Sample records for harwell synchrocyclotron

  1. Synchro-cyclotron

    CERN PhotoLab


    The electromagnetic coil which forms the first section of the proton extraction channel in the improved synchro-cyclotron. The photograph shows the positioning gear and the current septum. An extraction efficiency above 50% is expected.

  2. Computer Training at Harwell

    Hull, John


    By using teletypewriters connected to the Harwell multi-access computing system, lecturers can easily demonstrate the operation of the computer in the classroom; this saves time and eliminates errors and staff can carry out exercises using the main computer. (EB)

  3. Upgrading Synchro-cyclotron


    Final touches to the central region of SC2, the refurbished 600 MeV synchro-cyclotron, before the start of commissioning. Modifications included a new type of ion source at the centre. Protons were first accelerated in SC2 at full energy by October 1974. (See photo 7408042X)

  4. <600> MeV synchro-cyclotron


    One of the 14 pancakes of the new magnet coils for the 600 MeV synchro-cyclotron which were wound and coated with epoxy resin on the CERN site. These new coils will replace the present ones which have been in use for more than 14 years but are now showing signs of deteriorations.

  5. The Synchrocyclotron (SC) in building 300

    Maximilien Brice


    The red magnet of CERN's first accelerator, the Synchrocyclotron (SC), has occupied a large part of Hall 300 since it was installed in the late 1950s. The remaining part of the 300-square-metre building has been used as a storage room since the accelerator was shut down in 1990. Now a public exhibition will breathe new life into the hall.

  6. Neutron capture therapy beam design at Harwell.

    Constantine, G


    At Harwell, we have progressed from designing, building, and using small-diameter beams of epithermal neutrons for radiobiology studies to designing a radiotherapy facility for the 25-MW research reactor DIDO. The program is well into the survey phase, where the main emphasis is on tailoring the neutron spectrum. The incorporation of titanium and vanadium in an aluminium spectrum shaper in the D2O reflector has been shown to yield a significant reduction in the mean energy of neutrons incident on the patient by suppression of streaming through the cross-section window in aluminium at 25 keV.

  7. A new RF system for a rejuvenated Synchro-cyclotron


    The Synchro-cyclotron is shown here shortly after the completion of the improvement programme, which left the steel magnet yoke as almost the only remaining component of the original machine. On the left can be seen the rotary condenser which produces the frequency modulation required for the acceleration (one of a pair available -in this instance ROTCO II). (see photo 7506015)

  8. The Discoveries of Rare Pion Decays at the CERN Synchrocyclotron

    Fidecaro, Giuseppe


    In 1957 the CERN 600 MeV Synchrocyclotron started to operate and could detect for the first time already in 1958, and later in 1962, the two still missing β-decays of the charged pion, providing crucial verifications of the universal V–A coupling.

  9. Investigation of Beam Dynamics in the Superconducting Synchrocyclotron for Proton Therapy

    LI; Ming; ZHANG; Tian-jue


    With development of the superconducting technology,synchrocyclotron can be made very small through extreme high field,the structure of which is simple.So the synchrocyclotron is very suitable to be installed in the hospital for proton therapy.CIAE planned to build a 230 MeV superconducting synchrocyclotron,which is listed in the project of"Dragon 2020"and the key technology study is an

  10. The Harwell Buechner magnet/PSD system as a mass spectrometer for unslowed fission products

    Conlon, T W


    Heavy ion reaction studies (mass approximately 20) at the Harwell Tandem Accelerator utilise a Buechner magnet and position sensitive counters for spectroscopy. The feasibility of using these facilities for spectroscopic studies of fission fragments (mass approximately 80-150) is briefly described. (3 refs).

  11. MODERNOS Y MILITANTES. California a través de Harwell Hamilton Harris y Gordon Drake



    A través del establecimiento de una genealogía moderna que recorre tres generaciones de arquitectos californianos entre mediados de los años 20 y finales de los años 40, desde Richard Neutra a Gordon Drake pasando por Harwell Hamilton Harris, esta tesis aborda el modo en que estos autores entendieron y expresaron su particular vinculación con el medio físico y el paisaje creativo del Sur de California. El análisis de las obras donde estos arquitectos coincidieron en su condición de discípulos...

  12. Effects of the interruption of the irradiation process on PMMA Harwell Industry Dosimetry Systems

    Santos, Paulo S.; Vasquez, Pablo A.S., E-mail:, E-mail: [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)


    Nowadays, the use of dyed-polymethylmethacrylate dosimetry systems in measurements at industrial irradiations has been broadly, despite the use of alanine dosimeters. Accurate dosimetry measurements are essential for the sterilization applications of medical products as well as the preservation of food by ionizing radiation. Regulations in many countries require in-plant dosimetry to ensure that the specified radiation dose has been delivered to the product. Harwell commercial dosimeters commonly are built to work with measurements between 1 kGy to 50 kGy, this means that a same dosimeter could be used until reach these values. Radiation processing demands partial measurements of the absorbed dose to guarantee the final desired applied absorbed dose depending to the dose rate. In this sense, the total absorbed dose corresponds to the cumulative partial values. In this study, several dosimeters were irradiated at the Multipurpose Gamma Irradiation Facility at IPEN - CNEN/SP to evaluate the response to the interruption of the irradiation process in the total cumulative absorbed dose values considering statistical changes and some processing parameters. When studied the Harwell dyed-polymethylmethacrylate dosimeters Red 4034 and Amber 3042, applying processing interruptions, results shown a coefficient of variation under 7% for industrial irradiation conditions to the total cumulative absorbed dose. (author)

  13. Comparison of ANOVA, McSweeney, Bradley, Harwell-Serlin, and Blair-Sawilowsky Tests in the Balanced 2x2x2 Layout.

    Kelley, D. Lynn; And Others

    The Type I error and power properties of the 2x2x2 analysis of variance (ANOVA) and tests developed by McSweeney (1967), Bradley (1979), Harwell-Serlin (1989; Harwell, 1991), and Blair-Sawilowsky (1990) were compared using Monte Carlo methods. The ANOVA was superior under the Gaussian and uniform distributions. The Blair-Sawilowsky test was…

  14. Trimming algorithm of frequency modulation for CIAE-230 MeV proton superconducting synchrocyclotron model cavity

    Li, Pengzhan; Zhang, Tianjue; Ji, Bin; Hou, Shigang; Guo, Juanjuan; Yin, Meng; Xing, Jiansheng; Lv, Yinlong; Guan, Fengping; Lin, Jun


    A new project, the 230 MeV proton superconducting synchrocyclotron for cancer therapy, was proposed at CIAE in 2013. A model cavity is designed to verify the frequency modulation trimming algorithm featuring a half-wave structure and eight sets of rotating blades for 1 kHz frequency modulation. Based on the electromagnetic (EM) field distribution analysis of the model cavity, the variable capacitor works as a function of time and the frequency can be written in Maclaurin series. Curve fitting is applied for theoretical frequency and original simulation frequency. The second-order fitting excels at the approximation given its minimum variance. Constant equivalent inductance is considered as an important condition in the calculation. The equivalent parameters of theoretical frequency can be achieved through this conversion. Then the trimming formula for rotor blade outer radius is found by discretization in time domain. Simulation verification has been performed and the results show that the calculation radius with minus 0.012 m yields an acceptable result. The trimming amendment in the time range of 0.328-0.4 ms helps to reduce the frequency error to 0.69% in Simulation C with an increment of 0.075 mm/0.001 ms, which is half of the error in Simulation A (constant radius in 0.328-0.4 ms). The verification confirms the feasibility of the trimming algorithm for synchrocyclotron frequency modulation.

  15. Neutronics and thermal hydraulics feedback models of the Harwell materials testing reactors DIDO and PLUTO: I Neutronics analysis

    Javadi, M.


    Neutronics modelling of the Harwell MTRs DIDO and PLUTO has been achieved in the WIMS-E framework using (r,z) and (x,y) two dimensional diffusion theory. The modelling takes into account fuel burnup and the presence of the coarse control arms and experimental rigs. The modelling is validated by comparisons with measurements of thermal and fast flux distributions.

  16. Operation of the Harwell UK 14C Data Base and its Expansion through Data Exchange with Other Laboratories

    Walker, A.J.; Otlet, R.L.; Housley, R.A.; Plicht, Johannes van der


    The use of computer data bases for storage and retrieval of 14C data is a logical application for the rapidly expanding numbers of 14C determinations. Harwell has established a data base for all samples originating from sites in the United Kingdom and Eire. The core of the data is the Council for

  17. Submillimeter ionoacoustic range determination for protons in water at a clinical synchrocyclotron

    Lehrack, Sebastian; Assmann, Walter; Bertrand, Damien; Henrotin, Sebastien; Herault, Joel; Heymans, Vincent; Vander Stappen, Francois; Thirolf, Peter G.; Vidal, Marie; Van de Walle, Jarno; Parodi, Katia


    Proton ranges in water between 145 MeV to 227 MeV initial energy have been measured at a clinical superconducting synchrocyclotron using the acoustic signal induced by the ion dose deposition (ionoacoustic effect). Detection of ultrasound waves was performed by a very sensitive hydrophone and signals were stored in a digital oscilloscope triggered by secondary prompt gammas. The ionoacoustic range measurements were compared to existing range data from a calibrated range detector setup on-site and agreement of better than 1 mm was found at a Bragg peak dose of about 10 Gy for 220 MeV initial proton energy, compatible with the experimental errors. Ionoacoustics has thus the potential to measure the Bragg peak position with submillimeter accuracy during proton therapy, possibly correlated with ultrasound tissue imaging.

  18. High energy fast neutrons from the Harwell variable energy cyclotron. I. Physical characteristics.

    Goodhead, D T; Berry, R J; Bance, D A; Gray, P; Stedeford, J B


    A high energy fast neutron beam potentially suitable for radiotherapy was built at the Harwell variable energy cyclotron. The beam line is described and results are given of physical measurements on the fast neutron beams produced by 42 MeV deuterons on thick (4 mm) and thin (2 mm) beryllium targets. With 20 muA beam current the entrance dose rate in a phantom 150 cm from the target was about 130 rad min-1 with the thick target and about 60 rad min-1 with the thin target. Therefore, it is possible to use both the thin target and the relatively large target-skin distance of 150 cm to improve depth dose for radiotherapy or radiobiology. With this arrangement the dose rate decreased to 50% at depths in the phantom of 11.3-15.4 cm, depending on the field size. The use of primarily hydrogenous materials for shielding and collimation provided beam edge definition similar to that of 60Co teletherapy units, and off-axis radiation levels of approximately 1% which compare favorably with 14 MeV deuteron-tritium generators. The copper backing of the thin target became highly radioactive and an alterative material may be preferable. Biologic characteristics of the beam are described in a companion paper.

  19. Brief overview of the creation of the synchrocyclotron at the hydrotechnical laboratory of the USSR Academy of Sciences and first results of physical studies: Review of archival documents

    Kiselev, G. V.; Rusakovich, N. A.


    A review of the archive's documents on the main stages of the creation of the synchrocyclotron at the Hydrotechnical Laboratory (now known as the Dzhelepov Laboratory of Nuclear Problems) is presented. The review is based on minutes of the Special Committee and Scientific and Technical Council (NTS), which belongs to the First Chief Directorate (PGU) concerning the era of the Soviet atomic project (1945-1953). The analysis of these minutes has enabled us to prepare a chronicle of events that deal with the creation of the synchrocyclotron, as well as the discussion of the project and its place of construction, the research and development program, and so on. The minutes of two NTS meetings dated May 5 and 12, 1952 are devoted to discussing the results the research and development program in 1950-1951. The minutes of NTS meetings have not been published previously.

  20. Proton and neutron test facilities at 1 GeV synchrocyclotron of PNPI for radiation resistance testing of avionic and space electronics

    Ivanov Evgeniy M.


    Full Text Available A description of the proton (IS SC-1000, IS OP-1000 and neutron (IS NP/GNEIS test facilities at the 1 GeV synchrocyclotron SC-1000 of the PNPI used for radiation resistance testing of electronic components and systems intended for avionic and space research is presented. A unique conjunction of proton beams with variable energy 100–1000 MeV and atmospheric like neutron beam with broad energy range (1–1000 MeV spectrum enables to perform complex testing of the semiconductor electronic devices within a single testing cycle.

  1. Operational trials of single- and multi-element CR-39 dosemeters for the DIDO and PLUTO reactors at the Harwell Laboratory

    Gallacher, G.G.; Perks, C.A. (AEA Environment and Energy, Harwell (United Kingdom))


    Single- and multi-element CR-39 dosemeters, developed at the Harwell Laboratory, and a commercially available multi-element CR-39 dosemeter (obtained from Track Analysis Systems Ltd), were evaluated for their potential as neutron dosemeters for personnel working at Harwell Laboratory's research reactors. Owing to the angular dependence of the CR-39 (processed using electrochemical etching), the single-element dosemeter was found to be impractical. Consequently, a multi-element dosemeter was developed, which consisted of a cube of side 36 mm with CR-39 elements (also processed using electrochemical etching) attached to each of the sides. Although this dosemeter was technically suitable for this type of dosimetry, it was considered to be unacceptably bulky in personnel trials. The commercially available CR-39 dosemeter tested was much smaller (the CR-39 was only chemically etched) and this was considered to be acceptable as a personnel dosemeter. In addition, trials with personnel working at active handling glove boxes indicated that single-element dosemeters might be adequate, but further work would be needed to verify this. (author).

  2. End of the line for Harwell's Dido and Pluto research reactors

    Smith, Tom; Nicholson, K.


    After 34 years of continuous operation the Dido and Pluto research reactors were shutdown for the last time on the 31 March 1990. The history of their development and contributions to the UK nuclear programme, isotope production, support to industry and basic scientific research are described. (author).

  3. The ISOLDE on-line isotope separator at the 600 MeV Synchro-Cyclotron

    CERN PhotoLab


    Is at present being thoroughly modified and improved, in order to allow for the increased proton beam intensities, resulting from the SC improvement programme. This photograph, taken before the dismantinling of the facility in June 1973, shows the separator analysing magnet (centre background), the collector chamber of the mass-separated ion.

  4. On the possibility of accelerating multiply charged ions in the CERN Synchrocyclotron

    Giannini, R


    Some problems relating to the possibility of accelerating light ions in the CERN SC are studied. Deuteron capture conditions and the optimum radio-frequency versus time curve are calculated. Internal beam currents of some micro-amperes seem obtainable when using the calutron source as for protons. The same calculations were repeated for N/sup 5+/ taking into account the charge exchange process in the vacuum. A transmission of between 5 and 10% has been calculated, giving some 10/sup 10/ particles per second with a PIG source.

  5. 29 September 2015 - Vice-President of the Government of Spain S. Sáenz de Santamaría in the ATLAS visitor centre, the Synchrocyclotron, the Data Centre visit point and the LHC magnet facility with CERN Director-General R. Heuer and Technology Department Head J.M. Jiménez.

    Bennett, Sophia Elizabeth


    Were also present from Spain: Sra. Carmen Vela, Secretaria de Estado de Investigación, Desarrollo e Innovación, Sr. D. Bernardo de Sicart Escoda Embajador de España en Berna, Sra. Da Ana Menéndez Pérez, Embajadora Representante Permanente de España ante Naciones Unidas y OOII con sede en Ginebra, Sra. Da María Pico Directora del Gabinete de la Vicepresidenta and Sr. D. Miguel Temboury Redondo Subsecretario de Economía y Competitividad. And from CERN: Dr Maria Alandes Pradillo, Information Technology Department, Dr Maria Barroso-Lopez Deputy Group Leader, IT-PES, Dr Frédérick Bordry, Director of Accelerators and Technology, Dr Borja Fernandez Adiego Engineering Department, Prof. Maria Jose Garcia Borge ISOLDE Collaboration Spokesperson, Dr Fabiola Gianotti Director-General elect 2016-2020, Mr Frédéric Hemmer Information Technology Department Head, Prof. Mario Martinez, Spanish Scientific Delegate to CERN Council Mr Guillermo Merino Fernandez, Technology Department Mr Lluis Miralles, General Infrast...

  6. 75 FR 77660 - National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related Actions


    ... Dairy Rd, Wake Forest, 10001097 Harris, Harwell Hamilton and Jean Bangs, House and Office (Early Modern Architecture Associated with NCSU School of Design Faculty MPS), 122 Cox Ave, Raleigh, 10001098...

  7. The shelf life of dyed polymethylmethacrylate dosimeters

    Bett, R.; Watts, M. F.; Plested, M. E.


    The long-term stability of the radiation response of Harwell Red 4034 and Amber 3042 Perspex Dosimeters has been monitored for more than 15 years, and the resulting data used in the justification of their shelf-life specifications.

  8. The new cyclotrons

    Lawson, J D


    Article describing how valuable scientific work can still be carried out with the smaller energy cyclotrons such as those at the Radiochemical Centre, Amersham and the Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Harwell (2 pages).

  9. Of mice and men


    At the end of March , sixty mice were irradiated at the synchro-cyclotron in the course of an experimental programme studying radiation effects on mice and plants (Vicia faba bean roots) being carried out by the CERN Health Physics Group.

  10. Muse at CERN

    CERN Bulletin


    On 19 July, the world-famous, English rock band, Muse, visited CERN before taking centre-stage at Nyon’s Paléo Festival. They toured some of CERN’s installations, including the Synchrocyclotron and the Microcosm exhibition, and also looked in on CMS and the Antimatter Factory.    

  11. CERN History: Transport of a SC magnet to CERN in 1955


    Archive footage from Cine Journal Suisse showing the transportation of a Synchrocyclotron magnet coil on its way from Basel to CERN, passing through the narrow streets of Swiss villages Morat and Coppet. Transportation of the magnet coils was done in 1955 and 1956.

  12. Rotary capacitor


    The rotating wheel of the rotary capacitor representing the most critical part of the new radio-frequency system of the synchro-cyclotron. The three rows of teeth on the circumference of the wheel pass between four rows of stator blades with a minimum clearance of 1 mm at a velocity of 1700 rev/min.

  13. Transport of one SC coil through the village of Meyrin


    The energizing coils of the Synchro-cyclotron magnet were manufactured in Belgium before travelling to Basel in Switzerland by boat and continuing by road to Geneva. The first coil reached Geneva in December 1955, with the second following in early 1956. The coils were stored in a hangar at the Geneva airport before they were brought to CERN in May 1956.

  14. Musiclub



    On January 28th, theremin virtuoso Dorit Chrysler came to visit CERN, and played one of her songs, "Avalanche", in the Synchrocyclotron hall. Helped by the media service, the MusiClub produced a short clip of the performance. "Dorit Chrysler with the filming team Ron Suykerbuyk, Django Manglunki and Jacques-Hervé Fichet"

  15. Elementary particles in the service of man


    This article was prepared by the Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Harwell, and the Rutherford Laboratory in the U.K., for a Physics Exhibition in March of this year and is reproduced here with acknowledgement. It is an account of how some of the knowledge gained in the previous generation of our research has already been applied 'in the service of man'.

  16. A Summary of Eelgrass (Zostera marina) Reproductive Biology with an Emphasis on Seed Biology and Ecology from the Chesapeake Bay Region


    features on the bottom such as animal burrows, pits, and mounds, act to shield seeds from flow and prevent their being washed out (Luckenbach and Orth...marina L. seeds. Biologia Marina Mediterranea 7:55-58. Harwell, M. C., and R. J. Orth. 1999. Eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) seed protection for field

  17. Frank Blythe (1924-2010)


    Frank Blythe, one of the very first engineers engaged in the CERN adventure, passed away on October 22. Born and educated in Salford (England), after a time spent at Metropolitan-Vickers in Manchester, in January 1954 he joined the group at the Nuclear Physics Research Laboratory in Liverpool that was working on the first CERN accelerator, the Synchrocyclotron (SC). At that time CERN had not yet officially been constituted, yet had a well defined work programme, the design and construction work being carried out in various European laboratories. In Liverpool the work included the SC vacuum and cooling system, radiation shielding, experimental areas and beams. By the end of 1954, Frank reached the CERN premises in Geneva, and contributed significantly to the successful construction work of the Synchrocyclotron. He later became responsible for the drawing office and the mechanical workshop (Engineering Group) attached to the MSC Division, and also serving the NP/EP Division. He kept this position until ...

  18. Proton irradiation of stem cells: Radiation damage and chemical radioprotection

    Riley, R. C.; Montour, J. L.; Gurney, C. W.


    Effects of high energy protons on erythropoietic stem cells and radioprotection by chemicals were investigated in NASA Space Radiation Effects Laboratory. The effects of a parallel beam of 600 MeV protons. The fluence, when converted to dose, were referenced to the synchrocyclotron beam monitors which were then used to administer radiation exposures. Mice were given graded doses to 300 rads to determine dose-response curve. Other mice received saline, AET, or 5-hydroxytryptamine 10 to 15 minutes before exposure.

  19. A search for effects on chemical isomerism in muonic X-ray spectra of propyl alcohol

    Brandão d'Oliveira, A; Von Egidy, T


    The intensities of muonic X-ray transitions in n-propyl alcohol and isopropyl alcohol were measured. The experiment was performed at the muon channel of the 600 MeV synchrocyclotron at CERN. The spectra were evaluated by means of a standard computer program and by a technique to observe small differences between the propyl-alcohol spectra. No differences in the muonic spectra were observed within rather small experimental errors. (16 refs).

  20. New life for CERN's first accelerator

    Anaïs Schaeffer


    Building 300 right in the middle of the CERN site houses a special "antique": the Laboratory's very first accelerator. After several years in the wilderness following its decommissioning in 1990, the Synchrocyclotron is set to take on a new lease of life in the near future, this time as a visitor attraction.   The Synchrocyclotron as it was in 1975; it will be restored to this configuration for public viewing. The Synchrocyclotron (SC) began operation in 1957, two years before the PS was commissioned. Running at an energy of 600 MeV and producing beams of protons, neutrons, muons and pions, it helped to further research in the nuclear physics field for no fewer than 33 years, providing beams for various decay experiments as well as the muon capture experiment (*). Since the SC was decommissioned in 1990, three of its four buildings (160, 161 and 301) have been converted into offices for members of the ALICE collaboration, but the shielded hall housing the machine it...

  1. The SC gets ready for visitors

    Antonella Del Rosso


    Hall 300, which houses the Synchrocyclotron (SC), CERN’s first accelerator, is getting ready to host a brand-new exhibition. The site will be one of the stops on the new visit itineraries that will be inaugurated for the 2013 CERN Open Day.   The Synchrocyclotron through the years. Just as it did in the late 1950s, when the accelerator was first installed, the gigantic red structure of the Synchrocyclotron's magnet occupies a large part of the 300-square-metre hall. “We have completed the first phase of the project that will give the SC a new lease of life,” says Marco Silari, the project leader and a member of CERN’s Radiation Protection Group. “We have removed all the equipment that was not an integral part of the accelerator. The hall is now ready for the civil-engineering work that will precede the installation of the exhibition.” The SC was witness to a big part of the history of CERN. The accelerator produced ...

  2. Overview of recent U235 neutron cross section evaluation work

    Lubitz, C. [Lockheed Martin Corp., Schenectady, NY (United States)


    This report is an overview (through 1997) of the U235 neutron cross section evaluation work at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), AEA Technology (Harwell) and Lockheed Martin Corp.-Schenectady (LMS), which has influenced, or appeared in, ENDF/B-VI through Release 5. The discussion is restricted to the thermal and resolved resonance regions, apart from some questions about the unresolved region which still need investigation. The important role which benchmark testing has played will be touched on.

  3. Sparse matrix test collections

    Duff, I.


    This workshop will discuss plans for coordinating and developing sets of test matrices for the comparison and testing of sparse linear algebra software. We will talk of plans for the next release (Release 2) of the Harwell-Boeing Collection and recent work on improving the accessibility of this Collection and others through the World Wide Web. There will only be three talks of about 15 to 20 minutes followed by a discussion from the floor.

  4. The control system of the CERN-ISOLDE on-line mass-separator facility

    Jonsson, O.C.; Bret, A.; Catherall, R.; Deloose, I.; Focker, G.J.; Forkel, D.; Kugler, E.; Olesen, G.; Pace, A.; Ravn, H.L.; Shering, G.; Tengblad, O. (CERN, Geneva (Switzerland)); Borch, O. (Aalborg Univ. (Denmark). Inst. of Electronic Systems); Richard-Serre, C. (IN2P3, 75 - Paris (France)); Torgersen, H.J. (Oslo Univ. (Norway). Dept. of Chemistry); ISOLDE Collaboration


    With the move of the ISOLDE facility to the PS-Booster from the now closed Synchro-Cyclotron at CERN, a new control system will be implented for the two separators. Personal computers, based on the Intel 80386 microprocessor running under MS-DOS and Microsoft Windows, are used. Network-wide distributed front end computers, which access the hardware for controls and measurements, are controlled by PC-consoles via a local area network with a PC file server used as a database. (orig.).

  5. The control system of the CERN-ISOLDE on-line mass-separator facility

    Jonsson, O. C.; Borch, O.; Bret, A.; Catherall, R.; Deloose, I.; Focker, G. J.; Forkel, D.; Kugler, E.; Olesen, G.; Pace, A.; Ravn, H. L.; Richard-Serre, C.; Shering, G.; Tengblad, O.; Torgersen, H. J.; Isolde Collaboration


    With the move of the ISOLDE facility to the PS-Booster from the now closed Synchro-Cyclotron at CERN, a new control system will be implemented for the two separators. Personal computers, based on the Intel 80386 microprocessor running under MS-DOS and Microsoft Windows, are used. Network-wide distributed front end computers, which access the hardware for controls and measurements, are controlled by PC-consoles via a local area network with a PC file server used as a database.

  6. Measurement of neutron-induced fission cross-sections of Th232, U238, U233 and Np237 relative to U235 from 1 MeV to 200 MeV

    Shcherbakov, O.A.; Laptev, A.B.; Petrov, G.A. [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Inst., Gatchina, Leningrad district (Russian Federation); Fomichev, A.V.; Donets, A.Y.; Osetrov, O.I.


    The measurements of neutron-induced cross-section ratios for Th232, U238, U233 and Np237 relative to U235 have been carried out in the energy range from 1 MeV up to 200 MeV using the neutron time-of-flight spectrometer GNEIS based on 1 GeV proton synchrocyclotron. Below 20 MeV, the results of present measurements are roughly in agreement with evaluated data though there are some discrepances to be resolved. (author)

  7. Model of Dees and Rotco for the 600 MeV SC

    CERN PhotoLab


    The accelerating frequency of the 600 MeV Synchro-Cyclotron (SC) was modulated by the varying capacity of a rotating condenser ("Rotco", the most delicate component of the SC). A 1/5-scale model, dating from the design-period of the SC, was used to study improvements to the SC RF-system, and also the acceleration of ions, first Helium and, at the time of this picture, Carbon. In the middle of the picture is the case containing the Dees. To the left, at the wide end of the cone, a rotco. Reinhold Hohbach is busy with measurements. See also 7805235 (Annual Report 1978, p.110).

  8. Some aspects of radiation protection near high-energy proton accelerators

    Tuyn, Jan Willem Nicolaas


    The CERN site near Geneva borders Satigny and Meyrin in Switzerland and Saint-Genis-Pouilly and Prevention in France. The 600 MeV proton synchrocyclotron (SC) has been in operation since 1957, the 28 GeV proton synchrotron (PS) since 1960, and the Intersecting Storage Rings (ISR) since 1971. A fourth large accelerator, the 400 GeV super proton synchrotron (SPS), will soon be in service. The internal and external radiation protection problems caused by these machines, together with the solutions, are reviewed in the light of experience. (5 refs).

  9. Recent developments and on-line tests of uranium carbide targets for production of nuclides far from stability

    Panteleev, V.N; Barzakh, A.E; Fedorov, D.V; Ionan, A.M; Ivanov, V.S; Mezilev, K.A; Molkanov, P.L; Moroz, F.V; Orlov, S.Yu; Volkov, Yu.M; Alyakrinskiy, O; Lanchais, A; Lau, C; Lhersonneau, G; Rizzi, V; Stroe, L; Tecchio, L.B; Dubois, M; Eleon, C; Gaubert, G; Jardin, P; Saint Laurent, M.G; Villari, A.C.C; Essabaa, S; O. Bajeat; Mhamed, C; Leroy, R; 10.1140/epjst/e2007-00328-y


    The capacity of uranium carbide target materials of different structure and density for production of neutron-rich and heavy neutron-deficient nuclides have been investigated. The yields of Cs and Fr produced by a 1 GeV proton beam of the PNPI synchrocyclotron and release properties of different targets have been measured. The comparison of the yields and release efficiencies of Cs and Fr produced from a high density UC target material and from low density UCx prepared by the ISOLDE method at IRIS in the collaboration with PARRNe group from Orsay are presented. The yields from ISOLDE original target are presented for comparison as well.

  10. Linear accelerators for high energies. A report on the 1962 conference at Brookhaven

    Blewett, John P.


    The linear accelerator was invented very early in the history of particle accelerators, but it has been one of the latest accelerators to be exploited. This is principally because of the very large quantities of radio-frequency power required to attain respectable energies in a reasonable distance. Radar developments during World War II resulted in production of the necessary megawatt oscillators or amplifiers, and linear accelerators, both for electrons and positive ions, are now operating in several centers. The electron linear accelerator has been extended to billion-volt energies, and in the Stanford two-mile version it will soon set new energy records between 20 and 40 BeV. The proton linear accelerator has had a less spectacular history. The highest energy yet achieved in a proton linac is about 70 MeV (at the University of Minnesota). Smaller proton linacs are in use as injectors for proton-synchrotrons, but no machine has been built or is under construction for the range above 100 MeV. This is because synchro-cyclotrons for this energy range are much cheaper and have been preferred for this reason, in spite of the fact that the beam from a synchro-cyclotron cannot be nearly as intense or as well collimated as the beam from a linear accelerator.

  11. ISOLDE 1985-1987: In the shadow of LEP construction

    CERN. Geneva


    This report describes my time at CERN from 1985 to 1987. Only very briefly before, ISOLDE was recognized by the CERN Management as a CERN facility and not only as a collaboration performing experiments at the synchrocyclotron (SC). Due to LEP construction the human resources were extremely restricted and I acted in one person as ISOLDE Group Leader, as Coordinator of the Synchrocyclotron, and as person responsible for the ISOLDE Technical Group. In addition, I was responsible for the students of my research groups from Mainz University which were active in laser spectroscopy of neutron-deficient nuclides in the mercury region and in getting ISOLTRAP on the floor and into operation. Due to LEP construction also the financial resources were extremely limited and my requests to the EP Division Leader B. Hyams and to the Director General H. Schopper for financial support for installation of a laser ion source and ISOLTRAP were turned down. Still, I and my students had a lot of fun at ISOLDE and I am very happy th...

  12. Seen it in the Bulletin? Now see it in real-life!

    CERN Bulletin


    Detector Technologies (Map: C4): Read more about the construction and physics of the new NA62 straw chambers in “Straw Detector: 1 - Vacuum: 0”.   The Synchrocyclotron (Map: B2): Read more about the newly opened synchrocyclotron (SC) in “New life for CERN's first accelerator”.   Linac 4 (Map: D4): Visit the site of CERN’s newest linear accelerator: Linac4. Read more about the accelerator in “Linac4: the final assembly stage is under way” (2013), “Testing begins on Linac4” (2012), and “Sixteen silver wires to assemble 350 kg of copper” (2010).   Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) (Map: I3): AMS is the most sensitive particle physics spectrometer ever deployed in space. Read about its launch in “AMS: From the ISS to CERN”.   COMPASS (Map: I1): COMPASS is a high-energy physics experiment at the SPS. Read more about its newest phase in ...

  13. Investigation of Material Problems for High Temperature, High Power Space Energy-Conversion Systems


    latter John Gittus (United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority, Harwell), Editor-in-Chief of "The International Journal of Structural Mechanics and...34typically (but not necessarily) less than aboW, 10 mn in size" C2.120]. Both Gittus and Langdon mention an often-referenced expression for...600C Gittus modifies (2.32) yielding b) a e -115+10(kJ mole- 1 K-1 )/RT In a later section Gittus proposes a "model for superplastic deformation of

  14. Joint Working Group-39, Manufacturing Technology Subworking Group-F, remote handling and automation

    Merrill, R.D.


    The terms of reference were reviewed and continue to encompass the scope of activities of the SUBWOG. No revisions to the terms of reference were proposed. The list of site contacts who should receive copies of SUBWOG correspondence and meeting minutes was reviewed and updated. Documents exchanged related to the meeting include: Minutes of the sixth SUBOG 39F meeting; transactions of the fifth topical meeting on robotics and remote handling; data on manipulators was forwarded to LLNL from the robotics group at AEA Harwell; and the specifications of the duct remediation robot from the Rocky Flats Plant.

  15. Development of a Procedure to Apply Detailed Chemical Kinetic Mechanisms to CFD Simulations as Post Processing

    Skjøth-Rasmussen, Martin Skov; Glarborg, Peter; Jensen, Anker


    mechanism. It involves post-processing of data extracted from computational fluid dynamics simulations. Application of this approach successfully describes combustion chemistry in a standard swirl burner, the so-called Harwell furnace. Nevertheless, it needs validation against more complex combustion models......It is desired to make detailed chemical kinetic mechanisms applicable to the complex geometries of practical combustion devices simulated with computational fluid dynamics tools. This work presents a novel general approach to combining computational fluid dynamics and a detailed chemical kinetic...

  16. CEMS: A New Infrastructure For EO And Climate Science

    Bennett, Victoria L.; Kershaw, Philip; Busswell, Geoff; Hilton, Richard; O'Neill, Alan


    CEMS, the facility for Climate and Environmental Monitoring from Space, has been created as a collaboration between UK academic and industrial partners at Harwell, Oxfordshire, UK, offering Climate and Earth Observation (EO) data and services. Since going operational in September 2012, CEMS has been supporting a range of research and commercial users. Applications include production of climate-quality long- term global datasets, processing satellite observations, and development of novel algorithms and products combining EO with other environmental datasets. This paper briefly describes the CEMS infrastructure, present some example uses with initial indications of benefits of the CEMS environment, and outline plans for future evolution.

  17. Ultrasonic materials characterization

    Smith, R. L.


    The National NDT Center at Harwell has been developing methods for the characterization of materials using ultrasonics. This paper reviews the progress made in applying ultrasonic attenuation measurements to the determination of such quantities as grain size and dislocation content. A method, ultrasonic attenuation spectral analysis, has been developed, which enables the contributions of scattering and absorption to the total attenuation to be separated. The theoretical advances that have been made are also described. Some of the practical applications of the technique are illustrated and future development discussed.

  18. The contribution of Diamond Light Source to the study of strongly correlated electron systems and complex magnetic structures

    Radaelli, P. G.; Dhesi, S. S.


    We review some of the significant contributions to the field of strongly correlated materials and complex magnets, arising from experiments performed at the Diamond Light Source (Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, UK) during the first few years of operation (2007–2014). We provide a comprehensive overview of Diamond research on topological insulators, multiferroics, complex oxides and magnetic nanostructures. Several experiments on ultrafast dynamics, magnetic imaging, photoemission electron microscopy, soft X-ray holography and resonant magnetic hard and soft X-ray scattering are described.

  19. The contribution of Diamond Light Source to the study of strongly correlated electron systems and complex magnetic structures.

    Radaelli, P G; Dhesi, S S


    We review some of the significant contributions to the field of strongly correlated materials and complex magnets, arising from experiments performed at the Diamond Light Source (Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, UK) during the first few years of operation (2007-2014). We provide a comprehensive overview of Diamond research on topological insulators, multiferroics, complex oxides and magnetic nanostructures. Several experiments on ultrafast dynamics, magnetic imaging, photoemission electron microscopy, soft X-ray holography and resonant magnetic hard and soft X-ray scattering are described.

  20. Observations of peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) in air in Southern England

    Stephens, E.R. (Univ. of California, Riverside); Penkett, S.A.; Sandalls, F.J.; Lovelock, J.E.


    It has always seemed inevitable that PAN would be found in any urban or near urban area whenever a sufficiently diligent search with high sensitivity was mounted. Detection in Tokyo, Japan has been reported as well as several locations in the USA. Penkett, Sandalls and Lovelock report a good separation with high sensitivity showing PPN as well as PAN in about the same ratio as seen in California. The correlation with ozone is not always so good. Formation of small concentrations of PAN in natural atmospheres would not be surprising since volatile terpenes such as ..cap alpha..-pinene are very reactive and can form PAN when irradiated with nitrogen oxides. There are also natural sources of nitrogen oxides. Nevertheless, modern autos are such prolific sources of the precursors of PAN and ozone that they should be the prime suspect even in places more remote than Harwell. The chromatogram given by Penkett et al. has a peak labelled methyl nitrate which is not discussed in the text. We have not been able to detect methyl nitrate in Riverside, California. We do see a peak at just half the emergence time of PAN which we identify as tetrachloroethylene (C/sub 2/Cl/sub 4/). This peak shows a very different time variation from PAN or ozone which is not surprising if it is derived from the nearest dry cleaning establishment. If the peak in the Harwell chromatogram is methyl nitrate it would provide an additional tracer for photochemical reaction products. (auth)

  1. Changes in the mean square charge radii and electromagnetic moments of neutron-deficient Bi isotopes

    Barzakh, A. E., E-mail:; Batist, L. Kh.; Fedorov, D. V.; Ivanov, V. S.; Molkanov, P. L.; Moroz, F. V.; Orlov, S. Yu.; Panteleev, V. N.; Seliverstov, M. D.; Volkov, Yu. M. [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute (PNPI), NRC Kurchatov Institute, Gatchina 188300 (Russian Federation)


    In-source laser spectroscopy experiments for neutron deficient bismuth isotopes at the 306.77 nm atomic transition were carried out at the IRIS (Investigation of Radioactive Isotopes on Synchrocyclotron) facility of Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute (PNPI). New data on isotope shifts and hyperfine structure for {sup 189–198,} {sup 211}Bi isotopes and isomers were obtained. The changes in the mean-square charge radii and the magnetic moment values were deduced. Marked deviation from the nearly spherical behavior for ground states of bismuth isotopes at N < 109 is demonstrated, in contrast to the lead and thallium isotopic chains. The big isomer shift between I = 1/2 (intruder) and I = 9/2 (normal) states for odd Bi isotopes (A = 193, 195, 197) was found.

  2. Franco Bonaudi 1928-2008


    The famous photograph taken during the first interactions in the ISR in 1971. Kjell Johnsen speaks into the microphone. Franco Bonaudi can be seen on the far left. Franco Bonaudi, one of the true pioneers of CERN’s accelerators, passed away on 21 December 2008. In 1951, Franco Bonaudi was a young research engineer specialising in electronics and radiofrequency at the Politecnico di Torino, when he was invited by Edoardo Amaldi, one of the founders of CERN, to consider working for the provisional organisation that became known as CERN (European Organization for Nuclear Research). Accepting the challenge, he was sent to Liverpool in July 1952 to work with the study group led by Cornelius Bakker for the first CERN accelerator, the 600 MeV Synchrocyclotron (SC). After two years in Liverpool, he joined the rest of the newly appointed staff in the Geneva Airport hangar, where the future SC Divis...

  3. Werner Albrecht (1924 - 2014)


    Werner Albrecht, one of the very first mechanical designers recruited by CERN, passed away on 28 March. Born and educated in Zurich, where he spent the first years of his professional life, he joined CERN in June 1955.   Thanks to his experience and personality, he soon became the deputy to Frank Blythe, the head of the Synchrocyclotron (SC) technical office. The office, which included a large mechanical workshop, had been created in the light of the development and construction of the SC - the first of CERN’s accelerators. For around 25 years Werner kept this position at Frank’s side while the services under their responsibility evolved to become the natural facility to provide design and development for a large range of apparatus required by experimental physicists. After Frank’s retirement in 1980, Werner became head of the office, maintaining its typical character as an efficient, informal and friendly service. Omega, UA1, Aleph, Opal and Delphi are example...


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Versyck, S; Dehaes, J; Bree, N C F; Neyskens, P; Martinez palenzuela, Y; De groote, R P; Carlier, L M F; De schepper, S; Dewolf, K W A; Kabir, L R; Garcia ruiz, R F; Khodery ahmad, M A; Zadvornaya, A; Xu, Z; Smolders, P; Krastev, P; Rapisarda, E; Reber, J A; Mattolat, C F; Raeder, S; Habs, D; Martinez perez, T; Fraile prieto, L M; Vidal, M; Perez liva, M; Calvo portela, P; Ulla pedrera, F J; Wood, R T; Lalkovski, S; Page, R; Petri, M; Barton, C J; Nichols, A J; Vermeulen, M J; Bloor, D M; Henderson, J; Wilson, G L; De angelis, G; Buerger, A; Klintefjord, M L; Fornal, B A; Marginean, R; Sava, T; Suvaila, R; Lica, R; Costache, C; Mihai, R; Ionescu, A; Baeck, T M; Masenda, H; Sedlak, M; Koskelo, O K; Kyaw myat, K M; Ganguly, B; Goncalves marques, J; Cardoso, S; Seliverstov, M; Niessen, B D; Gutt, L E; Chapman, R; Spagnoletti, P N; Lopes, C; De oliveira amorim, C; Batista lopes, C M; Araujo, J; Schielke, S J; Daugas, J R; Gaudefroy, L; Chevrier, R; Szunyogh, D M; Napiorkowski, P J; Wrzosek-lipska, K; Wahl, U; Catarino, N; Pereira carvalho alves de sequeira, M; Decoster, S J; Porobic, T; Babo, M; Walters, W; Hess, H E; Holler, A; Bettermann, L; Geibel, K; Taprogge, J; Lewandowski, L T N; Manchado de sola, F; Das gupta, S; Thulstrup, P W; Heinz, U; Nogwanya, T; Neidherr, D M; Domingo pardo, C; Morales lopez, A I; Gumenyuk, O; Peaker, A R; Wakabayashi, Y; Abrahams, K J; Mach, H A; Souza ribeiro junior, I; He, J; Giles, T J; Dorsival, A; Kalaninova, Z; Venos, D; Kraemer, J; Saha, S; Neugart, R; Eronen, T O; Kreim, K D; Heck, M K; Goncharov, M; Julin, R J; Jakobsson, E H U; Eleon, C; Achouri, N L; Grinyer, G F; Fontbonne, C M; Alfaurt, P; Kusoglu, A; Wilkins, S G; Brown, A R; Imai, N; Pomorski, M J; Janiak, L; Nilsson, T; Stroke, H H; Stanja, J; Dangelser, E; Heenen, P; Mallion, S N; Diriken, J V J; Ghys, L H L; Khamehchi, M A; Van beveren, C; Gins, W A M; Bouma, J T; Koszorus, A; Mcnulty, J F; Ohlert, C M; Schwerdtfeger, W; Tengblad, O; Becerril reyes, A D; Perea martinez, A; Martinez perez, M C; Margerin, V; Rudigier, M; Alexander, T D; Patel, Z V; Hammond, N; Wearing, F; Patel, A; Jenkins, D G; Debernardi, A; Giacoppo, F; Tveten, G M; Malatji, K L; Krolas, W A; Stanoiu, M A; Rickert, E U; Ter-akopian, G; Cline, D; Riihimaeki, I A; Simon, K D; Wagner, F E; Turker, M; Neef, M H; Jakubek, J; Vagena, E; Bottoni, S; Nishimura, K; Correia, J; Rodrigues valdrez, C J; Ostrowski, A N; Hallmann, O; Scheck, M; Wady, P T; Lane, J; Krasznahorkay, A J; Kunne sohler, D; Meaney, A J; Baptista barbosa, M; Hochschulz, F; Roig, O; Houngbo, D; Behan, C C; Kargoll, S; Kemnitz, S; Redondo cubero, A; Dirkx, D; Stegemann, S T; Tallarida, G; Kaczarowski, R; Finke, F; Linnemann, A; Altenkirch, R; Saed-samii, N; Ansari, S H; Dlamini, W B; Adoons, V N; Ronning, C R; Wiedeking, M; Guadilla gomez, V; Herlert, A J; Mehl, C V; Judge, S M; Catherall, R; Lettry, J; Wenander, F J C; Zakoucky, D; Catchen, G L; Noertershaeuser, W; Kroell, T; Leske, J; Shubina, D; Murray, I M; Pancin, J; Delaunay, F; Poincheval, J J L; Audirac, L L; Gerbaux, M T; Aouadi, M; Sole, P G P; Fallot, M P; Onillon, A; Duchemin, C; Formento cavaier, R; Audi, G; Boukhari, A; Lau, C; Martin, J A; Barre, N H; Berry, T A; Procter, T J; Farooq-smith, G J; Bladen, L K; Axiotis, M; Muto, S; Jeong, S C; Hirayama, Y; Korgul, A B; Minamisono, K; Bingham, C R; Aprahamian, A; Bucher, B M; Huyse, M L; Himpe, P; Ferrer garcia, R; Sambi, S; Budincevic, I; Neven, M; Bomans, P; Romano, N; Maugeri, E A; Klupp, S C; Dehn, M H; Heinke, R M; Naubereit, P; Maira vidal, A; Vedia fernandez, M V; Ibanez garcia, P B; Bruyneel, B J E; Materna, T; Al-dahan, N; Alazemi, N; Carroll, R J; Babcock, C; Eleme, Z; Dhal, A; Valiente dobon, J J; Sahin, E; Goergen, A; Maj, A; Bednarczyk, P A; Borcea, C; Negoita, F; Suliman, G; Marginean, N M; Sotty, C O; Negret, A L; Nae, S A; Nita, C; Golubev, P I; Knyazev, A; Jost, C U; Petrik, K; Strisovska, J; Vaeyrynen, S A; Dracoulis, G D; Uher, J; Fernandez dominguez, B; Chakraborty, P; Avigo, R; Galaviz redondo, D; Castro ribeiro da silva, M; Bernards, C W; Falahat, S; Lekovic, F; Dorrer, H J; Derkx, X; Angus, L J; Sandhu, K S; Gregor, E; Byrne, D J; Haas, H; Lourenco, A A; Sousa pereira, S M; Sousa, J B; De melo mendonca, T M; Tavares de sousa, C; Guerreiro dos santos oliveira custodio, L M; Da rocha rodrigues, P M; Yamaguchi, T; Thompson, P C; Rosenbusch, M; Wienholtz, F; Fischer, P; Iwanicki, J S; Rusek, K M; Hanstorp, D; Severijns, N; Vanpoucke, B R S; Finlay, P E J; Park, S H; Warr, N V; Doornenbal, P C; Imig, A; Seidlitz, M; Moschner, K; Vogt, A; Kaya, L; Martel bravo, I; Orduz, A K; Serot, O; Majola, S N; Litvinov, Y; Bommert, M; Hensel, S; Markevich, V; Nishio, K; Ota, S; Matos, I; Zenkevich, A; Picado sandi, E; Forstner, O


    The experiments aim at a broad exploration of the properties of atomic nuclei far away from the region of beta stability. Furthermore, the unique radioactive beams of over 60~elements produced at the on-line isotope separators ISOLDE-2 and ISOLDE-3 are used in a wide programme of atomic, solid state and surface physics. Around 300 scientists are involved in the project, coming from about 70 laboratories. \\\\ \\\\ The electromagnetic isotope separators are connected on-line with their production targets in the extracted 600 MeV proton or 910~MeV Helium-3 beam of the Synchro-Cyclotron. Secondary beams of radioactive isotopes are available at the facility in intensities of 10$^1

  5. Independent cross-sections of alkali isotopes produced in various targets bombarded by $^{12}C$ and $^{18}O$ ions up to 77 MeV/amu

    De Saint-Simon, M; Coc, A; Epherre-Rey-Campagnolle, Marcelle; Guimbal, P; Haan, S; Langevin, M; Müller, A C; Thibault, C; Touchard, F


    The authors report on an online mass-spectrometric study of the isotopic distributions of nuclear reaction products. The two purposes of this experiment are the investigation of a particular aspect of reaction-mechanisms and the study of the possibility for exotic-nuclei production. The measurements have been carried out with the 86 MeV/amu /sup 12/C and /sup 18/O beams of the synchrocyclotron SC (CERN). By degradation in different sets of graphite slabs, three different energies: 13, 27 and 77 MeV/amu have been chosen. Due to the chemical selectivity for the alkali elements of the device, the isotopic distributions of Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs and Fr were measured in four targets: C, Nb, Ta and U. The independent yields obtained by direct ion counting are converted in cross-sections using a calibration of T. Lund et al.

  6. Precise Method for Momentum Calibration of Pion Channels by Measuring Neutron TOF for π^-parrowη n (Supported in part by U.S. DOE and Russian Academy of Sciences.)

    Kozlenko, N.; Abaev, V.; Bekrenev, V.; Kruglov, S.; Lopatin, I.; Starostin, A.; Isenhower, D.; Sadler, M.; Chrien, R.; Sawafta, R.; Sutter, R.; Clajus, M.; Marusic, A.; McDonald, S.; Nefkens, B.; Tippens, B.; White, D.; Briscoe, W.; Morrison, T.; Papandreou, Z.; Efendiev, A.


    Neutron TOF for the π^-parrowη n reaction was measured in the C8 channel at the Brookhaven AGS at 720 and 750 MeV/c. The difference in the two measured neutron TOF peaks from η production at a given laboratory angle provides a very sensitive measurement of the beam momentum that can be used to calibrate intermediate-energy pion channels above threshold (685 MeV/c). This technique has been used to calibrate the pion channel of the PNPI synchrocyclotron. Recent results for the C8 line at BNL will be compared to other determinations of the channel momentum using TOF measurements of the beam and scaling of magnet currents. All three techniques were used to provide an absolute calibration for BNL Exp. 890/909.

  7. Transport of one SC coil through the village of Meyrin


    In 1952, before CERN was officially founded, two accelerator projects were launched: one for an innovative accelerator to operate at an energy level unequalled at the time, the other for a more standard machine, a Synchro-Cyclotron (SC) to operate at 600 MeV. Design work on the SC was started in 1952 and carried out by teams scattered throughout Europe. Once construction began in 1954, CERN had to arrange road transport for the first of what has since been a long series of spectacular component deliveries, such as those of the machine's two magnetic coils each weighing 60 tonnes and measuring 7.2 metres in diameter. Above, one of them is seen passing through the village of Meyrin. The SC was commissioned in 1957 and was operational for 34 years!

  8. Golden Jubilee photos


    Flash-back on 50 years of history. The SC, the first Machine In 1952, before CERN was officially founded, two accelerator projects were launched: one for an innovative accelerator to operate at an energy level unequalled at the time, the other for a more standard machine, a Synchro-Cyclotron (SC) to operate at 600 MeV. Design work on the SC was started in 1952 and carried out by teams scattered throughout Europe. Once construction began in 1954, CERN had to arrange road transport for the first of what has since been a long series of spectacular component deliveries, such as those of the machine's two magnetic coils each weighing 60 tonnes and measuring 7.2 metres in diameter. Above, one of them is seen passing through the village of Meyrin. The SC was commissioned in 1957 and was operational for 34 years!

  9. Golden Jubilee photos: The first experiments


    A year after the commissioning of the Synchrocyclotron (SC), the first experiments were already starting to bear fruit. In July 1958, Tito Fazzini, Giuseppe Fidecaro, Alec Merrison, Helmut Paul and Alvin Tollestrup produced conclusive evidence that approximately one pion in ten thousand decayed into an electron and a neutrino, as predicted by the weak interaction theory. This, the first of CERN's great discoveries, effectively put an end to the controversy that had been raging at the time. A few years later, Giuseppe Fidecaro began a collaboration at CERN with his wife Maria. In the image, Giuseppe and Maria Fidecaro in 1963, surrounded by spark chambers, inside the detector for the experiment on the decay of the rho meson into a pi meson and a photon.

  10. The data acquisition system (DAS) for the improved CERN SC

    Beger, H; Fiebig, A; Schroot, H


    A digital data acquisition system (DAS) based on a minicomputer is described which registers the failure sequences in various equipment areas of the CERN synchrocyclotron (henceforward referred to as the SC). The avalanches of failure signals which occur from time to time are tapped from the alarm/security systems, time-resolved to 10 msec and recorded on a printer in order to aid SC failure diagnosis. The mechanisms of the DAS and its relation to the SC equipment are explained in some detail. All programs were constructed at assembler language level for speed and for ease of on-line program maintenance. The alarm sequences recorded have been of considerable help during the running in of the new radiofrequency system. Now that the new SC is operational, the DAS furnishes useful data from several equipment areas to the operators and engineers.

  11. The Children of the Night need your help

    Antonella Del Rosso


    The “Children of the Night” is a colloquial name given to children suffering from Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP), a genetic disorder that causes extreme sensitivity to ultraviolet light. When affected individuals are exposed to the sun, their skin undergoes alterations that can quickly develop into cancer. Special equipment has been developed to protect them from UV exposure but it is uncomfortable and very expensive. The association THE Port has a project to help the children afflicted by the disorder and their families and is looking for experts who can contribute.   Visiting the Synchrocyclotron. Their homes are kept in darkness and they leave them only at nighttime. During the day they can’t go anywhere without a special suit that protects their skin and eyes from the sun’s rays. Mutant genes in their DNA impair their bodies’ capacity to repair and accurately replicate DNA damaged by UV light. This deficiency causes cancers to develo...

  12. Report on the R&D of Uranium Carbide targets by the PLOG collaboration at PNPI-Gatchina

    A.E. Barzakh, D.V. Fedorov, A.M. Ionan, V.S. Ivanov, M.P. Levchenko, K.A. Mezilev, F.V. Moroz, S.Yu. Orlov, V.N. Panteleev, Yu.M. Volkov,O. Alyakrinskiy, A. Andrighetto, A. Lanchais, G. Lhersonneau*, V. Rizzi, L. Stroe#, L.B. Tecchio,O. Bajeat, M. Cheikh Mhamed, S. Essabaa, C. Lau, B. Roussière,M. Dubois, C. Eléon, G. Gaubert, P. Jardin, N. Lecesne, R. Leroy, J.Y. Pacquet, M. -G. Saint Laurent, A.C.C. Villari.

    The aim of this report is to summarize the experimental results of the R&D program on Uranium Carbide targets for Radioactive Ion Beam (RIB) production performed at the Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute (PNPI) of Gatchina (Russia). The targets have been irradiated with 1 GeV protons delivered by the Synchrocyclotron and the measurements were carried out at the IRIS isotope separator on-line. Different compositions of Uranium Carbide targets as well as different kinds of ion sources have been tested in order to evaluate efficiency and release times of the reaction products. The report includes the results of experiments performed in the period of time going from November 2001 up to March 2006. This R&D program was performed in the framework of the collaboration with the EURISOL, SPES and SPIRAL-2 projects and ISTC program.

  13. Clinical results of stereotactic heavy-charged-particle radiosurgery for intracranial angiographically occult vascular malformations

    Levy, R.P.; Fabrikant, J.I.; Phillips, M.H.; Frankel, K.A.; Steinberg, G.K.; Marks, M.P.; DeLaPaz, R.L.; Chuang, F.Y.S.; Lyman, J.T.


    Angiographically occult vascular malformations (AOVMs) of the brain have been recognized for many years to cause neurologic morbidity and mortality. They generally become symptomatic due to intracranial hemorrhage, focal mass effect, seizures or headaches. The true incidence of AOVMs is unknown, but autopsy studies suggest that they are more common than high-flow angiographically demonstrable arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). We have developed stereotactic heavy-charged-particle Bragg peak radiosurgery for the treatment of inoperable intracranial vascular malformations, using the helium ion beams at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory 184-inch Synchrocyclotron and Bevatron. This report describes the protocol for patient selection, radiosurgical treatment planning method, clinical and neuroradiologic results and complications encountered, and discusses the strengths and limitations of the method. 10 refs., 1 fig.

  14. Giuseppe and Maria Fidecaro inside the Spark Chamber Apparatus in the South Hall of PS to search for the $\\rho \\rightarrow \\pi\\gamma$ decay

    Gérard Bertin


    A year after the commissioning of the Synchrocyclotron (SC), the first experiments were already starting to bear fruit. In July 1958, Tito Fazzini, Giuseppe Fidecaro, Alec Merrison, Helmut Paul and Alvin Tollestrup produced conclusive evidence that approximately one pion in ten thousand decayed into an electron and a neutrino, as predicted by the weak interaction theory. This, the first of CERN's great discoveries, effectively put an end to the controversy that had been raging at the time. A few years later, Giuseppe Fidecaro began a collaboration at CERN with his wife Maria. In the image, Giuseppe and Maria Fidecaro in 1963, surrounded by spark chambers, inside the detector for the experiment on the decay of a rho meson into a pi meson and a photon.

  15. Overview of Light-Ion Beam Therapy

    Chu, William T.


    In 1930, Ernest Orlando Lawrence at the University of California at Berkeley invented the cyclotron. One of his students, M. Stanley Livingston, constructed a 13-cm diameter model that had all the features of early cyclotrons, accelerating protons to 80 keV using less than 1 kV on a semi-circular accelerating electrode, now called the ''dee''. Soon after, Lawrence constructed the first two-dee 27-Inch (69-cm) Cyclotron, which produced protons and deuterons of 4.8 MeV. In 1939, Lawrence constructed the 60-Inch (150-cm) Cyclotron, which accelerated deuterons to 19 MeV. Just before WWII, Lawrence designed a 184-inch cyclotron, but the war prevented the building of this machine. Immediately after the war ended, the Veksler-McMillan principle of phase stability was put forward, which enabled the transformation of conventional cyclotrons to successful synchrocyclotrons. When completed, the 184-Inch Synchrocyclotron produced 340-MeV protons. Following it, more modern synchrocyclotrons were built around the globe, and the synchrocyclotrons in Berkeley and Uppsala, together with the Harvard cyclotron, would perform pioneering work in treatment of human cancer using accelerated hadrons (protons and light ions). When the 184-Inch Synchrocyclotron was built, Lawrence asked Robert Wilson, one of his former graduate students, to look into the shielding requirements for of the new accelerator. Wilson soon realized that the 184-Inch would produce a copious number of protons and other light ions that had enough energy to penetrate human body, and could be used for treatment of deep-seated diseases. Realizing the advantages of delivering a larger dose in the Bragg peak when placed inside deep-seated tumors, he published in a medical journal a seminal paper on the rationale to use accelerated protons and light ions for treatment of human cancer. The precise dose localization provided by protons and light ions means lower doses to normal tissues adjacent to the

  16. Approximate inverse preconditioners for general sparse matrices

    Chow, E.; Saad, Y. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)


    Preconditioned Krylov subspace methods are often very efficient in solving sparse linear matrices that arise from the discretization of elliptic partial differential equations. However, for general sparse indifinite matrices, the usual ILU preconditioners fail, often because of the fact that the resulting factors L and U give rise to unstable forward and backward sweeps. In such cases, alternative preconditioners based on approximate inverses may be attractive. We are currently developing a number of such preconditioners based on iterating on each column to get the approximate inverse. For this approach to be efficient, the iteration must be done in sparse mode, i.e., we must use sparse-matrix by sparse-vector type operatoins. We will discuss a few options and compare their performance on standard problems from the Harwell-Boeing collection.

  17. Characterisation of spherical recoil proton proportional counters used for neutron spectrometry

    Pichenot, G; Gressier, V; Guldbakke, S; Itie, C; Klein, H; Knauf, K; Lebreton, L; Loeb, S; Pochon-Guerin, L; Schlegel, D J; Sosaat, W


    The Institute for Protection and Nuclear Safety (IPSN) standard neutron detector in the energy range 60-800 keV is a spherical proportional counter of HARWELL type SP2 nominally filled with 300 kPa hydrogen. It was characterised in the monoenergetic neutron fields of PTB at the energies of 144, 250 and 565 keV, where the neutron energy and fluence were determined with the PTB reference instruments. The neutron fields produced at the same energies with the accelerator facility of Bruyeres-le-Chatel were then investigated with the calibrated SP2 counter and various PTB instruments in order to determine the mean energy and the neutron fluence. The energy scale and a neutron fluence monitor were calibrated.

  18. A Highly Efficient Parallel Algorithm for Computing the Fiedler Vector

    Manguoglu, Murat


    The eigenvector corresponding to the second smallest eigenvalue of the Laplacian of a graph, known as the Fiedler vector, has a number of applications in areas that include matrix reordering, graph partitioning, protein analysis, data mining, machine learning, and web search. The computation of the Fiedler vector has been regarded as an expensive process as it involves solving a large eigenvalue problem. We present a novel and efficient parallel algorithm for computing the Fiedler vector of large graphs based on the Trace Minimization algorithm (Sameh, We compare the parallel performance of our method with a multilevel scheme, designed specifically for computing the Fiedler vector, which is implemented in routine MC73\\_Fiedler of the Harwell Subroutine Library (HSL). In addition, we compare the quality of the Fiedler vector for the application of weighted matrix reordering and provide a metric for measuring the quality of reordering.

  19. Improved methods for the generation of 24.5 keV neutron beams with possible application to boron neutron capture therapy

    Constantine, G.; Baker, L. J.; Taylor, N. P.


    The production of epithermal neutron beams, filtered to provide a spectrum in which a small energy range predominates, is of importance for radiobiological research and in the development and calibration of instruments for monitoring intermediate energy neutrons. The penetration characteristics of intermediate energy neutrons in tissue lead to the possibility of application in the field of neutron capture therapy if beams of sufficient intensity and adequate spectral properties can be generated. In this paper methods of utilising the 24.5 keV antiresonance in the iron neutron cross section are described, and the DENIS (depth enhanced neutron intense source) principle by which beam intensities may be optimised is explained. Calculations and experimental measurements in an in-core facility in the DIDO reactor at Harwell have indicated that a DENIS scatterer can achieve a 6-fold improvement in 24.5 keV beam intensity compared with a conventional titanium disc scatterer.

  20. Multistrip synthetic single-crystal-diamond photodiode based on a p-type/intrinsic/Schottky metal transverse configuration

    Ciancaglioni, I.; Marinelli, Marco; Milani, E.; Prestopino, G.; Verona, C.; Verona-Rinati, G.; Angelone, M.; Pillon, M.; Dolbnya, I.; Sawhney, K.; Tartoni, N.


    A synthetic multistrip single-crystal-diamond detector based on a p-type/intrinsic diamond/Schottky metal transverse configuration, operating at zero-bias voltage, was developed. The device was characterized at the Diamond Light Source synchrotron in Harwell (UK) under monochromatic high-flux X-ray beams from 6 to 20 keV and a micro-focused 10 keV beam with a spot size of ~3 μm. No significant pixel-to-pixel variation of both spectral responsivity and time response, high spatial resolution and good signal uniformity along each strip were found, suggesting the tested device structure as a promising sensor for X-ray and UV radiation imaging.

  1. The impact of speciated VOCs on regional ozone increment derived from measurements at the UK EMEP supersites between 1999 and 2012

    C. S. Malley


    Full Text Available The impact of 27 volatile organic compounds (VOC on the regional O3 increment was investigated using measurements made at the UK EMEP supersites Harwell (1999–2001 and 2010–2012 and Auchencorth (2012. Ozone at these sites is representative of rural O3 in south-east England and northern UK, respectively. Monthly-diurnal regional O3 increment was defined as the difference between the regional and hemispheric background O3 concentrations, respectively derived from oxidant vs. NOx correlation plots, and cluster analysis of back trajectories arriving at Mace Head, Ireland. At Harwell, which had substantially greater regional ozone increments than at Auchencorth, variation in the regional O3 increment mirrored afternoon depletion of VOCs due to photochemistry (after accounting for diurnal changes in boundary layer mixing depth, and weighting VOC concentrations according to their photochemical ozone creation potential. A positive regional O3 increment occurred consistently during the summer, during which time afternoon photochemical depletion was calculated for the majority of measured VOCs, and to the greatest extent for ethene and m + p-xylene. This indicates that, of the measured VOCs, ethene and m + p-xylene emissions reduction would be most effective in reducing the regional O3 increment, but that reductions in a larger number of VOCs would be required for further improvement. The VOC diurnal photochemical depletion was linked to the sources of the VOC emissions through the integration of gridded VOC emissions estimates over 96 h air-mass back trajectories. This demonstrated that the effectiveness of VOC gridded emissions for use in measurement and modelling studies is limited by the highly aggregated nature of the 11 SNAP source sectors in which they are reported, as monthly variation in speciated VOC trajectory emissions did not reflect monthly changes in individual VOC diurnal photochemical depletion. Additionally, the major VOC emission

  2. "PhD Comics" author Jorge Cham on the power of procrastination

    Stefania Pandolfi


    From Tuesday, 22 to Friday, 25 September, Jorge Cham visited CERN. The PHD Movie 2 was screened in the Main Auditorium  and the cartoonist also took part in one of the Researchers' Night events.    Jorge Cham in the CERN Control Centre. On the first day, the author of the comic strip Piled Higher and Deeper (PhD Comics) visited the CERN Control Centre, the Synchrocyclotron, the CMS Service Cavern and the ATLAS control room. On Thursday, he had a busy afternoon, starting with signing copies of his books and then giving a talk entitled “The Power of Procrastination” in a packed Main Auditorium. He made the audience laugh by narrating his experience as a graduate student in robotics at Stanford University, recounting how he started drawing PhD Comics and how it rapidly became popular in universities all over the world. He then analysed the frustrations and anxieties commonly experienced by any graduate student, causing...

  3. Klaus Goebel - 1926-2009

    Horst Wenninger

    Klaus Goebel, an early leading figure in radiation protection at CERN, passed away on 1 October 2009. Klaus came to CERN in 1956 together with Wolfgang Gentner for whom he had worked as an assistant from 1954-55, after gaining a diploma in economics and a doctorate in physics at the University of Freiburg, Germany. During these early years at the Laboratory, Klaus measured isotope concentrations in meteorites and as leader of the Spallation Research Group he used the Synchrocyclotron (SC) to measure isotope production by protons. This interest in trace measurements carried over to his work in CERN’s Health Physics Group, which he joined in 1962. He took over successively the radiation protection work at the SC and the Proton Synchrotron as section leader and became deputy group leader. In 1969-70 he spent a sabbatical as a health physicist at the Lawrence Radiation Laboratory in Berkeley, California. When Klaus came back to CERN the preparatory work for the construction of the Super Proton Sy...

  4. Spallation and fission products in the (p+{sup 179}Hf) and (p+{sup nat}Hf) reactions

    Karamian, S.A. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Moscow Region, Dubna 141980 (Russian Federation); Ur, C.A. [Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, P.O. Box MG-6, Bucharest 077125 (Romania); Induced Gamma Emission Foundation, P.O. Box 34-81, Bucharest 010044 (Romania)], E-mail:; Adam, J. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Moscow Region, Dubna 141980 (Russian Federation); Institute of Nuclear Physics, Rez, Prague CZ-25068 (Czech Republic); Kalinnikov, V.G.; Lebedev, N.A.; Vostokin, G.K. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Moscow Region, Dubna 141980 (Russian Federation); Collins, C.B. [Center for Quantum Electronics, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, TX 75083 (United States); Popescu, I.I. [Induced Gamma Emission Foundation, P.O. Box 34-81, Bucharest 010044 (Romania)


    Production of Hf and Lu high-spin isomers has been experimentally studied in spallation reactions induced by intermediate energy protons. Targets of enriched {sup 179}Hf (91%) and {sup nat}Hf were bombarded with protons of energy in the range from 90 to 650 MeV provided by the internal beam of the Dubna Phasotron synchrocyclotron. The activation yields of the reaction products were measured by using the {gamma}-ray spectroscopy and radiochemistry methods. The production cross-sections obtained for the {sup 179m2}Hf, {sup 178m2}Hf and {sup 177m}Lu isomers are similar to the previously measured values from the spallation of Ta, Re and W targets. Therefore, the reactions involving emission of only a few nucleons, like (p,p'), (p,p'n) and (p,2pn), can transfer high enough angular momentum to the final residual nuclei with reasonable large cross-sections. A significant gain in the isomeric yields was obtained when enriched {sup 179}Hf targets were used. The mass distribution of the residual nuclei was measured over a wide range of masses and the fission-to-spallation ratio could be deduced as a function of the projectile energy. Features of the reaction mechanism are briefly discussed.

  5. Eddy Powell 1939 - 2003


    We were saddened to learn that Eddy Powell had passed away on Saturday 26 July after a long illness. Eddy had so many friends at CERN and made such a contribution to the Organisation that it is impossible that his passing goes without comment. Eddy was born in England on 4 August 1939 and, after serving his apprenticeship with the U.K. Ministry of Defence, he joined CERN in September 1965. As an electrical design draftsman with the Synchro-cyclotron Division he played an important role in the upgrades of that machine in the early 1970's, particularly on the RF systems and later on the development of the ISOLDE facility. This brought him into close contact with many of the technical support services in CERN and, unlike many of his compatriots, he acquired a remarkably good fluency in French. Always inquisitive on the physics carried out at CERN, he spent a great deal of time learning from physicists and engineers at all levels. When he felt sufficiently confident he became a CERN Guide for general public visit...

  6. The stopping rate of negative cosmic-ray muons near sea level

    Spannagel, G.; Fireman, E. L.


    A production rate of 0.065 + or - 0.003 Ar-37 atom/kg min of K-39 at 2-mwe depth below sea level was measured by sweeping argon from potassium solutions. This rate is unaffected by surrounding the solution by paraffin and is attributed to negative muon captures and the electromagnetic interaction of fast muons, and not to nucleonic cosmic ray component. The Ar-37 yield from K-39 by the stopping of negative muons in a muon beam of a synchrocyclotron was measured to be 8.5 + or - 1.7%. The stopping rate of negative cosmic ray muons at 2-mwe depth below sea level from these measurements and an estimated 17% electromagnetic production is 0.63 + or - 0.13 muon(-)/kg min. Previous measurements on the muon stopping rate vary by a factor of 5. Our value is slightly higher but is consistent with two previous high values. The sensitivity of the Ar-37 radiochemical method for the detection of muons is considerably higher than that of the previous radiochemical methods and could be used to measure the negative muon capture rates at greater depths.

  7. CERN’s Summer of Rock

    Katarina Anthony


    When a rock star visits CERN, they don’t just bring their entourage with them. Along for the ride are legions of fans across the world – many of whom may not be the typical CERN audience. In July alone, four big acts paid CERN a visit, sharing their experience with the world: Scorpions, The Script, Kings of Leon and Patti Smith.   @TheScript tweeted: #paleofestival we had the best time! Big love. #CERN (Image: Twitter).   It all started with the Scorpions, the classic rock band whose “Wind of Change” became an anthem in the early 1990s. On 19 July, the band braved the 35-degree heat to tour the CERN site on foot – visiting the Synchrocyclotron and the new Microcosm exhibition. The rockers were very enthusiastic about the research carried out at CERN, and talked about returning in the autumn during their next tour stop. The Scorpions visit Microcosm. Two days later, The Script rolled in. This Irish pop-rock band has been hittin...

  8. Recent developments of multiwire proportional chambers at JINR (DUBNA)

    Filippov, A I


    In this report a review of some wire chamber developments at JINR is given. The conception and performance of different detectors will be discussed as well as their application in experiments. For NA-4 (CERN) a special proportional chamber with asymmetric cut for the target was built. The necessary rigidness was achieved by sandwich panels with honeycomb filling. In order to study rare processes with registration of the nuclear fragments a proportional drift chamber was constructed. The resolution for Delta m was 0.2 GeV and 0.2 for Delta Z. In the Laboratory of Nuclear Problems a new mode of gas amplification was investigated. It was shown to have interesting characteristics from the practical point of view; apparently it cannot be interpreted as a transitory mode. On the basis of these investigations two large systems of drift chambers operating in the selfquenching mode have been made. For investigations on the synchrocyclotron a multipurpose magnetic spectrometer ARES (Analyser of Rate Events) was develop...

  9. Frank Krienen (1917-2008)


    Amsterdam, summer 1952: it was here that the first recruits for CERN ‘s 600 MeV Synchrocyclotron project met Frank Krienen for the first time. A young assistant to Prof. C.J. Bakker at the Physics Institute, he soon became the mastermind behind the most daring aspects of the project: the frequency modulating circuit, based on a vibrating tuning fork, was his creation. He was a respected and inspiring leader throughout the construction period of the accelerator and, at the same time, an older brother and an exacting mentor. Frank later devoted himself to developing particle detectors, in particular spark wire chambers using different types of readout. His next major involvement at CERN was his contribution to the glorious g-2 saga. Frank’s contributions to the last experiment of the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon (g-2) done at CERN (1969-1977) were very important in many aspects. The last (g-2) experiment was based on many...

  10. Fast-timing spectroscopy at ISOLDE

    Fraile, L. M.


    The advanced time-delayed β γ γ (t) method has been used at ISOLDE since the relocation of the facility from the synchrocyclotron to the CERN proton synchrotron booster, a quarter of a century ago. The method was designed for precision measurements with low-intensity beams, achieving good efficiency and excellent time resolution with a compact setup. Over this time the technique has evolved to cope with the challenge of measuring lifetimes of complex level schemes of increasingly exotic nuclei populated in β decay. The ISOLDE facility provides unsurpassed opportunities to study many regions of the nuclide chart. The physics case encompasses topics of interest across the nuclide chart, including the evolution of shell structure around neutron shell and subshell closures such as N = 20, N = 40 and N = 50, shape coexistence, and octupole correlations in heavy nuclei. The recently commissioned ISOLDE decay station provides enhanced capabilities that will be fully exploited with the increased beam intensities available at the upcoming HIE-ISOLDE facility.

  11. Study of [beta][sup +] and electron capture decay of [sup 76]Sr in [gamma]-[gamma] coincidence measurements

    Adzic, P.R.; Zupancic, M.T.; Vukanovic, R.B.; Anicin, I.V.; Skoro, G.P.; Kukoc, A.H. (Institute of Nuclear Sciences Vinca' ' , POB 522, 11001 Belgrade (Yugoslavia)); Lindroos, M.; Tengblad, O.; Veskovic, M.; ISOLDE Collaboration (CERN, PPE Division, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland))


    The main goal of this work is to establish the nuclear decay scheme of [sup 76]Sr and energy levels of its doubly odd daughter nucleus [sup 76]Rb. The extremely neutron deficient nucleus [sup 76]Sr lying at the [ital N]=[ital Z] (=38) line with half-life of 8.9 s was produced in spallation reactions of 600 MeV protons from the CERN Synchrocyclotron (SC) with a Nb multifoil target in conjunction with a W surface ionization source at the ISOLDE facility. The [gamma]-spectroscopy measurements have been performed with two Ge detectors which were positioned at about [plus minus]30[degree] respectively downstream to the [sup 76]Sr beam. The obtained singles and coincidence [gamma] spectra were used to determine energies and intensities of [gamma] lines assigned to the decay of [sup 76]Sr and to establish some details of the nuclear level configuration of its daughter nucleus [sup 76]Rb up to 1000 keV.

  12. Behind the scenes of GS: precious stones

    Anaïs Schaeffer


    Since the laying of the foundation stone for the Synchrocyclotron in June 1954, CERN has been expanding constantly to reach a current constructed surface area of 580,000 m2 covered by some 650 buildings (just 125 of which account for 70% of this area).   This year, while CERN’s 60th anniversary is an important milestone in the Laboratory’s history, it also highlights another reality: CERN is a collection of ageing buildings, no less than 60% of which are more than 40 years old. “Of the 580,000 m2 of buildings, around 52,000 m2 are nearing the end of their useful life and 140,000 m2 are in need of extensive renovations,” says Natacha Lopez, GS-SE-PO Section Leader. “Of course, we’ve already started several renovation projects, but it's a huge challenge as we have to renovate buildings constructed in the 1960s and 70s while complying with modern standards, which are very different from those that were in force when they were bu...

  13. 'Some of the most amazing hours of our lives' Crosby and Nash visit CERN


    Singer-songwriters David Crosby and Graham Nash, along with almost all the members of their band, fulfilled a long-standing wish on 29 September 2015 with a visit to CERN. Their tour included CERN’s first accelerator, the Synchrocyclotron (SC), the antiproton decelerator, the ATLAS experiment and the CERN Control Room. David Crosby, a life-long science fiction fan, was visibly moved to be at a place that he had dreamed about, 'bringing together people from all nations and cultures to work towards one peaceful scientific aim'. Graham Nash was full of questions and admiration for the Organization and the people who work here. Inspired by their visit, in their concert in Geneva the following day, Crosby, Stills and Nash dedicated songs including “Teach your children” from 1970 to CERN, as well as sharing anecdotes and impressions of the visit with the audience. Staying at CERN far longer than foreseen, they ended up chatting to CERN people in the laboratory’s restaurant. They left full

  14. Training course for eighteen teachers at CERN

    Laurianne Noemie Trimoulla


    From 8 to 10 December, 18 teachers from all over France attended a three-day training course on matter, organised by the LAMAP Foundation (Fondation La main à la pâte, see here) and hosted by CERN and S'Cool Lab. The LAMAP Foundation, set up by Georges Charpak in 1995, aims to help primary school teachers use the investigative process to instil the scientific spirit in their pupils.      Fired by curiosity and eager to learn, the teachers were introduced to the many and varied activities on offer at CERN, including the cloud chamber experiment, the Masterclass programme and the "Be a physicist" learning scheme. They particularly enjoyed their tours of Microcosm, the Synchrocyclotron and the ATLAS visitor centre, which stimulated many questions. They are eagerly looking forward to passing on their newly found knowledge to their pupils and perhaps even inspiring some to take up a career in physics! Last but not least, they were treat...

  15. Recent developments and on-line tests of uranium carbide targets for production of nuclides far from

    V.N. Panteleev et al.

    The capacity of uranium carbide target materials of different structure and density for production of neutron-rich and heavy neutron-deficient isotopes have been investigated at the IRIS facility (PNPI) in the collaboration with Legnaro – GANIL – Orsay laboratories. The yields and release times of the species produced in the targets by the reactions induced by a 1 GeV proton beam of the PNPI synchrocyclotron have been measured. For the purpose to elaborate the most efficient and fast uranium carbide target prototype three kinds of the target materials were studied: a) a high density UC target material having ceramic-like structure with the density of 11 g/cm3 and the grain dimensions of about 200 microns; b) a high density UC target material with the density of 12 g/cm3 and the grain dimensions of about 20 microns prepared by the method of the powder metallurgy; c) a low density UCx target material with the density 3g/cm3 and the grain dimensions of about 20 microns prepared by the ISOLDE method. The comp...

  16. An 80th birthday celebration for the Ericsons

    CERN Bulletin


    A Chinese proverb says that happiness is when friends coming from far and away meet and talk to each other. These wise words could very well be used to sum up the celebrations in honour of the 80th birthdays of Magda and Torleif Ericson, a couple in the normal sense of the word and often also in the field of physics. Torleif joined CERN's Theory Division in 1960, initially to work at the intersection of nuclear and particle physics at the Synchrocyclotron, and retired in 1995.   During the celebratory event on 17 September, speakers reviewed the depth and breadth of the contributions which both Torleif and Magda have made to theoretical physics in general and to nuclear physics in particular. José Bernabeu, Guy Chanfray, Wolfram Wiese, Achim Richter and Anthony Thomas all covered the considerable research that has been stimulated by the Ericson-Ericson correlation(s) over the past 50 years. A concert by the violinist Jean-Philippe Audoli and the pianist Blandine Eynaud and an informal...

  17. James V. Allaby (1936-2009)


    It was with shock and sorrow that we heard Jim Allaby passed away on 7 April. Jim was born in Preston, England, in October 1936. After obtaining a first degree in physics at King’s College, London, he moved to Liverpool to study for his PhD at the university’s synchrocyclotron. This was his first proton-proton scattering experiment, and was also the start of a lifelong friendship with Bert Diddens, who was there as a CERN fellow. In the early 1960s Jim moved to SLAC where he worked with Dave Ritson on electron inelastic scatterings. Ritson greatly appreciated Jim’s calm and systematic approach to any kind of problem he was confronted with. Thus it was natural for Jim to visit SLAC later and for Ritson to join the DELPHI Collaboration in the 1990s. Jim came to CERN in the summer of 1965. He joined the CERN group of Giuseppe Cocconi, Bert Diddens and Alan Wetherell, who were preparing proton-proton scattering experiments, in a s...

  18. James V. Allaby (1936-2009)


    Jim Allaby standing in front of the target calorimeter of the CHARM neutrino experiment (WA18) .It was with shock and sorrow that we heard Jim Allaby passed away on 7 April. Jim was born in Preston, England, in October 1936. After obtaining a first degree in physics at King’s College, London, he moved to Liverpool to study for his PhD at the university’s synchrocyclotron. This was his first proton-proton scattering experiment, and was also the start of a lifelong friendship with Bert Diddens, who was there as a CERN fellow. In the early 1960s Jim moved to SLAC where he worked with Dave Ritson on electron inelastic scatterings. Ritson greatly appreciated Jim’s calm and systematic approach to any kind of problem he was confronted with. Thus it was natural for Jim to visit SLAC later and for Ritson to join the DELPHI Collaboration in the 1990s. Jim came to CERN in the summer of 1965. He joined the CERN group of Giuseppe Coc...

  19. The Role of Diffusion in ISOL Targets for the Production of radioactive Ions Beams

    Beyer, Gerd-Jürgen; Novgorodov, A F; Ravn, H L


    On line isotope separation techniques (ISOL) for production of ion beams of short-lived radionuclides require fast separation of nuclear reaction products from irradiated target materials followed by a transfer into an ion source. As a first step in this transport chain the release of nuclear reaction products from refractory metals has been studied systematically and will be reviewed. High-energy protons (500-1000MeV) produce a large number of radionuclides in irradiated materials via the nuclear reactions spallation, fission and fragmentation. Foils and powder of Re, W, Ta, Hf, Mo, Nb, Zr, Y, Ti and C were irradiated with protons (600-1000MeV) at the Dubna synchrocyclotron and at the CERN PS-booster to produce different nuclear reaction products. The main topic of the paper is the determination of diffusion coefficients of the nuclear reaction products in the target matrix, data evaluation and a systematic interpretation of the data. The influence of the ionic radius of the diffusing species and the lattice...

  20. Proton Therapy At Siteman Cancer Center: The State Of The Art

    Bloch, Charles


    Barnes-Jewish Hospital is on the verge of offering proton radiation therapy to its patients. Those treatments will be delivered from the first Monarch 250, a state-of-the-art cyclotron produced by Still River Systems, Inc., Littleton, MA. The accelerator is the world's first superconducting synchrocyclotron, with a field-strength of 10 tesla, providing the smallest accelerator for high-energy protons currently available. On May 14, 2010 it was announced that the first production unit had successfully extracted 250 MeV protons. That unit is scheduled for delivery to the Siteman Cancer Center, an NCI-designated Comprehensive Cancer Center at Washington University School of Medicine. At a weight of 20 tons and with a diameter of less than 2 meters the compact cyclotron will be mounted on a gantry, another first for proton therapy systems. The single-energy system includes 3 contoured scatterers and 14 different range modulators to provide 24 distinct beam delivery configurations. This allows proton fields up to 25 cm in diameter, with a maximum range from 5.5 to 32 cm and spread-out-Bragg-peak extent up to 20 cm. Monte Carlo simulations have been run using MCNPX to simulate the clinical beam properties. Those calculations have been used to commission a commercial treatment planning system prior to final clinical measurements. MCNPX was also used to calculate the neutron background generated by protons in the scattering system and patient. Additional details of the facility and current status will be presented.

  1. Changes in the mean-square charge radii and magnetic moments of neutron-deficient Tl isotopes

    Barzakh, A. E.; Batist, L. Kh.; Fedorov, D. V.; Ivanov, V. S.; Mezilev, K. A.; Molkanov, P. L.; Moroz, F. V.; Orlov, S. Yu.; Panteleev, V. N.; Volkov, Yu. M.


    In-source laser spectroscopy experiments for neutron-deficient thallium isotopes at the 276.9-nm atomic transition have been carried out at the Investigation of Radioactive Isotopes on Synchrocyclotron facility of Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute. New data on isotope shifts and the hyperfine structure for 183-207Tl isotopes and isomers are presented. The changes in the mean-square charge radii and magnetic-moment values are deduced. It is shown that nuclear properties of Tl isotopes and isomers smoothly change at the neutron midshell and beyond without development of strong deformation in contrast to the adjacent Hg nuclei. A rather great isomer shift between I = 1/2 and I = 9/2 states for odd Tl isotopes is preserved for both sides of the previously investigated mass range. For the first time, a similar isomer shift is found for the odd-odd isotope 186Tl. The close resemblance of the charge radii isotopic behavior for the Tl and Pb ground states is demonstrated.

  2. Accumulation of the $^{178m2}Hf$ Isomeric Nuclei Through Spallation with Intermediate-Energy Protons of Tantalum and Rhenium Targets

    Karamian, S A; Adam, J; Filossofov, D V; Henzlova, D; Henzl, V; Kalinnikov, V G; Lebedev, N A; Novgorodov, A F; Collins, C B; Popescu, I I; Ur, C A


    The productivity of the spallation reactions at proton energies of 100-660 MeV for accumulation of the radioactive isotopes and isomers has been studied experimentally. Spectra of Ta and Re targets activated at Dubna synchrocyclotron were measured using the methods of radiochemistry and gamma-spectroscopy. Many radioactive products of the spallation and fission reactions are identified, and their yields are compared with the LAHET code simulations. Cross sections, \\sigma_m and isomer-to-ground state ratios, \\sigma_m/\\sigma_g are deduced for nuclear isomers, in particular, for high-spin isomers, as ^{179m2}Hf, ^{179m2}Hf and ^{177m2}Lu. Spin distributions for the spallation-residue nuclei are estimated to understand the \\sigma_m/\\sigma_g ratios. Possibilities to optimize the methods for the long-lived isomers production are discussed, and it would be a necessary step on the way to accumulate such exotic radionuclides in milligram amount under reasonable cost and radiation safety conditions.

  3. Yield of Radionuclides and Isomers Measured in Fragmentation of the ^{nat}W and ^{186}W (97%) Targets with Protons at 630, 420 and 270 MeV

    Karamian, S A; Chaloun, P; Filossofov, D V; Henzl, V; Henzlova, D; Kalinnikov, V G; Korolev, N A; Lebedev, N A; Novgorodov, A F; Collins, C B; Popescu, I I; Ur, C A


    Yields and cross sections of the radioactive nuclide formation have been measured via induced activity gamma-spectra after irradiation of the natural composition W and enriched ^{186)W targets at Dubna synchrocyclotron. Spallation and fission products have been represented among the detected nuclides. The high-spin isomers of Hf and Lu were produced and the isomer-to-ground state ratios could be estimated. The nuclide yields have also been calculated using the LAHET code at 6 values of proton energy in the range from 100 to 800 MeV both for ^{nat)W and for enriched ^{186)W targets. Measured isotope yields are generally in agreement with the calculations, however, the code is incapable to predict the isomer-to-ground state ratios. In experiment, it has been shown that the ^{177m}Lu, ^{178m2}Hf and ^{179m2}Hf high-spin isomers are produced with 2.5 times higher yield in the 97% enriched ^{186)W target as compared to the ^{nat)W target at identical irradiations. This makes significance for the creation of high-a...

  4. Modern compact accelerators of cyclotron type for medical applications

    Smirnov, V.; Vorozhtsov, S.


    Ion beam therapy and hadron therapy are types of external beam radiotherapy. Recently, the vast majority of patients have been treated with protons and carbon ions. Typically, the types of accelerators used for therapy were cyclotrons and synchrocyclotrons. It is intuitively clear that a compact facility fits best to a hospital environment intended for particle therapy and medical diagnostics. Another criterion for selection of accelerators to be mentioned in this article is application of superconducting technology to the magnetic system design of the facility. Compact isochronous cyclotrons, which accelerate protons in the energy range 9-30 MeV, have been widely used for production of radionuclides. Energy of 230 MeV has become canonical for all proton therapy accelerators. Similar application of a carbon beam requires ion energy of 430 MeV/u. Due to application of superconducting coils the magnetic field in these machines can reach 4-5 T and even 9 T in some cases. Medical cyclotrons with an ironless or nearly ironless magnetic system that have a number of advantages over the classical accelerators are in the development stage. In this work an attempt is made to describe some conceptual and technical features of modern accelerators under consideration. The emphasis is placed on the magnetic and acceleration systems along with the beam extraction unit, which are very important from the point of view of the facility compactness and compliance with the strict medical requirements.

  5. Louis Dick (1921 - 2014)


    Louis Dick, a CERN experimental physicist of international renown, passed away on 14 July.   Louis in his office, a veritable archaeological wonder with strata of documents corresponding to various eras of physics. Born in Geneva on 27 April 1921, Louis obtained a physics degree at ETH-Zurich in 1946 before moving to the Institut du Radium in Paris, where he joined the group led by Frédéric and Irène Joliot-Curie. He took a leave of absence in 1957 to go to CERN, where he remained until well beyond his retirement in 1986. In the late 1950s and early 1960s, Louis worked at CERN’s Synchrocyclotron (SC) and later on studies at the Proton Synchrotron (PS). When the first polarised proton target arrived at CERN from Saclay in 1963, Louis proposed using it for studies of spin effects in pion-proton elastic scattering at the PS, and between 1964 and 1966 sizeable spin effects were found. Louis and his collaborators then continued these studies wi...

  6. Maria and Giuseppe: lives intertwined with CERN’s history

    Pauline Gagnon


    CERN will be celebrating its 60th anniversary this year. That means 60 years of pioneering scientific research and exciting discoveries. Two Italian physicists, Maria and Giuseppe Fidecaro, remember nearly all of it since they arrived in 1956. Most impressively, they are still hard at work, every day!   Giuseppe and Maria Fidecaro in Restaurant No. 1, at CERN, in 2014, 60 years after they joined the Organization. The couple is easy to spot, even in the cafeteria during busy lunchtimes, where they usually engage in the liveliest discussions. “We argue quite a lot,” Maria tells me with a big smile. “We have very different styles.” “But in general, in the end, we agree,” completes Giuseppe. In October 1954, Giuseppe went to the University of Liverpool as a CERN Fellow to do research at its brand new synchrocyclotron. Maria also joined, having obtained a fellowship from the International Federation of University Women. After getting m...

  7. Literature in focus: The history of radioactivity


    René Bimbot, an expert in nuclear physics, will be coming to present his book - The History of Radioactivity. The work provides a summary of our accumulated knowledge of radioactivity and its applications, from its discovery to the present day. Presented in layman's terms, and backed by plenty of illustrations, the work creates the link between the rudimentary knowledge available in the times of Becquerel and the Curies and contemporary physics. It takes us on a great physics adventure, from the nucleus to the quark, from artificial radioactivity to radiotherapy, from the discovery of fission to nuclear reactors, not forgetting dating methods. Finally, the work provides a wealth of practical information on radiation and on matters relating to nuclear waste. A former Research Director at the CNRS, a heavy-ion physicist at the Orsay Nuclear Physics Institute, René Bimbot is no stranger to CERN. At the beginning of the 1980s, he worked on the CERN Synchrocyclotron, before joining the GANIL experiment in 1985...

  8. Phenomenological modeling of critical heat flux: The GRAMP code and its validation

    Ahmad, M. [Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences (PIEAS), Islamabad (Pakistan); Chandraker, D.K. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India); Hewitt, G.F. [Imperial College, London SW7 2BX (United Kingdom); Vijayan, P.K. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India); Walker, S.P., E-mail: [Imperial College, London SW7 2BX (United Kingdom)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Assessment of CHF limits is vital for LWR optimization and safety analysis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Phenomenological modeling is a valuable adjunct to pure empiricism. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It is based on empirical representations of the (several, competing) phenomena. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Phenomenological modeling codes making 'aggregate' predictions need careful assessment against experiments. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The physical and mathematical basis of a phenomenological modeling code GRAMP is presented. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The GRAMP code is assessed against measurements from BARC (India) and Harwell (UK), and the Look Up Tables. - Abstract: Reliable knowledge of the critical heat flux is vital for the design of light water reactors, for both safety and optimization. The use of wholly empirical correlations, or equivalently 'Look Up Tables', can be very effective, but is generally less so in more complex cases, and in particular cases where the heat flux is axially non-uniform. Phenomenological models are in principle more able to take into account of a wider range of conditions, with a less comprehensive coverage of experimental measurements. These models themselves are in part based upon empirical correlations, albeit of the more fundamental individual phenomena occurring, rather than the aggregate behaviour, and as such they too require experimental validation. In this paper we present the basis of a general-purpose phenomenological code, GRAMP, and then use two independent 'direct' sets of measurement, from BARC in India and from Harwell in the United Kingdom, and the large dataset embodied in the Look Up Tables, to perform a validation exercise on it. Very good agreement between predictions and experimental measurements is observed, adding to the confidence with which the phenomenological model can be used. Remaining important uncertainties in the

  9. Mervyn Hine (1920-2004)


    Mervyn was born on 26 May 1920 in Berkhamstead, England. At age 16, he went to King's College, Cambridge, to study physics, and was awarded a 1st class degree after only two years. During the Second World War he worked on radar research in Malvern, UK, with John Adams, who was later Director-General of CERN. Following the war, Mervyn completed his doctorate at King's College, and afterwards carried out pioneer work on particle accelerators at the Harwell Laboratory, UK. In 1952 he published a seminal paper with John Adams on the management of resonances that pointed the way forward in the design of big machines. In 1953 Mervyn and John moved to Geneva to work at CERN on the PS. Mervyn made essential contributions that shaped the strong focussing principle into a practical design for an accelerator that could be built. He served as John's alter ego, and together they formed an outstanding pair of leaders for the first generation of CERN machine physicists and engineers. Mervyn became a member of the CERN Dire...

  10. Performance of HEPA filters under hot dynamic conditions

    Frankum, D.P.; Costigan, G. [AEA Technology, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom)


    Accidents in nuclear facilities involving fires may have implications upon the ventilation systems where high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters are used to minimise the airborne release of radioactive or toxic particles. The Filter Development Section at Harwell Laboratory has been investigating the effect of temperature on the performance of HEPA filters under hot dynamic conditions[{sub 1}] for a number of years. The test rig is capable of delivering air flows of 10001/s (at ambient conditions) at temperatures up to 500{degrees}C, where measurements of the penetration and pressure drop across the filter are obtained. This paper reports the experiments on different constructions of HEPA filters; rectangular and circular. The filters were tested at an air temperature of 200{degrees}C for up to 48 hours at the rated airflow to assess their performance. The penetration measurements for rectangular filters were observed to be below 0.021% after prolonged operation. In a number of cases, holes appeared along the pleat creases of circular filters although the penetration remained below 1%. The sealing gasket for these filters was noted to deform with temperature, permitting a leakage path. A prototype high strength circular filter was evaluated at temperatures of up to 400{degrees}C with a penetration less than 0.65%.

  11. A Technical Review of Penning Trap based Investigations in Neutron Decay

    Byrne, J


    This review is concerned with a detailed analysis of some of the technical problems which arise in the application of the Penning trap method to the experimental study of neutron $\\beta $ -decay,a technique which was first successfully tested on the low-flux swimming-pool reactor LIDO (capture flux =3$\\cdot 10^6$cm$^(-2)$s$^(-1)$) at AERE Harwell in the 1970's. It does not discuss the scientific merits or demerits of these studies. Of particular importance are the trapping and release of neutron decay protons, and the influence of magnetic mirror effects and radial drifting on the trapped particles. Since these have energies < 1 keV they must be accelerated to energies of order 20-30 keV following release, at which point they are recorded in a silicon surface barrier detector. However serious difficulties were encountered in the post-release acceleration process with vacuum breakdown in the presence of crossed electric and magnetic fields.

  12. Estimation and comparison of night-time OH levels in the UK urban atmosphere using two different analysis methods

    M.Anwar H. Khan; M.M.Nazmul Hoque; S.Shamsul Alam; M.J.Ashfold; Graham Nickless; Dudley E.Shallcross


    Night-time OH levels have been determined for UK urban surface environments using two methods, the decay and steady state approximation methods.Measurement data from the UK National Environmental Technology Centre archive for four urban sites (Bristol, Harwell, London Eltham and Edinburgh) over the time period of 1996 to 2000 have been used in this study.Three reactive alkenes, namely isoprene, 1,3-butadiene and trans-2-pentene were chosen for the calculation of OH levels by the decay method.Hourly measurements of NO, NO2, O3, CO and 20 VOCs were used to determine night-time OH level using the steady state approximation method.Our results showed that the night-time OH levels were in the range of 1×105-1×106 molecules/cm3 at these four urbar sites in the UK.The application of a t-test of these analyses indicated that except Bristol, there was no significant difference between the OH levels found from the decay and steady state approximation methods.Night-time levels of the OH radical appeared to peak in summer and spring time tracking the night-time O3 levels which also passed through a maximum at this time.

  13. Activation analyses of authenticated hairs of Napoleon Bonaparte confirm arsenic poisoning.

    Weider, B; Fournier, J H


    In 1960, activation analyses at the Harwell Nuclear Research Laboratory of the University of Glascow, London of authenticated hairs of Napoleon Bonaparte taken immediately after his death confirmed Napoleon's chronic arsenic poisoning on the island of St. Helena. Timeline correlation of his clinical symptomatology of the preceding 4 months, as reported in the written diaries of his exiled companions, further supports the effect of fluctuating, elevated toxic levels of arsenic on his health. Independent analyses of authenticated hairs of Napoleon by the Toxicology Crime Laboratory of the United States Federal Bureau of Investigation in 1995 reveals toxic levels of arsenic. The successful assassination of Napoleon included both a cosmetic and lethal phase. The cosmetic phase consisted of arsenic poisoning over time to weaken Napoleon, making the associated debility appear to be a natural illness and thus allay any suspicions prior to instituting the lethal phase. On May 3, 1821, at 5:30 P.M., the lethal phase was carried out. Napoleon was given Calomel (HgCl), a cathartic, and a popular orange-flavored drink called orgeat, which was flavored with the oil of bitter almonds. Together they formed mercury cyanide, which is lethal. Napoleon lost consciousness and died two days later.

  14. Comparison of measured parameters from a 24-keV and a broad spectrum epithermal neutron beam for neutron capture therapy: an identification of consequential parameters.

    Fairchild, R G; Saraf, S K; Kalef-Ezra, J; Laster, B H


    Epithermal neutron beams are under development in a number of locations in the U.S. and abroad. The increased penetration in tissue provided by these neurons should circumvent problems associated with the rapid attenuation of thermal neutron beams encountered in previous clinical trials of neutron capture therapy (NCT). Physical and radiobiological experiments with two "intermediate energy" or "epithermal" beams have been reported. A comparison is made here between the 24-keV iron-filtered beam at Harwell, England, and the broad-spectrum Al2 O3 moderated beam at the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor (BMRR). In addition, parameters which are relevant for NCT, and which are best suited for evaluation and comparison of beams, are discussed. Particular attention is paid to the mean neutron energy which can be tolerated without significant reduction of therapeutic gain (TG), where TG is the ratio of tumor dose to maximum normal tissue dose. It is suggested that the simplest and most meaningful parameters for comparison of beam intensity and purity are the epithermal neutron fluence rate, and the fast neutron dose per epithermal neutron (4.2 X 10(-11) rad/neutron for the broad-spectrum beam and 29 X 10(-11) rad/neutron for the 24-keV beam). While the Al2O3 beam is close to optimal, the 24-keV beam produces a significant fast neutron dose which results in a lower TG.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Monte Carlo calculations and experimental results of Bonner spheres systems with a new cylindrical Helium-3 proportional counter

    Müller, H; Bouassoule, T; Fernández, F; Pochat, J L; Tomas, M; Van Ryckeghem, L


    The experimental results on neutron energy spectra, integral fluences and equivalent dose measurements performed by means of a Bonner sphere system placed inside the containment building of the Vandellos II Nuclear Power Plant (Tarragona, Spain) are presented. The equivalent dose results obtained with this system are compared to those measured with different neutron area detectors (Berthold, Dineutron, Harwell). A realistic geometry model of the Bonner sphere system with a new cylindrical counter type 'F' (0,5NH1/1KI--Eurisys Mesures) and with a set of eight polyethylene moderating spheres is described in detail. The response function in fluence of this new device, to mono-energetic neutrons from thermal energy to 20 MeV, is calculated by the MCNP-4B code for each moderator sphere. The system has been calibrated at IPSN Cadarache facility for ISO Am-Be calibrated source and thermal neutron field, then the response functions were confirmed by measurements at PTB (Germany) for ISO recommended energies of mono-e...

  16. Monte Carlo calculations and experimental results of Bonner spheres systems with a new cylindrical Helium-3 proportional counter

    Muller, H.; Fernández, F.; Van Ryckeghem, L.; Alexandre, P.; Bouassoule, T.; Pochat, J.-L.; Tomas, M.


    The experimental results on neutron energy spectra, integral fluences and equivalent dose measurements performed by means of a Bonner sphere system placed inside the containment building of the Vandellòs II Nuclear Power Plant (Tarragona, Spain) are presented. The equivalent dose results obtained with this system are compared to those measured with different neutron area detectors (Berthold, Dineutron, Harwell). A realistic geometry model of the Bonner sphere system with a new cylindrical counter type "F" (0,5NH1/1KI—Eurisys Mesures) and with a set of eight polyethylene moderating spheres is described in detail. The response function in fluence of this new device, to mono-energetic neutrons from thermal energy to 20 MeV, is calculated by the MCNP-4B code for each moderator sphere. The system has been calibrated at IPSN Cadarache facility for ISO Am-Be calibrated source and thermal neutron field, then the response functions were confirmed by measurements at PTB (Germany) for ISO recommended energies of mono-energetic neutrons and with the CANEL IPSN facility which simulates realistic fields.

  17. Performance Measurements of the Flight Detector for SPICE on SolarOrbiter

    Thompson, W. T.; Davila, J. M.; Caldwell, M.; Siegmund, O.


    The Spectral Imaging of the Coronal Environment (SPICE) instrument for theSolar Orbiter mission will make spectroscopic observations of the Sun's lowcorona to characterize the plasma properties of the source regions of the solarwind. The detector package for SPICE, provided by the NASA Goddard SpaceFLight Center, consists of two microchannel-plate (MCP) intensified ActivePixel Sensor (APS) detectors covering the short (702-792 Angstroms) and long(972-1050 Angstroms) wavelength bandpasses. The long wavelength detector willalso provide coverage in second order between 485-525 Angstroms. We previouslyreported on measurements of the engineering model detector. Here, we report onmeasurements made on the flight SPICE detector in the same vacuum tank facilityat the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory in Harwell, UK. These measurementsinclude the detector flat field, sensitivity, resolution, linearity, andstatistical noise. A krypton resonance lamp operating at 1236 Angstroms wasused to stimulate the detector. Results at this wavelength are combined withthe quantum efficiency measurements of the individual MCPs at this and otherwavelengths covering the entire wavelength range to provide a completecalibration curve for the instrument. A calibrated NIST photodiode was used todetermine the absolute brightness of the lamp.

  18. Optical Methods For Automatic Rating Of Engine Test Components

    Pritchard, James R.; Moss, Brian C.


    In recent years, increasing commercial and legislative pressure on automotive engine manufacturers, including increased oil drain intervals, cleaner exhaust emissions and high specific power outputs, have led to increasing demands on lubricating oil performance. Lubricant performance is defined by bench engine tests run under closely controlled conditions. After test, engines are dismantled and the parts rated for wear and accumulation of deposit. This rating must be consistently carried out in laboratories throughout the world in order to ensure lubricant quality meeting the specified standards. To this end, rating technicians evaluate components, following closely defined procedures. This process is time consuming, inaccurate and subject to drift, requiring regular recalibration of raters by means of international rating workshops. This paper describes two instruments for automatic rating of engine parts. The first uses a laser to determine the degree of polishing of the engine cylinder bore, caused by the reciprocating action of piston. This instrument has been developed to prototype stage by the NDT Centre at Harwell under contract to Exxon Chemical, and is planned for production within the next twelve months. The second instrument uses red and green filtered light to determine the type, quality and position of deposit formed on the piston surfaces. The latter device has undergone feasibility study, but no prototype exists.

  19. Influence of the metallic contact in extreme-ultraviolet and soft x-ray diamond based Schottky photodiodes

    Ciancaglioni, I.; Di Venanzio, C.; Marinelli, Marco; Milani, E.; Prestopino, G.; Verona, C.; Verona-Rinati, G.; Angelone, M.; Pillon, M.; Tartoni, N.


    X-ray and UV photovoltaic Schottky photodiodes based on single crystal diamond were recently developed at Rome "Tor Vergata" University laboratories. In this work, different rectifying metallic contact materials were thermally evaporated on the oxidized surface of intrinsic single crystal diamond grown by chemical vapor deposition. Their impact on the detection performance in the extreme UV and soft x-ray spectral regions was studied. The electrical characterization of the metal/diamond Schottky junctions was performed at room temperature by measuring the capacitance-voltage characteristics. The diamond photodiodes were then tested both over the extreme UV spectral region from 10 to 60 eV by using He-Ne DC gas discharge as a radiation source and toroidal vacuum monochromator, and in the soft x-ray range from 6 to 20 keV at the Diamond Light Source synchrotron x-ray beam-line in Harwell (UK). In both experimental setups, time response and spectral responsivity were analyzed for all the investigated Schottky contact materials. A good agreement between the experimental data and theoretical results from Monte Carlo simulations is found

  20. X-ray beam monitor made by thin-film CVD single-crystal diamond.

    Marinelli, Marco; Milani, E; Prestopino, G; Verona, C; Verona-Rinati, G; Angelone, M; Pillon, M; Kachkanov, V; Tartoni, N; Benetti, M; Cannatà, D; Di Pietrantonio, F


    A novel beam position monitor, operated at zero bias voltage, based on high-quality chemical-vapor-deposition single-crystal Schottky diamond for use under intense synchrotron X-ray beams was fabricated and tested. The total thickness of the diamond thin-film beam monitor is about 60 µm. The diamond beam monitor was inserted in the B16 beamline of the Diamond Light Source synchrotron in Harwell (UK). The device was characterized under monochromatic high-flux X-ray beams from 6 to 20 keV and a micro-focused 10 keV beam with a spot size of approximately 2 µm × 3 µm square. Time response, linearity and position sensitivity were investigated. Device response uniformity was measured by a raster scan of the diamond surface with the micro-focused beam. Transmissivity and spectral responsivity versus beam energy were also measured, showing excellent performance of the new thin-film single-crystal diamond beam monitor.

  1. Online measurement of fluence and position for protontherapy beams

    Benati, C.; Boriano, A.; Bourhaleb, F.; Cirio, R.; Cirrone, G. A. P.; Cornelius, I.; Cuttone, G.; Donetti, M.; Garelli, E.; Giordanengo, S.; Guérin, L.; La Rosa, A.; Luparia, A.; Marchetto, F.; Martin, F.; Meyroneinc, S.; Peroni, C.; Pittà, G.; Raffaele, L.; Sabini, M. G.; Valastro, L.


    Tumour therapy with proton beams has been used for several decades in many centres with very good results in terms of local control and overall survival. Typical pathologies treated with this technique are located in head and neck, eye, prostate and in general at big depths or close to critical organs. The Experimental Physics Department of the University of Turin and the local Section of INFN, in collaboration with INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Sud Catania and Centre de Protontherapie de Orsay Paris, have developed detector systems that allow the measurement of beam position and fluence, obtained in real time during beam delivery. The centre in Catania (CATANA: Centro di AdroTerapia ed Applicazioni Nucleari Avanzate) has been treating patients with eye pathologies since spring 2002 using a superconducting cyclotron accelerating protons up to 62 MeV.This kind of treatments need high-resolution monitor systems and for this reason we have developed a 256-strip segmented ionisation chamber, each strip being 400 μm wide, with a total sensitive area 13×13 cm2. The Centre de Protontherapie de Orsay (CPO) has been operational since 1991 and features a synchrocyclotron used for eye and head and neck tumours with proton beams up to 200 MeV. The monitor system has to work on a large surface and for this purpose we have designed a pixel-segmented ionisation chamber, each pixel being 5×5 mm2, for a total active area of 16×16 cm2. The results obtained with two prototypes of the pixel and strip chambers demonstrate that the detectors allow the measurement of fluence and centre of gravity as requested by clinical specifications.

  2. Model simulations of cooking organic aerosol (COA) over the UK using estimates of emissions based on measurements at two sites in London

    Ots, Riinu; Vieno, Massimo; Allan, James D.; Reis, Stefan; Nemitz, Eiko; Young, Dominique E.; Coe, Hugh; Di Marco, Chiara; Detournay, Anais; Mackenzie, Ian A.; Green, David C.; Heal, Mathew R.


    Cooking organic aerosol (COA) is currently not included in European emission inventories. However, recent positive matrix factorization (PMF) analyses of aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) measurements have suggested important contributions of COA in several European cities. In this study, emissions of COA were estimated for the UK, based on hourly AMS measurements of COA made at two sites in London (a kerbside site in central London and an urban background site in a residential area close to central London) for the full calendar year of 2012 during the Clean Air for London (ClearfLo) campaign. Iteration of COA emissions estimates and subsequent evaluation and sensitivity experiments were conducted with the EMEP4UK atmospheric chemistry transport modelling system with a horizontal resolution of 5 km × 5 km. The spatial distribution of these emissions was based on workday population density derived from the 2011 census data. The estimated UK annual COA emission was 7.4 Gg per year, which is an almost 10 % addition to the officially reported UK national total anthropogenic emissions of PM2.5 (82 Gg in 2012), corresponding to 320 mg person-1 day-1 on average. Weekday and weekend diurnal variation in COA emissions were also based on the AMS measurements. Modelled concentrations of COA were then independently evaluated against AMS-derived COA measurements from another city and time period (Manchester, January-February 2007), as well as with COA estimated by a chemical mass balance model of measurements for a 2-week period at the Harwell rural site (˜ 80 km west of central London). The modelled annual average contribution of COA to ambient particulate matter (PM) in central London was between 1 and 2 µg m-3 (˜ 20 % of total measured OA1) and between 0.5 and 0.7 µg m-3 in other major cities in England (Manchester, Birmingham, Leeds). It was also shown that cities smaller than London can have a central hotspot of population density of smaller area than the

  3. Geochemical of clay formations : study of Spanish clay REFERENCE; Geoquimica de formaciones arcillosas: estudio de la Arcilla Espanola de REFERENCE

    Turrero, M. J.; Pena, J.


    Clay rocks are investigated in different international research programs in order to assess its feasibility for the disposal of high level radioactive wastes. This is because different sepcific aspects: they have low hydraulic conductivity (10''-11-10''-15 m/s), a high sorption capacity, self-sealing capacity of facults and discontinuities and mechanical resistance. Several research programs on clay formations are aimed to study the chemistry of the groundwater and the water-rock reactions that control it: e. g. Boom Clay (Mol, Belgium), Oxford Clay /Harwell, United Kingdom), Toarcian Clay (Tournemire, France), Palfris formation (Wellenberg, Switzerland), Opalinus Clay (Bure, France). Based on these studies, consdierable progress in the development of techniques for hydrologic, geochemical and hydrogeochemical characterization of mudstones has been accomplished (e. g. Beaufais et al. 1994, De Windt el al. 1998. Thury and Bossart 1999, Sacchi and Michelot 2000) with important advances in the knowledge of geochemical process in these materials (e. g. Reeder et al. 1993, Baeyens and Brandbury 1994, Beaucaire et al. 2000, Pearson et al., 2003).Furtermore, geochemical modeling is commonly used to simulate the evolution of water chemistry and to understand quantitatively the processescontrolling the groundwater chemistry (e. g. Pearson et al. 1998, Tempel and Harrison 2000, Arcos et al., 2001). The work presented here is part of a research program funded by Enresa in the context of its R&D program. It is focused on the characterization of a clay formation (reference Argillaceous Formation, RAF) located within the Duero Basin (north-centralSpain). The characterisation of th ephysical properties,, fluid composition, mineralogy, water-rock reaction processes, geochemical modelling and sorption properties of the clays from the mentioned wells is the main purpose of this work. (Author)

  4. A review of transmission electron microscopes with in situ ion irradiation

    Hinks, J. A.


    Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) with in situ ion irradiation is unique amongst experimental techniques in allowing the direct observation of the internal microstructure of materials on the nanoscale whilst they are being subjected to bombardment with energetic particles. Invaluable insights into the underlying atomistic processes at work can be gained through direct investigation of radiation induced and enhanced effects such as: phase changes and segregation; mechanical and structural changes; atomic/layer mixing and chemical disorder; compositional changes; chemical reactions; grain growth and shrinkage; precipitation and dissolution; defect/bubble formation, growth, motion, coalescence, removal and destruction; ionisation; diffusion; and collision cascades. The experimental results obtained can be used to validate the predictions of computational models which in turn can elucidate the mechanisms behind the phenomena seen in the microscope. It is 50 years since the first TEM observations of in situ ion irradiation were made by D.W. Pashley, A.E.B. Presland and J.W. Menter at the Tube Investment Laboratories in Cambridge, United Kingdom and 40 years since the first interfacing of an ion beam system with a TEM by P.A. Thackery, R.S. Nelson and H.C. Sansom at the Atomic Energy Research Establishment at Harwell, United Kingdom. In that time the field has grown with references in the literature to around thirty examples of such facilities. This paper gives an overview of the importance of the technique, especially with regard to the current challenges faced in understanding radiation damage in nuclear environments; a description of some of the important construction elements and design considerations of TEMs with in situ ion irradiation; a brief history of the development of this type of instrument; a summary of the facilities built around the world over the last half century; and finally a focus on the instruments in operation today.

  5. A review of transmission electron microscopes with in situ ion irradiation

    Hinks, J.A., E-mail: [Centre for Functional Materials, University of Salford, Salford M5 4WT (United Kingdom)


    Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) with in situ ion irradiation is unique amongst experimental techniques in allowing the direct observation of the internal microstructure of materials on the nanoscale whilst they are being subjected to bombardment with energetic particles. Invaluable insights into the underlying atomistic processes at work can be gained through direct investigation of radiation induced and enhanced effects such as: phase changes and segregation; mechanical and structural changes; atomic/layer mixing and chemical disorder; compositional changes; chemical reactions; grain growth and shrinkage; precipitation and dissolution; defect/bubble formation, growth, motion, coalescence, removal and destruction; ionisation; diffusion; and collision cascades. The experimental results obtained can be used to validate the predictions of computational models which in turn can elucidate the mechanisms behind the phenomena seen in the microscope. It is 50 years since the first TEM observations of in situ ion irradiation were made by D.W. Pashley, A.E.B. Presland and J.W. Menter at the Tube Investment Laboratories in Cambridge, United Kingdom and 40 years since the first interfacing of an ion beam system with a TEM by P.A. Thackery, R.S. Nelson and H.C. Sansom at the Atomic Energy Research Establishment at Harwell, United Kingdom. In that time the field has grown with references in the literature to around thirty examples of such facilities. This paper gives an overview of the importance of the technique, especially with regard to the current challenges faced in understanding radiation damage in nuclear environments; a description of some of the important construction elements and design considerations of TEMs with in situ ion irradiation; a brief history of the development of this type of instrument; a summary of the facilities built around the world over the last half century; and finally a focus on the instruments in operation today.

  6. Two grid iteration with a conjugate gradient fine grid smoother applied to a groundwater flow model

    Hagger, M.J.; Spence, A.; Cliffe, K.A.


    This talk is concerned with the efficient solution of Ax=b, where A is a large, sparse, symmetric positive definite matrix arising from a standard finite element discretisation of the groundwater flow problem {triangledown}{sm_bullet}(k{triangledown}p)=0. Here k is the coefficient of rock permeability in applications and is highly discontinuous. The discretisation is carried out using the Harwell NAMMU finite element package, using, for 2D, 9 node biquadratic rectangular elements, and 27 node biquadratics for 3D. The aim is to develop a robust technique for iterative solutions of 3D problems based on a regional groundwater flow model of a geological area with sharply varying hydrogeological properties. Numerical experiments with polynomial preconditioned conjugate gradient methods on a 2D groundwater flow model were found to yield very poor results, converging very slowly. In order to utilise the fact that A comes from the discretisation of a PDE the authors try the two grid method as is well analysed from studies of multigrid methods, see for example {open_quotes}Multi-Grid Methods and Applications{close_quotes} by W. Hackbusch. Specifically they consider two discretisations resulting in stiffness matrices A{sub N} and A{sub n}, of size N and n respectively, where N > n, for both a model problem and the geological model. They perform a number of conjugate gradient steps on the fine grid, ie using A{sub N}, followed by an exact coarse grid solve, using A{sub n}, and then update the fine grid solution, the exact coarse grid solve being done using a frontal method factorisation of A{sub n}. Note that in the context of the standard two grid method this is equivalent to using conjugate gradients as a fine grid smoothing step. Experimental results are presented to show the superiority of the two grid iteration method over the polynomial preconditioned conjugate gradient method.

  7. Astrocytic β2 Adrenergic Receptor Gene Deletion Affects Memory in Aged Mice

    Jensen, Cathy Joanna; Demol, Frauke; Bauwens, Romy; Kooijman, Ron; Massie, Ann; Villers, Agnès; Ris, Laurence; De Keyser, Jacques


    In vitro and in vivo studies suggest that the astrocytic adrenergic signalling enhances glycogenolysis which provides energy to be transported to nearby cells and in the form of lactate. This energy source is important for motor and cognitive functioning. While it is suspected that the β2-adrenergic receptor on astrocytes might contribute to this energy balance, it has not yet been shown conclusively in vivo. Inducible astrocyte specific β2-adrenergic receptor knock-out mice were generated by crossing homozygous β2-adrenergic receptor floxed mice (Adrb2flox) and mice with heterozygous tamoxifen-inducible Cre recombinase-expression driven by the astrocyte specific L-glutamate/L-aspartate transporter promoter (GLAST-CreERT2). Assessments using the modified SHIRPA (SmithKline/Harwell/Imperial College/Royal Hospital/Phenotype Assessment) test battery, swimming ability test, and accelerating rotarod test, performed at 1, 2 and 4 weeks, 6 and 12 months after tamoxifen (or vehicle) administration did not reveal any differences in physical health or motor functions between the knock-out mice and controls. However deficits were found in the cognitive ability of aged, but not young adult mice, reflected in impaired learning in the Morris Water Maze. Similarly, long-term potentiation (LTP) was impaired in hippocampal brain slices of aged knock-out mice maintained in low glucose media. Using microdialysis in cerebellar white matter we found no significant differences in extracellular lactate or glucose between the young adult knock-out mice and controls, although trends were detected. Our results suggest that β2-adrenergic receptor expression on astrocytes in mice may be important for maintaining cognitive health at advanced age, but is dispensable for motor function. PMID:27776147

  8. Blockade of CXCR1/2 chemokine receptors protects against brain damage in ischemic stroke in mice

    Larissa Fonseca da Cunha Sousa


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Ischemic stroke may result from transient or permanent reductions of regional cerebral blood flow. Polymorphonuclear neutrophils have been described as the earliest inflammatory cells to arrive in ischemic tissue. CXCR1/2 receptors are involved in the recruitment of these cells. However, the contribution of these chemokine receptors during transient brain ischemia in mice remains poorly understood. In this work, we investigated the effects of reparixin, an allosteric antagonist of CXCR1/2 receptors, in a model of middle cerebral artery occlusion and reperfusion in mice. METHODS: C57BL/6J male mice treated with reparixin or vehicle were subjected to a middle cerebral artery occlusion procedure 1 h after the treatment. Ninety minutes after ischemia induction, the monofilament that prevented blood flow was removed. Twenty-four hours after the reperfusion procedure, behavioral changes, including motor signs, were analyzed with the SmithKline/Harwell/lmperial College/Royal Hospital/Phenotype Assessment (SHIRPA battery. The animals were sacrificed, and brain tissue was removed for histological and biochemical analyses. Histological sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, neutrophil infiltration was estimated by myeloperoxidase activity and the inflammatory cytokine IL-iβ was measured by ELISA. RESULTS: Pre-treatment with reparixin reduced the motor deficits observed in this model of ischemia and reperfusion. Myeloperoxidase activity and IL-iβ were reduced in the reparixin-treated group. Histological analysis revealed that ischemic injury was also attenuated by reparixin pre-treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that the blockade of the CXCR1/2 receptors by reparixin promotes neuroprotective effects by reducing the levels of polymorphonuclear infiltration in the brain and the tissue damage associated with middle cerebral artery occlusion and reperfusion.

  9. Experimental determination of the energy response of alanine pellets in the high dose rate 192Ir spectrum

    Schaeken, B.; Cuypers, R.; Goossens, J.; Van den Weyngaert, D.; Verellen, D.


    An experimental determination of the energy correction factor for alanine/paraffin pellets in the 192Ir spectrum at varying distances from the source is presented. Alanine dosimeters were irradiated in water under full scatter conditions with a high dose rate (HDR) 192Ir source (Flexisource), using a dedicated holder. Up to six line sources (catheters) fit in a regular pattern at fixed radial distances from the holder axis, the alanine detector being placed at the centre of the holder. The HDR source was stepping every 0.5 cm within a trocar needle within ± 3.0 cm around the medial plane through the detector in order to achieve dose homogeneity within the detector volume. The energy correction factor of alanine/paraffin pellets in 192Ir relative to 60Co was experimentally determined as the inverse ratio of the dose to water measured in water around the 192Ir source to the dose to water calculated in water using the TG-43 formalism. The pellets were read out with a Bruker EMXmicro spectrometer (X-band). The amplitude of the central line in the alanine absorption spectrum from pellets irradiated within the 192Ir spectrum was directly compared with the amplitude from 60Co-irradiated pellets. The energy correction factors of Harwell pellets irradiated in the 192Ir spectrum are 1.029 ± 0.02, 1.027 ± 0.02 and 1.045 ± 0.02 at a mean weighted source-detector distance of 2.0, 2.9 and 5.3 cm, respectively. The experimentally obtained values for the energy response are 1.3% lower compared to the theoretical values for radial distances smaller than 3 cm.

  10. Remote sensing of atmospheric greenhouse gases: bridging spatial scales

    Humpage, N.; Boesch, H.; Parker, R.; Hewson, W.; Sembhi, H.; Somkuti, P.; Webb, A.; Palmer, P. I.; Feng, L.


    Observed atmospheric variations of greenhouse gases (GHG) are determined by surface-atmosphere exchange, and atmospheric chemistry and transport. These processes occur over a wide spectrum of spatial and temporal scales. Confronting atmospheric transport models and ultimately improving the fidelity of surface flux estimates demands an integrated observing system that captures these scales. We will discuss using data the role of GHG remote sensing instruments and argue that our ability to deploy them from the ground and to fly them on satellite, aircraft, and unmanned airborne vehicles (UAV) mean that they represent the ideal technology to bridge the observed scales of variability. We will discuss a five-year record of global-scale column observations of CO2 and CH4 from the Japanese GOSAT satellite instrument that is available from University of Leicester as part of the ESA Climate Change Initiative. We will showcase new CO2 and CH4 column data that was collected by our shortwave infrared spectrometer GHOST oboard the NASA Global Hak during a regional survey over the eastern Pacific during early spring 2015, which included coincident overpasses from GOSAT and the NASA OCO-2. These data are being used to test atmospheric transport models over remote regions and to help validate satellite observations over the oceans. We will also discuss GHOST data collected on the UK Dornier 226 research aircraft to measure local-scale measurements over Leicester city centre, a major power plant, and downwind of a controlled Cumbrian heathland fire. Finally, we will report preliminary results from a new ground-based Fourier transform spectrometer station at Harwell (80 km west of London). We anticipate that this site will eventually join the TCCON network, which has been used to validation of satellite observations.

  11. Parametric studies of radiolytic oxidation of iodide solutions with and without paint: comparison with code calculations

    Poletiko, C.; Hueber, C. [Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire, C.E. Cadarache, St. Paul-lez-Durance (France); Fabre, B. [CISI, C.E. Cadarache, St. Paul-lez-Durance (France)


    In case of severe nuclear accident, radioactive material may be released into the environment. Among the fission products involved, are the very volatile iodine isotopes. However, the chemical forms are not well known due to the presence of different species in the containment with which iodine may rapidly react to form aerosols, molecular iodine, hydroiodic acid and iodo-organics. Tentative explanations of different mechanisms were performed through benchscale tests. A series of tests has been performed at AEA Harwell (GB) to study parameters such as pH, dose rate, concentration, gas flow rate, temperature in relation to molecular iodine production, under dynamic conditions. Another set of tests has been performed in AECL Whiteshell (CA) to study the behaviour of painted coupons, standing in gas phase or liquid phase or both, with iodine compounds under radiation. The purpose of our paper is to synthesize the data and compare the results to the IODE code calculation. Some parameters of the code were studied to fit the experimental result the best. A law, concerning the reverse reaction of iodide radiolytic oxidation, has been proposed versus: pH, concentrations and gas flow-rate. This law does not apply for dose rate variations. For the study of painted coupons, it has been pointed out that molecular iodine tends to be adsorbed or chemically absorbed on the surface in gas phase, but the mechanism should be more sophisticated in the aqueous phase. The iodo-organics present in liquid phase tend to be partly or totally destroyed by oxidation under radiation (depending upon the dose delivered). These points are discussed. (author) 18 figs., 3 tabs., 15 refs.

  12. Assessment of the environmental benefits of transport and stationary fuel

    Bauen, A.; Hart, D. [Energy-Environment Policy Group, TH Huxley School, Imperial College, London (United Kingdom)


    Fuel cells (FCs) offer significant environmental benefits over competing technologies and hence the environment is a strong driving force behind the development of FC systems for transport and stationary applications. This paper provides a comprehensive comparison of FC and competing systems, and points out strengths and weaknesses of the different FC systems, suggesting areas for improvement. The results presented build on earlier work [D. Hart, G. Hoermandinger, Initial assessment of the environmental characteristics of fuel cells and competing technologies, ETSU F/02/00111/REP/1, ETSU, Harwell, UK, 1997.] and provide a detailed analysis of a wider range of systems, The analysis takes the form of a model, which compares system emissions (global, regional and local pollutants) and energy consumption on a full fuel cycle basis. It considers a variety of primary energy sources, intermediate fuel supply steps and FC systems for transport and stationary end-uses. These are compared with alternative systems for transport and stationary applications. Energy and pollutant emission reductions of FC systems compared to alternative vehicle technology vary considerably, though all FC technologies show reduction in energy use and CO{sub 2} emissions of at least 20%; as well as reductions of several orders of magnitude in regulated pollutants compared to the base-case vehicle. The location of emissions is also of importance, with most emissions in the case of FC vehicles occurring in the fuel supply stage. The energy, CO{sub 2} and regulated emissions advantages of FC systems for distributed and baseload electricity are more consistent than for transport applications, with reductions in regulated pollutants generally larger than one order of magnitude compared to competing technologies. For CHP applications, the advantages of FC systems with regard to regulated pollutants remain large. However, energy and CO{sub 2} emission advantages are reduced, depending largely on the

  13. Seagrass Health Modeling and Prediction with NASA Science Data

    Robinson, Harold D.; Easson, Greg; Slattery, Marc; Anderson, Daniel; Blonski, Slawomir; DeCurtins, Robert; Underwood, Lauren


    Previous research has demonstrated that MODIS data products can be used as inputs into the seagrass productivity model developed by Fong and Harwell (1994). To further explore this use to predict seagrass productivity, Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) custom data products, including Sea Surface Temperature, Light Attenuation, and Chlorophyll-a have been created for use as model parameter inputs. Coastal researchers can use these MODIS data products and model results in conjunction with historical and daily assessment of seagrass conditions to assess variables that affect the productivity of the seagrass beds. Current monitoring practices involve manual data collection (typically on a quarterly basis) and the data is often insufficient for evaluating the dynamic events that influence seagrass beds. As part of a NASA-funded research grant, the University of Mississippi, is working with researchers at NASA and Radiance Technologies to develop methods to deliver MODIS derived model output for the northern Gulf of Mexico (GOM) to coastal and environmental managers. The result of the project will be a data portal that provides access to MODIS data products and model results from the past 5 years, that includes an automated process to incorporate new data as it becomes available. All model parameters and final output will be available through the use National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration?s (NOAA) Environmental Research Divisions Data Access Program (ERDDAP) tools as well as viewable using Thematic Realtime Environmental Distributed Data Services (THREDDS) and the Integrated Data Viewer (IDV). These tools provide the ability to create raster-based time sequences of model output and parameters as well as create graphs of model parameters versus time. This tool will provide researchers and coastal managers the ability to analyze the model inputs so that the factors influencing a change in seagrass productivity can be determined over time.

  14. Proceedings of the International Workshop on Current Challenges in Liquid and Glass Science, (The Cosener's House, Abingdon 10-12 January 2007).

    Hannon, Alex C; Salmon, Philip S; Soper, Alan K


    to the success of the meeting. The present special issue stems from the interest of many of those present to collect their work into a single volume. [Formula: see text] The workshop participants. Spencer Howells is in the centre of the front row. DEDICATION William Spencer Howells It is a great pleasure to dedicate this Special Issue on Current Challenges in Liquid and Glass Science to the many contributions Spencer Howells has made to the structure and dynamics of liquids and glasses over some 40 years of work with the neutron scattering technique. After completing a first degree in Physics at Cambridge in 1966, Spencer started a postgraduate program with Gordon Squires at Cambridge, exploiting the early neutron scattering instrumentation that was available in those days at the Harwell reactors. This resulted in a Ph D thesis in 1970 on the twin topics of 'Neutron scattering of phonons in single-crystal molybdenum, using a time-of-flight chopper spectrometer (Part I)' and 'Neutron studies of the metal-insulator transition (Part II)'. The thesis was split into two parts because the hydrogen moderator blew-up on the chopper instrument used for the first part! From Cambridge, he moved to Leicester University as a post-doctoral Fellow with John Enderby, who was setting up a programme of study on the liquid state of matter. Here Spencer continued to use the Harwell Dido reactor, now to measure the structure of liquid metal alloys and molten salts - a topic that has kept his interest right through into retirement. He also initiated the first structural studies of aqueous solutions using neutron scattering, eventually pursuing this work as one of the first UK users of the Institut Laue-Langevin, Grenoble, France (ILL). In 1973 Spencer moved to the ILL, which was then and has remained the world's leading steady-state neutron source, as instrument scientist on IN10, the quasi-elastic neutron scattering beam line. Here he led the field in developing the quasi

  15. CEMS: Building a Cloud-Based Infrastructure to Support Climate and Environmental Data Services

    Kershaw, P. J.; Curtis, M.; Pechorro, E.


    CEMS, the facility for Climate and Environmental Monitoring from Space, is a new joint collaboration between academia and industry to bring together their collective expertise to support research into climate change and provide a catalyst for growth in related Earth Observation (EO) technologies and services in the commercial sector. A recent major investment by the UK Space Agency has made possible the development of a dedicated facility at ISIC, the International Space Innovation Centre at Harwell in the UK. CEMS has a number of key elements: the provision of access to large-volume EO and climate datasets co-located with high performance computing facilities; a flexible infrastructure to support the needs of research projects in the academic community and new business opportunities for commercial companies. Expertise and tools for scientific data quality and integrity are another essential component, giving users confidence and transparency in its data, services and products. Central to the development of this infrastructure is the utilisation of cloud-based technology: multi-tenancy and the dynamic provision of resources are key characteristics to exploit in order to support the range of organisations using the facilities and the varied use cases. The hosting of processing services and applications next to the data within the CEMS facility is another important capability. With the expected exponential increase in data volumes within the climate science and EO domains it is becoming increasingly impracticable for organisations to retrieve this data over networks and provide the necessary storage. Consider for example, the factor of o20 increase in data volumes expected for the ESA Sentinel missions over the equivalent Envisat instruments. We explore the options for the provision of a hybrid community/private cloud looking at offerings from the commercial sector and developments in the Open Source community. Building on this virtualisation layer, a further core

  16. Increased levels of glutamate in the central nervous system are associated with behavioral symptoms in experimental malaria.

    Miranda, A S; Vieira, L B; Lacerda-Queiroz, N; Souza, A H; Rodrigues, D H; Vilela, M C; Gomez, M V; Machado, F S; Rachid, M A; Teixeira, A L


    Cerebral malaria (CM) is a severe complication resulting from Plasmodium falciparum infection. This condition has been associated with cognitive, behavioral and motor dysfunctions, seizures and coma. The underlying mechanisms of CM are incompletely understood. Glutamate and other metabolites such as lactate have been implicated in its pathogenesis. In the present study, we investigated the involvement of glutamate in the behavioral symptoms of CM. Seventeen female C57BL/6 mice (20-25 g) aged 6-8 weeks were infected with P. berghei ANKA by the intraperitoneal route using a standardized inoculation of 10⁶ parasitized red blood cells suspended in 0.2 mL PBS. Control animals (N = 17) received the same volume of PBS. Behavioral and neurological symptoms were analyzed by the SmithKline/Harwell/Imperial College/Royal Hospital/Phenotype Assessment (SHIRPA) battery. Glutamate release was measured in the cerebral cortex and cerebrospinal fluid of infected and control mice by fluorimetric assay. All functional categories of the SHIRPA battery were significantly altered in the infected mice at 6 days post-infection (dpi) (P ≤ 0.05). In parallel to CM symptoms, we found a significant increase in glutamate levels in the cerebral cortex (mean ± SEM; control: 11.62 ± 0.90 nmol/mg protein; infected at 3 dpi: 10.36 ± 1.17 nmol/mg protein; infected at 6 dpi: 26.65 ± 0.73 nmol/mg protein; with EGTA, control: 5.60 ± 1.92 nmol/mg protein; infected at 3 dpi: 6.24 ± 1.87 nmol/mg protein; infected at 6 dpi: 14.14 ± 0.84 nmol/mg protein) and in the cerebrospinal fluid (control: 128 ± 51.23 pmol/mg protein; infected: 301.4 ± 22.52 pmol/mg protein) of infected mice (P ≤ 0.05). These findings suggest a role of glutamate in the central nervous system dysfunction found in CM.

  17. FOREWORD: Dr Trevor J Hicks Dr Trevor J Hicks

    Goossens, Darren


    This issue of Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter has been assembled to recognize the valuable contribution of Dr Trevor J Hicks to the field of neutron scattering and magnetism. Trevor began his study of magnetism as a PhD student at Monash University in Melbourne in the early 1960s, working with Professor Jack Smith. From the very beginning magnetism in alloys, and disordered systems in general, became a key aspect of his career. After a postdoctoral position at Harwell working with Dr Graeme Low Trevor returned to Australia and took up a position with Monash. He soon became a key figure in developing the capability for neutron scattering using the HIFAR reactor at the Australian Atomic Energy Commission, now the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, ANSTO. The instrumentation was always developed to further his studies of magnetism. The development of polarization analysis measurements of diffuse magnetic scattering, first using iron filters and then his own design of supermirror benders for beam polarization, took place through the 1970s, 1980s and into the 1990s. Throughout this time, Trevor mentored a series of PhD students and postdoctoral fellows, many of whom have contributed to this issue (and, indeed, guest edited it). As befits a scientist and university academic for whom teaching has always been important, Trevor has not only created a strong body of significant research, he has also made a major contribution to preparing several generations of neutron scattering scientists, and this issue reflects that. When I approached Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter with a proposal for an issue in honour of Trevor, the response was immediate and positive. It is with great pleasure that I present the result of that proposal. The great diversity of the content, all centred on neutron scattering and magnetism, reflects the breadth of Trevor's own career and of the scientists with whom he has interacted. Finally, I would like to make some

  18. The Past, Present and Future of Z-pinches

    Haines, M. G.


    The Z-pinch is enjoying a renaissance as the world's most powerful soft x-ray source, and there is a growing interest in both understanding the basic physics and its application to controlled fusion, particularly through indirect drive inertial confinement. It has the advantages of being efficient and having high energy and power density. The early history will be traced from 1790, when Martinus van Marum conducted exploding wire experiments in Holland, the Australian pinching of a copper tube lightning conductor, the seminal lecture at Harwell in 1956 by Kurchatov, and the classic contributions of Bennett, Pease and Braginskii. The most notable feature of the Z-pinch is its instability. The various regimes of stability analysis will be reviewed, including resistive and viscous effects, finite ion Larmor radius and the effect of sheared axial flow. Work in the last 10 years on single fibres, especially of cryogenic deuterium, gave neutrons but, alas, they were of the same origin, namely beam-plasma interactions, as reported by Kurchatov. The renaissance has come about through the implosion first of gas puffs but now, most importantly, of arrays of fine wires. Research at Sandia National Laboratory has shown that by using more and more, finer and finer wires, the x-ray radiation emitted at stagnation increased in power and decreased in pulse width. The understanding of these results has been advanced considerably by theory, simulation and smaller-scale, well diagnosed experiments. The dominant instability during the implosion is the magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor instability. The seeding of the mode seems to be associated with the MHD m = 0 instability that develops in an uncorrelated way on each individual wire as it evolves from a molten metal cylinder surrounded by a plasma corona. The global magnetic field leads both to the inward jetting of the plasma to the axis and to the development of a correlated global mode with seed amplitude proportional to the (number of

  19. Exploiting OAuth 2.0: from User Delegation for OGC Services to a Generic Federation-as-a-Service Solution for Federated Identity Management

    Kershaw, Philip; Jensen, Jens; Stephens, Ag; van Engen, Willem


    CLARIN infrastructure*. Enhancements have been fedback to the package through this activity. Collaboration with STFC's Scientific Computing department has also seen this solution expand and evolve to support a more demanding set of use cases required to meet the needs for Contrail, an EU Framework 7 project. The goal of Contrail is to develop an Open Source solution for federating resources from multiple Cloud providers. Bringing the solution developed with OAuth together with technologies such as SAML and OpenID it has been possible to develop a generic suite of services to support federated access and identity management, a Federation-as-a-Service package. This is showing promise with trials with the EUDAT project. A deployment of the Contrail software is also planned for CEMS (the facility for Climate and Environmental Monitoring from Space), a new joint academic-industry led facility based at the STFC Harwell site providing access to large-volume Earth Observation and Climate datasets through a Cloud-based service model. * This work is part of the programme of BiG Grid, the Dutch e-Science Grid, which is financially supported by the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research, NWO.

  20. EDITORIAL: Richard Palmer: celebrating 37 years with Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter Richard Palmer: celebrating 37 years with Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter

    Ferry, David


    It is with a great deal of both happiness and sadness that I have to announce that we are losing one of the real strengths of the Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter (JPCM). Dr Richard Palmer, our Senior Publisher, announced his retirement, and this issue marks the first without his involvement. Of course, we are happy that he will get to enjoy his retirement, but we are sad to lose such a valuable member of our team. Richard first started work at IOP Publishing in March 1971 as an Editorial Assistant with Journal of Physics B: Atomic and Molecular Physics. After a few months, he transferred to Journal of Physics C: Solid State Physics. During his first year, he was sent on a residential publishing training course and asked to sign an undertaking to stay at IOP Publishing for at least two years. Although Richard refused to sign, as he did not want to commit himself, he has remained with the journal since then. The following year, the Assistant Editor of Journal of Physics C: Solid State Physics, Malcolm Haines, walked out without notice in order to work on his family vineyard in France, and Richard stepped into the breach. In those days, external editors had a much more hands-on role in IOP Publishing and he had to travel to Harwell to be interviewed by Alan Lidiard, the Honorary Editor of Journal of Physics C: Solid State Physics, before being given the job of Assistant Editor permanently. I am told that in those days the job consisted mainly of editing and proofreading and peer review. There was no journal development work. At some point in the early 1980s, production and peer review were split into separate departments and Richard then headed a group of journals consisting of Journal of Physics C: Solid State Physics, Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics and Journal of Physics F: Metal Physics, Semiconductor Science and Technology, Superconductor Science and Technology, Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, and later Nanotechnology and Modelling and Simulation

  1. PREFACE Proceedings of the XIV International Conference on Small-Angle Scattering, SAS-2009

    King, Stephen; Terrill, Nicholas


    The XIV International Conference on Small-Angle Scattering, SAS-2009, was held in Oxford UK, 13-18 September 2009, and was jointly organised under the auspices of the International Union of Crystallography Commission on SAS by a team from the Diamond Light Source and the ISIS Pulsed Neutron Source - their first such joint venture - with help from the UK Science and Technology Facilities Council. It was the first time that this long running and successful series of conferences on the application, science and technology of small-angle scattering techniques had been staged in the UK. The UK has a proud heritage in small-angle scattering: as home to one of the world's first SANS instruments (at AERE Harwell), as the site of the world's first 2nd generation X-ray Synchrotron (the SRS at Daresbury with its suite of SAXS beamlines), and latterly as the location of the world's most successful pulsed source SANS instrument. Indeed, 2009 also marked the 25th Anniversary of neutron operations at ISIS and the opening of a Second Target Station. Whilst the SRS ceased operations in 2008, its mantle has been inherited by the Diamond synchrotron. Many delegates took the opportunity to visit both Diamond and ISIS during a conference excursion. Despite the prevailing global economic downturn, we were delighted that 434 delegates from 32 different countries were able to attend SAS-2009; two-thirds were drawn from the UK, Germany, Japan, the USA and France, but there were also sizeable contingents from Australia, Korea, Taiwan and South America. In many ways this geographical spread reflects the present and emerging distribution, respectively, of 3rd generation X-ray synchrotrons and high-flux neutron sources, although the scope of the conference was not solely limited to these probes. Financial support from the IUCr enabled us to grant bursaries to attend SAS-2009 to 12 delegates from emerging countries (Algeria, Argentina, Brazil, India, Nepal, Romania, Russia and the Ukraine). The

  2. How the UK Can Lead the Terrestrial Translation of Biomedical Advances Arising from Lunar Exploration Activities

    Green, David A.


    biomedical science activities would retain mission critically (and thus avoid obsolesce) so long as a human is involved (irrespective of specific mission architecture) and could be used to leverage opportunities for UK-based institutions, companies and individuals, most notably current ESA astronaut candidate Major Tim Peake. A combination of ESA engagement and national support for space biomedical sciences via research councils (e.g. Medical Research Council) could facilitate a virtuous circle of investment, advancement and socio-economic return invigorating the NHS, education, and key research initiatives such as ESA Harwell, UK Centre for Medical Research and Innovation, and the newly instigated Academic Health Science Centres. Such a strategy could also boost private space enterprise within the UK including the creation of a space port and could help retain the UK's position as a European aerospace transportation, services and legislative hub. By focusing upon its biomedical strength within a multi-faceted but co-ordinated strategy of engagement, the UK could reap significant socio-economic benefits for the UK and its citizens, be they on the Moon, or the Earth.

  3. Impacts of the 2014-2015 Holuhraun eruption on the UK atmosphere

    Twigg, Marsailidh M.; Ilyinskaya, Evgenia; Beccaceci, Sonya; Green, David C.; Jones, Matthew R.; Langford, Ben; Leeson, Sarah R.; Lingard, Justin J. N.; Pereira, Gloria M.; Carter, Heather; Poskitt, Jan; Richter, Andreas; Ritchie, Stuart; Simmons, Ivan; Smith, Ron I.; Sim Tang, Y.; Van Dijk, Netty; Vincent, Keith; Nemitz, Eiko; Vieno, Massimo; Braban, Christine F.


    Volcanic emissions, specifically from Iceland, pose a pan-European risk and are on the UK National Risk Register due to potential impacts on aviation, public health, agriculture, the environment and the economy, from both effusive and explosive activity. During the 2014-2015 fissure eruption at Holuhraun in Iceland, the UK atmosphere was significantly perturbed. This study focuses one major incursion in September 2014, affecting the surface concentrations of both aerosols and gases across the UK, with sites in Scotland experiencing the highest sulfur dioxide (SO2) concentrations. The perturbation event observed was confirmed to originate from the fissure eruption using satellite data from GOME2B and the chemical transport model, EMEP4UK, which was used to establish the spatial distribution of the plume over the UK during the event of interest. At the two UK European Monitoring and Evaluation Program (EMEP) supersite observatories (Auchencorth Moss, SE Scotland, and Harwell, SE England) significant alterations in sulfate (SO42-) content of PM10 and PM2.5 during this event, concurrently with evidence of an increase in ultrafine aerosol most likely due to nucleation and growth of aerosol within the plume, were observed. At Auchencorth Moss, higher hydrochloric acid (HCl) concentrations during the September event (max = 1.21 µg m-3, cf. annual average 0.12 µg m-3 in 2013), were assessed to be due to acid displacement of chloride (Cl-) from sea salt (NaCl) to form HCl gas rather than due to primary emissions of HCl from Holuhraun. The gas and aerosol partitioning at Auchencorth Moss of inorganic species by thermodynamic modelling confirmed the observed partitioning of HCl. Using the data from the chemical thermodynamic model, ISORROPIA-II, there is evidence that the background aerosol, which is typically basic at this site, became acidic with an estimated pH of 3.8 during the peak of the event.Volcano plume episodes were periodically observed by the majority of the UK

  4. The big and little of fifty years of Moessbauer spectroscopy at Argonne.

    Westfall, C.


    Using radioactive materials obtained by chance, a turntable employing gears from Heidelberg's mechanical toy shops, and other minimal equipment available in post World War II Germany, in 1959 Rudolf Moessbauer confirmed his suspicion that his graduate research had yielded ground-breaking results. He published his conclusion: an atomic nucleus in a crystal undergoes negligible recoil when it emits a low energy gamma ray and provides the entire energy to the gamma ray. In the beginning Moessbauer's news might have been dismissed. As Argonne nuclear physicist Gilbert Perlow noted: ''Everybody knew that nuclei were supposed to recoil when emitting gamma rays--people made those measurements every day''. If any such effect existed, why had no one noticed it before? The notion that some nuclei would not recoil was ''completely crazy'', in the words of the eminent University of Illinois condensed matter physicist Frederich Seitz. Intrigued, however, nuclear physicists as well as condensed matter (or solid state) physicists in various locations--but particularly at the Atomic Energy Research Establishment at Harwell in Britain and at Argonne and Los Alamos in the U.S.--found themselves pondering the Moessbauer spectra with its nuclear and solid state properties starting in late 1959. After an exciting year during which Moessbauer's ideas were confirmed and extended, the physics community concluded that Moessbauer was right. Moessbauer won the Nobel Prize for his work in 1961. In the 1960s and 1970s Argonne physicists produced an increasingly clear picture of the properties of matter using the spectroscopy ushered in by Moessbauer. The scale of this traditional Moessbauer spectroscopy, which required a radioactive source and other simple equipment, began quite modestly by Argonne standards. For example Argonne hosted traditional Moessbauer spectroscopy research using mostly existing equipment in the early days and

  5. PREFACE: Introductory remarks Introductory remarks

    Bowler, D. R.; Alfe, D.


    This special issue contains papers related to the 2009 Thomas Young Centre Workshop at University College London 'Accessing large length and time scales with accurate quantum methods', in celebration of Professor Michael Gillan's 65th birthday. Mike Gillan won the 2006 Institute of Physics Dirac Medal and Prize, the citation reading: 'For his contributions to the development of atomic-scale computer simulations, which have greatly extended their power and effectiveness over an immense range of applications'. This rightly highlights Mike's seminal work on materials modelling, but misses out some of the many other areas he has enriched. After taking his PhD at the Department of Theoretical Physics, Oxford University, Mike went as a post-doc to Minneapolis. He then joined the Statistical Physics Group in the Theoretical Physics Division, Harwell, where he stayed for over 20 years, with a brief interlude in Saclay. In the late 1980s, Mike made a transition to become Professor of Physics at the University of Keele, where he stayed for a decade until University College London was fortunate in being able to tempt him to join the Condensed Matter and Material Physics Group, where there was already a significant materials modelling initiative. Over the years, Mike has made many important contributions, some with impact on other areas of science, others with significance in technology areas such as nuclear safety. Thus, he developed a form of quantum transition-state theory, generalizing Eyring's well-known classical transition-state theory to the case of quantum particles, such as hydrogen, diffusing in condensed matter. He pioneered quantum methods for calculating defect energetics in solids, and then molecular processes on surfaces. He synthesised these approaches into very general ways to calculate thermodynamic free energies of condensed matter from first principles, drawing on his early experience of statistical physics. These methods led to rapid advances in the study

  6. Obituary: Edward R. (Ted) Harrison, 1919-2007

    Irvine, William M.; Arny, Thomas T.; Trimble, Virginia


    Cosmologist Edward R. (Ted) Harrison, emeritus Distinguished University Professor of Physics and Astronomy at the University of Massachusetts Amherst, died on 29 January 2007 in his retirement city of Tucson, Arizona, where he was adjunct professor at the Steward Observatory, University of Arizona. The cause of death was colon cancer. He is survived by a sister, brother, and daughter. (A son died in 2000.) Perhaps best known for his work on the growth of fluctuations in the expanding universe and his books on cosmology for the dedicated layperson, Ted had extremely broad interests, and he published more than 200 papers in space sciences, plasma physics, high-energy physics, physical chemistry, and, principally, many aspects of astrophysics. He was a Fellow of the American Physical Society, the American Association for the Advancement of Science, the Royal Astronomical Society, and the Institute of Physics (UK). Ted Harrison was born 8 January 1919 in London, England. His parents were Robert Harrison and Daisy Harrison (nee White). His education at Sir John Cass College, London University, was interrupted by the Second World War, during which he served for six years with the British Army in various campaigns, ultimately acting as Radar Adviser to the Northern Area of the Egyptian Army. It was during the latter service that he met his wife Photeni (nee Marangas). Following the War, Ted became a British Civil Servant, at first with the Atomic Energy Research Establishment in Harwell and then at the Rutherford High Energy Laboratory. During this period he acquired the equivalent of university degrees, becoming a graduate, then an Associate, and finally a Fellow of the Institute of Physics. His somewhat unorthodox education may have contributed to his broad interests and his very intuitive and physical approach to scientific problems. The latter became the bane of generations of graduate students, who might find themselves asked on their physics qualifying exams to