WorldWideScience

Sample records for harvest index

  1. Developing index maps of water-harvest potential in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senay, G.B.; Verdin, J.P.

    2004-01-01

    The food security problem in Africa is tied to the small farmer, whose subsistence farming relies heavily on rain-fed agriculture. A dry spell lasting two to three weeks can cause a significant yield reduction. A small-scale irrigation scheme from small-capacity ponds can alleviate this problem. This solution would require a water harvest mechanism at a farm level. In this study, we looked at the feasibility of implementing such a water harvest mechanism in drought prone parts of Africa. A water balance study was conducted at different watershed levels. Runoff (watershed yield) was estimated using the SCS curve number technique and satellite derived rainfall estimates (RFE). Watersheds were delineated from the Africa-wide HYDRO-1K digital elevation model (DEM) data set in a GIS environment. Annual runoff volumes that can potentially be stored in a pond during storm events were estimated as the product of the watershed area and runoff excess estimated from the SCS Curve Number method. Estimates were made for seepage and net evaporation losses. A series of water harvest index maps were developed based on a combination of factors that took into account the availability of runoff, evaporation losses, population density, and the required watershed size needed to fill a small storage reservoir that can be used to alleviate water stress during a crop growing season. This study presents Africa-wide water-harvest index maps that could be used for conducting feasibility studies at a regional scale in assessing the relative differences in runoff potential between regions for the possibility of using ponds as a water management tool. ?? 2004 American Society of Agricultural Engineers.

  2. Cone index after mechanized harvesting of sugarcane in the North Fluminense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Maria Coimbra Manhães

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at evaluating the cone index, in depths of 0 to 0.3 m after mechanized harvesting of green sugarcane using the harvester Case A8800 and Case A4000 in the North-Fluminense region of Rio de Janeiro State. The results were analyzed using descriptive statistics, variance analysis, and Tukey test at 5% probability. The cone index shows that area 2 is more compact than area 1. In area 1, the subsoil layers are more compressed than the surface layer; while in area 2, different depths are equally compressed. Considering these results, this study recommends subsoiling in the two areas.

  3. Allometric analysis of the effects of density on reproductive allocation and Harvest Index in 6 varieties of wheat (Triticum)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Xiao-liang; Weiner, Jacob; Qi, Lin

    2013-01-01

    allocation should be analyzed and interpreted allometrically because ratios or fractions such as Reproductive Effort or Harvest Index are size dependent. We investigated reproductive allocation of individuals in 6 varieties of Triticum (wheat) grown at a wide range of densities. We harvested leaves, stems...... size. There were significant differences among the varieties in the allometric exponent (slope of log–log relationship) of grain versus vegetative mass, such that some varieties produced higher yield (and therefore had a higher Harvest Index) than others when plants were small, while others had higher...... yield at larger sizes. Thus, the Harvest Index and its rank among varieties changed with plant size, which puts into question the practice of selecting for Harvest Index when crop performance varies greatly among individuals, years or environments. Selection for a high Harvest Index when individuals...

  4. B-HIT - A Tool for Harvesting and Indexing Biodiversity Data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Kelbert

    Full Text Available With the rapidly growing number of data publishers, the process of harvesting and indexing information to offer advanced search and discovery becomes a critical bottleneck in globally distributed primary biodiversity data infrastructures. The Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF implemented a Harvesting and Indexing Toolkit (HIT, which largely automates data harvesting activities for hundreds of collection and observational data providers. The team of the Botanic Garden and Botanical Museum Berlin-Dahlem has extended this well-established system with a range of additional functions, including improved processing of multiple taxon identifications, the ability to represent associations between specimen and observation units, new data quality control and new reporting capabilities. The open source software B-HIT can be freely installed and used for setting up thematic networks serving the demands of particular user groups.

  5. Gradient-index phononic crystal lens-based enhancement of elastic wave energy harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tol, S.; Degertekin, F. L.; Erturk, A.

    2016-08-01

    We explore the enhancement of structure-borne elastic wave energy harvesting, both numerically and experimentally, by exploiting a Gradient-Index Phononic Crystal Lens (GRIN-PCL) structure. The proposed GRIN-PCL is formed by an array of blind holes with different diameters on an aluminum plate, where the blind hole distribution is tailored to obtain a hyperbolic secant gradient profile of refractive index guided by finite-element simulations of the lowest asymmetric mode Lamb wave band diagrams. Under plane wave excitation from a line source, experimentally measured wave field validates the numerical simulation of wave focusing within the GRIN-PCL domain. A piezoelectric energy harvester disk located at the first focus of the GRIN-PCL yields an order of magnitude larger power output as compared to the baseline case of energy harvesting without the GRIN-PCL on the uniform plate counterpart.

  6. Weed Interference Effects on Leaves, Internode and Harvest Index of Dry Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein GHAMARI

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The development of appropriate weed management strategies and efficient use of herbicides relies upon understanding weed-crop interactions. A field study was carried out to assess the effect of weed interference on leaves, internode and harvest index of dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.. The experiment was established under a randomized complete block design with two types of weed interference treatments: plots with weeds and plots without weeds at different time intervals (0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 days after crop emergence. The sigmoid Boltzmann model was used to quantify the crop traits as influenced by weed interference. Prolonged delays in weed removal reduced gradually the number of leaves of the crop. Weed interference decreased dry weight of leaves as well, so that the lowest value of it (33.49 g plant-1 was observed in full season during weed-infested treatment. Infestation of weeds affected the length of the crop internodes. While the weed interference duration increased, the length of the internodes decreased. Harvest index was also sensitive to weed competition. As the crop was kept weed-infested from the emergence for increasing periods of time, harvest index decreased to a value of 28.01%. A significant negative correlation between total biomass of weeds and dry bean traits (number of leaves, leaves dry weight, internode length and harvest index was observed. Therefore, weeds are able to adversely affect dry bean growth through constraining environmental resources and impairing leaves as the photosynthetic areas.

  7. Compressed Air Energy Storage System Control and Performance Assessment Using Energy Harvested Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanif SedighNejad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a new concept for control and performance assessment of compressed air energy storage (CAES systems in a hybrid energy system is introduced. The proposed criterion, based on the concept of energy harvest index (HEI, measures the capability of a storage system to capture renewable energy. The overall efficiency of the CAES system and optimum control and design from the technical and economic point of view is presented. A possible application of this idea is an isolated community with significant wind energy resource. A case study reveals the usefulness of the proposed criterion in design, control and implementation of a small CAES system in a hybrid power system (HPM for an isolated community. Energy harvested index and its effectiveness in increasing the wind penetration rate in the total energy production is discussed.

  8. PROPOSAL FOR AN ERGONOMIC CONFORMITY INDEX FOR EVALUATION OF HARVESTERS AND FORWARDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Leitão da Cunha Marzano

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Context: In mechanized forestry work, the ergonomic conditions of the workplace affects operator's health, performance and productivity. Originality: A comparison of different forest machines becomes complex in case where it is required analysis of several ergonomic factors simultaneously. There are several methods of ergonomic analysis however, a more complete methodology that considers several ergonomic factors and produces an index that represent the ergonomic condition of the machine is needed. Objective: Propose a methodology to determining an Ergonomic Conformity Index to evaluate Harvesters and Forwarders of different brands. Methodology: The ECI was determined initially basing in four relevant ergonomic factors: noise, vibration, thermal environment and air quality. These factors were evaluated utilizing four Harvesters and two Forwarders in eucalyptus timber harvesting operations. For each factor, a score was given according to its compliance with the established parameters. The ECI was obtained from an average of the scores given to each factor. The index ranges from zero to one, so that lower values indicate worse ergonomic conditions. Results: All the analyzed machines had continuous noise between 75.0 and 82.6 dB (A and whole-body vibration between 0.27 and 0.70 m s-2. HV1 and HV2 presented thermal environment in accordance with the established criteria, other machines showed deficiencies in this regard. All the machines presented non-conformities in the air quality, except HV2. The ECI of Harvesters HV1, HV2, HV3 and HV4, were 0.83; 0.88; 0.71; 0.63. The ECI of Forwarders FW1 and FW2 were 0.58 and 0.79. Conclusion: The determination of the ECI allowed an evaluation and comparison between analyzed forest machines. The machine with the higher ECI had only one non-conformity, and it was related to noise inside the cab. The machine that got the lower ECI presented non-conformities for all the factors.

  9. Sustainability Index Evaluation of the Rainwater Harvesting System in Six US Urban Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daeryong Park

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the sustainability of the rainwater harvesting system (RWHS by analyzing six urban city sites with different rainfall statistics in the United States. We developed a new RWHS performance model by modifying a spreadsheet-based storage, treatment, and overflow runoff model (SS STORM and verified its performance by comparing with another analytical RWHS model. The sustainability index (SI evaluation method was used for a reservoir system and applied to the RWHS, employing modified resilience and vulnerability evaluation methods due to the different characteristics of a reservoir and the RWHS. The performance of modified SS STORM is very similar to that of the analytical method, except in Los Angeles, which is characterized by long inter-event times and low rainfall event depths due to low annual rainfall. The sustainability indices were successfully evaluated depending on both RWHS size and water demand and vary over a wide range as annual rainfall increases. This study proposes a new RWHS performance model and sustainability index evaluation method. Further study should confirm the proposed approach in regions with widely different rainfall characteristics.

  10. Effect of water stress on total biomass, tuber yield, harvest index and water use efficiency in Jerusalem artichoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of drought on tuber yield, total biomass, harvest index, water use efficiency of tuber yield (WUEt) and water use efficiency of biomass (WUEb), and to evaluate the differential responses of Jerusalem artichoke (JA) varieties under drought str...

  11. Temperature and sowing date affect the linear increase of sunflower harvest index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bange, M.P.; Hammer, G.L.; Rickert, K.G.

    1998-01-01

    The linearity of daily linear harvest index (HI) increase can provide a simple means to predict grain growth and yield in field crops. However, the stability of the rate of increase across genotypes and environments is uncertain. Data from three field experiments were collated to investigate the phase of linear HI increase of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) across environments by changing genotypes, sowing time, N level, and solar irradiation level. Linear increase in HI was similar among different genotypes, N levels, and radiation treatments (mean 0.0125 d-1), but significant differences occurred between sowings. The linear increase in HI was not stable at very low temperatures (down to 9 degrees C) during grain filling, due to possible limitations to biomass accumulation and translocation (mean 0.0091 d-1). Using the linear increase in HI to predict grain yield requires predictions of the duration from an thesis to the onset of linear HI increase (lag phase) and the cessation of linear HI increase. These studies showed that the lag phase differed, and the linear HI increase ceased when 91% of the anthesis to physiological maturity period had been completed

  12. Salinity reduces carbon assimilation and the harvest index of cassava plants (Manihot esculenta Crantz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jailson Lopes Cruz

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was developed to evaluate the effects of salinity on the growth and gas exchange of cassava plants, cultivar Verdinha. The four concentrations of NaCl (mM were as follows: 0, 20, 40, and 60. Under salinity, the lowest concentration of Na+ ions was observed in the tuberous roots; however, the dry matter of tuberous roots was reduced with an application of just 20 mM NaCl. The harvest index was reduced 50% with the highest salt concentration. Salinity reduced carbon assimilation (A, stomatal conductance (gs, transpiration, and the instantaneous water use efficiency. The correlation between gs and A was high and positive, showing that stomatal movement was one of the responsible for the lower A. Under salt stress, there was an increase in intercellular CO2 concentration, indicating the impairment of carbon metabolism. Based on the reduction of dry matter of the tuberous roots (reduction of 81% under 60 mM NaCl, it was concluded that cassava is sensitive to salinity. The growth of shoots and the absorbing roots were minimally affected by salinity, even in the situation where A was reduced; therefore, the sensitivity of cassava was related to the high sensitivity of the tuberous roots to the ionic and/or osmotic effects of salinity. Thus, tuberous roots can be the target organ in studies that aim to improve the tolerance of cassava to salinity.

  13. Determination of the minimum dry matter index for the optimum harvest of 'Hass' avocado fruits in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catarina Pedro Carvalho

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Colombia has become an important producer of 'Hass' avocado in the last three years; however, a minimum dry matter content has not been established as a maturity index for harvest. The aim of this study was to determine the correlation between oil percentage and dry matter content in order to establish a minimum harvest index for 'Hass' avocado fruits grown in Colombia. Samples were collected for maturity determinations over three years of 'Hass' avocado fruit cultivation from fifteen different orchards in the department of Antioquia in order to determine the dry matter and oil percentage of fruits throughout the season. A simple linear relationship between oil content and dry matter was thus established. The equations for all of the studied orchards presented a good correlation coefficient, ranging between 0.70 on the Cartucho orchard in the municipality of Retiro and 0.99 on the Gacamayas and Paraiso orchards in the municipality of Entrerrios and Retiro. Using the minimal oil standard of 11.2% as a reference, the orchards that were found to have a high dry matter percentage at harvest were Cartucho in Retiro (26%, followed by Piedras Blancas and Santa Cruz in the municipality of Venecia (25%; while the 'Hass' avocado fruit from the Cebadero orchard in Retiro, Coconi in the municipality of La Ceja and Guacamayas in Entrerrios reached this oil standard at 22% dry matter, which could be a commercial advantage. Based on these oil content results, a minimal dry matter index of 23.5% was proposed as a harvest maturity indicator for 'Hass' avocado grown in Colombia. This harvesting index will need to be refined over time and with the addition of samples from more regions and climatic data profiles.

  14. Production physiology and morphology of Populus species and their hybrids grown under short rotation. II. Biomass components and harvest index of hybrid and parental species clones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scarascia-Mugnozza, G. E. [Univ. of Tuscia, Viterbo, (Italy); Ceulemans, R. [Antwerp Univ., Wilrijk (Belgium); Heilman, P. E. [Washington State Univ., Olympia, WA (United States); Isebrands, J. G.; Stettler, R. F.; Hinckley, T. M. [Forest Service, Rhinelander, WI (United States). North Central Forest Experiment Station

    1997-03-01

    Growth and biomass components of four poplar clones were studied during four consecutive years of short-rotation culture in western Washington, U.S.A. Results confirmed previous observations indicating the high productive potential of hybrid clones. In two of the hybrid clones tested, large differences in biomass distribution among tree components and in the pattern of growth were evident, as indicated by harvest index and root/shoot ratios. Results suggest that the clonal differences shown in total biomass, in allocation to different tree components, and in harvest index, have important implications for future poplar breeding programs. 39 refs., 4 tabs., 4 figs.

  15. Effect of Planting Patterns' and Plant Population on Some of Morphological Traits, Harvest Index and Conservable Grain Yield of Sweet Corn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nasrolah Alhossini

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Sweet corn is one of the most important crops in Iran and due to its short period of growth, it has been an important position after wheat and barley in khorasane Razavi Province. In this study two methods of planting (one raised bed and furrow planting and 3 plant densities (65000, 75000 and 85000 plant/ha was evaluated on some of Morphological Traits, harvest index and conservable grain yield of sweet Corn(Chase and KSC403su Varieties in Torbat-e-Heidarie in saline (4.060ds/m condition on 2009. The experimental design was factorial based on RCBC with 4 replications. The result of ANOVA showed significant differences between Anthesis silking interval (ASI, tassel length, plant height, ear height, stem diameter, harvest index, and conservable grain yield of sweet corn varieties that effected by planting methods. the highest harvest index was belonged to Chase in 75000 Plant/ha on one raised bed planting method with 31.75% and the lowest mean was belonged to KSC403su in 85000 Plant/ha on furrow planting method with 14.93%. In addition the highest grain yield was belonged to chase variety at 75000 plant/ha and furrow planting method with 11.912 ton/ha, while the lowest grain yield was belonged to KSC403su variety at 85000 plant/ha and raised bed planting (3.610 ton/ha. The Chase variety was better than KSC403su Due to its canopy and photo period is shorter than KSC403su. The superiority of Chase variety can be related to better distribution of leaves, highest harvest index, conservable grain yield and plant arrangement in the row.

  16. Effect of a short and severe intermittent drought on transpiration, seed yield components, and harvest index in four landraces of bambara groundnut

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Søren Thorndal; Ntundu, W.H.; Ouédraogo, M.

    2011-01-01

    % of pot holding capacity until seed maturity or drought-stressed (DS) in the period from 76 to 85 days after sowing (flowering and early podding stage). During drought, although the total water use differed among the four landraces, transpiration rate and stomatal conductance (gs) responded similarly...... to soil drying. The high soil water thresholds for the reduction of transpiration rate and gs of bambara groundnuts indicate their great sensitivity in the stomatal control over plant water loss during soil drying. Even though the shoot dry weight at maturity was hardly affected by DS, seed yield, seed...... number, and harvest index were all significantly decreased in the DS plants. Among landraces, LunT and Ramayana were more susceptible to DS than S19-3 and Uniswa Red in terms of reduction of seed number and seed yield. The different responses of the landraces to DS may reflect their adaptation...

  17. Carbon balance in bioregenerative life support systems: Some effects of system closure, waste management, and crop harvest index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Raymond M.

    In Advanced Life Support (ALS) systems with bioregenerative components, plant photosynthesis would be used to produce O2 and food, while removing CO2. Much of the plant biomass would be inedible and hence must be considered in waste management. This waste could be oxidized (e.g., incinerated or aerobically digested) to resupply CO2 to the plants, but this would not be needed unless the system were highly closed with regard to food. For example, in a partially closed system where some of the food is grown and some is imported, CO2 from oxidized waste when combined with crew and microbial respiration could exceed the CO2 removal capability of the plants. Moreover, it would consume some O2 produced from photosynthesis that could have been used by the crew. For partially closed systems it would be more appropriate to store or find other uses for the inedible biomass and excess carbon, such as generating soils or growing woody plants (e.g., dwarf fruit trees). Regardless of system closure, high harvest crops (i.e., crops with a high edible to total biomass ratio) would increase food production per unit area and O2 yields for systems where waste biomass is oxidized to recycle CO2. Such interlinking effects between the plants and waste treatment strategies point out the importance of oxidizing only that amount of waste needed to optimize system performance.

  18. Aroma volatiles obtained at harvest by HS-SPME/GC-MS and INDEX/MS-E-nose fingerprint discriminate climacteric behaviour in melon fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaparro-Torres, Libia A; Bueso, María C; Fernández-Trujillo, Juan P

    2016-05-01

    Melon aroma volatiles were extracted at harvest from juice of a climacteric near-isogenic line (NIL) SC3-5-1 with two quantitative trait loci (QTLs) introgressed which produced climacteric behaviour and its non-climacteric parental (PS) using two methodologies of analysis: static headspace solid phase micro-extraction (HS-SPME) by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and inside needle dynamic extraction (INDEX) by MS-based electronic nose (MS-E-nose). Of the 137 volatiles compounds identified, most were found at significantly higher concentrations in SC3-5-1 than in PS in both seasons. These volatiles were mostly esters, alcohols, sulfur-derived esters and even some aldehydes and others. The number of variables with high correlation values was reduced by using correlation network analysis. Partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) achieved the correct classification of PS and SC3-5-1. The ions m/z 74, 91, 104, 105, 106 and 108, mainly volatile derivatives precursor phenylalanine, were the most discriminant in SC3-5-1 and PS. As many as 104 QTLs were mapped in season 1 and at least 78 QTLs in each season with an effect above the PS mean. GC-MS gave better discrimination than E-nose. Most of the QTLs that mapped in both seasons enhanced aroma volatiles associated with climacteric behaviour. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Effects of Physical Seed Priming and Hydropriming on Physiological and Morphological Characteristics, Yield and Harvest Index in Marigold (Calendula officinalis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Baser Kouchebagh

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available To study the effect of different seed treatments on germination of calendula, an experiment conducted in field with complete randomized block design and three replications, at Agricultural Research Station of Islamic Azad University, Tabriz Branch in 2013. Treatments were: treating the most seeds by ultrasonic with maximum (3 w.m-2 and gamma and beta by 2 µc for 10 minutes, laser by 6328A° and magnetic field by 40 MT for 5, 10 and 15 minutes hydro-priming for 24 hours and control. Results indicate that maximum flower yield (13.85g was produced by seeds treated with laser irradiation for 15 minutes as compared to that of control (4.34g. Highest biologic yield belonged to seeds treated with magnetic field for 10 minutes (33.20 g.m-2 and lowest to control (7.89 g.m-2. Highest harvest index was obtained from seeds treated by gamma irradiation for 10 minutes (69.07 and lowest for 15 minutes (18.81. It may be suggested that marigold growers may improve crop yield by priming the seeds with magnetic field and laser irradiation before sowing.

  20. Indexed

    CERN Document Server

    Hagy, Jessica

    2008-01-01

    Jessica Hagy is a different kind of thinker. She has an astonishing talent for visualizing relationships, capturing in pictures what is difficult for most of us to express in words. At indexed.blogspot.com, she posts charts, graphs, and Venn diagrams drawn on index cards that reveal in a simple and intuitive way the large and small truths of modern life. Praised throughout the blogosphere as “brilliant,” “incredibly creative,” and “comic genius,” Jessica turns her incisive, deadpan sense of humor on everything from office politics to relationships to religion. With new material along with some of Jessica’s greatest hits, this utterly unique book will thrill readers who demand humor that makes them both laugh and think.

  1. Towards Complete Coverage in Focused Web Harvesting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khelghati, Mohammadreza; Hiemstra, Djoerd; van Keulen, Maurice

    2015-01-01

    With the goal of harvesting all information about a given entity, in this paper, we try to harvest all matching documents for a given query submitted on a search engine. The objective is to retrieve all information about for instance "Michael Jackson", "Islamic State", or "FC Barcelona" from indexed

  2. Wind energy harvesting with a piezoelectric harvester

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Nan; Wang, Quan; Xie, Xiangdong

    2013-01-01

    An energy harvester comprising a cantilever attached to piezoelectric patches and a proof mass is developed for wind energy harvesting, from a cross wind-induced vibration of the cantilever, by the electromechanical coupling effect of piezoelectric materials. The vibration of the cantilever under the cross wind is induced by the air pressure owing to a vortex shedding phenomenon that occurs on the leeward side of the cantilever. To describe the energy harvesting process, a theoretical model considering the cross wind-induced vibration on the piezoelectric coupled cantilever energy harvester is developed, to calculate the charge and the voltage from the harvester. The influences of the length and location of the piezoelectric patches as well as the proof mass on the generated electric power are investigated. Results show that the total generated electric power can be as high as 2 W when the resonant frequency of the cantilever harvester is close to the vortex shedding frequency. Moreover, a value of total generated electric power up to 1.02 W can be practically realized for a cross wind with a variable wind velocity of 9–10 m s −1 by a harvester with a length of 1.2 m. This research facilitates an effective and compact wind energy harvesting device. (paper)

  3. Post-harvest physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weather and management constraints, as well as the intended use of the harvested forage, all influence the forage harvest system selected by the producer. Generally, maximum retention of dry matter from harvested forage crops is achieved at moistures intermediate between the standing fresh crop and ...

  4. Fog Harvesting with Harps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Weiwei; Anderson, Mark J; Tulkoff, Joshua B; Kennedy, Brook S; Boreyko, Jonathan B

    2018-04-11

    Fog harvesting is a useful technique for obtaining fresh water in arid climates. The wire meshes currently utilized for fog harvesting suffer from dual constraints: coarse meshes cannot efficiently capture microscopic fog droplets, whereas fine meshes suffer from clogging issues. Here, we design and fabricate fog harvesters comprising an array of vertical wires, which we call "fog harps". Under controlled laboratory conditions, the fog-harvesting rates for fog harps with three different wire diameters were compared to conventional meshes of equivalent dimensions. As expected for the mesh structures, the mid-sized wires exhibited the largest fog collection rate, with a drop-off in performance for the fine or coarse meshes. In contrast, the fog-harvesting rate continually increased with decreasing wire diameter for the fog harps due to efficient droplet shedding that prevented clogging. This resulted in a 3-fold enhancement in the fog-harvesting rate for the harp design compared to an equivalent mesh.

  5. Harvest: A Scalable, Customizable Discovery and Access System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bowman, C. M; Danzig, Peter B; Hardy, Darren R; Manber, Udi; Schwartz, Michael F

    1994-01-01

    .... In this paper we introduce Harvest, a system that provides a set of customizable tools for gathering information from diverse repositories, building topic-specific content indexes, flexibly searching...

  6. Harvester Productivity for Row Thinning Loblolly Pine Plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    James E. Granskog; Walter C. Anderson

    1980-01-01

    Tivo tree harvesters currently being used to thin southern pine plantations were evaluated to determine the effects of stand characteristics on machine productivity. Production rates for row thinning loblolly plantations are presented by stand age, site index, and stand density.

  7. 1970 Oregon timber harvest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian R. Wall

    1971-01-01

    The 1970 Oregon timber harvest of 7.98 billion board feet was the lowest recorded since the recession year of 1961 when 7.41 billion board feet of timber was produced. The 1970 log production figure was 12.8 percent below the 1969 harvest, the second consecutive year of declining production in Oregon.

  8. Maple Sugar Harvesting/Wild Rice Harvesting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minneapolis Public Schools, MN.

    Comprised of two separate booklets, this resource unit assists elementary teachers in explaining how the Ojibwe people harvest maple sugar and wild rice. The first booklet explains the procedure of tapping the maple trees for sap, preparation for boiling the sap, and the three forms the sugar is made into (granulated, "molded," and…

  9. Electromagnetic energy harvester for harvesting acoustic energy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Farid U Khan

    Acoustics; energy harvesting; electromagnetic; Helmholtz resonator; sound pressure level; suspended coil. ... WSNs, which are supposed to operate for longer period of time. However ... several ambient energies such as wind, thermal, vibration, and solar are ..... textile plants in Northern India with specific reference to noise.

  10. Bundling harvester; Nippukorjausharvesteri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koponen, K. [Eko-Log Oy, Kuopio (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    The staring point of the project was to design and construct, by taking the silvicultural point of view into account, a harvesting and processing system especially for energy-wood, containing manually driven bundling harvester, automatizing of the harvester, and automatized loading. The equipment forms an ideal method for entrepreneur`s-line harvesting. The target is to apply the system also for owner`s-line harvesting. The profitability of the system promotes the utilization of the system in both cases. The objectives of the project were: to construct a test equipment and prototypes for all the project stages, to carry out terrain and strain tests in order to examine the usability and durability, as well as the capacity of the machine, to test the applicability of the Eko-Log system in simultaneous harvesting of energy and pulp woods, and to start the marketing and manufacturing of the products. The basic problems of the construction of the bundling harvester have been solved using terrain-tests. The prototype machine has been shown to be operable. Loading of the bundles to form sufficiently economically transportable loads has been studied, and simultaneously, the branch-biomass has been tried to be utilized without loosing the profitability of transportation. The results have been promising, and will promote the profitable utilization of wood-energy

  11. Bundling harvester; Nippukorjausharvesteri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koponen, K [Eko-Log Oy, Kuopio (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    The staring point of the project was to design and construct, by taking the silvicultural point of view into account, a harvesting and processing system especially for energy-wood, containing manually driven bundling harvester, automatizing of the harvester, and automatized loading. The equipment forms an ideal method for entrepreneur`s-line harvesting. The target is to apply the system also for owner`s-line harvesting. The profitability of the system promotes the utilization of the system in both cases. The objectives of the project were: to construct a test equipment and prototypes for all the project stages, to carry out terrain and strain tests in order to examine the usability and durability, as well as the capacity of the machine, to test the applicability of the Eko-Log system in simultaneous harvesting of energy and pulp woods, and to start the marketing and manufacturing of the products. The basic problems of the construction of the bundling harvester have been solved using terrain-tests. The prototype machine has been shown to be operable. Loading of the bundles to form sufficiently economically transportable loads has been studied, and simultaneously, the branch-biomass has been tried to be utilized without loosing the profitability of transportation. The results have been promising, and will promote the profitable utilization of wood-energy

  12. Flexible Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting from Mouse Click Motions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngsu Cha

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study energy harvesting from the mouse click motions of a robot finger and a human index finger using a piezoelectric material. The feasibility of energy harvesting from mouse click motions is experimentally and theoretically assessed. The fingers wear a glove with a pocket for including the piezoelectric material. We model the energy harvesting system through the inverse kinematic framework of parallel joints in a finger and the electromechanical coupling equations of the piezoelectric material. The model is validated through energy harvesting experiments in the robot and human fingers with the systematically varying load resistance. We find that energy harvesting is maximized at the matched load resistance to the impedance of the piezoelectric material, and the harvested energy level is tens of nJ.

  13. Trading green backs for green crabs: evaluating the commercial shellfish harvest at risk from European green crab invasion [v3; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/4jf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan E Mach

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Nonnative species pose a threat to native biodiversity and can have immense impacts on biological communities, altering the function of ecosystems. How much value is at risk from high-impact invasive species, and which parameters determine variation in that value, constitutes critical knowledge for directing both management and research, but it is rarely available. We evaluated the value of the commercial shellfish harvest that is at risk in nearshore ecosystems of Puget Sound, Washington State, USA, from the invasive European green crab, Carcinus maenas. We assessed this value using a simple static ecological model combined with an economic model using data from Puget Sound’s shellfish harvest and revenue and the relationship between C. maenas abundance and the consumption rate of shellfish. The model incorporates a range in C. maenas diet preference, calories consumed per year, and crab densities. C. maenas is likely to prey on commercially harvested hardshell clams, oysters, and mussels, which would likely reduce additional revenue from processing and distribution, and the number of jobs associated with these fisheries. The model results suggest possible revenue losses of these shellfish ranging from $1.03-23.8 million USD year-1 (2.8-64% losses, with additional processing and distribution losses up to $17.6 million USD and 442 job positions each year associated with a range of plausible parameter values. The broad range of values reflects the uncertainty in key factors underlying impacts, factors that are highly variable across invaded regions and so not knowable a priori. However, future research evaluating species invasions can reduce the uncertainty of impacts by characterizing several key parameters: density of individuals, number of arrivals, predation and competition interactions, and economic impacts. This study therefore provides direction for research to inform more accurate estimates of value-at-risk, and suggests substantial

  14. Trading green backs for green crabs: evaluating the commercial shellfish harvest at risk to European green crab invasion [v2; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/32t

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan E Mach

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Nonnative species pose a threat to native biodiversity and can have immense impacts on biological communities, altering the function of ecosystems. How much value is at risk from high-impact invasive species, and which parameters determine variation in that value, constitutes critical knowledge for directing both management and research, but it is rarely available. We evaluated the value of the commercial shellfish harvest that is at risk in nearshore ecosystems of Puget Sound, Washington State, USA, from the invasive European green crab, Carcinus maenas. We assessed this value using a simple static ecological model combined with an economic model using data from Puget Sound’s shellfish harvest and revenue and the relationship between C. maenas abundance and the consumption rate of shellfish. The model incorporates a range in C. maenas diet preference, calories consumed per year, and crab densities. C. maenas is likely to prey on commercially harvested hardshell clams, oysters, and mussels, which would likely reduce additional revenue from processing and distribution, and the number of jobs associated with these fisheries. The model results suggest possible revenue losses of these shellfish ranging from $1.03-23.8 million USD (2.8-64% losses, with additional processing and distrubution losses up to $17.6 million USD and 442 job positions each year associated with a range of plausible parameter values. The broad range of values reflects the uncertainty in key factors underlying impacts, factors that are highly variable across invaded regions and so not knowable a priori. However, future research evaluating species invasions can reduce the uncertainty of impacts by characterizing several key parameters: density of individuals, number of arrivals, predation and competition interactions, and economic impacts. This study therefore provides direction for research to inform more accurate estimates of value-at-risk, and suggests substantial motivation

  15. Energy harvesting for microsystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Ruichao

    The purpose of this project is to design and fabricate piezoelectric energy harvesters based on integration of Pb(ZrxTi1-x)O3 (PZT) thick film technology and silicon microtechnology. The fabrication processes are carried out in close collaboration with Meggitt Sensing Systems (MSS) who has...... the unique expertise to screen print piezoelectric thick film layers, thus all screen printing steps are done by MSS while the silicon micromachining is carried out at Danchip facility at DTU. The presented energy harvesters are all based on using piezoelectric thick film operating in the 31-mode to generate...... power when strained. Three archetypes of the numerous fabricated energy harvesters will be presented in detail, they represent three major milestones in this project. The first energy harvester archetype has an unimorph cantilever beam, which consists of a 20 µm silicon layer and 10-30 µm screen printed...

  16. African Urban Harvest

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Urban Harvest, a system-wide initiative of the Consultative Group on Agricultural ...... and urban old, using criteria of population density, land availability, and the prevalence of crop ...... Contact between milk and containers or the environment;.

  17. Energy harvesting water vehicle

    KAUST Repository

    Singh, Devendra

    2018-01-01

    An efficient energy harvesting (EEH) water vehicle is disclosed. The base of the EEH water vehicle is fabricated with rolling cylindrical drums that can rotate freely in the same direction of the water medium. The drums reduce the drag

  18. INDEXING AND INDEX FUNDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HAKAN SARITAŞ

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Proponents of the efficient market hypothesis believe that active portfolio management is largely wasted effort and unlikely to justify the expenses incurred. Therefore, they advocate a passive investment strategy that makes no attempt to outsmart the market. One common strategy for passive management is indexing where a fund is designed to replicate the performance of a broad-based index of stocks and bonds. Traditionally, indexing was used by institutional investors, but today, the use of index funds proliferated among individual investors. Over the years, both international and domestic index funds have disproportionately outperformed the market more than the actively managed funds have.

  19. Water harvest via dewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Anna; Moon, Myoung-Woon; Lim, Hyuneui; Kim, Wan-Doo; Kim, Ho-Young

    2012-07-10

    Harvesting water from humid air via dewing can provide a viable solution to a water shortage problem where liquid-phase water is not available. Here we experimentally quantify the effects of wettability and geometry of the condensation substrate on the water harvest efficiency. Uniformly hydrophilic surfaces are found to exhibit higher rates of water condensation and collection than surfaces with lower wettability. This is in contrast to a fog basking method where the most efficient surface consists of hydrophilic islands surrounded by hydrophobic background. A thin drainage path in the lower portion of the condensation substrate is revealed to greatly enhance the water collection efficiency. The optimal surface conditions found in this work can be used to design a practical device that harvests water as its biological counterpart, a green tree frog, Litoria caerulea , does during the dry season in tropical northern Australia.

  20. Energy harvesting for microsystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruichao Xu

    2012-05-15

    The purpose of this project is to design and fabricate piezoelectric energy harvesters based on integration of Pb(ZrxTi1-x)O3 (PZT) thick film technology and silicon microtechnology. The fabrication processes are carried out in close collaboration with Meggitt Sensing Systems (MSS) who has the unique expertise to screen print piezoelectric thick film layers, thus all screen printing steps are done by MSS while the silicon micromachining is carried out at Danchip facility at DTU. The presented energy harvesters are all based on using piezoelectric thick film operating in the 31-mode to generate power when strained. Three archetypes of the numerous fabricated energy harvesters will be presented in detail, they represent three major milestones in this project. The first energy harvester archetype has an unimorph cantilever beam, which consists of a 20 {mu}m silicon layer and 10-30 {mu}m screen printed PZT layer, anchored on a silicon frame at one end and attached to a silicon proof mass at the other. Electrodes will cover both side of the PZT layer, so the harvested energy can be collected electrically. The second archetype has a bimorph cantilever beam, which consists of two 15-35 {mu}m PZT layers, anchored on a silicon frame at the one end and attached to a silicon proof mass at the other. Electrodes are deposited below, between and above the two PZT layers. The root mean square (RMS) power output measured on this type of harvesters is as high as 37.1{mu}W at 1 g. The third archetype is similar to the first one, the screen printed PZT layer is replaced by a lead free piezoelectric material, (KxNa1-x)NbO3 (KNN). Some of the major challenges encountered during the development processes are bad adhesion, fragile structures and short circuiting through the PZT layer. All of which have being fully or partially solved in this project. The final energy harvesters are designed to be used in an energy harvester powered wireless sensing system. (Author)

  1. Combine Harvester Simulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilmann, Ole; Sørlie, James Arnold

    1999-01-01

    A simulator for training pilots in the operation of a modern high-tech combine harvester is presented. The new simulator application is based on DMI´s well-known DMS maritime simulator architecture. Two major challenges have been encountered in the development of the simulator: 1) interfacing the...

  2. Harvesting soil with potatoes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egelyng, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    Norwegian authorities demand soil leaving potato packing plants to be deposited as waste. Depositing soil from potato processing plants is associated with significant cost for Norwegian producers. Therefore CYCLE investigated potato soil harvesting from an innovation and socio-economic perspective....

  3. Designing A General Deep Web Harvester by Harvestability Factor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khelghati, Mohammadreza; van Keulen, Maurice; Hiemstra, Djoerd

    2014-01-01

    To make deep web data accessible, harvesters have a crucial role. Targeting different domains and websites enhances the need of a general-purpose harvester which can be applied to different settings and situations. To develop such a harvester, a large number of issues should be addressed. To have

  4. Magnetic Nanocomposite Cilia Energy Harvester

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Mohammed Asadullah; Alfadhel, Ahmed; Kosel, Jü rgen

    2016-01-01

    An energy harvester capable of converting low frequency vibrations into electrical energy is presented. The operating principle, fabrication process and output characteristics at different frequencies are discussed. The harvester is realized

  5. Harvest Regulations and Implementation Uncertainty in Small Game Harvest Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pål F. Moa

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A main challenge in harvest management is to set policies that maximize the probability that management goals are met. While the management cycle includes multiple sources of uncertainty, only some of these has received considerable attention. Currently, there is a large gap in our knowledge about implemention of harvest regulations, and to which extent indirect control methods such as harvest regulations are actually able to regulate harvest in accordance with intended management objectives. In this perspective article, we first summarize and discuss hunting regulations currently used in management of grouse species (Tetraonidae in Europe and North America. Management models suggested for grouse are most often based on proportional harvest or threshold harvest principles. These models are all built on theoretical principles for sustainable harvesting, and provide in the end an estimate on a total allowable catch. However, implementation uncertainty is rarely examined in empirical or theoretical harvest studies, and few general findings have been reported. Nevertheless, circumstantial evidence suggest that many of the most popular regulations are acting depensatory so that harvest bag sizes is more limited in years (or areas where game density is high, contrary to general recommendations. A better understanding of the implementation uncertainty related to harvest regulations is crucial in order to establish sustainable management systems. We suggest that scenario tools like Management System Evaluation (MSE should be more frequently used to examine robustness of currently applied harvest regulations to such implementation uncertainty until more empirical evidence is available.

  6. Piezoelectric energy harvesting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howells, Christopher A [Power Technology Branch, US Army, CERDEC, C2D, Ft. Belvoir, VA 22060-5816 (United States)

    2009-07-15

    Piezoelectric materials can be used to convert oscillatory mechanical energy into electrical energy. This technology, together with innovative mechanical coupling designs, can form the basis for harvesting energy from mechanical motion. Piezoelectric energy can be harvested to convert walking motion from the human body into electrical power. Recently four proof-of-concept Heel Strike Units were developed where each unit is essentially a small electric generator that utilizes piezoelectric elements to convert mechanical motion into electrical power in the form factor of the heel of a boot. The results of the testing and evaluation and the performance of this small electric generator are presented. The generator's conversion of mechanical motion into electrical power, the processes it goes through to produce useable power and commercial applications of the Heel Strike electric generator are discussed. (author)

  7. Piezoelectric energy harvesting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howells, Christopher A

    2009-01-01

    Piezoelectric materials can be used to convert oscillatory mechanical energy into electrical energy. This technology, together with innovative mechanical coupling designs, can form the basis for harvesting energy from mechanical motion. Piezoelectric energy can be harvested to convert walking motion from the human body into electrical power. Recently four proof-of-concept Heel Strike Units were developed where each unit is essentially a small electric generator that utilizes piezoelectric elements to convert mechanical motion into electrical power in the form factor of the heel of a boot. The results of the testing and evaluation and the performance of this small electric generator are presented. The generator's conversion of mechanical motion into electrical power, the processes it goes through to produce useable power and commercial applications of the Heel Strike electric generator are discussed.

  8. Restoration of harvested peatlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saarmets, Tiit

    1999-01-01

    A short analysis of the main topics of the IPS Symposium Peatland Restoration and Reclamation, Duluth, Minnesota, USA, 1998 is given. It has been single-mindedly recommended in Estonia so far that harvested peatland surfaces should be levelled and outflows shut. But following these recommendations will lead to an unfounded formation of marshy areas with a very low growth of plants. The reclamation of harvested peatlands for agricultural purposes is expensive and there is no commercial need for agricultural land in today's Estonia now. In the author's opinion the foreflows and intermediate ditches should be left open which would favour the growth of the brushwood to grow later into the forest of commercial value. (author)

  9. Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caliò, Renato; Rongala, Udaya Bhaskar; Camboni, Domenico; Milazzo, Mario; Stefanini, Cesare; de Petris, Gianluca; Oddo, Calogero Maria

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews the state of the art in piezoelectric energy harvesting. It presents the basics of piezoelectricity and discusses materials choice. The work places emphasis on material operating modes and device configurations, from resonant to non-resonant devices and also to rotational solutions. The reviewed literature is compared based on power density and bandwidth. Lastly, the question of power conversion is addressed by reviewing various circuit solutions. PMID:24618725

  10. Harvesting contaminants from liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, John T.; Hunter, Scott R.

    2016-05-31

    Disclosed are examples of apparatuses for evaporative purification of a contaminated liquid. In each example, there is a vessel for storing the contaminated fluid. The vessel includes a surface coated with a layer of superhydrophobic material and the surface is at least partially in contact with the contaminated liquid. The contaminants do not adhere to the surface as the purified liquid evaporates, thus allowing the contaminants to be harvested.

  11. Terra Harvest software architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humeniuk, Dave; Klawon, Kevin

    2012-06-01

    Under the Terra Harvest Program, the DIA has the objective of developing a universal Controller for the Unattended Ground Sensor (UGS) community. The mission is to define, implement, and thoroughly document an open architecture that universally supports UGS missions, integrating disparate systems, peripherals, etc. The Controller's inherent interoperability with numerous systems enables the integration of both legacy and future UGS System (UGSS) components, while the design's open architecture supports rapid third-party development to ensure operational readiness. The successful accomplishment of these objectives by the program's Phase 3b contractors is demonstrated via integration of the companies' respective plug-'n'-play contributions that include controllers, various peripherals, such as sensors, cameras, etc., and their associated software drivers. In order to independently validate the Terra Harvest architecture, L-3 Nova Engineering, along with its partner, the University of Dayton Research Institute, is developing the Terra Harvest Open Source Environment (THOSE), a Java Virtual Machine (JVM) running on an embedded Linux Operating System. The Use Cases on which the software is developed support the full range of UGS operational scenarios such as remote sensor triggering, image capture, and data exfiltration. The Team is additionally developing an ARM microprocessor-based evaluation platform that is both energy-efficient and operationally flexible. The paper describes the overall THOSE architecture, as well as the design decisions for some of the key software components. Development process for THOSE is discussed as well.

  12. Avaliação de algumas características pós-colheita e índice de aceitação pelos consumidores de novas cultivares de banana Evaluation of some post-harvest characteristics and consumer acceptance index of new banana cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lair Victor Pereira

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO - As cultivares Nam, Pioneira, Caipira, SH 3640, FHIA 01, FHIA 18, Mysore, Nanicão, Grande Naine, Maçã, Prata e Prata Anã foram avaliadas quanto às características de pós-colheita (longevidade pós-colheita, período de comercialização e resistência ao despencamento dos frutos, aspectos visuais (tamanho do fruto e coloração da casca e da polpa, índice de aceitação pelos consumidores por meio da degustação da fruta madura (sabor, aroma, consistência da polpa e semelhança de sabor e aroma com as cultivares tradicionais Prata, Prata Anã, Maçã e Nanicão. O trabalho foi conduzido por meio de ensaios de laboratório usando 6 pencas de bananas de cada cultivar e entrevistas após os testes de degustação com 80 consumidores de Lavras e Maria da Fé-MG, no período de outubro de 2000 a abril de 2001. Pelos resultados, verifica-se que, quanto aos aspectos visuais, somente a cv. Caipira obteve baixo índice de aceitação pelos consumidores (ABSTRACT - The banana cultivars Nam, Pioneira, Caipira, SH 3640, FHIA 01, FHIA 18, Mysore, Nanicão, Grande Naine, Maçã, Prata and Prata Anã were evaluated as to their post-harvest characteristics (post-harvest longevity, marketing period and resistance to fruit dropping, visual aspects (fruit size and coloration of the peel and pulp and consumer acceptance index through tasting of the ripe fruit (flavor, pulp firmness and similarity of flavor with the traditional cultivars Prata, Prata Anã, Maçã and Nanicão. The work was conducted through laboratory trials by using six banana hands of each cultivar and interviews after the tasting tests with 80 consumers of Lavras and Maria da Fé-MG over the period of October 2000 to April 2001.The results pointed out that as to the visual aspects only the cultivar Caipira obtained a low consumer acceptance index (< 50%. As to the post-harvest characteristics the cultivars Prata Anã, Maçã, Prata and SH 3640 stood out with longer post-harvest

  13. Differential fat harvesting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Torres Farr

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Volume replacement with fillers is regularly performed with the use of diverse volumetric materials to correct different structures around the face, depending on the volume enhancement required and the thickness of the soft tissue envelope. Differential fat harvesting and posterior grafting is performed to place the correct fat parcel size for each target area, expanding the potential applications of fat. Methods: Sixty patients consecutively recruited on a first come basis undergone a facial fat grafting procedure, in private practice setting between March 2012 and October 2013. Fat grafting quantity and quality was predicted for each case. Differential harvesting was performed, with 2 fat parcels size. Processing was performed through washing. Fat infiltration was carried out through small cannulas or needles depending on the treated area. Outcomes were analysed both by the physicians and the patients at 7 days, 1 month, 3 months and 6 months through a perceived satisfaction questionnaire. Parameters considered were downtime or discomfort, skin benefits, volume restoration, reabsorption rate estimated and overall improvement. Results: Full facial differential fat grafting procedure lasted an average of 1.5-2.5 h. Average downtime was 3-4 days. Follow-up was performed to a minimum of 6 months. Both patient and physician overall satisfaction rates were mostly excellent. Adverse events like lumps or irregularities were not encountered. Conclusion: Differential fat harvesting and posterior grafting is a valid alternative, to expand the repertoire of fat use, allow a more homogeneous effect, reduce the potential complications, speed up the process, improve graft survival, and to enhance overall aesthetic outcome.

  14. Scientific Journal Indexing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Getulio Teixeira Batista

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available It is quite impressive the visibility of online publishing compared to offline. Lawrence (2001 computed the percentage increase across 1,494 venues containing at least five offline and five online articles. Results shown an average of 336% more citations to online articles compared to offline articles published in the same venue. If articles published in the same venue are of similar quality, then they concluded that online articles are more highly cited because of their easier access. Thomson Scientific, traditionally concerned with printed journals, announced on November 28, 2005, the launch of Web Citation Index™, the multidisciplinary citation index of scholarly content from institutional and subject-based repositories (http://scientific.thomson. com/press/2005/8298416/. The Web Citation Index from the abstracting and indexing (A&I connects together pre-print articles, institutional repositories and open access (OA journals (Chillingworth, 2005. Basically all research funds are government granted funds, tax payer’s supported and therefore, results should be made freely available to the community. Free online availability facilitates access to research findings, maximizes interaction among research groups, and optimizes efforts and research funds efficiency. Therefore, Ambi-Água is committed to provide free access to its articles. An important aspect of Ambi-Água is the publication and management system of this journal. It uses the Electronic System for Journal Publishing (SEER - http://www.ibict.br/secao.php?cat=SEER. This system was translated and customized by the Brazilian Institute for Science and Technology Information (IBICT based on the software developed by the Public Knowledge Project (Open Journal Systems of the British Columbia University (http://pkp.sfu.ca/ojs/. The big advantage of using this system is that it is compatible with the OAI-PMH protocol for metadata harvesting what greatly promotes published articles

  15. Nanostructured piezoelectric energy harvesters

    CERN Document Server

    Briscoe, Joe

    2014-01-01

    This book covers a range of devices that use piezoelectricity to convert mechanical deformation into electrical energy and relates their output capabilities to a range of potential applications. Starting with a description of the fundamental principles and properties of piezo- and ferroelectric materials, where applications of bulk materials are well established, the book shows how nanostructures of these materials are being developed for energy harvesting applications. The authors show how a nanostructured device can be produced, and put in context some of the approaches that are being invest

  16. Micro energy harvesting

    CERN Document Server

    Briand, Danick; Roundy, Shad

    2015-01-01

    With its inclusion of the fundamentals, systems and applications, this reference provides readers with the basics of micro energy conversion along with expert knowledge on system electronics and real-life microdevices. The authors address different aspects of energy harvesting at the micro scale with a focus on miniaturized and microfabricated devices. Along the way they provide an overview of the field by compiling knowledge on the design, materials development, device realization and aspects of system integration, covering emerging technologies, as well as applications in power management, e

  17. Thermoelectrics and its energy harvesting

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rowe, David Michael

    2012-01-01

    .... It details the latest techniques for the preparation of thermoelectric materials employed in energy harvesting, together with advances in the thermoelectric characterisation of nanoscale material...

  18. Stand, Harvest, and Equipment Interactions in Simulated Harvesting Prescriptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jingxin Wang; W. Dale Greene; Bryce J. Stokes

    1998-01-01

    We evaluated potential interactions of stand type, harvesting method, and equipment in an experiment using interactive simulation. We examined three felling methods (chain saw, feller-buncher, harvester) and two extraction methods (grapple skidder and forwarder) performing clearcuts, sheltenvood cuts, and single-tree selection cuts in both an uneven-aged natural stand...

  19. Microalgae harvesting techniques: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gulab; Patidar, S K

    2018-07-01

    Microalgae with wide range of commercial applications have attracted a lot of attention of the researchers in the last few decades. However, microalgae utilization is not economically sustainable due to high cost of harvesting. A wide range of solid - liquid separation techniques are available for microalgae harvesting. The techniques include coagulation and flocculation, flotation, centrifugation and filtration or a combination of various techniques. Despite the importance of harvesting to the economics and energy balance, there is no universal harvesting technique for microalgae. Therefore, this review focuses on assessing technical, economical and application potential of various harvesting techniques so as to allow selection of an appropriate technology for cost effectively harvesting of microalgae from their culture medium. Various harvesting and concentrating techniques of microalgae were reviewed to suggest order of suitability of the techniques for four main microalgae applications i.e biofuel, human and animal food, high valued products, and water quality restoration. For deciding the order of suitability, a comparative analysis of various harvesting techniques based on the six common criterions (i.e biomass quality, cost, biomass quantity, processing time, species specific and toxicity) has been done. Based on the order of various techniques vis-a-vis various criteria and preferred order of criteria for various applications, order of suitability of harvesting techniques for various applications has been decided. Among various harvesting techniques, coagulation and flocculation, centrifugation and filtration were found to be most suitable for considered applications. These techniques may be used alone or in combination for increasing the harvesting efficiency. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Energy harvesting water vehicle

    KAUST Repository

    Singh, Devendra

    2018-01-04

    An efficient energy harvesting (EEH) water vehicle is disclosed. The base of the EEH water vehicle is fabricated with rolling cylindrical drums that can rotate freely in the same direction of the water medium. The drums reduce the drag at the vehicle-water interface. This reduction in drag corresponds to an increase in speed and/or greater fuel efficiency. The mechanical energy of the rolling cylindrical drums is also transformed into electrical energy using an electricity producing device, such as a dynamo or an alternator. Thus, the efficiency of the vehicle is enhanced in two parallel modes: from the reduction in drag at the vehicle-water interface, and from capturing power from the rotational motion of the drums.

  1. Power harvesting in helicopter rotorblades

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Pieter; de Boer, Andries; Loendersloot, Richard; van der Hoogt, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Current power harvesting research has focused on bending beams and determining power output under a given excitation. For the European CleanSky – Green Rotor Craft project a tool is being developed which optimizes the piezoelectric material and placement thereof for power harvesting. It focuses on

  2. Radio Frequency Energy Harvesting Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Action NECHIBVUTE

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This radio frequency (RF energy harvesting is an emerging technology and research area that promises to produce energy to run low-power wireless devices. The great interest that has recently been paid to RF harvesting is predominantly driven by the great progress in both wireless communication systems and broadcasting technologies that have availed a lot of freely propagating ambient RF energy. The principle aim of an RF energy harvesting system is to convert the received ambient RF energy into usable DC power. This paper presents a state of the art concise review of RF energy harvesting sources for low power applications, and also discusses open research questions and future research directions on ambient RF energy harvesting.

  3. Harvesting a short rotation forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perttu, K L [ed.

    1984-12-01

    Willow and Sallow, considered of great interest for Swedish conditions, present new problems in harvesting. Traditional logging techniques offer few elements of equipment or methods. Light whips may be comminuted to a bulk product, easy to handle, difficult to store, requiring a hot logging system - and requiring a heavy, powerful harvester. Aggregating the material introduces an intermediate wood-fuel unit, suitable for storing, transport and infeed into any comminuter. If the harvester produced billets it would require less energy for its operation and it may be used for other purposes such as pre-commercial thinning or row thinning during the growing season. A few groups of designers have worked on analyses of requirements and possible solutions. Test rigs for severing and bundling were built and evaluated. Public funding was made available for design work on harvesters. Five groups were selected to produce layout designs of large and small harvesters. An evaluation procedure was performed, leading to selection of two concepts, slightly reworked from their original shapes. One is a large self-propelled front-sutting harvester, the other is a harvesting unit to be mounted on a suitable farm tractor. With 3 refs.

  4. HARVEST SEASON AND PHYSIOLOGICAL QUALITY OF ENTEROLOBIUM SCHOMBURGKII SEEDS. BENTH.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Mojena

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to evaluate the physiological quality of seeds Enterolobium shomburgkii collected in different months of the year 2014. There were made fruit harvests from trees located in the urban area of Sinop-MT, in the months of June, July, August and September. In each crop was rated the number of seeds per fruit, weight of 1,000 seeds, water content of the seeds, dry weight, germination percentage, germination speed index and it was also applied the electrical conductivity test. The results show that the harvest of Enterolobium schomburgkii seeds should be held in August and September

  5. Derriçadora portátil na colheita total e seletiva de frutos do cafeeiro Portable harvester in the total and selective harvesting of coffee fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Márcio Alves de Souza

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o desempenho de derriçadoras portáteis durante a colheita seletiva e total dos frutos, em dois sistemas de colheita. Foram determinados a carga pendente da planta, a capacidade de derriça, o índice de desfolha, a eficiência de derriça, o índice de frutos verdes no produto, o nível de ruído e o consumo horário e específico de combustível. O sistema de colheita, utilizando-se duas derriçadoras portáteis, simultaneamente na mesma fileira de cafeeiros, apresentou melhor desempenho. A colheita seletiva foi muito influenciada pela porcentagem de frutos maduros e carga pendente do cafeeiro.The objective of this work was to evaluate the performance of a portable coffee harvester to mountain areas. Two procedures were tested: harvesting all fruits in only one operation, and the selective harvesting. Coffee yield, harvesting capacity, index of leaves taken during harvesting process, harvesting efficiency, noise level and fuel consumption were measured. The harvesting system with two portable harvester presented better performance than with only one machine. Selective harvesting was highly influenced by the percentage of ripen fruits and by coffee yield.

  6. A bountiful spring harvest

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    Although we recently put the clocks forward and spring has officially begun, the view from my window looks more autumnal – befitting of the season of mists and mellow fruitfulness, rather than that of sowing seeds for the future. Which, in a way is appropriate. With the LHC paused, we are reaping a kind of harvest in the form of recognition for our efforts.   Two weeks ago, I was in Edinburgh, on behalf of everyone at CERN, to collect the Edinburgh medal, which we shared with Peter Higgs. I particularly like the citation for this honour: “The Edinburgh Medal is awarded each year to men and women of science and technology whose professional achievements are judged to have made a significant contribution to the understanding and well-being of humanity.” I like this, because it underlines a fact that needs to be shouted louder – that fundamental science does more than build the sum of human knowledge, it is also the foundation of human well-being. A few d...

  7. Mechanical harvesting of pumpkin seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Sito, Stjepan; Ivančan, Stjepan; Barković, Edi; Mucalo, Ana

    2009-01-01

    One of the key problems in production technology of pumpkin seed for oil production is mechanized harvesting and losses of seed during mechanical harvesting. The losses of pumpkin seed during mechanical harvesting at peripheral velocity of 1.57 m/s (optimally adjusted machine) were 4.4% for Gleisdorf species, 5.2% for Slovenska species and 7.8% for pumpkin with husk. The higher average losses of pumpkin seed with husk were caused by tight connection of seed and pumpkin fruit.

  8. Influence of harvest time on the composition and quality of Rosinjola cultivar virgin olive oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivera Koprivnjak

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this investigation was to determine the influence of Rosinjola cultivar fruits harvest time on oil content in olive pastes and on composition and quality of obtained oils. In the late harvest time the higher value of oil in the dry matter of olive paste was determined than in the early harvest time, but the late harvest negatively affected oil quality parameters. The proportion of oleic acid decreased slightly in the late harvest time and linoleic acid increased. The ratio of oleic/linoleic acid, total phenols and ortho-diphenols, as well as bitterness index and antioxidant capacity decreased in the oil obtained from black fruit. Late harvest time influenced the decrease in chlorophyll and carotenoid content and color parameter values (a*, b* and C in obtained oils, but lightness (L* increased. The concentration of volatiles responsible for positive odour of Rosinjola oils decreased, except for aldehydes which increased slightly. Sensory score of oil obtained from the late harvest time decreased, as well as intensities of sensory characteristics olive fruity, apple, green grass, bitter and pungent, while the intensities of characteristics sweet and ripe fruits increased. Oils obtained in the early harvest time were described as harmonious and astringent with pronounced green odour notes, and oils obtained in the late harvest time as overripe and without freshness. The obtained results are important for optimal harvest time determination and understanding the potential of Rosinjola cultivar for production of high quality virgin olive oil with targeted and specific characteristics.

  9. Controlling Light Harvesting with Light

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gwizdala, M.S.; Berera, R.; Kirilovsky, D.; van Grondelle, R.; Kruger, T.P.J.

    2016-01-01

    When exposed to intense sunlight, all organisms performing oxygenic photosynthesis implement various photoprotective strategies to prevent potentially lethal photodamage. The rapidly responding photoprotective mechanisms, occurring in the light-harvesting pigment-protein antennae, take effect within

  10. Magnetic Nanocomposite Cilia Energy Harvester

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Mohammed Asadullah

    2016-02-11

    An energy harvester capable of converting low frequency vibrations into electrical energy is presented. The operating principle, fabrication process and output characteristics at different frequencies are discussed. The harvester is realized by fabricating an array of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) - iron nanowire nanocomposite cilia on a planar coil array. Each coil element consists of 14 turns and occupies an area of 600 μm x 600μm. The cilia are arranged in a 12x5 array and each cilium is 250 μm wide and 2 mm long. The magnetic characteristics of the fabricated cilia indicate that the nanowires are well aligned inside of the nanocomposite, increasing the efficiency of energy harvesting. The energy harvester occupies an area of 66.96 mm2 and produces an output r.m.s voltage of 206.47μV, when excited by a 40 Hz vibration of 1 mm amplitude.

  11. Energy harvesting on highway bridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    A concept for harvesting energy from the traffic-induced loadings on a highway bridge using piezoelectric : materials to generate electricity was explored through the prototype stage. A total of sixteen lead-zirconate : titanate (PZT) Type 5A piezoel...

  12. SUBJECT INDEX

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Northern Central Indian Ridge and their geodynamic implications. 659 ... during winter over a tropical inland station –. Kharagpur .... potential water harvesting sites in the Kali Water- shed, Mahi .... late organic carbon (POC) in the Northeastern Gulf of Mexico. 1 ... Quasi-periodic VLF emissions observed during daytime at a ...

  13. Harvester operator learnig efficiency analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Malovrh, Špela; Košir, Boštjan; Krč, Janez

    2004-01-01

    The article considers the possibilities of training future harvester operators. The course of learning with a simulator is described and analysed on the first such example in Slovenia. The times of individual processes are measured in two candidates. The paper describes the operation of a learning simulator for work on the harvester Timberjack 1270 D and the proceedings of aone-week course. A comparison between candidates regarding the consumption oftime and number of damages to the virtual m...

  14. Performance evaluation of prototype mechanical cassava harvester ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Large-scale cassava harvesting, especially during the dry season, is a major constraint to its industrial demand and commercial production. Manual harvesting is slow and ... Results from field trials showed prototype harvesters weighing 268 – 310 kg can achieve optimum performance on ridged landforms. When harvested ...

  15. heteroHarvest: Harvesting Information from Heterogeneous Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qureshi, Pir Abdul Rasool; Memon, Nasrullah; Wiil, Uffe Kock

    2011-01-01

    The abundance of information regarding any topic makes the Internet a very good resource. Even though searching the Internet is very easy, what remains difficult is to automate the process of information extraction from the available online information due to the lack of structure and the diversity...... in the sharing methods. Most of the times, information is stored in different proprietary formats, complying with different standards and protocols which makes tasks like data mining and information harvesting very difficult. In this paper, an information harvesting tool (heteroHarvest) is presented...... with objectives to address these problems by filtering the useful information and then normalizing the information in a singular non hypertext format. Finally we describe the results of experimental evaluation. The results are found promising with an overall error rate equal to 6.5% across heterogeneous formats....

  16. A Hip Implant Energy Harvester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pancharoen, K.; Zhu, D.; Beeby, S. P.

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents a kinetic energy harvester designed to be embedded in a hip implant which aims to operate at a low frequency associated with body motion of patients. The prototype is designed based on the constrained volume available in a hip prosthesis and the challenge is to harvest energy from low frequency movements (< 1 Hz) which is an average frequency during free walking of a patient. The concept of magnetic-force-driven energy harvesting is applied to this prototype considering the hip movements during routine activities of patients. The magnetic field within the harvester was simulated using COMSOL. The simulated resonant frequency was around 30 Hz and the voltage induced in a coil was predicted to be 47.8 mV. A prototype of the energy harvester was fabricated and tested. A maximum open circuit voltage of 39.43 mV was obtained and the resonant frequency of 28 Hz was observed. Moreover, the power output of 0.96 μW was achieved with an optimum resistive load of 250Ω.

  17. A Hip Implant Energy Harvester

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pancharoen, K; Zhu, D; Beeby, S P

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a kinetic energy harvester designed to be embedded in a hip implant which aims to operate at a low frequency associated with body motion of patients. The prototype is designed based on the constrained volume available in a hip prosthesis and the challenge is to harvest energy from low frequency movements (< 1 Hz) which is an average frequency during free walking of a patient. The concept of magnetic-force-driven energy harvesting is applied to this prototype considering the hip movements during routine activities of patients. The magnetic field within the harvester was simulated using COMSOL. The simulated resonant frequency was around 30 Hz and the voltage induced in a coil was predicted to be 47.8 mV. A prototype of the energy harvester was fabricated and tested. A maximum open circuit voltage of 39.43 mV was obtained and the resonant frequency of 28 Hz was observed. Moreover, the power output of 0.96 μW was achieved with an optimum resistive load of 250Ω

  18. Computer Vision for Timber Harvesting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Anders Lindbjerg

    The goal of this thesis is to investigate computer vision methods for timber harvesting operations. The background for developing computer vision for timber harvesting is to document origin of timber and to collect qualitative and quantitative parameters concerning the timber for efficient harvest...... segments. The purpose of image segmentation is to make the basis for more advanced computer vision methods like object recognition and classification. Our second method concerns image classification and we present a method where we classify small timber samples to tree species based on Active Appearance...... to the development of the logTracker system the described methods have a general applicability making them useful for many other computer vision problems....

  19. Walkability Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Walkability Index dataset characterizes every Census 2010 block group in the U.S. based on its relative walkability. Walkability depends upon characteristics of the built environment that influence the likelihood of walking being used as a mode of travel. The Walkability Index is based on the EPA's previous data product, the Smart Location Database (SLD). Block group data from the SLD was the only input into the Walkability Index, and consisted of four variables from the SLD weighted in a formula to create the new Walkability Index. This dataset shares the SLD's block group boundary definitions from Census 2010. The methodology describing the process of creating the Walkability Index can be found in the documents located at ftp://newftp.epa.gov/EPADataCommons/OP/WalkabilityIndex.zip. You can also learn more about the Smart Location Database at https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/OP/Smart_Location_DB_v02b.zip.

  20. Varying plant density and harvest time to optimize cowpea leaf yield and nutrient content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohler, T. A.; Nielsen, S. S.; Mitchell, C. A.

    1996-01-01

    Plant density and harvest time were manipulated to optimize vegetative (foliar) productivity of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] canopies for future dietary use in controlled ecological life-support systems as vegetables or salad greens. Productivity was measured as total shoot and edible dry weights (DW), edible yield rate [(EYR) grams DW per square meter per day], shoot harvest index [(SHI) grams DW per edible gram DW total shoot], and yield-efficiency rate [(YER) grams DW edible per square meter per day per grams DW nonedible]. Cowpeas were grown in a greenhouse for leaf-only harvest at 14, 28, 42, 56, 84, or 99 plants/m2 and were harvested 20, 30, 40, or 50 days after planting (DAP). Shoot and edible dry weights increased as plant density and time to harvest increased. A maximum of 1189 g shoot DW/m2 and 594 g edible DW/m2 were achieved at an estimated plant density of 85 plants/m2 and harvest 50 DAP. EYR also increased as plant density and time to harvest increased. An EYR of 11 g m-2 day-1 was predicted to occur at 86 plants/m2 and harvest 50 DAP. SHI and YER were not affected by plant density. However, the highest values of SHI (64%) and YER (1.3 g m-2 day-1 g-1) were attained when cowpeas were harvested 20 DAP. The average fat and ash contents [dry-weight basis (dwb)] of harvested leaves remained constant regardless of harvest time. Average protein content increased from 25% DW at 30 DAP to 45% DW at 50 DAP. Carbohydrate content declined from 50% DW at 30 DAP to 45% DW at 50 DAP. Total dietary fiber content (dwb) of the leaves increased from 19% to 26% as time to harvest increased from 20 to 50 days.

  1. Cantilever piezoelectric energy harvester with multiple cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    S Srinivasulu Raju; M Umapathy; G Uma

    2015-01-01

    Energy harvesting employing piezoelectric materials in mechanical structures such as cantilever beams, plates, diaphragms, etc, has been an emerging area of research in recent years. The research in this area is also focused on structural tailoring to improve the harvested power from the energy harvesters. Towards this aim, this paper presents a method for improving the harvested power from a cantilever piezoelectric energy harvester by introducing multiple rectangular cavities. A generalized model for a piezoelectric energy harvester with multiple rectangular cavities at a single section and two sections is developed. A method is suggested to optimize the thickness of the cavities and the number of cavities required to generate a higher output voltage for a given cantilever beam structure. The performance of the optimized energy harvesters is evaluated analytically and through experimentation. The simulation and experimental results show that the performance of the energy harvester can be increased with multiple cavities compared to the harvester with a single cavity. (paper)

  2. Harvest of table olives by mechanical harvesting equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Gambella

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we have evaluated the performance, of an electric comb equipped with five undulated fingers used for mechanized the harvesting of table olives. The first aim of the work was to test three different types of coating materials used for covering the fingers: Silicon (S, Vulcanized rubber (VR and Natural rubber (NR. The diameter of the coating materials tested were 7mm (D1, 14 mm (D2, 19 mm (D3 in order to evaluate the damage of different working conditions on the intact olives. During harvesting, silicon at 7mm and 14mm resulted in the largest percentage of undamaged the fruit (67% and 65%, natural rubber 63% and vulcanized rubber at the 54%. The second aim was to evaluate the combination, in terms of the best performance, of the machines used for mechanized harvesting of table olives. Several factors have been examined: undulating fingers variation thickness, different rotational speeds and different coating materials used to reduce the impact damage on olives. From the tests on olive tree we have determined that while plastic materials (S and (NR appear to have a positive role in harvest quality, the vibration transmitted to the operator’s hand is great from 6.48 m/s2 for S to 6.31 m/ s2 for NR and 2.92 m/s2 for VR, respect to the materials used.

  3. AP Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Planetary Amplitude index - Bartels 1951. The a-index ranges from 0 to 400 and represents a K-value converted to a linear scale in gammas (nanoTeslas)--a scale that...

  4. Triboelectric effect in energy harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logothetis, I.; Vassiliadis, S.; Siores, E.

    2017-10-01

    With the development of wearable technology, much research has been undertaken in the field of flexible and stretchable electronics for use in interactive attire. The challenging problem wearable technology faces is the ability to provide energy whilst keeping the endproduct comfortable, light, ergonomic and nonintrusive. Energy harvesting, or energy scavenging as it is also known, is the process by which ambient energy is captured and converted into electric energy. The triboelectric effect converts mechanical energy into electrical energy based on the coupling effect of triboelectrification and electrostatic induction and is utilized as the basis for triboelectric generators (TEG). TEG’s are promising for energy harvesting due their high output power and efficiency in conjunction with simple and economical production. Due to the wide availability of materials and ease of integration, in order to produce the triboelectric effect such functional materials are effective for wearable energy harvesting systems. Flexible TEG’s can be built and embedded into attire, although a thorough understanding of the underlying principle of how TEG’s operate needs to be comprehended for the development and in incorporation in smart technical textiles. This paper presents results associated with TEG’S and discusses their suitability for energy harvesting in textiles structures.

  5. Post-harvest loss reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gogh, van Bart; Boerrigter, Henry; Noordam, Maryvon; Ruben, Ruerd; Timmermans, Toine

    2017-01-01

    This paper was written by experts from Wageningen University & Research (WUR), representing their combined expertise on food chains, post-harvest technology, sustainability, food security, economics, and food safety. The paper was drafted at the request of the Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs

  6. Fluid flow nozzle energy harvesters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Lee, Hyeong Jae; Walkemeyer, Phillip; Winn, Tyler; Tosi, Luis Phillipe; Colonius, Tim

    2015-04-01

    Power generation schemes that could be used downhole in an oil well to produce about 1 Watt average power with long-life (decades) are actively being developed. A variety of proposed energy harvesting schemes could be used to extract energy from this environment but each of these has their own limitations that limit their practical use. Since vibrating piezoelectric structures are solid state and can be driven below their fatigue limit, harvesters based on these structures are capable of operating for very long lifetimes (decades); thereby, possibly overcoming a principle limitation of existing technology based on rotating turbo-machinery. An initial survey [1] identified that spline nozzle configurations can be used to excite a vibrating piezoelectric structure in such a way as to convert the abundant flow energy into useful amounts of electrical power. This paper presents current flow energy harvesting designs and experimental results of specific spline nozzle/ bimorph design configurations which have generated suitable power per nozzle at or above well production analogous flow rates. Theoretical models for non-dimensional analysis and constitutive electromechanical model are also presented in this paper to optimize the flow harvesting system.

  7. Spring harvest of corn stover

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lizotte, P.L. [Laval Univ., Quebec City, PQ (Canada). Dept. des sols et de genie agroalimentaire; Savoie, P. [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Quebec City, PQ (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Corn stover is typically left behind in the field after grain harvest. Although part of the stover should remain in the field for soil organic matter renewal and erosion protection, half of the stover could be removed sustainably. This represents about one million t dry matter (DM) of stover per year in the province of Quebec. Stover harvested in the fall is very wet. While there are applications for wet stover, the available markets currently require a dry product. Preliminary measurements have shown that stover left in the field throughout the winter becomes very dry, and a considerable amount would still be harvestable in the spring. In the spring of 2009, corn stover was harvested at 2 sites, each subdivided into 2 parcels. The first parcel was cut and raked in the fall of 2008 (fall parcel), while the second parcel was cut and raked in spring 2009. Fibre from both parcels was baled in the spring 2009. At the first site, a large square baler was used in late April to produce bales measuring 0.8 m x 0.9 m x 1.8 m. On the second site a round baler was used in late May to produce bales of 1.2 m in width by 1.45 m in diameter. On the second site, a small square baler was also used to produce bales of 0.35 m x 0.45 m x 0.60 m (spring cutting only). With the large square baler, an average of 3.9 t DM/ha was harvested equally on the fall parcel and the spring parcel, representing a 48 per cent recovery of biomass based on stover yields.

  8. Nyala and Bushbuck II: A Harvesting Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fay, Temple H.; Greeff, Johanna C.

    1999-01-01

    Adds a cropping or harvesting term to the animal overpopulation model developed in Part I of this article. Investigates various harvesting strategies that might suggest a solution to the overpopulation problem without actually culling any animals. (ASK)

  9. Electrodynamic energy harvester for electrical transformer's ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Electrical transformer; electrodynamic; energy harvester; self-powered ...... Kennedy S P and Gordner T 2013 Hot spot studies for sheet wound transformer wind- ... and Lambert F 2011 Powering low-cost utility sensors using energy harvesting.

  10. Performance Limits of Communication with Energy Harvesting

    KAUST Repository

    Znaidi, Mohamed Ridha

    2016-01-01

    In energy harvesting communications, the transmitters have to adapt transmission to the availability of energy harvested during communication. The performance of the transmission depends on the channel conditions which vary randomly due to mobility

  11. Electronically droplet energy harvesting using piezoelectric cantilevers

    KAUST Repository

    Al Ahmad, Mahmoud Al; Jabbour, Ghassan E.

    2012-01-01

    A report is presented on free falling droplet energy harvesting using piezoelectric cantilevers. The harvester incorporates a multimorph clamped-free cantilever which is composed of five layers of lead zirconate titanate piezoelectric thick films

  12. Identifying yield-optimizing environments for two cowpea breeding lines by manipulating photoperiod and harvest scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohler, T. A.; Mitchell, C. A.

    1996-01-01

    Photoperiod and harvest scenario of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) canopies were manipulated to optimize productivity for use in future controlled ecological life-support systems. Productivity was measured by edible yield rate (EYR:g m-2 day-1), shoot harvest index (SHI: g edible biomass [g total shoot dry weight]), and yield-efficiency rate (YER:g edible biomass m-2 day-1 per[g nonedible shoot dry weight]). Breeding lines 'IT84S-2246' (S-2246) and "IT82D-889' (D-889) were grown in a greenhouse under 8-, 12-, or 24-h photoperiods. S-2246 was short-day and D-889 was day-neutral for flowering. Under each photoperiod, cowpeas were harvested either for leaves only, seeds only, or leaves plus seeds (mixed harvest). Photoperiod did not affect EYR of either breeding line for any harvest scenario tested. Averaged over both breeding lines, seed harvest gave the highest EYR at 6.7 g m-2 day-1. The highest SHI (65%) and YER (94 mg m-2 day-1 g-1) were achieved for leaf-only harvest of D-889 under an 8-h photoperiod. For leaf-only harvest of S-2246, both SHI and YER increased with increasing photoperiod, but declined for seed-only and mixed harvests. However, photoperiod had no effect on SHI or YER for D-889 for any harvest scenario. A second experiment utilized the short-day cowpea breeding line 'IT89KD-288' (D-288) and the day-neutral breeding line 'IT87D-941-1' (D-941) to compare yield parameters using photoperiod extension under differing lamp types. This experiment confirmed the photoperiod responses of D-889 and S-2246 to a mixed-harvest scenario and indicated that daylength extension with higher irradiance from high pressure sodium lamps further suppressed EYR, SHI, and YER of the short-day breeding line D-288.

  13. Energy harvesting devices for harvesting energy from terahertz electromagnetic radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novack, Steven D.; Kotter, Dale K.; Pinhero, Patrick J.

    2012-10-09

    Methods, devices and systems for harvesting energy from electromagnetic radiation are provided including harvesting energy from electromagnetic radiation. In one embodiment, a device includes a substrate and one or more resonance elements disposed in or on the substrate. The resonance elements are configured to have a resonant frequency, for example, in at least one of the infrared, near-infrared and visible light spectra. A layer of conductive material may be disposed over a portion of the substrate to form a ground plane. An optical resonance gap or stand-off layer may be formed between the resonance elements and the ground plane. The optical resonance gap extends a distance between the resonance elements and the layer of conductive material approximately one-quarter wavelength of a wavelength of the at least one resonance element's resonant frequency. At least one energy transfer element may be associated with the at least one resonance element.

  14. Waste energy harvesting mechanical and thermal energies

    CERN Document Server

    Ling Bing, Kong; Hng, Huey Hoon; Boey, Freddy; Zhang, Tianshu

    2014-01-01

    Waste Energy Harvesting overviews the latest progress in waste energy harvesting technologies, with specific focusing on waste thermal mechanical energies. Thermal energy harvesting technologies include thermoelectric effect, storage through phase change materials and pyroelectric effect. Waste mechanical energy harvesting technologies include piezoelectric (ferroelectric) effect with ferroelectric materials and nanogenerators. The book aims to strengthen the syllabus in energy, materials and physics and is well suitable for students and professionals in the fields.

  15. PhysDoc: A Distributed Network of Physics Institutions: Collecting, Indexing, and Searching High Quality Documents by Using Harvest; The Dublin Core Metadata Initiative: Mission, Current Activities, and Future Directions; Information Services for Higher Education: A New Competitive Space; Intellectual Property Conservancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severiens, Thomas; Hohlfeld, Michael; Zimmermann, Kerstin; Hilf, Eberhard R.; von Ossietzky, Carl; Weibel, Stuart L.; Koch, Traugott; Hughes, Carol Ann; Bearman, David

    2000-01-01

    Includes four articles that discuss a variety to topics, including a distributed network of physics institutions documents called PhysDocs which harvests information from the local Web-servers of professional physics institutions; the Dublin Core metadata initiative; information services for higher education in a competitive environment; and…

  16. Automated visual fruit detection for harvest estimation and robotic harvesting

    OpenAIRE

    Puttemans, Steven; Vanbrabant, Yasmin; Tits, Laurent; Goedemé, Toon

    2016-01-01

    Fully automated detection and localisation of fruit in orchards is a key component in creating automated robotic harvesting systems, a dream of many farmers around the world to cope with large production and personnel costs. In recent years a lot of research on this topic has been performed, using basic computer vision techniques, like colour based segmentation, as a suggested solution. When not using standard RGB cameras, research tends to resort to other sensors, like hyper spectral or 3D. ...

  17. AA Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The geomagnetic aa index provides a long climatology of global geomagnetic activity using 2 antipodal observatories at Greenwich and Melbourne- IAGA Bulletin 37,...

  18. Walkability Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Walkability Index dataset characterizes every Census 2010 block group in the U.S. based on its relative walkability. Walkability depends upon characteristics of...

  19. Diversity Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Town of Chapel Hill, North Carolina — This map service summarizes racial and ethnic diversity in the United States in 2012.The Diversity Index shows the likelihood that two persons chosen at random from...

  20. AUTHOR INDEX

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    a granitic terrain of southern India using factor analysis and GIS. 1059. Radhakrishna M see Dev Sheena V .... Landslide susceptibility analysis using Probabilistic. Certainty Factor ... index via entropy-difference analysis. 687. Yidana Sandow ...

  1. Harvesting systems for the northern forest hardwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chris B. LeDoux

    2011-01-01

    This monograph is a summary of research results and environmental compliance measures for timber harvesting operations. Data are presented from the Northern Research Station's forest inventory and analysis of 20 states in the northern forest hardwoods. Harvesting systems available in the region today are summarized. Equations for estimating harvesting costs are...

  2. Approaches to automated protein crystal harvesting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deller, Marc C., E-mail: mdeller@scripps.edu; Rupp, Bernhard, E-mail: mdeller@scripps.edu

    2014-01-28

    Approaches to automated and robot-assisted harvesting of protein crystals are critically reviewed. While no true turn-key solutions for automation of protein crystal harvesting are currently available, systems incorporating advanced robotics and micro-electromechanical systems represent exciting developments with the potential to revolutionize the way in which protein crystals are harvested.

  3. Intelligent indexing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farkas, J.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the relevance of artificial intelligence to the automatic indexing of natural language text. We describe the use of domain-specific semantically-based thesauruses and address the problem of creating adequate knowledge bases for intelligent indexing systems. We also discuss the relevance of the Hilbert space ι 2 to the compact representation of documents and to the definition of the similarity of natural language texts. (author). 17 refs., 2 figs

  4. Intelligent indexing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farkas, J

    1993-12-31

    In this paper we discuss the relevance of artificial intelligence to the automatic indexing of natural language text. We describe the use of domain-specific semantically-based thesauruses and address the problem of creating adequate knowledge bases for intelligent indexing systems. We also discuss the relevance of the Hilbert space {iota}{sup 2} to the compact representation of documents and to the definition of the similarity of natural language texts. (author). 17 refs., 2 figs.

  5. Toward a semi-mechanical harvesting platform system for harvesting blueberries with fresh-market quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major concerns related to harvesting blueberries for fresh market with over-the-row (OTR) harvesters are that the quality of the fruit harvested with OTR machines is generally low and ground loss is excessive. Machine-harvested blueberries have more internal bruise and usually soften rapidly in col...

  6. Harvesting NASA's Common Metadata Repository

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shum, D.; Mitchell, A. E.; Durbin, C.; Norton, J.

    2017-12-01

    As part of NASA's Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS), the Common Metadata Repository (CMR) stores metadata for over 30,000 datasets from both NASA and international providers along with over 300M granules. This metadata enables sub-second discovery and facilitates data access. While the CMR offers a robust temporal, spatial and keyword search functionality to the general public and international community, it is sometimes more desirable for international partners to harvest the CMR metadata and merge the CMR metadata into a partner's existing metadata repository. This poster will focus on best practices to follow when harvesting CMR metadata to ensure that any changes made to the CMR can also be updated in a partner's own repository. Additionally, since each partner has distinct metadata formats they are able to consume, the best practices will also include guidance on retrieving the metadata in the desired metadata format using CMR's Unified Metadata Model translation software.

  7. Forage Harvest and Transport Costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, J.; Downing, M.; Turhollow, A.

    1998-12-01

    An engineering-economic approach is used to calculate harvest, in-field transport, and over-the-road transport costs for hay as bales and modules, silage, and crop residues as bales and modules. Costs included are equipment depreciation interest; fuel, lube, and oil; repairs; insurance, housing, and taxes; and labor. Field preparation, pest control, fertilizer, land, and overhead are excluded from the costs calculated Equipment is constrained by power available, throughput or carrying capacity, and field speed.

  8. Virginia ESI: INDEX (Index Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector polygons representing the boundaries of all hardcopy cartographic products produced as part of the Environmental Sensitivity Index...

  9. Review of magnetostrictive vibration energy harvesters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Zhangxian; Dapino, Marcelo J.

    2017-10-01

    The field of energy harvesting has grown concurrently with the rapid development of portable and wireless electronics in which reliable and long-lasting power sources are required. Electrochemical batteries have a limited lifespan and require periodic recharging. In contrast, vibration energy harvesters can supply uninterrupted power by scavenging useful electrical energy from ambient structural vibrations. This article reviews the current state of vibration energy harvesters based on magnetostrictive materials, especially Terfenol-D and Galfenol. Existing magnetostrictive harvester designs are compared in terms of various performance metrics. Advanced techniques that can reduce device size and improve performance are presented. Models for magnetostrictive devices are summarized to guide future harvester designs.

  10. Sustainable harvest of waterbirds: a global review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kanstrup, Niels

    ABSTRACT Waterbirds have a long tradition of being harvested in various ways. In many countries, the harvest takes place as a primary food source, but recreational hunting is also very popular. Various methods are used. Subsistence hunting of waterbirds has a history that dates back to the dawn...... and the degree of stability in local communities obtained through nature conservation. In many countries there is a long tradition of detailed wildlife harvest management including programmes for bag surveys and monitoring of harvest levels. In most countries, however, the management of waterbird harvests...

  11. Issues in vibration energy harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Corr, Lawrence R.; Ma, Tianwei

    2018-05-01

    In this study, fundamental issues related to bandwidth and nonlinear resonance in vibrational energy harvesting devices are investigated. The results show that using bandwidth as a criterion to measure device performance can be misleading. For a linear device, an enlarged bandwidth is achieved at the cost of sacrificing device performance near resonance, and thus widening the bandwidth may offer benefits only when the natural frequency of the linear device cannot match the dominant excitation frequency. For a nonlinear device, since the principle of superposition does not apply, the ''broadband" performance improvements achieved for single-frequency excitations may not be achievable for multi-frequency excitations. It is also shown that a large-amplitude response based on the traditional ''nonlinear resonance" does not always result in the optimal performance for a nonlinear device because of the negative work done by the excitation, which indicates energy is returned back to the excitation. Such undesired negative work is eliminated at global resonance, a generalized resonant condition for both linear and nonlinear systems. While the linear resonance is a special case of global resonance for a single-frequency excitation, the maximum potential of nonlinear energy harvesting can be reached for multi-frequency excitations by using global resonance to simultaneously harvest energy distributed over multiple frequencies.

  12. Harvesting Information from Heterogeneous Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qureshi, Pir Abdul Rasool; Memon, Nasrullah; Wiil, Uffe Kock

    2011-01-01

    The abundance of information regarding any topic makes the Internet a very good resource. Even though searching the Internet is very easy, what remains difficult is to automate the process of information extraction from the available online information due to the lack of structure and the diversi...... with performance of our tool with respect to each format. Finally, the different potential applications of the proposed tool are discussed with special emphasis on open source intelligence....... in the sharing methods. Most of the times, information is stored in different proprietary formats, complying with different standards and protocols which makes tasks like data mining and information harvesting very difficult. In this paper, an information harvesting tool (heteroHarvest) is presented...... with objectives to address these problems by filtering the useful information and then normalizing the information in a singular non hypertext format. We also discuss state of the art tools along with the shortcomings and present the results of an analysis carried out over different heterogeneous formats along...

  13. Autotransplantation donor tooth site harvesting using piezosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ylikontiola, Leena P; Sándor, George K

    2016-01-01

    The harvesting of a tooth as a candidate for tooth autotransplantation requires that the delicate dental tissues around the tooth be minimally traumatized. This is especially so for the periradicular tissues of the tooth root and the follicular tissues surrounding the crown. The aim of this report is to describe the use of piezosurgery as an attempt at morbidity reduction in the harvesting of teeth for autotransplantation. A piezosurgical handpiece and its selection of tips were easily adapted to allow the harvesting and delivery of teeth for autotransplantation purposes. Twenty premolar teeth were harvested using a piezosurgical device. The harvested teeth were subsequently successfully autotransplanted. All twenty teeth healed in a satisfactory manner without excessive mobility or ankyloses. Piezosurgery avoids some of the traumatic aspects of harvesting teeth and removing bone which are associated with thermal damage from the use of conventional rotary instruments or saws. Piezosurgery can be adapted to facilitate the predictable harvesting of teeth for autotransplantation purposes.

  14. Indexing mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, A.G.; Parker, G.E.; Berry, R.

    1976-01-01

    It is stated that the indexing mechanism described can be used in a nuclear reactor fuel element inspection rig. It comprises a tubular body adapted to house a canister containing a number of fuel elements located longtitudinally, and has two chucks spaced apart for displacing the fuel elements longitudinally in a stepwise manner, together with a plunger mechanism for displacing them successively into the chucks. A measuring unit is located between the chucks for measuring the diameter of the fuel elements at intervals about their circumferences, and a secondary indexing mechanism is provided for rotating the measuring unit in a stepwise manner. (U.K.)

  15. Author Index

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    user1

    Astr. (2012) 33, 419–420. Author Index. 419. AGGARWAL SUNNY. Photoionization Cross-Section of Chlorine-like Iron, 291. AMBASTHA ASHOK see Das, A. C., 1. ARAKIDA HIDEYOSHI. Effect of Inhomogeneity of the Universe on a Gravitationally. Bound Local System: A No-Go Result for Explaining the Secular Increase in.

  16. AUTHOR INDEX

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    automorphic solutions to fractional order abstract integro-differential equations. 323. Afrouzi G A see Ala Samira ... 521. Agarwal Praveen. Certain fractional integral operators and the generalized multi-index Mittag- ... of positive solutions for sys- tems of second order multi-point bound- ary value problems on time scales 353.

  17. Efeito da aplicação de etileno no pH, acidez, índice refratométrico e açúcares totais de frutos de manga, colhidos em estágio pré-climatérico Effect of ethylene application on pH, acidity, refratometric index and total sugar of mango fruits, harvested in the pre-climateric stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.C.C. Coneglian

    1993-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo o estudo da ação do etileno no amadurecimento de frutos de manga, tentando contribuir para o conhecimento da fisiologia do amadurecimento destes frutos. Foram utilizadas mangas (Mangifera indica L., variedade Keitt, colhidas em estágio pré-climatérico. Estes frutos receberam tratamento com ethrel (500 e 1.000 ppm, com exceção da testemunha e foram submetidos às seguintes determinações: pH, acidez, índice refratométrico e açúcares totais. A análise e interpretação dos resultados mostrou a inexistência de diferença estatística entre esses 3 tratamentos, indicando que a aplicação de ethrel não trouxe nenhuma vantagem na melhoria de qualidade dos frutos.Ethylene action on mango fruits was studied in relation to the ripening physiology of these fruits. Mango (Mangifera indica L., Keitt variety, were harvested in the pre-climateric stage. These fruits, after receiving Ethrel treatment (500 e 1,000 ppni, except for control, were analized for pH, acidity, refratometric index and total sugars. The analysis and interpretation of the results showed no statistical differences among treatments, showing that ethrel didn't improve the fruits quality.

  18. Sustainability of Mangrove Harvesting: How do Harvesters' Perceptions Differ from Ecological Analysis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura López-Hoffman

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available To harvest biological resources sustainably, it is first necessary to understand what "sustainability" means in an ecological context, and what it means to the people who use the resources. As a case study, we examined the extractive logging of the mangrove Rhizophora mangle in the Río Limón area of Lake Maracaibo, in western Venezuela. The ecological definition of sustainable harvesting is harvesting that allows population numbers to be maintained or to increase over time. In interviews, the harvesters defined sustainable harvesting as levels permitting the maintenance of the mangrove population over two human generations, about 50 yr. In Río Limón, harvesters extract a combination of small adult and juvenile trees. Harvesting rates ranged from 7-35% of small adult trees. These harvesting levels would be sustainable according to the harvester's definition as long as juvenile harvesting was less than 40%. However, some harvesting levels that would be sustainable according to the harvesters were ecologically unsustainable, i.e., eventually causing declines in mangrove population numbers. It was also determined that the structure of mangrove forests was significantly affected by harvesting; even areas harvested at low, ecologically sustainable intensities had significantly fewer adult trees than undisturbed sites. Western Venezuela has no organized timber industry, so mangrove logs are used in many types of construction. A lagging economy and a lack of alternative construction materials make mangrove harvesting inevitable, and for local people, an economic necessity. This creates a trade-off between preserving the ecological characteristics of the mangrove population and responding to human needs. In order to resolve this situation, we recommended a limited and adaptive mangrove harvesting regime. We also suggest that harvesters could participate in community-based management programs as harvesting monitors.

  19. Applying New Technologies to Transform Blueberry Harvesting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumiomi Takeda

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The growth of the blueberry industry in the past three decades has been remarkably robust. However, a labor shortage for hand harvesting, increasingly higher labor costs, and low harvest efficiencies are becoming bottlenecks for sustainable development of the fresh market blueberry production. In this study, we evaluated semi-mechanical harvesting systems consisting of a harvest-aid platform with soft fruit catching surfaces that collected the fruit detached by portable, hand-held, pneumatic shakers. The softer fruit catching surfaces were not glued to the hard sub-surfaces of the harvest-aid platform, but suspended over them. Also, the ergonomic aspect of operating powered harvesting equipment was determined. The pneumatic shakers removed 3.5 to 15 times more fruit (g/min than by hand. Soft fruit catching surfaces reduced impact force and bruise damage. Fruit firmness was higher in fruit harvested by hand compared to that by pneumatic shakers in some cultivars. The bruise area was less than 8% in fruit harvested by hand and with semi-mechanical harvesting system. The percentage of blue, packable fruit harvested by pneumatic shakers comprised as much as 90% of the total, but less than that of hand-harvested fruit. The ergonomic analysis by electromyography showed that muscle strain in the back, shoulders, and forearms was low in workers operating the light-weight, pneumatic shakers that were tethered to the platform with a tool balancer. The new harvesting method can reduce the labor requirement to about 100 hour/hectare/year and help to mitigate the rising labor cost and shortage of workers for harvesting fresh-market quality blueberries.

  20. Climate Change Decouples Drought from Early Wine Grape Harvests in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Benjamin I.; Wolkovich, Elizabeth M.

    2016-01-01

    Across the world, wine grape phenology has advanced in recent decades, in step with climate-change-induced trends in temperature - the main driver of fruit maturation - and drought. Fully understanding how climate change contributes to changes in harvest dates, however, requires analysing wine grape phenology and its relationship to climate over a longer-term context, including data predating anthropogenic interference in the climate system. Here, we investigate the climatic controls of wine grape harvest dates from 1600-2007 in France and Switzerland using historical harvest and climate data. Early harvests occur with warmer temperatures (minus 6 days per degree Centigrade) and are delayed by wet conditions (plus 0.07 days per millimeter; plus 1.68 days per PDSI (Palmer drought severity index)) during spring and summer. In recent decades (1981-2007), however, the relationship between harvest timing and drought has broken down. Historically, high summer temperatures in Western Europe, which would hasten fruit maturation, required drought conditions to generate extreme heat. The relationship between drought and temperature in this region, however, has weakened in recent decades and enhanced warming from anthropogenic greenhouse gases can generate the high temperatures needed for early harvests without drought. Our results suggest that climate change has fundamentally altered the climatic drivers of early wine grape harvests in France, with possible ramifications for viticulture management and wine quality.

  1. Wideband Piezomagnetoelastic Vibration Energy Harvesting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lei, Anders; Thomsen, Erik Vilain

    2014-01-01

    This work presents a small-scale wideband piezomagnetoelastic vibration energy harvester (VEH) aimed for operation at frequencies of a few hundred Hz. The VEH consists of a tape-casted PZT cantilever with thin sheets of iron foil attached on each side of the free tip. The wideband operation...... is achieved by placing the cantilever in a magnetic field induced by either one or two magnets located oppositely of the cantilever. The attraction force created by the magnetic field and iron foils introduces a mechanical force in opposite direction of the cantilevers restoring force causing a spring...

  2. Integration with Energy Harvesting Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Williams

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on the design and implementation of a wireless sensor communication system with a low power consumption that allows it to be integrated with the energy harvesting technology. The system design and implementation focus on reducing the power consumption at three levels: hardware, software and data transmission. The reduction in power consumption, at hardware level in particular, is mainly achieved through the introduction of an energy-aware interface (EAI that ensures a smart inter-correlated management of the energy flow. The resulted system satisfies the requirements of a wireless sensor structure that possesses the energy autonomous capability.

  3. Energy-harvesting potential of automobile suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Múčka, Peter

    2016-12-01

    This study is aimed quantify dissipated power in a damper of automobile suspension to predict energy harvesting potential of a passenger car more accurately. Field measurements of power dissipation in a regenerative damper are still rare. The novelty is in using the broad database of real road profiles, a 9 degrees-of-freedom full-car model with real parameters, and a tyre-enveloping contact model. Results were presented as a function of road surface type, velocity and road roughness characterised by International Roughness Index. Results were calculated for 1600 test sections of a total length about 253.5 km. Root mean square of a dissipated power was calculated from 19 to 46 W for all four suspension dampers and velocity 60 km/h and from 24 to 58 W for velocity 90 km/h. Results were compared for a full-car model with a tyre-enveloping road contact, full-car and quarter-car models with a tyre-road point contact. Mean difference among three models in calculated power was a few per cent.

  4. Afghanistan Index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linnet, Poul Martin

    2007-01-01

    basis. The data are divided into different indicators such as security, polls, drug, social, economic, refugees etc. This represents a practical division and does not indicate that a picture as to for instance security can be obtained by solely looking at the data under security. In order to obtain...... a more valid picture on security this must incorporate an integrated look on all data meaning that for instance the economic data provides an element as to the whole picture of security.......The Afghanistan index is a compilation of quantitative and qualitative data on the reconstruction and security effort in Afghanistan. The index aims at providing data for benchmarking of the international performance and thus provides the reader with a quick possibility to retrieve valid...

  5. Flow Energy Piezoelectric Bimorph Nozzle Harvester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrit, Stewart (Inventor); Walkemeyer, Phillip E. (Inventor); Hall, Jeffrey L. (Inventor); Lee, Hyeong Jae (Inventor); Colonius, Tim (Inventor); Tosi, Phillipe (Inventor); Kim, Namhyo (Inventor); Sun, Kai (Inventor); Corbett, Thomas Gary (Inventor); Arrazola, Alvaro Jose (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A flow energy harvesting device having a harvester pipe includes a flow inlet that receives flow from a primary pipe, a flow outlet that returns the flow into the primary pipe, and a flow diverter within the harvester pipe having an inlet section coupled to the flow inlet, a flow constriction section coupled to the inlet section and positioned at a midpoint of the harvester pipe and having a spline shape with a substantially reduced flow opening size at a constriction point along the spline shape, and an outlet section coupled to the constriction section. The harvester pipe may further include a piezoelectric structure extending from the inlet section through the constriction section and point such that the fluid flow past the constriction point results in oscillatory pressure amplitude inducing vibrations in the piezoelectric structure sufficient to cause a direct piezoelectric effect and to generate electrical power for harvesting.

  6. Rooftop level rainwater harvesting system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traboulsi, Hayssam; Traboulsi, Marwa

    2017-05-01

    Unfortunately, in Lebanon and other countries in the Middle East region, water becomes scarcer than ever before, and over the last decades the demand on domestic water has increased due to population and economic growth. Although rainwater harvesting is considered to be a safe and reliable alternative source for domestic water, the inconvenience or impracticalities related to the cost and space needed for the construction of ground or underground storage tanks makes this practice not widely common in rural areas and rarely implemented in urban cities. This paper introduces a new technique to rainwater harvesting which can be easily used in both rural and urban areas: it collects and stores rainwater directly in tanks already installed on building roofs and not necessarily in special ground or underground ones. If widely adopted in Lebanon, this technique could help in: (1) collecting around 23 MCM (70 % of the current deficit in the domestic water supply) of rainwater and thus increasing the available water per m2 of building by 0.4 m3 per year, (2) saving around 7 % of the amount of electric energy usually needed to pump water from an aquifer well and ground or underground tank, and (3) considerably reducing the rate of surface runoff of rainwater at the coastal zones where rainwater is not captured at all and goes directly to the sea.

  7. Characterization of Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting MEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    of previously fabricated MEMS piezoelectric energy harvesters and use the results to optimize an advanced finite element model to be used in...possibilities of using solar power and the piezoelectric effect to harvest energy [12]. The design goal was to develop an energy harvester with a resonant... The piezoelectric properties of AlN are also relatively constant over a wide range of temperatures [7]. AlN was further characterized

  8. Apparatus and method for harvesting woody plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggen, D.L.

    1988-11-15

    A tree harvester for harvesting felled trees includes a wheel mounted wood chipper which moves toward the butt ends of the tree stems to be processed. The harvester includes a plurality of rotating alignment discs in front of the chipper. These discs align the tree stems to be processed with the mouth of the chipper. A chipper infeed cylinder is rotatably mounted between the discs and the front end of the chipper, and lifts the tree stem butts up from the ground into alignment with the chipper inlet port. The chips discharge from the chipper and go into a chip hopper which moves with the tree harvester. 8 figs.

  9. Energy-Harvesting Wireless Sensor Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fafoutis, Xenofon; Vuckovic, Dusan; Di Mauro, Alessio

    2012-01-01

    Energy Harvesting comprises a promising solution to one of the key problems faced by battery-powered Wireless Sensor Networks, namely the limited nature of the energy supply (finite battery capacity). By harvesting energy from the surrounding environment, the sensors can have a continuous lifetime...... Sensor Networks with energy harvesting capability....... without any needs for battery recharge or replacement. However, energy harvesting introduces a change to the fundamental principles based on which WSNs are designed and realized. In this poster we sketch some of the key research challenges as well as our ongoing work in designing and realizing Wireless...

  10. Microelectronic circuit design for energy harvesting systems

    CERN Document Server

    Di Paolo Emilio, Maurizio

    2017-01-01

    This book describes the design of microelectronic circuits for energy harvesting, broadband energy conversion, new methods and technologies for energy conversion. The author also discusses the design of power management circuits and the implementation of voltage regulators. Coverage includes advanced methods in low and high power electronics, as well as principles of micro-scale design based on piezoelectric, electromagnetic and thermoelectric technologies with control and conditioning circuit design. Provides a single-source reference to energy harvesting and its applications; Serves as a practical guide to microelectronics design for energy harvesting, with application to mobile power supplies; Enables readers to develop energy harvesting systems for wearable/mobile electronics.

  11. Red Guava Leaf Harvesting Impact on Flavonoid Optimation in Different Growth Phases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUNIF GHULAMAHDI

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Harvesting process is a critical time to identify the quality of raw material for traditional medicine. The time and harvesting techniques, drying process after harvesting, and processing to make the simplicia, are the crucial role to make the good quality of the natural product. On the other hand, there is a lack of general understanding and appreciation about the processes involved in governing shoot and tree growth and development, i.e. red guava. The research objective was to evaluate the influence of leaf harvesting and growth phases on red guava for flavonoid production as antioxidant. Randomized factorial block design in time were laid out with two factors and followed by Duncan’s multiple range test. The treatments were the amount of leaf harvested on tertiary branches (0, 25, 50, and 100% and growth phases of the plant (vegetative and generative. Leaf harvesting 25% on tertiary branches significantly increased the leaf number (766.3 tree-1 and the number of new quarternary branches, decreasing leaf area index (LAI and leaf dry weight at the end of the experiment (22 weeks of observation/WO. The highest leaf dry weight (156.94 g tree-1 and LAI (0.47 was found in harvesting 25% tertiary branches. Harvesting 100% leaf on tertiary branches in vegetative phase significantly produced the lowest flavonoid production (7.82 g tree-1. The result suggested that flavonoid production from red guava leaves should be done by harvesting 50% leaf on tertiary branches in generative phase can be used to produce the highest flavonoid (89.90 g tree-1.

  12. Rainwater harvesting - An investigation into the potential for rainwater harvesting in Bradford

    OpenAIRE

    Doncaster, S.; Blanksby, J.; Shepherd, W.

    2012-01-01

    This report provides a brief review of rainwater harvesting and rainwater harvesting tools, which are then used in case study examples for domestic, office block and warehouse rain water harvesting scenarios. Rainwater harvesting is placed in an historical context as a source of water supply and in a modern context as being complementary to centralised water distribution networks with benefits for wider water management including flood risk treatment as well as providing environmental and eco...

  13. Harvesting energy from airflow with a michromachined piezoelectric harvester inside a Helmholtz resonator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matova, S.P.; Elfrink, R.; Vullers, R.J.M.; Schaijk, R. van

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we report an airflow energy harvester that combines a piezoelectric energy harvester with a Helmholtz resonator. The resonator converts airflow energy to air oscillations which in turn are converted into electrical energy by a piezoelectric harvester. Two Helmholtz resonators with

  14. Effect of time of harvest, stage of fruit ripening, and post-harvest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seeds were extracted from half of the fruits harvested from each stage immediately after harvest while the other halves were stored at room temperature to ripen to the soft-red stage before seed extraction. Fruit weight in both cultivars decreased with plant age. Fruits harvested at the yellow-ripe stage produced the highest ...

  15. A new harvest operation cost model to evaluate forest harvest layout alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark M. Clark; Russell D. Meller; Timothy P. McDonald; Chao Chi Ting

    1997-01-01

    The authors develop a new model for harvest operation costs that can be used to evaluate stands for potential harvest. The model is based on felling, extraction, and access costs, and is unique in its consideration of the interaction between harvest area shapes and access roads. The scientists illustrate the model and evaluate the impact of stand size, volume, and road...

  16. Determination of the Optimum Harvest Window for Apples Using the Non-Destructive Biospeckle Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Skic

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Determination of the optimum harvest window plays a key role in the agro-food chain as the quality of fruit depends on the right harvesting time and appropriate storage conditions during the postharvest period. Usually, indices based on destructive measurements are used for this purpose, like the De Jager Index (PFW-1, FARS index and the most popular Streif Index. In this study, we proposed a biospeckle method for the evaluation of the optimum harvest window (OHW of the “Ligol” and “Szampion” apple cultivars. The experiment involved eight different maturity stages, of which four were followed by long cold storage and shelf life to assist the determination of the optimum harvest window. The biospeckle activity was studied in relation to standard quality attributes (firmness, acidity, starch, soluble solids content, Streif Index and physiological parameters (respiration and ethylene emission of both apple cultivars. Changes of biospeckle activity (BA over time showed moderate relationships with biochemical changes during apple maturation and ripening. The harvest date suggested by the Streif Index and postharvest quality indicators matched with characteristic decrease in BA. The ability of biospeckle method to characterize the biological state of apples was confirmed by significant correlations of BA with firmness, starch index, total soluble solids and Streif Index, as well as good match with changes in carbon dioxide and ethylene emission. However, it should be noted that correlations between variables changing over time are not as meaningful as independent observations. Also, it is a well-known property of the Pearson’s correlation that its value is highly susceptible to outlier data. Due to its non-selective nature the BA reflected only the current biological state of the fruit and could be affected by many other factors. The investigations showed that the optimum harvest window for apples was indicated by the characteristic drop of

  17. Determination of the Optimum Harvest Window for Apples Using the Non-Destructive Biospeckle Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skic, Anna; Szymańska-Chargot, Monika; Kruk, Beata; Chylińska, Monika; Pieczywek, Piotr Mariusz; Kurenda, Andrzej; Zdunek, Artur; Rutkowski, Krzysztof P

    2016-05-10

    Determination of the optimum harvest window plays a key role in the agro-food chain as the quality of fruit depends on the right harvesting time and appropriate storage conditions during the postharvest period. Usually, indices based on destructive measurements are used for this purpose, like the De Jager Index (PFW-1), FARS index and the most popular Streif Index. In this study, we proposed a biospeckle method for the evaluation of the optimum harvest window (OHW) of the "Ligol" and "Szampion" apple cultivars. The experiment involved eight different maturity stages, of which four were followed by long cold storage and shelf life to assist the determination of the optimum harvest window. The biospeckle activity was studied in relation to standard quality attributes (firmness, acidity, starch, soluble solids content, Streif Index) and physiological parameters (respiration and ethylene emission) of both apple cultivars. Changes of biospeckle activity (BA) over time showed moderate relationships with biochemical changes during apple maturation and ripening. The harvest date suggested by the Streif Index and postharvest quality indicators matched with characteristic decrease in BA. The ability of biospeckle method to characterize the biological state of apples was confirmed by significant correlations of BA with firmness, starch index, total soluble solids and Streif Index, as well as good match with changes in carbon dioxide and ethylene emission. However, it should be noted that correlations between variables changing over time are not as meaningful as independent observations. Also, it is a well-known property of the Pearson's correlation that its value is highly susceptible to outlier data. Due to its non-selective nature the BA reflected only the current biological state of the fruit and could be affected by many other factors. The investigations showed that the optimum harvest window for apples was indicated by the characteristic drop of BA during pre-harvest

  18. Profitability of wood harvesting enterprises

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penttinen, M. email: markku.penttinen@metla.fi; Mikkola, J. email: jarmo.mikkola@metla.fi; Rummukainen, A. email: arto.rummukainen@metla.fi

    2009-07-01

    The forest machine business is about 50 years old. The rapid technical development of machinery increased productivity up to the end of last century. In 2007, the total value of round and energy wood harvesting and silvicultural work operated by forest machine enterprises exceeded 570 mill. euro. According to the materials of the Vehicle Administration Finland and Statistics Finland there are about 1 600 active harvesting enterprises in the personal and business taxation system. Beside this, there are according to the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry about 1 300 farmers who do harvesting as side business. About 1 000 enterprises working in June 2007 were studied with their retrospective economic analyses from 2001. The data includes all enterprises that had supplied closing of the accounts data. One-machine entrepreneurs represent more than a third of the number of enterprises, but only 13 percent of the turnover. Enterprises with seven or more machines represent less than ten percent of the number, but over twenty percent of the turnover. Enterprises are largest in eastern and northern Finland, where the average number of machines per enterprise exceeds three. Small enterprises are mostly singleowner business enterprises with a median turnover of 125 000 euros per annum. Partnerships and limited enterprises have double the median turnover of single-owner businesss. Limited companies turn over a median of 450 000 euro/y, representing 67 percent of total turnover. Median net profit varied between 6 and 10 percent of turnover in 2001-2007, but only between 2 and 4 percent where the wage adjustment is deducted from the profit. The wage adjustment is estimated as if the owners of single-owner businesses earn an operator's salary. Profit was highest in 2002 and lowest 2006. In the smallest enterprise class with a turnover of less than 75 000 euro/y, profit was lowest and negative in 2006 and 2007. The variation in profits between enterprises was also biggest in

  19. Light Harvesting for Organic Photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The field of organic photovoltaics has developed rapidly over the last 2 decades, and small solar cells with power conversion efficiencies of 13% have been demonstrated. Light absorbed in the organic layers forms tightly bound excitons that are split into free electrons and holes using heterojunctions of electron donor and acceptor materials, which are then extracted at electrodes to give useful electrical power. This review gives a concise description of the fundamental processes in photovoltaic devices, with the main emphasis on the characterization of energy transfer and its role in dictating device architecture, including multilayer planar heterojunctions, and on the factors that impact free carrier generation from dissociated excitons. We briefly discuss harvesting of triplet excitons, which now attracts substantial interest when used in conjunction with singlet fission. Finally, we introduce the techniques used by researchers for characterization and engineering of bulk heterojunctions to realize large photocurrents, and examine the formed morphology in three prototypical blends. PMID:27951633

  20. Biogenesis of light harvesting proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dall'Osto, Luca; Bressan, Mauro; Bassi, Roberto

    2015-09-01

    The LHC family includes nuclear-encoded, integral thylakoid membrane proteins, most of which coordinate chlorophyll and xanthophyll chromophores. By assembling with the core complexes of both photosystems, LHCs form a flexible peripheral moiety for enhancing light-harvesting cross-section, regulating its efficiency and providing protection against photo-oxidative stress. Upon its first appearance, LHC proteins underwent evolutionary diversification into a large protein family with a complex genetic redundancy. Such differentiation appears as a crucial event in the adaptation of photosynthetic organisms to changing environmental conditions and land colonization. The structure of photosystems, including nuclear- and chloroplast-encoded subunits, presented the cell with a number of challenges for the control of the light harvesting function. Indeed, LHC-encoding messages are translated in the cytosol, and pre-proteins imported into the chloroplast, processed to their mature size and targeted to the thylakoids where are assembled with chromophores. Thus, a tight coordination between nuclear and plastid gene expression, in response to environmental stimuli, is required to adjust LHC composition during photoacclimation. In recent years, remarkable progress has been achieved in elucidating structure, function and regulatory pathways involving LHCs; however, a number of molecular details still await elucidation. In this review, we will provide an overview on the current knowledge on LHC biogenesis, ranging from organization of pigment-protein complexes to the modulation of gene expression, import and targeting to the photosynthetic membranes, and regulation of LHC assembly and turnover. Genes controlling these events are potential candidate for biotechnological applications aimed at optimizing light use efficiency of photosynthetic organisms. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Chloroplast biogenesis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Harvesting of microalgae by bio-flocculation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salim, S.; Bosma, R.; Vermuë, M.H.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2011-01-01

    The high-energy input for harvesting biomass makes current commercial microalgal biodiesel production economically unfeasible. A novel harvesting method is presented as a cost and energy efficient alternative: the bio-flocculation by using one flocculating microalga to concentrate the

  2. Applying new technologies to transform blueberry harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    The growth of the blueberry industry in the past three decades has been remarkable. However, labor shortage for hand harvesting, increasingly high labor costs, and low harvest efficiencies are becoming bottlenecks for sustainable development of the fresh market blueberry production. In this study ...

  3. Ultrasound acoustic wave energy transfer and harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahab, Shima; Leadenham, Stephen; Guillot, François; Sabra, Karim; Erturk, Alper

    2014-04-01

    This paper investigates low-power electricity generation from ultrasound acoustic wave energy transfer combined with piezoelectric energy harvesting for wireless applications ranging from medical implants to naval sensor systems. The focus is placed on an underwater system that consists of a pulsating source for spherical wave generation and a harvester connected to an external resistive load for quantifying the electrical power output. An analytical electro-acoustic model is developed to relate the source strength to the electrical power output of the harvester located at a specific distance from the source. The model couples the energy harvester dynamics (piezoelectric device and electrical load) with the source strength through the acoustic-structure interaction at the harvester-fluid interface. Case studies are given for a detailed understanding of the coupled system dynamics under various conditions. Specifically the relationship between the electrical power output and system parameters, such as the distance of the harvester from the source, dimensions of the harvester, level of source strength, and electrical load resistance are explored. Sensitivity of the electrical power output to the excitation frequency in the neighborhood of the harvester's underwater resonance frequency is also reported.

  4. Dielectric loss against piezoelectric power harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Junrui; Shu-Hung Chung, Henry; Liao, Wei-Hsin

    2014-09-01

    Piezoelectricity is one of the most popular electromechanical transduction mechanisms for constructing kinetic energy harvesting systems. When a standard energy harvesting (SEH) interface circuit, i.e., bridge rectifier plus filter capacitor, is utilized for collecting piezoelectric power, the previous literature showed that the power conversion can be well predicted without much consideration for the effect of dielectric loss. Yet, as the conversion power gets higher by adopting power-boosting interface circuits, such as synchronized switch harvesting on inductor (SSHI), the neglect of dielectric loss might give rise to deviation in harvested power estimation. Given the continuous progress on power-boosting interface circuits, the role of dielectric loss in practical piezoelectric energy harvesting (PEH) systems should receive attention with better evaluation. Based on the integrated equivalent impedance network model, this fast track communication provides a comprehensive study on the susceptibility of harvested power in PEH systems under different conditions. It shows that, dielectric loss always counteracts piezoelectric power harvesting by causing charge leakage across piezoelectric capacitance. In particular, taking corresponding ideal lossless cases as references, the counteractive effect might be aggravated under one of the five conditions: larger dielectric loss tangent, lower vibration frequency, further away from resonance, weaker electromechanical coupling, or using power-boosting interface circuit. These relationships are valuable for the study of PEH systems, as they not only help explain the role of dielectric loss in piezoelectric power harvesting, but also add complementary insights for material, structure, excitation, and circuit considerations towards holistic evaluation and design for practical PEH systems.

  5. Setting analyst: A practical harvest planning technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivier R.M. Halleux; W. Dale Greene

    2001-01-01

    Setting Analyst is an ArcView extension that facilitates practical harvest planning for ground-based systems. By modeling the travel patterns of ground-based machines, it compares different harvesting settings based on projected average skidding distance, logging costs, and site disturbance levels. Setting Analyst uses information commonly available to consulting...

  6. Determinants of rainwater harvesting technology (RWHT) adoption ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-11-26

    Nov 26, 2014 ... study evaluated the determinants of farmers' decisions to adopt rainwater harvesting technology ... adoption of RWHT in the study area. ... In South Africa, agriculture involves large numbers of ... Study area and data collection ..... study in rainwater harvesting: A 2011 perspective. ... Kluwer Academic.

  7. West Virginia harvest and utilization study, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan Wiedenbeck; Shawn. Grushecky

    2014-01-01

    Thirty active harvesting operations were part of a harvest and utilization study conducted in West Virginia in 2008. Data were collected on roundwood product and residue yields obtained from trees of different sizes, species, and qualities. This study was modeled after studies conducted on a regular and frequent basis by the Forest Inventory and Analysis unit in the...

  8. Piezoelectric energy harvesting from broadband random vibrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adhikari, S; Friswell, M I; Inman, D J

    2009-01-01

    Energy harvesting for the purpose of powering low power electronic sensor systems has received explosive attention in the last few years. Most works using deterministic approaches focusing on using the piezoelectric effect to harvest ambient vibration energy have concentrated on cantilever beams at resonance using harmonic excitation. Here, using a stochastic approach, we focus on using a stack configuration and harvesting broadband vibration energy, a more practically available ambient source. It is assumed that the ambient base excitation is stationary Gaussian white noise, which has a constant power-spectral density across the frequency range considered. The mean power acquired from a piezoelectric vibration-based energy harvester subjected to random base excitation is derived using the theory of random vibrations. Two cases, namely the harvesting circuit with and without an inductor, have been considered. Exact closed-form expressions involving non-dimensional parameters of the electromechanical system have been given and illustrated using numerical examples

  9. Piezoelectric energy harvesting from broadband random vibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, S.; Friswell, M. I.; Inman, D. J.

    2009-11-01

    Energy harvesting for the purpose of powering low power electronic sensor systems has received explosive attention in the last few years. Most works using deterministic approaches focusing on using the piezoelectric effect to harvest ambient vibration energy have concentrated on cantilever beams at resonance using harmonic excitation. Here, using a stochastic approach, we focus on using a stack configuration and harvesting broadband vibration energy, a more practically available ambient source. It is assumed that the ambient base excitation is stationary Gaussian white noise, which has a constant power-spectral density across the frequency range considered. The mean power acquired from a piezoelectric vibration-based energy harvester subjected to random base excitation is derived using the theory of random vibrations. Two cases, namely the harvesting circuit with and without an inductor, have been considered. Exact closed-form expressions involving non-dimensional parameters of the electromechanical system have been given and illustrated using numerical examples.

  10. A Miniature Coupled Bistable Vibration Energy Harvester

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, D; Arthur, D C; Beeby, S P

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports the design and test of a miniature coupled bistable vibration energy harvester. Operation of a bistable structure largely depends on vibration amplitude rather than frequency, which makes it very promising for wideband vibration energy harvesting applications. A coupled bistable structure consists of a pair of mobile magnets that create two potential wells and thus the bistable phenomenon. It requires lower excitation to trigger bistable operation compared to conventional bistable structures. Based on previous research, this work focused on miniaturisation of the coupled bistable structure for energy harvesting application. The proposed bistable energy harvester is a combination of a Duffing's nonlinear structure and a linear assisting resonator. Experimental results show that the output spectrum of the miniature coupled bistable vibration energy harvester was the superposition of several spectra. It had a higher maximum output power and a much greater bandwidth compared to simply the Duffing's structure without the assisting resonator

  11. Piezoelectric energy harvesting with parametric uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, S F; Friswell, M I; Adhikari, S

    2010-01-01

    The design and analysis of energy harvesting devices is becoming increasing important in recent years. Most of the literature has focused on the deterministic analysis of these systems and the problem of uncertain parameters has received less attention. Energy harvesting devices exhibit parametric uncertainty due to errors in measurement, errors in modelling and variability in the parameters during manufacture. This paper investigates the effect of parametric uncertainty in the mechanical system on the harvested power, and derives approximate explicit formulae for the optimal electrical parameters that maximize the mean harvested power. The maximum of the mean harvested power decreases with increasing uncertainty, and the optimal frequency at which the maximum mean power occurs shifts. The effect of the parameter variance on the optimal electrical time constant and optimal coupling coefficient are reported. Monte Carlo based simulation results are used to further analyse the system under parametric uncertainty

  12. Experimental measurement of energy harvesting with backpack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavelkova, Radka; Vala, David; Suranek, Pavel; Mahdal, Miroslav

    2017-08-01

    This article deals with the energy harvesting systems, especially the energy harvesting backpack, which appears as a convenient means for energy harvesting for mobile sensors power. Before starting the experiment, it was necessary to verify whether this energy will be sufficient to get acquainted with the human kinematics and analyze problematics itself. For this purpose there was used motion capture technology from Xsens. Measured data on the position of a particle moving man and back when walking, these data were then used for experimental realization of energy harvesting backpack and as input data to the simulation in Simulink, which brought us a comparison between theoretical assumptions and practical implementation. When measuring characteristics of energy harvesting system we have a problem with measurements on backpack solved when redoing of the hydraulic cylinder as a source of a suitable movement corresponding to the amplitude and frequency of human walk.

  13. Harvesting energy from airflow with a michromachined piezoelectric harvester inside a Helmholtz resonator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matova, S P; Elfrink, R; Vullers, R J M; Van Schaijk, R

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we report an airflow energy harvester that combines a piezoelectric energy harvester with a Helmholtz resonator. The resonator converts airflow energy to air oscillations which in turn are converted into electrical energy by a piezoelectric harvester. Two Helmholtz resonators with adjustable resonance frequencies have been designed—one with a solid bottom and one with membrane on the bottom. The resonance frequencies of the resonators were matched to the complementing piezoelectric harvesters during harvesting. The aim of the presented work is a feasibility study on using packaged piezoelectric energy harvesters with Helmholtz resonators for airflow energy harvesting. The maximum energy we were able to obtain was 42.2 µW at 20 m s −1

  14. Effects of timber harvest on structural diversity and species composition in hardwood forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FARZAM TAVANKAR

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Tavankar F, Bonyad AE. 2015. Effects of timber harvest on structural diversity and species composition in hardwood forests. Biodiversitas 16: 1-9. Forest management leads to changes in structure and species composition of stands. In this research vertical and horizontal structure and species composition were compared in two harvested and protected stands in the Caspian forest of Iran. The results indicated the tree and seedling density, total basal area and stand volume was significantly (P < 0.01 higher in the protected stand. The Fagus orientalis L. had the most density and basal area in the both stands. Species importance value (SIV of Fagus orientalis in the protected stand (92.5 was higher than in the harvested stand (88.5. While, the SIV of shade-intolerant tree species such as Acer insigne, Acer cappadocicum and Alnus subcordata was higher in the harvested stand. The density of trees and seedling of rare tree species, such as Ulmus glabra, Tilia begonifolia, Zelkova caprinifolia and Fraxinus coriarifolia, was also higher in the protected stand. The Shannon-Wiener diversity index in the protected stand (0.84 was significantly higher (P < 0.01 than in the harvested stand (0.72. The highest diversity value in the harvested stand was observed in DBH of 10-40 cm class, while DBH of 40-70 cm had the highest diversity value in the protected stand.

  15. Harvester : An edge service harvesting heterogeneous resources for ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Maeno, Tadashi; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The Production and Distributed Analysis (PanDA) system has been successfully used in the ATLAS experiment as a data-driven workload management system. The PanDA system has proven to be capable of operating at the Large Hadron Collider data processing scale over the last decade including the Run 1 and Run 2 data taking periods. PanDA was originally designed to be weakly coupled with the WLCG processing resources. Lately the system is revealing the difficulties to optimally integrate and exploit new resource types such as HPC and preemptable cloud resources with instant spin-up, and new workflows such as the event service, because their intrinsic nature and requirements are quite different from that of traditional grid resources. Therefore, a new component, Harvester, has been developed to mediate the control and information flow between PanDA and the resources, in order to enable more intelligent workload management and dynamic resource provisioning based on detailed knowledge of resource capabilities and thei...

  16. Effect of Harvest Time and Nitrogen Doses on Cassava Root Yield and Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Trajano de Oliveira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Nitrogen is considered the most limiting nutrient for cassava, and N availability can influence the crop cycle, including earlier harvest. The aim of this study was to study the effect of harvest time on the production components of cassava, “Aciolina” cultivar, at different rates of N fertiliser. The experiment was carried out in an area newly incorporated into the productive system in a savannah ecosystem in the northern Amazon. A randomised block experimental design was used in a split plot arrangement with four replications. The N rates (0, 30, 60, 150, and 330 kg ha-1 were allocated to the main plots, and the harvest times (90, 120, 150, 180, 240, 300, and 360 days after emergence of the stalks - DAE were allocated to the subplots. Plant height, shoot fresh matter yield, number of roots per plant, average root diameter, and root fresh matter yield display an increasing linear response up to 360 DAE in cassava cv. “Aciolina”. For all harvest times, the N rates promote an increase in root fresh matter yield. At 300 and 360 DAE, the root fresh matter and starch yield and the harvest index show a quadratic response as a function of the N level. The greatest efficiency of N topdressing on the production of root fresh matter occurs at 300 DAE, promoting an earlier harvest. At that time, the dose of maximum technical efficiency, 226 kg ha-1 N, results in a yield of 62 Mg ha-1 of root fresh matter, 13 Mg ha-1 of starch, and a harvest index of 81 %.

  17. Wireless Energy Harvesting Using Signals from Multiple Fading Channels

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Yunfei; Zhao, Nan; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2017-01-01

    fading or Gamma-shadowed Rician fading. The received signals are then harvested by using either a single harvester for simultaneous transmissions or multiple harvesters for transmissions at different frequencies, antennas or time slots. Both linear

  18. The effects of harvest on waterfowl populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooch, Evan G.; Guillemain, Matthieu; Boomer, G Scott; Lebreton, Jean-Dominique; Nichols, James D.

    2014-01-01

    Change in the size of populations over space and time is, arguably, the motivation for much of pure and applied ecological research. The fundamental model for the dynamics of any population is straightforward: the net change in the abundance is the simple difference between the number of individuals entering the population and the number leaving the population, either or both of which may change in response to factors intrinsic and extrinsic to the population. While harvest of individuals from a population constitutes a clear extrinsic source of removal of individuals, the response of populations to harvest is frequently complex, reflecting an interaction of harvest with one or more population processes. Here we consider the role of these interactions, and factors influencing them, on the effective harvest management of waterfowl populations. We review historical ideas concerning harvest and discuss the relationship(s) between waterfowl life histories and the development and application of population models to inform harvest management. The influence of population structure (age, spatial) on derivation of optimal harvest strategies (with and without explicit consideration of various sources of uncertainty) is considered. In addition to population structure, we discuss how the optimal harvest strategy may be influenced by: 1) patterns of density-dependence in one or more vital rates, and 2) heterogeneity in vital rates among individuals within an age-sex-size class. Although derivation of the optimal harvest strategy for simple population models (with or without structure) is generally straightforward, there are several potential difficulties in application. In particular, uncertainty concerning the population structure at the time of harvest, and the ability to regulate the structure of the harvest itself, are significant complications. We therefore review the evidence of effects of harvest on waterfowl populations. Some of this evidence has

  19. Analysis of fruit and oil quantity and quality distribution in high-density olive trees in order to improve the mechanical harvesting process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castillo-Ruiz, F. J.; Jiménez-Jiménez, F.; Blanco-Roldán, G.L.; Sola-Guirado, R. R.; Agüera-Vega, J.; Castro-Garcia, S.

    2015-07-01

    Olive fruit production and oil quality distribution with respect to canopy distribution are important criteria for selection and improvement of mechanical harvesting methods. Tests were performed in a high-density olive orchard (Olea europea L., cv. Arbequina) in southern Spain. Fruit distribution, fruit properties and oil parameters were measured by taken separate samples for each canopy location and tree. Results showed a high percentage of fruits and oil located in the middle-outer and upper canopy, representing more than 60% of total production. The position of these fruits along with their higher weight per fruit, maturity index and polyphenol content make them the target for all mechanical harvesting systems. The fruits from the lower canopy represented close to 30% of fruit and oil production, however, the mechanical harvesting of these fruits is inefficient for mechanical harvesting systems. Whether these fruits cannot be properly harvested, enhance tree training to raise their position is recommended. Fruits located inside the canopy are not a target location for mechanical harvesting systems as they were a small percentage of the total fruit (<10%). Significant differences were found for polyphenol content with respect to canopy height, although this was not the case with acidity. In addition, the ripening index did not influence polyphenol content and acidity values within the canopy. Fruit production, properties and oil quality varied depending on fruit canopy position. Thus harvesting systems may be targeted at maximize harvesting efficiency including an adequate tree training system adapted to the harvesting system. (Author)

  20. Analysis of fruit and oil quantity and quality distribution in high-density olive trees in order to improve the mechanical harvesting process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. Castillo-Ruiz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Olive fruit production and oil quality distribution with respect to canopy distribution are important criteria for selection and improvement of mechanical harvesting methods. Tests were performed in a high-density olive orchard (Olea europea L., cv. Arbequina in southern Spain. Fruit distribution, fruit properties and oil parameters were measured by taken separate samples for each canopy location and tree. Results showed a high percentage of fruits and oil located in the middle-outer and upper canopy, representing more than 60% of total production. The position of these fruits along with their higher weight per fruit, maturity index and polyphenol content make them the target for all mechanical harvesting systems. The fruits from the lower canopy represented close to 30% of fruit and oil production, however, the mechanical harvesting of these fruits is inefficient for mechanical harvesting systems. Whether these fruits cannot be properly harvested, enhance tree training to raise their position is recommended. Fruits located inside the canopy are not a target location for mechanical harvesting systems as they were a small percentage of the total fruit (<10%. Significant differences were found for polyphenol content with respect to canopy height, although this was not the case with acidity. In addition, the ripening index did not influence polyphenol content and acidity values within the canopy. Fruit production, properties and oil quality varied depending on fruit canopy position. Thus harvesting systems may be targeted at maximize harvesting efficiency including an adequate tree training system adapted to the harvesting system.

  1. Harvesting of Chlorella sp. by Co-cultivation with Some Fil-amentous Fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rana H. Hameed Al-Shammari

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Algae are play a major role as straight producers of biofuels, so expansion of a new. harvesting-technology is important to achieve economic feasibility of biofuel production from algae.. Fungal pelletization-assisted.. Microalgal harvesting has Emerged as new research area for decreasing the harvesting cost and energy inputs in the algae-to-biofuel method. The present study tried to opti-mize process circumstances as (substrate inputs, process time and pH. Through choice of a ro-bust fungal strain. Four fungal strains (Aspergillus terreus, Trichoderma sp., Mucor sp. and Rhi-zopus sp. were screened for their pelletizing efficiency in fresh/supplemented chu-10 with select-ed media nutrient (glucose, nitrogen and phosphorous. Results showed that Aspergillus terreus was the most efficient strain for pelletizing in the nutrient supplemented chu-10 with its neutral pH (7 and acidic pH (5. Stimulatingly, A. terreus was capable to harvest nearly 100 % of the Clorella sp. cells (1×106 spore/ml at optical density (OD approximately 2.5 initial working algal concentration within only 24 h. at supplementation of (10 g/l glucose, 2.5 mg/l aNH4NO3 and 0.5 mg/l mK2HPO4 also performed well at lower glucose level (5 g/l can also results in similar har-vesting but its need relatively higher incubation time. The procedure kinetics in term of harvesting index (H. I as well as the variation of residual glucose and pH with time was also studied. The mechanism of harvesting process was studied through microscopic, examination. A. terreus strain investigated in this study could emerge as an efficient, sustainable and economically viable tool in microalgae harvesting for biofuel production and time conservation

  2. Bundling harvester; Harvennuspuun automaattisen nippukorjausharvesterin kehittaeminen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koponen, K [Eko-Log Oy, Kuopio (Finland)

    1997-12-01

    The starting point of the project was to design and construct, by taking the silvicultural point of view into account, a harvesting and processing system especially for energy-wood, containing manually driven bundling harvester, automating of the harvester, and automated loading. The equipment forms an ideal method for entrepreneur`s-line harvesting. The target is to apply the system also for owner`s-line harvesting. The profitability of the system promotes the utilisation of the system in both cases. The objectives of the project were: to construct a test equipment and prototypes for all the project stages, to carry out terrain and strain tests in order to examine the usability and durability, as well as the capacity of the machine, to test the applicability of the Eko-Log system in simultaneous harvesting of energy and pulp woods, and to start the marketing and manufacturing of the products. The basic problems of the construction of the bundling harvester have been solved using terrain-tests. The prototype machine has been shown to be operable. Loading of the bundles to form sufficiently economically transportable loads has been studied, and simultaneously, the branch-biomass has been tried to be utilised without loosing the profitability of transportation. The results have been promising, and will promote the profitable utilisation of wood-energy. (orig.)

  3. Optical Sensing of Weed Infestations at Harvest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barroso, Judit; McCallum, John; Long, Dan

    2017-10-19

    Kochia ( Kochia scoparia L.), Russian thistle ( Salsola tragus L.), and prickly lettuce ( Lactuca serriola L.) are economically important weeds infesting dryland wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) production systems in the western United States. Those weeds produce most of their seeds post-harvest. The objectives of this study were to determine the ability of an optical sensor, installed for on-the-go measurement of grain protein concentration, to detect the presence of green plant matter in flowing grain and assess the potential usefulness of this information for mapping weeds at harvest. Spectra of the grain stream were recorded continuously at a rate of 0.33 Hz during harvest of two spring wheat fields of 1.9 and 5.4 ha. All readings were georeferenced using a Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver with 1 m positional accuracy. Chlorophyll of green plant matter was detectable in the red (638-710 nm) waveband. Maps of the chlorophyll signal from both fields showed an overall agreement of 78.1% with reference maps, one constructed prior to harvest and the other at harvest time, both based on visual evaluations of the three green weed species conducted by experts. Information on weed distributions at harvest may be useful for controlling post-harvest using variable rate technology for herbicide applications.

  4. The start of the harvest

    CERN Multimedia

    2011-01-01

    The first major particle physics summer conference has just started this week in Grenoble. After the Quark-Matter conference, the Europhysics Conference on High-Energy Physics marks the start of a promising harvest for the LHC experiments.   For the first time, the collaborations will be presenting their latest results based on all luminosity taken until end of June, which will provide more precise measurements in many areas. Thanks to the excellent performance of the LHC, the experiments have already accumulated a substantial quantity of data allowing them to push back the known limits and refine measurements in many fields ranging from b physics to the search for the Higgs boson and for dark matter. At the time of writing, the LHC collaborations are about to present these new results in an energy range which has never previously been explored. I have congratulated all the teams involved in getting the LHC into operation in record time with great efficiency. Today I would like to acknowledge the...

  5. Energy harvesting from high-rise buildings by a piezoelectric harvester device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, X.D.; Wang, Q.; Wang, S.J.

    2015-01-01

    A novel piezoelectric technology of harvesting energy from high-rise buildings is developed. While being used to harness vibration energy of a building, the technology is also helpful to dissipate vibration of the building by the designed piezoelectric harvester as a tuned mass damper. The piezoelectric harvester device is made of two groups of series piezoelectric generators connected by a shared shaft. The shaft is driven by a linking rod hinged on a proof mass on the tip of a cantilever fixed on the roof of the building. The influences of some practical considerations, such as the mass ratio of the proof mass to the main structure, the ratios of the length and flexural rigidity of the cantilever to those of the main structure, on the root mean square (RMS) of the generated electric power and the energy harvesting efficiency of the piezoelectric harvester device are discussed. The research provides a new method for an efficient and practical energy harvesting from high-rise buildings by piezoelectric harvesters. - Highlights: • A new piezoelectric technology in energy harvesting from high-rise buildings is introduced. • A new mathematics model to calculate the energy harvested by the piezoelectric device is developed. • A novel efficient design of the piezoelectric harvester device in provided. • An electric power up to 432 MW under a seismic excitation at a frequency of 30 rad/s is achieved.

  6. Harvested area gaps in China between 1981 and 2010: effects of climatic and land management factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Qiangyi; van Vliet, Jasper; Verburg, Peter H.; You, Liangzhi; Yang, Peng; Wu, Wenbin

    2018-04-01

    Previous analyses have shown that cropland in China is intensifying, leading to an increase in crop production. However, these output measures leave the potential for further intensification largely unassessed. This study uses the harvested area gap (HAG), which expresses the amount of harvested area that can be gained if all existing cropland is harvested as frequently as possible, according to their potential limit for multi-cropping. Specifically, we calculate the HAG and changes in the HAG in China between 1981 and 2010. We further assess how climatic and land management factors affect these changes. We find that in China the HAG decreases between the 1980s and the 1990s, and subsequently increases between the 1990s and the 2000s, resulting in a small net increase for the entire study period. The initial decrease in the HAG is the result of an increase in the average multi-cropping index throughout the country, which is larger than the increase in the potential multi-cropping index as a result of the changed climatic factors. The subsequent increase in the HAG is the result of a decrease in average multi-cropping index throughout the country, in combination with a stagnant potential. Despite the overall increase in harvested area in China, many regions, e.g. Northeast and Lower Yangtze, are characterized by an increased HAG, indicating their potential for further increasing the multi-cropping index. The study demonstrates the application of the HAG as a method to identify areas where the harvested area can increase to increase crop production, which is currently underexplored in scientific literature.

  7. Harvest time and post-harvest quality of Fuyu persimmon treated before harvest with gibberellic acid and aminoetoxyvinilglycine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Antonio Ayub

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of gibberellic acid (GA3 and aminoetoxyvinilglycine (AVG applied in preharvest spraying, on the retardation of the harvest and on the quality of persimmon fruits cv. Fuyu. The experiment was carried in randomized complete block design. The treatments were: control, 136mgL-1 of AVG, 272 mgL-1 of AVG, 36mgL-1 of GA3, 72mgL-1 of GA3 and 136mgL-1 of AVG + 36mgL-1 of GA3, spraying 30 days before the first harvest. The fruits were harvested twice and stored at 4ºC. The chemical and physical evaluations of the fruits were carried out the date of the harvest and at intervals of 15 days followed by four days at 20ºC. In conclusion, the application of AVG (136mgL-1 or GA3 (72mgL-1 maintained the firmness of the fruits and delayed harvest by twenty days. However, fruits harvested in the initial state of ripening were more sensitive to chilling injury and were unable to support 15 days of storage at 4ºC. The plant growth regulators were not efficient in prolonged storage due to the fact that the concentration of sugars was lower in the treatments than in the control.

  8. Incorporating harvest rates into the sex-age-kill model for white-tailed deer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Andrew S.; Diefenbach, Duane R.; Rosenberry, Christopher S.; Wallingford, Bret D.

    2013-01-01

    appropriate sample sizes, by management unit, to estimate harvest rate parameters each year may be too expensive, assumptions of constant annual harvest rates may be necessary. However, if changes in harvest regulations or hunter behavior influence subadult male harvest rates, the PASAK model could provide an unreliable index to population changes. 

  9. Adaptive learning algorithms for vibration energy harvesting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, John K; Behrens, Sam

    2008-01-01

    By scavenging energy from their local environment, portable electronic devices such as MEMS devices, mobile phones, radios and wireless sensors can achieve greater run times with potentially lower weight. Vibration energy harvesting is one such approach where energy from parasitic vibrations can be converted into electrical energy through the use of piezoelectric and electromagnetic transducers. Parasitic vibrations come from a range of sources such as human movement, wind, seismic forces and traffic. Existing approaches to vibration energy harvesting typically utilize a rectifier circuit, which is tuned to the resonant frequency of the harvesting structure and the dominant frequency of vibration. We have developed a novel approach to vibration energy harvesting, including adaptation to non-periodic vibrations so as to extract the maximum amount of vibration energy available. Experimental results of an experimental apparatus using an off-the-shelf transducer (i.e. speaker coil) show mechanical vibration to electrical energy conversion efficiencies of 27–34%

  10. Allogeneic Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Harvest

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Allogeneic Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Harvest. Mobilization protocol. G-CSF 10 mcg/Kg / day for 5 days. Pheresis. Cobe Spectra; Haemonetics mcs+. Enumeration. CD34 counts; Cfu-GM assays.

  11. Energy harvesting with functional materials and microsystems

    CERN Document Server

    Bhaskaran, Madhu; Iniewski, Krzysztof

    2013-01-01

    For decades, people have searched for ways to harvest energy from natural sources. Lately, a desire to address the issue of global warming and climate change has popularized solar or photovoltaic technology, while piezoelectric technology is being developed to power handheld devices without batteries, and thermoelectric technology is being explored to convert wasted heat, such as in automobile engine combustion, into electricity. Featuring contributions from international researchers in both academics and industry, Energy Harvesting with Functional Materials and Microsystems explains the growi

  12. Dust emissions eliminated in pneumatic harvesting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kallio, M.

    1998-01-01

    Pneumatic harvesting is the most efficient milled peat production method in unsteady weather conditions. In good summers, the best contractors harvest more than 1 000 m 3 /ha milled peat from suitable production fields. The greatest problem of the method is caused by dust emissions, in particular in fields close to settled areas. About 15 % of Finland's present peat production is collected using pneumatic harvesters. A pneumatic harvester with smaller dust emissions has been developed by VTT Energy and Vapo Oy. The wagon is based on two-stage separation of peat. The main part of the coarser milled peat is first separated, e.g. in a settling chamber, and fine dry peat dust in correctly dimensioned side by side cyclones. The first series of pneumatic harvesters based on the new separation technology was employed in summer 1996. Besides decreasing the dust emissions the harvesting capacity of the new equipment was increased. The collection capacity of the pneumatic harvester can be made more effective by enlarging the container size, be decreasing the weight, by increasing the driving speed and by developing the suction capacity. Using lighter and durable construction materials combined with advanced design lighter and stronger pneumatic harvesters have been constructed. Nozzles and their mounting have also been developed. In the improvement of nozzles, the former studies with pneumatic simulator of VTT Energy, have been of great help. Studies with the pneumatic simulator and field conditions have been made in collaboration with Turveruukki Oy, Turvemetalli Oy, Raussin Metalli Oy and Vapo Oy, as well as VNIITP of St. Petersburg, Russia

  13. HYBRID POWER HARVESTER USING ENGINE SOURCE

    OpenAIRE

    Meeran Mydeen, A.Ahmed; Inasu, Kelwin; Venkatesh, M.; Suthesh, C.

    2017-01-01

    In mainly we present a compact, multisource and battery-free energy harvesting from engine source. This battery free generator captures energy from its environment transient thermal gradients as a main source, and vibration as a secondary source allowing early biasing of the generator and stores this energy in ultra-capacitors .In this way, this multi-source architecture benefits from the synergy between energy scavenging and harvesting.

  14. Autotransplantation donor tooth site harvesting using piezosurgery

    OpenAIRE

    Ylikontiola, Leena P.; S?ndor, George K.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: The harvesting of a tooth as a candidate for tooth autotransplantation requires that the delicate dental tissues around the tooth be minimally traumatized. This is especially so for the periradicular tissues of the tooth root and the follicular tissues surrounding the crown. The aim of this report is to describe the use of piezosurgery as an attempt at morbidity reduction in the harvesting of teeth for autotransplantation. Methods: A piezosurgical handpiece and its ...

  15. Dielectric loss against piezoelectric power harvesting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Junrui; Shu-Hung Chung, Henry; Liao, Wei-Hsin

    2014-01-01

    Piezoelectricity is one of the most popular electromechanical transduction mechanisms for constructing kinetic energy harvesting systems. When a standard energy harvesting (SEH) interface circuit, i.e., bridge rectifier plus filter capacitor, is utilized for collecting piezoelectric power, the previous literature showed that the power conversion can be well predicted without much consideration for the effect of dielectric loss. Yet, as the conversion power gets higher by adopting power-boosting interface circuits, such as synchronized switch harvesting on inductor (SSHI), the neglect of dielectric loss might give rise to deviation in harvested power estimation. Given the continuous progress on power-boosting interface circuits, the role of dielectric loss in practical piezoelectric energy harvesting (PEH) systems should receive attention with better evaluation. Based on the integrated equivalent impedance network model, this fast track communication provides a comprehensive study on the susceptibility of harvested power in PEH systems under different conditions. It shows that, dielectric loss always counteracts piezoelectric power harvesting by causing charge leakage across piezoelectric capacitance. In particular, taking corresponding ideal lossless cases as references, the counteractive effect might be aggravated under one of the five conditions: larger dielectric loss tangent, lower vibration frequency, further away from resonance, weaker electromechanical coupling, or using power-boosting interface circuit. These relationships are valuable for the study of PEH systems, as they not only help explain the role of dielectric loss in piezoelectric power harvesting, but also add complementary insights for material, structure, excitation, and circuit considerations towards holistic evaluation and design for practical PEH systems. (fast track communications)

  16. Mechanised harvesting of short-rotation coppices

    OpenAIRE

    Vanbeveren, Stefan P.P.; Spinelli, Raffaele; Eisenbies, Mark; Schweier, Janine; Mola-Yudego, Blas; Magagnotti, Natascia; Acuna, Mauricio; Dimitriou, Ioannis; Ceulemans, Reinhart

    2017-01-01

    Abstract: Short-rotation coppice (SRC) is an important source of woody biomass for bioenergy. Despite the research carried out on several aspects of SRC production, many uncertainties create barriers to farmers establishing SRC plantations. One of the key economic sources of uncertainty is harvesting methods and costs; more specifically, the performance of contemporary machine methods is reviewed. We collected data from 25 literature references, describing 166 field trials. Three harvesting s...

  17. Conceptual design of a chickpea harvesting header

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Golpira

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Interest in the development of stripper headers is growing owing to the excessive losses of combine harvesters and costs of manually harvesting for chickpeas. The design of a new concept can enhance the mechanized process for chickpea harvesting. A modified stripper platform was designed, in which passive fingers with V-shape slots removes the pods from the anchored plant. The floating platform was accompanied by a reel to complete the harvesting header. Black-box modeling was used to redesign the functional operators of the header followed by an investigation of the system behavior. Physical models of the platform and reel were modified to determine the crucial variables of the header arrangement during field trials. The slot width was fixed at 40 mm, finger length at 40 mm, keyhole diameter at 10 mm and entrance width at 6 mm; the batted reel at peripheral diameter of 700 mm and speed at 50 rpm. A tractor-mounted experimental harvester was built to evaluate the work quality of the stripper header. The performance of the prototype was tested with respect to losses and results confirmed the efficiency of the modified stripper header for chickpea harvesting. Furthermore, the header with a 1.4 m working width produced the spot work rates of 0.42 ha h-1.

  18. Hybrid energy harvesting using active thermal backplane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Wook; Lee, Dong-Gun

    2016-04-01

    In this study, we demonstrate the concept of a new hybrid energy harvesting system by combing solar cells with magneto-thermoelectric generator (MTG, i.e., thermal energy harvesting). The silicon solar cell can easily reach high temperature under normal operating conditions. Thus the heated solar cell becomes rapidly less efficient as the temperature of solar cell rises. To increase the efficiency of the solar cell, air or water-based cooling system is used. To surpass conventional cooling devices requiring additional power as well as large working space for air/water collectors, we develop a new technology of pairing an active thermal backplane (ATB) to solar cell. The ATB design is based on MTG technology utilizing the physics of the 2nd order phase transition of active ferromagnetic materials. The MTG is cost-effective conversion of thermal energy to electrical energy and is fundamentally different from Seebeck TEG devices. The ATB (MTG) is in addition to being an energy conversion system, a very good conveyor of heat through both conduction and convection. Therefore, the ATB can provide dual-mode for the proposed hybrid energy harvesting. One is active convective and conductive cooling for heated solar cell. Another is active thermal energy harvesting from heat of solar cell. These novel hybrid energy harvesting device have potentially simultaneous energy conversion capability of solar and thermal energy into electricity. The results presented can be used for better understanding of hybrid energy harvesting system that can be integrated into commercial applications.

  19. Improving Vibration Energy Harvesting Using Dynamic Magnifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almuatasim Alomari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on the design and evaluation of vibration-based piezoelectric energy-harvesting devices based on a polyvinylidene fluoride unimorph cantilever beam attached to the front of a dynamic magnifier. Experimental studies of the electromechanical frequency response functions are studied for the first three resonance frequencies. An analytical analysis is undertaken by applying the chain matrix in order to predict output voltage and output power with respect to the vibration frequency. The proposed harvester was modeled using MATLAB software and COMSOL multi- physics to study the mode shapes and electrical output parameters. The voltage and power output of the energy harvester with a dynamic magnifier was 2.62 V and 13.68 mW, respectively at the resonance frequency of the second mode. The modeling approach provides a basis to design energy harvesters exploiting dynamic magnification for improved performance and bandwidth. The potential application of such energy harvesting devices in the transport sector include autonomous structural health monitoring systems that often include embedded sensors, data acquisition, wireless communication, and energy harvesting systems.

  20. Vibration energy harvesting using the Halbach array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Dibin; Beeby, Steve; Tudor, John; Harris, Nick

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies the feasibility of vibration energy harvesting using a Halbach array. A Halbach array is a specific arrangement of permanent magnets that concentrates the magnetic field on one side of the array while cancelling the field to almost zero on the other side. This arrangement can improve electromagnetic coupling in a limited space. The Halbach array offers an advantage over conventional layouts of magnets in terms of its concentrated magnetic field and low-profile structure, which helps improve the output power of electromagnetic energy harvesters while minimizing their size. Another benefit of the Halbach array is that due to the existence of an almost-zero magnetic field zone, electronic components can be placed close to the energy harvester without any chance of interference, which can potentially reduce the overall size of a self-powered device. The first reported example of a low-profile, planar electromagnetic vibration energy harvester utilizing a Halbach array was built and tested. Results were compared to ones for energy harvesters with conventional magnet layouts. By comparison, it is concluded that although energy harvesters with a Halbach array can have higher magnetic field density, a higher output power requires careful design in order to achieve the maximum magnetic flux gradient. (paper)

  1. Influence of harvesting and processing methods on organic viability of soybean seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đukanović Lana

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic viability of soybean seed for three soybean varieties - elite (Bosa, ZPS 015 and Nena depending on methods of manipulation with seeds during harvesting and processing phase were determined in this paper. Trial was conducted in Zemun Polje during 1999; manual and mechanized harvesting or processing methods were applied. Seed germination was tested using ISTA methods (Standard method and Cold test. Following parameters were evaluated: germination viability, germination, rate-speed of emergence, length of hypocotile and main root Rate-speed of emergence was based on number of emerged plants per day. Length of hypocotile or root and percent of germination determined vigour index. Based on obtained results it maybe concluded that methods of seed manipulation during harvesting or processing phase were influenced on soybean seed quality parameters evaluated. Ways of seed manipulation - methods evaluated were influenced organic viability of soybean seed by decreasing germination viability, total germination and length of main root.

  2. Production economics of harvesting young hardwood stands in central Appalachia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaoxiang Li; Jingxin Wang; Gary W. Miller; Joe McNeel

    2004-01-01

    Three harvesting systems of chainsaw/cable skidder, fell-buncher/grapple skidder, and harvester/forwarder were simulated in harvesting three hardwood stands of 30 to 50 years old in central Appalachia. Stands were generated by using a stand generator and harvesting prescriptions included clearcut, shelterwood cut, selective cut, diameter limit cut, and crop tree...

  3. Smart multi-application energy harvester using Arduino | Rizman ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents a Smart Multi-App Harvester Energy Using Arduino for energy harvesting. The system consists of a few mechanical parts such as solar, thermal plate and dynamo (for kinetic) to harvest the energy. The objectives of the project are to harvest the wasted energy from the mechanical parts and used it as a ...

  4. Energy Harvesting Chip and the Chip Based Power Supply Development for a Wireless Sensor Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dasheng

    2008-01-01

    In this study, an energy harvesting chip was developed to scavenge energy from artificial light to charge a wireless sensor node. The chip core is a miniature transformer with a nano-ferrofluid magnetic core. The chip embedded transformer can convert harvested energy from its solar cell to variable voltage output for driving multiple loads. This chip system yields a simple, small, and more importantly, a battery-less power supply solution. The sensor node is equipped with multiple sensors that can be enabled by the energy harvesting power supply to collect information about the human body comfort degree. Compared with lab instruments, the nodes with temperature, humidity and photosensors driven by harvested energy had variation coefficient measurement precision of less than 6% deviation under low environmental light of 240 lux. The thermal comfort was affected by the air speed. A flow sensor equipped on the sensor node was used to detect airflow speed. Due to its high power consumption, this sensor node provided 15% less accuracy than the instruments, but it still can meet the requirement of analysis for predicted mean votes (PMV) measurement. The energy harvesting wireless sensor network (WSN) was deployed in a 24-hour convenience store to detect thermal comfort degree from the air conditioning control. During one year operation, the sensor network powered by the energy harvesting chip retained normal functions to collect the PMV index of the store. According to the one month statistics of communication status, the packet loss rate (PLR) is 2.3%, which is as good as the presented results of those WSNs powered by battery. Referring to the electric power records, almost 54% energy can be saved by the feedback control of an energy harvesting sensor network. These results illustrate that, scavenging energy not only creates a reliable power source for electronic devices, such as wireless sensor nodes, but can also be an energy source by building an energy efficient

  5. Energy Harvesting Chip and the Chip Based Power Supply Development for a Wireless Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dasheng Lee

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an energy harvesting chip was developed to scavenge energy from artificial light to charge a wireless sensor node. The chip core is a miniature transformer with a nano-ferrofluid magnetic core. The chip embedded transformer can convert harvested energy from its solar cell to variable voltage output for driving multiple loads. This chip system yields a simple, small, and more importantly, a battery-less power supply solution. The sensor node is equipped with multiple sensors that can be enabled by the energy harvesting power supply to collect information about the human body comfort degree. Compared with lab instruments, the nodes with temperature, humidity and photosensors driven by harvested energy had variation coefficient measurement precision of less than 6% deviation under low environmental light of 240 lux. The thermal comfort was affected by the air speed. A flow sensor equipped on the sensor node was used to detect airflow speed. Due to its high power consumption, this sensor node provided 15% less accuracy than the instruments, but it still can meet the requirement of analysis for predicted mean votes (PMV measurement. The energy harvesting wireless sensor network (WSN was deployed in a 24-hour convenience store to detect thermal comfort degree from the air conditioning control. During one year operation, the sensor network powered by the energy harvesting chip retained normal functions to collect the PMV index of the store. According to the one month statistics of communication status, the packet loss rate (PLR is 2.3%, which is as good as the presented results of those WSNs powered by battery. Referring to the electric power records, almost 54% energy can be saved by the feedback control of an energy harvesting sensor network. These results illustrate that, scavenging energy not only creates a reliable power source for electronic devices, such as wireless sensor nodes, but can also be an energy source by building an

  6. Energy Harvesting Chip and the Chip Based Power Supply Development for a Wireless Sensor Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dasheng

    2008-12-02

    In this study, an energy harvesting chip was developed to scavenge energy from artificial light to charge a wireless sensor node. The chip core is a miniature transformer with a nano-ferrofluid magnetic core. The chip embedded transformer can convert harvested energy from its solar cell to variable voltage output for driving multiple loads. This chip system yields a simple, small, and more importantly, a battery-less power supply solution. The sensor node is equipped with multiple sensors that can be enabled by the energy harvesting power supply to collect information about the human body comfort degree. Compared with lab instruments, the nodes with temperature, humidity and photosensors driven by harvested energy had variation coefficient measurement precision of less than 6% deviation under low environmental light of 240 lux. The thermal comfort was affected by the air speed. A flow sensor equipped on the sensor node was used to detect airflow speed. Due to its high power consumption, this sensor node provided 15% less accuracy than the instruments, but it still can meet the requirement of analysis for predicted mean votes (PMV) measurement. The energy harvesting wireless sensor network (WSN) was deployed in a 24-hour convenience store to detect thermal comfort degree from the air conditioning control. During one year operation, the sensor network powered by the energy harvesting chip retained normal functions to collect the PMV index of the store. According to the one month statistics of communication status, the packet loss rate (PLR) is 2.3%, which is as good as the presented results of those WSNs powered by battery. Referring to the electric power records, almost 54% energy can be saved by the feedback control of an energy harvesting sensor network. These results illustrate that, scavenging energy not only creates a reliable power source for electronic devices, such as wireless sensor nodes, but can also be an energy source by building an energy efficient

  7. EU mitigation potential of harvested wood products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilli, Roberto; Fiorese, Giulia; Grassi, Giacomo

    2015-12-01

    The new rules for the Land Use, Land Use Change and Forestry sector under the Kyoto Protocol recognized the importance of Harvested Wood Products (HWP) in climate change mitigation. We used the Tier 2 method proposed in the 2013 IPCC KP Supplement to estimate emissions and removals from HWP from 1990 to 2030 in EU-28 countries with three future harvest scenarios (constant historical average, and +/-20% in 2030). For the historical period (2000-2012) our results are consistent with other studies, indicating a HWP sink equal on average to -44.0 Mt CO 2 yr -1 (about 10% of the sink by forest pools). Assuming a constant historical harvest scenario and future distribution of the total harvest among each commodity, the HWP sink decreases to -22.9 Mt CO 2 yr -1 in 2030. The increasing and decreasing harvest scenarios produced a HWP sink of -43.2 and -9.0 Mt CO 2 yr -1 in 2030, respectively. Other factors may play an important role on HWP sink, including: (i) the relative share of different wood products, and (ii) the combined effect of production, import and export on the domestic production of each commodity. Maintaining a constant historical harvest, the HWP sink will slowly tend to saturate, i.e. to approach zero in the long term. The current HWP sink will be maintained only by further increasing the current harvest; however, this will tend to reduce the current sink in forest biomass, at least in the short term. Overall, our results suggest that: (i) there is limited potential for additional HWP sink in the EU; (ii) the HWP mitigation potential should be analyzed in conjunction with other mitigation components (e.g. sink in forest biomass, energy and material substitution by wood).

  8. Design optimization of harvester head and actuation system of forest harvester

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben Ole; Hansen, Michael R.; Mouritsen, Ole Ø.

    2005-01-01

    This paper is on the analysis and subsequent efficiency optimization of a forrest harvester. As basis for the optimization the existing machine has undergone substantial experimental testing with a view to determine the loading that the harvester head is subjected to and also the corresponding...

  9. Broadband piezoelectric energy harvesting using nonlinear magnetic forces; Bandbreitensteigerung von piezoelektrischen Energy Harvesting Systemen durch Magnetkraefte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westermann, Henrik; Neubauer, Marcus; Wallaschek, Joerg [Hannover Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Dynamik und Schwingungen

    2012-07-15

    Using ambient energy by piezoelectric energy harvesting systems received much attention over the last years. Most vibration-based generators produce a sufficient power only if the transducer is excited in its resonance frequency. The use of magnetic forces suggests a promising strategy to increase the efficiency. This paper presents different ways for broadband piezoelectric energy harvesting using nonlinear magnetic forces. (orig.)

  10. Tropical forest harvesting and taxation: a dynamic model of harvesting behavior under selective extraction systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert F. Conrad; Malcolm Gillis; D. Evan Mercer

    2005-01-01

    A dynamic model of selective harvesting in multi-species,multi-age tropical forests is developed. Forests are predicted to exhibit different optimal harvesting profiles depending on the nature of their joint cost functions and own or cross-species stock effects. The model is applied to the controversy about incentives produced by various taxes. The impacts of specific...

  11. 75 FR 3888 - Migratory Bird Subsistence Harvest in Alaska; Harvest Regulations for Migratory Birds in Alaska...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-25

    ...-0082; 91200-1231-9BPP-L2] RIN 1018-AW67 Migratory Bird Subsistence Harvest in Alaska; Harvest Regulations for Migratory Birds in Alaska During the 2010 Season AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior... Service, are reopening the public comment period on our proposed rule to establish migratory bird...

  12. Harvesting of short rotation coppice. Harvesting trials with a cut and storage system in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schweier, J.; Becker, G.

    2012-11-01

    Short rotation coppice (SRC) harvesting techniques are available in Germany, but broad experience and knowledge about machine performance and the related effective costs of harvesting operations are still missing. This information is crucial, as harvesting costs strongly influence the economic performance of the overall supply chain. Therefore, it was the aim of this study to collect and analyze productivity data of different harvesting systems for SRC. The combined cut and chip system on the one hand and the cut and storage system on the other hand were studied by literature review. Several studies analyze the combined cut and chip systems and the reported machine productivities showed great variations. The average was 30 green tons per scheduled machine hour (gt smh{sup -1}). Few studies are analysing the cut and storage system. They report that machines still are under development and that further research is needed. Therefore, time studies of harvesting operations using the cut and storage system were carried out. Five trials were performed with the harvesting machine 'Stemster MK III' developed by Nordic Biomass. The share of productive working time was 85% and the average productivity was 21 gt smh{sup -1}. These results were compared with values from the literature. Resulting harvesting costs were calculated per oven dry ton (Euro odt{sup -1}). The advantages and disadvantages of both harvesting systems are highlighted. (orig.)

  13. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bif3) Thin Films, Abstract. FI Ezema, MN Nnabuchi. Vol 19, No 1-2 (2007): AFORNET Special Edition, Optimizing productivity on multistage timber harvesting systems. A case of Shume/Mkumbara system, Tanzania ...

  14. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... tilapia (Oreochoromis niloticus) harvested from four lakes in the north of Cameroon .... BA Milton, VM Juan, MV Maria, A Alejandro, PCJ Jose ... Vol 7, No 14 (2008), Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of the essential oil of Pinus ...

  15. Harvesting budworm-damaged stands for fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henley, S.G. (York, Sunbury, Charlotte Wood Products Marketing Board, (Canada))

    1985-01-01

    This project was initiated to demonstrate the economics and logistics of harvesting budworm-damaged stands for use as fuel. Dead spruce and balsam fir were to be harvested from small private woodlots in southwestern New Brunswick, using an integrated, full-tree harvesting system to produce wood chip fuel and other forest products. The overall objectives of the study are listed. The harvesting equipment and the selection of sites are discussed. The most efficient methods of finding candidate woodlots was found to be by advertising and word of mouth. Contact was made with 85 woodlot owners, and 45 woodlots were visited and evaluated for their suitability. A further 150 management plans were screened and rejected for various reasons. Only 2 woodlots were initially recognized as potential sites; however, after showing some interest, the owners decided not to participate. The reasons for the rejection of the various woodlots are listed. The fact that a number of owners were against clearcutting, and, in some cases, against any cutting, and that others showed no interest in the study, is attributed to the high percentage of white-collar workers owning woodlots. Other strategies for harvesting dead or scrap wood are suggested. 1 ref., 1 tab.

  16. Assessment of rainwater harvesting potential using GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hari, Durgasrilakshmi; Ramamohan Reddy, K.; Vikas, Kola; Srinivas, N.; Vikas, G.

    2018-03-01

    Rainwater harvesting (RWH) is one of the best practices to overcome the scarcity of water. Rainwater harvesting involves collection and storage of rainwater locally through different technologies, for future use. It is also useful for livestock, groundwater recharge and for irrigation practices. Potential of rainwater harvesting refers to the capacity of an individual catchment that harnesses the water falling on the catchment during a particular year considering all rainy days. The present study deals with the identification of the study area boundary and marking it as a Polygon in Google Earth Pro Later, Rooftops of various house entities and roads were digitized using the Polygon command in Google Earth Pro. GIS technique is employed for locating boundaries of the study area and for calculating the areas of various types of rooftops and roads. With the application of GIS, it is possible to assess the total potential of water that can be harvested. The present study will enable us to identify the suitable type of water harvesting structure along with the number of structures required. It is extremely an ideal and effective solution to overcome the water crisis through water conservation in the study area.

  17. Energy harvesting from hydraulic pressure fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunefare, K A; Skow, E A; Erturk, A; Savor, J; Verma, N; Cacan, M R

    2013-01-01

    State-of-the-art hydraulic hose and piping systems employ integral sensor nodes for structural health monitoring to avoid catastrophic failures. Energy harvesting in hydraulic systems could enable self-powered wireless sensor nodes for applications such as energy-autonomous structural health monitoring and prognosis. Hydraulic systems inherently have a high energy intensity associated with the mean pressure and flow. Accompanying the mean pressure is the dynamic pressure ripple, which is caused by the action of pumps and actuators. Pressure ripple is a deterministic source with a periodic time-domain behavior conducive to energy harvesting. An energy harvester prototype was designed for generating low-power electricity from pressure ripples. The prototype employed an axially-poled off-the-shelf piezoelectric stack. A housing isolated the stack from the hydraulic fluid while maintaining a mechanical coupling allowing for dynamic-pressure-induced deflection of the stack. The prototype exhibited an off-resonance energy harvesting problem since the fundamental resonance of the piezoelectric stack was much higher than the frequency content of the pressure ripple. The prototype was designed to provide a suitable power output for powering sensors with a maximum output of 1.2 mW. This work also presents electromechanical model simulations and experimental characterization of the piezoelectric power output from the pressure ripple in terms of the force transmitted into the harvester. (paper)

  18. A novel bistable energy harvesting concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scarselli, G; Nicassio, F; Pinto, F; Ciampa, F; Iervolino, O; Meo, M

    2016-01-01

    Bistable energy harvesting has become a major field of research due to some unique features for converting mechanical energy into electrical power. When properly loaded, bistable structures snap-through from one stable configuration to another, causing large strains and consequently power generation. Moreover, bistable structures can harvest energy across a broad-frequency bandwidth due to their nonlinear characteristics. Despite the fact that snap-through may be triggered regardless of the form or frequency of exciting vibration, the external force must reach a specific snap-through activation threshold value to trigger the transition from one stable state to another. This aspect is a limiting factor for realistic vibration energy harvesting application with bistable devices. This paper presents a novel power harvesting concept for bistable composites based on a ‘lever effect’ aimed at minimising the activation force to cause the snap through by choosing properly the bistable structures’ constraints. The concept was demonstrated with the help of numerical simulation and experimental testing. The results showed that the actuation force is one order of magnitude smaller (3%–6%) than the activation force of conventionally constrained bistable devices. In addition, it was shown that the output voltage was higher than the conventional configuration, leading to a significant increase in power generation. This novel concept could lead to a new generation of more efficient bistable energy harvesters for realistic vibration environments. (paper)

  19. Nanoscale piezoelectric vibration energy harvester design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foruzande, Hamid Reza; Hajnayeb, Ali; Yaghootian, Amin

    2017-09-01

    Development of new nanoscale devices has increased the demand for new types of small-scale energy resources such as ambient vibrations energy harvesters. Among the vibration energy harvesters, piezoelectric energy harvesters (PEHs) can be easily miniaturized and fabricated in micro and nano scales. This change in the dimensions of a PEH leads to a change in its governing equations of motion, and consequently, the predicted harvested energy comparing to a macroscale PEH. In this research, effects of small scale dimensions on the nonlinear vibration and harvested voltage of a nanoscale PEH is studied. The PEH is modeled as a cantilever piezoelectric bimorph nanobeam with a tip mass, using the Euler-Bernoulli beam theory in conjunction with Hamilton's principle. A harmonic base excitation is applied as a model of the ambient vibrations. The nonlocal elasticity theory is used to consider the size effects in the developed model. The derived equations of motion are discretized using the assumed-modes method and solved using the method of multiple scales. Sensitivity analysis for the effect of different parameters of the system in addition to size effects is conducted. The results show the significance of nonlocal elasticity theory in the prediction of system dynamic nonlinear behavior. It is also observed that neglecting the size effects results in lower estimates of the PEH vibration amplitudes. The results pave the way for designing new nanoscale sensors in addition to PEHs.

  20. A Galloping Energy Harvester with Attached Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denissenko, Petr; Khovanov, Igor; Tucker-Harvey, Sam

    2017-11-01

    Aeroelastic energy harvesters are a promising technology for the operation of wireless sensors and microelectromechanical systems, as well as providing the possibility of harvesting wind energy in applications were conventional wind turbines are ineffective, such as in highly turbulent flows, or unreliable, such as in harsh environmental conditions. The development of aeroelastic energy harvesters to date has focused on the flutter of airfoils, the galloping of prismatic structures, and the vortex induced vibrations. We present a novel type of galloping energy harvester with the flow becoming attached when the oscillation amplitude is high enough. With the flow attached, the harvester blade acts closer to an aerofoil than a bluff body, which results in a higher efficiency. The dynamics of a prototype device has been characterised experimentally with the use of a motion tracking system. The flow structure in the vicinity of the device has been studied using smoke visualisation and PIV measurements. A lumped parameter mathematical model has been developed and related to the experimental results.

  1. NUTRIENT BALANCE IN WATER HARVESTING SOILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Díaz, F

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Dryland farming on Fuerteventura and Lanzarote (Canary Islands, Spain, which has an annual rainfall of less than 150 mm/year, has been based traditionally on water harvesting techniques (known locally as “gavias”. Periods of high productivity alternate with those of very low yield. The systems are sustainable in that they reduce erosive processes, contribute to soil and soil-water conservation and are largely responsible for maintaining the soil’s farming potential. In this paper we present the chemical fertility status and nutrient balance of soils in five “gavia” systems. The results are compared with those obtained in adjacent soils where this water harvesting technique is not used. The main crops are wheat, barley, maize, lentils and chick-peas. Since neither organic nor inorganic fertilisers are used, nutrients are derived mainly from sediments carried by runoff water. Nutrients are lost mainly through crop harvesting and harvest residues. The soils where water harvesting is used have lower salt and sodium in the exchange complex, are higher in carbon, nitrogen, copper and zinc and have similar phosphorous and potassium content. It is concluded that the systems improve the soil’s natural fertility and also that natural renovation of nutrients occurs thanks to the surface deposits of sediments, which mix with the arable layer. The system helps ensure adequate fertility levels, habitual in arid regions, thus allowing dryland farming to be carried out.

  2. Refreshing Music: Fog Harvesting with Harps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Weiwei; Anderson, Mark; Kennedy, Brook; Boreyko, Jonathan

    2017-11-01

    Fog harvesting is a useful technique for obtaining fresh water in arid climates. The wire meshes currently utilized for fog harvesting suffer from dual constraints: coarse meshes cannot efficiently capture fog, while fine meshes suffer from clogging issues. Here, we design a new type of fog harvester comprised of an array of vertical wires, which we call ``fog harps.'' To investigate the water collection efficiency, three fog harps were designed with different diameters (254 μm, 508 μm and 1.30 mm) but the same pitch-to-diameter ratio of 2. For comparison, three different size meshes were purchased with equivalent dimensions. As expected for the mesh structures, the mid-sized wires performed the best, with a drop-off in performance for the fine or coarse meshes. In contrast, the fog harvesting rate continually increased with decreasing wire diameter for the fog harps, due to its low hysteresis that prevented droplet clogging. This resulted in a 3-fold enhancement in the fog harvesting rate for the harp form factor compared to the mesh. The lack of a performance ceiling for the harps suggest that even greater enhancements could be achieved by scaling down to yet smaller sizes.

  3. Prediction of fish biomass, harvest and prey--predator relations in reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins, R.M.

    1977-01-01

    Regression analyses of the effect of total dissolved solids on fish standing crops in 166 reservoirs produced formulas with coefficients of determination of 0.63 to 0.81. These formulas provide indexes to average biotic conditions and help to identify stressed aquatic environments. Simple predictive formulas are also presented for clupeid crops in various reservoir types, as clupeids are the fishes most frequently impinged or entrained at southern power plants. A method of calculating the adequacy of the available prey crop in relation to the predator crop is advanced to further aid in identification of perturbed prey populations. Assessment of stress as reflected by changes in sport fishing success can also be approached by comparison of the predicted harvest potential with actual fish harvest data. Use of these predictive indexes is recommended until more elaborate models are developed to identify power plant effects

  4. MECHANIZED HARVESTING TESTS PERFORMED BY GRAPE HARVESTERS IN SUPER INTENSIVE OLIVE ORCHARD CULTIVATION IN SPAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gennaro Giametta

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Today also those countries boasting a century-old olive growing tradition have to look at the latest, most dynamic, non labour-intensive olive growing systems to abate production (notably, harvesting operations costs and remain competitive in a globalized market. This is why over the last few years super intensive olive orchard cultivation has been attracting a lot of interest on the part of olive growers all over the world as it accounts for an innovative model whereby olive groves are tailored to the special needs of grape harvesters. This paper reports the first results of experimental mechanical harvesting tests in a super-intensive olive cultivation. The study is intended to explore both productivity and work capacity of two of the most commonly used grape harvesters, Grégoire G120SW and New Holland Braud VX680, in a view to assessing their harvesting performance by a series of tests conducted in Spain. On the basis of the tests it was possible to verify that the machines are able to detach the almost all the drupes (more than 90%, with one only passage, and this independently of both size and location of drupes on the tree crown and of their maturity stage. Using these machines, two people can often carry out the whole harvest process: an operator driving the harvester and another person transferring the fruit from the harvester in the field to the olive oil mill for processing. With this system, the work speed is usually, in the best working conditions, about 1.7 km/hour and the average harvesting time is about 2.5-3 hours/ha. For the time being it is however impossible to draw definitive conclusions in terms of performance of the above cultivation systems and harvesting machines. Additional key observational studies are needed in the years to come to assess the efficiency of the entire model.

  5. Evaluation of mechanical harvesting in viticulture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Zemánek

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Harvesting by mashine was in CZ tested at bygones century (70th. Tests rekord were bad (high share of leaf, detritus of concrete column, losses of berries.Lasting fall of worker in agriculture and vehement growth floricultural surfaces – vineyard (somewhere 19.000 hectare, requires complex rationalization and mechanization of all works stages which needs needlework. Harvisting in viniculture needs perhaps 30% of all working time (200–250 o‘clock on 1 hectare. Incidence thereof begun most of bigger producers in our country with mechanical harvisting. Technical performance of this machines turn up. There are not available data about costs and their work quality.The benefit deal with classification of mechanical harvesting (juice adhering, berries lost, damage of vineyard transaction by the help of semi-trailer and self-propelled harvesters.

  6. Architectures for wrist-worn energy harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rantz, R.; Halim, M. A.; Xue, T.; Zhang, Q.; Gu, L.; Yang, K.; Roundy, S.

    2018-04-01

    This paper reports the simulation-based analysis of six dynamical structures with respect to their wrist-worn vibration energy harvesting capability. This work approaches the problem of maximizing energy harvesting potential at the wrist by considering multiple mechanical substructures; rotational and linear motion-based architectures are examined. Mathematical models are developed and experimentally corroborated. An optimization routine is applied to the proposed architectures to maximize average power output and allow for comparison. The addition of a linear spring element to the structures has the potential to improve power output; for example, in the case of rotational structures, a 211% improvement in power output was estimated under real walking excitation. The analysis concludes that a sprung rotational harvester architecture outperforms a sprung linear architecture by 66% when real walking data is used as input to the simulations.

  7. Subwavelength resonant antennas enhancing electromagnetic energy harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oumbe Tekam, Gabin; Ginis, Vincent; Seetharamdoo, Divitha; Danckaert, Jan

    2016-04-01

    In this work, an electromagnetic energy harvester operating at microwave frequencies is designed based on a cut- wire metasurface. This metamaterial is known to contain a quasistatic electric dipole resonator leading to a strong resonant electric response when illuminated by electromagnetic fields.1 Starting from an equivalent electrical circuit, we analytically design the parameters of the system to tune the resonance frequency of the harvester at the desired frequency band. Subsequently, we compare these results with numerical simulations, which have been obtained using finite elements numerical simulations. Finally, we optimize the design by investigating the best arrangement for energy harvesting by coupling in parallel and in series many single layers of cut-wire metasurfaces. We also discuss the implementation of different geometries and sizes of the cut-wire metasurface for achieving different center frequencies and bandwidths.

  8. Forest harvesting systems friendly to the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waesterlund, I [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Garpenberg (Sweden); Hassan, A E [North Carolina State Univ. Col. of Forest Resources, Raleigh, NC (United States)

    1995-09-01

    The trend in forestry practices today in Europe and U.S.A. in general and Scandinavian countries in particular, is towards adapting systems based on landscape planning. Thus common harvesting equipment available on the market will have to be replaced to meet these tough demands. Environmentalists recommend that wood fiber should be harvested either by selection cutting or commercial thinning thus leaving the site undisturbed with no sign of machine traffic. This mandate will preserve ground water quality and assist in soil conservation. However, to meet the pulp and paper as well as saw mill industries demand for wood from this method of cutting (selection or commercial thinning), requires a thorough examination of our harvesting systems and techniques. This paper will discuss present and future machines that are friendly to the environment. Hypothetical designs and improvements of existing machine systems will be addressed and recommendations will be made for future research activities. 75 refs, 8 figs, 1 tab

  9. Forest harvesting systems friendly to the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waesterlund, I.; Hassan, A.E.

    1995-01-01

    The trend in forestry practices today in Europe and U.S.A. in general and Scandinavian countries in particular, is towards adapting systems based on landscape planning. Thus common harvesting equipment available on the market will have to be replaced to meet these tough demands. Environmentalists recommend that wood fiber should be harvested either by selection cutting or commercial thinning thus leaving the site undisturbed with no sign of machine traffic. This mandate will preserve ground water quality and assist in soil conservation. However, to meet the pulp and paper as well as saw mill industries demand for wood from this method of cutting (selection or commercial thinning), requires a thorough examination of our harvesting systems and techniques. This paper will discuss present and future machines that are friendly to the environment. Hypothetical designs and improvements of existing machine systems will be addressed and recommendations will be made for future research activities. 75 refs, 8 figs, 1 tab

  10. Managing harvest and habitat as integrated components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osnas, Erik; Runge, Michael C.; Mattsson, Brady J.; Austin, Jane E.; Boomer, G. S.; Clark, R. G.; Devers, P.; Eadie, J. M.; Lonsdorf, E. V.; Tavernia, Brian G.

    2014-01-01

    In 2007, several important initiatives in the North American waterfowl management community called for an integrated approach to habitat and harvest management. The essence of the call for integration is that harvest and habitat management affect the same resources, yet exist as separate endeavours with very different regulatory contexts. A common modelling framework could help these management streams to better understand their mutual effects. Particularly, how does successful habitat management increase harvest potential? Also, how do regional habitat programmes and large-scale harvest strategies affect continental population sizes (a metric used to express habitat goals)? In the ensuing five years, several projects took on different aspects of these challenges. While all of these projects are still on-going, and are not yet sufficiently developed to produce guidance for management decisions, they have been influential in expanding the dialogue and producing some important emerging lessons. The first lesson has been that one of the more difficult aspects of integration is not the integration across decision contexts, but the integration across spatial and temporal scales. Habitat management occurs at local and regional scales. Harvest management decisions are made at a continental scale. How do these actions, taken at different scales, combine to influence waterfowl population dynamics at all scales? The second lesson has been that consideration of the interface of habitat and harvest management can generate important insights into the objectives underlying the decision context. Often the objectives are very complex and trade-off against one another. The third lesson follows from the second – if an understanding of the fundamental objectives is paramount, there is no escaping the need for a better understanding of human dimensions, specifically the desires of hunters and nonhunters and the role they play in conservation. In the end, the compelling question is

  11. Energy harvesting with piezoelectric and pyroelectric materials

    CERN Document Server

    Muensit, Nantakan

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this book is to present the current state of knowledge in the field of energy harvesting using piezoelectric and pyroelectric materials. The book is addressed to students and academics engaged in research in the fields of energy harvesting, material sciences and engineering. Scientists and engineers who are working in the area of energy conservation and renewable energy resources should find it useful as well. Explanations of fundamental physical properties such as piezoelectricity and pyroelectricity are included to aid the understanding of the non-specialist. Specific technolo

  12. Vibration Energy Harvesting Potential for Turbomachinery Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian STOICESCU

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The vibration energy harvesting process represents one of the research directions for increasing power efficiency of electric systems, increasing instrumentation nodes autonomy in hard to reach locations and decreasing total system mass by eliminating cables and higher-power adapters. Research based on the possibility of converting vibration energy into useful electric energy is used to evaluate the potential of its use on turbomachinery applications. Aspects such as the structure and characteristics of piezoelectric generators, harvesting networks, their setup and optimization, are considered. Finally, performance test results are shown using piezoelectric systems on a turbine engine.

  13. Materials in energy conversion, harvesting, and storage

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, Kathy

    2014-01-01

    First authored book to address materials' role in the quest for the next generation of energy materials Energy balance, efficiency, sustainability, and so on, are some of many facets of energy challenges covered in current research. However, there has not been a monograph that directly covers a spectrum of materials issues in the context of energy conversion, harvesting and storage. Addressing one of the most pressing problems of our time, Materials in Energy Conversion, Harvesting, and Storage illuminates the roles and performance requirements of materials in energy an

  14. Electronically droplet energy harvesting using piezoelectric cantilevers

    KAUST Repository

    Al Ahmad, Mahmoud Al

    2012-01-01

    A report is presented on free falling droplet energy harvesting using piezoelectric cantilevers. The harvester incorporates a multimorph clamped-free cantilever which is composed of five layers of lead zirconate titanate piezoelectric thick films. During the impact, the droplet kinetic energy is transferred into the form of mechanical stress forcing the piezoelectric structure to vibrate. Experimental results show energy of 0.3 μJ per droplet. The scenario of moderate falling drop intensity, i.e. 230 drops per second, yields a total energy of 400 μJ. © 2012 The Institution of Engineering and Technology.

  15. Vivaldi Antenna for RF Energy Harvesting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Schneider

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Energy harvesting is a future technology for capturing ambient energy from the environment to be recycled to feed low-power devices. A planar antipodal Vivaldi antenna is presented for gathering energy from GSM, WLAN, UMTS and related applications. The designed antenna has the potential to be used in energy harvesting systems. Moreover, the antenna is suitable for UWB applications, because it operates according to FCC regulations (3.1 – 10.6 GHz. The designed antenna is printed on ARLON 600 substrate and operates in frequency band from 0.810 GHz up to more than 12 GHz. Experimental results show good conformity with simulated performance.

  16. EJSCREEN Indexes 2015 Public

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — There is an EJ Index for each environmental indicator. There are eight EJ Indexes in EJSCREEN reflecting the 8 environmental indicators. The EJ Index names are:...

  17. EJSCREEN Indexes 2016 Public

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — There is an EJ Index for each environmental indicator. There are eleven EJ Indexes in EJSCREEN reflecting the 11 environmental indicators. The EJ Index names are:...

  18. A data discovery index for the social sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krämer, Thomas; Klas, Claus-Peter; Hausstein, Brigitte

    2018-04-10

    This paper describes a novel search index for social and economic research data, one that enables users to search up-to-date references for data holdings in these disciplines. The index can be used for comparative analysis of publication of datasets in different areas of social science. The core of the index is the da|ra registration agency's database for social and economic data, which contains high-quality searchable metadata from registered data publishers. Research data's metadata records are harvested from data providers around the world and included in the index. In this paper, we describe the currently available indices on social science datasets and their shortcomings. Next, we describe the motivation behind and the purpose for the data discovery index as a dedicated and curated platform for finding social science research data and gesisDataSearch, its user interface. Further, we explain the harvesting, filtering and indexing procedure and give usage instructions for the dataset index. Lastly, we show that the index is currently the most comprehensive and most accessible collection of social science data descriptions available.

  19. Helical Piezoelectric Energy Harvester and Its Application to Energy Harvesting Garments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minsung Kim

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a helical piezoelectric energy harvester, examine its application to clothes in the form of an energy harvesting garment, and analyze its design and characteristics. The helical harvester is composed of an elastic core and a polymer piezoelectric strap twining the core. The fabricated harvester is highly elastic and can be stretched up to 158% of its initial length. Following the experiments using three different designs, the maximum output power is measured as 1.42 mW at a 3 MΩ load resistance and 1 Hz motional frequency. The proposed helical harvesters are applied at four positions of stretchable tight-fitting sportswear, namely shoulder, arm joint, knee, and hip. The maximum output voltage is measured as more than 20 V from the harvester at the knee position during intended body motions. In addition, electric power is also generated from this energy harvesting garment during daily human motions, which is about 3.9 V at the elbow, 3.1 V at the knee, and 4.4 V at the knee during push-up, walking, and squatting motions, respectively.

  20. Development of multi-functional combine harvester with grain harvesting and straw baling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Z.; Li, Y.; Cheng, C.

    2017-01-01

    The decomposition and burning of straw results in serious environmental pollution, and research is needed to improve strategies for straw collection to reduce pollution. This work presents an integrated design of multi-functional rice combine harvester that allows grain harvesting and straw baling. This multi-functional combine harvester could reduce the energy consumption required for rice harvesting and simplify the process of harvesting and baling. The transmission schematic, matching parameters and the rotation speed of threshing cylinder and square baler were designed and checked. Then the evaluation of grain threshing and straw baling were tested on a transverse threshing cylinders device tes rig and straw square bales compression test rig. The test results indicated that, with a feeding rate of 3.0 kg/s, the remaining straw flow rate at the discharge outlet was only 1.22 kg/s, which indicates a variable mass threshing process by the transverse threshing cylinder. Then the optimal diameter, length and rotating speed of multi-functional combine harvester transverse threshing cylinder were 554 mm, 1590 mm, and 850 r/min, respectively. The straw bale compression rotating speed of crank compression slider and piston was 95 r/min. Field trials by the multi-functional combine harvester formed bales with height×width×length of 40×50×54-63 cm, bale mass of 22.5 to 26.0 kg and bale density 206 to 216 kg/m3. This multi-functional combine harvester could be used for stem crops (such as rice, wheat and soybean) grain harvesting and straw square baling, which could reduce labor cost and power consumption.

  1. Development of multi-functional combine harvester with grain harvesting and straw baling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Z.; Li, Y.; Cheng, C.

    2017-09-01

    The decomposition and burning of straw results in serious environmental pollution, and research is needed to improve strategies for straw collection to reduce pollution. This work presents an integrated design of multi-functional rice combine harvester that allows grain harvesting and straw baling. This multi-functional combine harvester could reduce the energy consumption required for rice harvesting and simplify the process of harvesting and baling. The transmission schematic, matching parameters and the rotation speed of threshing cylinder and square baler were designed and checked. Then the evaluation of grain threshing and straw baling were tested on a transverse threshing cylinders device tes rig and straw square bales compression test rig. The test results indicated that, with a feeding rate of 3.0 kg/s, the remaining straw flow rate at the discharge outlet was only 1.22 kg/s, which indicates a variable mass threshing process by the transverse threshing cylinder. Then the optimal diameter, length and rotating speed of multi-functional combine harvester transverse threshing cylinder were 554 mm, 1590 mm, and 850 r/min, respectively. The straw bale compression rotating speed of crank compression slider and piston was 95 r/min. Field trials by the multi-functional combine harvester formed bales with height×width×length of 40×50×54-63 cm, bale mass of 22.5 to 26.0 kg and bale density 206 to 216 kg/m3. This multi-functional combine harvester could be used for stem crops (such as rice, wheat and soybean) grain harvesting and straw square baling, which could reduce labor cost and power consumption.

  2. Economics of residue harvest: Regional partnership evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Economic analyses on the viability of corn (Zea mays, L.) stover harvest for bioenergy production have largely been based on simulation modeling. While some studies have utilized field research data, most field-based analyses have included a limited number of sites and a narrow geographic distributi...

  3. Piezoelectric energy harvesting through shear mode operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malakooti, Mohammad H; Sodano, Henry A

    2015-01-01

    Piezoelectric materials are excellent candidates for use in energy harvesting applications due to their high electromechanical coupling properties that enable them to convert input mechanical energy into useful electric power. The electromechanical coupling coefficient of the piezoelectric material is one of the most significant parameters affecting energy conversion and is dependent on the piezoelectric mode of operation. In most piezoceramics, the d 15 piezoelectric shear coefficient is the highest coefficient compared to the commonly used axial and transverse modes that utilize the d 33 and the d 31 piezoelectric strain coefficients. However, complicated electroding methods and challenges in evaluating the performance of energy harvesting devices operating in the shear mode have slowed research in this area. The shear deformation of a piezoelectric layer can be induced in a vibrating sandwich beam with a piezoelectric core. Here, a model based on Timoshenko beam theory is developed to predict the electric power output from a cantilever piezoelectric sandwich beam under base excitations. It is shown that the energy harvester operating in the shear mode is able to generate ∼50% more power compared to the transverse mode for a numerical case study. Reduced models of both shear and transverse energy harvesters are obtained to determine the optimal load resistance in the system and perform an efficiency comparison between two models with fixed and adaptive resistances. (paper)

  4. 50 CFR 640.21 - Harvest limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... § 640.21 Harvest limitations. (a) Berried lobsters. A berried (egg-bearing) spiny lobster or slipper...) Undersized attractants. A live spiny lobster under the minimum size limit specified in paragraph (b)(1) of... future use as an attractant in a trap provided it is held in a live well aboard the vessel. No more than...

  5. Biofortified varieties released under HarvestPlus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chapter 5: Annex 1 - Biofortified varieties released under HarvestPlus (as of December 2016). Crop. Micronutrient. Country. Variety. Year of Release. Origin. Type. Baseline. (ppm). Target increment. (ppm). Increment. (ppm). % Target. Increment. (ppm). Micronutrient. Content. (ppm). 11940. BRRI dhan64. 2014. BRRI. Boro.

  6. Piezoelectric energy harvester under parquet floor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischur, E.; Schwesinger, N.

    2011-03-01

    The design, fabrication and testing of piezoelectric energy harvesting modules for floors is described. These modules are used beneath a parquet floor to harvest the energy of people walking over it. The harvesting modules consist of monoaxial stretched PVDF-foils. Multilayer modules are built up as roller-type capacitors. The fabrication process of the harvesting modules is simple and very suitable for mass production. Due to the use of organic polymers, the modules are characterized by a great flexibility and the possibility to create them in almost any geometrical size. The energy yield was determined depending on the dynamic loading force, the thickness of piezoelectric active material, the size of the piezoelectric modules, their alignment in the walking direction and their position on the floor. An increase of the energy yield at higher loading forces and higher thicknesses of the modules was observed. It was possible to generate up to 2.1mWs of electric energy with dynamic loads of 70kg using a specific module design. Furthermore a test floor was assembled to determine the influence of the size, alignment and position of the modules on the energy yield.

  7. Machine rates for selected forest harvesting machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.W. Brinker; J. Kinard; Robert Rummer; B. Lanford

    2002-01-01

    Very little new literature has been published on the subject of machine rates and machine cost analysis since 1989 when the Alabama Agricultural Experiment Station Circular 296, Machine Rates for Selected Forest Harvesting Machines, was originally published. Many machines discussed in the original publication have undergone substantial changes in various aspects, not...

  8. MEMS-Based Waste Vibrational Energy Harvesters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    MEMS energy- harvesting device. Although PZT is used more prevalently due to its higher piezoelectric coefficient and dielectric constant, AlN has...7 1. Lead Zirconium Titanate ( PZT ) .........................................................7 2. Aluminum...Laboratory PiezoMUMPS Piezoelectric Multi-User MEMS Processes PZT Lead Zirconate Titanate SEM Scanning Electron Microscopy SiO2 Silicon

  9. Natural strategies for photosynthetic light harvesting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Croce, R.; van Amerongen, H.

    2014-01-01

    Photosynthetic organisms are crucial for life on Earth as they provide food and oxygen and are at the basis of most energy resources. They have a large variety of light-harvesting strategies that allow them to live nearly everywhere where sunlight can penetrate. They have adapted their pigmentation

  10. Endovascular vein harvest: systemic carbon dioxide absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslow, Andrew M; Schwartz, Carl S; Bert, Arthur; Hurlburt, Peter; Gough, Jeffrey; Stearns, Gary; Singh, Arun K

    2006-06-01

    Endovascular vein harvest (EDVH) requires CO(2) insufflation to expand the subcutaneous space, allowing visualization and dissection of the saphenous vein. The purpose of this study was to assess the extent of CO(2) absorption during EDVH. Prospective observational study. Single tertiary care hospital. Sixty patients (30 EDVH and 30 open-vein harvest) undergoing isolated coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Hemodynamic, procedural, and laboratory data were collected prior to (baseline), during, and at it the conclusion (final) of vein harvesting. Data were also collected during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Data were compared by using t tests, analysis of variance, and correlation statistics when needed. There were significant increases in arterial CO(2) (PaCO(2), 35%) and decreases in pH (1.35%) during EDVH. These were associated with increases in heart rate, mean blood pressure, and cardiac output. Within the EDVH group, greater elevations (>10 mmHg) in PaCO2 were more likely during difficult harvest procedures, and these patients exhibited greater increase in heart rate. Elevated CO(2) persisted during CPB, requiring higher systemic gas flows and greater use of phenylephrine to maintain desired hemodynamics. EDVH was associated with systemic absorption of CO(2). Greater absorption was more likely in difficult procedures and was associated with greater hemodynamic changes requiring medical therapy.

  11. Precautionary harvest policies and the uncertainty paradox

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cadrin, S.X.; Pastoors, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    Elements of the precautionary approach to fishery management are commonly implemented in the form of harvest control rules, with limit, threshold and target reference points for stock size and fishing mortality. However, a review of two large advisory and management systems indicates that many stock

  12. Energy harvesting through piezoelectricity - technology foresight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laumann, Felix; Sørensen, Mette Møller; Hansen, Tina Mølholm

    2017-01-01

    scientific articles. In contrast to this, is found a low level of ability to convert the technology from academia to commercialization. A decision making model is proposed including a requirement for better understanding of niches, niche definitions and configuration of energy harvesting design...

  13. Harvesting Atlantic Cod under Climate Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oremus, K. L.

    2016-12-01

    Previous literature links the growth of a fishery to climate variability. This study uses an age-structured bioeconomic model to compare optimal harvest in the Gulf of Maine Atlantic cod fishery under a variable climate versus a static climate. The optimal harvest path depends on the relationship between fishery growth and the interest rate, with higher interest rates dictating greater harvests now at the cost of long-term stock sustainability. Given the time horizon of a single generation of fishermen under assumptions of a static climate, the model finds that the economically optimal management strategy is to harvest the entire stock in the short term and allow the fishery to collapse. However, if the biological growth of the fishery is assumed to vary with climate conditions, such as the North Atlantic Oscillation, there will always be pulses of high growth in the stock. During some of these high-growth years, the growth of the stock and its economic yield can exceed the growth rate of the economy even under high interest rates. This implies that it is not economically optimal to exhaust the New England cod fishery if NAO is included in the biological growth function. This finding may have theoretical implications for the management of other renewable yet exhaustible resources whose growth rates are subject to climate variability.

  14. Harvesting urban resources towards more resilient cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agudelo Vera, C.M.; Leduc, W.R.W.A.; Mels, A.R.; Rijnaarts, H.H.M.

    2012-01-01

    With accelerating global changes, cities have to cope with growing pressures, especially for resource supply. Cities may be considered as resources reservoirs and producers of secondary resources. This paper introduces the concept of urban harvesting as a management tool to change inefficient linear

  15. A piezoelectric device for impact energy harvesting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacquelin, E; Adhikari, S; Friswell, M I

    2011-01-01

    This paper studies a piezoelectric impact energy harvesting device consisting of two piezoelectric beams and a seismic mass. The aim of this work is to find the influence of several mechanical design parameters on the output power of such a harvester so as to optimize its performance; the electrical design parameters were not studied. To account for the dynamics of the beams, a model including the mechanical and piezoelectric properties of the system is proposed. The impacts involved in the energy harvesting process are described through a Hertzian contact law that requires a time domain simulation to solve the nonlinear equations. A transient regime and a steady-state regime have been identified and the performance of the device is characterized by the steady-state mean electrical power and the transient electrical power. The time simulations have been used to study the influence of various mechanical design parameters (seismic mass, beam length, gap, gliding length, impact location) on the performance of the system. It has been shown that the impact location is an important parameter and may be optimized only through simulation. The models and the simulation technique used in this work are general and may be used to assess any other impact energy harvesting device

  16. Holistic Sustainability Assessment of Agricultural Rainwater Harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    We present a methodology for holistic sustainability assessment of green infrastructure, applied to agricultural rainwater harvesting (RWH) in the Albemarle-Pamlico river basin. It builds upon prior work in the region through the use of detailed, crop-level management information...

  17. Post-harvest Proteomics and Food Security

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pedreschi Plasencia, R.P.; Lurie, S.; Hertog, W.; Nicolai, B.; Mes, J.J.; Woltering, E.J.

    2013-01-01

    To guarantee sufficient food supply for a growing world population, efforts towards improving crop yield and plant resistance should be complemented with efforts to reduce postharvest losses. Post-harvest losses are substantial and occur at different stages of the food chain in developed and

  18. Assessing the Harvest Maturity of Brazilian Mangoes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pereira, T.; Tijskens, L.M.M.; Vanoli, M.; Rizzolo, A.; Eccher Zerbini, P.C.; Torricelli, A.; Filgueiras, H.; Spinelli, L.

    2010-01-01

    No clear criterion exists to determine the optimum time to harvest mango. Some empirical relations are used to assess maturity, such as shoulder development. Moreover, as a result of the typical growing conditions in tropical climates, a huge variation in maturity and ripeness exists, seriously

  19. Harvesting microalgae with microwave synthesized magnetic microparticles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Procházková, G.; Šafařík, Ivo; Brányik, T.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 130, FEB (2013), s. 472-477 ISSN 0960-8524 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LH12190 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : harvesting microalgae * iron oxide magnetic microparticles * non-covalent interactions * microwave treatment * cell demagnetization Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics Impact factor: 5.039, year: 2013

  20. Harvesting sunlight energy: a biophysics approach

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Smit, Jacoba E

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available centre chlorophyll molecule where charge separation occurs in less than 100 ps and at about 95% efficiency. It has been shown that organised connective light harvesting complexes are required for long range energy transfer. By extracting these system...

  1. Carbon sequestration in harvested wood products

    Science.gov (United States)

    K. Skog

    2013-01-01

    Carbon is continuously cycled among these storage pools and between forest ecosystems and the atmosphere as a result of biological processes in forests (e.g., photosynthesis, respiration, growth, mortality, decomposition, and disturbances such as fires or pest outbreaks) and anthropogenic activities (e.g., harvesting, thinning, clearing, and replanting). As trees...

  2. Preliminary design of a coffee harvester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael Magalhães Gomes Moreira

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Design of an agricultural machine is a highly complex process due to interactions between the operator, machine, and environment. Mountain coffee plantations constitute an economic sector that requires huge investments for the development of agricultural machinery to improve the harvesting and post-harvesting processes and to overcome the scarcity of work forces in the fields. The aim of this study was to develop a preliminary design for a virtual prototype of a coffee fruit harvester. In this study, a project methodology was applied and adapted for the development of the following steps: project planning, informational design, conceptual design, and preliminary design. The construction of a morphological matrix made it possible to obtain a list of different mechanisms with specific functions. The union between these mechanisms resulted in variants, which were weighed to attribute scores for each selected criterion. From each designated proposal, two variants with the best scores were selected and this permitted the preparation of the preliminary design of both variants. The archetype was divided in two parts, namely the hydraulically articulated arms and the harvesting system that consisted of the vibration mechanism and the detachment mechanism. The proposed innovation involves the use of parallel rods, which were fixed in a plane and rectangular metal sheet. In this step, dimensions including a maximum length of 4.7 m, a minimum length of 3.3 m, and a total height of 2.15 m were identified based on the functioning of the harvester in relation to the coupling point of the tractor.

  3. 75 FR 65599 - Migratory Bird Subsistence Harvest in Alaska; Harvest Regulations for Migratory Birds in Alaska...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-26

    ...: April 2-May 31 and July 1-August 31. (ii) Closure: June 1-30. (k) Cook Inlet (Harvest area: portions of... Steller's eiders to be taken no longer exists. Dated: October 7, 2010. Thomas L. Strickland, Assistant...

  4. Olive paste oil content on a dry weight basis (OPDW): an indicator for optimal harvesting time in modern olive orchards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zipori, I.; Bustan, A.; Kerem, Z.; Dag, A.

    2016-07-01

    In modern oil olive orchards, mechanical harvesting technologies have significantly accelerated harvesting outputs, thereby allowing for careful planning of harvest timing. While optimizing harvest time may have profound effects on oil yield and quality, the necessary tools to precisely determine the best date are rather scarce. For instance, the commonly used indicator, the fruit ripening index, does not necessarily correlate with oil accumulation. Oil content per fruit fresh weight is strongly affected by fruit water content, making the ripening index an unreliable indicator. However, oil in the paste, calculated on a dry weight basis (OPDW), provides a reliable indication of oil accumulation in the fruit. In most cultivars tested here, OPDW never exceeded ca. 0.5 g·g–1 dry weight, making this threshold the best indicator for the completion of oil accumulation and its consequent reduction in quality thereafter. The rates of OPDW and changes in quality parameters strongly depend on local conditions, such as climate, tree water status and fruit load. We therefore propose a fast and easy method to determine and monitor the OPDW in a given orchard. The proposed method is a useful tool for the determination of optimal harvest timing, particularly in large plots under intensive cultivation practices, with the aim of increasing orchard revenues. The results of this research can be directly applied in olive orchards, especially in large-scale operations. By following the proposed method, individual plots can be harvested according to sharp thresholds of oil accumulation status and pre-determined oil quality parameters, thus effectively exploiting the potentials of oil yield and quality. The method can become a powerful tool for scheduling the harvest throughout the season, and at the same time forecasting the flow of olives to the olive mill. (Author)

  5. Endoscopic Radial Artery Harvest for Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuan-Ming Chiu

    2006-01-01

    Conclusion: Endoscopic harvest of the radial artery is technically demanding, but excellent results can be achieved. The endoscopic approach can provide suitable conduits in a less invasive way than the open harvest technique.

  6. Design guidelines of triboelectric nanogenerator for water wave energy harvesters

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmed, Abdelsalam

    2017-04-11

    Ocean waves are one of the cleanest and most abundant energy sources on earth, and wave energy has the potential for future power generation. Triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) technology has recently been proposed as a promising technology to harvest wave energy. In this paper, a theoretical study is performed on a duck-shaped TENG wave harvester recently introduced in our work. To enhance the design of the duck-shaped TENG wave harvester, the mechanical and electrical characteristics of the harvester\\'s overall structure, as well as its inner configuration, are analyzed, respectively, under different wave conditions, to optimize parameters such as duck radius and mass. Furthermore, a comprehensive hybrid 3D model is introduced to quantify the performance of the TENG wave harvester. Finally, the influence of different TENG parameters is validated by comparing the performance of several existing TENG wave harvesters. This study can be applied as a guideline for enhancing the performance of TENG wave energy harvesters.

  7. Workplane Illuminance Estimation for Robust Daylight Harvesting Lighting Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, S.; Birru, D.

    2012-01-01

    Daylight harvesting lighting controls can provide significant energysavings in daylit spaces. However, their performance is affected bythe changing lighting distribution in the space due to window treatments and the sun. Such impacts reduce the field performance of daylight harvesting dimming

  8. Energy Harvesting in Heterogeneous Networks with Hybrid Powered Communication Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Alsharoa, Ahmad; Celik, Abdulkadir; Kamal, Ahmed E.

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate an energy efficient and energy harvesting (EH) system model in heterogeneous networks (HetNets) where all base stations (BSS) are equipped to harvest energy from renewable energy sources. We consider a hybrid power

  9. Influence of planting and harvesting dates on sweet potato yield ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    home

    Two experiments were conducted to study the influence of harvesting date on three sweet potato ... determining whole top yields above ground level. .... plant storage organ (which in this case is the root) prior to harvesting and processing for.

  10. Comparison of the chemical quality of rainwater harvested from roof ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-04-02

    Apr 2, 2018 ... 4, place Jussieu 75252 Paris Cedex 05, France ... Keywords: rainwater harvesting, roof-harvested rainwater, pollution, human health, food security, ... Received 18 December 2015; accepted in revised form 26 March 2018.

  11. The abundance and diversity of heterotrophic bacteria as a function of harvesting frequency of duckweed (Lemna minor L.) in recirculating aquaculture systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardiansyah, A; Fotedar, R

    2016-07-01

    Duckweed (Lemna minor L.) is a potential biofilter for nutrient removal and acts as a substrate for heterotrophic bacteria in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS). Here, we determined the effects of harvesting frequency of duckweed on heterotrophic bacteria in RAS. Twelve independent RAS consisting of fish-rearing tank, biofilter tank and waste-collection tank were used to study the interactions between duckweed harvest frequencies up to 6 days and the composition, abundance and diversity of heterotrophic bacteria. After 36 days, heterotrophic bacteria in the biofilter tank were primarily Gram-negative cocci or ovoid, coccobacilli, Gram-negative bacilli and Gram-positive bacilli. Most bacterial genera were Bacillus and Pseudomonas while the least common was Acinetobacter. Duckweed harvested after every 2 days produced the highest specific growth rates (SGR) and total harvested biomass of duckweed, but harboured less abundant bacteria, whereas 6-day harvests had a higher growth index (GI) of duckweed than 2-day harvests, but caused a poor relationship between SGR and biomass harvest with the abundance and diversity of heterotrophic bacteria. Stronger correlations (R(2)  > 0·65) between duckweed SGR and biomass harvest with the heterotrophic bacteria diversity were observed at 4-day harvest frequency and the control. This study provides significant information on the interaction between the harvest frequency of duckweed and the composition, abundance and diversity of heterotrophic bacteria in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS). Different harvest frequencies significantly influence the abundance and diversity of heterotrophic bacteria, which in turn may influence the nitrogen uptake efficiency of the system. The research is useful in improving the efficiency of removing nitrogenous metabolites in RAS directly by the duckweed and associated heterotrophic bacteria. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  12. High relative humidity pre-harvest reduces post-harvest proliferation of Salmonella in tomatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Marvasi, Massimiliano; Giurcanu, Mihai C; Hochmuth, George J; Speybroeck, Niko; Havelaar, Arie H; Teplitski, Max

    2017-09-01

    Outbreaks of human illness caused by enteric pathogens such as Salmonella are increasingly linked to the consumption of fruits and vegetables. Knowledge on the factors affecting Salmonella proliferation on fresh produce therefore becomes increasingly important to safeguard public health. Previous experiments showed a limited impact of pre-harvest production practices on Salmonella proliferation on tomatoes, but suggested a significant effect of harvest time. We explored the data from two previously published and one unpublished experiment using regression trees, which allowed overcoming the interpretational difficulties of classical statistical models with higher order interactions. We assessed the effect of harvest time by explicitly modeling the climatic conditions at harvest time and by performing confirmatory laboratory experiments. Across all datasets, regression trees confirmed the dominant effect of harvest time on Salmonella proliferation, with humidity-related factors emerging as the most important underlying climatic factors. High relative humidity the week prior to harvest was consistently associated with lower Salmonella proliferation. A controlled lab experiment confirmed that tomatoes containing their native epimicrobiota supported significantly lower Salmonella proliferation when incubated at higher humidity prior to inoculation. The complex interactions between environmental conditions and the native microbiota of the tomato crop remain to be fully understood. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Energy Harvesting From Low Frequency Applications Using Piezoelectric Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Huidong; Tian, Chuan; Deng, Zhiqun

    2014-11-06

    This paper reviewed the state of research on piezoelectric energy harvesters. Various types of harvester configurations, piezoelectric materials, and techniques used to improve the mechanical-to-electrical energy conversion efficiency were discussed. Most of the piezoelectric energy harvesters studied today have focused on scavenging mechanical energy from vibration sources due to their abundance in both natural and industrial environments. Cantilever beams have been the most studied structure for piezoelectric energy harvester to date because of the high responsiveness to small vibrations.

  14. Energy harvesting autonomous sensor systems design, analysis, and practical implementation

    CERN Document Server

    Tan, Yen Kheng

    2013-01-01

    This book is the considered the first to describe sensor-oriented energy harvesting issues. Its content is derived from the author's research on the development of a truly self-autonomous and sustainable energy harvesting wireless sensor network (EH-WSN). This network harvests energy from a variety of ambient energy sources and converts it into electrical energy to power batteries. The book discusses various types of energy harvesting (EH) systems and their respective main components.

  15. Effect of harvest date and stalk section on selected strength ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The time required to harvest plant crops is important to the plant properties. It is affected by design of the harvest equipment and the desire for high-quality products with low energy usage. Materials and Methods: Strength characteristics of Origanum onites L., an important medicinal aromatic plant, harvested on ...

  16. Simulating cut-to-length harvesting operations in Appalachian hardwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jingxin Wang; Chris B. LeDoux; Yaoxiang Li

    2005-01-01

    Cut-to-length (CTL) harvesting systems involving small and large harvesters and a forwarder were simulated using a modular computer simulation model. The two harvesters simulated were a modified John Deere 988 tracked excavator with a single grip sawhead and a Timbco T425 based excavator with a single grip sawhead. The forwarder used in the simulations was a Valmet 524...

  17. PRESTO: online calculation of carbon in harvested wood products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coeli M. Hoover; Sarah J. Beukema; Donald C.E. Robinson; Katherine M. Kellock; Diana A. Abraham

    2014-01-01

    Carbon stored in harvested wood products is recognized under international carbon accounting protocols, and some crediting systems may permit the inclusion of harvested wood products when calculating carbon sequestration. For managers and landowners, however, estimating carbon stored in harvested wood products may be difficult. PRESTO (PRoduct EStimation Tool Online)...

  18. Evaluating timber harvesting impacts on wildlife habitat suitability using FOREX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chris B. LeDoux

    1997-01-01

    Precommercial, commercial, and final harvesting operations can impact wildlife habitat suitability by altering the vegetation composition on a given site. Harvesting operations remove trees and many times provide the necessary perturbation to trigger successional conditions different from those that existed prior to the harvest. Although these new successional changes...

  19. Increasing global crop harvest frequency: recent trends and future directions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, Deepak K; Foley, Jonathan A

    2013-01-01

    The world’s agricultural systems face the challenge of meeting the rising demands from population growth, changing dietary preferences, and expanding biofuel use. Previous studies have put forward strategies for meeting this growing demand by increasing global crop production, either expanding the area under cultivation or intensifying the crop yields of our existing agricultural lands. However, another possible means for increasing global crop production has received less attention: increasing the frequency of global cropland harvested each year. Historically, many of the world’s croplands were left fallow, or had failed harvests, each year, foregoing opportunities for delivering crop production. Furthermore, many regions, particularly in the tropics, may be capable of multiple harvests per year, often more than are harvested today. Here we analyze a global compilation of agricultural statistics to show how the world’s harvested cropland has changed. Between 2000 and 2011, harvested land area grew roughly 4 times faster than total standing cropland area. Using a metric of cropland harvest frequency (CHF)—the ratio of land harvested each year to the total standing cropland—and its recent trends, we identify countries that harvest their croplands more frequently, and those that have the potential to increase their cropland harvest frequency. We suggest that a possible ‘harvest gap’ may exist in many countries that represents an opportunity to increase crop production on existing agricultural lands. However, increasing the harvest frequency of existing croplands could have significant environmental and social impacts, which need careful evaluation. (letter)

  20. Relationship Between Site Disturbance and Forest Harvesting Equipment Traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tim McDonald; Emily Carter; Steve Taylor; John Tobert

    1998-01-01

    A study was done to evaluate the use of global positioning systems (GPS) to track the position of forest harvesting equipment and use the information to assess site impacts. GPS units were attached to tree-length harvesting machinery in two clearcuts (1 feller-buncher, 2 skidders). Position of the equipment was recorded at 2-second intervals throughout the harvest of...

  1. An autonomous robot for harvesting cucumbers in greenhouses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henten, van E.J.; Hemming, J.; Tuijl, van B.A.J.; Kornet, J.G.; Meuleman, J.; Bontsema, J.; Os, van E.A.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the concept of an autonomous robot for harvesting cucumbers in greenhouses. A description is given of the working environment of the robot and the logistics of harvesting. It is stated that for a 2 ha Dutch nursery, 4 harvesting robots and one docking station are needed during

  2. Irradiation as an alternative post harvest treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satin, M. [Agricultural Industries and Post-harvest Management Service, FAO, Rome (Italy); Loaharanu, P. [Head, Food Preservation Section, Joint FAO/ IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, Wagramerstr. 5, A-1400, Vienna (Austria)

    1997-12-31

    This current world population has significantly added to the pressures placed upon our finite resources and our resulting ability to feed ourselves. In order to cope with current and future demands, the two established lines of action, that is, reduced population growth and expansion of agricultural production, must be supplemented with the parallel activity of reducing food losses during and after harvest. For developing countries in particular, enormous post-harvest losses result from spillage, contamination, pests and physiological deterioration during storage. Studies in these countries indicate that post-harvest losses are enormous and amount to tens of millions of tons per year valued at billions of dollars. Programs to reduce post-harvest losses, if applied properly, can result in realistic yield increases between 10 and 30%, which can be directly converted into increased consumption for humans. Post-harvest losses vary greatly and are a function of the crop variety, pest combinations in the environment, climate, the system of harvesting, storage, handling, marketing, and even the social and cultural environment. Pests are among the most criticals of these factors. Because of the disastrous potential consequences of such pests, quarantine regulations prohibit the entrance of plants or products which might hide the unwanted pest from countries where it is known to exist. Quarantine treatments are can be chemical, physical or ionizing radiation treatment. Numerous investigations on the use of ionizing radiation for the disinfestation of fresh plant materials indicate that rather low dosages will control fruit-fly problems, thus making it well suited for quarantine treatment. The effectiveness of the irradiation as a broad spectrum quarantine treatment of fresh fruits and vegetables was recognized by the several plant protection organizations around the world. Currently, some 40 countries have approved one or more irradiated food items or groups of food

  3. Irradiation as an alternative post harvest treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satin, M [Agricultural Industries and Post-harvest Management Service, FAO, Rome (Italy); Loaharanu, P [Head, Food Preservation Section, Joint FAO/ IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, Wagramerstr. 5, A-1400, Vienna (Austria)

    1998-12-31

    This current world population has significantly added to the pressures placed upon our finite resources and our resulting ability to feed ourselves. In order to cope with current and future demands, the two established lines of action, that is, reduced population growth and expansion of agricultural production, must be supplemented with the parallel activity of reducing food losses during and after harvest. For developing countries in particular, enormous post-harvest losses result from spillage, contamination, pests and physiological deterioration during storage. Studies in these countries indicate that post-harvest losses are enormous and amount to tens of millions of tons per year valued at billions of dollars. Programs to reduce post-harvest losses, if applied properly, can result in realistic yield increases between 10 and 30%, which can be directly converted into increased consumption for humans. Post-harvest losses vary greatly and are a function of the crop variety, pest combinations in the environment, climate, the system of harvesting, storage, handling, marketing, and even the social and cultural environment. Pests are among the most criticals of these factors. Because of the disastrous potential consequences of such pests, quarantine regulations prohibit the entrance of plants or products which might hide the unwanted pest from countries where it is known to exist. Quarantine treatments are can be chemical, physical or ionizing radiation treatment. Numerous investigations on the use of ionizing radiation for the disinfestation of fresh plant materials indicate that rather low dosages will control fruit-fly problems, thus making it well suited for quarantine treatment. The effectiveness of the irradiation as a broad spectrum quarantine treatment of fresh fruits and vegetables was recognized by the several plant protection organizations around the world. Currently, some 40 countries have approved one or more irradiated food items or groups of food

  4. Irradiation as an alternative post harvest treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satin, M.; Loaharanu, P.

    1997-01-01

    This current world population has significantly added to the pressures placed upon our finite resources and our resulting ability to feed ourselves. In order to cope with current and future demands, the two established lines of action, that is, reduced population growth and expansion of agricultural production, must be supplemented with the parallel activity of reducing food losses during and after harvest. For developing countries in particular, enormous post-harvest losses result from spillage, contamination, pests and physiological deterioration during storage. Studies in these countries indicate that post-harvest losses are enormous and amount to tens of millions of tons per year valued at billions of dollars. Programs to reduce post-harvest losses, if applied properly, can result in realistic yield increases between 10 and 30%, which can be directly converted into increased consumption for humans. Post-harvest losses vary greatly and are a function of the crop variety, pest combinations in the environment, climate, the system of harvesting, storage, handling, marketing, and even the social and cultural environment. Pests are among the most criticals of these factors. Because of the disastrous potential consequences of such pests, quarantine regulations prohibit the entrance of plants or products which might hide the unwanted pest from countries where it is known to exist. Quarantine treatments are can be chemical, physical or ionizing radiation treatment. Numerous investigations on the use of ionizing radiation for the disinfestation of fresh plant materials indicate that rather low dosages will control fruit-fly problems, thus making it well suited for quarantine treatment. The effectiveness of the irradiation as a broad spectrum quarantine treatment of fresh fruits and vegetables was recognized by the several plant protection organizations around the world. Currently, some 40 countries have approved one or more irradiated food items or groups of food

  5. The Interfamilial Principle and the Harvest Festival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherkassky, Lisa

    2016-03-01

    It is widely accepted that younger children can act as saviour siblings by donating cord blood or bone marrow to their gravely-ill brothers or sisters. However, it is under dispute whether these procedures are in the best interests of the child. This article suggests that parents may be relying on a thinly-veiled interfamilial approach, where the wider benefit to the whole family is used to justify the procedure to the Human Tissue Authority in the United Kingdom. This article suggests that the merging of familial interests to validate a non-therapeutic bone marrow harvest on a child forces altruism in a patient too young to understand, rendering the harvests unlawful under current law.

  6. Still special? Harvesting procedures for industrial hemp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Jörg Gusovius

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A multitude of different harvesting procedures is available after the re-approval of hemp growing in Germany about 20 years ago. Established, but as well recent machine developments enable the supply of raw materials for further processing or as food and feed materials. The necessary specialization level results in high but, compared to other established crops, not exceeding procedural costs. In this study, harvesting procedures and technologies are analyzed that are currently used under Northern European cultivation conditions. However, technological enhancements are still needed in order to improve the competitiveness of fibre hemp in the crop rotation as well as of hemp-based semi-finished and finished products.

  7. Risk Analysis Approach to Rainwater Harvesting Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Ursino

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Urban rainwater reuse preserves water resources and promotes sustainable development in rapidly growing urban areas. The efficiency of a large number of urban water reuse systems, operating under different climate and demand conditions, is evaluated here on the base of a new risk analysis approach. Results obtained by probability analysis (PA indicate that maximum efficiency in low demanding scenarios is above 0.5 and a threshold, distinguishing low from high demanding scenarios, indicates that in low demanding scenarios no significant improvement in performance may be attained by increasing the storage capacity of rainwater harvesting tanks. Threshold behaviour is displayed when tank storage capacity is designed to match both the average collected volume and the average reuse volume. The low demand limit cannot be achieved under climate and operating conditions characterized by a disproportion between harvesting and demand volume.

  8. Energy harvesting in high voltage measuring techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Żyłka, Pawel; Doliński, Marcin

    2016-01-01

    The paper discusses selected problems related to application of energy harvesting (that is, generating electricity from surplus energy present in the environment) to supply autonomous ultra-low-power measurement systems applicable in high voltage engineering. As a practical example of such implementation a laboratory model of a remote temperature sensor is presented, which is self-powered by heat generated in a current-carrying busbar in HV- switchgear. Presented system exploits a thermoelectric harvester based on a passively cooled Peltier module supplying micro-power low-voltage dc-dc converter driving energy-efficient temperature sensor, microcontroller and a fibre-optic transmitter. Performance of the model in laboratory simulated conditions are presented and discussed. (paper)

  9. Harvesting space for a greener earth

    CERN Document Server

    Matloff, Greg; Johnson, Les

    2014-01-01

    What was our planet like in years past? How has our civilization affected Earth and its ecology? Harvesting Space for a Greener Planet, the Second Edition of Paradise Regained: The Regreening of the Earth, begins by discussing these questions, and then generates a scenario for the restoration of Earth. It introduces new and innovative ideas on how we could use the Solar System and its resources for terrestrial benefit. The environmental challenges that face us today cannot be resolved by conservation and current technologies alone. Harvesting Space highlights the risk of humankind’s future extinction from environmental degradation. Population growth, global climate change, and maintaining sustainability of habitats for wildlife are all considered, among other issues. Rather than losing heart, we need to realize that the solutions to these problems lie in being good stewards of the planet and in the development of space. Not only will the solutions offered here avert a crisis, they will also provide the basi...

  10. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 51 - 100 of 248 ... Vol 40, No 1 (2012), Critical Natural resources factors that promote the adoption of new in-field rainwater harvesting (IRWH) by extentionist in Lambani, Limpopo Province, Abstract PDF. LF Joseph, JJ Botha. Vol 37 (2008), Cultural variations regarding the nature and determinants of opinion leadership ...

  11. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 601 - 650 of 1007 ... Vol 28, No 1 (2014), High yield synthesis of some phosphonic acid derivatives as surface tethers for energy harvesting technologies, Abstract PDF. A. Mungalimane. Vol 1, No 1 (1987), Highfieid 1H and 13C NMR of 5-oxygenated of cholestane-6-oxime derivatives, Abstract PDF. Helmut Duddeck ...

  12. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 201 - 250 of 427 ... Vol 10, No 1 (1998), Escavation-Water Harvesting in Sudano-Sahelian Nigeria: Problems and Prospects, Details ... Vol 16, No 3 (2004), Food Security Problems in Borabu Division, Nyamira District, Abstract ... Vol 12, No 1 (2000), Forest Conservation Through Forest Ecotourism in Uganda, Details.

  13. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 6601 - 6650 of 11090 ... ... ultrastructural and histopathological changes in coronary arteries of German shepherd dogs following alloxan induced diabetes mellitus, Abstract PDF. Mohammadreza Valilou, Alireza Lotfi. Vol 9, No 11 (2010), Investigation of timber harvesting mechanization progress in Turkey, Abstract PDF.

  14. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 51 - 100 of 204 ... Vol 4, No 1 (2001), Effect of harvest methods on yield and quality of Marketable flowers of greenhouse rose cultivars of different growth habits, Abstract PDF. TJ Msogoya, A ... Vol 3, No 2 (2000), Effects of moist heat and dry heat on the nutritional value of velvet beans (Mucuna pruriens Var. Utilis) for the ...

  15. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 251 - 300 of 775 ... Vol 8, No 1 (2015), Effect of imazapyr treated maize on Striga infestation and time of intercropping cowpea in Samaru, Nigeria, Abstract PDF ... Vol 3, No 1 (2010), Effect of water harvesting methods, nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer on leaf length of different date palm (phoenix d-) varieties, Abstract ...

  16. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 51 - 100 of 193 ... Vol 3, No 1 (2001), Effect of Bioregulators on Apple Yield and ... Storage Life and Quality of Spinach (Spinacea oleracea L) Leaves ... fertilizers on growth, flowering and yield of strawberry (Fragaria X ... No 2 (2012), Effect of rain water harvesting and drip irrigation on crop ... B Kaunda-Arara, MJ Ntiba.

  17. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 260 ... Vol 23, No 1 (1978), A preliminary study of pre-harvest insect ... Vol 49 (2009), Bacteriological Quality and Possible Health Effects of ... and in compound fertilizers on maize on a coastal savanna ultisol ... yield and yield components of two cultivars of cabbage (Brassica ... EK Hayford, F Lisker, L Apaalse.

  18. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 551 - 600 of 1255 ... Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... potential in black Sigatoka resistant plantain and banana hybrids ... Vol 11, No 1 (2005), Excess Molar Volume Of Binarymixtures From Iso-Propyl Alcohol, ... Vol 9, No 1 (2003), Fungi associated with peels of post harvest yams (dioscorea spp.) ...

  19. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 251 - 282 of 282 ... Vol 9, No 1 (2004), System approach problem diagnosis and development strategies for a ... Vol 8 (2003), Traditional agroforestry systems, tree uses and ... Water harvesting technologies in ensuring food security: Lessons from the ... maize production and marketing in western Kenya, Abstract PDF.

  20. Thermal Harvesting Potential of the Human Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thielen, Moritz; Kara, Gökhan; Unkovic, Ivana; Majoe, Dennis; Hierold, Christofer

    2018-02-01

    Thermoelectric energy harvesting of human body heat might supplement or even replace conventional energy storage in wearable devices for healthcare and the Internet of Humans. Although a number of thermal harvesters are presented in the literature, no conclusive data can be found on the amount of available thermal energy provided by different individuals and activities. We here present the results of an observational study with 56 test subjects of different ages (children, adults and elderly) and gender, performing predefined activities (sitting, walking) in varying environments (indoor, outdoor). Our study showed a statistical difference of thermal potential and skin properties between age groups, but not between genders. On average, stationary elderly test subjects produced ˜ 32% less heat flux compared to minors (mean: children = 13.9 mW/cm2, adults = 11.4 mW/cm2, elderly = 9.4 mW/cm2). This potentially correlates with an increase in thermal skin resistance with age (children = 494 cm2 K/W, adults = 549 cm2 K/W, elderly = 835 cm2 K/W). The mean harvested power varied from 12.2 μW/cm2 (elderly) to 26.2 μW/cm2 (children) for stationary, and from 20.2 μW/cm2 (elderly) to 69.5 μW/cm2 (children) for active subjects inside of a building. The findings of this study can be used to better anticipate the available energy for different usage scenarios of thermal harvesters and optimize wearable systems accordingly.

  1. Electromechanical Modeling of Piezoelectric Energy Harvesters

    OpenAIRE

    Erturk, Alper

    2009-01-01

    Vibration-based energy harvesting has been investigated by several researchers over the last decade. The ultimate goal in this research field is to power small electronic components (such as wireless sensors) by using the vibration energy available in their environment. Among the basic transduction mechanisms that can be used for vibration-to-electricity conversion, piezoelectric transduction has received the most attention in the literature. Piezoelectric materials are preferred in energy ha...

  2. Thermal Harvesting Potential of the Human Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thielen, Moritz; Kara, Gökhan; Unkovic, Ivana; Majoe, Dennis; Hierold, Christofer

    2018-06-01

    Thermoelectric energy harvesting of human body heat might supplement or even replace conventional energy storage in wearable devices for healthcare and the Internet of Humans. Although a number of thermal harvesters are presented in the literature, no conclusive data can be found on the amount of available thermal energy provided by different individuals and activities. We here present the results of an observational study with 56 test subjects of different ages (children, adults and elderly) and gender, performing predefined activities (sitting, walking) in varying environments (indoor, outdoor). Our study showed a statistical difference of thermal potential and skin properties between age groups, but not between genders. On average, stationary elderly test subjects produced ˜ 32% less heat flux compared to minors (mean: children = 13.9 mW/cm2, adults = 11.4 mW/cm2, elderly = 9.4 mW/cm2). This potentially correlates with an increase in thermal skin resistance with age (children = 494 cm2 K/W, adults = 549 cm2 K/W, elderly = 835 cm2 K/W). The mean harvested power varied from 12.2 μW/cm2 (elderly) to 26.2 μW/cm2 (children) for stationary, and from 20.2 μW/cm2 (elderly) to 69.5 μW/cm2 (children) for active subjects inside of a building. The findings of this study can be used to better anticipate the available energy for different usage scenarios of thermal harvesters and optimize wearable systems accordingly.

  3. Harvesting and Organizing Knowledge from the Web

    OpenAIRE

    Weikum, Gerhard

    2007-01-01

    Information organization and search on the {W}eb is gaining structure and context awareness and more semantic flavor, for example, in the forms of faceted search, vertical search, entity search, and {D}eep-{W}eb search. I envision another big leap forward by automatically harvesting and organizing knowledge from the {W}eb, represented in terms of explicit entities and relations as well as ontological concepts. This will be made possible by the confluence of three stron...

  4. How indexes have changed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrar, G.L.

    1993-01-01

    The accompanying table compares refinery construction and operating wages monthly for the years 1990 and 1991. The Nelson-Farrar refinery construction cost indexes are inflation indexes, while the operating indexes incorporate a productivity which shows improvement with experience and the increasing size of operations. The refinery construction wage indexes in the table show a steady advance over the 2-year period. Common labor indexes moved up faster than skilled indexes. Refinery operating wages showed a steady increase, while productivities averaged higher near the end of the period. Net result is that labor costs remained steady for the period

  5. RF power harvesting: a review on designing methodologies and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Le-Giang; Cha, Hyouk-Kyu; Park, Woo-Tae

    2017-12-01

    Wireless power transmission was conceptualized nearly a century ago. Certain achievements made to date have made power harvesting a reality, capable of providing alternative sources of energy. This review provides a summ ary of radio frequency (RF) power harvesting technologies in order to serve as a guide for the design of RF energy harvesting units. Since energy harvesting circuits are designed to operate with relatively small voltages and currents, they rely on state-of-the-art electrical technology for obtaining high efficiency. Thus, comprehensive analysis and discussions of various designs and their tradeoffs are included. Finally, recent applications of RF power harvesting are outlined.

  6. Remaining questions in the case for balanced harvesting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burgess, Matthew G; Diekert, Florian K; Jacobsen, Nis Sand

    2016-01-01

    are controversial, including its call for extensive harvesting of juveniles and forage fish. Balanced harvesting also calls for targeting species and size-classes that are not currently marketable, possibly at a significant economic cost. Some have argued that this cost is outweighed by the ecological benefits......Balanced harvestingharvesting all species and sizes in an ecosystem in proportion to their productivity – is a fisheries management strategy that has been suggested recently to increase yields, while reducing overall ecosystem impact. However, some aspects of balanced harvesting...

  7. Thermodynamic limits of energy harvesting from outgoing thermal radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buddhiraju, Siddharth; Santhanam, Parthiban; Fan, Shanhui

    2018-04-17

    We derive the thermodynamic limits of harvesting power from the outgoing thermal radiation from the ambient to the cold outer space. The derivations are based on a duality relation between thermal engines that harvest solar radiation and those that harvest outgoing thermal radiation. In particular, we derive the ultimate limit for harvesting outgoing thermal radiation, which is analogous to the Landsberg limit for solar energy harvesting, and show that the ultimate limit far exceeds what was previously thought to be possible. As an extension of our work, we also derive the ultimate limit of efficiency of thermophotovoltaic systems.

  8. Energy harvesting with Di-Electro Active Polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due, Jens; Munk-Nielsen, Stig; Nielsen, Rasmus Ørndrup

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a way of using Di-Electro Active Polymers (D-EAPs) for harvesting mechanical energy sources. The article describes the basics of energy harvesting with D-EAPs, and an electrical model of a D-EAP is suggested. This leads to a converter design which is able to extract...... the electrical energy harvested by the D-EAP. This converter is simulated and realized. Through experimental results both the model of the DEAP and the converter are verified. It is found that it is possible to harvest energy with a D-EAP and build a converter that can extract the harvested energy....

  9. Rainwater in Egypt: quantity, distribution and harvesting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.I. ABDEL-SHAFY

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Egypt has limited water resources, and it will be under water stress within the year 2030. Therefore, Egypt should consider the natural and non-conventional water resources to overcome such problem. Rain harvesting is one solution; but not all; particularly on the north coast by the Mediterranean Sea and the Red sea. In this paper, the rainwater issue is reviewed and discussed in terms of the quantities and distribution at different selected areas in Egypt. The amount of rain falls at different location in Egypt was collected for a period of 16 months. The data indicated that rainfall in Egypt is very scarce, with an annual average of 12 mm and ranges from 0 mm/year in the desert to 200 mm/year in the north coastal region. The maximum total amount of rain does not exceed 1.8 billion m3per year. However, the average annual amount of rainfall water that is effectively utilized for agriculture purposes is estimated to be 1 billion m3. Harvesting pilot plant was constructed and implemented in Alexandria directly on the Mediterranean Sea. The harvested rain was used for irrigation and treated for drinking. It was, therefore, recommended to develop sustainable catchments at appropriate locations in the rain-fed areas at the north coast as well as cost effective grafting of the indigenous technologies with the innovative techniques.

  10. Mechanization in firewood harvesting in southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to survey current mechanization level of coppice harvesting in Southern Italy. The cooperation of the General Direction of the National Forest Service (NFS has been a basic tool of survey. A questionnaire compiled on purpose was sent to each Forest Station (hereinafter referred to as CS in the following regions: Basilicata, Campania and Calabria. A high percentage (80% of the CSs did fulfill the questionnaire. The answers highlight that: i the main assortment currently produced is firewood; ii the level of harvesting mechanization is rather low, equipment being quite obsolete: indeed, the most widely used machineries are farm tractors partly adapted to forest harvesting and equipped with cages or back winch; iii the use of animals for hauling (mules and oxen, the latter in Calabria is still quite frequent, while forest tractors, polyethylene chutes and cable cranes are almost absent; iv the use of individual protection (DPI and machinery protection devices (DPM is on average quite low.

  11. Canadian peat harvesting and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keys, D.

    1992-01-01

    In 1990, ca 749,000 tonnes of peat were sold by Canadian producers, a small volume in comparison to the estimated 50 million tonnes or more that accumulate naturally each year in Canada. Most of the harvested peat was used for horticultural purposes. The relationship between peatlands and the peat industry is examined, and issues related to the environment and sustainable resource use are discussed. Case studies are used to examine several specific situations where peatland development proposals have undergone environmental assessments. The present status of peatland conservation in Canada is reviewed. To date, developed peatlands are primarily situated in the boreal wetland regions and consist mainly of the bog wetland class. Environmental issues related to peatland development include the need for conservation of flora, fauna, and other ecological values or functions. The potential for release of carbon gases due to Canadian peat harvesting is considered to be insignificant in relation to other uses of carbon sources such as the combustion of fossil fuel, and is unlikely to influence global warming at the present or projected levels of peatland development in Canada. The influence and mitigation of the effects of drainage of peatlands for peat production on water quality and flow regime are being addressed on a site-specific basis through existing regulatory procedures and research. Reclamation and restoration options are being incorporated during design and operational development of new peat harvesting areas. 39 refs., 15 figs., 3 tabs

  12. Have we to harvest the contaminated wheats?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tannenberg, P. de

    1997-01-01

    The institute of nuclear protection and safety (IPSN) has just developed a calculation method allowing to evaluate the radioactive contamination of harvesting. This tool would allow, in case of nuclear accident, to determine if the contaminated lands under cultivation are eatable or not. Two radionuclides have been chosen: cesium 137 and strontium 90. The experiments are conclusive: the experimental releases of cesium and strontium were comparable to these ones of the Chernobyl forbidden zone (between 10 and 40 millions of becquerels/m 2 ): the foliar contamination is proportional to the plants development. Wheats ready to be harvested capture more than 80% of the radioactivity that contaminates them. Leaves of young plants keep only 20 to 40 %. Second result: cesium is more easily washable than strontium. Third results: more late is the contamination more the plant will be irradiated; then,the wheats contaminated when they are just out of ground are nine times less contaminated than cereals contaminated just before the harvest. (N.C.)

  13. Centralised urban stormwater harvesting for potable reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McArdle, P; Gleeson, J; Hammond, T; Heslop, E; Holden, R; Kuczera, G

    2011-01-01

    Urban impervious areas provide a guaranteed source of runoff, especially in cities with high rainfall - this represents a source of water with low sensitivity to unfavourable climate change. Whilst the potential to reuse stormwater has long been recognised, its quality has largely limited usage to non-potable applications requiring the use of a third-pipe network, a prohibitively expensive option in established urban areas. Given recent advances in membrane filtration, this study investigates the potential of harvesting and treating stormwater to a potable standard to enable use of the potable distribution network. A case study based on the Throsby Creek catchment in Newcastle explores the issue. The high seasonally uniform rainfall provides insight into the maximum potential of such an option. Multicriterion optimisation was used to identify Pareto optimal solutions for harvesting, storing and treating stormwater. It is shown that harvesting and treating stormwater from a 13 km² catchment can produce yields ranging from 8.5 to 14.2 ML/day at costs ranging from AU$2.60/kL to AU$2.89/kL, which may become viable as the cost of traditional supply continues to grow. However, there are significant social impacts to deal with including alienation of public land for storage and community acceptance of treated stormwater.

  14. Optimum harvest maturity for Leymus chinensis seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jixiang Lin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Timely harvest is critical to achieve maximum seed viability and vigour in agricultural production. However, little information exists concerning how to reap the best quality seeds of Leymus chinensis, which is the dominant and most promising grass species in the Songnen Grassland of Northern China. The objective of this study was to investigate and evaluate possible quality indices of the seeds at different days after peak anthesis. Seed quality at different development stages was assessed by the colours of the seed and lemmas, seed weight, moisture content, electrical conductivity of seed leachate and germination indices. Two consecutive years of experimental results showed that the maximum seed quality was recorded at 39 days after peak anthesis. At this date, the colours of the seed and lemmas reached heavy brown and yellow, respectively. The seed weight was highest and the moisture content and the electrical conductivity of seed leachate were lowest. In addition, the seed also reached its maximum germination percentage and energy at this stage, determined using a standard germination test (SGT and accelerated ageing test (AAT. Thus, Leymus chinensis can be harvested at 39 days after peak anthesis based on the changes in parameters. Colour identification can be used as an additional indicator to provide a more rapid and reliable measure of optimum seed maturity; approximately 10 days after the colour of the lemmas reached yellow and the colour of the seed reached heavy brown, the seed of this species was suitable for harvest.

  15. Web harvesting for nuclear knowledge preservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The IAEA has taken on the obligation to organize the continued availability of literature in the field of nuclear science and technology for peaceful applications. In the International Nuclear Information System (INIS), millions of scientific citations and the full texts of hundreds of thousands of pieces of non-conventional literature (NCL) have been collected worldwide and have been assembled into the INIS database of citations and the associated collection of NCL full texts. The next step in the IAEA's endeavour to secure the continued access to scientific and technical literature in the nuclear field which is now available on the Internet to its staff and to Member States. The IAEA is currently conducting pilot projects under the heading NuArch that could eventually become the seed of a comprehensive archive of electronic documents in the nuclear field. A pilot project was started in the IAEA for the period 2004-2005 and continues for the period 2006-2007. This publication provides information and examples based upon experience in a variety of Member States. It provides general information that present technical aspects of web harvesting in the context of knowledge preservation in the nuclear field, contemporary activities in the domain of web harvesting, document archiving and Internet access technology in order to obtain a contemporary technology overview. Several aspects of possible web harvesting methodologies are presented in some detail in this document which can also serve as a basis to establish future co-operation

  16. Winter Dew Harvest in Mexico City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arias-Torres Jorge Ernesto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study presents experimental and theoretical results of winter dew harvest in México City in terms of condensation rate. A simplified theoretical model based on a steady-state energy balance on a radiator-condenser was fitted, as a function of the ambient temperature, the relative humidity and the wind velocity. A glass sheet and aluminum sheet white-painted were used as samples over the outdoor experiments. A good correlation was obtained between the theoretical and experimental data. The experimental results show that there was condensation in 68% of the winter nights on both condensers. The total winter condensed mass was 2977 g/m2 and 2888 g/m2 on the glass sheet and aluminum sheet white-painted, respectively. Thus, the condensed mass on the glass was only 3% higher than that on the painted surface. The maximum nightly dew harvests occurred during December, which linearly reduced from 50 g/m2 night to 22 g/m2 night as the winter months went by. The condensation occurred from 1:00 a.m. to 9:00 a.m., with maximum condensation rates between 6:00 a.m. and 7:00 a.m. The dew harvest can provide a partial alternative to the winter water shortage in certain locations with similar climates to the winter in Mexico City, as long as pollution is not significant.

  17. Review of Energy Harvesters Utilizing Bridge Vibrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid Ullah Khan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available For health monitoring of bridges, wireless acceleration sensor nodes (WASNs are normally used. In bridge environment, several forms of energy are available for operating WASNs that include wind, solar, acoustic, and vibration energy. However, only bridge vibration has the tendency to be utilized for embedded WASNs application in bridge structures. This paper reports on the recent advancements in the area of vibration energy harvesters (VEHs utilizing bridge oscillations. The bridge vibration is narrowband (1 to 40 Hz with low acceleration levels (0.01 to 3.8 g. For utilization of bridge vibration, electromagnetic based vibration energy harvesters (EM-VEHs and piezoelectric based vibration energy harvesters (PE-VEHs have been developed. The power generation of the reported EM-VEHs is in the range from 0.7 to 1450000 μW. However, the power production by the developed PE-VEHs ranges from 0.6 to 7700 μW. The overall size of most of the bridge VEHs is quite comparable and is in mesoscale. The resonant frequencies of EM-VEHs are on the lower side (0.13 to 27 Hz in comparison to PE-VEHs (1 to 120 Hz. The power densities reported for these bridge VEHs range from 0.01 to 9539.5 μW/cm3 and are quite enough to operate most of the commercial WASNs.

  18. Performance Limits of Communication with Energy Harvesting

    KAUST Repository

    Znaidi, Mohamed Ridha

    2016-04-01

    In energy harvesting communications, the transmitters have to adapt transmission to the availability of energy harvested during communication. The performance of the transmission depends on the channel conditions which vary randomly due to mobility and environmental changes. During this work, we consider the problem of power allocation taking into account the energy arrivals over time and the quality of channel state information (CSI) available at the transmitter, in order to maximize the throughput. Differently from previous work, the CSI at the transmitter is not perfect and may include estimation errors. We solve this problem with respect to the energy harvesting constraints. Assuming a perfect knowledge of the CSI at the receiver, we determine the optimal power policy for different models of the energy arrival process (offline and online model). Indeed, we obtain the power allocation scheme when the transmitter has either perfect CSI or no CSI. We also investigate of utmost interest the case of fading channels with imperfect CSI. Moreover, a study of the asymptotic behavior of the communication system is proposed. Specifically, we analyze of the average throughput in a system where the average recharge rate goes asymptotically to zero and when it is very high.

  19. THE BEHAVIORAL PROFILE OF HARVESTER OPERATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Millana Burger Pagnussat

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aims to characterize the behavioral profile of harvester operators, with the goal of assisting forest managers in selecting and training new teams of employees. A forest company located in central-western Brazil was examined from a sample of 20 harvester operators that did not have experience carrying out the functions of their industry. A behavioral profile evaluation tool was used, consisting of a management system that creates a profile based on behavioral competencies; it was initially used to develop a profile of a high-performing harvester operator; or rather, a reference profile. Next, the behavioral profile of the operators were grouped into distinct classes and compared with the reference profile to identify traits that could positively or negatively affect an operators' performance. An optimal profile had the following qualities: attentive to details, meets deadlines and follows rules, technically-oriented, patient with repetitive tasks, the ability to avoid conflicts, and being an introvert. An improper profile included aspects such as aggressiveness, being argumentative, being persuasive, explosive, and tense at work. The behavioral profile evaluation tool can support the process of choosing forest machine operators; however, it is important to also consider skills and work experience.

  20. Design guidelines of triboelectric nanogenerator for water wave energy harvesters

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmed, Abdelsalam; Hassan, Islam; Jiang, Tao; Youssef, Khalid; Liu, Lian; Hedaya, Mohammad; Yazid, Taher Abu; Zu, Jean; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2017-01-01

    Ocean waves are one of the cleanest and most abundant energy sources on earth, and wave energy has the potential for future power generation. Triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) technology has recently been proposed as a promising technology to harvest wave energy. In this paper, a theoretical study is performed on a duck-shaped TENG wave harvester recently introduced in our work. To enhance the design of the duck-shaped TENG wave harvester, the mechanical and electrical characteristics of the harvester's overall structure, as well as its inner configuration, are analyzed, respectively, under different wave conditions, to optimize parameters such as duck radius and mass. Furthermore, a comprehensive hybrid 3D model is introduced to quantify the performance of the TENG wave harvester. Finally, the influence of different TENG parameters is validated by comparing the performance of several existing TENG wave harvesters. This study can be applied as a guideline for enhancing the performance of TENG wave energy harvesters.

  1. Design guidelines of triboelectric nanogenerator for water wave energy harvesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Abdelsalam; Hassan, Islam; Jiang, Tao; Youssef, Khalid; Liu, Lian; Hedaya, Mohammad; Yazid, Taher Abu; Zu, Jean; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2017-05-05

    Ocean waves are one of the cleanest and most abundant energy sources on earth, and wave energy has the potential for future power generation. Triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) technology has recently been proposed as a promising technology to harvest wave energy. In this paper, a theoretical study is performed on a duck-shaped TENG wave harvester recently introduced in our work. To enhance the design of the duck-shaped TENG wave harvester, the mechanical and electrical characteristics of the harvester's overall structure, as well as its inner configuration, are analyzed, respectively, under different wave conditions, to optimize parameters such as duck radius and mass. Furthermore, a comprehensive hybrid 3D model is introduced to quantify the performance of the TENG wave harvester. Finally, the influence of different TENG parameters is validated by comparing the performance of several existing TENG wave harvesters. This study can be applied as a guideline for enhancing the performance of TENG wave energy harvesters.

  2. Cassava and its harvesting | La yuca y su cosecha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Américo Hossne García

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crant is one of the most important economic crops in tropical and subtropical areas. The average yield, compared to its potential, is often low. Harvesting is done with several procedures in global areas; the operation is difficult, costly and of low productivity in most regions. The primary objectives of this study were: to assess the techniques of cassava harvest under different methods, land preparation and planting, damage or break of tubers, manual and mechanized harvesting, adaptation of varieties, the effect of agronomic parameters, soil moisture during harvest, new hand tools and mechanical harvesting. The evaluation methods consisted of literature reviewing, explorations, examination of existing tools, modifications and mathematical analysis with design and calculation. As a result, an assessment is made of manual and mechanized techniques for harvesting, and recommendations are provided about mechanical properties, devices for tuber collection, genetics, seed and importance of soil moisture during harvest.

  3. Western Alaska ESI: INDEX (Index Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector polygons representing the boundaries of all the hardcopy cartographic products produced as part of the Environmental Sensitivity Index...

  4. Master Veteran Index (MVI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — As of June 28, 2010, the Master Veteran Index (MVI) database based on the enhanced Master Patient Index (MPI) is the authoritative identity service within the VA,...

  5. Human Use Index (Future)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Human land uses may have major impacts on ecosystems, affecting biodiversity, habitat, air and water quality. The human use index (also known as U-index) is the...

  6. Human Use Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Human land uses may have major impacts on ecosystems, affecting biodiversity, habitat, air and water quality. The human use index (also known as U-index) is the...

  7. IndexCat

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — IndexCat provides access to the digitized version of the printed Index-Catalogue of the Library of the Surgeon General's Office; eTK for medieval Latin texts; and...

  8. Body Mass Index Table

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Families ( We Can! ) Health Professional Resources Body Mass Index Table 1 for BMI greater than 35, go ... Health Information Email Alerts Jobs and Careers Site Index About NHLBI National Institute of Health Department of ...

  9. An optimal staggered harvesting strategy for herbaceous biomass energy crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhat, M.G.; English, B.C. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Biofuel research over the past two decades indicates lignocellulosic crops are a reliable source of feedstock for alternative energy. However, under the current technology of producing, harvesting and converting biomass crops, the cost of biofuel is not competitive with conventional biofuel. Cost of harvesting biomass feedstock is a single largest component of feedstock cost so there is a cost advantage in designing a biomass harvesting system. Traditional farmer-initiated harvesting operation causes over investment. This study develops a least-cost, time-distributed (staggered) harvesting system for example switch grass, that calls for an effective coordination between farmers, processing plant and a single third-party custom harvester. A linear programming model explicitly accounts for the trade-off between yield loss and benefit of reduced machinery overhead cost, associated with the staggered harvesting system. Total cost of producing and harvesting switch grass will decline by 17.94 percent from conventional non-staggered to proposed staggered harvesting strategy. Harvesting machinery cost alone experiences a significant reduction of 39.68 percent from moving from former to latter. The net return to farmers is estimated to increase by 160.40 percent. Per tonne and per hectare costs of feedstock production will decline by 17.94 percent and 24.78 percent, respectively. These results clearly lend support to the view that the traditional system of single period harvesting calls for over investment on agricultural machinery which escalates the feedstock cost. This social loss to the society in the form of escalated harvesting cost can be avoided if there is a proper coordination among farmers, processing plant and custom harvesters as to when and how biomass crop needs to be planted and harvested. Such an institutional arrangement benefits producers, processing plant and, in turn, end users of biofuels.

  10. [Soil seed bank in Keerqin meadow grassland under grazing and harvesting].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Deming; Li, Rongping; Liu, Zhimin; Yan, Qiaoling

    2004-10-01

    This study on the size and composition of seed bank and its relationship with vegetation showed in Keerqin meadow grassland, the density of soil seed bank was 6158 +/- 1647 grains x m(-2) under grazing and 8312 +/- 2540 grains m(-2) under harvesting. Under grazing, the seed bank was mainly composed of some dwarf and short-life annuals. The seeds of the annuals and biennials accounted for 81.66% of the seeds in seed bank. The four species with largest proportion of seed bank were Chloris virgata, Chenopodium glaucum, Digitaria cilliaris and Setaria viridis, and the proportions were 38.55%, 15.42%, 14.95%, and 9.83%, respectively. The density of perennials in soil seed bank was 1129 +/- 302 grains x m(-2). Under harvesting, the seeds of annuals and biennials accounted for 68.08% of the seed in seed bank, and the proportion of Setaria viridis was 52.7%. In the harvesting meadow grassland, the seed density of perennials was 2653 +/- 811 grains x m(-2). There was no significant correlation between the seed density in soil and the vegetation under grazing, but a significant correlation between the seed density in soil and the species abundance of vegetation under harvesting (r = 0.76, P < 0.01). The index of Shannon-Wiener and richness of grazing meadow grassland were 2.96 and 2.98, respectively, distinctly smaller than 3.10 and 5.09 of harvesting meadow, which showed that free grazing made the diversity of seed bank decrease easily.

  11. Carbon sequestration via wood harvest and storage: An assessment of its harvest potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeng, Ning; King, Anthony W.; Zaitchik, Ben

    2013-01-01

    A carbon sequestration strategy has recently been proposed in which a forest is actively managed, and a fraction of the wood is selectively harvested and stored to prevent decomposition. The forest serves as a ‘carbon scrubber’ or ‘carbon remover’ that provides continuous sequestration (negative ...... to be managed this way on half of the world’s forested land, or on a smaller area but with higher harvest intensity.We recommendWHS be considered part of the portfolio of climate mitigation and adaptation options that needs further research....

  12. Determining Appropriate Harvesting Date and Storage Life of Kinnow Mandarine Fruits in Jiroft County

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seied Mehdi Miri

    2018-02-01

    , but fruits harvested on 20th January and 4th February were heavier as much as 12.5 and 14.3 percent, respectively, compared to 6th December. Fruit weight loss increased along with the increase in storage time duration, so that mean fruits weight loss percentages were 3.5 and 16.5 at 30 and 90 days of storage, respectively, due to continued transpiration of the fruits after harvesting. As a result of transpiration, water enters into the atmosphere through the pores existing on fruit surface. The greatest fruit weight (121.8 g was recorded for combination of harvesting on 20th January and 30-day storage. Fruits harvested on 20th January and 30-day storage had higher meat and pulp weight (89.6 and 52.3 g, respectively and a significant correlation coefficient was detected between them. Changes of fruit juice pH at different stages of fruit ripening and storage times did not follow a fixed pattern, though pH slightly increased in some cases during storage, which can be due to oxidation of citric acid during storage. The maximum TSS was recorded for harvesting on 5th January and 90-day storage (11.7 °Brix as well as 4th February and 60- and 90-day storages (11.8 °Brix, while the minimum TSS was observed on 6th December and 30-day storage (8.7 °Brix. The results exhibited that TSS content of fruit juice increased when storage period increased, which was possibly attributed to the hydrolysis of starch and increase in sucrose content. However, increase in TSS during storage is not always directly related to changes in the simple sugar content of fruit. During storage and maturation of the fruits on the tree, TA reduced due to the use of citric acid in respiration. Taste index (TSS/TA in fruits harvested at full maturity was greater than that in fruits harvested in the fall. Besides, TSS/TA increased during storage, so that the highest and lowest average TSS/TA ratios were related to harvesting on 4th February and 30-day storage as well as 6th December and 30-day storage

  13. Global Food Security Index Studies and Satellite Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, T. A.; Ganti-Agrawal, S.; Joshi, D.; Lakhankar, T.

    2017-12-01

    Food yield is equal to the total crop harvest per unit cultivated area. During the elapsed time of germination and frequent harvesting, both human and climate related effects determine a country's' contribution towards global food security. Each country across the globe's annual income per capita was collected to then determine nine countries for further studies. For a location to be chosen, its income per capita needed to be considered poor, uprising or wealthy. Both physical land cover and regional climate helped categorize potential parameters thought to be studied. Once selected, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data was collected for Ethiopia, Liberia, Indonesia, United States, Norway, Russia, Kuwait and Saudi Arabia over the recent 16 years for approximately every 16 days starting from early in the year 2000. Software languages such as Geographic Information System (GIS), MatLab and Excel were used to determine how population size, income and deforestation directly determines agricultural yields. Because of high maintenance requirements for large harvests when forest areas are cleared, they often have a reduction in soil quality, requiring fertilizer use to produce sufficient crop yields. Total area and vegetation index of each country is to be studied, to determine crop and deforestation percentages. To determine how deforestation impacts future income and crop yield predictions of each country studied. By using NDVI results a parameter is to be potentially found that will help define an index, to create an equation that will determine a country's annual income and ability to provide for their families and themselves.

  14. Traditional and formal ecological knowledge to assess harvesting and conservation of a Mexican Tropical Dry Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroy-Ortiz, Columba; García-Moya, Edmundo; Romero-Manzanares, Angélica; Luna-Cavazos, Mario; Monroy, Rafael

    2018-05-15

    This research integrates Traditional and Formal Ecological Knowledge (TEK / FEK) of a Tropical Dry Forest in central Mexico, in order to assess harvesting and conservation of the non-timber forest species. We were interested in: knowing the structure and diversity of the forest community; identifying which are the tree resources of common interest to the users through participatory workshops. A further interest was to identify those resources which are important to local people in terms of preservation; explaining the relationship of the species with some environmental factors; and visualizing which management practices endanger or facilitate the conservation of species. Studied areas were defined and labelled on a map drawn by local informants, where they indicated those plant species of common interest for preservation. Ethnobotanical techniques were used to reveal the TEK and assess harvesting and conservation of the species. With the FEK through community and population ecology, we detected the importance of five environmental factors, obtained various ecological indicators of the vegetation, and studied the population structure of the relevant species. The FEK was analyzed using descriptive and multivariate statistics. As a result, low density and small basal area of trees were registered. Species richness and diversity index were similar to other natural protected areas in Mexico. Tree species harvested shown an asymmetric distribution of diameters. Harvesting, elevation, and accessibility were the most influential factors on tree density. FEK demonstrated that TEK is helpful for the assessment of forest harvesting. Ecological analysis complemented the local knowledge detecting that Lysiloma tergemina is a species non-identified for the people as interesting, although we discover that it is a threatened species by over-harvesting. Haematoxylum brasiletto was identified as important for conservation due to its scarcity and medicinal use. Our results advanced

  15. Investigating the biometric and physicochemical characteristics of freshly harvested Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei): a comparative approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okpala, Charles Odilichukwu R; Bono, Gioacchino

    2016-03-15

    The practicality of biometrics of seafood cannot be overemphasized, particularly for competent authorities of the shrimp industry. However, there is a paucity of relevant literature on the relationship between biometric and physicochemical indices of freshly harvested shrimp. This work therefore investigated the relationship between biometric (standard length (SL), total weight (TW) and condition factor (CF)) and physicochemical (moisture content, pH, titratable acidity, water activity, water retention index, colour values and fracturability) characteristics of freshly harvested Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) obtained from three different farms. The relationships between these parameters were determined using correlation and regression analyses. No significant correlation (P > 0.05) was found between the biometric and physicochemical indices of the sampled L. vannamei specimens. Possibly the lack of post-mortem and physical change(s) at day of harvest together with the absence of temporal variable may have collectively limited the degree of any significant correlation between biometric and physicochemical data points measured in this study. Although the TWs of freshly harvested L. vannamei shrimp resembled (P > 0.05), SL and CF differed significantly (P shrimp. Across the farms studied, however, the biometric data were comparable. To best knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the biometric and physicochemical properties of freshly harvested shrimp using a comparative approach, which is also applicable to other economically important aquaculture species. Overall, this work provides useful information for competent authorities/stakeholders of the fishery industry and serves as a baseline for preservative treatments. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Energy harvesting using a thermoelectric material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nersessian, Nersesse [Van Nuys, CA; Carman, Gregory P [Los Angeles, CA; Radousky, Harry B [San Leandro, CA

    2008-07-08

    A novel energy harvesting system and method utilizing a thermoelectric having a material exhibiting a large thermally induced strain (TIS) due to a phase transformation and a material exhibiting a stress induced electric field is introduced. A material that exhibits such a phase transformation exhibits a large increase in the coefficient of thermal expansion over an incremental temperature range (typically several degrees Kelvin). When such a material is arranged in a geometric configuration, such as, for a example, a laminate with a material that exhibits a stress induced electric field (e.g. a piezoelectric material) the thermally induced strain is converted to an electric field.

  17. System for harvesting water wave energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhong Lin; Su, Yanjie; Zhu, Guang; Chen, Jun

    2016-07-19

    A generator for harvesting energy from water in motion includes a sheet of a hydrophobic material, having a first side and an opposite second side, that is triboelectrically more negative than water. A first electrode sheet is disposed on the second side of the sheet of a hydrophobic material. A second electrode sheet is disposed on the second side of the sheet of a hydrophobic material and is spaced apart from the first electrode sheet. Movement of the water across the first side induces an electrical potential imbalance between the first electrode sheet and the second electrode sheet.

  18. 78 FR 11988 - Migratory Bird Subsistence Harvest in Alaska; Harvest Regulations for Migratory Birds in Alaska...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-21

    ..., accomplishments since the Migratory Bird Treaties with Canada and Mexico were amended, and a history, was... purposes during the spring and summer months. The Canada and Mexico migratory bird treaties were amended...-0066; FF09M21200-123-FXMB1231099BPP0L2] RIN 1018-AY70 Migratory Bird Subsistence Harvest in Alaska...

  19. Effects of pre-harvest methyl jasmonate treatment on post-harvest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... quality and bioactive compounds of three different Japanese plums under storage conditions. Materials and Methods: The effects of pre-harvest methyl jasmonate treatment (MeJA) on weight loss, color characteristics (L*, C* and h°), firmness, soluble solids content (SSC), titratable acidity (TA), total phenolics (TP) and total ...

  20. Simulating stand-level harvest prescriptions across landscapes: LANDIS PRO harvest module design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob S. Fraser; Hong S. He; Stephen R. Shifley; Wen J. Wang; Frank R. Thompson

    2013-01-01

    Forest landscape models (FLMs) are an important tool for assessing the long-term cumulative effects of harvest over large spatial extents. However, they have not been commonly used to guide forest management planning and on-the-ground operations. This is largely because FLMs track relatively simplistic vegetation information such as age cohort presence/absence, forest...

  1. Risk factors of musculoskeletal disorders among oil palm fruit harvesters during early harvesting stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yee Guan Ng

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional study intends to investigate the associations of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs among foreign labourers on a socio-economic background, occupational exposure, social lifestyle, and postures adopted during harvesting tasks. A total of 446 male respondents (263 FFB cutters; 183 FFB collectors were studied using an interview-assisted questionnaire. OWAS was used to determine the severity of awkward posture based on videos of harvesting tasks recorded for each respondent. Analysis found that increasingly educated respondents had higher risk of developing MSDs. Shorter daily work duration and longer resting duration appear to increase the risk of neck and shoulder disorders among harvesters, which may be attributable to organizational work design. Awkward posture was a particularly significant risk factor of MSDs among FFB collectors. Among the results of the study, occupational exposure, postures and certain socio-demographic backgrounds explained some, but not all, the risk factor of MSDs among harvesters. An in-depth investigation, preferably a longitudinal study investigating the dynamic of work activities and other risk factors, such as psychosocial risk factors, are recommended.

  2. 78 FR 75321 - Migratory Bird Subsistence Harvest in Alaska; Harvest Regulations for Migratory Birds in Alaska...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-11

    ... the taking of migratory birds and the collection of their eggs, by the indigenous inhabitants of the... particular land ownership, but applies to the harvesting of migratory bird resources throughout Alaska. A... ensure an effective and meaningful role for Alaska's indigenous inhabitants in the conservation of...

  3. 76 FR 17353 - Migratory Bird Subsistence Harvest in Alaska; Harvest Regulations for Migratory Birds in Alaska...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-29

    ... the collection of their eggs, by the indigenous inhabitants of the State of Alaska, shall be permitted... implications. This rule is not specific to particular land ownership, but applies to the harvesting of... the creation of management bodies to ensure an effective and meaningful role for Alaska's indigenous...

  4. The xanthophylls in light-harvesting complex II of higher plants: light harvesting and triplet quenching.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peterman, E.J.G.; Gradinaru, C.C.; Calkoen, F.; Borst, J.C.; van Grondelle, R.; van Amerongen, H.

    1997-01-01

    A spectral and functional assignment of the xanthophylls in monomeric and trimeric light-harvesting complex II of green plants has been obtained using HPLC analysis of the pigment composition, laser-flash induced triplet- minus-singlet, fluorescence excitation, and absorption spectra. It is shown

  5. Fabrication of SU-8 low frequency electrostatic energy harvester

    KAUST Repository

    Ramadan, Khaled S.

    2011-11-01

    A 1500μm × 1500μm × 150μm out-of-plane, gap closing, electrostatic energy harvester is designed and fabricated to harvest low-frequency ambient vibrations. SU-8 is used to fabricate the proof mass (1200μm × 1200μm × 150μm) and the 5 m springs. Different harvesters were designed to harvest at 50, 75 and 110 Hz. At 110 Hz, Simulations show that with an input vibration of 10 μm amplitude at the frequency of resonance of the structure, the energy harvester should generate an average output power density of 0.032μW/mm3. This is the most area-efficient low-frequency electrostatic harvester to-date. © 2011 IEEE.

  6. Flexible electret energy harvesters with parylene electret on PDMS substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, Yi; Wu, Shih-Hsien

    2013-01-01

    Currently, most vibrational energy harvesters have rigid and resonant structures to harvest energy from periodic motions in specific directions. However, in some situations the motion is random and aperiodic; or the targeted energy source is the strain energy in deformation, rather than the kinetic energy in vibration. Therefore we propose and demonstrate a PDMS-based flexible energy harvester with parylene-C electret that can be attached to any deformable surfaces to harvest the stain energy caused by external deformation. The proposed flexible harvester was fabricated and characterized. The measured power at 20 Hz is 0.18 μW and 82 nW in the compression and bending modes, respectively. Such a harvester has the potential for wearable and implantable electronics applications

  7. Do biomass harvesting guidelines influence herpetofauna following harvests of logging residues for renewable energy?.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritts, Sarah; Moorman, Christopher; Grodsky, Steven; Hazel, Dennis; Homyack, Jessica; Farrell, Chris; Castleberry, Steven

    2016-04-01

    Forests are a major supplier of renewable energy; however, gleaning logging residues for use as woody biomass feedstock could negatively alter habitat for species dependent on downed wood. Biomass Harvesting Guidelines (BHGs) recommend retaining a portion of woody biomass on the forest floor following harvest. Despite BHGs being developed to help ensure ecological sustainability, their contribution to biodiversity has not been evaluated experimentally at operational scales. We compared herpetofauanal evenness, diversity, and richness and abundance of Anaxyrus terrestris and Gastrophryne carolinensis among six treatments that varied in volume and spatial arrangement of woody biomass retained after clearcutting loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) plantations in North Carolina, USA (n = 4), 2011-2014 and Georgia (n = 4), USA 2011-2013. Treatments were: (1) biomass harvest with no BHGs, (2) 15% retention with biomass clustered, (3) 15% retention with biomass dispersed, (4) 30% retention with biomass clustered, (5) 30% retention with biomass dispersed, and (6) no biomass harvest. We captured individuals with drift fence arrays and compared evenness, diversity, and richness metrics among treatments with repeated-measure, linear mixed-effects models. We determined predictors of A. terrestris and G. carolinensis abundances using a priori candidate N-mixture models with woody biomass volume, vegetation structure, and groundcover composition as covariates. We had 206 captures of 25 reptile species and 8710 captures of 17 amphibian species during 53690 trap nights. Herpetofauna diversity, evenness, and richness were similar among treatments. A. terrestris abundance was negatively related to volume of retained woody biomass in treatment units in North Carolina in 2013. G. carolinensis abundance was positively related with volume of retained woody debris in treatment units in Georgia in 2012. Other relationships between A. terrestris and G. carolinensis abundances and habitat metrics

  8. Harvestable energy from the coconut palm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banzon, J A

    1984-01-01

    The harvestable energy from the coconut palm is in the form of husks, shells and oil from the nuts and the leaf petioles with a regular monthly production of a bunch of nuts and one leaf. From the known energy content of the husks, nut shells and petioles, the number of palm trees required to provide the total energy for domestic cooking at wood equivalent to 1-3 kg firewood per day ranges from 5-14 for husks, shells and petioles, or 15-47 if the material is first converted to charcoal. In order to provide diesel fuel containing 10% coconut oil and cope with the annual increase in such a demand, the coconut crop would have to increase at the rate of 1 nut per bunch per month from 3-11 nuts to 12 nuts over the next 8 years. Highest coconut sap yield in ethanol terms, amounts to 109 MJ/month per palm which equals the oil in a 20-nut fruit bunch, thus indicating possible greater energy harvest from coconut sap than from coconut oil.

  9. New harvesting technology in forest fuel procurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raitila, J. (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)), Email: jyrki.raitila@vtt.fi; Kaerhae, K. (Metsaeteho Oy, Helsinki (Finland)), Email: kalle.karha@metsateho.fi; Jylhae, P. (Finnish Forest Research Inst., Kannus (Finland)), Email: paula.jylha@metla.fi; Laitila, J. (Finnish Forest Research Inst., Joensuu (Finland)), Email: juha.laitila@metla.fi

    2009-07-01

    In order to increase the use of forest fuels, a regional development project was launched in the fall of 2008. The co-ordinator of the project is Metsaekeskus Keski-Suomi (Forestry Centre of Central Finland), while VTT (Technical Research Centre of Finland) is in charge of research and technical development. The aim of this project is to enhance energy wood procurement from early thinnings, to develop the supply chains of pine stump extraction, and to reduce storage losses of energy wood at roadside landings and at terminals. The results of a pre-feasibility study on the first-generation feller-bundler (Fixteri) by Metsaeteho Oy and the Finnish Forest Research Institute indicates that whole-tree bundling might enable undercutting of the current costs of separate procurement of pulp-wood and energy wood from first-thinning stands. The greatest cost-saving potential lies in small-diameter (d{sub 1.3} = 7-10 cm) first-thinning stands, which are currently relatively unprofitable sites for conventional pulpwood procurement based on single-tree harvesting. Preliminary tests of seasoning of whole-tree bundles have been very encouraging. In some cases the moisture content of energy wood bundles has decreased from 55 % to 25 % after about year of seasoning at the roadside (two summers). One of the most promising devices for pine stump harvesting was developed by Karelian Puu ja Metalli Oy. (orig.)

  10. Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting in Internal Fluid Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeong Jae Lee

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We consider piezoelectric flow energy harvesting in an internal flow environment with the ultimate goal powering systems such as sensors in deep oil well applications. Fluid motion is coupled to structural vibration via a cantilever beam placed in a converging-diverging flow channel. Two designs were considered for the electromechanical coupling: first; the cantilever itself is a piezoelectric bimorph; second; the cantilever is mounted on a pair of flextensional actuators. We experimentally investigated varying the geometry of the flow passage and the flow rate. Experimental results revealed that the power generated from both designs was similar; producing as much as 20 mW at a flow rate of 20 L/min. The bimorph designs were prone to failure at the extremes of flow rates tested. Finite element analysis (FEA showed fatigue failure was imminent due to stress concentrations near the bimorph’s clamped region; and that robustness could be improved with a stepped-joint mounting design. A similar FEA model showed the flextensional-based harvester had a resonant frequency of around 375 Hz and an electromechanical coupling of 0.23 between the cantilever and flextensional actuators in a vacuum. These values; along with the power levels demonstrated; are significant steps toward building a system design that can eventually deliver power in the Watts range to devices down within a well.

  11. Multimodal piezoelectric devices optimization for energy harvesting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Acciani

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of the piezoelectric effect to convert ambient vibration into useful electrical energy constitutes one of the most studied areas in Energy Harvesting (EH research. This paper presents a typical cantilevered Energy Harvester device, which relates the electrical outputs to the vibration mode shape easily. The dynamic strain induced in the piezoceramic layer results in an alternating voltage output. The first six modes of frequencies and the deformation pattern of the beam are carried out basing on an eigenfrequency analysis conducted by the MEMS modules of the COMSOL Multiphysic® v3.5a to perform the Finite Element Analysis of the model. Subsequently, the piezoelectric material is cut around the inflection points to minimize the voltage cancellation effect occurring when the sign changes in the material. This study shows that the voltage produced by the device, increases in as the dimensions of the cuts vary in the piezoelectric layer. Such voltage reaches the optimum amount of piezoelectric material and cuts positioning. This proves that the optimized piezoelectric layer is 16% more efficient than the whole piezoelectric layer.

  12. Introduction to OAI and harvesting, tutorial 3

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2005-01-01

    1. Coverage: - Overview of key Open Archives Initiative (OAI) concepts. - Development of the OAI Protocol for Metadata Harvesting (OAI-PMH). - Non-technical introduction to main underlying technical ideas. - Some considerations regarding implementation of OAI-PMH, with particular focus on harvesting issues. For those who would like an introduction to, or revision of, the main concepts associated with OAI then this session will provide an ideal foundation for the rest of the OAI4 workshop. 2. Audience: Decision-makers, Managers, Technical staff with no previous OAI-PMH knowledge. This is a tutorial for those who may not themselves do hands-on technical implementation, but might make or advise on decisions whether or not to implement particular solutions. They may have staff who are implementers, or may work with them. Technical staff are likely to prefer the technical tutorials, but may want to attend this one if they are at the very early stage of simply requiring background information. 3. At the end of the ...

  13. Aims and harvest of moral case deliberation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidema, Froukje C; Molewijk, Bert A C; Kamsteeg, Frans; Widdershoven, Guy A M

    2013-09-01

    Deliberative ways of dealing with ethical issues in health care are expanding. Moral case deliberation is an example, providing group-wise, structured reflection on dilemmas from practice. Although moral case deliberation is well described in literature, aims and results of moral case deliberation sessions are unknown. This research shows (a) why managers introduce moral case deliberation and (b) what moral case deliberation participants experience as moral case deliberation results. A responsive evaluation was conducted, explicating moral case deliberation experiences by analysing aims (N = 78) and harvest (N = 255). A naturalistic data collection included interviews with managers and evaluation questionnaires of moral case deliberation participants (nurses). From the analysis, moral case deliberation appeals for cooperation, team bonding, critical attitude towards routines and nurses' empowerment. Differences are that managers aim to foster identity of the nursing profession, whereas nurses emphasize learning processes and understanding perspectives. We conclude that moral case deliberation influences team cooperation that cannot be controlled with traditional management tools, but requires time and dialogue. Exchanging aims and harvest between manager and team could result in co-creating (moral) practice in which improvements for daily cooperation result from bringing together perspectives of managers and team members.

  14. Electromagnetic Vibration Energy Harvesting for Railway Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradai S.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Safe localization of trains via GPS and wireless sensors is essential for railway traffic supervision. Especially for freight trains and because normally no power source is available on the wagons, special solutions for energy supply have to be developed based on energy harvesting techniques. Since vibration is available in this case, it provides an interesting source of energy. Nevertheless, in order to have an efficient design of the harvesting system, the existing vibration needs to be investigated. In this paper, we focus on the characterization of vibration parameters in railway application. We propose an electromagnetic vibration converter especially developed to this application. Vibration profiles from a train traveling between two German cities were measured using a data acquisition system installed on the train’s wagon. Results show that the measured profiles present multiple frequency signals in the range of 10 to 50 Hz and an acceleration of up to 2 g. A prototype for a vibration converter is designed taking into account the real vibration parameters, robustness and integrability requirements. It is based on a moving coil attached to a mechanical spring. For the experimental emulation of the train vibrations, a shaker is used as an external artificial vibration source controlled by a laser sensor in feedback. A maximum voltage of 1.7 V peak to peak which corresponds to a maximum of 10 mW output power where the applied excitation frequency is close to the resonant frequency of the converter which corresponds to 27 Hz.

  15. Energy Harvesting Combat Boot for Satellite Positioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haluk Akay

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Most portable electronic devices are power-limited by battery capacity, and recharging these batteries often interrupts the user’s experience with the device. The product presented in this paper provides an alternative to powering portables by converting regular human walking motion to electricity. The device harvests electric power using air bulbs, distributed in the sole of a shoe to drive a series of micro-turbines connected to small DC motors. The number and position of air bulbs is optimized to harvest the maximum airflow from each foot-strike. The system is designed to continuously drive the micro-turbines by utilizing both outflow and inflow from the air bulbs. A prototype combat boot was fitted on the right foot of a 75 kg test subject, and produced an average continuous power on the order of 10 s of mW over a 22 Ω load during walking at 3.0 mph. This combat boot provides enough electric power to a passive GPS tracker that periodically relays geographical coordinates to a smartphone via satellite without battery replacement.

  16. Estimated harvesting on jellyfish in Sarawak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bujang, Noriham; Hassan, Aimi Nuraida Ali

    2017-04-01

    There are three species of jellyfish recorded in Sarawak which are the Lobonema smithii (white jellyfish), Rhopilema esculenta (red jellyfish) and Mastigias papua. This study focused on two particular species which are L.smithii and R.esculenta. This study was done to estimate the highest carrying capacity and the population growth rate of both species by using logistic growth model. The maximum sustainable yield for the harvesting of this species was also determined. The unknown parameters in the logistic model were estimated using center finite different method. As for the results, it was found that the carrying capacity for L.smithii and R.esculenta were 4594.9246456819 tons and 5855.9894242086 tons respectively. Whereas, the population growth rate for both L.smithii and R.esculenta were estimated at 2.1800463754 and 1.144864086 respectively. Hence, the estimated maximum sustainable yield for harvesting for L.smithii and R.esculenta were 2504.2872047638 tons and 1676.0779949431 tons per year.

  17. Sustainable Harvest for Food and Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grosshans, Raymond R.; Kostelnik, Kevin, M.; Jacobson, Jacob J.

    2007-04-01

    The DOE Biomass Program recently implemented the Biofuels Initiative, or 30x30 program, with the dual goal of reducing U.S. dependence on foreign oil by making cellulosic ethanol cost competitive with gasoline by 2012 and by replacing 30 percent of gasoline consumption with biofuels by 2030. Experience to date with increasing ethanol production suggests that it distorts agricultural markets and therefore raises concerns about the sustainability of the DOE 30 X 30 effort: Can the U.S. agricultural system produce sufficient feedstocks for biofuel production and meet the food price and availability expectations of American consumers without causing environmental degradation that would curtail the production of both food and fuel? Efforts are underway to develop computer-based modeling tools that address this concern and support the DOE 30 X 30 goals. Beyond technical agronomic and economic concerns, however, such models must account for the publics’ growing interest in sustainable agriculture and in the mitigation of predicted global climate change. This paper discusses ongoing work at the Center for Advanced Energy Studies that investigates the potential consequences and long-term sustainability of projected biomass harvests by identifying and incorporating “sustainable harvest indicators” in a computer modeling strategy.

  18. Frequency adjustable MEMS vibration energy harvester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podder, P.; Constantinou, P.; Amann, A.; Roy, S.

    2016-10-01

    Ambient mechanical vibrations offer an attractive solution for powering the wireless sensor nodes of the emerging “Internet-of-Things”. However, the wide-ranging variability of the ambient vibration frequencies pose a significant challenge to the efficient transduction of vibration into usable electrical energy. This work reports the development of a MEMS electromagnetic vibration energy harvester where the resonance frequency of the oscillator can be adjusted or tuned to adapt to the ambient vibrational frequency. Micro-fabricated silicon spring and double layer planar micro-coils along with sintered NdFeB micro-magnets are used to construct the electromagnetic transduction mechanism. Furthermore, another NdFeB magnet is adjustably assembled to induce variable magnetic interaction with the transducing magnet, leading to significant change in the spring stiffness and resonance frequency. Finite element analysis and numerical simulations exhibit substantial frequency tuning range (25% of natural resonance frequency) by appropriate adjustment of the repulsive magnetic interaction between the tuning and transducing magnet pair. This demonstrated method of frequency adjustment or tuning have potential applications in other MEMS vibration energy harvesters and micromechanical oscillators.

  19. Harvest facility protects and improves fishery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hampton, T.; Daley, W.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that by constructing a trap and transfer/harvest facility to control anadromous fish migration, the trout fishery on the Boardman River was protected and the salmon fishery was improved. The James P. Price Fish Trap and Transfer/Harvest Facility at Traverse City, Michigan, was constructed by the Traverse City Light and Power Department because of a licensing condition during the redevelopment of the Boardman and Sabin hydroelectric plants. The facility was constructed along with a fish ladder at the Union Street Dam to control the anadromous fish migration in lieu of constructing fish ladders at the Union Street, Sabin and Boardman Dams. The Michigan Department of Natural Resources (MDNR) and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service required that the fish ladders be constructed before the hydroelectric plants could be reactivated. The MDNR was also planning to introduce salmon into the Boardman River as far up as the reservoir of the Boardman Dam, which is the third dam from the mouth of the river

  20. Soil reclamation with turfing plant harvest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jouve, A.; Maubert, H.; Bon, P.; Barthe, P.

    1992-01-01

    This work performed within the European RESSAC Programme aims at providing efficient countermeasures to decontaminate agricultural soils. The evaluation of the admissible concentration of radionuclides in the soil is an important question in this topic. Two considerations may help to answer this question: the health aspect approaches with ICRP recommendations and the economical aspects which can widely interfere with the other. If the cleaning technique is inexpensive, it will be possible to enlarge its use beyond the low intervention levels. According to the frequently low migration rate of radionuclides in the soil profile after deposition on the soil surface, a method removing a thin layer of the soil surface entrapped by turfing plants will allow to limit the waste production. The method being tried in summer 1991 is inexpensive because it uses the power of the plants to convert sunlight energy into biomass. The method consist in sowing turfing plants able to develop a very dense root network entrapping the soil surface contaminated particles allowing their mechanical removal by means of existing machines: sod harvesters. This promising method, according to lab-experiments, can use the green techniques as well for hydro-seeding: a very fast tool for sowing by helicopter at the rate of 0,3 km sup 2 per day, as sod harvester able to remove a sod-soil layer thinner than 2 cm. (author)

  1. Piezoelectric energy harvesting in internal fluid flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyeong Jae; Sherrit, Stewart; Tosi, Luis Phillipe; Walkemeyer, Phillip; Colonius, Tim

    2015-10-14

    We consider piezoelectric flow energy harvesting in an internal flow environment with the ultimate goal powering systems such as sensors in deep oil well applications. Fluid motion is coupled to structural vibration via a cantilever beam placed in a converging-diverging flow channel. Two designs were considered for the electromechanical coupling: first; the cantilever itself is a piezoelectric bimorph; second; the cantilever is mounted on a pair of flextensional actuators. We experimentally investigated varying the geometry of the flow passage and the flow rate. Experimental results revealed that the power generated from both designs was similar; producing as much as 20 mW at a flow rate of 20 L/min. The bimorph designs were prone to failure at the extremes of flow rates tested. Finite element analysis (FEA) showed fatigue failure was imminent due to stress concentrations near the bimorph's clamped region; and that robustness could be improved with a stepped-joint mounting design. A similar FEA model showed the flextensional-based harvester had a resonant frequency of around 375 Hz and an electromechanical coupling of 0.23 between the cantilever and flextensional actuators in a vacuum. These values; along with the power levels demonstrated; are significant steps toward building a system design that can eventually deliver power in the Watts range to devices down within a well.

  2. Frequency adjustable MEMS vibration energy harvester

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podder, P; Constantinou, P; Roy, S; Amann, A

    2016-01-01

    Ambient mechanical vibrations offer an attractive solution for powering the wireless sensor nodes of the emerging “Internet-of-Things”. However, the wide-ranging variability of the ambient vibration frequencies pose a significant challenge to the efficient transduction of vibration into usable electrical energy. This work reports the development of a MEMS electromagnetic vibration energy harvester where the resonance frequency of the oscillator can be adjusted or tuned to adapt to the ambient vibrational frequency. Micro-fabricated silicon spring and double layer planar micro-coils along with sintered NdFeB micro-magnets are used to construct the electromagnetic transduction mechanism. Furthermore, another NdFeB magnet is adjustably assembled to induce variable magnetic interaction with the transducing magnet, leading to significant change in the spring stiffness and resonance frequency. Finite element analysis and numerical simulations exhibit substantial frequency tuning range (25% of natural resonance frequency) by appropriate adjustment of the repulsive magnetic interaction between the tuning and transducing magnet pair. This demonstrated method of frequency adjustment or tuning have potential applications in other MEMS vibration energy harvesters and micromechanical oscillators. (paper)

  3. Ferrofluid based micro-electrical energy harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purohit, Viswas; Mazumder, Baishakhi; Jena, Grishma; Mishra, Madhusha; Materials Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA93106 Collaboration

    2013-03-01

    Innovations in energy harvesting have seen a quantum leap in the last decade. With the introduction of low energy devices in the market, micro energy harvesting units are being explored with much vigor. One of the recent areas of micro energy scavenging is the exploitation of existing vibrational energy and the use of various mechanical motions for the same, useful for low power consumption devices. Ferrofluids are liquids containing magnetic materials having nano-scale permanent magnetic dipoles. The present work explores the possibility of the use of this property for generation of electricity. Since the power generation is through a liquid material, it can take any shape as well as response to small acceleration levels. In this work, an electromagnet-based micropower generator is proposed to utilize the sloshing of the ferrofluid within a controlled chamber which moves to different low frequencies. As compared to permanent magnet units researched previously, ferrofluids can be placed in the smallest of containers of different shapes, thereby giving an output in response to the slightest change in motion. Mechanical motion from 1- 20 Hz was able to give an output voltage in mV's. In this paper, the efficiency and feasibility of such a system is demonstrated.

  4. Flow energy piezoelectric bimorph nozzle harvester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Lee, Hyeong Jae; Walkemeyer, Phillip; Hasenoehrl, Jennifer; Hall, Jeffrey L.; Colonius, Tim; Tosi, Luis Phillipe; Arrazola, Alvaro; Kim, Namhyo; Sun, Kai; Corbett, Gary

    2014-04-01

    There is a need for a long-life power generation scheme that could be used downhole in an oil well to produce 1 Watt average power. There are a variety of existing or proposed energy harvesting schemes that could be used in this environment but each of these has its own limitations. The vibrating piezoelectric structure is in principle capable of operating for very long lifetimes (decades) thereby possibly overcoming a principle limitation of existing technology based on rotating turbo-machinery. In order to determine the feasibility of using piezoelectrics to produce suitable flow energy harvesting, we surveyed experimentally a variety of nozzle configurations that could be used to excite a vibrating piezoelectric structure in such a way as to enable conversion of flow energy into useful amounts of electrical power. These included reed structures, spring mass-structures, drag and lift bluff bodies and a variety of nozzles with varying flow profiles. Although not an exhaustive survey we identified a spline nozzle/piezoelectric bimorph system that experimentally produced up to 3.4 mW per bimorph. This paper will discuss these results and present our initial analyses of the device using dimensional analysis and constitutive electromechanical modeling. The analysis suggests that an order-of-magnitude improvement in power generation from the current design is possible.

  5. Pyroelectric Energy Harvesting: With Thermodynamic-Based Cycles

    OpenAIRE

    Saber Mohammadi; Akram Khodayari

    2012-01-01

    This work deals with energy harvesting from temperature variations using ferroelectric materials as a microgenerator. The previous researches show that direct pyroelectric energy harvesting is not effective, whereas thermodynamic-based cycles give higher energy. Also, at different temperatures some thermodynamic cycles exhibit different behaviours. In this paper pyroelectric energy harvesting using Lenoir and Ericsson thermodynamic cycles has been studied numerically and the two cycles were c...

  6. Energy harvesting solar, wind, and ocean energy conversion systems

    CERN Document Server

    Khaligh, Alireza

    2009-01-01

    Also called energy scavenging, energy harvesting captures, stores, and uses ""clean"" energy sources by employing interfaces, storage devices, and other units. Unlike conventional electric power generation systems, renewable energy harvesting does not use fossil fuels and the generation units can be decentralized, thereby significantly reducing transmission and distribution losses. But advanced technical methods must be developed to increase the efficiency of devices in harvesting energy from environmentally friendly, ""green"" resources and converting them into electrical energy.Recognizing t

  7. An upper limb mathematical model of an oil palm harvester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumit, N. P.; Rambely, A. S.; BMT, Shamsul; Shahriman A., B.; Ng Y., G.; Deros, B. M.; Zailina, H.; Goh, Y. M.; Arumugam, Manohar; Ismail, I. A.; Abdul Hafiz A., R.

    2014-09-01

    The main purpose of this article is to develop a mathematical model of human body during harvesting via Kane's method. In this paper, a 2-D closed-kinematic biomechanical model that represents a harvesting movement is developed. The model of six segments consisted of upper right arm, right forearm, harvesting equipment, left forearm, upper left arm, and upper part of trunk. Finally, the inverse dynamic equations are represented in matrix form.

  8. Adjustable Nonlinear Springs to Improve Efficiency of Vibration Energy Harvesters

    OpenAIRE

    Boisseau, S.; Despesse, G.; Seddik, B. Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Vibration Energy Harvesting is an emerging technology aimed at turning mechanical energy from vibrations into electricity to power microsystems of the future. Most of present vibration energy harvesters are based on a mass spring structure introducing a resonance phenomenon that allows to increase the output power compared to non-resonant systems, but limits the working frequency bandwidth. Therefore, they are not able to harvest energy when ambient vibrations' frequencies shift. To follow sh...

  9. Productivity and cost of conventional understory biomass harvesting systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas E. Miller; Thomas J. Straka; Bryce J. Stokes; William Watson

    1987-01-01

    Conventional harvesting equipment was tested for removing forest understory biomass (energywood) for use as fuel. Two types of systems were tested--a one-pass system and a two-pass system. In the one-pass system, the energywood and pulpwood were harvested simultaneously. In the two-pass system, the energywood was harvested in a first pass through the stand, and the...

  10. Effect of garment design on piezoelectricity harvesting from joint movement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Jin-Hee; Cho, Hyun-Seung; Park, Seon-Hyung; Song, Seung-Hwan; Yun, Kwang-Seok; Lee, Joo Hyeon

    2016-01-01

    The harvesting of piezoelectricity through the human body involves the conversion of mechanical energy, mostly generated by the repeated movements of the body, to electrical energy, irrespective of the time and location. In this research, it was expected that the garment design would play an important role in increasing the efficiency of piezoelectricity scavenged in a garment because the mechanical deformation imposed on the energy harvester could increase through an optimal design configuration for the garment parts supporting a piezoelectricity harvester. With this expectation, this research aimed to analyze the effect of the clothing factors, and that of human factors on the efficiency of piezoelectricity harvesting through clothing in joint movements. These analyses resulted in that the efficiency of the piezoelectricity harvesting was affected from both two clothing factors, tightness level depending upon the property of the textile material and design configuration of the garment part supporting the piezoelectricity harvesting. Among the three proposed designs of the garment part supporting the piezoelectricity harvesting, ‘reinforced 3D module design,’ which maximized the value of radius in the piezoelectricity harvester, showed the highest efficiency across all areas of the joints in the human body. The two human factors, frequency of movement and body part, affected the efficiency of the piezoelectricity harvesting as well. (paper)

  11. Relay Selection for Cooperative Relaying in Wireless Energy Harvesting Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Kaiyan; Wang, Fei; Li, Songsong; Jiang, Fengjiao; Cao, Lijie

    2018-01-01

    Energy harvesting from the surroundings is a promising solution to provide energy supply and extend the life of wireless sensor networks. Recently, energy harvesting has been shown as an attractive solution to prolong the operation of cooperative networks. In this paper, we propose a relay selection scheme to optimize the amplify-and-forward (AF) cooperative transmission in wireless energy harvesting cooperative networks. The harvesting energy and channel conditions are considered to select the optimal relay as cooperative relay to minimize the outage probability of the system. Simulation results show that our proposed relay selection scheme achieves better outage performance than other strategies.

  12. Harvester development for new high yielding SRC crops and markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-12-01

    Details are given of a project to develop a harvesting system that can produce fuel economically in a single pass to a required specification at a cost that is profitable for the grower while minimising the cost of the product. The project objectives listed include the development of a harvester drive chain and feeding systems to allow harvesting of the higher yielding crops now produced in the UK, determination of the most economic harvesting cycle for SRC crops, and production of fuels suitable for co-firing with coal in pulverised fuel systems or for gasification. The work programme and project conclusions are discussed

  13. Study on Pyroelectric Harvesters Integrating Solar Radiation with Wind Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Ching Hsiao

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Pyroelectric harvesters use temperature fluctuations to generate electrical outputs. Solar radiation and waste heat are rich energy sources that can be harvested. Pyroelectric energy converters offer a novel and direct energy-conversion technology by transforming time-dependent temperatures directly into electricity. Moreover, the great challenge for pyroelectric energy harvesting lies in finding promising temperature variations or an alternating thermal loading in real situations. Hence, in this article, a novel pyroelectric harvester integrating solar radiation with wind power by the pyroelectric effect is proposed. Solar radiation is a thermal source, and wind is a dynamic potential. A disk generator is used for harvesting wind power. A mechanism is considered to convert the rotary energy of the disk generator to drive a shutter for generating temperature variations in pyroelectric cells using a planetary gear system. The optimal period of the pyroelectric cells is 35 s to harvest the stored energy, about 70 μJ, while the rotary velocity of the disk generator is about 31 RPM and the wind speed is about 1 m/s. In this state, the stored energy acquired from the pyroelectric harvester is about 75% more than that from the disk generator. Although the generated energy of the proposed pyroelectric harvester is less than that of the disk generator, the pyroelectric harvester plays a complementary role when the disk generator is inactive in situations of low wind speed.

  14. Energy harvesting for self-powered aerostructure actuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Matthew; Pizzonia, Matthew; Mehallow, Michael; Garcia, Ephrahim

    2014-04-01

    This paper proposes and experimentally investigates applying piezoelectric energy harvesting devices driven by flow induced vibrations to create self-powered actuation of aerostructure surfaces such as tabs, flaps, spoilers, or morphing devices. Recently, we have investigated flow-induced vibrations and limit cycle oscillations due to aeroelastic flutter phenomena in piezoelectric structures as a mechanism to harvest energy from an ambient fluid flow. We will describe how our experimental investigations in a wind tunnel have demonstrated that this harvested energy can be stored and used on-demand to actuate a control surface such as a trailing edge flap in the airflow. This actuated control surface could take the form of a separate and discrete actuated flap, or could constitute rotating or deflecting the oscillating energy harvester itself to produce a non-zero mean angle of attack. Such a rotation of the energy harvester and the associated change in aerodynamic force is shown to influence the operating wind speed range of the device, its limit cycle oscillation (LCO) amplitude, and its harvested power output; hence creating a coupling between the device's performance as an energy harvester and as a control surface. Finally, the induced changes in the lift, pitching moment, and drag acting on a wing model are quantified and compared for a control surface equipped with an oscillating energy harvester and a traditional, static control surface of the same geometry. The results show that when operated in small amplitude LCO the energy harvester adds negligible aerodynamic drag.

  15. Power Electronics, Energy Harvesting and Renewable Energies Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The research in the Power Electronics, Energy Harvesting and Renewable Energies Laboratory (PEHREL) is mainly focused on investigation, modeling, simulation, design,...

  16. Development of energy harvesting modules based on piezoceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulkarni, V.; Waechter, D.; Ben Mrad, R. [Toronto Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering; El-Diraby, T. [Toronto Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Civil Engineering; Somayajula, N.; Nemana, S.; Prasad, E. [Sensor Technology Ltd., Collingwood, ON (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    Self-powered devices can overcome the current reliance and limitations of finite-supply batteries. They have potential in developing next-generation wireless electronics for a wide variety of applications such as health monitoring in civil infrastructure, micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) sensor arrays for automotive and aerospace applications, and sensor arrays for environmental control. These energy harvesting devices capture the ambient energy surrounding a system and convert it into usable electrical energy. A common method of power harvesting is to convert ambient mechanical vibrations into electricity through the use of piezoelectric materials such as piezoceramics (PZT). This paper highlighted some of the recent developments in piezoceramic energy harvesting along with proposed circuits that can improve the performance of energy harvesters. The successful storage and use of energy generated by various harvesting devices requires the use of specific circuitry to optimize the output from the devices. Energy harvesting circuitry was characterized in terms of energy storage; AC/DC converter; DC-DC step down converter; and non-linear voltage processing. The patent activity and applications on piezoceramic energy harvesting was also summarized. It was concluded that despite significant research, piezoceramic energy harvesting remains an emerging technology that requires considerable advancement before it can be commercially viable. The power generated by current piezoelectric harvesters is too low for many applications. Alternative piezoceramic materials and their characteristics must be investigated. 31 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs.

  17. A broadband electromagnetic energy harvester with a coupled bistable structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, D; Beeby, S P

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates a broadband electromagnetic energy harvester with a coupled bistable structure. Both analytical model and experimental results showed that the coupled bistable structure requires lower excitation force to trigger bistable operation than conventional bistable structures. A compact electromagnetic vibration energy harvester with a coupled bistable structure was implemented and tested. It was excited under white noise vibrations. Experimental results showed that the coupled bistable energy harvester can achieve bistable operation with lower excitation amplitude and generate more output power than both conventional bistable and linear energy harvesters under white noise excitation

  18. Supplement: Commodity Index Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    Commodity Futures Trading Commission — Shows index traders in selected agricultural markets. These traders are drawn from the noncommercial and commercial categories. The noncommercial category includes...

  19. Indexing mergers and acquisitions

    OpenAIRE

    Gang, Jianhua; Guo, Jie (Michael); Hu, Nan; Li, Xi

    2017-01-01

    We measure the efficiency of mergers and acquisitions by putting forward an index (the ‘M&A Index’) based on stochastic frontier analysis. The M&A Index is calculated for each takeover deal and is standardized between 0 and 1. An acquisition with a higher index encompasses higher efficiency. We find that takeover bids with higher M&A Indices are more likely to succeed. Moreover, the M&A Index shows a strong and positive relation with the acquirers’ post-acquisition stock perfo...

  20. Chemical composition and methane yield of reed canary grass as influenced by harvesting time and harvest frequency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kandel, Tanka Prasad; Sutaryo, Sutaryo; Møller, Henrik Bjarne

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the influence of harvest time on biomass yield, dry matter partitioning, biochemical composition and biological methane potential of reed canary grass harvested twice a month in one-cut (OC) management. The regrowth of biomass harvested in summer was also harvested in autumn...... as a two-cut management with (TC-F) or without (TC-U) fertilization after summer harvest. The specific methane yields decreased significantly with crop maturity that ranged from 384 to 315 and from 412 to 283 NL (normal litre) (kg VS)-1 for leaf and stem, respectively. Approximately 45% more methane...... was produced by the TC-F management (5430 Nm3 ha-1) as by the OC management (3735 Nm3 ha-1). Specific methane yield was moderately correlated with the concentrations of fibre components in the biomass. Larger quantity of biogas produced at the beginning of the biogas assay from early harvested biomass...

  1. Comparison of Postoperative Pain Relief by Intercostal Block Between Pre-rib Harvest and Post-rib Harvest Groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashir, M. M.; Shahzad, M. A.; Yousaf, M. N.; Khan, B. A.; Khan, F. A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To compare intercostal nerve block before and after rib harvest in terms of mean postoperative pain score and mean postoperative tramadol usage. Study Design: Randomized controlled trial. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Plastic Surgery, Mayo Hospital, KEMU, Lahore, from January 2011 to July 2012. Methodology: Patients (n = 120) of either gender with ASA class-I and II requiring autogenous costal cartilage graft were inducted. Patients having history of local anaesthetic hypersensitivity and age 60 years were excluded. Subjects were randomly assigned to pre-rib harvest (group-1) and post-rib harvest (group-2). Local anaesthetic mixture was prepared by adding 10 milliliters 2% lidocaine to 10 milliliters 0.5% bupivacaine to obtain a total 20 ml solution. Group-1 received local anaesthetic infiltration along the proposed incision lines and intercostals block before the rib harvest. Group-2 received the infiltration and block after rib harvest. Postoperative consumption of tramadol and pain scores were measured at 6 and 12 hours postoperatively using VAS. Results: Mean age was 31.43 A +- 10.78 years. The mean pain scores at 6 hours postoperatively were 1.033 A +- 0.609 and 2.4667 A +- 0.812 in pre-rib harvest and post-rib harvest groups respectively (p < 0.0001). The mean pain scores at 12 hours postoperatively were 1.45 A +- 0.565 and 3.65 A +- 0.633 in pre-rib harvest and post-rib harvest groups respectively (p < 0.0001). The mean tramadol used postoperatively in first 24 hours was 169 A +- 29.24 mg and 255 A +- 17.70 mg in prerib harvest and post-rib harvest groups respectively (p < 0.0001). Conclusion: Intercostal block administered before rib harvest as preemptive strategy result in decreased postoperative pain scores and narcotic use. (author)

  2. The effect of growth regulators on post-harvest Alchemilla mollis (Bauser Rothm. leaf longevity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janowska Beata

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Leaves of Alchemilla mollis (Bauser Rothm. were the subject of the study. The leaves were harvested early in the morning from the department’s ornamental plant collection. Selected leaves were fully-developed and showed no signs of damage or discolouring. Gibberellic acid (GA3, benzyladenine (BA, meta-methoxytopolin (MemT and its riboside (MemTR at concentrations of 25, 50 and 75 mg dm−3 were applied in the form of solutions to four-hour leaf-conditioning in the room at a temperature of 18-20°C. After conditioning, the leaves were placed in distilled water. Leaves put into distilled water immediately after cutting served as the control. The post-harvest longevity of leaves of Alchemilla mollis was 7.2-11.8 days. The conditioning of leaves in gibberellic acid solutions at concentrations of 25-50 mg dm−3, benzyladenine at concentrations of 25 mg dm−3 and meta-methoxytopolin and its riboside at concentrations of 75 mg dm−3 extended the post-harvest longevity of leaves by 10.1-81.9%. The conditioning of leaves in gibberellic acid at a concentration of 50 mg dm−3 inhibited the degradation of chlorophyll, as indicated by the highest SPAD index values.

  3. Energy Requirements for Biomass Harvest and Densification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Shinners

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This research quantified the unit and bulk density of several biomass crops across a variety of harvest and processing methods, as well as the energy and fuel requirements for these operations. A load density of approximately 240 kg·m−3 is needed to reach the legal weight limit of most transporters. Of the three types of balers studied, only the high density (HD large square baler achieved this target density. However, the specific energy and fuel requirements increased exponentially with bale density, and at the maximum densities for corn stover and switchgrass, the dry basis energy and fuel requirements ranged from 4.0 to 5.0 kW·h·Mg−1 and 1.2 to 1.4 L·Mg−1, respectively. Throughputs of tub grinders when grinding bales was less than any other harvesting or processing methods investigated, so specific energy and fuel requirements were high and ranged from 13 to 32 kW·h·Mg−1 and 5.0 to 11.3 L·Mg−1, respectively. Gross size-reduction by pre-cutting at baling increased bale density by less than 6% and increased baling energy requirements by 11% to 22%, but pre-cut bales increased the tub grinder throughput by 25% to 45% and reduced specific fuel consumption for grinding by 20% to 53%. Given the improvement in tub grinder operation, pre-cutting bales should be considered as a means to increase grinder throughput. Additional research is needed to determine the energy required to grind high density pre-cut bales at high throughputs so that better estimates of total energy required for a high density bale system can be made. An alternative bulk feedstock system was investigated that involved chopping moist biomass crops with a precision-cut forage harvester, compacting the bulk material in a silo bag, and then segmenting the densified material into modules optimized for efficient transport. The specific fuel use for chopping and then compacting biomass crops in the silo bag ranged from 1.6 to 3.0 L·Mg−1 and 0.5 to 1.3 L·Mg−1

  4. Analysis in indexing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mai, Jens Erik

    2005-01-01

    is presented as an alternative and the paper discusses how this approach includes a broader range of analyses and how it requires a new set of actions from using this approach; analysis of the domain, users and indexers. The paper concludes that the two-step procedure to indexing is insufficient to explain...

  5. Rethinking image indexing?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Hans Dam

    2017-01-01

    Hans Dam Christensen, ”Rethinking image indexing?”, in: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology, vol. 68, no. 7, 2017, 1782-1785......Hans Dam Christensen, ”Rethinking image indexing?”, in: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology, vol. 68, no. 7, 2017, 1782-1785...

  6. GRI Index 2017

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2017-01-01

    This World Bank GRI Index 2017 provides an overview of sustainability considerations within the World Bank’s lending and analytical services as well as its corporate activities. This index of sustainability indicators has been prepared in accordance with the internationally recognized standard for sustainability reporting, the GRI Standards: Core option (https://www.globalreporting.org). T...

  7. 2016 GRI Index

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2016-01-01

    This 2016 World Bank Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) Index provides an overview of sustainability considerations within the World Bank’s lending and analytical services as well as its corporate activities. This index of sustainability indicators has been prepared in accordance with the internationally recognized standard for sustainability reporting GRI guidelines (https://www.globalrepo...

  8. Global Ecosystem Restoration Index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez, Miguel; Garcia, Monica; Fernandez, Nestor

    2015-01-01

    The Global ecosystem restoration index (GERI) is a composite index that integrates structural and functional aspects of the ecosystem restoration process. These elements are evaluated through a window that looks into a baseline for degraded ecosystems with the objective to assess restoration...

  9. Protocol and Practice in the Adaptive Management of Waterfowl Harvests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred Johnson

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Waterfowl harvest management in North America, for all its success, historically has had several shortcomings, including a lack of well-defined objectives, a failure to account for uncertain management outcomes, and inefficient use of harvest regulations to understand the effects of management. To address these and other concerns, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service began implementation of adaptive harvest management in 1995. Harvest policies are now developed using a Markov decision process in which there is an explicit accounting for uncontrolled environmental variation, partial controllability of harvest, and structural uncertainty in waterfowl population dynamics. Current policies are passively adaptive, in the sense that any reduction in structural uncertainty is an unplanned by-product of the regulatory process. A generalization of the Markov decision process permits the calculation of optimal actively adaptive policies, but it is not yet clear how state-specific harvest actions differ between passive and active approaches. The Markov decision process also provides managers the ability to explore optimal levels of aggregation or "management scale" for regulating harvests in a system that exhibits high temporal, spatial, and organizational variability. Progress in institutionalizing adaptive harvest management has been remarkable, but some managers still perceive the process as a panacea, while failing to appreciate the challenges presented by this more explicit and methodical approach to harvest regulation. Technical hurdles include the need to develop better linkages between population processes and the dynamics of landscapes, and to model the dynamics of structural uncertainty in a more comprehensive fashion. From an institutional perspective, agreement on how to value and allocate harvests continues to be elusive, and there is some evidence that waterfowl managers have overestimated the importance of achievement-oriented factors in

  10. EJSCREEN Supplementary Indexes 2015 Public

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — There are 40 supplementary EJSCREEN indexes that are divided into 5 categories: EJ Index with supplementary demographic index, Supplementary EJ Index 1 with...

  11. Light-harvesting organic photoinitiators of polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalevée, Jacques; Tehfe, Mohamad-Ali; Dumur, Frédéric; Gigmes, Didier; Graff, Bernadette; Morlet-Savary, Fabrice; Fouassier, Jean-Pierre

    2013-02-12

    Two new photoinitiators with unprecedented light absorption properties are proposed on the basis of a suitable truxene skeleton where several UV photoinitiators PI units such as benzophenone and thioxanthone are introduced at the periphery and whose molecular orbitals MO can be coupled with those of the PI units: a red-shifted absorption and a strong increase of the molecular extinction coefficients (by a ≈ 20-1000 fold factor) are found. These compounds are highly efficient light-harvesting photoinitiators. The scope and practicality of these photoinitiators of polymerization can be dramatically expanded, that is, both radical and cationic polymerization processes are accessible upon very soft irradiation conditions (halogen lamp, LED…︁) thanks to the unique light absorption properties of the new proposed structures. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Palm Harvest Impact on Tropical Forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balslev, Henrik; Eiserhardt, Wolf L.

    Palms are the most useful group of plants in tropical American forests and in this project we study the effect of extraction and trade of palms on forest in the western Amazon, Andes and Pacific lowlands. We determine the size of the resource by making palm community studies in the different forest...... formations and determine the number of species and individuals of all palm species. The genetic structure of useful palm species is studied to determine how much harvesting of the species contributes to genetic erosion of its populations, and whether extraction can be made without harm. We determine how much...... palms are used for subsistence purposes by carrying out quantitative, ethnobotanical research in different forest types and we also study trade patterns for palm products from local markets to markets that involve export to other countries and continents. We study different ways in which palms...

  13. Photovoltaic Energy Harvester with Power Management System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ferri

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a photovoltaic energy harvester, realized in 0.35-μm CMOS technology. The proposed system collects light energy from the environment, by means of 2-mm2 on-chip integrated microsolar cells, and accumulates it in an external capacitor. While the capacitor is charging, the load is disconnected. When the energy in the external capacitor is enough to operate the load for a predefined time slot, the load is connected to the capacitor by a power management circuit. The choice of the value of the capacitance determines the operating time slot for the load. The proposed solution is suitable for discrete-time-regime applications, such as sensor network nodes, or, in general, systems that require power supply periodically for short time slots. The power management circuit includes a charge pump, a comparator, a level shifter, and a linear voltage regulator. The whole system has been extensively simulated, integrated, and experimentally characterized.

  14. Rainwater harvesting for drought disaster alleviation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widodo, B.; Prinzand, D.; Malik, A.H.

    2005-01-01

    Too little water and too much water can be as devastating as well. Drought usually does not show up instantly like flood, but it creeps slowly. Drought that is less popular than flood has impact more serious than flood. It is difficult to be identified when it comes and when it goes away. However, it is suddenly understood when water becomes scare, or no more water is available in wells, rivers and reservoirs. Managing flood and drought has to be at an integrated basis. Rainwater harvesting (RWH) combined with water conservation methods can be developed to alleviate drought disaster as well as flood disaster in the same time. RWH and water conservation must be an integral part of integrated water resources management. Preventing drought could be automatically reducing the extent of flood that means preventing people and the environment from the disasters. (author)

  15. A MEMS turbine prototype for respiration harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goreke, U.; Habibiabad, S.; Azgin, K.; Beyaz, M. I.

    2015-12-01

    The design, manufacturing, and performance characterization of a MEMS-scale turbine prototype is reported. The turbine is designed for integration into a respiration harvester that can convert normal human breathing into electrical power through electromagnetic induction. The device measures 10 mm in radius, and employs 12 blades located around the turbine periphery along with ball bearings around the center. Finite element simulations showed that an average torque of 3.07 μNm is induced at 12 lpm airflow rate, which lies in normal breathing levels. The turbine and a test package were manufactured using CNC milling on PMMA. Tests were performed at respiration flow rates between 5-25 lpm. The highest rotational speed was measured to be 9.84 krpm at 25 lpm, resulting in 8.96 mbar pressure drop across the device and 370 mW actuation power.

  16. PS2004 Light-harvesting Systems Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blankenship, Robert E.

    2005-01-01

    This special issue of the international scientific research journal Photosynthesis Research consists of 25 original peer-reviewed contributions from participants in the PS 2004 Lisht-Harvesting Systems Workshop. This workshop was held from 26-29, 2004 at Hotel Le Chantecler, Sainte-Adele, Quebec, Canada. The workshop was a satellite meeting of the XIII International Congress on Photosynthesis held August 29-September 3, 2004 in Montreal, Canada. The workshope dealt with all types of photosynthetic antenna systems and types of organisms, including anoxygenic photosynthetic bacteria, cyanobacteria, algae and higher plants, as well as in vitro studies of isolated pigments. This collection of papers is a good representation of the highly interdisciplinary nature of modern research on photosynthetic antenna complexes, utilizing techniques of advanced spectroscopy, biochemistry, molecular biology, synthetic chemistry and structural determination to understand these diverse and elegant molecular complexes.

  17. Micro thermal energy harvester design optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trioux, E; Basrour, S; Monfray, S

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports the recent progress of a new technology to scavenge thermal energy, implying a double-step transduction through the thermal buckling of a bilayer aluminum nitride/aluminum bridge and piezoelectric transduction. A completely new scavenger design is presented, with improved performance. The butterfly shape reduces the overall device mechanical rigidity, which leads to a decrease in buckling temperatures compared to previously studied rectangular plates. Firstly, an analytical model exposes the basic principle of the presented device. Then a numerical model completes the explanations by introducing a butterfly shaped structure. Finally the fabrication process is briefly described and both the rectangular and butterfly harvesters are characterized. We compare their performances with an equal thickness of Al and AlN. Secondly, with a thicker Al layer than AlN layer, we will characterize only the butterfly structure in terms of output power and buckling temperatures, and compare it to the previous stack. (paper)

  18. Magnetically levitated autoparametric broadband vibration energy harvesting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurmann, L.; Jia, Y.; Manoli, Y.; Woias, P.

    2016-01-01

    Some of the lingering challenges within the current paradigm of vibration energy harvesting (VEH) involve narrow operational frequency range and the inevitable non-resonant response from broadband noise excitations. Such VEHs are only suitable for limited applications with fixed sinusoidal vibration, and fail to capture a large spectrum of the real world vibration. Various arraying designs, frequency tuning schemes and nonlinear vibratory approaches have only yielded modest enhancements. To fundamentally address this, the paper proposes and explores the potentials in using highly nonlinear magnetic spring force to activate an autoparametric oscillator, in order to realize an inherently broadband resonant system. Analytical and numerical modelling illustrate that high spring nonlinearity derived from magnetic levitation helps to promote the 2:1 internal frequency matching required to activate parametric resonance. At the right internal parameters, the resulting system can intrinsically exhibit semi-resonant response regardless of the bandwidth of the input vibration, including broadband white noise excitation. (paper)

  19. Characterization of a variable reluctance harvester

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroener, M; Moll, N; Ravindran, S K T; Mehne, P; Woias, P

    2014-01-01

    In our last year's PowerMEMS contribution we presented a proof-of-concept of a variable reluctance harvester for the application in a railroad surveillance system. It was shown that intermittently closing a magnetic circuit could supply power output in the range of mW's. The test setup used showed unwanted energy pickup from the electro motor used. In this paper we present thorough measurements of the reluctance circuit with a compressed air motor to exclude the effects of the above mentioned magnetic stray fields. The effects of eddy currents and moment of inertia on the output power, the optimal coil position on the stators, and effects of different magnetic field strengths are studied. The gap width is set to a fixed value of 14 mm, representing a realistic scenario

  20. Adaptive harvest management: Adjustments for SEIS 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boomer, Scott; Johnson, Fred A.; Zimmerman, Guthrie S.

    2015-01-01

    This report provides a summary of revised methods and assessment results based on updated adaptive harvest management (AHM) protocols developed in response to the preferred alternative specified in the Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement on the Issuance of Annual Regulations Permitting the Hunting of Migratory Birds (SEIS; U.S. Department of the Interior 2013). We describe necessary changes to optimization procedures and decision processes for the implementation of AHM for midcontinent, eastern and western mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), northern pintails (Anas acuta), and scaup (Aythya affinis, A. marila) decision frameworks. We present this final report for communication purposes, and acknowledge that any use of trade, firm, or product names is for descriptive purposes only and does not imply endorsement by the U.S. Government.

  1. Harvesting and handling agricultural residues for energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins, B.M.; Summer, H.R.

    1986-05-01

    Significant progress in understanding the needs for design of agricultural residue collection and handling systems has been made but additional research is required. Recommendations are made for research to (a) integrate residue collection and handling systems into general agricultural practices through the development of multi-use equipment and total harvest systems; (b) improve methods for routine evaluation of agricultural residue resources, possibly through remote sensing and image processing; (c) analyze biomass properties to obtain detailed data relevant to engineering design and analysis; (d) evaluate long-term environmental, social, and agronomic impacts of residue collection; (e) develop improved equipment with higher capacities to reduce residue collection and handling costs, with emphasis on optimal design of complete systems including collection, transportation, processing, storage, and utilization; and (f) produce standard forms of biomass fuels or products to enhance material handling and expand biomass markets through improved reliability and automatic control of biomass conversion and other utilization systems. 118 references.

  2. Looped energy harvester for human motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisler, M.; Boisseau, S.; Gasnier, P.; Willemin, J.; Gobbo, C.; Despesse, G.; Ait-Ali, I.; Perraud, S.

    2017-10-01

    The development of energy harvesters for smart wearables is a challenging topic, with a difficult combination of ergonomics constraints, lifetime and electrical requirements. In this work, we focus on an inertial inductive structure, composed of a magnetic ball circulating inside a closed-loop guide and converting the kinetic energy of the user’s limbs into electricity during the run. A specific induction issue related to the free self-rotation of the ball is underlined and addressed using a ferromagnetic ‘rail’ component. From a 2 g moving ball, a 5 cm-diameter 21 cm3 prototype generated up to 4.8 mW of average power when worn by someone running at 8 km h-1. This device is demonstrated to charge a 2.4 V NiMH battery and supply an acceleration and temperature Wireless Sensor Node at 20 Hz.

  3. MATURITY AND QUALITY OF APPLE FRUIT DURINIG THE HARVEST PERIOD AT APPLE INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARCOS WESTPHAL GONÇALVES

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT A database of maturity and quality indices was built by analysis of 62,807 samples of 100 ‘Gala’ apples and 29,053 samples of 100 ‘Fuji’ apples at harvest, over 11 years (2005-2015 in an apple industry warehouse. Apple fruit were harvested in Fraiburgo (SC, São Joaquim (SC and Vacaria (RS. Data on firmness, starch index (SI, soluble solid content (SS, titratable acidity (TA, size and grades (external appearance of apple fruit were submitted to linear and nonlinear regression analyses. Each fruit was graded by analysis of external qualities (color and surface blemishes following Brazilian legal standards. At apples industry, the harvest period extended from 3rd to 15th week of the year for ‘Gala’ and from 10th to 22nd week of the year for ‘Fuji’ apples, although approximately 70% of total production for ‘Gala’ and ‘Fuji’ apples was harvested in a period of 4 and 6 weeks, respectively. Average maturity of 11 years varied from the 1st to the last week of harvest as follows: ‘Gala’ apples: 17.9 to 14.2 pounds (firmness, 4.0 to 6.1 (SI, 12.2 to 13.1% (SS and 5.7 to 3.9 meq 100 mL-1 (TA. ‘Fuji’ apples: 17.1 to 14.3 pounds (firmness, 3.9 to 6.4 (SI, 12.9 to 14.4% (SS, 6.2 to 3.8 meq 100 mL-1 (TA. Approximately 48% of ‘Gala’ samples and 45% of ‘Fuji’ samples had firmness higher than 17 and 16 pounds, respectively, intended for long term storage, while 6% of ‘Gala’ samples and 8.5% of ‘Fuji’ samples had firmness lower than 14 pounds, intended for marketing shortly after harvest. The frequency of apple samples graded as Extra, Cat1, Cat2, Cat3 and out of category were 6%, 32%, 34% and 6% for ‘Gala’ apples and 5%, 39%, 33%, 18%, 5% for ‘Fuji’ apples.

  4. 36 CFR 223.219 - Sustainable harvest of special forest products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sustainable harvest of....219 Sustainable harvest of special forest products. (a) Sustainable harvest levels. Prior to offering... product's sustainable harvest level. A special forest product's sustainable harvest level is the total...

  5. Removal intensity and tree size effects on harvesting cost and profitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Kluender; D. Lortz; W. McCoy; B. Stokes; J. Klepac

    1997-01-01

    Sixteen stands were harvested at intensities (proportion of basal area removed) ranging from 0.27 to 1.00. Logging contractors used chain saws and rubber-tired skidders. Harvested sites were similar in slope and tree size. Harvest cost per hundred cubic feet of wood (CCF) was inversely related to harvest intensity and tree size. Harvesting profitability per CCF was...

  6. Felling and skidding productivity and harvesting cost in southern pine forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.A. Kluender; B.J. Stokes

    1996-01-01

    Sixteen stands were harvested at various levels of basal area removed (intensity). Chainsaw felling productivity was more sensitive to stem diameter than harvest intensity. Skidding productivity was highest when removing large trees at high intensity. Harvesting cost was more sensitive to stem size than harvest intensity, although harvest intensity was a very important...

  7. Sustainability of corn stover harvest strategies in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul R. Adler; Benjamin M. Rau; Gregory W. Roth

    2015-01-01

    Pennsylvania farmers have a long history of harvesting corn (Zea mays L.) stover after grain harvest for animal bedding and feed or as a component of mushroom compost, or as silage for dairy cattle feed. With the shallow soils and rolling topography, soil erosion and carbon losses have been minimized through extensive use of cover crops, no-till, and...

  8. High School Harvest: Combining Food Service Training and Institutional Procurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, David; Estrin, Hans; Becot, Florence

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses High School Harvest (HSH), an Extension educator-led project in five Vermont schools to provide students with job training and food system education and to provide lightly processed produce to school lunch programs. One hundred and twenty-one students participated, logging 8,752 hours growing, harvesting, and processing…

  9. Montana's forest products industry and timber harvest, 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timothy P. Spoelma; Todd A. Morgan; Thale Dillon; Alfred L. Chase; Charles E. Keegan; Larry T. DeBlander

    2008-01-01

    This report traces the flow of Montana's 2004 timber harvest through the primary wood-using industries; provides a description of the structure, capacity, and condition of Montana's primary forest products industry; and quantifies volumes and uses of wood fiber. Historical wood products industry changes are discussed, as well as changes in harvest, production...

  10. Wireless Energy Harvesting Using Signals from Multiple Fading Channels

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Yunfei

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, we study the average, the probability density function and the cumulative distribution function of the harvested power. In the study, the signals are transmitted from multiple sources. The channels are assumed to be either Rician fading or Gamma-shadowed Rician fading. The received signals are then harvested by using either a single harvester for simultaneous transmissions or multiple harvesters for transmissions at different frequencies, antennas or time slots. Both linear and nonlinear models for the energy harvester at the receiver are examined. Numerical results are presented to show that, when a large amount of harvested power is required, a single harvester or the linear range of a practical nonlinear harvester are more efficient, to avoid power outage. Further, the power transfer strategy can be optimized for fixed total power. Specifically, for Rayleigh fading, the optimal strategy is to put the total power at the source with the best channel condition and switch off all other sources, while for general Rician fading, the optimum magnitudes and phases of the transmitting waveforms depend on the channel parameters.

  11. Challenges with mechanical harvesting of blueberries for the fresh market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern highbush blueberries (SHB) (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) are mostly hand harvested for the fresh market. Hand harvesting of blueberry is labor intensive and costly. Efforts are under way to develop blueberry genotypes that will develop less bruising after impact with hard surfaces on the harv...

  12. Rainwater harvesting in arid and semi-arid zones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boers, T.M.

    1994-01-01

    In arid and semi-arid regions, the scarcity of water can be alleviated by rainwater harvesting, which is defined as a method of inducing, collecting, storing, and conserving local surface runoff for agriculture. Rainwater harvesting can be applied with different

  13. Nonmonotonic energy harvesting efficiency in biased exciton chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlaming, S.M.; Malyshev, V.A.; Knoester, J.

    2007-01-01

    We theoretically study the efficiency of energy harvesting in linear exciton chains with an energy bias, where the initial excitation is taking place at the high-energy end of the chain and the energy is harvested (trapped) at the other end. The efficiency is characterized by means of the average

  14. Sustainable Performance in Energy Harvesting - Wireless Sensor Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fafoutis, Xenofon; Di Mauro, Alessio; Dragoni, Nicola

    2013-01-01

    In this practical demo we illustrate the concept of "sustainable performance" in Energy-Harvesting Wireless Sensor Networks (EH-WSNs). In particular, for different classes of applications and under several energy harvesting scenarios, we show how it is possible to have sustainable performance when...

  15. A vibration energy harvesting device with bidirectional resonance frequency tunability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Challa, Vinod R; Prasad, M G; Shi Yong; Fisher, Frank T

    2008-01-01

    Vibration energy harvesting is an attractive technique for potential powering of wireless sensors and low power devices. While the technique can be employed to harvest energy from vibrations and vibrating structures, a general requirement independent of the energy transfer mechanism is that the vibration energy harvesting device operate in resonance at the excitation frequency. Most energy harvesting devices developed to date are single resonance frequency based, and while recent efforts have been made to broaden the frequency range of energy harvesting devices, what is lacking is a robust tunable energy harvesting technique. In this paper, the design and testing of a resonance frequency tunable energy harvesting device using a magnetic force technique is presented. This technique enabled resonance tuning to ± 20% of the untuned resonant frequency. In particular, this magnetic-based approach enables either an increase or decrease in the tuned resonant frequency. A piezoelectric cantilever beam with a natural frequency of 26 Hz is used as the energy harvesting cantilever, which is successfully tuned over a frequency range of 22–32 Hz to enable a continuous power output 240–280 µW over the entire frequency range tested. A theoretical model using variable damping is presented, whose results agree closely with the experimental results. The magnetic force applied for resonance frequency tuning and its effect on damping and load resistance have been experimentally determined

  16. Harvested wood products : basis for future methodological development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenneth E. Skog

    2003-01-01

    The IPCC Guidelines (IPCC 1997) provide an outline of how harvested wood could be treated in national greenhouse gas (GHG) inventories. This section shows the relation of that outline to the approaches and estimation methods to be presented in this Appendix. Wood and paper products are referred to as harvested wood products (HWP). It does not include carbon in...

  17. CRITICAL INDICATORS IN MECHANIZED HARVEST GRAINS AND FIBER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Boeing

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Due to the growth in grain production and intensification of production systems losses are inevitable. The harvest as the last operation performed in the field requires better attention. Although the origins are varied and losses occur both before and during harvesting, approximately 80% of them occur by mechanisms of action of the harvester cutting platform. It is necessary to know the causes of losses, whether physical or physiological operational. Thus, the objective was to conduct a survey of potential losses and / or environmental factors that affect machinery and effectively and should be prioritized in a management program in order to raise the efficiency of harvesting. From the collected data determined if the potential of critical failures through the method of analysis and failure mode effects, using a questionnaire listed with the selected quality indicators. It was concluded that in the mechanical harvesting of cotton harvested product loss and impurity had insusceptible rates be prioritized goals in the management of the production process. While the grain crop (soybean / corn moisture grain and grain breaks are still the main causes in the loss of quality of the product, stressing the importance of harvesters in improving the characteristics at harvest in order to minimize qualitative grain losses.

  18. 50 CFR 300.132 - Lobster harvest limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lobster harvest limitations. 300.132... FISHERIES REGULATIONS Vessels of the United States Fishing in Colombian Treaty Waters § 300.132 Lobster harvest limitations. (a) Berried lobsters. A berried (egg-bearing) lobster in treaty waters may not be...

  19. Recent Rates of Forest Harvest and Conversion in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masek, Jeffrey G.; Cohen, Warren B.; Leckie, Donald; Wulder, Michael A.; Vargas, Rodrigo; de Jong, Ben; Healey, Sean; Law, Beverly; Birdsey, Richard; Houghton, R. A.; hide

    2011-01-01

    Incorporating ecological disturbance into biogeochemical models is critical for estimating current and future carbon stocks and fluxes. In particular, anthropogenic disturbances, such as forest conversion and wood harvest, strongly affect forest carbon dynamics within North America. This paper summarizes recent (2000.2008) rates of extraction, including both conversion and harvest, derived from national forest inventories for North America (the United States, Canada, and Mexico). During the 2000s, 6.1 million ha/yr were affected by harvest, another 1.0 million ha/yr were converted to other land uses through gross deforestation, and 0.4 million ha/yr were degraded. Thus about 1.0% of North America fs forests experienced some form of anthropogenic disturbance each year. However, due to harvest recovery, afforestation, and reforestation, the total forest area on the continent has been roughly stable during the decade. On average, about 110 m3 of roundwood volume was extracted per hectare harvested across the continent. Patterns of extraction vary among the three countries, with U.S. and Canadian activity dominated by partial and clear ]cut harvest, respectively, and activity in Mexico dominated by conversion (deforestation) for agriculture. Temporal trends in harvest and clearing may be affected by economic variables, technology, and forest policy decisions. While overall rates of extraction appear fairly stable in all three countries since the 1980s, harvest within the United States has shifted toward the southern United States and away from the Pacific Northwest.

  20. The Effect of Urban Sprawls on Timber Harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen A. Barlow; Ian A Munn; David A. Cleaves; David L. Evans

    1998-01-01

    In Mississippi and Alabama, urban population growth is pushing development into rural areas. To study the impact of urbanization on timber harvesting, census and forest inventory data were combined in a geographic information system, and a logistic regression model was used to estimate the relationship between several variables and harvest probabilities....

  1. Data retrieval time for energy harvesting wireless sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mitici, M.A.; Goseling, Jasper; de Graaf, Maurits; Boucherie, Richardus J.

    2015-01-01

    We consider the problem of retrieving a reliable estimate of an attribute monitored by a wireless sensor network, where the sensors harvest energy from the environment independently, at random. Each sensor stores the harvested energy in batteries of limited capacity. Moreover, provided they have

  2. Harvesting options of small-diameter wood from early thinnings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaerhae, K.; Petty, A. (Metsaeteho Oy, Helsinki (Finland)), e-mail: kalle.karha@metsateho.fi; Mutikainen, A. (TTS Research, Rajamaeki (Finland)), e-mail: arto.mutikainen@tts.fi

    2010-07-01

    The integrated harvesting of industrial roundwood and energy wood by the so-called 'two-pile cutting method' has increased steadily in young forests in Finland during the last three years. The studies carried out by Metsaeteho Oy and TTS Research (i) determined the time consumption and productivity in cutting work when using the integrated cutting of first-thinning wood, (ii) clarified the development of the total removal in integrated harvesting operation, and (iii) investigated the quality of pulpwood poles when using integrated cutting with multi-tree handling. The studies indicated that the total removal in integrated wood harvesting increase significantly compared to that of conventional, separate roundwood harvesting. When the total removal from the harvesting site increased considerable, there was a significant increase in the productivity of cutting work in integrated wood harvesting compared to the situation in separate pulpwood harvesting. In addition, the delimbing quality and bucking accuracy of the pulpwood poles obtained in multi-tree processing were comparable to those produced in single-tree handling. There were no problems with measuring the work output by a weight scale attached to the crane of the forwarder. As the studies indicated very promising results with integrated wood cutting, integrated harvesting is likely to continue to increase in both first and later thinnings in Finland. (orig.)

  3. A Case of Eosinophilic Pneumonia in a Tobacco Harvester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke Yoshioka

    2011-01-01

    Discussion: Green tobacco sickness, a type of nicotine poisoning caused by the dermal absorption of nicotine, is a well known occupational illness of tobacco harvesters. Although it is unclear whether the present case could be identified as a subtype of green tobacco sickness, this is the first report of eosinophilic pneumonia occurred in a tobacco harvester which was possibly induced by tobacco leaf exposure.

  4. Effect of coloured polyethylene mulch and harvesting stage on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Coloured polyethylene significantly (P < 0.05) increased the stalk length, stalk girth, number of tillers, chewable stalk and yield of NCS 008 for the main, as well as, the ratoon crops. Harvesting stage significantly influenced the stalk length, stalk girth and yield. Plots harvested 12 months after planting performed better than ...

  5. Efficient Web Harvesting Strategies for Monitoring Deep Web Content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khelghati, Mohammadreza; Hiemstra, Djoerd; van Keulen, Maurice

    2016-01-01

    Web content changes rapidly [18]. In Focused Web Harvesting [17] which aim it is to achieve a complete harvest for a given topic, this dynamic nature of the web creates problems for users who need to access a set of all the relevant web data to their topics of interest. Whether you are a fan

  6. Efficient Web Harvesting Strategies for Monitoring Deep Web Content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khelghati, Mohammadreza; Hiemstra, Djoerd; van Keulen, Maurice

    2016-01-01

    The change of the web content is rapid. In Focused Web Harvesting [?], which aims at achieving a complete harvest for a given topic, this dynamic nature of the web creates problems for users who need to access a complete set of related web data to their interesting topics. Whether you are a fan

  7. Modeling ground-based timber harvesting systems using computer simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jingxin Wang; Chris B. LeDoux

    2001-01-01

    Modeling ground-based timber harvesting systems with an object-oriented methodology was investigated. Object-oriented modeling and design promote a better understanding of requirements, cleaner designs, and better maintainability of the harvesting simulation system. The model developed simulates chainsaw felling, drive-to-tree feller-buncher, swing-to-tree single-grip...

  8. Economic analysis of water harvesting technologies in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wakeyo, M.B.

    2012-01-01

    Rainfall shortage and variability constrain crop production of smallholder farmers in Ethiopia and climate change may even aggravate this problem. An attractive method to mitigate this is water harvesting. This thesis examines the economic aspects of water harvesting by exploring optimal water

  9. Reducing electrocoagulation harvesting costs for practical microalgal biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dassey, Adam J; Theegala, Chandra S

    2014-01-01

    Electrocoagulation has shown potential to be a primary microalgae harvesting technique for biodiesel production. However, methods to reduce energy and electrode costs are still necessary for practical application. Electrocoagulation tests were conducted on Nannochloris sp. and Dunaliella sp. using perforated aluminium and iron electrodes under various charge densities. Aluminium electrodes were shown to be more efficient than iron electrodes when harvesting both algal species. Despite the lower harvesting efficiency, however, the iron electrodes were more energy and cost efficient. Operational costs of less than $0.03/L oil were achieved when harvesting Nannochloris sp. with iron electrodes at 35% harvest efficiency, whereas aluminium electrodes cost $0.75/L oil with 42% harvesting efficiency. Increasing the harvesting efficiencies for both aluminium and iron electrodes also increased the overall cost per litre of oil, therefore lower harvesting efficiencies with lower energy inputs was recommended. Also, increasing the culturing salinity to 2 ppt sodium chloride for freshwater Nannochloris sp. was determined practical to improve the electrocoagulation energy efficiency despite a 25% reduction in cell growth.

  10. Spatial simulation of forest succession and timber harvesting using LANDIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric J. Gustafson; Stephen R. Shifley; David J. Mladenoff; Kevin K. Nimerfro; Hong S. He

    2000-01-01

    The LANDIS model simulates ecological dynamics, including forest succession, disturbance, seed dispersal and establishment, fire and wind disturbance, and their interactions. We describe the addition to LANDIS of capabilities to simulate forest vegetation management, including harvest. Stands (groups of cells) are prioritized for harvest using one of four ranking...

  11. Energy Harvesting Research: The Road from Single Source to Multisource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yang; Jantunen, Heli; Juuti, Jari

    2018-06-07

    Energy harvesting technology may be considered an ultimate solution to replace batteries and provide a long-term power supply for wireless sensor networks. Looking back into its research history, individual energy harvesters for the conversion of single energy sources into electricity are developed first, followed by hybrid counterparts designed for use with multiple energy sources. Very recently, the concept of a truly multisource energy harvester built from only a single piece of material as the energy conversion component is proposed. This review, from the aspect of materials and device configurations, explains in detail a wide scope to give an overview of energy harvesting research. It covers single-source devices including solar, thermal, kinetic and other types of energy harvesters, hybrid energy harvesting configurations for both single and multiple energy sources and single material, and multisource energy harvesters. It also includes the energy conversion principles of photovoltaic, electromagnetic, piezoelectric, triboelectric, electrostatic, electrostrictive, thermoelectric, pyroelectric, magnetostrictive, and dielectric devices. This is one of the most comprehensive reviews conducted to date, focusing on the entire energy harvesting research scene and providing a guide to seeking deeper and more specific research references and resources from every corner of the scientific community. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Variations between post- and pre-harvest seasons in stunting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Minimum meal frequency, minimum acceptable diet and poor dietary diversity increased considerably in pre-harvest compared to post-harvest season in the lowland zone. Feeding practices and maternal age were predictors of wasting, while women's dietary diversity and children age was predictor of child dietary diversity ...

  13. Sustainability of corn stover harvest strategies in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennsylvania has a long history of harvesting corn stover after grain harvest for animal bedding and feed or as a component of mushroom compost, or as silage for dairy cattle feed. With the shallow soils and rolling topography, soil erosion and carbon losses have been minimized through extensive use...

  14. Fabrication of SU-8 low frequency electrostatic energy harvester

    KAUST Repository

    Ramadan, Khaled S.; Foulds, Ian G.

    2011-01-01

    A 1500μm × 1500μm × 150μm out-of-plane, gap closing, electrostatic energy harvester is designed and fabricated to harvest low-frequency ambient vibrations. SU-8 is used to fabricate the proof mass (1200μm × 1200μm × 150μm) and the 5 m springs

  15. A framework for analyzing workforce dynamics in forest harvesting in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A framework for measuring, monitoring and managing labour dynamics is used and tested in forest harvesting operations in South Africa and the results presented. Overall, the workforce in forest harvesting is unstable: the median labour turnover (monthly basis) and absenteeism (daily basis) are 4 % and 6 %, respectively.

  16. Reaping a Harvest of Hope - Continuum Magazine | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reaping a Harvest of Hope On May 4, 2007, an EF-5 tornado-the highest rating of tornados-tore Reaping a Harvest of Hope Five years after a devastating tornado, Greensburg, Kansas, has new energy and a city also relied on NREL's life-cycle cost analysis and its extensive energy project development and

  17. Environmental consequences of intensive forest harvesting for bioenergy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyck, W.J.; Maclaren, J.P.

    1994-01-01

    This paper examines environmental concerns regarding intensive forest harvesting, and outlines current knowledge. Site productivity and nutrient removal, site productivity and soil disturbance, and site preparation impacts are discussed. Biodiversity, off-site impacts, positive environmental impacts of intensive biomass harvesting, acid rain, climate change, estimating the carbon stored by a forest, site productivity research needs and application of models are discussed. (UK)

  18. Investigation of timber harvesting mechanization progress in Turkey ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... of substantial number of harvesters, the amount of modern harvesting processor in Turkey is not sufficient. Different type and marked machines have not been taken into consideration to ...

  19. 50 CFR 680.21 - Crab harvesting cooperatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... establishes an annual catch limit of crab that is based on the collective QS holdings of the members of the... the members of the crab harvesting cooperative. (2) Contents of application for annual crab harvesting... permit may appeal the IAD using the appeals procedures described in § 680.43. (c) Restrictions on fishing...

  20. Tree regeneration following group selection harvesting in southern Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale R. Weigel; George R. Parker

    1995-01-01

    An increased interest in the use of group selection harvesting in the Central Hardwood forests has emphasized the lack of scientific information about species response under this uneven-aged management system. Tree regeneration response following group selection harvesting was studied on thirty-six group selection openings on the Naval Surface Warfare Center, Crane...

  1. Hybrid Nanogenerator for Concurrently Harvesting Biomechanical and Biochemical Energy

    KAUST Repository

    Hansen, Benjamin J.; Liu, Ying; Yang, Rusen; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2010-01-01

    the beat of a heart, and a flexible enzymatic biofuel cell for harvesting the biochemical (glucose/O2) energy in biofluid, which are two types of energy available in vivo. The two energy harvesting approaches can work simultaneously or individually, thereby

  2. Forest soil biology-timber harvesting relationships: a perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. F. Jurgensen; M. J. Larsen; A. E. Harvey

    1979-01-01

    Timber harvesting has a pronounced effect on the soil microflora by wood removal and changing properties. This paper gives a perspective on soil biology-harvesting relationships with emphasis on the northern Rocky Mountain region. Of special significance to forest management operations are the effects of soil micro-organisms on: the availability of soil nutrients,...

  3. Alaska's timber harvest and forest products industry, 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeff M. Halbrook; Todd A. Morgan; Jason P. Brandt; Charles E. Keegan; Thale Dillon; Tara M. Barrett

    2009-01-01

    This report traces the flow of timber harvested in Alaska during calendar year 2005, describes the composition and operations of the state's primary forest products industry, and quantifies volumes and uses of wood fiber. Historical wood products industry changes are discussed, as well as trends in timber harvest, production, and sales of primary wood products....

  4. Alaska’s timber harvest and forest products industry, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erik C. Berg; Charles B. Gale; Todd A. Morgan; Allen M. Brackley; Charles E. Keegan; Susan J. Alexander; Glenn A. Christensen; Chelsea P. McIver; Micah G. Scudder

    2014-01-01

    This report traces the flow of timber harvested in Alaska during calendar year 2011, describes the composition and operations of the state’s primary forest products industry, and quantifies volumes and uses of wood fiber. Historical wood products industry changes are discussed, as well as trends in timber harvest, production, export, sales of primary wood products,...

  5. Idaho's forest products industry and timber harvest, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric A. Simmons; Steven W. Hayes; Todd A. Morgan; Charles E. Keegan; Chris Witt

    2014-01-01

    This report traces the flow of Idaho’s 2011 timber harvest through the primary industries; provides a description of the structure, capacity, and condition of Idaho’s industry; and quantifies volumes and uses of wood fiber. Historical wood products industry trends are discussed, as well as changes in harvest, production, employment, and sales.

  6. Ecology and management of the commercially harvested American matsutake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Hosford; David Pilz; Randy Molina; Michael. Amaranthus

    1997-01-01

    The commercial harvest of American matsutake (Tricholoma magnivelare) from forests in the Pacific Northwest has increased dramatically in the last decade. The similarity of this mushroom to the Japanese matsutake (T. matsutake) has prompted its harvest to meet increasing demands for matsutake in Japan. The American matsutake is...

  7. Scale of harvesting by non-industrial private forest landowners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melinda Vokoun; Gregory S. Amacher; David N. Wear

    2006-01-01

    We examine the intensity of harvesting decision by non-industrial landowners at the lowest price offer they deem acceptable, using a multiple bounded discrete choice stated preference approach that draws upon and connects two subfields of forestry, one identifying characteristics of landowners important to past harvesting or reforestation decisions, and another...

  8. Potential Ambient Energy-Harvesting Sources and Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, Faruk

    2009-01-01

    Ambient energy harvesting is also known as energy scavenging or power harvesting, and it is the process where energy is obtained from the environment. A variety of techniques are available for energy scavenging, including solar and wind powers, ocean waves, piezoelectricity, thermoelectricity, and physical motions. For example, some systems…

  9. Energy harvesting for human wearable and implantable bio-sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitcheson, Paul D

    2010-01-01

    There are clear trade-offs between functionality, battery lifetime and battery volume for wearable and implantable wireless-biosensors which energy harvesting devices may be able to overcome. Reliable energy harvesting has now become a reality for machine condition monitoring and is finding applications in chemical process plants, refineries and water treatment works. However, practical miniature devices that can harvest sufficient energy from the human body to power a wireless bio-sensor are still in their infancy. This paper reviews the options for human energy harvesting in order to determine power availability for harvester-powered body sensor networks. The main competing technologies for energy harvesting from the human body are inertial kinetic energy harvesting devices and thermoelectric devices. These devices are advantageous to some other types as they can be hermetically sealed. In this paper the fundamental limit to the power output of these devices is compared as a function of generator volume when attached to a human whilst walking and running. It is shown that the kinetic energy devices have the highest fundamental power limits in both cases. However, when a comparison is made between the devices using device effectivenesses figures from previously demonstrated prototypes presented in the literature, the thermal device is competitive with the kinetic energy harvesting device when the subject is running and achieves the highest power density when the subject is walking.

  10. Techno-economic evaluation of microalgae harvesting and dewatering systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fasaei, F.; Bitter, J.H.; Slegers, P.M.; Boxtel, van A.J.B.

    2018-01-01

    Microalgal biomass is processed into products by two main process steps: 1) harvesting and dewatering; and 2) extraction, fractionation and conversion. The performance of unit operations for harvesting and dewatering is often expressed in qualitative terms, like “high energy consumption” and “low in

  11. Toward sustainable harvesting of Africa's largest medicinal plant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Global demand for treating prostate disorders with Prunus africana bark extract has made P. africana Africa's largest medicinal plant export. Unsustainable harvesting practices can lead to local extirpations of this multipurpose tree. Survey research targeting P. africana harvesters in a Tanzania forest reserve revealed that ...

  12. Optimal Spatial Harvesting Strategy and Symmetry-Breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurata, Kazuhiro; Shi Junping

    2008-01-01

    A reaction-diffusion model with logistic growth and constant effort harvesting is considered. By minimizing an intrinsic biological energy function, we obtain an optimal spatial harvesting strategy which will benefit the population the most. The symmetry properties of the optimal strategy are also discussed, and related symmetry preserving and symmetry breaking phenomena are shown with several typical examples of habitats

  13. Harvesting microalgae by bio-flocculation and autoflocculation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salim, S.

    2013-01-01

    Harvesting in commercial microalgae production plants is generally done by centrifugation, but this requires upto about 50% of the total energy gained from the microalgae. The energy needed for harvesting can be reduced considerably by pre-concentration of the microalgae prior to further dewatering.

  14. Combining Post-Harvest Fish Value Chain and Social Change ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    , they are not achieving their full potential in Africa. This project will examine interventions to reduce poverty and to improve food and nutrition security using post-harvest innovations in the fish value chain. Post-harvest handling in Zambia and ...

  15. Antagonistic properties of Trichoderma viride on post harvest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effective in vitro screening tests of Trichoderma viride for antagonism against post harvest pathogens of cassava roots (Manihot esculenta Crantz) rot together with its competitive and mycoparasitic abilities informs its selection as the most promising candidate for the biocontrol of post harvest cassava root rot pathogens.

  16. Harvest choice and timber supply models for forest forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksym Polyakov; David N Wear

    2010-01-01

    Timber supply has traditionally been modeled using aggregate data, whereas individual harvest choices have been shown to be sensitive to the vintage and condition of forest capital stocks. In this article, we build aggregate supply models for four roundwood products in a seven-state region of the US South directly from stand-level harvest choice models applied to...

  17. Adaptive Multipath Key Reinforcement for Energy Harvesting Wireless Sensor Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Mauro, Alessio; Dragoni, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    Energy Harvesting - Wireless Sensor Networks (EH-WSNs) constitute systems of networked sensing nodes that are capable of extracting energy from the environment and that use the harvested energy to operate in a sustainable state. Sustainability, seen as design goal, has a significant impact...

  18. OPERATIONALANALYSIS OF MECHANICAL CUT-TO-LENGTH FOREST HARVESTING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilton Cesar Fiedler

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this research was to conduct an operational analysis of forest harvesting activities in a mechanized of the system cut to length in eucalypt plantations in south of Bahia, to determine the distribution of operation times, productivity, operational efficiency and mechanical availability of two models of harvester and two models of forwarder, evaluating these machines in three modules harvesting methodology through time and motion studies. Auxiliary activities corresponded to the lowest percentages within the operating times (mean 1.9% to 1.8% for harvester and forwarder, already operating activities were those that had the highest percentages. The first shift was presented the worst results of operations for the harvester (average 66.3% and the third shift for the forwarder (55.5%. For the harvester module 1 showed the best result of productive times (average 70.36%. In relation to the forwarder, this same module showed the worst results with unproductive times (average of 22.17%. The availability and mechanical parameters were superior productivity for the forwarder (mean 82.31% and 51.33 m3/h, respectively, as indicators of degree of utilization and operational efficiency were higher in harvester (average 85.01% and 66.41%, respectively. Thus, for the forwarder, the parameters mechanical availability and productivity were higher, while for the harvester, they were the indicators of degree of utilization and operational efficiency

  19. Timber harvest as the predominant disturbance regime in northeastern U.S. forests: Effects of harvest intensification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Michelle L.; Canham, Charles D.; Murphy, Lora; Donovan, Therese M.

    2018-01-01

    Harvesting is the leading cause of adult tree mortality in forests of the northeastern United States. While current rates of timber harvest are generally sustainable, there is considerable pressure to increase the contribution of forest biomass to meet renewable energy goals. We estimated current harvest regimes for different forest types and regions across the U.S. states of New York, Vermont, New Hampshire, and Maine using data from the U.S. Forest Inventory and Analysis Program. We implemented the harvest regimes in SORTIE‐ND, an individual‐based model of forest dynamics, and simulated the effects of current harvest regimes and five additional harvest scenarios that varied by harvest frequency and intensity over 150 yr. The best statistical model for the harvest regime described the annual probability of harvest as a function of forest type/region, total plot basal area, and distance to the nearest improved road. Forests were predicted to increase in adult aboveground biomass in all harvest scenarios in all forest type and region combinations. The magnitude of the increase, however, varied dramatically—increasing from 3% to 120% above current landscape averages as harvest frequency and intensity decreased. The variation can be largely explained by the disproportionately high harvest rates estimated for Maine as compared with the rest of the region. Despite steady biomass accumulation across the landscape, stands that exhibited old‐growth characteristics (defined as ≥300 metric tons of biomass/hectare) were rare (8% or less of stands). Intensified harvest regimes had little effect on species composition due to widespread partial harvesting in all scenarios, resulting in dominance by late‐successional species over time. Our analyses indicate that forest biomass can represent a sustainable, if small, component of renewable energy portfolios in the region, although there are tradeoffs between carbon sequestration in forest biomass and sustainable

  20. Genetic parameters for uniformity of harvest weight and body size traits in the GIFT strain of Nile tilapia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marjanovic, Jovana; Mulder, Han A; Khaw, Hooi L; Bijma, Piter

    2016-06-10

    Animal breeding programs have been very successful in improving the mean levels of traits through selection. However, in recent decades, reducing the variability of trait levels between individuals has become a highly desirable objective. Reaching this objective through genetic selection requires that there is genetic variation in the variability of trait levels, a phenomenon known as genetic heterogeneity of environmental (residual) variance. The aim of our study was to investigate the potential for genetic improvement of uniformity of harvest weight and body size traits (length, depth, and width) in the genetically improved farmed tilapia (GIFT) strain. In order to quantify the genetic variation in uniformity of traits and estimate the genetic correlations between level and variance of the traits, double hierarchical generalized linear models were applied to individual trait values. Our results showed substantial genetic variation in uniformity of all analyzed traits, with genetic coefficients of variation for residual variance ranging from 39 to 58 %. Genetic correlation between trait level and variance was strongly positive for harvest weight (0.60 ± 0.09), moderate and positive for body depth (0.37 ± 0.13), but not significantly different from 0 for body length and width. Our results on the genetic variation in uniformity of harvest weight and body size traits show good prospects for the genetic improvement of uniformity in the GIFT strain. A high and positive genetic correlation was estimated between level and variance of harvest weight, which suggests that selection for heavier fish will also result in more variation in harvest weight. Simultaneous improvement of harvest weight and its uniformity will thus require index selection.

  1. A new piezoelectric energy harvesting design concept: multimodal energy harvesting skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soobum; Youn, Byeng D

    2011-03-01

    This paper presents an advanced design concept for a piezoelectric energy harvesting (EH), referred to as multimodal EH skin. This EH design facilitates the use of multimodal vibration and enhances power harvesting efficiency. The multimodal EH skin is an extension of our previous work, EH skin, which was an innovative design paradigm for a piezoelectric energy harvester: a vibrating skin structure and an additional thin piezoelectric layer in one device. A computational (finite element) model of the multilayered assembly - the vibrating skin structure and piezoelectric layer - is constructed and the optimal topology and/or shape of the piezoelectric layer is found for maximum power generation from multiple vibration modes. A design rationale for the multimodal EH skin was proposed: designing a piezoelectric material distribution and external resistors. In the material design step, the piezoelectric material is segmented by inflection lines from multiple vibration modes of interests to minimize voltage cancellation. The inflection lines are detected using the voltage phase. In the external resistor design step, the resistor values are found for each segment to maximize power output. The presented design concept, which can be applied to any engineering system with multimodal harmonic-vibrating skins, was applied to two case studies: an aircraft skin and a power transformer panel. The excellent performance of multimodal EH skin was demonstrated, showing larger power generation than EH skin without segmentation or unimodal EH skin.

  2. Analytical model for nonlinear piezoelectric energy harvesting devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neiss, S; Goldschmidtboeing, F; M Kroener; Woias, P

    2014-01-01

    In this work we propose analytical expressions for the jump-up and jump-down point of a nonlinear piezoelectric energy harvester. In addition, analytical expressions for the maximum power output at optimal resistive load and the 3 dB-bandwidth are derived. So far, only numerical models have been used to describe the physics of a piezoelectric energy harvester. However, this approach is not suitable to quickly evaluate different geometrical designs or piezoelectric materials in the harvester design process. In addition, the analytical expressions could be used to predict the jump-frequencies of a harvester during operation. In combination with a tuning mechanism, this would allow the design of an efficient control algorithm to ensure that the harvester is always working on the oscillator's high energy attractor. (paper)

  3. Harvester development for new high yielding SRC crops and markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulson, Mark

    2005-07-01

    This report describes the development of harvesting equipment for short rotation cultivation (SRC) crops produced in the UK that can produce fuel to a required specification in a single pass at a cost that is profitable for the grower while minimising the cost of the product. Details are given of the manufacture and installation of new components for large crop harvesting, and production of fuel suitable for co-firing in a coal combustion system using pulverised fuel and fuel suitable for gasification. The development of the drive chain to cope with the higher yielding crops, field tests on SRC crops, and determination of the most economic harvesting system are discussed along with the remanufacture of the chipping drum, and production of market chip samples. Harvesting guidance and an economic analysis of harvesting systems are presented.

  4. The role of the Business Environment in Harvesting Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deidré van Rooyen

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Harvesting is made up of many different strategies that can be used by entrepreneurs to exit their business. This is a long-term ambition to create real value to the business. In Beaufort West, a uranium mining development is going to take place and thus create opportunities for existing and new businesses. This study investigates how the changing business environment will influence this harvesting choice made by the entrepreneur. Recommendations indicate that entrepreneurs need more information and training regarding the specific harvesting concept and strategies that are available, because no specific harvesting strategy was noted as important by the entrepreneurial respondents. Keywords and phrases: business environment; harvesting; exit; business; entrepreneur; uranium

  5. Effects of Proof Mass Geometry on Piezoelectric Vibration Energy Harvesters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Hafiz Alameh

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Piezoelectric energy harvesters have proven to have the potential to be a power source in a wide range of applications. As the harvester dimensions scale down, the resonance frequencies of these devices increase drastically. Proof masses are essential in micro-scale devices in order to decrease the resonance frequency and increase the strain along the beam to increase the output power. In this work, the effects of proof mass geometry on piezoelectric energy harvesters are studied. Different geometrical dimension ratios have significant impact on the resonance frequency, e.g., beam to mass lengths, and beam to mass widths. A piezoelectric energy harvester has been fabricated and tested operating at a frequency of about 4 kHz within the audible range. The responses of various prototypes were studied, and an optimized T-shaped piezoelectric vibration energy harvester design is presented for improved performance.

  6. The consequences of balanced harvesting of fish communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Nis Sand; Gislason, Henrik; Andersen, Ken Haste

    2014-01-01

    community structure and yield. We use a size- and trait-based model that resolves individual interactions through competition and predation to compare balanced harvesting with traditional selective harvesting, which protects juvenile fish from fishing. Four different exploitation patterns, generated......Balanced harvesting, where species or individuals are exploited in accordance with their productivity, has been proposed as a way to minimize the effects of fishing on marine fish communities and ecosystems. This calls for a thorough examination of the consequences balanced harvesting has on fish...... by combining selective or unselective harvesting with balanced or unbalanced fishing, are compared. We find that unselective balanced fishing, where individuals are exploited in proportion to their productivity, produces a slightly larger total maximum sustainable yield than the other exploitation patterns and...

  7. Survival models for harvest management of mourning dove populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otis, D.L.

    2002-01-01

    Quantitative models of the relationship between annual survival and harvest rate of migratory game-bird populations are essential to science-based harvest management strategies. I used the best available band-recovery and harvest data for mourning doves (Zenaida macroura) to build a set of models based on different assumptions about compensatory harvest mortality. Although these models suffer from lack of contemporary data, they can be used in development of an initial set of population models that synthesize existing demographic data on a management-unit scale, and serve as a tool for prioritization of population demographic information needs. Credible harvest management plans for mourning dove populations will require a long-term commitment to population monitoring and iterative population analysis.

  8. Nano/microscale pyroelectric energy harvesting: challenges and opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devashish Lingam

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available With the ever-growing demand for renewable energy sources, energy harvesting from natural resources has gained much attention. Energy sources such as heat and mechanical motion could be easily harvested based on pyroelectric, thermoelectric, and piezoelectric effects. The energy harvested from otherwise wasted energy in the environment can be utilized in self-powered micro and nano devices, and wearable electronics, which required only µW–mW power. This article reviews pyroelectric energy harvesting with an emphasis on recent developments in pyroelectric energy harvesting and devices at micro/nanoscale. Recent developments are presented and future challenges and opportunities for more efficient materials and devices with higher energy conversion efficiency are also discussed.

  9. MEMS-based thick film PZT vibrational energy harvester

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lei, Anders; Xu, Ruichao; Thyssen, Anders

    2011-01-01

    We present a MEMS-based unimorph silicon/PZT thick film vibrational energy harvester with an integrated proof mass. We have developed a process that allows fabrication of high performance silicon based energy harvesters with a yield higher than 90%. The process comprises a KOH etch using a mechan......We present a MEMS-based unimorph silicon/PZT thick film vibrational energy harvester with an integrated proof mass. We have developed a process that allows fabrication of high performance silicon based energy harvesters with a yield higher than 90%. The process comprises a KOH etch using...... a mechanical front side protection of an SOI wafer with screen printed PZT thick film. The fabricated harvester device produces 14.0 μW with an optimal resistive load of 100 kΩ from 1g (g=9.81 m s-2) input acceleration at its resonant frequency of 235 Hz....

  10. A Novel Ropes-DrivenWideband Piezoelectric Vibration Energy Harvester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinhui Zhang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel piezoelectric vibration energy harvester (PVEH in which a high-frequency generating beam (HFGB is driven by an array of low-frequency driving beams (LFDBs using ropes. Two mechanisms based on frequency upconversion and multimodal harvesting work together to broaden the frequency bandwidth of the proposed vibration energy harvester (VEH. The experimental results show that the output power of generating beam (GB remains unchanged with the increasing number of driving beams (DBs, compared with the traditional arrays of beams vibration energy harvester (AB-VEH, and the output power and bandwidth behavior can be adjusted by parameters such as acceleration, rope margin, and stiffness of LFDBs, which shows the potential to achieve unlimited wideband vibration energy-harvesting for a variable environment.

  11. Harvester development for new high yielding SRC crops and markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paulson, Mark

    2005-01-01

    This report describes the development of harvesting equipment for short rotation cultivation (SRC) crops produced in the UK that can produce fuel to a required specification in a single pass at a cost that is profitable for the grower while minimising the cost of the product. Details are given of the manufacture and installation of new components for large crop harvesting, and production of fuel suitable for co-firing in a coal combustion system using pulverised fuel and fuel suitable for gasification. The development of the drive chain to cope with the higher yielding crops, field tests on SRC crops, and determination of the most economic harvesting system are discussed along with the remanufacture of the chipping drum, and production of market chip samples. Harvesting guidance and an economic analysis of harvesting systems are presented

  12. A new supersymmetric index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cecotti, S.; Fendley, P.; Intriligator, K.; Vafa, C.

    1992-01-01

    We show that Tr(-1) F F e -βH is an index for N = 2 supersymmetric theories in two dimensions, in the sense that it is independent of almost all deformations of the theory. This index is related to the geometry of the vacua (Berry's curvature) and satisfies an exact differential equation as a function of β. For integrable theories we can also compute the index thermodynamically, using the exact S-matrix. The equivalence of these two results implies a highly non-trivial equivalence of a set of coupled integral equations with these differential equations, among them Painleve III and the affine Toda equations. (orig.)

  13. Shorter Harvest Cycles Counteract Increasing Annual Productivity in Industrial Plantation Forests: Trends from Three Decades of Remote Sensing in Southeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, D.; Jackson, R. B.

    2017-12-01

    Plantation forestry can produce woody biomass many times faster than native vegetation, particularly in the tropical regions where plantations have expanded rapidly in the past three decades. However, activists and practitioners have raised concerns over the sustainability of intensive plantations, suggesting that changes to soil properties may inhibit vegetation growth after multiple harvest cycles. We use a 32-year time series of remotely sensed vegetation indices derived from Landsat data, coupled with recent geospatial and wood volume data from plantation companies, to identify trends in management and vegetation productivity in thousands of individual eucalyptus plantation stands. We find that peak vegetation index values at canopy closure, which are correlated with annual wood volume increment, increase over successive harvest cycles, while the length of each cycle decreases. These opposing trends suggest that the number of harvests required to produce a given wood volume peaks around the second harvest cycle and then declines, likely due to refinement of management practices. Across the region, vegetation index data do not support the hypothesized decrease in productivity over multiple harvest cycles. Additional field data and ongoing soil analyses will complement the remote sensing approach to quantifying plantations' long-term effects on the land they occupy.

  14. Learning and adaptation in the management of waterfowl harvests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Fred A.

    2011-01-01

    A formal framework for the adaptive management of waterfowl harvests was adopted by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service in 1995. The process admits competing models of waterfowl population dynamics and harvest impacts, and relies on model averaging to compute optimal strategies for regulating harvest. Model weights, reflecting the relative ability of the alternative models to predict changes in population size, are used in the model averaging and are updated each year based on a comparison of model predictions and observations of population size. Since its inception the adaptive harvest program has focused principally on mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), which constitute a large portion of the U.S. waterfowl harvest. Four competing models, derived from a combination of two survival and two reproductive hypotheses, were originally assigned equal weights. In the last year of available information (2007), model weights favored the weakly density-dependent reproductive hypothesis over the strongly density-dependent one, and the additive mortality hypothesis over the compensatory one. The change in model weights led to a more conservative harvesting policy than what was in effect in the early years of the program. Adaptive harvest management has been successful in many ways, but nonetheless has exposed the difficulties in defining management objectives, in predicting and regulating harvests, and in coping with the tradeoffs inherent in managing multiple waterfowl stocks exposed to a common harvest. The key challenge now facing managers is whether adaptive harvest management as an institution can be sufficiently adaptive, and whether the knowledge and experience gained from the process can be reflected in higher-level policy decisions.

  15. The case for energy harvesting on wildlife in flight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafer, Michael W; MacCurdy, Robert; Garcia, Ephrahim; Shipley, J Ryan; Winkler, David; Guglielmo, Christopher G

    2015-01-01

    The confluence of advancements in microelectronic components and vibrational energy harvesting has opened the possibility of remote sensor units powered solely from the motion of their hosts. There are numerous applications of such systems, including the development of modern wildlife tracking/data-logging devices. These ‘bio-logging’ devices are typically mass-constrained because they must be carried by an animal. Thus, they have historically traded scientific capability for operational longevity due to restrictions on battery size. Recently, the precipitous decrease in the power requirements of microelectronics has been accompanied by advancements in the area of piezoelectric vibrational energy harvesting. These energy harvesting devices are now capable of powering the type of microelectronic circuits used in bio-logging devices. In this paper we consider the feasibility of employing these vibrational energy harvesters on flying vertebrates for the purpose of powering a bio-logging device. We show that the excess energy available from birds and bats could be harvested without adversely affecting their overall energy budget. We then present acceleration measurements taken on flying birds in a flight tunnel to understand modulation of flapping frequency during steady flight. Finally, we use a recently developed method of estimating the maximum power output from a piezoelectric energy harvester to determine the amount of power that could be practically harvested from a flying bird. The results of this analysis show that the average power output of a piezoelectric energy harvester mounted to a bird or bat could produce more than enough power to run a bio-logging device. We compare the power harvesting capabilities to the energy requirements of an example system and conclude that vibrational energy harvesting on flying birds and bats is viable and warrants further study, including testing. (paper)

  16. Thermodynamic measurement and analysis of dual-temperature thermoacoustic oscillations for energy harvesting application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Dan; Ji, Chenzhen; Li, Shihuai; Li, Junwei

    2014-01-01

    The present work considers energy harvesting by implementing both thermo- and piezo-electric power generation modules on a bifurcating tube, which produces dual-temperature thermoacoustic oscillations. The present system distinguished from the conventional standing-wave one does not involve heat exchangers and uses two different energy conversion processes to produce electricity. To measure and analyze the sound waves generated, an infrared thermal imaging camera, hot wire anemometry, and two arrays of K-type thermocouples and microphones are employed. It is found that the total electric power is approximately 5.71 mW, of which the piezo module produces about 0.21 mW. It is about 61% more than that generated by a similar conduction-driven thermo-acoustic-piezo harvester. In order to gain insight on the heat-driven acoustic oscillations and to simulate the experiment, thermodynamic laws are used to develop a nonlinear thermoacoustic model. Comparison is then made between the numerical and experimental results. Good agreement is obtained in terms of frequency and sound pressure level. Finally, Rayleigh index is examined to characterize the conversion between thermal and sound energy. In addition, energy redistribution between different thermoacoustic modes is estimated. It is found that lower frequency thermoacoustic oscillations are easier to trigger. - Highlights: • Energy harvesting from thermo- and piezo-electric diaphragms is obtained. • Total electrical power is approximately 5.71 mW. • Thermodynamic analysis of heat-driven oscillations is performed. • Rayleigh index characterizing heat-to-sound conversion is estimated. • Energy redistribution between various eigenmodes is calculated

  17. Indexes to Volume 75

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SUBJECT INDEX. Mathematical .... A 10-Hz terawatt class Ti:sapphire laser system: Development and ... Indigenous development of a 2 kW RF-excited fast axial flow CO2 .... Polarized spectral features of human breast tissues through wavelet.

  18. Glycemic index and diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Most snack foods Potatoes White rice Watermelon Meal Planning with the Glycemic Index When planning your meals: ... urac.org). URAC's accreditation program is an independent audit to verify that A.D.A.M. follows ...

  19. TOMS Absorbing Aerosol Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Washington University St Louis — TOMS_AI_G is an aerosol related dataset derived from the Total Ozone Monitoring Satellite (TOMS) Sensor. The TOMS aerosol index arises from absorbing aerosols such...

  20. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 51 - 100 of 1034 ... Vol 49, No 2 (2007), African Index Medicus: Improving access to African ... insulin therapy initiation among patients with type 2 diabetes attending a ... Risk Factors Implicated in Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA), Abstract PDF.

  1. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 194 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index ... Vol 14, No 1 (2000), A functional categoriality of adjectives in ... Vol 1, No 1 (1987), Alienation and affirmation: The humanistic vision of Bessie Head, Abstract PDF.

  2. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 151 - 200 of 879 ... South African Journal of Higher Education. ... Browse Title Index ... in a USA school setting: Merging transition theory with a narrative approach, Abstract ... Citation analysis of theses and dissertations submitted at the ...

  3. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 601 - 650 of 879 ... South African Journal of Higher Education. ... Browse Title Index .... The challenge of thesis supervision in an art university, Abstract ... No 2 (2004), Robert Sternberg's mental self-government theory and its contribution to ...

  4. Palmer Drought Severity Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — PDSI from the Dai dataset. The Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) is devised by Palmer (1965) to represent the severity of dry and wet spells over the U.S. based...

  5. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 51 - 100 of 346 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index ... and hygiene promotion services in Rungwe district, Tanzania, Abstract .... as seen in NIgerian teaching hospital: pattern and a simple classification, Abstract.

  6. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 151 - 200 of 437 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index ... prospects and realistic strategies to its implementation in Nigeria\\'s Institute of ... and Communication Technology (ICT) in information dissemination, Abstract.

  7. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 901 - 950 of 1355 ... Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management. ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index .... Vol 22, No 2 (2018), Performance evaluation of a locally fabricated sawdust fired oven for ...

  8. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 301 - 350 of 788 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index ... Vol 26, No 1 (2018), Gender differentials in the perception of .... Vol 25, No 1 (2017), Impact of total quality management on students' academic performance in ...

  9. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 101 - 150 of 465 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index ... and twinning data of an igbo kindred during the Nigerian Civil War, Abstract ... on laboratory estimations with special reference to clinical chemistry, Abstract.

  10. National Death Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Death Index (NDI) is a centralized database of death record information on file in state vital statistics offices. Working with these state offices, the...

  11. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 251 - 300 of 1260 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index ... Consumption of ammonia-nitrogen by aob in immobilized batch culture, Abstract PDF .... Vol 9, No 3S (2017): Special Issue, Design an automatic temperature ...

  12. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 101 - 150 of 294 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index. Log in or .... S Edwards, M Hlongwane, J Thwala, N Robinson ... Vol 16, No 1 (2017), Infancy of internet cafe: The substitute of ubuntu-padare pedagogy, Abstract.

  13. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 130 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index. Log in or ... using the technological pedagogical content knowledge(TPACK) framework, Abstract PDF ... Tamara N. Hrin, Dušica D. Milenković, Mirjana D. Segedinac.

  14. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 101 - 150 of 278 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index ... drie paradigmas beskou: 'n eenheid, of 'n veelheid van perspektiewe? ... Vol 45, No 1 (2011), Genre pedagogy in the mediation of socially-situated literacies ...

  15. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 551 - 600 of 879 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index ... A James, E Ralfe, L van Laren, N Ngcobo ... 1 (2011), Recognition of prior learning in promoting lifelong learning: A pedagogy of hope or a shattering of dreams?

  16. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 451 - 500 of 533 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index .... for past tense forms in Northern Sotho: verb stems with final 'm' and 'n', Abstract ... in an academic writing class: Implications for a dialogic pedagogy, Abstract.

  17. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 101 - 150 of 183 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index ... Vol 61 (2017), New interventions and sustainable solutions: .... Vol 35 (2011), Resurgence of tribal levies: Double taxation for the rural poor, Abstract PDF.

  18. Regional Snowfall Index (RSI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Climatic Data Center is now producing the Regional Snowfall Index (RSI) for significant snowstorms that impact the eastern two thirds of the U.S. The...

  19. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 736 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index ... Vol 5 (2008), A Contagious Malady: The Human Quest for Truth through Religion, Abstract ... A Study of Politeness Strategies Used by the National University of ...

  20. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 101 - 150 of 414 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index. Log in or ... of an algebraic function for the permutation of truth table columns, Abstract ... appraisal and productivity levels in selected Nigerian universities, Abstract.

  1. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 101 - 150 of 879 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index ... Vol 20, No 4 (2006), Assessing academic potential for university admission: ... Vol 16, No 2 (2002), Book Review: Rethinking truth by Higgs, P & Smith, J, Details.

  2. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 165 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index ... Vol 43 (2011), Assessment of the Learning Commons takeoff at the University of ... the archive of South Africa's Truth and Reconciliation Commission, Abstract.

  3. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 644 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index. Log in or ... Ethics review n international health research: quality assurance or bureaucratic nightmare? Details ... Audit of Management of Open Fractures, Details PDF.

  4. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 449 ... Vol 1, No 3 (2012), Adult Functional Literacy Curriculum: Effective Strategy for Human ... and Exchange Rate Influence on the Nigerian Stock Market Index ... for the Stimulation and Attraction of Foreign Direct Investments ...

  5. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 98 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index ... model for the continued professionalisation of student affairs in Africa, Abstract PDF ... Vol 2, No 2 (2014), Book Review: How College Affects Students, A Third decade ...

  6. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 76 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index ... Vol 4, No 1 (2011), Automation of AutoCAD for Detailing of Reinforced .... Vol 10, No 1 (2017), Housing data base for sustainable housing provision, Abstract PDF.

  7. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 147 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index .... Library (TEEAL) Database among faculty members in Federal University, ... Vol 5, No 2 (2014), Effects of corporate culture on the implementation of automation in ...

  8. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 851 - 900 of 1255 ... Vol 16, No 4 (2010), Origin and generation mechanisms of ... Vol 13, No 4 (2007), Osmotic fragility index of HBAA red blood cells in the presence of ... (2004), Photovoltaic cells, efficiency and optimization, Abstract PDF.

  9. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 401 - 450 of 985 ... Vol 17 (2010), Flood Frequency Analysis of Ikpoba River ... and the corresponding Refractive Index in Uniaxial Crystals, Abstract ... Vol 8 (2004), Further on stokes expansions for the finite amplitude water waves, Abstract.

  10. Transportation Services Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The TSI is a monthly measure of the volume of services performed by the for-hire transportation sector. The index covers the activities of for-hire freight carriers,...

  11. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 201 - 250 of 531 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index ... thermal conductivity and viscosity in a flat plate solar collector, Abstract PDF .... similarity method in unsteady two-dimensional MHD boundary layer on the body ...

  12. Lattice Index Coding

    OpenAIRE

    Natarajan, Lakshmi; Hong, Yi; Viterbo, Emanuele

    2014-01-01

    The index coding problem involves a sender with K messages to be transmitted across a broadcast channel, and a set of receivers each of which demands a subset of the K messages while having prior knowledge of a different subset as side information. We consider the specific case of noisy index coding where the broadcast channel is Gaussian and every receiver demands all the messages from the source. Instances of this communication problem arise in wireless relay networks, sensor networks, and ...

  13. 75 FR 1597 - Western Pacific Crustacean Fisheries; 2010 Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Lobster Harvest Guideline

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-12

    ... Pacific Crustacean Fisheries; 2010 Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Lobster Harvest Guideline AGENCY.... ACTION: Notification of lobster harvest guideline. SUMMARY: NMFS announces that the annual harvest guideline for the commercial lobster fishery in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) for calendar year...

  14. The Effect of Plant Cultivar, Growth Media, Harvest Method and Post Harvest Treatment on the Microbiology of Edible Crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummerick, Mary P.; Gates, Justin R.; Nguyen, Bao-Thang; Massa, Gioia D.; Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2011-01-01

    Systems for the growth of crops in closed environments are being developed and tested for potential use in space applications to provide a source of fresh food. Plant growth conditions, growth media composition and harvest methods can have an effect on the microbial population of the plant, and therefore should be considered along with the optimization of plant growth and harvest yields to ensure a safe and palatable food crop. This work examines the effect of plant cultivar, growth media, and harvest method on plant microbial populations. Twelve varieties of leafy greens and herbs were grown on a mixture of Fafard #2 and Arcillite in the pillow root containment system currently being considered for the VEGGIE plant growth unit developed by Orbitec. In addition, ,Sierra and Outredgeous lettuce varieties were grown in three different mixtures (Fafard #2, Ardllite, and Perlite/Vermiculite). The plants were analyzed for microbial density. Two harvest methods, "cut and come again" (CACA) and terminal harvest were also compared. In one set ofexpe'riments red leaf lettuce and mizuna were grown in pots in a Biomass Production System for education. Plants were harvested every two weeks by either method. Another set of experiments was performed using the rooting pillows to grow 5 varieties of leafy greens and cut harvesting at different intervals. Radishes were harvested and replanted at two-week intervals. Results indicate up to a 3 IOglO difference in microbial counts between some varieties of plants. Rooting medium resulted in an approximately 2 IOglO lower count in the lettuce grown in arscillite then those grown in the other mixtures. Harvest method and frequency had less impact on microbial counts only showing a significant increase in one variety of plant. Post harvest methods to decrease the bacterial counts on edible crops were investigated in these and other experiments. The effectiveness of PRO-SAN and UV-C radiation is compared.

  15. Performance of a piezoelectric energy harvester in actual rain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, Voon-Kean; Ho, Jee-Hou; Chai, Ai-Bao

    2017-01-01

    When raindrops impact on the surface of a piezoelectric beam, strain energy produced by the impinging raindrop will be converted to harvestable electrical energy by the piezoelectric layers in a cantilever beam. The novelty of this study is to investigate the performance of the harvester in actual rain and provide practical insights on implementation. The influences of rain parameters such as rain rate, rainfall depth, raindrop count, and drop size distribution (DSD) are discussed in this study. The raindrops accumulated on the surface of the piezoelectric beam will form a water layer. It is described using added mass coefficient in this study. In an actual rain experiment, a piezoelectric beam with surface area of 0.0018 m 2 is able to produce 2076 μJ of energy over a duration of 301 min. The energy generation of a raindrop impact piezoelectric energy harvester is highly dependent on the rain rate. Due to the inconsistency of the energy generation, the piezoelectric energy harvester would require an integration of suitable energy storage device for continuous operation. Nevertheless, this work shows the feasibility of harvesting raindrop energy using a piezoelectric beam. - Highlights: • The performance of a piezoelectric rain energy harvester is tested in actual rain. • The energy generation is highly dependent on the rain rate. • Practical insights on the implementation of the harvester are discussed. • A total energy of 2076 μJ is generated over a duration of 301 min.

  16. Combined Euler column vibration isolation and energy harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, R. B.; McDowell, M. D.

    2017-05-01

    A new device that combines vibration isolation and energy harvesting is modeled, simulated, and tested. The vibration isolating portion of the device uses post-buckled beams as its spring elements. Piezoelectric film is applied to the beams to harvest energy from their dynamic flexure. The entire device operates passively on applied base excitation and requires no external power or control system. The structural system is modeled using the elastica, and the structural response is applied as forcing on the electric circuit equation to predict the output voltage and the corresponding harvested power. The vibration isolation and energy harvesting performance is simulated across a large parameter space and the modeling approach is validated with experimental results. Experimental transmissibilities of 2% and harvested power levels of 0.36 μW are simultaneously demonstrated. Both theoretical and experimental data suggest that there is not necessarily a trade-off between vibration isolation and harvested power. That is, within the practical operational range of the device, improved vibration isolation will be accompanied by an increase in the harvested power as the forcing frequency is increased.

  17. Forest soil carbon is threatened by intensive biomass harvesting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achat, David L; Fortin, Mathieu; Landmann, Guy; Ringeval, Bruno; Augusto, Laurent

    2015-11-04

    Forests play a key role in the carbon cycle as they store huge quantities of organic carbon, most of which is stored in soils, with a smaller part being held in vegetation. While the carbon storage capacity of forests is influenced by forestry, the long-term impacts of forest managers' decisions on soil organic carbon (SOC) remain unclear. Using a meta-analysis approach, we showed that conventional biomass harvests preserved the SOC of forests, unlike intensive harvests where logging residues were harvested to produce fuelwood. Conventional harvests caused a decrease in carbon storage in the forest floor, but when the whole soil profile was taken into account, we found that this loss in the forest floor was compensated by an accumulation of SOC in deeper soil layers. Conversely, we found that intensive harvests led to SOC losses in all layers of forest soils. We assessed the potential impact of intensive harvests on the carbon budget, focusing on managed European forests. Estimated carbon losses from forest soils suggested that intensive biomass harvests could constitute an important source of carbon transfer from forests to the atmosphere (142-497 Tg-C), partly neutralizing the role of a carbon sink played by forest soils.

  18. Factors influencing reporting and harvest probabilities in North American geese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, G.S.; Moser, T.J.; Kendall, W.L.; Doherty, P.F.; White, Gary C.; Caswell, D.F.

    2009-01-01

    We assessed variation in reporting probabilities of standard bands among species, populations, harvest locations, and size classes of North American geese to enable estimation of unbiased harvest probabilities. We included reward (US10,20,30,50, or100) and control (0) banded geese from 16 recognized goose populations of 4 species: Canada (Branta canadensis), cackling (B. hutchinsii), Ross's (Chen rossii), and snow geese (C. caerulescens). We incorporated spatially explicit direct recoveries and live recaptures into a multinomial model to estimate reporting, harvest, and band-retention probabilities. We compared various models for estimating harvest probabilities at country (United States vs. Canada), flyway (5 administrative regions), and harvest area (i.e., flyways divided into northern and southern sections) scales. Mean reporting probability of standard bands was 0.73 (95 CI 0.690.77). Point estimates of reporting probabilities for goose populations or spatial units varied from 0.52 to 0.93, but confidence intervals for individual estimates overlapped and model selection indicated that models with species, population, or spatial effects were less parsimonious than those without these effects. Our estimates were similar to recently reported estimates for mallards (Anas platyrhynchos). We provide current harvest probability estimates for these populations using our direct measures of reporting probability, improving the accuracy of previous estimates obtained from recovery probabilities alone. Goose managers and researchers throughout North America can use our reporting probabilities to correct recovery probabilities estimated from standard banding operations for deriving spatially explicit harvest probabilities.

  19. Energy Harvesting from Aerodynamic Instabilities: Current prospect and Future Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashir, M.; Rajendran, P.; Khan, S. A.

    2018-01-01

    This paper evaluates the layout and advancement of energy harvesting based on aerodynamic instabilities of an aircraft. Vibration and thermoelectric energy harvesters are substantiated as most suitable alternative low-power sources for aerospace applications. Furthermore, the facility associated with the aircraft applications in harvesting the mechanical vibrations and converting it to electric energy has fascinated the researchers. These devices are designed as an alternative to a battery-based solution especially for small aircrafts, wireless structural health monitoring for aircraft systems, and harvester plates employed in UAVs to enhance the endurance and operational flight missions. We will emphasize on various sources of energy harvesting that are designed to come from aerodynamic flow-induced vibrations, specific attention is then given at those technologies that may offer, today or in the near future, a potential benefit to reduce both the cost and emissions of the aviation industry. The advancements achieved in the energy harvesting based on aerodynamic instabilities show very good scope for many piezoelectric harvesters in the field of aerospace, specifically green aviation technology in the future.

  20. PROTOCOL FOR HARVESTING ‘BRS PRINCESS’ BANANA FRUITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUIZ FERNANDO GANASSALI DE OLIVEIRA JUNIOR

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to develop a protocol to determine the ideal harvest time for ‘BRS Princess’ banana, using the number of aborted bracts. The bananas were selected according to the number of aborted bracts since the flowering until the time of harvest, yield clusters with 90, 95, 100 and 105 aborted bracts. The physical and chemical analyzes were performed every 3 days on fruits: soluble solids, titratable acidity, weight loss, length and diameter, pH, firmness, skin color (CIELab and pectin enzyme activity. The statistical design was completely randomized in a 4x5 factorial, with 4 points and 5 periods of harvest analysis and data were evaluated using analysis of variance and regression. For all parameters, fruits harvested at 90 and 105 aborted bracts had unwanted changes in its metabolism when compared to the other treatments, while fruits harvested at 95 and 100 aborted bracts had the best post-harvest characteristics. This method was effective in determining the point of harvest in ‘BRS Princess’ banana fruits, since it allows to obtain fruit quality after storage, and is a simple and objective method.