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Sample records for harvestman opiliones dyspnoi

  1. First identifiable Mesozoic harvestman (Opiliones: Dyspnoi) from Cretaceous Burmese amber

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    Giribet, Gonzalo; Dunlop, Jason A

    2005-01-01

    Two inclusions in a piece of Upper Cretaceous (Albian) Burmese amber from Myanmar are described as a harvestman (Arachnida: Opiliones), Halitherses grimaldii new genus and species. The first Mesozoic harvestman to be named can be referred to the suborder Dyspnoi for the following reasons: prosoma divided into two regions, the posterior formed by the fusion of the meso- and metapeltidium; palp lacking a terminal claw, with clavate setae, and tarsus considerably shorter than the tibia. The bilobed, anteriorly projecting ocular tubercle is reminiscent of that of ortholasmatine nemastomatids. The status of other Mesozoic fossils referred to Opiliones is briefly reviewed. PMID:16024358

  2. Baltic amber harvestman types (Arachnida: Opiliones: Eupnoi and Dyspnoi

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    J. A. Dunlop

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Baltic amber eupnoid and dyspnoid types (Arachnida: Opiliones in the Berendt collection are redescribed from their repository in the Museum für Naturkunde, Berlin. Type specimens of Caddo dentipalpis (Koch & Berendt, 1854, Dicranopalpus ramiger (Koch & Berendt, 1854, Nemastoma (? incertum Koch & Berendt, 1854, Mitostoma (? denticulatum (Koch & Berendt, 1854 and Histricostoma (? tuberculatum (Koch & Berendt, 1854 are all redescribed and the first photographs and camera lucida drawings of this material are presented. N.  (? incertum is removed from synonymy with M.  (? denticulatum. The status of the other Baltic amber harvestman types and their affinities are discussed. The type of Sabacon bachofeni Roewer, 1939 (= S. claviger (Menge, 1854 held in the Bavarian State collection, Munich is also redescribed here, but the repository of three other Roewer harvestman types and all of Menge’s types remains uncertain. The problematic Cheiromachus coriaceus Menge, 1854 is considered a nomen dubium, as is Phalangium succineum Presl, 1822, which may not even be a harvestman. Typenmaterial der Weberknecht-Gruppen Eupnoi und Dyspnoi (Arachnida: Opiliones vom Baltischen Bernstein aus der Berendt-Sammlung des Museums für Naturkunde Berlin wurde bearbeitet. Dabei wurde das Typusmaterial von Caddo dentipalpis (Koch & Berendt, 1854, Dicranopalpus ramiger (Koch & Berendt, 1854, Nemastoma (? incertum Koch & Berendt, 1854, Mitostoma (? denticulatum (Koch & Berendt, 1854 und Histricostoma (? tuberculatum (Koch & Berendt, 1854 revidiert und die ersten Fotografien und camera lucida-Zeichnungen dieses Materials hergestellt. N.  (? incertum wurde aus der Synonymie von M.  (? denticulatum herausgenommen. Der Status der anderen Weberknecht Typen aus dem Baltischen Bernstein und ihre Stellung werden diskutiert. Sabacon bachofeni Roewer, 1939 (= S. claviger (Menge, 1854 wird anhand des Holotypus aus der Bayerischen Staatssammlung M

  3. Associative learning in a harvestman (Arachnida, Opiliones).

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    dos Santos, Gilson Costa; Hogan, Jerry A; Willemart, Rodrigo Hirata

    2013-11-01

    Associative learning has been demonstrated in many species of invertebrates, but has not been studied in arachnids, except for some spiders and a whip-spider. Herein, we tested the ability of a Neotropical harvestman, Discocyrtus invalidus (Arachnida, Opiliones) to associate a shelter with a chemical stimulus. We used an arena with a white light at the top and two openings on the floor, one giving access to a dark shelter and the other one closed with a mesh. Filter paper with different chemicals (mate or green tea) surrounded both openings. A harvestman (n=37) was released in the arena and its behavior recorded. The procedure was repeated for 14 consecutive days with each individual. We found that harvestmen got faster at finding the refuge, became less exploratory and tended to move toward the open shelter as the days passed. We conclude that the animals learned to associate the chemical stimulus with the shelter. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. A taxonomic catalogue of the Dyspnoi Hansen and Sørensen, 1904 (Arachnida: Opiliones).

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    Schönhofer, Axel L

    2013-01-01

    An update of the systematics and determination key of the Opiliones suborder Dyspnoi is provided. The included catalogue represents the first comprehensive species and synonymy listing since Roewer (1923). It summarises all taxonomic changes to date and attempts to be a sound basis against the exponential growing number of online errors, for which examples are given. Species taxonomy features most obvious changes within the Nemastomatidae. The number of species in the collective genus Nemastoma is reduced from 96 (Hallan 2005) to its sensu stricto definition of 7, and the excluded names are transferred to other genera or considered as nomina dubia, predominantly in Paranemastoma. The systematics of the superfamily Ischyropsalidoidea is discussed and family-level diagnoses are renewed to support taxonomical changes: The morphological heterogeneity in the Sabaconidae is resolved by reverting the family to its original monogeneric state. Taracus and Hesperonemastoma are separated as Taracidae fam. n., and Crosbycus is tentatively transferred to this assembly. The remaining genera of Ceratolasmatidae, Acuclavella and Ceratolasma, are included as subfamily Ceratolasmatinae in the Ischyropsalididae and Ischyropsalis is assigned subfamily status, respectively. Other nomenclatural acts are restricted to species-group level with the following synonymies established: Sabacon jonesi Goodnight & Goodnight, 1942 syn. n. (=cavicolens (Packard, 1884)), Dicranolasma diomedeum Kulczyński, 1907 syn. n. (=hirtum Loman, 1894), Mitostoma (Mitostoma) sketi Hadži, 1973a syn. n. (=chrysomelas (Hermann, 1804)), Mitostoma asturicum Roewer, 1951 syn. n. (=pyrenaeum (Simon, 1879a)), Nemastoma formosum Roewer, 1951 syn. n. (=Nemastomella bacillifera bacillifera (Simon, 1879a)), Nemastoma reimoseri Roewer, 1951 syn. n. (=Paranemastoma bicuspidatum (C.L. Koch, 1835)), Nemastoma tunetanum Roewer, 1951 syn. n. (=Paranemastoma bureschi (Roewer, 1926)), Phalangium flavimanum C.L. Koch, 1835 syn. n

  5. Sperm morphology of the neotropical harvestman Iporangaia pustulosa (Arachnida: Opiliones): comparative morphology and functional aspects.

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    Moya, J; Mancini, K; Machado, G; Dolder, H

    2007-03-01

    We describe herein the sperm morphology of the harvestman Iporangaia pustulosa. Adult males were dissected, the reproductive tract was schematized and the seminal vesicle was processed by light, transmission and scanning electron microscopy. The male reproductive tract is composed of a tubular testis, two deferent ducts, a seminal vesicle, a propulsive organ and a penis, similar to that observed in other Opiliones. The spermatozoa from the seminal vesicle are oval, aflagellate and immotile, presenting a nucleus surrounding an invagination of the cytoplasm, as well as a complex acrosome and projections on the cell surface. In the testis, spermatozoa are devoid of projections. In the seminal vesicle, they gradually acquire the projections with tufts adhering to it. Consequently, spermatozoa in various distinct stages of projection development can be found in the seminal vesicle. We believe that these projections (1) could help transport sperm along the male and perhaps female reproductive tracts; (2) are used to anchor the spermatozoa inside the female spermatheca in order to avoid mechanical displacement by the genitalia of other males and (3) may play a role in oocyte recognition. We propose that the evolution of aflagellarity in Opiliones is related to the unique morphology of the female reproductive tract. Since eggs are fertilized on the tip of the ovipositor just prior to being laid, there is no advantage favoring sperm mobility. Additionally, female sperm receptacles are small and males that produced small spermatozoa would have a higher chance of fertilizing more eggs.

  6. Deep genetic divergences in Aoraki denticulata (Arachnida, Opiliones, Cyphophthalmi): a widespread 'mite harvestman' defies DNA taxonomy.

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    Boyer, Sarah L; Baker, Jessica M; Giribet, Gonzalo

    2007-12-01

    Aoraki denticulata (Arachnida, Opiliones, Cyphophthalmi, Pettalidae), a widespread 'mite harvestman' endemic to the South Island of New Zealand, is found in leaf littler habitats throughout Nelson and Marlborough, and as far south as Arthur's Pass. We investigated the phylogeography and demographic history of A. denticulata in the first genetic population-level study within Opiliones. A total of 119 individuals from 17 localities were sequenced for 785 bp of the gene cytochrome c oxidase subunit I; 102 of these individuals were from the Aoraki subspecies A. denticulata denticulata and the remaining 17 were from the subspecies A. denticulata major. An extraordinarily high degree of genetic diversity was discovered in A. denticulata denticulata, with average uncorrected p-distances between populations as high as 19.2%. AMOVA, average numbers of pairwise differences, and pairwise F(ST) values demonstrated a significant amount of genetic diversity both within and between populations of this subspecies. Phylogenetic analysis of the data set revealed many well-supported groups within A. denticulata denticulata, generally corresponding to clusters of specimens from single populations with short internal branches, but separated by long branches from individuals from other populations. No haplotypes were shared between populations of the widespread small subspecies, A. denticulata denticulata. These results indicate a subspecies within which very little genetic exchange occurs between populations, a result consistent with the idea that Cyphophthalmi are poor dispersers. The highly structured populations and deep genetic divergences observed in A. denticulata denticulata may indicate the presence of cryptic species. However, we find a highly conserved morphology across sampling localities and large genetic divergences within populations from certain localities, equivalent to those typically found between populations from different localities. Past geological events may have

  7. Penis morphology in a Burmese amber harvestman.

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    Dunlop, Jason A; Selden, Paul A; Giribet, Gonzalo

    2016-02-01

    A unique specimen of the fossil harvestman Halitherses grimaldii Giribet and Dunlop, 2005 (Arachnida: Opiliones) from the Cretaceous (ca. 99 Ma) Burmese amber of Myanmar reveals a fully extended penis. This is the first record of a male copulatory organ of this nature preserved in amber and is of special importance due to the age of the deposit. The penis has a slender, distally flattened truncus, a spatulate heart-shaped glans and a short distal stylus, twisted at the tip. In living harvestmen, the penis yields crucial characters for their systematics. Male genital morphology in H. grimaldii appears to be unique among the wider Dyspnoi clade to which this fossil belongs. The large eyes in the fossil differ markedly from other members of the subfamily Ortholasmatinae to which H. grimaldii was originally referred. Based on recent data, it has been argued that large eyes may be plesiomorphic for Palpatores (i.e. the suborders Eupnoi and Dyspnoi), potentially rendering this character plesiomorphic for the fossil too. Thus, the unique structure of the penis seen here, and the probable lack of diaphanous teeth, present in all other extant non-acropsopilionid Dyspnoi, suggest that H. grimaldii represents a new, extinct family of large-eyed dyspnoid harvestmen, Halithersidae fam. nov.; a higher taxon in amber diagnosed here on both somatic and genital characters.

  8. Penis morphology in a Burmese amber harvestman

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    Dunlop, Jason A.; Selden, Paul A.; Giribet, Gonzalo

    2016-02-01

    A unique specimen of the fossil harvestman Halitherses grimaldii Giribet and Dunlop, 2005 (Arachnida: Opiliones) from the Cretaceous (ca. 99 Ma) Burmese amber of Myanmar reveals a fully extended penis. This is the first record of a male copulatory organ of this nature preserved in amber and is of special importance due to the age of the deposit. The penis has a slender, distally flattened truncus, a spatulate heart-shaped glans and a short distal stylus, twisted at the tip. In living harvestmen, the penis yields crucial characters for their systematics. Male genital morphology in H. grimaldii appears to be unique among the wider Dyspnoi clade to which this fossil belongs. The large eyes in the fossil differ markedly from other members of the subfamily Ortholasmatinae to which H. grimaldii was originally referred. Based on recent data, it has been argued that large eyes may be plesiomorphic for Palpatores (i.e. the suborders Eupnoi and Dyspnoi), potentially rendering this character plesiomorphic for the fossil too. Thus, the unique structure of the penis seen here, and the probable lack of diaphanous teeth, present in all other extant non-acropsopilionid Dyspnoi, suggest that H. grimaldii represents a new, extinct family of large-eyed dyspnoid harvestmen, Halithersidae fam. nov.; a higher taxon in amber diagnosed here on both somatic and genital characters.

  9. Iandumoema uai, a new genus and species of troglobitic harvestman from Brazil (Arachnida, Opiliones, Gonyleptidae

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    Ricardo Pinto-da-Rocha

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available A new genus and species of harvestman, landumoema uai, is described based on material from Gruta Olhos d'Água, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Its troglomorphisms include depigmentation on body, legs and eyes. It is the third troglobitic species of harvestman recorded from Brazilian caves and the second in the family Gonyleptidae.

  10. The distribution of the invasive harvestman Dicranopalpus ramosus in the Netherlands (Arachnida: Opiliones).

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    Noordijk, J.; Wijnhoven, H.; Cuppen, J.G.M.

    2007-01-01

    De verspreiding van de invasieve hooiwagen Dicranopalpus ramosus in Nederland (Arachnida: Opiliones) De hooiwagen Dicranopalpus ramosus (Simon, 1909) werd in 1993 voor het eerst in Nederland waargenomen. In deze bijdrage worden alle sindsdien bekend geworden vindplaatsen gebundeld. Wij concluderen

  11. The distribution of the invasive harvestman Dicranopalpus ramosus in the Netherlands (Arachnida: Opiliones)

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    Noordijk, J.; Wijnhoven, H.; Cuppen, J.G.M.

    2007-01-01

    Dicranopalpus ramous is one of the most characteristic harvestmen in our country. Because this species is quite easy to identify, many persons were able to contribute to the first distribution map ever presented for a harvestman species in the Netherlands. Remarkably, D. ramosus has succeeded to

  12. Ultrastructure of chemoreceptive tarsal sensilla in an armored harvestman and evidence of olfaction across Laniatores (Arachnida, Opiliones).

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    Gainett, Guilherme; Michalik, Peter; Müller, Carsten H G; Giribet, Gonzalo; Talarico, Giovanni; Willemart, Rodrigo H

    2017-03-01

    Harvestmen (Arachnida, Opiliones) are especially dependent on chemical cues and are often regarded as animals that rely mainly on contact chemoreception. Information on harvestman sensilla is scarce when compared to other arachnid orders, especially concerning internal morphology. Using scanning (SEM) and transmission (TEM) electron microscopy, we investigated tarsal sensilla on the distal tarsomeres (DT) of all leg pairs in Heteromitobates discolor (Laniatores, Gonyleptidae). Furthermore, we explored the typological diversity of sensilla present on the DT I and II in members of the suborder Laniatores, which include two thirds of the formally described opilionid fauna, using species from 17 families representing all main laniatorian lineages. Our data revealed that DT I and II of H. discolor are equipped with wall-pored falciform hairs (two types), wall-pored sensilla chaetica (two types) and tip-pored sensilla chaetica, while DT III and IV are mainly covered with trichomes (non-sensory) and tip-pored sensilla chaetica. The ultrastructural characteristics support an olfactory function for all wall-pored sensilla and a dual gustatory/mechanoreceptive function for tip-pored sensilla chaetica. Based on our comparative SEM survey, we show that wall-pored sensilla occur in all investigated Laniatores, demonstrating their widespread occurrence in the suborder and highlighting the importance of both legs I and II as the sensory appendages of laniatorean harvestmen. Our results provide the first morphological evidence for olfactory receptors in Laniatores and suggest that olfaction is more important for harvestmen than previously thought. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Longipin: An Amyloid Antimicrobial Peptide from the Harvestman Acutisoma longipes (Arachnida: Opiliones) with Preferential Affinity for Anionic Vesicles.

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    Sayegh, Raphael Santa Rosa; Batista, Isabel de Fátima Correia; Melo, Robson Lopes de; Riske, Karin A; Daffre, Sirlei; Montich, Guillermo; da Silva Junior, Pedro Ismael

    2016-01-01

    In contrast to vertebrate immune systems, invertebrates lack an adaptive response and rely solely on innate immunity in which antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) play an essential role. Most of them are membrane active molecules that are typically unstructured in solution and adopt secondary/tertiary structures upon binding to phospholipid bilayers. This work presents the first characterization of a constitutive AMP from the hemolymph of an Opiliones order animal: the harvestman Acutisoma longipes. This peptide was named longipin. It presents 18 aminoacid residues (SGYLPGKEYVYKYKGKVF) and a positive net charge at neutral pH. No similarity with other AMPs was observed. However, high sequence similarity with heme-lipoproteins from ticks suggested that longipin might be a protein fragment. The synthetic peptide showed enhanced antifungal activity against Candida guilliermondii and C. tropicalis yeasts (MIC: 3.8-7.5 μM) and did not interfered with VERO cells line viability at all concentrations tested (200-0.1 μM). This selectivity against microbial cells is related to the highest affinity of longipin for anionic charged vesicles (POPG:POPC) compared to zwitterionic ones (POPC), once microbial plasma membrane are generally more negatively charged compared to mammalian cells membrane. Dye leakage from carboxyfluorescein-loaded POPG:POPC vesicles suggested that longipin is a membrane active antimicrobial peptide and FT-IR spectroscopy showed that the peptide chain is mainly unstructured in solution or in the presence of POPC vesicles. However, upon binding to POPG:POPC vesicles, the FT-IR spectrum showed bands related to β-sheet and amyloid-like fibril conformations in agreement with thioflavin-T binding assays, indicating that longipin is an amyloid antimicrobial peptide.

  14. Sexually dimorphic legs in a neotropical harvestman (Arachnida, Opiliones): ornament or weapon?

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    Willemart, Rodrigo H; Osses, Francini; Chelini, Marie Claire; Macías-Ordóñez, Rogelio; Machado, Glauco

    2009-01-01

    The evolution of sexually dimorphic traits has been the focus of much theoretical work, but empirical approaches to this topic have not been equally prolific. Males of the neotropical family Gonyleptidae usually present a strong fourth pair of legs armed with spines, but their functional significance is unknown. We investigated the putative functions of the leg armature in the harvestman Neosadocus maximus. Being a non-visual species, the spines on male legs can only be perceived by females through physical contact. Thus, we could expect females to touch the armature on the legs of their mates if they were to evaluate it. However, we found no support for this hypothesis. We did show that (1) leg armature is used as a weapon in contests between males and (2) spines and associated sensilla are sexually dimorphic structures involved in "nipping behavior", during which a winner emerged in most fights. Finally, we demonstrate that five body structures directly involved in male-male fights show positive allometry in males, presenting slopes higher than 1, whereas the same structures show either no or negative allometry in the case of females. In conclusion, leg armature in male harvestmen is clearly used as a device in intrasexual contests.

  15. On the placement of the Baltic amber harvestman Gonyleptes nemastomoides Koch & Berendt, 1854, with notes on the phylogeny of Cladonychiidae (Opiliones, Laniatores, Travunioidea

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    D. Ubick

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The Baltic amber (Palaeogene: Eocene harvestman Gonyleptes nemastomoides Koch & Berendt, 1854 (Arachnida: Opiliones, currently misplaced at both the genus and family level, is transferred to the extant family Cladonychiidae and assigned to a new genus, Proholoscotolemon n. gen. The families Gonyleptidae and Phalangodidae are hereby removed from the known harvestman fossil record. Although the type specimen of G. nemastomoides is poorly preserved, the form of the diagnostic hind tarsal claw is clearly visible and indicates that the genus is distinct from, and relatively basal to, the only extant European cladonychiid genus, Holoscotolemon Roewer, 1915. Analysis of the claw morphology of extant cladonychiids, using evidence from ontogeny and outgroup comparison, suggests a transformation series in which the plesiomorphic condition (present in the eastern Nearctic genera Erebomaster Cope, 1872 and Theromaster Briggs, 1969 is a multi-pronged, narrowly forked claw with a long base, while the apomorphic condition (found in Holoscotolemon is a bipronged, widely forked claw with a short base. Der Weberknecht Gonyleptes nemastomoides Koch & Berendt, 1854 (Arachnida: Opiliones aus dem Baltischen Bernstein (Paläogen: Eozän wird derzeit weder auf Gattungs- noch auf Familien-Ebene richtig zugeordnet. Er wird hiermit in die auch heute noch verbreitete Familie Cladonychiidae und die neue Gattung, Proholoscotolemon n. gen. versetzt. Für die Weberknecht-Familien Gonyleptidae und Phalangodidae gibt es somit keine fossilen Belege mehr. Obwohl das Typusexemplar von G. nemastomoides schlecht erhalten ist, ist die Form der diagnostisch wichtigen 4. Tarsalkrallen klar erkennbar. Sie zeigt an, dass die neue Gattung deutlich von der einzigen rezenten europäischen Cladonychiidae-Gattung Holoscotolemon Roewer, 1915 abweicht und im Verhältnis hierzu ursprünglicher ist. Die Analyse der Krallen-Morphologie von lebenden Cladonychiidae, bei Berücksichtigung der

  16. Paecilaema batman, a new species of Brazilian troglophilous harvestman that exhibits a remarkable color patches variation (Opiliones: Cosmetidae

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    Ricardo Pinto-da-Rocha

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A new species of harvestman, Paecilaema batman, from Brazilian limestone caves of the state of Goiás, is described, and a remarkable intraspecific color patch variation is discussed. Paecilaema batman sp. nov. differs from other species of the genus by the following combination of features: chelicera similar in both sexes; prosoma without color patches; typical color patches on area I; and area III with two high spines. The new species is considered troglophilous.

  17. Mitochondrial rRNA secondary structures and genome arrangements distinguish chelicerates: comparisons with a harvestman (Arachnida: Opiliones: Phalangium opilio).

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    Masta, Susan E

    2010-01-01

    Arachnids are a highly diverse group of arthropods, and many of the mitochondrial genomes that have been sequenced from arachnids possess unusual features in their inferred gene structures and genome organization. The first complete sequence of a mitochondrial genome from the arachnid order Opiliones (harvestmen) is presented here. Secondary structures of the two mitochondrial ribosomal subunits of Phalangium opilio are inferred and compared to mitochondrial rRNA structures of a hexapod and a chelicerate. The large subunit rRNA of P. opilio is found to have more helices conserved than in other arthropods, while the small subunit rRNA shows a complexity similar to that of other arthropods. These comparisons suggest that a reduction in rRNA complexity occurred in Pancrustacea after the divergence of Pancrustacea and Chelicerata from a common ancestor. The gene arrangement of the mitochondrial genome of P. opilio is compared with the gene order of taxa from all seven other orders of arachnids for which representative mitochondrial genomes have been sequenced. Taxa from five of these seven orders possess gene arrangements identical to that of Limulus polyphemus, and P. opilio is found to have a similar arrangement. However, in P. opilio, some genes near the putative control region are rearranged, with the suite of genes encoding tRNA(Gln), the control region, and tRNA(Ile) located downstream of the two ribosomal RNA genes, and upstream of where they are typically located in chelicerates. The genome encodes only 21 of the typical 22 mitochondrial tRNA genes and lacks the gene for tRNA(Leu(CUN)). The protein-coding genes in the mitochondrial genome of P. opilio show a significantly decreased use of codons recognized by tRNA(Leu(CUN)), likely due to selection to utilize the more specific tRNA(Leu(UUR)) anticodon. The gene arrangement and lack of a tRNA(Leu(CUN)) gene in P. opilio is most parsimoniously explained by the occurrence of at least two translocation events, one

  18. First Harvestman Record for the Juan Fernández Archipelago, Chile, with Morphological Notes on Acropsopilio chilensis (Opiliones: Caddidae: Acroposopilioninae).

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    Pérez-González, Abel; Ramírez, Martín J; Soto, Eduardo M; Pizarro-Araya, Jaime

    2014-08-15

    Acropsopilio chilensis Silvestri, 1904 (Eupnoi: Caddidae: Acropsopilioninae), is recorded for Robinson Crusoe Island, Chile. This is the first harvestman species recorded for the Juan Fernández Archipelago and also the first extra-continental record for this species. During the comparison with continental co-specific specimens, some previously unknown, remarkable morphological characteristics were discovered, among them: the absence of ovipositor seminal receptacles and tracheal system, small and probably imperforate spiracles and the presence of a subdistal spiny structure, maybe a stylus, in the major branch of the penis. 

  19. A new highly specialized cave harvestman from Brazil and the first blind species of the genus: Iandumoema smeagol sp. n. (Arachnida, Opiliones, Gonyleptidae)

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    Pinto-da-Rocha, Ricardo; da Fonseca-Ferreira, Rafael; Bichuette, Maria Elina

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A new species of troglobitic harvestman, Iandumoema smeagol sp. n., is described from Toca do Geraldo, Monjolos municipality, Minas Gerais state, Brazil. Iandumoema smeagol sp. n. is distinguished from the other two species of the genus by four exclusive characteristics – dorsal scutum areas with conspicuous tubercles, enlarged retrolateral spiniform tubercle on the distal third of femur IV, eyes absent and the penial ventral process slender and of approximately the same length of the stylus. The species is the most highly modified in the genus and its distribution is restricted only to caves in that particular area of Minas Gerais state. The type locality is not inside a legally protected area, and there are anthropogenic impacts in its surroundings. Therefore, Iandumoema smeagol sp. n. is vulnerable and it must be considered in future conservation projects. PMID:26798238

  20. Distal-less and dachshund pattern both plesiomorphic and apomorphic structures in chelicerates: RNA interference in the harvestman Phalangium opilio (Opiliones).

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    Sharma, Prashant P; Schwager, Evelyn E; Giribet, Gonzalo; Jockusch, Elizabeth L; Extavour, Cassandra G

    2013-01-01

    The discovery of genetic mechanisms that can transform a morphological structure from a plesiomorphic (=primitive) state to an apomorphic (=derived) one is a cardinal objective of evolutionary developmental biology. However, this objective is often impeded for many lineages of interest by limitations in taxonomic sampling, genomic resources, or functional genetic methods. In order to investigate the evolution of appendage morphology within Chelicerata, the putative sister group of the remaining arthropods, we developed an RNA interference (RNAi) protocol for the harvestman Phalangium opilio. We silenced the leg gap genes Distal-less (Dll) and dachshund (dac) in the harvestman via zygotic injections of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), and used in situ hybridization to confirm RNAi efficacy. Consistent with the conserved roles of these genes in patterning the proximo-distal axis of arthropod appendages, we observed that embryos injected with Dll dsRNA lacked distal parts of appendages and appendage-like structures, such as the labrum, the chelicerae, the pedipalps, and the walking legs, whereas embryos injected with dac dsRNA lacked the medial podomeres femur and patella in the pedipalps and walking legs. In addition, we detected a role for these genes in patterning structures that do not occur in well-established chelicerate models (spiders and mites). Dll RNAi additionally results in loss of the preoral chamber, which is formed from pedipalpal and leg coxapophyses, and the ocularium, a dorsal outgrowth bearing the eyes. In one case, we observed that an embryo injected with dac dsRNA lacked the proximal segment of the chelicera, a plesiomorphic podomere that expresses dac in wild-type embryos. This may support the hypothesis that loss of the cheliceral dac domain underlies the transition to the two-segmented chelicera of derived arachnids. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Population genomic evidence for multiple Pliocene refugia in a montane-restricted harvestman (Arachnida, Opiliones, Sclerobunus robustus) from the southwestern United States.

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    Derkarabetian, Shahan; Burns, Mercedes; Starrett, James; Hedin, Marshal

    2016-09-01

    The integration of ecological niche modelling into phylogeographic analyses has allowed for the identification and testing of potential refugia under a hypothesis-based framework, where the expected patterns of higher genetic diversity in refugial populations and evidence of range expansion of nonrefugial populations are corroborated with empirical data. In this study, we focus on a montane-restricted cryophilic harvestman, Sclerobunus robustus, distributed throughout the heterogeneous Southern Rocky Mountains and Intermontane Plateau of southwestern North America. We identified hypothetical refugia using ecological niche models (ENMs) across three time periods, corroborated these refugia with population genetic methods using double-digest RAD-seq data and conducted population-level phylogenetic and divergence dating analyses. ENMs identify two large temporally persistent regions in the mid-latitude highlands. Genetic patterns support these two hypothesized refugia with higher genetic diversity within refugial populations and evidence for range expansion in populations found outside hypothesized refugia. Phylogenetic analyses identify five to six genetically divergent, geographically cohesive clades of S. robustus. Divergence dating analyses suggest that these separate refugia date to the Pliocene and that divergence between clades pre-dates the late Pleistocene glacial cycles, while diversification within clades was likely driven by these cycles. Population genetic analyses reveal effects of both isolation by distance (IBD) and isolation by environment (IBE), with IBD more important in the continuous mountainous portion of the distribution, while IBE was stronger in the populations inhabiting the isolated sky islands of the south. Using model-based coalescent approaches, we find support for postdivergence migration between clades from separate refugia. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. A revised dated phylogeny of the arachnid order Opiliones

    OpenAIRE

    Prashant eSharma; Gonzalo eGiribet

    2014-01-01

    Dating the Opiliones tree of life has become an important enterprise for this group of arthropods, due to their ancient origins and important biogeographic implications. To incorporate both methodological innovations in molecular dating as well as new systematic discoveries of harvestman diversity, we conducted total evidence dating on a data set uniting morphological and/or molecular sequence data for 47 Opiliones species, including all four well-known Palaeozoic fossils, to test the placeme...

  3. De hooiwagen Nelima doriae nieuw voor Nederland (Arachnida: Opiliones).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnhoven, H.

    2007-01-01

    The harvestman Nelima doriae new for the Netherlands (Arachnida: Opiliones) On November 5, 2006 two males, two females, one subadult female and a juvenile of Nelima doriae were collected in Kessel, province of Limburg, the Netherlands. An additional number of 67 juveniles, 2 males and one female

  4. The first fossil cyphophthalmid harvestman from Baltic amber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunlop, Jason A.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The first fossil cyphophthalmid harvestman (Opiliones: Cyphophthalmi from Palaeogene (Eocene Baltic amber is described. This is only the third fossil example of this basal harvestman lineage; the others being from the probably slightly younger Bitterfeld amber and the much older, early Cretaceous, Myanmar (Burmese amber. Although incomplete and lacking most of the appendages, the new Baltic amber fossil can be identified as a female. The somatic characters preserved, especially spiracle morphology and the coxo-genital region, allow it to be assigned with some confidence to the extant genus Siro Latreille, 1796 (Sironidae. This fossil is formally described here as Siro balticus sp. nov. It resembles modern North American Siro species more than modern European ones, and can be distinguished principally on its relatively large size and the outline form of the body.

  5. New records of harvestmen (Arachnida, Opiliones) from Minnesota, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoemaker, A Kenji; Burns, Mercedes; Boyer, Sarah L

    2017-06-02

    Harvestmen (Opiliones) are a diverse order of arachnids composed of more than 6,600 described species which together span an almost global distribution. Although these animals may occur in extremely high abundance in both pristine and disturbed habitats, much of harvestman diversity remains undescribed, undocumented, and/or in need of taxonomic attention. In the current study, we focus on the harvestman diversity of the state of Minnesota, USA, where a lack of local expertise and effort has left the species richness of the state largely undocumented. We document two genera and seven species previously unrecorded in the state.-Leiobunum aldrichi, L. calcar, L. flavum, L. politum, L. ventricosum, L. vittatum,  and Odiellus pictus.

  6. Harvestmen (Arachnida: Opiliones) from the Middle Jurassic of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Diying; Selden, Paul A.; Dunlop, Jason A.

    2009-08-01

    Harvestmen (Arachnida: Opiliones) are familiar animals in most terrestrial habitats but are rare as fossils, with only a handful of species known from each of the Palaeozoic, Mesozoic, and Cenozoic eras. Fossil harvestmen from Middle Jurassic (ca. 165 Ma) strata of Daohugou, Inner Mongolia, China, are described as Mesobunus martensi gen. et sp. nov. and Daohugopilio sheari gen. et sp. nov.; the two genera differ primarily in the relative length of their legs and details of the pedipalps. Jurassic arachnids are extremely rare and these fossils represent the first Jurassic, and only the fourth Mesozoic, record of Opiliones. These remarkably well-preserved and modern-looking fossils are assigned to the Eupnoi, whereby M. martensi demonstrably belongs in Sclerosomatidae. It thus represents the oldest record of a modern harvestman family and implies a high degree of evolutionary stasis among one of the most widespread and abundant groups of long-legged, round-bodied harvestmen.

  7. Phylogeny and systematic position of Opiliones: a combined analysis of chelicerate relationships using morphological and molecular data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giribet, Gonzalo; Edgecombe, Gregory D.; Wheeler, Ward C.; Babbitt, Courtney

    2002-01-01

    The ordinal level phylogeny of the Arachnida and the suprafamilial level phylogeny of the Opiliones were studied on the basis of a combined analysis of 253 morphological characters, the complete sequence of the 18S rRNA gene, and the D3 region of the 28S rRNA gene. Molecular data were collected for 63 terminal taxa. Morphological data were collected for 35 exemplar taxa of Opiliones, but groundplans were applied to some of the remaining chelicerate groups. Six extinct terminals, including Paleozoic scorpions, are scored for morphological characters. The data were analyzed using strict parsimony for the morphological data matrix and via direct optimization for the molecular and combined data matrices. A sensitivity analysis of 15 parameter sets was undertaken, and character congruence was used as the optimality criterion to choose among competing hypotheses. The results obtained are unstable for the high-level chelicerate relationships (except for Tetrapulmonata, Pedipalpi, and Camarostomata), and the sister group of the Opiliones is not clearly established, although the monophyly of Dromopoda is supported under many parameter sets. However, the internal phylogeny of the Opiliones is robust to parameter choice and allows the discarding of previous hypotheses of opilionid phylogeny such as the "Cyphopalpatores" or "Palpatores." The topology obtained is congruent with the previous hypothesis of "Palpatores" paraphyly as follows: (Cyphophthalmi (Eupnoi (Dyspnoi + Laniatores))). Resolution within the Eupnoi, Dyspnoi, and Laniatores (the latter two united as Dyspnolaniatores nov.) is also stable to the superfamily level, permitting a new classification system for the Opiliones. c2002 The Willi Hennig Society.

  8. Fossil harvestmen (Arachnida, Opiliones from Bitterfeld amber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Dunlop

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Fossil harvestmen (Arachnida: Opiliones: Dyspnoi and Eupnoi are described from Bitterfeld amber, Sachsen-Anhalt, Germany deposited in the Museum für Naturkunde, Berlin. The exact age of this amber has been in dispute, but recent work suggests it is youngest Palaeogene (Oligocene: Chattian. Histricostoma tuberculatum (Koch & Berendt, 1854, Caddo dentipalpus (Koch & Berendt, 1854, Dicranopalpus ramiger (Koch & Berendt, 1854 and Leiobunum longipes Menge, 1854 – all of which are also known from Eocene Baltic amber – are reported from Bitterfeld amber for the first time. They support the idea that both ambers sampled a similar terrestrial arthropod fauna: irrespective of any difference in age. Mitostoma gruberi sp. n. and Amilenus deltshevi sp. n. are described as new. One fossil is, in our opinion, morphologically indistinguishable from the extant species Lacinius erinaceus Staręga, 1966 from the Caucuses, and is tentatively assigned to this taxon. The Bitterfeld material thus includes the first fossil record of the extant genera Amilenus Martens, 1969 and Lacinius Thorell, 1876 respectively.

  9. The Opiliones tree of life: shedding light on harvestmen relationships through transcriptomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Prashant P.; Tourinho, Ana Lúcia

    2017-01-01

    Opiliones are iconic arachnids with a Palaeozoic origin and a diversity that reflects ancient biogeographic patterns dating back at least to the times of Pangea. Owing to interest in harvestman diversity, evolution and biogeography, their relationships have been thoroughly studied using morphology and PCR-based Sanger approaches to infer their systematic relationships. More recently, two studies utilized transcriptomics-based phylogenomics to explore their basal relationships and diversification, but sampling was limiting for understanding deep evolutionary patterns, as they lacked good taxon representation at the family level. Here, we analysed a set of the 14 existing transcriptomes with 40 additional ones generated for this study, representing approximately 80% of the extant familial diversity in Opiliones. Our phylogenetic analyses, including a set of data matrices with different gene occupancy and evolutionary rates, and using a multitude of methods correcting for a diversity of factors affecting phylogenomic data matrices, provide a robust and stable Opiliones tree of life, where most families and higher taxa are precisely placed. Our dating analyses using alternative calibration points, methods and analytical parameters provide well-resolved old divergences, consistent with ancient regionalization in Pangea in some groups, and Pangean vicariance in others. The integration of state-of-the-art molecular techniques and analyses, together with the broadest taxonomic sampling to date presented in a phylogenomic study of harvestmen, provide new insights into harvestmen interrelationships, as well as an overview of the general biogeographic patterns of this ancient arthropod group. PMID:28228511

  10. Opiliones are no longer the same--on suprafamilial groups in harvestmen (Arthropoda: Arachnida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kury, Adriano B

    2015-03-02

    A review of the names used in the arachnid order Opiliones above superfamily level is presented. Many historical branching patterns of Opiliones (for five terminals), of Laniatores (for six terminals), and of Cyphophthalmi (for six terminals) are extrapolated, compared and graphically displayed. For the first time a historical review is made of the circumscriptions of those names and comparisons are drawn to current usage. Critical clades are used as terminals and represented by the oldest valid generic name of each. Comments are made on the variant usage for 25 suprafamilial names from the literature. Cladistic definitions are provided for these names under relevant hypotheses of phylogeny. It is noted that virtually all important suprafamilial names in Opiliones changed concept over time, and the purpose of this project is to clarify the original usage compared to current, and to add historical perspective. Two options are considered for higher-level nomenclature in Opiliones: (1) a circumscriptional option, sticking to the original inclusion of the names; (2) an inertial option, where no name has priority, and follows recent use in the literature. As there is no priority for names not regulated by ICZN, option 2 prevails, because it entails massive momentum. The following new names are introduced as unranked taxa to define clades under different hypotheses of phylogeny: Tricospilata (= Triaenonychidae + Grassatores), Lomaniatores (Laniatores in the restricted sense used by Loman/Pocock), and Eulaniatores (Laniatores excluding the bizarre Synthetonychiidae). Some of the hypotheses implied by these names are conflicting and mutually exclusive, but the state of knowledge of harvestman taxonomy is quickly changing, and no hypothesis that clearly supersedes the others can be detected.

  11. Evolutionary biology of harvestmen (Arachnida, Opiliones).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giribet, Gonzalo; Sharma, Prashant P

    2015-01-07

    Opiliones are one of the largest arachnid orders, with more than 6,500 species in 50 families. Many of these families have been erected or reorganized in the last few years since the publication of The Biology of Opiliones. Recent years have also seen an explosion in phylogenetic work on Opiliones, as well as in studies using Opiliones as test cases to address biogeographic and evolutionary questions more broadly. Accelerated activity in the study of Opiliones evolution has been facilitated by the discovery of several key fossils, including the oldest known Opiliones fossil, which represents a new, extinct suborder. Study of the group's biology has also benefited from rapid accrual of genomic resources, particularly with respect to transcriptomes and functional genetic tools. The rapid emergence and utility of Phalangium opilio as a model for evolutionary developmental biology of arthropods serve as demonstrative evidence of a new area of study in Opiliones biology, made possible through transcriptomic data.

  12. First Biosynthetic pathway of 1-hepten-3-one in Iporangaia pustulosa (Opiliones)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Daniele F. O.; Wouters, Felipe C.; Machado, Glauco; Marsaioli, Anita J.

    2013-11-01

    Arthropods produce a great variety of natural compounds, many of which have unexplored biosynthesis. Among the armored harvestmen (Arachnida: Opiliones) of the suborder Laniatores, the defensive gland exudates contain vinyl ketones and other constituents of supposed polyketide origin. We have studied the biosynthesis of 1-hepten-3-one in the Neotropical harvestman Iporangaia pustulosa by feeding individuals with 13C-labeled precursors, demonstrating its mixed acetate/propionate origin. 13C NMR spectroscopy showed an unusual labeling pattern suggesting different propionate sources for starting and extender units. Our analysis also indicates the presence of methylmalonyl-CoA mutase, converting acetate into propionyl-CoA via succinyl-CoA, together with other C3 unit routes. This is the first biosynthetic study of alkyl vinyl ketones in arthropods. Our results shed light on the origin and diversification of chemical compounds in a major arthropod group.

  13. Phylogeny of Opiliones (Arachnida): An Assessment of the "Cyphopalpatores" Concept

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jeffrey W. Shultz

    1998-01-01

    .... Because most genitalic characters within Opiliones are unique to that order, genitalic characters cannot be polarized and opilion phylogeny cannot be rooted using objective outgroup comparison...

  14. Male dimorphism and alternative reproductive tactics in harvestmen (Arachnida: Opiliones).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzatto, Bruno A; Machado, Glauco

    2014-11-01

    Strong sexual selection may lead small males or males in poor condition to adopt alternative reproductive tactics (ARTs) as a way to avoid the risk of being completely excluded from the mating pool. ARTs, sometimes accompanying morphological dimorphism among males, are taxonomically widespread, especially common in arthropods. Here we review the current knowledge on ARTs and male dimorphism in a diverse but relatively overlooked group of arachnids, the order Opiliones, popularly known as harvestmen or daddy long-legs. We begin with a summary of harvestman mating systems, followed by a review of the two lines of evidence for the presence of ARTs in the group: (1) morphological data from natural populations and museum collections; and (2) behavioral information from field studies. Despite receiving less attention than spiders, scorpions and insects, our review shows that harvestmen are an exciting group of organisms that are potentially great models for sexual selection studies focused on ARTs. We also suggest that investigating the proximate mechanisms underlying male dimorphism in the order would be especially important. New research on ARTs and male dimorphism will have implications for our understanding of the evolution of mating systems, sperm competition, and polyandry. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Neotropical Behaviour. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Sinostoma yunnanicum, the first nemastomatine harvestman in China (Arachnida: Opiliones: Nemastomatidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, Jochen

    2016-06-20

    The easternmost Nemastomatinae species, Sinostoma yunnanicum n. gen., n. sp., from northern Yunnan, China is described. It extends the geographic distribution of Nemastomatinae by roughly 3000 km southeastwards. Within Nemastomatinae Sinostoma displays plesiomorphic characters, including the long, basic bulb of the truncus shaft and the extremely short glans of penis, armed with short robust spines. Sinostoma may represent a relict line in the early evolution of nemastomatine harvestmen.

  16. The disjunct pattern of the Neotropical harvestman Discocyrtus dilatatus (Gonyleptidae explained by climate-driven range shifts in the Quaternary: Paleodistributional and molecular evidence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Vergara

    Full Text Available The disjunct distribution of the harvestman Discocyrtus dilatatus (Opiliones, Gonyleptidae is used as a case study to test the hypothesis of a trans-Chaco Pleistocene paleobridge during range expansion stages. This would have temporarily connected humid regions ('Mesopotamia' in northeastern Argentina, and the 'Yungas' in the northwest, NWA in the subtropical and temperate South American lowlands. The present study combines two independent approaches: paleodistributional reconstruction, using the Species Distribution Modeling method MaxEnt and projection onto Quaternary paleoclimates (6 kya, 21 kya, 130 kya, and phylogeographic analyses based on the cytochrome oxidase subunit I molecular marker. Models predict a maximal shrinkage during the warm Last Interglacial (130 kya, and the rise of the hypothesized paleobridge in the Last Glacial Maximum (21 kya, revealing that cold-dry stages (not warm-humid ones, as supposed enabled the range expansion of this species. The disjunction was formed in the mid-Holocene (6 kya and is intensified under current conditions. The median-joining network shows that NWA haplotypes are peripherally related to different Mesopotamian lineages; haplotypes from Santa Fe and Córdoba Provinces consistently occupy central positions in the network. According to the dated phylogeny, Mesopotamia-NWA expansion events would have occurred in the last glacial period, in many cases closely associated to the Last Glacial Maximum, with most divergence events occurring shortly thereafter. Only two (out of nine NWA haplotypes are shared with Mesopotamian localities. A single, presumably relictual NWA haplotype was found to have diverged much earlier, suggesting an ancient expansion event not recoverable by the paleodistributional models. Different measures of sequence statistics, genetic diversity, population structure and history of demographic changes are provided. This research offers the first available evidence for the historical

  17. Alarm communication: a new function for the scent-gland secretion in harvestmen (Arachnida: Opiliones)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Glauco; Bonato, Vinícius; Oliveira, Paulo

    2002-05-01

    Most harvestmen are nocturnal, nonacoustical, and nonvisual arthropods. They have a pair of exocrine glands on the cephalothorax that produce defensive volatile secretions. We investigated in the field the possible alarm effect of these secretions in the gregarious harvestman Goniosoma aff. proximum. A cotton swab soaked with the species' own exudate (treatment), or with water (control), was held 1-2 cm from the center of harvestmen aggregations. The results showed that the gland secretion elicits an alarm response in Goniosoma: whereas 73.3% of the aggregations dispersed after being stimulated with the gland exudate, only 3.3% responded to the water control. Respondent groups are larger than non-respondent groups, and the time of reaction to the secretion was inversely related to group size. This is the first demonstration of a chemically-mediated alarm effect in harvestmen. The alarm response in gregarious harvestmen has possibly evolved as a by-product of a primarily defensive reaction in the context of predator avoidance. The discovery of this novel function of scent-gland secretion is meaningful in view of the widespread occurrence of gregarious habit among species of the order Opiliones.

  18. Phylogenomic analyses resolve an ancient trichotomy at the base of Ischyropsalidoidea (Arachnida, Opiliones) despite high levels of gene tree conflict and unequal minority resolution frequencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richart, Casey H; Hayashi, Cheryl Y; Hedin, Marshal

    2016-02-01

    Phylogenetic resolution of ancient rapid radiations has remained problematic despite major advances in statistical approaches and DNA sequencing technologies. Here we report on a combined phylogenetic approach utilizing transcriptome data in conjunction with Sanger sequence data to investigate a tandem of ancient divergences in the harvestmen superfamily Ischyropsalidoidea (Arachnida, Opiliones, Dyspnoi). We rely on Sanger sequences to resolve nodes within and between closely related genera, and use RNA-seq data from a subset of taxa to resolve a short and ancient internal branch. We use several analytical approaches to explore this succession of ancient diversification events, including concatenated and coalescent-based analyses and maximum likelihood gene trees for each locus. We evaluate the robustness of phylogenetic inferences using a randomized locus sub-sampling approach, and find congruence across these methods despite considerable incongruence across gene trees. Incongruent gene trees are not recovered in frequencies expected from a simple multispecies coalescent model, and we reject incomplete lineage sorting as the sole contributor to gene tree conflict. Using these approaches we attain robust support for higher-level phylogenetic relationships within Ischyropsalidoidea. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. First experimental evidence that a harvestman (Arachnida: Opiliones detects odors of non-rotten dead prey by olfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaiany Miranda Costa

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Harvestmen feed on live, dead and fresh, or decomposing animals, fungi, and plant matter, being very dependent on chemoreception to find food. Herein we performed an experiment to test if individuals of Discocyrtus pectinifemur Mello-Leitão, 1937 (Gonyleptidae (n = 23 behave differently when in contact with olfactory cues from different sources (rotten prey, non-rotten prey and a control. Using dead crickets in a box covered with a mesh, and recording the time the harvestmen spent in the vicinities of the box, we show that D. pectinifemur detects non-rotten prey and stays longer on it than on the other two treatments. Our results contrast with a previous study on another species, showing that we should not generalize results obtained for one species. Our data also suggest that olfactory receptors occur on the legs of these harvestmen and that D. pectinifemur might choose dietary items based on olfaction.

  20. Molecular phylogeny of the harvestmen genus Sabacon (Arachnida: Opiliones: Dyspnoi) reveals multiple Eocene-Oligocene intercontinental dispersal events in the Holarctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönhofer, Axel L; McCormack, Maureen; Tsurusaki, Nobuo; Martens, Jochen; Hedin, Marshal

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the phylogeny and biogeographic history of the Holarctic harvestmen genus Sabacon, which shows an intercontinental disjunct distribution and is presumed to be a relatively old taxon. Molecular phylogenetic relationships of Sabacon were estimated using multiple gene regions and Bayesian inference for a comprehensive Sabacon sample. Molecular clock analyses, using relaxed clock models implemented in BEAST, are applied to date divergence events. Biogeographic scenarios utilizing S-DIVA and Lagrange C++ are reconstructed over sets of Bayesian trees, allowing for the incorporation of phylogenetic uncertainty and quantification of alternative reconstructions over time. Four primary well-supported subclades are recovered within Sabacon: (1) restricted to western North America; (2) eastern North American S. mitchelli and sampled Japanese taxa; (3) a second western North American group and taxa from Nepal and China; and (4) eastern North American S. cavicolens with sampled European Sabacon species. Three of four regional faunas (wNA, eNA, East Asia) are thereby non-monophyletic, and three clades include intercontinental disjuncts. Molecular clock analyses and biogeographic reconstructions support nearly simultaneous intercontinental dispersal coincident with the Eocene-Oligocene transition. We hypothesize that biogeographic exchange in the mid-Tertiary is likely correlated with the onset of global cooling, allowing cryophilic Sabacon taxa to disperse within and among continents. Morphological variation supports the divergent genetic clades observed in Sabacon, and suggests that a taxonomic revision (e.g., splitting Sabacon into multiple genera) may be warranted. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Endemic harvestmen and spiders of Austria (Arachnida: Opiliones, Araneae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komposch, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive overview of plant, fungus and animal species of Austria revealed a total of 748 endemic and subendemic species, including, 11 harvestman and 46 spider species. Altogether two endemic harvestmen (Nemastoma bidentatum relictum, Nemastoma schuelleri and 8 endemic spiders (Abacoproeces molestus, Collinsia (caliginosa nemenziana, Mughiphantes severus, Mughiphantes styriacus, Pelecopsis alpica, Scotophaeus nanus, Troglohyphantes novicordis, Troglohyphantes tauriscus, beside 9 subendemic harvestman and 38 subendemic spider species have been recorded from Austria. Hot-spots of endemism in the Eastern Alps are the north-eastern (Ennstaler Alps and southern Calcareous Alps (Karawanken, Karnische Alps and the Central Alps (Hohe Tauern, Gurktaler Alps, Ötztaler and Stubaier Alps. Most of the endemic arachnid species occur from the nival down to the montane zone. Important habitats are rocky areas, caves and woodlands. High absolute numbers and percentages of endemics can be found within the harvestman families Cladonychiidae, Ischyropsalididae and Nemastomatidae and in the spider genera Lepthyphantes s. l. and Troglohyphantes. The conservation status of these highly endangered taxa – 85 % of the spider species and 100 % of the harvestman taxa are endangered in Austria – is poor.

  2. A new Leiobunum species from Greece (Arachnida, Opiliones, Phalangiidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karaman, Ivo M.

    1996-01-01

    Leiobunum gruberi nov. spec. (Arachnida, Opiliones, Phalangiidae) from northern Greece (Macedonia, Leptokaria) is described and figured. This species is closely related to Leiobunum seriatum Simon, 1878, known from the Near East, Cyprus and eastern Anatolia. A short review of known taxa of the genus

  3. A multilocus phylogeny of Podoctidae (Arachnida, Opiliones, Laniatores) and parametric shape analysis reveal the disutility of subfamilial nomenclature in armored harvestman systematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Prashant P; Santiago, Marc A; Kriebel, Ricardo; Lipps, Savana M; Buenavente, Perry A C; Diesmos, Arvin C; Janda, Milan; Boyer, Sarah L; Clouse, Ronald M; Wheeler, Ward C

    2017-01-01

    The taxonomy and systematics of the armored harvestmen (suborder Laniatores) are based on various sets of morphological characters pertaining to shape, armature, pedipalpal setation, and the number of articles of the walking leg tarsi. Few studies have tested the validity of these historical character systems in a comprehensive way, with reference to an independent data class, i.e., molecular sequence data. We examined as a test case the systematics of Podoctidae, a family distributed throughout the Indo-Pacific. We tested the validity of the three subfamilies of Podoctidae using a five-locus phylogeny, and examined the evolution of dorsal shape as a proxy for taxonomic utility, using parametric shape analysis. Here we show that two of the three subfamilies, Ibaloniinae and Podoctinae, are non-monophyletic, with the third subfamily, Erecananinae, recovered as non-monophyletic in a subset of analyses. Various genera were also recovered as non-monophyletic. As first steps toward revision of Podoctidae, the subfamilies Erecananinae Roewer, 1912 and Ibaloniinae Roewer, 1912 are synonymized with Podoctinae Roewer, 1912 new synonymies, thereby abolishing unsubstantiated subfamilial divisions within Podoctidae. We once again synonymize the genus Paralomanius Goodnight & Goodnight, 1948 with Lomanius Roewer, 1923 revalidated. We additionally show that eggs carried on the legs of male Podoctidae are not conspecific to the males, falsifying the hypothesis of paternal care in this group. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. A multilocus phylogeny of Podoctidae (Arachnida, Opiliones, Laniatores) and parametric shape analysis reveal the disutility of subfamilial nomenclature in armored harvestman systematics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sharma, P. P.; Santiago, M. A.; Kriebel, R.; Lipps, S. M.; Buenavente, P. A. C.; Diesmos, A. C.; Janda, Milan; Boyer, S. L.; Clouse, R. M.; Wheeler, W. C.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 106, JAN 01 (2017), s. 164-173 ISSN 1055-7903 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : grassatores * morphology * comparative methods Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Zoology Impact factor: 4.419, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1055790316302445

  5. A divergent Cardinium found in daddy long-legs (Arachnida: Opiliones).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jin; Masters, Amber; Avery, Amanda; Werren, John H

    2010-11-01

    Recent studies indicate that a newly described bacterial endosymbiont, Cardinium, is widespread in arthropods and induces different reproductive manipulations in hosts. In this study, we used a portion of the 16S rRNA gene of the Cardinium to screen 16 Opilionid species from the suborder Palptores. We found the incidence of Cardinium in these Opiliones was significantly higher than in other pooled arthropods (31.2% versus 7.2%, P=0.007). Phylogenetic analyses using maximum parsimony (MP) and Bayesian analysis revealed two distinct clades in Opiliones. One is a divergent monophyletic clade with strong support that has so far not been found in other arthropods, and a second one contains Cardinium both from Opiliones and other arthropods. There is not complete concordance of the Cardinium strains with host phylogeny, suggesting some horizontal movement of the bacteria among Opiliones. Although the divergence in the sequenced 16S rRNA region between the Cardinium infecting Opiliones and Cardinium from other arthropods is greater than among Cardinium found in other arthropods, all are monophyletic with respect to the outgroup bacteria (endosymbionts of Acanthamoeba). Based on high pairwise genetic distances, deep branch, and a distinct phylogenetic grouping, we conclude that some Opiliones harbor a newly discovered Cardinium clade. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. World Checklist of Opiliones species (Arachnida). Part 2: Laniatores – Samooidea, Zalmoxoidea and Grassatores incertae sedis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Daniele R.; Pérez-González, Abel

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Including more than 6500 species, Opiliones is the third most diverse order of Arachnida, after the megadiverse Acari and Araneae. This database is part 2 of 12 of a project containing an intended worldwide checklist of species and subspecies of Opiliones, and it includes the members of the suborder Laniatores, infraorder Grassatores of the superfamilies Samooidea and Zalmoxoidea plus the genera currently not allocated to any family (i.e. Grassatores incertae sedis). In this Part 2, a total of 556 species and subspecies are listed. PMID:26752965

  7. A new Tithaeus species from Hainan Island, China (Arachnida, Opiliones, Laniatores, Epedanidae, with a key to the Chinese species

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    Chao Zhang

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available A new species of the harvestmen Tithaeus calyptratus sp. n. (Epedanidae, Opiliones from Hainan Island (China is diagnosed, described and illustrated. A key to the two Chinese species of Tithaeus is provided.

  8. Some data concerning the harvestmen fauna (Arachnida, Opiliones from the Caraş-Severin county (Banat, Romania

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    Babalean Anda

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Some data on 12 opilion species collected by the authors between 2001-2003 from the North-Western part of Caraş-Severin County (Banat, Rumania are presented and briefly discussed.

  9. Karyotype Evolution in Harvestmen of the Suborder Cyphophthalmi (Opiliones).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svojanovská, Hana; Nguyen, Petr; Hiřman, Matyáš; Tuf, Ivan H; Wahab, Rodzay Abdul; Haddad, Charles R; Šťáhlavský, František

    2016-01-01

    The morphologically uniform suborder Cyphophthalmi represents a basal group of harvestmen (Opiliones). As such, it plays an important role in the reconstruction of the karyotype evolution within this arachnid order. The cytogenetic analysis of 6 representatives of the suborder Cyphophthalmi, namely Miopsalis sp. (2n = 30; Stylocellidae), Austropurcellia arcticosa (Cantrell, 1980) (2n = 30; Pettalidae), Parapurcellia amatola de Bivort & Giribet, 2010 (2n = 32; Pettalidae), Paramiopsalis aff. ramulosus Juberthie, 1962 (2n = 28; Sironidae), Cyphophthalmus duricorius Joseph, 1868 (2n = 24; Sironidae), and Siro carpaticus Rafalski, 1956 (2n = 52; Sironidae) was performed. Fluorescence in situ hybridization with 18S rDNA probe was used to analyze the distribution of major ribosomal RNA genes in harvestmen. We confront the obtained cytogenetic data with current hypotheses on cyphophthalmid phylogeny to reconstruct their karyotype evolution. We conclude that the ancestral karyotype of harvestmen consisted of 2n = 30 elements with 1 chromosome pair bearing terminal rDNA clusters. The rDNA locus was multiplicated in the evolution of Cyphophthalmi. However, decreases as well as increases in the number of chromosomes have been detected in the karyotype evolution of Cyphophthalmi. Our data thus reveal unexpected diversity in cyphophthalmid karyotypes. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Amblypygi, Opiliones, Schizomida, Scorpiones and Chilopoda, Tocantins, Brazil.

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    Kury, A. B.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Tocantins 2007 Expedition of the Project “Aracnídeos e Miriápodes da Mata Atlântica” (AMMAproduced many new records of arachnids and centipedes, with 61 morphotypes identified. Among the resultsare: OPILIONES: 30 morphotypes with six new records of families and one of subfamily from Tocantinsstate; discovery of two undescribed species of Roquettea Mello-Leitão, 1931; Saramacia alvarengai Kury,1997 is newly considered a junior subjective synonym of Saramacia annulata (Mello-Leitão, 1931; BrotasusRoewer, 1928 is transferred to Escadabiidae; the gonyleptid genera Parapachyloides Roewer, 1913 andSchubartesia B. Soares, 1944 are transferred to Gonyleptinae; SCHIZOMIDA: one species, new record of theorder from Tocantins and from the Cerrado biome; SCORPIONES: seven species, one of them new record fromTocantins and two morphotypes; Chilopoda: 19 morphotypes, SCUTIGEROMORPHA: a widespread speciesSphendononema guildingii (Newport, 1845 and another morphotype; GEOPHILOMORPHA: one morphotype;SCOLOPENDROMORPHA: 16 morphotypes, seven of them new records.

  11. A new species of Metagovea Rosas Costa, 1950 from Napo Province, Ecuador ( Opiliones , Cyphophthalmi , Neogoveidae )

    OpenAIRE

    Alessandro Ponce de Leão Giupponi; Adriano Brilhante Kury

    2015-01-01

    Abstract As a result of an expedition to Ecuador in 2014, a new species of mite harvestman was discovered. This new species belonging to the genus Metagovea Rosas Costa, 1950 ? Metagovea ligiae sp. n. ? is described, based on male and female specimens from Napo Province, Ecuador. This is the fourth species described for the genus and the second from Ecuador. A simple terminology is proposed for the microtrichiae of the spermatopositor and genital characters in the family are discussed. The ge...

  12. Phylogenomic resolution of paleozoic divergences in harvestmen (Arachnida, Opiliones) via analysis of next-generation transcriptome data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedin, Marshal; Starrett, James; Akhter, Sajia; Schönhofer, Axel L; Shultz, Jeffrey W

    2012-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing technologies are rapidly transforming molecular systematic studies of non-model animal taxa. The arachnid order Opiliones (commonly known as "harvestmen") includes more than 6,400 described species placed into four well-supported lineages (suborders). Fossil plus molecular clock evidence indicates that these lineages were diverging in the late Silurian to mid-Carboniferous, with some fossil harvestmen representing the earliest known land animals. Perhaps because of this ancient divergence, phylogenetic resolution of subordinal interrelationships within Opiliones has been difficult. We present the first phylogenomics analysis for harvestmen, derived from comparative RNA-Seq data for eight species representing all suborders. Over 30 gigabases of original Illumina short-read data were used in de novo assemblies, resulting in 50-80,000 transcripts per taxon. Transcripts were compared to published scorpion and tick genomics data, and a stringent filtering process was used to identify over 350 putatively single-copy, orthologous protein-coding genes shared among taxa. Phylogenetic analyses using various partitioning strategies, data coding schemes, and analytical methods overwhelmingly support the "classical" hypothesis of Opiliones relationships, including the higher-level clades Palpatores and Phalangida. Relaxed molecular clock analyses using multiple alternative fossil calibration strategies corroborate ancient divergences within Opiliones that are possibly deeper than the recorded fossil record indicates. The assembled data matrices, comprising genes that are conserved, highly expressed, and varying in length and phylogenetic informativeness, represent an important resource for future molecular systematic studies of Opiliones and other arachnid groups.

  13. Evolutionary and biogeographical history of an ancient and global group of arachnids (Arachnida: Opiliones: Cyphophthalmi) with a new taxonomic arrangement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giribet, Gonzalo; Sharma, Prashant P.; Benavides, Ligia R.

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the phylogeny, biogeography, time of origin and diversification, ancestral area reconstruction and large-scale distributional patterns of an ancient group of arachnids, the harvestman suborder Cyphophthalmi. Analysis of molecular and morphological data allow us to propose a new cla...

  14. A new species of Metagovea Rosas Costa, 1950 from Napo Province, Ecuador (Opiliones, Cyphophthalmi, Neogoveidae

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    Alessandro Ponce de Leão Giupponi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As a result of an expedition to Ecuador in 2014, a new species of mite harvestman was discovered. This new species belonging to the genus Metagovea Rosas Costa, 1950 – Metagovea ligiae sp. n. – is described, based on male and female specimens from Napo Province, Ecuador. This is the fourth species described for the genus and the second from Ecuador. A simple terminology is proposed for the microtrichiae of the spermatopositor and genital characters in the family are discussed. The genus Brasiliogovea Martens, 1969 is consistently misspelled in the literature as Brasilogovea. The description of Metagovea ligiae offered opportunity to discuss some aspects of systematics of the family.

  15. A new species of Metagovea Rosas Costa, 1950 from Napo Province, Ecuador (Opiliones, Cyphophthalmi, Neogoveidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giupponi, Alessandro P L; Kury, Adriano Brilhante

    2015-01-01

    As a result of an expedition to Ecuador in 2014, a new species of mite harvestman was discovered. This new species belonging to the genus Metagovea Rosas Costa, 1950 - Metagovealigiae sp. n. - is described, based on male and female specimens from Napo Province, Ecuador. This is the fourth species described for the genus and the second from Ecuador. A simple terminology is proposed for the microtrichiae of the spermatopositor and genital characters in the family are discussed. The genus Brasiliogovea Martens, 1969 is consistently misspelled in the literature as Brasilogovea. The description of Metagovealigiae offered opportunity to discuss some aspects of systematics of the family.

  16. Harvestmen of the BOS Arthropod Collection of the University of Oviedo (Spain) (Arachnida, Opiliones)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merino-Sáinz, Izaskun; Anadón, Araceli; Torralba-Burrial, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Abstract There are significant gaps in accessible knowledge about the distribution and phenology of Iberian harvestmen (Arachnida: Opiliones). Harvestmen accessible datasets in Iberian Peninsula are unknown, an only two other datasets available in GBIF are composed exclusively of harvestmen records. Moreover, only a few harvestmen data from Iberian Peninsula are available in GBIF network (or in any network that allows public retrieval or use these data). This paper describes the data associated with the Opiliones kept in the BOS Arthropod Collection of the University of Oviedo, Spain (hosted in the Department of Biología de Organismos y Sistemas), filling some of those gaps. The specimens were mainly collected from the northern third of the Iberian Peninsula. The earliest specimen deposited in the collection, dating back to the early 20th century, belongs to the P. Franganillo Collection. The dataset documents the collection of 16,455 specimens, preserved in 3,772 vials. Approximately 38% of the specimens belong to the family Sclerosomatidae, and 26% to Phalangidae; six other families with fewer specimens are also included. Data quality control was incorporated at several steps of digitisation process to facilitate reuse and improve accuracy. The complete dataset is also provided in Darwin Core Archive format, allowing public retrieval, use and combination with other biological, biodiversity of geographical variables datasets. PMID:24146596

  17. Neotropical harvestmen (Arachnida, Opiliones) use sexually dimorphic glands to spread chemicals in the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Nathália da Silva; Willemart, Rodrigo Hirata

    2014-04-01

    Sexually dimorphic glands have convergently appeared in animals and are often responsible for the production of pheromones. In the suborder Laniatores of the order Opiliones (Arachnida), glands of such type are widespread, but there is not a single paper on how they are used. Using Scanning Electron Microscopy and a behavioral approach, we describe glandular openings and how these glands are used, in the harvestmen Gryne perlata and Gryne coccinelloides (Cosmetidae). Males of these two species have glandular openings on the metatarsi of legs I and on the metatarsi IV. Males were shown rubbing the glands of the metatarsi I against their other legs, whereas glands on the metatarsi IV are gently touched on the substrate or rubbed either against other legs, or against the substrate. Not all behaviors were seen in both species. Copyright © 2014 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Sexually dimorphic tegumental gland openings in Laniatores (Arachnida, Opiliones), with new data on 23 species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willemart, Rodrigo H; Pérez-González, Abel; Farine, Jean-Pierre; Gnaspini, Pedro

    2010-06-01

    Sexually dimorphic glands often release sexual pheromones both in vertebrates and invertebrates. Species of Laniatores (Arachnida, Opiliones) seem to depend on chemical communication but few studies have addressed this topic. In this study, we review the literature for the Phalangida and present new data for 23 species of Laniatores. In 16 taxa, we found previously undescribed sexually dimorphic glandular openings on the femur, patella, metatarsus, and tarsus of legs I and metatarsus of legs III and IV. For the other species, we provide scanning electron micrographs of previously undescribed sexually dimorphic setae and pegs located on swollen regions of the legs. We also list additional species in which males have swollen regions on the legs, including the tibia, metatarsus, and tarsus of legs I, trochanter and tibia of legs II, femur, metatarsus, and tarsus of legs III, and metatarsus and tarsus of legs IV. The function and biological role of the secretions released by these glands are discussed.

  19. The visual system of harvestmen (Opiliones, Arachnida, Chelicerata) - a re-examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Tobias; Lodde-Bensch, Eva; Melzer, Roland R; Metz, Martina

    2016-01-01

    The visual systems in chelicerates are poorly understood, even though they show strong variation in eye and visual neuropil architecture, thus may provide valuable insights for the understanding of chelicerate phylogeny and eye evolution. Comparable morphological characters are desperately sought for reconstructions of the phylogeny of Chelicerata, especially with respect to Arachnida. So far, reliable data exist only for Pycnogonida, Xiphosura, Scorpiones, and Araneae. The few earlier studies of the organisation of the visual system in harvestmen are contradictory concerning the number, morphology, and position of the visual neuropils. We undertook a descriptive and comparative analysis of the neuroanatomy of the visual system in several phalangid harvestmen species. Various traditional and modern methods were used that allow comparisons with previous results (cobalt fills, DiI/DiO labelling, osmium ethyl gallate procedure, and TEM). The R-cells (photoreceptor and arhabdomeric cells) in the eyes of Opiliones are linked to a first and a second visual neuropil. The first visual neuropil receives input from all R-cell axons, in the second only few R-cells terminate in the distal part. Hence, the second visual neuropil is subdivided in a part with direct R-cell input and a part without. The arcuate body is located in a subsequent position with direct contact to the second visual neuropil. This re-examination comes to conclusions different from those of all previous studies. The visual system of phalangid Opiliones occupies an intermediate position between Pycnogonida, Xiphosura, and Scorpiones on the one side, and Araneae on the other side. The projection of the R-cells is similar to that in the former grouping, the general neuropil arrangement to that in the latter taxon. However, more research on the visual systems in other chelicerate orders is needed in order to draw inferences on phylogeny or eye evolution.

  20. Das Höhlenlangbein Amilenus aurantiacus (Opiliones: Phalangiidae ist Höhlentier des Jahres 2016 in Deutschland

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    Zaenker, Stefan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available With the nomination of the ‘Cave Animal of the Year’ the Society of German Cave and Karst Explorers calls public and authorities’ attention to the understudied biodiversity of subterranean ecosystems. Here the Cave Animal of the Year 2016, Amilenus aurantiacus (Simon, 1881, is presented. It is the first time that a harvestman has been chosen. Ist ecology, habitat and morphology are described. New records from Hesse, Bavaria, Baden-Württemberg and North Rhine-Westphalia are listed and discussed.

  1. Hidden Mediterranean diversity: assessing species taxa by molecular phylogeny within the opilionid family Trogulidae (Arachnida, Opiliones).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönhofer, Axel L; Martens, Jochen

    2010-01-01

    This is the first comprehensive study to evaluate the relationships between the western palearctic harvestman families Dicranolasmatidae, Trogulidae and Nemastomatidae with focus on the phylogeny and systematics of Trogulidae, using combined sequence data of the nuclear 28S rRNA and the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. Bayesian analysis and Maximum parsimony do not reliably resolve Dicranolasma as distinct family but place it on a similar phylogenetic level as several lineages of Trogulidae. Nemastomatidae and Trogulidae turned out to be monophyletic, as did genera Anelasmocephalus and Trogulus within the Trogulidae. The genera Calathocratus, Platybessobius and Trogulocratus each appeared para or polyphyletic, respectively and are synonymized with Calathocratus. The monotypic genus Kofiniotis is well supported. We show molecular data to be in general concordance with taxa characterized by morphology. Molecular data are especially useful to calibrate morphological characters for systematic purposes within homogeneous taxa. In the majority of closely related valid species we show the lowest level of genetic distance to be not lower than 5%. By this threshold in terms of traditionally accepted species the estimated number of species turns out to be 1.5-2.4 times higher than previously believed. With respect to European fauna cryptic diversity in Trogulidae is obviously extraordinarily high and hitherto largely underestimated.

  2. World Checklist of Opiliones species (Arachnida. Part 1: Laniatores – Travunioidea and Triaenonychoidea

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    Adriano Kury

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Comprising more than 6500 species, Opiliones is the third most diverse order of Arachnida, after the megadiverse Acari and Araneae. The database referred here is part 1 of 12 of a project containing an intended worldwide checklist of species and subspecies of Opiliones as Darwin Core archives, and it includes the superfamilies Travunioidea and Triaenonychoidea. These two superfamilies are often treated together under the denomination of Insidiatores. In this Part 1, a total of 571 species and subspecies are listed. Briggsidae and Cladonychiidae are both downgraded to subfamilies of Travuniidae. Peltonychia Roewer, 1935 is an available name and senior synonym of Hadziana Roewer, 1935 and is herein revalidated. Seven genera of Triaenonychidae described by Lawrence between 1931 and 1933 originally failed to comply ICZN rules for availability (Art. 13.3. All of them only became available when Staręga (1992 designated a type species for each. Therefore, the correct authorships of Austromontia Lawrence, 1931, Biacumontia Lawrence, 1931, Graemontia Lawrence, 1931, Larifugella Lawrence, 1933, Mensamontia Lawrence, 1931, Monomontia Lawrence, 1931 and Rostromontia Lawrence, 1931 are all Staręga, 1992. Fumontana Shear, 1977, originally referred only to subfamily Triaenonychinae (as opposed to Soerensenellinae then and not corresponding to present Triaenonychinae, not to any tribe (which in turn correspond to modern subfamilies is herein included in the subfamily Triaenonychinae. Picunchenops Maury, 1988 originally not included in any tribe of Triaenonychidae, is herein included in the subfamily Triaenonychinae. Trojanella Karaman, 2005, originally ranked as Travunioidea incertae sedis, is herein included in the Travuniidae Travuniinae. Nuncia ovata Roewer, 1915 (synonymized with Triaenonyx cockayni Hogg, 1920 by Forster (1954, but with inverted precedence is here combined as Nuncia coriacea ovata Roewer, 1915 as correct senior synonym instead of

  3. World Checklist of Opiliones species (Arachnida). Part 1: Laniatores – Travunioidea and Triaenonychoidea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Amanda Cruz; Souza, Daniele R.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Comprising more than 6500 species, Opiliones is the third most diverse order of Arachnida, after the megadiverse Acari and Araneae. The database referred here is part 1 of 12 of a project containing an intended worldwide checklist of species and subspecies of Opiliones as Darwin Core archives, and it includes the superfamilies Travunioidea and Triaenonychoidea. These two superfamilies are often treated together under the denomination of Insidiatores. In this Part 1, a total of 571 species and subspecies are listed. Briggsidae and Cladonychiidae are both downgraded to subfamilies of Travuniidae. Peltonychia Roewer, 1935 is an available name and senior synonym of Hadziana Roewer, 1935 and is herein revalidated. Seven genera of Triaenonychidae described by Lawrence between 1931 and 1933 originally failed to comply ICZN rules for availability (Art. 13.3). All of them only became available when Staręga (1992) designated a type species for each. Therefore, the correct authorships of Austromontia Lawrence, 1931, Biacumontia Lawrence, 1931, Graemontia Lawrence, 1931, Larifugella Lawrence, 1933, Mensamontia Lawrence, 1931, Monomontia Lawrence, 1931 and Rostromontia Lawrence, 1931 are all Staręga, 1992. Fumontana Shear, 1977, originally referred only to subfamily Triaenonychinae (as opposed to Soerensenellinae then and not corresponding to present Triaenonychinae), not to any tribe (which in turn correspond to modern subfamilies) is herein included in the subfamily Triaenonychinae. Picunchenops Maury, 1988 originally not included in any tribe of Triaenonychidae, is herein included in the subfamily Triaenonychinae. Trojanella Karaman, 2005, originally ranked as Travunioidea incertae sedis, is herein included in the Travuniidae Travuniinae. Nuncia ovata Roewer, 1915 (synonymized with Triaenonyx cockayni Hogg, 1920 by Forster (1954), but with inverted precedence) is here combined as Nuncia coriacea ovata Roewer, 1915 as correct senior synonym instead of

  4. An occurence records database of French Guiana harvestmen (Arachnida, Opiliones

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    Sébastien Cally

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This dataset provides information on specimens of harvestmen (Arthropoda, Arachnida, Opiliones collected in French Guiana. Field collections have been initiated in 2012 within the framework of the CEnter for the Study of Biodiversity in Amazonia (CEBA: www.labex-ceba.fr/en/. This dataset is a work in progress.  Occurrences are recorded in an online database stored at the EDB laboratory after each collecting trip and the dataset is updated on a monthly basis. Voucher specimens and associated DNA are also stored at the EDB laboratory until deposition in natural history Museums. The latest version of the dataset is publicly and freely accessible through our Integrated Publication Toolkit at http://130.120.204.55:8080/ipt/resource.do?r=harvestmen_of_french_guiana or through the Global Biodiversity Information Facility data portal at http://www.gbif.org/dataset/3c9e2297-bf20-4827-928e-7c7eefd9432c.

  5. Review of terminology for the outline of dorsal scutum in Laniatores (Arachnida, Opiliones).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kury, Adriano B; Medrano, Miguel

    2016-03-29

    In many Opiliones (notably the Laniatores) the five most anterior opisthosomal tergites are fused with the carapace forming the so called dorsal scutum (DS) (Latreille 1804; Simon 1879; Hadži 1942) with a highly variable shape arising from multiple factors, such as differential development of musculature (especially of coxa IV), internal organs and influence of appendages (Loman 1903; Winkler 1957). The different degrees of fusion of the tergites were first studied by Hadži (1942), who proposed a terminology for them. This terminology was adopted and enhanced by Kratochvíl (1958) and Martens (1978). A shield formed by the fusion of the carapace with abdominal tergites I to V is called scutum magnum (Hadži 1942). The shield formed by the fusion of carapace with abdominal tergites I to VII is called scutum complexum (Kratochvíl 1958) and occurs in the males of Heteropachylinae Kury, 1994 (Kury 1994) and Paralolidae Kratochvíl, 1958 (Kratochvíl 1958). Finally, the scutum completum (Hadži 1942) is formed by the complete fusion of the carapace and abdominal scutum, formed by tergites I to VIII, and occurs in the Sandokanidae (Martens 1978). In this paper we focus on the different forms of the scutum magnum.

  6. An occurence records database of French Guiana harvestmen (Arachnida, Opiliones)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solbès, Pierre; Grosso, Bernadette

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This dataset provides information on specimens of harvestmen (Arthropoda, Arachnida, Opiliones) collected in French Guiana. Field collections have been initiated in 2012 within the framework of the CEnter for the Study of Biodiversity in Amazonia (CEBA: www.labex-ceba.fr/en/). This dataset is a work in progress.  Occurrences are recorded in an online database stored at the EDB laboratory after each collecting trip and the dataset is updated on a monthly basis. Voucher specimens and associated DNA are also stored at the EDB laboratory until deposition in natural history Museums. The latest version of the dataset is publicly and freely accessible through our Integrated Publication Toolkit at http://130.120.204.55:8080/ipt/resource.do?r=harvestmen_of_french_guiana or through the Global Biodiversity Information Facility data portal at http://www.gbif.org/dataset/3c9e2297-bf20-4827-928e-7c7eefd9432c. PMID:25589875

  7. Les opilions dans les écosystèmes montagnards pyrénéens. I Les opilions de la haute vallée d'Ossau (Pyrénées-Atlantiques; France

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    D'Amico, F.

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available A study carried out in upper-Ossau valley (Pyrénées- Atlantiques; France between 1987 and 1989 has revealed a high diversity of Opilionid fauna in such mountain area: eighteen species have been found. In this paper, the main features of their phenology, altitudinal distribution and ecology are presented.

    [fr] Une étude menée sur les Opilions (Arachnida en haute-vallée d'Ossau (Pyrénées-Atlantiques; France entre 1987 et 1989 a permis de souligner la richesse et la diversité de ce groupe dans les écosystèmes montagnards: dix-huit espèces ont été inventoriées. Nous présentons ici les principaux aspects de leur phénologie, de leur distribution altitudinale et de leur écologie. [es] Un estudio sobre los Opiliones (Arachnida en el Alto Valle de Ossau (Pirineos Atlánticos, Francia entre 1987 y 1989 ha permitido señalarla riqueza y diversidad de este grupo en los ecosistemas de montaña: dieciocho especies se han inventariado. Presentamos aquí los principales aspectos de su fenología, distribución altitudinal y ecología.

  8. Population genomics and geographical parthenogenesis in Japanese harvestmen (Opiliones, Sclerosomatidae, Leiobunum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Mercedes; Hedin, Marshal; Tsurusaki, Nobuo

    2018-01-01

    Naturally occurring population variation in reproductive mode presents an opportunity for researchers to test hypotheses regarding the evolution of sex. Asexual reproduction frequently assumes a geographical pattern, in which parthenogenesis-dominated populations are more broadly dispersed than their sexual conspecifics. We evaluate the geographical distribution of genomic signatures associated with parthenogenesis using nuclear and mitochondrial DNA sequence data from two Japanese harvestman sister taxa, Leiobunum manubriatum and Leiobunum globosum. Asexual reproduction is putatively facultative in these species, and female-biased localities are common in habitat margins. Past karyotypic and current cytometric work indicates L. globosum is entirely tetraploid, while L. manubriatum may be either diploid or tetraploid. We estimated species phylogeny, genetic differentiation, diversity, and mitonuclear discordance in females collected across the species range in order to identify range expansion toward marginal habitat, potential for hybrid origin, and persistence of asexual lineages. Our results point to northward expansion of a tetraploid ancestor of L. manubriatum and L. globosum, coupled with support for greater male gene flow in southern L. manubriatum localities. Specimens from localities in the Tohoku and Hokkaido regions were indistinct, particularly those of L. globosum, potentially due to little mitochondrial differentiation or haplotypic variation. Although L. manubriatum overlaps with L. globosum across its entire range, L. globosum was reconstructed as monophyletic with strong support using mtDNA, and marginal support with nuclear loci. Ultimately, we find evidence for continued sexual reproduction in both species and describe opportunities to clarify the rate and mechanism of parthenogenesis.

  9. The first record of the species Lacinius erinaceus Staręga, 1966 (Opiliones, Phalangiidae in Turkey with some SEM studies on its morphology

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    Kurt K.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The harvestman species of Lacinius erinaceus Staręga 1966, recorded for the first time in Turkey, is presented in this paper. The characteristic features of this species are described and illustrated and data regarding collecting sites and distribution all over the world are given. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM studies on the dorsal integument, dorsal habitus, chelicerae, pedipalpus, trident, the ocularium and legs of the specimens are also presented. Localities of the collecting sites are plotted on a map.

  10. Sandokanid phylogeny based on eight molecular markers--the evolution of a southeast Asian endemic family of Laniatores (Arachnida, Opiliones).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Prashant; Giribet, Gonzalo

    2009-08-01

    Little is known about the familial and generic level phylogeny of Laniatores, the most diverse suborder of Opiliones. We investigated the internal phylogeny of the family Sandokanidae (formerly Oncopodidae), the putative sister group of the other families of the highly diverse infraorder Grassatores (Opiliones: Laniatores), on the basis of sequence data from eight molecular loci: 18S rRNA, 28S rRNA, 12S rRNA, 16S rRNA, cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI), histones H3, H4, and U2 snRNA. Exemplars of all recognized sandokanid genera, as well as a putative new genus from Thailand, were included. Data analyses were based on a direct optimization approach using parsimony, as well as maximum likelihood and Bayesian approaches on static alignments. The results obtained include the monophyly of Sandokanidae and its stability under a variety of parameter sets and methods. The internal phylogeny is relatively robust to parameter choice and demonstrates the monophyly of nearly all described genera, corroborating previous morphological observations. However, conflict among data sets exists with respect to the monophyly of the largest genus Gnomulus. Morphological character evolution, particularly of characters used to define genera, such as tarsal count and male genitalia, is reexamined and the performance of the eight molecular markers in phylogenetic estimation is evaluated.

  11. Molecular systematics of eastern North American Phalangodidae (Arachnida: Opiliones: Laniatores), demonstrating convergent morphological evolution in caves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedin, Marshal; Thomas, Steven M

    2010-01-01

    The phalangodid harvestmen (Opiliones: Laniatores) fauna of the southeastern United States has remained obscure since original descriptions of many genera and species over 60 years ago. The obscurity of this interesting group is pervasive, with uncertainty regarding basic systematic information such as generic limits, species limits, and geographic distributions. This situation is unfortunate, as the fauna includes several cave-obligate forms of interest from both conservation and evolutionary perspectives, and the group likely exhibits interesting biogeographic patterns because of their low dispersal ability. Here, we use DNA sequence data from two genes to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships of southeastern phalangodid taxa, for a sample of all described genera from the region. Our results demonstrate that the southeastern fauna is likely monophyletic, and is most-closely related to western North American phalangodids with a similar penis morphology. Within the southeastern clade, trends in the evolution of penis morphology correspond broadly to molecular phylogenetic patterns, although penis evolution is overall relatively conservative in the group. Biogeographically, it appears that western taxa in the southeast (i.e., from west of the Appalachian Valley) are early diverging, with later diversification in the montane southern Blue Ridge, and subsequent diversification back towards the west. This W>E>W pattern has been observed in other groups from the southeast. The multiple cave-modified species in the region are genetically divergent and appear phylogenetically isolated; explicit topological hypothesis testing suggests that troglomorphism has evolved convergently in at least three independent lineages. The total number of species in the region remains uncertain-mitochondrial COI data reveal many highly divergent, geographically coherent groups that might represent undescribed species, but these divergent mitochondrial lineages do not always exhibit

  12. Notes on Phalangiidae (Arachnida: Opiliones) of southern Africa with description of new species and comments on within-species variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Christopher K

    2017-05-29

    Notes are provided on a collection of Afrotropical harvestmen (Opiliones: Palpatores: Phalangiidae) from the California Academy of Sciences. A new species of Rhampsinitus, R. conjunctidens n. sp., is described from Limpopo province of South Africa. Rhampsinitus flavobrunneus Staręga 2009 and R. silvaticus Lawrence 1931 are recognised as junior synonyms of R. nubicolus Lawrence 1963 and R. vittatus Lawrence 1931, respectively. Both R. conjunctidens and R. nubicolus are recognised as exhibiting strong male dimorphism with major males exhibiting larger body size and greatly enlarged chelicerae relative to minor males; minor males cannot be readily identified to species without examination of genitalia. A discussion is also provided on generic boundaries within Afrotropical Phalangiidae, and a generic key to males of the region is presented.

  13. Marco Isaia, Mauro Paschetta, Enrico Lana, Paolo Pantini, Axel L. Schönhofer, Erhard Christian & Guido Bandino (2011: Aracnidi sotterranei delle Alpi Occidentali italiane/Subterranean Arachnids of the Western Italian Alps (Arachnida: Araneae, Opiliones, Palpigradi, Pseudoscorpiones

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    Zaenker, Stefan

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available book review: Marco Isaia, Mauro Paschetta, Enrico Lana, Paolo Pantini, Axel L. Schönhofer, Erhard Christian & Guido Bandino (2011: Aracnidi sotterranei delle Alpi Occidentali italiane/Subterranean Arachnids of the Western Italian Alps (Arachnida: Araneae, Opiliones, Palpigradi, Pseudoscorpiones

  14. Catalogue of Opiliones (Arachnida) types deposited in the Arachnida and Myriapoda collection of the Instituto Butantan, São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coronato-Ribeiro, Amanda; Pinto-Da-Rocha, Ricardo; Rheims, Cristina Anne

    2013-01-01

    A catalogue of the Opiliones types of the "Instituto Butantan", São Paulo, Brazil is given, surveying the collection after severe fire damaged in 2010. Of a total of 91 species with type material listed for the collection, 69 could be located, and 22 are considered lost. The species are arranged according to their families and genera. The collection of Salvador de Toledo Piza Jr., housed at the Museu de Zoologia "Luiz de Queiroz", was donated to the Instituto Butantan in 2009. These types received a new accession number and are listed under this new affiliation for the first time.

  15. Harvestmen (Arachnida: Opiliones in a forest fragment in the town of Plácido de Castro, Acre, Brazil = Opiliões (Arachnida: Opiliones em remanescente florestal no município de Plácido de Castro, AC

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    Rodrigo Souza Santos

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Harvestmen (Arachnida: Opiliones are arachnids with wide geographical distribution, most species being recorded in Neotropical regions. These organisms have low dispersal ability, a high degree of endemism and are sensitive to environmental change; they also participate in the cycling of soil organic matter, since the eating habits of many species are detritivorous. Given the importance of these organisms, the aim of this work was to search for harvestmen fauna in a forest fragment located in the town of Plácido de Castro in the Brazilian state of Acre. Two methods were used for capture: pitfall traps (passive capture arranged along two transects, and free night searches (active collection. The pitfall traps consisted of a 500 mL plastic cup containing a 1% formaldehyde solution and drops of neutral detergent, and were collected weekly. Monthly active collections were carried out by four people over one hour. The following species of harvestmen were captured: Paecilaema marajoara, Paraprotus quadripunctatus, Taito kakera and Cynorta sp. (Cosmetidae; Geaya sp. (Sclerosomatidae; and four adults and one immature insect of the family Manaosbiidae. All the harvestmen recorded in this survey were captured during the free night-searches. This is the first report of the genera Geaya and Cynorta, and the species P. quadripunctatus, in the State of Acre. = Os opiliões (Arachnida: Opiliones são aracnídeos com ampla distribuição geográfica, sendo a maior parte das espécies registradas na região Neotropical. Esses organismos possuem baixa capacidade de dispersão, alto grau de endemismo e sensibilidade às mudanças ambientais, também participam da ciclagem da matéria orgânica do solo, visto que muitas espécies possuem o hábito alimentar detritívoro. Dada a importância desses organismos, objetivou-se com esse trabalho prospectar a fauna de opiliões em remanescente florestal localizado no município de Plácido de Castro, AC. Foram utilizados

  16. Repeated and time-correlated morphological convergence in cave-dwelling harvestmen (Opiliones, Laniatores from Montane Western North America.

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    Shahan Derkarabetian

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many cave-dwelling animal species display similar morphologies (troglomorphism that have evolved convergent within and among lineages under the similar selective pressures imposed by cave habitats. Here we study such ecomorphological evolution in cave-dwelling Sclerobuninae harvestmen (Opiliones from the western United States, providing general insights into morphological homoplasy, rates of morphological change, and the temporal context of cave evolution. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We gathered DNA sequence data from three independent gene regions, and combined these data with Bayesian hypothesis testing, morphometrics analysis, study of penis morphology, and relaxed molecular clock analyses. Using multivariate morphometric analysis, we find that phylogenetically unrelated taxa have convergently evolved troglomorphism; alternative phylogenetic hypotheses involving less morphological convergence are not supported by Bayesian hypothesis testing. In one instance, this morphology is found in specimens from a high-elevation stony debris habitat, suggesting that troglomorphism can evolve in non-cave habitats. We discovered a strong positive relationship between troglomorphy index and relative divergence time, making it possible to predict taxon age from morphology. Most of our time estimates for the origin of highly-troglomorphic cave forms predate the Pleistocene. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: While several regions in the eastern and central United States are well-known hotspots for cave evolution, few modern phylogenetic studies have addressed the evolution of cave-obligate species in the western United States. Our integrative studies reveal the recurrent evolution of troglomorphism in a perhaps unexpected geographic region, at surprisingly deep time depths, and in sometimes surprising habitats. Because some newly discovered troglomorphic populations represent undescribed species, our findings stress the need for further biological

  17. Chemosystematics in the Opiliones (Arachnida): a comment on the evolutionary history of alkylphenols and benzoquinones in the scent gland secretions of Laniatores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raspotnig, Günther; Bodner, Michaela; Schäffer, Sylvia; Koblmüller, Stephan; Schönhofer, Axel; Karaman, Ivo

    2015-04-01

    Large prosomal scent glands constitute a major synapomorphic character of the arachnid order Opiliones. These glands produce a variety of chemicals very specific to opilionid taxa of different taxonomic levels, and thus represent a model system to investigate the evolutionary traits in exocrine secretion chemistry across a phylogenetically old group of animals. The chemically best-studied opilionid group is certainly Laniatores, and currently available chemical data allow first hypotheses linking the phylogeny of this group to the evolution of major chemical classes of secretion chemistry. Such hypotheses are essential to decide upon a best-fitting explanation of the distribution of scent-gland secretion compounds across extant laniatorean taxa, and hence represent a key toward a well-founded opilionid chemosystematics.

  18. Interessante Weberknechtfunde aus Polen (Arachnida: Opiliones

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    Staręga, Wojciech

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Many new localities for Polish harvestmen are recorded, specifically for species whose ranges do not encompass the whole country. Opilio canestrinii is recorded for the first time in Poland.

  19. Taxonomic revision of Parampheres (Arachnida: Opiliones: Gonyleptidae

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    Bruno Jacob Mori

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Parampheres Roewer, 1913 is a relatively common genus of South American harvestmen. This genus is easily diagnosed by the remarkable yellow patches on the prosoma. Nonetheless, species determination within this group is challenging due the convoluted taxonomic history of the group and lack of a recent revision. In this study we revise Parampheres and describe a new species, Parampheres tenebris sp. nov., from Parque Nacional da Serra Geral, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The new species can be distinguished from the other species of the genus by having dorsal scutum dark, and apophysis of coxa IV of male elongated. Furthermore, we propose the following new synonymies: Callampheres boliviensis Roewer, 1913, Pertyana ronae Mello-Leitão, 1927 and Parampheres tibialis Roewer, 1917 with Parampheres pectinatus Roewer, 1913. Parampheres now includes four species distributed from southern Brazil to adjacent areas in Argentina and Uruguay. In addition, we present a phylogenetic hypothesis based on morphological characters that supports the transfer of Parampheres from Gonyleptinae to Caelopyginae.

  20. Revalidation of Santinezia albilineata Roewer, 1932 (Arachnida: Opiliones: Cranaidae

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    M.O. Villarreal

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Santinezia albilineata Roewer, 1923 is revalidated from the synonymy of Santinezia curvipes (Roewer, 1916. Both species, which inhabit the central northern costal mountain range in Venezuela, are illustrated and compared. Santinezia albilineata can be differentiated easily from S. curvipes, by the following characters of the males: development and direction of the ventral process of the coxa IV, direction of the retrolateral distal tubercle of the trochanter IV, perpendicular with blunt tip in S. albilineata and sharp and posteriorly projected in S. curvipes; retrolateral proximal tubercle of the femur IV absent, this is present in S. curvipes. The genital characters in S. albilineata are: ventral plate with five lateral setae, the three proximal aligned and larger. Distal setae distal straight. With two small mesodorsal setae. S. curvipes ventral plate with five non-aligned lateral setae, the basal largest and located at the height of the lateral expansion, the four remaining grouped medially. Absence of mesodorsal setae.

  1. Taxonomic review of the Neotropical genus Neopachylus (Arachnida, Opiliones, Gonyleptidae

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    Vivian Moreira Montemor

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A taxonomic review of the genus Neopachylus Roewer, 1913 together with keys to the species for both males and females are presented. Gephyropachylus marginatus Mello-Leitão, 1931 is considered a junior subjective synonym of Neopachylus serrinha Soares & Soares, 1947, and Huralvius incertus Mello-Leitão, 1935 is considered a synonym of Neopachylus nebulosus (Mello-Leitão, 1936. This genus is restricted to southern Brazil, occurring in states of Paraná, Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul.

  2. New systematic assignments in Gonyleptoidea (Arachnida, Opiliones, Laniatores

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    Ricardo Pinto-da-Rocha

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available As part of an ongoing revision of the family Gonyleptidae, we have identified many species that are synonyms of previously described species or misplaced in this family. This article summarizes these findings, adding previously unavailable information or correcting imprecise observations to justify the presented taxonomic changes.The following new familial or subfamilial assignments are proposed: Nemastygnus Roewer, 1929 and Taulisa Roewer, 1956 are transferred to Agoristenidae, Agoristeninae; Napostygnus Roewer, 1929 to Cranaidae; Ceropachylinus peruvianus Roewer, 1956 and Pirunipygus Roewer, 1936 are transferred to Gonyleptidae, Ampycinae; Gyndesops Roewer, 1943, Haversia Roewer, 1913 and Oxapampeus Roewer, 1963 are transferred to Gonyleptidae, Pachylinae.The following generic synonymies are proposed for the family Gonyleptidae: Acanthogonyleptes Mello-Leitão, 1922 = Centroleptes Roewer, 1943; Acrographinotus Roewer, 1929 = Unduavius Roewer, 1929; Gonyleptes Kirby, 1819 = Collonychium Bertkau, 1880; Mischonyx Bertkau, 1880 = Eugonyleptes Roewer, 1913 and Gonazula Roewer, 1930; Parampheres Roewer, 1913 = Metapachyloides Roewer, 1917; Pseudopucrolia Roewer, 1912 = Meteusarcus Roewer, 1913; Haversia Roewer, 1913 = Hoggellula Roewer, 1930.The following specific synonymies are proposed for the family Gonyleptidae: Acanthogonyleptes singularis (Mello-Leitão, 1935 = Centroleptes flavus Roewer, 1943, syn. n.; Geraeocormobius sylvarum Holmberg, 1887 = Discocyrtus serrifemur Roewer, 1943, syn. n.; Gonyleptellus bimaculatus (Sørensen, 1884 = Gonyleptes cancellatus Roewer, 1917, syn. n.; Gonyleptes atrus Mello-Leitão, 1923 = Weyhia brieni Giltay, 1928, syn. n.; Gonyleptes fragilis Mello-Leitão, 1923 = Gonyleptes banana Kury, 2003, syn. n.; Gonyleptes horridus Kirby, 1819 = Collonychium bicuspidatum Bertkau, 1880, syn. n., Gonyleptes borgmeyeri Mello-Leitão, 1932, syn. n., Gonyleptes curvicornis Mello-Leitão, 1932, syn. n., Metagonyleptes hamatus Roewer, 1913, syn. n. and Paragonyleptes simoni Roewer, 1930, syn. n.; Gonyleptes pustulatus Sørensen, 1884 = Gonyleptes guttatus Roewer, 1917, syn. n.; Haversia defensa (Butler, 1876 = Sadocus vallentini Hogg, 1913, syn. n.; Liogonyleptoides minensis (Piza, 1946 = Currala bahiensis Soares, 1972, syn. n.; Megapachylus grandis Roewer, 1913 = Metapachyloides almeidai Soares & Soares, 1946, syn. n.; Mischonyx cuspidatus (Roewer, 1913 = Gonazula gibbosa Roewer, 1930 syn. n.; Mischonyx scaber (Kirby, 1819 = Xundarava holacantha Mello-Leitão, 1927, syn. n.; Parampheres tibialis Roewer, 1917 = Metapachyloides rugosus Roewer, 1917, syn. n.; Parapachyloides uncinatus (Sørensen, 1879 = Goyazella armata Mello-Leitão, 1931, syn. n.; Pseudopucrolia mutica (Perty, 1833 = Meteusarcus armatus Roewer, 1913, syn. n.The following new combinations are proposed: Acrographinotus ornatus (Roewer, 1929, comb. n. (ex Unduavius; Gonyleptellus bimaculatus (Sørensen, 1884, comb. n. (ex Gonyleptes; Gonyleptes perlatus (Mello-Leitão, 1935, comb. n. (ex Moojenia; Mischonyx scaber (Kirby, 1819, comb. n. (ex Gonyleptes; and Neopachyloides peruvianus (Roewer, 1956, comb. n. (ex Ceropachylus.The following species of Gonyleptidae, Gonyleptinae are revalidated: Gonyleptes atrus Mello-Leitão, 1923 and Gonyleptes curvicornis (Roewer, 1913.

  3. Trogulus martensi Chemini, 1983 im Raum Basel (Arachnida, Opiliones, Trogulidae

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    Weiss, Ingmar

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Trogulus martensi Chemini, 1983, formerly thought to be endemic in northern Italy, is recorded from several places near Basle (first records in Switzerland and France. The species is close to T. galasensis Avram, 1971. Important differences to the syntopic T. closanicus Avram, 1971 (first published record in Fance and the sympatric T. nepaeformis (Scopoli, 1763 are shown and discussed. Additional biometric, autecological and phenological data of Trogulus martensi are presented.

  4. The assamiids harvestmen (Opiliones: Laniatores: Assamiidae) from Champasak Province, Laos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chao; Zhang, Feng

    2015-06-03

    Three assamiids species are recorded from southern Laos, two of which are new: Paramaracandus dolabratus sp. nov. (male) and Simalurius suzukii sp. nov. (male and female). Mysorea thaiensis Suzuki, 1985, that was previously known only from the type locality in northern Thailand is redescribed here. The family Assamiidae was first recorded from Laos.

  5. Leg injuries and wound repair among cosmetid harvestmen (Arachnida, Opiliones, Laniatores).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Victor R; Schaus, Maynard H; Zvonareva, Tatyana; Illinik, Jeffrey J; Evans, John T

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies of leg injuries in harvestmen have focused on the fitness consequences for individuals that use autospasy (voluntary detachment of the leg) as a secondary defense mechanism. Leg damage among non-autotomizing species of laniatorean harvestmen has not been investigated. Under laboratory conditions, we damaged femur IV of Cynorta marginalis and observed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) the changes in these wounds over ten days. We also used SEM to examine leg damage from individuals of three species of cosmetid harvestmen that were collected in the field. On the basis of changes in the external surface of the hemolymph coagulum, we classified these wounds as fresh (coagulum forming), recent (coagulum with smooth surface), older (coagulum is scale-like with visible cell fragments), and fully healed (scale replaced by new cuticle growth on the terminal stump). Our observations indicate that wound healing in harvestmen occurs in a manner comparable to that of other chelicerates. Leg injuries exhibited interspecific variation with respect to the overall frequency of leg wounds and the specific legs that were most commonly damaged. In addition, we measured walking and climbing speeds of adult C. marginalis and found that individuals with fresh injuries (lab-induced) to femur IV walked at speeds significantly slower than uninjured adults or individuals collected from the field that had fully healed wounds to a single leg. J. Morphol. 278:73-88, 2017. ©© 2016 Wiley Periodicals,Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Interspecific variation in the microanatomy of cosmetid harvestmen (Arachnida, Opiliones, Laniatores).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Andrea L; Townsend, Victor R; Johnson, Megan B; White, Tara B

    2014-12-01

    Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is a useful tool for identifying interspecific variation in often overlooked structures that may represent useful sources for informative phylogenetic characters. In this study, we used SEM to compare the morphology of 12 cosmetid species from Central America, the Caribbean, and North America including multiple species for the genera Cynorta, Erginulus, and Paecilaema. To determine if microanatomical structures were unique to the cosmetid taxa under examination, we investigated the microanatomical structures of six additional species of gonyleptoidean harvestmen representing the families Agoristenidae, Cranaidae, Gonyleptidae, Manaosbiidae, and Stygnidae. Our results indicate that the shape of the ocularium (narrow, intermediate, or broad) did not vary within cosmetid genera, whereas the morphology of the rough pit glands on the eye mound varied considerably between species. Each cosmetid species had 10-20 rough pit glands on the ocularium whereas only the eye mounds of Avima intermedia (Agoristenidae) and Glysterus sp. (Gonyleptidae) had similar structures. With regards to the surface texture of the dorsal scutum, cosmetid harvestmen exhibited a rivulose-microgranulate morphology (6 species), a microtuberculate-rivulose-microrgranulate morphology (4 species), or a microgranulate morphology (2 species). In contrast, each of the gonyleptoidean species exhibited a microgranulate pattern, with the exception of Stygnoplus clavotibialis, which had a rivulose-microgranulate surface texture. For cosmetid harvestmen, we observed considerable interspecific variation in the shape and number of teeth on the fixed and moveable fingers of the male chelicerae. Similarly, we also observed interspecific variation in the distribution and shape of tubercles on the ventral and dorsal surfaces of the femur of the pedipalp. Overall, our results indicate that there are several microanatomical structures associated with the ocularium, dorsal scutum, male chelicera, and pedipalp that could represent informative phylogenetic characters in future taxonomic studies of cosmetid harvestmen. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Ovipositor morphology of cosmetid harvestmen (Arachnida, Opiliones, Laniatores): a new source of informative characters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Eric A; Townsend, Victor R

    2014-12-01

    The external morphology of the penis is an important source of systematic characters in phylogenetic studies of harvestmen. Modern taxonomic studies generally include micrographs generated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to illustrate penis morphology. In contrast, the external morphology of the ovipositor has largely been ignored for harvestmen belonging to the suborder Laniatores. Comparative studies of ovipositor microanatomy using SEM are especially lacking for species belonging to the superfamily Gonyleptoidea. In an effort to determine if the ovipositor could be a useful source of informative characters for these harvestmen, we investigated interspecific variation in the external morphology of the ovipositor for 14 species from the family Cosmetidae. Our SEM-based study revealed that the external surface of the distal tips of the ovipositors of most species was generally divided into four symmetrical lobes, although we observed a bilobed condition in Erginulus clavotibialis and Erginulus subserialis. The distal surfaces were also generally smooth, with the exception of the ovipositor of Erginulus weyerensis, which featured small surface setae. In addition, we observed considerable interspecific variation in the morphology of the peripheral setae on the distal tip, especially with respect to relative size, morphology of the shaft, and number, symmetry, and shapes of the distal tips. The functional significance, if any, of variation in the structure of the peripheral setae is unclear. Additional behavioral studies of copulation and oviposition are needed to determine the functional relationships between reproductive morphology and behavior. The morphological variation that we observed suggests that future taxonomic studies of cosmetid harvestmen, and potentially other gonyleptoidean taxa, would benefit from the inclusion of descriptions of ovipositor morphology. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Embryonic development of Ampheres leucopheus and Iporangaia pustulosa (Arachnida: Opiliones: Gonyleptidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnaspini, Pedro; Lerche, Cristiano Frederico

    2010-09-15

    The first studies concerning the embryonic development of harvestmen started in the late 19th century, and focused mostly on holarctic species, and only three species of the suborder Laniatores (the largest, among the four suborders considered presently) were studied. Moreover, the last studies on embryology of harvestmen were made during the late 1970s. This study focused on the embryonic development of Ampheres leucopheus (Gonyleptidae, Caelopyginae) and Iporangaia pustulosa (Gonyleptidae, Progonyleptoidellinae). The embryonic development was followed in the field, by taking daily photographs of different eggs during about 2 months. When laid, eggs of A. leucopheus and I. pustulosa have approximately 1.13 and 1.30 mm in diameter, respectively, and the second is embedded in a large amount of mucus. The eggs grow, mainly due to water absorption at the beginning of the process, and they reach a diameter of about 1.35 and 1.59 mm, respectively, close to hatching. It took, respectively, 29-56 days and 35-66 days from egg laying to hatching. For the description of the embryonic development, we use photographs from the field, SEM micrographs, and histological analysis. This allowed us, for instance, to document the progression of structures and pigmentation directly from live embryos in the field, and to record microstructures, such as the presence of perforations in the cuticle of the embryo in the place where eyes are developing. Yet, contrary to what was expected in the literature, we record an egg tooth in one of the studied laniatoreans. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Ontogenetic variation in the sensory structures on the pedipalps of cosmetid harvestmen (Arachnida, Opiliones, Laniatores).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Victor R; Enzmann, Bruce P

    2018-01-01

    In arachnids, pedipalps are highly variable appendages that may be used in feeding, courtship, defense, and agonistic encounters. In cosmetid harvestmen, adults have pedipalps that feature flattened femora, spoon-shaped tibiae, and robust tarsal claws. In contrast, the pedipalps of nymphs are elongate with cylindrical podomeres and are adorned with delicate pretarsi. In this study, we used scanning electron microscopy to examine the distribution of cuticular structures (e.g., sensilla chaetica, pores) on the elements of the pedipalps of adults and nymphs of three species of cosmetid harvestmen. Our results indicate that there is considerable ontogenetic variation in the morphology of the trochanter, femur, patella, tibia, and tarsus. The pretarsus of the nymph has a ventral patch of setae that is absent from the adult tarsal claw. We observed this structure on all three cosmetid species as well as on the pedipalps of an additional seven morphospecies of nymphs collected in Belize and Costa Rica. This structure may represent a previously unrecognized autapomorphy for Cosmetidae. Examinations of the pedipalps of antepenultimate nymphs of additional gonyleptoidean harvestmen representing the families Ampycidae, Cranaidae, Manaosbiidae, and Stygnidae revealed the occurrence of unusual, plumose tarsal setae, but no setal patches on the tarsal claw. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Diet Composition and Significance of Earthworms as Food of Harvestmen (Arachnida: Opiliones)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    JURAJ HALAJ; ALAN B. CADY

    2000-01-01

    .... More harvestmen and increased foraging activity were observed in the hedgerow than in the soybean field, and in both habitats harvestmen were more active at night. Earthworms (Oligochaeta: Lumbricidae...

  11. The visual system of harvestmen (Opiliones, Arachnida, Chelicerata) - a re-examination

    OpenAIRE

    Lehmann, Tobias; Lodde-Bensch, Eva; Roland R. Melzer; Metz, Martina

    2016-01-01

    Background: The visual systems in chelicerates are poorly understood, even though they show strong variation in eye and visual neuropil architecture, thus may provide valuable insights for the understanding of chelicerate phylogeny and eye evolution. Comparable morphological characters are desperately sought for reconstructions of the phylogeny of Chelicerata, especially with respect to Arachnida. So far, reliable data exist only for Pycnogonida, Xiphosura, Scorpiones, and Araneae. The few ea...

  12. Stammbewohnende Weberknechte (Arachnida: Opiliones in einem Fichten- einem Misch- und einem Buchenbestand im Solling

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    Sührig, Alexander

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available In the Solling mountains (Southern Lower Saxony, Germany the fauna was sampled for one year with stem eclectors in adjacent spruce, mixed (spruce/beech, and beech stands. The tree age was more than 90 years. Four sampling treatments were established: eclectors on spruce stems in the spruce stand (1, on beech stems in the beech stand (2, and on spruce (3 and beech stems in the mixed stand (4. The following harvestmen species, with 1601 individuals in total, were found: Mitopus morio, Oligolophus tridens, Platybunus bucephalus, Leiobunum blackwalli, and Leiobunum rotundum. The number of individuals was highest on spruce stems in the more open spruce stand, mainly due to Mitopus morio, whereas number of species was highest on beech stems in the mixed stand. Both the number of individuals and species were lowest on beech stems in the beech stand. Here, additional information about the phenology of the harvestmen species is given.

  13. Further notes on New Zealand Enantiobuninae (Opiliones, Neopilionidae, with the description of a new genus and two new species

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    Christopher Taylor

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Mangatangi parvum gen. n. and sp. and Forsteropsalis pureroa sp. n. are described from the North Island of New Zealand. Pantopsalis listeri (White 1849 and P. cheliferoides (Colenso 1882 are redescribed and no longer regarded as nomina dubia; P. luna (Forster 1944 is identified as a junior synonym of P. listeri. A key to Pantopsalis species is provided.

  14. Integrative taxonomy and species delimitation in harvestmen: a revision of the western North American genus Sclerobunus (Opiliones: Laniatores: Travunioidea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahan Derkarabetian

    Full Text Available Alpha taxonomy, and specifically the delimitation of species, is becoming increasingly objective and integrative. The use of coalescent-based methods applied to genetic data is providing new tools for the discovery and delimitation of species. Here, we use an integrative approach via a combination of discovery-based multivariate morphological analyses to detect potential new species. These potential species are then used as a priori species in hypothesis-driven validation analyses with genetic data. This research focuses on the harvestmen genus Sclerobunus found throughout the mountainous regions of western North America. Based on our analyses, we conduct a revision of Sclerobunus resulting in synonymy of Cyptobunus with Sclerobunus including transfer of S. cavicolens comb. nov. and elevation of both subspecies of S. ungulatus: S. ungulatus comb. nov. and S. madhousensis comb. nov., stat. nov. The three subspecies of S. robustus are elevated, S. robustus, S. glorietus stat. nov., and S. idahoensis stat. nov. Additionally, five new species of Sclerobunus are described from New Mexico and Colorado, including S. jemez sp. nov., S. klomax sp. nov., S. skywalkeri sp. nov., S. speoventus sp. nov., and S. steinmanni sp. nov. Several of the newly described species are single-cave endemics, and our findings suggest that further exploration of western North American cave habitats will likely yield additional new species.

  15. Additional vinyl ketones and their pyranyl ketones in gonyleptid harvestmen (Arachnida: Opiliones) suggest these metabolites are widespread in this family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wouters, Felipe C; Rocha, Daniele F O; Gonçalves, Caroline C S; Machado, Glauco; Marsaioli, Anita J

    2013-09-27

    Four species of gonyleptid harvestmen, Acanthogonyleptes pulcher, Gonyleptes saprophilus (Gonyleptinae), Sodreana barbiellini, and Sodreana leprevosti (Sodreaninae), were examined by GC-MS and ¹³H NMR. All of these species release vinyl ketones, and three of them produce the corresponding pyranyl ketones, which are presumed hetero-Diels-Alder (HDA) dimers. The vinyl ketones 5-methyl-1-hexen-3-one, rac-4-methyl-1-hexen-3-one, and (S)-4-methyl-1-hexen-3-one were synthesized. Natural 4-methyl-1-hexen-3-one is present as a single stereoisomer and has the R-configuration. Vinyl ketone dimers (HDA dimers) were also observed in the scent gland exudate and characterized by HRMS, ¹³C NMR, and ¹H NMR chemical shifts of the pyranyl moiety.

  16. Characterization and synthesis of volatile compounds from the defensive secretions of some "daddy longlets" (Arachnida: Opiliones: Leiobunum spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, T H; Meinwald, J; Hicks, K; Eisner, T

    1977-01-01

    Analyses of the chief volatile constituents of the defensive secretions of three oplionids were carried out. Leiobunum nigripalpi produces three closely related C7 compounds: E-4-methyl-4-hexen-3-one(I), 4-methylhexan-3-one(II), and 4-methylhexan-3-ol(III), along with E-4-methyl-4-hepten-3-one(IV), E,E-2,4-dimethylhexa-2,4-dienal(IX), and a minor, unidentified component. L. leiopenis secretion contains E-4-methyl-4-hepten-3-one(IV), 4-methylheptan-3-one(V), E,E-2,4-dimethylhexa-2,4-dien-1-ol(VII), and E,E-2,4-dimethylhepta-2,4-dien-1-ol(VIII). L. calcar yields chiefly E-4,6-dimethyl-6-octen-3-one(VI) and E,E-2,4-dimethylhexa-2,4-dien-1-ol(VII). Six of these compounds are new natural products. The structures of these compounds, which can be regarded either as polyketide-derived or as modified isoprenoids, raise interesting biosynthetic questions. PMID:265514

  17. Characterization of Platymessa with redescription of the type species and a new generic synonymy (Arachnida, Opiliones, Cosmetidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medrano, Miguel; Kury, Adriano B

    2016-03-01

    The genus Platymessa was originally described by Mello-Leitão and diagnosed following the Roewerian system. It originally included two species from the Colombian Andes. Subsequently, a third species was described: Platymessa transversalis Roewer, 1963, which is herein transferred to the genus Chusgonobius Roewer, 1952, forming the new combination Chusgonobius transversalis. Herein, an emended diagnosis is given to Platymessa, the type species, Platymessa h-inscriptum Mello-Leitão, 1941, is redescribed and P. nigrolimbata Mello-Leitão, 1941 is considered its junior subjective synonym. Brachylibitia Mello-Leitão, 1941, is herein considered a junior subjective synonym of Platymessa and its type species, Brachylibitia ectroxantha Mello-Leitão, 1941, considered a species inquirenda, forming the new combination Platymessa ectroxantha. Genital morphology of Platymessa h-inscriptum is described and some characters are discussed regarding their importance in cosmetid taxonomy. Novel forms of sexual dimorphism are described in coxa IV.

  18. Neosataria, replacement name for Sataria Annandale, 1920 (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Bithyniidae), preoccupied by Sataria Roewer, 1915 (Arachnida: Opiliones: Sclerosomatidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Siddharth; Khot, Rahul

    2015-06-24

    The family Bithyniidae is represented in tropical Asia by the following genera, Bithynia, Digonistoma, Mysorella, Parabithynia, Emmericiopsis, Hydrobioides, Parafossarulus, Pseudovivipara, Sataria and Wattebladia (Dudgeon 1999; Pyron & Brown 2015).

  19. Four new species of Cosmetus from Panama, with comments on the systematics of the genus (Opiliones: Cosmetidae

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    Amanda Coronato-Ribeiro

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Four new sympatric species of Cosmetus Perty, 1833 are described from "Reserva Natural Privada Burbayar, Provinciar Panamá, Panamá" (male holotypes deposited in MIUP. Cosmetus balboa sp. nov. can be distinguished by the combinations of following features: smooth ocularium, larger distal tubercle on pedipalpal femur, coxa I with large ventral tubercle directed upwards, coxa IV with one large dorsoproximal tubercle, two geminate (from base dorsoapical tubercles with blunt apex. Cosmetus burbayar sp. nov., can be distinguished from other species of the genus by the irregular and discontinuous shape of its yellow spot, extending from lateral anterior to posterior margins and invading prosoma, areas I-III and free tergites. Cosmetus pollera sp. nov. can be distinguished from congeners by two small yellow and two large pairs of spots on prosoma and two other spots on posterior margin of dorsal scutum. Cosmetus tamboritos sp. nov. is distinguished from other species of the genus by the following combinations of characters: having two retrolateral apical tubercles on bulla, one being double size of other; coxa IV lacks patches of a cluster of four tubercles on dorsolateral proximal region and two pointed tubercles fused at their apices; and femur IV with bifid retrolateral apical tubercle. The penis of Cosmetus arietinus (Mello-Leitão, 1940 and C. variolosus Mello-Leitão, 1942 are described for the first time. A table with the main diagnostic features of Cosmetus species is given. We suggest that the spine of area III, sexually dimorphic chelicerae and posterior legs, and pigmentation of dorsal scutum are good diagnosti c features at species level.

  20. Taking the discovery approach in integrative taxonomy: decrypting a complex of narrow-endemic Alpine harvestmen (Opiliones: Phalangiidae: Megabunus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachter, Gregor A; Muster, Christoph; Arthofer, Wolfgang; Raspotnig, Günther; Föttinger, Petra; Komposch, Christian; Steiner, Florian M; Schlick-Steiner, Birgit C

    2015-02-01

    Species delimitation is fundamental for biological studies, yet precise delimitation is not an easy task, and every involved approach has an inherent failure rate. Integrative taxonomy, a method that merges multiple lines of evidence, can profoundly contribute to reliable alpha-taxonomy and shed light on the processes behind speciation. In this study, we explored and validated species limits in a group of closely related Megabunus harvestmen (Eupnoi, Phalangiidae) endemic to the European Alps. Without a priori species hypotheses, we used multiple sources of inference, including mitochondrial and multilocus nuclear DNA, morphometrics and chemistry. The results of these discovery approaches revealed morphological crypsis and multiple new species within two of the five hitherto known species. Based on our analyses, we discussed the most plausible evolutionary scenarios, invoked the most reasonable species hypotheses and validated the new species limits. Building upon the achieved rigour, three new species, Megabunus cryptobergomas Muster and Wachter sp. nov., Megabunus coelodonta Muster and Steiner sp. nov., and Megabunus lentipes Muster and Komposch sp. nov., are formally described. In addition, we provide a dichotomous morphological key to the Megabunus species of the Alps. Our work demonstrates the suitability of integrative, discovery-based approaches in combination with validation approaches to precisely characterize species and enabled us to implement nomenclatural consequences for this genus. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. A new species of Discocyrtanus from Mato Grosso, Brazil (Opiliones: Gonyleptidae) with a key to the species of the genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Rafael N; Kury, Adriano B

    2017-11-14

    Discocyrtanus canjinjim sp. n., belonging to the family Gonyleptidae Sundevall, 1833 is described based on nineteen specimens, eleven adult males and eight adult females, collected in the Vila Bela da Santíssima Trindade, in the State of Mato Grosso, Brazil. This new species represents an endemic component for the harvestmen fauna of Chiquitano Dry Forests terrestrial eco-region, being the most occidental point of distribution of the genus, notably found in the Cerrado and the Atlantic Forest. The new species is characterized by femur IV swollen with the same length of dorsal scutum, trochanter IV with prodorsal distal apophysis as a stout hook not bifurcated, and a unique form of genitalia in the genus. This paper also includes the first identification key to the species of the genus after its revalidation. Copyright © 2017 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Further notes on New Zealand Enantiobuninae (Opiliones, Neopilionidae), with the description of a new genus and two new species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Christopher K.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Mangatangi parvum gen. n. and sp. and Forsteropsalis pureroa sp. n. are described from the North Island of New Zealand. Pantopsalis listeri (White 1849) and Pantopsalis cheliferoides (Colenso 1882) are redescribed and no longer regarded as nomina dubia; Pantopsalis luna (Forster 1944) is identified as a junior synonym of Pantopsalis listeri. A key to Pantopsalis species is provided. PMID:23653517

  3. New record for the genus Platymessa Mello-Leitão, 1941 in Colombia, with the description of a new species (Opiliones, Cosmetidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conchita A. Pinzón-M.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The genus Platymessa Mello-Leitão, 1941 is represented by two species in the Andes of Colombia: P. h-inscriptum Mello-Leitão, 1941 and P. ectroxantha Mello-Leitão, 1941. Platymessa victoriae Pinzón-M. & Townsend, sp. n. is described on the basis of somatic morphological characters and the structure of the penis. The placement of this new species in the genus Platymessa is based upon multiple characters including the outline of dorsal scutum, the presence of a blunt spine on coxa IV, having short and strong legs with femora III and IV having five longitudinal rows of small tubercles, the shape of the basitarsomeres of male leg I, the distribution and relative sizes of the marginal setae on the ventral plate of the penis, and the morphology of the chelicerae and cheliceral sockets. In contrast to other members of the genus, P. victoriae has a pair of triangular tubercles on scutal area III, lacks paired paramedian tubercles on scutal area V, and does not have a ladder mask color pattern on the dorsal scutum. The description of this species expands the distribution of the genus to north of the Oriental Cordillera in the Cesar Department of Colombia.

  4. New record for the genus Platymessa Mello-Leitão, 1941 in Colombia, with the description of a new species (Opiliones, Cosmetidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinzón-M, Conchita A; Townsend, Victor R; Jr; Martínez-H, Neis

    2017-01-01

    The genus Platymessa Mello-Leitão, 1941 is represented by two species in the Andes of Colombia: P. h-inscriptum Mello-Leitão, 1941 and P. ectroxantha Mello-Leitão, 1941. Platymessa victoriae Pinzón-M. & Townsend, sp. n. is described on the basis of somatic morphological characters and the structure of the penis. The placement of this new species in the genus Platymessa is based upon multiple characters including the outline of dorsal scutum, the presence of a blunt spine on coxa IV, having short and strong legs with femora III and IV having five longitudinal rows of small tubercles, the shape of the basitarsomeres of male leg I, the distribution and relative sizes of the marginal setae on the ventral plate of the penis, and the morphology of the chelicerae and cheliceral sockets. In contrast to other members of the genus, P. victoriae has a pair of triangular tubercles on scutal area III, lacks paired paramedian tubercles on scutal area V, and does not have a ladder mask color pattern on the dorsal scutum. The description of this species expands the distribution of the genus to north of the Oriental Cordillera in the Cesar Department of Colombia.

  5. Taxonomic notes on Holcobunus Roewer, 1910, with descriptions of three new species, and new records for Holcobunus nigripalpis Roewer, 1910 (Opiliones: Eupnoi: Sclerosomatidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tourinho, Ana Lúcia; Pinto-da-Rocha, Ricardo; Bragagnolo, Cibele

    2015-10-05

    Three new Brazilian species of Holcobunus Roewer, 1910 are described, thus increasing the total number of species in the genus to five: Holcobunus bicornutus Mello-Leitão, 1940, H. nigripalpis Roewer, 1910, Holcobunus dissimilis sp. nov. (type locality: Espírito Santo, Santa Teresa, Reserva Biologia Augusto Ruschi), Holcobunus ibitirama sp. nov. (type locality: Espírito Santo, Ibitirama, Santa Marta, close to Parque Nacional Caparaó), and Holcobunus uaisoh sp. nov. (type locality: Minas Gerais, Fervedouro, Parque Estadual Serra do Brigadeiro). A new record for Holcobunus nigripalpis Roewer, 1910 from Minas Gerais is also provided and the morphological variation in both penis and somatic morphology in the genus are presented and discussed. These observations enhance our understanding of both the diversity and distribution of Holcobunus.

  6. New Canadian records of Nemastoma bimaculatum (Fabricius), and a brief summary of introduced Eurasian harvestmen in North America (Arachnida, Opiliones).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shear, William A

    2016-03-07

    Eurasian harvestmen have been introduced to, and have established themselves in North America. Species known to have been introduced include Trogulus tricarinatus (L.) 1767, Paroligolophus agrestis (Meade) 1855, Rilaena triangularis (Herbst) 1799, Oligolophus tridens (C. L. Koch) 1836, and Nemastoma bimaculatum (Fabricius) 1775, for the last of which new Canadian records (Ontario) are given below. It is not entirely determined if the species Phalangium opilio (L.) 1758, Opilio parietinus (DeGeer) 1778 and Mitopus morio (Fabricius) 1779 are introduced to North America, or are naturally of Holarctic distribution. The former seems the more likely hypothesis for the first two, but M. morio in North America may be native or may not be that species. Detailed descriptions and illustrations of all these species may be found in Martens (1978).

  7. Descriptions of two new, cryptic species of Metasiro (Arachnida: Opiliones: Cyphophthalmi: Neogoveidae) from South Carolina, USA, including a discussion of mitochondrial mutation rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clouse, Ronald M; Wheeler, Ward C

    2014-06-09

    Specimens of Metasiro from its three known disjunct population centers in the southeastern US were examined and had a 769 bp fragement of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) sequenced. These populations are located in the western panhandle of Florida and nearby areas of Georgia, in the Savannah River delta of South Carolina, and on Sassafras Mt. in South Carolina. This range extends over as much as 500 km, which is very large for a species of cyphophthalmid harvestmen and presents a degree of physical separation among populations such that we would expect them to actually be distinguishable species. We examined the morphology, including the spermatopositors of males, and sequences from 221 specimens. We found no discernible differences in the morphologies of specimens from the different populations, but corrected pairwise distances of COI were about 15% among the three population centers. We also analyzed COI data using a General Mixed Yule Coalescent (GMYC) model implemented in the R package SPLITS; with a single threshold, the most likely model had four species within Metasiro. Given this level of molecular divergence, the monophyly of the population haplotypes, and the number of exclusive COI nucleotide and amino acid differences distinguishing the populations, we here raise the Savannah River and Sassafras Mt. populations to species status: M. savannahensis sp. nov., and M. sassafrasensis sp. nov., respectively. This restricts M. americanus (Davis, 1933) to just the Lower Chattahoochee Watershed, which in this study includes populations along the Apalachicola River and around Florida Caverns State Park. GMYC models reconstructed the two main haplotype clades within M. americanus as different species, but they are not exclusive to different areas. We estimate COI percent divergence rates in certain cyphophthalmid groups and discuss problems with historical measures of this rate. We hypothesize that Metasiro began diversifying over 20 million years ago.

  8. Arachnids from the greenhouses of the Botanical Garden of the PJ Šafárik University in Košice, Slovakia (Arachnida: Araneae, Opiliones, Palpigradi, Pseudoscorpiones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šestáková, Anna

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This is the first detailed contribution on the arachnid fauna from heated greenhouses in the Botanical Garden of the P.J. Šafárik University in Košice (Slovakia. Over ten years 62 spider taxa in 21 families were found. Two spiders, Mermessus trilobatus (Emerton, 1882 and Hasarius adansoni (Audouin, 1826, were recorded in Slovakia for the first time. Another interesting record was the cellar spider Hoplopholcus sp. and a new locality for the exotic spiders Coleosoma floridanum Banks, 1900 and Triaeris stenaspis Simon, 1891 was discovered. Additionally, a short survey of other arachnids (except Acari was done. A single specimen of a provisionally identifiable palpigrade species (cf. Eukoenenia florenciae, one harvestmen species, Opilio canestrinii (Thorell, 1876, and four pseudoscorpion species were recorded. The rare pseudoscorpion species Chthonius ressli Beier, 1956 was collected for the second time in Slovakia.

  9. New species of Austropurcellia, cryptic short-range endemic mite harvestmen (Arachnida, Opiliones, Cyphophthalmi) from Australia’s Wet Tropics biodiversity hotspot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jay, Katya R.; Popkin-Hall, Zachary R.; Coblens, Michelle J.; Oberski, Jill T.; Sharma, Prashant P.; Boyer, Sarah L.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The genus Austropurcellia is a lineage of tiny leaf-litter arachnids that inhabit tropical rainforests throughout the eastern coast of Queensland, Australia. The majority of their diversity is found within the Wet Tropics rainforests of northeast Queensland, an area known for its exceptionally high levels of biodiversity and endemism. Studying the biogeographic history of limited-dispersal invertebrates in the Wet Tropics can provide insight into the role of climatic changes such as rainforest contraction in shaping rainforest biodiversity patterns. Here we describe six new species of mite harvestmen from the Wet Tropics rainforests, identified using morphological data, and discuss the biogeography of Austropurcellia with distributions of all known species. With this taxonomic contribution, the majority of the known diversity of the genus has been documented. PMID:27199608

  10. First Laboulbeniales from harvestmen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santamaria, Sergei; Enghoff, Henrik; Gruber, Jürgen

    2017-01-01

    Laboulbeniales are well known ectoparasites of insects. Among arachnids they were only known parasitizing mites. A new genus of Laboulbeniales, with one species, Opilionomyces dicranolasmatis, is described for fungi parasitizing Dicranolasma harvestmen (Opiliones) collected in Turkey and Greece. ...... and Opiliones belong to the Arachnida subphylum within arthropods, the Laboulbeniales parasitizing the two orders show no morphological evidence of being closely related....

  11. First record of Stygnidae for the state of Espírito Santo and description of a new Protimesius (Arachnida: Opiliones: Laniatores Primeiro registro de Stygnidae para o estado do Espírito Santo e descrição de um novo Protimesius (Arachnida: Opiliones: Laniatores

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    Adriano B. Kury

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Protimesius osvaldoi sp. nov. is described from the Reserva Biológica de Sooretama, state of Espírito Santo, southeastern Brazil, being the first record of Stygnidae from this State and the southernmost record of the family in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest (hitherto, the family was recorded down to Bahia only, extending in 210 km south of the previously known distribution. This is a large species, with armature of leg IV very reduced and penial morphology differing from the closest counterparts mainly in the ventral plate, which recedes deeply at the lateral borders and has the distal margin curved ventrally and by the presence of two small intermediate setae. Protimesius Roewer, 1913 consisted hitherto of 17 species, recorded from northern/northeastern Brazil and Amazonia of adjacent countries. A key is given for the 17 species of Protimesius for which males are known.Protimesius osvaldoi sp. nov. é descrita da Reserva Biológica de Sooretama, Espírito Santo, sudeste do Brasil, sendo considerado o primeiro registro de Stygnidae para este Estado (até então a distribuição registrada para a família se estendia apenas até a Bahia e o registro mais ao sul na Floresta Atlântica, aumentando em 210 km ao sul a distribuição do grupo. Protomesius osvaldoi é uma espécie de tamanho grande, com armação reduzida na perna IV e placa ventral. Protimesius possui 17 espécies, registradas no norte e nordeste do Brasil e Região Amazônica. É apresentada uma chave para as 17 espécies de Protimesius com machos conhecidos.

  12. 76 FR 46837 - Endangered and Threatened Species Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-03

    ... to the Chief, Endangered Species Division, Ecological Services, P.O. Box 1306, Room 6034, Albuquerque... reddelli). Tooth Cave ground beetle (Rhadine persephone). Bone Cave harvestman (Texella reyesi). Coffin...

  13. Taxonomic notes on Acanthomegabunus Tsurusaki, Tchemeris & Logunov 2000 (Arachnida: Opiliones: Phalangiidae), with a description of the new species A. altaicus sp. n. from the Altai Mountains of Russia and NE Kazakhstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchemeris, A N

    2015-07-28

    The genus Acanthomegabunus Tsurusaki, Tchemeris & Logunov 2000 is diagnosed and redescribed. A key to species is presented. A new species, Acanthomegabunus altaicus sp. n. from the Аltai Mountains of Russia and NE Kazakhstan is diagnosed, described and figured; its distribution is mapped, along with new records of A.sibiricus Tsurusaki, Tchemeris & Logunov 2000.

  14. Spiders and harvestmen on tree trunks obtained by three sampling methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Machač, Ondřej

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We studied spiders and harvestmen on tree trunks using three sampling methods. In 2013, spider and harvestman research was conducted on the trunks of selected species of deciduous trees (linden, oak, maple in the town of Přerov and a surrounding floodplain forest near the Bečva River in the Czech Republic. Three methods were used to collect arachnids (pitfall traps with a conservation fluid, sticky traps and cardboard pocket traps. Overall, 1862 spiders and 864 harvestmen were trapped, represented by 56 spider species belonging to 15 families and seven harvestman species belonging to one family. The most effective method for collecting spider specimens was a modified pitfall trap method, and in autumn (September to October a cardboard band method. The results suggest a high number of spiders overwintering on the tree bark. The highest species diversity of spiders was found in pitfall traps, evaluated as the most effective method for collecting harvestmen too.

  15. Alimentação de um filhote de bem-te-vi, Pitangus sulphuratus (Linnaeus (Passeriformes, Tyrannidae, em ambiente urbano Feeding of a fledgling oreat kiskadee, Pitanqus sulphuratus (Ilnnaeus (Passeriformes, Tyrannidae in urban environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Martha Argel-de-Oliveira

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available The observation of parents feeding a captive fledgling of Great Kiskadee revealed that visitation is more frequent in the first hour after sunrising, with lesscr peaks along the day. The diet supplied consisted mainly of insects (Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera, Coleoptera, Diptera, along with other items as human-made materiais (food scraps, pellets of animal food, lizards (Hemidactylus mabouia, non-identified fruit pulp, gastropods and arachnids (Opiliones. The ability that P. sulphuratus has for identifying food items absent froni more natural habitats and for exploiting resources of unpredictablc spatial and temporal distributions confers the species a dietary flexibility that probably contributes to its efficiency in colonizing urban habitats.

  16. Effects of persistent insecticides on beneficial soil arthropod in conventional fields compared to organic fields, puducherry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anbarashan, Padmavathy; Gopalswamy, Poyyamoli

    2013-07-15

    The usage of synthetic fertilizers/insecticides in conventional farming has dramatically increased over the past decades. The aim of the study was to compare the effects of bio-pesticides and insecticides/pesticides on selected beneficial non targeted arthropods. Orders Collembola, Arachinida/Opiliones, Oribatida and Coleoptera were the main groups of arthropods found in the organic fields and Coleoptera, Oribatida, Gamasida and Collembola in conventional fields. Pesticides/insecticides had a significant effect on non-targeted arthropods order- Collembola, Arachinida/Opiliones, Hymenoptera and Thysonoptera were suppressed after pesticides/insecticides spraying. Bio-insecticides in organic fields had a non-significant effect on non targeted species and they started to increase in abundance after 7 days of spraying, whereas insecticide treatment in conventional fields had a significant long-term effect on non targeted arthropods and short term effect on pests/insects, it started to increase after 21 days of the spraying. These results indicate that insecticide treatment kept non targeted arthropods at low abundance. In conclusion, organic farming does not significantly affected the beneficial-non targeted arthropods biodiversity, whereas preventive insecticide application in conventional fields had significant negative effects on beneficial non targeted arthropods. Therefore, conventional farmers should restrict insecticide applications, unless pest densities reach the thresholds and more desirably can switch to organic farming practices.

  17. Concentración natural de compuestos antimaláricos en artrópodos tropicales (in vitro

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    Misael Chinchilla-Carmona

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Extractos alcohólicos, hexánicos y diclorometánicos de 751 muestras de artrópodos fueron estudiados por la presencia de actividad antimalárica. En este trabajo se empleó un modelo murino usando el Plasmodium berghei, modelo que es biológicamente similar a la malaria humana. El estudio fue realizado determinando el efecto del extracto sobre el parásito por la inclusión o no del colorante azul de cresil brillante. Estimando como positivos aquellos extractos cuya actividad antimalárica se mostró en concentraciones no mayores de 50 mg, se encontró que los órdenes más promisorios fueron Lepidoptera (24.1%, Polydesmida (81.3%, Blattodea (25% y Opiliones, entre otros. Las formas inmaduras de Lepidoptera fueron las más positivas, por lo que se analizaron las plantas hospederos de donde se alimentaban dichos organismos. Las familias de estas plantas eran Malvaceae, Acanthaceae, Rutaceae, Myrtaceae, Solanaceae, Fabaceae, Urticaceae, Anacardiaceae, Rosaceae, Asteraceae, Rubiaceae, Lauraceae y Caprifoliaceae. Especies de casi todas estas familias han sido reportadas con actividad antimalárica. En el caso de los órdenes Polydesmida, Opiliones y Blattodea, cuyas formas adultas presentaron alguna actividad contra P. berghei, encontramos que todos esos grupos se alimentan también de plantas. En el caso de Opiliones sus especies son predadores de lepidópteros, coleópteros, hemípteros fitófagos y otros artrópodos, además de que producen sustancias de defensas tales como alcoholes, cetonas y quinonas, entre otros, todo lo cual podría explicar la actividad encontrada. Algunas especies del Orden Polydesmida, también secretan ciertas sustancias químicas, las cuales podrían tener un efecto antiparasitario. Así, a través de este trabajo en artrópodos hemos llegado a identificar fuentes vegetales potenciales para componentes antimaláricos.Natural concentration of antimalaric components in Tropical arthropods (in vitro. Alcohol, hexane and

  18. High-fidelity X-ray micro-tomography reconstruction of siderite-hosted Carboniferous arachnids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garwood, Russell; Dunlop, Jason A.; Sutton, Mark D.

    2009-01-01

    A new approach to maximize data recovery from siderite-hosted fossils is presented. Late Carboniferous trigonotarbids (Arachnida: Trigonotarbida) from Coseley, UK, were chosen to assess the potential of high-resolution X-ray micro-tomography (XMT). Three-dimensional computer reconstruction visualizes the animals at 20 µm or better resolution, resolving subtle and previously unseen details. Novel data recovered includes (possibly plesiomorphic) retention of endites on leg coxae of Cryptomartus hindi (Anthracomartidae) and highlights further similarities between this family and the Devonian Palaeocharinidae. Also revealed is a flattened body with robust anterior limbs, implying a hunting stance similar to modern crab spiders (Thomisidae). Eophrynus prestvicii (Eophrynidae) had more gracile limbs but a heavily ornamented body, with newly identified upward-pointing marginal spines on the opisthosoma. Its habitus is comparable with certain modern laniatorid harvestmen (Opiliones). These findings demonstrate the potential of XMT to revolutionize the study of siderite-hosted Coal Measures fossils. PMID:19656861

  19. High-fidelity X-ray micro-tomography reconstruction of siderite-hosted Carboniferous arachnids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garwood, Russell; Dunlop, Jason A; Sutton, Mark D

    2009-12-23

    A new approach to maximize data recovery from siderite-hosted fossils is presented. Late Carboniferous trigonotarbids (Arachnida: Trigonotarbida) from Coseley, UK, were chosen to assess the potential of high-resolution X-ray micro-tomography (XMT). Three-dimensional computer reconstruction visualizes the animals at 20 microm or better resolution, resolving subtle and previously unseen details. Novel data recovered includes (possibly plesiomorphic) retention of endites on leg coxae of Cryptomartus hindi (Anthracomartidae) and highlights further similarities between this family and the Devonian Palaeocharinidae. Also revealed is a flattened body with robust anterior limbs, implying a hunting stance similar to modern crab spiders (Thomisidae). Eophrynus prestvicii (Eophrynidae) had more gracile limbs but a heavily ornamented body, with newly identified upward-pointing marginal spines on the opisthosoma. Its habitus is comparable with certain modern laniatorid harvestmen (Opiliones). These findings demonstrate the potential of XMT to revolutionize the study of siderite-hosted Coal Measures fossils.

  20. Fauna edáfica em plantio inicial de Eucalyptus sob diferentes alternativas de controle de plantas daninhas

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    Juliana Garlet

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi averiguar o efeito de diferentes alternativas de  controle químico de plantas daninhas na fauna de solo, em plantio de Eucalyptus grandis. Os tratamentos avaliados consistiram de controles parciais e total da vegetação infestante, e as coletas foram realizadas por meio  de armadilha de solo (pitfall. Foram coletados 26.136 espécimes, distribuídos em 13 grupos taxonômicos (Araneae, Blattodea, Chilopoda, Collembola, Coleoptera, Diplopoda, Diptera, Hemiptera, Hymenoptera, Termitoidea, Orthoptera, Opilione e formas jovens. Os tratamentos onde houve permanência de vegetação infestante apresentaram valores mais elevados com relação aos índices avaliados.

  1. Faunistic spider collections in the Museum für Naturkunde Berlin: The collection of Erich Hesse

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    Kielhorn, Karl-Hinrich

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The ‘Hesse collection’ of spiders (Araneae and harvestmen (Opiliones in the Museum für Naturkunde Berlin is documented. Biographical notes on Erich Hesse – a former arachnid curator at the museum (1921–1940 – are provided. The ‘Hesse collection’ was actually put together by other workers, and can be broadly divided into two parts. One comes from Bielinek (= Bellinchen on the Polish side of the Oder Valley (West Pommerania; now part of the ‘Unteres Odertal’ National Park. This Bielinek material includes notable records of Heriaeus oblongus Simon, 1918 and Gibbaranea ullrichi (Hahn, 1835. The other part of the collection comes from Colbitz-Letzlinger Heide in Saxony-Anhalt, Germany. Notable here are Pistius truncatus (Pallas, 1772 and Philodromus buchari Kubcová, 2004; the latter representing the first record of this species for Saxony-Anhalt.

  2. Terrestrial cave invertebrates of the Vrachanska Planina Mountains

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    PETAR BERON

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The modern biospeleological research in Bulgaria started in 1921 in the Ledenika Cave. From 65 caves of “Vrachanski Balkan” Nature Park and its surroundings have been recorded a total of 218 species of terrestrial invertebrates, including 32 species of troglobionts, most of them endemic to Vrachanska Planina Mts. (including the caves near Lakatnik: Isopoda Oniscoidea – 4, Chilopoda – 1, Diplopoda – 5, Opiliones – 2, Pseudoscorpiones – 3, Araneae – 3, Collembola – 2, Diplura – 2, Coleoptera, Carabidae – 7, Coleoptera, Leiodidae – 3. Troglobites are known from 51 caves, the richest being the caves near Lakatnik (Temnata dupka - 10, Zidanka - 7, Razhishkata dupka - 5, Svinskata dupka - 6, Kozarskata peshtera - 5, near Vratsa (Ledenika - 11, Barkite 8 - 5, Belyar - 6, Toshova dupka near Glavatsi - 6 and others.

  3. Organic vs. organic - soil arthropods as bioindicators of ecological sustainability in greenhouse system experiment under Mediterranean conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madzaric, Suzana; Ceglie, F G; Depalo, L; Al Bitar, L; Mimiola, G; Tittarelli, F; Burgio, G

    2017-11-23

    Organic greenhouse (OGH) production is characterized by different systems and agricultural practices with diverse environmental impact. Soil arthropods are widely used as bioindicators of ecological sustainability in open field studies, while there is a lack of research on organic production for protected systems. This study assessed the soil arthropod abundance and diversity over a 2-year crop rotation in three systems of OGH production in the Mediterranean. The systems under assessment differed in soil fertility management: SUBST - a simplified system of organic production, based on an input substitution approach (use of guano and organic liquid fertilizers), AGROCOM - soil fertility mainly based on compost application and agroecological services crops (ASC) cultivation (tailored use of cover crops) as part of crop rotation, and AGROMAN - animal manure and ASC cultivation as part of crop rotation. Monitoring of soil fauna was performed by using pitfall traps and seven taxa were considered: Carabidae, Staphylinidae, Araneae, Opiliones, Isopoda, Myriapoda, and Collembola. Results demonstrated high potential of ASC cultivation as a technique for beneficial soil arthropod conservation in OGH conditions. SUBST system was dominated by Collembola in all crops, while AGROMAN and AGROCOM had more balanced relative abundance of Isopoda, Staphylinidae, and Aranea. Opiliones and Myriapoda were more affected by season, while Carabidae were poorly represented in the whole monitoring period. Despite the fact that all three production systems are in accordance with the European Union regulation on organic farming, findings of this study displayed significant differences among them and confirmed the suitability of soil arthropods as bioindicators in protected systems of organic farming.

  4. Biological richness of a large urban cemetery in Berlin. Results of a multi-taxon approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchholz, Sascha; Blick, Theo; Hannig, Karsten; Kowarik, Ingo; Lemke, Andreas; Otte, Volker; Scharon, Jens; Schönhofer, Axel; Teige, Tobias; von der Lippe, Moritz; Seitz, Birgit

    2016-01-01

    Urban green spaces can harbor a considerable species richness of plants and animals. A few studies on single species groups indicate important habitat functions of cemeteries, but this land use type is clearly understudied compared to parks. Such data are important as they (i) illustrate habitat functions of a specific, but ubiquitous urban land-use type and (ii) may serve as a basis for management approaches. We sampled different groups of plants and animals in the Weißensee Jewish Cemetery in Berlin (WJC) which is one of the largest Jewish cemeteries in Europe. With a total of 608 species of plants and animals, this first multi-taxon survey revealed a considerable biological richness in the WJC. In all, 363 wild-growing vascular plant, 72 lichen and 26 bryophyte taxa were recorded. The sampling also yielded 34 bird and 5 bat species as well as 39 ground beetle, 5 harvestman and 64 spider species. Some species are new records for Berlin.

  5. A terrestrial fauna from the Scottish Lower Carboniferous

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, S. P.; Panchen, A. L.; Smithson, T. R.

    1985-03-01

    Despite several important discoveries, extending over more than 120 years, our knowledge of early land vertebrates is still sparse. The earliest tetrapod remains are known from the Upper Devonian of East Greenland1-3 and Australia4-6, but the tetrapod fossil record does not become plentiful until Coal Measure times, in the Upper Carboniferous, some 50 Myr later. Finds in the Lower Carboniferous are very few indeed. Apart from two localities in West Virginia, USA7,8, and one in Nova Scotia, Canada9, all other Lower Carboniferous tetrapod sites are from the Viséan of Fife and the Lothian Region, Scotland10,11. We report here the discovery of an assemblage of terrestrial animals from a new Lower Carboniferous locality in the Lothian Region. Specimens were collected from the East Kirkton Limestone in the Brigantian stage of the Scottish Viséan, and include the first articulated amphibian skeleton to be found in the Lower Carboniferous of Europe in the twentieth century. This find is the earliest well-preserved amphibian skeleton ever discovered. The associated fauna is remarkable for the presence of myriapods, scorpions, the earliest known harvest-man and several other types of amphibian. The presence of such forms, together with the striking absence of fishes, suggests that the amphibians form an integral part of a terrestrial fauna; terrestrial amphibians are otherwise unknown before the Upper Carboniferous Coal Measures.

  6. The earliest known reptile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smithson, T. R.

    1989-12-01

    AMNIOTES (reptiles, birds and mammals) are distinguished from non-amniote tetrapods (amphibians) by the presence of complex embryonic membranes. One of these, the amnion, gives its name to the group. Very few skeletal characters distinguish amniotes from amphibians1, making it difficult to recognize early amniotes in the fossil record. The earliest amniote fossil identified so far is Hylonomus from the Westphalian (Upper Carboniferous) of Joggins, Nova Scotia2,3, (~300 Myr). I report here the discovery of a much earlier amniote skeleton from the Brigantian (Lower Carboniferous) of Scotland (~338 Myr) 4, which thus represents the earliest occurrence of amniotes in the fossil record. The specimen was collected from the East Kirkton Limestone, near Bathgate, West Lothian4-8, and is part of a unique terrestrial fauna that includes eurypterids, myriapods, scorpions and the earliest-known harvestman spider7,9, together with the earliest known temno-spondyls, a group that may include the ancestors of all living amphibians10. It will make an important contribution to our knowledge of early amniote morphology and the interrelationships of tetrapods.

  7. High phylogenetic utility of an ultraconserved element probe set designed for Arachnida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starrett, James; Derkarabetian, Shahan; Hedin, Marshal; Bryson, Robert W; McCormack, John E; Faircloth, Brant C

    2017-07-01

    Arachnida is an ancient, diverse and ecologically important animal group that contains a number of species of interest for medical, agricultural and engineering applications. Despite their importance, many aspects of the arachnid tree of life remain unresolved, hindering comparative approaches to arachnid biology. Biologists have made considerable efforts to resolve the arachnid phylogeny; yet, limited and challenging morphological characters, as well as a dearth of genetic resources, have hindered progress. Here, we present a genomic toolkit for arachnids featuring hundreds of conserved DNA regions (ultraconserved elements or UCEs) that allow targeted sequencing of any species in the arachnid tree of life. We used recently developed capture probes designed from conserved regions of available arachnid genomes to enrich a sample of loci from 32 diverse arachnids. Sequence capture returned an average of 487 UCE loci for all species, with a range from 170 to 722. Phylogenetic analysis of these UCEs produced a highly resolved arachnid tree with relationships largely consistent with recent transcriptome-based phylogenies. We also tested the phylogenetic informativeness of UCE probes within the spider, scorpion and harvestman orders, demonstrating the utility of these markers at shallower taxonomic scales and suggesting that these loci will be useful for species-level differences. This probe set will open the door to phylogenomic and population genomic studies across the arachnid tree of life, enabling systematics, species delimitation, species discovery and conservation of these diverse arthropods. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Feeding overlap in two sympatric species of Rhinella (Anura: Bufonidae of the Atlantic Rain Forest Sobreposição alimentar em duas espécies simpátricas de Rhinella (Anura: Bufonidae da Mata Atlântica

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    Leandro T. Sabagh

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A clear understanding of the relationships between overlapping, similarity, and competition is necessary to understand many of the questions about the structure and operation of a community. Rhinella icterica (Spix, 1824 and Rhinella crucifer (Wied Neuwied, 1821 are sympatric species of toads occurring in the National Park of Serra dos Órgãos in southeastern Brazil. The aim of the present study was to assess the dietary overlap of these two species. Ninety-four stomachs were analyzed, and 2245 prey items were found. Common prey were Hymenoptera, Coleoptera, Diptera, Lepidoptera larvae, Blattaria, Orthoptera, Hemiptera, Opiliones, and Aranaea. Ants were the most important prey in both diets, followed by beetles and cockroaches. The niche breadth of R. icterica was 1.76 and of R. crucifer was 1.28. The dietary overlap between the species was 98.62%. A positive correlation was observed between jaw width and prey size consumed by R. icterica.Um claro entendimento das relações entre sobreposição, similaridade e competição é necessário para entender muitas questões sobre a estrutura e o funcionamento de uma comunidade. Rhinella icterica (Spix, 1824 e Rhinella crucifer (Wied Neuwied, 1821 são espécies simpátricas que ocorrem no Parque Nacional da Serra dos Órgãos, região sudeste do Brasil. O objetivo do presente estudo foi verificar a sobreposição alimentar dessas duas espécies. Foram analisados 94 estômagos e encontradas 2245 presas. Os grupos comuns foram: Hymenoptera, Coleoptera, Diptera, larva de Lepidoptera, Blattaria, Orthoptera, Hemiptera, Opiliones e Aranaea. Formigas foram as presas mais importantes na dieta, seguidas por besouros e baratas. A amplitude de nicho de R. icterica foi de 1,76 e a de R. cruicifer 1,28. A sobreposição de nicho alimentar entre as espécies foi de 98,62%. Houve relação positiva entre a largura da mandíbula e a dimensão das presas consumidas em R. icterica.

  9. Soil microarthropod communities from Mediterranean forest ecosystems in Central Italy under different disturbances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasi, Silvia; Menta, Cristina; Balducci, Lorena; Conti, Federica Delia; Petrini, Enrico; Piovesan, Gianluca

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study is to assess soil quality in Mediterranean forests of Central Italy, from evergreen to deciduous, with different types of management (coppice vs. high forest vs. secondary old growth) and compaction impacts (machinery vs. recreational). Soil quality was evaluated studying soil microarthropod communities and applying a biological index (QBS-ar) based on the concept that the higher is the soil quality, the higher will be the number of microarthropod groups well adapted to the soil habitat. Our results confirm that hardwood soils are characterised by the highest biodiversity level among terrestrial communities and by a well-structured and mature microarthropod community, which is typical of stable ecosystems (QBS value, >200). While silvicultural practices and forest composition do not seem to influence QBS-ar values or microarthropod community structure, the index is very efficient in detecting soil impacts (soil compaction due to logging activities). Several taxa (Protura, Diplura, Coleoptera adults, Pauropoda, Diplopoda, Symphyla, Chilopoda, Diptera larvae and Opiliones) react negatively to soil compaction and degradation (QBS value, urban forestry to prevent the negative effects of trampling. QBS-ar is a candidate index for biomonitoring of soil microarthropod biodiversity across the landscape to provide guidance for the sustainable management of renewable resource and nature conservation.

  10. Towards a DNA Barcode Reference Database for Spiders and Harvestmen of Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astrin, Jonas J; Höfer, Hubert; Spelda, Jörg; Holstein, Joachim; Bayer, Steffen; Hendrich, Lars; Huber, Bernhard A; Kielhorn, Karl-Hinrich; Krammer, Hans-Joachim; Lemke, Martin; Monje, Juan Carlos; Morinière, Jérôme; Rulik, Björn; Petersen, Malte; Janssen, Hannah; Muster, Christoph

    As part of the German Barcode of Life campaign, over 3500 arachnid specimens have been collected and analyzed: ca. 3300 Araneae and 200 Opiliones, belonging to almost 600 species (median: 4 individuals/species). This covers about 60% of the spider fauna and more than 70% of the harvestmen fauna recorded for Germany. The overwhelming majority of species could be readily identified through DNA barcoding: median distances between closest species lay around 9% in spiders and 13% in harvestmen, while in 95% of the cases, intraspecific distances were below 2.5% and 8% respectively, with intraspecific medians at 0.3% and 0.2%. However, almost 20 spider species, most notably in the family Lycosidae, could not be separated through DNA barcoding (although many of them present discrete morphological differences). Conspicuously high interspecific distances were found in even more cases, hinting at cryptic species in some instances. A new program is presented: DiStats calculates the statistics needed to meet DNA barcode release criteria. Furthermore, new generic COI primers useful for a wide range of taxa (also other than arachnids) are introduced.

  11. Secondary structure of expansion segment D1 in LSU rDNA from Arachnida and its phylogenetic application in Eriophyoid mites and in Acari.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zheng-Hang; Zhao, Ya-E; Xu, Yang; Hu, Li; Chen, Yi-Meng

    2015-12-01

    An increasing number of researchers have applied secondary-structure based multiple alignments of rDNA genes in phylogeny. These studies mostly depended on a few valuable divergent domains in LSU and SSU rDNA. Yet other divergent domains, e.g. D1, were poorly investigated and rarely used. However, these domains might contain additional evolutionary data and play a vital role in DNA-based phylogenetic study. Here, we investigated all available D1 sequences of Arachnida taxa and predicted corresponding secondary structures to help identify homologous positions in the D1 region. Long insertions were found exclusive to Eriophyoidea and folded into three newly proposed helices. Non-Acari taxa were all GC rich. In Acari, most Trombidiformes and all Mesostigmata (Parasitiformes) taxa were AT rich and Ixodida (Parasitiformes) GC rich; however there was no consistent base bias in Sarcoptiformes sequences. For Eriophyoid mites, genera Cecidophyopsis and Aceria were both well supported in MP, NJ, ME and ML tress based on D1 sequences, and clusters of Cecidophyopsis species were identical with former study. This demonstrated that the D1 region could act as a valuable molecular marker in phylogenetic reconstruction of Eriophyoidea. Additionally, D1 has been proven suitable in phylogenetic analysis at the family and genus level in Acari, but not in Opiliones. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Towards a DNA Barcode Reference Database for Spiders and Harvestmen of Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astrin, Jonas J.; Höfer, Hubert; Spelda, Jörg; Holstein, Joachim; Bayer, Steffen; Hendrich, Lars; Huber, Bernhard A.; Kielhorn, Karl-Hinrich; Krammer, Hans-Joachim; Lemke, Martin; Monje, Juan Carlos; Morinière, Jérôme; Rulik, Björn; Petersen, Malte; Janssen, Hannah; Muster, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    As part of the German Barcode of Life campaign, over 3500 arachnid specimens have been collected and analyzed: ca. 3300 Araneae and 200 Opiliones, belonging to almost 600 species (median: 4 individuals/species). This covers about 60% of the spider fauna and more than 70% of the harvestmen fauna recorded for Germany. The overwhelming majority of species could be readily identified through DNA barcoding: median distances between closest species lay around 9% in spiders and 13% in harvestmen, while in 95% of the cases, intraspecific distances were below 2.5% and 8% respectively, with intraspecific medians at 0.3% and 0.2%. However, almost 20 spider species, most notably in the family Lycosidae, could not be separated through DNA barcoding (although many of them present discrete morphological differences). Conspicuously high interspecific distances were found in even more cases, hinting at cryptic species in some instances. A new program is presented: DiStats calculates the statistics needed to meet DNA barcode release criteria. Furthermore, new generic COI primers useful for a wide range of taxa (also other than arachnids) are introduced. PMID:27681175

  13. Towards a DNA Barcode Reference Database for Spiders and Harvestmen of Germany.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas J Astrin

    Full Text Available As part of the German Barcode of Life campaign, over 3500 arachnid specimens have been collected and analyzed: ca. 3300 Araneae and 200 Opiliones, belonging to almost 600 species (median: 4 individuals/species. This covers about 60% of the spider fauna and more than 70% of the harvestmen fauna recorded for Germany. The overwhelming majority of species could be readily identified through DNA barcoding: median distances between closest species lay around 9% in spiders and 13% in harvestmen, while in 95% of the cases, intraspecific distances were below 2.5% and 8% respectively, with intraspecific medians at 0.3% and 0.2%. However, almost 20 spider species, most notably in the family Lycosidae, could not be separated through DNA barcoding (although many of them present discrete morphological differences. Conspicuously high interspecific distances were found in even more cases, hinting at cryptic species in some instances. A new program is presented: DiStats calculates the statistics needed to meet DNA barcode release criteria. Furthermore, new generic COI primers useful for a wide range of taxa (also other than arachnids are introduced.

  14. Terrestrial locomotion in arachnids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spagna, Joseph C; Peattie, Anne M

    2012-05-01

    In this review, we assess the current state of knowledge on terrestrial locomotion in Arachnida. Arachnids represent a single diverse (>100,000 species) clade containing well-defined subgroups (at both the order and subordinal levels) that vary morphologically around a basic body plan, yet exhibit highly disparate limb usage, running performance, and tarsal attachment mechanisms. Spiders (Araneae), scorpions (Scorpiones), and harvestmen (Opiliones) have received the most attention in the literature, while some orders have never been subject to rigorous mechanical characterization. Most well-characterized taxa move with gaits analogous to the alternating tripod gaits that characterize fast-moving Insecta - alternating tetrapods or alternating tripods (when one pair of legs is lifted from the ground for some other function). However, between taxa, there is considerable variation in the regularity of phasing between legs. Both large and small spiders appear to show a large amount of variation in the distribution of foot-ground contact, even between consecutive step-cycles of a single run. Mechanisms for attachment to vertical surfaces also vary, and may depend on tufts of adhesive hairs, fluid adhesives, silks, or a combination of these. We conclude that Arachnida, particularly with improvements in microelectronic force sensing technology, can serve as a powerful study system for understanding the kinematics, dynamics, and ecological correlates of sprawled-posture locomotion. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A checklist of the non-acarine arachnids (Chelicerata: Arachnida of the Ndumo Game Reserve, Maputaland, South Africa

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    C.R. Haddad

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Arachnids (Chelicerata: Arachnida were collected in the Ndumo Game Reserve (Maputaland, South Africa during 11 collecting trips in the period 2000–2006. Sampling was undertaken by various methods in eight broad habitat types: Acacia tortilis savanna; Acacia xanthophloea (fever tree forests; deciduous broadleaf woodland; Ficus (wild fig tree forests; floodplain vegetation; riparian forest; sand forest; and subtropical bush. In total, 457 species of arachnids were collected, representing six orders, 59 families and 240 determined genera. The most diverse order was the Araneae (46 families, 431 spp., followed by the Pseudoscorpiones (6 families, 12 spp., Scorpiones (3 families, 8 spp., Opiliones (2 families, 3 spp., Solifugae (1 family, 2 spp. and Amblypygi (a single species. The most diverse families all belonged to the Araneae: Salticidae (82 spp., Thomisidae (56 spp. and Araneidae (38 spp.. The spider diversity is the highest recorded from any protected area in South Africa so far, and represents approximately 22 % of the country’s spider fauna. The habitat and guild associations of each species are provided.

  16. Arthropod fauna on grassland-heathland associations under different grazing managements with domestic ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa García, Rocío; Ocharan, Francisco José; García, Urcesino; Osoro, Koldo; Celaya, Rafael

    2010-03-01

    The effects of two grazer species (cattle or sheep) and two flock types (single or mixed with goats) on vegetation and arthropod fauna were studied in a factorial design on eight plots which comprised two thirds of mechanically cleared heathland and one third of improved ryegrass-clover grassland. After six grazing seasons, the shrubland areas were dominated by gorse (Ulex gallii) in all treatments. Herbaceous cover was higher under mixed than under single grazing, and under sheep than under cattle grazing. Higher captures of Opiliones, Julida, Lithobiomorpha, Microcoryphia and Carabidae were recorded in shrublands than in grasslands, while the reverse was observed for Linyphiidae, Lycosidae and Hemiptera. Within shrublands, fauna responded to the flock type but not to the grazer species. More arthropod groups favoured the patchier areas with higher herbaceous biomass generated by mixed herds with goats. Within grasslands, species-specific responses to the grazer species were observed. Mixed grazing schemes which include goats within partially improved heathlands could contribute to maintain higher biodiversity levels in these marginal areas. Copyright 2009 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Arachnids submitted as suspected brown recluse spiders (Araneae: Sicariidae): Loxosceles spiders are virtually restricted to their known distributions but are perceived to exist throughout the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, Richard S

    2005-07-01

    An Internet offer was made to identify any spider in the United States perceived to be a brown recluse spider, Loxosceles reclusa Gertsch & Mulaik (Sicariidae). In total, 1,773 arachnids from 49 states represented three orders (Araneae, Solifugae, and Opiliones) and the identifiable spiders (Araneae) consisted of 38 families, 88 genera, and 158 recognizable species. Participants from states at least half within the known brown recluse distribution submitted Loxosceles spiders 32- 89% of the time, except Louisiana and Mississippi with no submissions. From 25 of 29 states completely or almost completely outside of the range of Loxosceles spiders, no recluse spiders were submitted. Only two discoveries of brown recluses and two of the worldwide tramp species Loxosceles rufescens (Dufour) were submitted from nonendemic Loxosceles areas. States on distribution margins of brown recluse or other native Loxosceles spiders were intermediate in their Loxosceles submissions. This study showed that 1) the general public perceives brown recluses to occur over wide-ranging areas of the United States; and 2) brown recluses are frequently submitted from endemic states and almost never from nonendemic states, and therefore are virtually limited to their known distributions. This study corroborates opinions that diagnosis of brown recluse spider bites is best restricted to areas historically supporting proven, widespread populations of Loxosceles spiders.

  18. Geological history and phylogeny of Chelicerata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlop, Jason A

    2010-01-01

    Chelicerata probably appeared during the Cambrian period. Their precise origins remain unclear, but may lie among the so-called great appendage arthropods. By the late Cambrian there is evidence for both Pycnogonida and Euchelicerata. Relationships between the principal euchelicerate lineages are unresolved, but Xiphosura, Eurypterida and Chasmataspidida (the last two extinct), are all known as body fossils from the Ordovician. The fourth group, Arachnida, was found monophyletic in most recent studies. Arachnids are known unequivocally from the Silurian (a putative Ordovician mite remains controversial), and the balance of evidence favours a common, terrestrial ancestor. Recent work recognises four principal arachnid clades: Stethostomata, Haplocnemata, Acaromorpha and Pantetrapulmonata, of which the pantetrapulmonates (spiders and their relatives) are probably the most robust grouping. Stethostomata includes Scorpiones (Silurian-Recent) and Opiliones (Devonian-Recent), while Haplocnemata includes Pseudoscorpiones (Devonian-Recent) and Solifugae (Carboniferous-Recent). Recent works increasingly favour diphyletic mite origins, whereby Acaromorpha comprises Actinotrichida (Devonian-Recent), Anactinotrichida (Cretaceous-Recent) and Ricinulei (Carboniferous-Recent). The positions of the Phalangiotarbida (Devonian-Permian) and Palpigradi (Neogene-Recent) are poorly resolved. Finally, Pantetrapulmonata includes the following groups (listed here in their most widely recovered phylogenetic sequence): Trigonotarbida (Silurian-Permian), Uraraneida (Devonian-Permian), Araneae (Carboniferous-Recent), Haptopoda (Carboniferous), Amblypygi (?Devonian-Recent), Thelyphonida (Carboniferous-Recent) and Schizomida (Paleogene-Recent). Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Chemical elements in invertebrate orders for environmental quality studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magalhaes, Marcelo R.L.; Franca, Elvis J.; Paiva, Jose D.S.; Hazin, Clovis A., E-mail: marcelo_rlm@hotmail.com, E-mail: ejfranca@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: dan-paiva@hotmail.com, E-mail: chazin@cnen.gov.br [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Fonseca, Felipe Y.; Fernandes, Elisabete A. de Nadai; Bacchi, Marcio A., E-mail: felipe-yamada@hotmail.com, E-mail: lis@cena.usp.br, E-mail: mabacchi@cena.usp.br [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Among the biomonitors of environmental quality, there is a lack of studies on using invertebrates to evaluate quantitatively chemical elements in ecosystems. This group of animals is quite numerous, widely distributed and adaptable to the most diverse environmental conditions. These features are very useful for the environmental quality assessment, as well as the several occurring insect-plant interactions performing essential functions in ecosystems. The objective of this work is to study the variability of chemical composition of invertebrate orders for using in environmental quality monitoring studies. Instrumental neutron activation analysis - INAA was applied to determine some nutrients and trace elements in invertebrate samples. Sampling by pitfall traps was carried out in riverine ecosystems from the urban area from the Piracicaba Municipality, State of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Invertebrate and reference material samples were irradiated in the nuclear research reactor IEA-R1, Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares - IPEN/CNEN. Fragments of a Ni-Cr alloy were irradiated for monitoring the thermal neutron flux. Hymenoptera order was considered the most representative according to the total number of sampled species (about 60%). Significant amounts of Ba, Br, Fe and Sc were found in invertebrates of the order Opiliones. Potassium, rubidium and zinc were highly accumulated in species from Blattodea order, indicating a consistent pattern of accumulation for this invertebrate order. Taking into account the abundance of Hymenoptera order, the chemical composition of its species was significant different at the 95% confidence level for Br and Na in the sampled locals. (author)

  20. Living in a same microhabitat should means eating the same food? Diet and trophic niche of sympatric leaf-litter frogs Ischnocnema henselii and Adenomera marmorata in a forest of Southern Brazil

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    M. Santos-Pereira

    Full Text Available In this study we analyzed diet composition, niche breadth and overlap of the two leaf-litter frogs Ischnocnema henselii and Adenomera marmorata. Frogs were collected in an Atlantic Rainforest area in the Reserva Natural Salto Morato, in Paraná State, Southern Brazil, using plots of 16 m2 established on forest floor. Ischnocnema henselii consumed 18 different types of prey and the diet of this species was composed predominantly by Hymenoptera (Formicidae (15.4%, Araneae (13.83%, Orthoptera (6.15% and Opiliones (6.15%, whereas Adenomera marmorata consumed 15 different types of prey and its diet was composed mainly by Hymenoptera (Formicidae (45.7%, Acari (31.8% and Blattodea (14.8%. The niche breadth of I. henselii was BA = 0.43 and that of A. marmorata was BA = 0.19. The diet of the two sympatric species of leaf-litter frogs was basically composed by arthropods and the trophic niche overlap among them did not differ from expected at random. The differences in prey consumption should potentially facilitate the coexistence of two sympatric frogs on the forest floor. Possibly, this difference of prey consumption partly reflects differences in jaw width, species-specific body size of the two species and the period of activity of these two species.

  1. Geological and ecological assessment of the exposure degree of the Zăton-Bulba karst system (Mehedinţi Plateau to anthropogenic hazards: intrinsic vulnerability and biodiversity study

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    Cristian Goran

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Mehedinţi Plateau represents an area highly marked by the intensity of the karst processes and by the diversity of the exokarst and endokarst features. The analyzed area includes two parallel limestone bars, developed on the Carpathian structures direction (NNE-SSW. The geological and geomorphological research, guided by a working protocol similar to that of the EPIK method, highlighted the role played by the lithology, structure, tectonics, epikarst and protective cover, related to the infiltration conditions, flow parameters and impact area of a potential contamination event; also, we carried on microtectonic studies on the Bulba Valley, Peşterii Hill, Podul Natural Cave and Bulba Cave. In addition to the results obtained following the EPIK method protocol, we bring forward data concerning the water quality, performing hydrogeochemical analyses on water samples collected from the main sources in the region. Our research has been focused on TDS, on cations (Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, NH4+ and on anions (HCO3-, Cl-. We conclude by modelling the cumulative abundance and the species richness of the harvestmen (Opiliones in the studied area, under different degrees of human impact on habitats

  2. Paternal care decreases foraging activity and body condition, but does not impose survival costs to caring males in a Neotropical arachnid.

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    Gustavo S Requena

    Full Text Available Exclusive paternal care is the rarest form of parental investment in nature and theory predicts that the maintenance of this behavior depends on the balance between costs and benefits to males. Our goal was to assess costs of paternal care in the harvestman Iporangaia pustulosa, for which the benefits of this behavior in terms of egg survival have already been demonstrated. We evaluated energetic costs and mortality risks associated to paternal egg-guarding in the field. We quantified foraging activity of males and estimated how their body condition is influenced by the duration of the caring period. Additionally, we conducted a one-year capture-mark-recapture study and estimated apparent survival probabilities of caring and non-caring males to assess potential survival costs of paternal care. Our results indicate that caring males forage less frequently than non-caring individuals (males and females and that their body condition deteriorates over the course of the caring period. Thus, males willing to guard eggs may provide to females a fitness-enhancing gift of cost-free care of their offspring. Caring males, however, did not show lower survival probabilities when compared to both non-caring males and females. Reduction in mortality risks as a result of remaining stationary, combined with the benefits of improving egg survival, may have played an important and previously unsuspected role favoring the evolution of paternal care. Moreover, males exhibiting paternal care could also provide an honest signal of their quality as offspring defenders, and thus female preference for caring males could be responsible for maintaining the trait.

  3. A conserved genetic mechanism specifies deutocerebral appendage identity in insects and arachnids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Prashant P; Tarazona, Oscar A; Lopez, Davys H; Schwager, Evelyn E; Cohn, Martin J; Wheeler, Ward C; Extavour, Cassandra G

    2015-06-07

    The segmental architecture of the arthropod head is one of the most controversial topics in the evolutionary developmental biology of arthropods. The deutocerebral (second) segment of the head is putatively homologous across Arthropoda, as inferred from the segmental distribution of the tripartite brain and the absence of Hox gene expression of this anterior-most, appendage-bearing segment. While this homology statement implies a putative common mechanism for differentiation of deutocerebral appendages across arthropods, experimental data for deutocerebral appendage fate specification are limited to winged insects. Mandibulates (hexapods, crustaceans and myriapods) bear a characteristic pair of antennae on the deutocerebral segment, whereas chelicerates (e.g. spiders, scorpions, harvestmen) bear the eponymous chelicerae. In such hexapods as the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, and the cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus, cephalic appendages are differentiated from the thoracic appendages (legs) by the activity of the appendage patterning gene homothorax (hth). Here we show that embryonic RNA interference against hth in the harvestman Phalangium opilio results in homeonotic chelicera-to-leg transformations, and also in some cases pedipalp-to-leg transformations. In more strongly affected embryos, adjacent appendages undergo fusion and/or truncation, and legs display proximal defects, suggesting conservation of additional functions of hth in patterning the antero-posterior and proximo-distal appendage axes. Expression signal of anterior Hox genes labial, proboscipedia and Deformed is diminished, but not absent, in hth RNAi embryos, consistent with results previously obtained with the insect G. bimaculatus. Our results substantiate a deep homology across arthropods of the mechanism whereby cephalic appendages are differentiated from locomotory appendages. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  4. Devoted fathers or selfish lovers? Conflict between mating effort and parental care in a harem-defending arachnid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alissa, L M; Muniz, D G; Machado, G

    2017-01-01

    When there is a temporal trade-off between mating effort and parental care, theoretical models predict that intense sexual selection on males leads to reduced paternal care. Thus, high-quality males should invest more in mating effort because they have higher chances of acquiring mates, whereas low-quality males should bias their investment towards parental care. Once paternal care has evolved, offspring value should also influence males' decisions to invest in offspring attendance. Here, we performed a manipulation under field conditions to investigate the factors that influence male allocation in either mating effort or parental care. We predicted that facultative paternal care in the harem-holding harvestman Serracutisoma proximum would be negatively influenced by male attractiveness and positively influenced by offspring value. We found that attractive males were less likely to engage in egg attendance and that the higher the perceived paternity, the higher the caring frequency. Finally, egg mortality was not related to caring frequency by males, but predation pressure was much lower than that recorded in previous studies with the same population. Thus, the benefits of facultative male care may be conditional to temporal variation in the intensity of egg predation. In conclusion, males adjust their investment in either territory defence or egg attendance according to their recent mating history and perceived paternity. Our findings suggest that exclusive paternal care can evolve from facultative paternal care only if the trade-off between mating effort and parental care is circumvented. © 2016 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2016 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  5. Artificial Light at Night Affects Organism Flux across Ecosystem Boundaries and Drives Community Structure in the Recipient Ecosystem

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    Alessandro Manfrin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Artificial light at night (ALAN is a widespread alteration of the natural environment that can affect the functioning of ecosystems. ALAN can change the movement patterns of freshwater animals that move into the adjacent riparian and terrestrial ecosystems, but the implications for local riparian consumers that rely on these subsidies are still unexplored. We conducted a 2-year field experiment to quantify changes of freshwater-terrestrial linkages by installing streetlights in a previously light-naïve riparian area adjacent to an agricultural drainage ditch. We compared the abundance and community composition of emerging aquatic insects, flying insects, and ground-dwelling arthropods with an unlit control site. Comparisons were made within and between years using two-way generalized least squares (GLS model and a BACI design (Before-After Control-Impact. Aquatic insect emergence, the proportion of flying insects that were aquatic in origin, and the total abundance of flying insects all increased in the ALAN-illuminated area. The abundance of several night-active ground-dwelling predators (Pachygnatha clercki, Trochosa sp., Opiliones increased under ALAN and their activity was extended into the day. Conversely, the abundance of nocturnal ground beetles (Carabidae decreased under ALAN. The changes in composition of riparian predator and scavenger communities suggest that the increase in aquatic-to-terrestrial subsidy flux may cascade through the riparian food web. The work is among the first studies to experimentally manipulate ALAN using a large-scale field experiment, and provides evidence that ALAN can affect processes that link adjacent ecosystems. Given the large number of streetlights that are installed along shorelines of freshwater bodies throughout the globe, the effects could be widespread and represent an underestimated source of impairment for both aquatic and riparian systems.

  6. Patterns of Protein Evolution in Cytochrome c Oxidase 1 (COI from the Class Arachnida.

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    Monica R Young

    Full Text Available Because sequence information is now available for the 648bp barcode region of cytochrome c oxidase 1 (COI from more than 400,000 animal species, this gene segment can be used to probe patterns of mitochondrial evolution. The present study examines levels of amino acid substitution and the frequency of indels in COI from 4177 species of arachnids, including representatives from all 16 orders and 43% of its families (267/625. It examines divergences at three taxonomic levels-among members of each order to an outgroup, among families in each order and among BINs, a species proxy, in each family. Order Distances vary fourfold (0.10-0.39, while the mean of the Family Distances for the ten orders ranges fivefold (0.07-0.35. BIN Distances show great variation, ranging from 0.01 or less in 12 families to more than 0.25 in eight families. Patterns of amino acid substitution in COI are generally congruent with previously reported variation in nucleotide substitution rates in arachnids, but provide some new insights, such as clear rate acceleration in the Opiliones. By revealing a strong association between elevated rates of nucleotide and amino acid substitution, this study builds evidence for the selective importance of the rate variation among arachnid lineages. Moreover, it establishes that groups whose COI genes have elevated levels of amino acid substitution also regularly possess indels, a dramatic form of protein reconfiguration. Overall, this study suggests that the mitochondrial genome of some arachnid groups is dynamic with high rates of amino acid substitution and frequent indels, while it is 'locked down' in others. Dynamic genomes are most prevalent in arachnids with short generation times, but the possible impact of breeding system deserves investigation since many of the rapidly evolving lineages reproduce by haplodiploidy, a mode of reproduction absent in 'locked down' taxa.

  7. The complete mitochondrial genome of Pseudocellus pearsei (Chelicerata: Ricinulei and a comparison of mitochondrial gene rearrangements in Arachnida

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    Braband Anke

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mitochondrial genomes are widely utilized for phylogenetic and population genetic analyses among animals. In addition to sequence data the mitochondrial gene order and RNA secondary structure data are used in phylogenetic analyses. Arachnid phylogeny is still highly debated and there is a lack of sufficient sequence data for many taxa. Ricinulei (hooded tickspiders are a morphologically distinct clade of arachnids with uncertain phylogenetic affinities. Results The first complete mitochondrial DNA genome of a member of the Ricinulei, Pseudocellus pearsei (Arachnida: Ricinulei was sequenced using a PCR-based approach. The mitochondrial genome is a typical circular duplex DNA molecule with a size of 15,099 bp, showing the complete set of genes usually present in bilaterian mitochondrial genomes. Five tRNA genes (trnW, trnY, trnN, trnL(CUN, trnV show different relative positions compared to other Chelicerata (e.g. Limulus polyphemus, Ixodes spp.. We propose that two events led to this derived gene order: (1 a tandem duplication followed by random deletion and (2 an independent translocation of trnN. Most of the inferred tRNA secondary structures show the common cloverleaf pattern except tRNA-Glu where the TψC-arm is missing. In phylogenetic analyses (maximum likelihood, maximum parsimony, Bayesian inference using concatenated amino acid and nucleotide sequences of protein-coding genes the basal relationships of arachnid orders remain unresolved. Conclusion Phylogenetic analyses (ML, MP, BI of arachnid mitochondrial genomes fail to resolve interordinal relationships of Arachnida and remain in a preliminary stage because there is still a lack of mitogenomic data from important taxa such as Opiliones and Pseudoscorpiones. Gene order varies considerably within Arachnida – only eight out of 23 species have retained the putative arthropod ground pattern. Some gene order changes are valuable characters in phylogenetic analysis of

  8. The complete mitochondrial genome of Pseudocellus pearsei (Chelicerata: Ricinulei) and a comparison of mitochondrial gene rearrangements in Arachnida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahrein, Kathrin; Talarico, Giovanni; Braband, Anke; Podsiadlowski, Lars

    2007-10-25

    Mitochondrial genomes are widely utilized for phylogenetic and population genetic analyses among animals. In addition to sequence data the mitochondrial gene order and RNA secondary structure data are used in phylogenetic analyses. Arachnid phylogeny is still highly debated and there is a lack of sufficient sequence data for many taxa. Ricinulei (hooded tickspiders) are a morphologically distinct clade of arachnids with uncertain phylogenetic affinities. The first complete mitochondrial DNA genome of a member of the Ricinulei, Pseudocellus pearsei (Arachnida: Ricinulei) was sequenced using a PCR-based approach. The mitochondrial genome is a typical circular duplex DNA molecule with a size of 15,099 bp, showing the complete set of genes usually present in bilaterian mitochondrial genomes. Five tRNA genes (trnW, trnY, trnN, trnL(CUN), trnV) show different relative positions compared to other Chelicerata (e.g. Limulus polyphemus, Ixodes spp.). We propose that two events led to this derived gene order: (1) a tandem duplication followed by random deletion and (2) an independent translocation of trnN. Most of the inferred tRNA secondary structures show the common cloverleaf pattern except tRNA-Glu where the TpsiC-arm is missing. In phylogenetic analyses (maximum likelihood, maximum parsimony, Bayesian inference) using concatenated amino acid and nucleotide sequences of protein-coding genes the basal relationships of arachnid orders remain unresolved. Phylogenetic analyses (ML, MP, BI) of arachnid mitochondrial genomes fail to resolve interordinal relationships of Arachnida and remain in a preliminary stage because there is still a lack of mitogenomic data from important taxa such as Opiliones and Pseudoscorpiones. Gene order varies considerably within Arachnida - only eight out of 23 species have retained the putative arthropod ground pattern. Some gene order changes are valuable characters in phylogenetic analysis of intraordinal relationships, e.g. in Acari.

  9. Patterns of Protein Evolution in Cytochrome c Oxidase 1 (COI) from the Class Arachnida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Monica R; Hebert, Paul D N

    2015-01-01

    Because sequence information is now available for the 648bp barcode region of cytochrome c oxidase 1 (COI) from more than 400,000 animal species, this gene segment can be used to probe patterns of mitochondrial evolution. The present study examines levels of amino acid substitution and the frequency of indels in COI from 4177 species of arachnids, including representatives from all 16 orders and 43% of its families (267/625). It examines divergences at three taxonomic levels-among members of each order to an outgroup, among families in each order and among BINs, a species proxy, in each family. Order Distances vary fourfold (0.10-0.39), while the mean of the Family Distances for the ten orders ranges fivefold (0.07-0.35). BIN Distances show great variation, ranging from 0.01 or less in 12 families to more than 0.25 in eight families. Patterns of amino acid substitution in COI are generally congruent with previously reported variation in nucleotide substitution rates in arachnids, but provide some new insights, such as clear rate acceleration in the Opiliones. By revealing a strong association between elevated rates of nucleotide and amino acid substitution, this study builds evidence for the selective importance of the rate variation among arachnid lineages. Moreover, it establishes that groups whose COI genes have elevated levels of amino acid substitution also regularly possess indels, a dramatic form of protein reconfiguration. Overall, this study suggests that the mitochondrial genome of some arachnid groups is dynamic with high rates of amino acid substitution and frequent indels, while it is 'locked down' in others. Dynamic genomes are most prevalent in arachnids with short generation times, but the possible impact of breeding system deserves investigation since many of the rapidly evolving lineages reproduce by haplodiploidy, a mode of reproduction absent in 'locked down' taxa.

  10. Subdivision of arthropod cap-n-collar expression domains is restricted to Mandibulata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Prashant P; Gupta, Tripti; Schwager, Evelyn E; Wheeler, Ward C; Extavour, Cassandra G

    2014-01-09

    The monophyly of Mandibulata - the division of arthropods uniting pancrustaceans and myriapods - is consistent with several morphological characters, such as the presence of sensory appendages called antennae and the eponymous biting appendage, the mandible. Functional studies have demonstrated that the patterning of the mandible requires the activity of the Hox gene Deformed and the transcription factor cap-n-collar (cnc) in at least two holometabolous insects: the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster and the beetle Tribolium castaneum. Expression patterns of cnc from two non-holometabolous insects and a millipede have suggested conservation of the labral and mandibular domains within Mandibulata. However, the activity of cnc is unknown in crustaceans and chelicerates, precluding understanding of a complete scenario for the evolution of patterning of this appendage within arthropods. To redress these lacunae, here we investigate the gene expression of the ortholog of cnc in Parhyale hawaiensis, a malacostracan crustacean, and two chelicerates: the harvestman Phalangium opilio, and the scorpion Centruroides sculpturatus. In the crustacean P. hawaiensis, the segmental expression of Ph-cnc is the same as that reported previously in hexapods and myriapods, with two distinct head domains in the labrum and the mandibular segment. In contrast, Po-cnc and Cs-cnc expression is not enriched in the labrum of either chelicerate, but instead is expressed at comparable levels in all appendages. In further contrast to mandibulate orthologs, the expression domain of Po-cnc posterior to the labrum is not confined within the expression domain of Po-Dfd. Expression data from two chelicerate outgroup taxa suggest that the signature two-domain head expression pattern of cnc evolved at the base of Mandibulata. The observation of the archetypal labral and mandibular segment domains in a crustacean exemplar supports the synapomorphic nature of mandibulate cnc expression. The broader

  11. The diversity and evolution of chelicerate hemocyanins

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    Rehm Peter

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oxygen transport in the hemolymph of many arthropod species is facilitated by large copper-proteins referred to as hemocyanins. Arthropod hemocyanins are hexamers or oligomers of hexamers, which are characterized by a high O2 transport capacity and a high cooperativity, thereby enhancing O2 supply. Hemocyanin subunit sequences had been available from horseshoe crabs (Xiphosura and various spiders (Araneae, but not from any other chelicerate taxon. To trace the evolution of hemocyanins and the emergence of the large hemocyanin oligomers, hemocyanin cDNA sequences were obtained from representatives of selected chelicerate classes. Results Hemocyanin subunits from a sea spider, a scorpion, a whip scorpion and a whip spider were sequenced. Hemocyanin has been lost in Opiliones, Pseudoscorpiones, Solifugae and Acari, which may be explained by the evolution of trachea (i.e., taxon Apulmonata. Bayesian phylogenetic analysis was used to reconstruct the evolution of hemocyanin subunits and a relaxed molecular clock approach was applied to date the major events. While the sea spider has a simple hexameric hemocyanin, four distinct subunit types evolved before Xiphosura and Arachnida diverged around 470 Ma ago, suggesting the existence of a 4 × 6mer at that time. Subsequently, independent gene duplication events gave rise to the other distinct subunits in each of the 8 × 6mer hemocyanin of Xiphosura and the 4 × 6mer of Arachnida. The hemocyanin sequences were used to infer the evolutionary history of chelicerates. The phylogenetic trees support a basal position of Pycnogonida, a sister group relationship of Xiphosura and Arachnida, and a sister group relationship of the whip scorpions and the whip spiders. Conclusion Formation of a complex hemocyanin oligomer commenced early in the evolution of euchelicerates. A 4 × 6mer hemocyanin consisting of seven subunit types is conserved in most arachnids since more than 400 Ma, although some

  12. Phylogenomic interrogation of arachnida reveals systemic conflicts in phylogenetic signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Prashant P; Kaluziak, Stefan T; Pérez-Porro, Alicia R; González, Vanessa L; Hormiga, Gustavo; Wheeler, Ward C; Giribet, Gonzalo

    2014-11-01

    Chelicerata represents one of the oldest groups of arthropods, with a fossil record extending to the Cambrian, and is sister group to the remaining extant arthropods, the mandibulates. Attempts to resolve the internal phylogeny of chelicerates have achieved little consensus, due to marked discord in both morphological and molecular hypotheses of chelicerate phylogeny. The monophyly of Arachnida, the terrestrial chelicerates, is generally accepted, but has garnered little support from molecular data, which have been limited either in breadth of taxonomic sampling or in depth of sequencing. To address the internal phylogeny of this group, we employed a phylogenomic approach, generating transcriptomic data for 17 species in combination with existing data, including two complete genomes. We analyzed multiple data sets containing up to 1,235,912 sites across 3,644 loci, using alternative approaches to optimization of matrix composition. Here, we show that phylogenetic signal for the monophyly of Arachnida is restricted to the 500 slowest-evolving genes in the data set. Accelerated evolutionary rates in Acariformes, Pseudoscorpiones, and Parasitiformes potentially engender long-branch attraction artifacts, yielding nonmonophyly of Arachnida with increasing support upon incrementing the number of concatenated genes. Mutually exclusive hypotheses are supported by locus groups of variable evolutionary rate, revealing significant conflicts in phylogenetic signal. Analyses of gene-tree discordance indicate marked incongruence in relationships among chelicerate orders, whereas derived relationships are demonstrably robust. Consistently recovered and supported relationships include the monophyly of Chelicerata, Euchelicerata, Tetrapulmonata, and all orders represented by multiple terminals. Relationships supported by subsets of slow-evolving genes include Ricinulei + Solifugae; a clade comprised of Ricinulei, Opiliones, and Solifugae; and a clade comprised of Tetrapulmonata

  13. The diversity and evolution of chelicerate hemocyanins

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Oxygen transport in the hemolymph of many arthropod species is facilitated by large copper-proteins referred to as hemocyanins. Arthropod hemocyanins are hexamers or oligomers of hexamers, which are characterized by a high O2 transport capacity and a high cooperativity, thereby enhancing O2 supply. Hemocyanin subunit sequences had been available from horseshoe crabs (Xiphosura) and various spiders (Araneae), but not from any other chelicerate taxon. To trace the evolution of hemocyanins and the emergence of the large hemocyanin oligomers, hemocyanin cDNA sequences were obtained from representatives of selected chelicerate classes. Results Hemocyanin subunits from a sea spider, a scorpion, a whip scorpion and a whip spider were sequenced. Hemocyanin has been lost in Opiliones, Pseudoscorpiones, Solifugae and Acari, which may be explained by the evolution of trachea (i.e., taxon Apulmonata). Bayesian phylogenetic analysis was used to reconstruct the evolution of hemocyanin subunits and a relaxed molecular clock approach was applied to date the major events. While the sea spider has a simple hexameric hemocyanin, four distinct subunit types evolved before Xiphosura and Arachnida diverged around 470 Ma ago, suggesting the existence of a 4 × 6mer at that time. Subsequently, independent gene duplication events gave rise to the other distinct subunits in each of the 8 × 6mer hemocyanin of Xiphosura and the 4 × 6mer of Arachnida. The hemocyanin sequences were used to infer the evolutionary history of chelicerates. The phylogenetic trees support a basal position of Pycnogonida, a sister group relationship of Xiphosura and Arachnida, and a sister group relationship of the whip scorpions and the whip spiders. Conclusion Formation of a complex hemocyanin oligomer commenced early in the evolution of euchelicerates. A 4 × 6mer hemocyanin consisting of seven subunit types is conserved in most arachnids since more than 400 Ma, although some entelegyne spiders