WorldWideScience

Sample records for harvested timber accounting

  1. 1974 Washington timber harvest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.D. Jr. Lloyd

    1976-01-01

    The 1974 timber harvest of 6.88 billion board feet declined 933 million board feet (11.9 percent) below the record 1973 harvest. Decreases occurred in almost all owner groups. In western Washington the decline was 856 million board feet (13.0 percent). In eastern Washington the decline was 76 million board feet (6.3 percent).

  2. 1975 Washington timber harvest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.D. Jr. Lloyd

    1977-01-01

    In 1975, the Washington timber harvest declined for the 2d year to 6.2 billion board feet, 10 percent below 1974, and the lowest level in 8 years. The decrease, which occurred on almost all ownerships, amounted to 561 million board feet in western Washington and 130 million board feet in eastern Washington.

  3. Computer Vision for Timber Harvesting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Anders Lindbjerg

    The goal of this thesis is to investigate computer vision methods for timber harvesting operations. The background for developing computer vision for timber harvesting is to document origin of timber and to collect qualitative and quantitative parameters concerning the timber for efficient harvest...... segments. The purpose of image segmentation is to make the basis for more advanced computer vision methods like object recognition and classification. Our second method concerns image classification and we present a method where we classify small timber samples to tree species based on Active Appearance...... to the development of the logTracker system the described methods have a general applicability making them useful for many other computer vision problems....

  4. Compatability Determination for Timber Harvesting

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a compliance document which pertains to allowing commercial and non-commercial timber harvesting to conserve, restore and rehabilitate forest ecosystems at...

  5. California’s forest products industry and timber harvest, 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd A. Morgan; Jason P. Brandt; Kathleen E. Songster; Charles E. Keegan; Glenn A. Christensen

    2012-01-01

    This report traces the flow of California’s 2006 timber harvest through the primary wood products industry (i.e., firms that process timber into manufactured products such as lumber, as well as facilities such as pulp mills and particleboard plants, which use the wood fiber or mill residue directly from timber processors) and provides a description of the structure,...

  6. Alaska’s timber harvest and forest products industry, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erik C. Berg; Charles B. Gale; Todd A. Morgan; Allen M. Brackley; Charles E. Keegan; Susan J. Alexander; Glenn A. Christensen; Chelsea P. McIver; Micah G. Scudder

    2014-01-01

    This report traces the flow of timber harvested in Alaska during calendar year 2011, describes the composition and operations of the state’s primary forest products industry, and quantifies volumes and uses of wood fiber. Historical wood products industry changes are discussed, as well as trends in timber harvest, production, export, sales of primary wood products,...

  7. 36 CFR 219.29 - Limitation on timber harvest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Limitation on timber harvest. 219.29 Section 219.29 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... responsible official may sell timber from areas that are substantially affected by fire, wind, or other events...

  8. Timber products output and timber harvests in Alaska: projections for 1997-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David J. Brooks; Richard W. Haynes

    1997-01-01

    Projections of Alaska timber products output, the derived demand for raw material, and timber harvest by owner are developed from a trend-based analysis. These projections are revisions of projections made in 1990 and again in 1994, and reflect the consequences of recent changes in the Alaska forest sector and long-term trends in markets for Alaska products. With the...

  9. The Effect of Urban Sprawls on Timber Harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen A. Barlow; Ian A Munn; David A. Cleaves; David L. Evans

    1998-01-01

    In Mississippi and Alabama, urban population growth is pushing development into rural areas. To study the impact of urbanization on timber harvesting, census and forest inventory data were combined in a geographic information system, and a logistic regression model was used to estimate the relationship between several variables and harvest probabilities....

  10. Montana's forest products industry and timber harvest, 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timothy P. Spoelma; Todd A. Morgan; Thale Dillon; Alfred L. Chase; Charles E. Keegan; Larry T. DeBlander

    2008-01-01

    This report traces the flow of Montana's 2004 timber harvest through the primary wood-using industries; provides a description of the structure, capacity, and condition of Montana's primary forest products industry; and quantifies volumes and uses of wood fiber. Historical wood products industry changes are discussed, as well as changes in harvest, production...

  11. Idaho's forest products industry and timber harvest, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric A. Simmons; Steven W. Hayes; Todd A. Morgan; Charles E. Keegan; Chris Witt

    2014-01-01

    This report traces the flow of Idaho’s 2011 timber harvest through the primary industries; provides a description of the structure, capacity, and condition of Idaho’s industry; and quantifies volumes and uses of wood fiber. Historical wood products industry trends are discussed, as well as changes in harvest, production, employment, and sales.

  12. Wyoming's forest products industry and timber harvest, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelsea P. McIver; Colin B. Sorenson; Charles E. Keegan; Todd A. Morgan; Mike T. Thompson

    2014-01-01

    This report traces the flow of Wyoming’s 2010 timber harvest through the primary wood-using industries; provides a description of the structure, capacity, and condition of Wyoming’s primary forest products industry, and quantifies volumes and uses of wood fiber. Historical wood products industry changes are discussed, as well as changes in harvest, production,...

  13. Montana's forest products industry and timber harvest, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelsea P. McIver; Colin B. Sorenson; Charles E. Keegan; Todd A. Morgan; Jim Menlove

    2013-01-01

    This report traces the flow of Montana’s 2009 timber harvest through the primary wood-using industries; provides a description of the structure, capacity, and condition of Montana’s primary forest products industry; and quantifies volumes and uses of wood fiber. Historical wood products industry changes are discussed, as well as changes in harvest, production,...

  14. Idaho's forest products industry and timber harvest, 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jason P. Brandt; Todd A. Morgan; Charles E. Keegan; Jon M. Songster; Timothy P. Spoelma; Larry T. DeBlander

    2012-01-01

    This report traces the flow of Idaho's 2006 timber harvest through the primary wood-using industries; describes the structure, capacity, and condition of Idaho's primary forest products industry; and quantifies volumes and uses of wood fiber. Wood products industry historical trends and changes in harvest, production, employment, and sales are also examined...

  15. Wyoming's forest products industry and timber harvest, 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd A. Morgan; Timothy P. Spoelma; Charles E. Keegan; Alfred L. Chase; Mike T. Thompson

    2005-01-01

    This report traces the flow of Wyoming's 2000 timber harvest through the primary wood-using industries; provides a description of the structure, capacity, and condition of Wyoming's primary forest products industry; and quantifies volumes and uses of wood fiber. Historical wood products industry changes are discussed, as well as changes in harvest, production...

  16. Forest soil biology-timber harvesting relationships: a perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. F. Jurgensen; M. J. Larsen; A. E. Harvey

    1979-01-01

    Timber harvesting has a pronounced effect on the soil microflora by wood removal and changing properties. This paper gives a perspective on soil biology-harvesting relationships with emphasis on the northern Rocky Mountain region. Of special significance to forest management operations are the effects of soil micro-organisms on: the availability of soil nutrients,...

  17. California's forest products industry and timber harvest, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelsea P. McIver; Joshua P. Meek; Micah G. Scudder; Colin B. Sorenson; Todd A. Morgan; Glenn A. Christensen

    2015-01-01

    This report traces the flow of California's 2012 timber harvest through the primary wood products industry and provides a description of the structure, condition, and economic impacts of California's forest products sector. Historical forest products industry changes are discussed, as well as trends in harvest, production, mill residue, and sales. Also...

  18. 36 CFR 292.46 - Timber harvesting activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Timber harvesting activities. 292.46 Section 292.46 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE..., high winds, and disease or insect infestation. (2) Where authorized, trees may be harvested by...

  19. Harvest choice and timber supply models for forest forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksym Polyakov; David N Wear

    2010-01-01

    Timber supply has traditionally been modeled using aggregate data, whereas individual harvest choices have been shown to be sensitive to the vintage and condition of forest capital stocks. In this article, we build aggregate supply models for four roundwood products in a seven-state region of the US South directly from stand-level harvest choice models applied to...

  20. Investigation of timber harvesting mechanization progress in Turkey ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Timber harvesting machines amount was reduced to 20 tractors (4 x 4 and assembled shovel), 133 skidding winches, 5 tractors with equipment of snow cleaner, 38 forklifts, 18 loaders, 30 skylines, 61 agricultural tractors, 3 agricultural tractors with shovel, 67 trucks, 1 barking machines as at 2009. In spite of existence of ...

  1. Effects of timber harvest following wildfire in western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    David L. Peterson; James K. Agee; Gregory H. Aplet; Dennis P. Dykstra; Russell T. Graham; John F. Lehmkuhl; David S. Pilliod; Donald F. Potts; Robert F. Powers; John D. Stuart

    2009-01-01

    Timber harvest following wildfire leads to different outcomes depending on the biophysical setting of the forest, pattern of burn severity, operational aspects of tree removal, and other management activities. Fire effects range from relatively minor, in which fire burns through the understory and may kill a few trees, to severe, in which fire kills most trees and...

  2. Estimation of U.S. Timber Harvest Using Roundwood Equivalents

    Science.gov (United States)

    James Howard

    2006-01-01

    This report details the procedure used to estimate the roundwood products portion of U.S. annual timber harvest levels by using roundwood equivalents. National-level U.S. forest products data published by trade associations and State and Federal Government organizations were used to estimate the roundwood equivalent of national roundwood products production. The...

  3. Effects of Timber Harvests and Silvicultural Edges on Terrestrial Salamanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacNeil, Jami E.; Williams, Rod N.

    2014-01-01

    Balancing timber production and conservation in forest management requires an understanding of how timber harvests affect wildlife species. Terrestrial salamanders are useful indicators of mature forest ecosystem health due to their importance to ecosystem processes and sensitivity to environmental change. However, the effects of timber harvests on salamanders, though often researched, are still not well understood. To further this understanding, we used artificial cover objects to monitor the relative abundance of terrestrial salamanders for two seasons (fall and spring) pre-harvest and five seasons post-harvest in six forest management treatments, and for three seasons post-harvest across the edge gradients of six recent clearcuts. In total, we recorded 19,048 encounters representing nine species of salamanders. We observed declines in mean encounters of eastern red-backed salamanders (Plethodon cinereus) and northern slimy salamanders (P. glutinosus) from pre- to post-harvest in group selection cuts and in clearcuts. However, we found no evidence of salamander declines at shelterwoods and forested sites adjacent to harvests. Edge effects induced by recent clearcuts influenced salamanders for approximately 20 m into the forest, but edge influence varied by slope orientation. Temperature, soil moisture, and canopy cover were all correlated with salamander counts. Our results suggest silvicultural techniques that remove the forest canopy negatively affect salamander relative abundance on the local scale during the years immediately following harvest, and that the depth of edge influence of clearcuts on terrestrial salamanders is relatively shallow (harvests (<4 ha) and techniques that leave the forest canopy intact may be compatible with maintaining terrestrial salamander populations across a forested landscape. Our results demonstrate the importance of examining species-specific responses and monitoring salamanders across multiple seasons and years. Long

  4. Computer software to estimate timber harvesting system production, cost, and revenue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dr. John E. Baumgras; Dr. Chris B. LeDoux

    1992-01-01

    Large variations in timber harvesting cost and revenue can result from the differences between harvesting systems, the variable attributes of harvesting sites and timber stands, or changing product markets. Consequently, system and site specific estimates of production rates and costs are required to improve estimates of harvesting revenue. This paper describes...

  5. Noise, Worker Perception, and Worker Concentration in Timber Harvesting Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efi Yuliati Yovi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Timber harvesting activities are unquestionably related with high risk of work accidents and health disorders.Such activities were not only burdened the workers with heavy physical workloads due to uneasy workingenvironment, and massive work materials and tools, but also physiopsychologically burdened workers as theywere imposed with both mechanical and acoustic vibrations (noise produced by the chainsaw. However,  it is acommon practice that most of the workers still ignored the importance of the use of noise reduction devices suchas earmuff or ear plug.  This study was aimed to reveal the factual effects of noise on work concentration of theworkers to provide a scientific basis in supporting efforts in improving workers’ attitude.  The results confirmedthat chainsaw might produce noise during operation.  Noise intensities received by both right and left ears werenot significantly different, indicating that left-handed and normal workers received similar degree of noise inboth side of ears. Further, results also showed that there was a significant difference on the perception and workconcentration of chainsaw operators versus sedentary people to the noise.  These findings proved that hearingability of chainsaw operators had declined due to frequent noise exposure.Keywords: timber harvesting, physio-psychological disorder, noise, chainsaw

  6. Harvesting choices and timber supply among landowners in the southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daowei Zhang; Xing Sun; Brett J. Butler; Jeffrey P. Prestemon

    2015-01-01

    The recent rise of institutional timberland ownership has led to a significant change in the structure and conduct of the timber industry in the United States. In this study,we apply a two-period harvest model to assess the timber harvesting behavior of various landowners at the stand level by utilizing USDA Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis data for nine...

  7. Influences of upland timber harvest on aquatic invertebrate communities in seasonal ponds: efficacy of forested buffers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark A. Hanson; Brian J. Palik; James O. Church; Anthony T. Miller

    2010-01-01

    We assessed community responses of aquatic invertebrates in 16 small, seasonal ponds in a forested region of north central Minnesota, USA, to evaluate potential influences of timber harvest and efficacy of uncut forested buffers in adjacent uplands. Invertebrate data gathered before (2000) and during the first 4 years following clearcut timber harvest (2001-2004)...

  8. Successful and unsuccessful attempts to resolve caribou management and timber harvesting issues in west central Alberta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Hervieux

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Research studies of woodland caribou in west central Alberta began in 1979 in response to proposed timber harvesting on their winter ranges. Using results from initial studies, timber harvest guidelines were developed. A recent review of these guidelines, and the assumptions on which they were based, has resulted in a renegotiation by government and industry of timber harvesting on caribou range in west central Alberta. Caribou range in west central Alberta overlaps many jurisdictional boundaries: federal and provincial lands, four Forest Management Agreement Areas, three Alberta Land and Forest Service Regions and two Alberta Fish and Wildlife Service Regions. This jurisdictional complexity in combination with other factors such as total allocation of the timber resources, high levels of petroleum, natural gas and coal extraction activities, a high level of concern by public groups for caribou conservation and recent understanding of woodland caribou needs for abundant space has made resolution of caribou/timber harvest conflicts exceedingly slow and often relatively unproductive. This paper reviews 10 years of trying to resolve conflicts between timber harvesting and caribou conservation through meetings, committees, integrated resource planning, policy papers and public consultation. We describe what might be learned by other jurisdictions that are trying to resolve similar caribou/timber harvesting issues. We conclude with an overview of recent timber harvest planning initiatives on caribou range in west central Alberta.

  9. Sustainable harvesting of non-timber forest products based on ecological and economic criteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hernandez-Barrios, J.C.; Anten, N.P.R.; Martinez-Ramos, M.

    2014-01-01

    Harvesting of highly valuable non-timber forest products (NTFPs) has been considered a win-win strategy where local people profit while conserving forest biodiversity and ecosystem services. Nevertheless the sustainability of NTFP harvesting has been debated as the nature of NTFPs, harvesting

  10. Sustainable harvesting of non-timber forest products based on ecological and economic criteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hernandez-Barrios, J.C.; Anten, N.P.R.; Martinez-Ramos, M.

    2015-01-01

    1. Harvesting of highly valuable non-timber forest products (NTFPs) has been considered a win-win strategy where local people profit while conserving forest biodiversity ecosystem services. Nevertheless the sustainability of NTFP harvesting has been debated as the nature of NTFPs harvesting regimes

  11. Fluctuations in national forest timber harvest and removals: the southern regional perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonja N. Oswalt; Tony G. Johnson; Mike Howell; James W. Bentley

    2009-01-01

    Here, we examine fluctuations in timber harvest and removals on National Forest System (NFS) lands of the Southern Region in light of changing societal values and administrative policies. We also present timber product utilization information based on multiple data sources, examine NFS removals in the context of standing volume, and compare NFS removals with removals...

  12. Timber harvesting, processing, and employment in the Northwest Economic Adjustment Initiative region: changes and economic assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry L. Raettig; Harriet H. Christensen

    1999-01-01

    The Northwest economic adjustment initiative (NWEAI) provides economic assistance to a region including western Washington, western Oregon, and northern California. Timber harvests have fallen markedly in this region since 1990. The forest products industry is the largest manufacturing sector in the region, and employment has followed the downward trend in timber...

  13. 36 CFR 223.201 - Limitations on unprocessed timber harvested in Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Limitations on unprocessed timber harvested in Alaska. 223.201 Section 223.201 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE...) Permit the salvage of timber damaged by wind, insects, fire or other catastrophe, (d) Bring into use a...

  14. Cattle and elk responses to intensive timber harvest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael J. Wisdom; Bruce K. Johnson; Martin Vavra; Jennifer M. Boyd; Priscilla K. Coe; John G. Kie; Alan A. Ager; Norman J. Cimon

    2004-01-01

    Forested habitats for cattle and elk (Cervus elaphus) in the western United States have changed substantially in response to intensive timber management during the latter half of the 20th century. Consequently, the subject of how elk and other ungulates respond to timber management is a high-profile, long-standing issue that continues to be studied...

  15. Forest floor temperature and relative humidity following timber harvesting in southern New England, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert T. Brooks; Thomas D. Kyker-Snowman

    2008-01-01

    Forest amphibians, especially salamanders, prefer forests with shaded, cool, and moist forest floors. Timber harvesting opens the forest canopy and exposes the forest floor to direct sunlight, which can increase forest floor temperatures and reduce soil moisture. These microclimatic changes can potentially degrade the harvested stand for amphibian habitat or affect...

  16. Considering departures from current timber harvesting policies: case studies of four communities in the Pacific Northwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Con H Schallau; Paul E. Polzin

    1983-01-01

    U.S. Department of Agriculture regulations permit departures from current National Forest timber harvesting policies when "implementation of base harvest schedules.., would cause a substantial adverse impact upon a community .... " This paper describes the kinds of information needed for forest managers to adequately assess the relevance of the departure...

  17. Effects of timber harvest on elk distribution in the Blue Mountains of Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jon M. Skovlin; Larry D. Bryant; Paul J. Edgerton

    1989-01-01

    A long-term study to determine the effects of several methods of timber harvest on the distribution of Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) was begun in the early 1970's in the Blue Mountains of northeastern Oregon. The study area was an upper slope spruce-fir type with harvest designed to compare changes in elk use, as measured by...

  18. Landscape-scale quantification of fire-induced change in canopy cover following mountain pine beetle outbreak and timber harvest

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarley, T. Ryan; Kolden, Crystal A.; Vaillant, Nicole M.; Hudak, Andrew T.; Smith, Alistair M.S.; Kreitler, Jason R.

    2017-01-01

    Across the western United States, the three primary drivers of tree mortality and carbon balance are bark beetles, timber harvest, and wildfire. While these agents of forest change frequently overlap, uncertainty remains regarding their interactions and influence on specific subsequent fire effects such as change in canopy cover. Acquisition of pre- and post-fire Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data on the 2012 Pole Creek Fire in central Oregon provided an opportunity to isolate and quantify fire effects coincident with specific agents of change. This study characterizes the influence of pre-fire mountain pine beetle (MPB; Dendroctonus ponderosae) and timber harvest disturbances on LiDAR-estimated change in canopy cover. Observed canopy loss from fire was greater (higher severity) in areas experiencing pre-fire MPB (Δ 18.8%CC) than fire-only (Δ 11.1%CC). Additionally, increasing MPB intensity was directly related to greater canopy loss. Canopy loss was lower for all areas of pre-fire timber harvest (Δ 3.9%CC) than for fire-only, but among harvested areas, the greatest change was observed in the oldest treatments and the most intensive treatments [i.e., stand clearcut (Δ 5.0%CC) and combination of shelterwood establishment cuts and shelterwood removal cuts (Δ 7.7%CC)]. These results highlight the importance of accounting for and understanding the impact of pre-fire agents of change such as MPB and timber harvest on subsequent fire effects in land management planning. This work also demonstrates the utility of multi-temporal LiDAR as a tool for quantifying these landscape-scale interactions.

  19. Beyond reaping the first harvest: management objectives for timber production in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarin, Daniel J; Schulze, Mark D; Vidal, Edson; Lentini, Marco

    2007-08-01

    Millions of hectares of future timber concessions are slated to be implemented within large public forests under the forest law passed in 2006 by the Brazilian Congress. Additional millions of hectares of large, privately owned forests and smaller areas of community forests are certified as well managed by the Forest Stewardship Council, based on certification standards that will be reviewed in 2007. Forest size and ownership are two key factors that influence management objectives and the capacity of forest managers to achieve them. Current best ecological practices for timber production from Brazil's native Amazon forests are limited to reduced-impact logging (RIL) systems that minimize the environmental impacts of harvest operations and that obey legal restrictions regarding minimum diameters, rare species, retention of seed trees, maximum logging intensity, preservation of riparian buffers, fire protection, and wildlife conservation. Compared with conventional, predatory harvesting that constitutes >90% of the region's timber production, RIL dramatically reduces logging damage and helps maintain forest cover and the presence of rare tree species, but current RIL guidelines do not assure that the volume of timber removed can be sustained in future harvests. We believe it is counterproductive to expect smallholders to subscribe to additional harvest limitations beyond RIL, that larger private forested landholdings managed for timber production should be sustainable with respect to the total volume of timber harvested per unit area per cutting cycle, and that large public forests should sustain volume production of individual harvested species. These additional requirements would improve the ecological sustainability of forest management and help create a stable forest-based sector of the region's economy, but would involve costs associated with lengthened cutting cycles, reduced harvest intensities, and/or postharvest silviculture to promote adequate growth and

  20. DTM models to enhance planning of timber harvesting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đuka Andreja

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the applicability of DTM with the resolution of 4 × 4 m for the analysis of macro-topographic factors (terrain slope, aspect, terrain ruggedness index and one part of micro-topographic factors (occasional and constant streams as features important for vehicle mobility during timber skidding. The analysis of directions of timber extraction in relation to the spatial position of primary forest traffic infrastructure of the study area was conducted in order to determine from which forest areas timber will be extracted up or down the slope (moving of loaded vehicle. Determination of water bodies (streams and the surrounding sensitive areas was carried out using GIS tool TauDEM. Unevenness of the terrain was determined based on the Terrain Ruggedness Index (TRI which showed moderately to very rugged terrain on 60.1% of the research area where vehicle mobility could be difficult (if not impossible i.e. the necessity of a secondary forest road network is clear. DTM analysis of study area regarding vehicle (skidder mobility and possible planning of timber extraction indicated different availability and quality of data. Digital terrain models present a good basis for the analysis of key constraints for forestry vehicles mobility or terrain trafficability (slope and direction of timber extraction. Using DTM of higher resolution (e.g. LiDAR images, will increase the accuracy of the results and the quality of the analysis.

  1. Social and biophysical variation in regional timber harvest regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonathan R. Thompson; Charles D. Canham; Luca Morreale; David B. Kittredge; Brett Butler

    2017-01-01

    In terms of adult tree mortality, harvesting is the most prevalent disturbance in northeastern United States forests. Previous studies have demonstrated that stand structure and tree species composition are important predictors of harvest. We extend this work to investigate how social factors further influence harvest regimes. By coupling the Forest Inventory and...

  2. Evaluating timber harvesting impacts on wildlife habitat suitability using FOREX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chris B. LeDoux

    1997-01-01

    Precommercial, commercial, and final harvesting operations can impact wildlife habitat suitability by altering the vegetation composition on a given site. Harvesting operations remove trees and many times provide the necessary perturbation to trigger successional conditions different from those that existed prior to the harvest. Although these new successional changes...

  3. Some Guidelines For Reduced Impact Timber Harvesting Practices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... raw materials for building and mining industries, energy and non wood products. Unfortunately, indiscriminate exploitation for timber, charcoal and other products, frequent destructive woodland fires and expansion of agricultural activities have of recent contributed to eroding the environmental importance and ecological ...

  4. Investigation of timber harvesting mechanization progress in Turkey

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-03-15

    Mar 15, 2010 ... INTRODUCTION. The preparation and implementation of mechanization plans requires knowledge not only of economic, technical and management characteristics of ..... 2435-1, October.5th-10th.2004, Lviv, Ukraine. Ozturk T, Demir M, Hasdemir M (2007). Work organization of timber production in Turkey.

  5. Spatially-varied erosion modeling using WEPP for timber harvested and burned hillslopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter R. Robichaud; T. M. Monroe

    1997-01-01

    Spatially-varied hydrologic surface conditions exist on steep hillslopes after timber harvest operation and site preparation burning treatments. Site preparation burning creates low- and high-severity burn surface conditions or disturbances. In this study, a hillslope was divided into multiple combinations of surface conditions to determine how their spatial...

  6. 75 FR 25197 - Shasta Trinity National Forest, South Fork Management Unit, California Salt Timber Harvest and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-07

    ... Forest Service Shasta Trinity National Forest, South Fork Management Unit, California Salt Timber Harvest..., Shasta-Trinity National Forest, 3644 Avtech Parkway, Redding, CA 96002; telephone (530) 226-2425, e-mail... Section 18.2. J. Sharon Heywood, Shasta-Trinity National Forest Supervisor, signed a Record of Decision on...

  7. Productivity and soil properties 45 years after timber harvest and mechanical site preparation in western Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luke M. Cerise; Deborah S. Page-Dumroese; Paul McDaniel; Cole Mayn; Robert. Heinse

    2013-01-01

    Site preparation following timber harvests is widely used to increase seedling establishment postharvest. Historically, dozer piling and ripping were the most common forms of site preparation in the Intermountain West. Less commonly, terracing of hill slopes was another form of site preparation on the Bitterroot National Forest in western Montana from 1961-1970 on...

  8. Estimating risk of debris slides after timber harvest in northwestern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. K. Neely; R. M. Rice

    1990-01-01

    Abstract - The risk of debris slides resulting from logging must often be appraised by foresters planning timber harvests. The Board of Forestry of the State of California commissioned the development of a Mass Movement Checklist to guide foresters making such appraisals. The classification accuracy of the Checklist, tested using 50 logging-related debris slides and 50...

  9. Erosion and soil displacement related to timber harvesting in northwestern California, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.M. Rice; D.J. Furbish

    1984-01-01

    The relationship between measures of site disturbance and erosion resulting from timber harvest was studied by regression analyses. None of the 12 regression models developed and tested yielded a coefficient of determination (R2) greater than 0.60. The results indicated that the poor fits to the data were due, in part, to unexplained qualitative...

  10. Legal distinction between employee and independent contractor as applied to collective bargaining activities in timber harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    James E. Granskog; William C. Siegal

    1977-01-01

    Collective bargaining attempts by timber harvesting labor groups is often complicated by lack of a clear legal distinction between "employees" and "independent contractors." the primary criterion to make the distinction - the "right-to-control" test of common law - has now been amplified by a number of secondary tests, including: 1) the...

  11. Simulating Harvest Schedule for Timber Management and Multipurpose Management in Teak Plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatang Tiryana

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable management of teak plantations in Java requires an improvement of the existing yield regulation method to optimize multiple benefits of the plantations at risk of stand destruction. This study was therefore aimed to formulate an alternative harvest scheduling model that integrates risk of stand destruction for supporting multipurpose management of teak plantations. The proposed model used a state-space planning model to simulate the dynamic of plantations due to timber harvesting and stand destruction, and then sought optimal solutions for 2 management scenarios, i.e. timber management that optimized total harvest volume and multipurpose management that optimized net present value (NPV while increasing carbon stocks. Using a case study on a typical teak plantation, this study confirmed that increasing destruction rates reduced harvest volumes, NPV, carbon stocks, and resulted in imbalanced ending age-class structures. Reducing cutting-age limit increased harvest volumes and NPV, but it also reduced carbon stocks of the plantations. Although the multipurpose management generated lower financial benefit, it maintained carbon stocks and produced better ending age-class structures compared to timber management. The proposed harvest scheduling model provides a useful planning tool for managing teak plantations.

  12. Social and biophysical variation in regional timber harvest regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Jonathan R; Canham, Charles D; Morreale, Luca; Kittredge, David B; Butler, Brett

    2017-04-01

    In terms of adult tree mortality, harvesting is the most prevalent disturbance in northeastern United States forests. Previous studies have demonstrated that stand structure and tree species composition are important predictors of harvest. We extend this work to investigate how social factors further influence harvest regimes. By coupling the Forest Inventory and Analysis database to U.S. Census and National Woodland Owner Survey (NWOS) data, we quantify social and biophysical variation in the frequency and intensity of harvesting throughout a 20-state region in the northeastern United States. Among social factors, ownership class is most predictive of harvest frequency and intensity. The annual probability of a harvest event within privately owned forest (3%/yr) is twice as high as within publicly owned forests (1.5%/yr). Among private owner classes, the annual harvest probability on corporate-owned forests (3.6%/yr) is 25% higher than on private woodlands (2.9%/yr). Among public owner classes, the annual probability of harvest is highest on municipally owned forests (2.4%/ yr), followed by state-owned forests (1.6%/yr), and is lowest on federal forests (1%/yr). In contrast, corporate, state, and municipal forests all have similar distributions of harvest intensity; the median percentage of basal area removed during harvest events is approximately 40% in these three owner groups. Federal forests are similar to private woodlands with median harvest intensities of 23% and 20%, respectively. Social context variables, including local home prices, population density and the distance to a road, help explain the intensity, but not the frequency, of harvesting. Private woodlands constitute the majority of forest area; however, demographic data about their owners (e.g., their age, educational attainment, length of land tenure, retired status) show little relationship to aggregate harvest behavior. Instead, significant predictors for harvesting on private woodlands

  13. Forest disturbances, deforestation and timber harvest patterns in the Conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boschetti, L.; Huo, L. Z.

    2016-12-01

    Current estimates of carbon-equivalent emissions report the contribution of deforestation as 12% of total anthropogenic carbon emissions (van der Werf et al., 2009), but accurate monitoring of forest carbon balance should discriminate between land use change related to forest natural disturbances, forest management and deforestation. The total change in forest cover (Gross Forest Cover Loss, GFCL) needs to be characterized based on the cause (natural/human) and on the outcome of the change (regeneration to forest/transition to non-forest)(Kurtz et al, 2010). We developed a multitemporal, object-oriented methodology to classify GFCL as either (a) deforestation, (b) fire and insect disturbances (c) forest management practices. The Landsat-derived University of Maryland Global Forest Change product (Hansen, 2013) is used to identify all the areas forest cover loss: those areas are subsequently converted to objects, and used to extract temporal profiles of spectral reflectances and spectral indices from the Landsat WELD dataset. Finally, the temporal profiles and descriptive parameters of shapes, textures, and spatial relationships of the objects are used in a rule-based classifier to identify the type of disturbance. To pathfind a global disturbance type classification, the methods are demonstrated by wall-to-wall classification of the forest cover loss in the conterminous United States for the 2002-2011 period. The results show that deforestation accounts for a small percentage (approximately 2%) of the GFCL in the CONUS, and are in agreement with the known patterns of logging activity, fire and insect damage. The time series of timber harvest clearcut is also in agreement with the national timber extraction statistics, showing reduced harvesting following the 2008 economic crisis. The results also highlight the different management practices on private and public lands: 36% of the US forests are publicly owned (federal, state and local institutions) but account only

  14. Managing the forest for more than the trees: effects of experimental timber harvest on forest Lepidoptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summerville, Keith S

    2011-04-01

    Studies of the effects of timber harvest on forest insect communities have rarely considered how disturbance from a range of harvest levels interacts with temporal variation in species diversity to affect community resistance to change. Here I report the results of a landscape-scale, before-and-after, treatment-control experiment designed to test how communities of forest Lepidoptera experience (1) changes in species richness and composition and (2) shifts in species dominance one year after logging. I sampled Lepidoptera from 20 forest stands allocated to three harvest treatments (control, even-aged shelterwood or clearcuts, and uneven-aged group selection cuts) within three watersheds at Morgan-Monroe State Forest, Indiana, USA. Moths were sampled from all forest stands one year prior to harvest in 2007 and immediately post-harvest in 2009. Species composition was most significantly affected by temporal variation between years, although uneven-aged management also caused significant changes in lepidopteran community structure. Furthermore, species richness of Lepidoptera was higher in 2007 compared to 2009 across all watersheds and forest stands. The decrease in species richness between years, however, was much larger in even-aged and uneven-aged management units compared to the control. Furthermore, matrix stands within the even-aged management unit demonstrated the highest resistance to species loss within any management unit. Species dominance was highly resistant to effects of timber harvest, with pre- and post-harvest values for Simpson diversity nearly invariant. Counter to prediction, however, the suite of dominant taxa differed dramatically among the three management units post-harvest. My results suggest that temporal variation may have strong interactions with timber harvest, precipitating loss of nearly 50% species richness from managed stands regardless of harvest level. Even-aged management, however, appeared to leave the smallest "footprint" on moth

  15. Timber harvest planning—A combined optimization/simulation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, Jeffrey L.; Dykstra, Dennis P.

    1980-11-01

    A special cascading fixed charge structure can be used to characterize a forest management planning problem in which the objectives are to identify the optimal shape of forest harvest cutting units and simultaneously to assign facilities for logging those units. We describe a four-part methodology that has been developed to assist forest managers in analyzing areas proposed for harvesting. This methodology performs an analysis of harvesting feasibility, computes the optimal solution to the cascading fixed charge problem, undertakes a GASP IV simulation to provide additional information about the proposed harvesting operation, and permits the forest manager to perform a time-cost analysis that may lead to a more realistic, and thus improved, solution.

  16. Utilization of Oregon’s timber harvest and associated direct economic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krista M. Gebert; Charles E. Keegan; Sue Willits; Al. Chase

    2002-01-01

    With more than 16 million acres of commercial timberland, Oregon’s forest products industry is an important part of Oregon’s economy and a major player in the Nation’s wood products market. Despite declining production over the last decade, in 1998 Oregon was still the leading producer of softwood lumber and plywood in the United States, and the timber harvested in...

  17. A computer-based time study system for timber harvesting operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jingxin Wang; Joe McNeel; John Baumgras

    2003-01-01

    A computer-based time study system was developed for timber harvesting operations. Object-oriented techniques were used to model and design the system. The front-end of the time study system resides on the MS Windows CE and the back-end is supported by MS Access. The system consists of three major components: a handheld system, data transfer interface, and data storage...

  18. Impact of U.S. forest products consumption, imports, and exports on foreign timber harvests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irene Durbak; Ken. Skog

    2001-01-01

    The U.S. has historically been a net importer of wood and paper products. During the 1990’s, the U.S. trade deficit widened, implying an increasing U.S. impact on timber harvests in foreign supply regions. An analysis was made of historical and projected trends in U.S. consumption and trade in terms of the roundwood volume required to make products consumed and traded...

  19. Ergonomic factors and production target evaluation in eucalyptus timber harvesting operations in mountainous terrains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Amaury Paulo; Minette, Luciano José; Sanches, André Luis Petean; da Silva, Emília Pio; Rodrigues, Valéria Antônia Justino; de Oliveira, Luciana Aparecida

    2012-01-01

    There are several forest operations involved in Eucalyptus timber harvesting. This study was carried out during brush-cutting; tree felling, bucking, delimbing, piling and manual extraction operations, with the following objectives: a) analyzing, ergonomically, two systems of brush-cutting: one manual and the other semi-mechanized, using two different machines; b) ergonomically evaluating three different brands of pruner machines used in delimbing felled trees. c) determining the feasible target of productivity as a function of ergonomic factors relevant to establish the time of resting pauses for workers in manual and semi-mechanized timber harvesting systems in mountainous terrain. Brush-cutting, either manual or semimechanized, is an activity carried out prior to timber harvesting. It is usually a hard work, with low productivity when compared with mechanized systems. Pruner machines have been used by forest companies, due to the great possibilities to improve productivity, quality and the health of workers. Ergonomics is a discipline that promotes the adequacy of work to the physical and mental characteristics of human beings, seeking to design production systems and products considering relevant aspects, including social, organizational and environmental factors. Companies should consider the ergonomic factor in the determination of daily worker production targets.

  20. Modeling the Complex Impacts of Timber Harvests to Find Optimal Management Regimes for Amazon Tidal Floodplain Forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortini, Lucas B; Cropper, Wendell P; Zarin, Daniel J

    2015-01-01

    At the Amazon estuary, the oldest logging frontier in the Amazon, no studies have comprehensively explored the potential long-term population and yield consequences of multiple timber harvests over time. Matrix population modeling is one way to simulate long-term impacts of tree harvests, but this approach has often ignored common impacts of tree harvests including incidental damage, changes in post-harvest demography, shifts in the distribution of merchantable trees, and shifts in stand composition. We designed a matrix-based forest management model that incorporates these harvest-related impacts so resulting simulations reflect forest stand dynamics under repeated timber harvests as well as the realities of local smallholder timber management systems. Using a wide range of values for management criteria (e.g., length of cutting cycle, minimum cut diameter), we projected the long-term population dynamics and yields of hundreds of timber management regimes in the Amazon estuary, where small-scale, unmechanized logging is an important economic activity. These results were then compared to find optimal stand-level and species-specific sustainable timber management (STM) regimes using a set of timber yield and population growth indicators. Prospects for STM in Amazonian tidal floodplain forests are better than for many other tropical forests. However, generally high stock recovery rates between harvests are due to the comparatively high projected mean annualized yields from fast-growing species that effectively counterbalance the projected yield declines from other species. For Amazonian tidal floodplain forests, national management guidelines provide neither the highest yields nor the highest sustained population growth for species under management. Our research shows that management guidelines specific to a region's ecological settings can be further refined to consider differences in species demographic responses to repeated harvests. In principle, such fine

  1. Modeling the complex impacts of timber harvests to find optimal management regimes for Amazon tidal floodplain forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortini, Lucas B.; Cropper, Wendell P.; Zarin, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    At the Amazon estuary, the oldest logging frontier in the Amazon, no studies have comprehensively explored the potential long-term population and yield consequences of multiple timber harvests over time. Matrix population modeling is one way to simulate long-term impacts of tree harvests, but this approach has often ignored common impacts of tree harvests including incidental damage, changes in post-harvest demography, shifts in the distribution of merchantable trees, and shifts in stand composition. We designed a matrix-based forest management model that incorporates these harvest-related impacts so resulting simulations reflect forest stand dynamics under repeated timber harvests as well as the realities of local smallholder timber management systems. Using a wide range of values for management criteria (e.g., length of cutting cycle, minimum cut diameter), we projected the long-term population dynamics and yields of hundreds of timber management regimes in the Amazon estuary, where small-scale, unmechanized logging is an important economic activity. These results were then compared to find optimal stand-level and species-specific sustainable timber management (STM) regimes using a set of timber yield and population growth indicators. Prospects for STM in Amazonian tidal floodplain forests are better than for many other tropical forests. However, generally high stock recovery rates between harvests are due to the comparatively high projected mean annualized yields from fast-growing species that effectively counterbalance the projected yield declines from other species. For Amazonian tidal floodplain forests, national management guidelines provide neither the highest yields nor the highest sustained population growth for species under management. Our research shows that management guidelines specific to a region’s ecological settings can be further refined to consider differences in species demographic responses to repeated harvests. In principle, such fine

  2. Modeling the Complex Impacts of Timber Harvests to Find Optimal Management Regimes for Amazon Tidal Floodplain Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortini, Lucas B.; Cropper, Wendell P.; Zarin, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    At the Amazon estuary, the oldest logging frontier in the Amazon, no studies have comprehensively explored the potential long-term population and yield consequences of multiple timber harvests over time. Matrix population modeling is one way to simulate long-term impacts of tree harvests, but this approach has often ignored common impacts of tree harvests including incidental damage, changes in post-harvest demography, shifts in the distribution of merchantable trees, and shifts in stand composition. We designed a matrix-based forest management model that incorporates these harvest-related impacts so resulting simulations reflect forest stand dynamics under repeated timber harvests as well as the realities of local smallholder timber management systems. Using a wide range of values for management criteria (e.g., length of cutting cycle, minimum cut diameter), we projected the long-term population dynamics and yields of hundreds of timber management regimes in the Amazon estuary, where small-scale, unmechanized logging is an important economic activity. These results were then compared to find optimal stand-level and species-specific sustainable timber management (STM) regimes using a set of timber yield and population growth indicators. Prospects for STM in Amazonian tidal floodplain forests are better than for many other tropical forests. However, generally high stock recovery rates between harvests are due to the comparatively high projected mean annualized yields from fast-growing species that effectively counterbalance the projected yield declines from other species. For Amazonian tidal floodplain forests, national management guidelines provide neither the highest yields nor the highest sustained population growth for species under management. Our research shows that management guidelines specific to a region’s ecological settings can be further refined to consider differences in species demographic responses to repeated harvests. In principle, such fine

  3. Investigating Forest Soil Disturbance with Different Timber Harvesting Operations in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Sangjun; Lee, Eunjai; Eu, Song; Han, Sang-Kyun

    2017-04-01

    Forest operation such as timber harvesting can influence to forest environment by displacing soil particles, compacting surface layers, and destroying soil structures. This results in increased surface runoff and associated soil erosion during rainy season, due to soil disturbance. The extent of soil disturbance depends on the skidding/yarding method, types of machine used, and soil types. In South Korea, cut-to-length (CTL) operation is traditionally used by excavator with grapple in most areas. Recently, whole-tree (WT) harvesting system by swing yarder has gained considerable attention as an alternative traditional extraction method. The objectives of this study were to describe the effects of two different harvesting methods (CTL and WT) on soil disturbance and soil physical properties. After the CTL observation, we found that severe disturbed soils and compacted area were more than WT. Rutting was influenced more than 50% of the deep disturbance classes by the uphill climbing and downhill extraction method, while exposing bare soil was most disturbance in WT operation. Soil physical properties were influenced considerably by the number of excavator passes and slash residual classes in both units. The results from the study would be useful for understanding soil disturbance influence by timber harvesting in Korea. But, more detailed observations are needed to accurately estimate erosion rates and sediment delivery associated with forest management and operation. Acknowledgements. This study was carried out with the support of 'R&D Program for Forestry Technology (Project No. S211316L020110)' provided by Korea Forest Service.

  4. Decadal-scale changes in forest soil carbon and nitrogen storage are influenced by organic matter removal during timber harvest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan M. Mushinski; Thomas W. Boutton; D. Andrew Scott

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates whether different intensities of organic matter removal associated with timber harvest influence decadal-scale storage of soil organic carbon (SOC) and total nitrogen (TN) in the top 1 m of mineral soil 18 years postharvest in a Pinus taeda L. forest in the Gulf Coastal Plain. We quantified forest harvest-related changes in...

  5. Effects of timber harvest on structural diversity and species composition in hardwood forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FARZAM TAVANKAR

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Tavankar F, Bonyad AE. 2015. Effects of timber harvest on structural diversity and species composition in hardwood forests. Biodiversitas 16: 1-9. Forest management leads to changes in structure and species composition of stands. In this research vertical and horizontal structure and species composition were compared in two harvested and protected stands in the Caspian forest of Iran. The results indicated the tree and seedling density, total basal area and stand volume was significantly (P < 0.01 higher in the protected stand. The Fagus orientalis L. had the most density and basal area in the both stands. Species importance value (SIV of Fagus orientalis in the protected stand (92.5 was higher than in the harvested stand (88.5. While, the SIV of shade-intolerant tree species such as Acer insigne, Acer cappadocicum and Alnus subcordata was higher in the harvested stand. The density of trees and seedling of rare tree species, such as Ulmus glabra, Tilia begonifolia, Zelkova caprinifolia and Fraxinus coriarifolia, was also higher in the protected stand. The Shannon-Wiener diversity index in the protected stand (0.84 was significantly higher (P < 0.01 than in the harvested stand (0.72. The highest diversity value in the harvested stand was observed in DBH of 10-40 cm class, while DBH of 40-70 cm had the highest diversity value in the protected stand.

  6. Oregon’s forest products industry and timber harvest, 2008: industry trends and impacts of the Great Recession through 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles B. Gale; Charles E. Keegan; Erik C. Berg; Jean Daniels; Glenn A. Christensen; Colin B. Sorenson; Todd A. Morgan; Paul. Polzin

    2012-01-01

    This report traces the flow of Oregon’s 2008 timber harvest through the primary timber processing industry and provides a description of the structure, operation, and condition of Oregon’s forest products industry as a whole. It is the second in a series of reports that update the status of the industry every 5 years. Based on a census conducted in 2009 and 2010, we...

  7. Browsing Patterns of White-Tailed Deer Following Increased Timber Harvest and a Decline in Population Density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawn M. Crimmins

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined browsing patterns of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus on a site in the central Appalachians that experienced a substantial (>50% reduction in deer population density and an increase in the amount of timber harvest since 2001. We sampled woody browse in and immediately adjacent to 12 clearcuts ranging in age from 0–5 years postharvest in summer 2007. Clearcut-interior areas had higher woody browse abundance and browsing rates than clearcut-edge or mature forest areas. Woody browse abundance was slightly higher within individual clearcuts than in 2001 at higher population densities and lower timber harvest rates. Overall browsing rates declined from approximately 17% in 2001 to less than 5% during our study, suggesting that the combination of deer population control, and increasing the amount of timber harvest across the landscape can reduce herbivory to levels that may not impede growth and survival of forest vegetation.

  8. Avian response to timber harvesting applied experimentally to manage Cerulean Warbler breeding populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, James; Wood, Petra Bohall; Buehler, David A.; Keyser, Patrick D.; Larkin, Jeffrey L.; Rodewald, Amanda D.; Wigley, T. Bently; Boves, Than J.; George, Gregory A.; Bakermans, Marja H.; Beachy, Tiffany A.; Evans, Andrea; McDermott, Molly E.; Newell, Felicity L.; Perkins, Kelly A.; White, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Timber harvesting has been proposed as a management tool to enhance breeding habitat for the Cerulean Warbler (Setophaga cerulea), a declining Neotropical–Nearctic migratory songbird that nests in the canopy of mature eastern deciduous forests. To evaluate how this single-species management focus might fit within an ecologically based management approach for multiple forest birds, we performed a manipulative experiment using four treatments (three intensities of timber harvests and an unharvested control) at each of seven study areas within the core Cerulean Warbler breeding range. We collected pre-harvest (one year) and post-harvest (four years) data on the territory density of Cerulean Warblers and six additional focal species, avian community relative abundance, and several key habitat variables. We evaluated the avian and habitat responses across the 3–32 m2 ha−1 residual basal area (RBA) range of the treatments. Cerulean Warbler territory density peaked with medium RBA (∼16 m2 ha−1). In contrast, territory densities of the other focal species were negatively related to RBA (e.g., Hooded Warbler [Setophaga citrina]), were positively related to RBA (e.g., Ovenbird [Seiurus aurocapilla]), or were not sensitive to this measure (Scarlet Tanager [Piranga olivacea]). Some species (e.g., Hooded Warbler) increased with time post-treatment and were likely tied to a developing understory, whereas declines (e.g., Ovenbird) were immediate. Relative abundance responses of additional species were consistent with the territory density responses of the focal species. Across the RBA gradient, greatest separation in the avian community was between early successional forest species (e.g., Yellow-breasted Chat [Icteria virens]) and closed-canopy mature forest species (e.g., Ovenbird), with the Cerulean Warbler and other species located intermediate to these two extremes. Overall, our results suggest that harvests within 10–20 m2 ha−1 RBA yield the largest

  9. Geostatistics: a new tool for describing spatially-varied surface conditions from timber harvested and burned hillslopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter R. Robichaud

    1997-01-01

    Geostatistics provides a method to describe the spatial continuity of many natural phenomena. Spatial models are based upon the concept of scaling, kriging and conditional simulation. These techniques were used to describe the spatially-varied surface conditions on timber harvest and burned hillslopes. Geostatistical techniques provided estimates of the ground cover (...

  10. Assessment of streamside management zones for conserving benthic macroinvertebrate communities following timber harvest in eastern Kentucky headwater catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshua Adkins; Christopher Barton; Scott Grubbs; Jeffrey Stringer; Randy Kolka

    2016-01-01

    Headwater streams generally comprise the majority of stream area in a watershed and can have a strong influence on downstream food webs. Our objective was to determine the effect of altering streamside management zone (SMZ) configurations on headwater aquatic insect communities. Timber harvests were implemented within six watersheds in eastern Kentucky. The SMZ...

  11. Browsing patterns of white-tailed deer following increased timber harvest and a decline in population density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shawn M. Crimmins; John W. Edwards; W. Mark Ford; Patrick D. Keyser; James M. Crum

    2010-01-01

    We examined browsing patterns of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) on a site in the central Appalachians that experienced a substantial (>50%) reduction in deer population density and an increase in the amount of timber harvest since 2001. We sampled woody browse in and immediately adjacent to 12 clearcuts ranging in age from 0-5 years...

  12. Comparison of timber utilization between a tree-length and an in-wood chipping harvesting operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suraj Prasad Shrestha; Bobby L. Lanford

    2002-01-01

    Two 25-year old pine plantations in Alabama, one for in-wood-chipping (IWC) and another for tree length (TL) harvesting operations, were selected to determine the proportion of the standing merchantable timber resource and value that got to a manufacturing facility. Amount of sawtimber after merchandizing in the woods was found to be 80.6 percent of inside bark volume...

  13. The Effects of Timber Harvesting on Neotropical Migrants in Cove Hardwood Forests in the Southern Appalachian Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathleen E. Franzreb

    2005-01-01

    I compared avian species richness, density, and diversity for neotropical migrants, short distance migrants, and permanent residents following timber harvesting in cove hardwood forests in the Southern Appalachian Mountains of North Carolina. The forest stands were 4-103 years old, had undergone a clearcut or selective tree removal, and represented four successional...

  14. The influence of partial timber harvesting in riparian buffers on macroinvertebrate and fish communities in small streams in Minnesota, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chizinski, Christopher J.; Vondracek, Bruce C.; Blinn, Charles R.; Newman, Raymond M.; Atuke, Dickson M.; Fredricks, Keith; Hemstad, Nathaniel A.; Merten, Eric C.; Schlesser, Nicholas

    2010-01-01

    Relatively few evaluations of aquatic macroinvertebrate and fish communities have been published in peer-reviewed literature detailing the effect of varying residual basal area (RBA) after timber harvesting in riparian buffers. Our analysis investigated the effects of partial harvesting within riparian buffers on aquatic macroinvertebrate and fish communities in small streams from two experiments in northern Minnesota northern hardwood-aspen forests. Each experiment evaluated partial harvesting within riparian buffers. In both experiments, benthic macroinvertebrates and fish were collected 1 year prior to harvest and in each of 3 years after harvest. We observed interannual variation for the macroinvertebrate abundance, diversity and taxon richness in the single-basin study and abundance and diversity in the multiple-basin study, but few effects related to harvest treatments in either study. However, interannual variation was not evident in the fish communities and we detected no significant changes in the stream fish communities associated with partially harvested riparian buffers in either study. This would suggest that timber harvesting in riparian management zones along reaches ≤200 m in length on both sides of the stream that retains RBA ≥ 12.4 ± 1.3 m2 ha−1 or on a single side of the stream that retains RBA ≥ 8.7 ± 1.6 m2 ha−1 may be adequate to protect macroinvertebrate and fish communities in our Minnesota study systems given these specific timber harvesting techniques.

  15. Applying Physically Representative Watershed Modelling to Assess Peak and Low Flow Response to Timber Harvest: Application for Watershed Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, R. J.; Anderson, A.; Silins, U.; Craig, J. R.

    2014-12-01

    Forest harvesting, insects, disease, wildfire, and other disturbances can combine with climate change to cause unknown changes to the amount and timing of streamflow from critical forested watersheds. Southern Alberta forest and alpine areas provide downstream water supply for agriculture and water utilities that supply approximately two thirds of the Alberta population. This project uses datasets from intensely monitored study watersheds and hydrological model platforms to extend our understanding of how disturbances and climate change may impact various aspects of the streamflow regime that are of importance to downstream users. The objectives are 1) to use the model output of watershed response to disturbances to inform assessments of forested watersheds in the region, and 2) to investigate the use of a new flexible modelling platform as a tool for detailed watershed assessments and hypothesis testing. Here we applied the RAVEN hydrological modelling framework to quantify changes in key hydrological processes driving peak and low flows in a headwater catchment along the eastern slopes of the Canadian Rocky Mountains. The model was applied to simulate the period from 2006 to 2011 using data from the Star Creek watershed in southwestern Alberta. The representation of relevant hydrological processes was verified using snow survey, meteorological, and vegetation data collected through the Southern Rockies Watershed Project. Timber harvest scenarios were developed to estimate the effects of cut levels ranging from 20 to 100% over a range of elevations, slopes, and aspects. We quantified changes in the timing and magnitude of low flow and high flow events during the 2006 to 2011 period. Future work will assess changes in the probability of low and high flow events using a long-term meteorological record. This modelling framework enables relevant processes at the watershed scale to be accounted in a physically robust and computational efficient manner. Hydrologic

  16. Residual timber values within Piedmont streamside management zones of different widths and harvest levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    William A. Lakel; Wallace Aust; C. Andrew Dolloff; Patrick D. Keyser

    2015-01-01

    Forested streamside management zones (SMZs) provide numerous societal benefits including protection of water quality and enhancement of in-stream and riparian habitats. However, values of residual timber in SMZs are often ignored, yet maintenance of unnecessarily wide SMZs can potentially reduce merchantable timber. Therefore, forestland owners, managers, and logging...

  17. Assessment of Streamside Management Zones for Conserving Benthic Macroinvertebrate Communities Following Timber Harvest in Eastern Kentucky Headwater Catchments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua K. Adkins

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Headwater streams generally comprise the majority of stream area in a watershed and can have a strong influence on downstream food webs. Our objective was to determine the effect of altering streamside management zone (SMZ configurations on headwater aquatic insect communities. Timber harvests were implemented within six watersheds in eastern Kentucky. The SMZ configurations varied in width, canopy retention and best management practice (BMP utilization at the watershed scale. Benthic macroinvertebrate samples collected one year before and four years after harvest indicated few differences among treatments, although post-treatment abundance was elevated in some of the treatment streams relative to the unharvested controls. Jaccard index values were similar across SMZ treatments after logging, indicating strong community overlap. These findings suggest that stream invertebrate communities did respond to the timber harvest, though not negatively. Results also suggest that SMZ criteria for aquatic habitats in steeply sloping topography, including at least 50 percent canopy retention and widths of at least 16.8 m, appear to be adequate for protecting benthic macroinvertebrate communities from logging impacts.

  18. Timber resources and the timber economy of Okanogan County, Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles L. Bolsinger

    1975-01-01

    In 1972, forest industries in Okanogan County, Washington, accounted for 23 percent of total employment and 29 percent of wages paid. Total forest industrial employment has increased since 1953 but represents a smaller proportion of total employment in the county due to the increase in other industries, mainly construction and trade. Timber harvest has nearly doubled...

  19. Tree mortality from fires, bark beetles, and timber harvest during a hot and dry decade in the western United States (2003-2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berner, Logan T.; Law, Beverly E.; Meddens, Arjan J. H.; Hicke, Jeffrey A.

    2017-06-01

    High temperatures and severe drought contributed to extensive tree mortality from fires and bark beetles during the 2000s in parts of the western continental United States. Several states in this region have greenhouse gas (GHG) emission targets and would benefit from information on the amount of carbon stored in tree biomass killed by disturbance. We quantified mean annual tree mortality from fires, bark beetles, and timber harvest from 2003-2012 for each state in this region. We estimated tree mortality from fires and beetles using tree aboveground carbon (AGC) stock and disturbance data sets derived largely from remote sensing. We quantified tree mortality from harvest using data from US Forest Service reports. In both cases, we used Monte Carlo analyses to track uncertainty associated with parameter error and temporal variability. Regional tree mortality from harvest, beetles, and fires (MORTH+B+F) together averaged 45.8 ± 16.0 Tg AGC yr-1 (±95% confidence interval), indicating a mortality rate of 1.10 ± 0.38% yr-1. Harvest accounted for the largest percentage of MORTH+B+F (˜50%), followed by beetles (˜32%), and fires (˜18%). Tree mortality from harvest was concentrated in Washington and Oregon, where harvest accounted for ˜80% of MORTH+B+F in each state. Tree mortality from beetles occurred widely at low levels across the region, yet beetles had pronounced impacts in Colorado and Montana, where they accounted for ˜80% of MORTH+B+F. Tree mortality from fires was highest in California, though fires accounted for the largest percentage of MORTH+B+F in Arizona and New Mexico (˜50%). Drought and human activities shaped regional variation in tree mortality, highlighting opportunities and challenges to managing GHG emissions from forests. Rising temperatures and greater risk of drought will likely increase tree mortality from fires and bark beetles during coming decades in this region. Thus, sustained monitoring and mapping of tree mortality is necessary to

  20. Forest bat population dynamics over 14 years at a climate refuge: Effects of timber harvesting and weather extremes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley S Law

    Full Text Available Long-term data are needed to explore the interaction of weather extremes with habitat alteration; in particular, can 'refugia' buffer population dynamics against climate change and are they robust to disturbances such as timber harvesting. Because forest bats are good indicators of ecosystem health, we used 14 years (1999-2012 of mark-recapture data from a suite of small tree-hollow roosting bats to estimate survival, abundance and body condition in harvested and unharvested forest and over extreme El Niño and La Niña weather events in southeastern Australia. Trapping was replicated within an experimental forest, located in a climate refuge, with different timber harvesting treatments. We trapped foraging bats and banded 3043 with a 32% retrap rate. Mark-recapture analyses allowed for dependence of survival on time, species, sex, logging treatment and for transients. A large portion of the population remained resident, with a maximum time to recapture of nine years. The effect of logging history (unlogged vs 16-30 years post-logging regrowth on apparent survival was minor and species specific, with no detectable effect for two species, a positive effect for one and negative for the other. There was no effect of logging history on abundance or body condition for any of these species. Apparent survival of residents was not strongly influenced by weather variation (except for the smallest species, unlike previous studies outside of refugia. Despite annual variation in abundance and body condition across the 14 years of the study, no relationship with extreme weather was evident. The location of our study area in a climate refuge potentially buffered bat population dynamics from extreme weather. These results support the value of climate refugia in mitigating climate change impacts, though the lack of an external control highlights the need for further studies on the functioning of climate refugia. Relatively stable population dynamics were not

  1. Decadal-scale changes in forest soil carbon and nitrogen storage are influenced by organic matter removal during timber harvest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushinski, Ryan M.; Boutton, Thomas W.; Scott, D. Andrew

    2017-04-01

    This study investigates whether different intensities of organic matter removal associated with timber harvest influence decadal-scale storage of soil organic carbon (SOC) and total nitrogen (TN) in the top 1 m of mineral soil 18 years postharvest in a Pinus taeda L. forest in the Gulf Coastal Plain. We quantified forest harvest-related changes in SOC, TN, microbial biomass carbon (MBC), and nitrogen (MBN) pools (0-100 cm) in unharvested control stands and in two organic matter removal treatment stands subjected to either (i) merchantable bole/stem-only harvest or (ii) whole-tree harvest + forest floor removal. In addition, δ13C of SOC and δ15N of TN were measured in mineral soil to provide insights regarding mechanisms that might explain changes in SOC and TN pool sizes. Soils were sampled seasonally for 1 year. Increasing organic matter removal intensity reduced SOC, TN, MBC, and MBN relative to the unharvested control. Furthermore, soils from whole-tree harvest + forest floor removal stands had lower δ13C and higher δ15N values, suggesting that increasing organic matter removal may decrease heterotrophic activity as well as increase rates of N loss. Seasonal variabilities in SOC and TN were correlated to changes in forest biological properties such as root biomass and forest floor mass. These results indicate that more intensive harvest methods may lead to decade-scale decreases in SOC and TN storage in surface and subsurface soils which could influence rates of biogeochemical processes, the availability of soil nutrients, and potential forest productivity.

  2. Public Preferences for Timber Harvesting on Private Forest Land Purchased for Public Ownership in Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin J. Boyle; Mario F. Teisl

    1999-01-01

    Public concern over the use, the management, and the protection of forests in Maine and throughout the United States has grown rapidly over the last two decades. Decisions regarding where, when, and how to cut timber are no longer purely silvicultural decisionlS made by forest managers, but are increasingly subject to public scrutiny, debate, regulation, and litigation...

  3. 36 CFR 219.28 - Determination of land suitable for timber harvest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... justified by the ecological, social, or economic benefits considering physical, economic, and other pertinent factors to the extent feasible. Lands where timber production is not established as a plan... production considering physical, economic, and other pertinent factors to the extent feasible. Based on this...

  4. Effects of timber harvests on invertebrate biomass and avian nest success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey P. Duguay; Petra Bohall Wood; Gary W. Miller

    2000-01-01

    Concerns over declining songbird populations have led to investigations of effects of various timber management practices on breeding songbirds. We assessed the influence of 2 types of practices, two-age and clearcutting, on invertebrate biomass and avian daily nest survival in the Monongahela National Forest of West Virginia during summers of 1995 and 1996. We also...

  5. Investigation of timber harvesting operations using chainsaw considering productivity and residual stand damage: The case of Bahçe Forest Enterprise Chief

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neşe Gülci

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Timber harvesting activities are often performed in difficult conditions caused by the mountainous terrain conditions in Turkey. One of the most difficult and dangerous stages of the timber harvesting activities are felling, delimbing, and bucking stages. In some of the European countries with intensive forestry activities, felling, delimbing and bucking stages of timber harvesting are performed with harvesting machines (i.e. harvester, feller-buncher while these processes are mostly performed with chainsaw in Turkey. The chainsaw operations which are not properly planned and implemented may results in considerable amount of time and productivity losses and environmental damages. At the same time, the risk of work accidents increases during the felling activities. Thus, it is very important to investigate productivity and residual stand damage of chainsaw operations. In this study, harvesting activities using chainsaw were evaluated in terms of productivity and environmental aspects. The field studies were conducted in Brutian Pine stands within Bahçe Forest Enterprise Chief of Osmaniye Forest Enterprise Directorate, located in Adana Forest Regional Directorate. Average productivity and timber volume were calculated as 4.06 m3/hr and 0.30 m3, respectively, and productivity increased as the amount of timber production increased. The results indicated that total number of injured trees as a result of felling operation was 43 in which 13 injuries were on live wood while 30 injuries were on tree barks. It was found that sapwood and bark injuries occurred at the top of the trees during felling activities due to tree hang ups.

  6. Effectiveness of timber harvesting BMPs: monitoring spatial and temporal dynamics of dissolved oxygen, nitrogen, and phosphorus in a low-gradient watershed, Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abram DaSilva; Y. Jun Xu; George Ice; John Beebe; Richard Stich

    2012-01-01

    To test effectiveness of Louisiana’s voluntary best management practices (BMPs) at preventing water quality degradation from timber harvesting activities, a study with BACI design was conducted from 2006 through 2010 in the Flat Creek Watershed, north-central Louisiana. Water samples for nutrient analyses and measurements of stream flow and of in-stream dissolved...

  7. "Keeping it Living": applications and relevance of traditional plant management in British Columbia to sustainable harvesting of non-timber forest products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nancy J. Turner

    2001-01-01

    There has been increasing concern about sustainability in harvesting and marketing of non-timber forest products in North America. This paper examines traditional approaches and practices for use of plant resources by Aboriginal peoples and discusses their applications in a contemporary context. Philosophies and attitudes of caring and respect are embodied in many...

  8. Timber Harvest Effects on Sediment and Water Yields and Analysis of Sediment Load Calculation Methods in the Interior Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elverson, C.; Karwan, D. L.

    2015-12-01

    Timber harvest practices have a long-standing association with changes in water and sediment yields. We quantify the trends in water and sediment yields in the Mica Creek Experimental Watershed (MCEW) in relation to management practices with linear regression and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). From 1991 to 2013, an increase in water yield resulted from both clearcutting and thinning treatments, with monthly water yield rate increases of 13-57% and annual water yield increases up to 210 mm (40%) in the clearcut watershed. Following treatment, annual sediment yields increased in the clearcut watershed by 40-131% and the thinned watershed by 33-163%, both relative to the control watershed, with statistically-significant monthly load increases in the year immediately following treatment. Water and sediment yield changes do not follow the same post-treatment patterns. Water yields increased immediately following treatment and, over time, gradually dropped towards pre-harvest levels. Annual sediment yields increased in some years after the harvest, but in some cases the increase was years after treatment. Monthly sediment yields increased in the first year following the clearcut harvest, but elevated monthly loads following the partial cut harvest came years later. Hence, we investigate the changes in sediment yield through an examination of water yield and sediment concentration and in response to events. We test the sensitivity of our results to different methods for computing sediment yields based on total suspended solids concentration and continuous discharge measurements. Flow-weighted sediment yield averaged 24% higher than sediment yield computed from linear-interpolated total suspended solids concentration values. During typical summer and fall conditions, flow-weighting was found to overweight storm measurements and produce large sediment yield estimates. Further work is suggested to test methods of calculating monthly sediment yields with irregularly

  9. What Are the Impacts of Deforestation on the Harvest of Non-Timber Forest Products in Central Africa?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline Gillet

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study is to evaluate the impact of forest transition on non-timber forest product (NTFP harvesting in Central Africa. We analyze the evolution of several parameters, including distance from NTFP harvest site to road, proportion of dietary intake and villagers’ incomes. The research is based on field surveys, participatory mapping and the geolocation of activities in three study sites representing different stages along the Mather’s forest transition curve: (i intact forest; (ii partially degraded forest; and (iii small areas of degraded forest with plantations of useful trees. The results show that the maximum distance from harvest site to road is higher in Site 2 compared to Site 1 as a consequence of a lower availability of NTFPs; and that this distance is significantly lower in Site 3 due to a drastically smaller village territory. The diversity of bushmeat decreases as game evolves from large to small species, commensurate with the progression of forest transition. As a consequence, there is also a reduction in the proportion of these products represented both in household dietary intake and cash income. This analysis establishes a strong link between the Mather’s forest transition curve and a decline in the importance of NTFPs in village production and livelihoods.

  10. Evaluating the Effects of Carbon Prices on Trade-Offs between Carbon and Timber Management Objectives in Forest Spatial Harvest Scheduling Problems: A Case Study from Northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiyan Qin

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available To mitigate global climatic changes, long-term carbon trading and carbon taxes have been implemented in many countries. However, carbon prices have varied in many of these regions. Therefore, the goal of this paper was to evaluate the effects of carbon prices on trade-offs between forest carbon and timber management objectives in spatial harvest scheduling problems. The objective function of the planning problem was designed to maximize the discounted net present value of harvested timber and the differences of carbon stocks in living tree biomass between the beginning and end of the planning horizon (DoC within a 30-year time frame for a large forest region in northeast China. The constraints primarily related to maintaining an even flow of harvested timber and guaranteeing the maximum opening size. Forest developments were simulated using a set of standard stand-level growth and yield models, and the solutions of the planning problem were generated using the standard version of a simulated annealing algorithm. The effects of a wide range of carbon prices on the harvested timber and DoC levels were examined. The results showed that the trade-offs between forest harvested timber and the DoC displayed a typical nonlinear tendency as carbon prices increased. The current carbon prices (i.e., 25, 50 and 75 ¥/ton in China had no significant effects on the optimal forest management plans compared with a scenario that used a carbon price of zero. The minimum carbon price that can provide the financial incentive for the forests to function as a significant carbon sink was estimated to be somewhat over 800 ¥/ton. This result could be useful in determining the appropriate carbon offset standard in this region.

  11. Long-term effects of timber harvesting on forest soil communities and their catabolic capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohn, W. W.

    2016-12-01

    We examined the effect of forest harvesting on metagenomes of soil communities in ecozones across North America. The overall effect of harvesting on community composition was very small relative to major differences between soil horizons and among geographically distinct ecozones. However, in some ecozones, harvesting substantially altered bacterial and fungal community composition and diminished the genetic potential for biomass decomposition while increasing the potential for nitrogen cycling. Stable isotope probing identified populations involved in hemicellulose and cellulose decomposition. Known cellulolytic organisms were found in the organic soil layer, while novel cellulolytic organisms were identified in the mineral soil layer. Lignolytic populations identified were mainly bacterial, and metagenomics analysis identified lignin degradation enzymes in the genomes of some of these populations. In some ecozones, cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic populations were substantially impacted by harvesting. Soil carbon, nitrogen and pH were related to the relative susceptibility of forest soil communities in the different ecozones to harvesting impacts.

  12. The influence of partial timber harvest in riparian management zones on macroinvertebrate and fish communities on first- and second-order streams in northern Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chizinski, Christopher J.; Vondracek, Bruce C.; Blinn, Charles R.; Newman, Raymond M.; Atuke, Dickson M.; Fredricks, Keith; Hemstad, Nathaniel A.; Merten, Eric; Schlesser, Nicholas

    2010-01-01

    Relatively few evaluations of aquatic macroinvertebrate and fish communities have been published in peer-reviewed literature detailing the effect of varying residual basal area (RBA) after timber harvesting in riparian buffers. Our analysis investigated the effects of partial harvesting within riparian buffers on aquatic macroinvertebrate and fish communities in small streams from two experiments in northern Minnesota northern hardwood-aspen forests. Each experiment evaluated partial harvesting within riparian buffers. In both experiments, benthic macroinvertebrates and fish were collected 1 year prior to harvest and in each of 3 years after harvest. We observed interannual variation for the macroinvertebrate abundance, diversity and taxon richness in the single-basin study and abundance and diversity in the multiple-basin study, but few effects related to harvest treatments in either study. However, interannual variation was not evident in the fish communities and we detected no significant changes in the stream fish communities associated with partially harvested riparian buffers in either study. This would suggest that timber harvesting in riparian management zones along reaches ≤200 m in length on both sides of the stream that retains RBA ≥ 12.4 ± 1.3 m2 ha−1 or on a single side of the stream that retains RBA ≥ 8.7 ± 1.6 m2 ha−1 may be adequate to protect macroinvertebrate and fish communities in our Minnesota study systems given these specific timber harvesting techniques.

  13. Geology and geomorphology control suspended sediment yield and modulate increases following timber harvest in temperate headwater streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bywater-Reyes, Sharon; Segura, Catalina; Bladon, Kevin D.

    2017-05-01

    Suspended sediment transport is an important contributor to ecologic and geomorphic functions of streams. However, it is challenging to generalize predictions of sediment yield because it is influenced by many factors. In this study, we quantified the relevance of natural controls (e.g., geology, catchment physiography) on suspended sediment yield (SSY) in headwater streams managed for timber harvest. We collected and analyzed six years of data from 10 sites (five headwater sub-catchments and five watershed outlets) in the Trask River Watershed (western Oregon, United States). We used generalized least squares regression models to investigate how the parameters of the SSY rating curve varied as a function of catchment setting, and whether the setting modulated the SSY response to forest harvesting. Results indicated that the highest intercepts (α) of the power relation between unit discharge and SSY were associated with sites underlain primarily by friable rocks (e.g., sedimentary formations). The greatest increases in SSY after forest harvesting (up to an order of magnitude) also occurred at sites underlain by the more friable lithologies. In contrast, basins underlain by resistant lithologies (intrusive rocks) had lower SSY and were more resilient to management-related increases in SSY. As such, the impact of forest management activities (e.g., use of forested buffers; building of new roads) on the variability in SSY was primarily contingent on catchment lithology. Sites with higher SSY, or harvest-related increases in SSY, also generally had a) lower mean elevation and slope, b) greater landscape roughness, and c) lower sediment connectivity. We used principal component analysis (PCA) to further explore the relationship between SSY and several basin physiographic variables. The PCA clearly separated sites underlain by friable geologic units from those underlain by resistant lithologies. Results are consistent with greater rates of weathering and supply of

  14. Relative abundance of amphibians in forest canopy gaps of natural origin vs. timber harvest origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strojny, C. A.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Small-scale canopy gaps created by logging may retain adequate habitat structure to maintain amphibian abundance. We used pitfalls with drift fences to measure relative abundance of amphibians in 44 harvested gaps, 19 natural treefall gaps, and 36 closed-canopy forest plots. Metamorphs had relatively lower capture rates in large harvest gaps for Ambystoma maculatum, Lithobates catesbeianus, L. clamitans, and L. sylvaticus but we did not detect statistically significant (p < 0.1 differences among gap types for Lithobates palustris metamorphs. L. clamitans juveniles and L. sylvaticus juveniles and adults had relatively lower capture rates in large harvest gaps. For juvenile-adult A. maculatum, we caught relatively fewer individuals in all gap types than in closed-canopy areas. Some groups with overall lower capture rates (immature Plethodon cinereus, juvenile L. palustris had mixed differences among gap types, and Notophthalmus viridescens (efts and adult P. cinereus showed no differences among gap types. One species, L. clamitans, was captured more often at gap edges than gap centers. These results suggest that harvest gaps, especially small gaps, provided habitat similar to natural gaps for some, but not all, amphibian species or life-stages.

  15. Timber Harvesting and Site Preparation Effects on Soil Quality for Loblolly Pine Growing on the Lower Coastal Plain of South Carolina

    OpenAIRE

    Kelting, Daniel Ladd

    1999-01-01

    The Lower Coastal Plain of the southeastern United States is a major wood producing region. The region is characterized by a combination of nearly-level topography, poorly-drained soils, and high rainfall, which results in a perched water table in some soils that inundates the surface several times each year. Harvesting timber under wet site conditions often results in extensive soil compaction, rutting, soil displacement, and waterlogging. Forest managers are concerned that these visually...

  16. Soil carbon storage following road removal and timber harvesting in redwood forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seney, Joseph; Madej, Mary Ann

    2015-01-01

    Soil carbon storage plays a key role in the global carbon cycle and is important for sustaining forest productivity. Removal of unpaved forest roads has the potential for increasing carbon storage in soils on forested terrain as treated sites revegetate and soil properties improve on the previously compacted road surfaces. We compared soil organic carbon (SOC) content at several depths on treated roads to SOC in adjacent second-growth forests and old-growth redwood forests in California, determined whether SOC in the upper 50 cm of soil varies with the type of road treatment, and assessed the relative importance of site-scale and landscape-scale variables in predicting SOC accumulation in treated road prisms and second-growth redwood forests. Soils were sampled at 5, 20, and 50 cm depths on roads treated by two methods (decommissioning and full recontouring), and in adjacent second-growth and old-growth forests in north coastal California. Road treatments spanned a period of 32 years, and covered a range of geomorphic and vegetative conditions. SOC decreased with depth at all sites. Treated roads on convex sites exhibited higher SOC than on concave sites, and north aspect sites had higher SOC than south aspect sites. SOC at 5, 20, and 50 cm depths did not differ significantly between decommissioned roads (treated 18–32 years previous) and fully recontoured roads (treated 2–12 years previous). Nevertheless, stepwise multiple regression models project higher SOC developing on fully recontoured roads in the next few decades. The best predictors for SOC on treated roads and in second-growth forest incorporated aspect, vegetation type, soil depth, lithology, distance from the ocean, years since road treatment (for the road model) and years since harvest (for the forest model). The road model explained 48% of the variation in SOC in the upper 50 cm of mineral soils and the forest model, 54%

  17. Uncertainty in accounting for carbon accumulation following forest harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilly, P.; Yanai, R. D.; Arthur, M. A.; Bae, K.; Hamburg, S.; Levine, C. R.; Vadeboncoeur, M. A.

    2014-12-01

    Tree biomass and forest soils are both difficult to quantify with confidence, for different reasons. Forest biomass is estimated non-destructively using allometric equations, often from other sites; these equations are difficult to validate. Forest soils are destructively sampled, resulting in little measurement error at a point, but with large sampling error in heterogeneous soil environments, such as in soils developed on glacial till. In this study, we report C contents of biomass and soil pools in northern hardwood stands in replicate plots within replicate stands in 3 age classes following clearcut harvesting (14-19 yr, 26-29 yr, and > 100 yr) at the Bartlett Experimental Forest, USA. The rate of C accumulation in aboveground biomass was ~3 Mg/ha/yr between the young and mid-aged stands and allometric equations, and found errors ranging from 3-7%, depending on the stand. The variation in biomass among plots within stands (6-19%) was always larger than the allometric uncertainties. Soils were described by quantitative soil pits in three plots per stand, excavated by depth increment to the C horizon. Variation in soil mass among pits within stands averaged 28% (coefficient of variation); variation among stands within an age class ranged from 9-25%. Variation in carbon concentrations averaged 27%, mainly because the depth increments contained varying proportions of genetic horizons, in the upper part of the soil profile. Differences across age classes in soil C were not significant, because of the high variability. Uncertainty analysis can help direct the design of monitoring schemes to achieve the greatest confidence in C stores per unit of sampling effort. In the system we studied, more extensive sampling would be the best approach to reducing uncertainty, as natural spatial variation was higher than model or measurement uncertainties.

  18. Balancing growth, harvest, and consumption: a regional response to the national issue of forest sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen R. Shifley; Neal H. Sullivan

    2004-01-01

    The 46 million people who live in the North Central Region of the United States account for about 17 percent of the wood annually consumed in the United States. The region contains 14 percent of the nation's timberland, but annual timber growth is equivalent to only 10 percent of nation's total. Annual timber harvest is equivalent to only 7 percent of the...

  19. Information transfer during the timber transaction period in West Virginia. USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    David W. McGill; Daniel J. Magill; James Kochenderfer; W. Mark Ford; Tom Schuler

    2006-01-01

    Timber harvesting has long-lasting impacts on the productivity and aesthetics of private forests. In many instances, landowners who possess high quality timber are at a competitive disadvantage during timber transactions--the time between a decision by the landowner to sell timber and the completion of the timber harvesting operation--as they may lack understanding of...

  20. Maine timber industries - a periodic assessment of timber output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert L., Jr. Nevel; Peter R. Lammert; Richard H. Widmann

    1985-01-01

    This periodic evaluation of statewide industrial timber output is based on a survey of the primary wood manufacturing plants located in Maine in 1981. It contains statistics on industrial timber harvest and plant wood reciepts and on the production and disposition of the manufacturing residues for the year. The 438.7 million ft? (12.4 million m?) of industrial...

  1. Assessment of soil erosion sensitivity and post-timber-harvesting erosion response in a mountain environment of Central Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrelli, Pasquale; Schütt, Brigitta

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the effects of forest management on the occurrence of accelerated soil erosion by water. The study site is located in a mountainous area of the Italian Central Apennines. Here, forest harvesting is a widespread forestry activity and is mainly performed on the moderate to steep slopes of the highlands. Through modeling operations based on data on soil properties and direct monitoring of changes in the post-forest-harvesting soil surface level at the hillslope scale, we show that the observed site became prone to soil erosion after human intervention. Indeed, the measured mean soil erosion rate of 49 t ha- 1 yr- 1 for the harvested watershed is about 21 times higher than the rate measured in its neighboring undisturbed forested watershed (2.3 t ha- 1 yr- 1). The erosive response is greatly aggravated by exposing the just-harvested forest, with very limited herbaceous plant cover, to the aggressive attack of the heaviest annual rainfall without adopting any conservation practices. The erosivity of the storms during the first four months of field measurements was 1571 MJ mm h- 1 ha- 1 in total (i.e., from September to December 2008). At the end of the experiment (16 months), 18.8%, 26.1% and 55.1% of the erosion monitoring sites in the harvested watershed recorded variations equal or greater than 0-5, 5-10 and > 10 mm, respectively. This study also provides a quantification of Italian forestland surfaces with the same pedo-lithological characteristics exploited for wood supply. Within a period of ten years (2002-2011), about 9891 ha of coppice forest changes were identified and their potential soil erosion rates modeled.

  2. Timber production assessment of a plantation forest: An integrated framework with field-based inventory, multi-source remote sensing data and forest management history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Tian; Zhu, Jiaojun; Deng, Songqiu; Zheng, Xiao; Zhang, Jinxin; Shang, Guiduo; Huang, Liyan

    2016-10-01

    Timber production is the purpose for managing plantation forests, and its spatial and quantitative information is critical for advising management strategies. Previous studies have focused on growing stock volume (GSV), which represents the current potential of timber production, yet few studies have investigated historical process-harvested timber. This resulted in a gap in a synthetical ecosystem service assessment of timber production. In this paper, we established a Management Process-based Timber production (MPT) framework to integrate the current GSV and the harvested timber derived from historical logging regimes, trying to synthetically assess timber production for a historical period. In the MPT framework, age-class and current GSV determine the times of historical thinning and the corresponding harvested timber, by using a ;space-for-time; substitution. The total timber production can be estimated by the historical harvested timber in each thinning and the current GSV. To test this MPT framework, an empirical study on a larch plantation (LP) with area of 43,946 ha was conducted in North China for a period from 1962 to 2010. Field-based inventory data was integrated with ALOS PALSAR (Advanced Land-Observing Satellite Phased Array L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar) and Landsat-8 OLI (Operational Land Imager) data for estimating the age-class and current GSV of LP. The random forest model with PALSAR backscatter intensity channels and OLI bands as input predictive variables yielded an accuracy of 67.9% with a Kappa coefficient of 0.59 for age-class classification. The regression model using PALSAR data produced a root mean square error (RMSE) of 36.5 m3 ha-1. The total timber production of LP was estimated to be 7.27 × 106 m3, with 4.87 × 106 m3 in current GSV and 2.40 × 106 m3 in harvested timber through historical thinning. The historical process-harvested timber accounts to 33.0% of the total timber production, which component has been neglected in the

  3. Optimal control of raw timber production processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivan Kolenka

    1978-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the possibility of optimal planning and control of timber harvesting activ-ities with mathematical optimization models. The separate phases of timber harvesting are represented by coordinated models which can be used to select the optimal decision for the execution of any given phase. The models form a system whose components are connected and...

  4. Round timbers and ties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald W. Wolfe

    1999-01-01

    Round timbers and ties represent some of the most efficient uses of our forest resources. They require a minimum of processing between harvesting the tree and marketing the structural commodity. Poles and piles are debarked or peeled, seasoned, and often treated with preservative prior to use as structural members. Construction logs are usually shaped to facilitate...

  5. Harvesting of Non-timber Forest Products by the Local Communities in Mount Halimun-Salak National Park, West Java, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yelin Adalina

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Local communities around the forest need to be involved in securing the sustainability of Mount Halimun Salak National Park (MHSNP, for example through the utilization of non-timber forest products (NTFPs such as flora in the utilization zone. This research was aimed to provide data and information about 3 kinds of vegetation producing resin (Pinus merkusii, Agathis dammara, and Hevea brasiliensis and the harvesting NTFPs by the community in the forest vicinity. The research was conducted in MHSNP, and data were analyzed through quantitative-descriptive. The survey method was employed in the study through interviews of respondents using structured questionnaires.   This study revealed that the vegetations at the stage of tree comprised of the following: (1 Agathis dammara (damar with Importance Value Index (IVI of 276.15% and density of 452 trees ha-1, (2 Pinus merkusii (pine trees with IVI of 300.0% and density of 552 trees ha-1, and (3 Hevea brasiliensis (rubber trees with IVI of 217.42%  and density of 85 trees ha-1. Pine, damar, and rubber sap tapping afforded contribution in 59.18, 4.41, and 60.71%, respectively of the total household incomes. Community involvement in the collection of NTFPs in national parks implicated to the increasing of the forest communities revenue and the forests will be maintained since public can get benefits from forest resources. Forest management should be directed as a producer of NTFPs that can increase the economic income of forest communities with attention to ecological factors. Keywords: Harvesting, non-wood forest products, Mount Halimun-Salak National Park, community around the  forests

  6. Timber RAM. . .a long-range planning method for commercial timber lands under multiple-use management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel I. Navon

    1971-01-01

    Timber RAM (Resource Allocation Method) is a long-range planning method for commercial timber lands under multiple-use management. Timber RAM can produce cutting and reforestation schedules and related harvest and economic reports. Each schedule optimizes an index of performance, subject to periodic constraints on revenues, costs, and, harvest levels. Periodic...

  7. Timber resource statistics for the Olympic Peninsula, Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia M. Bassett; Daniel D. Oswald

    1961-01-01

    This report summarizes a 1978-79 timber resource inventory of five counties in the Olympic Peninsula of Washington: Clallam, Grays Harbor, Jefferson, Mason, and Thurston. Detailed tables of forest area, timber volume, growth, mortality, and harvest are presented.

  8. Harvesting of Non-timber Forest Products by the Local Communities in Mount Halimun-Salak National Park, West Java, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yelin Adalina

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Local communities around the forest need to be involved in securing the sustainability of Mount Halimun Salak National Park (MHSNP, for example through the utilization of non-timber forest products (NTFPs such as flora in the utilization zone. This research was aimed to provide data and information about 3 kinds of vegetation producing resin (Pinus merkusii, Agathis dammara, and Hevea brasiliensis and the harvesting NTFPs by the community in the forest vicinity. The research was conducted in MHSNP, and data were analyzed through quantitative-descriptive. The survey method was employed in the study through interviews of respondents using structured questionnaires. This study revealed that the vegetations at the stage of tree comprised of the following: (1 Agathis dammara (damar with Importance Value Index (IVI of 276.15% and density of 452 trees ha-1, (2 Pinus merkusii (pine trees with IVI of 300.0% and density of 552 trees ha-1, and (3 Hevea brasiliensis (rubber trees with IVI of 217.42% and density of 85 trees ha-1. Pine, damar, and rubber sap tapping afforded contribution in 59.18, 4.41, and 60.71%, respectively of the total household incomes. Community involvement in the collection of NTFPs in national parks implicated to the increasing of the forest communities revenue and the forests will be maintained since public can get benefits from forest resources. Forest management should be directed as a producer of NTFPs that can increase the economic income of forest communities with attention to ecological factors.

  9. How rare is too rare to harvest? Management challenges posed by timber species occurring at low densities in the Brazilian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark Schulze; James Grogan; R. Matthew Landis; Edson. Vidal

    2008-01-01

    Tropical forests are characterized by diverse assemblages of plant and animal species compared to temperate forests. Corollary to this general rule is that most tree species, whether valued for timber or not, occur at low densities (

  10. Timber resource statistics for western Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffin D. MacLean; Patricia M. Bassett; Glenn. Yeary

    1992-01-01

    This report summarizes a 1988-90 timber resource inventory of 19 counties in western Washington: Clallam, Clark, Cowlitz, Grays Harbor, Island, Jefferson, King, Kitsap, Lewis, Mason, Pacific, Pierce, San Juan, Skagit, Skamania, Snohomish, Thurston, Wahkiakum, and Whatcom. Detailed tables of forest area, timber volume, growth, mortality, and harvest are presented.

  11. Operability and location of Michigan's timber resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark H. Hansen; Jerold T. Hahn

    1987-01-01

    Operability is the ease or difficulty of managing or harvesting timber because of physical conditions in the stand or on the site. Data collected during the 1980 Michigan statewide forest inventory were used to examine operability of the timber resource based on seven operability components.

  12. Operability and location of Wisconsin's timber resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerold T. Hahn; Mark H. Hansen

    1989-01-01

    Data collected during the 1983 Wisconsin Statewide forest inventory were used to examine operability of the timber resource based on seven operability components. Operability is the ease or difficulty of managing or harvesting timber because of physical conditions in the stand or on the site.

  13. Eleventh-century shift in timber procurement areas for the great houses of Chaco Canyon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiterman, Christopher H; Swetnam, Thomas W; Dean, Jeffrey S

    2016-02-02

    An enduring mystery from the great houses of Chaco Canyon is the origin of more than 240,000 construction timbers. We evaluate probable timber procurement areas for seven great houses by applying tree-ring width-based sourcing to a set of 170 timbers. To our knowledge, this is the first use of tree rings to assess timber origins in the southwestern United States. We found that the Chuska and Zuni Mountains (>75 km distant) were the most likely sources, accounting for 70% of timbers. Most notably, procurement areas changed through time. Before 1020 Common Era (CE) nearly all timbers originated from the Zunis (a previously unrecognized source), but by 1060 CE the Chuskas eclipsed the Zuni area in total wood imports. This shift occurred at the onset of Chaco florescence in the 11th century, a time with substantial expansion of existing great houses and the addition of seven new great houses in the Chaco Core area. It also coincides with the proliferation of Chuskan stone tools and pottery in the archaeological record of Chaco Canyon, further underscoring the link between land use and occupation in the Chuska area and the peak of great house construction. Our findings, based on the most temporally specific and replicated evidence of Chacoan resource procurement obtained to date, corroborate the long-standing but recently challenged interpretation that large numbers of timbers were harvested and transported from distant mountain ranges to build the great houses at Chaco Canyon.

  14. Recommendations for sustainable development of non-timber forest products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gina H. Mohammed

    2001-01-01

    Non-timber forest products--or NTFPs--are considered here to be botanical products harvested or originating from forest-based species, but excluding primary timber products, industrial boards and composites, and paper products. A recent study of non-timber forest products in Ontario, Canada, identified at least 50 types of NTFPs and hundreds of specific products used...

  15. Temporal Decay in Timber Species Composition and Value in Amazonian Logging Concessions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa A Richardson

    Full Text Available Throughout human history, slow-renewal biological resource populations have been predictably overexploited, often to the point of economic extinction. We assess whether and how this has occurred with timber resources in the Brazilian Amazon. The asynchronous advance of industrial-scale logging frontiers has left regional-scale forest landscapes with varying histories of logging. Initial harvests in unlogged forests can be highly selective, targeting slow-growing, high-grade, shade-tolerant hardwood species, while later harvests tend to focus on fast-growing, light-wooded, long-lived pioneer trees. Brazil accounts for 85% of all native neotropical forest roundlog production, and the State of Pará for almost half of all timber production in Brazilian Amazonia, the largest old-growth tropical timber reserve controlled by any country. Yet the degree to which timber harvests beyond the first-cut can be financially profitable or demographically sustainable remains poorly understood. Here, we use data on legally planned logging of ~17.3 million cubic meters of timber across 314 species extracted from 824 authorized harvest areas in private and community-owned forests, 446 of which reported volumetric composition data by timber species. We document patterns of timber extraction by volume, species composition, and monetary value along aging eastern Amazonian logging frontiers, which are then explained on the basis of historical and environmental variables. Generalized linear models indicate that relatively recent logging operations farthest from heavy-traffic roads are the most selective, concentrating gross revenues on few high-value species. We find no evidence that the post-logging timber species composition and total value of forest stands recovers beyond the first-cut, suggesting that the commercially most valuable timber species become predictably rare or economically extinct in old logging frontiers. In avoiding even more destructive land

  16. Temporal Decay in Timber Species Composition and Value in Amazonian Logging Concessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Vanessa A; Peres, Carlos A

    2016-01-01

    Throughout human history, slow-renewal biological resource populations have been predictably overexploited, often to the point of economic extinction. We assess whether and how this has occurred with timber resources in the Brazilian Amazon. The asynchronous advance of industrial-scale logging frontiers has left regional-scale forest landscapes with varying histories of logging. Initial harvests in unlogged forests can be highly selective, targeting slow-growing, high-grade, shade-tolerant hardwood species, while later harvests tend to focus on fast-growing, light-wooded, long-lived pioneer trees. Brazil accounts for 85% of all native neotropical forest roundlog production, and the State of Pará for almost half of all timber production in Brazilian Amazonia, the largest old-growth tropical timber reserve controlled by any country. Yet the degree to which timber harvests beyond the first-cut can be financially profitable or demographically sustainable remains poorly understood. Here, we use data on legally planned logging of ~17.3 million cubic meters of timber across 314 species extracted from 824 authorized harvest areas in private and community-owned forests, 446 of which reported volumetric composition data by timber species. We document patterns of timber extraction by volume, species composition, and monetary value along aging eastern Amazonian logging frontiers, which are then explained on the basis of historical and environmental variables. Generalized linear models indicate that relatively recent logging operations farthest from heavy-traffic roads are the most selective, concentrating gross revenues on few high-value species. We find no evidence that the post-logging timber species composition and total value of forest stands recovers beyond the first-cut, suggesting that the commercially most valuable timber species become predictably rare or economically extinct in old logging frontiers. In avoiding even more destructive land-use patterns, managing

  17. Michigan timber industry: An assessment of timber product output and use, 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    David E. Haugen; Anthony K. Weatherspoon

    2010-01-01

    Reports forest-industry trends, production and receipts of industrial roundwood, and production of saw logs, veneer logs, excelsior/shavings, and other products for Michigan's timber industry in 2004. Also reports logging residue generated from timber harvest operations in Michigan as well as the generation and disposition of wood and bark residue generated by...

  18. Regional Variation in Non-Timber Forest Product Harvest Strategies, Trade, and Ecological Impacts: the Case of Black Dammar (Canarium strictum Roxb. Use and Conservation in the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Varghese

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Millions of people worldwide depend on the harvest of non-timber forest products (NTFP for their livelihoods, and the importance of understanding the complex relationships between NTFP harvest and conservation is increasingly recognized. This study employs a cross-disciplinary, regional approach to identify some of the links between patterns of harvest, trade, and conservation of one of South India's most heavily harvested resins, Canarium strictum Roxb. (Burseraceae, or black dammar. We focus on indigenous communities in the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve (NBR and ask: How is C. strictum tapped and is there variation across communities? How is C. strictum resin sold and bought, and what trade routes are involved? What are the impacts of tapping on C. strictum trees and population structure? We carried out interviews and focus-group discussions with harvesters in eight villages in three different regions, and with buyers and traders inside and outside of the NBR. We also established twenty-two 20 x 20 m plots to document population structure. Three broad resin-harvest strategies were identified: collection from natural fissures, tapping using incisions, and tapping using incisions and fire, each practiced in a different region. However, within each strategy there was large variation in tapping frequency and timing, tenure practices, and resin quality. The loss of tree tenure in some areas has led to a higher frequency of tapping and to the production of lower quality, lower value resin. Factors driving changes in both tenure and tapping strategies include rising commercial demand and value, pressure from outside harvesters, changes in livelihood strategies, and habitat destruction. Tapping leads to elevated mortality of C. strictum adults, with fire-tapping have a greater negative impact than tapping with no fire. The combination of social and ecological approaches used here provides insight on strategies for better conservation of C. strictum. These

  19. Timber tracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Düdder, Boris; Ross, Omry

    2017-01-01

    Managing and verifying forest products in a value chain is often reliant on easily manipulated document or digital tracking methods - Chain of Custody Systems. We aim to create a new means of tracking timber by developing a tamper proof digital system based on Blockchain technology. Blockchain...

  20. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Plantation to the Proceeded Wood Products via State Timber Corporation Depots for Selected Tree Species using Life Cycle Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DKL Senadheera

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Life Cycle Assessment (LCA provides a methodological framework for evaluating environmental performance over the life cycle of a product, process, or an activity. In Sri Lanka, majority of timber for wood based industries comes from homegardens and Government owned forest plantations. State Timber Corporation (STC is the authoritative body for timber harvesting in state owned forest plantations. This LCA study was carried out to calculate Greenhouse Gas (GHG emissions of the STC timber movements from the plantation to the finished product. The study concentrated on teak, eucalypt and mahogany species as they represented fast moving commercial timber of high significance. Assessment boundary was from the harvesting to the product. Updated emission factors were used to calculate the CO2 eq units. When considering the emissions during the process, the highest was recorded in the sawmilling process (48% from sawing, 9% from surfacing and 9% from drying. The transportation accounted for 31.25% of emissions while harvesting contributed to 6%. Other indirect emissions accounted for 2.75%.

  1. The mangement of national forests of eastern United States for non-timber forest products

    Science.gov (United States)

    James L. Chamberlain

    2000-01-01

    Many products are harvested fiom the forests of the United States in addition to timber. These non-timber forest products (NTFPs) are plants, parts of plants, or fungi that are harvested from within and on the edges of natural, disturbed or managed forests. Often, NTFPs are harvested from public forests for the socio-economic benefit they provide to rural collectors....

  2. Public Timber Supply under Multiple-Use Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    David N. Wear

    2003-01-01

    In many parts of the world, substantial shares of timber inventories are managed by government agencies. The objective of this chapter is to examine the potential influence of public timber production on market structure as well as on prices, harvest quantities, and economic welfare. National forest management in the United States is used as a tractable case study, but...

  3. Non-timber forest products and forest stewardship plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becky Barlow; Tanner Filyaw; Sarah W. Workman

    2015-01-01

    To many woodland owners “harvesting” typically means the removal of timber from forests. In recent years many landowners have become aware of the role non-timber forest products (NTFPs) can play in supplemental management strategies to produce income while preserving other forest qualities. NTFPs are a diverse group of craft, culinary, and medicinal products that have...

  4. Timber Management Opportunities for Nebraska 1983-1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. Brad Smith; Tom D. Wardle

    1984-01-01

    Reviews opportunities for treatment of timber stands in Nebraska for the decade 1983 - 1992. Under the assumptions and management guides specified, 52 percent of Nebraska''s commercial forest land would benefit from timber harvest or some other form of treatment during the decade.

  5. The 1993 timber assessment market model: structure, projections, and policy simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darius M. Adams; Richard W. Haynes

    1996-01-01

    The 1993 timber assessment market model (TAMM) is a spatial model of the solidwood and timber inventory elements of the U.S. forest products sector. The TAMM model provides annual projections of volumes and prices in the solidwood products and sawtimber stumpage markets and estimates of total timber harvest and inventory by geographic region for periods of up to 50...

  6. Timber resource statistics for timberland outside National Forests in eastern Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neil McKay; Gary J. Lettman; Mary A. Mei

    1994-01-01

    This report summarizes a 1992 timber resource inventory Of timberland outside National Forests in eastern Oregon. The report presents statistical tables of timberland area, timber volume, growth, mortality, and harvest. It also displays tables of revised 1986-87 timber resource statistics for timberland outside National Forests; the 1992 and 1986-87 tables may be...

  7. Using TPO data to estimate timber demand in support of planning on the Tongass National Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean M. Daniels; Michael D. Paruszkiewicz; Susan J. Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Projections of Alaska timber products output, the derived demand for logs, lumber, residues, and niche products, and timber harvest by owner are developed by using a trend-based analysis. This is the fifth such analysis performed since 1990 to assist planners in meeting statutory requirements for estimating planning cycle demand for timber from the Tongass National...

  8. Compatibility of timber and non-timber forest product management in natural tropical forests: perspectives, challenges, and opportunities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guariguata, M.R.; García-Fernández, C.; Shiel, D.; Nasi, R.; Herrero-Jáuregui, C.; Cronkleton, P.; Ingram, V.

    2010-01-01

    Tropical forests could satisfy multiple demands for goods and services both for present and future generations. Yet integrated approaches to natural forest management remain elusive across the tropics. In this paper we examine one combination of uses: selective harvesting of timber and non-timber

  9. Timber designers' manual

    CERN Document Server

    Ozelton, E C

    2008-01-01

    This major reference manual covers both overall and detail design of structural timber, including aspects such as shear deflection, creep, dynamic and lateral stability considerations for flexural members.Available for the first time in paperback, the Third Edition was substantially revised to take account of the many changes since the previous edition was published in 1984. It is based on British Standard BS 5268-2: 2002, which brought design concepts closer to European practice and Eurocode 5.Features of the Third Edition include:* information on bolt values including

  10. System Balance In Multi-Stage Timber Transportation: A Case Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Timber transportation is known to be the most important and expensive single component in timber harvesting. It is a crucial part in harvesting planning especially where difficulty terrain and long distances are involved. This paper presents a study of a skyline logging system, Mkumbara, Northeast Tanzania, where difficult ...

  11. Non-timber forest products in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katie Kamelamela; James B. Friday; Tamara Ticktin; Ashley. Lehman

    2015-01-01

    Hawaiian forests provide a wide array of non-timber forest products for both traditional and modern uses. Flowers, vines, and ferns are collected for creating garlands or lei for hula dances and parades. Lei made from materials gathered in the forest are made for personal use and sold, especially during graduation times. Bamboo is harvested for structures and for...

  12. Risks, Information and Short-Run Timber Supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Rinaldi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Efforts to increase wood mobilization have highlighted the need to appraise drivers of short-run timber supply. The current study aims to shed further light on harvesting decisions of private forest owners, by investigating optimal harvesting under uncertainty, when timber revenues are invested on financial markets and uncertainty is mitigated by news releases. By distinguishing between aggregate economic risk and sector specific risks, the model studies in great detail optimal harvesting-investment decisions, with particular emphasis on the non-trivial transmission of risk on optimal harvesting, and on the way private forest owners react to news and information. The analysis of the role played by information in harvesting decisions is a novelty in forest economic theory. The presented model is highly relevant from a policy—information is a commonly used forest policy instrument—as well as a practical perspective, since the mechanism of risk transmission is at the basis of timber pricing.

  13. Forests, timber and rural livelihoods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Christian Pilegaard; Pouliot, Mariève; Marfo, Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    Based on detailed income data of 478 rural households, the nexus between forest, trees and rural livelihoods in Ghana is investigated and applied to assess implications of the Voluntary Partnership Agreement (VPA) between the EU and Ghana on illegal logging. It is found that, after crops...... to its illegal nature. Yet, when the likely incomes from illegal timber harvesting as estimated by other studies are compared with this study’s comprehensive livelihood data, it is obvious that an imagined full implementation of the VPA would have limited impact on the majority of rural households...... and benefits to trees on farm and fallow land to those occupying and cultivating the land. Such efforts would provide incentive for timber production and thus enhance rural livelihoods, while combatting illegal logging, deforestation and forest degradation....

  14. Accounting for tagging-to-harvest mortality in a Brownie tag-recovery model by incorporating radio-telemetry data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buderman, Frances E.; Diefenbach, Duane R.; Casalena, Mary Jo; Rosenberry, Christopher S.; Wallingford, Bret D.

    2014-01-01

    The Brownie tag-recovery model is useful for estimating harvest rates but assumes all tagged individuals survive to the first hunting season; otherwise, mortality between time of tagging and the hunting season will cause the Brownie estimator to be negatively biased. Alternatively, fitting animals with radio transmitters can be used to accurately estimate harvest rate but may be more costly. We developed a joint model to estimate harvest and annual survival rates that combines known-fate data from animals fitted with transmitters to estimate the probability of surviving the period from capture to the first hunting season, and data from reward-tagged animals in a Brownie tag-recovery model. We evaluated bias and precision of the joint estimator, and how to optimally allocate effort between animals fitted with radio transmitters and inexpensive ear tags or leg bands. Tagging-to-harvest survival rates from >20 individuals with radio transmitters combined with 50–100 reward tags resulted in an unbiased and precise estimator of harvest rates. In addition, the joint model can test whether transmitters affect an individual's probability of being harvested. We illustrate application of the model using data from wild turkey, Meleagris gallapavo,to estimate harvest rates, and data from white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus, to evaluate whether the presence of a visible radio transmitter is related to the probability of a deer being harvested. The joint known-fate tag-recovery model eliminates the requirement to capture and mark animals immediately prior to the hunting season to obtain accurate and precise estimates of harvest rate. In addition, the joint model can assess whether marking animals with radio transmitters affects the individual's probability of being harvested, caused by hunter selectivity or changes in a marked animal's behavior.

  15. Timber in Missouri, 1972.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John S. Jr. Spencer; Burton L. Essex

    1976-01-01

    The third inventory of Missouri's timber resource shows a small gain in growing-stock volume and a somewhat larger gain in sawtimber volume since 1959. Area of commercial forest declined sharply between surveys. Presented are text and statistics on forest area and timber volume, growth, mortality, ownership, stocking, future timber supply, and forest management...

  16. South Dakota timber industry: an assessment of timber product output and use, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald J. Piva; Gregory J. Josten

    2013-01-01

    Presents recent South Dakota forest industry trends; production and receipts of industrial roundwood; and production of saw logs, veneer logs, pulpwood, and other products in 2009. Logging residue generated from timber harvest operations is reported, as well as wood and bark residue generated at primary wood-using mills and disposition of mill residues.

  17. Maryland timber industry: an assessment of timber product output and use, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian F. Walters; Daniel R. Rider; Ronald J. Piva

    2012-01-01

    Presents recent Maryland forest industry trends; production and receipts of industrial roundwood; and production of saw logs, veneer logs, pulpwood, and other products in 2008. Logging residue generated from timber harvest operations is reported, as well as wood and bark residue generated at primary wood-using mills and disposition of mill residues.

  18. Wisconsin timber industry: an assessment of timber product output and use, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    David E. Haugen

    2013-01-01

    Presents recent Wisconsin forest industry trends; production and receipts of industrial roundwood; and production of saw logs, and other products in 2008. Logging residue generated from timber harvest operations is reported, as well as wood and bark residue generated at primary wood-using mills and disposition of mill residues.

  19. North Dakota timber industry: an assessment of timber product output and use, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    David E. Haugen; Robert A. Harsel

    2013-01-01

    Presents recent North Dakota forest industry trends; production and receipts of industrial roundwood; and production of saw logs and other products in 2009. Logging residue generated from timber harvest operations is reported, as well as wood and bark residue generated at primary wood-using mills and disposition of mill residues.

  20. Minnesota timber industry: an assessment of timber product output and use, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    David E. Haugen; Keith. Jacobson

    2012-01-01

    Presents recent Minnesota forest industry trends; production and receipts of industrial roundwood; and production of saw logs, veneer logs, pulpwood, and other products in 2007. Logging residue generated from timber harvest operations is reported, as well as wood and bark residue generated at primary wood-using mills and disposition of mill residues.

  1. Missouri timber industry: an assessment of timber product output and use, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald J. Piva; Thomas B. Treiman

    2012-01-01

    Presents recent Missouri forest industry trends; production and receipts of industrial roundwood; and production of saw logs, veneer logs, pulpwood, and other products in 2009. Logging residue generated from timber harvest operations is reported, as well as wood and bark residue generated at primary wood-using mills and disposition of mill residues.

  2. Indiana timber industry: an assessment of timber product output and use, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian F. Walters; Jeff Settle; Ronald J. Piva

    2012-01-01

    Presents recent Indiana forest industry trends; production and receipts of industrial roundwood; and production of saw logs, veneer logs, pulpwood, and other products in 2008. Logging residue generated from timber harvest operations is reported, as well as wood and bark residue generated at primary wood-using mills and disposition of mill residues.

  3. Michigan timber industry: an assessment of timber product output and use, 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald J. Piva; Anthony K. Weatherspoon

    2010-01-01

    Presents recent Michigan forest industry trends; production and receipts of industrial roundwood; and production of saw logs, veneer logs, pulpwood, and other products in 2006. Logging residue generated from timber harvest operations is reported, as well as wood and bark residue generated at primary wood-using mills and disposition of mill residues.

  4. Kansas timber industry: an assessment of timber product output and use, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    David E. Haugen

    2013-01-01

    Presents recent Kansas forest industry trends; production and receipts of industrial roundwood; and production of saw logs and other products in 2009. Logging residue generated from timber harvest operations is reported, as well as wood and bark residue generated at primary wood-using mills and disposition of mill residues.

  5. Accountability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielding, Michael; Inglis, Fred

    2017-01-01

    This contribution republishes extracts from two important articles published around 2000 concerning the punitive accountability system suffered by English primary and secondary schools. The first concerns the inspection agency Ofsted, and the second managerialism. Though they do not directly address assessment, they are highly relevant to this…

  6. Avaliação das condições de segurança do trabalho na colheita e transporte florestal em propriedades rurais fomentadas no Estado do Espírito Santo Evaluation of work safety conditions of timber harvesting and transport in fomented farms of the state of Espírito Santo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Lorensi do Canto

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi desenvolvido com informações obtidas de 70 proprietários rurais fomentados, responsáveis por 90 contratos de fomento florestal, com o objetivo de caracterizar as condições de segurança do trabalho na colheita e transporte florestal, em propriedades rurais fomentadas no Estado do Espírito Santo. A área fomentada por contrato variava entre 1,5 e 100,0 ha, sendo de até 30 ha em 86,7% dos contratos e com relevo montanhoso em 61,2%. A colheita e transporte florestais foram terceirizados em 70 e 80% dos contratos amostrados, respectivamente, e realizados por conta dos proprietários nos demais. A maioria dos prestadores de serviço terceirizados era contratada informalmente. Foi empregada a mão-de-obra contratada na maioria dos contratos com colheita própria, sendo a maior parte não qualificada e contratada informalmente. Grande parte dos trabalhadores deslocava-se por conta própria até o local de colheita. Ocorreram acidentes de trabalho em 16,3% dos contratos, sendo 60% na colheita e transporte florestal próprios. A maioria dos acidentes aconteceu na atividade de corte e atingiu, principalmente, os membros inferiores e superiores do trabalhador acidentado. Os trabalhadores não utilizavam equipamentos de proteção individual em 62,1% dos contratos com colheita própria e em 23,0% dos terceirizados. Observou-se carência de material de primeiros socorros, bem como falta de instrução para o socorro de trabalhadores acidentados na colheita florestal.This research was developed with data obtained from 70 fomented farm owners in the State of Espírito Santo, Brazil, who were responsible for 90 forest contracts distributed in 22 cities of the State. The area fomented per contract ranged from 1.5 to 100 hectares, being 84.8% of contracts up to 30 ha and 59.8% with mountainous relief. Timber harvesting and log transport were outsourced and carried out by a subcontractor in 70% and 80% of the contracts respectively

  7. Epidemiology of Eye Diseases among Timber Workers in Owerri ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anepidemiological studyof the Timber Industry in Owerri, Nigeria was carriedout. It assessed the burden of eye diseases among Timber workers in terms of magnitude, causes and time. Certain eye diseases, notably, conjunctivitis, foreign bodies/injuries/traumas, pterygia, pinguecula and uveitis, each, accounting for ...

  8. Robustness Analysis of a Timber Structure with Ductile Behaviour in Compression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Čizmar, Dean; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a probabilistic approach for structural robustness assessment for a timber structure built a few years ago. The robustness analysis is based on a structural reliability based framework for robustness assessment. The complex timber structure with a large number of failure modes...... material ductility of timber is taken into account. The robustness is expressed and evaluated by a robustness index....

  9. Timber frame walls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place; Brandt, Erik

    2010-01-01

    A ventilated cavity is usually considered good practice for removing moisture behind the cladding of timber framed walls. Timber frame walls with no cavity are a logical alternative as they are slimmer and less expensive to produce and besides the risk of a two-sided fire behind the cladding...

  10. Timber resource statistics for non-Federal forest land in southwest Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald R. Gedney; Patricia M. Bassett; Mary A. Mei

    1986-01-01

    This report summarizes a 1985 timber resource inventory of the non-Federal forest land in the five counties (Coos, Curry, Douglas, Jackson, and Josephine) in southwest Oregon. Detailed tables of forest area, timber volume, growth, mortality, and harvest are presented.

  11. Timber resource statistics for non-federal forest land in northwest Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald R. Gedney; Patricia M. Bassett; Mary A. Mei

    1986-01-01

    This report summarizes a 1986 timber resource inventory of the non-Federal forest land in the 10 counties (Clackamas, Clatsop, Columbia, Hood River, Marion, Multnomah , Polk, Tillamook, Washington, and Yamhill) in northwest Oregon. Detailed tables of forest area, timber volume, growth, mortality, and harvest are presented.

  12. Timber resource statistics for non-Federal forest land in west-central Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald R. Gedney; Patricia M. Bassett; Mary A. Mei

    1987-01-01

    This report summarizes a 1985-86 timber resource inventory of the non-Federal forest land in the four counties (Benton, Lane, Lincoln, and Linn) in west-central Oregon. Detailed tables of forest area, timber volume, growth, mortality, and harvest are presented.

  13. Concurring Regulation in European Forest Law; Forest Certification and the New EU Timber Regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kistenkas, F.H.

    2013-01-01

    Newly made EU Timber Regulation (EUTR) may prima facie look like competing regulation and an overlap of the existing forest certification schemes of FSC and PEFC as also EUTR combats illegally harvested timber. The novel EUTR, however, is a public law scheme wheras FSC and PEFC are private law

  14. A method for estimating operability and location of the timber resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John S. Jr. Spencer; Mark H. Hansen; Pamela J. Jakes

    1986-01-01

    Operability is the relative ease or difficulty of managing or harvesting timber because of physical conditions in the stand or on the site. Using data collected during standard statewide forest inventories, we developed a method for classifying timber by operability class based on seven operability components.

  15. Assessing the spatial implications of interactions among strategic forest management options using a Windows-based harvest simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric J. Gustafson; Luke V. Rasmussen

    2002-01-01

    Forest management planners must develop strategies to produce timber in ways that do not compromise ecological integrity or sustainability. These strategies often involve modifications to the spatial and temporal scheduling of harvest activities, and these strategies may interact in unexpected ways. We used a timber harvest simulator (HARVEST 6.0) to determine the...

  16. Mobile mine timbering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodous, J.; Kubac, J.; Novak, Z.; Skrobalek, J.; Zajic, K.

    1982-04-15

    A mobile timbering of enclosure-support type designed for reinforcing a cleaning space in deep coal mines is patented. The assembly consists of one frame to which a shield is hinged with the upper section, from one hydraulic stand attached to the frame and upper section or shield, and from the mobile device. The essence of the invention is that the extension lower part of each hydraulic stand is placed and hinged in the support, which on one side enters the profile guide, formed in the frame, and from the other side is attached to the adjustment (stopping) cylinder whose opposite part is hinged to the frame. Between the shield and the upper part there is a built-in resting device. The high effect of operation of the proposed element of the mobile timbering is that with comparatively small difference in height of the support places, there is a large range of element of the timbering even with the use of hydraulic stands with one telescope. The shaped guide and the support places are made so that there is optimal use of the bearing capacity of the stands, and as a result there is high support reaction and advantageous loading of individual parts of the timbering. The universal assembly design of the upper part makes it possible to use the timbering even with technology of working with timbering that is moved backwards.

  17. Emissions from prescribed burning of timber slash piles in Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emissions from burning piles of post-harvest timber slash (Douglas fir) in Grande Ronde, Oregon were sampled using an instrument platform lofted into the plume using a tether-controlled aerostat or balloon. Emissions of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, methane, particulate matte...

  18. Deriving fair incentives for management of hardwood timber stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    David A. Gansner; W. Herrick Owen; David N. Larsen; David N. Larsen

    1973-01-01

    The authors present a practical method for deriving timber-management incentive payments and demonstrate its application in forest stands of upland hardwoods. The suggested incentive payment is based on the differences between discounted costs and returns of deliberate forest management and the "harvest and let grow" option.

  19. Robustness Evaluation of Timber Structures with Ductile Behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Cizmar, D.

    2009-01-01

    The present paper considers robustness evaluation of timber structures where the ductile behavior of joints of timber material is taken into account. The robustness analysis is based on the structural reliability framework used on a simplified mechanical system modelling a structural timber system...... as a parallel system. A measure of ductile behaviour is introduced. For different values of this measure the system reliability is estimated based on Monte Carlo simulation where correlation between the strength of structural elements and load models for permanent and live load are introduced. The results...... indicate the reliability of a structural timber ystem can be increased apprximately 20 % awarding the ductile behaviour. At last the paper discusses possible structural timber systems which have potential for providing ductility and redundancy....

  20. Wildlife Conservation in Bornean Timber Concessions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Meijaard

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on an extensive review of the literature, and broad consultation with experts, we have assessed the sensitivity of Bornean vertebrates to the direct and indirect effects of timber harvest. Well-implemented selective logging has a relatively limited direct impact on wildlife populations: few species appear quite sensitive, some benefit, some decline. However, current management practices in Indonesian Borneo generally cause a decline in wildlife populations. Guidelines for sustainable forest management are primarily focused on trees, with few specific recommendations on how to sustainably manage wildlife populations in timber concessions. Based on our findings, we provide extensive wildlife management guidelines, pointing out the importance of maintaining understory vegetation and large trees for fruit, seed, dead wood, and tree hollow production, limiting canopy gaps, and reducing hunting and wildlife trade in concessions. In addition, we provide specific management advice on high priority species of Bornean vertebrates.

  1. Socio-ecological costs of Amazon nut and timber production at community household forests in the Bolivian Amazon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene Soriano

    Full Text Available The Bolivian Amazon holds a complex configuration of people and forested landscapes in which communities hold secure tenure rights over a rich ecosystem offering a range of livelihood income opportunities. A large share of this income is derived from Amazon nut (Bertholletia excelsa. Many communities also have long-standing experience with community timber management plans. However, livelihood needs and desires for better living conditions may continue to place these resources under considerable stress as income needs and opportunities intensify and diversify. We aim to identify the socioeconomic and biophysical factors determining the income from forests, husbandry, off-farm and two keystone forest products (i.e., Amazon nut and timber in the Bolivian Amazon region. We used structural equation modelling tools to account for the complex inter-relationships between socioeconomic and biophysical factors in predicting each source of income. The potential exists to increase incomes from existing livelihood activities in ways that reduce dependency upon forest resources. For example, changes in off-farm income sources can act to increase or decrease forest incomes. Market accessibility, social, financial, and natural and physical assets determined the amount of income community households could derive from Amazon nut and timber. Factors related to community households' local ecological knowledge, such as the number of non-timber forest products harvested and the number of management practices applied to enhance Amazon nut production, defined the amount of income these households could derive from Amazon nut and timber, respectively. The (inter relationships found among socioeconomic and biophysical factors over income shed light on ways to improve forest-dependent livelihoods in the Bolivian Amazon. We believe that our analysis could be applicable to other contexts throughout the tropics as well.

  2. Socio-ecological costs of Amazon nut and timber production at community household forests in the Bolivian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohren, Frits; Ascarrunz, Nataly; Dressler, Wolfram; Peña-Claros, Marielos

    2017-01-01

    The Bolivian Amazon holds a complex configuration of people and forested landscapes in which communities hold secure tenure rights over a rich ecosystem offering a range of livelihood income opportunities. A large share of this income is derived from Amazon nut (Bertholletia excelsa). Many communities also have long-standing experience with community timber management plans. However, livelihood needs and desires for better living conditions may continue to place these resources under considerable stress as income needs and opportunities intensify and diversify. We aim to identify the socioeconomic and biophysical factors determining the income from forests, husbandry, off-farm and two keystone forest products (i.e., Amazon nut and timber) in the Bolivian Amazon region. We used structural equation modelling tools to account for the complex inter-relationships between socioeconomic and biophysical factors in predicting each source of income. The potential exists to increase incomes from existing livelihood activities in ways that reduce dependency upon forest resources. For example, changes in off-farm income sources can act to increase or decrease forest incomes. Market accessibility, social, financial, and natural and physical assets determined the amount of income community households could derive from Amazon nut and timber. Factors related to community households’ local ecological knowledge, such as the number of non-timber forest products harvested and the number of management practices applied to enhance Amazon nut production, defined the amount of income these households could derive from Amazon nut and timber, respectively. The (inter) relationships found among socioeconomic and biophysical factors over income shed light on ways to improve forest-dependent livelihoods in the Bolivian Amazon. We believe that our analysis could be applicable to other contexts throughout the tropics as well. PMID:28235090

  3. Timber resources of southwest Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia M. Bassett

    1979-01-01

    This report presents statistics from a 1973 inventory of timber resources of Douglas County and from a 1974 inventory of timber resources of Coos, Curry, Jackson, and Josephine Counties, Oregon. Tables presented are of forest area and of timber volume, growth, and mortality.

  4. Connecting non-timber forest products stakeholders to information and knowledge: A case study of an Internet web site

    Science.gov (United States)

    James Chamberlain; Matt Winn; A.L. Hammett

    2009-01-01

    Many products are harvested from forests that are not timber-based but are based on plant materials. These non-timber forest products (NTFPs) have not been fully incorporated into economic development programs, yet they provide significant monetary benefits for rural entrepreneurs. Interest in NTFPs as alternative forest enterprises and sources of additional income has...

  5. Timber frame walls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place; Brandt, Erik

    2010-01-01

    A ventilated cavity is usually considered good practice for removing moisture behind the cladding of timber framed walls. Timber frame walls with no cavity are a logical alternative as they are slimmer and less expensive to produce and besides the risk of a two-sided fire behind the cladding...... is reduced. To investigate the possibilities, full-size wall elements with wooden cladding and different cavity design, type of cladding and type of wind barrier were exposed to natural climate on the outside and to a humid indoor climate on the inside. During the exposure period parts of the vapour barrier...

  6. Pinus saw timber tree optimisation in South Africa: a comparison of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CTL) and Full Tree/Tree Length (FT/TL) ground-based systems are used to harvest pine in South Africa. The fully ... Keywords: cut to length; fibre recovery; full tree; harvester; processing; saw timber; tree length; tree optimisation; value recovery

  7. Regional Changes in the Timber Resources of and Lumber Production in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    William G. Luppold; Matthew S. Bumgardner; Matthew S. Bumgardner

    2005-01-01

    In this study we examine regional differences in the hardwood timber resources of Pennsylvania and explain how the combined changes in this resource and in lumber prices have influenced regional lumber production. Isolation of these relationships is important because shifts in lumber production affect harvesting levels and harvesting activity influences long-term...

  8. New methods for estimating non-timber forest product output: an Appalachian case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steve Kruger; James. Chamberlain

    2015-01-01

    Assessing the size and structure of non-timber forest product (NTFP) markets is difficult due to a lack of knowledge about NTFP supply chains. Harvesting ginseng and other wild medicinal plants has long provided a source of income and cultural identity in Appalachian communities in the eastern United States. With the exception of ginseng, the extent of the harvest of...

  9. Harvesting systems and costs for southern pine in the 1980s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick W. Cubbage; James E. Granskog

    1981-01-01

    Timber harvesting systems and their costs are a major concern for the forest products industries. In this paper, harvest costs per cord are estimated, using computer simulation, for current southern pine harvesting systems. The estimations represent a range of mechanization levels. The sensitivity of systems to factors affecting harvest costs - machine costs, fuel...

  10. What Is a Sustainable Level of Timber Consumption in the EU: Toward Global and EU Benchmarks for Sustainable Forest Use

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Meghan O’Brien; Stefan Bringezu

    2017-01-01

    .... The question is, how much timber is available for the EU to sustainably harvest and import, in particular considering sustainable forest management practices, a safe operating space for land-system...

  11. Timber Production and Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey P. Prestemon; Brian C. Murray

    2003-01-01

    Timber production has been the foundation of active forest management for over a century. The science and economics of forest management were developed 1.50 years ago, but for years, the focus was on activity at the stand level, with very little attention to market phenomena such as price behavior, demand factors, substitution, and market structure. That has changed as...

  12. Growing Timber Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamke, Martin; Evers, Henrik Leander; Stasiuk, David

    2013-01-01

    The contemporary design of timber structures has to answer questions concerning structural stability, production impact and energy implications in ever earlier stages. The interrelation of these levels creates a complexity that is difficult to resolve through contemporary linear parametric...... to integrate the behaviour of networked systems into structures made from wooden material....

  13. Modeling the effects of forest harvesting on landscape structure and the spatial distribution of cowbird brood parasitism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric J. Gustafson; Thomas R. Crow

    1994-01-01

    Timber harvesting affects both composition and structure of the landscape and has important consequences for organisms using forest habitats. A timber harvest allocation model was constructed that allows the input of specific rules to allocate forest stands for clearcutting to generate landscape patterns reflecting the "look and feel" of managed landscapes....

  14. Robustness Analysis of a Wide-Span Timber Structure with Ductile Behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Cizmar, D.

    2010-01-01

    This paper considers robustness evaluation of a wide span timber truss structure where the ductile behavior is taken into account. The robustness analysis is based on a structural reliability framework used on a simplified mechanical system modelling a timber truss system. A measure of ductile be...... behaviour is introduced and for different values of this measure the robustness indices are estimated. The results indicate that the robustness of a timber truss system can be increased by taking the ductile behavior into....

  15. Global sustainable timber supply and demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter J. Ince

    2010-01-01

    Industrial timber use has provided timber revenue that has helped make timber supply and demand more sustainable in the leading timber producing regions of the world. Sustainable development implies not consuming more resources today than we can replace tomorrow, but sustainable forest management implies more than merely a non-declining supply of timber. Forests as a...

  16. The Value of Timber Inventory Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    B.E. Borders; W.M. Harrison; M.L. Clutter; B.D. Shiver; R.A. Souter

    2008-01-01

    Timber inventory data is the basis for many monetary transactions related to timber and timberland sale and (or) purchase as well as for development of timber management plans. The value of such data is well known and much appreciated for sale and (or) purchase of standing merchantable timber.  Unfortunatley, the value of timber inventory data for planning...

  17. Influence of existing secondary forest road network on the selection of timber extraction technologies at the tactical level of planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lepoglavec Kruno

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Planning is an intellectually demanding process that requires a conscious determination of actions and decisions based on related purpose, knowledge and right decisions. During planning timber harvesting it is very important to choose the best possible technology for timber extraction. The use of multi-criteria-decision-making models is a very good way of dealing with various forestry issues especially in terms of choosing the best applicable technology for timber extraction. Modern forest management in the Republic of Croatia in terms of timber harvesting mostly relies on ground based wheeled systems. The goal of this research is to show how the current way of planning timber harvesting (timber extraction and accordingly the construction of secondary forest road network affects future planning and introduction of »new« technologies for timber extraction i.e. forest cableway. Analysis of suitable forest stands for different timber extraction technologies s was carried out in the management unit Garjevica-Čazma with an area of 4380.20 ha. The paper presents multi-criteria-decision-making model for defining terrain suitable for ground based wheeled systems (skidder with a winch and forwarder and forest cableway on the base of raster maps (grid of 20×20 m i.e. 0.04 ha. The criteria used to select different technologies for timber extraction were: terrain slope, distance from the forest road, distance from the skid road and harvesting density. Analysis using GIS tools in ArcGIS and Idrisi applications goes in two directions, first the analysis of suitability of using selected technologies for timber extraction using four criteria, and comparison with results of the analysis where the criterion »distance from the skid road« has been excluded.

  18. Harvested wood products and REDD+: looking beyond the forest border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butarbutar, Tunggul; Köhl, Michael; Neupane, Prem Raj

    2016-12-01

    The focus of REDD+ is sensu stricto on maintaining forest carbon stocks. We extend the scope of sustainable management of forest from forests to timber utilization, and study carbon offsets resulting from the utilization of harvested timber for bio energy or harvested wood products (HWPs). The emission budget of harvesting operations depends on the loss of standing biomass by timber extracted from the forest site and logging losses on the one side, and on the other on the wood end use and the utilization of processing residues. We develop two scenarios to quantify the magnitude of CO2 emissions by (1) energetic utilization, and (2) energetic and material utilization of harvested timber and compare the substitution effects for different fossil energy sources. The direct energetic use of harvested timber does not compensate for the losses of forest carbon stock. Logging residuals and displacement factors reflecting different wood use constitute by far the most important factor in potential emission reductions. Substitution effects resulting from energetic use of mill residuals and from HWPs have only a subordinated contribution to the total emissions as well as the type of fossil fuel utilized to quantify substitution effects. Material substitution effects associated with harvested wood products show a high potential to increase the climate change benefits. The observation and perception of REDD+ should not be restricted to sustainable management and reduced impact logging practices in the forest domain but should be extended to the utilization of extracted timber. Substitution effects from material and energetic utilization of harvested timber result in considerable emission reductions, which can compensate for the loss of forest carbon, and eventually contribute to the overall climate change mitigation benefits from forestry sector.

  19. The effect of harvesting operations, slash management and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Harvesting operations during clearfelling and extraction of timber from commercial plantations result in many processes that may affect long-term site productivity such as soil compaction and residue manipulation. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of various harvesting operations and fertiliser applications ...

  20. Reliability Analysis of Structural Timber Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Hoffmeyer, P.

    2000-01-01

    types of redundancy and non-linearity are considered. The statistical characteristics of the load bearing capacity are determined by reliability analysis. Next, more complex systems are considered modelling the mechanical behaviour of timber roof elements I stressed skin panels made of timber. Using...... characteristics of the load-bearing capacity is estimated in the form of a characteristic value and a coefficient of variation. These two values are of primary importance for codes of practice based on the partial safety factor format since the partial safety factor is closely related to the coefficient...... the above stochastic models, statistical characteristics (distribution function, 5% quantile and coefficient of variation) are determined. Generally, the results show that taking the system effects into account the characteristic load bearing capacity can be increased and the partial safety factor decreased...

  1. The effects of the Euro adoption on the timber market in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Antonoaie

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the potential effects of adopting the Euro currency in Romania on the timber prices. We begin from the current situation of Romanian wood auctions (starting price, selling price, timber type, volume auctioned, volume sold and compare it to the situation in Slovakia. In this case, an in depth analysis on the effects of the currency change will be presented, focusing on the changes that have occurred in the prices of general goods and materials, especially on the timber market, taking into account the changes that have taken place on the Slovakian timber market. We will apply the same trend to Romania and set up a forecasting model and study the potential effects, both immediate and long term of adopting the Euro currency for the timber market (variation in price and timber volume.

  2. Production potentials of fast-growing hardwood trees. Possibilities and consequences of harvest of biomass and merchantable timber; Produktionspotential hos snabbvaexande loevtrad. Moejligheter till och konsekvenser av biomassa- och gagnvirkesuttag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rytter, Lars [Forestry Research Inst. of Sweden, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2004-12-01

    A synthesis project directed by the Swedish National Energy Administration is in progress. It aims at compile and summarize the research work performed during the last decade on biofuels from forest land and the effects on the environment. This report is intended as a support for the project by summarizing the current knowledge and situation for fast-growing tree-formed hardwood species under Swedish and North European conditions. Because there is a shortage of hardwood trees and wood for different purposes in Sweden an increase of the hardwood forest area should be welcomed. The most interesting tree-formed species for sustainable production of woody biomass under the Nordic conditions are most probably found within the genera Alnus (alders), Betula (birches), and Populus (aspens and poplars). Species within these genera show high production which culminates at early age and they are generally well adapted to the prevailing climate conditions. Studies performed within the programme of the Swedish National Energy Administration show, for example, that mean annual increment of at least 20 m{sup 3} of stem wood/ha/year (>7 tonnes of DM) can be expected in unfertilized hybrid aspen forests in a 20-25 years rotation period. To this, over 1 tonne of branch and twig DM/ha/year should be added, and there is also a possibility to harvest 10-15 tonnes of DM/ha of woody biomass already two years after harvest in the new sucker stands. Some hybrid poplar clones have shown even higher production figures in research stands but the cultivation reliability is currently unsatisfying under Swedish conditions. High production levels have also been recorded in alder stands. The mean annual increment of aboveground woody biomass has sometimes reached 8 tonnes of DM/ha/year in dense stands during the initial ten years. The volume production of birches is lower, 10 m{sup 3} of stem wood/ha/year at the most. However, because of the high wood density of birch the production of dry matter

  3. Timber growth, mortality, and change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger C. Conner; Michael T. Thompson

    2009-01-01

    The previous section discussed trends in timber volume. Changes in volume often result from land-use change; that is, land entering or removed from the timber base. On those acres remaining forested, tree growth and mortality are the primary factors for volume change. Annual rates of growth and mortality often differ by species group, ownership, and geographic region....

  4. Probabilistic modeling of timber structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köhler, Jochen; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Faber, Michael Havbro

    2007-01-01

    Publication: www.jcss.ethz.ch; 2001] and of the COST action E24 ‘Reliability of Timber Structures' [COST Action E 24, Reliability of timber structures. Several meetings and Publications, Internet Publication: http://www.km.fgg.uni-lj.si/coste24/coste24.htm; 2005]. The present proposal is based on discussions...

  5. Timber floors strengthened with concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blass, H.J.; Linden, M.L.R. van der; Schlager, M.

    1998-01-01

    Timber-concrete composite (tcc) beams may be used for the renovation of old timber floors. Although these systems are not new (Pokulka, 1997) and form a simple and practical solution, they are not widely adopted. One of the reasons for this is the Jack of uniform design rules. In this research

  6. Probabilistic Modeling of Timber Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köhler, J.D.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Faber, Michael Havbro

    2005-01-01

    The present paper contains a proposal for the probabilistic modeling of timber material properties. It is produced in the context of the Probabilistic Model Code (PMC) of the Joint Committee on Structural Safety (JCSS) and of the COST action E24 'Reliability of Timber Structures'. The present pro...

  7. Commercial harvesting and regeneration of epiphytic macrolichen communities in the Western Ghats, India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molleman, L.; Boeve, S.; Wolf, J.; Oostermeijer, G.; Devy, S.; Ganesan, R.

    2011-01-01

    Non-timber forest products form a substantial contribution to the livelihood of many rural communities worldwide. In the Western Ghats, India, epiphytic macrolichens are harvested by Paliyan tribes to generate supplementary income. Paliyan tribes employ two harvesting methods: shallow harvesting,

  8. 77 FR 2508 - Rogue River-Siskiyou National Forest, Powers Ranger District, Coos County, OR; Eden Ridge Timber...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-18

    ... seventy-five (75) treatment units would be designed for timber harvest with associated harvest systems... woody debris would be retained where feasible to maintain or improve forest diversity. Post- treatment... variable density thinning treatments designed to control stocking and maintain or improve overall forest...

  9. Soil compaction monitoring of the Pool Timber Sale, Rio Grande National Forest, Colorado, 16 years after logging

    Science.gov (United States)

    John J. Rawinski; Deborah S. Page-Dumroese

    2008-01-01

    We conducted a soil monitoring project in 1992 after a shelterwood harvest. One year after harvesting, we determined that 21.32 percent of the area in Unit 5 of the Pool Timber Sale was considered to have detrimental soil compaction. In 2007, we conducted another monitoring project on the same stand by the same person to determine the degree of soil compaction recovery...

  10. Sensitivity of TRIM projections to management, harvest, yield, and stocking adjustment assumptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan J. Alexander

    1991-01-01

    The Timber Resource Inventory Model (TRIM) was used to make several projections of forest industry timber supply for the Douglas-fir region. The sensitivity of these projections to assumptions about management and yields is discussed. A base run is compared to runs in which yields were altered, stocking adjustment was eliminated, harvest assumptions were changed, and...

  11. Balancing Conservation and Economic Sustainability: The Future of the Amazon Timber Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merry, Frank; Soares-Filho, Britaldo; Nepstad, Daniel; Amacher, Gregory; Rodrigues, Hermann

    2009-09-01

    Logging has been a much maligned feature of frontier development in the Amazon. Most discussions ignore the fact that logging can be part of a renewable, environmentally benign, and broadly equitable economic activity in these remote places. We estimate there to be some 4.5 ± 1.35 billion m3 of commercial timber volume in the Brazilian Amazon today, of which 1.2 billion m3 is currently profitable to harvest, with a total potential stumpage value of 15.4 billion. A successful forest sector in the Brazilian Amazon will integrate timber harvesting on private lands and on unprotected and unsettled government lands with timber concessions on public lands. If a legal, productive, timber industry can be established outside of protected areas, it will deliver environmental benefits in synergy with those provided by the region’s network of protected areas, the latter of which we estimate to have an opportunity cost from lost timber revenues of 2.3 billion over 30 years. Indeed, on all land accessible to harvesting, the timber industry could produce an average of more than 16 million m3 per year over a 30-year harvest cycle—entirely outside of current protected areas—providing 4.8 billion in returns to landowners and generating 1.8 billion in sawnwood sales tax revenue. This level of harvest could be profitably complemented with an additional 10% from logging concessions on National Forests. This advance, however, should be realized only through widespread adoption of reduced impact logging techniques.

  12. International carbon accounting of harvested wood products: evaluation of two models for the quantification of wood product related emissions and removals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sikkema, R.; Schelhaas, M.J.; Nabuurs, G.J.

    2002-01-01

    At the moment three alternative approaches for estimating emissions and removals of CO2 from forest harvesting and wood products are under discussion. These are atmospheric flow approach, stock change approach, and the production approach. Several methodologies are being developed to deal with these

  13. Robustness Evaluation of Timber Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Cizmar, D.

    2010-01-01

    The present paper outlines results from working group 3 (WG3) in the EU COST Action E55 – ‘Modelling of the performance of timber structures’. The objectives of the project are related to the three main research activities: the identification and modelling of relevant load and environmental...... exposure scenarios, the improvement of knowledge concerning the behaviour of timber structural elements and the development of a generic framework for the assessment of the life-cycle vulnerability and robustness of timber structures....

  14. The timber resources of the Blue Mountain area, Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles L. Bolsinger; John M. Berger

    1975-01-01

    The latest inventory of the timber resources of the Blue Mountain Area of Oregon indicates that there are about 47 billion board feet of sawtimber on 4.6 million acres of commercial forest land. Public agencies administer about 76 percent of the area and hold 89 percent of the sawtimber volume; farmer and miscellaneous private ownerships account for 16 percent of the...

  15. Use of timber in shipbuilding industry: Identification and analysis of timber from shipwrecks off Goa coast, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.; Sujatha, M.; Rao, R.V.; Rao, K.S.

    of artifice) composed by the king Bhoja of Dhar (11th century AD) gives a detailed account of boats, ships and the variety of wood used for their construction and classification of ships. Further, the text also mentions the quality of timber that is required...

  16. A Dynamic Analysis of the Global Timber Market and Carbon Flux of Forest under Global Warming: An Integrated Modeling Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Dug Man

    2000-01-01

    As global warming migrates ecosystems toward the poles, the result has been a change in the distribution of ecosystem types and the productivity of ecosystem as well. Similar to other natural resources, forests are also potentially affected as ecosystems move toward the poles. Consequently, human beings are forced to adapt, and global warming will generate an impact on the global timber market through changes in timber harvests, regeneration inputs, stumpage prices, etc. In addition, the dyna...

  17. Properties of Celtiz zenkeri Engel: a lesser-known timber species ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to provide some of the basic physical and strength properties of wood of Celtis zenkeri Engel. which is among the lesser-known and lesser-utilized timber species from Tanzania. Celtis zenkeri belonging to the family Ulmaceae is currently being harvested for wood fuel and building poles thus ...

  18. National forest timber supply and stumpage markets in the western United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darius M. Adams; Richard W. Haynes

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents an aggregate regional model of the National Forest timber supply process and the interaction of National Forest and non-National Forest supply in determining regional stumpage prices and harvest volumes. Model simulations track actual behavior in the Douglas-fir regional stumpage market with reasonable accuracy; projections for the next two decades...

  19. 77 FR 17007 - Kootenai National Forest, Cabinet Ranger District, Montana Pilgrim Timber Sale Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-23

    ... age class structure, via use of timber harvesting and prescribed fire use. Big game forage would be... managed for big game summer range. Subsequent analyses of potential environmental effects were documented... the deaf (TDD) may call the Federal Information Relay Service (FIRS) at 1-800-877-8339 between 8 a.m...

  20. Forest growth and timber quality: crown models and simulation methods for sustainable forest management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis P. Dykstra; Robert A. Monserud

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the international conference from which these proceedings are drawn was to explore relationships between forest management activities and timber quality. Sessions were organized to explore models and simulation methodologies that contribute to an understanding of tree development over time and the ways that management and harvesting activities can...

  1. How governance impacts non-timber forest product value chains in Cameroon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tieguhong, J.C.; Ingram, V.J.; Mala, W.; Ndoye, O.; Grouwels, S.

    2015-01-01

    Non-timber forest products (NTFP) comprise a diversity of natural resources that support livelihoods of those along the chain from harvester to traders. The Central African Forest Commission (COMIFAC) recognises the importance of NTFPs in alleviating poverty and conserving biodiversity and has

  2. Timber resource statistics for the San Joaquin and southern resource areas of California. Forest Service resource bulletin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waddell, K.L.; Bassett, P.M.

    1997-05-01

    This report is a summary of timber resource statistics for the San Joaquin and Southern Resource Areas of California. Data were collected as part of a statewide multiresource inventory. The inventory sampled private and public lands except reserved areas and National Forests. The National Forest System provided data from regional inventories of some areas. Area information for parks and other reserves was obtained directly from the organizations managing these areas. Statistical tables summarize all ownerships and provide estimates of land area, timber volume, growth, mortality, and harvest. Estimates of periodic change of timberland area and timber volume are presented for all ownerships outside National Forests.

  3. Calculations for harvesting fuel wood with small scale technology integrated with large scale, or two-step harvesting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swartstroem, J.

    1996-11-01

    Results from this analysis show that the wood-value per hectare is rather the same whether we use the conventional harvester to harvest the pulpwood and timber only, or if we use a combination of a harvester and a chipping system to harvest the small trees for fuel. This is valid if the price of chips is on the same level as pulpwood. The incomes from the wood per hectare reduced with the harvesting costs differ between the two systems. We can see that the revenue per hectare is 34% higher when we harvest pulpwood only (9362 SEK compared to 6702 + 268 SEK). But if we only look at the revenue within the machine-system we can find it is more profitable to use the harvester for processing stems with larger diameter combined with a small scale system for harvesting fuel-wood from the small trees. 7 refs, 7 figs, 2 tabs

  4. Bundling harvester; Nippukorjausharvesteri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koponen, K. [Eko-Log Oy, Kuopio (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    The staring point of the project was to design and construct, by taking the silvicultural point of view into account, a harvesting and processing system especially for energy-wood, containing manually driven bundling harvester, automatizing of the harvester, and automatized loading. The equipment forms an ideal method for entrepreneur`s-line harvesting. The target is to apply the system also for owner`s-line harvesting. The profitability of the system promotes the utilization of the system in both cases. The objectives of the project were: to construct a test equipment and prototypes for all the project stages, to carry out terrain and strain tests in order to examine the usability and durability, as well as the capacity of the machine, to test the applicability of the Eko-Log system in simultaneous harvesting of energy and pulp woods, and to start the marketing and manufacturing of the products. The basic problems of the construction of the bundling harvester have been solved using terrain-tests. The prototype machine has been shown to be operable. Loading of the bundles to form sufficiently economically transportable loads has been studied, and simultaneously, the branch-biomass has been tried to be utilized without loosing the profitability of transportation. The results have been promising, and will promote the profitable utilization of wood-energy

  5. Timber harvesting trends in the Lake States, 1983-1987.

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. Brad Smith; James E. Blyth

    1989-01-01

    Growing-stock removals for products have increased by 12% in the Lake States since 1983. Regional gains are led by red pine, aspen, and other hardwoods. New mills and technology promise to further improve markets for underutilized species throughout the region.

  6. Investigation of timber harvesting mechanization progress in Turkey

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-03-15

    Mar 15, 2010 ... Department of Forest Construction and Transportation, Faculty of Forestry, Istanbul University, 34473 ... even the smallest crumbs of wood as raw material in .... The mechanical park amount differences as years of Turkey.

  7. Challenges in Road Construction and Timber Harvesting in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Sakai, Hideo

    2017-01-01

    Japan Islands fundamentally consisted of the accretionary wedges. The stratum of accretionary wedges inclined, and it made dip slope and opposite slope. Granite magma intruded among accretionary wedges, and later granite itself became decomposed soil. Much annual precipitation of nearly 2000 mm, caused by monsoons, attacks forest roads, so innovative technologies for road construction are required. From ancient days, numerous circular slips and deepseated landslides occurred. For the inclined...

  8. Stream water responses to timber harvest: Riparian buffer width effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton D. Clinton

    2011-01-01

    Vegetated riparian buffers are critical for protecting aquatic and terrestrial processes and habitats in southern Appalachian ecosystems. In this case study, we examined the effect of riparian buffer width on stream water quality following upland forest management activities in four headwater catchments. Three riparian buffer widths were delineated prior to cutting; 0m...

  9. Joint production of timber, carbon, and wildlife habitat in the Canadian boreal plains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCarney, G.R.; Adamowicz, W.L. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Rural Economy; Armstrong, G.W. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Renewable Resources

    2008-06-15

    The relationships between forest carbon management, sustained timber yield, and the maintenance of wildlife habitats in the Canadian Boreal plain region were investigated. The aim of the study was to provide an estimation of the costs and challenges faced by forest managers in Canada's Boreal mixedwood region. The study used a model that previously analyzed the joint production of timber supplies and wildlife habitats using a natural disturbance model. A carbon budget model was used to separate biomass and dead organic matter carbon pools for individual forest cover types. An extensive marginal cost analysis of the production trade-offs between timber, carbon, and wildlife habitat was conducted. Results were used to demonstrate the potential for cost thresholds in timber supply and carbon sequestration. Thresholds were linked to switch-points in multiple use and specialized land management practices. Results showed that the optimal allocation of sequestered carbon across forest cover type differed with habitat constraints versus timber and carbon management alone. Results indicated that national policy discussions concerning carbon market regulations may wish to consider the potential for thresholds in production cost. Benefits of the management approach were influenced by ecological parameters, harvest flow regulations, and financial incentives for timber supply. 54 refs., 1 tab., 7 figs.

  10. Public timber supply, market adjustments, and local economies: economic assumptions of the Northwest Forest Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Thomas Michael

    2006-04-01

    The Northwest Forest Plan in the Pacific Northwest sought to stabilize local economies, including local employment and income, by stabilizing the flow of wood fiber from public forests. This is also a common forest management objective in other regions and countries. Because this economic strategy ignores basic market adjustments, it is likely to fail and to unnecessarily damage forest ecosystems. Application of basic economic principles on how markets operate significantly changes the apparent efficacy of efforts to manage local economies by managing timber supply. The emphasis on timber supply tends to ignore the dominant role that the demand for wood fiber and wood products, rather than wood-fiber supply, plays in determining levels of harvest and production. Contemporary economics indicates that markets tend to operate to offset reductions in wood-fiber supply. This significantly moderates the economic cost of reducing commercial timber harvest in the pursuit of environmental objectives. In addition, contemporary economic analysis indicates that the economic links between natural forests and local communities are much broader than simply the flow of commercially valuable logs to manufacturing facilities. At least in the United States, the flow of environmental services from natural forests has increasingly become an amenity that has drawn people and economic activity to forested areas. Attractive site-specific qualities, including those supported by natural forests, can potentially support local economic development even in the face of reduced timber harvests. These market-related adjustments partially explain the Northwest Forest Plan's overestimation of the expected regional impacts associated with reduced federal timber supply and the ineffectiveness of the plan's efforts to protect communities by stabilizing federal timber supply

  11. Timber resource statistics for eastern Washington, 1995.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neil McKay; Patricia M. Bassett; Colin D. MacLean

    1995-01-01

    This report summarizes a 1990-91 timber resource inventory of Washington east of the crest of the Cascade Range. The inventory was conducted on all private and public lands except National Forests. Timber resource statistics from National Forest inventories also are presented. Detailed tables provide estimates of forest area, timber volume, growth, mortality, and...

  12. An economic analysis of harvest behavior: integrating forest and ownership characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald F. Dennis

    1989-01-01

    This study provides insight into the determinants of timber supply from private forests through development of both theoretical and empirical models of harvest behavior. A microeconomic model encompasses the multiple objective nature of private ownership by examining the harvest decision for landowners who derive utility from forest amenities and from income used for...

  13. Production rates and costs of group-selection harvests with ground-based logging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chris B. LeDoux; Michael D. Erickson; Curt C. Hassler

    1993-01-01

    As increased demands are placed on forest land for timber production, wildlife, esthetics, recreation, hunting, fishing, and other uses, owners of woodlots and forest land are looking for different ways to harvest or treat the stands to accomplish their objectives. The large clearcut harvest blocks that had been the standard for years with the forest industry are not...

  14. The role of harvest residue in rotation cycle carbon balance in loblolly pine plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asko Noormets; Steve G. Mcnulty; Jean-Christophe Domec; Michael Gavazzi; Ge Sun; John S. King

    2012-01-01

    Timber harvests remove a significant portion of ecosystem carbon. While some of the wood products moved off-site may last past the harvest cycle of the particular forest crop, the effect of the episodic disturbances on long-term on-site carbon sequestration is unclear. The current study presents a 25 year carbon budget estimate for a typical commercial loblolly pine...

  15. Understanding Loss Deductions for Timber

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Greene; Michael Jacobson

    1998-01-01

    Forestland owners whose timber has been destroyed may be eligible to take a deduction for the loss on their federal income tax. The loss must be physical in nature and caused by an identifiable event or combination of events that has run its course. There are two types of losses from natural events. Casualty losses are sudden, unexpected, and unusual - as from a fire...

  16. Timber-concrete composite beams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Linden, M.L.R.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper an easy-to-use design model for timber-concrete composite beams is discussed. The model is applicable for computer simulations as well as for hand calculations. A research programme was started in 1992 in co-operation with the University of Karlsruhe, to study the loadbearing

  17. Timber resource statistics for the north interior resource area of California. Forest Service research bulletin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waddell, K.L.; Bassett, P.M.

    1997-03-01

    This report is a summary of timber resource statistics for the North Interior Resource Area of California, which includes Lassen, Modoc, Shasta, Siskiyou, and Trinity Counties. Data were collected as part of a statewide multiresource inventory. The inventory sampled private and public lands except reserved areas and National Forests. The National Forest System provided data from regional inventories of the Lassen, Mendocino, Modoc, Six Rivers, Plumas, Shasta-Trinity, Rogue River, and Toiyabe National Forests. Area information for parks and other reserves was obtained directly from the organizations managing these areas. Statistical tables summarize all ownerships and provide estimates of land area, timber volume, growth, mortality , and harvest. Estimates of periodic change of timberland area and timber volume are presented for all ownerships outside National Forests.

  18. Timber resource statistics for the Sacramento resource area of California. Forest Service resource bulletin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waddell, K.L.; Bassett, P.M.

    1997-03-01

    This report is a summary of timber resource statistics for the Scacramento Resource Area of California, which includes Butte, Colusa, El Dorado, Glenn, Lake, Napa, Nevada, Placer, Plumas, Sacramento, Sierra, Sutter, Tehama, Yolo, and Yuba Counties. Data were collected as part of a statewide multiresource inventory. The inventory sampled private and public lands except reserved areas and National Forests. The National Forest System provided data from regional inventories of the Eldorado, Lassen, Mendocino, Plumas, Shasta-Trinity, Tahoe, and Toiyabe National Forests and the Lake Tahoe Basin Management Unit. Area information for parks and other reserves was obtained directly from the organizations managing these areas. Statistical tables summarize all ownerships and provide estimates of land area, timber volume, growth, mortality, and harvest. Estimates of periodic change of timberland area and timber volume are presented for all ownerships outside National Forests.

  19. Timber resource statistics for the central coast resource area of California. Forest Service resource bulletin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waddell, K.L.; Bassett, P.M.

    1997-03-01

    This report is a summary of timber resource statistics for the Central Coast Resource Area of California, which includes Alameda, Contra Costa, Marin, Monterey, San Benito, San Francisco, San Luis Obispo, San Mateo, Santa Barbara, Santa Clara, Santa Cruz, Solano, and Ventura Counties. Data were collected as part of a state-wide multiresource inventory. The inventory sampled private and public lands except reserved areas and National Forests. The national Forest System provided data from regional inventories of the Los Padres National Forest. Area information for parks and other reserves was obtained directly from the organizations managing these areas. Statistical tables summarize all ownerships and provide estimates of land area, timber volume, growth, mortality, and harvest. Estimates of period change of timberland area and timber volume are presented for all ownerships outside National Forests.

  20. Timber resource statistics for the north coast resource area of California, 1994. Forest Service resource bulletin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waddell, K.L.; Bassett, P.M.

    1996-09-01

    This report is a summary of timber resource statistics for the North Coast Resource Area of California, which includes Del Norte, Humboldt, Mendocino, and Sonoma Counties. Data were collected by the Pacific Northwest Research Station as part of a State wide multiresource inventory. The inventory sampled private and public lands except reserved areas and National Forests. The National Forest System provided data from regional inventories of North Coast National Forests. Area information for parks and other reserves was obtained directly from the organizations managing these areas. Statistical tables summarize all ownerships and provide estimates of land area, timber volume, growth, mortality, and harvest. Estimates of periodic change of volume and area on timber land are presented for all ownerships outside National Forests.

  1. probabilistic evaluation of eur robabilistic evaluation of eur a timber

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    melted in fire, timber can still take a large load [10]. Timber has a high and predictable performance in because timber chars at a slow and known rate [5 one important aspect of performance, namely. 802-358-3817. IC EVALUATION OF EUROCODE 5 FIRE DESIGN CRITER. A TIMBER PORTAL FRAME. A TIMBER PORTAL ...

  2. Timber value—a matter of choice: a study of how end use assumptions affect timber values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John H. Beuter

    1971-01-01

    The relationship between estimated timber values and actual timber prices is discussed. Timber values are related to how, where, and when the timber is used. An analysis demonstrates the relative values of a typical Douglas-fir stand under assumptions about timber use.

  3. System Reliability of Timber Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2010-01-01

    For reduction of the risk of collapse in the event of loss of structural element(s), a structural engineer may take necessary steps to design a collapse-resistant structure that is insensitive to accidental circumstances e.g. by incorporating characteristics like redundancy, ties, ductility, key...... elements, alternate load path(s) etc. in the structural design. In general these characteristics can have a positive influence on system reliability of a structure however, in Eurocodes ductility is only awarded for concrete and steel structures but not for timber structures. It is well......-know that structural systems can redistribute internal forces due to ductility of a connection, i.e. some additional loads can be carried by the structure. The same effect is also possible for reinforced concrete structures and structures of steel. However, for timber structures codes do not award that ductility...

  4. Effective lateral resistance of timber-plywood-timber joints connected with nails

    OpenAIRE

    Wanyama, Okumu Gordon; Sawata, Kei; Hirai, Takuro; Koizumi, Akio; Sasaki, Yoshihisa

    2012-01-01

    In this study, an experimental study was conducted on the nailed timber-plywood-timber joints extended from the standard wall-floor joints of wooden light frame constructions, where the bottom plates of shear walls are nailed to the floors consisting of joists and floor sheathings nailed to them. The principal conclusions are as follows: The allowable lateral resistance of the nailed timber-plywood-timber joints can roundly be estimated by neglecting the plywood panels if their densities are ...

  5. The timber resources of Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal P. Kingsley; Joseph E. Barnard

    1968-01-01

    Under the authority of the McSweeney-McNary Forest Research Act of May 22, 1928, and subsequent amendments, the Forest Service, U. S. Department of Agriculture, conducts a series of continuing forest surveys of all states to provide up-to-date information about the forest resources of the Nation. A resurvey of the timber resources in Vermont was made in 1965 and 1966...

  6. The Timber Resource Inventory Model (TRIM): a projection model for timber supply and policy analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    P.L. Tedder; R.N. La Mont; J.C. Kincaid

    1987-01-01

    TRIM (Timber Resource Inventory Model) is a yield table projection system developed for timber supply projections and policy analysis. TRIM simulates timber growth, inventories, management and area changes, and removals over the projection period. Programs in the TRIM system, card-by-card descriptions of required inputs, table formats, and sample results are presented...

  7. Selection of Nepalese Timber for Small Wind Turbine Blade Construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sinha, R.; Acharya, Parash; Freere, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The paper describes the selection of Nepalese timber for development of small wind turbine blades on the basis of locally based low cost timbers, along with the selection of coatings to protect the timber from weathering. The selection criterion of timber includes timber mechanical properties......, weathering effect on coatings, price, growth and availability of the timber. Mechanical properties such as Young's modulus of elasticity, breaking strength, breaking strain and Brinell's hardness of selected Nepalese timbers are presented. The effects of weathering on timbers without coating...

  8. Energy harvester

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herder, J.L.; Tolou, N.

    2013-01-01

    Energy harvester comprising a mass (2) that is subjectable to environmental forces for bringing it into the status of a moving mass, and means (5) linked to the mass (2) for converting and storing of energy embodied in the moving mass, which means (5) are arranged for subsequent release of said

  9. Stem quality of oak in 15-year-old stands: influence of species within harvesting treatment and fencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt W. Gottschalk

    1997-01-01

    The effect of harvesting treatment, fencing, and species on the stem quality of oak (Quercus spp.) was evaluated in mixed-hardwood stands on the Allegheny Plateau in central Pennsylvania. The regeneration harvests included commercial clearcut that removed most stems ≥ 15 cm dbh and a clearcut with timber stand improvement (TSI) that removed...

  10. Forest management scenarios in a changing climate: trade-offs between carbon, timber, and old forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creutzburg, Megan K; Scheller, Robert M; Lucash, Melissa S; LeDuc, Stephen D; Johnson, Mark G

    2017-03-01

    Balancing economic, ecological, and social values has long been a challenge in the forests of the Pacific Northwest, where conflict over timber harvest and old-growth habitat on public lands has been contentious for the past several decades. The Northwest Forest Plan, adopted two decades ago to guide management on federal lands, is currently being revised as the region searches for a balance between sustainable timber yields and habitat for sensitive species. In addition, climate change imposes a high degree of uncertainty on future forest productivity, sustainability of timber harvest, wildfire risk, and species habitat. We evaluated the long-term, landscape-scale trade-offs among carbon (C) storage, timber yield, and old forest habitat given projected climate change and shifts in forest management policy across 2.1 million hectares of forests in the Oregon Coast Range. Projections highlight the divergence between private and public lands under business-as-usual forest management, where private industrial forests are heavily harvested and many public (especially federal) lands increase C and old forest over time but provide little timber. Three alternative management scenarios altering the amount and type of timber harvest show widely varying levels of ecosystem C and old-forest habitat. On federal lands, ecological forestry practices also allowed a simultaneous increase in old forest and natural early-seral habitat. The ecosystem C implications of shifts away from current practices were large, with current practices retaining up to 105 Tg more C than the alternative scenarios by the end of the century. Our results suggest climate change is likely to increase forest productivity by 30-41% and total ecosystem C storage by 11-15% over the next century as warmer winter temperatures allow greater forest productivity in cooler months. These gains in C storage are unlikely to be offset by wildfire under climate change, due to the legacy of management and effective fire

  11. Merging Areas In Timber Mart South Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey P. Prestemon; John M. Pye

    1999-01-01

    For over twenty years, Timber Mart-South (TMS) has been distributing prices of various wood products from Southern forests. These long-term price series have been a critical resource for research into timber price and supply trends in the southern United States. Such analyses rely on consistent temporal and spatial reporting units, but these units have not always been...

  12. Load capacity of hollowed timber piles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-12-01

    The goal of this study was to develop a reliable load-rating methodology for timber piles based on the level of documented damage. Louisiana currently has over 4,000 timber bridges in its inventory of over 13,800 bridges. A quarter of these 4,000 tim...

  13. Timber resources of Douglas County, Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colin D. MacLean

    1976-01-01

    This report summarizes a 1973 timber resource inventory of Douglas County, Oregon. Detailed tables of forest area, timber volume, growth, mortality, and cut are presented. A discussion of the present resource situation highlights the condition of cutover lands and the opportunities for silvicultural treatment.

  14. Timber resource of Missouri's Southwestern Ozarks, 1972.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold J. Ostrom; Jerold T. Hahn

    1974-01-01

    The third timber inventory of Missouri's Southwestern Ozarks Forest Survey Unit shows a substantial decline in the volumes of both growing stock and sawtimber between 1959 and 1972. Commercial forest area also declined substantially during the same period. Presented are highlights and statistics on forest area and timber volume, growth, mortality, ownership, and...

  15. Timber resource of Missouri's Prairie, 1972.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerold T. Hahn; Alexander Vasilevsky

    1975-01-01

    The third timber inventory of Missouri's Prairie Forest Survey Unit shows substantial declines in both growing-stock and sawtimber volumes between 1959 and 1972. Commercial forest area declined by one-fifth. Presents highlights and statistics on forest area and timber volume, growth, mortality, ownership, and use in 1972.

  16. Reliability and Robustness Evaluation of Timber Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cizmar, Dean; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    In the last few decades there have been intensely research concerning reliability of timber structures. This is primarily because there is an increased focus on society on sustainability and environmental aspects. Modern timber as a building material is also being competitive compared to concrete...

  17. Simplified analysis of timber rivet connections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas C. Stahl; Marshall. Begel; Ronald W. Wolfe

    2000-01-01

    Timber rivets, fasteners for glulam and heavy timber construction, have been used in Canada for about thirty years and recently were adopted by the U.S. National Design Specification for Wood Construction (NDS). Rivet connections can exhibit two failure modes, one of which is fundamentally different from those of other dowel fasteners. Failure can occur when a volume...

  18. Species independent strength grading of structural timber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ravenshorst, G.J.P.

    2015-01-01

    Timber as a construction material has been used for millennia, but the research field covering the prediction of the strength of structural timber is still in development. Currently, the common conception is that the determination of strength properties has to be determined for every wood species

  19. Timber-concrete composite floor systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linden, M.L.R. van der; Blass, H.J.

    1996-01-01

    Timber-concrete composite (tcc) beams may be used for the renovation of old timber floors. Although these systems are a simple and practical solution, they are not widely adopted. One of the reasons for this is the lack of uniform design mies. In this research programme shear tests on four different

  20. Timber rivets in structural composite lumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald W. Wolfe; Marshall Begel; Bruce Craig

    2004-01-01

    Timber rivet connections, originally developed for use with glulam construction, may be a viable option for use with structural composite lumber (SCL) products. Tests were conducted on small samples to assess the performance and predictability of timber rivet connections in parallel strand lumber (PSL) and laminated strand lumber (LSL). The test joint configurations...

  1. Robustness Evaluation of Timber Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2009-01-01

    The present paper considers robustness evaluation of a Norwegian sports arena with a structural system of glulam frames. The robustness evaluation is based on the framework for robustness analysis introduced in the Danish Code of Practice for the Safety of Structures and a probabilistic modelling...... of the timber material proposed in the Probabilistic Model Code (PMC) of the Joint Committee on Structural Safety (JCSS). The results show that the requirements for robustness of the structure are highly related to the modelling of the snow load used on the structures when ‘removal of a limited part...... of the structure' is considered....

  2. Renewal of Collaborative Research: Economically Viable Forest Harvesting Practices That Increase Carbon Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidson, E.A.; Dail, D.B., Hollinger, D.; Scott, N.; Richardson, A.

    2012-08-02

    Forests provide wildlife habitat, water and air purification, climate moderation, and timber and nontimber products. Concern about climate change has put forests in the limelight as sinks of atmospheric carbon. The C stored in the global vegetation, mostly in forests, is nearly equivalent to the amount present in atmospheric CO{sub 2}. Both voluntary and government-mandated carbon trading markets are being developed and debated, some of which include C sequestration resulting from forest management as a possible tradeable commodity. However, uncertainties regarding sources of variation in sequestration rates, validation, and leakage remain significant challenges for devising strategies to include forest management in C markets. Hence, the need for scientifically-based information on C sequestration by forest management has never been greater. The consequences of forest management on the US carbon budget are large, because about two-thirds of the {approx}300 million hectare US forest resource is classified as 'commercial forest.' In most C accounting budgets, forest harvesting is usually considered to cause a net release of C from the terrestrial biosphere to the atmosphere. However, forest management practices could be designed to meet the multiple goals of providing wood and paper products, creating economic returns from natural resources, while sequestering C from the atmosphere. The shelterwood harvest strategy, which removes about 30% of the basal area of the overstory trees in each of three successive harvests spread out over thirty years as part of a stand rotation of 60-100 years, may improve net C sequestration compared to clear-cutting because: (1) the average C stored on the land surface over a rotation increases, (2) harvesting only overstory trees means that a larger fraction of the harvested logs can be used for long-lived sawtimber products, compared to more pulp resulting from clearcutting, (3) the shelterwood cut encourages growth of

  3. Collapse Analysis of Timber Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2008-01-01

    A probabilistic based collapse analysis has been performed for a glulam frame structure supporting the roof over the main court in a Norwegian sports centre. The robustness analysis is based on the framework for robustness analysis introduced in the Danish Code of Practice for the Safety of Struc......A probabilistic based collapse analysis has been performed for a glulam frame structure supporting the roof over the main court in a Norwegian sports centre. The robustness analysis is based on the framework for robustness analysis introduced in the Danish Code of Practice for the Safety...... of Structures and a probabilistic modelling of the timber material proposed in the Probabilistic Model Code (PMC) of the Joint Committee on Structural Safety (JCSS). Due to the framework in the Danish Code the timber structure has to be evaluated with respect to the following criteria where at least one shall...... be fulfilled: a) demonstrating that those parts of the structure essential for the safety only have little sensitivity with respect to unintentional loads and defects, or b) demonstrating a load case with „removal of a limited part of the structure‟ in order to document that an extensive failure...

  4. Forest Productivity and Timber Supply Modeling in the South

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick Cubbage; Jacek Siry; Robert Abt; David N. Wear; Steverson Moffat

    1998-01-01

    The South can increase forest productivity on industrial and nonindustrial private forest (NIPF) lands. As timber markets have improved and timber prices have increased, returns from intensive management are more profitable. The interaction of timber markets, inventory, and prices are analyzed in new southern timber supply models sponsored by the Southern Forest...

  5. Inventory analysis of the timber industry in Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eshun, J.F.; Potting, J.; Leemans, R.

    2010-01-01

    Background, aim, and scope The timber sector, i.e., forestry and timber industry, plays an important role in the socioeconomic development of Ghana through timber products export. Timber production in this sector is associated with increasing environmental burdens in terms of use of materials and

  6. Structural Reliability of the Nigerian Grown Abura Timber Bridge ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Structural reliability analysis was carried out on the Nigerian grown Abura timber, to ascertain its structural performance as timber bridge beams. Samples of the Nigerian grown Abura timber were bought from timber market, seasoned naturally and their structural/strength properties were determined at a moisture content of ...

  7. Selected non-timber forest products with medicinal applications from Jilin Province in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao Ge Huang; Branka Barl; Gerald. Ivanochko

    2001-01-01

    This paper provides a brief account of the distribution, production, and use of some non-timber forest products such as medicinal plants, medicinal and nutraceutical mushrooms, pharmaceutical insects, and "wild" vegetables in Jilin Province, China. All materials featured in this paper are used in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) inside and outside of China...

  8. In-stand scenic beauty of variable retention harvests and mature forests in the U.S. Pacific Northwest: the effects of basal area, density, retention pattern and down wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.G. Ribe

    2009-01-01

    Tensions between amenity- and timber-based economies in the U.S. and Canadian Pacific Northwest motivated a study of scenic beauty inside mature forests and timber harvests. A diverse sample of regional forests, measures of forest structure, and large, representative samples of photographs and public judges were employed to measure scenic beauty inside unharvested...

  9. Dowel-type fastener connections in timber structures subjected to short-term loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen Jensen, J.

    Design of dowel-type fastener connections in framed timber structures usually involves a two-step analysis: determination of the distribution of the sectional forces, and design of the eccentrically loaded connections. This report presents an integrated model for design of framed timber structures...... with dowel-type fastener connections. A Finite-Element approach has been adopted. An element has been developed for modelling a plane group of dowel-type fasteners, taking due account of the material and geometric non-linearities, and two different elements have been developed for modelling gap closure...

  10. Assessing the Sustainability of EU Timber Consumption Trends: Comparing Consumption Scenarios with a Safe Operating Space Scenario for Global and EU Timber Supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghan O’Brien

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The growing demand for wood to meet EU renewable energy targets has increasingly come under scrutiny for potentially increasing EU import dependence and inducing land use change abroad, with associated impacts on the climate and biodiversity. This article builds on research accounting for levels of primary timber consumption—e.g., toward forest footprints—and developing reference values for benchmarking sustainability—e.g., toward land use targets—in order to improve systemic monitoring of timber and forest use. Specifically, it looks at future trends to assess how current EU policy may impact forests at an EU and global scale. Future demand scenarios are based on projections derived and adapted from the literature to depict developments under different scenario assumptions. Results reveal that by 2030, EU consumption levels on a per capita basis are estimated to be increasingly disproportionate compared to the rest of the world. EU consumption scenarios based on meeting around a 40% share of the EU renewable energy targets with timber would overshoot both the EU and global reference value range for sustainable supply capacities in 2030. Overall, findings support literature pointing to an increased risk of problem shifting relating to both how much and where timber needed for meeting renewable energy targets is sourced. It is argued that a sustainable level of timber consumption should be characterized by balance between supply (what the forest can provide on a sustainable basis and demand (how much is used on a per capita basis, considering the concept of fair shares. To this end, future research should close data gaps, increase methodological robustness and address the socio-political legitimacy of the safe operating space concept towards targets in the future. A re-use of timber within the economy should be supported to increase supply options.

  11. Identifying regional opportunities for accelerated timber managemnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    David A. Gansner; Joseph E. Barnard; Samuel F. Gingrich; Samuel F. Gingrich

    1973-01-01

    Describes a procedure for identifying regional opportunities for accelerated timber management and demonstrates its application. Results provide a basis for rational choices among alternative management strategies and permit meaningful micro- and macro-evaluations of treatment response.

  12. Framework for Robustness Assessment of Timber Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a theoretical framework for the design and analysis of robustness of timber structures. This is actualized by a more4 frequent use of advanced types of timber structures with limited redundancy and serious consequences in the case of failure. Combined with increased requirements...... are not specified in detail, which makes the practical use difficult. This paper describes a theoretical and risk based framework to form the basis for quantification of robustness and for pre-normative guidelines....

  13. LEVERAGING RURAL LIVELIHOODS WITH FOREST CONSERVATION IN NIGERIA: THE ROLE OF NON-TIMBER FOREST PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egbe BASSEY ETOWA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent times some economists view Non-Timber Forest Products (NTFPs extraction and marketing as a better alternative to timber exploitation as a rural livelihood strategy. Harvesting and sale of NTFPs have the potential for accomplishing the dual goals of natural forest conservation and income generation for the rural inhabitants. Meanwhile, realization of these dual goals in Nigeria, require an understanding of how NTFPs functions in the face of marketing, ecological, geographic and institutional constraints. Following a conceptualization of NTFPs, this paper provides a vivid overview of the simultaneous roles of NTFPs in rural livelihood enhancement and forest conservation in Nigeria. It highlights governmental initiatives with respect to conservation, the challenges and prospects of NTFPs as a conservation strategy. Conclusively, the paper suggests that appropriate NTFPs development policies are required to simultaneously address forest depletion and poverty in rural areas of Nigeria.

  14. Soil organic matter and nitrogen cycling in response to harvesting, mechanical site preparation, and fertilization in a wetland with a mineral substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    James W. McLaughlin; Margaret R. Gale; Martin F. Jurgensen; Carl C. Trettin

    2000-01-01

    Forested wetlands are becoming an important timber resource in the Upper Great Lakes Region of the US. However, there is limited information on soil nutrient cycling responses to harvesting and post-harvest manipulations (site preparation and fertilization). The objective of this study was to examine cellulose decomposition, nitrogen mineralization, and soil solution...

  15. The timber industries of New Hampshire and Vermont: a periodic assessment of timber output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert L., Jr. Nevel; Nicolas Engalichev; William C. Gove

    1986-01-01

    This periodic evaluation of statewide industrial timber output is based on canvasses of the primary wood manufacturing plants in New Hampshire and Vermont. The report contains statistics on industrial timber products and plant wood receipts in 1982, and the production and disposition of the manufacturing plant residues that resulted. The 129.4 million cubic feet (3.7...

  16. Harvesting technique ESO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saell, H.O.

    1982-01-01

    The report presents an extensive survey of the development of harvesters for energy forest plantations. The international cooperation on short rotation cultivation and harvesting is discussed. Various designs of harvesters, loaders and chippers are described.

  17. Rent-seeking and timber rights allocation in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Kirsten; Hansen, Christian Pilegaard

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes types, processes and importance of rent-seeking in the allocation of timber rights in Ghana. It is based on an analysis of 30 interviews with large-, medium- and small-scale timber firms, as well as government officials and timber industry organizations in Ghana. The paper...... involving exchange of timber rights for political support and/or material, personal benefits. Second, timber rights are allocated to persons or firms outside the timber sector allegedly as payment for political support. The paper concludes that the Voluntary Partnership Agreement between Ghana and the EU...

  18. Relative abundance and species richness of terrestrial salamanders on hardwood ecosystem experiment sites before harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jami E. MacNeil; Rod N. Williams

    2013-01-01

    Terrestrial salamanders are ideal indicators of forest ecosystem integrity due to their abundance, their role in nutrient cycling, and their sensitivity to environmental change. To understand better how terrestrial salamanders are affected by forest management practices, we monitored species diversity and abundance before implementation of timber harvests within the...

  19. Optimizing wildlife habitat quality and oak regeneration in bottomland hardwoods using midstory control and partial harvests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derek K. Alkire; Andrew W. Ezell; Andrew B. Self

    2011-01-01

    Bottomland hardwoods can provide both wildlife habitat and timber. However, past high-grading practices limit future income potential and have resulted in undesirable species composition in many areas. Thus, prevalence of desirable oak species should be increased. Our study will attempt to determine the proper harvest level for bottomland hardwoods which will optimize...

  20. Mapping wildfire and clearcut harvest disturbances in boreal forests with Landsat time series data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd Schroeder; Michael A. Wulder; Sean P. Healey; Gretchen G. Moisen

    2011-01-01

    Information regarding the extent, timing andmagnitude of forest disturbance are key inputs required for accurate estimation of the terrestrial carbon balance. Equally important for studying carbon dynamics is the ability to distinguish the cause or type of forest disturbance occurring on the landscape. Wildfire and timber harvesting are common disturbances occurring in...

  1. Leakage Implications for European Timber Markets from Reducing Deforestation in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattias Boman

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Forest management strategies and policies such as REDD (reduced emissions from deforestation and forest degradation may have unintentional implications for forest sectors in countries not targeted by such policies. The success of a policy effort like REDD would result in a significant reduction in deforestation and forest degradation and an ensuing reduction in the supply of natural forest timber production within participating countries. This could in turn result in price increases, inducing a supply response outside project boundaries with possible implications for forest management as well as global carbon emissions. This paper reviews the literature to discern potential timber market implications for countries sourcing wood products from developing countries affected by REDD related conservation efforts. The literature reviewed shows varying degrees of market effects leakage—policy actions in one place creating incentives for third parties to increase timber harvesting elsewhere through the price mechanism—ranging from negligible to substantial. However, wood products in the studies reviewed are dealt with on quite an aggregated scale and are assumed to be more or less perfect substitutes for wood products outside conservation effort boundaries. The review suggests that a thorough mapping of the end-uses of tropical timber is needed to comprehensively analyze impacts on wood-product markets in regions such as Europe from conservation efforts in tropical developing countries. The types of tropical timber expected to be affected, in which applications they are used, which are the most likely substitutes and where they would be sourced, are issues that, along with empirical analysis of supply and demand price elasticities and degree of substitutability, should be investigated when assessing the overall effectiveness of REDD.

  2. Development of Timber Property Classification Based on the End-Use with Reference to Twenty Sri Lankan Timber Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ND Ruwanpathirana

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available An investigation was carried out on selected 20 timber species of Sri Lanka to study different wood properties, i.e., wood density, modulus of rapture, modulus of elasticity, compression parallel to grain, shrinkage/movement, workability (sawing, nailing, sanding and finishing, treatability of preservative, timber durability, timber texture by vessel diameter and some gross properties, timber colour and present timber uses. Based on the results, an attempt was made to classify the studied timber species into property levels. The final objective of this study was to develop relationships between the end-uses of timber and their property requirements and levels with reference to 20 Sri Lankan timber species.   Timber selection for the use in Sri Lanka is species-oriented and sometimes it is based on the traditional use. Based on wood properties of 20 Sri Lankan timber species selected, an attempt was made to recognise the most important wood properties and their levels to develop a four end-use property classification. In general, the proposed end-use property classification in this study could be differentiated as (i. for building construction, (ii. for furniture and joinery (iii. for light construction, and (iv. for miscellaneous uses. Among the selected timber species, Dipterocarpus zeylanicus is eminently suitable for under-water work. Eucalyptus microcorys is regarded as one of the best timbers for dancing floors. These specialty and causative factors of timber, however, must be explored and documented in order to prepare end-use property classification for miscellaneous use.

  3. Reinforcement and recovery of timber structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Alves Dias

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Preservation of timber structures is a reason for constant concern because their deterioration often involves compromising the historical patrimony, besides endangering the safety of the structure, and consequently, of their users. Many are the examples of churches, residences or other constructions where this manifestation is a fact. The technique of reinforcing structurally endangered pieces with the addition of natural or synthetic fibers, is an alternative that has been researched. In the group of synthetic fibers, fiberglass, carbon and aramid ones are included. On the other hand, it has been frequent in the restoration of old buildings, especially in Europe, the employment of materials that were not available in the past, aiming to achieve structural, acoustic and aesthetic benefits. On an existing timber structure floor, a concrete slab has been carried out, with an appropriate connection system among the parts, constituting the composite timber-concrete structures. This alternative has been considered as extraordinarily viable, because it gathers a series of convenience related with the durability and it presents better mechanic performance than conventional timber structures. In this work, the state-of-the-art of the use of fibers as structural reinforcement and of the timber-concrete composite structures, is presented.

  4. structural reliability of the nigerian grown abura timber bridge beam

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ENGR. J. I. AGUWA

    2013-07-02

    Jul 2, 2013 ... Structural analysis and deterministic design of a timber bridge ... developed and used for reliability analysis of the Nigerian grown Abura timber bridge beam so designed, to ..... Nigerian Standard Organization, Federal.

  5. The Influence of Flame Retardant Treated Timber Density on Combustibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbignev Karpovič

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Timber is widely used as a construction material in the majority of countries. In most cases, timber is the main structural material. Timber and timber fabrics used in building structure elements have to fulfill the requirements of fire safety. This article presents factors affecting the combustibility of timber, mainly the influence of flame retardants on the combustion phase, timber density and moisture. The influence of flame retardant treated timber density on combustibility is analyzed in this paper. Research was performed according to the requirements of the standard LST ISO 5657:1999 “Reaction to fire tests – ignitibility of building products using a radiant heat source”. The influence of flame retardant treated timber density on combustibility is assessed according to duration up to the combustion of the specimen. Article in Lithuanian

  6. Forest biomass flow for fuel wood, fodder and timber security among tribal communities of Jharkhand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, M A; Quli, S M S; Rai, R; Ali, Angrej; Gangoo, S A

    2015-01-01

    The study investigated extraction and consumption pattern of fuel wood, fodder and timber and forest biomass flow for fuel wood, fodder and timber security among tribal communities in Bundu block of Ranchi district in Jharkhand (India). The study is based on personal interviews of the selected respondents through structured interview schedule, personal observations and participatory rural appraisal tools i.e. key informant interviews and focus group discussions carried out in the sample villages, using multi-stage random sampling technique. The study revealed that the total extraction of fuel wood from different sources in villages was 2978.40 tons annum(-1), at the rate of 0.68 tons per capita annum(-1), which was mostly consumed in cooking followed by cottage industries, heating, community functions and others. The average fodder requirement per household was around 47.77 kg day(-1) with a total requirement of 14227.34 tons annum(-1). The average timber requirement per household was computed to be 0.346 m3 annum(-1) accounting for a total timber demand of 282.49 m3 annum(-1), which is mostly utilized in housing, followed by agricultural implements, rural furniture, carts and carriages, fencing, cattle shed/ store house and others. Forest biomass is the major source of fuel wood, fodder and timber for the primitive societies of the area contributing 1533.28 tons annum(-1) (51.48%) of the total fuel wood requirement, 6971.55 tons annum(-1) (49.00%) of the total fodder requirement and 136.36 m3 annum(-1) (48.27%) of the total timber requirement. The forest biomass is exposed to enormous pressure for securing the needs by the aboriginal people, posing great threat to biodiversity and environment of the region. Therefore, forest biomass conservation through intervention of alternative avenues is imperative to keep pace with the current development and future challenges in the area.

  7. Deriving simple and adjusted financial rates of return on Mississippi timber lands by combining forest inventory and analysis and Timber Mart-South data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew J. Hartsell

    2007-01-01

    This study compares returns on investments in Mississippi timber lands with returns on alternative investments. The real annual rates of return from mature, undisturbed timber lands in Mississippi over a 17-year period (1977-94) were computed. Southern Research Station Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) timber volume data and Timber Mart-South (TMS) data on timber...

  8. Systematic feature analysis on timber defect images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ummi Rabaah Hashim

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Feature extraction is unquestionably an important process in a pattern recognition system. A defined set of features makes the identification task more efficiently. This paper addresses the extraction and analysis of features based on statistical texture to characterize images of timber defects. A series of procedures including feature extraction and feature analysis was executed to construct an appropriate feature set that could significantly separate amongst defects and clear wood classes. The feature set aimed for later use in a timber defect detection system. For Accessing the discrimination capability of the features extracted, visual exploratory analysis and confirmatory statistical analysis were performed on defect and clear wood images of Meranti (Shorea spp. timber species. Results from the analysis demonstrated that there was a significant distinction between defect classes and clear wood utilizing the proposed set of texture features.

  9. Tropical Timber Identification using Backpropagation Neural Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siregar, B.; Andayani, U.; Fatihah, N.; Hakim, L.; Fahmi, F.

    2017-01-01

    Each and every type of wood has different characteristics. Identifying the type of wood properly is important, especially for industries that need to know the type of timber specifically. However, it requires expertise in identifying the type of wood and only limited experts available. In addition, the manual identification even by experts is rather inefficient because it requires a lot of time and possibility of human errors. To overcome these problems, a digital image based method to identify the type of timber automatically is needed. In this study, backpropagation neural network is used as artificial intelligence component. Several stages were developed: a microscope image acquisition, pre-processing, feature extraction using gray level co-occurrence matrix and normalization of data extraction using decimal scaling features. The results showed that the proposed method was able to identify the timber with an accuracy of 94%.

  10. Robustness Analysis of Timber Truss Structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rajčić, Vlatka; Čizmar, Dean; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2010-01-01

    The present paper discusses robustness of structures in general and the robustness requirements given in the codes. Robustness of timber structures is also an issues as this is closely related to Working group 3 (Robustness of systems) of the COST E55 project. Finally, an example of a robustness ...... evaluation of a widespan timber truss structure is presented. This structure was built few years ago near Zagreb and has a span of 45m. Reliability analysis of the main members and the system is conducted and based on this a robustness analysis is preformed.......The present paper discusses robustness of structures in general and the robustness requirements given in the codes. Robustness of timber structures is also an issues as this is closely related to Working group 3 (Robustness of systems) of the COST E55 project. Finally, an example of a robustness...

  11. Challenges in accounting the forests - a Latvian case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evija Grege-Staltmane

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Forest has a long production cycle. Therefore forest bookkeepinghas specific characteristics. However accounting for forest activities has received little attention from accounting researchers. The release of International Accounting Standard 41 "Agriculture" (IAS 41 established a single accounting system for forest assets. The paper analyzes application of IAS 41 which regulates forest accounting. Practice of international forestry companies is examined, and current forest accounting situation in Latvia is investigated. The main factors affecting valuation of a forest in its fair value are discussed and major problems in forest accounting are illuminated.The research indicates that land value and standing timber valueshould be recorded separately and standing timber should be estimated at its fair value. Despite the attempt of the International Accounting Standard Board to improve the accounting with IAS 41 for biological assets, much enhancement in forest accounting is still needed.

  12. characterisation and grading of two selected timber species grown ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HOD

    Timber is a complex building material owing to its heterogeneity and species diversity. Timber does not .... forming dense cluster, twisted bean-like pods, dark brown, cylindrical, 1.5-6 cm long and 4-7 mm thick; the ... (ii) Machine grading: This assigns stress grade to timber according to its stiffness. The grade is assigned by ...

  13. 26 CFR 1.611-3 - Rules applicable to timber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the timber as determined by species, age, size, condition, etc.; (ii) The quantity of timber per acre... basis of general averages for regions; however, the value placed upon it, taking into consideration such... margin between the cost of production and the price realized for timber products, market value of stock...

  14. Fiber stress values for design of glulam timber utility structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Hernandez; R. C. Moody; R. H. Falk

    In this study, we developed a simple equation to calculate average fiber stress values for design of glued-laminated (glulam) timber utility structures as a function of design bending stress. We took design stress in bending values specified by the American Institute of Timber Construction (AITC) for various combinations of glulam timber, applied appropriate end-use...

  15. Assessment of rural households' objectives for gathering non-timber ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study assessed rural households' objectives for gathering non-timber forest products in Kogi State, Nigeria, with specific focus on identifying some species of non-timber forest products present in the area, identifying reasons why they engaged in the gathering of the non-timber forest products (NTFPs) as well as ...

  16. 77 FR 64096 - Information Collection; Advertised Timber for Sale

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-18

    ... Forest Service Information Collection; Advertised Timber for Sale AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION... of the currently approved information collection 0596-0066 Advertised Timber for Sale. DATES... INFORMATION: Title: Advertised Timber for Sale. OMB Number: 0596-0066. Expiration Date of Approval: April 30...

  17. Long-term behaviour of timber structures in torrent control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickli, Christian; Graf, Frank

    2014-05-01

    Timber is widely used for protection measures in torrent control. However, life span of woody constructions such as timber check dams is limited due to fungal decay. However, only sparse scientific information is available on the long-term behaviour of timber structures and the colonisation with decay fungi. Related to this, in practice a controversial discussion has been going on if either Norway Spruce (Picea abies) or Silver Fir (Abies alba) is more enduring and if bark removal increases resistance against fungal decay. In order to going into this matter a series of 15 timber check dams built in 1996 has been monitored. The constructions were alternatively realised with Norway Spruce and Silver Fir, half of them each with remaining and removed bark, respectively. The scientific investigations included the documentation of colonisation with rot fungi and the identification of decayed zones with a simple practical approach as well as based on drilling resistance. Colonisation by decay fungi started three years after construction (e.g. Gloeophyllum sepiarium), detecting two years later first parts with reduced wood resistance. Sixteen years after construction decay was found on all check dams but two. Wood quality was markedly better in watered sections compared to the occasionally dry lateral abutment sections. Taking the whole check dams into consideration, slightly more decay was detected in Norway Spruce compared to logs in Silver Fir and both the practical approach and the drilling resistance measurement yielded in more defects on logs without bark. However, due to limited number of replications and fungal data, it was not possible to statistically verify these results. Statistical analysis was restricted to the drilling resistance data and fruit-bodies of decay fungi of the uppermost log of each check dam. Based on this limited analysis significant differences in the effect on the drilling resistance were found for watered sections and lateral abutments

  18. Timber Elements: Traditional and Modern Strengthening Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca Hohan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The main idea of this paper is to analyse the means for the rehabilitation of our cultural heritage timber structures. Several methods together with their application techniques are described, and also, the reasons for what these strengthening operations become imminent at a point. First of all, the necessity of the timber structural elements strengthening is explained through a short presentation of the factors which are degrading the material. Then, certain precautions and strengthening procedures are presented, all involving the usage of traditional materials like wood, metal, or concrete, and of modern materials like fiber reinforced polymeric composite.

  19. Impact of land-use on savanna vegetation and populations of non-timber forest product-providing tree species in West Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Schumann, Katharina

    2011-01-01

    Savannas are the most important timber and non-timber forest products (NTFPs) providing ecosystems in West Africa. They have been shaped by traditional human land-use (i.e. agriculture, grazing, and harvesting) for thousands of years. In the last decades, land-use has drastically changed due to the rapid population growth and the growing production of cash-crop in West Africa and this process is still continuing. The percentage of land intensively used for agriculture has increased, while the...

  20. Projected US timber and primary forest product market impacts of climate change mitigation through timber set-asides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash Nepal; Peter J. Ince; Kenneth E. Skog; Sun J. Chang

    2013-01-01

    Whereas climate change mitigation involving payments to forest landowners for accumulating carbon on their land may increase carbon stored in forests, it will also affect timber supply and prices. This study estimated the effect on US timber and primary forest product markets of hypothetical timber set-aside scenarios where US forest landowners would be paid to forego...

  1. Harvesting techniques for energy wood of forest owners; Metsaenomistajien energiapuun korjuutekniikat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryynaenen, S. [Work Efficiency Inst., Rajamaeki (Finland)] Ihonen, M. [Work Efficiency Inst., Helsinki (Finland)

    1997-12-01

    The aim of the project is to develop harvesting techniques and methods for small-wood and logging residues, suitable for use by forest owners and small-scale entrepreneurs. Examples of such methods are piling of logging residues at site and forest transport with farm tractors. The project is carried out by field experiments with new machines and methods and by work-studies at sites in practice. A cost-accounting model for firewood production will also be revised. The work study of the harvesting method of first- thinning wood and energy wood based on the use of SykeNaarva logging equipment was carried out as part of chips supply to Perho Energy Co-operative. The productivity of logging was in practice significantly higher than in previous field tests with the prototype equipment. The costs were lower than in manual logging. Field experiments were also carried out with manual logging with a chain saw equipped with felling grips (Reo-Tuote Ky). Operation experiments with a chain-limbing device for farm tractors (Eskon Paja Oy), related to product development, were also carried out. A literature study, specialist interviews and field experiments were carried out on the transports of logging residues with farm factors. A four-drive tractor equipped with a timber loader and a trailer is suited technically for this work. Productivity is reduced by slow loading and in particular by a small load size when operating with the basic fleet. The costs are reduced by small capital costs and by rapid transports between the sites. To improve the economy of harvesting logging residues, inexpensive technical solutions were studied for farm tractors in co-operation with engineering works

  2. Breeding bird response to partially harvested riparian management zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chizinski, Christopher J.; Peterson, Anna; Hanowski, JoAnn; Blinn, Charles R.; Vondracek, Bruce C.; Niemi, Gerald

    2011-01-01

    We compared avian communities among three timber harvesting treatments in 45-m wide even-age riparian management zones (RMZs) placed between upland clearcuts and along one side of first- or second-order streams in northern Minnesota, USA. The RMZs had three treatments: (1) unharvested, (2) intermediate residual basal area (RBA) (targeted goal 11.5 m2/ha, realized 16.0 m2/ha), and (3) low RBA (targeted goal 5.7 m2/ha, realized 8.7 m2/ha). Surveys were conducted one year pre-harvest and three consecutive years post-harvest. There was no change in species richness, diversity, or total abundance associated with harvest but there were shifts in the types of birds within the community. In particular, White-throated Sparrows (Zonotrichia albicollis) and Chestnut-sided Warblers (Dendroica pensylvanica) increased while Ovenbirds (Seiurus aurocapilla) and Red-eyed Vireos (Vireo olivaceus) decreased. The decline of avian species associated with mature forest in the partially harvested treatments relative to controls indicates that maintaining an unharvested RMZ adjacent to an upland harvest may aid in maintaining avian species associated mature forest in Minnesota for at least three years post-harvest. However, our observations do not reflect reproductive success, which is an area for future research.

  3. Timber resource of Missouri's Northwestern Ozarks, 1972.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander Vasilevsky; Burton L. Essex

    1974-01-01

    The third timber inventory of Missouri's Northwestern Ozarks Forest Survey Unit shows substantial gains in both growing-stock and sawtimber volumes between 1959 and 1972. The area of commercial forests declined during the same period. Presented are highlights and statistics on forest area and timer volume, growth, mortality, ownership and use in 1972.

  4. Timber resource of Minnesota's Prairie unit, 1977.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerold T. Hahn; W. Brad Smith

    1980-01-01

    The fourth inventory of Minnesota's Prairie Unit shows that although commercial forest area decreased 31.7% between 1962 and 1977, growing-stock volume increased 22%. This report gives statistical highlights and contains detailed tables of forest area as well as timber volume, growth, mortality, ownership, and use.

  5. Grading timber and glued structural members

    Science.gov (United States)

    David E. Kretschmann; Roland Hernandez

    2006-01-01

    Because of its biological nature, which is influenced by many factors as discussed in Chapter 6, the quality of timber is enormously variable. Therefore, some sort of arrangement or classification must be undertaken prior to its use, in order to get the most out of this valuable resource. It is obvious that not all lumber can be used for the same purposes because not...

  6. (Eds.) Proceedings: Mass Timber Research Workshop 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tom Williamson; Robert J. Ross

    2016-01-01

    This report summarizes the proceedings, including key points and identified research needs, that evolved from the Mass Timber Research Workshop, which was held at the USDA Forest Products Laboratory (FPL), November 3–4, 2015. The purpose of the workshop was to bring design professionals, researchers, and industry leaders together to examine the state-of-the-art in mass...

  7. Space-time modeling of timber prices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo Zhou; Joseph Buongriorno

    2006-01-01

    A space-time econometric model was developed for pine sawtimber timber prices of 21 geographically contiguous regions in the southern United States. The correlations between prices in neighboring regions helped predict future prices. The impulse response analysis showed that although southern pine sawtimber markets were not globally integrated, local supply and demand...

  8. Vibration measurements on timber frame floors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuilen, J.W.G. van de; Oosterhout, G.P.C. van; Donkervoort, R.

    1998-01-01

    In the design of lightweight floors vibrational aspects become more and more important. With the foreseen introduction of Eurocode 5 the vibration of timber floors becomes a part of the design for serviceability. Design rules for the vibrational behaviour are given in Eurocode 5. The first rule is

  9. Timber Curtain: Designing with material capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lahmy, Maya; Larsen, Niels Martin

    2015-01-01

    Timber Curtain explores relations between digital precision and material indeterminacy. It is an installation engaging spatially through its presence as a 1:1 architectural component as well as it is exploring novel technologies in the architectural design process from the very beginning...

  10. Timber resource of Missouri's Eastern Ozarks, 1972.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton L. Essex; John S. Jr. Spencer

    1974-01-01

    The third timber inventory of Missouri's Eastern Ozarks Forest Survey Unit shows that there was a substantial gain in the volume of growing stock and smaller but sizable gain in the volume of sawtimber between 1959 and 1972; however, the area of commercial forest land declined slightly. This report gives statistical highlights and tables presenting detailed...

  11. Residual load carrying capacity of timber joints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuilen, J.W.G. van de

    1999-01-01

    Timber joints that have been preloaded for 2 to 8 years have been short term tested in accordance with EN 26891. The applied load levels varied between 30% and 50% of the average short term strength. The study comprised nailed, toothed-plate and split-ring joints. All joints were made of spruce and

  12. (Anogeissus Leiocarpus) Timber *BELLO, AA; JIMOH, AA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF HORSFALL

    and Phytochemistry, p. 107. Jimoh, AA (1990). Fan palm as a Reinforcement in. Concrete Elements. M.Eng. Thesis, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Ilorin, Ilorin,. Nigeria. Jimoh, AA (2005). Ultimate Strength Design of. Axially Loaded Ayin (Anogeissus leiocarpus). Timber Columns. Journal of Applied Science ...

  13. Projecting Timber Inventory at the Product Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence Teeter; Xiaoping Zhou

    1999-01-01

    Current timber inventory projections generally lack information on inventory by product classes. Most models available for inventory projection and linked to supply analyses are limited to projecting aggregate softwood and hardwood. The research presented describes a methodology for distributing the volume on each FIA (USDA Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis...

  14. Evaluation of Nondestructive Underwater Timber Inspection Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-08-01

    possible to codice their presnce. Figure 1. Characteristics of marine borers. 3 Table 1. Accuracy Requirements for Timber Piles [Nomenclature at end of...Athens GA NAVSEASYSCOM Code OOC-D. Washington. DC: Codk PMS 395 A 3. Washington. DC; Code PMS 395 A2. Wasi~ington. DC; Codic PMS 396.3311 (Rekas), Wash

  15. The effect of changing ambient humidity on moisture condition in timber elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hozjan, Tomaẑ; Turk, Goran; Srpĉiĉ, Stanislav

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with the effect of the changing ambient humidity on moisture conditions in timber elements. The naturally varying humidity is possible to model as a relative combination of different harmonic cycles, with different periods and amplitudes. For the determination of the moisture field...... a fully coupled transport model including a model for the influential sorption hysteresis of wood is used. The coupled model accounts for both vapor transport in pores and bound water transport in wood tissue. Moisture state history influences relationship between moisture state of wood and air humidity......, it must therefore be taken into account. In order to include history dependency, a hysteresis model is used here. Results from numerical calculations for timber specimen exposed to combined daily and annually cyclic variation of outside humidity are presented. Copyright © (2012) by WCTE 2012 Committee....

  16. Developmental changes in associations among timber wolf (Canis lupus) postures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, P J

    1996-11-01

    I examined developmental changes in associations among components of timber wolf (Canis lupus) postural communication in two hand-reared pups between 15 and 85 days of age. The frequency with which select postural components co-occurred was scored from 180 randomly sampled frames of video records of these pups made during social interactions. I used this index of association as the basis for multidimensional scaling and cluster analyses. Relations among postural components became more structured with age. Two-dimensional models were found to account for associations among postures displayed at 69-85 and 32-67 days of age but not at 15-32 days of age. I interpret these orthogonal dimensions as continua of dominance to submission and seriousness to playfulness. These data suggest the intended messages contained in postural displays may depend on the specific combinations of components used.

  17. Life Cycle Analysis of Carbon Flow and Carbon Footprint of Harvested Wood Products of Larix principis-rupprechtii in China

    OpenAIRE

    Fei Lun; Moucheng Liu; Dan Zhang; Wenhua Li; Junguo Liu

    2016-01-01

    Larix principis-rupprechtii is a native tree species in North China with a large distribution; and its harvested timbers can be used for producing wood products. This study focused on estimating and comparing carbon flows and carbon footprints of different harvested wood products (HWPs) from Larix principis-ruppechtii based on the life cycle analysis (from seedling cultivation to HWP final disposal). Based on our interviews and surveys, the system boundary in this study was divided into three...

  18. Occurrence of CCA-treated timber in caterers fuelwood stocks in the Cape Town region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rissa Niyobuhungiro

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Wood used as fuel under conditions of urban poverty is a source of air pollution. Fuelwood is harvested from peri-urban green areas or sourced as waste from industry or commerce, and used in the informal economy, both by households and by productive activities such as roadside catering. End-of-life timber may have previously been treated for protection, sometimes by impregnation with chromated copper arsenate (CCA. Combustion of CCA-treated timber could magnify the health and environmental risks associated with air pollution, as a result of the release of arsenic and chromium in toxic and carcinogenic forms. Fuelwood supplies of roadside caterers in the urban settlements of Nyanga and Khayelitsha were randomly sampled and 86 collected specimens were prepared for analysis. A further 12 samples were taken, based on their appearance, from households and caterers in settlements near Stellenbosch, Worcester and Paarl. Shavings from the timber specimens were microwave digested using nitric acid and analysed using inductively coupled plasma analysis. All samples collected in the first round showed low concentrations of Cr, Cu and As, believed to be representative of natural backgrounds. Of the 12 peri-urban samples collected in the second round, 8 showed higher levels, typical of treatment to H2–H5 standards. Once it was clear that appearance was a fair indicator of treatment, a further set of 18 suspect pieces from caterers’ supplies in Langa, Nyanga, Khayelitsha and Kayamandi were tested, of which at least 1 sample from each area was found to be treated. CCA-treated timber was found infrequently in fuel supplies of urban caterers, and more frequently in peri-urban areas. Further research and interventions to limit health and environmental risks are recommended.

  19. Surefire wood fuel harvester development project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The development of a prototype mobile wood fuel chipping machine, the Surefire Woodfuel Harvester, is described. The machine, which has been developed with support from the Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) and EAGGF, was designed to enable potential woodland supplies in East Anglia to be utilised as a source of biomass electricity generation. The machine has a high speed on/off rolling chassis, hydrostatic transmission for field use, a chipper with at least 30 mm capacity with sliver reduction measures, a crane to feed chipper, a felling-head /grapple fitted to the crane, a high-performance hydraulic system and a wrench for skidding inaccessible timber to within the crane's reach. The developing wood fuel market in the UK, major wood fuel sources in East Anglia, the project's objectives, forward planning, machine specification, design work, machine construction, testing and operation (a case study from Hall Farm, Garboldisham) are described.

  20. The secret life of microbes: soil bacteria and fungi undaunted by the harvesting of fire-killed trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul Meznarich; Jane Smith; Tara Jennings

    2013-01-01

    Soil health is fundamental to ecosystem health. Disturbances such as fire and timber harvesting can affect the abundance, activity, and composition of soil microbial communities and thus affect soil productivity. In response to forest managers, scientists with the Pacific Northwest Research Station compared health and productivity indicators between soils disturbed by...

  1. Early response of ground layer plant communities to wildfire and harvesting disturbance in forested peatland ecosystems in northern Minnesota, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erika R. Rowe; Anthony W. D' Amato; Brian J. Palik; John C. Almendinger

    2017-01-01

    A rare, stand-replacing fire in northern Minnesota, USA provided the opportunity to compare the effects of wildfire and timber harvesting in two peatland forest communities, nutrient-poor black spruce (Picea mariana) bogs (BSB) and nutrient-rich tamarack (Larix laricina) swamps (RTS). We found the response between the two...

  2. Cost and productivity of new technology for harvesting and in-woods processing small-diameter trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael B Lambert; James O. Howard

    1990-01-01

    A study was conducted on the productivity and cost of an integrated harvesting and processing system operating in small-diameter timber (western hemlock-type) on the Olympic Peninsula of western Washington. The system uses a new steep-slope fellerbuncher, a clam-bunk grapple-skidder (forwarder), a prototype chain-flail debarker delimber, a chipper, a conveyor system,...

  3. Response of herbaceous plant community diversity and composition to overstorey harvest within riparian management zones in Northern Hardwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric K. Zenner; Michelle A. Martin; Brian J. Palik; Jerilynn E. Peck; Charles R. Blinn

    2013-01-01

    Partial timber harvest within riparian management zones (RMZs) may permit active management of riparian forests while protecting stream ecosystems, but impacts on herbaceous communities are poorly understood. We compared herbaceous plant community abundance, diversity and composition in RMZs along small streams in northern Minnesota, USA, among four treatments before...

  4. Carbon storage, timber production, and biodiversity: comparing ecosystem services with multi-criteria decision analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwenk, W. Scott; Donovan, Therese; Keeton, William S.; Nunery, Jared S.

    2012-01-01

    Increasingly, land managers seek ways to manage forests for multiple ecosystem services and functions, yet considerable challenges exist in comparing disparate services and balancing trade-offs among them. We applied multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) and forest simulation models to simultaneously consider three objectives: (1) storing carbon, (2) producing timber and wood products, and (3) sustaining biodiversity. We used the Forest Vegetation Simulator (FVS) applied to 42 northern hardwood sites to simulate forest development over 100 years and to estimate carbon storage and timber production. We estimated biodiversity implications with occupancy models for 51 terrestrial bird species that were linked to FVS outputs. We simulated four alternative management prescriptions that spanned a range of harvesting intensities and forest structure retention. We found that silvicultural approaches emphasizing less frequent harvesting and greater structural retention could be expected to achieve the greatest net carbon storage but also produce less timber. More intensive prescriptions would enhance biodiversity because positive responses of early successional species exceeded negative responses of late successional species within the heavily forested study area. The combinations of weights assigned to objectives had a large influence on which prescriptions were scored as optimal. Overall, we found that a diversity of silvicultural approaches is likely to be preferable to any single approach, emphasizing the need for landscape-scale management to provide a full range of ecosystem goods and services. Our analytical framework that combined MCDA with forest simulation modeling was a powerful tool in understanding trade-offs among management objectives and how they can be simultaneously accommodated.

  5. Carbon storage, timber production, and biodiversity: comparing ecosystem services with multi-criteria decision analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwenk, W Scott; Donovan, Therese M; Keeton, William S; Nunery, Jared S

    2012-07-01

    Increasingly, land managers seek ways to manage forests for multiple ecosystem services and functions, yet considerable challenges exist in comparing disparate services and balancing trade-offs among them. We applied multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) and forest simulation models to simultaneously consider three objectives: (1) storing carbon, (2) producing timber and wood products, and (3) sustaining biodiversity. We used the Forest Vegetation Simulator (FVS) applied to 42 northern hardwood sites to simulate forest development over 100 years and to estimate carbon storage and timber production. We estimated biodiversity implications with occupancy models for 51 terrestrial bird species that were linked to FVS outputs. We simulated four alternative management prescriptions that spanned a range of harvesting intensities and forest structure retention. We found that silvicultural approaches emphasizing less frequent harvesting and greater structural retention could be expected to achieve the greatest net carbon storage but also produce less timber. More intensive prescriptions would enhance biodiversity because positive responses of early successional species exceeded negative responses of late successional species within the heavily forested study area. The combinations of weights assigned to objectives had a large influence on which prescriptions were scored as optimal. Overall, we found that a diversity of silvicultural approaches is likely to be preferable to any single approach, emphasizing the need for landscape-scale management to provide a full range of ecosystem goods and services. Our analytical framework that combined MCDA with forest simulation modeling was a powerful tool in understanding trade-offs among management objectives and how they can be simultaneously accommodated.

  6. Post-harvest physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weather and management constraints, as well as the intended use of the harvested forage, all influence the forage harvest system selected by the producer. Generally, maximum retention of dry matter from harvested forage crops is achieved at moistures intermediate between the standing fresh crop and ...

  7. Harvesting wood for energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodger A. Arola; Edwin W. Miyata

    1981-01-01

    Illustrates the potential of harvesting wood for industrial energy, based on the results of five harvesting studies. Presents information on harvesting operations, equipment costs, and productivity. Discusses mechanized thinning of hardwoods, clearcutting of low-value stands and recovery of hardwood tops and limbs. Also includes basic information on the physical and...

  8. Defoliation and bark harvesting affect life-history traits of a tropical tree

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaoue, Orou; Horvitz, Carol; Ticktin, Tamara

    2013-01-01

    of life expectancy to perturbation of vital rates to the elasticities of population growth rate, emphasizing how the two kinds of elasticity address distinct biological issues and management goals. Life expectancy was shorter and reproduction delayed in the dry than in the moist region, indicating a cost......Selectively harvesting whole individuals in managed populations (e.g. fisheries, hunting) has substantial effects on life expectancy and age at maturity. Although demographic rates of trees are impacted by recurrent harvest of plant organs (e.g. fruit, leaf, bark) known as non-timber forest...... of drought to life-history traits. Harvesting at constant rates only affects (increased) life expectancy in the moist region and (reduced) age at first reproduction in the dry region. Models in which harvest intensity varies stochastically over time show results similar to those with constant harvesting rate...

  9. Architectural and structural qualities in timber joints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jesper Thøger; Christensen, Mogens Fiil; Damkilde, Lars

    2016-01-01

    design phase. The result is joints that function structurally but do not add value to the design, and may even compromise the architectural ideas. With an approach, integrating both structural and architectural design from the beginning, one should not only gain better structures and architecture...... but also increase timbers competitiveness in the building industry. The paper is part of an ongoing research project aiming at providing tools for an integrated design process for timber structures. The focus of the paper is to identify how structure and its joints contributes to architecture and vice...... versa. Further, a method for how to design with structure and joints from the very early stage of design is proposed. The architectural/engineering model of the joints will later be incorporated in the digital design environment of the designer. In this way, the conceptual design phase will not only...

  10. Probabilistic Modeling of Graded Timber Material Properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, M. H.; Köhler, J.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2004-01-01

    The probabilistic modeling of timber material characteristics is considered with special emphasis to the modeling of the effect of different quality control and selection procedures used as means for quality grading in the production line. It is shown how statistical models may be established...... on the basis of the same type of information which is normally collected as a part of the quality control procedures and furthermore, how the efficiency of different control procedures may be quantified and compared. The tail behavior of the probability distributions of timber material characteristics plays...... such that they may readily be applied in structural reliability analysis and their format appears to be appropriate for codification purposes of quality control and selection for grading procedures....

  11. Electromagnetic energy harvester for harvesting acoustic energy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    AEH) for extracting acoustical energy. The developed AEH comprises Helmholtz resonator (HR), a wound coil bonded to a flexible membrane and a permanent magnet placed in a magnet holder. The harvester's performance is analyzed ...

  12. Applying of whole-tree harvesting method; Kokopuujuontomenetelmaen soveltaminen aines- ja energiapuun hankintaan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vesisenaho, T. [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Liukkonen, S. [VTT Manufacturing Technology, Espoo (Finland)

    1997-12-01

    The objective of this project is to apply whole-tree harvesting method to Finnish timber harvesting conditions in order to lower the harvesting costs of energy wood and timber in spruce-dominant final cuttings. In Finnish conditions timber harvesting is normally based on the log-length method. Because of small landings and the high level of thinning cuttings, whole-tree skidding methods cannot be utilised extensively. The share of stands which could be harvested with whole-tree skidding method showed up to be about 10 % of the total harvesting amount of 50 mill. m{sup 3}. The corresponding harvesting potential of energy wood is 0,25 Mtoe. The aim of the structural measurements made in this project was to get information about the effect of different hauling methods into the structural response of the tractor, and thus reveal the possible special requirements that the new whole-tree skidding places forest tractor design. Altogether 7 strain gauge based sensors were mounted into the rear frame structures and drive shafts of the forest tractor. Five strain gauges measured local strains in some critical details and two sensors measured the torque moments of the front and rear bogie drive shafts. Also the revolution speed of the rear drive shaft was recorded. Signal time histories, maximum peaks, Time at Level distributions and Rainflow distributions were gathered in different hauling modes. From these, maximum values, average stress levels and fatigue life estimates were calculated for each mode, and a comparison of the different methods from the structural point of view was performed

  13. Timber value growth rates in New England

    Science.gov (United States)

    David A, Gansner; Stanford L. Arner; Thomas W. Birch; Thomas W. Birch

    1990-01-01

    Rates of growth in the value of standing timber can vary greatly from stand to stand and from tree to tree. In Maine, the compound annual rate of change in stand value between the two most recent forest inventories ranged from -12 to +43 percent. Faced with this kind of variation, forest managers can use help in determining financial rates of return for their woodland...

  14. Timber joints under long-term loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldborg, T.; Johansen, M.

    This report describes tests and results from stiffness and strength testing of splice joints under long-term loading. During two years of loading the spicimens were exposed to cyclically changing relative humidity. After the loading period the specimens were short-term tested. The connectors were...... integral nail-plates and nailed steel and plywood gussets. The report is intended for designers and researchers in timber engineering....

  15. Developing management guidelines that balance cattle and timber production with ecological interests in the Black Hills of South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowanski, Kurt M.

    Forested lands contribute to the United States (US) economy by providing livestock and timber production. Livestock grazing of forested lands has been widespread throughout the western US since the settlement era, and currently occurs on 51.4 million hectares (ha) representing 16% of all US grazing land and 22% of all US forested land (Nickerson et al. 2011). While livestock grazing and timber harvest are occurring on a substantial amount of forested land, relationships between management practices, tree stocking, timber production, forage production, livestock grazing, wildlife, aesthetics, and ecological integrity are not well documented. Whether considering timber or cattle, finding a balance between production and resource conservation is a fundamental challenge to agricultural producers, and is often a tradeoff between short term gains and long term sustainability. This dissertation aims to identify livestock and timber management practices that optimize production and are ecologically conservative. Specifically, I focused on three objectives. First, I reviewed the published literature and summarized what is known about best-practices for concurrent management of livestock and timber production in pine forests in the US. I found most studies came from the southeastern and western US where timber and livestock production on the same land unit are common. The relationship between pine cover and forage seemed fairly consistent across the US, and production was optimized when cattle grazed open canopy forests with basal areas between 5 and 14 m2 ha-1 (15-35% tree canopy cover). Second, I developed forest cover maps to estimate forage production in the Black Hills, South Dakota (SD) for the period from 1999 to 2015. I developed a regression model based on Landsat and Ikonos satellite imagery and was able to detect large changes in forest cover over time. I then used these maps in combination with maps of soil type and Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) to update

  16. Rubberwood timber decreasing, wither the wooden furniture industry?

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Fauzi Puasa; Rohana Abd Rahman; Ismariah Ahmad; Lim Hin Fui; Roda Jean-Marc

    2010-01-01

    Will the Malaysian furniture industry wither amidst the decreasing local supply of rubberwood timber? Despite declining supply of local rubberwood timber, the wooden furniture industry has been able to sustain its production and trade. This means that the wooden furniture industry does not wither even though there is local shortage of rubberwood timber supply. The wooden furniture industry has adapted to the situation of declining rubberwood supply in various ways. First, lesser rubberwood ti...

  17. Ranking independent timber investments by alternative investment criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas J. Mills; Gary E. Dixon

    1982-01-01

    A sample of 231 independent timber investments were ranked by internal rate of return, present net worth per acre and the benefit cost ratio—the last two discounted by 3, 6.4. 7.5. and 10 percent—to determine if the different criteria had a practical influence on timber investment ranking. The samples in this study were drawn from a group of timber investments...

  18. Markets, Government Policy, and China’s Timber Supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han Zhang; Joseph Buongiorno

    2012-01-01

    China’s domestic demand and exports of wood products are rising rapidly compared to domestic supply. The determinants of timber supply in China were investigated with panel data from 25 provinces from 1999 to 2009. The results indicated that China’s timber supply had responded to both market forces, reflected by timber prices largely determined by world demand and...

  19. Beliefs about the Potential Impacts of Exploiting Non-Timber Forest Products Predict Voluntary Participation in Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantas Brites, Alice; Morsello, Carla

    2017-06-01

    Harvesting and trading non-timber forest products is advocated as a win-win strategy for conservation and development, yet it can produce negative ecological and socioeconomic impacts. Hence, monitoring exploitation outcomes is essential, and participatory monitoring has been suggested to be the most suitable approach. Among possible approaches, participatory monitoring is preferred because it is likely to increase people's awareness and beliefs regarding impacts or potential impacts, thus inducing behavioral changes, although the evidence in this regard is contradictory. We therefore evaluated whether people's beliefs about the potential ecological and socioeconomic impacts of non-timber forest product exploitation increased their likelihood of volunteering to monitor. We studied a community of forest inhabitants in the Brazilian Amazon who harvested and traded a commercially important non-timber forest product. Two methods of data gathering were employed: (i) a survey of 166 adults (51 households) to evaluate people's beliefs and their stated intention to engage in four different monitoring tasks and (ii) four pilot monitoring tasks to evaluate who actually participated. Based on mixed-effects regressions, the results indicated that beliefs regarding both types of impacts could predict participation in certain tasks, although gender, age and schooling were occasionally stronger predictors. On average, people had stronger beliefs about potential socioeconomic impacts than about potential ecological impacts, with the former also predicting participation in ecological data gathering. This finding reinforces the importance of monitoring both types of impacts to help achieve the win-win outcomes originally proposed by non-timber forest product trade initiatives.

  20. Beliefs about the Potential Impacts of Exploiting Non-Timber Forest Products Predict Voluntary Participation in Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantas Brites, Alice; Morsello, Carla

    2017-06-01

    Harvesting and trading non-timber forest products is advocated as a win-win strategy for conservation and development, yet it can produce negative ecological and socioeconomic impacts. Hence, monitoring exploitation outcomes is essential, and participatory monitoring has been suggested to be the most suitable approach. Among possible approaches, participatory monitoring is preferred because it is likely to increase people's awareness and beliefs regarding impacts or potential impacts, thus inducing behavioral changes, although the evidence in this regard is contradictory. We therefore evaluated whether people's beliefs about the potential ecological and socioeconomic impacts of non-timber forest product exploitation increased their likelihood of volunteering to monitor. We studied a community of forest inhabitants in the Brazilian Amazon who harvested and traded a commercially important non-timber forest product. Two methods of data gathering were employed: (i) a survey of 166 adults (51 households) to evaluate people's beliefs and their stated intention to engage in four different monitoring tasks and (ii) four pilot monitoring tasks to evaluate who actually participated. Based on mixed-effects regressions, the results indicated that beliefs regarding both types of impacts could predict participation in certain tasks, although gender, age and schooling were occasionally stronger predictors. On average, people had stronger beliefs about potential socioeconomic impacts than about potential ecological impacts, with the former also predicting participation in ecological data gathering. This finding reinforces the importance of monitoring both types of impacts to help achieve the win-win outcomes originally proposed by non-timber forest product trade initiatives.

  1. Seismic retrofitting of timber framed walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonçalves, A. M.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available After the 1755 earthquake that destroyed Lisbon, an innovative anti-seismic structural system was developed consisting of a timber skeleton, that included timber framed masonry walls. After more than 250 years these structures need rehabilitation to face the present demands. The research presented in this paper aimed at experimentally characterizing the cyclic behaviour of timber framed walls reinforced with three different methods, namely: (i elastic-plastic dampers on diagonal braces, (ii reinforcement of timber connections with steel plates, (iii application of a reinforced rendering. The elastic-plastic damper showed an unsymmetrical behaviour and some difficulties to implement in practice. The strengthening with reinforced render led to an initial stiffness increase but showed a limited deformation capacity. The walls with reinforcing steel plates at the timber connections showed the best behaviour in terms of strength, stiffness and energy dissipation.Después del terremoto de 1755 que destruyó Lisboa, un sistema estructural antisísmico muy innovador fue desarrollado. El sistema consistió en un esqueleto de madera, que incluyó la construcción de muros de mampostería con un entramado de madera. Transcurridos más de 250 años, estas estructuras necesitan rehabilitación para poder hacer frente a los requisitos estructurales actuales. La investigación presentada en este trabajo tiene como objetivo caracterizar experimentalmente el comportamiento cíclico de los muros con entramado de madera reforzados con tres métodos diferentes: (i amortiguadores elasto-plásticos, (ii refuerzo de las conexiones de madera con placas de acero, (iii aplicación de un mortero reforzado. El amortiguador elasto-plástico mostró un comportamiento asimétrico y algunas dificultades para aplicarlo en la práctica. El refuerzo con mortero reforzado condujo a un aumento de la rigidez inicial, pero reveló una capacidad de deformación limitada. Los muros con

  2. Projection of U.S. forest sector carbon sequestration under U.S. and global timber market and wood energy consumption scenarios, 2010-2060

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash Nepal; Peter J. Ince; Kenneth E. Skog; Sun J. Chang

    2012-01-01

    This study provides a modeling framework to examine change over time in U.S. forest sector carbon inventory (in U.S. timberland tree biomass and harvested wood products) for alternative projections of U.S. and global timber markets, including wood energy consumption, based on established IPCC/RPA scenarios. Results indicated that the U.S. forest sector’s projected...

  3. Bundling harvester; Harvennuspuun automaattisen nippukorjausharvesterin kehittaeminen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koponen, K. [Eko-Log Oy, Kuopio (Finland)

    1997-12-01

    The starting point of the project was to design and construct, by taking the silvicultural point of view into account, a harvesting and processing system especially for energy-wood, containing manually driven bundling harvester, automating of the harvester, and automated loading. The equipment forms an ideal method for entrepreneur`s-line harvesting. The target is to apply the system also for owner`s-line harvesting. The profitability of the system promotes the utilisation of the system in both cases. The objectives of the project were: to construct a test equipment and prototypes for all the project stages, to carry out terrain and strain tests in order to examine the usability and durability, as well as the capacity of the machine, to test the applicability of the Eko-Log system in simultaneous harvesting of energy and pulp woods, and to start the marketing and manufacturing of the products. The basic problems of the construction of the bundling harvester have been solved using terrain-tests. The prototype machine has been shown to be operable. Loading of the bundles to form sufficiently economically transportable loads has been studied, and simultaneously, the branch-biomass has been tried to be utilised without loosing the profitability of transportation. The results have been promising, and will promote the profitable utilisation of wood-energy. (orig.)

  4. Ambiguity in Timber Trade Regarding Efforts to Combat Illegal Logging: Potential Impacts on Trade between South-East Asia and Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hari Priyadi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Raised public concern in the European Union (EU about the legality of its timber imports has pushed the European Commission to raise its standards and legality demands for wood imports. Combining literature reviews, structured interviews and trade data analyses, this study assesses the potential influence from Forest Law Enforcement Governance and Trade (FLEGT (with its Voluntary Partnership Agreements (VPA system and new legislation EU Timber Regulation (EUTR, and third party verification schemes on the timber trade between tropical countries and Europe. These instruments have the potential to reduce the amount of illegally sourced timber being placed on the market, and they seem to have resulted in both increasing support of legality verification and certification uptake. However, there are signs of increased ambiguity in trade that could originate as a side effect of the transition towards a stricter regulation for tropical timber. Such ambiguity is explicitly taken into account here. Possible consequences from increased ambiguity are substitution of oak lumber for tropical hardwood lumber, and a diversion of exports of tropical timber to destinations with a less stringent regulatory framework than the EU. Evidence of these trade patterns in the literature reviews, interviews, and trade data analyses seems to confirm that ambiguity in international trade markets has actually increased since the introduction of these instruments.

  5. Trade-offs between three forest ecosystem services across the state of New Hampshire, USA: timber, carbon, and albedo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, David A; Burakowski, Elizabeth A; Murphy, Mackenzie B; Borsuk, Mark E; Niemiec, Rebecca M; Howarth, Richard B

    2016-01-01

    Forests are more frequently being managed to store and sequester carbon for the purposes of climate change mitigation. Generally, this practice involves long-term conservation of intact mature forests and/or reductions in the frequency and intensity of timber harvests. However, incorporating the influence of forest surface albedo often suggests that long rotation lengths may not always be optimal in mitigating climate change in forests characterized by frequent snowfall. To address this, we investigated trade-offs between three ecosystem services: carbon storage, albedo-related radiative forcing, and timber provisioning. We calculated optimal rotation length at 498 diverse Forest Inventory and Analysis forest sites in the state of New Hampshire, USA. We found that the mean optimal rotation lengths across all sites was 94 yr (standard deviation of sample means = 44 yr), with a large cluster of short optimal rotation lengths that were calculated at high elevations in the White Mountain National Forest. Using a regression tree approach, we found that timber growth, annual storage of carbon, and the difference between annual albedo in mature forest vs. a post-harvest landscape were the most important variables that influenced optimal rotation. Additionally, we found that the choice of a baseline albedo value for each site significantly altered the optimal rotation lengths across all sites, lowering the mean rotation to 59 yr with a high albedo baseline, and increasing the mean rotation to 112 yr given a low albedo baseline. Given these results, we suggest that utilizing temperate forests in New Hampshire for climate mitigation purposes through carbon storage and the cessation of harvest is appropriate at a site-dependent level that varies significantly across the state.

  6. Michigan's fourth forest inventory: timber volumes and projections of timber supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John S. Jr. Spencer; Jerold T. Hahn

    1984-01-01

    The fourth inventory of the timber resource of Michigan shows growing-stock volume increased 27% between 1966 and 1980, from 15.1 to 19.1 billion cubic feet. Presented are highlights and statistics on volume, growth, mortality, removals, biomass, and projections.

  7. Wisconsin timber industry--an assessment of timber product output and use, 1988.

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. Brad Smith; James W. Whipple

    1990-01-01

    Discusses recent Wisconsin forest industry trends; production and receipts of pulpwood, saw logs, and veneer logs; and production of other timber products in 1988. Reports on logging residue, on wood and bark residue generated at primary wood-using mills, and on disposition of this mill residue.

  8. Appropriateness of Probit-9 in development of quarantine treatments for timber and timber commodities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus Schortemeyer; Ken Thomas; Robert A. Haack; Adnan Uzunovic; Kelli Hoover; Jack A. Simpson; Cheryl A. Grgurinovic

    2011-01-01

    Following the increasing international phasing out of methyl bromide for quarantine purposes, the development of alternative treatments for timber pests becomes imperative. The international accreditation of new quarantine treatments requires verification standards that give confidence in the effectiveness of a treatment. Probit-9 mortality is a standard for treatment...

  9. Timber seasoning and density characterstics of Cordia alliodora ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Shrinkage values of the timber at oven dry (0%) MC compared at 12% MC increased by about 1.7 times. Slight seasoning defects such as cup, bow, twist, end split and checks were observed. In general, the species revealed good timber properties and qualities. Therefore, the species has to be grown and well managed, ...

  10. Reliability based Robustness of Timber Structures through NDT Data Updating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sousa, Hélder S.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2011-01-01

    This work presents a framework for reliability-based assessment of timber structures / members using data gathered from non-destructive test results. These results are used for modeling an update of the mechanical characteristics of timber, using Bayesian methods. Results gathered from ultrasound...

  11. Timber resources of western Oregon—highlights and statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald R. Gedney

    1982-01-01

    This report summarizes and interprets the results of a timber resource inventory of western Oregon made between 1973 and 1976. Detailed tables give land and forest area, timber volume, growth, and mortality for western Oregon and for southwest Oregon, west-central Oregon, and northwest Oregon.

  12. Powder-driven-nail connections for round timber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald W. Wolfe; KugBo Shim; Marshall Begel

    2003-01-01

    In an effort to encourage the development of value-added engineered applications for small diameter round timber, research is being conducted at the US Forest Products Laboratory to develop and verify design guidelines for connections with specific application to round timbers. The objective of this work is to provide potential users with a number of viable connection...

  13. The Timber Wolf: Hands-On Activities for Elementary Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Donald G.; Oh, Bobbie S.

    The focus of this manual is the timber wolf and its experience in the United States. The activities are designed to enable students to gain a factual understanding of the timber wolf, question any misinformation they have learned regarding wolves, and learn to appreciate the wolf as a creature of nature rather than fear it as a creature of fairy…

  14. Economic feasibility of including game habitats in timber management systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowell K. Halls

    1975-01-01

    Profits largely determine management decisions on commercial forest lands. Past decisions have therefore favored timber production over wildlife, and practices advantageous to wildlife were usually incidental. This paper explains how effective timber management on public and private lands can be coordinated with wildlife needs to obtain revenues from hunting as well...

  15. Comparative durability of timber bridges in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    James P. Wacker; Brian K. Brashaw

    2017-01-01

    As engineers begin to utilize life-cycle-cost design approaches for timber bridges, there is a necessity for more reliable data about their durability and expected service life. This paper summarizes a comprehensive effort to assess the current condition of more than one hundred timber highway bridge superstructures throughout the United States. This national study was...

  16. Lateral testing of glued laminated timber tudor arch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas R. Rammer; Philip Line

    2016-01-01

    Glued laminated timber Tudor arches have been in wide use in the United States since the 1930s, but detailed knowledge related to seismic design in modern U.S. building codes is lacking. FEMA P-695 (P-695) is a methodology to determine seismic performance factors for a seismic force resisting system. A limited P-695 study for glued laminated timber arch structures...

  17. structural reliability of the nigerian grown abura timber bridge beam

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ENGR. J. I. AGUWA

    2013-07-02

    Jul 2, 2013 ... developed and used for reliability analysis of the Nigerian grown Abura timber bridge beam so designed, to ascertain its ... for timber bridge beams at depth of 400mm, breadth of 150mm and span of 5000mm under the ultimate limit state ..... of a Glue-Jointed Roof Truss" J.Eng.& Appl Sci,. Vol 17, Number 1, ...

  18. PROBABILISTIC FAILURE ANALYSIS OF A SOLID TIMBER COLUMN

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-11-03

    Nov 3, 2012 ... In this paper, a reliability evaluation of a solid timber column of square cross section subjected to axial and lateral loading in ... reliability evaluation, solid timber column, Eurocode, axial loading, slenderness ratio. 1. Introduction. The quality of an .... joint probability function. Fx(x) = P (nn i=1 {Xi ≤ xi}).

  19. Chapter 2: Manufacturing Cross-laminated timber manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borjen Yeh; Dave Kretschmann; Brad (Jianhe) Wang

    2013-01-01

    Cross-laminated timber ( CLT) is defined as a prefabricated solid engineered wood product made of at least three orthogonally bonded layers of solid-sawn lumber or structural composite lumber (SCL) that are laminated by gluing oflongitudinal and transverse layers with structural adhesives to form a solid rectangular-shaped, straight, and plane timber intended for roof...

  20. Field investigations of historic covered timber bridges in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    James Wacker; Travis Hosteng; Brent. Phares

    2012-01-01

    The Federal Highway Administration is sponsoring a comprehensive research program on Historic Covered Timber Bridges in the USA. This national program's main purpose is to develop improved methods to preserve, rehabililate, and restore the timber bridge trusses that were developed during the early 1800s, and in many cases are still in service today. The overall...

  1. Live Load Testing of Historic Covered Timber Bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travis Hosteng; James Wacker; Brent Phares

    2013-01-01

    The National Historic Covered Bridge Preservation Program (NHCBP), sponsored by the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), is intended to preserve covered timber bridge structures nationwide. Today, less than 700 covered timber bridges still exist in the United States and of those many are closed to vehicular traffic. Furthermore, a large percentage of the remaining...

  2. Improving timber floors by adding a concrete slab

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linden, M.L.R. van der

    1998-01-01

    Timber-concrete composite floors are much stronger and show a higher bending stiffness than most traditional timber floors. The geometry and behaviour of these floors, as determined through bending tests, will be discussed. A FEM simulation program was developed to carry out sensitivity analyses and

  3. Whole tree transportation system for timber processing depots

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Lancaster; Tom Gallagher; Tim  McDonald; Dana Mitchell

    2016-01-01

    The growing demand for alternative energy has led those who are interested in producing sustainable energy from renewable timber to devise new concepts to satisfy those demands. The concept of timber processing depots, where whole stem trees will be delivered for future processing into wood products and high quality energy fuel, has led to the re-evaluation of our...

  4. Timber resource statistics for the Juneau inventory unit, Alaska, 1970.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon J. LaBau; Willem W.S. Van Hees

    1983-01-01

    Statistics on forest area, total gross and net timber volumes, and annual net growth and mortality are presented for the 1970 timber inventory of the Juneau unit, Alaska. Estimates for commercial forest land area total 1.3 million acres (535 000 ha) with a net growing stock volume of 8.3 billion cubic feet (234 million m3), and annual net growth...

  5. Timber resource statistics for the Ketchikan inventory unit, Alaska, 1974.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willem W.S. van Hees

    1984-01-01

    Statistics on forest area, total gross and net timber volumes, and annual net growth and mortality are presented from the 1974 timber inventory of the Ketchikan. unit, Alaska. Timberland area is estimated at 1.16 million acres (470 040 ha), net growing stock volume at 6.39 billion cubic feet (181.04 million m3), and annual net growth and...

  6. Product diversification in South Africa's commercial timber plantations

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Our results indicate that producing a product mix rather than a single product improves aggregated financial returns and lowers investment risk over multiple rotation periods. The optimum mixture depended on past timber price correlations for pulpwood and sawn timber in South Africa between 1980 and 2011. This ideal ...

  7. Internet accounting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pras, Aiko; van Beijnum, Bernhard J.F.; Sprenkels, Ron; Parhonyi, R.

    2001-01-01

    This article provides an introduction to Internet accounting and discusses the status of related work within the IETF and IRTF, as well as certain research projects. Internet accounting is different from accounting in POTS. To understand Internet accounting, it is important to answer questions like

  8. Analog self-powered harvester achieving switching pause control to increase harvested energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makihara, Kanjuro; Asahina, Kei

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, we propose a self-powered analog controller circuit to increase the efficiency of electrical energy harvesting from vibrational energy using piezoelectric materials. Although the existing synchronized switch harvesting on inductor (SSHI) method is designed to produce efficient harvesting, its switching operation generates a vibration-suppression effect that reduces the harvested levels of electrical energy. To solve this problem, the authors proposed—in a previous paper—a switching method that takes this vibration-suppression effect into account. This method temporarily pauses the switching operation, allowing the recovery of the mechanical displacement and, therefore, of the piezoelectric voltage. In this paper, we propose a self-powered analog circuit to implement this switching control method. Self-powered vibration harvesting is achieved in this study by attaching a newly designed circuit to an existing analog controller for SSHI. This circuit aims to effectively implement the aforementioned new switching control strategy, where switching is paused in some vibration peaks, in order to allow motion recovery and a consequent increase in the harvested energy. Harvesting experiments performed using the proposed circuit reveal that the proposed method can increase the energy stored in the storage capacitor by a factor of 8.5 relative to the conventional SSHI circuit. This proposed technique is useful to increase the harvested energy especially for piezoelectric systems having large coupling factor.

  9. A combimachine for harvesting of small sized trees; Pienpuun keraeilykaatoon perustuvan harvennuskoneen kehittaeminen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lilleberg, R. [Metsaeteho, Helsinki (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    The goal of the project was to develop a combimachine suitable for the harvesting of small sized trees in first thinning. The use of such a machine could considerably decrease harvesting costs in first thinning. The basic idea with the combimachine is, that the same machine both fells the trees and transports the timber to roadside storages. A forwarder was equipped with a lightweight felling device, which also can do the crosscutting and loading. When harvesting undelimbed timber the forwarder could be equipped with a load-compressing device. During the spring 1995 a trial was made with a combimachine in a first thinning stand of pine. An ordinary forwarder was equipped with the `Naarva-grapple` a device for felling, crosscutting and loading. The aim was to test how the felling device is working, to examine time expenditure for two different working methods and to collect data for the further development of the machine. The trial showed a need to add a delimbing feature to the Naarva-grapple. The need for delimbing is based on the fact, obtained during the trial, that productivity in transport of delimbed timber was over 30 % higher than in transport of undelimbed pieces. A device capable of delimbing was designed, and it was ready for a prototype test in December 1995. The idea worked, but also showed a lot of details which have to be redesigned, before the device is ready for manufacturing and marketing

  10. Stand for testing sections of mechanized timbering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grebennikov, Yu.N.; Aksenov, Yu.G.; Khazanov, Kh.I.; Khazin, V.A.; Radulov, V.Ye.; Vavilov, V.V.

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of the invention is to bring the testing conditions closer to the operating with multiple loading. This goal is achieved because in the stand for testing sections of mechanized timbering which includes a power frame, loading device with support and hydraulic equipment, the loading device is made in the form of enclosure sprockets and infinite mobile gears surrounding them on which with variable spacing with the help of transverse planks there are supports attached. In this case the length of the enclosure of each gear is the aliquant to the spacing of its advance.

  11. Urinary arsenic levels in timber treatment operators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollop, B R; Glass, W I

    1979-01-10

    An investigation was carried out into arsenic levels in urine of timber treatment operators at six treatment plants in the Waikato-Rotorua area. The mean arsenic level for treatment operators was 222 migrograms/l compared with the normal range of 5-40 micrograms/l. In order to reduce the present significant exposure to treatment chemicals such as arsenic and chromium, it is recommended that the wood preservation industry take engineering measures to reduce the present air emissions and adopt strict work practices in hygiene and protective clothing in similar manner to those handling mercury and lead.

  12. RILEM International Symposium on Materials and Joints in Timber Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Reinhardt, H-W; Garrecht, Harald

    2014-01-01

    This book contains the contributions from the RILEM International Symposium on Materials and Joints in Timber Structures that was held in Stuttgart, Germany from October 8 to 10, 2013. It covers recent developments in the materials and the joints used in modern timber structures. Regarding basic wooden materials, the contributions highlight the widened spectrum of products comprising cross-laminated timber, glulam and LVL from hardwoods and block glued elements. Timber concrete compounds, cement bonded wood composites and innovative light-weight constructions represent increasingly employed alternatives for floors, bridges and facades. With regard to jointing technologies, considerable advances in both mechanical connections and glued joints are presented. Self-tapping screws have created unprecedented options for reliable, strong as well as ductile joints and reinforcement technologies. Regarding adhesives, which constitute the basis of the jointing/laminating technology of modern timber products, extended o...

  13. Company-Community Logging Contracts in Amazonian Settlements: Impacts on Livelihoods and NTFP Harvests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary C. S. Menton

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available As a result of government-sponsored colonization, more than 500 000 km2 of the Brazilian Amazon is managed by settlement households. By law, 80% of this land must remain as standing forest. In this study, we examine the potential for timber harvesting through company-community partnerships (CCPs as a means to increase forest-based revenue without compromising household use of non-timber forest products (NTFPs. Using participatory rural appraisal, resource diaries, and household questionnaires, we study the impacts of CCP logging contracts on livelihoods, including household income and NTFP harvests. Our results show that annual household income from the CCP logging is equivalent to more than 8 years of household gross income from agricultural production. We also found that there were no significant differences in NTFP harvests between households with CCP logging and those without. In CCP-logging communities, households caught 11.9 ± 13.6 game animals, totaling 74 ± 88 kg of game meat. In the communities without CCP, households caught 9.5 ± 13.0 game animals, totaling 73 ± 172 kg of game meat. Annual forest fruit harvests averaged 9.8 ± 13.2 kg in CCP-logging communities and 13.5 ± 15.9 kg in non-CCP communities. Overall, the CCPs brought improvements in household income without compromising NTFP harvests.

  14. Levels of induced pressure and compaction as caused by forest harvesting operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Cristina Caruana Martins

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine levels of pressure and compaction induced by forest harvesting operations in a Red Latosol (LV under planted eucalyptus. Undisturbed soil samples were collected from layers 0-3 and 15-18 cm and then used in a uniaxial compression test. Sampling was done before and after harvesting operations. Equipment being evaluated included: harvester, feller buncher, forwarder, self-loading adapted tractor, standard truck, wide-tire truck and grapple saw. Average pressures induced by the grapple saw were 320 kPa and 272 kPa, causing compaction in 80% and 20% of samples respectively from layers 0-3 cm and 15-18 cm, which indicates substantial degradation of soil structure in areas where timber is processed. In layer 0-3 cm, average pressures induced by the harvester and by the feller buncher were 240 kPa and 263 kPa respectively, while in layer 15-18 cm pressures were 234 kPa and 239 kPa respectively. The feller buncher caused higher soil compaction than the harvester in layer 0-3 cm, yet in layer 15-18 cm they had similar behavior. All timber forwarding equipment led to soil compaction. The wide-tire truck was the forwarding implement promoting the highest rate of compaction, in both residue conditions. Traffic intensity 7 promoted the highest rate of soil compaction.

  15. Linking state-and-transition simulation and timber supply models for forest biomass production scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer K. Costanza

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We linked state-and-transition simulation models (STSMs with an economics-based timber supply model to examine landscape dynamics in North Carolina through 2050 for three scenarios of forest biomass production. Forest biomass could be an important source of renewable energy in the future, but there is currently much uncertainty about how biomass production would impact landscapes. In the southeastern US, if forests become important sources of biomass for bioenergy, we expect increased land-use change and forest management. STSMs are ideal for simulating these landscape changes, but the amounts of change will depend on drivers such as timber prices and demand for forest land, which are best captured with forest economic models. We first developed state-and-transition model pathways in the ST-Sim software platform for 49 vegetation and land-use types that incorporated each expected type of landscape change. Next, for the three biomass production scenarios, the SubRegional Timber Supply Model (SRTS was used to determine the annual areas of thinning and harvest in five broad forest types, as well as annual areas converted among those forest types, agricultural, and urban lands. The SRTS output was used to define area targets for STSMs in ST-Sim under two scenarios of biomass production and one baseline, business-as-usual scenario. We show that ST-Sim output matched SRTS targets in most cases. Landscape dynamics results indicate that, compared with the baseline scenario, forest biomass production leads to more forest and, specifically, more intensively managed forest on the landscape by 2050. Thus, the STSMs, informed by forest economics models, provide important information about potential landscape effects of bioenergy production.

  16. The performance of regional timber industry complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxim Aleksandrovich Shishelov

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The article reveals the results of the economic evaluation of the performance of regional timber industry complex of the NorthWestern Federal District based on the calculation of the structural indicator. The position and the role of forestry in the economy are shown. A comparative assessment of the characteristics of the regional forestry: volume of shipped products, industrial structure, product diversification, deep processing of wood is carried out. Structural economic performance timber for each subject Northwestern Federal District is designed the following factors that determine the high effectiveness of the system: the scale pulp and paper, wood diversification, export products are identified. The important methodological significance is the fact that the use of structural indicators will determine not only the effectiveness of forestry regions North-West in general, but their industries: forestry, woodworking, pulp and paper production, and the level of labor productivity and capital productivity. The presented results are of high practical and methodological value to determine the current state of forestry.

  17. Soil properties in site prepared loblolly pine ( Pinus taeda L.) stands 25 years after wet weather harvesting in the lower Atlantic coastal plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles M. Neaves; W. Michael Aust; M. Chad Bolding; Scott M. Barrett; Carl C. Trettin; Eric Vance

    2017-01-01

    Harvesting traffic may alter soil properties and reduce forest productivity if soil disturbances are not mitigated. Logging operations were conducted during high soil moisture conditions on the South Carolina, USA coast to salvage timber and reduce wildfire potential following Hurricane Hugo in 1989. Long term study sites were established on wet pine flats to evaluate...

  18. Legal harvesting, sustainable sourcing and cascaded use of wood for bioenergy : Their coverage through existing certification frameworks for sustainable forest management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sikkema, Richard|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/110609913; Junginger, Martin|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/202130703; van Dam, Jinke; Stegeman, Gerben; Durrant, David; Faaij, Andre

    2014-01-01

    The first objective of this paper was to provide an inventory of developments of certification schemes for sustainable biomass production, following recent EU legislation (both formalized and under development). One main pillar is the EU Timber Regulation for legal harvesting; a second one is the

  19. The forest ecosystem of southeast Alaska: 7. Forest ecology and timber management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arland S. Harris; Wilbur A. Farr

    1974-01-01

    Large-scale use of the timber resource of southeast Alaska began in 1953 after long efforts to establish a timber industry. Development and present status of the industry and present management of the timber resource are summarized, stressing the biological basis for timber management activities in southeast Alaska today. Ecological and silvicultural considerations...

  20. 36 CFR 221.3 - Disposal of national forest timber according to management plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... timber according to management plans. 221.3 Section 221.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TIMBER MANAGEMENT PLANNING § 221.3 Disposal of national forest timber according to management plans. (a) Management plans for national forest timber resources shall be prepared...

  1. Cutting drying costs by pre-grading green timber according to strength

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gard, W.F.

    1996-01-01

    Pre-grading of green timber can be used to reduce the costs of timber drying for applications where strong dry timber is required. An example is chosen (wood for glue lamination) where the potential drying cost saving from pre-sorting green timber is 35% of the total drying costs (or as much as 9%

  2. Round timber bolted joints reinforced with modified washers and self-drilling screws

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonín Lokaj

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Timber constructions made of round timber components are becoming more and more popular. Given that in the current European standards for the design of timber structures, timber-to-timber joint type is solved only for squared timber. This paper presents results of static tests in tension at an angle of 0°, 90°, 60° to the grain of round timber bolted joints. This research looks into reinforcement with modified washers or self-drilling screws, as these are the least labour-intensive (while economically advantageous. The joints samples were experimentally tested in the laboratory of the Faculty of Civil Engineering VŠB TU Ostrava.

  3. Accounting outsourcing

    OpenAIRE

    Klečacká, Tereza

    2012-01-01

    This thesis gives a complex view on accounting outsourcing, deals with the outsourcing process from its beginning (condition of collaboration, making of contract), through collaboration to its possible ending. This work defines outsourcing, indicates the main advatages, disadvatages and arguments for its using. The main object of thesis is mainly practical side of accounting outsourcing and providing of first quality accounting services.

  4. Accounting standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stellinga, B.; Mügge, D.

    2014-01-01

    The European and global regulation of accounting standards have witnessed remarkable changes over the past twenty years. In the early 1990s, EU accounting practices were fragmented along national lines and US accounting standards were the de facto global standards. Since 2005, all EU listed

  5. An Environmental Accountant`s Dilemma: Are Stumpage Prices Reliable Indicators of Resource Scarcity?

    OpenAIRE

    Huhtala, Anni; Toppinen, Anne; Boman, Mattias

    2001-01-01

    In resource accounting, shadow prices of natural resources and environmental effects should be used as the social marginal value of goods. Since it is difficult to measure shadow prices in practice, market prices are often used as proxies for shadow prices. A prerequisite for the use of these proxies is that there is an established relationship between size of the natural resource stock of interest and its market price. We have unique data sets on physical timber inventories in Finland and Sw...

  6. Influence of harvester type and harvesting time on quality of harvested chamomile

    OpenAIRE

    Pajić Miloš B.; Pajić Vesna S.; Ivanović Sanjin M.; Oljača Mićo V.; Gligorević Kosta B.; Radojičić Dušan R.; Dražić Milan S.; Zlatanović Ivan J.

    2016-01-01

    This paper is the result of studying effects of mechanical chamomile harvesting on yield and quality of harvested chamomile. Chamomile (Chamomilla recutita (L) Rausch.) was harvested at three time intervals (T1 - 240 days, T2 - 250 days and T3 - 260 days after sowing) by three conceptually different harvesters. The results achieved indicate that the harvester type significantly influences quality of harvested chamomile, whereas it is not influenced by chamo...

  7. Tensile properties of machine strength graded timber for glued laminated timber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boström, Lars; Hoffmeyer, Preben; Solli, Kjell-Helge

    1999-01-01

    Special setting values based on tensile properties of Norway spruce are established for four different strength grading machines. The machines included are Computermatic, Cook-Bolinder, Ersson and Dynagrade.The study shows that the yield of timber to be used in tension, such as laminations...... for glulam, may be increased by basing the setting values on test results of the tensile properties rather than using the strength classes definen in EN338....

  8. Hand collection - hand harvest

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a summary of activities related to the collection and harvest of seeds on Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge between 1992 and 2009. Information about hand...

  9. Reliability Analysis of Timber Structures through NDT Data Upgrading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sousa, Hélder; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    The first part of this document presents, in chapter 2, a description of timber characteristics and common used NDT and MDT for timber elements. Stochastic models for timber properties and damage accumulation models are also referred. According to timber’s properties a framework is proposed...... for robustness are dealt in chapter 5. The second part of this document begins in chapter 6, where a practical application of the premise definitions and methodologies is given through the implementation of upgraded models with NDT and MDT data. Structural life-cycle is, therefore, assessed and reliability...

  10. Robustness Issues for Design of Innovative Timber Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Frederik; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2013-01-01

    Robustness of structural systems has obtained a renewed interest due to a much more frequent use of advanced types of structures with limited redundancy and serious conse-quences in case of failure. The present paper summaries issues with respect to robustness of timber structures. Two different...... large span timber structures are analyzed and based on these analyses the paper presents guidelines for the future development of innovative timber struc-tures which are robust with respect to design and execution errors, unforeseen degradation and other potential hazards....

  11. Probabilistic representation of duration of load effects in timber structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Staffan

    2011-01-01

    to be considered. These two cases are maximum load level exceeding load-carrying capacity and damage accumulation (caused by the load and its duration) leading to failure. The effect of both load intensity and load duration on the capacity of timber has been an area of large interest over the last decades......-based design of timber structures in terms of a modification factor View the MathML source which is multiplied on the short-term resistance of the timber material. The scenario of a beam subject to office space life loads is analyzed and the modification factor View the MathML source is calibrated by using...

  12. System Reliability of Timber Structures with Ductile Behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Čizmar, Dean

    2011-01-01

    The present paper considers the evaluation of timber structures with the focus on robustness due to connection ductility. The robustness analysis is based on the structural reliability framework applied to a simplified mechanical system. The structural timber system is depicted as a parallel system....... An evaluation method of the ductile behaviour is introduced. For different ductile behaviours, the system reliability is estimated based on Monte Carlo simulation. A correlation between the strength of the structural elements is introduced. The results indicate that the reliability of a structural timber system...

  13. The effect of changing ambient humidity on moisture condition in timber elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hozjan, Tomaž; Turk, Goran; Srpcic, Stanislav

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with the effect of the changing ambient humidity on moisture conditions in timber elements. The naturally varying humidity is possible to model as a relative combination of different harmonic cycles, with different periods and amplitudes. For the determination of the moisture field...... fully coupled transport model including a model for the influential sorption hysteresis of wood is used. The coupled model accounts for both vapor transport in pores and bound water transport in wood tissue. Moisture state history influences relationship between moisture state of wood and air humidity...

  14. Efeito do tempo de experiência de operadores de Harvester no rendimento operacional Effect of time experience of Harvester operators in operating yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Cristina Leonello

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A mecanização da colheita de madeira permite maior controle dos custos e pode proporcionar reduções em prazos relativamente curtos. Além disso, tem um lugar de destaque na humanização do trabalho florestal e no aumento do rendimento operacional. O presente trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o desempenho de operadores de harvester em função do tempo de experiência na atividade. Foram avaliados oito operadores do sexo masculino, com idade entre 23 e 46 anos. O estudo consistiu na análise do volume de madeira colhida pelo harvester. O tempo de experiência afeta significativamente o rendimento operacional dos operadores de harvester. Tal rendimento aumenta expressivamente nos primeiros 18 meses de experiência, mantendo-se em ascensão nos próximos 26 meses. Após os 44 meses de experiência, o rendimento dos operadores tende a reduzir, revelando as possíveis acomodações do cotidiano. Tais resultados permitem concluir que por volta dos 50 meses de experiência na atividade de operação de harvester, se faz necessária a adoção de medidas de reciclagem, motivação, entre outras, a fim de proporcionar aos operadores melhores condições de trabalho que os possibilitem continuar exercendo a atividade de forma eficiente e rentável à empresa.The mechanization of timber harvesting allows greater control of costs and can provide reductions in relatively short intervals. Moreover, it has a place in the humanization of the working forest and the increase in performance. This work provides comparisons of operating performance of different operator harvester according to the time of experience in the activity. The operators evaluated were eight males, aged between 23 and 46 years old. The study consisted of analysis of the volume of timber harvested by the harvester. The experience significantly affects the performance of harvesters operators. The performance increases significantly in the first 18 months of experience, and it remained on

  15. Sustaining the Joint Production of Timber and Lactarius Mushroom: A Case Study of a Forest Management Planning Unit in Northwestern Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derya Mumcu Küçüker

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Forest management planning focusing on sustainable supply of forest-based services such as wood and Non-Wood Forest Products (NWFPs is important for the sustainability of forest ecosystems over time. This study explores the development of a mushroom integrated decision support system (ETÇAPOptimization for multiple use forest management planning and for the analysis of long-term effects of different forest management scenarios on the joint production of timber and mushroom. The Decision Support System (DSS integrates both mushroom and timber production derived from the same forest ecosystem using empirical models for mushroom occurrence and yield as well as for tree growth. The DSS takes further into account the spatial distribution and productivity models of Lactarius deliciosus and Lactarius salmonicolor generated for the Kızılcasu Planning unit in Northwest Turkey. Six different forest management scenarios were considered, each with a different set of objectives, e.g., maximization of both the amount and the income from timber or mushroom production. Some scenarios include further timber even flow constraints (10% fluctuation. The Net Present Value (NPV and the amount of timber and of mushroom production were used as performance indicators to discuss and elaborate on forest dynamics under different management scenarios. The results indicated that forest management planning strategies to address the maximization of NPV from mushroom production scenarios are characterized by substantial decreases in total income from the forest due mainly to the conservation of forest areas to favor mushroom production. On the other hand, the integration of regulatory constraints into forest management plans lead to a substantial decrease of both the economic profit and the amount of forest ecosystem services, e.g., timber and mushroom. The results showed that the NPV from mushroom production can be two to three times higher than the NPV from timber

  16. Statistical Analysis of Data for Timber Strengths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Hoffmeyer, P.

    Statistical analyses are performed for material strength parameters from approximately 6700 specimens of structural timber. Non-parametric statistical analyses and fits to the following distributions types have been investigated: Normal, Lognormal, 2 parameter Weibull and 3-parameter Weibull. The......-parameter Weibull (and Normal) distributions give the best fits to the data available, especially if tail fits are used whereas the LogNormal distribution generally gives poor fit and larger coefficients of variation, especially if tail fits are used........ The statistical fits have generally been made using all data (100%) and the lower tail (30%) of the data. The Maximum Likelihood Method and the Least Square Technique have been used to estimate the statistical parameters in the selected distributions. 8 different databases are analysed. The results show that 2...

  17. Tradeoffs between Three Forest Ecosystem Services across the State of New Hampshire, USA: Timber, Carbon, and Albedo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, D. A.; Burakowski, E. A.; Murphy, M. B.; Borsuk, M. E.; Niemiec, R. M.; Howarth, R. B.

    2014-12-01

    Albedo is an important physical property of the land surface which influences the total amount of incoming solar radiation that is reflected back into space. It is a critical ecosystem service that helps regulate the Earth's energy balance and, in the context of climate mitigation, has been shown to have a strong influence on the overall effectiveness of land management schemes designed to counteract climate change. Previously, we demonstrated that incorporating the physical effects of albedo into an ecological economic forest model of locations in the White Mountain National Forest, in New Hampshire, USA, leads to a substantially shorter optimal rotation period for forest harvest than under a carbon- and timber-only approach. In this study, we investigate similar tradeoffs at 565 sites across the entire state of New Hampshire in a variety of different forest types, latitudes, and elevations. Additionally, we use a regression tree approach to calculate the influence of biogeochemical and physical factors on the optimal rotation period. Our results suggest that in many instances, incorporating albedo may lead to optimal rotation times approaching zero, or, perpetual clear-cut. Overall, the difference between growing season and winter-time albedo for forested and harvested states was the most significant variable influencing the rotation period, followed by timber stumpage price, and biomass growth rate. These results provide an initial understanding of tradeoffs amongst these three ecosystem services and provide guidance for forest managers as to the relative important properties of their forests when these three services are incentivized economically.

  18. A Comparative Study on Timber Productivity by Timber Firms in Ghana as Influenced by Ownership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Martin Amoah

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Some of the major problems that confront the timber industry in Ghana are: The industries inability to diversify value-added products for export as well as decline in export volumes, prices, and number of sawmills which are actively engaged in the production and exportation of wood products especially the locally-owned. Furthermore, the capacity of forest sector has also reduced. These developments present a challenge to the local entrepreneurs in the face of globalization; and for that matter, the need to conduct an empirical comparative study into the issues to find solutions to mitigate them is now.The average number of products exported ware 3 and 4 by the locally- and foreign-owned firms respectively. In general, both categories of firms showed declines in eight low export prices of wood products from 2000 to 2008. Air-dried and kiln-dried lumber were the dominant products exported by both categories of firms. The foreign-owned timber firms exported ten high-priced timber products and eight by their counterparts; this makes the foreign-owned firms more diversified than the locally-owned firms. It is also worthy of note that, more than half (59% of the foreign-owned firms exported between 4 and 6 products while less than one-fourth (23% of the locally-owned firms exported the same number of products. Only one foreign owned firm exported products of 10 and above. Again the foreign owned - firms concentrated more on value added products while the locally-owned - firms specialized on primary products. This suggests that the foreign-owned firms are more efficient than their local counterparts.Statistical analysis conducted on all the products using (Wilcoxon Signed Ranks Test indicated that the differences were not statistically significant. Finally, the timber firms in Ghana should take innovative measures to diversify and maximize the recovery rate of volume and value of timber products especially the locally owned–firms so that they can

  19. The forest ecosystem of southeast Alaska: 9. Timber inventory, harvesting, marketing, and trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O. Keith Hutchison; Vernon J. LaBau

    1975-01-01

    Southeast Alaska has 11.2 million acres of forest land, of which 4.9 million acres are considered commercial. This commercial acreage supports 166 billion board feet of sawtimber. These primarily old-growth stands of Sitka spruce and western hemlock are supporting a growing wood products industry that ranks first in the southeast economy and third in the State. This...

  20. Long-term sedimentation effects of different patterns of timber harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. R. Ziemer; J. Lewis; T. E. Lisle; Rice. R. M.

    1991-01-01

    Abstract - It is impractical to address the long-term effect of forest management strategies on erosion, sedimentation, and the resultant damage to fish habitat experimentally because to do so would require studying large watersheds for a century or more. Monte Carlo simulations were conducted on three hypothetical 10 000 ha, fifth-order forested watersheds. One...

  1. Methods to Reduce Forest Residue Volume after Timber Harvesting and Produce Black Carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah S. Page-Dumroese

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Forest restoration often includes thinning to reduce tree density and improve ecosystem processes and function while also reducing the risk of wildfire or insect and disease outbreaks. However, one drawback of these restoration treatments is that slash is often burned in piles that may damage the soil and require further restoration activities. Pile burning is currently used on many forest sites as the preferred method for residue disposal because piles can be burned at various times of the year and are usually more controlled than broadcast burns. In many cases, fire can be beneficial to site conditions and soil properties, but slash piles, with a large concentration of wood, needles, forest floor, and sometimes mineral soil, can cause long-term damage. We describe several alternative methods for reducing nonmerchantable forest residues that will help remove excess woody biomass, minimize detrimental soil impacts, and create charcoal for improving soil organic matter and carbon sequestration.

  2. Minimizing corrosive action in timber bridges treated with waterborne preservatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel L. Zelinka; Douglas R. Rammer; James P. Wacker

    2007-01-01

    This work will briefly review published literature and current research activities on the corrosion of metals in contact with wood treated with waterborne alternatives to CCA. In addition, recommendations to minimize these corrosive effects in timber bridges will be discussed.

  3. 32 CFR 644.504 - Disposal plan for timber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Disposal of Standing Timber, Crops, and Embedded Gravel, Sand and Stone § 644.... Forest Service in its sales and forestry practices. U.S. Forest Service personnel may be available for...

  4. Profitability of Clerodendrum volubile (eweta) , a non-timber forest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Timber Forest product, in Okitipupa, Ondo State Nigeria. Purposive and simple random sampling techniques were used in the selection of markets and respondents. The sample size was 60 and instrument of data collection was structured and ...

  5. Creosote treated timber in the Alaskan marine environment : Volume I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    ADOT&PF is responsible for many structures that incorporate wood pilings and other timber in Alaska waters. Most are treated with preservative to inhibit marine borers : that will quickly destroy unprotected wood. Creosote is generally the most econo...

  6. Creosote treated timber in the Alaskan marine environment : volume ii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    ADOT&PF is responsible for many structures that incorporate wood pilings and other timber in Alaska waters. Most are treated with preservative to inhibit marine borers : that will quickly destroy unprotected wood. Creosote is generally the most econo...

  7. Managing for timber and biodiversity in the Congo Basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nasi, Robert; Billand, Alain; van Vliet, Nathalie

    2012-01-01

    Multiple-use forest management is considered by many as a preferable alternative to single-use, generally timber-dominant, management models. In the Congo Basin rainforests, integration of timber and non-timber forest resources plays a key role in the subsistence and market economies of rural...... communities. This is however mainly occurring in ‘‘ordinary’’ forest lands and not in formally gazetted forest lands. In this paper we briefly explore the major land-uses in the Congo Basin and their actual or potential for multiple-use. We then focus on the most extant production system (industrial logging...... concessions) and analyze the existing issues and options for managing actively both timber and biodiversity with a special emphasis on wildlife and the role of certification. A few promising but yet ‘unfinished’ examples do exist in the region and we review these cases to draw lessons and recommendations. We...

  8. St. Vincent National Wildlife Refuge : Timber Management Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Timber Management Plan for St. Vincent National Wildlife Refuge describes how forest management techniques will be used to fulfill refuge objectives. Two types...

  9. Compression strength perpendicular to grain of structural timber and glulam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damkilde, Lars; Hoffmeyer, Preben; Pedersen, Torben N.

    1998-01-01

    . Nonetheless test results show that the levels of characteristic compression strength perpendicular to grain are of the same order for structural timber and glulam. The values are slightly lower than those appearing in EN 1194 and less than half of those appearing in EN 338. The paper presents a numerical......The characteristic strength values for compression perpendicular to grain as they appear in EN 338 (structural timber) and EN 1194 (glulam) are currently up for discussion. The present paper provides experimental results based on EN 1193 that may assist in the correct assignment of such strength...... values. The dominant failure mode of glulam specimens is shown to be fundamentally different from that of structural timber specimens. Glulam specimens often show tension perpendicular to grain failure before the compression strength value is reached. Such failure mode is not seen for structural timber...

  10. T-section glulam timber bridge modules : modeling and performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul A. Morgan; Steven E. Taylor; Michael A. Ritter; John M. Franklin

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the design, modeling, and testing of two portable timber bridges, each consisting of two noninterconnected longitudinal glued-laminated timber (glulam) deck panels 1.8 m (6 ft) wide. One bridge is 12.2 m (40 ft) long while the other bridge is 10.7 m (35 ft) long. The deck panels are fabricated in a unique double-tee cross section. The bridges...

  11. Addressing uncertainties about timber housing by whole life costing

    OpenAIRE

    Levander, Erika; Stehn, Lars

    2007-01-01

    Increased cost and declining quality has resulted in a growing interest in industrialised construction. During the last twelve years around 20000 apartments have been built in Sweden using industrialized timber housing techniques. Still, potential clients and building owners are uncertain of long-term financial costs and functional performance of timber houses. The idea in this paper is to investigate if the use of whole life costing calculations might become a tool for addressing these uncer...

  12. Timber resource statistics for the Yakutat inventory unit, Alaska, 1975.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willem W.S. Van Hees; Vernon J. LaBau

    1984-01-01

    Statistics on forest area, total gross and net,timber volumes, and annual net growth and mortality are presented from the 1975 timber inventory of the Yakutat unit, Alaska. Area of timberland is estimated at 236.3 thousand acres (95.6 thousand ha), net volume of growing stock at 1.1 billion cubic feet (29.9 million m3), and annual net growth and...

  13. Timber resource statistics for the Yakataga inventory unit, Alaska, 1976.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willem W.S. van Hees

    1985-01-01

    Statistics on forest area, total gross and net timber volumes, and annual net growth and mortality are presented from the 1976 timber inventory of the Yakataga unit, Alaska. Timberland area is estimated at 209.3 thousand acres (84.7 thousand ha), net growing stock volume at 917.1 million cubic feet (26.0 million m3), and annual net growth and...

  14. Reinforcement of timber beams with carbon fibers reinforced plastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gugutsidze, G.; Draškovič, F.

    2010-06-01

    Wood is a polymeric material with many valuable features and which also lacks some negative features. In order to keep up with high construction rates and the minimization of negative effects, wood has become one of the most valuable materials in modern engineering. But the use of timber material economically is also an actual problem in order to protect the environment and improve natural surroundings. A panel of scientists is interested in solving these problems and in creating rational structures, where timber can be used efficiently. These constructions are as follows: glue-laminated (gluelam), composed and reinforced wooden constructions. Composed and reinforced wooden constructions are examined less, but according to researches already carried out, it is clear that significant work can be accomplished in creating rational, highly effective and economic timber constructions. The paper deals with research on the formation of composed fiber-reinforced beams (CFRP) made of timber and provide evidence of their effectiveness. The aim of the paper is to investigate cross-bending of CFRP-reinforced gluelaminated timber beams. According to the results we were able to determine the additional effectiveness of reinforcement with CFRP (which depends on the CFRP material's quality, quantity and module of elasticity) on the mechanical features of timber and a whole beam.

  15. Optimization of a forest harvesting set based on the Queueing Theory: Case study from Karelia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shegelman Ilya

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The modern technological process of timber harvesting is a complex system both technically and organizationally. Nowadays, the study of such systems and improvement of their efficiency is impossible without the use of mathematical modeling methods. The paper presents the methodology for the optimization of logging operations based on the queueing theory. We show the adapted queueing model, which characterizes the process of logging with the use of a harvesting set consisting of harvesters and forwarders. We also present the experimental verification of the designated model that confirmed mode’s adequacy. The analysis of the effectiveness of the investigated harvesting set was conducted and the recommendations for its optimization were drawn. The research was conducted in the Pryazhinsky District in the Republic of Karelia. We showed that significant improvement of operational efficiency of the investigated harvesting set in the study area cannot be done by adjusting separate machine operations (i.e. by reducing the time of operations execution and their steadiness. However, a change in the number of machines allowed significant improvement in the operational efficiency. The most optimal harvesting set design for the experimental area consisted of two harvesters and two forwarders.

  16. Protocol and Practice in the Adaptive Management of Waterfowl Harvests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred Johnson

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Waterfowl harvest management in North America, for all its success, historically has had several shortcomings, including a lack of well-defined objectives, a failure to account for uncertain management outcomes, and inefficient use of harvest regulations to understand the effects of management. To address these and other concerns, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service began implementation of adaptive harvest management in 1995. Harvest policies are now developed using a Markov decision process in which there is an explicit accounting for uncontrolled environmental variation, partial controllability of harvest, and structural uncertainty in waterfowl population dynamics. Current policies are passively adaptive, in the sense that any reduction in structural uncertainty is an unplanned by-product of the regulatory process. A generalization of the Markov decision process permits the calculation of optimal actively adaptive policies, but it is not yet clear how state-specific harvest actions differ between passive and active approaches. The Markov decision process also provides managers the ability to explore optimal levels of aggregation or "management scale" for regulating harvests in a system that exhibits high temporal, spatial, and organizational variability. Progress in institutionalizing adaptive harvest management has been remarkable, but some managers still perceive the process as a panacea, while failing to appreciate the challenges presented by this more explicit and methodical approach to harvest regulation. Technical hurdles include the need to develop better linkages between population processes and the dynamics of landscapes, and to model the dynamics of structural uncertainty in a more comprehensive fashion. From an institutional perspective, agreement on how to value and allocate harvests continues to be elusive, and there is some evidence that waterfowl managers have overestimated the importance of achievement-oriented factors in

  17. Protocol and practice in the adaptive management of waterfowl harvests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, F.; Williams, K.

    1999-01-01

    Waterfowl harvest management in North America, for all its success, historically has had several shortcomings, including a lack of well-defined objectives, a failure to account for uncertain management outcomes, and inefficient use of harvest regulations to understand the effects of management. To address these and other concerns, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service began implementation of adaptive harvest management in 1995. Harvest policies are now developed using a Markov decision process in which there is an explicit accounting for uncontrolled environmental variation, partial controllability of harvest, and structural uncertainty in waterfowl population dynamics. Current policies are passively adaptive, in the sense that any reduction in structural uncertainty is an unplanned by-product of the regulatory process. A generalization of the Markov decision process permits the calculation of optimal actively adaptive policies, but it is not yet clear how state-specific harvest actions differ between passive and active approaches. The Markov decision process also provides managers the ability to explore optimal levels of aggregation or "management scale" for regulating harvests in a system that exhibits high temporal, spatial, and organizational variability. Progress in institutionalizing adaptive harvest management has been remarkable, but some managers still perceive the process as a panacea, while failing to appreciate the challenges presented by this more explicit and methodical approach to harvest regulation. Technical hurdles include the need to develop better linkages between population processes and the dynamics of landscapes, and to model the dynamics of structural uncertainty in a more comprehensive fashion. From an institutional perspective, agreement on how to value and allocate harvests continues to be elusive, and there is some evidence that waterfowl managers have overestimated the importance of achievement-oriented factors in setting hunting

  18. Estimating Soil Displacement from Timber Extraction Trails in Steep Terrain: Application of an Unmanned Aircraft for 3D Modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Pierzchała

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Skid trails constructed for timber extraction in steep terrain constitute a serious environmental concern if not well planned, executed and ameliorated. Carrying out post-harvest surveys in monitoring constructed trails in such terrain is an onerous task for forest administrators, as hundreds of meters need to be surveyed per site, and the quantification of parameters and volumes is largely based on assumptions of trail symmetry and terrain uniformity. In this study, aerial imagery captured from a multi-rotor Unmanned Aerial Vehicle was used in generating a detailed post-harvest terrain model which included all skid trails. This was then compared with an Airborne Laser Scanning derived pre-harvest terrain model and the dimensions, slopes and cut-and-fill volumes associated with the skid trails were determined. The overall skid trail length was 954 m, or 381 m·ha−1 with segments varying from 40–60 m, inclinations from 3.9% to 9.6%, and cut volumes, from 1.7 to 3.7 m3 per running meter. The methods used in this work can be used in rapidly assessing the extent of disturbance and erosion risk on a wide range of sites. The multi-rotor Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV was found to be highly suited to the task, given the relatively small size of harvested stands, their shape and their location in the mountainous terrain.

  19. Energy harvesting for microsystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruichao Xu

    2012-05-15

    The purpose of this project is to design and fabricate piezoelectric energy harvesters based on integration of Pb(ZrxTi1-x)O3 (PZT) thick film technology and silicon microtechnology. The fabrication processes are carried out in close collaboration with Meggitt Sensing Systems (MSS) who has the unique expertise to screen print piezoelectric thick film layers, thus all screen printing steps are done by MSS while the silicon micromachining is carried out at Danchip facility at DTU. The presented energy harvesters are all based on using piezoelectric thick film operating in the 31-mode to generate power when strained. Three archetypes of the numerous fabricated energy harvesters will be presented in detail, they represent three major milestones in this project. The first energy harvester archetype has an unimorph cantilever beam, which consists of a 20 {mu}m silicon layer and 10-30 {mu}m screen printed PZT layer, anchored on a silicon frame at one end and attached to a silicon proof mass at the other. Electrodes will cover both side of the PZT layer, so the harvested energy can be collected electrically. The second archetype has a bimorph cantilever beam, which consists of two 15-35 {mu}m PZT layers, anchored on a silicon frame at the one end and attached to a silicon proof mass at the other. Electrodes are deposited below, between and above the two PZT layers. The root mean square (RMS) power output measured on this type of harvesters is as high as 37.1{mu}W at 1 g. The third archetype is similar to the first one, the screen printed PZT layer is replaced by a lead free piezoelectric material, (KxNa1-x)NbO3 (KNN). Some of the major challenges encountered during the development processes are bad adhesion, fragile structures and short circuiting through the PZT layer. All of which have being fully or partially solved in this project. The final energy harvesters are designed to be used in an energy harvester powered wireless sensing system. (Author)

  20. The timber truss: The studying of the behaviour of the spatial framework joint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Rumlová

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Using of timber in civil engineering is increasing at the moment. Main timber elements are used for main supporting structures, typically for buildings, roofs, footbridges or towers. This work studies unique timber trusses as a supporting roof structure of spatial timber building. Timber trusses are used as roof supporting construction for objects with open inside space, especially halls or office buildings. This paper resolved critical joint in roof construction which is created by four timber trusses. The FEM model monitored strain changes in critical places of resolved joint.

  1. Accounting assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kafka S.М.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The proper evaluation of accounting objects influences essentially upon the reliability of assessing the financial situation of a company. Thus, the problem in accounting estimate is quite relevant. The works of home and foreign scholars on the issues of assessment of accounting objects, regulatory and legal acts of Ukraine controlling the accounting and compiling financial reporting are a methodological basis for the research. The author uses the theoretical methods of cognition (abstraction and generalization, analysis and synthesis, induction and deduction and other methods producing conceptual knowledge for the synthesis of theoretical and methodological principles in the evaluation of assets accounting, liabilities and equity. The tabular presentation and information comparison methods are used for analytical researches. The article considers the modern approaches to the issue of evaluation of accounting objects and financial statements items. The expedience to keep records under historical value is proved and the articles of financial statements are to be presented according to the evaluation on the reporting date. In connection with the evaluation the depreciation of fixed assets is considered as a process of systematic return into circulation of the before advanced funds on the purchase (production, improvement of fixed assets and intangible assets by means of including the amount of wear in production costs. Therefore it is proposed to amortize only the actual costs incurred, i.e. not to depreciate the fixed assets received free of charge and surplus valuation of different kinds.

  2. Timbered masonry for earthquake resistance in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dutu, A.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Europe is a continent that is subject to significant seismic activity. Thus, the buildings’ seismic behaviour must be analysed, including not only the new structures, designed under more rigorous codes, but also older ones. This article examines a traditional type of building that uses timber frame/masonry, which is found in Portugal, Turkey, France, England, Greece, Romania, Italy, Spain, Germany and Scandinavia. Although the structures differ in terms of construction details, their structural system is basically the same: the wooden structural system bears mainly the horizontal loads while the masonry supports the gravity loads. The study includes a brief report on the seismicity of each country where this traditional type of building made of timbered framed masonry is found, together with the description of these buildings’ constructive systems.

    Europa es un continente que está sujeto a una significativa actividad sísmica. Por esta razón, se debe analizar el comportamiento sísmico, no sólo de las nuevas estructuras, diseñadas sobre la base de códigos más exigentes, sino también de los diversos tipos de estructuras antiguas. En este artículo se analizan las estructuras constituidas por mampostería y madera, que se pueden encontrar en Portugal, Turquía, Francia, Inglaterra, Grecia, Rumania, Italia, España, Alemania y Escandinavia. Aunque estas estructuras presentan diferencias en cuanto a detalles constructivos, su sistema estructural es idéntico: el sistema estructural de madera absorbe principalmente las cargas horizontales, mientras que la mampostería garantiza la resistencia a la acción de la gravedad. El estudio presentado incluye un breve informe acerca de la sismicidad de los países en que existe el tipo de construcción mencionado, conjuntamente con la descripción de los sistemas constructivos específicos de cada país.

  3. Combine Harvester Simulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilmann, Ole; Sørlie, James Arnold

    1999-01-01

    A simulator for training pilots in the operation of a modern high-tech combine harvester is presented. The new simulator application is based on DMI´s well-known DMS maritime simulator architecture. Two major challenges have been encountered in the development of the simulator: 1) interfacing the...

  4. Dynamics of Timber Market Integration in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishal Chandr Jaunky

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the performance of the timber markets (Scots pine, Pinus silvestris L. and Norway spruce, Picea abies (L. Karst. by evaluating the order of market integration in three Swedish regions (Central, Northern, and Southern. Quarterly data of delivery prices are employed over the period 1999Q1–2012Q4. Various unit root and cointegration tests have been computed. The results indicate that the variables are integrated of first order and co-integrated, especially after controlling for structural breaks. This supports the law-of-one-price hypothesis (LOP. However, the effects of structural shocks on forestry are arguably significant and these are controlled for while performing a vector error-correction mechanism (VECM-based Granger-causality test. Bi-directional causality between the Northern and central markets is uncovered in the short-run. In the long-run, a similar causal effect is detected between Northern and Southern markets while the central market emerges as the price leader. Further investigation is carried out using variance decompositions and impulse response functions and these approaches also tend to confirm the existence of a single market well, as price interdependence between markets.

  5. Designing A General Deep Web Harvester by Harvestability Factor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khelghati, Mohammadreza; Hiemstra, Djoerd; van Keulen, Maurice

    2014-01-01

    To make deep web data accessible, harvesters have a crucial role. Targeting different domains and websites enhances the need of a general-purpose harvester which can be applied to different settings and situations. To develop such a harvester, a large number of issues should be addressed. To have

  6. Appropriateness of probit-9 in the development of quarantine treatments for timber and timber commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schortemeyer, Marcus; Thomas, Ken; Haack, Robert A; Uzunovic, Adnan; Hoover, Kelli; Simpson, Jack A; Grgurinovic, Cheryl A

    2011-06-01

    Following the increasing international phasing out of methyl bromide for quarantine purposes, the development of alternative treatments for timber pests becomes imperative. The international accreditation of new quarantine treatments requires verification standards that give confidence in the effectiveness of a treatment. Probit-9 mortality is a standard for treatment effectiveness that has its origin in fruit fly research, and has been adopted by the United States Department of Agriculture for fruit flies and several other pests. Following this, the probit-9 standard has been adopted as a benchmark for many quarantine treatments worldwide. This article discusses aspects of the application of this concept for a range of timber pests. Problematic issues include the often small pest populations available for testing, the limits of modeling pest responses to a treatment in the absence of sufficient numbers for treatment verification, the species diversity of pests and host materials and the physical and chemical conditions of host material or treatment conditions. Where treatment verification by killing large numbers of individuals is impossible, data collected from small populations or under specific conditions must be interpreted with caution. We discuss possible alternative approaches to probit-9 as a treatment efficacy standard.

  7. Wearable Biomechanical Energy Harvesting Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Man Choi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Energy harvesting has been attracting attention as a technology that is capable of replacing or supplementing a battery with the development of various mobile electronics. In environments where stable electrical supply is not possible, energy harvesting technology can guarantee an increased leisure and safety for human beings. Harvesting with several watts of power is essential for directly driving or efficiently charging mobile electronic devices such as laptops or cell phones. In this study, we reviewed energy harvesting technologies that harvest biomechanical energy from human motion such as foot strike, joint motion, and upper limb motion. They are classified based on the typical principle of kinetic energy harvesting: piezoelectric, triboelectric, and electromagnetic energy harvesting. We focused on the wearing position of high-power wearable biomechanical energy harvesters (WBEHs generating watt-level power. In addition, the features and future trends of the watt-level WBEHs are discussed.

  8. A spatial stochastic programming model for timber and core area management under risk of fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu Wei; Michael Bevers; Dung Nguyen; Erin Belval

    2014-01-01

    Previous stochastic models in harvest scheduling seldom address explicit spatial management concerns under the influence of natural disturbances. We employ multistage stochastic programming models to explore the challenges and advantages of building spatial optimization models that account for the influences of random stand-replacing fires. Our exploratory test models...

  9. Study on Aseismic Characteristics of Tibetan Ancient Timber Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Tibetan ancient timber structure has great historical, cultural, artistic, and scientific values. The structural configuration of members such as wall, roof, slab, and timber skeleton with semirigid joints is studied in this paper based on field survey results. The aseismic characteristics of Tibetan ancient timber structure have been summarized and introduced. One of the unique features of the Tibetan ancient timber structure is its special beam-column joint which has a semirigid behavior. Numerical simulations of a typical 3-storey structural unit in the Potala Palace are studied. The acceleration responses of the structure under the action of El-Centro seismic waves are studied. Results show that the arrangement of the joints is helpful for seismic resistance of the structure. Most Tibetan ancient timber structures are suffering from different types of damage to certain extent which is vulnerable to seismic actions. Typical damage problems of the structural components are summarized and the main causes of this damage are analyzed. Different rehabilitation methods that can be implemented are discussed, providing references for maintenance of the structures.

  10. The impact of single-tree selection and clearcut harvest on selected biochemical soil health indicators at the Missouri Forest Ecosystem Program and Long Term Soil Productivity sites in the Missouri Ozarks

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate carbon, nitrogen, sulfur and phosphorus (CNSP) cycling and to determine potential biochemical soil health indicators applicable to timber harvesting in the Missouri Ozarks. Soil samples were collected from the Missouri Forest Ecosystem Project (MOFEP) and ...

  11. Harvest Regulations and Implementation Uncertainty in Small Game Harvest Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pål F. Moa

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A main challenge in harvest management is to set policies that maximize the probability that management goals are met. While the management cycle includes multiple sources of uncertainty, only some of these has received considerable attention. Currently, there is a large gap in our knowledge about implemention of harvest regulations, and to which extent indirect control methods such as harvest regulations are actually able to regulate harvest in accordance with intended management objectives. In this perspective article, we first summarize and discuss hunting regulations currently used in management of grouse species (Tetraonidae in Europe and North America. Management models suggested for grouse are most often based on proportional harvest or threshold harvest principles. These models are all built on theoretical principles for sustainable harvesting, and provide in the end an estimate on a total allowable catch. However, implementation uncertainty is rarely examined in empirical or theoretical harvest studies, and few general findings have been reported. Nevertheless, circumstantial evidence suggest that many of the most popular regulations are acting depensatory so that harvest bag sizes is more limited in years (or areas where game density is high, contrary to general recommendations. A better understanding of the implementation uncertainty related to harvest regulations is crucial in order to establish sustainable management systems. We suggest that scenario tools like Management System Evaluation (MSE should be more frequently used to examine robustness of currently applied harvest regulations to such implementation uncertainty until more empirical evidence is available.

  12. Harvesting Options for Riparian Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    James A. Mattson; John E. Baumgras; Charles R. Blinn; Michael A. Thompson

    1999-01-01

    As the chapters in this book demonstate, forested riparian areas provide many important functions and values, including wildlife habitat, recreation, water, timber production, and cultural resources. The high soil moisture and nutrient availability in these areas make them highly productive sites for plant and animal life, including trees, and this, coupled with the...

  13. Soil productivity and harvest operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah Page-Dumroese

    2007-01-01

    Concern over changes in soil productivity due to forest management is often debated by forest managers and the public. One key element in the discussion is use of mechanized equipment (such as rubber-tired skidders, log forwarders, or tracked vehicles) to remove timber products from the forest. Part of the debate focuses on soil compaction, removal of nutrients when...

  14. Evaluation of Forest Dynamics Focusing on Various Minimum Harvesting Ages in Multi-Purpose Forest Management Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derya Mumcu Kucuker

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: Exploring the potential effects of various forest management strategies on the ability of forest ecosystems to sequester carbon and produce water has become of great concern among forest researchers. The main purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects of management strategies with different minimum harvesting ages on the amount and monetary worth of carbon, water and timber values. Area of study: The study was performed in the Yalnızçam planning unit located on the northeastern part of Turkey. Material and Methods: A forest management model with linear programming (LP was developed to determine the effects of various minimum harvesting ages. Twenty-four different management strategies were developed to maximize the economic Net Present Value (NPV of timber, water and carbon values in addition to their absolute quantities over time. Amount and NPV of forest values and ending inventory with different minimum harvesting ages were used as performance indicators to assess and thus understand forest dynamics. Main results: Amount and NPV of timber and carbon generally decreased with extended minimum harvesting ages. However, similar trends were not observed for water production values. The results pointed out that the performance of a management strategy depends highly on the development of a management strategy and the initial forest structure aside from the growth rate Research highlights: Minimum harvesting ages affect forest outputs under the same objectives and constraints. Performance of a management strategy highly depends on initial age class structure in addition to the contents of a management strategy.

  15. Device for leveling the front of a section timbering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agapov, N.D.; Grebenkin, S.S.; Samoylov, A.V.

    1980-02-28

    The device for leveling the front section timbering contains winches for moving the sections, a cable arranged along the timbering and attached to the end sections, tension attachment arranged on one of the terminal sections, and hydraulic winches for moving the cable hinged by means of mobile bushings to the cable and by means of pins to the timbering sections. To compensate for the spacing errors of any sign during movement of the sections it has hydraulic distributors which are established in the hydraulic system of winches for moving the sections, and sensors for controlling the hydraulic distributors installed in the hydraulic winches for moving the cable and made in the form of sensors of terminal position.

  16. Experimental In-Plane Evaluation of Light Timber Walls Panels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge M. Branco

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In general, the satisfactory seismic performance of timber buildings can be partially attributed to the material characteristics of the wood itself and to the lightness of its own structure. The aim of this paper is to analyze the in-plane behavior of light timber walls panels through a series of monotonic and cyclic tests, and to evaluate how the sheathing material and the fixation to the base influence the overall response of the wall. Five tests are presented and discussed while the reliability of an analytical method to predict the response of the walls is studied. The sheathing material revealed to be important in the overall response of the wall. Moreover, the type of fixation to the base also revealed to be important in the in-plane response of timber walls. In-plane stiffnesses, static ductility, energy dissipation and damping ratio have been quantified.

  17. Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caliò, Renato; Rongala, Udaya Bhaskar; Camboni, Domenico; Milazzo, Mario; Stefanini, Cesare; de Petris, Gianluca; Oddo, Calogero Maria

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews the state of the art in piezoelectric energy harvesting. It presents the basics of piezoelectricity and discusses materials choice. The work places emphasis on material operating modes and device configurations, from resonant to non-resonant devices and also to rotational solutions. The reviewed literature is compared based on power density and bandwidth. Lastly, the question of power conversion is addressed by reviewing various circuit solutions. PMID:24618725

  18. Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Caliò

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the state of the art in piezoelectric energy harvesting. It presents the basics of piezoelectricity and discusses materials choice. The work places emphasis on material operating modes and device configurations, from resonant to non-resonant devices and also to rotational solutions. The reviewed literature is compared based on power density and bandwidth. Lastly, the question of power conversion is addressed by reviewing various circuit solutions.

  19. Piezoelectric energy harvesting solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caliò, Renato; Rongala, Udaya Bhaskar; Camboni, Domenico; Milazzo, Mario; Stefanini, Cesare; de Petris, Gianluca; Oddo, Calogero Maria

    2014-03-10

    This paper reviews the state of the art in piezoelectric energy harvesting. It presents the basics of piezoelectricity and discusses materials choice. The work places emphasis on material operating modes and device configurations, from resonant to non-resonant devices and also to rotational solutions. The reviewed literature is compared based on power density and bandwidth. Lastly, the question of power conversion is addressed by reviewing various circuit solutions.

  20. An economic analysis of mine-timber marketing in West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry H. Webster

    1956-01-01

    Coal mines have long provided a major outlet for the timber products of West Virginia. Although the structure and operation of mine-timber markets is little understood, the efficiency of the marketing system undoubtedly affects the decisions of most of the 130,000 farm and other private timber-growing enterprises in the state.

  1. Life-form and Density of Valuable Non-timber Plants in Ukpom ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    Key words: Rainforest, Plants, Density, Non-Timber Products, Exploitation. Introduction. A forest is a natural resource of multiple values, but oftentimes, the value of a tract of forest is estimated from the population density or standing volume of timber tree species present, while much more valuable non-timber resources are ...

  2. SPATS: a model for projecting softwood timber inventories in the Southern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David J. Brooks

    1987-01-01

    The yield-table projection method for modeling the development of regional timber inventories is outlined, and its application to softwood timber types in the Southern United States is described. Problems of simulating forest management practices and natural succession are discussed. A computer model that projects softwood timber inventories using yield-table...

  3. Field investigation of a 100-year-old timber crib foundation at a historic copper mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    James Wacker; Xiping Wang; Douglas R. Rammer

    2010-01-01

    In June 2009, the authors conducted a comprehensive on-site evaluation of the timber crib foundation at Alaska’s Historic Kennecott Mine Concentration Mill Building. The primary goal of the 6-day inspection was to assess the physical conditions of the existing timber crib foundation and identify timber members and areas that have structural deficiencies. The inspection...

  4. Wood waste minimization in the timber sector of Ghana: a systems approach to reduce environmental impact.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eshun, J.F.; Potting, J.; Leemans, R.

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the potential of minimizing wood waste to reduce the environmental impact in the timber sector i.e. forestry and timber industry subsystem of Ghana. This study is a follow up of 3 earlier studies on the timber sector. These studies consistently identified minimizing wood waste as

  5. Forensic timber identification: It's time to integrate disciplines to combat illegal logging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eleanor E. Dormontt; Markus Boner; Birgit Braun; Gerhard Breulmann; Bernd Degen; Edgard Espinoza; Shelley Gardner; Phil Guillery; John C. Hermanson; Gerald Koch; Soon Leong Lee; Milton Kanashiro; Anto Rimbawanto; Darren Thomas; Alex C. Wiedenhoeft; Yafang Yin; Johannes Zahnen; Andrew J. Lowe

    2015-01-01

    The prosecution of illegal logging crimes is hampered by a lack of available forensic timber identification tools, both for screening of suspectmaterial and definitive identification of illegally sourcedwood. Reputable timber traders are also struggling to police their own supply chains and comply with the growing requirement for due diligence with respect to timber...

  6. Environmental life cycle assessment to enhance the sustainability of the timber sector in Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eshun, J.F.

    2012-01-01

    The timber sector, i.e. forestry and timber industry, is an important industry in Ghana. It provides a significant contribution to Ghana’s foreign exchange earnings through wood products export, provides jobs and incomes for numerous local economies and communities. The timber production in

  7. 36 CFR 294.24 - Timber cutting, sale, or removal in Idaho Roadless Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Timber cutting, sale, or..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL AREAS Idaho Roadless Area Management § 294.24 Timber cutting, sale, or removal in Idaho Roadless Areas. (a) Wild Land Recreation. The cutting, sale, or removal of timber is...

  8. Timber resource statistics for the Upper Yukon inventory unit, Alaska, 1980.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willem W.S. van Hees

    1987-01-01

    The 1980 inventory of the forest resources of the Upper Yukon unit was designed to produce inventory estimates of timberland area, volume of timber, and volumes of timber growth and mortality. Timberland area is estimated at 742,000 acres. Cubic-foot volume on all timberland is estimated at 475 million cubic feet. Timber growth and mortality are estimated at -615,000...

  9. AMERICAN ACCOUNTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Onica

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The international Accounting Standards already contribute to the generation of better and more easily comparable financial information on an international level, supporting thus a more effective allocationof the investments resources in the world. Under the circumstances, there occurs the necessity of a consistent application of the standards on a global level. The financial statements are part of thefinancial reporting process. A set of complete financial statements usually includes a balance sheet,a profit and loss account, a report of the financial item change (which can be presented in various ways, for example as a status of the treasury flows and of the funds flows and those notes, as well as those explanatory situations and materials which are part of the financial statements.

  10. Advances in energy harvesting methods

    CERN Document Server

    Elvin, Niell

    2012-01-01

    Advances in Energy Harvesting Methods presents a state-of-the-art understanding of diverse aspects of energy harvesting with a focus on: broadband energy conversion, new concepts in electronic circuits, and novel materials. This book covers recent advances in energy harvesting using different transduction mechanisms; these include methods of performance enhancement using nonlinear effects, non-harmonic forms of excitation and non-resonant energy harvesting, fluidic energy harvesting, and advances in both low-power electronics as well as  material science. The contributors include a brief liter

  11. Fire resistance in American heavy timber construction history and preservation

    CERN Document Server

    Heitz, Jesse

    2016-01-01

    This volume presents a history of heavy timber construction (HTC) in the United States, chronicling nearly two centuries of building history, from inception to a detailed evaluation of one of the best surviving examples of the type, with an emphasis on fire resistance. The book does not limit itself in scope to serving only as a common history. Rather, it provides critical analysis of HTC in terms of construction methods, design, technical specifications, and historical performance under fire conditions. As such, this book provides readers with a truly comprehensive understanding and exploration of heavy timber construction in the United States and its performance under fire conditions.

  12. Governance of private forests in Eastern and Central Europe: An analysis of forest harvesting and management rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Bouriaud

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A property rights-based approach is proposed in the paper to underlinethe common characteristics of the forest property rights specificationin ten ECE countries, the specific patterns governing the harvesting of timber in private forestry and the role of the forest management planning in determining the content of the property rights. The analysis deals with the private forests of the individuals (non industrial ownership from ten countries, covering 7.3 million ha and producing yearly some 25 million timber. The study shows that the forest management rights in private forests belong to the State and that the withdrawal rights on timber, yet recognized in the forest management plans, are in reality strongly restricted from aneconomic viewpoint. The forest management planning is the key instrument of the current forest governance system, based on top-down, hierarchically imposed and enforced set of compulsory rules on timber harvesting. With few exceptions, the forest owners’ have little influence in the forest planning and harvesting. The rational and State-lead approach of the private forest management has serious implications not only on the economic content of the property rights, but also on the learning and adaptive capacity of private forestry to cope with current challenges such the climate change, the increased industry needs for wood as raw material, or the marketingof innovative non wood forest products and services. The study highlights that understanding and comparing the regime of the forest ownership require a special analysis of the economic rights attached to each forest attribute; and that the evolution towards more participatory decision-making in the local forest governance can not be accurately assessed in ECE region without a proper understanding of the forest management planning process.

  13. Governance of private forests in Eastern and Central Europe: An analysis of forest harvesting and management rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Bouriaud

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A property rights-based approach is proposed in the paper to underline the common characteristics of the forest property rights specification in ten ECE countries, the specific patterns governing the harvesting of timber in private forestry and the role of the forest management planning in determining the content of the property rights. The analysis deals with the private forests of the individuals (non industrial ownership from ten countries, covering 7.3 million ha and producing yearly some 25 million m3 timber. The study shows that the forest management rights in private forests belong to the State and that the withdrawal rights on timber, yet recognised in the forest management plans, are in reality strongly restricted from an economic viewpoint. The forest management planning is the key instrument of the current forest governance system, based on top-down, hierarchically imposed and enforced set of compulsory rules on timber harvesting. With few exceptions, the forest owners’ have little influence in the forest planning and harvesting. The rational and State-lead approach of the private forest management has serious implications not only on the economic content of the property rights, but also on the learning and adaptive capacity of private forestry to cope with current challenges such the climate change, the increased industry needs for wood as raw material, or the marketing of innovative non wood forest products and services. The study highlights that understanding and comparing the regime of the forest ownership require a special analysis of the economic rights attached to each forest attribute; and that the evolution towards more participatory decision-making in the local forest governance can not be accurately assessed in ECE region without a proper understanding of the forest management planning process. 

  14. Reconciling Biodiversity Conservation and Timber Production in Mixed Uneven-Aged Mountain Forests: Identification of Ecological Intensification Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafond, Valentine; Cordonnier, Thomas; Courbaud, Benoît

    2015-11-01

    Mixed uneven-aged forests are considered favorable to the provision of multiple ecosystem services and to the conciliation of timber production and biodiversity conservation. However, some forest managers now plan to increase the intensity of thinning and harvesting operations in these forests. Retention measures or gap creation are considered to compensate potential negative impacts on biodiversity. Our objectives were to assess the effect of these management practices on timber production and biodiversity conservation and identify potential compensating effects between these practices, using the concept of ecological intensification as a framework. We performed a simulation study coupling Samsara2, a simulation model designed for spruce-fir uneven-aged mountain forests, an uneven-aged silviculture algorithm, and biodiversity models. We analyzed the effect of parameters related to uneven-aged management practices on timber production, biodiversity, and sustainability indicators. Our study confirmed that the indicators responded differently to management practices, leading to trade-offs situations. Increasing management intensity had negative impacts on several biodiversity indicators, which could be partly compensated by the positive effect of retention measures targeting large trees, non-dominant species, and deadwood. The impact of gap creation was more mitigated, with a positive effect on the diversity of tree sizes and deadwood but a negative impact on the spruce-fir mixing balance and on the diversity of the understory layer. Through the analysis of compensating effects, we finally revealed the existence of possible ecological intensification pathways, i.e., the possibility to increase management intensity while maintaining biodiversity through the promotion of nature-based management principles (gap creation and retention measures).

  15. Infrastrukturel Accountability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ubbesen, Morten Bonde

    Hvordan redegør man troværdigt for noget så diffust som en hel nations udledning af drivhusgasser? Det undersøger denne afhandling i et etnografisk studie af hvordan Danmarks drivhusgasregnskab udarbejdes, rapporteres og kontrolleres. Studiet trækker på begreber og forståelser fra 'Science & Tech...... & Technology Studies', og bidrager med begrebet 'infrastrukturel accountability' til nye måder at forstå og tænke om det arbejde, hvormed højt specialiserede praksisser dokumenterer og redegør for kvaliteten af deres arbejde....

  16. Differential fat harvesting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Torres Farr

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Volume replacement with fillers is regularly performed with the use of diverse volumetric materials to correct different structures around the face, depending on the volume enhancement required and the thickness of the soft tissue envelope. Differential fat harvesting and posterior grafting is performed to place the correct fat parcel size for each target area, expanding the potential applications of fat. Methods: Sixty patients consecutively recruited on a first come basis undergone a facial fat grafting procedure, in private practice setting between March 2012 and October 2013. Fat grafting quantity and quality was predicted for each case. Differential harvesting was performed, with 2 fat parcels size. Processing was performed through washing. Fat infiltration was carried out through small cannulas or needles depending on the treated area. Outcomes were analysed both by the physicians and the patients at 7 days, 1 month, 3 months and 6 months through a perceived satisfaction questionnaire. Parameters considered were downtime or discomfort, skin benefits, volume restoration, reabsorption rate estimated and overall improvement. Results: Full facial differential fat grafting procedure lasted an average of 1.5-2.5 h. Average downtime was 3-4 days. Follow-up was performed to a minimum of 6 months. Both patient and physician overall satisfaction rates were mostly excellent. Adverse events like lumps or irregularities were not encountered. Conclusion: Differential fat harvesting and posterior grafting is a valid alternative, to expand the repertoire of fat use, allow a more homogeneous effect, reduce the potential complications, speed up the process, improve graft survival, and to enhance overall aesthetic outcome.

  17. Micro energy harvesting

    CERN Document Server

    Briand, Danick; Roundy, Shad

    2015-01-01

    With its inclusion of the fundamentals, systems and applications, this reference provides readers with the basics of micro energy conversion along with expert knowledge on system electronics and real-life microdevices. The authors address different aspects of energy harvesting at the micro scale with a focus on miniaturized and microfabricated devices. Along the way they provide an overview of the field by compiling knowledge on the design, materials development, device realization and aspects of system integration, covering emerging technologies, as well as applications in power management, e

  18. Nanostructured piezoelectric energy harvesters

    CERN Document Server

    Briscoe, Joe

    2014-01-01

    This book covers a range of devices that use piezoelectricity to convert mechanical deformation into electrical energy and relates their output capabilities to a range of potential applications. Starting with a description of the fundamental principles and properties of piezo- and ferroelectric materials, where applications of bulk materials are well established, the book shows how nanostructures of these materials are being developed for energy harvesting applications. The authors show how a nanostructured device can be produced, and put in context some of the approaches that are being invest

  19. Energy harvesting for microsystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Ruichao

    to the first one, the screen printed PZT layer is replaced by a lead free piezoelectric material, (KxNa1-x)NbO3 (KNN). Some of the major challenges encountered during the development processes are bad adhesion, fragile structures and short circuiting through the PZT layer. All which have being fully......The purpose of this project is to design and fabricate piezoelectric energy harvesters based on integration of Pb(ZrxTi1-x)O3 (PZT) thick film technology and silicon microtechnology. The fabrication processes are carried out in close collaboration with Meggitt Sensing Systems (MSS) who has...

  20. Design Accountability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koskinen, Ilpo; Krogh, Peter

    2015-01-01

    When design research builds on design practice, it may contribute to both theory and practice of design in ways richer than research that treats design as a topic. Such research, however, faces several tensions that it has to negotiate successfully in order not to lose its character as research....... This paper looks at constructive design research which takes the entanglement of theory and practice as its hallmark, and uses it as a test case in exploring how design researchers can work with theory, methodology, and practice without losing their identity as design researchers. The crux of practice based...... design research is that where classical research is interested in singling out a particular aspect and exploring it in depth, design practice is characterized by balancing numerous concerns in a heterogenous and occasionally paradoxical product. It is on this basis the notion of design accountability...

  1. Implementing timber legality assurance regime in Ghana: a review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reviews the scope of stakeholders concern and current institutional constraints for legal timber verification in Ghana. The aim is to provide background information as input for a new institutional framework under the VLTP. The review has shown that the current institutional set-up is not suitable for implementing ...

  2. Spatial Allocation of Timber Product Output Roundwood Receipts

    Science.gov (United States)

    John P. Brown

    2015-01-01

    Data from Georgia timber product output studies were used to develop models that spatially allocate roundwood receipts data from primary wood-using mills. Mill receipts data were converted to a cumulative frequency based on a distance from the mill to a county center. Distances were calculated as either straight line or shortest road distance, and county centers were...

  3. Timber resource statistics for Oregon, January 1, 1973.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia M. Bassett; Grover A. Choate

    1974-01-01

    Timber resource statistics as of January 1, 1973, for the State of Oregon show total land area, commercial timberland area, and growing stock and sawtimber inventory volumes by county and owner group. Growth and removals are shown by Forest Survey inventory unit for 1972. Each National Forest is updated to January 1, 1973, as well as each Bureau of Land Management...

  4. Load rating and FRP retrofitting of bridge abutment timber piles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    This report details Phase II of the study titled Strengthening of Bridge Wood Piling Retrofits for Moment Resistance. Phase I of the research (project : R27-082) was focused on developing a load rating method for timber piles under eccentric load and...

  5. economic assessment of two selected non-timber forest products

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aladex

    restaurants, bakeries, curing tobacco, brick burning and barbecue, to name few. Key Words: Non-timber forest products, ... industrial sector, a large number of prepared-food vendors such as restaurants, vendors of barbecue, bakeries, makers of agidi ... the debate on sustainable development. Fuelwood no doubt provides a ...

  6. Community Based Ecological Monitoring of Non Timber Forest ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Community Based Ecological Monitoring of Non Timber Forest Products in the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve (India). Securing the livelihoods of forest-dependent peoples necessitates good governance and sustainable management of common-pool resources. The Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve in the Western Ghats of South India ...

  7. Steam bending qualities of eight timber species of Ghana | Ayarkwa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Steam bending qualities of eight lesser used timber species of Ghana have been studied and compared with the quality of Mahogany (Khaya spp), a fast diminishing noble species, with the view to providing information for the furniture and glulam industries. Wood samples collected from three ecological forest zones of ...

  8. Forest ecosystem services: Provisioning of non-timber forest products

    Science.gov (United States)

    James L. Chamberlain; Gregory E. Frey; C. Denise Ingram; Michael G. Jacobson; Cara Meghan Starbuck Downes

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to describe approaches to calculate a conservative and defensible estimate of the marginal value of forests for non-timber forest products (NTFPs). 'Provisioning" is one of four categories of benefits, or services that ecosystems provide to humans and was described by the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment as 'products...

  9. Primary forest products industry and timber use, Wisconsin, 1973.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James E. Blyth; Eugene F. Landt; James W. Whipple; Jerold T. Hahn

    1976-01-01

    Discusses recent Wisconsin forest industry trends; timber removals for industrial roundwood in 1973; production and receipts in 1973 of pulpwood, saw logs, veneer logs, and other industrial roundwood products. Shows trends in pulpwood and veneer log production and compares saw log production in 1967 and 1973. Discusses primary wood-using plant residue and its...

  10. Timber resource of Michigan's Southern Lower Peninsula Unit, 1980.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerold T. Hahn

    1982-01-01

    The fourth inventory of the timber resource of Michigan's Southern Lower Peninsula Survey Unit shows a 12% decline in commercial forest area and a 26% gain in growing-stock volume between 1966 and 1980. Presented are highlights and statistics on area, volume, growth, mortality, removals, utilization, and biomass.

  11. Timber resource of Wisconsin's Central Survey Unit, 1983.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerold T. Hahn

    1985-01-01

    The timber resource of the Central Wisconsin Survey Unit increased 4.2% in commercial forest area and increased 75% in growing-stock volume between 1968 and 1983. Highlights and statistics from the fourth inventory of this unit are presented for area, volume, growth, mortality, removals, utilization, and biomass.

  12. Primary forest products industry and timber use, Minnesota, 1973.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James E. Blyth; Steven Wilhelm; Jerold T. Hahn

    1979-01-01

    Discusses recent Minnesota forest industry trends; timber removals for industrial roundwood in 1973; production and receipts in 1973 of pulpwood, saw logs, and other industrial roundwood products. Shows trends in pulpwood and veneer log production and compares saw log production in 1960 and 1973. Discusses primary wood-using mill residue and its disposition.

  13. epidemiology of eye diseases among timber workers in owerri ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    LIVINGSTON

    The typical timber shade environment is damp, messy and untidy with odours oozing out from wood and other decomposing organic materials, thereby creating very good and favourable habitat for flies, bacteria, fungi, viruses, algae and other microoganisms. Worse still, the place lacked pipe-borne water and good toilet.

  14. Contributions of non-timber forest products to household food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study evaluated the contributions of non-timber forest products (NTFPs) to household income and food security in the adjoining villages of Gambari forest reserve Nigeria. Stratified random sampling was used to select respondents among the community members. 141 copies of questionnaires were administered among ...

  15. Gender analysis of non-timber forest products utilization by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examines gender roles in Non-Timber Forest Products (NTFPs) utilization by adjoining communities to Cross River National Park (CRNP), Oban Division. Data were collected using semi-structured questionnaire administered on 110 respondents randomly selected from these communities. These were ...

  16. An Ethnobotanical Survey on Fuel Wood and Timber plant Species ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey was conducted to explore the fuel wood species and timber producing species of Kaghan valleys, Pakistan. Consumption pattern and impact on the forest resources were also taken into consideration. A questionnaire was used as a survey instrument to obtain desired data. For this study, 10 villages were randomly ...

  17. Non-timber forest products in sustainable forest management

    Science.gov (United States)

    James L. Chamberlain; A.L. Hammett; Philip A. Araman

    2001-01-01

    The forests of Southern United States are the source of many non-timber forest products (NTFPs). The collection, trade and use of these products have been important to rural economies since Europeans settled in this country. At the same time the plants from which these products originate are crucial to healthy ecosystems. Over the last decade, the market demand and the...

  18. Contribution of timber exports to economic growth in Nigeria: an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper examined the contribution of timber exports to the economic growth in Nigeria, using an econometric approach. Augmented Dickey-Fuller (ADF) and Johansen Co-integration techniques were respectively used to test for unit root and examine the relationship between the variables used. In addition, Granger ...

  19. Wood Removals and Timber Use in New York, 1993

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric H. Wharton; Thomas D. Martin; Richard H. Widmann; Richard H. Widmann

    1998-01-01

    Evaluates removals and timber output of New York. Results are based on survey of primary processing mills located in the state and of mills in other states that used wood from New York. Incorporates additional studies conducted during standard statewide forest inventories. Contains statistics of industrial roundwood production and the production and final end use of...

  20. Smart timber bridge on geosynthetic reinforced soil (GRS) abutments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam Senalik; James P. Wacker; Travis K. Hosteng; John Hermanson

    2017-01-01

    Recently, Buchanan County, Iowa, has cooperated with the U.S. Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), USDA Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory (FPL), and Iowa State University’s Bridge Engineering Center (ISU–BEC) to initiate a project involving the construction and monitoring of a glued-laminated (glulam) timber superstructure on geosynthetic reinforced soil (...

  1. Marketing of Non-Timber Forest Products in Kajola Local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examined the marketing of Non-Timber Forest Products (NTFPs) in Kajola Local Government Area of Oyo State, Nigeria. Data used were obtained from 90 sellers of these forest products through purposive sampling of markets in the area. Results showed that the average age of sellers was 42 years, while 63.2% ...

  2. Determining modulus of elasticity of ancient structural timber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houjiang Zhang; Lei Zhu; Yanliang Sun; Xiping Wang; Haicheng Yan

    2011-01-01

    During maintenance of ancient timber architectures, it is important to determine mechanical properties of the wood component materials non-destructively and effectively, so that degraded members may be replaced or repaired to avoid structural failure. Experimental materials are four larch (Larix principis-rupprechtii Mayr.) components, which were taken down from the...

  3. Historical trends of timber product output in the South

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tony G. Johnson; James W. Bentley; Michael Howell

    2008-01-01

    Historical data of periodic canvasses of primary wood-using plants are presented for the 13 Southern States. They are Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, and Virginia. Cubic-foot and standard volume tables are presented for production only. Production is the sum of timber...

  4. Gender analysis of non-timber forest products (NTFPs) collection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Millions of people, especially those living in rural areas in developing countries collect Non-Timber Forest products (NTFPs) daily. Women are known to play a prominent role in forestry and agricultural production in Nigeria despite not been captured as economically productive. This work looked into gender dimension ...

  5. Fusarium Damping-off of two Timber Species ( Terminalia Ivorensis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The incidence of the damping–off disease of two timber species Terminalia ivorensis and Nauclea diderrichii sown in ground granite, sharp river sand, topsoil and sawdust was assessed at the nursery site of the Department of. Forestry and Wildlife Management, University of Port Harcourt. The experiment was laid out in a ...

  6. Veneer, 1976 - a periodic assessment of regional timber output

    Science.gov (United States)

    James T. Bones; David R. Dickson

    1978-01-01

    The 1976 veneer industry survey in the Northeast showed that since the 1972 survey: Veneer log production rose 5 percent to 132 million board feet. Veneer log receipts at northeastern veneer plants dropped less than 1 percent. There were seven fewer veneer plants operating in the Northeast; new softwood plywood plant will be consuming northeastern timber. Exports of...

  7. Timber resource of Wisconsin's Northwest Survey Unit, 1983.

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. Brad Smith

    1984-01-01

    The fourth inventory of the timber resource of the Northwest Wisconsin Survey Unit shows a 1.8% decline in commercial forest area and a 36% gain in growing-stock volume between 1968 and 1983. Presented are highlights and statistics on area, volume, growth, mortality, removals, utilization, and biomass.

  8. Timber resources of Michigan's Eastern Upper Peninsula, 1980.

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. Brad Smith

    1982-01-01

    The fourth inventory of the timber resource of Michigan's Eastern Upper Peninsula Survey Unit shows a 9% decline in commercial forest area and a 19% gain in growing-stock volume between 1966 and 1980. Presented are highlights and statistics on area, volume, growth, mortality, removals, utilization, and biomass.

  9. Chapter 1: CLT Introduction to cross-laminated timber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylvan Gagnon; E.M.(Ted) Bilek; Lisa Podesto; Pablo Crespell

    2013-01-01

    Cross-laminated timber ( CLT), a new generation of engineered wood product developed initially in Europe, has been gaining increased popularity in residential and non-residential applications in several countries. Many impressive low- and mid-rise buildings built around the world using CLT showcase the many advantages this product has to offer to the construction...

  10. Assessment of demand and supply of timber products in Benue ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The timber supply and demand balance for Benue State showed a deficit in the major products and the deficit portends dangers in sawn wood and veneers for industrial development of the state. Incidence of encroachment, lack of support from government and inadequate inventory of the resource base in Benue State are ...

  11. Timber resource statistics for the Sacramento resource area of California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karen L. Waddell; Patricia M. Bassett

    1997-01-01

    This report is a summary of timber resource statistics for the Sacramento Resource Area of California, which includes Butte, Colusa, El Dorado, Glenn, Lake, Napa, Nevada, Placer, Plumas, Sacramento, Sierra, Sutter, Tehama, Yolo, and Yuba Counties. Data were collected as part of a statewide multiresource inventory. The inventory sampled private and public lands except...

  12. Primary forest products industry and timber use, Missouri, 1980.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James E. Blyth; Shelby Jones; W. Brad Smith

    1983-01-01

    Discusses recent Missouri forest industry trends; timber removals for industrial roundwood in 1980; and production and receipts of saw logs, pulpwood, cooperage logs, charcoal wood, and other industrial roundwood products. Reports on associated primary mill wood and bark residue and the disposition of mill residue.

  13. 125 Timber Dealers' Perception of their Knowledge of the Forest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    individuals' rights and privileges, while at the same time limiting those rights within the boundary of the common good ... unauthorized times and places or without adequate steps to prevent it from spreading, and unauthorized ... Timber dealers' perception of the forest law in the State is that it is ineffective and irrelevant, and ...

  14. The residual load carrying capacity of timber joints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Kuilen, J.W.G.

    1999-01-01

    Timber joints that have been preloaded for 2 to 8 years have been short term tested in accordance with EN 26891. The applied load levels varied between 30% and 50% of the average short term strength. The study comprised nailed, toothed-plate and split-ring joints. All joints were made of spruce and

  15. Influence of Compression Stresses on Timber Potentials of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influence of Compression Stresses on Timber Potentials of Plantation Grown. Eucalyptus camaldulensis Denhn in North-Western Nigeria. *1A.A. Malami and 2B. Olufemi. 1Department of Forestry and Fisheries, Faculty of Agriculture, Usmanu Danfodiyo University Sokoto. 2Department of Forestry and Wood Technology, ...

  16. 36 CFR 223.14 - Where timber may be cut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) The cutting of trees, portions of trees or other forest products may be authorized on any National... claimant has failed to file a verified statement or has failed to establish the validity and effectiveness...) Timber on an unpatented claim may be cut by the claimant only for the actual development of the claim or...

  17. Theory of timber connections with slender dowel type fasteners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Staffan; Munch-Andersen, Jørgen

    2018-01-01

    A theory on the lateral load-carrying capacity of timber connections with slender fasteners is presented. The base of the theory is the coupled mechanical phenomena acting in the connection, while the wood and the slender fastener deform and yield prior to failure. The objective is to derive a su...

  18. Global timber investments, wood costs, regulation, and risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    F. Cubbage; S. Koesbandana; P Mac Donagh; R. Rubilar; G Balmelli; V. Morales Olmos; R. De La Torre; M. Murara; V.A. Hoeflich; H. Kotze; R Gonzalez; O. Carrero; G. Frey; T. Adams; J. Turner; R. Lord; J. Huang; C. MacIntyre; Kathleen McGinley; R. Abt; R. Phillips

    2010-01-01

    We estimated financial returns and wood production costs in 2008 for the primary timber plantation species. Excluding land costs, returns for exotic plantations in almost all of South America e Brazil, Argentina, Uruguay, Chile, Colombia, Venezuela, and Paraguay e were substantial. Eucalyptus species returns were generally greater than those for Pinus species in each...

  19. Projecting southern timber supply for multiple products by subregion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert C. Abt; Frederick W. Cubbage; Karen L. Abt

    2009-01-01

    While timber supply modeling has been of importance in the wood-producing regions of the United States for decades, it is only more recently that the technology and data have allowed disaggregation of supply and demand to substate regions, including product specific breakdowns and endogenous land use and plantation changes. Using southwide data and an economic supply...

  20. ECOLOGICAL EFFECT OF TIMBER EXPRACTION IN OHIMINI LGA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Shima

    According to Wilson. (2007) a major source of deforestation is the logging industry driven particularly by. China and Japan. Generally the removal or destruction of significant areas of forest cover has resulted in a degraded environment with reduced biodiversity (Wikipedia, 2007). In many countries massive timber extraction.

  1. Timber resource statistics of south-central Alaska, 2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willem W.S. van Hees

    2005-01-01

    Estimates of timber resources for south-central Alaska are presented. Data collection began in 2000 and was completed in 2003. All forest lands over all ownerships were considered for sampling. The inventory unit was, roughly, the region between Icy Bay to the east and Kodiak Island to the west. Forest lands within national forest wilderness study areas and recommended...

  2. From wood hygromechanical interactions to timber structure longevity

    OpenAIRE

    Montero, Cédric; Gril, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Architects face nowadays the challenge of raising buildings edifices matching functionality of structural design,sustainable raw materials, thrifty energy consumption and aesthetic integration within surrounding environmentinfluenced by human culture and civil engineering heritage considerations. They often specify wood for variousreasons: cost, ecological issues, design versatility, construction facilities, etc. To improve timber structures,material engineers develop ...

  3. ECOLOGICAL EFFECT OF TIMBER EXPRACTION IN OHIMINI LGA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Shima

    significant reduction in plant and animal population and lead to reduction in their diversity. ... national emergency. Haileselassie (2004) reported that the major cause of desertification in Ethiopia is deforestation which lowered the chances of rainfall and enhanced wind .... studies showed that having a small number of timber ...

  4. Removing other Tree Species does not benefit the Timber Species ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The endemic canopy tree Cephalosphaera usambarensis is a valuable timber species in montane rainforest of Tanzania. Here we evaluate an experiment in which mature trees of species other than C. usambarensis were removed from an area in the East Usambara Mountains. We compared stage/size structure of the ...

  5. Designing and establishing a fine hardwood timber plantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    James R. McKenna; Lenny D. Farlee

    2013-01-01

    Today, new tools and lessons learned from established plantations of black walnut and other fine hardwoods can provide landowners with guidelines to design and establish successful plantations to produce quality timber for the future. From earlier plantations now maturing, we can recognize design features critical during establishment. Current production practices...

  6. Timber market research, private forests, and policy rhetoric

    Science.gov (United States)

    David N. Wear; Jeffrey P. Prestemon

    2004-01-01

    The development of the profession and practice of forestry in the United States can be linked to urgent concerns regarding timber shortages in the late 19th century (Williams 1989). These were based largely on perceived failures of forest landowners to protect or invest enough in the productive capacity of their forests (Manthy 1977). The South, as the only major...

  7. Managing logging residue under the timber sale contract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas C. Adams

    1980-01-01

    Management of logging residue is becoming an important part of timber sale planning. This involves controlling the amount of residue remaining on the ground and its distribution by diameter size class. Some residue is beneficial.An interdisciplinary team specified a desired residue level for one clearcutting unit of this trial. For comparison another cutting...

  8. Factors That Determine The Uses Of Some Timber Species In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This indicates that sawmills are the major sources of producing various timber species needed for wood works in the study area. The result revealed ... Afzelia africana etc. .This paper recommended that research activities should be embarked upon to increase the quality of wood products so as to increase future utilization.

  9. Multifunctional Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting Concepts

    OpenAIRE

    Anton, Steven Robert

    2011-01-01

    Energy harvesting technology has the ability to create autonomous, self-powered electronic systems that do not rely on battery power for their operation. The term energy harvesting describes the process of converting ambient energy surrounding a system into useful electrical energy through the use of a specific material or transducer. A widely studied form of energy harvesting involves the conversion of mechanical vibration energy into electrical energy using piezoelectric materials, which ...

  10. Modeling of plucking piezoelectric energy harvesters with contact theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xinlei; Liao, Wei-Hsin

    2017-04-01

    Non-harmonic excitations are widely available in the environment of our daily life. We could make use of these excitations to pluck piezoelectric energy harvesters. Plucking piezoelectric energy harvesting could overcome the frequency gap and achieve frequency-up effect. However, there has not been a thorough analysis on plucking piezoelectric energy harvesting, especially with good understanding on the plucking mechanism. This paper is aimed to develop a model to investigate the plucking mechanism and predict the responses of plucking piezoelectric energy harvesters under different kinds of excitations. In the electromechanical model, Hertzian contact theory is applied to account for the interaction between the plectrum and piezoelectric beam. The plucking mechanism is clarified as a cantilever beam impacted by an infinitely heavy mass, in which the multi-impact process prematurely terminates at separation time. We numerically predict the plucking force, which depends on piezoelectric beam, Hertzian contact stiffness, overlap area and plucking velocity. The energy distribution is investigated with connected resistor.

  11. Carbon stored in harvested wood products in Turkey and projections for 2020

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Bouyer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Turkey is an Annex-I country under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC and therefore submits its Greenhouse gases (GHG emissions and removals from anthropogenic sources to the UNFCCC secretariat on an annual basis, through a National GHG Inventory Report (NIR. GHG emissions and removals from Land Use, Land Use and Forestry (LULUCF constitute one of the main sectors in this report. One of the major land use categories in this sector is Forestland, and harvests in this category must be considered as a direct GHG emission to the atmosphere, unless the fate of the Harvested Wood Products (HWP is reported. In this study, we estimated the carbon sequestration in the HWP category of the Turkish NIR, according to the 2006 Guidelines for GHG inventory in the Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Use (AFOLU sector, from the International Panel of Experts on Climate Change (IPCC. This is the first time such an estimate of carbon stocks and carbon stock changes in the HWP pool has been carried out in Turkey. The calculation has been done in Tier 2. We used United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE Timber database disaggregated figures for HWP produced in Turkey from 1964 to 2013. We focused on the two main HWP categories, which are sawnwood and wood-based panels. Comparing UNECE data series with Orman Genel Müdürlügü (OGM, the Republic of Turkey, General Directorate of Forestry data series for industrial roundwood over 1976-2013 (starting date for OGM data series, we noticed some anomalies (with UNECE data series as a basis: max: +47%, min = -23%, mean = +16%. Thus, the UNECE data on sawnwood and wood based panels were corrected based on OGM data. These anomalies could be due to: (i use of volume over bark for UNECE and volume under bark for OGM (+15% for volume over bark, and (ii integration of industrial roundwood coming from the private sector for UNECE. In order to ensure coherence, we then corrected the 1976

  12. Thermal Energy Harvesting from Wildlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woias, P.; Schule, F.; Bäumke, E.; Mehne, P.; Kroener, M.

    2014-11-01

    In this paper we present the measurement of temperature differences between the ambient air and the body temperature of a sheep (Heidschnucke) and its applicability for thermoelectric energy harvesting from livestock, demonstrated via the test of a specially tailored TEG system in a real-life experiment. In three measurement campaigns average temperature differences were found between 2.5 K and 3.5 K. Analytical models and FEM simulations were carried out to determine the actual thermal resistance of the sheep's fur from comparisons with the temperature measurements. With these data a thermoelectric (TEG) generator was built in a thermally optimized housing with adapted heats sink. The whole TEG system was mounted to a collar, including a data logger for recording temperature and TEG voltage. First measurements at the neck of a sheep were accomplished, with a calculated maximal average power output of 173 μW at the TEG. Taking the necessity of a low-voltage step-up converter into account, an electric output power of 54 μW is available which comes close to the power consumption of a low-power VHF tracking system.

  13. Harvested wood products in the context of climate change : A comparison of different models and approaches for the Norwegian greenhouse gas inventory

    OpenAIRE

    Bache-Andreassen, Lihn

    2009-01-01

    Emissions of greenhouse gases is accounted for and reported annually under the UNFCCC and the Kyoto protocol. In the current accounting system, emissions of CO2 from harvested wood products (HWP) are attributed to the year of harvest and the country of harvest. All harvested wood is thus assumed to be oxidised to CO2 in the year of harvesting, and no wood goes into long term storage. This is called the IPCC default approach. Much of the harvested wood will however be stored for a short or lon...

  14. Forest harvest patterns on private lands in the Cascade Mountains, Washington, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soulard, Christopher E.; Walker, Jessica; Griffith, Glenn E.

    2017-01-01

    Forests in Washington State generate substantial economic revenue from commercial timber harvesting on private lands. To investigate the rates, causes, and spatial and temporal patterns of forest harvest on private tracts throughout the Cascade Mountains, we relied on a new generation of annual land-use/land-cover (LULC) products created from the application of the Continuous Change Detection and Classification (CCDC) algorithm to Landsat satellite imagery collected from 1985 to 2014. We calculated metrics of landscape pattern using patches of intact and harvested forest in each annual layer to identify changes throughout the time series. Patch dynamics revealed four distinct eras of logging trends that align with prevailing regulations and economic conditions. We used multiple logistic regression to determine the biophysical and anthropogenic factors that influence fine-scale selection of harvest stands in each time period. Results show that private lands forest cover became significantly reduced and more fragmented from 1985 to 2014. Variables linked to parameters of site conditions, location, climate, and vegetation greenness consistently distinguished harvest selection for each distinct era. This study demonstrates the utility of annual LULC data for investigating the underlying factors that influence land cover change.

  15. Forest Harvest Patterns on Private Lands in the Cascade Mountains, Washington, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher E. Soulard

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Forests in Washington State generate substantial economic revenue from commercial timber harvesting on private lands. To investigate the rates, causes, and spatial and temporal patterns of forest harvest on private tracts throughout the Cascade Mountains, we relied on a new generation of annual land-use/land-cover (LULC products created from the application of the Continuous Change Detection and Classification (CCDC algorithm to Landsat satellite imagery collected from 1985 to 2014. We calculated metrics of landscape pattern using patches of intact and harvested forest in each annual layer to identify changes throughout the time series. Patch dynamics revealed four distinct eras of logging trends that align with prevailing regulations and economic conditions. We used multiple logistic regression to determine the biophysical and anthropogenic factors that influence fine-scale selection of harvest stands in each time period. Results show that private lands forest cover became significantly reduced and more fragmented from 1985 to 2014. Variables linked to parameters of site conditions, location, climate, and vegetation greenness consistently distinguished harvest selection for each distinct era. This study demonstrates the utility of annual LULC data for investigating the underlying factors that influence land cover change.

  16. Thermoelectrics and its energy harvesting

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rowe, David Michael

    2012-01-01

    .... It details the latest techniques for the preparation of thermoelectric materials employed in energy harvesting, together with advances in the thermoelectric characterisation of nanoscale material...

  17. Chitosan and Its Derivatives Applied in Harvesting Microalgae for Biodiesel Production: An Outlook

    OpenAIRE

    Guanyi Chen; Liu Zhao; Yun Qi; Yuan-Lu Cui

    2014-01-01

    Although oil-accumulating microalgae are a promising feedstock for biodiesel production, large-scale biodiesel production is not yet economically feasible. As harvesting accounts for an important part of total production cost, mass production of microalgae biodiesel requires an efficient low-energy harvesting strategy so as to make biodiesel production economically attractive. Chitosan has emerged as a favorable flocculating agent in harvesting of microalgae. The aim of this paper is to revie...

  18. Historic timber skeleton structures and the local seismic culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostenaru, M.

    2009-04-01

    This presentation deals with the employment of timber skeleton structure and the local seismic culture. After the 1755 earthquake in the reconstruction of Lisbon a type of building with timber skeleton and masonry infill called "gaiola pombalina" was promoted, since this was designed to better resists earthquakes. "Gaiola" means cage, and it was also named after the Marques de Pombal who introduced it in the reconstruction following the earthquake. The „gaiola pombalina" presents a timber skeleton with Saint Andrew crosses in the interior walls with masonry infill and thick masonry load bearing walls loosing in thickness to the upper floors in the exterior walls. The masonry can fall out during earthquakes but the building remains staying given the interior timber skeleton. The type of buildings with timber structure and (masonry) infill behaved well in earthquakes in various parts of the earth, like Nepal (the dhaji dewary type), Pakistan, Turkey (the himiş type after the 1999 earthquake) [both latter types were researched by Langenbach, www.conservationtech.com and www.traditional-is-modern.net] and also in Germany after the 1356 earthquake (the Southern German subtype of Fachwerk). Also in Italy a subtype called "casa baraccata" was promoted in a construction code to a similar time (following the 1783 earthquake in Southern Italy, see Tobriner 1983) as that of the "gaiola pombalina", the time of the Baroque, when town planning acquired another status. Unlike at the "gaiola pombalina" the "casa baraccata" the timber skeleton is at the exterior walls. For this reason this type of buildings is considered to be an expression of the local seismic culture. However, this type of buildings is common also for areas where seismic risk is not an issue, like half-timbered in England and the northern subtype of Fachwerk in Northern Germany, and in some high seismic risk regions with mountains and timber resources like Romania is not spread. Given these premises the author

  19. Energy harvesting water vehicle

    KAUST Repository

    Singh, Devendra

    2018-01-04

    An efficient energy harvesting (EEH) water vehicle is disclosed. The base of the EEH water vehicle is fabricated with rolling cylindrical drums that can rotate freely in the same direction of the water medium. The drums reduce the drag at the vehicle-water interface. This reduction in drag corresponds to an increase in speed and/or greater fuel efficiency. The mechanical energy of the rolling cylindrical drums is also transformed into electrical energy using an electricity producing device, such as a dynamo or an alternator. Thus, the efficiency of the vehicle is enhanced in two parallel modes: from the reduction in drag at the vehicle-water interface, and from capturing power from the rotational motion of the drums.

  20. Case Studies on Timber Defects of Selected Traditional Houses in Malacca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor Haniza Ishak

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of adverse environmental conditions on building materials and the extent of damage caused depends on both the materials used and the environmental conditions. Although timber is a diminishing resource, it is still widely used in today's construction. In Malaysia, timber is one of the main components of many historic buildings. Appropriate maintenance of such buildings requires an understanding of timber defects and its related problems. Timber defects are classified into two major groups: non-biological and biological deteriorations. Non-biological deterioration consists of physical decay, excessive moisture content, dimensional instability and chemical deterioration. These defects are mainly caused by the timber in service being subjected to environmental exposure. The most common and destructive timber biological deteriorations are those due to dry rot, we t rot as well as insect attacks . A study based on seven selected houses was conducted to identify the most common building defects, specifically on timber components amongst traditional Malay houses in Malacca, Malaysia, A building condition survey was carried out to determine the effect of the environment towards timber buildings and their main components. Data collected were based on the investigation and visual observation of the selected case studies. Findings of this research will serve as an indicator towards maintaining the buildings' timber components in good condition in order that the buildings' life span could be extended and primarily to conserve the valuable traditional timber houses in a historical city.