from the LG-S and MG nerves by antidromic stimulation of the synergist muscle nerve. Our results demonstrated that the MSR recorded from both LG-S or MG nerves had larger amplitude and longer latency after neonatal sciatic nerve crush. The RI in both LG-S and MG motoneuron pools was significantly reduced to virtual loss (15–20% of the normal RI size even after a long recovery period upto 30 weeks after nerve crush. Further, the degree of the RI reduction after tibial nerve crush was much less than that after sciatic nerve crush indicatig that the neuron-muscle disconnection time is vital to the recovery of the spinal neuronal circuit function during reinnervation. In addition, sciatic nerve crush injury did not cause any spinal motor neuron loss but severally damaged peripheral muscle structure and function. In conclusion, our results suggest that peripheral nerve injury during neonatal early development period would cause a more sever spinal cord inhibitory circuit damage, particularly to the Renshaw recurrent inhibition pathway, which might be the target of neuroregeneration therapy.

  7. DK crush (double-kissing and double-crush) technique for treatment of true coronary bifurcation lesions: illustration and comparison with classic crush.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shaoliang; Zhang, Junjie; Ye, Fei; Zhu, Zhongsheng; Lin, Song; Shan, Shoujie; Kwan, Tak W

    2007-04-01

    Classic crush has a lower success rate compared to final kissing balloon inflation (FKBI). We previously reported the double-kissing (DK) crush technique that involves double-kissing along with double-crushing for the treatment of true bifurcation coronary lesions in 2005. This is a consecutive, nonrandomized, open-label study. Eighty-eight consecutive patients with single, true coronary bifurcation lesions according to Lefevre Classification2 and side branch diameter >2.0 mm were enrolled. The first 44 patients (from October 2004 to January 2005) were assigned to the classic crush treatment arm and the next 44 patients (from February 2005 to June 2005) were assigned to the DK crush technique arm, respectively. Data within 30 days were analyzed. Patients in the DK crush group, compared to those in classic crush group, were characterized by longer lesion length in the side branch (13.5 +/- 3.4 mm vs 7.8 +/- 3.1 mm; p DK crush group, as well as longer lesion length in the main vessel (24.3 +/- 8.6 mm vs 21.1 +/- 7.3 mm), though without significant differences (p >0.05). Subacute stent thrombosis was detected in 2 patients with failure of FKBI in the classic crush group (4.3%). In addition, patients in the classic crush group were characterized by a smaller minimum lumen diameter (MLD) at the side branch ostium (2.74 +/- 0.12 mm vs 3.01 +/- 0.13 mm; p DK crush has the potential to improve the clinical outcome in patients with coronary bifurcation lesions. Further randomized, prospective, multicenter studies are required to confirm these differences between the classic crush and DK crush techniques.

  8. Distribution of crushing strength of tablets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnergaard, Jørn

    2002-01-01

    The distribution of a given set of data is important since most parametric statistical tests are based on the assumption that the studied data are normal distributed. In analysis of fracture mechanics the Weibull distribution is widely used and the derived Weibull modulus is interpreted as a mate...... data from nine model tablet formulations and four commercial tablets are shown to follow the normal distribution. The importance of proper cleaning of the crushing strength apparatus is demonstrated....

  9. Sandvik sharpens in-pit crushing focus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casteel, K.

    2009-04-15

    Major mining equipment supplier Sandvik Mining and Construction has announced a full-fledged fully mobile crushing plant, the PF300. This is shaping up to be the decade's major addition to the large scale open-cut mining toolkit. The PF300 can be connected to a face conveyor by a loading bridge as well as by belt wagon or transfer conveyor. The article describes design features. 2 figs.

  10. Crushed-salt constitutive model update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callahan, G.D.; Loken, M.C.; Mellegard, K.D.; Hansen, F.D.

    1998-01-01

    Modifications to the constitutive model used to describe the deformation of crushed salt are presented in this report. Two mechanisms--dislocation creep and grain boundary diffusional pressure solutioning--defined previously but used separately are combined to form the basis for the constitutive model governing the deformation of crushed salt. The constitutive model is generalized to represent three-dimensional states of stress. New creep consolidation tests are combined with an existing database that includes hydrostatic consolidation and shear consolidation tests conducted on Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and southeastern New Mexico salt to determine material parameters for the constitutive model. Nonlinear least-squares model fitting to data from the shear consolidation tests and a combination of the shear and hydrostatic consolidation tests produced two sets of material parameter values for the model. The change in material parameter values from test group to test group indicates the empirical nature of the model but demonstrates improvement over earlier work with the previous models. Key improvements are the ability to capture lateral strain reversal and better resolve parameter values. To demonstrate the predictive capability of the model, each parameter value set was used to predict each of the tests in the database. Based on the fitting statistics and the ability of the model to predict the test data, the model appears to capture the creep consolidation behavior of crushed salt quite well

  11. Crushed-salt constitutive model update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callahan, G.D.; Loken, M.C.; Mellegard, K.D. [RE/SPEC Inc., Rapid City, SD (United States); Hansen, F.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Modifications to the constitutive model used to describe the deformation of crushed salt are presented in this report. Two mechanisms--dislocation creep and grain boundary diffusional pressure solutioning--defined previously but used separately are combined to form the basis for the constitutive model governing the deformation of crushed salt. The constitutive model is generalized to represent three-dimensional states of stress. New creep consolidation tests are combined with an existing database that includes hydrostatic consolidation and shear consolidation tests conducted on Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and southeastern New Mexico salt to determine material parameters for the constitutive model. Nonlinear least-squares model fitting to data from the shear consolidation tests and a combination of the shear and hydrostatic consolidation tests produced two sets of material parameter values for the model. The change in material parameter values from test group to test group indicates the empirical nature of the model but demonstrates improvement over earlier work with the previous models. Key improvements are the ability to capture lateral strain reversal and better resolve parameter values. To demonstrate the predictive capability of the model, each parameter value set was used to predict each of the tests in the database. Based on the fitting statistics and the ability of the model to predict the test data, the model appears to capture the creep consolidation behavior of crushed salt quite well.

  12. Constitutive behavior of reconsolidating crushed salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callahan, G.D.; Mellegard, K.D.; Hansen, F.D.

    1998-02-01

    The constitutive model used to describe deformation of crushed salt is presented in this paper. Two mechanisms--dislocation creep and grain boundary diffusional pressure solutioning--are combined to form the basis for the constitutive model governing deformation of crushed salt. The constitutive model is generalized to represent three-dimensional states of stress. Recently completed creep consolidation tests are combined with an existing database that includes hydrostatic consolidation and shear consolidation tests conducted on Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) and southeastern New Mexico salt to determine material parameters for the constitutive model. Nonlinear least-squares model fitting to data from shear consolidation tests and a combination of shear and hydrostatic tests produces two sets of material parameter values for the model. Changes in material parameter values from test group to test group indicate the empirical nature of the model but show significant improvement over earlier work. To demonstrate the predictive capability of the model, each parameter value set was used to predict each of the tests in the database. Based on fitting statistics and ability of the model to predict test data, the model appears to capture the creep consolidation behavior of crushed salt quite well

  13. Crushing strength of HTGR fuel particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lackey, W.J.; Stinton, D.P.; Davis, L.E.; Beatty, R.L.

    1976-01-01

    The whole-particle crushing strengths of High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor fertile and fissile coated particles were measured and correlated with fabrication procedures. The crushing strength of Biso-coated fertile particles was increased by the following factors: (1) increasing the outer coating thickness by 10 μm increased strengths by 0.3 lb (1.3 N) for annealed particles and by 0.5 lb (2.2 N) for unannealed particles. (2) An 1800 0 C postcoating anneal increased strengths by 1 lb (4.4 N) for particles with thick outer coatings and by 2 lb (8.9 N) for particles having thin coatings. (3) Increasing the inner coating density by 0.1 g/cm 3 increased strength by 0.6 lb (2.7 N). The crushing strength of Triso-coated fissile particles was proportional to the thickness of the SiC coatings, and strength decreased on annealing by about 0.2 lb (0.9 N) when a porous plate was used to distribute the coating gas and by about 1.5 lb (6.7 N) when a conical gas distributor was used. The strengths of fertile and fissile coated particles as well as uncoated kernels appear adequate to allow fuel fabrication without excessive particle damage

  14. Micromechanics of pressure-induced grain crushing in porous rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiaxiang; Wong, Teng-Fong; Davis, Daniel M.

    1990-01-01

    The hydrostatic compaction behavior of a suite of porous sandstones was investigated at confining pressures up to 600 MPa and constant pore pressures ranging up to 50 MPa. These five sandstones (Boise, Kayenta, St. Peter, Berea, and Weber) were selected because of their wide range of porosity (5-35%) and grain size (60-460 μm). We tested the law of effective stress for the porosity change as a function of pressure. Except for Weber sandstone (which has the lowest porosity and smallest grain size), the hydrostat of each sandstone shows an inflection point corresponding to a critical effective pressure beyond which an accelerated, irrecoverable compaction occurs. Our microstructural observations show that brittle grain crushing initiates at this critical pressure. We also observed distributed cleavage cracking in calcite and intensive kinking in mica. The critical pressures for grain crushing in our sandstones range from 75 to 380 MPa. In general, a sandstone with higher porosity and larger grain size has a critical pressure which is lower than that of a sandstone with lower porosity and smaller grain size. We formulate a Hertzian fracture model to analyze the micromechanics of grain crushing. Assuming that the solid grains have preexisting microcracks with dimensions which scale with grain size, we derive an expression for the critical pressure which depends on the porosity, grain size, and fracture toughness of the solid matrix. The theoretical prediction is in reasonable agreement with our experimental data as well as other data from soil and rock mechanics studies for which the critical pressures range over 3 orders of magnitude.

  15. System using data compression and hashing adapted for use for multimedia encryption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffland, Douglas R [Livermore, CA

    2011-07-12

    A system and method is disclosed for multimedia encryption. Within the system of the present invention, a data compression module receives and compresses a media signal into a compressed data stream. A data acquisition module receives and selects a set of data from the compressed data stream. And, a hashing module receives and hashes the set of data into a keyword. The method of the present invention includes the steps of compressing a media signal into a compressed data stream; selecting a set of data from the compressed data stream; and hashing the set of data into a keyword.

  16. Crush Can Behaviour as an Energy Absorber in a Frontal Impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhuyan, Atanu; Ganilova, Olga

    2012-01-01

    The work presented is devoted to the investigation of a state-of-the-art technological solution for the design of a crush-can characterized by optimal energy absorbing properties. The work is focused on the theoretical background of the square tubes, circular tubes and inverbucktube performance under impact with the purpose of design of a novel optimized structure. The main system under consideration is based on the patent US 2008/0185851 A1 and includes a base flange with elongated crush boxes and back straps for stabilization of the crush boxes with the purpose of improvement of the energy-absorbing functionality. The modelling of this system is carried out applying both a theoretical approach and finite element analysis concentrating on the energy absorbing abilities of the crumple zones. The optimization process is validated under dynamic and quasi-static loading conditions whilst considering various modes of deformation and stress distribution along the tubular components. Energy absorbing behaviour of the crush-cans is studied concentrating on their geometrical properties and their diamond or concertina modes of deformation. Moreover, structures made of different materials, steel, aluminium and polymer composites are considered for the material effect analysis and optimization through their combination. Optimization of the crush-can behaviour is done within the limits of the frontal impact scenario with the purpose of improvement of the structural performance in the Euro NCAP tests.

  17. Crush Can Behaviour as an Energy Absorber in a Frontal Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuyan, Atanu; Ganilova, Olga

    2012-08-01

    The work presented is devoted to the investigation of a state-of-the-art technological solution for the design of a crush-can characterized by optimal energy absorbing properties. The work is focused on the theoretical background of the square tubes, circular tubes and inverbucktube performance under impact with the purpose of design of a novel optimized structure. The main system under consideration is based on the patent US 2008/0185851 A1 and includes a base flange with elongated crush boxes and back straps for stabilization of the crush boxes with the purpose of improvement of the energy-absorbing functionality. The modelling of this system is carried out applying both a theoretical approach and finite element analysis concentrating on the energy absorbing abilities of the crumple zones. The optimization process is validated under dynamic and quasi-static loading conditions whilst considering various modes of deformation and stress distribution along the tubular components. Energy absorbing behaviour of the crush-cans is studied concentrating on their geometrical properties and their diamond or concertina modes of deformation. Moreover, structures made of different materials, steel, aluminium and polymer composites are considered for the material effect analysis and optimization through their combination. Optimization of the crush-can behaviour is done within the limits of the frontal impact scenario with the purpose of improvement of the structural performance in the Euro NCAP tests.

  18. Magnetic resonance imaging evaluation of acute crush injury of rabbit sciatic nerve: correlation with histology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, X.; Shen, J.; Chen, J.; Wang, X.; Liu, Q.; Liang, B.

    2008-01-01

    To investigate the relation between the quantitative assessment of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features and the correlation with histology and functional recovery by using the rabbit sciatic nerve crush model. In New Zealand, 32 rabbits were randomly divided into 2 groups (group A and B); all rabbits underwent crushing injury of their left sciatic nerve. In group A (n = 16), the sciatic nerves were crushed by using microvessel clamps with a strength of 3.61 kg. In group B (n = 16), the sciatic nerves were crushed with a strength of 10.50 kg. Right sciatic nerves were served as controls. Serial MRI of both hind limbs in each rabbit was performed before and at the time point of 1, 2, 4, and 8 weeks after crushed injury. The MRI protocol included T1-weighted spin-echo (T1WI), 3 dimension turbo spin-echo T2-weighted (3DT2WI), T2-weighted turbo spin-echo images with spectral presaturation with inversion recovery (T2WI/SPIR), balanced fast-field echo (B-FFE) and short-time inversion recovery (STIR) sequences. The coronal image of the sciatic nerve was obtained. The nerve and muscle signal ratio (SIR) on each sequence was measured. The function recovery was observed and pathological examination was performed at each time point. A signal intensity increase of the distal segment of crushed sciatic nerves was found on 3DT2WI, T2WI/SP1R, B-FFE, and STIR, but not on T,WI images. Of 32 crushed nerves, 30 nerves showed high signal intensity. The correct diagnostic rate was 93.75% with false negative-positive of 6.25%. The SIR of the crushed sciatic nerve at distal portion was higher than those of the control nerves; there was a statistically significant difference (P 0.05). The SIR between group A and group B was not found statistically significantly different (P > 0.05). The SIR of crushed nerves at distal portion increased at one week after the crush injury, subsequently further increased, and reached a maximum at 2 weeks. The pathological examination revealed myelin

  19. Accelerating SPARQL queries by exploiting hash-based locality and adaptive partitioning

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Harbi, Razen; Abdelaziz, Ibrahim; Kalnis, Panos; Mamoulis, Nikos; Ebrahim, Yasser; Sahli, Majed

    2016-01-01

    State-of-the-art distributed RDF systems partition data across multiple computer nodes (workers). Some systems perform cheap hash partitioning, which may result in expensive query evaluation. Others try to minimize inter-node communication, which

  20. Deformations during saturation of the crushed aggregate, Olkiluoto tonalite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laaksonen, R.; Rathmayer, H.; Takala, J.; Toernqvist, J.

    1994-03-01

    Crushed aggregate tonalite produced of crystalline tonalite or a correspondent rock with particle size up to 8 mm (or 16 mm) will be used as backfill material in the VLJ repository caverns at Olkiluoto (in Finland). The backfill material has to retard radionuclides, to restrict the groundwater perlocation and to support mechanically the concrete structure of the repository silos. Mechanical and hydraulic behaviour of crushed tonalite when effected by stresses applied during compaction of the backfill and due to groundwater perlocation was studied at three batches having different gradations. Information about the phenomenon of settlement due to saturation and as a function of the compaction methods was obtained from a literature survey. The maximum amount of possible deformation due to compaction was analyzed with a gyratory device, known to have a good repeatability. In a group of simulation tests using a large oedometer cell the amount of compression due to the saturation process was measured. Also studies on the suitability of different compaction methods could be done with these tests. (43 refs., 49 figs., 3 tabs.)

  1. Crushing and Fracture of Lightweight Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Urban, Jesper

    2003-01-01

    and Latham (1968). Good agreement between the analytical models and the experiments is found. The crushing behaviour of two high speed ferries has been analysed with the numerical and analytical methods and the results are compared with the existing regulations for high speed craft (HSC). Several failure......The overall objective of the present study has been to develop rational analytical and numerical calculation models to quantify the consequences of collision accidents. The work has primarily been focused on high speed craft (HSC) built in lightweight materials such as aluminium and sandwich...

  2. Object-Location-Aware Hashing for Multi-Label Image Retrieval via Automatic Mask Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chang-Qin; Yang, Shang-Ming; Pan, Yan; Lai, Han-Jiang

    2018-09-01

    Learning-based hashing is a leading approach of approximate nearest neighbor search for large-scale image retrieval. In this paper, we develop a deep supervised hashing method for multi-label image retrieval, in which we propose to learn a binary "mask" map that can identify the approximate locations of objects in an image, so that we use this binary "mask" map to obtain length-limited hash codes which mainly focus on an image's objects but ignore the background. The proposed deep architecture consists of four parts: 1) a convolutional sub-network to generate effective image features; 2) a binary "mask" sub-network to identify image objects' approximate locations; 3) a weighted average pooling operation based on the binary "mask" to obtain feature representations and hash codes that pay most attention to foreground objects but ignore the background; and 4) the combination of a triplet ranking loss designed to preserve relative similarities among images and a cross entropy loss defined on image labels. We conduct comprehensive evaluations on four multi-label image data sets. The results indicate that the proposed hashing method achieves superior performance gains over the state-of-the-art supervised or unsupervised hashing baselines.

  3. Practical security and privacy attacks against biometric hashing using sparse recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topcu, Berkay; Karabat, Cagatay; Azadmanesh, Matin; Erdogan, Hakan

    2016-12-01

    Biometric hashing is a cancelable biometric verification method that has received research interest recently. This method can be considered as a two-factor authentication method which combines a personal password (or secret key) with a biometric to obtain a secure binary template which is used for authentication. We present novel practical security and privacy attacks against biometric hashing when the attacker is assumed to know the user's password in order to quantify the additional protection due to biometrics when the password is compromised. We present four methods that can reconstruct a biometric feature and/or the image from a hash and one method which can find the closest biometric data (i.e., face image) from a database. Two of the reconstruction methods are based on 1-bit compressed sensing signal reconstruction for which the data acquisition scenario is very similar to biometric hashing. Previous literature introduced simple attack methods, but we show that we can achieve higher level of security threats using compressed sensing recovery techniques. In addition, we present privacy attacks which reconstruct a biometric image which resembles the original image. We quantify the performance of the attacks using detection error tradeoff curves and equal error rates under advanced attack scenarios. We show that conventional biometric hashing methods suffer from high security and privacy leaks under practical attacks, and we believe more advanced hash generation methods are necessary to avoid these attacks.

  4. Rock Crushing Using Microwave Pre-Treatment

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Seunghee; Santamarina, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Crushing and grinding are primary contributors to a high energy demand in the mining industry, yet, both are surprisingly inefficient processes, often with efficiencies as low as 1%. We analyze size reductions during crushing and grinding operations and explore the potential of multiplying internal weaknesses in rock materials by non-mechanical means. In particular, when rock blocks (wet or even dry if polycrystalline) are exposed to microwaves, internal cracks can develop along grain boundaries via differential thermal expansion between grains and volumetric thermal expansion of water in pores. Brazilian tests conducted on granite and cement mortar specimens show that the tensile strength decreases proportional to the duration of microwave treatment. Thermal changes, excessive fluid pressure buildup and induced stresses are analyzed in the context of hydro-Thermo-mechanically coupled processes. Results confirm that both differential thermal expansion of mineral grains and volumetric thermal expansion of water can generate cracks upon microwave exposure. Optimal conditions are suggested to lower the combined consumption of electric and mechanical energy.

  5. Rock Crushing Using Microwave Pre-Treatment

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Seunghee

    2016-08-11

    Crushing and grinding are primary contributors to a high energy demand in the mining industry, yet, both are surprisingly inefficient processes, often with efficiencies as low as 1%. We analyze size reductions during crushing and grinding operations and explore the potential of multiplying internal weaknesses in rock materials by non-mechanical means. In particular, when rock blocks (wet or even dry if polycrystalline) are exposed to microwaves, internal cracks can develop along grain boundaries via differential thermal expansion between grains and volumetric thermal expansion of water in pores. Brazilian tests conducted on granite and cement mortar specimens show that the tensile strength decreases proportional to the duration of microwave treatment. Thermal changes, excessive fluid pressure buildup and induced stresses are analyzed in the context of hydro-Thermo-mechanically coupled processes. Results confirm that both differential thermal expansion of mineral grains and volumetric thermal expansion of water can generate cracks upon microwave exposure. Optimal conditions are suggested to lower the combined consumption of electric and mechanical energy.

  6. Crushing of ship bows in head-on collision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ocakli, H.; Zhang, S.; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    2004-01-01

    Semi-analytical methods for analysis of plate crushing and ship bow damage in head-on collisions are developed in this paper. Existing experimental and theoretical studies for crushing analysis of plated structures are summarized and compared. Simple formulae for determining the crushing force....... The approach developed can be used easily to determine the crushing resistance and damage extent of the ship bow when ship length and collision speed are known. The method can be used in probabilistic analysis of damage extents in ship collisions where a large number of calculations are generally required....

  7. Coke properties in relation to charge preparation techniques. [Selective crushing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morozov, O S

    1979-01-01

    Selective crushing is essential to obtain the required coke properties, so that in the coarse fractions there is a considerable reduction in the middlings and dirt normally difficult to crush. These are at the same time enriched with vitrinite so that there is an increase in the coal substance as such, reflected in improved caking capacity in the coarse size range. Various methods of selective crushing are employed, including air entrainment mills, fluidised bed systems. Other advantages claimed for selective crushing are the uniform pore distribution and air permeability and also the diminished breakage stress.

  8. Interim design report: fuel particle crushing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baer, J.W.; Strand, J.B.; Cook, E.J.; Miller, C.M.

    1977-11-01

    The double-roll fuel particle crusher was developed to fracture the silicon carbide coatings of Fort St. Vrain (FSV) fertile and fissile and large high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (LHTGR) fissile fuel particles. The report details the design task for the fuel particle crusher, including historical test information on double-roll crushers for carbide-coated fuels and the design approach selected for the cold pilot plant crusher, and shows how the design addresses the equipment goals and operational objectives. Design calculations and considerations are included to support the selection of crusher drive and gearing, the materials chosen for crushing rolls and housing, and the bearing selection. The results of the initial testing for compliance with design objectives and operational capabilities are also presented. 8 figures, 4 tables

  9. SEMANTIC SEGMENTATION OF BUILDING ELEMENTS USING POINT CLOUD HASHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Chizhova

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available For the interpretation of point clouds, the semantic definition of extracted segments from point clouds or images is a common problem. Usually, the semantic of geometrical pre-segmented point cloud elements are determined using probabilistic networks and scene databases. The proposed semantic segmentation method is based on the psychological human interpretation of geometric objects, especially on fundamental rules of primary comprehension. Starting from these rules the buildings could be quite well and simply classified by a human operator (e.g. architect into different building types and structural elements (dome, nave, transept etc., including particular building parts which are visually detected. The key part of the procedure is a novel method based on hashing where point cloud projections are transformed into binary pixel representations. A segmentation approach released on the example of classical Orthodox churches is suitable for other buildings and objects characterized through a particular typology in its construction (e.g. industrial objects in standardized enviroments with strict component design allowing clear semantic modelling.

  10. Hash-chain-based authentication for IoT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio PINTO

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The number of everyday interconnected devices continues to increase and constitute the Internet of Things (IoT. Things are small computers equipped with sensors and wireless communications capabilities that are driven by energy constraints, since they use batteries and may be required to operate over long periods of time. The majority of these devices perform data collection. The collected data is stored on-line using web-services that, sometimes, operate without any special considerations regarding security and privacy. The current work proposes a modified hash-chain authentication mechanism that, with the help of a smartphone, can authenticate each interaction of the devices with a REST web-service using One Time Passwords (OTP while using open wireless networks. Moreover, the proposed authentication mechanism adheres to the stateless, HTTP-like behavior expected of REST web-services, even allowing the caching of server authentication replies within a predefined time window. No other known web-service authentication mechanism operates in such manner.

  11. Parameter-free Locality Sensitive Hashing for Spherical Range Reporting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahle, Thomas Dybdahl; Pagh, Rasmus; Aumüller, Martin

    2017-01-01

    We present a data structure for *spherical range reporting* on a point set S, i.e., reporting all points in S that lie within radius r of a given query point q. Our solution builds upon the Locality-Sensitive Hashing (LSH) framework of Indyk and Motwani, which represents the asymptotically best...... solutions to near neighbor problems in high dimensions. While traditional LSH data structures have several parameters whose optimal values depend on the distance distribution from q to the points of S, our data structure is parameter-free, except for the space usage, which is configurable by the user...... query time bounded by O(t(n/t)ρ), where t is the number of points to report and ρ∈(0,1) depends on the data distribution and the strength of the LSH family used. We further present a parameter-free way of using multi-probing, for LSH families that support it, and show that for many such families...

  12. 27 CFR 24.176 - Crushing and fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Crushing and fermentation..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Wine § 24.176 Crushing and fermentation. (a) Natural... fermentation but the density of the juice may not be reduced below 22 degrees Brix. However, if the juice is...

  13. Gas adsorption on crushed quartz and basalt. [in vacuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, C.; Torkelson, B. E.

    1975-01-01

    The new surfaces generated by crushing rocks and minerals adsorb gases. Different gases are adsorbed to different extents so that both the total amount and composition of the released gases are changed. This affects the interpretation of the composition of the gases obtained by vacuum crushing lunar basalts, meteorites and minerals with fluid inclusions.

  14. Usage of Crushed Concrete Fines in Decorative Concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilipenko, Anton; Bazhenova, Sofia

    2017-10-01

    The article is devoted to the questions of usage of crushed concrete fines from concrete scrap for the production of high-quality decorative composite materials based on mixed binder. The main problem in the application of crushed concrete in the manufacture of decorative concrete products is extremely low decorative properties of crushed concrete fines itself, as well as concrete products based on them. However, crushed concrete fines could have a positive impact on the structure of the concrete matrix and could improve the environmental and economic characteristics of the concrete products. Dust fraction of crushed concrete fines contains non-hydrated cement grains, which can be opened in screening process due to the low strength of the contact zone between the hydrated and non-hydrated cement. In addition, the screening process could increase activity of the crushed concrete fines, so it can be used as a fine aggregate and filler for concrete mixes. Previous studies have shown that the effect of the usage of the crushed concrete fines is small and does not allow to obtain concrete products with high strength. However, it is possible to improve the efficiency of the crushed concrete fines as a filler due to the complex of measures prior to mixing. Such measures may include a preliminary mechanochemical activation of the binder (cement binder, iron oxide pigment, silica fume and crushed concrete fines), as well as the usage of polycarboxylate superplasticizers. The development of specific surface area of activated crushed concrete fines ensures strong adhesion between grains of binder and filler during the formation of cement stone matrix. The particle size distribution of the crushed concrete fines could achieve the densest structure of cement stone matrix and improve its resistance to environmental effects. The authors examined the mechanisms of structure of concrete products with crushed concrete fines as a filler. The results of studies of the properties of

  15. Adoption of the Hash algorithm in a conceptual model for the civil registry of Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toapanta, Moisés; Mafla, Enrique; Orizaga, Antonio

    2018-04-01

    The Hash security algorithm was analyzed in order to mitigate information security in a distributed architecture. The objective of this research is to develop a prototype for the Adoption of the algorithm Hash in a conceptual model for the Civil Registry of Ecuador. The deductive method was used in order to analyze the published articles that have a direct relation with the research project "Algorithms and Security Protocols for the Civil Registry of Ecuador" and articles related to the Hash security algorithm. It resulted from this research: That the SHA-1 security algorithm is appropriate for use in Ecuador's civil registry; we adopted the SHA-1 algorithm used in the flowchart technique and finally we obtained the adoption of the hash algorithm in a conceptual model. It is concluded that from the comparison of the DM5 and SHA-1 algorithm, it is suggested that in the case of an implementation, the SHA-1 algorithm is taken due to the amount of information and data available from the Civil Registry of Ecuador; It is determined that the SHA-1 algorithm that was defined using the flowchart technique can be modified according to the requirements of each institution; the model for adopting the hash algorithm in a conceptual model is a prototype that can be modified according to all the actors that make up each organization.

  16. Parallel Algorithm of Geometrical Hashing Based on NumPy Package and Processes Pool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klyachin Vladimir Aleksandrovich

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the problem of multi-dimensional geometric hashing. The paper describes a mathematical model of geometric hashing and considers an example of its use in localization problems for the point. A method of constructing the corresponding hash matrix by parallel algorithm is considered. In this paper an algorithm of parallel geometric hashing using a development pattern «pool processes» is proposed. The implementation of the algorithm is executed using the Python programming language and NumPy package for manipulating multidimensional data. To implement the process pool it is proposed to use a class Process Pool Executor imported from module concurrent.futures, which is included in the distribution of the interpreter Python since version 3.2. All the solutions are presented in the paper by corresponding UML class diagrams. Designed GeomNash package includes classes Data, Result, GeomHash, Job. The results of the developed program presents the corresponding graphs. Also, the article presents the theoretical justification for the application process pool for the implementation of parallel algorithms. It is obtained condition t2 > (p/(p-1*t1 of the appropriateness of process pool. Here t1 - the time of transmission unit of data between processes, and t2 - the time of processing unit data by one processor.

  17. An algorithm for the detection of move repetition without the use of hash-keys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučković Vladan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the theoretical and practical aspects of an important problem in computer chess programming - the problem of draw detection in cases of position repetition. The standard approach used in the majority of computer chess programs is hash-oriented. This method is sufficient in most cases, as the Zobrist keys are already present due to the systemic positional hashing, so that they need not be computed anew for the purpose of draw detection. The new type of the algorithm that we have developed solves the problem of draw detection in cases when Zobrist keys are not used in the program, i.e. in cases when the memory is not hashed.

  18. Quality control chart for crushed granite concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa E. DESMOND

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A chart for assessing in-situ grade (strength of concrete, has been developed in this study. Four grades of concrete after the Nigerian General Specification for Roads and bridges (NGSRB-C20, C25, C30 and C35, is studied at different water-cement ratios for medium and high slump range. The concrete mixes are made from crushed granite rock as coarse aggregate with river sand as fine aggregate. Compression test on specimens are conducted at curing age of 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, 28 and 56 days. Results on concrete workability from slump values, and water-cement ratios revealed that specimens with lower water-cement ratio were less workable but had higher strength, compared to mixes with higher water cement ratio. A simple algorithm using nonlinear regression analysis performed on each experimental data set produced Strength-Age (S-A curves which were used to establish a quality control chart. The accuracy of these curves were evaluated by computing average absolute error (AAS, the error of estimate (EoE and the average absolute error of estimate (Abs EoE for each concrete mix. These were done based on the actual average experimental strengths to measure how close the predicted values are to the experimental data set. The absolute average error of estimate (Abs. EoE recorded was less than ±10% tolerance zone for concrete works.

  19. SECOM: A novel hash seed and community detection based-approach for genome-scale protein domain identification

    KAUST Repository

    Fan, Ming

    2012-06-28

    With rapid advances in the development of DNA sequencing technologies, a plethora of high-throughput genome and proteome data from a diverse spectrum of organisms have been generated. The functional annotation and evolutionary history of proteins are usually inferred from domains predicted from the genome sequences. Traditional database-based domain prediction methods cannot identify novel domains, however, and alignment-based methods, which look for recurring segments in the proteome, are computationally demanding. Here, we propose a novel genome-wide domain prediction method, SECOM. Instead of conducting all-against-all sequence alignment, SECOM first indexes all the proteins in the genome by using a hash seed function. Local similarity can thus be detected and encoded into a graph structure, in which each node represents a protein sequence and each edge weight represents the shared hash seeds between the two nodes. SECOM then formulates the domain prediction problem as an overlapping community-finding problem in this graph. A backward graph percolation algorithm that efficiently identifies the domains is proposed. We tested SECOM on five recently sequenced genomes of aquatic animals. Our tests demonstrated that SECOM was able to identify most of the known domains identified by InterProScan. When compared with the alignment-based method, SECOM showed higher sensitivity in detecting putative novel domains, while it was also three orders of magnitude faster. For example, SECOM was able to predict a novel sponge-specific domain in nucleoside-triphosphatase (NTPases). Furthermore, SECOM discovered two novel domains, likely of bacterial origin, that are taxonomically restricted to sea anemone and hydra. SECOM is an open-source program and available at http://sfb.kaust.edu.sa/Pages/Software.aspx. © 2012 Fan et al.

  20. SECOM: A novel hash seed and community detection based-approach for genome-scale protein domain identification

    KAUST Repository

    Fan, Ming; Wong, Ka-Chun; Ryu, Tae Woo; Ravasi, Timothy; Gao, Xin

    2012-01-01

    With rapid advances in the development of DNA sequencing technologies, a plethora of high-throughput genome and proteome data from a diverse spectrum of organisms have been generated. The functional annotation and evolutionary history of proteins are usually inferred from domains predicted from the genome sequences. Traditional database-based domain prediction methods cannot identify novel domains, however, and alignment-based methods, which look for recurring segments in the proteome, are computationally demanding. Here, we propose a novel genome-wide domain prediction method, SECOM. Instead of conducting all-against-all sequence alignment, SECOM first indexes all the proteins in the genome by using a hash seed function. Local similarity can thus be detected and encoded into a graph structure, in which each node represents a protein sequence and each edge weight represents the shared hash seeds between the two nodes. SECOM then formulates the domain prediction problem as an overlapping community-finding problem in this graph. A backward graph percolation algorithm that efficiently identifies the domains is proposed. We tested SECOM on five recently sequenced genomes of aquatic animals. Our tests demonstrated that SECOM was able to identify most of the known domains identified by InterProScan. When compared with the alignment-based method, SECOM showed higher sensitivity in detecting putative novel domains, while it was also three orders of magnitude faster. For example, SECOM was able to predict a novel sponge-specific domain in nucleoside-triphosphatase (NTPases). Furthermore, SECOM discovered two novel domains, likely of bacterial origin, that are taxonomically restricted to sea anemone and hydra. SECOM is an open-source program and available at http://sfb.kaust.edu.sa/Pages/Software.aspx. © 2012 Fan et al.

  1. NHash: Randomized N-Gram Hashing for Distributed Generation of Validatable Unique Study Identifiers in Multicenter Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guo-Qiang; Tao, Shiqiang; Xing, Guangming; Mozes, Jeno; Zonjy, Bilal; Lhatoo, Samden D; Cui, Licong

    2015-11-10

    A unique study identifier serves as a key for linking research data about a study subject without revealing protected health information in the identifier. While sufficient for single-site and limited-scale studies, the use of common unique study identifiers has several drawbacks for large multicenter studies, where thousands of research participants may be recruited from multiple sites. An important property of study identifiers is error tolerance (or validatable), in that inadvertent editing mistakes during their transmission and use will most likely result in invalid study identifiers. This paper introduces a novel method called "Randomized N-gram Hashing (NHash)," for generating unique study identifiers in a distributed and validatable fashion, in multicenter research. NHash has a unique set of properties: (1) it is a pseudonym serving the purpose of linking research data about a study participant for research purposes; (2) it can be generated automatically in a completely distributed fashion with virtually no risk for identifier collision; (3) it incorporates a set of cryptographic hash functions based on N-grams, with a combination of additional encryption techniques such as a shift cipher; (d) it is validatable (error tolerant) in the sense that inadvertent edit errors will mostly result in invalid identifiers. NHash consists of 2 phases. First, an intermediate string using randomized N-gram hashing is generated. This string consists of a collection of N-gram hashes f1, f2, ..., fk. The input for each function fi has 3 components: a random number r, an integer n, and input data m. The result, fi(r, n, m), is an n-gram of m with a starting position s, which is computed as (r mod |m|), where |m| represents the length of m. The output for Step 1 is the concatenation of the sequence f1(r1, n1, m1), f2(r2, n2, m2), ..., fk(rk, nk, mk). In the second phase, the intermediate string generated in Phase 1 is encrypted using techniques such as shift cipher. The result

  2. The effect of proposed crush tests on transport containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-09-01

    Crush tests were performed on two AECL F112 packaging specimens, two simulated AECL-CRNL 4H packaging specimens, and on empty steel drums. The 9 m drop test was carried out on two simulated AECL-CRNL 4H packaging specimens for comparison with the effects of the crush test. The tests were filmed using high speed photography and 35mm still photographs

  3. Cytidine 5’-diphosphocholine administration prevents peripheral neuropathic pain after sciatic nerve crush injury in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emril DR

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Dessy R Emril,1 Samekto Wibowo,2 Lucas Meliala,2 Rina Susilowati3 1Department of Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, Syiah Kuala University, Banda Aceh, 2Department of Neurology, 3Department of Histology and Cell Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, IndonesiaBackground: Cytidine 5’-diphosphocholine (citicoline has been shown to have beneficial effects in central nervous system injury as well as in motoric functional recovery after peripheral nerve injury. This study aimed to examine the effect of citicoline on prevention of neuropathic pain in a rat model of sciatic nerve crush injury.Methods: Forty experimental rats were divided into four groups. In three groups, the right sciatic nerves were crushed in the mid-thigh region, and a gelatin sponge moistened with 0.4 or 0.8 mL of 100 µmol/L citicoline, or saline 0.4 mL in the control group, was applied. The fourth group of rats was sham-operated, ie the sciatic nerve was exposed with no crush. Functional assessments were performed 4 weeks after crush injury. von Frey filaments (100 g threshold were used to assess neuropathic pain. In addition, the sciatic functional index and extensor postural thrust (EPT tests were used to assess motoric function.Results: The crush/citicoline 0.4 mL group had a lower percentage of pain (23.53%, n=17 compared with the crush/saline group (53.33%, n=15, P<0.005. The crush/citicoline 0.4 mL group also showed better motoric recovery, as seen in stronger EPT results (P<0.001. However, the sciatic functional index analysis did not show significant differences between groups (P=0.35. The crush/citicoline 0.8 mL group showed a higher percentage of pain (66.67%, n=18 and less EPT recovery. These results may be explained by more severe nerve injury due to compression with a larger administered volume.Conclusion: In situ administration of 0.4 mL of 100 μmol/L citicoline prevents the occurrence of neuropathic pain and induces motoric recovery

  4. Clay modified crushed salt for shaft sealing elements. Material optimization and evaluation in field tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glaubach, Uwe; Hofmann, Martin; Gruner, Matthias; Kudla, Wolfram [TU Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany). Inst. of Mining and Special Civil Engineering

    2015-07-01

    Salt-based materials are intended to use for backfill and sealing systems in geotechnical barriers in underground HLW-repositories. Due to the creep of the saliniferous host rock, the salt backfill will be compacted during several hundreds or thousands years of operation to a minimum of porosity resp. permeability. To raise the sealing potential of a salt-based backfill, the porosity after construction should be minimized by optimal material performance and compaction performance. A procedure to optimize the grain size distribution of crushed salt and its water and clay content is described. The optimized salt fraction gets a better compaction behavior than straight mine-run salt. The addition of a filler-like material (e.g. Friedland Clay Powder) reduces the total porosity and permeability. Backfill columns made from crushed salt and clay probably include an instant sealing function.

  5. Random multispace quantization as an analytic mechanism for BioHashing of biometric and random identity inputs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teoh, Andrew B J; Goh, Alwyn; Ngo, David C L

    2006-12-01

    Biometric analysis for identity verification is becoming a widespread reality. Such implementations necessitate large-scale capture and storage of biometric data, which raises serious issues in terms of data privacy and (if such data is compromised) identity theft. These problems stem from the essential permanence of biometric data, which (unlike secret passwords or physical tokens) cannot be refreshed or reissued if compromised. Our previously presented biometric-hash framework prescribes the integration of external (password or token-derived) randomness with user-specific biometrics, resulting in bitstring outputs with security characteristics (i.e., noninvertibility) comparable to cryptographic ciphers or hashes. The resultant BioHashes are hence cancellable, i.e., straightforwardly revoked and reissued (via refreshed password or reissued token) if compromised. BioHashing furthermore enhances recognition effectiveness, which is explained in this paper as arising from the Random Multispace Quantization (RMQ) of biometric and external random inputs.

  6. Regenerative Potential of D-δ-Tocotrienol Rich Fraction on Crushed Skeletal Muscle of Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bijo Elsy

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Delayed muscle growth and regeneration of skeletal muscle in diabetics is believed to be due to diabetic myopathy because of alteration in the skeletal muscle homeostatis. Since vitamin E is a natural antioxidant and is also important for the integrity of sarcolemma, the present study was designed to explore the muscle regenerative potency of d-δ-tocotrienol-rich fraction (d-δ-TRF on crushed skeletal muscle in healthy and diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Diabetes was induced through single subcutaneous injection of alloxan (100 mg/kg. Twenty-four albino rats were divided into four groups; healthy control, diabetic control, healthy treated, and diabetic treated. Treated groups received injections orally, daily (200 mg/kg for 3 weeks. A horizontal skin incision was made on the shaved right mid-thigh region, by splitting the fascia between gluteus maximus and tensor fascia lata, and gluteus maximus was crushed with Kocher’s forceps. Skin wound was closed with an absorbable suture. The crushed muscle changes were studied by assessing the histopathological features, histomorphological measurements, and biochemical analyses on 3rd week following induction of injury. One-way “ANOVA” followed by Tukey’s test and Student t-test were used for statistical analysis of data. Results: Results obtained through various methods indicate that the d-δ-TRF treated groups have controlled glycemic status, improved antioxidant capacity, faster revascularization, re-innervation, regeneration of myofibers, and connective tissue remodeling. Conclusion: It is, therefore, concluded that the d-δ-TRF is a beneficial nutritional adjuvant for skeletal muscles’ structural and functional recovery after crushed injury in both healthy and diabetics. [J Interdiscip Histopathol 2017; 5(2.000: 36-42

  7. Continuous-flow leaching studies of crushed and cored SYNROC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coles, D.G.; Bazan, F.

    1980-01-01

    Both crushed (150 to 300 μm) and cored 1.8 mm diameter) samples of SYNROC have been leached with the single-pass continuous-flow leaching equipment. Crushed samples of Cs-hollandite were also leached in a similar experiment. Temperatures used were 25 0 C and 75 0 C and leachates were 0.03 N NaHCO 3 and distilled water. Leaching rates from SYNROC C were ranked Cs > Sr greater than or equal to Ca > Ba > Zr. A comparison of leaching rates is made between crushed SYNROC, cored SYNROC, and PNL 76-68 glass beads. Problems encountered when comparing the leaching rates of different waste forms are discussed

  8. Utilization of crushed clay brick in cellular concrete production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali A. Aliabdo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this research program is to study the effect of using crushed clay brick as an alternative aggregate in aerated concrete. Two series of mixtures were designed to investigate the physico-mechanical properties and micro-structural analysis of autoclave aerated concrete and foamed concrete, respectively. In each series, natural sand was replaced with crushed clay brick aggregate. In both series results showed a significant reduction in unit weight, thermal conductivity and sound attenuation coefficient while porosity has increased. Improvement on compressive strength of autoclave aerated concrete was observed at a percentage of 25% and 50% replacement, while in foamed concrete compressive strength gradually decreased by increasing crushed clay brick aggregate content. A comparatively uniform distribution of pore in case of foamed concrete with natural sand was observed by scanning electron microscope, while the pores were connected mostly and irregularly for mixes containing a percentage higher than 25% clay brick aggregate.

  9. Cask crush pad analysis using detailed and simplified analysis methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uldrich, E.D.; Hawkes, B.D.

    1997-01-01

    A crush pad has been designed and analyzed to absorb the kinetic energy of a hypothetically dropped spent nuclear fuel shipping cask into a 44-ft. deep cask unloading pool at the Fluorinel and Storage Facility (FAST). This facility, located at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) at the Idaho national Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), is a US Department of Energy site. The basis for this study is an analysis by Uldrich and Hawkes. The purpose of this analysis was to evaluate various hypothetical cask drop orientations to ensure that the crush pad design was adequate and the cask deceleration at impact was less than 100 g. It is demonstrated herein that a large spent fuel shipping cask, when dropped onto a foam crush pad, can be analyzed by either hand methods or by sophisticated dynamic finite element analysis using computer codes such as ABAQUS. Results from the two methods are compared to evaluate accuracy of the simplified hand analysis approach

  10. Assessment of Clinical Practices for Crushing Medication in Geriatric Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fodil, M; Nghiem, D; Colas, M; Bourry, S; Poisson-Salomon, A-S; Rezigue, H; Trivalle, C

    2017-01-01

    To assess the modification of the form of medication and evaluate staff observance of good clinical practices. One-day assessment of clinical practices. 17 geriatrics units in the 3 Teaching Hospitals of Paris-Sud (APHP), France. Elderly in-patients with difficulties swallowing capsules and tablets. Assessment of target-patient prescriptions and direct observation of nurses' medical rounds. 155/526 in-patients (29.5%) were unable to swallow tablets or capsules: 98 (40.3%) in long-term care, 46 patients (23.8%) in the rehabilitation unit and 11 (12.2%) in the acute care unit (p = .005). In thirty-nine (27.3%) of the 143 prescriptions studied all tablets were safe to crush and all capsules were safe to open. In 104 cases, at least one medication could not be safely modified, including 26 cases (18.2%) in which none of the prescribed drugs were safe to crush or open. In 48.2% of the 110 medications that were crushed, crushing was forbidden, and presented a potential threat in 12.7% of cases or a reduced efficacy in 8.2% of cases. Crushing methods were rarely appropriate: no specific protective equipment was used (81.8%), crushing equipment was shared between patients without cleaning (95.1%), medications were spilled or lost (69.9%). The method of administration was appropriate (water, jellified water) in 25% of the cases, questionable (soup, coffee, compote, juice, cream) in 55% of the cases and unacceptable (laxative) in 21% of the cases. Management of drug prescriptions in patients with swallowing difficulties is not optimal, and may even have iatrogenic effects. In this study, 12.7% of the modifications of the drug form could have been harmful. Doctors, pharmacists and nurses need to reevaluate their practices.

  11. Study comparing the double kissing (DK) crush with classical crush for the treatment of coronary bifurcation lesions: the DKCRUSH-1 Bifurcation Study with drug-eluting stents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, S L; Zhang, J J; Ye, F; Chen, Y D; Patel, T; Kawajiri, K; Lee, M; Kwan, T W; Mintz, G; Tan, H C

    2008-06-01

    Classical crush has a lower rate of final kissing balloon inflation (FKBI) immediately after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). The double kissing (DK) crush technique has the potential to increase the FKBI rate, and no prospective studies on the comparison of classical with DK crush techniques have been reported. Three hundred and eleven patients with true bifurcation lesions were randomly divided into classical (n = 156) and DK crush (n = 155) groups. Clinical and angiographic details at follow-up at 8 months were indexed. The primary end point was major adverse cardiac events (MACE) including myocardial infarction, cardiac death and target lesion revascularization (TLR) at 8 months. FKBI was 76% in the classical crush group and 100% in the DK group (P DK crush group. Cumulative 8 month MACE was 24.4% in the classical crush group and 11.4% in the DK crush group (P = 0.02). The TLR-free survival rate was 75.4% in the classical crush group and 89.5% in the DK crush group (P = 0.002). DK crush technique has the potential of increasing FKBI rate and reducing stent thrombosis, with a further reduction of TLR and cumulative MACE rate at 8 months.

  12. HASH: the Hong Kong/AAO/Strasbourg Hα planetary nebula database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, Quentin A; Bojičić, Ivan S; Frew, David J

    2016-01-01

    By incorporating our major recent discoveries with re-measured and verified contents of existing catalogues we provide, for the first time, an accessible, reliable, on-line SQL database for essential, up-to date information for all known Galactic planetary nebulae (PNe). We have attempted to: i) reliably remove PN mimics/false ID's that have biased previous studies and ii) provide accurate positions, sizes, morphologies, multi-wavelength imagery and spectroscopy. We also provide a link to CDS/Vizier for the archival history of each object and other valuable links to external data. With the HASH interface, users can sift, select, browse, collate, investigate, download and visualise the entire currently known Galactic PNe diversity. HASH provides the community with the most complete and reliable data with which to undertake new science. (paper)

  13. EFFICIENCY ANALYSIS OF HASHING METHODS FOR FILE SYSTEMS IN USER MODE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Y. Ivanov

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with characteristics and performance of interaction protocols between virtual file system and file system, their influence on processing power of microkernel operating systems. User mode implementation of ext2 file system for MINIX 3 OS is used to show that in microkernel operating systems file object identification time might increase up to 26 times in comparison with monolithic systems. Therefore, we present efficiency analysis of various hashing methods for file systems, running in user mode. Studies have shown that using hashing methods recommended in this paper it is possible to achieve competitive performance of the considered component of I/O stacks in microkernel and monolithic operating systems.

  14. MULTIMEDIA DATA TRANSMISSION THROUGH TCP/IP USING HASH BASED FEC WITH AUTO-XOR SCHEME

    OpenAIRE

    R. Shalin; D. Kesavaraja

    2012-01-01

    The most preferred mode for communication of multimedia data is through the TCP/IP protocol. But on the other hand the TCP/IP protocol produces huge packet loss unavoidable due to network traffic and congestion. In order to provide a efficient communication it is necessary to recover the loss of packets. The proposed scheme implements Hash based FEC with auto XOR scheme for this purpose. The scheme is implemented through Forward error correction, MD5 and XOR for providing efficient transmissi...

  15. Simulation-Based Performance Evaluation of Predictive-Hashing Based Multicast Authentication Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seonho Choi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A predictive-hashing based Denial-of-Service (DoS resistant multicast authentication protocol was proposed based upon predictive-hashing, one-way key chain, erasure codes, and distillation codes techniques [4, 5]. It was claimed that this new scheme should be more resistant to various types of DoS attacks, and its worst-case resource requirements were derived in terms of coarse-level system parameters including CPU times for signature verification and erasure/distillation decoding operations, attack levels, etc. To show the effectiveness of our approach and to analyze exact resource requirements in various attack scenarios with different parameter settings, we designed and implemented an attack simulator which is platformindependent. Various attack scenarios may be created with different attack types and parameters against a receiver equipped with the predictive-hashing based protocol. The design of the simulator is explained, and the simulation results are presented with detailed resource usage statistics. In addition, resistance level to various types of DoS attacks is formulated with a newly defined resistance metric. By comparing these results to those from another approach, PRABS [8], we show that the resistance level of our protocol is greatly enhanced even in the presence of many attack streams.

  16. A multi-pattern hash-binary hybrid algorithm for URL matching in the HTTP protocol.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Zeng

    Full Text Available In this paper, based on our previous multi-pattern uniform resource locator (URL binary-matching algorithm called HEM, we propose an improved multi-pattern matching algorithm called MH that is based on hash tables and binary tables. The MH algorithm can be applied to the fields of network security, data analysis, load balancing, cloud robotic communications, and so on-all of which require string matching from a fixed starting position. Our approach effectively solves the performance problems of the classical multi-pattern matching algorithms. This paper explores ways to improve string matching performance under the HTTP protocol by using a hash method combined with a binary method that transforms the symbol-space matching problem into a digital-space numerical-size comparison and hashing problem. The MH approach has a fast matching speed, requires little memory, performs better than both the classical algorithms and HEM for matching fields in an HTTP stream, and it has great promise for use in real-world applications.

  17. The Speech multi features fusion perceptual hash algorithm based on tensor decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Y. B.; Fan, M. H.; Zhang, Q. Y.

    2018-03-01

    With constant progress in modern speech communication technologies, the speech data is prone to be attacked by the noise or maliciously tampered. In order to make the speech perception hash algorithm has strong robustness and high efficiency, this paper put forward a speech perception hash algorithm based on the tensor decomposition and multi features is proposed. This algorithm analyses the speech perception feature acquires each speech component wavelet packet decomposition. LPCC, LSP and ISP feature of each speech component are extracted to constitute the speech feature tensor. Speech authentication is done by generating the hash values through feature matrix quantification which use mid-value. Experimental results showing that the proposed algorithm is robust for content to maintain operations compared with similar algorithms. It is able to resist the attack of the common background noise. Also, the algorithm is highly efficiency in terms of arithmetic, and is able to meet the real-time requirements of speech communication and complete the speech authentication quickly.

  18. Diffusion in crushed rock and in bentonite clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olin, M.

    1994-04-01

    Diffusion theories for porous media with sorption are reviewed to serve as a basis for considering diffusion in simple systems like sand of crushed rock. A Fickian diffusion and linear sorption model is solved both by analytical Laplance transform and Green's function methods and by numerical methods, and then applied to small-scale experiments for Finnish low- and medium-level operating waste repositories. The main properties of bentonite are reviewed. The hydraulic conductivity of compacted bentonite is so low that the major transport mechanism is diffusion. A Fickian diffusion and linear sorption model is applied to bentonite. The main component of bentonite, montmorillonite, has a high ion-exchange capacity and thus, transport in bentonite consists of interactive chemical and diffusion phenomena. A chemical equilibrium model, CHEQ, is developed for ion-exchange reactions in bentonite water systems. CHEQ is applied to some bentonite experiments with success, especially for monovalent ions. The fitted log-binding constants for sodium exchange with potassium, magnesium, and calcium were 0.27, 1.50, and 2.10, respectively. A coupled chemical and diffusion model, CHEQDIFF, is developed to take account of diffusion in pore water, surface diffusion and ion-exchange reactions. The model is applied to the same experiments as CHEQ, and validation is partly successful. In the diffusion case, the above-mentioned values for binding constants are used. The apparent diffusion (both anions and cations) and surface diffusion (only for cations) constants used are 3.0*10 -11 m 2 /s and 6.0*10 -12 m 2 /s, respectively, but these values are questionable, as experimental results good enough for fitting are not available. (orig.). (74 refs., 27 figs., 12 tabs.)

  19. Primary amenorrhea caused by crushing trauma of the pelvis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donner, G. G.; Pel, M.; Lammes, F. B.

    2000-01-01

    An 18-year-old woman sought treatment for primary amenorrhea. Crushing trauma of the pelvis in her childhood had caused separation between the uterine corpus and the cervix. Through a combined abdominal and vaginal approach the continuity of the uterine outflow tract was restored. Years later, after

  20. Exploratory study of crushed coconut shell as partial replacement for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The trend shows a decrease in strength as the quantity of CCS in the concrete cubes increases. The workability of the concrete decreased as the quantity of CSS increased with the mould slumping at 100% CSS. Aggregate Crushing Value (ACV) for CSS is 8% and that for fine sand is 17.89%,, while Aggregate Impact ...

  1. suitability of burnt and crushed cow bones as partial replacement

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HOD

    3 mix ratio measuring 150x150x150mm were tested for the compressive strength at 7, 14, 21 and 28 days respectively. ... the suitability of using waste products to produce lightweight ... suitability of machine crushed animal bones as partial or.

  2. Reduction of Biomass Moisture by Crushing/Splitting - A Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul E. Barnett; Donald L. Sirois; Colin Ashmore

    1986-01-01

    A biomass crusher/splitter concept is presented as a possible n&ant of tsafntainfng rights-of-way (ROW) or harvesting energy wood plantations. The conceptual system would cut, crush, and split small woody biomass leaving it in windrows for drying. A subsequent operation would bale and transport the dried material for use as an energy source. A survey of twenty...

  3. Effect of Crushed Sandstone Sand on the Properties of High ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents results of the laboratory investigation on high performance concrete (HPC) using crushed sandstone sand as 20%, 40%, and 60% replacement of river sand together with superplastisizer and silica fume (SF). The fresh concrete properties such as slump, air content and fresh concrete density have been ...

  4. environmental impact of aggregate mining by crush rock industries

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-07-02

    Jul 2, 2012 ... in form of crushed rock and it is also an essential con- stituent of many ... of production; processing or during extraction. Since .... reserves through deep quarrying. 1.3. ...... Audit Report of Port Harcourt Flour Mill Port Har- court.

  5. Assessment of Crushed Water Hyacinth ( Eichhornia crassipes ) as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A preliminary study was conducted to evaluate and compare organic buffering capacity of crushed water hyacinth and calcium carbonate on acidic borehole water for aquaculture. Thirty, 25-litre shaded plastic tanks (20-litre filled with experimental water, pH 3.0) of three replicates per treatment of 180 g buffer agent were ...

  6. Diffusion in the pore water of compacted crushed salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fluegge, Judith; Herr, Sebastian; Lauke, Thomas; Meleshyn, Artur; Miehe, Ruediger; Ruebel, Andre

    2016-07-15

    Diffusion of dissolved radionuclides in the pore water of compacted crushed salt in the long-term is the most relevant process for the release of radionuclides from a dedicated repository for high-level waste in a salt formation as has been shown in latest safety assessments and research projects /BUH 16/. So far, diffusion coefficients for free water have been applied for the diffusion in pore water in models for long-term safety assessments. This conservative assumption was used, because data on the diffusion coefficient of dissolved substances in crushed salt have been missing. Furthermore, the diffusion coefficient in the pore water was assumed to be constant and independent from the degree of compaction of the crushed salt. The work presented in this report was intended to contribute to fill this gap of knowledge about how the diffusion of radionuclides takes place in the compacted backfill of a repository in salt. For the first time, the pore diffusion coefficient as well as its dependence on the porosity of the crushed salt was determined experimentally by means of through-diffusion experiments using caesium as tracer. The results achieved in this project suggest that the diffusion in compacted crushed salt is not fully comparable to that in a homogeneous, temporally stable porous medium like sand or clay. The results obtained from four diffusion experiments show a remarkably different behaviour and all yield unique concentration versus time plots which includes highly temporal variable tracer fluxes with even full interruptions of the flux for longer periods of time. This effect cannot be explained by assuming a tracer transport by diffusion in a temporarily invariant pore space and / or under temporally invariant experimental conditions. From our point of view, a restructuring of the pore space seems to lead to closed areas of pore water in the sample which may open up again after some time, leading to a variable pore space and hence variable diffusive

  7. Administration of Oxygen Ultra-Fine Bubbles Improves Nerve Dysfunction in a Rat Sciatic Nerve Crush Injury Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hozo Matsuoka

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Ultra-fine bubbles (<200 nm in diameter have several unique properties and have been tested in various medical fields. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of oxygen ultra-fine bubbles (OUBs on a sciatic nerve crush injury (SNC model rats. Rats were intraperitoneally injected with 1.5 mL saline, OUBs diluted in saline, or nitrogen ultra-fine bubbles (NUBs diluted in saline three times per week for 4 weeks in four groups: (1 control, (sham operation + saline; (2 SNC, (crush + saline; (3 SNC+OUB, (crush + OUB-saline; (4 SNC+NUB, (crush + NUB-saline. The effects of the OUBs on dorsal root ganglion (DRG neurons and Schwann cells (SCs were examined by serial dilution of OUB medium in vitro. Sciatic functional index, paw withdrawal thresholds, nerve conduction velocity, and myelinated axons were significantly decreased in the SNC group compared to the control group; these parameters were significantly improved in the SNC+OUB group, although NUB treatment did not affect these parameters. In vitro, OUBs significantly promoted neurite outgrowth in DRG neurons by activating AKT signaling and SC proliferation by activating ERK1/2 and JNK/c-JUN signaling. OUBs may improve nerve dysfunction in SNC rats by promoting neurite outgrowth in DRG neurons and SC proliferation.

  8. Evaluation of crushed ticagrelor tablet doses: recovery following crushing and naso-gastric tube passage ex vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crean, Barry; Finnie, Cindy; Crosby, Anna

    2013-06-01

    Orally available ticagrelor in combination with low-dose aspirin (75-100 mg/day) is indicated for adult patients with acute coronary syndromes. However, patients with swallowing difficulties may be unable to consume the currently available 90-mg tablet. It is hypothesized that ticagrelor could be given to this patient cohort as a crushed dose administered either orally or via a naso-gastric (NG) tube. To investigate the potential use of crushed ticagrelor tablets (90- and 180-mg doses) for oral dose or NG tube administration. Ticagrelor tablets (90 or 180 mg [two 90-mg tablets]) were prepared to emulate oral and NG tube administration by similar methods. For the oral dose, ticagrelor tablets were crushed using a mortar and pestle and transferred to a dosing cup. 100 mL of water was added to the mortar, stirred, and the contents were transferred to the dosing cup and stirred to form a suspension. At this stage, where the suspension would normally be administered to a patient, it was collected for high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis. The mortar was then flushed with 100 mL of water, and the contents were again transferred to the dosing cup, stirred, and collected for HPLC analysis. For the NG dose, polyvinylchloride, polyurethane, and silicone size CH10 NG tubes were used. The tablets were crushed using a mortar and pestle, diluted with 50 mL of water, and stirred. At this stage, where the suspension would normally be administered to a patient through an NG tube using a syringe, it was collected for HPLC analysis. The mortar was then flushed with two additional 50 mL aliquots of water and the contents were passed through the NG tube. HPLC analysis examined the recoverability of ticagrelor in each of the dose suspensions and flushes and the stability of the suspension when held in a syringe for up to 2 h. One or two crushed 90-mg ticagrelor tablets, prepared for either oral or NG tube administration, delivers a mean dose of ≥97% of the original

  9. Acute sciatic nerve crush injuries in rabbits: MRI and pathological comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xinchun; Chen Jianyu; Wang Xinlu; Shen Jun; Liu Qingyu; Liang Biling

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Simulating injury mechanism in human peripheral nerve, acute sciatic nerve crush injuries model was produced in rabbits to investigate the relationship between the manifestations of MRI and pathology in order to provide the information for clinical therapy and operative plan. Methods: Thirty-two adult rabbits were randomly divided into two groups: group A (n=16) and B (n=16). In group A, the left sciatic nerves were crushed with a stress of 3.61 kg; In group B, with a stress of 10.50 kg. 4 time intervals in each group were observed in 1, 2, 4, and 8 weeks, respectively, and each time interval contained 4 rabbits. Left sciatic nerves were served as injured sides, right sciatic nerves were regarded as control sides. MRI was performed at different time interval after crush injury. Then the nerves were examined pathologically. Results: There were no obvious changes on T 1 WI in injured sides, but the injured distal segment of sciatic nerve thickened and twisted, showing high signal intensity on 3D T 2 WI, T 2 WI/SPIR, B-FFE, and T 2 WI/STIR. MRI could show abnormality of 30 sciatic nerves, the correct diagnostic rate was 93.75% and false negative rate was 6.25%. The distal sciatic nerve/muscle signal intensity ratio (SIR) of the injured sides was significantly higher than that of the control sides (P 0.05). SIR in injured side increased at 1 week, reached the peak at 2 weeks, at this time, nerve axons disappeared and lots of myelin degenerated, abduction function disappeared. SIR decreased during 4-8 weeks, the myelin sheath breakdown and Schwann cell proliferated obviously, and abduction functions were observed. The control sciatic nerves showed no abnormality in MRI and pathology. Conclusion: MRI can make the diagnosis of crush injury of sciatic nerve, and dynamic SIR measurement of nerve injury correlates well with the pathological and functional recovery process. MRI is an effective method to monitor degeneration, regeneration, and prognosis after

  10. Current status of crushed rock and whole rock column studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vine, E.N.; Daniels, W.R.; Rundberg, R.S.; Thompson, J.L.

    1980-01-01

    Measurements on a large number of crushed rock columns of tuff, granite, and argillite are discussed. The isotopes 85 Sr, 137 Cs, 133 Ba, 141 Ce, 152 Eu, /sup 95m/Tc, and 233 U were used. Flow rates were varied from approx. 30 to approx. 30000 m/y. Other parameters studied include isotope concentration and atmosphere. The sorption ratios calculated were compared with batch sorption ratios on the same samples. Methods of studying the movement of radionuclides through whole rock cores are described. The problems associated with sealing the cores to prevent leaking along the exterior surface and one possible solution are discussed. The strontium sorption ratio obtained by elution of one solid tuff core is compared with the batch and crushed rock column sorption ratios

  11. Effect of moisture content on the flowability of crushed ores

    OpenAIRE

    Cabrejos Francisco

    2017-01-01

    In many mining and industrial processes where large quantities of non-degrading bulk materials such as crushed ores are handled, silos, hoppers, stockpiles and chutes are widely used because they are economical and reliable (if properly designed and operated). However, they are not free of trouble and may experience flow problems such as arching, ratholing, erratic flow, limited storage capacity, limited discharge flow rate, caking, segregation and/or flooding. Moisture content and fine parti...

  12. Application of Crushed Concrete in Geotechnical Engineering - Selected Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawalec, Jacek; Kwiecien, Slawomir; Pilipenko, Anton; Rybak, Jarosław

    2017-12-01

    The reuse of building materials becomes an important issue in sustainable engineering. As the technical requirements for civil engineering structures changes with time and the life time is limited, the need of building new objects meets the necessity of recycling of the existing ones. In the case of steel structures, the possibility of recycling is obvious, also in the case of wooden constructions, the possibility of “burning” solves the problem. The concrete waste is generated mainly as a result of the demolition and reconstruction of residential and industrial buildings. These types of waste are basically made from crushed rocks and cement minerals and contain non-hydrated cement particles in its composition. Concrete poses a lot of problems mainly for two reasons. It is difficult to crush, heavy and hard to transport and demanding in reuse. Different fractions (particle sizes) may be used for different purposes. Starting from very fine particles which can be used in concrete production, through regular 16-300 mm fractions used to form new fills and fill the mats, up to very irregular mixtures used to form stone columns by means of Impulse Compaction or in Dynamic Replacement. The presented study juxtaposes authors experience with crushed concrete used in civil engineering, mainly in geotechnical projects. Authors’ experiences comprise the application of crushed concrete in the new concrete production in Russia, changing pulverized bridge into the fill of mesh sacks, or mattresses used as an effective way to protect the shoreline and the New Orleans East land bridge after Katrina storm (forming a new shoreline better able to withstand wave actions), and finally the use of very irregular concrete fractions to form stone columns in week soils on the example of railway and road projects in Poland. Selected case studies are presented and summarized with regard to social, technical and economic issues including energy consumption needed for proposed technologies

  13. The influence of crushed rock salt particle gradation on compaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ran, C.; Daemen, J.J.K.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents results of laboratory compaction testing to determine the influence of particle size, size gradation and moisture-content on compaction of crushed rock salt. Included is a theoretical analysis of the optimum size gradation. The objective is to evaluate the relative densities that can be achieved with tamping techniques. Initial results indicate that compaction increases with maximum particle size and compaction energy, and varies significantly with article size gradation and water content

  14. Crushing damage estimation for pavement with lightly cementitious bases

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Beer, Morris

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available . Department of Transport. Pretoria, South Africa. Litwinowicz and De Beer., 2013. Long term crushing performance of lightly cementitious pavement materials – update to the South African procedures. Road Materials and Pavement Design. Maina, J.W., De... Beer, M. and van Rensburg, Y., 2013. Modelling Tyre-Road Contact Stresses in Pavement Design and Analysis. Proceedings of 32nd Southern Africa transport conference, Pretoria, July 2013. pp 336-345: SAPDM, (2014). http://www.sapdm.co.za/, last...

  15. Crushing leads to waste disposal savings for FUSRAP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darby, J. [Department of Energy, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1997-02-01

    In this article the author discusses the application of a rock crusher as a means of implementing cost savings in the remediation of FUSRAP sites. Transportation and offsite disposal costs are at present the biggest cost items in the remediation of FUSRAP sites. If these debris disposal problems can be handled in different manners, then remediation savings are available. Crushing can result in the ability to handle some wastes as soil disposal problems, which have different disposal regulations, thereby permitting cost savings.

  16. Review of evaluations of crushing results for the seedbed preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siegfried Anisch

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available For evaluating the work results of tillage operations today only inaccurate parameters are available which cannot be readily measured. Thus, evaluating and comparing the work results of machines and developing suitable sensors are difficult. At the Technical University of Dresden, till 1990, research projects for determining aggregate size composition of soil have been done. Based on this work, this study will show suggestions for measuring, displaying and evaluation of soil crushing results depending on tillage work conditions.

  17. Continuous-flow leaching studies of crushed and cored SYNROC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coles, D.G.; Bazan, F.

    1982-01-01

    Both crushed (150- to 300- μm) and cored (1,8- mm-diam) samples of SYNROC have been leached with single-pass continuous-flow leaching equipment. Crushed samples of cesium-hollandite were also leached in a similar experiment. Temperatures used were 25 0 and 75 0 C and leachates were 0.03 N NaHCO 3 and distilled water. Leaching rates from SYNROC-C were ranked cesium > strontium greater than or equal to calcium > barium > zirconium. A comparison of leaching rates is made between crushed SYNROC, cored SYNROC, and Pacific Northwest Laboratory 76-68 glass beads. This comparison depends on how the surface areas are determined for each sample. Based on geometric surface areas for SYNROC cores and glass beads, cesium leach rates from SYNROC compare well with both sodium and neptunium leached from the glass. The other elements leached from SYNROC are lower than sodium and neptunium leached from glass. They also vary for each element, while glass shows nearly the same leach rate for both sodium and neptunium

  18. Continuous-flow leaching studies of crushed and cored SYNROC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coles, D.G.; Bazan, F.

    1981-01-01

    Both crushed (150 to 300 μm) and cored (1.8 mm diameter) samples of SYNROC have been leached with the single-pass continuous-flow leaching equipment. Crushed samples of Cs-hollandite were also leached in a similar experiment. Temperatures used were 25 and 75 0 C and leachates were 0.03 N NaHCO 3 and distilled water. Leaching rates from SYNROC C were ranked Cs > Sr greater than or equal to Ca > Ba > Zr. A comparison of leaching rates is made between crushed SYNROC, cored SYNROC, and PNL 76-68 glass beads. This comparison depends on how the surface areas are determined for each sample. Based on geometric surface areas for SYNROC cores and glass beads Cs leach rates from SYNROC compare well with both Na and Np leached from the glass. The other elements leached from SYNROC are lower than Na and Np leached from glass. They also vary for each element while glass shows nearly the same leach rate for both Na and Np

  19. Digital radiography of crush thoracic trauma in the Sichuan earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Zhi-Hui; Shao, Heng; Chen, Tian-Wu; Chu, Zhi-Gang; Deng, Wen; Tang, Si-Shi; Chen, Jing; Yang, Zhi-Gang

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the features of crush thoracic trauma in Sichuan earthquake victims using chest digital radiography (CDR). METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 772 CDR of 417 females and 355 males who had suffered crush thoracic trauma in the Sichuan earthquake. Patient age ranged from 0.5 to 103 years. CDR was performed between May 12, 2008 and June 7, 2008. We looked for injury to the thoracic cage, pulmonary parenchyma and the pleura. RESULTS: Antero-posterior (AP) and lateral CDR were obtained in 349 patients, the remaining 423 patients underwent only AP CDR. Thoracic cage fractures, pulmonary contusion and pleural injuries were noted in 331 (42.9%; 95% CI: 39.4%-46.4%), 67 and 135 patients, respectively. Of the 256 patients with rib fractures, the mean number of fractured ribs per patient was 3. Rib fractures were mostly distributed from the 3rd through to the 8th ribs and the vast majority involved posterior and lateral locations along the rib. Rib fractures had a significant positive association with non-rib thoracic fractures, pulmonary contusion and pleural injuries (P < 0.001). The number of rib fractures and pulmonary contusions were significant factors associated with patient death. CONCLUSION: Earthquake-related crush thoracic trauma has the potential for multiple fractures. The high number of fractured ribs and pulmonary contusions were significant factors which needed appropriate medical treatment. PMID:22132298

  20. Simulation and modeling of the crushing behavior of structural members

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toi, Yutaka

    1986-01-01

    The analysis of the crushing behavior (the behavior of compressive breakdown accompanied by super large deformation) of structural members is an important subject which becomes the base of the ultimate strength design of the structures which may cause collision accident such as automobiles, ships and aircrafts, and of those which are feared to be collided such as offshore structures, bridge piers and nuclear power plants. However, since it is a phenomenon of very strong nonlinearity, its analysis is accompanied by large difficulty. In this report, three kinds of the approach for this problem, that is, rigid-plastic theoretical analysis, the simulation using a rigid body and spring model and nonlinear finite element analysis, are explained, referring to the example of calculation by the authors on the non-axisymmetric crushing problem of cylindrical shells. In crushing problem, the matters of concern are the amount of collision energy which can be absorbed by the plastic deformation of structures and the amount of deformation. It can be said that the increase of calculation cost brings about the heightening of calculation accuracy. The nonlinear finite element analysis is promising because its calculation cost is expected to lower in future. (Kako, I.)

  1. Accelerating SPARQL queries by exploiting hash-based locality and adaptive partitioning

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Harbi, Razen

    2016-02-08

    State-of-the-art distributed RDF systems partition data across multiple computer nodes (workers). Some systems perform cheap hash partitioning, which may result in expensive query evaluation. Others try to minimize inter-node communication, which requires an expensive data preprocessing phase, leading to a high startup cost. Apriori knowledge of the query workload has also been used to create partitions, which, however, are static and do not adapt to workload changes. In this paper, we propose AdPart, a distributed RDF system, which addresses the shortcomings of previous work. First, AdPart applies lightweight partitioning on the initial data, which distributes triples by hashing on their subjects; this renders its startup overhead low. At the same time, the locality-aware query optimizer of AdPart takes full advantage of the partitioning to (1) support the fully parallel processing of join patterns on subjects and (2) minimize data communication for general queries by applying hash distribution of intermediate results instead of broadcasting, wherever possible. Second, AdPart monitors the data access patterns and dynamically redistributes and replicates the instances of the most frequent ones among workers. As a result, the communication cost for future queries is drastically reduced or even eliminated. To control replication, AdPart implements an eviction policy for the redistributed patterns. Our experiments with synthetic and real data verify that AdPart: (1) starts faster than all existing systems; (2) processes thousands of queries before other systems become online; and (3) gracefully adapts to the query load, being able to evaluate queries on billion-scale RDF data in subseconds.

  2. UnoHop: Efficient Distributed Hash Table with O(1 Lookup Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herry Sitepu

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Distributed Hash Tables (DHTs with O(1 lookup performance strive to minimize the maintenance traffic which required for propagating membership changes information (events. These events distribution allows each node in the peer-to-peer network maintains accurate routing tables with complete membership information. We present UnoHop, a novel DHT protocol with O(1 lookup performance. The protocol uses an efficient mechanism to distribute events through a dissemination tree that constructed dynamically rooted at the node that detect the events. Our protocol produces symmetric bandwidth usage at all nodes while decreasing the events propagation delay.

  3. MULTIMEDIA DATA TRANSMISSION THROUGH TCP/IP USING HASH BASED FEC WITH AUTO-XOR SCHEME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Shalin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The most preferred mode for communication of multimedia data is through the TCP/IP protocol. But on the other hand the TCP/IP protocol produces huge packet loss unavoidable due to network traffic and congestion. In order to provide a efficient communication it is necessary to recover the loss of packets. The proposed scheme implements Hash based FEC with auto XOR scheme for this purpose. The scheme is implemented through Forward error correction, MD5 and XOR for providing efficient transmission of multimedia data. The proposed scheme provides transmission high accuracy, throughput and low latency and loss.

  4. A hash based mutual RFID tag authentication protocol in telecare medicine information system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Keerti; Awasthi, Amit K; Kaul, Sonam D; Mittal, R C

    2015-01-01

    Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) is a technology which has multidimensional applications to reduce the complexity of today life. Everywhere, like access control, transportation, real-time inventory, asset management and automated payment systems etc., RFID has its enormous use. Recently, this technology is opening its wings in healthcare environments, where potential applications include patient monitoring, object traceability and drug administration systems etc. In this paper, we propose a secure RFID-based protocol for the medical sector. This protocol is based on hash operation with synchronized secret. The protocol is safe against active and passive attacks such as forgery, traceability, replay and de-synchronization attack.

  5. Model-based recognition of 3-D objects by geometric hashing technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severcan, M.; Uzunalioglu, H.

    1992-09-01

    A model-based object recognition system is developed for recognition of polyhedral objects. The system consists of feature extraction, modelling and matching stages. Linear features are used for object descriptions. Lines are obtained from edges using rotation transform. For modelling and recognition process, geometric hashing method is utilized. Each object is modelled using 2-D views taken from the viewpoints on the viewing sphere. A hidden line elimination algorithm is used to find these views from the wire frame model of the objects. The recognition experiments yielded satisfactory results. (author). 8 refs, 5 figs

  6. Comparison of Various Similarity Measures for Average Image Hash in Mobile Phone Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farisa Chaerul Haviana, Sam; Taufik, Muhammad

    2017-04-01

    One of the main issue in Content Based Image Retrieval (CIBR) is similarity measures for resulting image hashes. The main key challenge is to find the most benefits distance or similarity measures for calculating the similarity in term of speed and computing costs, specially under limited computing capabilities device like mobile phone. This study we utilize twelve most common and popular distance or similarity measures technique implemented in mobile phone application, to be compared and studied. The results show that all similarity measures implemented in this study was perform equally under mobile phone application. This gives more possibilities for method combinations to be implemented for image retrieval.

  7. On-line Ciphers and the Hash-CBC Constructions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bellare, M.; Boldyreva, A.; Knudsen, Lars Ramkilde

    2012-01-01

    We initiate a study of on-line ciphers. These are ciphers that can take input plaintexts of large and varying lengths and will output the i th block of the ciphertext after having processed only the first i blocks of the plaintext. Such ciphers permit length-preserving encryption of a data stream...... with only a single pass through the data. We provide security definitions for this primitive and study its basic properties. We then provide attacks on some possible candidates, including CBC with fixed IV. We then provide two constructions, HCBC1 and HCBC2, based on a given block cipher E and a family...... of computationally AXU functions. HCBC1 is proven secure against chosen-plaintext attacks assuming that E is a PRP secure against chosen-plaintext attacks, while HCBC2 is proven secure against chosen-ciphertext attacks assuming that E is a PRP secure against chosen-ciphertext attacks....

  8. MinHash-Based Fuzzy Keyword Search of Encrypted Data across Multiple Cloud Servers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingsha He

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available To enhance the efficiency of data searching, most data owners store their data files in different cloud servers in the form of cipher-text. Thus, efficient search using fuzzy keywords becomes a critical issue in such a cloud computing environment. This paper proposes a method that aims at improving the efficiency of cipher-text retrieval and lowering storage overhead for fuzzy keyword search. In contrast to traditional approaches, the proposed method can reduce the complexity of Min-Hash-based fuzzy keyword search by using Min-Hash fingerprints to avoid the need to construct the fuzzy keyword set. The method will utilize Jaccard similarity to rank the results of retrieval, thus reducing the amount of calculation for similarity and saving a lot of time and space overhead. The method will also take consideration of multiple user queries through re-encryption technology and update user permissions dynamically. Security analysis demonstrates that the method can provide better privacy preservation and experimental results show that efficiency of cipher-text using the proposed method can improve the retrieval time and lower storage overhead as well.

  9. MATCHING AERIAL IMAGES TO 3D BUILDING MODELS BASED ON CONTEXT-BASED GEOMETRIC HASHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Jung

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new model-to-image framework to automatically align a single airborne image with existing 3D building models using geometric hashing is proposed. As a prerequisite process for various applications such as data fusion, object tracking, change detection and texture mapping, the proposed registration method is used for determining accurate exterior orientation parameters (EOPs of a single image. This model-to-image matching process consists of three steps: 1 feature extraction, 2 similarity measure and matching, and 3 adjustment of EOPs of a single image. For feature extraction, we proposed two types of matching cues, edged corner points representing the saliency of building corner points with associated edges and contextual relations among the edged corner points within an individual roof. These matching features are extracted from both 3D building and a single airborne image. A set of matched corners are found with given proximity measure through geometric hashing and optimal matches are then finally determined by maximizing the matching cost encoding contextual similarity between matching candidates. Final matched corners are used for adjusting EOPs of the single airborne image by the least square method based on co-linearity equations. The result shows that acceptable accuracy of single image's EOP can be achievable by the proposed registration approach as an alternative to labour-intensive manual registration process.

  10. Fast Structural Alignment of Biomolecules Using a Hash Table, N-Grams and String Descriptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Preissner

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a generalized approach for the fast structural alignment of thousands of macromolecular structures. The method uses string representations of a macromolecular structure and a hash table that stores n-grams of a certain size for searching. To this end, macromolecular structure-to-string translators were implemented for protein and RNA structures. A query against the index is performed in two hierarchical steps to unite speed and precision. In the first step the query structure is translated into n-grams, and all target structures containing these n-grams are retrieved from the hash table. In the second step all corresponding n-grams of the query and each target structure are subsequently aligned, and after each alignment a score is calculated based on the matching n-grams of query and target. The extendable framework enables the user to query and structurally align thousands of protein and RNA structures on a commodity machine and is available as open source from http://lajolla.sf.net.

  11. A numerical approach to model and predict the energy absorption and crush mechanics within a long-fiber composite crush tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickett, Leon, Jr.

    Past research has conclusively shown that long fiber structural composites possess superior specific energy absorption characteristics as compared to steel and aluminum structures. However, destructive physical testing of composites is very costly and time consuming. As a result, numerical solutions are desirable as an alternative to experimental testing. Up until this point, very little numerical work has been successful in predicting the energy absorption of composite crush structures. This research investigates the ability to use commercially available numerical modeling tools to approximate the energy absorption capability of long-fiber composite crush tubes. This study is significant because it provides a preliminary analysis of the suitability of LS-DYNA to numerically characterize the crushing behavior of a dynamic axial impact crushing event. Composite crushing theory suggests that there are several crushing mechanisms occurring during a composite crush event. This research evaluates the capability and suitability of employing, LS-DYNA, to simulate the dynamic crush event of an E-glass/epoxy cylindrical tube. The model employed is the composite "progressive failure model", a much more limited failure model when compared to the experimental failure events which naturally occur. This numerical model employs (1) matrix cracking, (2) compression, and (3) fiber breakage failure modes only. The motivation for the work comes from the need to reduce the significant cost associated with experimental trials. This research chronicles some preliminary efforts to better understand the mechanics essential in pursuit of this goal. The immediate goal is to begin to provide deeper understanding of a composite crush event and ultimately create a viable alternative to destructive testing of composite crush tubes.

  12. Sorption and desorption reactions of radionuclides with a crushed basalt-bentonite packing material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barney, G.S.; Lane, D.L.; Allen, C.C.; Jones, T.E.

    1985-04-01

    Current design of waste packages for disposal of high-level radioactive wastes in underground basalt formations includes a layer of packing material that surrounds the waste container. One of the functions of this material is to limit the release of radionuclides from a breached container into groundwater by providing a low hydraulic conductivity zone and by sorbing dissolved radionuclides. The objective of this study was to assess the radionuclide sorption capability of a proposed packing material composed of 25% sodium bentonite and 75% crushed basalt (by weight). Sorption and desorption reactions of several important waste radioelements (neptunium, uranium, plutonium, technetium, selenium, and radium) were investigated in the absence of air at 90 0 C. Uranium and neptunium were sorbed by slow reactions that follow first-order kinetics. The reaction rates are probably controlled by reduction of weakly sorbed uranium(VI) and neptunium(V) by ferrous iron in the crushed basalt component. Technetium(VII) was not reduced or sorbed under these conditions. Freundlich sorption and desorption isotherms for a given radionuclide were non-singular and show a strong tendency for sorption hysteresis. Applying the isotherm data to a one-dimensional transport model indicated that hysteretic sorption on the packing material provides an important safety factor in controlling releases of some radionuclides

  13. Fugitive emissions control on dry copper tailing with crushed rock armor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haase, E.F.

    1992-01-01

    Four inactive copper tailing impoundments totalling 1,900 acres near Ajo in southwestern Arizona were covered on horizontal surfaces with a 2 in. nominal thickness of crushed rock to control particulate emissions. The tailings are typically dominated by sand-sized particles but may also include significant PM 10 fractions towards the centers of the impoundments. The technology was selected by Phelps Dodge Corporation, after investigation of several alternatives, as a permanent and practical cover that essentially eliminates fugitive emissions. It simulates the natural desert pavement that characterizes this arid area of the Sonoran Desert. Rocky overburden was crushed to minus 3 in. diameter and broadcast on dry surfaces of tailing impoundments with all-terrain, balloon-tired spreaders. Stony residues in the rock armor tend to cement together following rainfall, forming a crust that enhances surface stability and erosion control. Slopes with windblown tailing deposition were covered to a nominal 6 in. thickness by conventional dozer pushing and blading of minus 10 in. rock over the sides. Athel trees, planted extensively since 1970 on two of the four inactive impoundments, provided partial control of fugitives, but were subjected to harsh environmental conditions, including abrasion from saltating particles. The rock armor functions as a mulch which is expected to improve water relations for existing vegetation and areas seeded with native species. New surface microenvironments, and the virtual elimination of surface creep and saltation, are expected to support native plant growth under favorable climatic conditions

  14. Evaluation of potential crushed-salt constitutive models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callahan, G.D.; Loken, M.C.; Sambeek, L.L. Van; Chen, R.; Pfeifle, T.W.; Nieland, J.D.; Hansen, F.D.

    1995-12-01

    Constitutive models describing the deformation of crushed salt are presented in this report. Ten constitutive models with potential to describe the phenomenological and micromechanical processes for crushed salt were selected from a literature search. Three of these ten constitutive models, termed Sjaardema-Krieg, Zeuch, and Spiers models, were adopted as candidate constitutive models. The candidate constitutive models were generalized in a consistent manner to three-dimensional states of stress and modified to include the effects of temperature, grain size, and moisture content. A database including hydrostatic consolidation and shear consolidation tests conducted on Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and southeastern New Mexico salt was used to determine material parameters for the candidate constitutive models. Nonlinear least-squares model fitting to data from the hydrostatic consolidation tests, the shear consolidation tests, and a combination of the shear and hydrostatic tests produces three sets of material parameter values for the candidate models. The change in material parameter values from test group to test group indicates the empirical nature of the models. To evaluate the predictive capability of the candidate models, each parameter value set was used to predict each of the tests in the database. Based on the fitting statistics and the ability of the models to predict the test data, the Spiers model appeared to perform slightly better than the other two candidate models. The work reported here is a first-of-its kind evaluation of constitutive models for reconsolidation of crushed salt. Questions remain to be answered. Deficiencies in models and databases are identified and recommendations for future work are made. 85 refs

  15. Radionuclide sorption on crushed and intact granitic rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksen, Tryggve E.; Locklund, Birgitta

    1989-05-01

    The specific surface areas and distribution ratios for sorption of 85 Sr, 137 Cs and 152 Eu were measured for crushed and intact granite rock. The experimental data can be accommodated by a sorption model encompassing sorption on outer and inner surface. It is clearly demonstrated that the time required to obtain reliable Kd-values for the sorption of strongly sorbing radionuclides like 152 Eu is very long due to solution depletion and slow diffusion into the rock. A combination of surface area measurements and batch sorption with small particles may therefore be preferable when studying strongly sorbing nuclides. (authors) (17 figs., 6 tabs.)

  16. Performance of PWR buidings in case of airplane crush

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    L'Huby, Y.; Barbe, B.

    1992-02-01

    Safety standards for the French nuclear power plants are defined in RCC-G. For the risk estimation of airplan crush two type of planes are considered: Lear-Jet 23, and Cesna 210. For estimating the resistance to impact shock of the reactor building deformation criteria were established for concrete and steel reinforcement. A practical calculation method is recommended in RCC-G. Results contain data resulting from impact shock dependent on the military plane type and speed. Finite element method was applied as well as simplified method proposed by Comite Europeen du Breton

  17. Crushed aggregates for roads and their properties for frost protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsova, Elena; Willy Danielsen, Svein

    2015-04-01

    Crushed aggregates for roads and their properties for frost protection Elena Kuznetsova, NTNU and Svein Willy Danielsen, SINTEF With natural (fluvial, glaciofluvial) sand/gravel resources being rapidly depleted in many countries, the last decade has seen a significant trend towards using more alternative materials for construction purpose. In Norway the development and implementation of crushed aggregate technology has been the most important way to get around the problem with increased resource scarcity. Today Norway is one the European countries with the highest percentage of crushed/manufactured aggregates. A crushed product will reveal a different particle size distribution, a sharper, more angular particle shape, and not least - a significantly different mineral composition. The latter may often be characterised by more polymineral composition, and it will also much more depend on the local bedrock. When handled with care and knowledge, these differences can give the user a lot of new opportunities relating to materials design. Norwegian road construction practice has changed significantly during the last 40 years due to the replacement of gravel by crushed rock materials in the granular layers of the pavements. The use of non-processed rock materials from blasting was allowed in the subbase layer until 2012. This was a reason for a lot of problems with frost heaving due to inhomogeneity of this material, and in practice it was difficult to control the size of large stones. Since 2012 there is a requirement that rock materials for use in the subbase layer shall be crushed (Handbook N200, 2014). During the spring 2014 The Norwegian Public Roads Administration introduced a new handbook with requirements for roads construction in Norway, including new specifications for the frost protection layer. When pavements are constructed over moist and/or frost susceptible soils in cold and humid environments, the frost protection layer also becomes a very important part

  18. 76 FR 7817 - Announcing Draft Federal Information Processing Standard 180-4, Secure Hash Standard, and Request...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-11

    ...-02] Announcing Draft Federal Information Processing Standard 180-4, Secure Hash Standard, and Request... and request for comments. SUMMARY: This notice announces the Draft Federal Information Processing..., Information Technology Laboratory, Attention: Comments on Draft FIPS 180-4, 100 Bureau Drive--Stop 8930...

  19. Effects of insulin-like growth factor-I and platelet-rich plasma on sciatic nerve crush injury in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emel, Erhan; Ergün, Selma Sönmez; Kotan, Dilcan; Gürsoy, Esra Başar; Parman, Yeşim; Zengin, Asli; Nurten, Asiye

    2011-02-01

    Local administration of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) has been shown to increase the rate of axon regeneration in crush-injured and freeze-injured rat sciatic nerves. Local administration of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has been also shown to have a measurable effect on facial nerve regeneration after transection in a rat model. The objective of the study was to compare the effects of locally administered IGF-I and PRP on the parameters of the Sciatic Function Index (SFI), sensory function (SF), axon count, and myelin thickness/axon diameter ratio (G-ratio) in a rat model of crush-injured sciatic nerves. The right sciatic nerve of Wistar albino rats (24 animals) was crushed using a Yasargil-Phynox aneurysm clip for 45 minutes. All animals were randomly divided into 3 groups: Group 1 (control group) was treated with saline, Group 2 was treated with IGF-I, and Group 3 was treated with PRP. Injections were performed using the tissue expander's injection port with a connecting tube directed at the crush-injured site. Functional recovery was assessed with improvement in the SFI. Recovery of sensory function was using the pinch test. Histopathological examination was performed 3 months after the injury. The SFI showed an improved functional recovery in the IGF-I-treated animals (Group 2) compared with the saline-treated animals (Group 1) 30 days after the injury. In IGF-I-treated rats, sensory function returned to the baseline level significantly faster than in saline-treated and PRP-treated rats as shown in values between SF-2 and SF-7. The G-ratios were found to be significantly higher in both experimental groups than in the control group. This study suggests that the application of IGF-I to the crush-injured site may expedite the functional recovery of paralyzed muscle by increasing the rate of axon regeneration.

  20. Dynamic Response and Residual Helmet Liner Crush Using Cadaver Heads and Standard Headforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonin, S J; Luck, J F; Bass, C R; Gardiner, J C; Onar-Thomas, A; Asfour, S S; Siegmund, G P

    2017-03-01

    Biomechanical headforms are used for helmet certification testing and reconstructing helmeted head impacts; however, their biofidelity and direct applicability to human head and helmet responses remain unclear. Dynamic responses of cadaver heads and three headforms and residual foam liner deformations were compared during motorcycle helmet impacts. Instrumented, helmeted heads/headforms were dropped onto the forehead region against an instrumented flat anvil at 75, 150, and 195 J. Helmets were CT scanned to quantify maximum liner crush depth and crush volume. General linear models were used to quantify the effect of head type and impact energy on linear acceleration, head injury criterion (HIC), force, maximum liner crush depth, and liner crush volume and regression models were used to quantify the relationship between acceleration and both maximum crush depth and crush volume. The cadaver heads generated larger peak accelerations than all three headforms, larger HICs than the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), larger forces than the Hybrid III and ISO, larger maximum crush depth than the ISO, and larger crush volumes than the DOT. These significant differences between the cadaver heads and headforms need to be accounted for when attempting to estimate an impact exposure using a helmet's residual crush depth or volume.

  1. A Dynamic Linear Hashing Method for Redundancy Management in Train Ethernet Consist Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaobo Nie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Massive transportation systems like trains are considered critical systems because they use the communication network to control essential subsystems on board. Critical system requires zero recovery time when a failure occurs in a communication network. The newly published IEC62439-3 defines the high-availability seamless redundancy protocol, which fulfills this requirement and ensures no frame loss in the presence of an error. This paper adopts these for train Ethernet consist network. The challenge is management of the circulating frames, capable of dealing with real-time processing requirements, fast switching times, high throughout, and deterministic behavior. The main contribution of this paper is the in-depth analysis it makes of network parameters imposed by the application of the protocols to train control and monitoring system (TCMS and the redundant circulating frames discarding method based on a dynamic linear hashing, using the fastest method in order to resolve all the issues that are dealt with.

  2. Paradeisos: A perfect hashing algorithm for many-body eigenvalue problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, C. J.; Wang, Y.; Mendl, C. B.; Moritz, B.; Devereaux, T. P.

    2018-03-01

    We describe an essentially perfect hashing algorithm for calculating the position of an element in an ordered list, appropriate for the construction and manipulation of many-body Hamiltonian, sparse matrices. Each element of the list corresponds to an integer value whose binary representation reflects the occupation of single-particle basis states for each element in the many-body Hilbert space. The algorithm replaces conventional methods, such as binary search, for locating the elements of the ordered list, eliminating the need to store the integer representation for each element, without increasing the computational complexity. Combined with the "checkerboard" decomposition of the Hamiltonian matrix for distribution over parallel computing environments, this leads to a substantial savings in aggregate memory. While the algorithm can be applied broadly to many-body, correlated problems, we demonstrate its utility in reducing total memory consumption for a series of fermionic single-band Hubbard model calculations on small clusters with progressively larger Hilbert space dimension.

  3. A Reusable Software Copy Protection Using Hash Result and Asymetrical Encryption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aswin Wibisurya

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Desktop application is one of the most popular types of application being used in computer due to the one time install simplicity and the quick accessibility from the moment the computer being turned on. Limitation of the copy and usage of desktop applications has long been an important issue to application providers. For security concerns, software copy protection is usually integrated with the application. However, developers seek to reuse the copy protection component of the software. This paper proposes an approach of reusable software copy protection which consists of a certificate validator on the client computer and a certificate generator on the server. The certificate validator integrity is protected using hashing result while all communications are encrypted using asymmetrical encryption to ensure the security of this approach.

  4. A hybrid cloud read aligner based on MinHash and kmer voting that preserves privacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popic, Victoria; Batzoglou, Serafim

    2017-05-01

    Low-cost clouds can alleviate the compute and storage burden of the genome sequencing data explosion. However, moving personal genome data analysis to the cloud can raise serious privacy concerns. Here, we devise a method named Balaur, a privacy preserving read mapper for hybrid clouds based on locality sensitive hashing and kmer voting. Balaur can securely outsource a substantial fraction of the computation to the public cloud, while being highly competitive in accuracy and speed with non-private state-of-the-art read aligners on short read data. We also show that the method is significantly faster than the state of the art in long read mapping. Therefore, Balaur can enable institutions handling massive genomic data sets to shift part of their analysis to the cloud without sacrificing accuracy or exposing sensitive information to an untrusted third party.

  5. Matching Aerial Images to 3D Building Models Using Context-Based Geometric Hashing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaewook Jung

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A city is a dynamic entity, which environment is continuously changing over time. Accordingly, its virtual city models also need to be regularly updated to support accurate model-based decisions for various applications, including urban planning, emergency response and autonomous navigation. A concept of continuous city modeling is to progressively reconstruct city models by accommodating their changes recognized in spatio-temporal domain, while preserving unchanged structures. A first critical step for continuous city modeling is to coherently register remotely sensed data taken at different epochs with existing building models. This paper presents a new model-to-image registration method using a context-based geometric hashing (CGH method to align a single image with existing 3D building models. This model-to-image registration process consists of three steps: (1 feature extraction; (2 similarity measure; and matching, and (3 estimating exterior orientation parameters (EOPs of a single image. For feature extraction, we propose two types of matching cues: edged corner features representing the saliency of building corner points with associated edges, and contextual relations among the edged corner features within an individual roof. A set of matched corners are found with given proximity measure through geometric hashing, and optimal matches are then finally determined by maximizing the matching cost encoding contextual similarity between matching candidates. Final matched corners are used for adjusting EOPs of the single airborne image by the least square method based on collinearity equations. The result shows that acceptable accuracy of EOPs of a single image can be achievable using the proposed registration approach as an alternative to a labor-intensive manual registration process.

  6. Bilateral Cavernous Nerve Crush Injury in the Rat Model: A Comparative Review of Pharmacologic Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haney, Nora M; Nguyen, Hoang M T; Honda, Matthew; Abdel-Mageed, Asim B; Hellstrom, Wayne J G

    2018-04-01

    It is common for men to develop erectile dysfunction after radical prostatectomy. The anatomy of the rat allows the cavernous nerve (CN) to be identified, dissected, and injured in a controlled fashion. Therefore, bilateral CN injury (BCNI) in the rat model is routinely used to study post-prostatectomy erectile dysfunction. To compare and contrast the available literature on pharmacologic intervention after BCNI in the rat. A literature search was performed on PubMed for cavernous nerve and injury and erectile dysfunction and rat. Only articles with BCNI and pharmacologic intervention that could be grouped into categories of immune modulation, growth factor therapy, receptor kinase inhibition, phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibition, and anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic interventions were included. To assess outcomes of pharmaceutical intervention on erectile function recovery after BCNI in the rat model. The ratio of maximum intracavernous pressure to mean arterial pressure was the main outcome measure chosen for this analysis. All interventions improved erectile function recovery after BCNI based on the ratio of maximum intracavernous pressure to mean arterial pressure results. Additional end-point analysis examined the corpus cavernosa and/or the major pelvic ganglion and CN. There was extreme heterogeneity within the literature, making accurate comparisons between crush injury and therapeutic interventions difficult. BCNI in the rat is the accepted animal model used to study nerve-sparing post-prostatectomy erectile dysfunction. However, an important limitation is extreme variability. Efforts should be made to decrease this variability and increase the translational utility toward clinical trials in humans. Haney NM, Nguyen HMT, Honda M, et al. Bilateral Cavernous Nerve Crush Injury in the Rat Model: A Comparative Review of Pharmacologic Interventions. Sex Med Rev 2018;6:234-241. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by Elsevier

  7. Recent developments, new trends in seed crushing and oil refining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kővári Katalin

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Oil processing was considered as slowly changing “traditional” industry but the recent decades’ developments and trends resulted in a lot of changes initiated by market, industry, environment protection and consumer needs. Driving force of the developments were centralization of the industry, more and more concerns on environmental impact, increased importance of food-feed safety, and last but not least research and development activity together with improved analytical capabilities. The presentation gives an overview on the results achieved on the field of the following areas: the criteria of applicability of physical refining of seed oils, solutions for proper degumming, the effect of seed pretreatment and crushing conditions on the crude oil quality, the importance and role of bleaching and active carbon treatment, the proper practice of deacidification/deodorization.

  8. Effect of crushed sand on mortar and concrete rheology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cabrera, O. A.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This article describes an experimental study conducted on fresh mortars and concretes made with crushed sand. The aim of this research was to assess the effect of aggregate particle shape and surface texture as well as dust content on mortar and concrete rheology. The experimental programme also addressed the impact of angular grains on chemical admixture performance and concrete bleeding. The findings showed that the use of crushed sand induces rheological behaviour that differs from the behaviour observed in natural sand and that superplasticisers can improve this behaviour considerably.

    En el presente trabajo se plantea un estudio experimental del estado fresco de morteros y hormigones con arenas de machaqueo, orientado a la evaluación de la incidencia de la forma y textura superficial de los granos del árido fino y del contenido de polvo sobre la reología de las mezclas. El programa experimental comprendió el estudio del estado fresco de hormigones con arenas con partículas angulares, la influencia de este tipo de partículas sobre la efectividad de los aditivos químicos y la evaluación de la influencia de las características físicas del árido fino sobre la exudación. Los resultados muestran que el empleo de arenas de machaqueo provoca un comportamiento reológico diferente al de hormigones con arenas naturales, y que el efecto de los aditivos superfluidificantes mejora notablemente este comportamiento.

  9. Laboratory investigation of crushed salt consolidation and fracture healing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    A laboratory test program was conducted to investigate the consolidation behavior of crushed salt and fracture healing in natural and artificial salt. Crushed salt is proposed for use as backfill in a nuclear waste repository in salt. Artificial block salt is proposed for use in sealing a repository. Four consolidation tests were conducted in a hydrostatic pressure vessel at a maximum pressure of 2500 psi (17.2 MPa) and at room temperature. Three 1-month tests were conducted on salt obtained from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and one 2-month test was conducted on salt from Avery Island. Permeability was obtained using argon and either a steady-state or transient method. Initial porosities ranged from 0.26 to 0.36 and initial permeabilities from 2000 to 50,000 md. Final porosities and permeabilities ranged from 0.05 to 0.19 and from -5 md to 110 md, respectively. The lowest final porosity (0.05) and permeability ( -5 md) were obtained in a 1-month test in which 2.3% moisture was added to the salt at the beginning of the test. The consolidation rate was much more rapid than in any of the dry salt tests. The fracture healing program included 20 permeability tests conducted on fractured and unfractured samples. The tests were conducted in a Hoek cell at hydrostatic pressures up to 3000 psi (20.6 MPa) with durations up to 8 days. For the natural rock salt tested, permeability was strongly dependent on confining pressure and time. The effect of confining pressure was much weaker in the artificial salt. In most cases the combined effects of time and pressure were to reduce the permeability of fractured samples to the same order of magnitude (or less) as the permeability measured prior to fracturing

  10. [Comparison of DK crush with classical crush technique with drug-eluting stents for the treatment of coronary bifurcation lesions from DKCRUSH-1 study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shao-liang; Zhang, Jun-jie; Ye, Fei; Chen, Yun-dai; Lü, Shu-zheng; Tan, Huaycheem; Patel, Tejas; Kenji, Kawajiri; Tamari, Israel; Shan, Shou-jie; Zhu, Zhong-sheng; Lin, Song; Tian, Nai-liang; Li, Xiao-bo; Liu, Zhi-zhong; Lee, Michael; Wei, Meng; Xu, Ya-wei; Yuan, Zheng-bai; Qian, Jun; Sun, Xue-wen; Yang, Song; Chen, Jin-guo; He, Ben; Sumit, Suji

    2008-02-01

    To determine independent factors correlated with clinical effects of DK crush and classical crush technique with drug-eluting stents on bifurcation lesions. 311 patients with bifurcation lesions were randomized to classical (C, n = 156) or double kissing (DK) crush (n = 155) stent implantation group. The primary endpoints included major adverse cardiac events (MACE). Final kissing balloon inflation (FKBI) success rate was 76% in C and 100% in DK groups (P DK crush procedure was characterized by lower unsatisfactory FKBI rate (27.6% vs.6.3%, P DK groups (P = 0.01), respectively. Cumulative 8-month MACE was 35.9% in without-FKBI and 19.7% in with-FKBI sub-groups, and 11.4% in DK group (P = 0.02). The incidence of stent thrombosis was 3.2% in C group (5.1% without vs. 1.7% with FKBI) and 1.3% in DK group (P > 0.05). The predictive factors of MACE included minimal side branch stent lumen diameter and lack of DK crush technique. DK crush technique is an alternative of double stenting techniques in terms of improvement of restenosis and clinical outcomes.

  11. Mitigating the Health Risks of Stone Quarrying and Crushing in India ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Safety and health in the stone crushing industry : a practical manual for preventing accidents preserving health and keeping a company profitable. Études. Abstract for oral presentation : addressing health risk of communities residing close to stone quarrying and crushing unit using ecohealth framework in Central India.

  12. Analysis of a hypothetical dropped spent nuclear fuel shipping cask impacting a floor mounted crush pad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawkes, B.D.; Uldrich, E.D.

    1998-03-01

    A crush pad has been designed and analyzed to absorb the kinetic energy of a hypothetically dropped spent nuclear fuel shipping cask into a 44-ft. deep cask unloading pool at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. The 110-ton Large Cell Cask was assumed to be accidentally dropped onto the parapet of the unloading pool, causing the cask to tumble through the pool water and impact the floor mounted crush pad with the cask's top corner. The crush pad contains rigid polyurethane foam, which was modeled in a separate computer analysis to simulate the manufacturer's testing of the foam and to determine the foam's stress and strain characteristics. This computer analysis verified that the foam was accurately represented in the analysis to follow. A detailed non-linear, dynamic finite element analysis was then performed on the crush pad and adjacent pool structure to assure that a drop of this massive cask does not result in unacceptable damage to the storage facility. Additionally, verification was made that the crush pad adequately protects the cask from severe impact loading. At impact, the cask has significant vertical, horizontal and rotational velocities. The crush pad absorbs much of the energy of the cask through plastic deformation during primary and secondary impacts. After the primary impact with the crush pad, the cask still has sufficient energy to rebound and rotate until it impacts the pool wall. An assessment is made of the damage to the crush pad and pool wall and of the impact loading on the cask

  13. Characteristics of Crushing Energy and Fractal of Magnetite Ore under Uniaxial Compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, F.; Gan, D. Q.; Zhang, Y. B.

    2018-03-01

    The crushing mechanism of magnetite ore is a critical theoretical problem on the controlling of energy dissipation and machine crushing quality in ore material processing. Uniaxial crushing tests were carried out to research the deformation mechanism and the laws of the energy evolution, based on which the crushing mechanism of magnetite ore was explored. The compaction stage and plasticity and damage stage are two main compression deformation stages, the main transitional forms from inner damage to fracture are plastic deformation and stick-slip. In the process of crushing, plasticity and damage stage is the key link on energy absorption for that the specimen tends to saturate energy state approaching to the peak stress. The characteristics of specimen deformation and energy dissipation can synthetically reply the state of existed defects inner raw magnetite ore and the damage process during loading period. The fast releasing of elastic energy and the work done by the press machine commonly make raw magnetite ore thoroughly broken after peak stress. Magnetite ore fragments have statistical self-similarity and size threshold of fractal characteristics under uniaxial squeezing crushing. The larger ratio of releasable elastic energy and dissipation energy and the faster energy change rate is the better fractal properties and crushing quality magnetite ore has under uniaxial crushing.

  14. Effects of crushed conspecifics on growth and survival of Penaeus monodon Fabricius post larvae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nga, B.T.; Lürling, M.F.L.L.W.; Peeters, E.T.H.M.; Roijackers, R.M.M.; Scheffer, M.; Nghia, T.T.

    2006-01-01

    In the present study, the hypothesis tested was that Penaeus monodon post-larvae (PL) experience lower growth when exposed to crushed conspecifics, which was achieved by exposing individual P. monodon PL with abundant food for 4 weeks to a gradient from 0 to 100 crushed conspecific PL L1. Both dry

  15. Fractal and Morphological Characteristics of Single Marble Particle Crushing in Uniaxial Compression Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yidong Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Crushing of rock particles is a phenomenon commonly encountered in geotechnical engineering practice. It is however difficult to study the crushing of rock particles using classical theory because the physical structure of the particles is complex and irregular. This paper aims at evaluating fractal and morphological characteristics of single rock particle. A large number of particle crushing tests are conducted on single rock particle. The force-displacement curves and the particle size distributions (PSD of crushed particles are analysed based on particle crushing tests. Particle shape plays an important role in both the micro- and macroscale responses of a granular assembly. The PSD of an assortment of rocks are analysed by fractal methods, and the fractal dimension is obtained. A theoretical formula for particle crushing strength is derived, utilising the fractal model, and a simple method is proposed for predicting the probability of particle survival based on the Weibull statistics. Based on a few physical assumptions, simple equations are derived for determining particle crushing energy. The results of applying these equations are tested against the actual experimental data and prove to be very consistent. Fractal theory is therefore applicable for analysis of particle crushing.

  16. A benchmark study of procedures for analysis of axial crushing of bulbous bows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yamada, Yasuhira; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    2008-01-01

    Simplified methods to estimate mean axial crushing forces of plated structures are reviewed and applied to a series of experimental results for axial crushing of large-scale bulbous bow models. Methods based on intersection unit elements such as L-, T- and X-type elements as well as methods based...

  17. The effect of motorcycle helmet fit on estimating head impact kinematics from residual liner crush.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonin, Stephanie J; Gardiner, John C; Onar-Thomas, Arzu; Asfour, Shihab S; Siegmund, Gunter P

    2017-09-01

    Proper helmet fit is important for optimizing head protection during an impact, yet many motorcyclists wear helmets that do not properly fit their heads. The goals of this study are i) to quantify how a mismatch in headform size and motorcycle helmet size affects headform peak acceleration and head injury criteria (HIC), and ii) to determine if peak acceleration, HIC, and impact speed can be estimated from the foam liner's maximum residual crush depth or residual crush volume. Shorty-style helmets (4 sizes of a single model) were tested on instrumented headforms (4 sizes) during linear impacts between 2.0 and 10.5m/s to the forehead region. Helmets were CT scanned to quantify residual crush depth and volume. Separate linear regression models were used to quantify how the response variables (peak acceleration (g), HIC, and impact speed (m/s)) were related to the predictor variables (maximum crush depth (mm), crush volume (cm 3 ), and the difference in circumference between the helmet and headform (cm)). Overall, we found that increasingly oversized helmets reduced peak headform acceleration and HIC for a given impact speed for maximum residual crush depths less than 7.9mm and residual crush volume less than 40cm 3 . Below these levels of residual crush, we found that peak headform acceleration, HIC, and impact speed can be estimated from a helmet's residual crush. Above these crush thresholds, large variations in headform kinematics are present, possibly related to densification of the foam liner during the impact. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Security enhanced multi-factor biometric authentication scheme using bio-hash function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Younsung Choi

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of personal information and wireless communication technology, user authentication schemes have been crucial to ensure that wireless communications are secure. As such, various authentication schemes with multi-factor authentication have been proposed to improve the security of electronic communications. Multi-factor authentication involves the use of passwords, smart cards, and various biometrics to provide users with the utmost privacy and data protection. Cao and Ge analyzed various authentication schemes and found that Younghwa An's scheme was susceptible to a replay attack where an adversary masquerades as a legal server and a user masquerading attack where user anonymity is not provided, allowing an adversary to execute a password change process by intercepting the user's ID during login. Cao and Ge improved upon Younghwa An's scheme, but various security problems remained. This study demonstrates that Cao and Ge's scheme is susceptible to a biometric recognition error, slow wrong password detection, off-line password attack, user impersonation attack, ID guessing attack, a DoS attack, and that their scheme cannot provide session key agreement. Then, to address all weaknesses identified in Cao and Ge's scheme, this study proposes a security enhanced multi-factor biometric authentication scheme and provides a security analysis and formal analysis using Burrows-Abadi-Needham logic. Finally, the efficiency analysis reveals that the proposed scheme can protect against several possible types of attacks with only a slightly high computational cost.

  19. Security enhanced multi-factor biometric authentication scheme using bio-hash function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Youngsook; Moon, Jongho

    2017-01-01

    With the rapid development of personal information and wireless communication technology, user authentication schemes have been crucial to ensure that wireless communications are secure. As such, various authentication schemes with multi-factor authentication have been proposed to improve the security of electronic communications. Multi-factor authentication involves the use of passwords, smart cards, and various biometrics to provide users with the utmost privacy and data protection. Cao and Ge analyzed various authentication schemes and found that Younghwa An’s scheme was susceptible to a replay attack where an adversary masquerades as a legal server and a user masquerading attack where user anonymity is not provided, allowing an adversary to execute a password change process by intercepting the user’s ID during login. Cao and Ge improved upon Younghwa An’s scheme, but various security problems remained. This study demonstrates that Cao and Ge’s scheme is susceptible to a biometric recognition error, slow wrong password detection, off-line password attack, user impersonation attack, ID guessing attack, a DoS attack, and that their scheme cannot provide session key agreement. Then, to address all weaknesses identified in Cao and Ge’s scheme, this study proposes a security enhanced multi-factor biometric authentication scheme and provides a security analysis and formal analysis using Burrows-Abadi-Needham logic. Finally, the efficiency analysis reveals that the proposed scheme can protect against several possible types of attacks with only a slightly high computational cost. PMID:28459867

  20. Security enhanced multi-factor biometric authentication scheme using bio-hash function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Younsung; Lee, Youngsook; Moon, Jongho; Won, Dongho

    2017-01-01

    With the rapid development of personal information and wireless communication technology, user authentication schemes have been crucial to ensure that wireless communications are secure. As such, various authentication schemes with multi-factor authentication have been proposed to improve the security of electronic communications. Multi-factor authentication involves the use of passwords, smart cards, and various biometrics to provide users with the utmost privacy and data protection. Cao and Ge analyzed various authentication schemes and found that Younghwa An's scheme was susceptible to a replay attack where an adversary masquerades as a legal server and a user masquerading attack where user anonymity is not provided, allowing an adversary to execute a password change process by intercepting the user's ID during login. Cao and Ge improved upon Younghwa An's scheme, but various security problems remained. This study demonstrates that Cao and Ge's scheme is susceptible to a biometric recognition error, slow wrong password detection, off-line password attack, user impersonation attack, ID guessing attack, a DoS attack, and that their scheme cannot provide session key agreement. Then, to address all weaknesses identified in Cao and Ge's scheme, this study proposes a security enhanced multi-factor biometric authentication scheme and provides a security analysis and formal analysis using Burrows-Abadi-Needham logic. Finally, the efficiency analysis reveals that the proposed scheme can protect against several possible types of attacks with only a slightly high computational cost.

  1. An update on the side channel cryptanalysis of MACs based on cryptographic hash functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gauravaram, Praveen; Okeya, Katsuyuki

    2007-01-01

    Okeya has established that HMAC/NMAC implementations based on only Matyas-Meyer-Oseas (MMO) PGV scheme and his two refined PGV schemes are secure against side channel DPA attacks when the block cipher in these constructions is secure against these attacks. The significant result of Okeya's analys...

  2. EPC: A Provably Secure Permutation Based Compression Function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagheri, Nasour; Gauravaram, Praveen; Naderi, Majid

    2010-01-01

    The security of permutation-based hash functions in the ideal permutation model has been studied when the input-length of compression function is larger than the input-length of the permutation function. In this paper, we consider permutation based compression functions that have input lengths sh...

  3. Investigation on Compressive Strength of Special Concrete made with Crushed Waste Glass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Sani Mohd Syahrul Hisyam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Special concrete is the type of concrete that produced by using waste material or using unusual techniques/method of preparation. Special concrete made with waste material is becoming popular in a construction site. This is because the special concrete is selected due to quality, integrity, economic factor and environmental factor. The waste glass is selected as an additional material to provide a good in compressive strength value. The compressive strength is the importance of mechanical properties of concrete and typically the concrete is sustained and stiffed in compression load. The significant issue to utilize the waste glass from the automotive windscreen is to improve the strength of concrete. The waste glass is crushed to become 5 mm size and recognised as crushed waste glass that be used in concrete as additional material. The main objective of the study is to determine the appropriate percentage of crushed waste glass in concrete grade, 30 in order to enhance the compressive strength. There are four mixes of concrete that contained of crushed waste glass with percentage of 2 %, 4 %, 6 % and 8 % and one control mix with 0 % of crushed waste glass. As the result, crushed waste glass with an additional 4 % in concrete is reported having a higher value of compressive strength in early and mature stage. In addition, if the percentage of crushed glass wastes in concrete increases and it leads to a reduction in the workability of concrete.

  4. Evaluating the Psychological Concomitants of Other-Sex Crush Experiences during Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowker, Julie C.; Etkin, Rebecca G.

    2016-01-01

    Very little empirical attention has been paid to other-sex crush experiences during adolescence. As a result, it is not known whether such experiences, which appear to be relatively common, impact psychological adjustment outcomes. This two-wave (3 month interval) longitudinal study of 268 young adolescents (48% girls; M age at Time 1 = 11.84 years) examined the psychological concomitants of other-sex crush experiences (having and being viewed by others as a crush). Anxious-withdrawal and gender were evaluated as moderators. Peer nomination measures at Time 1 assessed both types of crush experiences and mutual friendship involvement, and participants completed self-report measures of loneliness and depressive symptoms at Times 1 and 2. The results from regression analyses revealed significant associations between having an other-sex crush and depressive symptoms at Time 1, after accounting for the effects of mutual friendship. Two interaction effects also revealed that crush status was a risk factor for depressive symptoms at low levels of anxious-withdrawal but a protective factor at high levels. The findings provide the first empirical evidence that other-sex crush experiences are developmentally significant during early adolescence. PMID:26984754

  5. Seismic tipping analysis of a spent nuclear fuel shipping cask sitting on a crush pad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uldrich, E.D.; Hawkes, B.D.

    1998-04-01

    A crush pad has been designed and analyzed to absorb the kinetic energy of an accidentally dropped spent nuclear fuel shipping cask into a 44 ft. deep cask unloading pool. Conventional analysis techniques available for evaluating a cask for tipping due to lateral seismic forces assume that the cask rests on a rigid surface. In this analysis, the cask (110 tons) sits on a stainless steel encased (0.25 in. top plate), polyurethane foam (4 ft. thick) crush pad. As the cask tends to rock due to horizontal seismic forces, the contact area between the cask and the crush pad is reduced, increasing the bearing stress, and causing the pivoting corner of the cask to depress into the crush pad. As the crush pad depresses under the cask corner, the pivot point shifts from the corner toward the cask center, which facilitates rocking and potential tipping of the cask. Subsequent rocking of the cask may deepen the depression, further contributing to the likelihood of cask tip over. However, as the depression is created, the crush pad is absorbing energy from the rocking cask. Potential tip over of the cask was evaluated by performing a non-linear, dynamic, finite element analysis with acceleration time history input. This time history analysis captured the effect of a deforming crush pad, and also eliminated conservatisms of the conventional approaches. For comparison purposes, this analysis was also performed with the cask sitting on a solid stainless steel crush pad. Results indicate that the conventional methods are quite conservative relative to the more exacting time history analysis. They also indicate that the rocking motion is less on the foam crush pad than on the solid stainless steel pad

  6. Effect of moisture content on the flowability of crushed ores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrejos, Francisco

    2017-06-01

    In many mining and industrial processes where large quantities of non-degrading bulk materials such as crushed ores are handled, silos, hoppers, stockpiles and chutes are widely used because they are economical and reliable (if properly designed and operated). However, they are not free of trouble and may experience flow problems such as arching, ratholing, erratic flow, limited storage capacity, limited discharge flow rate, caking, segregation and/or flooding. Moisture content and fine particles significantly affect the flowability of most ores, increasing their cohesive strength and turning them more prone to these problems. The purpose of this article is to highlight a proven, scientific method that can be utilized to ensure reliable storage, flow and discharge of bulk solids in these equipment based on Jenike's flow-of-solids theory and laboratory testing. Knowledge of the flow properties of the material handled provides a design basis to ensure mass flow, avoid arching and prevent the formation of "ratholes". The effect of an increase in water content of the ore is discussed with experimental results.

  7. Effect of moisture content on the flowability of crushed ores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cabrejos Francisco

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In many mining and industrial processes where large quantities of non-degrading bulk materials such as crushed ores are handled, silos, hoppers, stockpiles and chutes are widely used because they are economical and reliable (if properly designed and operated. However, they are not free of trouble and may experience flow problems such as arching, ratholing, erratic flow, limited storage capacity, limited discharge flow rate, caking, segregation and/or flooding. Moisture content and fine particles significantly affect the flowability of most ores, increasing their cohesive strength and turning them more prone to these problems. The purpose of this article is to highlight a proven, scientific method that can be utilized to ensure reliable storage, flow and discharge of bulk solids in these equipment based on Jenike’s flow-of-solids theory and laboratory testing. Knowledge of the flow properties of the material handled provides a design basis to ensure mass flow, avoid arching and prevent the formation of “ratholes”. The effect of an increase in water content of the ore is discussed with experimental results.

  8. Utilization of crushed clay brick in concrete industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali A. Aliabdo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive experimental program regarding the use of recycled aggregates produced from demolition of brick buildings is presented. The brick wastes were crushed, sorted and classified into coarse and fine aggregates as well as powder (CBP. The first phase of the research focuses on the effect of incorporating recycled aggregates on physico-mechanical properties of paste, mortar and concrete. Non-traditional tests including X-ray diffraction (XRD, thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA and micro-structural analysis (MSA were performed. The second phase of the program explores the effect of using recycled aggregates on properties of concrete masonry units. A total of 44 mixtures were utilized throughout the program. Results show cement paste when modified with 25% CBP achieves smaller pore size and lower weight loss under high temperature than reference paste. Furthermore, the use of recycled aggregates reduces the overall unit weight of concrete masonry units. Actually, modified concrete masonry units incorporating recycled aggregates achieve lower unit weight, higher thermal resistance and absorption rate than reference units. Although considerable strength reduction is noticeable by substitution, compressive strength levels meet the Egyptian specifications limitations. Critical replacement ratios are suggested to produce load bearing-concrete masonry units. Based on experimental evidences, it can be stated that the use of recycled aggregate and dust made of clay bricks is promising in many applications where the thermal resistance, cost and environmental aspects are imperative.

  9. Sam68 promotes Schwann cell proliferation by enhancing the PI3K/Akt pathway and acts on regeneration after sciatic nerve crush

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Weijie, E-mail: 459586768@qq.com; Liu, Yuxi, E-mail: 924013616@qq.com; Wang, Youhua, E-mail: wyouhua1516@163.com

    2016-05-13

    Sam68 (Src-associated in mitosis of 68 kD), a KH domain RNA-binding protein, is not only important in signaling transduction cascades, but crucial in a variety of cellular processes. Sam68 is reported to be involved in the phospoinositide3-kinase (PI3K) and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signaling pathways, and it is closely associated with cell proliferation, RNA metabolism, and tumor progression. However, we know little about the role of Sam68 during peripheral nervous system injury and regeneration. In this study, we investigated the expression of Sam68 and its biological significances in sciatic nerve crush. Interestingly, we found Sam68 had a co-localization with S100 (Schwann cell marker). Moreover, after crush, Sam68 had a spatiotemporal protein expression, which was in parallel with proliferation cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). In vitro, we also observed increased expression of Sam68 during the process of TNF-α-induced Schwann cell proliferation model. Besides, flow cytometry analyses, CCK-8, and EDU were all performed with the purpose of investigating the role of Sam68 in the regulation of Schwann cell proliferation. Even more importantly, we discovered that Sam68 could enhance the phosphorylation of Akt while LY294002 (a PI3K inhibitor) obviously reversed Sam68-induced cell proliferation. Finally, we detected the variance during regeneration progress through the rat walk footprint test. In summary, all these evidences demonstrated that Sam68 might participate in Schwann cell proliferation partially via PI3K/Akt pathway and also regulate regeneration after sciatic nerve crush. -- Highlights: •The dynamic changes and location of Sam68 after sciatic nerve crush. •Sam68 promoted Schwann cell proliferation via PI3K/Akt pathway. •Sam68 modulated functional recovery after sciatic nerve crush.

  10. Sam68 promotes Schwann cell proliferation by enhancing the PI3K/Akt pathway and acts on regeneration after sciatic nerve crush

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Weijie; Liu, Yuxi; Wang, Youhua

    2016-01-01

    Sam68 (Src-associated in mitosis of 68 kD), a KH domain RNA-binding protein, is not only important in signaling transduction cascades, but crucial in a variety of cellular processes. Sam68 is reported to be involved in the phospoinositide3-kinase (PI3K) and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signaling pathways, and it is closely associated with cell proliferation, RNA metabolism, and tumor progression. However, we know little about the role of Sam68 during peripheral nervous system injury and regeneration. In this study, we investigated the expression of Sam68 and its biological significances in sciatic nerve crush. Interestingly, we found Sam68 had a co-localization with S100 (Schwann cell marker). Moreover, after crush, Sam68 had a spatiotemporal protein expression, which was in parallel with proliferation cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). In vitro, we also observed increased expression of Sam68 during the process of TNF-α-induced Schwann cell proliferation model. Besides, flow cytometry analyses, CCK-8, and EDU were all performed with the purpose of investigating the role of Sam68 in the regulation of Schwann cell proliferation. Even more importantly, we discovered that Sam68 could enhance the phosphorylation of Akt while LY294002 (a PI3K inhibitor) obviously reversed Sam68-induced cell proliferation. Finally, we detected the variance during regeneration progress through the rat walk footprint test. In summary, all these evidences demonstrated that Sam68 might participate in Schwann cell proliferation partially via PI3K/Akt pathway and also regulate regeneration after sciatic nerve crush. -- Highlights: •The dynamic changes and location of Sam68 after sciatic nerve crush. •Sam68 promoted Schwann cell proliferation via PI3K/Akt pathway. •Sam68 modulated functional recovery after sciatic nerve crush.

  11. A novel motion analysis approach reveals late recovery in C57BL/6 mice and deficits in NCAM-deficient mice after sciatic nerve crush.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fey, Andreas; Schachner, Melitta; Irintchev, Andrey

    2010-05-01

    Assessment of motor abilities after sciatic nerve injury in rodents, in particular mice, relies exclusively on walking track (footprint) analysis despite known limitations of this method. Using principles employed recently for video-based motion analyses after femoral nerve and spinal cord injuries, we have designed and report here a novel approach for functional assessments after sciatic nerve lesions in mice. Functional deficits are estimated by angle and distance measurements on single video frames recorded during beam-walking and inclined ladder climbing. Analyses of adult C57BL/6J mice after crush of the sciatic, tibial, or peroneal nerve allowed the identification of six numerical parameters, detecting impairments of the plantar flexion of the foot and the toe spread. Some of these parameters, as well as footprint functional indices, revealed severe impairment after crush injury of the sciatic or tibial, but not the peroneal nerve, and complete recovery within 3 weeks after lesion. Other novel estimates, however, showed that complete recovery is reached as late as 2-3 months after sciatic nerve crush. These measures detected both tibial and peroneal dysfunction. In contrast to the complete restoration of function in wild-type mice (100%), our new parameters, in contrast to the sciatic functional index, showed incomplete recovery (85%) 90 days after sciatic nerve crush in mice deficient in the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM). We conclude that the novel video-based approach is more precise, sensitive, and versatile than established tests, allowing objective numerical assessment of different motor functions in a sciatic nerve injury paradigm in mice.

  12. User characteristics and effect profile of Butane Hash Oil: An extremely high-potency cannabis concentrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Gary C K; Hall, Wayne; Freeman, Tom P; Ferris, Jason; Kelly, Adrian B; Winstock, Adam

    2017-09-01

    Recent reports suggest an increase in use of extremely potent cannabis concentrates such as Butane Hash Oil (BHO) in some developed countries. The aims of this study were to examine the characteristics of BHO users and the effect profiles of BHO. Anonymous online survey in over 20 countries in 2014 and 2015. Participants aged 18 years or older were recruited through onward promotion and online social networks. The overall sample size was 181,870. In this sample, 46% (N=83,867) reported using some form of cannabis in the past year, and 3% reported BHO use (n=5922). Participants reported their use of 7 types of cannabis in the past 12 months, the source of their cannabis, reasons for use, use of other illegal substances, and lifetime diagnosis for depression, anxiety and psychosis. Participants were asked to rate subjective effects of BHO and high potency herbal cannabis. Participants who reported a lifetime diagnosis of depression (OR=1.15, p=0.003), anxiety (OR=1.72, pcannabis. BHO users also reported stronger negative effects and less positive effects when using BHO than high potency herbal cannabis (pcannabis. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Data Recovery of Distributed Hash Table with Distributed-to-Distributed Data Copy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doi, Yusuke; Wakayama, Shirou; Ozaki, Satoshi

    To realize huge-scale information services, many Distributed Hash Table (DHT) based systems have been proposed. For example, there are some proposals to manage item-level product traceability information with DHTs. In such an application, each entry of a huge number of item-level IDs need to be available on a DHT. To ensure data availability, the soft-state approach has been employed in previous works. However, this does not scale well against the number of entries on a DHT. As we expect 1010 products in the traceability case, the soft-state approach is unacceptable. In this paper, we propose Distributed-to-Distributed Data Copy (D3C). With D3C, users can reconstruct the data as they detect data loss, or even migrate to another DHT system. We show why it scales well against the number of entries on a DHT. We have confirmed our approach with a prototype. Evaluation shows our approach fits well on a DHT with a low rate of failure and a huge number of data entries.

  14. Matching Real and Synthetic Panoramic Images Using a Variant of Geometric Hashing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li-Chee-Ming, J.; Armenakis, C.

    2017-05-01

    This work demonstrates an approach to automatically initialize a visual model-based tracker, and recover from lost tracking, without prior camera pose information. These approaches are commonly referred to as tracking-by-detection. Previous tracking-by-detection techniques used either fiducials (i.e. landmarks or markers) or the object's texture. The main contribution of this work is the development of a tracking-by-detection algorithm that is based solely on natural geometric features. A variant of geometric hashing, a model-to-image registration algorithm, is proposed that searches for a matching panoramic image from a database of synthetic panoramic images captured in a 3D virtual environment. The approach identifies corresponding features between the matched panoramic images. The corresponding features are to be used in a photogrammetric space resection to estimate the camera pose. The experiments apply this algorithm to initialize a model-based tracker in an indoor environment using the 3D CAD model of the building.

  15. LSHSIM: A Locality Sensitive Hashing based method for multiple-point geostatistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, Pedro; Laber, Eduardo; Lopes, Hélio; Mesejo, Daniel; Pavanelli, Lucas; Jardim, João; Thiesen, Francisco; Pujol, Gabriel

    2017-10-01

    Reservoir modeling is a very important task that permits the representation of a geological region of interest, so as to generate a considerable number of possible scenarios. Since its inception, many methodologies have been proposed and, in the last two decades, multiple-point geostatistics (MPS) has been the dominant one. This methodology is strongly based on the concept of training image (TI) and the use of its characteristics, which are called patterns. In this paper, we propose a new MPS method that combines the application of a technique called Locality Sensitive Hashing (LSH), which permits to accelerate the search for patterns similar to a target one, with a Run-Length Encoding (RLE) compression technique that speeds up the calculation of the Hamming similarity. Experiments with both categorical and continuous images show that LSHSIM is computationally efficient and produce good quality realizations. In particular, for categorical data, the results suggest that LSHSIM is faster than MS-CCSIM, one of the state-of-the-art methods.

  16. Deficiency in monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1) in mice delays regeneration of peripheral nerves following sciatic nerve crush

    KAUST Repository

    Morrison, Brett M.; Tsingalia, Akivaga; Vidensky, Svetlana; Lee, Youngjin; Jin, Lin; Farah, Mohamed H.; Lengacher, Sylvain; Magistretti, Pierre J.; Pellerin, Luc; Rothsteinb, Jeffrey D.

    2015-01-01

    Peripheral nerve regeneration following injury occurs spontaneously, but many of the processes require metabolic energy. The mechanism of energy supply to axons has not previously been determined. In the central nervous system, monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1), expressed in oligodendroglia, is critical for supplying lactate or other energy metabolites to axons. In the current study, MCT1 is shown to localize within the peripheral nervous system to perineurial cells, dorsal root ganglion neurons, and Schwann cells by MCT1 immunofluorescence in wild-type mice and tdTomato fluorescence in MCT1 BAC reporter mice. To investigate whether MCT1 is necessary for peripheral nerve regeneration, sciatic nerves of MCT1 heterozygous mice are crushed and peripheral nerve regeneration was quantified electrophysiologically and anatomically. Compound muscle action potential (CMAP) recovery is delayed from a median of 21. days in wild-type mice to greater than 38. days in MCT1 heterozygote mice. In fact, half of the MCT1 heterozygote mice have no recovery of CMAP at 42. days, while all of the wild-type mice recovered. In addition, muscle fibers remain 40% more atrophic and neuromuscular junctions 40% more denervated at 42. days post-crush in the MCT1 heterozygote mice than wild-type mice. The delay in nerve regeneration is not only in motor axons, as the number of regenerated axons in the sural sensory nerve of MCT1 heterozygote mice at 4. weeks and tibial mixed sensory and motor nerve at 3. weeks is also significantly reduced compared to wild-type mice. This delay in regeneration may be partly due to failed Schwann cell function, as there is reduced early phagocytosis of myelin debris and remyelination of axon segments. These data for the first time demonstrate that MCT1 is critical for regeneration of both sensory and motor axons in mice following sciatic nerve crush.

  17. Crushed rock sand – An economical and ecological alternative to natural sand to optimize concrete mix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Mundra

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The study investigates the use of crushed rock sand as viable alternative to Natural River sand that is being conventionally used as fine aggregate in cement concrete. Various mix designs were developed for different grades of concrete based on IS, ACI and British codes using Natural River sand and crushed rock sand. In each case, the cube compressive strength test, and beam flexure tests were conducted. The results of the study show that, the strength properties of concrete using crushed rock sand are nearly similar to the conventional concrete. The study has shown that crushed stone sand can be used as economic and readily available alternative to river sand and can therefore help to arrest the detrimental effects on the environment caused due to excessive mining of river sand.

  18. Effect of crushing temperature on virgin olive oil quality and composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ö. Kula

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the current study was to assess the influence of a modified crushing process and kneading operation on the quality parameters, volatile compounds, and the fatty acid and sterol profiles of virgin olive oil from the Edremit yaglik variety. In the study, olive oil samples were produced in two different processes. The first one was produced without malaxation and the second one was produced with the malaxing process. During crushing, the effect of different temperatures was tested. The results demonstrate that different crushing temperatures generally did not affect the amount of free fatty acids, or peroxide value. Total phenol contents were positively affected by the additional malaxation process. Fatty acids and sterol composition were not significantly altered at different crushing temperatures or during the subsequent malaxation application. PCA enabled a clear classification of the oils obtained from different processing techniques.

  19. Physical, mechanical and thermal properties of Crushed Sand Concrete containing Rubber Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Guendouz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past twenty years, the rubber wastes are an important part of municipal solid waste. This work focuses on the recycling of rubber waste, specifically rubber waste of used shoes discharged into the nature and added in the mass of crushed sand concrete with percentage (10%, 20%, 30% and 40%. The physical (workability, fresh density, mechanical (compressive and flexural strength and thermal (thermal conductivity of different crushed sand concrete made are analyzed and compared to the respective controls. The use of rubber waste in crushed sand concrete contributes to reduce the bulk density and performance of sand concrete. Nevertheless, the use of rubber aggregate leads to a significant reduction in thermal conductivity, which improves the thermal insulation of crushed sand concrete.

  20. Recycled Asphalt Pavement and Crushed Concrete Backfill: State-of-the-Art Review and Material Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-10-01

    This report describes research results from the first year of a three-year study focused on the use of recycled asphalt pavement (RAP) and crushed concrete (CC) as backfill for mechanically stabilized earth (MSE) walls.

  1. Nitrate removal from aquaculture effluents using woodchip bioreactors improved by adding sulfur granules and crushed seashells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Ahnen, Mathis; Pedersen, Per Bovbjerg; Dalsgaard, Johanne

    2018-01-01

    This study examined the effects on nitrate removal when adding sulfur granules and crushed seashells to a woodchip bioreactor treating aquaculture effluents. Using a central composite design, the two components were added at three levels (0.000, 0.125 and 0.250 m3/m3 bioreactor volume) to 13......, the inclusion of crushed seashells together with sulfur granules helped to maintain the pH above 7.4 and prevent a production (i.e., release) of nitrite. According to the modeled response surfaces, a sulfur granule:crushed seashell:woodchip mixture ratio containing about 0.2 m3 sulfur granules and 0.1 m3...... crushed seashells per m3 reactor volume would give the best results with respect to high N removal and minimal nitrite release. In conclusion, the study showed that N removal in woodchip bioreactors may be improved by adding sulfur granules and seashells, contributing to the optimization of woodchip...

  2. Investigation of the use of waste crushed glass in the production of asphalt mixes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Anochie-Boateng, Joseph

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent study at the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research in South Africa has revealed the potential to substitute depleting natural aggregates with waste crushed glass in asphalt mixes. This paper presents an investigation of the use...

  3. Modeling the fate transport of cesium in crushed granite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, C.B.; Kuo, Y.M.; Hsu, C.N.; Li, M.H.; Cheng, H.P.; Teng, S.P.

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: In order to assess the safety of a underground radwaste repository, reactive transport models suitable for evaluating the fate and transport of radionuclides need to be established based on experimental observation and analysis. The goal of this study is to construct adequate models simulating the reactive transport of cesium (Cs) in crushed granite through a systematic analysis, where synthetic groundwater (SGW) and synthetic seawater (SSW) were employed as the liquid phase. To build such models, this study applied N 2 -BET, x-ray diffraction (XRD), polar-microscopy/ auto-radiography, and solid-phase digestion for the analysis of granite, kinetic batch tests for the characterization of sorption/desorption of Cs, and multi-stage advection-dispersion column tests for the determination of major transport processes and the calibration/validation of hypothesized reactive transport models. Based on the results of solid phase analysis and batch tests, a two-site Langmuir kinetic model has been determined capable of appropriately describing Cs sorption/desorption under test conditions. From the results of non-reactive HTO column tests, a mobile/immobile transport model was proposed to capture the major transport processes in our column system. However, the combination of the two-site Langmuir model and the mobile/immobile transport model failed to provide numerical breakthrough curves matching the Cs experimental breakthroughs. It implied that our model needs to be further refined. To achieve this, the setup of our column test needs to be modified first to reduce the volume of column connecting space, so that the effect of extra diffusion/dispersion on breakthroughs would be minimized and major transport characteristics can be clearly revealed. Moreover, more investigations on the reaction mechanisms and transport processes of the reactive transport system must be conducted. (authors)

  4. 49 CFR 587.15 - Verification of aluminum honeycomb crush strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... analog or digital form for each sample tested. If analog data are collected, a means of converting the data to digital data must be made available. All digital data are collected at a rate consistent with... all data prior to 6.4 mm (0.25 in) of crush and after 16.5 mm (0.65 in) of crush. Divide the remaining...

  5. Effect of crushing temperature on virgin olive oil quality and composition

    OpenAIRE

    Ö. Kula; A. Yıldırım; A. Yorulmaz; M. Duran; İ. Mutlu; M. Kıvrak

    2018-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to assess the influence of a modified crushing process and kneading operation on the quality parameters, volatile compounds, and the fatty acid and sterol profiles of virgin olive oil from the Edremit yaglik variety. In the study, olive oil samples were produced in two different processes. The first one was produced without malaxation and the second one was produced with the malaxing process. During crushing, the effect of different temperatures was test...

  6. Effect of Raw Crushed Garlic (Allium sativum L.) on Components of Metabolic Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Prema Ram; Jani, Rameshchandra D; Sharma, Megh Shyam

    2017-09-28

    Metabolic syndrome consists of a group of risk factors characterized by abdominal obesity, hypertension, atherogenic dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia, and prothrombotic and proinflammatory conditions. Raw garlic homogenate has been reported to reduce serum lipid levels in animal model; however, no precise studies have been performed to evaluate the effect of raw crushed garlic (Allium sativum L.) on components of metabolic syndrome. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the effect of raw crushed garlic on components of metabolic syndrome. A total of 40 metabolic syndrome patients were randomly selected from the diabetic center of SP Medical College, Bikaner, Rajasthan, India. They underwent treatment with 100 mg/kg body weight raw crushed garlic 2 times a day with standard diet for 4 weeks; their anthropometric and serum biochemical variables were measured at both the beginning and the end of the study. Statistical analysis was performed using IBM SPSS version 20, and Student's paired "t" test was used to compare variables before and after treatment with garlic preparation. Raw crushed garlic significantly reduced components of metabolic syndrome including waist circumference (p .05) of patients with metabolic syndrome after consumption of raw crushed garlic for 4 weeks. Raw crushed garlic has beneficial effects on components of metabolic syndrome; therefore, it can be used as an accompanying remedy for prevention and treatment of patients with metabolic syndrome.

  7. Nutritional parameters of steers receiving different levels of sunflower crushed in partial replacement of soybean meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HELLEN L. LIMA

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT To evaluate of the sunflower crushed in nutritional parameters in steers, supplemented at pasture, we used four steers in 4×4 Latin square design. The supplements were provided in 6 g/kg of body weight/animal/day, consisting of sunflower crushed, corn, soybean meal and mineral. All the supplements was isonitrogenous and soybean meal was replaced in 0, 20, 40, and 60% for sunflower crushed. The determination of ruminal pH and ammonia was at 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 h. after feeding and for short-chain fatty acids it was collected at 0 and 6 h. post-feeding. The dry matter intake was not affected (P>0.05 by inclusion of sunflower crushed (mean=6.59 kg/day. There was no significant effect (P>0.05 for pH for the inclusion of sunflower crushed (mean=6.41. For contents of ruminal NH3-N was a significant effect (P <0.05 only for collection time, and ammonia peaks occurred between 2 and 4 h after feeding, with values of 22.56 and 21.40 mg/dL. The total concentration of short chain fatty acids and the C2:C3 ratio was reduced in 9.6 and 15.43%. The ruminal degradability of NDF was not affected by the supplements. The supplementation with sunflower crushed to beef steers grazing, in partial replacement of soybean meal did not alter nutrition parameters.

  8. Research of environmentally-friendly utilization methods of the crushed stone waste on granite quarries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levytskyi V.G.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of activity of stone-mining enterprises shows the low competitiveness of crushed stone products Upgrading the quality of crushed stone and production of the European standard fractions requires to use of new technologies and equipment. The main waste of crushed stone pits is сrushed granite waste, which high percent of an exit is caused by outdated equipment and incorrectly selected technological parameters of the crushing process. Crushed-granite waste is stored in dumps which occupy large areas and negatively effect on production area ecology. In November 2017, the Government of Ukraine accepted the National Waste Management Strategy until 2030, the main aim of it is develop a strategy of the mineral raw materials balanced use and international standards introduction at the national level. Therefore, the problem of complex utilization and recycling of waste from stone-mining enterprises with receiving a qualitative secondary product is relevant. The publication presents the сrushed granite waste volumes by crushed stone pit, its properties and main directions of utilization. The ecological influence of waste dumps, in particular granite dust, on the environment and human, the strategy of using non-waste technologies and ecological features of сrushed granite waste secondary processing are considered

  9. [Hygienic assessment of metal-lurgical slag crushed stone for its use in road-building].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhomirov, Iu P; Ippolitova, V P; Bezrokov, M E

    2010-01-01

    The increasing amount of industrial waste generates a need for its use as recycled materials. The paper presents the results of hygienic assessment of metallurgic slag crushed stone to be added to natural materials in highway building. The research program has included the measurement of content of water-soluble forms of metals, the evaluation of the acute toxicity of waste after oral administration to mice and rats, the study of the toxicity of waste by biotesting and the activity of natural radionuclides. The slag crushed stone virtually lacks water-soluble elements when it contains a high level of bulk forms of metals. According to acute toxicity for warm-blooded animals, the slag crushed stone belongs to Hazard Class IV by GOST 12.1.007-76 (low hazard substances). The biotesting on hydrocoles, the slag crushed stone is also referred to as Class IV (low hazard substances). In terms of the level of natural radionuclides, the slag crushed stone poses no hazard to the environment. The performed studies give grounds to recommend metallurgical slag crushed stone to be added to natural materials for highway building.

  10. CRUSH1: a simplified computer program for impact analysis of radioactive material transport casks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikushima, Takeshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1996-07-01

    In drop impact analyses for radioactive transport casks, it has become possible to perform them in detail by using interaction evaluation, computer programs, such as DYNA2D, DYNA3D, PISCES and HONDO. However, the considerable cost and computer time are necessitated to perform analyses by these programs. To meet the above requirements, a simplified computer program CRUSH1 has been developed. The CRUSH1 is a static calculation computer program capable of evaluating the maximum acceleration of cask bodies and the maximum deformation of shock absorbers using an Uniaxial Displacement Method (UDM). The CRUSH1 is a revised version of the CRUSH. Main revisions of the computer program are as follows; (1) not only main frame computer but also work stations (OS UNIX) and personal computer (OS Windows 3.1 or Windows NT) are available for use of the CRUSH1 and (2) input data set are revised. In the paper, brief illustration of calculation method using UDM is presented. The second section presents comparisons between UDM and the detailed method. The third section provides a use`s guide for CRUSH1. (author)

  11. CRUSH1: a simplified computer program for impact analysis of radioactive material transport casks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikushima, Takeshi

    1996-07-01

    In drop impact analyses for radioactive transport casks, it has become possible to perform them in detail by using interaction evaluation, computer programs, such as DYNA2D, DYNA3D, PISCES and HONDO. However, the considerable cost and computer time are necessitated to perform analyses by these programs. To meet the above requirements, a simplified computer program CRUSH1 has been developed. The CRUSH1 is a static calculation computer program capable of evaluating the maximum acceleration of cask bodies and the maximum deformation of shock absorbers using an Uniaxial Displacement Method (UDM). The CRUSH1 is a revised version of the CRUSH. Main revisions of the computer program are as follows; (1) not only main frame computer but also work stations (OS UNIX) and personal computer (OS Windows 3.1 or Windows NT) are available for use of the CRUSH1 and (2) input data set are revised. In the paper, brief illustration of calculation method using UDM is presented. The second section presents comparisons between UDM and the detailed method. The third section provides a use's guide for CRUSH1. (author)

  12. Associations between butane hash oil use and cannabis-related problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Madeline H

    2017-10-01

    High-potency cannabis concentrates are increasingly popular in the United States, and there is concern that use of high-potency cannabis might increase risk for cannabis-related problems. However, little is known about the potential negative consequences of concentrate use. This study reports on associations between past-year use of a high-potency cannabis concentrate, known as butane hash oil (BHO), and cannabis-related problems. A sample of 821 college students were recruited to complete a survey about their health and behavior. Participants who had used cannabis in the past year (33%, n=273) completed questions about their cannabis use, including their use of BHO and cannabis-related problems in eight domains: physical dependence, impaired control, academic-occupational problems, social-interpersonal problems, self-care problems, self-perception, risk behavior, and blackouts. Approximately 44% (n=121) of past-year cannabis users had used BHO in the past year. More frequent BHO use was associated with higher levels of physical dependence (RR=1.8, pcannabis-related academic/occupational problems (RR=1.5, p=0.004), poor self-care (RR=1.3, p=0.002), and cannabis-related risk behavior (RR=1.2, p=0.001). After accounting for sociodemographic factors, age of onset of cannabis use, sensation seeking, overall frequency of cannabis use, and frequency of other substance use, BHO use was still associated with higher levels of physical dependence (RR=1.2, p=0.014). BHO use is associated with greater physiological dependence on cannabis, even after accounting for potential confounders. Longitudinal research is needed to determine if cannabis users with higher levels of physiological dependence seek out BHO and/or if BHO use increases risk for physiological dependence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Environmental friendly crush-magnetic separation technology for recycling metal-plated plastics from end-of-life vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Mianqiang; Li, Jia; Xu, Zhenming

    2012-03-06

    Metal-plated plastics (MPP), which are important from the standpoint of aesthetics or even performance, are increasingly employed in a wide variety of situations in the automotive industry. Serious environmental problems will be caused if they are not treated appropriately. Therefore, recycling of MPP is an important subject not only for resource recycling but also for environmental protection. This work represents a novel attempt to deal with the MPP. A self-designed hammer crusher was used to liberate coatings from the plastic substrate. The size distribution of particles was analyzed and described by the Rosin-Rammler function model. The optimum retaining time of materials in the crusher is 3 min. By this time, the liberation rate of the materials can reach 87.3%. When the density of the suspension is 31,250 g/m(3), the performance of liberation is the best. Two-step magnetic separation was adopted to avoid excessive crushing and to guarantee the quality of products. Concerning both the separation efficiency and grade of products, the optimum rotational speed of the magnetic separator is 50-70 rpm. On the basis of the above studies about the liberating and separating behavior of the materials, a continuous recycling system (the technology of crush-magnetic separation) is developed. This recycling system provides a feasible method for recycling MPP efficiently, economically, and environmentally.

  14. Growing Eremanthus erythropappus in crushed laterite: A promising alternative to topsoil for bauxite-mine revegetation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Naiara Amaral de Miranda; Leite, Mariangela Garcia Praça; Figueiredo, Maurílio Assis; Kozovits, Alessandra Rodrigues

    2013-11-15

    Topsoil is the preferred substrate for areas requiring rehabilitation after bauxite mining. However, topsoil is sometimes lacking and so there is a need to test the suitability of other, locally available substrates. In an abandoned bauxite mine in Southeastern Brazil, small patches of native vegetation spontaneously established in shallow depressions over weathered laterite, suggesting that granulometric reduction may have facilitated the establishment of plants. To test this hypothesis, blocks of laterite collected in the area were crushed to simulate texture observed in the vegetation patches. Topsoil collected in a preserved ferruginous field near to the extraction area was also used as a substrate in which Eremanthus erythropappus seedlings, a native woody species, were grown. Seedlings were cultivated without fertilizers in these two substrates and also directly over the exposed and uncrushed laterite. The species proved to be very promising for the revegetation, showing a high survival rate in all substrates. Higher annual growth rates and higher final biomass values were observed in topsoil, but the granulometric reduction of laterite doubled plant growth rate in comparison to the exposed laterite. This result was likely due to the increased availability of essential nutrients to plants and to the improvement in physical conditions for root growth and functioning. Moreover, seedling allometry was not altered by the type of substrate, suggesting that the species was highly tolerant to the new substrate conditions, a fundamental characteristic for success of revegetation of bauxite extraction degraded areas. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Improvements of Spiers model for compaction creep of crushed rock salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poley, A.D.

    1996-10-01

    This report describes a number of improvements to the existing model for the process of compaction creep of rock salt developed by Spiers and co-workers. The process of compaction creep determines the behaviour of the seals of crushed rock salt, the last engineered barriers of a repository in rock salt for (radioactive) wastes. In Chapter 2 the derivation of the original model of Spiers and co-workers is followed except for some simplifying approximations. A comparison of the model results is made with experimental data and a number of model adjustments are suggested. In Chapter 3 one of these suggested model adjustments is explored, and an alternative model is developed. The results obtained with this model compare favourably with the experimental data without the use of adjustable shape functions as for the original model. Preliminary investigations of the impact of the new model on estimated releases to the geosphere of radionuclides form a repository in rock salt revealed striking differences: with the new model the compaction of the rock salt seals was so rapid that no releases could occur. The striking differences between the results - in terms of releases form a rock salt repository to the geosphere after groundwater intrusion - obtained using the two models clearly indicate the need for further experimental research into the end-compaction behaviour of rock salt backfill. (orig.)

  16. “To Crush the Serpent”: James Baldwin, the Religious Right, and the Moral Minority

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Vogel

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the 1980s, James Baldwin recognized that a major transformation had occurred in the socio-political functions of religion. His critique adapted accordingly, focusing on the ways in which religion—particularly white evangelical Christianity—had morphed into a movement deeply enmeshed with mass media, conservativepolitics, and late capitalism. Religion in the Reagan era was leveraged, sold, and consumed in ways never before seen, from charismatic televangelists, to Christian-themed amusement parks, to mega-churches. The new movement was often characterized as the “religious right” or the “Moral Majority” and was central to both Reagan’s political coalition as well as the broader culture wars. For Baldwin, this development had wide-ranging ramifications for society and the individual. This article draws on Baldwin’s final major essay, “To Crush the Serpent” (1987, to examine the author’s evolving thoughts on religion, salvation, and transgression in the context of the Reagan era.

  17. Oxidized Metal Powders for Mechanical Shock and Crush Safety Enhancers; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GARINO, TERRY J.

    2002-01-01

    The use of oxidized metal powders in mechanical shock or crush safety enhancers in nuclear weapons has been investigated. The functioning of these devices is based on the remarkable electrical behavior of compacts of certain oxidized metal powders when subjected to compressive stress. For example, the low voltage resistivity of a compact of oxidized tantalum powder was found to decrease by over six orders of magnitude during compaction between 1 MPa, where the thin, insulating oxide coatings on the particles are intact, to 10 MPa, where the oxide coatings have broken down along a chain of particles spanning the electrodes. In this work, the behavior of tantalum and aluminum powders was investigated. The low voltage resistivity during compaction of powders oxidized under various conditions was measured and compared. In addition, the resistivity at higher voltages and the dielectric breakdown strength during compaction were also measured. A key finding was that significant changes in the electrical properties persist after the removal of the stress so that a mechanical shock enhancer is feasible. This was verified by preliminary shock experiments. Finally, conceptual designs for both types of enhancers are presented

  18. Investigating the swelling pressure of compacted crushed-Callovo-Oxfordian clay-stone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, C. S.; Tang, A. M.; Cui, Y. J.; Delage, P.; Schroeder, C.; De Laure, E.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental study on the swelling pressure of heavily compacted crushed Callovo-Oxfordian (COx) clay-stone at a dry unit mass ρ d =2.0 Mg/m 3 using four different methods: constant-volume, swell-reload, zero-swell and adjusted constant-volume method. Results show that the swelling pressure varies in the range of 1-5 MPa and depends significantly on the test method. From the constant-volume tests, it is observed that the swelling behavior during wetting is a function of the suction and depends on both the hydration paths and wetting conditions (e.g. vapor-wetting or liquid-wetting). The swelling pressure decreases significantly with saturation time. To identify the microstructure changes of specimens before and after wetting, mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) tests were performed. It is observed that, after wetting, the large inter-aggregate pores observed in the as-compacted specimen are no longer apparent; the whole pattern is characterized by a general swell of hydrated clay particles, rendering the soil more homogenous. Results from MIP indicated that wetting caused a significant reduction of the entrance diameter of the dominant inter-aggregate pores from 2.1 to 0.5μm whereas intra-aggregate pores were not significantly influenced. (authors)

  19. Assessment of crushed-recycled glass as filter media for drinking water treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutledge, S.O.; Fahie, C.; Gagnon, G.A.

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this project was to evaluate the performance of a pressure filter utilizing crushed glass as the filter media. The performance of the crushed glass filter was compared to that of a sand filter. The research was conducted in Orangedale, Nova Scotia, which is a small community of with a population of approximately 500. Orangedale is located on the south shore of Bras d'Or Lakes and feeds into Miller Pond, which serves as the source the of drinking water. The Orangedale treatment plant produces an average daily flow of 35 m3/d (6.4-gpm). The treatment plant consists of coagulation (sodium aluminate and polyaluminum chloride), flocculation, dissolved air flotation (DAF), disinfection with sodium hypochlorite and dual-media filtration with anthracite and sand. In general, the particle removal capabilities of the crushed glass filter were slightly poorer than that of a sand filter, as quantified in a field application in the community of Orangedale, Nova Scotia. It was found that the crushed glass used in this project had a higher angularity and slightly higher uniformity coefficient. During initial start-up the performance of the crushed glass filter was more variable and appeared to improve as the glass began to wear. After six-months of use the crushed glass filter was able to produce a very consistent filter effluent that was only slightly greater than the silica sand filter. After six-months of use, the sand filter achieved a 1.6 log-removal of particles with diameters greater than 2 μm; whereas the crushed glass filter achieved a 1.4 log removal for the similar particle size range. The observed removal performance was particularly encouraging given that the sand used had properties that were consistent with the standards set by the American Water Works Association. The crushed glass filter media was initially sieved and washed, but had no other pre-treatment preparation. Thus the application of crushed glass shows considerable promise as filter

  20. Nutritional parameters of steers receiving different levels of sunflower crushed in partial replacement of soybean meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Hellen L; Goes, Rafael H T B de; Cerilo, Sara L N; Oliveira, Euclides R de; Gressler, Maria G M; Brabes, Kelly C S

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate of the sunflower crushed in nutritional parameters in steers, supplemented at pasture, we used four steers in 4×4 Latin square design. The supplements were provided in 6 g/kg of body weight/animal/day, consisting of sunflower crushed, corn, soybean meal and mineral. All the supplements was isonitrogenous and soybean meal was replaced in 0, 20, 40, and 60% for sunflower crushed. The determination of ruminal pH and ammonia was at 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 h. after feeding and for short-chain fatty acids it was collected at 0 and 6 h. post-feeding. The dry matter intake was not affected (P>0.05) by inclusion of sunflower crushed (mean=6.59 kg/day). There was no significant effect (P>0.05) for pH for the inclusion of sunflower crushed (mean=6.41). For contents of ruminal NH₃-N was a significant effect (P replacement of soybean meal did not alter nutrition parameters.

  1. Assessment of crushed salt consolidation and fracture healing processes in a nuclear waste repository in salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-11-01

    For a nuclear waste repository in salt, two aspects of salt behavior are expected to contribute to favorable conditions for waste isolation. First, consolidation of crushed salt backfill due to creep closure of the underground openings may result in a backfill barrier with low permeability. Second, fractures created in the salt by excavation may heal under the influence of stress and temperature following sealing. This report reviews the status of knowledge regarding crushed salt consolidation and fracture healing, provides analyses which predict the rates at which the processes will occur under repository conditions, and develops requirements for future study. Analyses of the rate at which crushed salt will consolidate are found to be uncertain because of unexplained wide variation in the creep properties of crushed salt obtained from laboratory testing, and because of uncertainties in predictions of long term closure rates of openings in salt. This uncertainty could be resolved to a large degree by additional laboratory testing of crushed salt. Similarly, additional testing of fracture healing processes is required to confirm that healing will be effective under repository conditions. Extensive references, 27 figures, 5 tables

  2. Study on characteristics of printed circuit board liberation and its crushed products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Cui; Li, Aimin; Gao, Ningbo

    2012-11-01

    Recycling printed circuit board waste (PCBW) waste is a hot issue of environmental protection and resource recycling. Mechanical and thermo-chemical methods are two traditional recycling processes for PCBW. In the present research, a two-step crushing process combined with a coarse-crushing step and a fine-pulverizing step was adopted, and then the crushed products were classified into seven different fractions with a standard sieve. The liberation situation and particle shape in different size fractions were observed. Properties of different size fractions, such as heating value, thermogravimetric, proximate, ultimate and chemical analysis were determined. The Rosin-Rammler model was applied to analyze the particle size distribution of crushed material. The results indicated that complete liberation of metals from the PCBW was achieved at a size less than 0.59 mm, but the nonmetal particle in the smaller-than-0.15 mm fraction is liable to aggregate. Copper was the most prominent metal in PCBW and mainly enriched in the 0.42-0.25 mm particle size. The Rosin-Rammler equation adequately fit particle size distribution data of crushed PCBW with a correlation coefficient of 0.9810. The results of heating value and proximate analysis revealed that the PCBW had a low heating value and high ash content. The combustion and pyrolysis process of PCBW was different and there was an obvious oxidation peak of Cu in combustion runs.

  3. Privacy-Preserving and Scalable Service Recommendation Based on SimHash in a Distributed Cloud Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanwei Xu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing volume of web services in the cloud environment, Collaborative Filtering- (CF- based service recommendation has become one of the most effective techniques to alleviate the heavy burden on the service selection decisions of a target user. However, the service recommendation bases, that is, historical service usage data, are often distributed in different cloud platforms. Two challenges are present in such a cross-cloud service recommendation scenario. First, a cloud platform is often not willing to share its data to other cloud platforms due to privacy concerns, which decreases the feasibility of cross-cloud service recommendation severely. Second, the historical service usage data recorded in each cloud platform may update over time, which reduces the recommendation scalability significantly. In view of these two challenges, a novel privacy-preserving and scalable service recommendation approach based on SimHash, named SerRecSimHash, is proposed in this paper. Finally, through a set of experiments deployed on a real distributed service quality dataset WS-DREAM, we validate the feasibility of our proposal in terms of recommendation accuracy and efficiency while guaranteeing privacy-preservation.

  4. Secure Hashing of Dynamic Hand Signatures Using Wavelet-Fourier Compression with BioPhasor Mixing and Discretization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wai Kuan Yip

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a novel method for secure computation of biometric hash on dynamic hand signatures using BioPhasor mixing and discretization. The use of BioPhasor as the mixing process provides a one-way transformation that precludes exact recovery of the biometric vector from compromised hashes and stolen tokens. In addition, our user-specific discretization acts both as an error correction step as well as a real-to-binary space converter. We also propose a new method of extracting compressed representation of dynamic hand signatures using discrete wavelet transform (DWT and discrete fourier transform (DFT. Without the conventional use of dynamic time warping, the proposed method avoids storage of user's hand signature template. This is an important consideration for protecting the privacy of the biometric owner. Our results show that the proposed method could produce stable and distinguishable bit strings with equal error rates (EERs of and for random and skilled forgeries for stolen token (worst case scenario, and for both forgeries in the genuine token (optimal scenario.

  5. Scalable Content Authentication in H.264/SVC Videos Using Perceptual Hashing based on Dempster-Shafer theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Dengpan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The content authenticity of the multimedia delivery is important issue with rapid development and widely used of multimedia technology. Till now many authentication solutions had been proposed, such as cryptology and watermarking based methods. However, in latest heterogeneous network the video stream transmission has been coded in scalable way such as H.264/SVC, there is still no good authentication solution. In this paper, we firstly summarized related works and proposed a scalable content authentication scheme using a ratio of different energy (RDE based perceptual hashing in Q/S dimension, which is used Dempster-Shafer theory and combined with the latest scalable video coding (H.264/SVC construction. The idea of aldquo;sign once and verify in scalable wayardquo; can be realized. Comparing with previous methods, the proposed scheme based on perceptual hashing outperforms previous works in uncertainty (robustness and efficiencies in the H.264/SVC video streams. At last, the experiment results verified the performance of our scheme.

  6. Strain-rate effect on initial crush stress of irregular honeycomb under dynamic loading and its deformation mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Zheng, Zhijun; Liao, Shenfei; Yu, Jilin

    2018-02-01

    The seemingly contradictory understandings of the initial crush stress of cellular materials under dynamic loadings exist in the literature, and a comprehensive analysis of this issue is carried out with using direct information of local stress and strain. Local stress/strain calculation methods are applied to determine the initial crush stresses and the strain rates at initial crush from a cell-based finite element model of irregular honeycomb under dynamic loadings. The initial crush stress under constant-velocity compression is identical to the quasi-static one, but less than the one under direct impact, i.e. the initial crush stresses under different dynamic loadings could be very different even though there is no strain-rate effect of matrix material. A power-law relation between the initial crush stress and the strain rate is explored to describe the strain-rate effect on the initial crush stress of irregular honeycomb when the local strain rate exceeds a critical value, below which there is no strain-rate effect of irregular honeycomb. Deformation mechanisms of the initial crush behavior under dynamic loadings are also explored. The deformation modes of the initial crush region in the front of plastic compaction wave are different under different dynamic loadings.

  7. Coupling of Mechanical Behavior of Lithium Ion Cells to Electrochemical-Thermal Models for Battery Crush; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pesaran, Ahmad; Zhang, Chao; Santhanagopalan, Shriram; Sahraei, Elham; Wierzbiki, Tom

    2015-06-15

    Propagation of failure in lithium-ion batteries during field events or under abuse is a strong function of the mechanical response of the different components in the battery. Whereas thermal and electrochemical models that capture the abuse response of batteries have been developed and matured over the years, the interaction between the mechanical behavior and the thermal response of these batteries is not very well understood. With support from the Department of Energy, NREL has made progress in coupling mechanical, thermal, and electrochemical lithium-ion models to predict the initiation and propagation of short circuits under external crush in a cell. The challenge with a cell crush simulation is to estimate the magnitude and location of the short. To address this, the model includes an explicit representation of each individual component such as the active material, current collector, separator, etc., and predicts their mechanical deformation under different crush scenarios. Initial results show reasonable agreement with experiments. In this presentation, the versatility of the approach for use with different design factors, cell formats and chemistries is explored using examples.

  8. Ball mill tool for crushing coffee and cocoa beans base on fraction size sieving results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haryanto, B.; Sirait, M.; Azalea, M.; Alvin; Cahyani, S. E.

    2018-02-01

    Crushing is one of the operation units that aimed to convert the size of solid material to be smoother particle’s size. The operation unit that can be used in this crushing is ball mill. The purpose of this study is to foresee the effect of raw material mass, grinding time, and the number of balls that are used in the ball mill tool related to the amount of raw material of coffee and cocoa beans. Solid material that has become smooth is then sieved with sieve mesh with size number: 50, 70, 100, and 140. It is in order to obtain the mass fraction that escaped from each sieve mesh. From the experiment, it can be concluded that mass percentage fraction of coffee powder is bigger than cocoa powder that escaped from the mesh. Hardness and humidity of coffee beans and cocoa beans have been the important factors that made coffee beans is easier to be crushed than cocoa beans.

  9. The influence of heavy mineral crushing in analysis of U mobile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatang-Suherman

    2000-01-01

    The aim of experiments is to find out the influence of sample crushing in analysis of U mobile it was compared between U content of crusher and uncrushed samples. The uncrushed samples including the grain size of minus 40, 60, 80 and 100 mesh, since while the uncrushed sample was minus 60, 80, 100, 120 and 150 mesh. The U analysis was done by comparing with fluorescence of standard sample using Fluorimetric determination. The result of uncrushed samples have a same concentration in all of grain fractions and the crushed samples have a higher concentration on the smallest of grain fractions. The content of U mobile from crushed sample have significant result at - 120 mesh to - 150 mesh

  10. The classification of wood chips parameters by crushing of waste cane from different varieties of grapevine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrik Burg

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This work deales with exploitatives parameters monitoring of wood shreder PEZZOLATO 110 Mb by crushing of waste cane of six varieties. The results shows that the wood shreders efficiency, fuel consumption and the wood chips elements size can be influenced by varieties characters of cane. The va­lued machines efficiency was 230–470 kg . h−1 by average volume 40.70 % water in wood. The hig­hest values by cane crushing had the variety Saint Laurent (0.47 t . h−1 and the lowest variety ­Blauer Portugieser (0.23 t . h−1. The specific consumption of petrol Natural 95 was 4.52.10−3–8.12.10−3 l . kg−1. The average middle elements lenght was 6.64 mm by crushed varieties.

  11. Axial Crushing Behaviors of Thin-Walled Corrugated and Circular Tubes - A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyaz-Ur-Rahim, Mohd.; Bharti, P. K.; Umer, Afaque

    2017-10-01

    With the help of finite element analysis, this research paper deals with the energy absorption and collapse behavior with different corrugated section geometries of hollow tubes made of aluminum alloy 6060-T4. Literature available experimental data were used to validate the numerical models of the structures investigated. Based on the results available for symmetric crushing of circular tubes, models were developed to investigate corrugated thin-walled structures behavior. To study the collapse mechanism and energy absorbing ability in axial compression, the simulation was carried in ABAQUS /EXPLICIT code. In the simulation part, specimens were prepared and axially crushed to one-fourth length of the tube and the energy diagram of crushing force versus axial displacement is shown. The effect of various parameters such as pitch, mean diameter, corrugation, amplitude, the thickness is demonstrated with the help of diagrams. The overall result shows that the corrugated section geometry could be a good alternative to the conventional tubes.

  12. Transient convergence and compaction of crushed salt as incorporated in the computer code EMOS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heijdra, J.J.; Hamilton, L.F.M.; Prij, J.; Slagter, W.

    1995-11-01

    An improved model for description of the transient convergence of cavities in rock salt, together with an improved model for the compaction of crushed salt is introduced. The covergence model is based on solutions of the analytical expressions based on secondary creep for a cylindrical and spherical cavity in rock salt. For the model for compaction of crushed salt the relations based on theoretical micro mechanisms have been fitted to laboratory results. A description is given of how the improved models are incorporated into the program EMOS. (orig.)

  13. Technics study on high accuracy crush dressing and sharpening of diamond grinding wheel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yunhai; Lu, Xuejun; Li, Jiangang; Zhu, Lixin; Song, Yingjie

    2011-05-01

    Mechanical grinding of artificial diamond grinding wheel was traditional wheel dressing process. The rotate speed and infeed depth of tool wheel were main technics parameters. The suitable technics parameters of metals-bonded diamond grinding wheel and resin-bonded diamond grinding wheel high accuracy crush dressing were obtained by a mount of experiment in super-hard material wheel dressing grind machine and by analysis of grinding force. In the same time, the effect of machine sharpening and sprinkle granule sharpening was contrasted. These analyses and lots of experiments had extent instruction significance to artificial diamond grinding wheel accuracy crush dressing.

  14. Transient convergence and compaction of crushed salt as incorporated in the computer code EMOS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heijdra, J.J.; Hamilton, L.F.M.; Prij, J.; Slagter, W.

    1995-11-01

    An improved model for description of the transient convergence of cavities in rock salt, together with an improved model for the compaction of crushed salt is introduced. The covergence model is based on solutions of the analytical expressions based on secondary creep for a cylindrical and spherical cavity in rock salt. For the model for compaction of crushed salt the relations based on theoretical micro mechanisms have been fitted to laboratory results. A description is given of how the improved models are incorporated into the program EMOS. (orig.).

  15. Compartment and Crush Syndromes After Sleep Deprivation and a Therapeutic Dose of Zolpidem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin R. Huecker

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite extensive review in the literature, compartment syndrome and crush syndrome remain difficult to diagnose. Trauma, toxins and reperfusion have been associated with these syndromes. Cases involving alcohol and drug abuse have described patients “found down” compressing an extremity. We present a case of a registered nurse who developed compartment syndrome in multiple limbs due to prolonged sleep after sleep deprivation and zolpidem use. To our knowledge, this is the first case of compartment syndrome or crush syndrome to have occurred in the setting of zolpidem use. Sleep disruption in healthcare workers represents a public health issue with dangerous sequelae, both acute and chronic.

  16. Recovery of salmonella serovar enteritidis from inoculated broiler hatching eggs using shell rinse and shell crush sampling methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study compared the recovery of Salmonella from hatching eggs using three sampling methods (eggshell rinsing, eggshell crush following a previous rinse, and eggshell crush without previous rinse). Eggshells were drop-inoculated with approximately 10, 100, or 1,000 cfu/eggshell of S. Enteritidis...

  17. Modeling of the endosperm crush response profile of hard red spring wheat using a single kernel characterization system

    Science.gov (United States)

    When a wheat endosperm is crushed the force profile shows viscoelastic response and the modulus of elasticity is an important parameter that might have substantial influence on wheat milling. An experiment was performed to model endosperm crush response profile (ECRP) and to determine the modulus o...

  18. Hyperbaric oxygenation therapy for crush injuries reduces the risk of complications: research report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Noriaki; Toyoda, Izumi; Doi, Tomoaki; Kumada, Keisuke; Kato, Hisaaki; Yoshida, Shozo; Shirai, Kunihiro; Kanda, Norihide; Ogura, Shinji

    2014-01-01

    Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2) therapy has been adopted for crush injuries, but there are few studies supporting its use. We therefore investigated the effects of HBO2 on management of patients with complicated crush injuries. This historic cohort study included patients with crush injuries and open fractures with severities greater than or equal to Gustilo class IIIA. We divided the patients into two groups: Control and HBO2. The control group received conventional treatment, while the HBO2 group received conventional treatment plus HBO2. We compared the groups with respect to the incidence of infection, need for additional surgery, and length of intensive care unit (ICU) and hospital stays. There were 16 patients in the HBO2 group and 13 in the control group. There were no patients with infections in the HBO2 group, whereas in the control group six patients had infections and five needed another drainage procedure. These incidences were significantly lower in the HBO2 group (p = 0.003 and 0.013). However, the durations of ICU and hospital stays were similar across the two groups. HBO2 is effective in the management of crush injuries from the viewpoint of reducing complications and reoperations. These observations should be verified in additional studies with larger sample sizes because the patient number is limited.

  19. Optimal energy control of a crushing process based on vertical shaft impactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numbi, B.P.; Xia, X.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Energy optimal control strategy of a VSI crushing process is modeled. • Potential of a daily energy cost saving of about 49.7% is shown. • Potential of a daily energy saving of about 15.3% is shown. • Most of energy cost saving is due to the optimal load shifting under time-of-use tariff. • Energy saving is due to the operation of the process at the boundary of the admissible region. - Abstract: This paper presents an optimal control model to improve the operation energy efficiency of a vertical shaft impact (VSI) crushing process. The optimal control model takes the energy cost as the performance index to be minimized by accounting for the time-of-use tariff and process constraints such as storage capacity of the VSI crusher hopper, capacity of the main storage system, flow rate limits, cascade ratio setting, production requirement and product quality requirement. The control variables in the developed model are the belt conveyor feed rate, the material feed rate into the VSI crusher rotor, the bi-flow or cascade feed rate and the rotor tip speed of the crusher. These four control variables are optimally coordinated in order to improve the operation energy efficiency of the VSI crushing process. Simulation results based on a crushing process in a coal-fired power plant demonstrate a potential of a daily energy cost saving of about 49.7% and energy saving of about 15.3% in a high-demand season weekday.

  20. Sea Dredged Gravel versus Crushed Granite as Coarse Aggregate for Self Compacting Concrete in Aggressive Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eigil V.; Kristensen, Lasse Frølich

    2007-01-01

    Properties of self compacting concrete (SCC) with two types of coarse aggregate - sea dredged gravel with smooth and rounded particles and crushed granite with rough and angular particles - have been studied. Sea gravel allowed a higher aggregate proportion in the concrete leading to a higher...

  1. Hydrostatic and shear consolidation tests with permeability measurements on Waste Isolation Pilot Plant crushed salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodsky, N.S.

    1994-03-01

    Crushed natural rock salt is a primary candidate for use as backfill and barrier material at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) and therefore Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has been pursuing a laboratory program designed to quantify its consolidation properties and permeability. Variables that influence consolidation rate that have been examined include stress state and moisture content. The experimental results presented in this report complement existing studies and work in progress conducted by SNL. The experiments described in this report were designed to (1) measure permeabilities of consolidated specimens of crushed salt, (2) determine the influence of brine saturation on consolidation under hydrostatic loads, and 3) measure the effects of small applied shear stresses on consolidation properties. The laboratory effort consisted of 18 individual tests: three permeability tests conducted on specimens that had been consolidated at Sandia, six hydrostatic consolidation and permeability tests conducted on specimens of brine-saturated crushed WIPP salt, and nine shear consolidation and permeability tests performed on crushed WIPP salt specimens containing 3 percent brine by weight. For hydrostatic consolidation tests, pressures ranged from 1.72 MPa to 6.90 MPa. For the shear consolidation tests, confining pressures were between 3.45 MPa and 6.90 MPa and applied axial stress differences were between 0.69 and 4.14 MPa. All tests were run under drained conditions at 25 degrees C

  2. Mitigating the Health Risks of Stone Quarrying and Crushing in India ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    In Pratapura Industrial Area (Tikamgarh district, Bundelkhand region, Madhya ... In the context of weak regulatory enforcement, worksite health and safety measures are not ... involved in stone quarrying and crushing through better ecosystem management. ... et les défis futurs dans la communauté économique de l'ASEAN.

  3. Mitigating the Health Risks of Stone Quarrying and Crushing in India ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    In Pratapura Industrial Area (Tikamgarh district, Bundelkhand region, Madhya Pradesh), stone quarrying and crushing is carried out by labor-intensive units employing unskilled workers on a seasonal basis complementing the agricultural cycle. In the context of weak regulatory enforcement, worksite health and safety ...

  4. Cross-section crushing behaviour of hat-sections (Part II: Analytical modelling)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofmeyer, H.

    2005-01-01

    Hat-sections are often used to experimentally investigate building sheeting subject to a concentrated load and bending. In car doors, hat-sections are used for side-impact protection. Their crushing behaviour can partly be explained by only observing their cross-sectional behaviour [1]. This

  5. Sustainable normal and high strength recycled aggregate concretes using crushed tested cylinders as coarse aggregates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilal S. Hamad

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper reports on a research program that was designed at the American University of Beirut (AUB to investigate the fresh and hardened mechanical properties of a high performance concrete mix produced with partial or full substitution of crushed natural lime-stone aggregates with recycled aggregates from crushed tested cylinders in batching plants. Choosing crushed cylinders as source of recycling would result in reusing portion of the waste products of the concrete production industry. An extensive concrete batching and testing program was conducted to achieve two optimum normal and high strength concrete mixes. The variables were the nominal concrete strength (28 or 60 MPa and the percentage replacement of natural coarse aggregates with recycled aggregates from crushed tested cylinders (0, 20, 40, 60, 80, or 100%. Normal strength tested cylinders were used as source of the recycled aggregates for the normal strength concrete (NSC mix and high strength tested cylinders were used for the high strength concrete (HSC mix. Tests on the trial batches included plastic state slump and hardened state mechanical properties including cylinder compressive strength, cylinder splitting tensile strength, modulus of elasticity, and standard beams flexural strength. The results indicated no significant effect on the slump and around 10% average reduction in the hardened mechanical properties for both investigated levels of concrete compressive strength.

  6. Mitigating the Health Risks of Stone Quarrying and Crushing in India ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    In Pratapura Industrial Area (Tikamgarh district, Bundelkhand region, Madhya ... In the context of weak regulatory enforcement, worksite health and safety ... in stone quarrying and crushing through better ecosystem management. ... India, Central Asia, Far East Asia, South Asia ... LVIF announces five more funded projects.

  7. J. Crush and D.A. McDonald. (eds). 2002. Transnationalism and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    J. Crush and D.A. McDonald. (eds). 2002. Transnationalism and New African Immigration to South Africa. Cape Town. Southern African Migration Project and the Canadian Association of African Studies. IV + 188 pp. ISBN 0-88911-926-0.

  8. Use of waste crushed glass for the production of hot-mix asphalt

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Anochie-Boateng, Joseph

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available presents the development and evaluation of a new asphalt concrete mix that utilizes a sustainable crushed glass as a replacement material of a natural aggregate. The ultimate goal is to produce a cost-effective asphalt wearing course with comparative...

  9. The percentage of macrophage numbers in rat model of sciatic nerve crush injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satrio Wicaksono

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Excessive accumulation of macrophages in sciatic nerve fascicles inhibits regeneration of peripheral nerves. The aim of this study is to determine the percentage of the macrophages inside and outside of the fascicles at the proximal, at the site of injury and at the distal segment of rat model of sciatic nerve crush injury. Thirty male 3 months age Wistar rats of 200-230 g were divided into sham-operation group and crush injury group. Termination was performed on day 3, 7, and 14 after crush injury. Immunohistochemical examination was done using anti CD68 antibody. Counting of immunopositive and immunonegative cells was done on three representative fields for extrafascicular and intrafascicular area of proximal, injury and distal segments. The data was presented as percentage of immunopositive cells. The percentage of the macrophages was significantly increased in crush injury group compared to the sham-operated group in all segments of the peripheral nerves. While the percentage of macrophages outside fascicle in all segments of sciatic nerve and within the fascicle in the proximal segment reached its peak on day 3, the percentage of macrophages within the fascicles at the site of injury and distal segments reached the peak later at day 7. In conclusions, accumulation of macrophages outside the nerve fascicles occurs at the beginning of the injury, and then followed later by the accumulation of macrophages within nerve fascicles

  10. The crush and spray: a patented design for herbicide application with less waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherie LeBlanc Fisher; Adam H. Wiese

    2009-01-01

    The USDA Forest Service recently patented an equipment design to deliver herbicides more efficiently and cost-effectively. Towed by a standard all-terrain vehicle, the Crush and Spray can access out-of-the-way or wet locations. An adjustable roller first knocks down the unwanted plants. A low-set spray boom with wide angle sprayer nozzles then provides precise, close-...

  11. Axial Crush of the Tubular Structure with Various Cee-Shaped Cross-Sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afshar, Reza; Ali, Aidy; Sahari, B B; Bayat, M

    2011-01-01

    Tubular structure with various Cee-shaped cross sections is numerically investigated in order to find the centre of gravity (COG) under axial crush by using program code of ANSYS/LS-DYNA. A subroutine is developed using this code to obtain the COG of deformed shape, during and after crush deformation. The effect of wall thickness of the structure on displacement of COG is also studied. Subsequently, the effect of opening angle of Cee become more prominent as the wall thickness of the structure decreases and as the thickness increases, displacement of the COG in crush direction almost stabilizes for all opening angle of Cee in the range of (10 0 - 90 0 ). Furthermore, Variation of I yy of structure with thicker wall for different cases of applied weight is approximately identical. The value of mass moment of inertia with respect to X and Z axes through the model COG (I zx ) in comparison with I yy can be neglected in the case of axial crush along Y direction.

  12. EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH OF PROCESSING OF DUMP SAND-CLAY MIXES BY THE CENTRIFUGAL AND SHOCK CRUSHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Vorobev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Results of experimental research of processing of centrifugal and shock crushing of dump sandy-clay mixes are given. Use of products of processing of received mixes in foundry production and in production of asphalt concrete mixes allows to exclude transportation of the mix to dumping.

  13. An evaluation of multi-probe locality sensitive hashing for computing similarities over web-scale query logs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Cormode

    Full Text Available Many modern applications of AI such as web search, mobile browsing, image processing, and natural language processing rely on finding similar items from a large database of complex objects. Due to the very large scale of data involved (e.g., users' queries from commercial search engines, computing such near or nearest neighbors is a non-trivial task, as the computational cost grows significantly with the number of items. To address this challenge, we adopt Locality Sensitive Hashing (a.k.a, LSH methods and evaluate four variants in a distributed computing environment (specifically, Hadoop. We identify several optimizations which improve performance, suitable for deployment in very large scale settings. The experimental results demonstrate our variants of LSH achieve the robust performance with better recall compared with "vanilla" LSH, even when using the same amount of space.

  14. RANCANG BANGUN APLIKASI ANTIVIRUS KOMPUTER DENGAN MENGGUNAKAN METODE SECURE HASH ALGORITHM 1 (SHA1 DAN HEURISTIC STRING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Gusti Made Panji Indrawinatha

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Virus komputer merupakan perangkat lunak berbahaya yang dapat merusak data dan menggandakan diri pada sistem komputer. Untuk mendeteksi dan membersihkan virus dari sistem komputer, maka dibuatlah aplikasi antivirus. Dalam mendeteksi berbagai jenis virus sebuah aplikasi antivirus biasanya menggunakan beberapa metode. Pada penelitian ini akan membahas perancangan sebuah aplikasi antivirus menggunakan metode Secure Hash Algorithm 1 (SHA1 dan heuristic string sebagai metode pendeteksian virus. Dari pengujian yang dilakukan diperoleh hasil dimana saat tidak menggunakan heuristic, antivirus hanya mendeteksi 12 file dari 34 file sample virus atau memiliki tingkat akurasi pendeteksian sebesar 35%. sedangkan saat menggunakan heuristic, antivirus berhasil mendeteksi 31 file dari 34 file sample virus atau memiliki tingkat akurasi pendeteksian sebesar 91%.

  15. The Effects of Phrenic Nerve Degeneration by Axotomy and Crush on the Electrical Activities of Diaphragm Muscles of Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkiş, Mehmet Eşref; Kavak, Servet; Sayır, Fuat; Him, Aydin

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of axotomy and crush-related degeneration on the electrical activities of diaphragm muscle strips of experimental rats. In the present study, twenty-one male Wistar-albino rats were used and divided into three groups. The animals in the first group were not crushed or axotomized and served as controls. Phrenic nerves of the rats in the second and third groups were crushed or axotomized in the diaphragm muscle. Resting membrane potential (RMP) was decreased significantly in both crush and axotomy of diaphragm muscle strips of experimental rats (p phrenic nerves may produce electrical activities in the diaphragm muscle of the rat by depolarization time and half-repolarization time prolonged in crush and axotomy rats.

  16. Remaining porosity and permeability of compacted crushed rock salt backfill in a HLW repository. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jobmann, M.; Mueller, C.; Schirmer, S.

    2015-11-15

    The safe containment of radioactive waste is to be ensured by the geotechnical barriers in combination with the containment-providing rock zone (CRZ). The latter is a key element of the recently developed concept of demonstrating the integrity of the geologic barrier (Krone et al., 2013). As stipulated in the safety requirements of the regulating body the CRZ has to have strong barrier properties, and evidence needs to be provided that it retains its integrity throughout the reference period (BMU, 2010). The underground openings excavated in the rock salt will close over time due to the creep properties of the rock salt. This process causes deformations in the surrounding rock salt, which leads to a change in stress state in the virgin rock and may impair the integrity of the containment-providing rock zone. In order to limit the effects of these processes, all underground openings will be backfilled with crushed salt. Immediately after backfilling, the crushed salt will have an initial porosity of approx. 35%, which - over time - will be reduced to very low values due to the creep properties of the rock salt. The supporting pressure that builds up in the crushed salt with increasing compaction slows down the creeping of the salt. Major influencing factors are the temperature (with higher temperatures accelerating the salt creeping) and the moisture of the salt, which - due to the related decrease in the resistance of the crushed salt - facilitates its compaction. The phenomenology of these processes and dependencies is understood to a wide extent. This project investigated the duration until compaction is completed and when and under what circumstances the crushed salt will have the sealing properties necessary to ensure safe containment. Thermo-hydro-mechanical (THM) processes play a crucial role in determining whether solutions which might enter the mine could reach the radioactive waste. This includes changes in material behaviour due to a partial or complete

  17. UQlust: combining profile hashing with linear-time ranking for efficient clustering and analysis of big macromolecular data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczak, Rafal; Meller, Jarek

    2016-12-28

    Advances in computing have enabled current protein and RNA structure prediction and molecular simulation methods to dramatically increase their sampling of conformational spaces. The quickly growing number of experimentally resolved structures, and databases such as the Protein Data Bank, also implies large scale structural similarity analyses to retrieve and classify macromolecular data. Consequently, the computational cost of structure comparison and clustering for large sets of macromolecular structures has become a bottleneck that necessitates further algorithmic improvements and development of efficient software solutions. uQlust is a versatile and easy-to-use tool for ultrafast ranking and clustering of macromolecular structures. uQlust makes use of structural profiles of proteins and nucleic acids, while combining a linear-time algorithm for implicit comparison of all pairs of models with profile hashing to enable efficient clustering of large data sets with a low memory footprint. In addition to ranking and clustering of large sets of models of the same protein or RNA molecule, uQlust can also be used in conjunction with fragment-based profiles in order to cluster structures of arbitrary length. For example, hierarchical clustering of the entire PDB using profile hashing can be performed on a typical laptop, thus opening an avenue for structural explorations previously limited to dedicated resources. The uQlust package is freely available under the GNU General Public License at https://github.com/uQlust . uQlust represents a drastic reduction in the computational complexity and memory requirements with respect to existing clustering and model quality assessment methods for macromolecular structure analysis, while yielding results on par with traditional approaches for both proteins and RNAs.

  18. Mechanical and hydraulic behaviour of compacting crushed salt backfill at low porosities. Project REPOPERM. Phase 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroehn, Klaus-Peter; Czaikowski, Oliver; Wieczorek, Klaus; Zhang, Chun-Liang; Moog, Helge; Friedenberg, Larissa [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) gGmbH, Koeln (Germany); Stuehrenberg, Dieter; Heemann, Ulrich [Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe (BGR), Hannover (Germany); Jobmann, Michael; Mueller, Christian; Schirmer, Sonja [DBE Technology GmbH (DBE TEC), Peine (Germany)

    2017-02-15

    The compaction behavior of crushed salt has been extensively investigated by means of experimental as well as theoretical work. The readiness of numerical tools for the application to modeling the complex coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical processes in the crushed salt backfilled in a repository in salt rock has also been demonstrated. Compaction tests were performed under repository-relevant conditions. These tests were supplemented by laboratory work aiming at specific aspects of compaction. The following list covers the topics of these investigations as well as the main results. - Revisiting the determination of the porosity in relevant, past experiments (BGR). - Influence of the grain size distribution on compaction (BGR). - Triaxial compaction test with dry material at low porosities (BGR). - Investigation of the influence of humidity on compaction covers several subtopics. - Permeability associated with low porosity includes two subtopics. - Constitutive equations for two -phase flow (GRS). - Microstructural Investigations (DBE TEC). Parallel to the experimental work attention focussed on several aspects of the basics for modelling the compaction of crushed salt. This work covers checking the validity of the established numerical tools as well as exploring new methods. Topics and main results are listed here: - Development/definition and comparison of constitutive models (BGR). - Benchmark calculations (BGR and GRS). - Capability of scaling-rules for capillary pressure from the oil industry (GRS). - Application of discrete element codes to compacting crushed salt (DBE TEC). Finally, repository-relevant scenarios are discussed as a basis for a realistic but generic numerical model of brine inflow in to a converging back filled drift under a thermal gradient (GRS). This exercise demonstrates the feasibility of modelling crushed salt compaction as a fully coupled thermohydraulic-mechanical process including two-phase flow effects.

  19. Mechanical and hydraulic behaviour of compacting crushed salt backfill at low porosities. Project REPOPERM. Phase 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroehn, Klaus-Peter; Czaikowski, Oliver; Wieczorek, Klaus; Zhang, Chun-Liang; Moog, Helge; Friedenberg, Larissa; Stuehrenberg, Dieter; Heemann, Ulrich; Jobmann, Michael; Mueller, Christian; Schirmer, Sonja

    2017-02-01

    The compaction behavior of crushed salt has been extensively investigated by means of experimental as well as theoretical work. The readiness of numerical tools for the application to modeling the complex coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical processes in the crushed salt backfilled in a repository in salt rock has also been demonstrated. Compaction tests were performed under repository-relevant conditions. These tests were supplemented by laboratory work aiming at specific aspects of compaction. The following list covers the topics of these investigations as well as the main results. - Revisiting the determination of the porosity in relevant, past experiments (BGR). - Influence of the grain size distribution on compaction (BGR). - Triaxial compaction test with dry material at low porosities (BGR). - Investigation of the influence of humidity on compaction covers several subtopics. - Permeability associated with low porosity includes two subtopics. - Constitutive equations for two -phase flow (GRS). - Microstructural Investigations (DBE TEC). Parallel to the experimental work attention focussed on several aspects of the basics for modelling the compaction of crushed salt. This work covers checking the validity of the established numerical tools as well as exploring new methods. Topics and main results are listed here: - Development/definition and comparison of constitutive models (BGR). - Benchmark calculations (BGR and GRS). - Capability of scaling-rules for capillary pressure from the oil industry (GRS). - Application of discrete element codes to compacting crushed salt (DBE TEC). Finally, repository-relevant scenarios are discussed as a basis for a realistic but generic numerical model of brine inflow in to a converging back filled drift under a thermal gradient (GRS). This exercise demonstrates the feasibility of modelling crushed salt compaction as a fully coupled thermohydraulic-mechanical process including two-phase flow effects.

  20. Irreducible Fifth Metatarsophalangeal Joint after Car Crush Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkmensoy, Fatih; Erinc, Samet; Ergin, Omer Naci; Ozkan, Korhan; Kemah, Bahattin

    2015-01-01

    Metatarsophalangeal joint dislocations are uncommon injuries. Herein, an irreducible dislocation of fifth metatarsophalangeal joint with fractures on the second, third, and fourth metatarsal head was reported. Joint reduction could not be achieved which necessitated open reduction. Six months after surgery the patient was walking and doing his daily activities without any complaints. He had returned to his pretrauma functional level. PMID:25861501

  1. Irreducible Fifth Metatarsophalangeal Joint after Car Crush Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Turkmensoy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Metatarsophalangeal joint dislocations are uncommon injuries. Herein, an irreducible dislocation of fifth metatarsophalangeal joint with fractures on the second, third, and fourth metatarsal head was reported. Joint reduction could not be achieved which necessitated open reduction. Six months after surgery the patient was walking and doing his daily activities without any complaints. He had returned to his pretrauma functional level.

  2. Crushed tablets: does the administration of food vehicles and thickened fluids to aid medication swallowing alter drug release?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manrique, Yady J; Lee, Danielle J; Islam, Faiza; Nissen, Lisa M; Cichero, Julie A Y; Stokes, Jason R; Steadman, Kathryn J

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the influence of co-administered vehicles on in vitro dissolution in simulated gastric fluid of crushed immediate release tablets as an indicator for potential drug bioavailability compromise. Release and dissolution of crushed amlodipine, atenolol, carbamazepine and warfarin tablets were tested with six foods and drinks that are frequently used in the clinical setting as mixers for crushed medications (water, orange juice, honey, yoghurt, strawberry jam and water thickened with Easythick powder) in comparison to whole tablets. Five commercial thickening agents (Easythick Advanced, Janbak F, Karicare, Nutilis, Viscaid) at three thickness levels were tested for their effect on the dissolution of crushed atenolol tablets. Atenolol dissolution was unaffected by mixing crushed tablets with thin fluids or food mixers in comparison to whole tablets or crushed tablets in water, but amlodipine was delayed by mixing with jam. Mixing crushed warfarin and carbamazepine tablets with honey, jam or yoghurt caused them to resemble the slow dissolution of whole tablets rather than the faster dissolution of crushed tablets in water or orange juice. Crushing and mixing any of the four medications with thickened water caused a significant delay in dissolution. When tested with atenolol, all types of thickening agents at the greatest thickness significantly restricted dissolution, and products that are primarily based on xanthan gum also delayed dissolution at the intermediate thickness level. Dissolution testing, while simplistic, is a widely used and accepted method for comparing drug release from different formulations as an indicator for in vivo bioavailability. Thickened fluids have the potential to retard drug dissolution when used at the thickest levels. These findings highlight potential clinical implications of the addition of these agents to medications for the purpose of dose delivery and indicate that further investigation of thickened fluids and their

  3. Adaptation of oral medication in people institutionalized in nursing homes for whom medication is crushed: The ADECUA Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Apolo Carvajal

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the effect of pharmacist interventions in the adaptation of pharmaceutical forms in elders institutionalized in nursing homes whose medicines are crushed, which may have a clinical relevance. Methods: Quasi-experimental, multicenter, transversal and prospective study carried out in 10 nursing homes. Subjects for whom drugs were being crushed were identified. Their treatments were reviewed in order to identify drugs that should not be crushed. In these cases, we proposed an alternative to the physician and we evaluated the degree of acceptance, its association to other variables and the pre-post adaptation index (tablets that can be crushed and capsules that can be opened/ total number of tablets and capsules before and after the intervention. Moreover, health professionals received a training course. Results: Medication was being crushed for 33% (618/1875 of residents (mean: 5 drugs susceptible of crushing. 220 pharmaceutical interventions were performed, mostly in extended release or gastro-resistant drugs (48% were accepted. Switch was the type of intervention more frequent (79%, mainly to Purpose: To evaluate the effect of pharmacist interventions in the adaptation of pharmaceutical forms in elders institutionalized in nursing homes whose medicines are crushed, which may have a clinical relevance. Methods: Quasi-experimental, multicenter, transversal and prospective study carried out in 10 nursing homes. Subjects for whom drugs were being crushed were identified. Their treatments were reviewed in order to identify drugs that should not be crushed. In these cases, we proposed an alternative to the physician and we evaluated the degree of acceptance, its association to other variables and the pre-post adaptation index (tablets that can be crushed and capsules that can be opened/ total number of tablets and capsules before and after the intervention. Moreover, health professionals received a training course. Results

  4. Evaluation of steel slag and crushed limestone mixtures as subbase material in flexible pavement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Ebrahim Abu El-Maaty Behiry

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Steel slag is produced as a by-product during the oxidation of steel pellets in an electric arc furnace. This by-product that mainly consists of calcium carbonate is broken down to smaller sizes to be used as aggregates in pavement layers. They are particularly useful in areas where a good-quality aggregate is scarce. This research study was conducted to evaluate the effect of quantity of steel slag on the mechanical properties of blended mixes with crushed limestone aggregates, which used as subbase material in Egypt. Moreover, a theoretical analysis was employed to estimate the resistance for failure factors such as vertical deformations, vertical and radial stresses and vertical strains of subbase under overweight trucks loads. These loads cause severe deterioration to the pavement and thus reduce its life. The results indicated that the mechanical characteristics, and the resistance factors were improved by adding steel slag to the crushed limestone.

  5. Study of the fracture behavior of mortar and concretes with crushed rock or pebble aggregates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastião Ribeiro

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to compare the fracture energy of mortar and concretes produced with crushed rock and pebble aggregates using zero, 10, 20, 30 and 40% of aggregates mixed with standard mortar and applying the wedge splitting method to achieve stable crack propagation. The samples were cast in a special mold and cured for 28 days, after which they were subjected to crack propagation tests by the wedge splitting method to determine the fracture energies of the mortar and concrete. The concretes showed higher fracture energy than the mortar, and the concretes containing crushed rock showed higher resistance to crack propagation than all the compositions containing pebbles. The fracture energy varied from 38 to 55 J.m-2. A comparison of the number of aggregates that separated from the two concrete matrices with the highest fracture energies indicated that the concrete containing pebbles crumbled more easily and was therefore less resistant to crack propagation.

  6. Effect of shape and surface texture of aggregates during high intensity vertical shaft impact autogeneous crushing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samayamutthirian Palaniandy; Khairun Azizi Mohd Azizli

    2002-01-01

    The demand for quarry industry to produce high quality aggregates is increasing parallel with the demand of high strength concrete. Focus on the high quality aggregates production is very essential as 70% of the concrete consist of aggregates. High quality aggregate is characterised according to its shape, surface texture and its size distribution. The cubical and more equidimensional aggregates are characterised as high quality aggregates. Besides photomicrograph of aggregates, Flakiness and Elongation indices are important empirical measurements to determine the quality of the aggregates. The Barmac Rock On Rock Vertical Shaft Impactor proved that the shape of the aggregates can be improved by various crushing mechanisms as the EI and FI values were low and 75% of the cubical particles were observed in the crushed aggregates. (Author)

  7. IMPACT OF ROCK HARDNESS ON FRAGMENTATION BY HYDRAULIC HAMMER AND CRUSHING IN JAW CRUSHER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trpimir Kujundžić

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The physical and mechanical characteristics of intact rocks depend on the way of their formation, sustained deformations and the process of wearing a specific rock has been exposed to. These characteristics have a rather high influence on the technological process of extraction and dressing of mineral raw materials. However, the mechanical characteristics of rocks due to use of explosives for their extraction in the open pit have a more significant impact. The rock blocks extracted by blasting which are larger than the opening of the primary crusher are usually fragmented by hydraulic hammer. The paper presents the results of the testing of impact of rock hardness on fragmentation of rocks by means of hydraulic hammer and during crushing in jaw crusher. The testing was carried out on the rock samples from five quarries. According to the obtained results the hardness has a considerably larger impact on the fragmentation energy by hydraulic hammer than on the crushing energy in jaw crusher.

  8. Concrete manufactured with crushed asphalt as partial replacement of natural aggregates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Coppola

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the reuse of crushed asphalt (GA as a partial replacement (up to 20% of natural aggregates for concrete manufacture. Addition of GA aggregates produced a positive effect on workability loss. The GA mixes, however, showed a significant tendency to bleed and segregate at the highest replacement percentage applied. GA led to a decrease of compressive strength in concrete (with respect to that of the reference concrete up to 50% due to the weakness of the cement paste / recycled aggregate interface. To compensate for this negative effect, a reduction of w/c for the GA concretes was necessary. A decrease of w/c allowed the GA concretes to show drying shrinkage values substantially similar to those of reference concrete with the same cement factor. The experimental results confirmed the possibility of partial substitution (max. 15% of natural aggregates with crushed asphalt for making concrete.

  9. A study on the crushing behavior of basalt fiber reinforced composite structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandian, A.; Veerasimman, A. P.; Vairavan, M.; Francisco, C.; Sultan, M. T. H.

    2016-10-01

    The crushing behavior and energy absorption capacity of basalt fiber reinforced hollow square structure composites are studied under axial compression. Using the hand layup technique, basalt fiber reinforced composites were fabricated using general purpose (GP) polyester resin with the help of wooden square shaped mould of varying height (100 mm, 150 mm and 200 mm). For comparison, similar specimens of glass fiber reinforced polymer composites were also fabricated and tested. Axial compression load is applied over the top end of the specimen with cross head speed as 2 mm/min using Universal Testing Machine (UTM). From the experimental results, the load-deformation characteristics of both glass fiber and basalt fiber composites were investigated. Crashworthiness and mode of collapse for the composites were determined from load-deformation curve, and they were then compared to each other in terms of their crushing behaviors.

  10. GATHERING TECHNOLOGY BASED ON REGEX WEB PAGE DENOISING HASH ALIGNMENTS WEB CRAWLER WITHOUT LANDING THE MICRO - BLOG ABUNDANT%基于 Regex 网页去噪 Hash 比对的网络爬虫无登陆微博采集技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈宇; 孟凡龙; 刘培玉; 朱振方

    2015-01-01

    针对当前微博采集无精确去噪方法和微博无法无登陆采集现象,笔者提出了基于 Regex 网页去噪 Hash 对比的网络爬虫采集方案并利用插件采集实现了无登陆采集。该方法通过 Regex 构建 DFA 和 NFA 模型来去除网页噪声,通过 Hash 对比对确定采集页面,并通过插件权限提升实现无登陆技术。有效的避免了 Hash 值的变化与网页内容变化产生偏离的现象,解决了网络爬虫虚拟登录时多次对 URL 采集造成的身份认证问题。实验表明,该方法可以实时快速的获取微博信息,为舆情数据分析提供批量精准的数据。%In view of the current micro - blog acquisition without accurate denoising method and unable abundantly the non - debarkation gathering phenomenon,we present a web crawler acquisition scheme of Regex Webpage denoising Hash based on comparison and realize no landing collection by using plug - in acquisition. The method of Regex to construct DFA and NFA model to remove Webpage noise,comparing the Hash to determine the collection page,and the plug - in privilege without landing techniques are presented. Experiments show that,this method quickly gets micro - blog information in real time,and provides,accurate data for the mass public opinion data analysis.

  11. Bench-scale experimental determination of the thermal diffusivity of crushed tuff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryder, E.E.; Finley, R.E.; George, J.T.; Ho, C.K.; Longenbaugh, R.S.; Connolly, J.R.

    1996-06-01

    A bench-scale experiment was designed and constructed to determine the effective thermal diffusivity of crushed tuff. Crushed tuff particles ranging from 12.5 mm to 37.5 mm (0.5 in. to 1.5 in.) were used to fill a cylindrical volume of 1.58 m 3 at an effective porosity of 0.48. Two iterations of the experiment were completed; the first spanning approximately 502 hours and the second 237 hours. Temperatures near the axial heater reached 700 degrees C, with a significant volume of the test bed exceeding 100 degrees C. Three post-test analysis techniques were used to estimate the thermal diffusivity of the crushed tuff. The first approach used nonlinear parameter estimation linked to a one dimensional radial conduction model to estimate thermal diffusivity from the first 6 hours of test data. The second method used the multiphase TOUGH2 code in conjunction with the first 20 hours of test data not only to estimate the crushed tuffs thermal diffusivity, but also to explore convective behavior within the test bed. Finally, the nonlinear conduction code COYOTE-II was used to determine thermal properties based on 111 hours of cool-down data. The post-test thermal diffusivity estimates of 5.0 x 10-7 m 2 /s to 6.6 x 10-7 m 2 /s were converted to effective thermal conductivities and compared to estimates obtained from published porosity-based relationships. No obvious match between the experimental data and published relationships was found to exist; however, additional data for other particle sizes and porosities are needed

  12. Mix proportioning and performance of a crushed limestone sand-concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Makhloufi Zoubir; Bouziani Tayeb; Bédérina Madani; Hadjoudja Mourad

    2014-01-01

    Satisfying the ever-growing demand of concrete aggregates poses a problem in many parts of the world due to shortage of natural sand. Moreover, to conserve natural resources and protect civil engineering infrastructures, there is a need to find alternative materials. Crushed stone sand has been identified as a potential substitute material for natural sand in making good quality concrete. The main objective of the present investigation is to determine an adequate mix design method and evaluat...

  13. Discrete element modeling of cemented sand and particle crushing at high pressures

    OpenAIRE

    de Bono, John Patrick

    2013-01-01

    This project aims to provide an insight into the behaviour of cemented sand under high pressures, and to further the understanding of the role of particle crushing. The discrete element method is used to investigate the micro mechanics of sand and cemented sand in high-pressure triaxial tests and one-dimensional normal compression. Using the software PFC3D, a new triaxial model has been developed, which features an effective flexible membrane that allows free deformation of the specimen ...

  14. Effect of crumb rubber on the mechanical properties of crushed recycled pavement materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Saberian, Mohammad; Nguyen, Bao Thach

    2018-07-15

    The low-carbon footprint of using recycled construction and demolition (C&D) aggregates in civil engineering infrastructure applications has been considered to be a significant solution for the replacement of conventional pavement aggregates. Investigations regarding the use of crumb rubber in the base and subbase layers of pavement have been well documented. However, information on the effects of crumb rubber and its size within C&D aggregates as the base/subbase layers is still very limited. In this study, crumb rubber with particle sizes ranging from 400 to 600 μm (fine) to 10-15 mm (coarse), 20 mm recycled crushed concrete (RCC), and 20 mm crushed rock (CR) were used. The crumb rubber was added to the two groups of C&D aggregates at 0.5, 1 and 2% by weight percentages of the aggregates. The effect of crumb rubber on the mechanical properties (such as California bearing ratio, unconfined compressive strength, aggregate crushing value, dynamic lightweight cone penetrometer, Clegg impact value, Los Angeles abrasion values, and resilient modulus) of the C&D aggregates was then examined. Based on the experimental test results, it was found that crumb rubber can be recycled as a waste material for the base and subbase layers in the pavement. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Early myelin breakdown following sural nerve crush: a freeze-fracture study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinez A.M.B.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study we describe the early changes of the myelin sheath following surgical nerve crush. We used the freeze-fracture technique to better evaluate myelin alterations during an early stage of Wallerian degeneration. Rat sural nerves were experimentally crushed and animals were sacrificed by transcardiac perfusion 30 h after surgery. Segments of the nerves were processed for routine transmission electron microscopy and freeze-fracture techniques. Our results show that 30 h after the lesion there was asynchrony in the pattern of Wallerian degeneration, with different nerve fibers exhibiting variable degrees of axon disruption. This was observed by both techniques. Careful examination of several replicas revealed early changes in myelin membranes represented by vacuolization and splitting of consecutive lamellae, rearrangement of intramembranous particles and disappearance of paranodal transverse bands associated or not with retraction of paranodal myelin terminal loops from the axolemma. These alterations are compatible with a direct injury to the myelin sheath following nerve crush. The results are discussed in terms of a similar mechanism underlying both axon and myelin breakdown.

  16. Crushing Candy: The Free-to-Play Game in Its Connective Commodity Form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David B. Nieborg

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this article is to add a complementary perspective to the study of social network sites by surveying how the political economy of social media platforms relates to the structure of free-to-play games in their commodity form. Drawing on the theory of multisided markets and critical political economy, this article surveys the political economy of game apps and investigates how it is symbiotically related to the technological and economic logic underlying connective platforms operated by Google, Apple, Facebook, and Amazon. These social media platforms operate app stores that sustain the transformation of games as fixed, physically distributed products that follow a transaction logic, into digitally distributed, freely accessible, or “free-to-play” apps. Through a case study of the popular casual game Candy Crush Saga it is contended that the connective properties of social media platforms affect the form and format of game apps as cultural commodities. Candy Crush Saga developer King Digital Entertainment has been able to attract hundreds of millions of players and build a business model that combines the commodification of virtual items, connectivity, user attention, user data, and play. It is argued that the free-to-play commodity form comprises three commodity types: the product commodity, the “prosumer commodity,” and the player commodity. Furthermore, Candy Crush Saga ’s commodity form is structured by a platformed modality of cultural production and circulation and therefore embedded in the political economy of its host platform.

  17. Analysis of the crush environment for lightweight air-transportable accident-resistant containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClure, J.D.; Hartman, W.F.

    1981-12-01

    This report describes the longitudinal dynamic crush environment for a Lightweight Air-Transportable Accident-Resistant Container (LAARC, now called PAT-2) that can be used to transport small quantities of radioactive material. The analysis of the crush environment involves evaluation of the forces imposed upon the LAARC package during the crash of a large, heavily loaded, cargo aircraft. To perform the analysis, a cargo load column was defined which consisted of a longitudinal prism of cargo of cross-sectional area equal to the projected area of the radioactive-material package and length equal to the longitudinal extent of the cargo compartment in a commercial cargo jet aircraft. To bound the problem, two analyses of the cargo load column were performed, a static stability analysis and a dynamic analysis. The results of these analyses can be applied to other packaging designs and suggest that the physical limits or magnitude of the longitudinal crush forces, which are controlled in part by the yield strength of the cargo and the package size, are much smaller than previously estimated

  18. Cement Type Influence on Alkali-Silica Reaction in Concrete with Crushed Gravel Aggregate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkauskas, A.; Nagrockienė, D.; Skripkiūnas, G.

    2017-10-01

    Alkali-silica reaction is one of the chemical reactions which have a significant influence for durability of concrete. During alkali and silica reaction, silicon located in aggregates of the concrete, reacts with high alkali content. This way in the micropores of concrete is forming hygroscopic gel, which at wet environment, expanding and slowly but strongly destroying concrete structures. The goal of this paper- to determine the influence of cement type on alkali-silica reaction of mortars with crushed gravel. In the study crushed gravel with fraction 4/16 mm was used and four types of cements tested: CEM I 42.5 R; CEM I 42.5 SR; CEM II/A-S 42.5; CEM II/A-V 52.5. This study showed that crushed gravel is low contaminated on reactive particles containing of amorphous silica dioxide. The expansion after 14 days exceed 0.054 %, by RILEM AAR-2 research methodology (testing specimen dimension 40×40×160 mm). Continuing the investigation to 56 days for all specimens occurred alkaline corrosion features: microcracking and the surface plaque of gel. The results showed that the best resistance to alkaline corrosion after 14 days was obtained with cement CEM I 42.5 SR containing ash additive, and after 56 days with cement CEM II/A-V 52.5 containing low alkali content. The highest expansion after 14 and 56 days was obtained with cement CEM I 42.5 R without active mineral additives.

  19. An Optic Nerve Crush Injury Murine Model to Study Retinal Ganglion Cell Survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zhongshu; Zhang, Shuihua; Lee, Chunsik; Kumar, Anil; Arjunan, Pachiappan; Li, Yang; Zhang, Fan; Li, Xuri

    2011-01-01

    Injury to the optic nerve can lead to axonal degeneration, followed by a gradual death of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), which results in irreversible vision loss. Examples of such diseases in human include traumatic optic neuropathy and optic nerve degeneration in glaucoma. It is characterized by typical changes in the optic nerve head, progressive optic nerve degeneration, and loss of retinal ganglion cells, if uncontrolled, leading to vision loss and blindness. The optic nerve crush (ONC) injury mouse model is an important experimental disease model for traumatic optic neuropathy, glaucoma, etc. In this model, the crush injury to the optic nerve leads to gradual retinal ganglion cells apoptosis. This disease model can be used to study the general processes and mechanisms of neuronal death and survival, which is essential for the development of therapeutic measures. In addition, pharmacological and molecular approaches can be used in this model to identify and test potential therapeutic reagents to treat different types of optic neuropathy. Here, we provide a step by step demonstration of (I) Baseline retrograde labeling of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) at day 1, (II) Optic nerve crush injury at day 4, (III) Harvest the retinae and analyze RGC survival at day 11, and (IV) Representative result. PMID:21540827

  20. Evaluation of using crushed brick as coarse aggregate in concrete layer within rigid highway pavement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alwash Ali

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Most of the present studies related to the field of highway pavement construction technique tend to make use of the local available materials as substitutes for the imported and necessary materials for some of the practical application. For this reason this research aims at looking for the prospect of used locally available aggregate such as crushed clay bricks for the aim of producing proper concrete with suitable thermal and mechanical properties. Experimental investigations have been carried out to asses the effect of partial replacement of coarse aggregate by free manually crushed Brick with percentages (10, 20, 30 and 40% of virgin coarse aggregate in concrete mix for highway rigid pavement. While the percentage (0% replacement represent reference mix. Mix proportion based on the target of compressive strength for all replacement percentage of (33 MPa at (28 days to achieve AASHTO requirement for highway concrete rigid pavement .The results of flexural strength, modulus of elasticity, density and thermal conductivity refers to better performance (less thickness of concrete layer with large spacing between contraction or expansion joints and less stresses due to warping induced concrete layer for concrete mix with 20% crushed brick as replacement of coarse aggregate.

  1. Carpal tunnel syndrome and the "double crush" hypothesis: a review and implications for chiropractic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell Brent S

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Upton and McComas claimed that most patients with carpal tunnel syndrome not only have compressive lesions at the wrist, but also show evidence of damage to cervical nerve roots. This "double crush" hypothesis has gained some popularity among chiropractors because it seems to provide a rationale for adjusting the cervical spine in treating carpal tunnel syndrome. Here I examine use of the concept by chiropractors, summarize findings from the literature, and critique several studies aimed at supporting or refuting the hypothesis. Although the hypothesis also has been applied to nerve compressions other than those leading to carpal tunnel syndrome, this discussion mainly examines the original application – "double crush" involving both cervical spinal nerve roots and the carpal tunnel. I consider several categories: experiments to create double crush syndrome in animals, case reports, literature reviews, and alternatives to the original hypothesis. A significant percentage of patients with carpal tunnel syndrome also have neck pain or cervical nerve root compression, but the relationship has not been definitively explained. The original hypothesis remains controversial and is probably not valid, at least for sensory disturbances, in carpal tunnel syndrome. However, even if the original hypothesis is importantly flawed, evaluation of multiple sites still may be valuable. The chiropractic profession should develop theoretical models to relate cervical dysfunction to carpal tunnel syndrome, and might incorporate some alternatives to the original hypothesis. I intend this review as a starting point for practitioners, educators, and students wishing to advance chiropractic concepts in this area.

  2. Analysis of the engine fragment threat and the crush environment for small packages carried on U.S. commercial jet aircraft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartman, W.F.; McClure, J.D.; von Riesemann, W.A.

    1978-01-01

    The results of two separate analyses are reported. The engine fragment analysis determined the probability of a small package being in the path of a fragment from a failure in a gas turbine engine. The calculated values show that, depending on aircraft type, the incidence rate varies by approximately an order of magnitude from a high of about once per 5 million flights to a low of nearly once every 40 million package flights for a flight of five hours' duration. The analysis of the crush environment consisted of an examination of two principal crush modes, i.e., vertical and longitudinal crush. The vertical crush mode was examined by formulating a structural model of the cargo deck beams of the aircraft. The longitudinal crush mode was studied by using dynamic models of the aircraft cargo and the radioactive material package (RAM). The results of the analysis of these crush modes provided the basis for the formulation of a 310 kN/(70,000 lb) crush test to simulate vertical crush. The longitudinal crush analysis indicated that it was possible, under infrequently occurring conditions, to produce extremely large crush forces and hence it was recommended that RAM packages be located in the aft end of aircraft cargo compartments to minimize the effects of longitudinal crush

  3. Treatment of solid waste highly contaminated by alpha emitters: Low-temperature impact crushing, leaching and incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertolotti, G.; Vigreux, B.; Caillol, A.; Koehly, G.

    1987-01-01

    Reprocessing plants, hot laboratories and fuel fabrication plants produce solid wastes containing residual amounts of plutonium and uranium in nitrate and oxide form at concentrations up to several tens of grams per m/sup 3/. Dismantling of nuclear facilities having handled these radioelements also generates large volumes of solid wastes highly contaminated with alpha emitters. It is desirable to process these alpha wastes to recover valuable fissile materials and/or permit surface storage. Solid waste treatment by low-temperature impact crushing and then leaching, after minimal sorting and classifying at the sites of production, meets the corresponding requirements for high volume reduction plus fissile material recovery or waste decontamination. Additional volume reduction of crushed wastes containing mainly combustible materials can be obtained by incineration. This is facilitated by the low fissile material content after low-temperature impact crushing and leaching. Sorted wastes can also be leached or incinerated directly after, in most cases, crushing by more conventional techniques

  4. Treatment of solid waste highly contaminated by alpha emitters low-temperature impact crushing/leaching and incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpentier, S.; Bertolotti, G.

    1986-01-01

    Reprocessing plants, hot laboratories, fuel fabrication plants all produce waste containing residual quantities of plutonium and uranium in oxide form which often reach some tens of grammes per m 3 . Appropriate treatment recovers an appreciable amount of fissile material, which could lead to the waste being declassified and able to be disposed of in near ground-level facilities. After a summary sorting at production level, waste can be sent to a low-temperature impact crushing/leaching unit which considerably reduces volumes to be stored. We call this process cryo-crushing/leaching. For burnable crushed particles, a further volume reduction may be obtained by incineration, an operation which is made easier by the low fissile material residue content. Incineration can, of course also be applied directly to burnable solid waste sorted at source and crushed following more conventional methods [fr

  5. Escalated regeneration in sciatic nerve crush injury by the combined therapy of human amniotic fluid mesenchymal stem cells and fermented soybean extracts, Natto.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Hung-Chuan; Yang, Dar-Yu; Ho, Shu-Peng; Sheu, Meei-Ling; Chen, Chung-Jung; Hwang, Shiaw-Min; Chang, Ming-Hong; Cheng, Fu-Chou

    2009-08-23

    Attenuation of inflammatory cell deposits and associated cytokines prevented the apoptosis of transplanted stem cells in a sciatic nerve crush injury model. Suppression of inflammatory cytokines by fermented soybean extracts (Natto) was also beneficial to nerve regeneration. In this study, the effect of Natto on transplanted human amniotic fluid mesenchymal stem cells (AFS) was evaluated. Peripheral nerve injury was induced in SD rats by crushing a sciatic nerve using a vessel clamp. Animals were categorized into four groups: Group I: no treatment; Group II: fed with Natto (16 mg/day for 7 consecutive days); Group III: AFS embedded in fibrin glue; Group IV: Combination of group II and III therapy. Transplanted AFS and Schwann cell apoptosis, inflammatory cell deposits and associated cytokines, motor function, and nerve regeneration were evaluated 7 or 28 days after injury. The deterioration of neurological function was attenuated by AFS, Natto, or the combined therapy. The combined therapy caused the most significantly beneficial effects. Administration of Natto suppressed the inflammatory responses and correlated with decreased AFS and Schwann cell apoptosis. The decreased AFS apoptosis was in line with neurological improvement such as expression of early regeneration marker of neurofilament and late markers of S-100 and decreased vacuole formation. Administration of either AFS, or Natto, or combined therapy augmented the nerve regeneration. In conclusion, administration of Natto may rescue the AFS and Schwann cells from apoptosis by suppressing the macrophage deposits, associated inflammatory cytokines, and fibrin deposits.

  6. Escalated regeneration in sciatic nerve crush injury by the combined therapy of human amniotic fluid mesenchymal stem cells and fermented soybean extracts, Natto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan Hung-Chuan

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Attenuation of inflammatory cell deposits and associated cytokines prevented the apoptosis of transplanted stem cells in a sciatic nerve crush injury model. Suppression of inflammatory cytokines by fermented soybean extracts (Natto was also beneficial to nerve regeneration. In this study, the effect of Natto on transplanted human amniotic fluid mesenchymal stem cells (AFS was evaluated. Peripheral nerve injury was induced in SD rats by crushing a sciatic nerve using a vessel clamp. Animals were categorized into four groups: Group I: no treatment; Group II: fed with Natto (16 mg/day for 7 consecutive days; Group III: AFS embedded in fibrin glue; Group IV: Combination of group II and III therapy. Transplanted AFS and Schwann cell apoptosis, inflammatory cell deposits and associated cytokines, motor function, and nerve regeneration were evaluated 7 or 28 days after injury. The deterioration of neurological function was attenuated by AFS, Natto, or the combined therapy. The combined therapy caused the most significantly beneficial effects. Administration of Natto suppressed the inflammatory responses and correlated with decreased AFS and Schwann cell apoptosis. The decreased AFS apoptosis was in line with neurological improvement such as expression of early regeneration marker of neurofilament and late markers of S-100 and decreased vacuole formation. Administration of either AFS, or Natto, or combined therapy augmented the nerve regeneration. In conclusion, administration of Natto may rescue the AFS and Schwann cells from apoptosis by suppressing the macrophage deposits, associated inflammatory cytokines, and fibrin deposits.

  7. Degeneration and regeneration of motor and sensory nerves: a stereological study of crush lesions in rat facial and mental nerves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barghash, Z; Larsen, J O; Al-Bishri, A; Kahnberg, K-E

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the degeneration and regeneration of a sensory nerve and a motor nerve at the histological level after a crush injury. Twenty-five female Wistar rats had their mental nerve and the buccal branch of their facial nerve compressed unilaterally against a glass rod for 30s. Specimens of the compressed nerves and the corresponding control nerves were dissected at 3, 7, and 19 days after surgery. Nerve cross-sections were stained with osmium tetroxide and toluidine blue and analysed using two-dimensional stereology. We found differences between the two nerves both in the normal anatomy and in the regenerative pattern. The mental nerve had a larger cross-sectional area including all tissue components. The mental nerve had a larger volume fraction of myelinated axons and a correspondingly smaller volume fraction of endoneurium. No differences were observed in the degenerative pattern; however, at day 19 the buccal branch had regenerated to the normal number of axons, whereas the mental nerve had only regained 50% of the normal number of axons. We conclude that the regenerative process is faster and/or more complete in the facial nerve (motor function) than it is in the mental nerve (somatosensory function). Copyright © 2013 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A local isotropic/global orthotropic finite element technique for modeling the crush of wood in impact limiters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attaway, S.W.; Yoshimura, H.R.

    1989-01-01

    Wood is often used as the energy absorbing material in impact limiters, because it begins to crush at low strains, then maintains a near constant crush stress up to nearly 60% volume reduction, and then locks up. Hill (Hill and Joseph, 1974) has performed tests that show that wood is an excellent absorber. However, wood's orthotropic behavior for large crush is difficult to model. In the past, analysts have used isotropic foam-like material models for modeling wood. A new finite element technique is presented in this paper that gives a better model of wood crush than the model currently in use. The orthotropic technique is based on locally isotropic, but globally orthotropic (LIGO) (Attaway, 1988) assumptions in which alternating layers of hard and soft crushable material are used. Each layer is isotropic; however, by alternating hard and soft thin layers, the resulting global behavior is orthotropic. In the remainder of this paper, the new technique for modeling orthotropic wood crush will be presented. The model is used to predict the crush behavior for different grain orientations of balsa wood. As an example problem, an impact limiter containing balsa wood as the crushable material is analyzed using both an isotropic model and the LIGO model

  9. Development of a cellulose-based insulating composite material for green buildings: Case of treated organic waste (paper, cardboard, hash)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouargui, Ahmed; Belouaggadia, Naoual; Elbouari, Abdeslam; Ezzine, Mohammed

    2018-05-01

    Buildings are responsible for 36% of the final energy consumption in Morocco [1-2], and a reduction of this energy consumption of buildings is a priority for the kingdom in order to reach its energy saving goals. One of the most effective actions to reduce energy consumption is the selection and development of innovative and efficient building materials [3]. In this work, we present an experimental study of the effect of adding treated organic waste (paper, cardboard, hash) on mechanical and thermal properties of cement and clay bricks. Thermal conductivity, specific heat and mechanical resistance were investigated in terms of content and size additives. Soaking time and drying temperature were also taken into account. The results reveal that thermal conductivity decreases as well in the case of the paper-cement mixture as that of the paper-clay and seems to stabilize around 40%. In the case of the composite paper-cement, it is found that, for an additives quantity exceeding 15%, the compressive strength exceeds the standard for the hollow non-load bearing masonry. However, the case of paper-clay mixture seems to give more interesting results, related to the compressive strength, for a mass composition of 15% in paper. Given the positive results achieved, it seems possible to use these composites for the construction of walls, ceilings and roofs of housing while minimizing the energy consumption of the building.

  10. GSHR-Tree: a spatial index tree based on dynamic spatial slot and hash table in grid environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhanlong; Wu, Xin-cai; Wu, Liang

    2008-12-01

    Computation Grids enable the coordinated sharing of large-scale distributed heterogeneous computing resources that can be used to solve computationally intensive problems in science, engineering, and commerce. Grid spatial applications are made possible by high-speed networks and a new generation of Grid middleware that resides between networks and traditional GIS applications. The integration of the multi-sources and heterogeneous spatial information and the management of the distributed spatial resources and the sharing and cooperative of the spatial data and Grid services are the key problems to resolve in the development of the Grid GIS. The performance of the spatial index mechanism is the key technology of the Grid GIS and spatial database affects the holistic performance of the GIS in Grid Environments. In order to improve the efficiency of parallel processing of a spatial mass data under the distributed parallel computing grid environment, this paper presents a new grid slot hash parallel spatial index GSHR-Tree structure established in the parallel spatial indexing mechanism. Based on the hash table and dynamic spatial slot, this paper has improved the structure of the classical parallel R tree index. The GSHR-Tree index makes full use of the good qualities of R-Tree and hash data structure. This paper has constructed a new parallel spatial index that can meet the needs of parallel grid computing about the magnanimous spatial data in the distributed network. This arithmetic splits space in to multi-slots by multiplying and reverting and maps these slots to sites in distributed and parallel system. Each sites constructs the spatial objects in its spatial slot into an R tree. On the basis of this tree structure, the index data was distributed among multiple nodes in the grid networks by using large node R-tree method. The unbalance during process can be quickly adjusted by means of a dynamical adjusting algorithm. This tree structure has considered the

  11. Baseline effects of lysophosphatidylcholine and nerve growth factor in a rat model of sciatic nerve regeneration after crush injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan L Wood

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Schwann cells play a major role in helping heal injured nerves. They help clear debris, produce neurotrophins, upregulate neurotrophin receptors, and form bands of Büngner to guide the healing nerve. But nerves do not always produce enough neurotrophins and neurotrophin receptors to repair themselves. Nerve growth factor (NGF is an important neurotrophin for promoting nerve healing and lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC has been shown to stimulate NGF receptors (NGFR. This study tested the administration of a single intraneural injection of LPC (1 mg/mL for single LPC injection and 10 mg/mL for multiple LPC injections at day 0 and one (day 7, two (days 5 and 7, or three (days 5, 7, and 9 injections of NGF (160 ng/mL for single injections and 80 ng/mL for multiple injections to determine baseline effects on crushed sciatic nerves in rats. The rats were randomly divided into four groups: control, crush, crush-NGF, and crush-LPC-NGF. The healing of the nerves was measured weekly by monitoring gait; electrophysiological parameters: compound muscle action potential (CMAP amplitudes; and morphological parameters: total fascicle areas, myelinated fiber counts, fiber densities, fiber packing, and mean g-ratio values at weeks 3 and 6. The crush, crush-NGF, and crush-LPC-NGF groups statistically differed from the control group for all six weeks for the electrophysiological parameters but only differed from the control group at week 3 for the morphological parameters. The crush, crush-NGF, and crush-LPC-NGF groups did not differ from each other over the course of the study. Single injections of LPC and NGF one week apart or multiple treatments of NGF at 5, 7 and 9 days post-injury did not alter the healing rate of the sciatic nerves during weeks 1-6 of the study. These findings are important to define the baseline effects of NGF and LPC injections, as part of a larger effort to determine the minimal dose regimen of NGF to regenerate peripheral nerves.

  12. Resveratrol Promotes Nerve Regeneration via Activation of p300 Acetyltransferase-Mediated VEGF Signaling in a Rat Model of Sciatic Nerve Crush Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Zhuofeng; Cao, Jiawei; Shen, Yu; Zou, Yu; Yang, Xin; Zhou, Wen; Guo, Qulian; Huang, Changsheng

    2018-01-01

    Peripheral nerve injuries are generally associated with incomplete restoration of motor function. The slow rate of nerve regeneration after injury may account for this. Although many benefits of resveratrol have been shown in the nervous system, it is not clear whether resveratrol could promote fast nerve regeneration and motor repair after peripheral nerve injury. This study showed that the motor deficits caused by sciatic nerve crush injury were alleviated by daily systematic resveratrol treatment within 10 days. Resveratrol increased the number of axons in the distal part of the injured nerve, indicating enhanced nerve regeneration. In the affected ventral spinal cord, resveratrol enhanced the expression of several vascular endothelial growth factor family proteins (VEGFs) and increased the phosphorylation of p300 through Akt signaling, indicating activation of p300 acetyltransferase. Inactivation of p300 acetyltransferase reversed the resveratrol-induced expression of VEGFs and motor repair in rats that had undergone sciatic nerve crush injury. The above results indicated that daily systematic resveratrol treatment promoted nerve regeneration and led to rapid motor repair. Resveratrol activated p300 acetyltransferase-mediated VEGF signaling in the affected ventral spinal cord, which may have thus contributed to the acceleration of nerve regeneration and motor repair.

  13. The axial crushes behaviour on foam-filled round Jute/Polyester composite tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, A.; Ismail, A. E.

    2018-04-01

    The present paper investigates the effect of axial loading compression on jute fibre reinforced polyester composite round tubes. The specimen of composite tube was fabricated by hand lay-up method of 120 mm length with fix 50.8 mm inner diameter to determine the behaviour of energy absorption on number of layers of 450 angle fibre and internally reinforced with and without foam filler material. The foam filler material used in this studies were polyurethane (PU) and polystyrene (PE) with average of 40 and 45 kg/m3 densities on the axial crushing load against displacement relations and on the failure modes. The number of layers of on this study were two; three and four were selected to calculate the crush force efficiency (CFE) and the specific energy absorption (SEA) of the composite tubes. Result indicated that the four layers’ jute/polyester show significant value in term of crushing load compared to 2 and 3 layers higher 60% for 2 layer and 3% compared to 3 layers. It has been found that the specific energy absorption of the jute/polyester tubes with polystyrene foam-filled is found higher respectively 10% to 12% than empty and polyurethane (PU) foam tubes. The increase in the number of layers from two to four increases the mean axial load from 1.01 KN to 3.60 KN for empty jute/polyester and from 2.11 KN to 4.26 KN for the polyurethane (PU) foam-filled jute/polyester tubes as well as for 3.60 KN to 5.58 KN for the polystyrene (PE) foam-filled jute/polyester. The author’s found that the failure of mechanism influence the characteristic of curve load against displacement obtained and conclude that an increasing number of layers and introduce filler material enhance the capability of specific absorbed energy.

  14. Sealing performance assessments of bentonite and bentonite/crushed rock plugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouyang, Shoung.

    1990-01-01

    Bentonite and mixtures of bentonite and crushed rock are potential sealing materials for high level nuclear waste repositories. The materials have been used to form cap layers to reduce infiltration for mined waste tailings and can also be used to construct clay liners for municipal as well as industrial waste managements. American Colloid C/S granular dentonite and Apache Leap tuff have been mixed to prepare samples for laboratory flow testing. Bentonite weight percent and crushed tuff gradation are the major variables studied. The sealing performance assessments include high injection pressure flow tests, polyaxial flow tests, high temperature flow tests, and piping tests. The results indicate that an appropriate composition would have at least 25% bentonite by weight mixed with well-graded crushed rock. Hydraulic properties of the mixture plugs may be highly anisotropic if significant particle segregation occurs during sample installation and compaction. Temperature has no negative effects on the sealing performance within the test range from room temperature to 60C. The piping damage to the sealing performance is small if the maximum hydraulic gradient does not exceed 120 and 280 for 25 and 35% bentonite content, respectively. The hydraulic gradients above which flow of bentonite may take place are deemed critical. Analytical work includes the introduction of bentonite occupancy percentage and water content at saturation as two major parameters for the plug design. A permeability model developed is useful for the prediction of permeability in clays. A piping model permits the estimation of critical hydraulic gradient allowed before the flow of bentonite takes place. It can also be used to define the maximum allowable pore diameter of a protective filter layer

  15. Trends of Serum Electrolyte Changes in Crush syndrome patients of Bam Earthquake; a Cross sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Safari

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Electrolyte imbalances are very common among crushed earthquake victims but there is notenough data regarding their trend of changes. The present study was designed to evaluate the trend of changesin sodium, calcium, and phosphorus ions among crush syndrome patients. Methods: In this retrospectivecross-sectional study, using the database of Bam earthquake victims, which was developed by Iranian Society ofNephrology following Bam earthquake, Iran, 2003, the 10-day trend of sodium, calcium, and phosphorus ionschanges in > 15 years old crush syndrome patients was evaluated. Results: 118 patients with the mean age of25.6 § 6.9 yearswere studied (57.3 male. On the first day of admission, 52.5% (95% CI: 42.7 - 62.3 of the patientshad hyponatremia, which reached 43.9% (95% CI: 28.5 - 59.3 on day 10. 100.0% of patients were hypocalcemicon admission and serum calcium level did not change dramatically during the 10 days of hospitalization. Theprevalence of hyperphosphatemia on the first day was 90.5% (95% CI: 81.5 - 99.5 and on the 10th day of hospitalization66.7% (95% CI: 48.5 - 84.8 of the patients were still affected. Conclusion: The results of the presentstudy shows the 52.5%prevalence of hyponatremia, 100% hypocalcemia, and 90.5% hyperphosphatemia amongcrush syndrome patients of Bam earthquake victims on the first day of admission. Evaluation of 10-day trendshows a slow decreasing pattern of these imbalances as after 10 days, 43.9% still remain hyponatremic, 92.3%hypocalcemic, and 66.7% hypophosphatemic.

  16. Dominant inheritance of retinal ganglion cell resistance to optic nerve crush in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schlamp Cassandra L

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several neurodegenerative diseases are influenced by complex genetics that affect an individual's susceptibility, disease severity, and rate of progression. One such disease is glaucoma, a chronic neurodegenerative condition of the eye that targets and stimulates apoptosis of CNS neurons called retinal ganglion cells. Since ganglion cell death is intrinsic, it is reasonable that the genes that control this process may contribute to the complex genetics that affect ganglion cell susceptibility to disease. To determine if genetic background influences susceptibility to optic nerve damage, leading to ganglion cell death, we performed optic nerve crush on 15 different inbred lines of mice and measured ganglion cell loss. Resistant and susceptible strains were used in a reciprocal breeding strategy to examine the inheritance pattern of the resistance phenotype. Because earlier studies had implicated Bax as a susceptibility allele for ganglion cell death in the chronic neurodegenerative disease glaucoma, we conducted allelic segregation analysis and mRNA quantification to assess this gene as a candidate for the cell death phenotype. Results Inbred lines showed varying levels of susceptibility to optic nerve crush. DBA/2J mice were most resistant and BALB/cByJ mice were most susceptible. F1 mice from these lines inherited the DBA/2J phenotype, while N2 backcross mice exhibited the BALB/cByJ phenotype. F2 mice exhibited an intermediate phenotype. A Wright Formula calculation suggested as few as 2 dominant loci were linked to the resistance phenotype, which was corroborated by a Punnett Square analysis of the distribution of the mean phenotype in each cross. The levels of latent Bax mRNA were the same in both lines, and Bax alleles did not segregate with phenotype in N2 and F2 mice. Conclusion Inbred mice show different levels of resistance to optic nerve crush. The resistance phenotype is heritable in a dominant fashion involving

  17. Comments on US approach to backfilling: Thermochemical characterization of crushed salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, S.; Hume, H.

    1988-01-01

    From recent studies and calculations, it has become apparent that expected brine in a United States salt repository would not seriously detract from the usefulness of rock salt as backfill. It also has been shown that adding clay to the salt might add to the pressure on the emplaced waste packages. Nevertheless, the Salt Repository Project has planned to evaluate a betonite/salt mixture during the next few years. The following items have also been discussed: advantages of backfilling, variables affecting crushed salt behavior, and the general approach to a preliminary testing program

  18. Study on the Elasticity-Plasticity-Stickiness of the Railway Crushed Stone Ballast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Liang

    2004-01-01

    This paper is mainly aimed at the mechanics characteristic elas of ticity-plasticitystickiness existed in the CWR (continuously welded rails) track plane of the railway crushed stone ballast. As an important mechanics parameter of the CWR track plane, the ballast resistance is mainly influenced by this mechanics characteristic. Through the systematic experimental research and the theoretical analysis, this mechanics characteristic of the ballast resistance is revealed and a reasonable theoretical model is built for it. This study set a sound foundation for further studying the CWR track deformation property. It will be beneficial to the development of high-speed railway in China.

  19. [Fatal incidents by crowd crush during mass events. (Un)preventable phenomenon?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, U; Fälker, A; Wenzel, V

    2013-01-01

    Crowd crushes with dozens or even hundreds of casualties have occurred several times at the Hajj in Saudi Arabia and also in soccer stadiums in Western Europe. As fatal accidents after human stampedes during mass events occur very rarely and are usually accompanied by many years of criminal court proceedings in order to identify underlying responsible mechanisms and culprits, it is very difficult to draw conclusions and formulate precautions from an emergency medical point of view. This study analyzed a fatal crowd crush which occurred on 4 December 1999 following the "Air & Style" snowboard contest with approximately 22,000 people attending in the Bergisel stadium in Innsbruck, Austria. Firstly, focused interviews were conducted with professional rescuers, police and physicians and secondly publicly available court records dealing with this incident in the district court of Innsbruck, Austria were analyzed. During the snowboard contest 87 emergency medical technicians, 6 emergency physicians, 1 leading emergency physician, 21 policemen and 140 security personnel were present. Following the accident additionally some 100 emergency medical technicians, 36 emergency medical service vehicles and 4 physician-staffed emergency medical service vehicles responded to the scene. The deadly crowd crush resulting in 6 fatalities, 4 patients still in a vegetative state and 38 injured, was due to a severe crowd accumulation at one stadium exit, which was not recognized and dispersed in time. Construction of the exit in line with darkness, steep slope and slippery surface contributed adversely to this dangerous situation, although panic did not occur at any time. Unfortunately, there is no patent remedy to completely prevent fatal accidents by a crowd crush at mass events. If planning is initiated early, sufficient material and personnel reserves are kept in reserve and despite conflicting interests of the organizers, the host community, security, police and emergency medical

  20. Balance and coordination training, but not endurance training, enhances synaptophysin and neurotrophin-3 immunoreactivity in the lumbar spinal cord after sciatic nerve crush.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonetti, Leandro Viçosa; Ilha, Jocemar; Schneider, Ana Paula Krauthein; Barbosa, Silvia; Faccioni-Heuser, Maria Cristina

    2016-04-01

    Numerous rehabilitation treatments have been shown to be useful for peripheral and central restoration after (PNI). After sciatic nerve crush, we investigated 4 weeks of endurance training (ET) and balance and coordination training (BCT) with sciatic function index, hind-paw stride length, and spinal cord dorsal horn synaptophysin and neurotrophin-3 immunoreactivity. Our results demonstrated no significant differences between the non-trained (NT), ET, and BCT groups in sciatic functional index, and in stride-length analysis, but the ET showed higher values compared with the NT group. Synaptophysin immunoreactivity was higher in the BCT group compared with the NT group, and neurotrophin-3 immunoreactivity in the BCT group was greater compared with the other groups. BCT can positively affect spinal cord plasticity after a (PNI), and these modifications are important in the rehabilitation process. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Development of a system for receiving, crushing and screening recycled fuel (REF) material; Kierraetyspolttoaineen vastaanotto-, murskaus- ja seulontajaerjestelmaen kehittaeminen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nurmi, A [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    1997-12-01

    The goal of this project is to develop a system to which source sorted combustible industrial, office and municipal waste material can be taken and where it is then processed in such way that it can be burnt in modern fluidized bed and circulating bed boilers. The project started in the end of year 1995. The main stages of the project are: (1) Study and analysis of existing technology and equipment, (2) Development of system components, (3) Development of the system, (4) Building a pilot/demonstration plant, (5) Tests and results analysis and (6) Decisions on further actions. In the year 1996 the main stage was development of system components; especially crushing. Results of running slow-speed big crushers were collected, analysed and the main development details determined. Additionally, particle size distribution from different crushing methods were analyzed using also primary and secondary crushing. Development of a heavy-duty 2-rotor ECO-Crusher and a crushing screen was started. Regarding to the development of the REF-system, different alternatives have been analyzed and possible demonstration places have been searched. The first multi-crushing line will be demonstrated in Sweden. (orig.)

  2. Role of Water Sorption in Tablet Crushing Strength, Disintegration, and Dissolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacchetti, M; Teerakapibal, R; Kim, K; Elder, E J

    2017-08-01

    Drugs formulated as tablets are subjected to accelerated stability conditions with the goal of identifying a stable formulation that will exhibit a sufficiently long shelf life. Water sorption at a condition such as 40°C/75% RH can result in significant changes in tablet properties such as a decrease in dissolution rate, the cause of which may be difficult to interpret, given the complex nature of ingredients and their interactions in a tablet. In this research, three drugs, displaying a wide range of physicochemical properties, were formulated with commonly used diluents, disintegrants, and binders, using a design of experiments approach. The tablets were stored at accelerated conditions and assessed for content, dissolution, disintegration, and crushing strength, as well as other properties. The research demonstrated many water-induced effects in tablet properties. Due to the experimental design approach that revealed many interactions, it was possible to interpret all of the changes observed in tablet crushing strength, disintegration, and dissolution for the drugs using a common set of physical principles. Specifically, the relevant factors considered were (1) mechanical properties of materials, (2) water sorption surface effects in surface diffusion and capillary condensation, (3) water sorption bulk effects for amorphous materials such as viscous flow/spreading, and (4) water-induced stress on interparticle bonding arising from volume expansion. These physical principles enable a comprehensive interpretation of the complex changes observed in tablet properties, which should be valuable in the design of tablet formulations that will be stable to accelerated storage conditions.

  3. The effect of cargo on the crush loading of RAM transportation packages in ship collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radloff, H.D.; Ammerman, D.J.

    1998-03-01

    Recent intercontinental radioactive material shipping campaigns have focused public and regulatory attention on the safety of transport of this material by ocean-going vessels. One major concern is the response of the vessel and onboard radioactive material (RAM) packages during a severe ship-to-ship collision. These collisions occur at velocities less than the velocity obtained in the Type B package regulatory impact event and the bow of the striking ship is less rigid than the unyielding target used in those tests (Ammerman and Daidola, 1996). This implies that ship impact is not a credible scenario for damaging the radioactive material packages during ship collisions. It is possible, however, for these collisions to generate significant amounts of crush force by the bow of the impacting ship overrunning the package. It is the aim of this paper to determine an upper bound on the magnitude of this crush force taking into account the strength of the radioactive material carrying vessel and any other cargo that may be stowed in the same hold as the radioactive material

  4. Dissolution of Intact, Divided and Crushed Circadin Tablets: Prolonged vs. Immediate Release of Melatonin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Ming Chua

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Circadin 2 mg prolonged-release tablet is the only licensed melatonin product available in the UK. Circadin is indicated for patients with primary insomnia aged 55 and over, but is more widely used “off-label” to treat sleep disorders especially in the paediatric population. Children and older people often have difficulty swallowing tablets and dividing the tablet is sometimes required to ease administration. The aim of this study was to measure the release profile of melatonin from Circadin tablets when divided or crushed, and compare this with release from intact tablets. Dissolution testing was also performed for unlicensed melatonin products for comparison. Dissolution tests were performed using the pharmacopoeial paddle apparatus, with melatonin release analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography. Melatonin content, hardness, friability, and disintegration of the products were also evaluated. The prolonged release of melatonin from Circadin tablets was unlike that of any other product tested. When divided into halves, Circadin preserved most of the prolonged-release characteristic (f2 = 58, whereas quarter-cut and crushed tablet had a more immediate melatonin release profile. Circadin is significantly less expensive and should be preferred to unlicensed medicines which are not pharmaceutically equivalent and offer less quality assurance.

  5. Impact of crushed mineral aggregate on the pumpability of concrete during transport and placement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Topličić-Ćurčić Gordana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the spirit of the sustainable buildings, and with the goal of protection of river courses, in the near future an already announced directive ordering closing down of a large number of river aggregate dredging operations will be adopted. For that reason, usage of crushed mineral aggregate in concrete mixes is increasing. Irrespective of downsides of the fined crushed mineral aggregate, such as the presence of fine particles bordering the upper permissible limit and the unfavorable shape of the grain of the course aggregate for obtaining liquid consistency required for the pumpable concrete, the demanded pumpability of concrete during transport and placement has been achieved. By adding admixtures to concrete, the required concrete properties, such as: frost resistance, simultaneous frost and salt resistance and water tightness have been achieved. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 36017: Utilization of by - products and recycled waste materials in concrete composites in the scope of sustainable construction development in Serbia: investigation and environmental assessment of possible applications

  6. The production of pig iron from crushing plant waste using hot blast cupola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusno Isnugroho

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A production of pig iron has been conducted from crushing plant waste. The process of preparing pig iron was using hot blast cupola (HBC furnace which was injected with charcoal powder to improve temperature process and reduction zone in the furnace. The process was started by washing process and magnetic separation of raw material as an effort to improve iron content degree from crushing plant waste. The next process was preparing the composite pellet with the particle size of −80 + 100 mesh and with the composition of 80% iron ore, 15% wood charcoal, and 5% bentonite. The result of pellet size was 2.5–4.0 mm. The experiment was continued to reduce pellet composite in the HBC furnace. The pig iron produced from this process contained of 93.62%Fe, 3.5%C, 1.55%Si, 0.87%Mn, 0.05%P, and 0.087%S.With this result, the pig iron produced already fulfill the metallurgical specification to be used in smelting industry. Keywords: Pig iron, Pellet, Injection, Charcoal, Hot blast cupola

  7. A big step change : new mobile slurry preparation and crushing technology on the horizon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budd, G.

    2007-09-15

    The efficiency and productivity of the trucks used in oil sands mining operations can be compromised by unstable terrain, and they consume large amount of fuel. Hydro-transport systems with slurry preparation facilities may soon eliminate the expenses associated with truck and shovel processes. The slurry preparation facilities use on-board reject handling systems to remove large pieces of ore that can't be used in crushers. However, they are hard to move. Researchers are now focusing on the development of a semi-mobile slurry preparation facility that uses mobile crushing and sizing equipment. The equipment uses large tractor tracks instead of wheels and tires, and can accomplish the same amount of work as 6 trucks. Using the system, mine scoop shovels dump ore into a hopper on the mobile unit. The ore is then conveyed to the mobile unit's onboard primary crusher or sizer. Staged crushing is combined with water addition and mixing at the mine site to prepare an oil and slurry ready for hydro-transport. It was concluded that the system may significantly reduce the use of shovel and truck operations in the oil sands industry. 2 figs.

  8. Influence of variables on the consolidation and unconfined compressive strength of crushed salt: Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfeifle, T.W.; Senseny, P.E.; Mellegard, K.D.

    1987-01-01

    Eight hydrostatic compression creep tests were performed on crushed salt specimens fabricated from Avery Island dome salt. Following the creep test, each specimen was tested in unconfined compression. The experiments were performed to assess the influence of the following four variables on the consolidation and unconfined strength of crushed salt: grain size distribution, temperature, time, and moisture content. The experiment design comprised a half-fraction factorial matrix at two levels. The levels of each variable investigated were grain size distribution, uniform-graded and well-graded (coefficient of uniformity of 1 and 8); temperature 25 0 C and 100 0 C; time, 3.5 x 10 3 s and 950 x 10 3 s (approximately 60 minutes and 11 days, respectively); and moisture content, dry and wet (85% relative humidity for 24 hours). The hydrostatic creep stress was 10 MPa. The unconfined compression tests were performed at an axial strain rate of 1 x 10 -5 s -1 . Results show that the variables time and moisture content have the greatest influence on creep consolidation, while grain size distribution and, to a somewhat lesser degree, temperature have the greatest influence on total consolidation. Time and moisture content and the confounded two-factor interactions between either grain size distribution and time or temperature and moisture content have the greatest influence on unconfined strength. 7 refs., 7 figs., 11 tabs

  9. Crush performance of redwood for developing design procedures for impact limiters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cramer, S.M.; Hermanson, J.C.; McMurtry, W.M.

    1995-01-01

    Containers for the transportation of hazardous and radioactive materials incorporate redwood in impact limiters. Redwood is an excellent energy absorber, but only the most simplistic information exists on its crush properties. Tbe stress-strain interrelationship for any wood species subject to three-dimensional stresses is largely unknown for any all stress condition and wood behavior at both high strains and high strain-rates is known only in general terms. Both stress-strain and crush failure theories have been developed based only on uniaxial load tests. The anisotropy of wood adds an additional complexity to measuring wood response and developing suitable theories to describe it. A long history of wood utilization in the building industry has led to design procedures and property information related to simple uniaxial loadings that do not inflict damage to the wood. This lack of knowledge may be surprising for a material that has a long history of engineered use, but the result is difficulty in utilizing wood in more sophisticated designs such as impact limiters. This study provides a step toward filling the information gap on wood material response for high performance applications such as impact limiters

  10. Numerical Investigation on Dynamic Crushing Behavior of Auxetic Honeycombs with Various Cell-Wall Angles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-chun Zhang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Auxetic honeycombs have proven to be an attractive advantage in actual engineering applications owing to their unique mechanical characteristic and better energy absorption ability. The in-plane dynamic crushing behaviors of the honeycombs with various cell-wall angles are studied by means of explicit dynamic finite element simulation. The influences of the cell-wall angle, the impact velocity, and the edge thickness on the macro/microdeformation behaviors, the plateau stresses, and the specific energy absorption of auxetic honeycombs are discussed in detail. Numerical results show, that except for the impact velocity and the edge thickness, the in-plane dynamic performances of auxetic honeycombs also rely on the cell-wall angle. The “> <”-mode local deformation bands form under low- or moderate-velocity impacting, which results in lateral compression shrinkage and shows negative Poisson's ratio during the crushing. For the given impact velocity, the plateau stress at the proximal end and the energy-absorbed ability can be improved by increasing the negative cell angle, the relative density, the impact velocity, and the matrix material strength. When the microcell parameters are the constant, the plateau stresses are proportional to the square of impact velocity.

  11. Volume reduction and plutonium recovery in alpha wastes by cryogenic crushing and lixiviation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnal, T.; Pajot, J.

    1986-06-01

    The industry of plutonium generates solid alpha wastes of medium activity called ''technological wastes''. They are mainly produced during the fabrication and reprocessing of nuclear reactor fuels and they are of a wide variety i.e: vinyl bags, gloves, glass, steel materials used in glove box operation, etc... These wastes contain relevant residual quantities of uranium and plutonium in the form of oxides or nitrates, reaching up to several dozen grams per cubic meter. Up to the beginning of the eighties, they were conditionned without any treatment and stored as such on the production site. However, for an economic and safe storage, recovering of the plutonium contained in these waste streams and reduction of their volume is of obvious importance. At the plutonium ''Complexe de Fabrication des Combustibles de Cadarache'' was developed a new technical solution of this problem that combines cryogenic crushing of the solid waste and plutonium recovery from the crushed material by chemical lixiviation. The first results obtained in applying this system on the industrial scale are reported briefly

  12. Geo-Engineering Evaluation of Rock Masses for Crushed Rock and Cut Stones in Khartoum State, Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheirelseed, E. E.; Ming, T. H.; Abdalla, S. B.

    The purpose of this study is to find artificial coarse aggregates and cut stones around Khartoum. To meat the objectives of the study, data from both field and laboratory are collected. The field data includes geological investigations based on different methods and samples collection, whereas the laboratory tests consists of specific gravity, water absorption, impact value, crushing value, Los Angeles abrasion, soundness tests. The field and laboratory results were weighed and compiled together to reveal the engineering performance of the different rock masses in term of cut stone and crushed aggregates. The results show that most of the examined rock masses are suitable for crushing, building and dressed stones. For decorative slabs only foliated granite and syenite masses can be used.

  13. Rapid detection of toxic metals in non-crushed oyster shells by portable X-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou Ju, E-mail: Ju.Chou@selu.ed [Department of Chemistry and Physics, Southeastern Louisiana University, Hammond, LA 70402 (United States); Clement, Garret; Bursavich, Bradley; Elbers, Don [Department of Chemistry and Physics, Southeastern Louisiana University, Hammond, LA 70402 (United States); Cao Baobao; Zhou Weilie [Advanced Material Research Institute, University of New Orleans, New Orleans, LA 70148 (United States)

    2010-06-15

    The aim of this study was the multi-elemental detection of toxic metals such as lead (Pb) in non-crushed oyster shells by using a portable X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometer. A rapid, simultaneous multi-element analytical methodology for non-crushed oyster shells has been developed using a portable XRF which provides a quick, quantitative, non-destructive, and cost-effective mean for assessment of oyster shell contamination from Pb. Pb contamination in oyster shells was further confirmed by scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS). The results indicated that Pb is distributed in-homogeneously in contaminated shells. Oyster shells have a lamellar structure that could contribute to the high accumulation of Pb on oyster shells. - A rapid, simultaneous multi-element analytical methodology for non-crushed oyster shells has been developed using XRF and contamination of lead on oyster shells was confirmed by XRF and SEM-EDS.

  14. Rapid detection of toxic metals in non-crushed oyster shells by portable X-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou Ju; Clement, Garret; Bursavich, Bradley; Elbers, Don; Cao Baobao; Zhou Weilie

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was the multi-elemental detection of toxic metals such as lead (Pb) in non-crushed oyster shells by using a portable X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometer. A rapid, simultaneous multi-element analytical methodology for non-crushed oyster shells has been developed using a portable XRF which provides a quick, quantitative, non-destructive, and cost-effective mean for assessment of oyster shell contamination from Pb. Pb contamination in oyster shells was further confirmed by scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS). The results indicated that Pb is distributed in-homogeneously in contaminated shells. Oyster shells have a lamellar structure that could contribute to the high accumulation of Pb on oyster shells. - A rapid, simultaneous multi-element analytical methodology for non-crushed oyster shells has been developed using XRF and contamination of lead on oyster shells was confirmed by XRF and SEM-EDS.

  15. Fast Implementation of Two Hash Algorithms on nVidia CUDA GPU

    OpenAIRE

    Lerchundi Osa, Gorka

    2009-01-01

    Projecte fet en col.laboració amb Norwegian University of Science and Technology. Department of Telematics User needs increases as time passes. We started with computers like the size of a room where the perforated plaques did the same function as the current machine code object does and at present we are at a point where the number of processors within our graphic device unit it’s not enough for our requirements. A change in the evolution of computing is looming. We are in a t...

  16. Engrafted human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived anterior specified neural progenitors protect the rat crushed optic nerve.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Satarian

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Degeneration of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs is a common occurrence in several eye diseases. This study examined the functional improvement and protection of host RGCs in addition to the survival, integration and neuronal differentiation capabilities of anterior specified neural progenitors (NPs following intravitreal transplantation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: NPs were produced under defined conditions from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs and transplanted into rats whose optic nerves have been crushed (ONC. hiPSCs were induced to differentiate into anterior specified NPs by the use of Noggin and retinoic acid. The hiPSC-NPs were labeled by green fluorescent protein or a fluorescent tracer 1,1' -dioctadecyl-3,3,3',3'-tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate (DiI and injected two days after induction of ONC in hooded rats. Functional analysis according to visual evoked potential recordings showed significant amplitude recovery in animals transplanted with hiPSC-NPs. Retrograde labeling by an intra-collicular DiI injection showed significantly higher numbers of RGCs and spared axons in ONC rats treated with hiPSC-NPs or their conditioned medium (CM. The analysis of CM of hiPSC-NPs showed the secretion of ciliary neurotrophic factor, basic fibroblast growth factor, and insulin-like growth factor. Optic nerve of cell transplanted groups also had increased GAP43 immunoreactivity and myelin staining by FluoroMyelin™ which imply for protection of axons and myelin. At 60 days post-transplantation hiPSC-NPs were integrated into the ganglion cell layer of the retina and expressed neuronal markers. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The transplantation of anterior specified NPs may improve optic nerve injury through neuroprotection and differentiation into neuronal lineages. These NPs possibly provide a promising new therapeutic approach for traumatic optic nerve injuries and loss of RGCs caused by other diseases.

  17. Influence of technical parameters of disk-shaped reactor on productivity of heat treatment of crushed wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safin, R. R.; Khasanshin, R. R.; Mukhametzyanov, S. R.

    2018-03-01

    The existing installations for heat treatment of the crushed wood are analyzed. The technology of heat treatment of the crushed wood in the devices of disk-shaped type is offered. The results of modeling for the purpose of determination of interrelation of the key design and technological parameters of the disk-shaped device are presented. It is established that the major factors, affecting duration of stay of the material in a device, are the speed of rotation of the mixer, the number of mixers and the number of rakes on the mixer.

  18. A case of butane hash oil (marijuana wax)-induced psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Corey J; Chen, Evan C; Brodsky, Kimberly; Yoon, Jong H

    2016-01-01

    Marijuana is one of the most widely used controlled substances in the United States. Despite extensive research on smoked marijuana, little is known regarding the potential psychotropic effects of marijuana "wax," a high-potency form of marijuana that is gaining in popularity. The authors present a case of "Mr. B," a 34-year-old veteran who presented with profound psychosis in the setting of recent initiation of heavy, daily marijuana wax use. He exhibited incoherent speech and odd behaviors and appeared to be in a dream-like state with perseverating thoughts about his combat experience. His condition persisted despite treatment with risperidone 4 mg twice a day (BID), but improved dramatically on day 8 of hospitalization with the return of baseline mental function. Following discharge, Mr. B discontinued all marijuana use and did not exhibit the return of any psychotic symptoms. This study highlights the need for future research regarding the potential medical and psychiatric effects of new, high-potency forms of marijuana. Could cannabis have a dose-dependent impact on psychosis? What other potential psychiatric effects could emerge heretofore unseen in lower potency formulations? Given the recent legalization of marijuana, these questions merit timely exploration.

  19. Effect of crushed mussel shell addition on bacterial growth in acid polluted soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez Calviño, David; Garrido-Rodríguez, B.; Arias-Estévez, M.

    2015-01-01

    We applied three different doses of crushed mussel shell (CMS) on two Cu-polluted acid soils to study the effect of these amendments on the growth of the bacterial community during 730 days. Soil pH increased in the short and medium term due to CMS addition. In a first stage, bacterial growth...... was lower in the CMS-amended than in the un-amended samples. Thereafter, bacterial growth increased slowly. The soil having the highest initial pH value (4.5) showed the first significant increase in bacterial growth 95 days after the CMS amendment. However, in the soil with the lowest initial pH value (3...... as an agronomic sound practice for strongly acid soils (pH

  20. Use of Crushed Granite Fine as Replacement to River Sand in Concrete Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manasseh JOEL

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The suitability of Crushed granite fine (CGF to replace river sand in concrete production for use in rigid pavement was investigated. Slump, compressive and indirect tensile strength tests were performed on fresh and hardened concrete.28 days Peak compressive and indirect tensile strength values of 40.70N/mm2 and 2.30N/mm2 respectively was obtained, with the partial replacement of river sand with 20% CGF, as against values of 35.00N/mm2 and 1.75N/mm2, obtained with the use of river sand as fine aggregate. Based on economic analysis and results of tests, river sand replaced with 20% CGF is recommended for use in the production of concrete for use in rigid pavement. Conservation of river sand in addition to better ways of disposing wastes from the quarry sites are some of the merits of using CGF.

  1. Modeling of Waves Propagating in Water with a Crushed Ice Layer on the Free Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szmidt, Kazimierz

    2017-12-01

    A transformation of gravitational waves in fluid of constant depth with a crushed ice layer floating on the free fluid surface is considered. The propagating waves undergo a slight damping along their path of propagation. The main goal of the study is to construct an approximate descriptive model of this phenomenon.With regard to small displacements of the free surface, a viscous type model of damping is considered, which corresponds to a continuous distribution of dash-pots at the free surface of the fluid. A constant parameter of the dampers is assumed in advance as known parameter of damping. This parameter may be obtained by means of experiments in a laboratory flume.

  2. European origin of placodont marine reptiles and the evolution of crushing dentition in Placodontia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neenan, James M; Klein, Nicole; Scheyer, Torsten M

    2013-01-01

    Sauropterygia was the most successful marine reptile radiation in history, spanning almost the entire Mesozoic and exploiting a wide range of habitats and ecological niches. Here we report a new, exceptionally preserved skull of a juvenile stem placodont from the early Middle Triassic of the Netherlands, thus indicating a western Tethyan (European) origin for Placodontia, the most basal group of sauropterygians. A single row of teeth on an enlarged palatine supports this close relationship, although these are small and pointed instead of broad and flat, as is the case in placodonts, which demonstrate the strongest adaptation to a durophagous diet known in any reptile. Peg-like, slightly procumbent premaxillary teeth and an 'L-shaped' jugal also confirm a close relationship to basal placodonts. The new taxon provides insight into the evolution of placodont dentition, representing a transitional morphology between the plesiomorphic diapsid condition of palatal denticles and the specialized crushing teeth of placodonts.

  3. Shape Effect of Crushed Sand Filler on Rheology: A Preliminary Experimental and Numerical Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spangenberg, Jon; Cepuritis, Rolands; Hovad, Emil

    2016-01-01

    Two types of filler from crushed sand were mixed with cement paste with constant superplasticizer dosage per mass of cement to investigate how their shape affects the rheology. The fillers were mylonitic quartz diorite and limestone produced using Vertical Shaft Impact (VSI) crusher and air...... was quantified with the slump flow test (i.e. mini cone). The shape effect was isolated in the experiments by the use of non overlapping bimodal particle distributions of cement particles with a number average diameter of approximate to 0.01 mm and filler particles with a number average diameter of approximate...... to 0.1 mm. The two filler types were tested with a range of chi-values (volume of cement divided by total volume of solids). The flowability of the matrix increased with decreasing aspect ratios of the filler. However, the chi-value at which the maximum volume fraction threshold was obtained varied...

  4. SHAPING AND REDESTINATION OF EXCAVATED AREAS IN THE COURSE OF THE EXPLOITATION OF CRUSHED STONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerko Nuić

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available In the construction of devastated and demolished country the want for crushed stone is ever more greater. The opening of new quarryes is subject to strict ecological norms. The location of activity as well as the concept of the mining works represent a matter of consideration. Excavated areas should be shaped in a way to be integrated into immediate and wider environment most conveniently and then be redestinated with the purpose of the economic, sporting-recreation or some other usage. On the existing model in nature (»Široki Čelac« quarry, Novalja on the island of Pag, the specific characteristics of the locality and region have been respected. There have been also given adequate solutions for a possible deposit of communal waste (the paper is published in Croatian.

  5. Treatability study for removal of leachable mercury in crushed fluorescent lamps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bostick, W.D.; Beck, D.E.; Bowser, K.T.

    1996-02-01

    Nonserviceable fluorescent lamps removed from radiological control areas at the Oak Ridge Department of Energy facilities have been crushed and are currently managed as mixed waste (hazardous and radiologically contaminated). We present proposed treatment flowsheets and supporting treatability study data for conditioning this solid waste residue so that it can qualify for disposal in a sanitary landfill. Mercury in spent fluorescent lamps occurs primarily as condensate on high-surface-area phosphor material. It can be solubilized with excess oxidants (e.g., hypochlorite solution) and stabilized by complexation with halide ions. Soluble mercury in dechlorinated saline solution is effectively removed by cementation with zero-valent iron in the form of steel wool. In packed column dynamic flow testing, soluble mercury was reduced to mercury metal and insoluble calomel, loading > 1.2 g of mercury per grain of steel wool before an appreciable breakthrough of soluble mercury in the effluent

  6. Separating and recycling metals from mixed metallic particles of crushed electronic wastes by vacuum metallurgy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Lu; Xu, Zhenming

    2009-09-15

    During the treatment of electronic wastes, a crushing process is usually used to strip metals from various base plates. Several methods have been applied to separate metals from nonmetals. However, mixed metallic particles obtained from these processes are still a mixture of various metals, including some toxic heavy metals such as lead and cadmium. With emphasis on recovering copper and other precious metals, there have hitherto been no satisfactory methods to recover these toxic metals. In this paper, the criterion of separating metals from mixed metallic particles by vacuum metallurgy is built. The results show that the metals with high vapor pressure have been almost recovered completely, leading to a considerable reduction of environmental pollution. In addition, the purity of copper in mixed particles has been improved from about 80 wt % to over 98 wt %.

  7. Saturday night palsy or Sunday morning hangover? A case report of alcohol-induced Crush Syndrome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Devitt, Brian M

    2011-01-01

    Saturday night palsy is a colloquial term given to brachial plexus injuries of the arm resulting from stretching or direct pressure against a firm object, often after alcohol or drug consumption. In most circumstances, this condition gives rise to a temporary plexopathy, which generally resolves. However, if the compression is severe and prolonged, a more grave form of this condition known as \\'Crush Syndrome\\' may occur. Skeletal muscle injury, brought about by protracted immobilization, leads to muscle decay, causing rhabdomyolysis, which may in turn precipitate acute renal failure. This condition is potentially fatal and has an extremely high morbidity. The case presented below demonstrates the drastic consequences that can result following an episode of \\'binge\\' drinking in a young man. What is most concerning is that this trend is increasing across society and cases like this may not be as rare in the future.

  8. Treatability study for removal of leachable mercury in crushed fluorescent lamps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bostick, W.D.; Beck, D.E.; Bowser, K.T. [and others

    1996-02-01

    Nonserviceable fluorescent lamps removed from radiological control areas at the Oak Ridge Department of Energy facilities have been crushed and are currently managed as mixed waste (hazardous and radiologically contaminated). We present proposed treatment flowsheets and supporting treatability study data for conditioning this solid waste residue so that it can qualify for disposal in a sanitary landfill. Mercury in spent fluorescent lamps occurs primarily as condensate on high-surface-area phosphor material. It can be solubilized with excess oxidants (e.g., hypochlorite solution) and stabilized by complexation with halide ions. Soluble mercury in dechlorinated saline solution is effectively removed by cementation with zero-valent iron in the form of steel wool. In packed column dynamic flow testing, soluble mercury was reduced to mercury metal and insoluble calomel, loading > 1.2 g of mercury per grain of steel wool before an appreciable breakthrough of soluble mercury in the effluent.

  9. Hydro-mechanical behaviour of crushed COx argillite used as backfilling material in HLW repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Chaosheng; Shi Bin; Cui Yujun; Anh-Minh Tang

    2010-01-01

    At present, the crushed Callovo-Oxfordian (COx) argillite powder is proposed as an alternative backfilling material in France, which will be constructed in the engineering barrier of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) repository. In this investigation, the compression behavior of two crushed COx argillite powders (coarser one and finer one) was studied by running l-D compression tests with several loading-unloading cycles. After the final dry density 2.0 g/cm 3 was reached, the specimen was flooding with distilled water and the evolution of axial stress was studied during saturation process. The effects of initial axial stress level and grain size distribution (GSD) on hydro-mechanical behaviour of compacted specimen were analyzed. The results show that the compression curves are significantly influenced by the GSD of the soils. To obtain the same degree of compaction, the axial stress applied to finer soil is much higher than that of coarser soil. In addition, the compression index of the finer soil is bigger than that of coarser soil. The swelling index at initial water content increases with the dry density and seems to be independent of the GSD. During saturation, the initial lower axial stress causes obvious swelling behavior for both the coarser and finer powder samples and the corresponding axial stress increase gradually. At initial higher axial stress condition, monotone collapse behavior is observed for the coarser powder samples. Whereas the axial stress decrease firstly, then increase and finally decrease again for the finer powder samples. After saturation, the equilibrium axial stresses of finer powder samples are higher than that of coarser powder samples. (authors)

  10. The changing face of oilsands mining : mobile crushing systems on the way

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, D.L.M.

    2007-06-15

    The mobile crushing system (MCS) is a new technology used in oil sand mining. With MCS, the crusher is moved right to the mine face where it is continuously loaded by shovel. The ore is then crushed on site and transported by a mobile conveyor for further processing. MMD Mineral Sizing (Canada) and Krupp Canada are the only 2 manufacturers that currently build MCS for the oilsands sector. Suncor, Albian Sands and Syncrude Canada are the 3 major oilsands operators currently using MCS. The benefits and challenges of MCS were presented. The use of large mobile surface mining equipment such as the MCS means that ground stability issues associated with large mobile truck and shovel mining operations will be reduced. In addition, given the current worker shortage in the mining industry, using single-stream mobile surface mining equipment means operators can reduce their labour force. However, some challenges remain. The sheer size and weight of the unit means it can deform the ground surface and sink under adverse conditions. Alternative tire and suspension concepts that may alleviate some of these stability issues are currently being researched. Other issues that may affect the performance of MCS include the oil sand density and viscosity around material flow. Syncrude Canada is considering the use of MCS technology to mitigate common oilsands-related environmental issues. It is also testing compact slurry preparation technology in which shovels will feed the oilsands directly into a MCS and then into the in-pit bitumen production system slurry equipment. The MCS unit at Suncor's mine cost $150 million. It has been running at 5,000 tonnes of ore per hour, equivalent to 15 loads of ore in the large trucks. Given the success of the unit, plans are in place for 5 more units to be in operation over the next 5 years. 4 figs.

  11. Crushing of Subglacial Lake Sediment as a Source of Bio-utilisable Gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill Olivas, B.; Telling, J.; Michaud, A. B.; Skidmore, M. L.; Priscu, J. C.; Tranter, M.

    2017-12-01

    Recent research has shown microbial ecosystems exist under glaciers and ice sheets. The sources of energy to support these ecosystems are still not fully understood, particularly beneath the Antarctic Ice Sheet, where direct access to the atmosphere and in-washed organic matter and oxidising agents does not occur. Hence, sub-ice sheet energy sources are restricted to those in subglacial environments, except for ice-margin environments. This study focuses on sediments from Subglacial Lake Whillans (SLW), the first subglacial lake to be directly and cleanly sampled. Sediment from three depths in a shallow core extracted from SLW were used to assess the possible energy contributions from mechanochemical reactions to this subglacial ecosystem. To do this, the samples were crushed under an anoxic atmosphere using a ball mill. The sediments were then transferred into serum bottles under anoxic conditions. They were wetted and the headspace gas was subsequently sampled and analysed during a 40 day incubation. Results show the release of substantial amounts of hydrogen, which could potentially serve as an abiotic source of energy to microbes, in particular, methanogenic archaea. Significant amounts of short chain hydrocarbons (including methane and ethylene), possibly from the reactivation of ancient organic carbon, were also observed. Crushed samples showed a significant concentration of hydrogen peroxide produced on contact with water, as well as significant amounts of Si radicals, showing comminution of these sediments unlocks the potential for a wide range of redox conditions and reactions to develop within glacially eroded sediment under ice. This in turn provides a previously overlooked source of nutrients and energy for microbes to utilise.

  12. A chimeric fusion of the hASH1 and EZH2 promoters mediates high and specific reporter and suicide gene expression and cytotoxicity in small cell lung cancer cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, T.T.; Pedersen, N.; Juel, H.

    2008-01-01

    Transcriptionally targeted gene therapy is a promising experimental modality for treatment of systemic malignancies such as small cell lung cancer (SCLC). We have identified the human achaete-scute homolog 1 (hASH1) and enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) genes as highly upregulated in SCLC compar...

  13. Axial Crushing and Energy Absorption of Empty and Foam Filled Jute-glass/ Epoxy Bi-tubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Asad A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental work on the axial crushing of empty and polyurethane foam filled bi-tubular composite cone-tube has been carried out. Hand lay-up method was used to fabricate the bi-tubes using woven roving glass, jute and hybrid jute-glass/epoxy materials. The tubes were of 56 mm diameter, and the cones top diameters were 65 mm. Cone semi-apical angles of 5°, 10°, 15°, 20° and 25° were examined. Height of 120 mm was maintained for all the fabricated specimens. Effects of material used, cone semi apical angle and foam filler on the load-displacement relation, maximum load, crush force efficiency, and the specific energy absorption and failure mode were investigated. Results show that the foam filler improved the progressive crushing process, increased the maximum load and the absorbed energy of the bi-tubes. The maximum crushing load and the specific energy absorption increased with increasing the cone semi apical angle up to 20° for the empty bi-tubes and up to 25° for the foam filled bi-tubes. Progressive failure mode with fiber and matrix cracking was observed at the top narrow side of the fractured bi-tubes as well as at the bottom surface of 20° and 25° cone semi-apical angle bi-tubes.

  14. Characterisation of extra virgin olive oils from Galician autochthonous varieties and their co-crushings with Arbequina and Picual cv.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reboredo-Rodríguez, P; González-Barreiro, C; Cancho-Grande, B; Fregapane, G; Salvador, M D; Simal-Gándara, J

    2015-06-01

    The current trend of the olive oil market is the production of high quality extra from traditional minor olive varieties with peculiar and differentiated characteristics (especially with respect to the aromatic and phenolic composition). In this way, the interest of Galician oil producers (NW Spain) in recovering old autochthonous Local olive fruits has increased substantially in recent years. In order to investigate the potential of the Local olives by either producing high quality monovarietal oils or mixing with the most widespread olives in Galicia (Arbequina and Picual cv.), quality indices, and fatty acid composition as well as volatile and phenolic profiles were determined and compared. All EVOOs studied in this work can be considered as "extra virgin olive oil" due to quality indices fell within the ranges established in legislation. Picual and Local olive oils as well as those resulting from their co-crushing reach values which are required by EU legislation to add the specific health claim on the oil label. Co-crushing Picual:Local (80:20) provided a significant enhancement of grass and apple nuances and a decrease of banana notes with respect to Picual oils. The co-crushing process improved sensory and health properties of Picual extra virgin olive oils. The effect of co-crushing on phenolics, ester volatiles and banana nuances cannot be easily modulated, contrary to quality indices and fatty acid composition, both changing linearly in strict correlation with the fruit mass ratio. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Investigations into the residual strength of a 2.5 m wide Bushveld Merensky Reef crush pillar

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Watson, BP

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available of falls of ground in already dangerous areas, and the larger pillars decrease the extraction ratio. This paper describes the evaluation of stress measurements conducted in two boreholes over a crush pillar with dimensions 2.5 m x 4.0 m, and a height of 1...

  16. Interaction between an Eco-Spiral Bolt and Crushed Rock in a Borehole Evaluated by Pull-Out Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong-Seung Kang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The interactions between an eco-spiral bolt and crushed rocks in a borehole were evaluated by pull-out testing in a laboratory and numerical analysis. The porosity of the crushed rock surrounding the bolt depended on the size of the eco-spiral bolt and affected the eco-spiral bolt’s axial resistance force. The axial resistance force and the porosity of the crushed rocks in the borehole showed an inverse relationship. The porosity was also related to the size of the eco-spiral bolt. The maximum principal stress between the bolt and the rock was related to the porosity of the crushed rock and the size difference between the eco-spiral bolt and the borehole. At low porosity the experimental and numerical analyses show similar relationships between the axial resistance force and the displacement. However, at high porosity, the numerical results deviated greatly from the experimental observation. The initial agreement is attributed to the state of residual resistance after the maximum axial resistance force, and the latter divergence was due to the decreasing axial resistance force owing to slippage.

  17. [The neuroprotective effect of erigeron breviscapus (vant) hand-mazz on retinal ganglion cells after optic nerve crush injury].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Bing; Jiang, You-qin

    2003-08-01

    To investigate whether a Chinese herbal medicine, erigeron breviscapus (vant) hand-mazz (EBHM), can protect the retinal ganglion cells (RGC) damaged by calibrated optic nerve crush injury. Forty-two Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into two groups. Calibrated optic nerve crush injury model was induced in the right eyes by a special designed optic nerve clip. The left eyes served as a control. All 42 rats were randomly divided into 2 groups. Group A consisted of the rats with calibrated optic nerve crush injury and group B consisted of rats with calibrated optic nerve crush injury treated with EBHM. In group B, EBHM solution was given once after the crush injury. According to the time interval between the optic nerve crush and the sacrifice, both groups A and B were further divided into three subgroups (day 4, day 14 and day 21). Therefore, there were 7 rats in each subgroup. Three days before sacrifice, 3% fast blue was injected into superior colliculi bilaterally. The eyes were enucleated after the rat was sacrificed, and flat mounts of the retina from both eyes were prepared on a slide and observed under a fluorescence microscope. Four photos with 400 x magnification were taken from each of the four quadrants of the retina 1 mm away from the optic disc. The labeled RGC were counted by a computerized image analyzer. The labeled RGC rate was used for statistical analysis (the labeled RGC rate = number of RGC in injured eye/control eye x 100%). In group A, the labeled RGC rate was (77.79 +/- 7.11)%, (63.76 +/- 3.79)% and (54.66 +/- 4.75)% on day 4, day 14 and day 21, respectively. In group B, the labeled RGC rate was (80.13 +/- 12.03)%, (78.17 +/- 9.19)% and (83.59 +/- 12.61)% on day 4, day 14 and day 21, respectively. In group B, which was treated with EBHM after injury, the labeled RGC rate was significantly higher than that of group A on day 14 and day 21. In the experimental optic nerve crush model in rats, EBHM therapy can increase the survival rate of

  18. The diffusivity of cesium, strontium, carbon and nickel in concrete and mixtures of sodium bentonite and crushed rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muurinen, A.; Penttilae-Hiltunen, P.; Rantanen, J.

    1986-07-01

    The engineering barriers suggested to be used for the disposal of low and intermediate level wastes in Finland are concrete and crushed rock or mixtures of crushed rock and bentonite. In the repository the barriers are saturated by groundwater and radionuclides may be released by diffusion through the barries. For safety analysis, the mechanisms by which the nuclides migrate and corresponding parameters should be known. In this study diffusion measurements on different types of concrete and mixtures of sodium bentonite and crushed rock were carried out. Radioactive isotopes of cesium, strontium, carbon and nickel were used as tracers. The apparent diffusivities (Dsub(a)) were evaluated on the basis of the measurements. The apparent diffusivity of cesium in concretes was 10 -14 ...10 -15 m 2 /s. Strontium was mainly sorbed on cement where it diffuses slowly. Part of strontium propably penetrates in the rock ballast by diffusion. The diffusivities of carbon and nickel in the concrete was low. The upper limit was evaluated to be Dsub(a) -14 m 2 /s. The diffusivity of cesium in the mixtures of crushed rock and bentonite varies between 0.5x10 -12 and 7x10 -12 m 2 /s. Cesium was mainly sorbed on the rock. The diffusivity of strontium was 2x10 -11 ...2x10 -12 m 2 /s. Strontium was mainly sorbed on bentonite. The diffusion of the sorbed ions (surface diffusion) seems to be a additional migration mechanism in the case of cesium and strontium in the mixture of bentonite and crushed rock. The diffusivity of carbon in the mixtures of crushed rock and bentonite was 6x10 -11 ...4x10 -12 m 2 /s. No sorption was found in the case of carbon. The measured Dsub(a) of nickel in the mixtures of crushed rock and bentonite was 4x10 -14 ...2x10 -15 m 2 /s. The experimental arrangement was not, however, in the stationary state and the more correct values would propably be 10 -13 ...10 -14 m 2 /s. No surface diffusion was found in the case of nickel. (author)

  19. Fine-Needle Aspiration, Touch Imprint, and Crush Preparation Cytology for Diagnosing Thyroid Malignancies in Thyroid Nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadinejad, Mojtaba; Aliepour, Asghar; Anbari, Khatereh; Kaviani, Mojhgan; Ganjizadeh, Hasan; Nadri, Sedigheh; Foroutani, Niloufar; Meysami, Masoumeh; Almasi, Vahid

    2015-12-01

    Several methods are used to evaluate the thyroid nodules. The aim of this study was to determine the sensitivity, specificity, false positive and negative rates, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of touch imprint, crush preparation, and fine-needle aspiration (FNA) methods. This cross-sectional study was done in Shohada-ye Ashayer University Hospital in Khorramabad. All the patients who underwent thyroid surgery due to thyroid nodules in this hospital between March and September 2011 were evaluated. The thyroid nodules of all the patients were evaluated by touch imprint, crush preparation, FNA, and permanent pathology methods. Finally, the results of the first three methods were compared with the result of permanent pathology method. The mean age of 104 patients who underwent thyroid surgery was 42.6 ± 11.9 years old. Based on permanent pathology, touch imprint, crush preparation, and FNA methods, 15.3, 6.25, 6.25, and 4.4 % of thyroid nodules were malignant, respectively. Sensitivity, specificity, false positive rate, false negative rate, PPV, and NPV of FNA biopsy were 62.5, 100, 0, 37.5, 100, and 95.3 %, respectively. Also, sensitivity, specificity, false positive rate, false negative rate, PPV, and NPV of touch imprint and crush preparation were equal and were 80, 100, 0, 20, 100, and 96.7 %, respectively. Using touch imprint and crush preparation in evaluation of thyroid nodules for rapid evaluation of these nodules in operating rooms seems to be logical, and it can prevent further surgeries.

  20. Reducing the startup time of aerobic granular sludge reactors through seeding floccular sludge with crushed aerobic granules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pijuan, Maite; Werner, Ursula; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2011-10-15

    One of the main challenging issues for the aerobic granular sludge technology is the long startup time when dealing with real wastewaters. This study presents a novel strategy to reduce the time required for granulation while ensuring a high level of nutrient removal. This new approach consists of seeding the reactor with a mixture of crushed aerobic granules and floccular sludge. The effectiveness of the strategy was demonstrated using abattoir wastewater, containing nitrogen and phosphorus at approximately 250 mgN/L and 30 mgP/L, respectively. Seven different mixtures of crushed granules and floccular sludge at granular sludge fractions (w/w in dry mass) of 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 25%, 30% and 50% were used to start eight granulation processes. The granulation time (defined as the time when the 10th percentile bacterial aggregate size is larger than 200 μm) displayed a strong dependency on the fraction of granular sludge. The shortest granulation time of 18 days was obtained with 50% crushed granules, in comparison with 133 days with 5% crushed granules. Full granulation was not achieved in the two trials without seeding with crushed granules. In contrast to the 100% floccular sludge cases, where a substantial loss of biomass occurred during granulation, the biomass concentration in all other trails did not decrease during granulation. This allowed that good nitrogen removal was maintained in all the reactors during the granulation process. However, enhanced biological phosphorus removal was achieved in only one of the eight trials. This was likely due to the temporary accumulation of nitrite, a strong inhibitor of polyphosphate accumulating organisms. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Hashing, Randomness and Dictionaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagh, Rasmus

    to the similarity to a bookshelf dictionary, which contains a set of words and has an explanation associated with each word. In the static version of the problem the set is fixed, whereas in the dynamic version, insertions and deletions of elements are possible. The approach taken is that of the theoretical...

  2. Derandomization, Hashing and Expanders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruzic, Milan

    . The central question in this area of computational complexity is \\P=BPP?". Instead of derandomizing whole complexity classes, one may work on derandomizing concrete problems. This approach trades generality for possibility of having much better performance bounds. There are a few common techniques...

  3. Behavior of crushed rock aggregates used in road construction exposed to cold climate conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsova, Elena; Pérez Fortes, Ana Patricia; Anastasio, Sara; Willy Danielsen, Svein

    2016-04-01

    Presently, about 90% of the aggregate production in Europe comes from naturally occurring resources: quarries and pits. Due to the increased demand for sand and gravel for construction purposes, not only in building but also in road construction, the last decade has seen a significant trend towards the use of more crushed rock aggregates. This resource has been more and more preferred to sand and gravel thanks to the significant technological development of its process and use phase. The performance of the aggregates is generally evaluated depending on three main factors: the geological origin (mineral composition, texture, structure, degree of weathering), the aggregate processing (crushing, sieving, washing, storing) and the user technology for a specific area of use (e.g. road construction, asphalt binders). Nevertheless climatic conditions should carefully be taken into account in application such as road construction. Large temperature gradients and high levels of humidity are known to significantly affect the performance of the material. Although the problem is, at least in the asphalt field, considered mostly from the binder point of view, this article aims to investigate the effect of aggregate properties on road performance in cold climatic conditions. Two different climatic areas will be taken into account: Norway and Spain. While both these countries are listed among the main European producers of aggregates, they represent significantly different climatic regions. While Norwegian weather is characterized by humid cold winters and relatively mild summers, Spain has temperate climate with cold regions in mountainous and internal areas. Both countries have been significantly affected by climate change with increasing temperature variations and instability. At the same time, similar winter maintenance measures, including the use of a considerable amount of solid and liquid chemicals to avoid ice formation (e.g. NaCl) and/or to provide better friction, are

  4. Quasi-static axial crushes on woven jute/polyester AA6063T52 composite tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, A.; Ismail, AE

    2018-04-01

    Quasi-static axial loading have been studied in this paper to determine the behaviour of jute/polyester wrapped on aluminium alloy 6063T52. The filler material also was include into crush box specimen, which is polyurethane (PU) and polystyrene (PE) rigid foam at ranging 40 and 45 kg/m3 densities. All specimen profile was fabricated using hand layup techniques and the length of each specimen were fixed at 100 mm as well as diameter and width of the tube at 50.8 mm. The two types of tubular cross-section were studied of round and square thin-walled profiles and the angle of fibre at 450 were analysed for four layers. Thin walled of aluminium was 1.9 mm and end frontal of each specimen of composite were chamfered at 450 to prevent catastrophic failure mode. The specific absorbed energy (SEA) and crush force efficiency (CFE) were analyses for each specimen to see the behaviour on jute/polyester wrapped on metallic structure can give influence the energy management for automotive application. Result show that the four layers’ jute/polyester with filler material show significant value in term of specific absorbed energy compared empty and polyurethane profiles higher 26.66% for empty and 15.19% compared to polyurethane profiles. It has been found that the thin walled square profile of the jute/polyester tubes with polystyrene foam-filled is found higher respectively 27.42% to 13.13% than empty and polyurethane (PU) foam tubes. An introduce filler material onto thin walled composite profiles gave major advantage increases the mean axial load of 31.87% from 32.94 kN to 48.35 kN from empty to polystyrene thin walled round jute/polyester profiles and 31.7% from 23.11 KN to 33.84 kN from empty to polystyrene thin walled square jute/polyester profiles. Failure mechanisms of the axially loaded composite tubes were also observed and discussed.

  5. Retrograde tracing and toe spreading after experimental autologous nerve transplantation and crush injury of the sciatic nerve: a descriptive methodological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Neerven Sabien GA

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Evaluation of functional and structural recovery after peripheral nerve injury is crucial to determine the therapeutic effect of a nerve repair strategy. In the present study, we examined the relationship between the structural evaluation of regeneration by means of retrograde tracing and the functional analysis of toe spreading. Two standardized rat sciatic nerve injury models were used to address this relationship. As such, animals received either a 2 cm sciatic nerve defect (neurotmesis followed by autologous nerve transplantation (ANT animals or a crush injury with spontaneous recovery (axonotmesis; CI animals. Functional recovery of toe spreading was observed over an observation period of 84 days. In contrast to CI animals, ANT animals did not reach pre-surgical levels of toe spreading. After the observation period, the lipophilic dye DiI was applied to label sensory and motor neurons in dorsal root ganglia (DRG; sensory neurons and spinal cord (motor neurons, respectively. No statistical difference in motor or sensory neuron counts could be detected between ANT and CI animals. In the present study we could indicate that there was no direct relationship between functional recovery (toe spreading measured by SSI and the number of labelled (motor and sensory neurons evaluated by retrograde tracing. The present findings demonstrate that a multimodal approach with a variety of independent evaluation tools is essential to understand and estimate the therapeutic benefit of a nerve repair strategy.

  6. Peripheral Nerve Regeneration Following Crush Injury to Rat Peroneal Nerve by Aqueous Extract of Medicinal Mushroom Hericium erinaceus (Bull.: Fr Pers. (Aphyllophoromycetideae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kah-Hui Wong

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Nerve crush injury is a well-established axonotmetic model in experimental regeneration studies to investigate the impact of various pharmacological treatments. Hericium erinaceus is a temperate mushroom but is now being cultivated in tropical Malaysia. In this study, we investigated the activity of aqueous extract of H. erinaceus fresh fruiting bodies in promoting functional recovery following an axonotmetic peroneal nerve injury in adult female Sprague-Dawley rats by daily oral administration. The aim was to investigate the possible use of this mushroom in the treatment of injured nerve. Functional recovery was assessed in behavioral experiment by walking track analysis. Peroneal functional index (PFI was determined before surgery and after surgery as rats showed signs of recovery. Histological examinations were performed on peroneal nerve by immunofluorescence staining and neuromuscular junction by combined silver-cholinesterase stain. Analysis of PFI indicated that return of hind limb function occurred earlier in rats of aqueous extract or mecobalamin (positive control group compared to negative control group. Regeneration of axons and reinnervation of motor endplates in extensor digitorum longus muscle in rats of aqueous extract or mecobalamin group developed better than in negative control group. These data suggest that daily oral administration of aqueous extract of H. erinaceus fresh fruiting bodies could promote the regeneration of injured rat peroneal nerve in the early stage of recovery.

  7. Peripheral Nerve Regeneration Following Crush Injury to Rat Peroneal Nerve by Aqueous Extract of Medicinal Mushroom Hericium erinaceus (Bull.: Fr) Pers. (Aphyllophoromycetideae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kah-Hui; Naidu, Murali; David, Pamela; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen; Abdullah, Noorlidah; Kuppusamy, Umah Rani; Sabaratnam, Vikineswary

    2011-01-01

    Nerve crush injury is a well-established axonotmetic model in experimental regeneration studies to investigate the impact of various pharmacological treatments. Hericium erinaceus is a temperate mushroom but is now being cultivated in tropical Malaysia. In this study, we investigated the activity of aqueous extract of H. erinaceus fresh fruiting bodies in promoting functional recovery following an axonotmetic peroneal nerve injury in adult female Sprague-Dawley rats by daily oral administration. The aim was to investigate the possible use of this mushroom in the treatment of injured nerve. Functional recovery was assessed in behavioral experiment by walking track analysis. Peroneal functional index (PFI) was determined before surgery and after surgery as rats showed signs of recovery. Histological examinations were performed on peroneal nerve by immunofluorescence staining and neuromuscular junction by combined silver-cholinesterase stain. Analysis of PFI indicated that return of hind limb function occurred earlier in rats of aqueous extract or mecobalamin (positive control) group compared to negative control group. Regeneration of axons and reinnervation of motor endplates in extensor digitorum longus muscle in rats of aqueous extract or mecobalamin group developed better than in negative control group. These data suggest that daily oral administration of aqueous extract of H. erinaceus fresh fruiting bodies could promote the regeneration of injured rat peroneal nerve in the early stage of recovery. PMID:21941586

  8. Remediation of muddy tidal flat sediments using hot air-dried crushed oyster shells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Tamiji; Kondo, Shunsuke; Kim, Kyung-Hoi; Asaoka, Satoshi; Yamamoto, Hironori; Tokuoka, Makoto; Hibino, Tadashi

    2012-11-01

    In order to prove that hot air-dried crushed oyster shells (HACOS) are effective in reducing hydrogen sulfide in muddy tidal flat sediments and increasing the biomass, field experiments were carried out. The concentration of hydrogen sulfide in the interstitial water, which was 16 mg SL(-1) before the application of HACOS, decreased sharply and maintained almost zero in the experimental sites (HACOS application sites) for one year, whereas it was remained at ca. 5 mg SL(-1) in the control sites. The number of macrobenthos individuals increased to 2-4.5 times higher than that in the control site. Using a simple numerical model, the effective periods for suppression of hydrogen sulfide were estimated to be 3.2-7.6 and 6.4-15.2 years for the experimental sites with 4 and 8 tons per 10 × 10 × 0.2m area, respectively. From these results, it is concluded that HACOS is an effective material to remediate muddy tidal flats. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Technical viability of self-compacting concretes with by-products from crushed coarse aggregate production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Bacarji

    Full Text Available Abstract The main objective of this work is to present the technical viability of Self Compacting Concretes (SCC containing by-products from crushed coarse aggregate production. For this purpose, a vast characterization of these by-products was made; six mixtures of SCC were produced using two different aggregates: granite and mica schist. The binder/dry aggregate (b/agg ratio by mass was 1:3. The following properties were analyzed: compressive strength, direct tensile strength, flexural tensile strength and splitting tensile strength. Granite presented the best mechanical performance. The replacement of natural sand by granite sand generated concretes with the same level of compressive strength and caused an increase in tensile strength values. The incorporation of silica fume into concrete with granite produced an increase of 17% in compressive strength. So, the use of these by-product materials can provide a technically feasible solution that is also consistent with the aims of sustainable development and preservation of the environment.

  10. Numerical study for identification of influence of energy absorption and frontal crush for vehicle crashworthiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suman, Shwetabh; Shah, Haard; Susarla, Vaibhav; Ravi, K.

    2017-11-01

    According to the statistics it has been seen that everyday nearly 400 people are killed due to road accidents. Due to this it has become an important concern to concentrate on the safety of the passengers which can be done by improving the crashworthiness of the vehicle. During the impact, a large amount of energy is released which if not absorbed, will be transmitted to the passenger compartment. For the safety of the passenger this energy has to be absorbed. Front rail is one of the main energy absorbing components in the vehicle front structure. When it comes to the structure and material of the part or component of the vehicle that is to be designed for crash, it is done based on three parameters: Specific Energy of Absorption, Mass of the front rail and maximum crush force. In this work, we are considering different internal geometries with different materials to increase the energy absorbing capacity of the front rail. Based on the extensive analysis carried aluminium seizes to be the opt material for frontal crash.

  11. Crushed and River-Origin Sands Used as Aggregates in Repair Mortars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Stefanidou

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The systematic analysis of mortars from monuments or historic buildings and the simultaneous study of the construction environment show that it was common practice to use naturally occurring sand from local rivers or streams for the production of the mortars. There are cases though, mainly on islands, where sands of natural origin were limited, and marine or crushed sands were used possibly after elaboration. In all cases the particle size analysis of old mortar confirms the presence of even distribution of the granules. As regards the design of the repair mortars, there are criteria that should be taken into consideration in order to produce materials with compatible properties. The main properties concerning sands are the grain distribution and maximum size, the color, the content of fines, and soluble salts. The objective of this research is the study of the physical characteristics of the sands such as the sand equivalent, the gradation, the apparent density, the morphology of the grains, their mineralogical composition and the influence of these properties on the behavior of lime mortars, notably the mechanical and physical properties acquired.

  12. Comparison of ice particle morphology crushed from ice chunk and directly solidified from droplet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, J.H.; Yoon, Y.S.; Bang, S.Y. [Dongguk Univ., Pil-dong, Chung-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2008-07-01

    In order to investigate the transition kinetics of ice to hydrate and to produce standard specimens of hydrate pellet from prepared hydrate powders, fine ice beads with uniform diameters must be fabricated. This paper discussed the construction of several experimental setups for the fabrication of fine ice particle generation. The ultrasonic nozzle was used to produce fine mist which solidified near the free surface of liquid nitrogen bath. The shape and population distribution of ice bead diameters was analyzed. The study also compared ice particles produced by crushing. The surface morphology of ice particles produced with a ball mill was also examined. Experimental results were obtained for an ice shaver, ball mill, bowl for grinding medicine, and ultrasonic nozzle. It was concluded that the information generated from the study was useful in estimating the macroscopic flow characteristics such as permeability of bulk powder and in determining mean effective diameter of irregular shaped particles. Future work was also noted as being underway with different experiments for other cases with different operating conditions. 5 refs., 5 figs.

  13. Uniform Foam Crush Testing for Multi-Mission Earth Entry Vehicle Impact Attenuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Byron W.; Glaab, Louis J.

    2012-01-01

    Multi-Mission Earth Entry Vehicles (MMEEVs) are blunt-body vehicles designed with the purpose of transporting payloads from outer space to the surface of the Earth. To achieve high-reliability and minimum weight, MMEEVs avoid use of limited-reliability systems, such as parachutes and retro-rockets, instead using built-in impact attenuators to absorb energy remaining at impact to meet landing loads requirements. The Multi-Mission Systems Analysis for Planetary Entry (M-SAPE) parametric design tool is used to facilitate the design of MMEEVs and develop the trade space. Testing was conducted to characterize the material properties of several candidate impact foam attenuators to enhance M-SAPE analysis. In the current effort, four different Rohacell foams are tested at three different, uniform, strain rates (approximately 0.17, approximately 100, approximately 13,600%/s). The primary data analysis method uses a global data smoothing technique in the frequency domain to remove noise and system natural frequencies. The results from the data indicate that the filter and smoothing technique are successful in identifying the foam crush event and removing aberrations. The effect of strain rate increases with increasing foam density. The 71-WF-HT foam may support Mars Sample Return requirements. Several recommendations to improve the drop tower test technique are identified.

  14. Development of a Crush and Mix Machine for Composite Brick Fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sothea, Kruy; Fazli, Nik; Hamdi, M.; Aoyama, Hideki

    2011-01-01

    Currently, people are more and more concerned about the environmental protection. Municipal solid wastes (MSW) have bad effect on the environment and also human health. In addition, the amounts of municipal solid wastes are increasing due to the economic development, density of population, especially in the developing countries and they are recycled in a little percentage. To address this problem, the composite brick forming machine was designed and developed to make brick using combination of MSW and mortar. The machine consists of two independent parts, crusher and mixer part, and molding part. This paper explores the design of crusher and mixer part. The crusher has ability to cut MSW such as wood, paper and plastic into small size. There are two mixers; one is used for making mortar and other use for making slurry. FEA analyses were carried out to address the suitable strength of the critical parts of the crusher which ensures that crusher can run properly with high efficiency. The experimentation of the crusher shows that it has high performance for cutting MSW. The mixers also work very well in high efficiency. The results of composite brick testing have been shown that ability of the machine can performance well. This is the innovation of crush and mix machine which is portable and economic by using MSW in replacement of sand.

  15. Effect of Crushed Glass Cullet Sizes on Physical and Mechanical Properties of Red Clay Bricks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Ponce Peña

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study reports the effect of clear waste glass from bottles added on 20 to 30 wt.% and variable particle size (<500, <300, and <212 μm, into clay mixtures for the handmade brick manufacturing process. The bricks were manufactured with mixtures of clay, crushed glass, and water in different proportions, homogenized, casted in wooden molds, air-dried at room temperature for 72 h, and sintered at 1000°C for 12 h. Total shrinkage, water absorption, compressive strength, microstructure, and phase composition are discussed with respect to glass content and its particle size. The results indicate that increasing the content of glass and decreasing its particle size enhanced significantly the brick properties of water absorption and compressive strength by up to 18.5% and 6.8 MPa, for bricks with 30 wt% and particle size lower than 212 μm. It is proposed that decreasing the glass particle size its surface area increases allowing easier melting of glass by lower energy consumption, reducing porosity and enhancing brick properties.

  16. Performances of hydrated cement treated crushed rock base for Western Australian roads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suphat Chummuneerat

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The resilient modulus (RM of hydrated cement treated crushed rock base (HCTCRB affected by amount of hydration periods, compaction and dryback processes was presented using repeated load triaxial tests. The related trends of RM corresponding to the different hydration periods still cannot be concluded. Instead, It is found that the moisture content plays more major influence on the RM performance. Higher additional water during compaction of HCTCRB, even at its optimum moisture content and induced higher dry density, led to the inferior RM performance compared to the sample without water addition. The RM of damper samples can be improved through dryback process and superior to that of the sample without water addition at the same moisture content. However, the samples without water addition during compaction deliver the comparable RM values even its dry density is lower than the other two types. These results indicate the significant influence of moisture content to the performances of HCTCRB with regardless of the dry density. Finally, the experimental results of HCTCRB and parent material are evaluated with the K-θ model and the model recommended by Austroads. These two models provide the excellent fit of the tested results with high degree of determination.

  17. A numerical test method of California bearing ratio on graded crushed rocks using particle flow modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingjun Jiang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to better understand the mechanical properties of graded crushed rocks (GCRs and to optimize the relevant design, a numerical test method based on the particle flow modeling technique PFC2D is developed for the California bearing ratio (CBR test on GCRs. The effects of different testing conditions and micro-mechanical parameters used in the model on the CBR numerical results have been systematically studied. The reliability of the numerical technique is verified. The numerical results suggest that the influences of the loading rate and Poisson's ratio on the CBR numerical test results are not significant. As such, a loading rate of 1.0–3.0 mm/min, a piston diameter of 5 cm, a specimen height of 15 cm and a specimen diameter of 15 cm are adopted for the CBR numerical test. The numerical results reveal that the CBR values increase with the friction coefficient at the contact and shear modulus of the rocks, while the influence of Poisson's ratio on the CBR values is insignificant. The close agreement between the CBR numerical results and experimental results suggests that the numerical simulation of the CBR values is promising to help assess the mechanical properties of GCRs and to optimize the grading design. Besides, the numerical study can provide useful insights on the mesoscopic mechanism.

  18. Representative-Sandwich Model for Mechanical-Crush and Short-Circuit Simulation of Lithium-ion Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Chao; Santhanagopalan, Shriram; Sprague, Michael A.; Pesaran, Ahmad A.

    2015-07-28

    Lithium-ion batteries are currently the state-of-the-art power sources for a variety of applications, from consumer electronic devices to electric-drive vehicles (EDVs). Being an energized component, failure of the battery is an essential concern, which can result in rupture, smoke, fire, or venting. The failure of Lithium-ion batteries can be due to a number of external abusive conditions (impact/crush, overcharge, thermal ramp, etc.) or internal conditions (internal short circuits, excessive heating due to resistance build-up, etc.), of which the mechanical-abuse-induced short circuit is a very practical problem. In order to better understand the behavior of Lithium-ion batteries under mechanical abuse, a coupled modeling methodology encompassing the mechanical, thermal and electrical response has been developed for predicting short circuit under external crush.

  19. "DK Crush" Technique for a Tightly Stenosed Conjoined SVG Lesion in a Patient with Acute Coronary Syndrome and Cardiogenic Shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kuan-Ju; Lee, Wen-Lieng; Liu, Tsun-Jui; Chang, Wei-Chun; Wang, Kuo-Yang; Su, Chieh-Shou

    2015-05-01

    Coronary artery bifurcation disease of saphenous venous graft (SVG) is extremely rare. SVG disease remains a challenging lesion to treat because of increased morbidity and mortality with repeated coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG), high rates of periprocedural complications, and in-stent restenosis or occlusion requiring repeat revascularization with percutaneous coronary intervention. Herein, we present the first reported case of using the "DK crush" technique to treat an inverted Y-shaped SVG bifurcation disease in a patient with a prior CABG and new-onset acute coronary syndrome. Arising from our treatment, favorable immediate and mid-term angiographic and clinical outcomes were obtained. Coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG); "DK crush" technique; Saphenous venous graft (SVG).

  20. Protection by an oral disubstituted hydroxylamine derivative against loss of retinal ganglion cell differentiation following optic nerve crush.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James D Lindsey

    Full Text Available Thy-1 is a cell surface protein that is expressed during the differentiation of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs. Optic nerve injury induces progressive loss in the number of RGCs expressing Thy-1. The rate of this loss is fastest during the first week after optic nerve injury and slower in subsequent weeks. This study was undertaken to determine whether oral treatment with a water-soluble N-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine derivative (OT-440 protects against loss of Thy-1 promoter activation following optic nerve crush and whether this effect targets the earlier quick phase or the later slow phase. The retina of mice expressing cyan fluorescent protein under control of the Thy-1 promoter (Thy1-CFP mice was imaged using a blue-light confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope (bCSLO. These mice then received oral OT-440 prepared in cream cheese or dissolved in water, or plain vehicle, for two weeks and were imaged again prior to unilateral optic nerve crush. Treatments and weekly imaging continued for four more weeks. Fluorescent neurons were counted in the same defined retinal areas imaged at each time point in a masked fashion. When the counts at each time point were directly compared, the numbers of fluorescent cells at each time point were greater in the animals that received OT-440 in cream cheese by 8%, 27%, 52% and 60% than in corresponding control animals at 1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks after optic nerve crush. Similar results were obtained when the vehicle was water. Rate analysis indicated the protective effect of OT-440 was greatest during the first two weeks and was maintained in the second two weeks after crush for both the cream cheese vehicle study and water vehicle study. Because most of the fluorescent cells detected by bCSLO are RGCs, these findings suggest that oral OT-440 can either protect against or delay early degenerative responses occurring in RGCs following optic nerve injury.

  1. Protection by an oral disubstituted hydroxylamine derivative against loss of retinal ganglion cell differentiation following optic nerve crush.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, James D; Duong-Polk, Karen X; Dai, Yi; Nguyen, Duy H; Leung, Christopher K; Weinreb, Robert N

    2013-01-01

    Thy-1 is a cell surface protein that is expressed during the differentiation of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). Optic nerve injury induces progressive loss in the number of RGCs expressing Thy-1. The rate of this loss is fastest during the first week after optic nerve injury and slower in subsequent weeks. This study was undertaken to determine whether oral treatment with a water-soluble N-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine derivative (OT-440) protects against loss of Thy-1 promoter activation following optic nerve crush and whether this effect targets the earlier quick phase or the later slow phase. The retina of mice expressing cyan fluorescent protein under control of the Thy-1 promoter (Thy1-CFP mice) was imaged using a blue-light confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope (bCSLO). These mice then received oral OT-440 prepared in cream cheese or dissolved in water, or plain vehicle, for two weeks and were imaged again prior to unilateral optic nerve crush. Treatments and weekly imaging continued for four more weeks. Fluorescent neurons were counted in the same defined retinal areas imaged at each time point in a masked fashion. When the counts at each time point were directly compared, the numbers of fluorescent cells at each time point were greater in the animals that received OT-440 in cream cheese by 8%, 27%, 52% and 60% than in corresponding control animals at 1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks after optic nerve crush. Similar results were obtained when the vehicle was water. Rate analysis indicated the protective effect of OT-440 was greatest during the first two weeks and was maintained in the second two weeks after crush for both the cream cheese vehicle study and water vehicle study. Because most of the fluorescent cells detected by bCSLO are RGCs, these findings suggest that oral OT-440 can either protect against or delay early degenerative responses occurring in RGCs following optic nerve injury.

  2. Interactions between crush conditions and fire resistance for type B(U) packages less than 500 kg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huebner, H.W.; Masslowski, J.P.

    1983-01-01

    In the continuation of the research work by BAM and the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA), France, a study was made of the increased risk in regard to low-probability accidents, involving small, type B packages. An evaluation was made of the increased risk when small, type B packages are involved with a low-probability accident - one that involves both crush forces and exposure to a hydrocarbon fire. 3 references, 3 figures

  3. Indirect MR-arthrography in osteochondral autograft and crushed bone graft with a collagen membrane-Correlation with histology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Streitparth, F. [Klinik fuer Strahlenheilkunde, Charite, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Humboldt-University, Berlin (Germany)], E-mail: florian.streitparth@charite.de; Schoettle, P.; Schell, H. [Center for Musculoskeletal Surgery, Charite, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Humboldt-University, Berlin (Germany); Lehmkuhl, L.; Madej, T.; Wieners, G. [Klinik fuer Strahlenheilkunde, Charite, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Humboldt-University, Berlin (Germany); Duda, G.N. [Center for Musculoskeletal Surgery, Charite, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Humboldt-University, Berlin (Germany); Schroeder, R.J. [Klinik fuer Strahlenheilkunde, Charite, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Humboldt-University, Berlin (Germany)

    2009-04-15

    Objective: To analyze the spectrum of findings in indirect MR-arthrography following osteochondral autograft transfer system (OATS) and crushed bone graft using a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scoring and grading system in relation to histology as the standard of reference. Materials and methods: Iatrogenic lesions were set at ovine condylar facets (n = 6/group), treated with OATS or crushed bone graft. 1.5 T MRI was performed 6 months after surgery using PD-weighted (w fat saturated (fs) fast spin echo (FSE), T1-w 2D, and 3D fs gradient echo (GE) sequences 30 min. after i.v. Gd-DTPA administration and passive joint exercise. The repair tissue was evaluated by two independent radiologists. The MR findings were compared to histology. Results: In all cases, MRI and histologic grading correlated well and showed significant superior repair in OATS at 6 months (p < 0.05), reproducing the original articular contour and a good subchondral restoration. FsT1-w3DGE proved most appropriate identifying characteristic post-operative findings: the OATS group demonstrated bone marrow edema at the donor site and the graft/host interface showed significant enhancement in indirect MR-arthrography, indicating fibrocartilage. After crushed bone graft, we found an irregular structure and significant contrast uptake, consistent with remnants of bone grafts surrounded by inflammatory tissue. Conclusion: Indirect MR-arthrography is an accurate, non-invasive monitoring tool following OATS and crushed bone graft as the MRI scoring and grading system allows a reliable evaluation of normal and pathological osteochondral repair with a high histologic correlation.

  4. Crushed aggregate-betonite mixtures as backfill material for the Finnish repositories of low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holopainen, P.; Pirhonen, V.; Snellman, M.

    1984-03-01

    Backfill materials consisting of three components: crushed rock aggregate, finely ground rock aggregate and bentonite (3 to 2 per cent of weight) were studied. The production and installation procedures of the material were evaluated. Laboratory tests were made to determine the hydraulic conductivity and swelling potential of the materials. Chemical tests were made on the different materials and groundwaters. Mineralogical changes of the clay fraction were estimated. (author)

  5. Optimisation of tungsten ore processing through a deep mineralogical characterisation and the study of the crushing process

    OpenAIRE

    Bascompte Vaquero, Jordi

    2017-01-01

    The unstoppable increasing global demand for metals calls for an urgent development of more efficient extraction and processing methods in the mining industry. Comminution is responsible for nearly half of the energy consumption of the entire mining process, and in the majority of the cases it is far from being optimised. Inside comminution, grinding is widely known for being more inefficient than crushing, however, it is needed to reach liberation at an ultrafine particle size. ...

  6. Concrete crushing and sampling, a methodology and technology for the unconditional release of concrete material from decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gills, R.; Lewandowski, P.; Ooms, B.; Reusen, N.; Van Laer, W.; Walthery, R.

    2007-01-01

    Belgoprocess started the industrial decommissioning of the main process building of the former Eurochemic reprocessing plant in 1990, after completion of a pilot project. Two small storage buildings for final products from reprocessing were dismantled to verify the assumptions made in a previous paper study on decommissioning, to demonstrate and develop dismantling techniques and to train personnel. Both buildings were emptied and decontaminated to background levels. They were demolished and the remaining concrete debris was disposed of as industrial waste and green field conditions restored. Currently, the decommissioning operations carried out at the main building have made substantial progress. They are executed on an industrial scale. In view of the final demolition of the building, foreseen to start in the middle of 2008, a clearance methodology for the concrete from the cells into the Eurochemic building has been developed. It considers at least one complete measurement of all concrete structures and the removal of all detected residual radionuclides. This monitoring sequence is followed by a controlled demolition of the concrete structures and crushing of the resulting concrete parts to smaller particles. During the crushing operations, metal parts are separated from the concrete and representative concrete samples are taken. The frequency of sampling meets the prevailing standards. In a further step, the concrete samples are milled, homogenised, and a smaller fraction is sent to the laboratory for analyses. The paper describes the developed concrete crushing and sampling methodology. (authors)

  7. Determination of exposure to respirable quartz in the stone crushing units at Azendarian-West of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami, Abdul Rahman; Golbabai, Faridah; Mahjub, Hossien; Qorbani, Farshid; Aliabadi, Mohsan; Barqi, Mohamadali

    2008-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe the personal exposure to respirable dust and quartz and in stone crushing units located at west of Iran. A size of 40 personal samples and 40 stationary samples were obtained and analysis was done by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results of personal sampling were shown the concentrations of respirable dust exposure level in workers of process, hopper and drivers were 1.90, 2.22, 1.41 times greater than Occupational Safety and Health Administration permissible exposure limit (OSHA PEL). The average value of total dust and respirable dust emission from stationary sources was 9.46 mg/m(3), 1.24 mg/m(3) respectively, showing that 13.8 % of total dust is respirable. The efficiency of local exhaust ventilation (LEV) to control of particles inside of industrial units was greater than 99%. It is concluded from this research the particulate generated from stone crushing activities contain a significant amount of respirable particle. The amount of free silica in stone quartz is 85 to 97 percent that emission of particles effect to health workers. LEV has important effect in the removal of silica particles in stone crushing units. The worker of hoppers still exposed to silica more than standard limits.

  8. Evaluation of leachate emissions from crushed rock and municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash used in road construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidelöw, S; Lagerkvist, A

    2007-01-01

    Three years of leachate emissions from municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash and crushed rock in a full-scale test road were evaluated. The impact of time, construction design, and climate on the emissions was studied, and the predicted release from standard leaching tests was compared with the measured release from the road. The main pollutants and their respective concentrations in leachate from the roadside slope were Al (12.8-85.3 mg l(-1)), Cr (2-125 microg l(-1)), and Cu (0.15-1.9 mg l(-1)) in ash leachate and Zn (1-780 microg l(-1)) in crushed rock leachate. From the ash, the initial Cl(-) release was high ( approximately 20 g l(-1)). After three years, the amount of Cu and Cl(-) was in the same range in both leachates, while that of Al and Cr still was more than one order of magnitude higher in ash leachate. Generally, the release was faster from material in the uncovered slopes than below the pavement. Whether the road was asphalted or not, however, had minor impacts on the leachate quality. During rain events, diluted leachates with respect to, e.g., salts were observed. The leaching tests failed to simulate field leaching from the crushed rock, whereas better agreement was observed for the ash. Comparisons of constituent release from bottom ash and conventional materials solely based on such tests should be avoided.

  9. Leaching behaviour of copper slag, construction and demolition waste and crushed rock used in a full-scale road construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidelöw, Sofia; Mácsik, Josef; Carabante, Ivan; Kumpiene, Jurate

    2017-12-15

    The leaching behaviour of a road construction with fayalitic copper slag, recycled concrete and crushed rock as sub-base materials was monitored over ten years. All studied materials used in the road construction, including crushed rock, contained concentrations of several elements exceeding the guideline values recommended by the Swedish EPA for total element concentrations for waste materials used in constructions. Despite that, leaching from the road construction under field conditions in general was relatively low. The leachates from the recycled materials contained higher concentrations of several constituents than the leachates from the reference section with crushed rock. The leaching of the elements of interest (Cr, Mo, Ni, Zn) reached peak concentrations during the second and fourth (Cu) years and decreased over the observation period to levels below the Swedish recommended values. Carbonation of the concrete aggregates caused a substantial but short-term increase in the leaching of oxyanions such as chromate. The environmental risks related to element leaching are highest at the beginning of the road life. Ageing of materials or pre-treatment through leaching is needed prior to their use in construction to avoid peak concentrations. Also, the design of road constructions should be adjusted so that recycled materials are covered with low-permeability covers, which would minimize the exposure to atmospheric precipitation and weathering. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Behavior of crushed salt under heat source in boreholes in a salt mine (Amelie Mine, Alsace Potash Mines, France)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghoreychi, M.

    1991-01-01

    The study of thermomechanical interaction between rock salt and crushed salt, used as a backfilling material at the final stage of radioactive waste disposal in salt formations, led to perform an in situ test at the Amelie Mine(The Alsace Potash Mines in France). The field tests site is located at a depth of 520m and the tests were performed in six parallel boreholes. Five boreholes were backfilled using three types of crushed salt, changing by their grain size (fine = 0.4 mm; natural = 1 mm; coarse = 2 mm). The sixth borehole was not backfilled in order to witness for rock salt behavior without backfilling confinement. Except the first borehole used as a pilot test, the four backfilled boreholes were heated during four months with two levels of heat output (1.6 kW, then 2.2 kW). Cooling was also followed during four months after heating interruption. The maximum of temperature obtained on the wall of the backfilled boreholes was about 100 0 C during the first field test and 130 0 C during the second. The thermal diffusivity of rock mass and the coefficient of heat exchange by convection are studied. In spite of the case that the crushed salt thermal conductivity is initially ten times less than of rock salt, no excessive temperature concentration was obtained on the heat sources

  11. Application of vacuum metallurgy to separate pure metal from mixed metallic particles of crushed waste printed circuit board scraps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Lu; Xu, Zhenming

    2008-10-15

    The principle of separating pure metal from mixed metallic particles (MMPs) byvacuum metallurgy is that the vapor pressures of various metals at the same temperature are different As a result, the metal with high vapor pressure and low boiling point can be separated from the mixed metals through distillation or sublimation, and then it can be recycled through condensation under a certain condition. The vacuum metallurgy separation (VMS) of MMPs of crushed waste printed circuit boards (WPCBs) has been studied in this paper. Theoretical analyses show that the MMPs (copper, zinc, bismuth, lead, and indium, for example) can be separated by vacuum metallurgy. The copper particles (0.15-0.20 mm) and zinc particles (<0.30 mm) were chosen to simulate the MMPs of crushed WPCBs. Experimental results show that the separated efficiency of zinc in the copper-rich particles achieves 96.19 wt % when the vacuum pressure is 0.01-0.10 Pa, the heating temperature is 1123 K, and the heating time is 105 min. Under this operation condition, the separated efficiency of zinc in the copper-rich particles from crushed WPCBs achieves 97.00 wt % and the copper purity increases from 90.68 to 99.84 wt %.

  12. Genetic parameters of the piglet mortality traits stillborn, weak at birth, starvation, crushing, and miscellaneous in crossbred pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strange, T.; Ask, B.; Nielsen, B.

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to estimate genetic parameters for the mortality causes stillborn, weak at birth, starvation, crushing, and miscellaneous in crossbred piglets produced by crossbred dams. Data were collected in a single Danish commercial herd from October 2006 to July 2008 and consisted of 34......,194 piglets (2,152 litters), which originated from 195 Danish Duroc sires and 955 crossbreds between Danish Landrace and Danish Yorkshire dams. Of the 34,194 piglets born, 11.5% were stillborn, 4.2% were crushed by the sow, 2.7% died due to starvation, 2.3% were weak at birth, and 2.2% died of miscellaneous...... traits based on the sire component ranged from -0.05 between stillborn and starvation to 0.35 between stillborn and weak at birth whereas genetic correlations based on the dam component ranged from -0.11 between weak at birth and starvation to 0.76 between crushing and starvation. There seemed...

  13. Effect of warning symbols in combination with education on the frequency of erroneously crushing medication in nursing homes : An uncontrolled before and after study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Welie, Steven; Wijma, Linda; Beerden, Tim; van Doormaal, Jasperien; Taxis, Katja

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Residents of nursing homes often have difficulty swallowing (dysphagia), which complicates the administration of solid oral dosage formulations. Erroneously crushing medication is common, but few interventions have been tested to improve medication safety. Therefore, we evaluated the

  14. Radon concentration and exhalation rates in building material samples from crushing zone in Shivalik Foot Hills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pundir, Anil; Kamboj, Sunil; Bansal, Vakul; Chauhan, R.P.; Rana, Rajinder Singh

    2012-01-01

    Radon ( 222 Rn) is an inert radioactive gas in the decay chain of uranium ( 238 U). It continuously emanates from soil to the atmosphere. Radon and its progeny are the major natural radioactive sources for the ambient radioactivity on Earth. A number of studies on radon were performed in recent decades focusing on its transport and movement in the atmosphere under different meteorological conditions. Building materials are the main source of radon inside buildings. Some construction materials are naturally more radioactive and removal of such material from the earth's crust and their subsequent use in construction of buildings further enhances the radioactivity level. The knowledge of radioactivity level in the building materials makes us aware about the management, guidelines and standards in construction of buildings. The main objective of the present investigations is to measure radon Concentration and exhalation rates in the samples collected from the Crushing zone of Shivalik foot hills. Different types of materials are being used in Northern part of India for construction of dwellings. For the measurement of radon concentration and its exhalation rates in building materials, LR-115 detectors were exposed in closed plastic canisters for three months. At the end of the exposure time, the detectors were subjected to a chemical etching process in 2.5N NaOH solution. The tracks produced by the alpha particles were observed and counted under an optical Olympus microscope at 600X. The measured track density was converted into radon concentration using a calibration factor. The surface and mass exhalation rates of radon have also been calculated using present data. The results indicate that the radon concentration varies appreciably from sample to sample and they were found to satisfy the safety criteria. There are samples in which radon concentration is higher and may enhance the indoor radiation levels when used as building construction materials. (author)

  15. Behavior of Cs in Grimsel granodiorite. Sorption on main minerals and crushed rock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muuri, Eveliina; Ikonen, Jussi; Matara-aho, Minja; Voutilainen, Mikko; Siitari-Kauppi, Marja [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Chemistry; Lindberg, Antero [Geological Survey of Finland, Espoo (Finland); Holgersson, Stellan [Chalmers University of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Nuclear Chemistry; Martin, Andrew [Nagra (National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste), Wettingen (Switzerland)

    2016-11-01

    In this study the sorption of cesium was investigated on four different minerals; quartz, plagioclase, potassium feldspar and biotite as well as granodiorite obtained from the Grimsel test site in Switzerland. The experiments were conducted in the presence of the weakly saline Grimsel groundwater simulant by determining the distribution coefficients using batch sorption experiments and PHREEQC-modelling across a large concentration range. In addition, the purity of the minerals was measured by XRD and the specific surface areas by BET method using krypton. The distribution coefficients of cesium were largest on biotite (0.304±0.005 m{sup 3}/kg in 10{sup -8} M). Furthermore, the sorption of cesium on quartz was found to be negligibly small in all investigated concentrations and the sorption of cesium on potassium feldspar and plagioclase showed similar behavior against a concentration isotherm with distribution coefficients of 0.0368±0.0004 m{sup 3}/kg and 0.18±0.04 m{sup 3}/kg in 10{sup -8} M. Finally, cesium sorption behavior on crushed granodiorite followed the trend of one of its most abundant mineral, plagioclase with distribution coefficient values of 0.107±0.003 m{sup 3}/kg in 10{sup -8} M. At low concentrations (<1.0.10{sup -6} M) cesium was sorbed on the frayed edge sites of biotite and once these sites are fully occupied cesium sorbs additionally to the Type II and Planar sites. As a consequence, the sorption of cesium on biotite is decreased at concentrations >1.0.10{sup -6} M. Secondly cesium sorption on potassium feldspar and plagioclase showed similar non-linear behavior with varying concentration. The results were used to assist the interpretation of cesium diffusion process in the 2.5 year in-situ experiment carried out in the underground laboratory at Grimsel test site in Switzerland (2007-2009).

  16. Design, Implementation & Assessment of Local Exhaust Ventilation System and dust collectors for crushing unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farshid Ghorbani shahna

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background & objective: Industrial ventilation systems and dust collectors are effective solutions to reduce particulate emissions in the workplace and environmental in mineral processes. In this study, Local Exhaust Ventilation System and dust collectors for control of emitted silica, coke, silicon carbide dusts from crushing unit was designed and evaluated. Methods: : Local Exhaust ventilation system based on standards and guides was designed and implemented after field study of the processes and sources of air pollutants. A set comprised of the four parallel cyclones (Stairmand model and a new design of the scrubber had been used for dust control. After set-up of systems, its effectiveness in reducing the exposure of workers in the workshops and dust collecting were assessed. Results: Test results were significant differences between the concentration of particles in both on and off the ventilation system revealed (P <0.05. The system has been implemented as means of personal exposure to pollutants and environmental emissions were reduced 93.01% and 64.64%, respectively. Also, alone and integrated collection efficiency of cyclone and scrubber, were 94.2%, 59.05% and 97.4%, respectively. The results show good agreement with the values of the parameters ventilation system was designed. Conclusion: Implementation of integrated dust collectors is a good option in industries that have the financial and technical constraints to improve change processes and devices. This method with attainment to health and environmental standards not only can be resolve of the pollution problems, but also will be economically justified of such projects with reduction of depreciation expense and dust recycling.

  17. Proposed method of producing large optical mirrors Single-point diamond crushing followed by polishing with a small-area tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, G.; Bryan, J. B.

    1986-01-01

    Faster production of large optical mirrors may result from combining single-point diamond crushing of the glass with polishing using a small area tool to smooth the surface and remove the damaged layer. Diamond crushing allows a surface contour accurate to 0.5 microns to be generated, and the small area computer-controlled polishing tool allows the surface roughness to be removed without destroying the initial contour. Final contours with an accuracy of 0.04 microns have been achieved.

  18. Efficient Server-Aided Secure Two-Party Function Evaluation with Applications to Genomic Computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-14

    sense that they can be used to securely evaluate arbitrary functions and offer attrac- tive performance compared to the state of the art . We apply the...seconds. The performance favor- ably compares to the state of the art (as detailed in section 7), in some cases achieving orders of magnitude...148 Table 1. Complexity of constructions in prior and our work. Party Communication Sym. key/hash op . Public key operations Security model [38], A O

  19. Rebound Attack on the Full LANE Compression Function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matusiewicz, Krystian; Naya-Plasencia, Maria; Nikolic, Ivica

    2009-01-01

    In this work, we apply the rebound attack to the AES based SHA-3 candidate Lane. The hash function Lane uses a permutation based compression function, consisting of a linear message expansion and 6 parallel lanes. In the rebound attack on Lane, we apply several new techniques to construct...... a collision for the full compression function of Lane-256 and Lane-512. Using a relatively sparse truncated differential path, we are able to solve for a valid message expansion and colliding lanes independently. Additionally, we are able to apply the inbound phase more than once by exploiting the degrees...

  20. Breast cancer - Early detection with mammography. Crushed stone-like calcifications - The most frequent malignant type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabar, Laszlo; Central Hospital, Falun; Tot, Tibor; Central Hospital, Falun; Dean, Peter B.

    2008-01-01

    A comprehensive guide for analyzing the most common malignant type calcifications on the mammogram Internationally renowned breast cancer imagers Laszlo Tabar and Peter B. Dean and the eminent breast pathologist Tibor Tot distill decades of clinical expertise in this new volume covering the most frequently occurring malignant type calcifications: the pleomorphic, crushed stone-like calcifications. The book presents a systematic approach to using mammographic features to distinguish different subtypes of breast diseases originating within the terminal ductal lobular unit (TDLU). More than 800 images demonstrate abnormal findings with superb clarity, providing a state-of-the-art visual reference for interpreting mammograms in the clinical setting. Features: - Concise descriptions of mammographic and MRI findings correlated with high-quality histopathologic images to provide a reliable guide for accurate diagnosis and differential diagnosis, as well as prognostic classification - Extensive coverage of all aspects of the benign differential diagnostic counterparts of pleomorphic calcifications, including fibrocystic change, fibroadenoma, and papilloma - Straightforward discussion of terminology based on a thorough analysis of subgross anatomy, 3D histologic features, and long-term disease outcomes - 3D viewing glasses enclosed in the book for perceiving specially marked images in their true 3D form This book is ideal for all breast imagers and breast pathologists, as well as for surgeons and oncologists specializing in breast diseases. For the radiologist, this book is an indispensable reference for harnessing the power of mammography to detect breast cancer at the earliest stages possible. About the Breast Cancer: Early Detection with Mammography series: This series grew out of the bestselling book Breast Cancer: The Art and Science of Early Detection with Mammography. Written by the same authors, this series is based on 30 years of experience with more than one

  1. Breast cancer - Early detection with mammography. Crushed stone-like calcifications - The most frequent malignant type

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabar, Laszlo [Univ. of Uppsala (Sweden). School of Medicine]|[Central Hospital, Falun (Sweden). Dept. of Mammography; Tot, Tibor [Univ. of Uppsala (Sweden). School of Medicine]|[Central Hospital, Falun (Sweden). Dept. of Pathology and Clinical Cytology; Dean, Peter B. [Turku Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology

    2008-07-01

    A comprehensive guide for analyzing the most common malignant type calcifications on the mammogram Internationally renowned breast cancer imagers Laszlo Tabar and Peter B. Dean and the eminent breast pathologist Tibor Tot distill decades of clinical expertise in this new volume covering the most frequently occurring malignant type calcifications: the pleomorphic, crushed stone-like calcifications. The book presents a systematic approach to using mammographic features to distinguish different subtypes of breast diseases originating within the terminal ductal lobular unit (TDLU). More than 800 images demonstrate abnormal findings with superb clarity, providing a state-of-the-art visual reference for interpreting mammograms in the clinical setting. Features: - Concise descriptions of mammographic and MRI findings correlated with high-quality histopathologic images to provide a reliable guide for accurate diagnosis and differential diagnosis, as well as prognostic classification - Extensive coverage of all aspects of the benign differential diagnostic counterparts of pleomorphic calcifications, including fibrocystic change, fibroadenoma, and papilloma - Straightforward discussion of terminology based on a thorough analysis of subgross anatomy, 3D histologic features, and long-term disease outcomes - 3D viewing glasses enclosed in the book for perceiving specially marked images in their true 3D form This book is ideal for all breast imagers and breast pathologists, as well as for surgeons and oncologists specializing in breast diseases. For the radiologist, this book is an indispensable reference for harnessing the power of mammography to detect breast cancer at the earliest stages possible. About the Breast Cancer: Early Detection with Mammography series: This series grew out of the bestselling book Breast Cancer: The Art and Science of Early Detection with Mammography. Written by the same authors, this series is based on 30 years of experience with more than one

  2. Migration of {sup 75}Se(IV) in crushed Beishan granite: Effects of the iron content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Jiangang; Ma, Bin; Kang, Mingliang; Wang, Chunli; Nie, Zhe; Liu, Chunli, E-mail: liucl@pku.edu.cn

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • The diffusion of {sup 75}SeO{sub 3}{sup 2−} in crushed BsG was slowest at approximately pH 5. • The D{sub a} values under aerobic conditions were nearly one order of magnitude lower than those under anaerobic conditions. • Fe(II)-bearing mineralogical components can be responsible for the great difference in D{sub a} values. • Se{sup IV} can be reduced to Se{sup 0} by BsG under anaerobic conditions. - Abstract: The diffusion of selenite (labeled with {sup 75}Se) in compacted Beishan granite (BsG) was investigated using the in-diffusion capillary method at pH values from ∼2.0 to ∼11.0 under oxic and anoxic conditions. The results indicate that the apparent diffusion coefficient (D{sub a}) values of selenite in BsG always reached the minimum at approximately pH 5. Unexpectedly, the D{sub a} values under oxic conditions are nearly one order of magnitude lower than those under the anoxic conditions. Further characterization reveals the existence of redox-sensitive Fe(II)-containing components, which can be responsible for the great difference in D{sub a} values. Fe(2p) X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results show that more Fe(III)-oxyhydroxide coating is formed on the granite’s surface under aerobic conditions than is formed under anaerobic conditions. Correspondingly, Se(3d) spectra indicate that more selenium is sorbed under oxic conditions, and the sorbed amount always reached the maximum at pH values from ∼4 to ∼5. A linear combination fit of X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy data revealed that Se(0) was formed under anoxic condition and that selenite preferred to form inner-sphere complexes with Fe(III)-oxyhydroxide. Overall, this study indicates that natural Fe-bearing minerals can greatly attenuate selenite diffusion and the retardation would be enhanced under aerobic conditions.

  3. Wastes disposal on board a ship. Crushing and volume reducing apparatus for combustible and non-combustible refuses; Senjo no haikibutsu shori. Kanen funen gomi no hasai gen`yo shori sochi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kishida, Y. [Hitachi Zosen Corp., Osaka (Japan)

    1996-07-25

    This paper introduces a refuse crushing apparatus to reduce for storage the volume of refuses produced on board a ship by crushing. Refuses to be crushed are solid wastes including solid combustible refuses such as paper, wood pieces, and cloths, non-combustible refuses such as empty cans, metals and glass, and refuses unsuitable for combustion, such as plastics and stylofoam. Crushing methods include impact system, compression system and shearing system. The shearing system shears and crushes refuses by using blades rotating at a low speed. The system has a wide range of crush ability and excellent versatility, generates low levels of dust, noise and vibration, and is suitable as a marine use refuse disposing apparatus. However, empty cans and PET bottles are more difficult of getting into cutting blades requiring a large amount of time for crushing. Therefore, it is more suitable to reduce volume of refuses by using a compressor or the like apparatuses, and then crush them by using a double-axial shearing crusher. Stylofoam causes its crushed pieces to be electrically charged and deposited onto the apparatus, hence it is more suitable to reduce the volume of refuses and make them brittle by heating, and then crush them by using the double-axial crusher. 2 figs.

  4. Concrete crushing and sampling, a methodology and technology for the unconditional release of concrete material from decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumann, S.; Teunckens, L.; Walthery, R.; Lewandowski, P.; Millen, D.

    2002-01-01

    Belgoprocess started the industrial decommissioning of the main process building of the former Eurochemic reprocessing plant in 1990, after completion of a pilot project. Two small storage buildings for final products from reprocessing were dismantled to verify the assumptions made in a previous paper study on decommissioning, to demonstrate and develop dismantling techniques and to train personnel. Both buildings were emptied and decontaminated to background levels. They were demolished and the remaining concrete debris was disposed of as industrial waste and green field conditions restored. Currently, the decommissioning operations carried out at the main building have made substantial progress. They are executed on an industrial scale and will continue till the end of 2005. In view of the final demolition of the building, a clearance methodology has to be proposed. Application of the methodology applied for the storage buildings of the pilot project is complicated for several reasons. Although this methodology is not rejected as such, an alternative has been studied thoroughly. It considers at least one complete measurement of all concrete structures and the removal of all detected residual radioactivity. This monitoring sequence is followed by a controlled demolition of the concrete structures and crushing of the resulting concrete parts to smaller particles. During the crushing operations, metal parts are separated from the concrete and representative concrete samples are taken. The frequency of sampling meets the prevailing standards. In a further step, the concrete samples are milled, homogenised, and a smaller fraction is sent to the laboratory for analyses. The paper describes the developed concrete crushing and sampling methodology. (authors)

  5. Early occupational hearing loss of workers in a stone crushing industry: our experience in a developing country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitcher, Emmanuel D; Ocansey, Grace; Tumpi, Daniel A

    2012-01-01

    Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) is an irreversible sensorineural hearing loss associated with exposure to high levels of excessive noise. This paper aims to assess the prevalence of early NIHL and the awareness of the effects of noise on health among stone crushing industry workers. This was a comparative cross-sectional study in Ghana of 140 workers from the stone crushing industry compared with a control group of 150 health workers. The stone workers and controls were evaluated using a structured questionnaire, which assessed symptoms of hearing loss, tinnitus, knowledge on the health hazards associated with work in noisy environment and the use of hearing protective device. Pure tone audiometric assessment was carried out for stone workers and controls. Noise levels at the work stations of the stone workers and of the controls were measured. Statistical Analysis of data was carried out using SPSS package version 16. The mean age of stone workers and controls was 42.58±7.85 and 42.19±12 years, respectively. Subjective hearing loss occurred in 21.5% of the workers and in 2.8% of the controls. Tinnitus occurred in 26.9% of stone workers and 21.5% of controls, while 87.5% stone workers had sound knowledge on the health hazards of a noisy environment. Early NIHL in the left ear occurred in 19.3% of the stone workers compared with 0.7% in controls and in the right ear, it occurred in 14.3% of the stone workers and in 1.3% of the controls; Pstone crushing workers is about 19.3% for the left ear and 14.3% for the right ear.

  6. Early occupational hearing loss of workers in a stone crushing industry: Our experience in a developing country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel D Kitcher

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL is an irreversible sensorineural hearing loss associated with exposure to high levels of excessive noise. This paper aims to assess the prevalence of early NIHL and the awareness of the effects of noise on health among stone crushing industry workers. This was a comparative cross-sectional study in Ghana of 140 workers from the stone crushing industry compared with a control group of 150 health workers. The stone workers and controls were evaluated using a structured questionnaire, which assessed symptoms of hearing loss, tinnitus, knowledge on the health hazards associated with work in noisy environment and the use of hearing protective device. Pure tone audiometric assessment was carried out for stone workers and controls. Noise levels at the work stations of the stone workers and of the controls were measured. Statistical Analysis of data was carried out using SPSS package version 16. The mean age of stone workers and controls was 42.58±7.85 and 42.19±12 years, respectively. Subjective hearing loss occurred in 21.5% of the workers and in 2.8% of the controls. Tinnitus occurred in 26.9% of stone workers and 21.5% of controls, while 87.5% stone workers had sound knowledge on the health hazards of a noisy environment. Early NIHL in the left ear occurred in 19.3% of the stone workers compared with 0.7% in controls and in the right ear, it occurred in 14.3% of the stone workers and in 1.3% of the controls; P<0.005. In conclusion, the prevalence rate of early NIHL among stone crushing workers is about 19.3% for the left ear and 14.3% for the right ear.

  7. The acute changes of fractional flow reserve in DK (double kissing), crush, and 1-stent technique for true bifurcation lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Fei; Zhang, Jun-Jie; Tian, Nai-Liang; Lin, Song; Liu, Zhi-Zhong; Kan, Jing; Xu, Hai-Mei; Zhu, Zhongsheng; Chen, Shao-Liang

    2010-08-01

    While many studies confirmed the importance of fractional flow reserve (FFR) in guiding complex percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI), data regarding the significance of FFR for bifurcation lesions are still lacking. Between October 2008 and October 2009, 51 patients with true bifurcation lesions were consecutively enrolled and randomized into double kissing (DK) crush (n = 25), and provisional 1-stent (n = 26) groups. FFR measurements at baseline and hyperemia were measured at pre-PCI, post-PCI, and at 8-month follow-up. Clinical follow-ups were available in 100% of patients while only 33% of patients underwent angiographic follow-up. Baseline clinical and angiographic characteristics were matched between the 2 groups. Pre-PCI FFR of the main branch (MB) in the DK group was 0.76 +/- 0.15, which was significantly lower than in the provisional 1-stent group (0.83 +/- 0.10, P = 0.029). This difference disappeared after the PCI procedure (0.92 +/- 0.04 vs. 0.92 +/- 0.05, P = 0.58). There were no significant differences in terms of baseline, angiographic, procedural indexes, and FFR of side branch (SB) between the 2 treatment arms. However, immediately after PCI, the patient with DK crush had higher FFR in the SB as compared to the provisional 1-stent group (0.94 +/- 0.03 vs. 0.90 +/- 0.08, P = 0.028, respectively) and also they had lower diameter stenosis (8.59 +/- 6.41% vs. 15.62 +/- 11.69%, P = 0.015, respectively). In the acute phase, immediately after PCI for bifurcation lesion, DK crush stenting was associated with higher FFR and lower residual diameter stenosis in the SB, as compared with the provisional 1-stent group.

  8. Clinical Outcome After DK Crush Versus Culotte Stenting of Distal Left Main Bifurcation Lesions: The 3-Year Follow-Up Results of the DKCRUSH-III Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shao-Liang; Xu, Bo; Han, Ya-Ling; Sheiban, Imad; Zhang, Jun-Jie; Ye, Fei; Kwan, Tak W; Paiboon, Chitprapai; Zhou, Yu-Jie; Lv, Shu-Zheng; Dangas, George D; Xu, Ya-Wei; Wen, Shang-Yu; Hong, Lang; Zhang, Rui-Yan; Wang, Hai-Chang; Jiang, Tie-Ming; Wang, Yan; Sansoto, Teguh; Chen, Fang; Yuan, Zu-Yi; Li, Wei-Min; Leon, Martin B

    2015-08-24

    The present study aimed to investigate the difference in major adverse cardiac events (MACE) at 3 years after double-kissing (DK) crush versus culotte stenting for unprotected left main distal bifurcation lesions (LMDBLs). The multicenter and randomized DKCRUSH-III (Comparison of double kissing crush versus culotte stenting for unprotected distal left main bifurcation lesions: results from a multicenter, randomized, prospective study) showed that DK crush stenting was associated with fewer MACE at 1-year follow-up in patients with LMDBLs compared with culotte stenting. Here, we report the 3-year clinical outcome of the DKCRUSH-III study. A total of 419 patients with LMDBLs who were randomly assigned to either the DK crush or culotte group in the DKCRUSH-III study were followed for 3 year. The primary endpoint was the occurrence of a MACE at 3 years. Stent thrombosis (ST) was the safety endpoint. Patients were classified by simple and complex LMDBLs according to the DEFINITION (Definition and Impact of Complex Bifurcation Lesions on Clinical Outcomes After Percutaneous Coronary Intervention Using Drug-Eluting Stents) study criteria. At 3 years, MACE occurred in 49 patients the culotte group and in 17 patients in the DK crush group (cumulative event rates of 23.7% and 8.2%, respectively; p DK crush group (p = 0.007). Complex LMDBLs were associated with a higher rate of MACE (35.3%) at 3 years compared with a rate of 8.1% in patients with simple LMDBLs (p DK] Crush Versus Culotte Stenting for the Treatment of Unprotected Distal Left Main Bifurcation Lesions: DKCRUSH-III, a Multicenter Randomized Study Comparing Double-Stent Techniques; ChiCTR-TRC-11001877). Copyright © 2015 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Coupling of Mechanical Behavior of Lithium Ion Cells to Electrochemical-Thermal (ECT) Models for Battery Crush

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Chao; Santhanagopalan, Shriram; Pesaran, Ahmad; Sahraei, Elham; Wierzbicki, Tom

    2016-06-14

    Vehicle crashes can lead to crushing of the battery, damaging lithium ion battery cells and causing local shorts, heat generation, and thermal runaway. Simulating all the physics and geometries at the same time is challenging and takes a lot of effort; thus, simplifications are needed. We developed a material model for simultaneously modeling the mechanical-electrochemical-thermal behavior, which predicted the electrical short, voltage drop, and thermal runaway behaviors followed by a mechanical abuse-induced short. The effect of short resistance on the battery cell performance was studied.

  10. Optimization of incremental structure from motion combining a random k-d forest and pHash for unordered images in a complex scene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Zongqian; Wang, Chendong; Wang, Xin; Liu, Yi

    2018-01-01

    On the basis of today's popular virtual reality and scientific visualization, three-dimensional (3-D) reconstruction is widely used in disaster relief, virtual shopping, reconstruction of cultural relics, etc. In the traditional incremental structure from motion (incremental SFM) method, the time cost of the matching is one of the main factors restricting the popularization of this method. To make the whole matching process more efficient, we propose a preprocessing method before the matching process: (1) we first construct a random k-d forest with the large-scale scale-invariant feature transform features in the images and combine this with the pHash method to obtain a value of relatedness, (2) we then construct a connected weighted graph based on the relatedness value, and (3) we finally obtain a planned sequence of adding images according to the principle of the minimum spanning tree. On this basis, we attempt to thin the minimum spanning tree to reduce the number of matchings and ensure that the images are well distributed. The experimental results show a great reduction in the number of matchings with enough object points, with only a small influence on the inner stability, which proves that this method can quickly and reliably improve the efficiency of the SFM method with unordered multiview images in complex scenes.

  11. Direct 40Ar/39Ar age determination of fluid inclusions using in-vacuo¬ stepwise crushing - Example of garnet from the Cycladic Blueschist Unit on Syros

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uunk, Bertram; Postma, Onno; Wijbrans, Jan; Brouwer, Fraukje

    2017-04-01

    Metamorphic minerals and veins commonly trap attending hydrous fluids in fluid inclusions, which yield a wealth of information on the history of the hosting metamorphic system. When these fluids are sufficiently saline, the KCl in the inclusions can be used as a K/Ar geochronologic system, potentially dating inclusion incorporation. Whilst primary fluid inclusions (PFIs) can date fluid incorporation during mineral or vein growth, secondary fluid inclusion trails (SFIs) can provide age constraints on later fluid flow events. At VU Amsterdam, a new in-vacuo crushing apparatus has been designed to extract fluid inclusions from minerals for 40Ar/39Ar analysis. Separates are crushed inside a crusher tube connected to a purification line and a quadrupole mass spectrometer. In-vacuo crushing is achieved by lifting and dropping a steel pestle using an externally controlled magnetic field. As the gas can be analyzed between different crushing steps, the setup permits stepwise crushing experiments. Additionally, crushed powder can be heated by inserting the crusher tube in an externally controlled furnace. Dating by 40Ar/39Ar stepwise crushing has the added advantage that, during neutron irradiation to produce 39Ar from 39K, 38Ar and 37Ar are also produced from 38Cl and 40Ca, respectively. Simultaneous analysis of these argon isotopes permits constraining the chemistry of the argon source sampled during the experiment. This allows a distinction between different fluid or crystal lattice sources. Garnet from three samples of the HP metamorphic Cycladic Blueschist Unit on Syros, Greece was stepwise crushed to obtain fluid inclusion ages. Initial steps for all three experiments yield significant components of excess argon, which are interpreted to originate from grain boundary fluids and secondary fluid inclusions trails. During subsequent steps, age results stabilize to a plateau age. One garnet from North Syros yields an unusually old 80 Ma plateau age. However, isochrons

  12. Crush the Crave: Development and Formative Evaluation of a Smartphone App for Smoking Cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskerville, Neill B; Struik, Laura L; Dash, Darly

    2018-03-02

    Emerging evidence supports the use of smartphone apps for smoking cessation, especially in young adults given their high smoking rates and high smartphone ownership rates. Although evaluative evidence is encouraging for supporting smoking cessation, there remains a paucity of research describing the design and development processes of mobile health (mHealth) interventions. The aim of this paper was to describe the process of developing Crush the Crave (CTC), an evidence-informed app to support smoking cessation in young adults, and the results of a formative evaluation of app usage behavior, as part of a broader program of research that seeks to establish the effectiveness of the CTC app. The Spiral Technology Action Research (STAR) 5-cycle model (listen, plan, do, act, and study) was employed to guide the development, implementation, and dissemination of CTC. The approach to development and formative evaluation included focus groups with young adult smokers (n=78) across 2 phases, analysis of the content of existing apps, 2 sessions with content experts, and Google Analytics to assess user behavior during a 12-month pilot. LISTEN-focus groups revealed young adult smoker preferences of (1) positive reinforcement, (2) personalization, (3) social support, (4) quit support, (5) tracking the behavior, and (6) tracking quit benefits. PLAN-informed by evidence for smoking cessation, young adult preferences and an assessment of popular cessation apps, content experts produced a mind map and a storyboard describing app content and structure. DO-focus groups with young adult smokers provided feedback on the first version of the app with opinions on content and suggestions for improvement such as providing alerts and distractions from craving. ACT-refinements were made, and app content was organized using the 4 key design components informed by principles of persuasive technology for behavior change: credibility, task support, dialogue support, and social support. CTC was

  13. Reliability analysis of mining equipment: A case study of a crushing plant at Jajarm Bauxite Mine in Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barabady, Javad; Kumar, Uday

    2008-01-01

    The performance of mining machines depends on the reliability of the equipment used, the operating environment, the maintenance efficiency, the operation process, the technical expertise of the miners, etc. As the size and complexity of mining equipments continue to increase, the implications of equipment failure become ever more critical. Therefore, reliability analysis is required to identify the bottlenecks in the system and to find the components or subsystems with low reliability for a given designed performance. It is important to select a suitable method for data collection as well as for reliability analysis. This paper presents a case study describing reliability and availability analysis of the crushing plant number 3 at Jajarm Bauxite Mine in Iran. In this study, the crushing plant number 3 is divided into six subsystems. The parameters of some probability distributions, such as Weibull, Exponential, and Lognormal distributions have been estimated by using ReliaSoft's Weibull++6 software. The results of the analysis show that the conveyer subsystem and secondary screen subsystem are critical from a reliability point of view, and the secondary crusher subsystem and conveyer subsystem are critical from an availability point of view. The study also shows that the reliability analysis is very useful for deciding maintenance intervals

  14. Development of a system for receiving, crushing and screening recycled fuel (REF) material; Kierraetyspolttoaineen vastaanotto-, murskaus- ja seulontajaerjestelmaen kehittaeminen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nurmi, A; Kurki, T; Wrang, T [BMH Wood Technology Oy, Rauma (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    The goal of this project is to develop a system to which source sorted combustible industrial, office and municipal waste material can be dumped to be handled in such way that it can be burnt in modern fluidized bed and circulating bed boilers. One drawback of present handling systems is the fact that most of them are more or less inapplicable for handling plastic materials, especially thin plastic films and sheets. Reducing plastic waste into a particle size of 50 mm required by modern fluidized bed boilers has proved to be very difficult. An essential part of this project is the development of waste material screening after primary and/or secondary crushing. The idea is to separate plastic particles larger than the maximum allowable size from the crushed material and then feed them to a separate low-capacity plastic crusher. The main stages of the project are: (1) Study and analysis on existing technology and equipment, (2) Development of system components, (3) Development of the system, (4) Building a pilot/demonstration plant, (5) Tests and analysis and (6) Decisions on further actions

  15. Development of a system for receiving, crushing and screening recycled fuel (REF) material; Kierraetyspolttoaineen vastaanotto-, murskaus- ja seulontajaerjestelmaen kehittaeminen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nurmi, A.; Kurki, T.; Wrang, T. [BMH Wood Technology Oy, Rauma (Finland)

    1995-12-31

    The goal of this project is to develop a system to which source sorted combustible industrial, office and municipal waste material can be dumped to be handled in such way that it can be burnt in modern fluidized bed and circulating bed boilers. One drawback of present handling systems is the fact that most of them are more or less inapplicable for handling plastic materials, especially thin plastic films and sheets. Reducing plastic waste into a particle size of 50 mm required by modern fluidized bed boilers has proved to be very difficult. An essential part of this project is the development of waste material screening after primary and/or secondary crushing. The idea is to separate plastic particles larger than the maximum allowable size from the crushed material and then feed them to a separate low-capacity plastic crusher. The main stages of the project are: (1) Study and analysis on existing technology and equipment, (2) Development of system components, (3) Development of the system, (4) Building a pilot/demonstration plant, (5) Tests and analysis and (6) Decisions on further actions

  16. Evaluation of crushed aggregate and sand-bentonite mixtures for application to sealing of the final repository for reactor waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaajasaari, M.; Saari, K.; Wang Zhen

    1986-09-01

    The Industrial Power Company Ltd (TVO) is planning to dispose the low- and intermediate level waste from the reactors of the Olkiluoto Nuclear Power Station into the bedrock of Olkiluoto at a depth of approximately 50-100 meters. In the TVO concept the reactor waste is disposed in silo shaped rock caverns. The bituminized waste is packed into steel drums, which are laid into a concrete silo inside the rock cavern. In this study the properties of sands, crushed aggregate and their mixtures with bentonite are reviewed. The applicability of these materials for use as a buffer on the top of the concrete silo is evaluated. This study is based on earlier experimental studies of the materials mentioned before and available literature. Gas production in the silo after disposal is estimated. General concepts of gas conductivity and gas migration in saturated soil are reviewed. The results of this study suggest that crushed aggregate and sand-bentonite mixtures are possible sealing materials for the silo in concern. But the need for further experimental study of their physical and mechanical properties and the gas migration processes through the saturated barrier is emphasized. A program for testing of these properties is presented

  17. Strength Properties of Foamed Concrete Containing Crushed Steel Slag as Partial Replacement of Sand with Specific Gradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiong Hock Yong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Lightweight construction material, notably foamed concrete, had become more favourable to reduce building weight and cost, accelerate construction process, and ease handling of precast segment. Simultaneously, rapid development had result in price rising of conventional material and environmental issue due to abundant wastes, for instance steel slag. As a consequence, feasibility of steel slag to be incorporated in lightweight foamed concrete for both structural and nonstructural purpose is worth to be investigated. This paper is aimed to evaluate the effects of crushed steel slag, as partial replacement of sand with specific gradation, on performance of lightweight foamed concrete (LFC with density of 1600 kg/m3 to 1700 kg/m3 in terms of compressive and tensile strengths. Different steel slag based LFCs were developed by replacing 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% of steel slag for sand. Different water to cement ratios (w/c and dosages of super-plasticizer (sp were adopted to confirm certain workability, strength properties was then studied for ages of 7 and 28 days. The laboratory results showed that lightweight foamed concrete with incorporation of crushed steel slag has decreased strength; however it still achieves structural strength of 17 MPa when replacement level is less than 25% at density of 1600 kg/m3 to 1700 kg/m3.

  18. A Highly Ordered Magnetic Field in a Crushed Pulsar Wind Nebula in G327.1-1.1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yik Ki; Ng, Chi-Yung; Bucciantini, Niccolò; Gaensler, Bryan M.; Slane, Patrick O.; Temim, Tea

    2015-01-01

    A significant fraction of a pulsar's spin-down luminosity is in the form of a relativistic magnetized particle outflow known as a pulsar wind. Confinement of the wind by the ambient medium creates a synchrotron-emitting bubble called a pulsar wind nebula (PWN). Studies of PWNe is important for understanding the physics of relativistic shocks and particle acceleration. Simulations suggest that a PWN will be crushed by the reverse shock of its surrounding supernova remnant at an age of ~10^4 yr, resulting in a turbulent environment. However, given the short timescale of the interaction stage, only a few such systems are observed.We present radio polarization observations of the PWN in supernova remnant G327.1-1.1, taken with the Australia Telescope Compact Array. Previous works suggest that this system has recently interacted with the supernova reverse shock, providing a rare example for the study of magnetic field in a crushed PWN. We found a highly ordered magnetic field in the PWN, which is unexpected given the presumed turbulent interior of the nebula. This suggests that the magnetic pressure in the PWN could play an important role in the interaction with supernova reverse shock.The Australia Telescope Compact Array is part of the Australia Telescope National Facility which is funded by the Commonwealth of Australia for operation as a National Facility managed by CSIRO.YKM and CYN are supported by a ECS grant of the Hong Kong Government under HKU 709713P

  19. The role of Facebook in Crush the Crave, a mobile- and social media-based smoking cessation intervention: qualitative framework analysis of posts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struik, Laura Louise; Baskerville, Neill Bruce

    2014-07-11

    Social networking sites, particularly Facebook, are increasingly included in contemporary smoking cessation interventions directed toward young adults. Little is known about the role of Facebook in smoking cessation interventions directed toward this age demographic. The aim of this study was to characterize the content of posts on the Facebook page of Crush the Crave, an evidence-informed smoking cessation intervention directed toward young adults aged 19 to 29 years. Crush the Crave Facebook posts between October 10, 2012 and June 12, 2013 were collected for analysis, representing page activity during the pilot phase of Crush the Crave. Of the 399 posts included for analysis, 121 were original posts, whereas the remaining 278 were reply posts. Posts were coded according to themes using framework analysis. We found that the original Crush the Crave Facebook posts served two main purposes: to support smoking cessation and to market Crush the Crave. Most of the original posts (86/121, 71.1%) conveyed support of smoking cessation through the following 7 subthemes: encouraging cessation, group stimulation, management of cravings, promoting social support, denormalizing smoking, providing health information, and exposing tobacco industry tactics. The remaining original posts (35/121, 28.9%) aimed to market Crush the Crave through 2 subthemes: Crush the Crave promotion and iPhone 5 contest promotion. Most of the reply posts (214/278, 77.0%) were in response to the supporting smoking cessation posts and the remaining 64 (23.0%) were in response to the marketing Crush the Crave posts. The most common response to both the supporting smoking cessation and marketing Crush the Crave posts was user engagement with the images associated with each post at 40.2% (86/214) and 45% (29/64), respectively. The second most common response consisted of users sharing their smoking-related experiences. More users shared their smoking-related experiences in response to the supporting

  20. Equipment for biomass. Dryers. Drying, crushing, aggregating of agro-industrial products; Materiels pour la biomasse, les secheurs, sechage, broyage, agglomeration de produits agro-industriels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deur, O. [Promill, 28 - Serville (France)

    1997-12-31

    The French society Promill has developed complete units for the drying, crushing and aggregating of agro-industrial products (beet roots, agricultural wastes, lucerne, maize, etc.). Drying is conducted in a three-pass drum, using any type of fuel (fuel oil, gas, electric power, coal), and ensuring a thermal yield of 680 kCal/kg and ash emission rates complying with French and European legislation. Granulation is conducted with vapour addition, with a granulate flowrate reaching 15 T/h. Crushing is carried out in a hammer mill