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Sample records for hartree-bogoliubov theory static

  1. Time dependent resonating Hartree-Bogoliubov theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishiyama, Seiya; Fukutome, Hideo.

    1989-01-01

    Very recently, we have developed a theory of excitations in superconducting Fermion systems with large quantum fluctuations that can be described by resonance of time dependent non-orthogonal Hartree-Bogoliubov (HB) wave functions with different correlation structures. We have derived a new kind of variation equation called the time dependent Resonating HB equation, in order to determine both the time dependent Resonating HB wave functions and coefficients of a superposition of the HB wave functions. Further we have got a new approximation for excitations from time dependent small fluctuations of the Resonating HB ground state, i.e., the Resonating HB RPA. The Res HB RPA equation is represented in a given single particle basis. It, however, has drawbacks that the constraints for the Res HB RPA amplitudes are not taken into account and the equation contains equations which are not independent. We shall derive another form of the Res HB RPA equation eliminating these drawbacks. The Res HB RPA gives a unified description of the vibrons and resonons and their interactions. (author)

  2. Extreme exotic calcium lambda hypernuclei in the relativistic continuum Hartree-Bogoliubov theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lv Hongfeng

    2008-01-01

    Exotic calcium lambda hypernuclei properties with the neutron number of 20-400 by a step of 20 are discussed by employing the relativistic continuum Hartree-Bogoliubov theory with a zero range pairing interaction. The Bethe-Weizsaecker mass formula of a multi-strange system and the Woods-Saxon-type potential of lambda need to be modified for exotic calcium hypernuclei with unusual number of neutrons and lambdas. The possible neutron and lambda limits of exotic Ca lambda hypernuclei are also investigated. (authors)

  3. Cranked relativistic Hartree-Bogoliubov theory: formalism and application to the superdeformed bands in the A∼190 region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afanasjev, A.V.; Ring, P.; Koenig, J.

    2000-01-01

    Cranked relativistic Hartree-Bogoliubov theory without and with approximate particle number projection by means of the Lipkin-Nogami method is presented in detail as an extension of relativistic mean field theory with pairing correlations to the rotating frame. Pairing correlations are taken into account by a finite range two-body force of Gogny type. The applicability of this theory to the description of rotating nuclei is studied in detail on the example of superdeformed bands in even-even nuclei of the A∼190 mass region. Different aspects such as the importance of pairing and particle number projection, the dependence of the results on the parametrization of the RMF Lagrangian and Gogny force, etc., are investigated in detail. It is shown that without any adjustment of new parameters the best description of experimental data is obtained by using the well established parameter sets NL1 for the Lagrangian and D1S for the pairing force. Contrary to previous studies at spin zero it is found that the increase of the strength of the Gogny force is not necessary in the framework of relativistic Hartree-Bogoliubov theory provided that particle number projection is performed

  4. Relativistic Hartree-Bogoliubov description of thorium and uranium isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naz, Tabassum; Ahmad, Shakeb

    2016-01-01

    The relativistic Hartree-Bogoliubov (RHB) theory is a relativistic extension of the Hartree-Fock- Bogoliubov theory. It is a unified description of mean-field and pairing correlations and successfully describe the various phenomenon of nuclear structure. In the present work, RHB is applied to study the thorium and uranium isotopes

  5. Relativistic Hartree-Bogoliubov description of the halo nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, J.; Ring, P. [Universitaet Muenchen, Garching (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    Here the authors report the development of the relativistic Hartree-Bogoliubov theory in coordinate space. Pairing correlations are taken into account by both density dependent force of zero range and finite range Gogny force. As a primary application the relativistic HB theory is used to describe the chain of Lithium isotopes reaching from {sup 6}Li to {sup 11}Li. In contrast to earlier investigations within a relativistic mean field theory and a density dependent Hartree Fock theory, where the halo in {sup 11}Li could only be reproduced by an artificial shift of the 1p{sub 1/2} level close to the continuum limit, the halo is now reproduced in a self-consistent way without further modifications using the scattering of Cooper pairs to the 2s{sub 1/2} level in the continuum. Excellent agreement with recent experimental data is observed.

  6. Temperature effects on nuclear pseudospin symmetry in the Dirac-Hartree-Bogoliubov formalism

    OpenAIRE

    Lisboa, R.; Alberto, P.; Carlson, B. V.; Malheiro, M.

    2017-01-01

    We present finite temperature Dirac-Hartree-Bogoliubov (FTDHB) calculations for the tin isotope chain to study the dependence of pseudospin on the nuclear temperature. In the FTDHB calculation, the density dependence of the self-consistent relativistic mean fields, the pairing, and the vapor phase that takes into account the unbound nucleon states are considered self-consistently. The mean field potentials obtained in the FTDHB calculations are fit by Woods-Saxon (WS) potentials to examine ho...

  7. Possibility of ΛΛ pairing and its dependence on background density in a relativistic Hartree-Bogoliubov model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanigawa, Tomonori; Matsuzaki, Masayuki; Chiba, Satoshi

    2003-01-01

    We calculate a ΛΛ pairing gap in binary mixed matter of nucleons and Λ hyperons within the relativistic Hartree-Bogoliubov model. Λ hyperons to be paired up are immersed in background nucleons in a normal state. The gap is calculated with a one-boson-exchange interaction obtained from a relativistic Lagrangian. It is found that at background density ρ N =2.5ρ 0 the ΛΛ pairing gap is very small, and that a denser background makes it rapidly suppressed. This result suggests a mechanism, specific to mixed matter dealt with relativistic models, of its dependence on the nucleon density. An effect of weaker ΛΛ attraction on the gap is also examined in connection with the revised information of the ΛΛ interaction

  8. Correlation Theory of Static and Dynamic Properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgård, Per-Anker; Yang, D.

    1980-01-01

    A simple and practical Green's function theory, including correlations by the memory function technique, is developed for a general magnetic Hamiltonian yielding the exact results at T → 0 and T → ∞ and giving results for any q, ω and T which are considerably more accurate than obtained by the RPA...

  9. Static solutions with spherical symmetry in f(T) theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Tower

    2011-01-01

    The spherically symmetric static solutions are searched for in some f(T) models of gravity theory with a Maxwell term. To do this, we demonstrate that reconstructing the Lagrangian of f(T) theories is sensitive to the choice of frame, and then we introduce a particular frame based on the conformally Cartesian coordinates. In this particular frame, the existence conditions of various solutions are presented. Our results imply that only a limited class of f(T) models can be solved in this frame. For more general models, the search for spherically symmetric static solutions is still an open and challenging problem, hopefully solvable in other frames.

  10. Cosmological simulations using a static scalar-tensor theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    RodrIguez-Meza, M A [Depto. de Fisica, Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Col. Escandon, Apdo. Postal 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F (Mexico); Gonzalez-Morales, A X [Departamento Ingenierias, Universidad Iberoamericana, Prol. Paseo de la Reforma 880 Lomas de Santa Fe, Mexico D.F. Mexico (Mexico); Gabbasov, R F [Depto. de Fisica, Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Col. Escandon, Apdo. Postal 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F (Mexico); Cervantes-Cota, Jorge L [Depto. de Fisica, Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Col. Escandon, Apdo. Postal 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F (Mexico)

    2007-11-15

    We present {lambda}CDM N-body cosmological simulations in the framework of of a static general scalar-tensor theory of gravity. Due to the influence of the non-minimally coupled scalar field, the gravitational potential is modified by a Yukawa type term, yielding a new structure formation dynamics. We present some preliminary results and, in particular, we compute the density and velocity profiles of the most massive group.

  11. Vacuum static compactified wormholes in eight-dimensional Lovelock theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canfora, Fabrizio; Giacomini, Alex

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, new exact solutions in eight-dimensional Lovelock theory will be presented. These solutions are the vacuum static wormhole, the black hole, and generalized Bertotti-Robinson space-times with nontrivial torsion. All of the solutions have a cross product structure of the type M 5 xΣ 3 , where M 5 is a five-dimensional manifold and Σ 3 a compact constant curvature manifold. The wormhole is the first example of a smooth vacuum static Lovelock wormhole which is neither Chern-Simons nor Born-Infeld. It will be also discussed how the presence of torsion affects the 'navigableness' of the wormhole for scalar and spinning particles. It will be shown that the wormhole with torsion may act as 'geometrical filter': A very large torsion may 'increase the traversability' for scalars while acting as a 'polarizator' on spinning particles. This may have interesting phenomenological consequences.

  12. Can Single-Reference Coupled Cluster Theory Describe Static Correlation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulik, Ireneusz W; Henderson, Thomas M; Scuseria, Gustavo E

    2015-07-14

    While restricted single-reference coupled cluster theory truncated to singles and doubles (CCSD) provides very accurate results for weakly correlated systems, it usually fails in the presence of static or strong correlation. This failure is generally attributed to the qualitative breakdown of the reference, and can accordingly be corrected by using a multideterminant reference, including higher-body cluster operators in the ansatz, or allowing symmetry breaking in the reference. None of these solutions are ideal; multireference coupled cluster is not black box, including higher-body cluster operators is computationally demanding, and allowing symmetry breaking leads to the loss of good quantum numbers. It has long been recognized that quasidegeneracies can instead be treated by modifying the coupled cluster ansatz. The recently introduced pair coupled cluster doubles (pCCD) approach is one such example which avoids catastrophic failures and accurately models strong correlations in a symmetry-adapted framework. Here, we generalize pCCD to a singlet-paired coupled cluster model (CCD0) intermediate between coupled cluster doubles and pCCD, yielding a method that possesses the invariances of the former and much of the stability of the latter. Moreover, CCD0 retains the full structure of coupled cluster theory, including a fermionic wave function, antisymmetric cluster amplitudes, and well-defined response equations and density matrices.

  13. Theory of multisource crosstalk reduction by phase-encoded statics

    KAUST Repository

    Schuster, Gerard T.

    2011-03-01

    Formulas are derived that relate the strength of the crosstalk noise in supergather migration images to the variance of time, amplitude and polarity shifts in encoding functions. A supergather migration image is computed by migrating an encoded supergather, where the supergather is formed by stacking a large number of encoded shot gathers. Analysis reveals that for temporal source static shifts in each shot gather, the crosstalk noise is exponentially reduced with increasing variance of the static shift and the square of source frequency. This is not too surprising because larger time shifts lead to less correlation between traces in different shot gathers, and so should tend to reduce the crosstalk noise. Analysis also reveals that combining both polarity and time statics is a superior encoding strategy compared to using either polarity statics or time statics alone. Signal-to-noise (SNR) estimates show that for a standard migration image and for an image computed by migrating a phase-encoded supergather; here, G is the number of traces in a shot gather, I is the number of stacking iterations in the supergather and S is the number of encoded/blended shot gathers that comprise the supergather. If the supergather can be uniformly divided up into Q unique sub-supergathers, then the resulting SNR of the final image is, which means that we can enhance image quality but at the expense of Q times more cost. The importance of these formulas is that they provide a precise understanding between different phase encoding strategies and image quality. Finally, we show that iterative migration of phase-encoded supergathers is a special case of passive seismic interferometry. We suggest that the crosstalk noise formulas can be helpful in designing optimal strategies for passive seismic interferometry and efficient extraction of Green\\'s functions from simulated supergathers. © 2011 The Authors Geophysical Journal International © 2011 RAS.

  14. Stability of the Einstein static universe in modified theories of gravity

    OpenAIRE

    Boehmer, Christian G.; Hollenstein, Lukas; Lobo, Francisco S. N.; Seahra, Sanjeev S.

    2010-01-01

    We present a brief overview of the stability analysis of the Einstein static universe in various modified theories of gravity, like f(R) gravity, Gauss-Bonnet or f(G) gravity, and Horava-Lifshitz gravity.

  15. Theory of static friction: temperature and corrugation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franchini, A; Brigazzi, M; Santoro, G; Bortolani, V

    2008-01-01

    We present a study of the static friction, as a function of temperature, between two thick solid slabs. The upper one is formed of light particles and the substrate of heavy particles. We focus our attention on the interaction between the phonon fields of the two blocks and on the interface corrugation, among the various mechanisms responsible for the friction. To give evidence of the role played by the dynamical interaction of the substrate with the upper block, we consider both a substrate formed by fixed atoms and a substrate formed by mobile atoms. To study the effect of the corrugation, we model it by changing the range parameter σ in the Lennard-Jones interaction potential. We found that in the case of the mobile substrate there is a large momentum transfer from the substrate to the upper block. This momentum transfer increases on increasing the temperature and produces a large disorder in the upper block favouring a decrease of the static friction with respect to the case for a rigid substrate. Reducing the corrugation, we found that with a rigid substrate the upper block becomes nearly commensurate, producing an enhancement of the static friction with respect to that with a mobile substrate

  16. Implementation of static generalized perturbation theory for LWR design applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byron, R.F.; White, J.R.

    1987-01-01

    A generalized perturbation theory (GPT) formulation is developed for application to light water reactor (LWR) design. The extensions made to standard generalized perturbation theory are the treatment of thermal-hydraulic and fission product poisoning feedbacks, and criticality reset. This formulation has been implemented into a standard LWR design code. The method is verified by comparing direct calculations with GPT calculations. Data are presented showing that feedback effects need to be considered when using GPT for LWR problems. Some specific potential applications of this theory to the field of LWR design are discussed

  17. Static and dynamic continuum theory liquid crystals a mathematical introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Stewart, Iain W

    2004-01-01

    Providing a rigorous, clear and accessible text for graduate students regardless of scientific background, this text introduces the basic continuum theory for nematic liquid crystals in equilibria, and details its various simple applications.

  18. Non-static local string in Brans–Dicke theory

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. A recent investigation showed that a local gauge string with a phenomenological energy momentum tensor, as prescribed by Vilenkin, is inconsistent in Brans–Dicke theory. In this work it has been shown that such a string is indeed consistent if one introduces time dependences in the metric. A set of solutions of full ...

  19. New static solutions in f(T) theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daouda, M.H.; Rodrigues, Manuel E. [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo, Centro de Ciencias Exatas, Departamento de Fisica, Vitoria, ES (Brazil); Houndjo, M.J.S. [Universidade Federal da Bahia, Instituto de Fisica, Salvador, BA (Brazil)

    2011-11-15

    We consider the equations of motion of an anisotropic space-time in f(T) theory, where T is the torsion. New spherically symmetric solutions of black holes and wormholes are obtained with a constant torsion and for the cases for which the radial pressure is proportional to a real constant, to some algebraic functions f(T) and their derivatives f{sub T}(T), or vanishes identically. (orig.)

  20. Extended Møller-Plesset perturbation theory for dynamical and static correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuchimochi, Takashi; Van Voorhis, Troy

    2014-01-01

    We present a novel method that appropriately handles both dynamical and static electron correlations in a balanced manner, using a perturbation theory on a spin-extended Hartree-Fock (EHF) wave function reference. While EHF is a suitable candidate for degenerate systems where static correlation is ubiquitous, it is known that most of dynamical correlation is neglected in EHF. In this work, we derive a perturbative correction to a fully spin-projected self-consistent wave function based on second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2). The proposed method efficiently captures the ability of EHF to describe static correlation in degeneracy, combined with MP2's ability to treat dynamical correlation effects. We demonstrate drastic improvements on molecular ground state and excited state potential energy curves and singlet-triplet splitting energies over both EHF and MP2 with similar computational effort to the latter

  1. Computation of hybrid static potentials in SU(3 lattice gauge theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reisinger Christian

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We compute hybrid static potentials in SU(3 lattice gauge theory. We present a method to automatically generate a large set of suitable creation operators with defined quantum numbers from elementary building blocks. We show preliminary results for several channels and discuss, which structures of the gluonic flux tube seem to be realized by the ground states in these channels.

  2. Two-fluid static spherical configurations with linear mass function in the Einstein-Cartan theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallakhmetov, A.M.

    2002-01-01

    In the framework of the Einstein-Cartan theory, two-fluid static spherical configurations with linear mass function are considered. One of these modelling anisotropic matter distributions within star and the other fluid is a perfect fluid representing a source of torsion. It is shown that the solutions of the Einstein equations for anisotropic relativistic spheres in General Relativity may generate the solutions in the Einstein-Cartan theory. Some exact solutions are obtained

  3. Static analysis: from theory to practice; Static analysis of large-scale embedded code, generation of abstract domains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monniaux, D.

    2009-06-01

    Software operating critical systems (aircraft, nuclear power plants) should not fail - whereas most computerised systems of daily life (personal computer, ticket vending machines, cell phone) fail from time to time. This is not a simple engineering problem: it is known, since the works of Turing and Cook, that proving that programs work correctly is intrinsically hard. In order to solve this problem, one needs methods that are, at the same time, efficient (moderate costs in time and memory), safe (all possible failures should be found), and precise (few warnings about nonexistent failures). In order to reach a satisfactory compromise between these goals, one can research fields as diverse as formal logic, numerical analysis or 'classical' algorithmics. From 2002 to 2007 I participated in the development of the Astree static analyser. This suggested to me a number of side projects, both theoretical and practical (use of formal proof techniques, analysis of numerical filters...). More recently, I became interested in modular analysis of numerical property and in the applications to program analysis of constraint solving techniques (semi-definite programming, SAT and SAT modulo theory). (author)

  4. NLL resummation for the static potential in N=4 SYM theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stahlhofen, Maximilian [Wien Univ. (Austria). Fakultaet fuer Physik

    2012-09-15

    We determine the complete NLL running of the static potential associated with the locally 1/2 BPS Wilson loop in N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory. We present results for the SU(N{sub c}) singlet as well as for the adjoint configuration and arbitrary N{sub c} at weak coupling. In order to derive the respective anomalous dimensions we perform a two-loop calculation in the N=4 supersymmetric version of the effective field theory pNRQCD. In addition we confirm the recently obtained fixed-order result for the singlet static potential generated exclusively by ladder diagrams to the third order in the t'Hooft coupling. We also give an explicit expression for the logarithmic contribution of all non-ladder diagrams at this order.

  5. NLL resummation for the static potential in N=4 SYM theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stahlhofen, Maximilian

    2012-09-01

    We determine the complete NLL running of the static potential associated with the locally 1/2 BPS Wilson loop in N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory. We present results for the SU(N c ) singlet as well as for the adjoint configuration and arbitrary N c at weak coupling. In order to derive the respective anomalous dimensions we perform a two-loop calculation in the N=4 supersymmetric version of the effective field theory pNRQCD. In addition we confirm the recently obtained fixed-order result for the singlet static potential generated exclusively by ladder diagrams to the third order in the t'Hooft coupling. We also give an explicit expression for the logarithmic contribution of all non-ladder diagrams at this order.

  6. Cylindrically symmetric, static strings with a cosmological constant in Brans-Dicke theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delice, Oezguer

    2006-01-01

    The static cylindrically symmetric vacuum solutions with a cosmological constant in the framework of the Brans-Dicke theory are investigated. Some of these solutions admitting Lorentz boost invariance along the symmetry axis correspond to local, straight cosmic strings with a cosmological constant. Some physical properties of such solutions are studied. These strings apply attractive or repulsive forces on the test particles. A smooth matching is also performed with a recently introduced interior thick string solution with a cosmological constant

  7. Failure mechanism and coupled static-dynamic loading theory in deep hard rock mining: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xibing Li

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Rock failure phenomena, such as rockburst, slabbing (or spalling and zonal disintegration, related to deep underground excavation of hard rocks are frequently reported and pose a great threat to deep mining. Currently, the explanation for these failure phenomena using existing dynamic or static rock mechanics theory is not straightforward. In this study, new theory and testing method for deep underground rock mass under coupled static-dynamic loading are introduced. Two types of coupled loading modes, i.e. “critical static stress + slight disturbance” and “elastic static stress + impact disturbance”, are proposed, and associated test devices are developed. Rockburst phenomena of hard rocks under coupled static-dynamic loading are successfully reproduced in the laboratory, and the rockburst mechanism and related criteria are demonstrated. The results of true triaxial unloading compression tests on granite and red sandstone indicate that the unloading can induce slabbing when the confining pressure exceeds a certain threshold, and the slabbing failure strength is lower than the shear failure strength according to the conventional Mohr-Column criterion. Numerical results indicate that the rock unloading failure response under different in situ stresses and unloading rates can be characterized by an equivalent strain energy density. In addition, we present a new microseismic source location method without premeasuring the sound wave velocity in rock mass, which can efficiently and accurately locate the rock failure in hard rock mines. Also, a new idea for deep hard rock mining using a non-explosive continuous mining method is briefly introduced.

  8. Static forces in d=2+1 SU(N) gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, H.B.

    2006-07-01

    Using a three-level algorithm we perform a high-precision lattice computation of the static force up to 1fm in the 2+1 dimensional SU(5) gauge theory. Discretization errors and the continuum limit are discussed in detail. By comparison with existing SU(2) and SU(3) data it is found that σr 2 0 =1.65-(π)/(24) holds at an accuracy of 1% for all N≥2, where r 0 is the Sommer reference scale. The effective central charge c(r) is obtained and an intermediate distance r s is defined via the property c(r s )=(π)/(24). It separates in a natural way the short-distance regime governed by perturbation theory from the long-distance regime described by an effective string theory. The ratio τ s /τ 0 decreases significantly from SU(2) to SU(3) to SU(5), where r s 0 . We give a preliminary estimate of its value in the large-N limit. The static force in the smallest representation of N-ality 2, which tends to the k=2 string tension as r→∞, is also computed up to 0.7 fm. The deviation from Casimir scaling is positive and grows from 0.1% to 1% in that range. (Orig.)

  9. A time correlation function theory describing static field enhanced third order optical effects at interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neipert, Christine; Space, Brian

    2006-12-14

    Sum vibrational frequency spectroscopy, a second order optical process, is interface specific in the dipole approximation. At charged interfaces, there exists a static field, and as a direct consequence, the experimentally detected signal is a combination of enhanced second and static field induced third order contributions. There is significant evidence in the literature of the importance/relative magnitude of this third order contribution, but no previous molecularly detailed approach existed to separately calculate the second and third order contributions. Thus, for the first time, a molecularly detailed time correlation function theory is derived here that allows for the second and third order contributions to sum frequency vibrational spectra to be individually determined. Further, a practical, molecular dynamics based, implementation procedure for the derived correlation functions that describe the third order phenomenon is also presented. This approach includes a novel generalization of point atomic polarizability models to calculate the hyperpolarizability of a molecular system. The full system hyperpolarizability appears in the time correlation functions responsible for third order contributions in the presence of a static field.

  10. Theory of magnetoelectric effect in multilayer nanocomposites on a substrate: Static bending-mode response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias C. Krantz

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Magnetoelectric (ME coefficients for bending excitation in static magnetic fields and the bending response of multilayer composites with alternating magnetostrictive (MS and piezoelectric (PE layers on a substrate are investigated systematically. Theory and closed-form analytic solutions for the static magnetoelectric and the bending response coefficients are presented. Results of systematic variation of layer numbers, layer sequences, PE volume fractions, substrate thicknesses, and four different material systems (employing FeCoBSi, Terfenol-D, AlN, PZT, and Si are given for a fixed total composite thickness of 5μm. Among more than 105 structures investigated the greatest static ME coefficient of 62.3 V/cmOe is predicted for all odd layer number FeCoBSi-AlN multilayer composites on a Si substrate at vanishing substrate thickness and a PE material fraction of 38%. Varying the substrate thickness from 0μm to 20μm and the PE fraction from 0% to 100%, broad parameter regions of high ME coefficients are found for odd and large layer number nanocomposites. These regions are further enhanced to narrow maxima at vanishing substrate thickness, which correspond to structures of vanishing static bending response. For bilayers and even layer number cases broad maxima of the ME coefficient are observed at nonzero substrates and bending response. The optimal layer sequence and PE fraction depend on the material system. Bending response maxima occur at zero Si substrate thickness and nonzero PE fractions for bilayers. For multilayers nonzero Si substrates and zero PE fractions are found to be optimal. Structures of even ME layer numbers of PE-MS...Sub layer sequence display regions of vanishing bending response with large ME coefficients, i.e., produced by longitudinal excitation.

  11. Static solutions with nontrivial boundaries for the Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet theory in vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dotti, Gustavo; Oliva, Julio; Troncoso, Ricardo

    2010-01-01

    The classification of a certain class of static solutions for the Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet theory in vacuum is performed in d≥5 dimensions. The class of metrics under consideration is such that the spacelike section is a warped product of the real line and an arbitrary base manifold. It is shown that for a generic value of the Gauss-Bonnet coupling, the base manifold must be necessarily Einstein, with an additional restriction on its Weyl tensor for d>5. The boundary admits a wider class of geometries only in the special case when the Gauss-Bonnet coupling is such that the theory admits a unique maximally symmetric solution. The additional freedom in the boundary metric enlarges the class of allowed geometries in the bulk, which are classified within three main branches, containing new black holes and wormholes in vacuum.

  12. O(a) improvement of the HYP static axial and vector currents at one-loop order of perturbation theory

    CERN Document Server

    Grimbach, A; Knechtli, F; Palombi, Filippo

    2008-01-01

    We calculate analytically the improvement coefficients of the static axial and vector currents in O(a) improved lattice QCD at one-loop order of perturbation theory. The static quark is described by the hypercubic action, previously introduced in the literature in order to improve the signal-to-noise ratio of static observables. Within a Schroedinger Functional setup, we derive the Feynman rules of the hypercubic link in time-momentum representation. The improvement coefficients are obtained from on-shell correlators of the static axial and vector currents. As a by-product, we localise the minimum of the static self-energy as a function of the smearing parameters of the action at one-loop order and show that the perturbative minimum is close to its non-perturbative counterpart.

  13. Prediction of static friction coefficient in rough contacts based on the junction growth theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinu, S.; Cerlinca, D.

    2017-08-01

    The classic approach to the slip-stick contact is based on the framework advanced by Mindlin, in which localized slip occurs on the contact area when the local shear traction exceeds the product between the local pressure and the static friction coefficient. This assumption may be too conservative in the case of high tractions arising at the asperities tips in the contact of rough surfaces, because the shear traction may be allowed to exceed the shear strength of the softer material. Consequently, the classic frictional contact model is modified in this paper so that gross sliding occurs when the junctions formed between all contacting asperities are independently sheared. In this framework, when the contact tractions, normal and shear, exceed the hardness of the softer material on the entire contact area, the material of the asperities yields and the junction growth process ends in all contact regions, leading to gross sliding inception. This friction mechanism is implemented in a previously proposed numerical model for the Cattaneo-Mindlin slip-stick contact problem, which is modified to accommodate the junction growth theory. The frictionless normal contact problem is solved first, then the tangential force is gradually increased, until gross sliding inception. The contact problems in the normal and in the tangential direction are successively solved, until one is stabilized in relation to the other. The maximum tangential force leading to a non-vanishing stick area is the static friction force that can be sustained by the rough contact. The static friction coefficient is eventually derived as the ratio between the latter friction force and the normal force.

  14. Superheavy nuclei in the relativistic mean-field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lalazissis, G.A.; Ring, P.; Gambhir, Y.K.

    1996-01-01

    We have carried out a study of superheavy nuclei in the framework of the relativistic mean-field theory. Relativistic Hartree-Bogoliubov (RHB) calculations have been performed for nuclei with large proton and neutron numbers. A finite-range pairing force of Gogny type has been used in the RHB calculations. The ground-state properties of very heavy nuclei with atomic numbers Z=100-114 and neutron numbers N=154-190 have been obtained. The results show that in addition to N=184 the neutron numbers N=160 and N=166 exhibit an extra stability as compared to their neighbors. For the case of protons the atomic number Z=106 is shown to demonstrate a closed-shell behavior in the region of well deformed nuclei about N=160. The proton number Z=114 also indicates a shell closure. Indications for a doubly magic character at Z=106 and N=160 are observed. Implications of shell closures on a possible synthesis of superheavy nuclei are discussed. (orig.)

  15. Tetraquark resonances computed with static lattice QCD potentials and scattering theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bicudo Pedro

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We study tetraquark resonances with lattice QCD potentials computed for two static quarks and two dynamical quarks, the Born-Oppenheimer approximation and the emergent wave method of scattering theory. As a proof of concept we focus on systems with isospin I = 0, but consider different relative angular momenta l of the heavy b quarks. We compute the phase shifts and search for S and T matrix poles in the second Riemann sheet. We predict a new tetraquark resonance for l = 1, decaying into two B mesons, with quantum numbers I(JP = 0(1−, mass m=10576−4+4 MeV and decay width Γ=112−103+90 MeV.

  16. Static Analysis of Laminated Composite Plate using New Higher Order Shear Deformation Plate Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibtehal Abbas Sadiq

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In the present work a theoretical analysis depending on the new higher order . element in shear deformation theory for simply supported cross-ply laminated plate is developed. The new displacement field of the middle surface expanded as a combination of exponential and trigonometric function of thickness coordinate with the transverse displacement taken to be constant through the thickness. The governing equations are derived using Hamilton’s principle and solved using Navier solution method to obtain the deflection and stresses under uniform sinusoidal load. The effect of many design parameters such as number of laminates, aspect ratio and thickness ratio on static behavior of the laminated composite plate has been studied. The modal of the present work has been verified by comparing the results of shape functions with that were obtained by other workers. Result shows the good agreement with 3D elasticity solution and that published by other researchers.

  17. Stability of Einstein static universe in gravity theory with a non-minimal derivative coupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Qihong [Hunan Normal University, Department of Physics and Synergetic Innovation Center for Quantum Effects and Applications, Changsha, Hunan (China); Zunyi Normal College, School of Physics and Electronic Science, Zunyi (China); Wu, Puxun [Hunan Normal University, Department of Physics and Synergetic Innovation Center for Quantum Effects and Applications, Changsha, Hunan (China); Peking University, Center for High Energy Physics, Beijing (China); Yu, Hongwei [Hunan Normal University, Department of Physics and Synergetic Innovation Center for Quantum Effects and Applications, Changsha, Hunan (China)

    2018-01-15

    The emergent mechanism provides a possible way to resolve the big-bang singularity problem by assuming that our universe originates from the Einstein static (ES) state. Thus, the existence of a stable ES solution becomes a very crucial prerequisite for the emergent scenario. In this paper, we study the stability of an ES universe in gravity theory with a non-minimal coupling between the kinetic term of a scalar field and the Einstein tensor. We find that the ES solution is stable under both scalar and tensor perturbations when the model parameters satisfy certain conditions, which indicates that the big-bang singularity can be avoided successfully by the emergent mechanism in the non-minimally kinetic coupled gravity. (orig.)

  18. All the Four-Dimensional Static, Spherically Symmetric Solutions of Abelian Kaluza-Klein Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cvetic, M.; Youm, D.

    1995-01-01

    We present the explicit form for all the four-dimensional, static, spherically symmetric solutions in (4+n)-d Abelian Kaluza-Klein theory by performing a subset of SO(2,n) transformations corresponding to four SO(1,1) boosts on the Schwarzschild solution, supplemented by SO(n)/SO(n-2) transformations. The solutions are parametrized by the mass M, Taub-NUT charge a, and n electric rvec Q and n magnetic rvec P charges. Nonextreme black holes (with zero Taub-NUT charge) have either the Reissner-Nordstroem or Schwarzschild global space-time. Supersymmetric extreme black holes have a null or naked singularity, while nonsupersymmetric extreme ones have a global space-time of extreme Reissner-Nordstroem black holes. copyright 1995 The American Physical Society

  19. Stability of Einstein static universe in gravity theory with a non-minimal derivative coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qihong; Wu, Puxun; Yu, Hongwei

    2018-01-01

    The emergent mechanism provides a possible way to resolve the big-bang singularity problem by assuming that our universe originates from the Einstein static (ES) state. Thus, the existence of a stable ES solution becomes a very crucial prerequisite for the emergent scenario. In this paper, we study the stability of an ES universe in gravity theory with a non-minimal coupling between the kinetic term of a scalar field and the Einstein tensor. We find that the ES solution is stable under both scalar and tensor perturbations when the model parameters satisfy certain conditions, which indicates that the big-bang singularity can be avoided successfully by the emergent mechanism in the non-minimally kinetic coupled gravity.

  20. Exact-exchange time-dependent density-functional theory for static and dynamic polarizabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirata, So; Ivanov, Stanislav; Bartlett, Rodney J.; Grabowski, Ireneusz

    2005-01-01

    Time-dependent density-functional theory (TDDFT) employing the exact-exchange functional has been formulated on the basis of the optimized-effective-potential (OEP) method of Talman and Shadwick for second-order molecular properties and implemented into a Gaussian-basis-set, trial-vector algorithm. The only approximation involved, apart from the lack of correlation effects and the use of Gaussian-type basis functions, was the consistent use of the adiabatic approximation in the exchange kernel and in the linear response function. The static and dynamic polarizabilities and their anisotropy predicted by the TDDFT with exact exchange (TDOEP) agree accurately with the corresponding values from time-dependent Hartree-Fock theory, the exact-exchange counterpart in the wave function theory. The TDOEP is free from the nonphysical asymptotic decay of the exchange potential of most conventional density functionals or from any other manifestations of the incomplete cancellation of the self-interaction energy. The systematic overestimation of the absolute values and dispersion of polarizabilities that plagues most conventional TDDFT cannot be seen in the TDOEP

  1. Thermodynamic Analysis of the Static Spherically Symmetric Field Equations in Rastall Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moradpour, Hooman; Salako, Ines G.

    2016-01-01

    The restrictions on the Rastall theory due to application of the Newtonian limit to the theory are derived. In addition, we use the zero-zero component of the Rastall field equations as well as the unified first law of thermodynamics to find the Misner-Sharp mass content confined to the event horizon of the spherically symmetric static spacetimes in the Rastall framework. The obtained relation is calculated for the Schwarzschild and de-Sitter back holes as two examples. Bearing the obtained relation for the Misner-Sharp mass in mind together with recasting the one-one component of the Rastall field equations into the form of the first law of thermodynamics, we obtain expressions for the horizon entropy and the work term. Finally, we also compare the thermodynamic quantities of system, including energy, entropy, and work, with their counterparts in the Einstein framework to have a better view about the role of the Rastall hypothesis on the thermodynamics of system.

  2. Integrated analysis on static/dynamic aeroelasticity of curved panels based on a modified local piston theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhichun; Zhou, Jian; Gu, Yingsong

    2014-10-01

    A flow field modified local piston theory, which is applied to the integrated analysis on static/dynamic aeroelastic behaviors of curved panels, is proposed in this paper. The local flow field parameters used in the modification are obtained by CFD technique which has the advantage to simulate the steady flow field accurately. This flow field modified local piston theory for aerodynamic loading is applied to the analysis of static aeroelastic deformation and flutter stabilities of curved panels in hypersonic flow. In addition, comparisons are made between results obtained by using the present method and curvature modified method. It shows that when the curvature of the curved panel is relatively small, the static aeroelastic deformations and flutter stability boundaries obtained by these two methods have little difference, while for curved panels with larger curvatures, the static aeroelastic deformation obtained by the present method is larger and the flutter stability boundary is smaller compared with those obtained by the curvature modified method, and the discrepancy increases with the increasing of curvature of panels. Therefore, the existing curvature modified method is non-conservative compared to the proposed flow field modified method based on the consideration of hypersonic flight vehicle safety, and the proposed flow field modified local piston theory for curved panels enlarges the application range of piston theory.

  3. Exact interior solutions for static spheres in the Einstein-Cartan theory with two sources of torsion

    CERN Document Server

    Gallakhmetov, A M

    2002-01-01

    In the framework of the problem of existence of exact interior solutions for static spherically symmetric configurations in the Einstein-Cartan theory (ECT), the distributions of perfect fluid and non-minimally coupled scalar field are considered. The exact solutions in the one-torsion ECT and two-torsion one are obtained. Some consequences of two sources of torsion are discussed.

  4. A finite range pairing force for density functional theory in superfluid nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, Y.; Ma, Z.Y.; Ring, P.

    2009-01-01

    The problem of pairing in the 1 S 0 channel of finite nuclei is revisited. In nuclear matter forces of separable form can be adjusted to the bare nuclear force, to any phenomenological pairing interaction such as the Gogny force or to exact solutions of the gap equation. In finite nuclei, because of translational invariance, such forces are no longer separable. Using well-known techniques of Talmi and Moshinsky we expand the matrix elements in a series of separable terms, which converges quickly preserving translational invariance and finite range. In this way the complicated problem of a cut-off at large momenta or energies inherent in other separable or zero range pairing forces is avoided. Applications in the framework of the relativistic Hartree-Bogoliubov approach show that the pairing properties are depicted on almost the same footing as by the original pairing interaction not only in nuclear matter, but also in finite nuclei. This simple separable force can be easily applied for the investigation of pairing properties in nuclei far from stability as well as for further investigations going beyond mean field theory.

  5. Correlation Theory Applied to the Static and Dynamic Properties of EuO and EuS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgård, Per-Anker

    1982-01-01

    was used previously in the correlation theory2) primarily to calculate static properties. Self‐consistent dynamic and static calculations have here been performed for EuO, which is an ideal Heisenberg magnet with significant second‐nearest‐neighbor interaction (J2 = J1/5). The two‐pole approximation...... a cutoff of the spectrum at high frequencies, which cannot be seen experimentally, but which significantly influences the frequency moments. It was found that the finite J2 has significant importance for a comparison between theory and experiment. It is concluded that the calculation for a simple cubic n.......n. magnet by Hubbard3) does not describe the EuO data accurately, neither with respect to line shape nor frequency scale. Significant differences are to be expected between EuO and EuS having opposite sign for J2....

  6. Static and free vibration analysis of carbon nano wires based on Timoshenko beam theory using differential quadrature method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maziar Janghorban

    Full Text Available Static and free vibration analysis of carbon nano wires with rectangular cross section based on Timoshenko beam theory is studied in this research. Differential quadrature method (DQM is employed to solve the governing equations. From the knowledge of author, it is the first time that free vibration of nano wires is investigated. It is also the first time that differential quadrature method is used for bending analysis of nano wires.

  7. Correlation theory applied to the static and dynamic properties of EuO and EuS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindgard, P.A.

    1981-10-01

    The paramagnetic scattering was recently measured for EuO. It was found that spin-wave-like excitations develop for wave vectors approaching the zone boundary. The spectrum was found to be well described by damped harmonic oscillators (also called the two-pole-approximation). This approximation was used previously in the correlation theory primarily to calculate static properties. Selfconsistent dynamic and static calculations have been performed for EuO, which is an ideal Heisenberg magnet with significant second nearest neighbor interaction (J 2 = J/sub 1/5). The two-pole approximation describes accurately the correlation range, the static susceptibility and the qualitative behavior of the dynamic properties (i.e., the wave vector at which peaks appear in the spectrum as a function of temperature). However, in order to also obtain the correct frequency scale it is necessary to use a cut-off of the spectrum at high frequencies, which cannot be seen experimentally, but which significantly influences the frequency moments. It was found that the finite J 2 has significant importance for a comparison between theory and experiment. It is concluded that the calculation for a simple cubic n.n. magnet by Hubbard does not describe the EuO data accurately, neither with respect to lineshape nor frequency scale. Significant differences are to be expected between EuO and EuS having opposite sign for J 2

  8. Possible effect of static surface disorder on diffractive scattering of H2 from Ru(0001): Comparison between theory and experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroes, G J; Wijzenbroek, Mark; Manson, J R

    2017-12-28

    Specific features of diffractive scattering of H 2 from metal surfaces can serve as fingerprints of the reactivity of the metal towards H 2 , and in principle theory-experiment comparisons for molecular diffraction can help with the validation of semi-empirical functionals fitted to experiments of sticking of H 2 on metals. However, a recent comparison of calculated and Debye-Waller (DW) extrapolated experimental diffraction probabilities, in which the theory was done on the basis of a potential energy surface (PES) accurately describing sticking to Ru(0001), showed substantial discrepancies, with theoretical and experimental probabilities differing by factors of 2 and 3. We demonstrate that assuming a particular amount of random static disorder to be present in the positions of the surface atoms, which can be characterized through a single parameter, removes most of the discrepancies between experiment and theory. Further improvement might be achievable by improving the accuracy of the DW extrapolation, the model of the H 2 rotational state distribution in the experimental beams, and by fine-tuning the PES. However, the question of whether the DW model is applicable to attenuation of diffractive scattering in the presence of a sizable van der Waals well (depth ≈ 50 meV) should also receive attention, in addition to the question of whether the amount of static surface disorder effectively assumed in the modeling by us could have been present in the experiments.

  9. Order parameters in the Landau–de Gennes theory – the static and dynamic scenarios

    KAUST Repository

    Majumdar, Apala

    2011-01-01

    We obtain quantitative estimates for the scalar order parameters of liquid crystal configurations in three-dimensional geometries, within the Landau-de Gennes framework. We consider both static equilibria and non-equilibrium dynamics and we include external fields and surface anchoring energies in our formulation. Using maximum principle-type arguments, we obtain explicit bounds for the corresponding scalar order parameters in both static and dynamic situations; these bounds are given in terms of the material-dependent thermotropic coefficients, electric field strength and surface anchoring coefficients. These bounds provide estimates for the degree of orientational ordering, quantify the competing effects of the different energetic contributions and can be used to test the accuracy of numerical simulations. © 2011 Taylor & Francis.

  10. Order parameters in the Landau–de Gennes theory – the static and dynamic scenarios

    KAUST Repository

    Majumdar, Apala

    2011-02-17

    We obtain quantitative estimates for the scalar order parameters of liquid crystal configurations in three-dimensional geometries, within the Landau-de Gennes framework. We consider both static equilibria and non-equilibrium dynamics and we include external fields and surface anchoring energies in our formulation. Using maximum principle-type arguments, we obtain explicit bounds for the corresponding scalar order parameters in both static and dynamic situations; these bounds are given in terms of the material-dependent thermotropic coefficients, electric field strength and surface anchoring coefficients. These bounds provide estimates for the degree of orientational ordering, quantify the competing effects of the different energetic contributions and can be used to test the accuracy of numerical simulations. © 2011 Taylor & Francis.

  11. Theory of hot and rotating nuclei within the static path approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ansari, A.

    1995-01-01

    For the description of hot and rotating nuclei the static path approximation to the path integral representation of the partition function is at present the best practicable approach incorporating rigorously the statistical fluctuations in nuclear shape degrees of freedom. The paper briefly discusses the method and present a few of the recent results on level densities and GDR (giant dipole resonance) γ-absorption cross sections. (author). 22 refs., 2 figs

  12. Application of the error propagation theory in estimates of static formation temperatures in geothermal and petroleum boreholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, Surendra P.; Andaverde, Jorge; Santoyo, E.

    2006-01-01

    We used the error propagation theory to calculate uncertainties in static formation temperature estimates in geothermal and petroleum wells from three widely used methods (line-source or Horner method; spherical and radial heat flow method; and cylindrical heat source method). Although these methods commonly use an ordinary least-squares linear regression model considered in this study, we also evaluated two variants of a weighted least-squares linear regression model for the actual relationship between the bottom-hole temperature and the corresponding time functions. Equations based on the error propagation theory were derived for estimating uncertainties in the time function of each analytical method. These uncertainties in conjunction with those on bottom-hole temperatures were used to estimate individual weighting factors required for applying the two variants of the weighted least-squares regression model. Standard deviations and 95% confidence limits of intercept were calculated for both types of linear regressions. Applications showed that static formation temperatures computed with the spherical and radial heat flow method were generally greater (at the 95% confidence level) than those from the other two methods under study. When typical measurement errors of 0.25 h in time and 5 deg. C in bottom-hole temperature were assumed for the weighted least-squares model, the uncertainties in the estimated static formation temperatures were greater than those for the ordinary least-squares model. However, if these errors were smaller (about 1% in time and 0.5% in temperature measurements), the weighted least-squares linear regression model would generally provide smaller uncertainties for the estimated temperatures than the ordinary least-squares linear regression model. Therefore, the weighted model would be statistically correct and more appropriate for such applications. We also suggest that at least 30 precise and accurate BHT and time measurements along with

  13. The special theory of Brownian relativity: equivalence principle for dynamic and static random paths and uncertainty relation for diffusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezzasalma, Stefano A

    2007-03-15

    The theoretical basis of a recent theory of Brownian relativity for polymer solutions is deepened and reexamined. After the problem of relative diffusion in polymer solutions is addressed, its two postulates are formulated in all generality. The former builds a statistical equivalence between (uncorrelated) timelike and shapelike reference frames, that is, among dynamical trajectories of liquid molecules and static configurations of polymer chains. The latter defines the "diffusive horizon" as the invariant quantity to work with in the special version of the theory. Particularly, the concept of universality in polymer physics corresponds in Brownian relativity to that of covariance in the Einstein formulation. Here, a "universal" law consists of a privileged observation, performed from the laboratory rest frame and agreeing with any diffusive reference system. From the joint lack of covariance and simultaneity implied by the Brownian Lorentz-Poincaré transforms, a relative uncertainty arises, in a certain analogy with quantum mechanics. It is driven by the difference between local diffusion coefficients in the liquid solution. The same transformation class can be used to infer Fick's second law of diffusion, playing here the role of a gauge invariance preserving covariance of the spacetime increments. An overall, noteworthy conclusion emerging from this view concerns the statistics of (i) static macromolecular configurations and (ii) the motion of liquid molecules, which would be much more related than expected.

  14. From static to temporal network theory: Applications to functional brain connectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Hedley Thompson

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Network neuroscience has become an established paradigm to tackle questions related to the functional and structural connectome of the brain. Recently, interest has been growing in examining the temporal dynamics of the brain’s network activity. Although different approaches to capturing fluctuations in brain connectivity have been proposed, there have been few attempts to quantify these fluctuations using temporal network theory. This theory is an extension of network theory that has been successfully applied to the modeling of dynamic processes in economics, social sciences, and engineering article but it has not been adopted to a great extent within network neuroscience. The objective of this article is twofold: (i to present a detailed description of the central tenets of temporal network theory and describe its measures, and; (ii to apply these measures to a resting-state fMRI dataset to illustrate their utility. Furthermore, we discuss the interpretation of temporal network theory in the context of the dynamic functional brain connectome. All the temporal network measures and plotting functions described in this article are freely available as the Python package Teneto. Temporal network theory is a subfield of network theory that has had limited application to date within network neuroscience. The aims of this work are to introduce temporal network theory, define the metrics relevant to the context of network neuroscience, and illustrate their potential by analyzing a resting-state fMRI dataset. We found both between-subjects and between-task differences that illustrate the potential for these tools to be applied in a wider context. Our tools for analyzing temporal networks have been released in a Python package called Teneto.

  15. Surface effects on static bending of nanowires based on non-local elasticity theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quan Wu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The surface elasticity and non-local elasticity effects on the elastic behavior of statically bent nanowires are investigated in the present investigation. Explicit solutions are presented to evaluate the surface stress and non-local elasticity effects with various boundary conditions. Compared with the classical Euler beam, a nanowire with surface stress and/or non-local elasticity can be either stiffer or less stiff, depending on the boundary conditions. The concept of surface non-local elasticity was proposed and its physical interpretation discussed to explain the combined effect of surface elasticity and non-local elasticity. The effect of the nanowire size on its elastic bending behavior was investigated. The results obtained herein are helpful to characterize mechanical properties of nanowires and aid nanowire-based devices design.

  16. Unified nano-mechanics based probabilistic theory of quasibrittle and brittle structures: I. Strength, static crack growth, lifetime and scaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Jia-Liang; Bažant, Zdeněk P.; Bazant, Martin Z.

    2011-07-01

    Engineering structures must be designed for an extremely low failure probability such as 10 -6, which is beyond the means of direct verification by histogram testing. This is not a problem for brittle or ductile materials because the type of probability distribution of structural strength is fixed and known, making it possible to predict the tail probabilities from the mean and variance. It is a problem, though, for quasibrittle materials for which the type of strength distribution transitions from Gaussian to Weibullian as the structure size increases. These are heterogeneous materials with brittle constituents, characterized by material inhomogeneities that are not negligible compared to the structure size. Examples include concrete, fiber composites, coarse-grained or toughened ceramics, rocks, sea ice, rigid foams and bone, as well as many materials used in nano- and microscale devices. This study presents a unified theory of strength and lifetime for such materials, based on activation energy controlled random jumps of the nano-crack front, and on the nano-macro multiscale transition of tail probabilities. Part I of this study deals with the case of monotonic and sustained (or creep) loading, and Part II with fatigue (or cyclic) loading. On the scale of the representative volume element of material, the probability distribution of strength has a Gaussian core onto which a remote Weibull tail is grafted at failure probability of the order of 10 -3. With increasing structure size, the Weibull tail penetrates into the Gaussian core. The probability distribution of static (creep) lifetime is related to the strength distribution by the power law for the static crack growth rate, for which a physical justification is given. The present theory yields a simple relation between the exponent of this law and the Weibull moduli for strength and lifetime. The benefit is that the lifetime distribution can be predicted from short-time tests of the mean size effect on

  17. On the Generalization of the Timoshenko Beam Model Based on the Micropolar Linear Theory: Static Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Nobili

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Three generalizations of the Timoshenko beam model according to the linear theory of micropolar elasticity or its special cases, that is, the couple stress theory or the modified couple stress theory, recently developed in the literature, are investigated and compared. The analysis is carried out in a variational setting, making use of Hamilton’s principle. It is shown that both the Timoshenko and the (possibly modified couple stress models are based on a microstructural kinematics which is governed by kinosthenic (ignorable terms in the Lagrangian. Despite their difference, all models bring in a beam-plane theory only one microstructural material parameter. Besides, the micropolar model formally reduces to the couple stress model upon introducing the proper constraint on the microstructure kinematics, although the material parameter is generally different. Line loading on the microstructure results in a nonconservative force potential. Finally, the Hamiltonian form of the micropolar beam model is derived and the canonical equations are presented along with their general solution. The latter exhibits a general oscillatory pattern for the microstructure rotation and stress, whose behavior matches the numerical findings.

  18. Relationship of field-theory based single-boson-exchange potentials to static ones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amghar, A.; Desplanques, B.

    2000-01-01

    It is shown that field-theory based single-boson-exchange potentials cannot be identified to those of the Yukawa or Coulomb type that are currently inserted in the Schroedinger equation. The potential which is obtained rather correspond to this current single-boson-exchange potential corrected for the probability that the system under consideration is in a two-body component, therefore missing contributions due to the interaction of these two bodies while bosons are exchanged. The role of these contributions, which involve at least two-boson exchanges, is examined. The conditions that allow one to recover the usual single-boson-exchange potential are given. It is shown that the present results have some relation: (i) to the failure of the Bethe-Salpeter equation in reproducing the Dirac or Klein-Gordon equations in the limit where one of the constituents has a large mass, (ii) to the absence of corrections of relative order α log 1/α to a full calculation of the binding energy in the case of neutral massless bosons or (iii) to large corrections of wave-functions calculated perturbatively in some light-front approaches. Refs. 48 (author)

  19. Static analysis: from theory to practice; Static analysis of large-scale embedded code, generation of abstract domains; Analyse statique: de la theorie a la pratique; analyse statique de code embarque de grande taille, generation de domaines abstraits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monniaux, D.

    2009-06-15

    Software operating critical systems (aircraft, nuclear power plants) should not fail - whereas most computerised systems of daily life (personal computer, ticket vending machines, cell phone) fail from time to time. This is not a simple engineering problem: it is known, since the works of Turing and Cook, that proving that programs work correctly is intrinsically hard. In order to solve this problem, one needs methods that are, at the same time, efficient (moderate costs in time and memory), safe (all possible failures should be found), and precise (few warnings about nonexistent failures). In order to reach a satisfactory compromise between these goals, one can research fields as diverse as formal logic, numerical analysis or 'classical' algorithmics. From 2002 to 2007 I participated in the development of the Astree static analyser. This suggested to me a number of side projects, both theoretical and practical (use of formal proof techniques, analysis of numerical filters...). More recently, I became interested in modular analysis of numerical property and in the applications to program analysis of constraint solving techniques (semi-definite programming, SAT and SAT modulo theory). (author)

  20. Long-range corrected density functional theory study on static second hyperpolarizabilities of singlet diradical systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishi, Ryohei; Bonness, Sean; Yoneda, Kyohei; Takahashi, Hideaki; Nakano, Masayoshi; Botek, Edith; Champagne, Benoît; Kubo, Takashi; Kamada, Kenji; Ohta, Koji; Tsuneda, Takao

    2010-03-07

    Within the spin-unrestricted density functional theory (DFT) the long-range correction (LC) scheme combined with the Becke-Lee-Yang-Parr exchange-correlation functional, referred to as LC-UBLYP method, has been applied to the calculation of the second hyperpolarizability (gamma) of open-shell singlet diradical systems of increasing complexity and has demonstrated good performance: (i) for the simplest H(2) dissociation model, the gamma values calculated by the LC-UBLYP method significantly overshoot the full configuration interaction result but reproduce qualitatively the evolution of gamma as a function of the diradical character, (ii) for small singlet diradical 1,3-dipole systems, the diradical character dependence of gamma determined by the UCCSD and UCCSD(T) reference methods is reproduced semiquantitatively by the LC-UBLYP method except in the small diradical character region, where the spin-unrestricted solutions coincide with spin-restricted solutions, (iii) the LC-UBLYP method also closely reproduces the UCCSD(T) results on the diradical character dependence of gamma of the p-quinodimethane model system, particularly in the intermediate and large diradical character regions, whereas it shows an abrupt change for a diradical character (y) close to 0.2 originating from the triplet instability, (iv) the reliability of LC-UBLYP to reproduce reference coupled cluster results on open-shell singlet systems with intermediate and large diradical characters has also been substantiated in the case of gamma of 1,4-bis-(imidazol-2-ylidene)-cyclohexa-2,5-diene (BI2Y), then (v), for real systems built from a pair of phenalenyl radicals separated by a conjugated linker, the LC-UBLYP results have been found to closely match the UBHandHLYP values-which, for small systems are in good agreement with those obtained using correlated molecular orbital methods-whereas the UB3LYP results can be much different. These results are not only important from the viewpoint of an efficient

  1. Static electromagnetic frequency changers

    CERN Document Server

    Rozhanskii, L L

    1963-01-01

    Static Electromagnetic Frequency Changers is about the theory, design, construction, and applications of static electromagnetic frequency changers, devices that used for multiplication or division of alternating current frequency. It is originally published in the Russian language. This book is organized into five chapters. The first three chapters introduce the readers to the principles of operation, the construction, and the potential applications of static electromagnetic frequency changers and to the principles of their design. The two concluding chapters use some hitherto unpublished work

  2. A Novel Higher-Order Shear and Normal Deformable Plate Theory for the Static, Free Vibration and Buckling Analysis of Functionally Graded Plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Chao Yi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Closed-form solution of a special higher-order shear and normal deformable plate theory is presented for the static situations, natural frequencies, and buckling responses of simple supported functionally graded materials plates (FGMs. Distinguished from the usual theories, the uniqueness is the differentia of the new plate theory. Each individual FGM plate has special characteristics, such as material properties and length-thickness ratio. These distinctive attributes determine a set of orthogonal polynomials, and then the polynomials can form an exclusive plate theory. Thus, the novel plate theory has two merits: one is the orthogonality, where the majority of the coefficients of the equations derived from Hamilton’s principle are zero; the other is the flexibility, where the order of the plate theory can be arbitrarily set. Numerical examples with different shapes of plates are presented and the achieved results are compared with the reference solutions available in the literature. Several aspects of the model involving relevant parameters, length-to-thickness, stiffness ratios, and so forth affected by static and dynamic situations are elaborate analyzed in detail. As a consequence, the applicability and the effectiveness of the present method for accurately computing deflection, stresses, natural frequencies, and buckling response of various FGM plates are demonstrated.

  3. Superdeformation in Pb isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naz, Tabassum; Ahmad, Shakeb

    2017-01-01

    The Relatvistic Hartree-Bogoliubov (RHB) theory is used to explore the structure of superdeformed (SD) 190,212 Pb isotopes using the non-linear NL3* and density dependent (DD-ME2, DD-PC1) interactions. We have studied the the excitation energy, the potential depth and the deformation of these Pb isotopes

  4. Classification of Teleparallel Homothetic Vector Fields in Cylindrically Symmetric Static Space-Times in Teleparallel Theory of Gravitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shabbir, Ghulam; Khan, Suhail

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we classify cylindrically symmetric static space-times according to their teleparallel homothetic vector fields using direct integration technique. It turns out that the dimensions of the teleparallel homothetic vector fields are 4, 5, 7 or 11, which are the same in numbers as in general relativity. In case of 4, 5 or 7 proper teleparallel homothetic vector fields exist for the special choice to the space-times. In the case of 11 teleparallel homothetic vector fields the space-time becomes Minkowski with all the zero torsion components. Teleparallel homothetic vector fields in this case are exactly the same as in general relativity. It is important to note that this classification also covers the plane symmetric static space-times. (general)

  5. Non-ergodicity transition and multiple glasses in binary mixtures: on the accuracy of the input static structure in the mode coupling theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tchangnwa Nya, F; Ayadim, A; Germain, Ph; Amokrane, S

    2012-01-01

    We examine the question of the accuracy of the static correlation functions used as input in the mode coupling theory (MCT) of non-ergodic states in binary mixtures. We first consider hard-sphere mixtures and compute the static pair structure from the Ornstein-Zernike equations with the Percus-Yevick closure and more accurate ones that use bridge functions deduced from Rosenfeld’s fundamental measures functional. The corresponding MCT predictions for the non-ergodicity lines and the transitions between multiple glassy states are determined from the long-time limit of the density autocorrelation functions. We find that while the non-ergodicity transition line is not very sensitive to the input static structure, up to diameter ratios D 2 /D 1 = 10, quantitative differences exist for the transitions between different glasses. The discrepancies with the more accurate closures become even qualitative for sufficiently asymmetric mixtures. They are correlated with the incorrect behavior of the PY structure at high size asymmetry. From the example of ultra-soft potential it is argued that this issue is of general relevance beyond the hard-sphere model. (paper)

  6. The static response function in Kohn-Sham theory: An appropriate basis for its matrix representation in case of finite AO basis sets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kollmar, Christian; Neese, Frank

    2014-01-01

    The role of the static Kohn-Sham (KS) response function describing the response of the electron density to a change of the local KS potential is discussed in both the theory of the optimized effective potential (OEP) and the so-called inverse Kohn-Sham problem involving the task to find the local KS potential for a given electron density. In a general discussion of the integral equation to be solved in both cases, it is argued that a unique solution of this equation can be found even in case of finite atomic orbital basis sets. It is shown how a matrix representation of the response function can be obtained if the exchange-correlation potential is expanded in terms of a Schmidt-orthogonalized basis comprising orbitals products of occupied and virtual orbitals. The viability of this approach in both OEP theory and the inverse KS problem is illustrated by numerical examples

  7. Static quadrupole moments of first 2+ states in the 2s1d shell: a review of experiment and theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spear, R.H.

    1981-01-01

    Available experimental information on the static electric quadrupole moments Q 2 + of the 2 + first excited states of even-mass nuclei in the 2s-1d shell is tabulated and critically reviewed, and adopted values are presented. The results reveal a well defined pattern for the variation of Q 2 + through the shell. Predictions of Q 2 + made from various nuclear models are tabulated and compared with experiment. For each nucleus the quantity and quality of the existing data for Q 2 + , together with the current theoretical significance of the result, are used as criteria to determine whether new experimental work is desirable

  8. Energy conversion statics

    CERN Document Server

    Messerle, H K; Declaris, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    Energy Conversion Statics deals with equilibrium situations and processes linking equilibrium states. A development of the basic theory of energy conversion statics and its applications is presented. In the applications the emphasis is on processes involving electrical energy. The text commences by introducing the general concept of energy with a survey of primary and secondary energy forms, their availability, and use. The second chapter presents the basic laws of energy conversion. Four postulates defining the overall range of applicability of the general theory are set out, demonstrating th

  9. Carbon X-ray absorption spectra of fluoroethenes and acetone: a study at the coupled cluster, density functional, and static-exchange levels of theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fransson, Thomas; Coriani, Sonia; Christiansen, Ove; Norman, Patrick

    2013-03-28

    Near carbon K-edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectra of a series of fluorine-substituted ethenes and acetone have been studied using coupled cluster and density functional theory (DFT) polarization propagator methods, as well as the static-exchange (STEX) approach. With the complex polarization propagator (CPP) implemented in coupled cluster theory, relaxation effects following the excitation of core electrons are accounted for in terms of electron correlation, enabling a systematic convergence of these effects with respect to electron excitations in the cluster operator. Coupled cluster results have been used as benchmarks for the assessment of propagator methods in DFT as well as the state-specific static-exchange approach. Calculations on ethene and 1,1-difluoroethene illustrate the possibility of using nonrelativistic coupled cluster singles and doubles (CCSD) with additional effects of electron correlation and relativity added as scalar shifts in energetics. It has been demonstrated that CPP spectra obtained with coupled cluster singles and approximate doubles (CC2), CCSD, and DFT (with a Coulomb attenuated exchange-correlation functional) yield excellent predictions of chemical shifts for vinylfluoride, 1,1-difluoroethene, trifluoroethene, as well as good spectral features for acetone in the case of CCSD and DFT. Following this, CPP-DFT is considered to be a viable option for the calculation of X-ray absorption spectra of larger π-conjugated systems, and CC2 is deemed applicable for chemical shifts but not for studies of fine structure features. The CCSD method as well as the more approximate CC2 method are shown to yield spectral features relating to π∗-resonances in good agreement with experiment, not only for the aforementioned molecules but also for ethene, cis-1,2-difluoroethene, and tetrafluoroethene. The STEX approach is shown to underestimate π∗-peak separations due to spectral compressions, a characteristic which is inherent to this

  10. Theory of extended stellar atmospheres. II. A grid of static spherical models for O stars and planetary nebula nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunasz, P.B.; Hummer, D.G.; Mihalas, D.

    1975-01-01

    Spherical static non-LTE model atmospheres are presented for stars with M/M/sub sun/=30 and 60 at various points on their evolutionary tracks, and for some nuclei of planetary nebulae at two points of a modified Harman-Seaton sequence. The method of Mihalas and Hummer was employed, which uses a parametrized radiation force multiplier to simulate the force of radiation arising from the entire line spectrum. However, in the present work the density structure computed in the LTE models was held fixed in the calculation of the corresponding non-LTE models; in addition, the opacity of an ''average light ion'' was taken into account. The temperatures for the non-LTE models are generally lower, at a given depth, than for the corresponding LTE models when T/sub eff/<45,000 K, while the situation is reversed at higher temperatures. The continuous energy distributions are generally flattened by extension. The Lyman jump is in emission for extended models of massive stars, but never for the models of nuclei of planetary nebulae (this is primarily a temperature effect). The Balmer jumps are always in absorption. The Lyman lines are in emission, and the Balmer lines in absorption; He ii lambda4686 comes into emission in the most extended models without hydrogen line pumping, showing that it is an indicator of atmospheric extension. Very severe limb darkening is found for extended models, which have apparent angular sized significantly smaller than expected from the geometrical size of the star. Extensive tables are given of monochromatic magnitudes, continuum jumps and gradients, Stomgren-system colors, monochromatic extensions, and the profiles and equivalent widths of the hydrogen lines for all models, and of the He ii lines for some of the 60 M/sub X/ models

  11. Quantitative analysis and prediction of experimental observations on quasi-static hysteretic metal–ferroelectric–metal–insulator–semiconductor FET and its dynamic behaviour based on Landau theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yang; Lian, Yong; Samudra, Ganesh S

    2015-01-01

    Due to internal voltage amplification induced by the negative capacitance of ferroelectrics, the metal–ferroelectric–metal–insulator–semiconductor (MFMIS) FET has been widely investigated to explore its potential application in low power devices. Based on Landau theory and stability criterion, a simulation program is implemented and MFMIS structure is quantitatively analyzed. The results show that it can be appropriately designed for both integrated circuits and memory devices by tuning capacitances contributed by MOSFET dielectric stack and ferroelectrics. Our simulation results on electrical characteristics of ferroelectric devices agree well with both quasi-static and dynamic experimental observations. The influence of the ferroelectric/dielectric layer thickness and area as well as temperature on hysteretic polarization-electric field characteristic of a ferroelectric are successfully explained. For a C–V loop sweeping over the gate voltage in MFMIS, possible asymmetry in the accessible negative capacitance region is also interpreted. Moreover, experimentally observed reduction in the equivalent capacitance of the ferroelectric–dielectric bilayer at high frequency is confirmed by Landau–Khalatnikov theory based simulation. Our work provides a more complete and explicit analytical treatment to understand the effect of negative capacitance of a ferroelectric on device performance. (paper)

  12. Nonlinear evolutions of an ultra-intense ultra-short laser pulse in a rarefied plasma through a new quasi-static theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdanpanah, J.

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, we present a new description of self-consistent wake excitation by an intense short laser pulse, based on applying the quasi-static approximation (slow variations of the pulse-envelope) in the instantaneous Lorentz-boosted pulse co-moving frame (PCMF), and best verify our results through comparison with particle-in-cell simulations. According to this theory, the plasma motion can be treated perturbatively in the PCMF due to its high initial-velocity and produces a quasi-static wakefield in this frame. The pulse envelope, on the other hand, is governed by a form of the Schrödinger equation in the PCMF, in which the wakefield acts as an effective potential. In this context, pulse evolutions are characterized by local conservation laws resulted from this equation and subjected to Lorentz transformation into the laboratory frame. Using these conservation laws, precise formulas are obtained for spatiotemporal pulse evolutions and related wakefield variations at initial stages, and new equations are derived for instantaneous group velocity and carrier frequency. In addition, based on properties of the Schrödinger equation, spectral-evolutions of the pulse are described and the emergence of an anomalous dispersion branch with linear relation ω ≈ ck (c is the light speed) is predicted. Our results are carefully discussed versus previous publications and the significance of our approach is described by showing almost all suggestive definitions of group-velocity based on energy arguments fail to reproduce our formula and correctly describe the instantaneous pulse-velocity.

  13. Statics and mechanics of structures

    CERN Document Server

    Krenk, Steen

    2013-01-01

    The statics and mechanics of structures form a core aspect of civil engineering. This book provides an introduction to the subject, starting from classic hand-calculation types of analysis and gradually advancing to a systematic form suitable for computer implementation. It starts with statically determinate structures in the form of trusses, beams and frames. Instability is discussed in the form of the column problem - both the ideal column and the imperfect column used in actual column design. The theory of statically indeterminate structures is then introduced, and the force and deformation methods are explained and illustrated. An important aspect of the book’s approach is the systematic development of the theory in a form suitable for computer implementation using finite elements. This development is supported by two small computer programs, MiniTruss and MiniFrame, which permit static analysis of trusses and frames, as well as linearized stability analysis. The book’s final section presents related ...

  14. A novel approach in Eliashberg theory of superconductivity with ab-initio static and dynamic Coulomb interaction applicable for real materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davydov, Arkadiy; Sanna, Antonio; Sharma, Sangeeta; Dewhurst, John Kay; Gross, E.K.U. [Max Planck Institute of Microstructure Physics, Halle (Saale) (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    In standard Eliashberg methods the Coulomb interaction is usually restricted to the use of a single phenomenological parameter μ{sup *} adjusted to give the right superconducting critical temperature (T{sub c}). In this work we present a parameter-free Eliashberg approach, in which we treat the screened Coulomb interaction within the random phase approximation (RPA) in its static and full dynamic limit. The full energy range of the Coulomb interaction is taken into account, which becomes computationally affordable with the introduction of a suitable isotropic approximation. We have tested the method on a set of conventional superconductors. We will discuss the reliability of the predicted T{sub c} both by using a static and a dynamic Coulomb interaction.

  15. Statics of deformable solids

    CERN Document Server

    Bisplinghoff, Raymond L; Pian, Theodore HH

    2014-01-01

    Profusely illustrated exposition of fundamentals of solid mechanics and principles of mechanics, statics, and simple statically indeterminate systems. Covers strain and stress in three-dimensional solids, elementary elasticity, energy principles in solid continuum, and more. 1965 edition.

  16. Static stars : Some mathematical curiosities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, C.B.

    1977-01-01

    The equations of structure of static Newtonian and general relativistic stars are investigated. By using Lie group theory, it is shown that, in each case, the condition that there should exist a simple ''homologous'' family of similar solutions necessitates precisely those equations of state for the stellar matter that are usually invoked by means of extraneous physical arguments. In the relativistic case, a diagram which depicts these families is drawn, using the qualitative theory of differential equations. This vividly exhibits the nature of the general solutions, and the exceptional character of the Misner--Zapolsky solution. This diagram is contrasted with similar ones obtained by Chandrasekhar in the Newtonian case

  17. Proof of confinement of static quarks in 3-dimensional U(1) lattice gauge theory for all values of the coupling constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goepfert, M.; Mack, G.

    1981-07-01

    We study the 3-dimensional pure U(1) lattice gauge theory with Villain action which is related to the 3-dimensional Z-ferro-magnet by an exact duality transformation (and also to a Coulomb system). We show that its string tension α is nonzero for all values of the coupling constant g 2 , and obeys and bound α >= const x msub(D)β -1 for small ag 2 , with β = 4π 2 /g 2 and m 2 sub(D) = (2β/a 3 )esup(-βupsiloncb(0)/2) (a = lattice spacing). A continuum limit a → 0, msub(D) fixed, exists and represents a scalar free field theory of mass msub(D). The string tension αmsub(D) -2 in physical units tends to infinite in this limit. Characteristic differences in the behavior of the model for large and small coupling constant ag 2 are found. Renormalization group aspects are discussed. (orig.)

  18. Nonlinear static analysis of single layer annular/circular graphene sheets embedded in Winkler–Pasternak elastic matrix based on non-local theory of Eringen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahriar Dastjerdi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Nonlinear bending analysis of orthotropic annular/circular graphene sheets has been studied based on the non-local elasticity theory. The first order shear deformation theory (FSDT is applied in combination with the nonlinear Von-Karman strain field. The obtained differential equations are solved by using two methods, first the differential quadrature method (DQM and a new semi-analytical polynomial method (SAPM which is innovated by the authors. Applying the DQM or SAPM, the differential equations are transformed to nonlinear algebraic equations system. Then the Newton–Raphson iterative scheme is used. First, the obtained results from DQM and SAPM are compared and it is concluded that although the SAPM’s formulation is considerably simpler than DQM, however, the SAPM’s results are so close to DQM. The results are validated with available papers. Finally, the effects of small scale parameter on the results, the comparison between local and non-local theories, and linear to nonlinear analyses are investigated.

  19. Static Behaviour of Bucket Foundations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kim André

    One new foundation concept in relation to offshore wind turbines is bucket foundations. The concept is known from the oil and gas industry, though the load conditions here are significantly different. The bucket foundation can be used as monopod or e.g. tripod foundations for offshore wind turbines....... The monopod concept is investigated in this thesis, regarding the static behaviour from loads relevant to offshore wind turbines. The main issue in this concept is the rotational stiffness of the foundation and the combined capacity dominated by moments. The vertical bearing capacity of bucket foundations...... theory is proposed. The proposed expression applies to plane strain as well as axis-symmetric stress conditions for foundations with smooth or rough bases. A thorough experimental investigation of the static behaviour of bucket foundations subjected to combined loading is carried out. Laboratory tests...

  20. Size scaling of static friction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, O M; Manini, Nicola; Tosatti, Erio

    2013-02-22

    Sliding friction across a thin soft lubricant film typically occurs by stick slip, the lubricant fully solidifying at stick, yielding and flowing at slip. The static friction force per unit area preceding slip is known from molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to decrease with increasing contact area. That makes the large-size fate of stick slip unclear and unknown; its possible vanishing is important as it would herald smooth sliding with a dramatic drop of kinetic friction at large size. Here we formulate a scaling law of the static friction force, which for a soft lubricant is predicted to decrease as f(m)+Δf/A(γ) for increasing contact area A, with γ>0. Our main finding is that the value of f(m), controlling the survival of stick slip at large size, can be evaluated by simulations of comparably small size. MD simulations of soft lubricant sliding are presented, which verify this theory.

  1. Static stability analysis of smart magneto-electro-elastic heterogeneous nanoplates embedded in an elastic medium based on a four-variable refined plate theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Farzad; Barati, Mohammad Reza

    2016-10-01

    In this article, a nonlocal four-variable refined plate theory is developed to examine the buckling behavior of nanoplates made of magneto-electro-elastic functionally graded (MEE-FG) materials resting on Winkler-Pasternak foundation. Material properties of nanoplate change in spatial coordinate based on power-law distribution. The nonlocal governing equations are deduced by employing the Hamilton principle. For various boundary conditions, the analytical solutions of nonlocal MEE-FG plates for buckling problem will be obtained based on an exact solution approach. Finally, dependency of buckling response of MEE-FG nanoplate on elastic foundation parameters, magnetic potential, external electric voltage, various boundary conditions, small scale parameter, power-law index, plate side-to-thickness ratio and aspect ratio will be figure out. These results can be advantageous for the mechanical analysis and design of intelligent nanoscale structures constructed from magneto-electro-thermo-elastic functionally graded materials.

  2. Rectifier cabinet static breaker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costantino, R.A. Jr; Gliebe, R.J.

    1992-01-01

    A rectifier cabinet static breaker replaces a blocking diode pair with an SCR and the installation of a power transistor in parallel with the latch contactor to commutate the SCR to the off state. The SCR serves as a static breaker with fast turnoff capability providing an alternative way of achieving reactor scram in addition to performing the function of the replaced blocking diodes. The control circuitry for the rectifier cabinet static breaker includes on-line test capability and an LED indicator light to denote successful test completion. Current limit circuitry provides high-speed protection in the event of overload. 7 figs

  3. Rectifier cabinet static breaker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantino, Jr, Roger A.; Gliebe, Ronald J.

    1992-09-01

    A rectifier cabinet static breaker replaces a blocking diode pair with an SCR and the installation of a power transistor in parallel with the latch contactor to commutate the SCR to the off state. The SCR serves as a static breaker with fast turnoff capability providing an alternative way of achieving reactor scram in addition to performing the function of the replaced blocking diodes. The control circuitry for the rectifier cabinet static breaker includes on-line test capability and an LED indicator light to denote successful test completion. Current limit circuitry provides high-speed protection in the event of overload.

  4. 'Static' octupole deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leander, G.A.

    1985-01-01

    Certain nuclei can be described as having intrinsic shapes with parity breaking static moments. The rationale for this description is discussed, spectroscopic models are outlined and their consequences are compared with experiment. (orig.)

  5. Static Typing for Object-Oriented Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff; Palsberg, Jens

    1994-01-01

    We develop a theory of statically typed object-oriented languages. It represents classes as labeled, regular trees, types as finit sets of classes , and sub-classing as a partial order on trees. We show that our sub-classing order strictly generalizes inheritance, and that a novel genericity mech...

  6. Static Equilibrium Configurations of Charged Metallic Bodies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper we developed a simple numerical scheme to determine the static equilibrium configuration of charged metallic bodies by minimizing the potential energy function. The method developed has some advantages; it combines the general theory and the physical meanings nested in the mathematical model and this ...

  7. Investigation of two pitot-static tubes at supersonic speeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasel, Lowell E; Coletti, Donald E

    1948-01-01

    The results of tests at a Mach number of 1.94 of an ogives-nose cylindrical pitot-static tube and similar tests at Mach numbers of 1.93 and 1.62 of a service pitot-static tube to determine body static pressures and indicated Mach numbers are presented and discussed. The radial pressure distribution on the cylindrical bodies is compared with that calculated by an approximate theory.

  8. Observing the Forces Involved in Static Friction under Static Situations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Static friction is an important concept in introductory physics. Later in the year students apply their understanding of static friction under more complex conditions of static equilibrium. Traditional lab demonstrations in this case involve exceeding of the maximum level of static friction, resulting in the "onset of motion." (Contains…

  9. Static friction of stainless steel wire rope–rubber contacts.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loeve, A.J.; Krijger, T.; Mugge, W.; Breedveld, P.; Dodou, D.; Dankelman, J.

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about static friction of stainless-steel wire ropes ('cables') in contact with soft rubbers, an interface of potential importance for rigidifiable medical instruments. Although friction theories imply that the size and profile of the cables affect static friction, there are no

  10. Theory is static, practice is dynamic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duus Henriksen, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a game-based approach to teaching change management. The aim is to provide participants with a ’knowing how’ understanding of change management, which is considered more viable for handling the dynamic complexity of change in practice than the usual ‘knowing what’ approach. Th....... This game-based approach is presented through the Danish designed learning game Mindsetter, which uses a combination of simulation, role-play, board-game and coaching-based processes to teach an operationalsable understanding of change to its participants.......This paper proposes a game-based approach to teaching change management. The aim is to provide participants with a ’knowing how’ understanding of change management, which is considered more viable for handling the dynamic complexity of change in practice than the usual ‘knowing what’ approach...

  11. Static Transition Compression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier; Damian, Daniel

    2001-01-01

    Starting from an operational specification of a translation from a structured to an unstructured imperative language, we point out how a compositional and context-insensitive translation gives rise to static chains of jumps. Taking an inspiration from the notion of continuation, we state a new...... compositional and context-sensitive specification that provably gives rise to no static chains of jumps, no redundant labels, and no unused labels. It is defined with one inference rule per syntactic construct and operates in linear time and space on the size of the source program (indeed it operates in one...

  12. Nuclear level density of 166Er with static deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasrabadi, M.N.

    2006-01-01

    The level densities of 166 Er is calculated using the microscopic theory of interacting fermions and is compared with experimental. It is concluded that the data can be reproduced with level density formalism for nuclei with static deformation

  13. Hubble expansion in static spacetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossler, Otto E.; Froehlich, Dieter; Movassagh, Ramis; Moore, Anthony

    2007-01-01

    A recently proposed mechanism for light-path expansion in a static spacetime is based on the moving-lenses paradigm. Since the latter is valid independently of whether space expands or not, a static universe can be used to better see the implications. The moving-lenses paradigm is related to the paradigm of dynamical friction. If this is correct, a Hubble-like law is implicit. It is described quantitatively. A bent in the Hubble-like line is predictably implied. The main underlying assumption is Price's Principle (PI 3 ). If the theory is sound, the greatest remaining problem in cosmology becomes the origin of hydrogen. Since Blandford's jet production mechanism for quasars is too weak, a generalized Hawking radiation hidden in the walls of cosmic voids is invoked. A second prediction is empirical: slow pattern changes in the cosmic microwave background. A third is ultra-high redshifts for Giacconi quasars. Bruno's eternal universe in the spirit of Augustine becomes a bit less outlandish

  14. Explosions and static electricity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonassen, Niels M

    1995-01-01

    The paper deals with the problem of electrostatic discharges as causes of ignition of vapor/gas and dust/gas mixtures. A series of examples of static-caused explosions will be discussed. The concepts of explosion limits, the incendiveness of various discharge types and safe voltages are explained...

  15. Static Transition Compression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier; Damian, Daniel

    2001-01-01

    Starting from an operational specification of a translation from a structured to an unstructured imperative language, we point out how a compositional and context-insensitive translation gives rise to static chains of jumps. Taking an inspiration from the notion of continuation, we state a new co...

  16. Static solitons in more than one dimension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Raifeartaigh, L.

    1978-01-01

    The most important development of the last decade in particle physics and field theory has undoubtedly been the advent of hidden-symmetric gauge theories. One of the more interesting by-products of this development has been the discovery that hidden-symmetric gauge theories admit static solutions to the field equations which are regular everywhere and for which the energy is finite. Such solutions will be called solitons. The hidden-symmetric gauge solutions exist for n space dimensions, where 1 [de

  17. The Static Quantum Multiverse

    OpenAIRE

    Nomura, Yasunori

    2012-01-01

    We consider the multiverse in the intrinsically quantum mechanical framework recently proposed in Refs. [1,2]. By requiring that the principles of quantum mechanics are universally valid and that physical predictions do not depend on the reference frame one chooses to describe the multiverse, we find that the multiverse state must be static---in particular, the multiverse does not have a beginning or end. We argue that, despite its naive appearance, this does not contradict observation, inclu...

  18. Static magnetotherapy for the treatment of insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shieh, Yao Y; Tsai, Fong Y

    2008-01-01

    Magnets have been used for centuries to treat a number of physical disorders. The vast majority of research, however, on static magnet therapy for insomnia has been confined to the auricular type of therapy, with publications limited to Chinese journals. Most of these studies have depended on the subjective self-assessment of participants rather than objective scientific measurements. In this study, the authors report the positive preliminary results of insomnia treatment using pillows with embedded magnets, magnetic insoles and TriPhase bracelets. The analysis is based on objective actigraphic and polysomnographic data. A theory of accelerated transition from wakefulness to sleep is proposed to explain the process of insomnia relief through low-strength static magnetic fields. Analysis by functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) is used to further investigate the theory.

  19. A Logical Characterisation of Static Equivalence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hüttel, Hans; Pedersen, Michael D.

    2007-01-01

    -order logic for frames with quantification over environment knowledge which, under certain general conditions, characterizes static equivalence and is amenable to construction of characteristic formulae. The logic can be used to reason about environment knowledge and can be adapted to a particular application...... by defining a suitable signature and associated equational theory. The logic can furthermore be extended with modalities to yield a modal logic for e.g. the Applied Pi calculus....

  20. PEBBLES Simulation of Static Friction and New Static Friction Benchmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cogliati, Joshua J.; Ougouag, Abderrafi M.

    2010-01-01

    Pebble bed reactors contain large numbers of spherical fuel elements arranged randomly. Determining the motion and location of these fuel elements is required for calculating certain parameters of pebble bed reactor operation. This paper documents the PEBBLES static friction model. This model uses a three dimensional differential static friction approximation extended from the two dimensional Cundall and Strack model. The derivation of determining the rotational transformation of pebble to pebble static friction force is provided. A new implementation for a differential rotation method for pebble to container static friction force has been created. Previous published methods are insufficient for pebble bed reactor geometries. A new analytical static friction benchmark is documented that can be used to verify key static friction simulation parameters. This benchmark is based on determining the exact pebble to pebble and pebble to container static friction coefficients required to maintain a stable five sphere pyramid.

  1. Study of static properties of magnetron-type space charges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delcroix, Jean-Loup

    1953-01-01

    This research thesis reports an in-depth analysis of physical properties of static regimes to address the issue of space charges. This theoretical study of the Hull magnetron is followed by the description of experiments on the Hull magnetron which highlight transitions between the different regimes. Then, another theoretical approach aims at generalising the magnetron theory, based on other types of magnetron theory (general equations of magnetron-type space charges, inverted Hull magnetron theory, circular field magnetron theory)

  2. The static pinch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longmire, Conrad L [University of California, Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    1958-07-01

    In a pinch, the outward diffusion of plasma due to collisions can be balanced by the inward drift resulting from ExB, where E is the applied electric field and B the magnetic field. From the equation expressing the balance of these two effects, together with the pressure balance equation, one obtains the perpendicular conductivity, which is about one-half of the classical parallel conductivity. This result has been applied to the problem of a static pinch under the assumptions: 1) there is an applied longitudinal (B{sub z}) magnetic field; 2) the plasma is isothermal; 3) the solution depends only on the radial coordinate.

  3. Testing static tradeoff theiry against pecking order models of capital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We test two models with the purpose of finding the best empirical explanation for corporate financing choice of a cross section of 27 Nigerian quoted companies. The models were developed to represent the Static tradeoff Theory and the Pecking order Theory of capital structure with a view to make comparison between ...

  4. Photovoltaic static concentrator analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almonacid, G.; Luque, A.; Molledo, A. G.

    1984-12-01

    Ray tracing is the basis of the present analysis of truncated bifacial compound parabolic concentrators filled with a dielectric substance, which are of interest in photovoltaic applications where the bifacial cells allow higher static concentrations to be achieved. Among the figures of merit for this type of concentrator, the directional intercept factor plays a major role and is defined as the ratio of the power of the collector to that at the entry aperture, in a lossless concentrator illuminated by light arriving from a given direction. A procedure for measuring outdoor, full size panels has been developed, and a correction method for avoiding the effect of unwanted diffuse radiation during the measurements is presented.

  5. Static and kinematic formulation of planar reciprocal assemblies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parigi, Dario; Sassone, Mario; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2014-01-01

    Planar reciprocal frames are two dimensional structures formed by elements joined together according to the principle of structural reciprocity. In this paper a rigorous formulation of the static and kinematic problem is proposed and developed extending the theory of pin-jointed assemblies....... This formulation is used to evaluate the static and kinematic determinacy of reciprocal assemblies from the properties of their equilibrium and kinematic matrices...

  6. Static electricity: A literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crow, Rita M.

    1991-11-01

    The major concern with static electricity is its discharging in a flammable atmosphere which can explode and cause a fire. Textile materials can have their electrical resistivity decreased by the addition of antistatic finishes, imbedding conductive particles into the fibres or by adding metal fibers to the yarns. The test methods used in the studies of static electricity include measuring the static properties of materials, of clothed persons, and of the ignition energy of flammable gases. Surveys have shown that there is sparse evidence for fires definitively being caused by static electricity. However, the 'worst-case' philosophy has been adopted and a static electricity safety code is described, including correct grounding procedures and the wearing of anti-static clothing and footwear.

  7. Towards a formal definition of static and dynamic electronic correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benavides-Riveros, Carlos L; Lathiotakis, Nektarios N; Marques, Miguel A L

    2017-05-24

    Some of the most spectacular failures of density-functional and Hartree-Fock theories are related to an incorrect description of the so-called static electron correlation. Motivated by recent progress in the N-representability problem of the one-body density matrix for pure states, we propose a method to quantify the static contribution to the electronic correlation. By studying several molecular systems we show that our proposal correlates well with our intuition of static and dynamic electron correlation. Our results bring out the paramount importance of the occupancy of the highest occupied natural spin-orbital in such quantification.

  8. Micromechanical definition of an entropy for quasi-static deformation of granular materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rothenburg, L.; Kruyt, Nicolaas P.

    2009-01-01

    A micromechanical theory is formulated for quasi-static deformation of granular materials, which is based on information theory. A reasoning is presented that leads to the definition of an information entropy that is appropriate for quasi-static deformation of granular materials. This definition is

  9. Statics and Mechanics of Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krenk, Steen; Høgsberg, Jan Becker

    The statics and mechanics of structures form a core aspect of civil engineering. This book provides an introduction to the subject, starting from classic hand-calculation types of analysis and gradually advancing to a systematic form suitable for computer implementation. It starts with statically...

  10. Stability of the Einstein static universe in open cosmological models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canonico, Rosangela; Parisi, Luca

    2010-01-01

    The stability properties of the Einstein static solution of general relativity are altered when corrective terms arising from modification of the underlying gravitational theory appear in the cosmological equations. In this paper the existence and stability of static solutions are considered in the framework of two recently proposed quantum gravity models. The previously known analysis of the Einstein static solutions in the semiclassical regime of loop quantum cosmology with modifications to the gravitational sector is extended to open cosmological models where a static neutrally stable solution is found. A similar analysis is also performed in the framework of Horava-Lifshitz gravity under detailed balance and projectability conditions. In the case of open cosmological models the two solutions found can be either unstable or neutrally stable according to the admitted values of the parameters.

  11. Statics of Historic Masonry Constructions

    CERN Document Server

    Como, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Masonry constructions are the great majority of the buildings in Europe’s historic centres and the most important monuments in its architectural heritage. Given the age of much of these constructions, the demand for safety assessments and restoration projects is pressing and constant. This book aims to help fill this demand presenting a comprehensive new statics of masonry constructions. The book, result of thirty years of research and professional experience, gives the fundamentals of statics of the masonry solid, then applied to the study of statics of arches, piers and vaults. Further, combining engineering and architecture and through an interdisciplinary approach, the book investigates the statical behaviour of many historic monuments, as the Pantheon, the Colosseum,  the domes of S. Maria del Fiore in Florence and of St. Peter in Rome, the Tower of Pisa, the Gothic Cathedrals and the Masonry Buildings under seismic actions.

  12. Static Analysis of Mobile Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    and not allowed, to do. The second issue was that a fully static analysis was never a realistic possibility, because Java , the programming langauge...scale to large programs it had to handle essentially all of the features of Java and could also be used as a general-purpose analysis engine. The...static analysis of imperative languages. • A framework for adding specifications about the behavior of methods, including methods that were

  13. Static Decoupling in fault detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik

    1998-01-01

    An algebraic approach is given for a design of a static residual weighting factor in connection with fault detection. A complete parameterization is given of the weighting factor which will minimize a given performance index......An algebraic approach is given for a design of a static residual weighting factor in connection with fault detection. A complete parameterization is given of the weighting factor which will minimize a given performance index...

  14. Stability of plasma in static equilibrium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krusiial, M D; Oberman, N R [Project Matterhorn, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (United States)

    1958-07-01

    Our purpose is to derive from the Boltzmann equation in the small m/e limit, criteria useful in the discussion of stability of plasmas in static equilibrium. At first we ignore collisions but later show their effects may be taken into account. Our approach yields a generalization of the usual energy principles for investigating the stability of hydromagnetic systems to situations where the effect of heat flow along magnetic lines is not negligible, and hence to situations where the strictly hydrodynamic approach is inapplicable. In the first two sections we characterize our general method of approach and delineate the properties of the small m/e limit which we use to determine the constants of the motion and the condition for static equilibrium. In the next two sections we calculate the first and second variations of the energy and conclude with a statement of the general stability criterion. In the final three sections we state several theorems which relate our stability criterion to those of ordinary hydromagnetic theory, we show how to take into account the effect of collisions, and briefly discuss the remaining problem of incorporating the charge neutrality condition into the present stability theory. (author)

  15. Static universe filled with spinning matter and magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuchowicz, Br [Warsaw Univ. (Poland). Dept. of Radiochemistry and Radiation Chemistry

    1955-08-05

    A static model of the universe is presented in the framework of Einstein-Cartan theory (ECT). The presence of aligned spins and magnetic field makes the model anisotropic. An expression is given for the radius of the universe. The model is classical and does not take into account the effects of pair creation. The validity of this model is discussed.

  16. Statics of historic masonry constructions

    CERN Document Server

    Como, Mario

    2017-01-01

    Masonry constructions are the great majority of the buildings in Europe’s historic centres and the most important monuments of its architectural heritage. Given the age of these constructions, the demand for safety assessments and restoration projects is pressing and constant; still within the broad studies in the subject it is not yet recognised, in particular within the seismic area, a unitary approach to deal with Masonry structures. This successful book contributes to clarify the issues with a rigorous approach offering a comprehensive new Statics of Masonry Constructions. This third edition has been driven by some recent developments of the research in the field, and it gives the fundamentals of Statics with an original and rigorous mathematical formulation, further in-depth inquired in this new version. With many refinements and improvements, the book investigates the static behaviour of many historic monuments, such as the Gothic Cathedrals, the Mycenaean Tholoi, the Pantheon, the Colosseum, the dome...

  17. Static Analysis for Systems Biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis; Rosa, D. Schuch da

    2004-01-01

    This paper shows how static analysis techniques can help understanding biological systems. Based on a simple example we illustrate the outcome of performing three different analyses extracting information of increasing precision. We conclude by reporting on the potential impact and exploitation o...... of these techniques in systems biology....

  18. Static Verification for Code Contracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fähndrich, Manuel

    The Code Contracts project [3] at Microsoft Research enables programmers on the .NET platform to author specifications in existing languages such as C# and VisualBasic. To take advantage of these specifications, we provide tools for documentation generation, runtime contract checking, and static contract verification.

  19. Static Analysis for Dynamic XML

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Aske Simon; Møller, Anders; Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff

    2002-01-01

    We describe the summary graph lattice for dataflow analysis of programs that dynamically construct XML documents. Summary graphs have successfully been used to provide static guarantees in the JWIG language for programming interactive Web services. In particular, the JWIG compiler is able to check...

  20. Counterterms for static Lovelock solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehdizadeh, M.R.; Dehghani, M.H.; Zangeneh, M.K.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce the counterterms that remove the non-logarithmic divergences of the action in third order Lovelock gravity for static spacetimes. We do this by defining the cosmological constant in such a way that the asymptotic form of the metric have the same form in Lovelock and Einstein gravities. Thus, we employ the counterterms of Einstein gravity and show that the power law divergences of the action of Lovelock gravity for static spacetimes can be removed by suitable choice of coefficients. We find that the dependence of these coefficients on the dimension in Lovelock gravity is the same as in Einstein gravity. We also introduce the finite energy-momentum tensor and employ these counterterms to calculate the finite action and mass of static black hole solutions of third order Lovelock gravity. Next, we calculate the thermodynamic quantities and show that the entropy calculated through the use of Gibbs-Duhem relation is consistent with the obtained entropy by Wald's formula. Furthermore, we find that in contrast to Einstein gravity in which there exists no uncharged extreme black hole, third order Lovelock gravity can have these kind of black holes. Finally, we investigate the stability of static charged black holes of Lovelock gravity in canonical ensemble and find that small black holes show a phase transition between very small and small black holes, while the large ones are stable. (orig.)

  1. Counterterms for static Lovelock solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehdizadeh, M.R. [Shahid Bahonar University, Department of Physics, PO Box 76175, Kerman (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Dehghani, M.H. [Research Institute for Astrophysics and Astronomy of Maragha (RIAAM), Maragha (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shiraz University, Physics Department and Biruni Observatory, College of Sciences, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Zangeneh, M.K. [Shiraz University, Physics Department and Biruni Observatory, College of Sciences, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    In this paper, we introduce the counterterms that remove the non-logarithmic divergences of the action in third order Lovelock gravity for static spacetimes. We do this by defining the cosmological constant in such a way that the asymptotic form of the metric have the same form in Lovelock and Einstein gravities. Thus, we employ the counterterms of Einstein gravity and show that the power law divergences of the action of Lovelock gravity for static spacetimes can be removed by suitable choice of coefficients. We find that the dependence of these coefficients on the dimension in Lovelock gravity is the same as in Einstein gravity. We also introduce the finite energy-momentum tensor and employ these counterterms to calculate the finite action and mass of static black hole solutions of third order Lovelock gravity. Next, we calculate the thermodynamic quantities and show that the entropy calculated through the use of Gibbs-Duhem relation is consistent with the obtained entropy by Wald's formula. Furthermore, we find that in contrast to Einstein gravity in which there exists no uncharged extreme black hole, third order Lovelock gravity can have these kind of black holes. Finally, we investigate the stability of static charged black holes of Lovelock gravity in canonical ensemble and find that small black holes show a phase transition between very small and small black holes, while the large ones are stable. (orig.)

  2. Static Analysis of Functional Programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Klaas; van den Broek, P.M.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, the static analysis of programs in the functional programming language Miranda is described based on two graph models. A new control-flow graph model of Miranda definitions is presented, and a model with four classes of caligraphs. Standard software metrics are applicable to these

  3. The Einstein static universe with torsion and the sign problem of the cosmological constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehmer, C G

    2004-01-01

    In the field equations of Einstein-Cartan theory with cosmological constant a static spherically symmetric perfect fluid with spin density satisfying the Weyssenhoff restriction is considered. This serves as a rough model of space filled with (fermionic) dark matter. From this the Einstein static universe with constant torsion is constructed, generalizing the Einstein cosmos to Einstein-Cartan theory. The interplay between torsion and the cosmological constant is discussed. A possible way out of the cosmological constant's sign problem is suggested

  4. Available states and available space: Static properties that predict dynamics of confined fluids

    OpenAIRE

    Goel, Gaurav; Krekelberg, William P.; Pond, Mark J.; Mittal, Jeetain; Shen, Vincent K.; Errington, Jeffrey R.; Truskett, Thomas M.

    2009-01-01

    Although density functional theory provides reliable predictions for the static properties of simple fluids under confinement, a theory of comparative accuracy for the transport coefficients has yet to emerge. Nonetheless, there is evidence that knowledge of how confinement modifies static behavior can aid in forecasting dynamics. Specifically, molecular simulation studies have shown that the relationship between excess entropy and self diffusivity of a bulk equilibrium fluid changes only mod...

  5. Status report on the Aeronautical Research Institute of Sweden version of the missile aerodynamics program LARV, for calculation of static aerodynamic properties and longitudinal aerodynamic damping derivatives. Part 1: Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weibust, E.

    Improvements to a missile aerodynamics program which enable it to (a) calculate aerodynamic coefficients as input for a flight mechanics model, (b) check manufacturers' data or estimate performance from photographs, (c) reduce wind tunnel testing, and (d) aid optimization studies, are discussed. Slender body theory is used for longitudinal damping derivatives prediction. Program predictions were compared to known values. Greater accuracy is required in the estimation of drag due to excrescences on actual missile configurations, the influence of a burning motor, and nonlinear effects in the stall region. Prediction of pressure centers on wings and on bodies in presence of wings must be improved.

  6. Static structure of active Brownian hard disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Macedo Biniossek, N.; Löwen, H.; Voigtmann, Th; Smallenburg, F.

    2018-02-01

    We explore the changes in static structure of a two-dimensional system of active Brownian particles (ABP) with hard-disk interactions, using event-driven Brownian dynamics simulations. In particular, the effect of the self-propulsion velocity and the rotational diffusivity on the orientationally-averaged fluid structure factor is discussed. Typically activity increases structural ordering and generates a structure factor peak at zero wave vector which is a precursor of motility-induced phase separation. Our results provide reference data to test future statistical theories for the fluid structure of active Brownian systems. This manuscript was submitted for the special issue of the Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter associated with the Liquid Matter Conference 2017.

  7. A cumulant functional for static and dynamic correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollett, Joshua W.; Hosseini, Hessam; Menzies, Cameron

    2016-01-01

    A functional for the cumulant energy is introduced. The functional is composed of a pair-correction and static and dynamic correlation energy components. The pair-correction and static correlation energies are functionals of the natural orbitals and the occupancy transferred between near-degenerate orbital pairs, rather than the orbital occupancies themselves. The dynamic correlation energy is a functional of the statically correlated on-top two-electron density. The on-top density functional used in this study is the well-known Colle-Salvetti functional. Using the cc-pVTZ basis set, the functional effectively models the bond dissociation of H 2 , LiH, and N 2 with equilibrium bond lengths and dissociation energies comparable to those provided by multireference second-order perturbation theory. The performance of the cumulant functional is less impressive for HF and F 2 , mainly due to an underestimation of the dynamic correlation energy by the Colle-Salvetti functional.

  8. Static dipole polarizabilities of Scn (n ≤ 15) clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xi-Bo, Li; Jiang-Shan, Luo; Wei-Dong, Wu; Yong-Jian, Tang; Hong-Yan, Wang; Yun-Dong, Guo

    2009-01-01

    The static dipole polarizabilities of scandium clusters with up to 15 atoms are determined by using the numerically finite field method in the framework of density functional theory. The electronic effects on the polarizabilities are investigated for the scandium clusters. We examine a large highest occupied molecular orbital — the lowest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO–LUMO) gap of a scandium cluster usually corresponds to a large dipole moment. The static polarizability per atom decreases slowly and exhibits local minimum with increasing cluster size. The polarizability anisotropy and the ratio of mean static polarizability to the HOMO–LUMO gap can also reflect the cluster stability. The polarizability of the scandium cluster is partially related to the HOMO–LUMO gap and is also dependent on geometrical characteristics. A strong correlation between the polarizability and ionization energy is observed. (atomic and molecular physics)

  9. Hard thermal loops, static response, and the composite effective action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackiw, R.; Liu, Q.; Lucchesi, C.

    1994-01-01

    First, we investigate the static non-Abelian Kubo equation. We prove that it does not possess finite energy solutions; thereby we establish that gauge theories do not support hard thermal solitons. This general result is verified by a numerical solution of the equations. A similar argument shows that ''static'' instantons are absent. In addition, we note that the static equations reproduce the expected screening of the non-Abelian electric field by a gauge-invariant Debye mass m=gT √(N+N F /2)/3 . Second, we derive the non-Abelian Kubo equation from the composite effective action. This is achieved by showing that the requirement of stationarity of the composite effective action is equivalent, within a kinematical approximation scheme, to the condition of gauge invariance for the generating functional of hard thermal loops

  10. Novel friction law for the static friction force based on local precursor slipping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katano, Yu; Nakano, Ken; Otsuki, Michio; Matsukawa, Hiroshi

    2014-09-10

    The sliding of a solid object on a solid substrate requires a shear force that is larger than the maximum static friction force. It is commonly believed that the maximum static friction force is proportional to the loading force and does not depend on the apparent contact area. The ratio of the maximum static friction force to the loading force is called the static friction coefficient µM, which is considered to be a constant. Here, we conduct experiments demonstrating that the static friction force of a slider on a substrate follows a novel friction law under certain conditions. The magnitude of µM decreases as the loading force increases or as the apparent contact area decreases. This behavior is caused by the slip of local precursors before the onset of bulk sliding and is consistent with recent theory. The results of this study will develop novel methods for static friction control.

  11. Statics of historic masonry constructions

    CERN Document Server

    Como, Mario

    2016-01-01

    This successful book, which is now appearing in its second edition, presents a comprehensive new Statics of Masonry Constructions. Masonry constructions are the great majority of the buildings in Europe’s historic centres and the most important monuments in its architectural heritage. Given the age of these constructions, the demand for safety assessments and restoration projects is pressing and constant. The book you hold in hands contributes to fill this demand. The second edition integrates the original text of the first edition with new developments, widening and revisions, due to recent research studies achievements. The result is a book that gives a complete picture of the behaviour of the Masonry Constructions. First of all, it gives the fundamentals of its Statics, based on the no-tension assumption, and then it develops the Limit Analysis for the Masonry Constructions. In this framework, through an interdisciplinary approach combining Engineering and Architecture, the book also investigates the sta...

  12. Water cooled static pressure probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagen, Nicholas T. (Inventor); Eves, John W. (Inventor); Reece, Garland D. (Inventor); Geissinger, Steve L. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    An improved static pressure probe containing a water cooling mechanism is disclosed. This probe has a hollow interior containing a central coolant tube and multiple individual pressure measurement tubes connected to holes placed on the exterior. Coolant from the central tube symmetrically immerses the interior of the probe, allowing it to sustain high temperature (in the region of 2500 F) supersonic jet flow indefinitely, while still recording accurate pressure data. The coolant exits the probe body by way of a reservoir attached to the aft of the probe. The pressure measurement tubes are joined to a single, larger manifold in the reservoir. This manifold is attached to a pressure transducer that records the average static pressure.

  13. Precipitation-Static-Reduction Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    1943-03-31

    if» 85 z \\ PRECIPITATION-STATIC-REDUCTION RESEARCH study of the effects of flame length , flame spacing, and burner spacing on B shows that there...unod: Flame length *. The visual length of the flame from the burner tip to the flame tip when examined in a darkened room against a black background...Postlve and Negative Flames The use of the second flame-conduction coefficient, B, facilitates considerably the study of the effect of flame length , spacing

  14. Static and Dynamic Membrane Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergiu Ivanov

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available While originally P systems were defined to contain multiset rewriting rules, it turned out that considering different types of rules may produce important results, such as increasing the computational power of the rules. This paper focuses on factoring out the concept of a membrane structure out of various P system models with the goal of providing useful formalisations. Both static and dynamic membrane structures are considered.

  15. Homotheties of cylindrically symmetric static spacetimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qadir, A.; Ziad, M.; Sharif, M.

    1998-08-01

    In this note we consider the homotheties of cylindrically symmetric static spacetimes. We find that we can provide a complete list of all metrics that admit non-trivial homothetic motions and are cylindrically symmetric static. (author)

  16. A Pedagogical Model of Static Friction

    OpenAIRE

    Pickett, Galen T.

    2015-01-01

    While dry Coulombic friction is an elementary topic in any standard introductory course in mechanics, the critical distinction between the kinetic and static friction forces is something that is both hard to teach and to learn. In this paper, I describe a geometric model of static friction that may help introductory students to both understand and apply the Coulomb static friction approximation.

  17. In-Flight Pitot-Static Calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, John V. (Inventor); Cunningham, Kevin (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A GPS-based pitot-static calibration system uses global output-error optimization. High data rate measurements of static and total pressure, ambient air conditions, and GPS-based ground speed measurements are used to compute pitot-static pressure errors over a range of airspeed. System identification methods rapidly compute optimal pressure error models with defined confidence intervals.

  18. Transformation magneto-statics and illusions for magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Fei; He, Sailing

    2014-10-01

    Based on the form-invariant of Maxwell's equations under coordinate transformations, we extend the theory of transformation optics to transformation magneto-statics, which can design magnets through coordinate transformations. Some novel DC magnetic field illusions created by magnets (e.g. rescaling magnets, cancelling magnets and overlapping magnets) are designed and verified by numerical simulations. Our research will open a new door to designing magnets and controlling DC magnetic fields.

  19. Static feed water electrolysis module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, J. D.; Schubert, F. H.; Jensen, F. C.

    1974-01-01

    An advanced static feed water electrolysis module (SFWEM) and associated instrumentation for generating breathable O2 was developed. The system also generates a H2 byproduct for use in an air revitalization system for O2 recovery from metabolic CO2. Special attention was given to: (1) eliminating water feed compartment degassing, (2) eliminating need for zero gravity condenser/separators, (3) increasing current density capability, and (4) providing a self contained module so that operation is independent of laboratory instrumentation and complicated startup/shutdown procedures.

  20. Static Analysis of Dynamic Languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Magnus

    Dynamic programming languages are highly popular and widely used. Java- Script is often called the lingua franca of the web and it is the de facto standard for client-side web programming. On the server-side the PHP, Python and Ruby languages are prevalent. What these languages have in common...... with static type systems, such as Java and C# , but the same features are rarely available for dynamic languages such as JavaScript. The aim of this thesis is to investigate techniques for improving the tool- support for dynamic programming languages without imposing any artificial restrictions...... of new dataflow analysis techniques to tackle the nature of dynamic programming languages....

  1. Static Validation of Security Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodei, Chiara; Buchholtz, Mikael; Degano, P.

    2005-01-01

    We methodically expand protocol narrations into terms of a process algebra in order to specify some of the checks that need to be made in a protocol. We then apply static analysis technology to develop an automatic validation procedure for protocols. Finally, we demonstrate that these techniques ...... suffice to identify several authentication flaws in symmetric and asymmetric key protocols such as Needham-Schroeder symmetric key, Otway-Rees, Yahalom, Andrew secure RPC, Needham-Schroeder asymmetric key, and Beller-Chang-Yacobi MSR...

  2. On Restructurable Control System Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athans, M.

    1983-01-01

    The state of stochastic system and control theory as it impacts restructurable control issues is addressed. The multivariable characteristics of the control problem are addressed. The failure detection/identification problem is discussed as a multi-hypothesis testing problem. Control strategy reconfiguration, static multivariable controls, static failure hypothesis testing, dynamic multivariable controls, fault-tolerant control theory, dynamic hypothesis testing, generalized likelihood ratio (GLR) methods, and adaptive control are discussed.

  3. Static and dynamic thyroid scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahlstedt, J.

    1986-01-01

    Static images as isolated investigation in thyroid diagnosis mainly provides morphologic information, and therefore sonography is largely applied for this purpose. 99m Tc-pertechnetate scans or 123 I-scans are indicated in cases of malpositions and serve to clarify lesions of unknown dignity. Additionally 201 Tl-chloride is suited for examinations with regard to metabolically active thyroid tissue, whereby differential diagnostic laboratory tests must be carried out to exclude parathyroid adenoma. Dynamic thyroid scans before and after regulation tests (suppression, stimulation) reflect the physiological correlation between the iodine avidity of the thyroid, the peripheral thyroid hormone concentrations and the hypophyseal regulation in the TRH-test. The main application of this procedure is the clarification of thyroid autonomy, i.e. indication, detection, quantification or exclusion of thyroid autonomy. For the treatment of immunogenic thyrotoxicosis, dynamic thyroid scintigraphy provides important information about the onset of remission, thus permitting to end thyreostatic therapy. (orig.) [de

  4. Statics learning from engineering examples

    CERN Document Server

    Emri, Igor

    2016-01-01

    This textbook introduces and explains the basic concepts on which statics is based utilizing real engineering examples. The authors emphasize the learning process by showing a real problem, analyzing it, simplifying it, and developing a way to solve it. This feature teaches students intuitive thinking in solving real engineering problems using the fundamentals of Newton’s laws. This book also: · Stresses representation of physical reality in ways that allow students to solve problems and obtain meaningful results · Emphasizes identification of important features of the structure that should be included in a model and which features may be omitted · Facilitates students' understanding and mastery of the "flow of thinking" practiced by professional engineers.

  5. A static world model. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundman, S.

    1981-01-01

    The static particle model of Part I requires creation of ether proportional to the energy of the particle. It is shown that this ether creation leads to gravitation and a forever expanding universe in agreement with the large-number hypothesis. The age, mass and size of the universe are calculated from atomic constants and G. The model predicts scale-invariance with different scales for gravitational matter, nucleons and electrons. This leads to a fine structure constant decreasing very slowly with time. For each scale there is a different type of dynamic balance governing the expansion of the universe. The model indicates that the universe was initially densely packed with (tau) leptons. It suggests a program for calculating the gravitational constant and the muon-electron mass ratio from other universal constants. Tentative numerological derivation gives these quantities with a higher accuracy than has been achieved experimentally. (Auth.)

  6. On the equivalent static loads approach for dynamic response structural optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stolpe, Mathias

    2014-01-01

    The equivalent static loads algorithm is an increasingly popular approach to solve dynamic response structural optimization problems. The algorithm is based on solving a sequence of related static response structural optimization problems with the same objective and constraint functions...... as the original problem. The optimization theoretical foundation of the algorithm is mainly developed in Park and Kang (J Optim Theory Appl 118(1):191–200, 2003). In that article it is shown, for a certain class of problems, that if the equivalent static loads algorithm terminates then the KKT conditions...

  7. Theory of multisource crosstalk reduction by phase-encoded statics

    KAUST Repository

    Schuster, Gerard T.; Wang, X.; Huang, Y.; Dai, W.; Boonyasiriwat, Chaiwoot

    2011-01-01

    shift and the square of source frequency. This is not too surprising because larger time shifts lead to less correlation between traces in different shot gathers, and so should tend to reduce the crosstalk noise. Analysis also reveals that combining both

  8. Static Equilibrium Configurations of Charged Metallic Bodies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Key words: Static equilibrium, charged metallic body, potential energy, projected gradient method. ... television, radio, internet, microwave ovens, mobile telephones, satellite communication systems, radar systems, electrical motors, electrical.

  9. Spectra of turbulent static pressure fluctuations in jet mixing layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, B. G.; Adrian, R. J.; Nithianandan, C. K.; Planchon, H. P., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Spectral similarity laws are derived for the power spectra of turbulent static pressure fluctuations by application of dimensional analysis in the limit of large turbulent Reynolds number. The theory predicts that pressure spectra are generated by three distinct types of interaction in the velocity fields: a fourth order interaction between fluctuating velocities, an interaction between the first order mean shear and the third order velocity fluctuations, and an interaction between the second order mean shear rate and the second order fluctuating velocity. Measurements of one-dimensional power spectra of the turbulent static pressure fluctuations in the driven mixing layer of a subsonic, circular jet are presented, and the spectra are examined for evidence of spectral similarity. Spectral similarity is found for the low wavenumber range when the large scale flow on the centerline of the mixing layer is self-preserving. The data are also consistent with the existence of universal inertial subranges for the spectra of each interaction mode.

  10. Static polarizabilities of dielectric nanoclusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hye-Young; Sofo, Jorge O.; Cole, Milton W.; Velegol, Darrell; Mukhopadhyay, Gautam

    2005-01-01

    A cluster consisting of many atoms or molecules may be considered, in some circumstances, to be a single large molecule with a well-defined polarizability. Once the polarizability of such a cluster is known, one can evaluate certain properties--e.g. the cluster's van der Waals interactions, using expressions derived for atoms or molecules. In the present work, we evaluate the static polarizability of a cluster using a microscopic method that is exact within the linear and dipolar approximations. Numerical examples are presented for various shapes and sizes of clusters composed of identical atoms, where the term 'atom' actually refers to a generic constituent, which could be any polarizable entity. The results for the clusters' polarizabilities are compared with those obtained by assuming simple additivity of the constituents' atomic polarizabilities; in many cases, the difference is large, demonstrating the inadequacy of the additivity approximation. Comparison is made (for symmetrical geometries) with results obtained from continuum models of the polarizability. Also, the surface effects due to the nonuniform local field near a surface or edge are shown to be significant

  11. Static response of deformable microchannels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christov, Ivan C.; Sidhore, Tanmay C.

    2017-11-01

    Microfluidic channels manufactured from PDMS are a key component of lab-on-a-chip devices. Experimentally, rectangular microchannels are found to deform into a non-rectangular cross-section due to fluid-structure interactions. Deformation affects the flow profile, which results in a nonlinear relationship between the volumetric flow rate and the pressure drop. We develop a framework, within the lubrication approximation (l >> w >> h), to self-consistently derive flow rate-pressure drop relations. Emphasis is placed on handling different types of elastic response: from pure plate-bending, to half-space deformation, to membrane stretching. The ``simplest'' model (Stokes flow in a 3D rectangular channel capped with a linearly elastic Kirchhoff-Love plate) agrees well with recent experiments. We also simulate the static response of such microfluidic channels under laminar flow conditions using ANSYSWorkbench. Simulations are calibrated using experimental flow rate-pressure drop data from the literature. The simulations provide highly resolved deformation profiles, which are difficult to measure experimentally. By comparing simulations, experiments and our theoretical models, we show good agreement in many flow/deformation regimes, without any fitting parameters.

  12. Unified field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vollendorf, F.

    1976-01-01

    A theory is developed in which the gravitational as well as the electromagnetic field is described in a purely geometrical manner. In the case of a static central symmetric field Newton's law of gravitation and Schwarzschild's line element are derived by means of an action principle. The same principle leads to Fermat's law which defines the world lines of photons. (orig.) [de

  13. Static quark-antiquark potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deo, B.B.; Barik, B.K.

    1983-01-01

    A heavy-quark--antiquark potential is suggested which connects asymptotic freedom and quark confinement in a unified manner by formal methods of field theory using some plausible assumptions. The potential has only one additional adjustable parameter B which is proportional to (M/sub q//m/sub q/), where M/sub q/ and m/sub q/ are the constituent and current quark masses, respectively

  14. Ligand-mediated adhesive mechanics of two static, deformed spheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sircar, Sarthok; Nguyen, Giang; Kotousov, Andrei; Roberts, Anthony J

    2016-10-01

    A self-consistent model is developed to investigate attachment/detachment kinetics of two static, deformable microspheres with irregular surface and coated with flexible binding ligands. The model highlights how the microscale binding kinetics of these ligands as well as the attractive/repulsive potential of the charged surface affects the macroscale static deformed configuration of the spheres. It is shown that in the limit of smooth, neutrally charged surface (i.e., the dimensionless inverse Debye length, [Formula: see text]), interacting via elastic binders (i.e., the dimensionless stiffness coefficient, [Formula: see text]) the adhesion mechanics approaches the regime of application of the JKR theory, and in this particular limit, the contact radius, R c , scales with the particle radius, R, according to the scaling law, [Formula: see text]. We show that static, deformed, highly charged, ligand-coated surface of micro-spheres exhibit strong adhesion. Normal stress distribution within the contact area adjusts with the binder stiffness coefficient, from a maximum at the center to a maximum at the periphery of the region. Although reported in some in vitro experiments involving particle adhesion, until now a physical interpretation for this variation of the stress distribution for deformable, charged, ligand-coated microspheres is missing. Surface roughness results in a diminished adhesion with a distinct reduction in the pull-off force, larger separation gap, weaker normal stress and limited area of adhesion. These results are in agreement with the published experimental findings.

  15. Martian Atmospheric Pressure Static Charge Elimination Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    A Martian pressure static charge elimination tool is currently in development in the Electrostatics and Surface Physics Laboratory (ESPL) at NASA's Kennedy Space Center. In standard Earth atmosphere conditions, static charge can be neutralized from an insulating surface using air ionizers. These air ionizers generate ions through corona breakdown. The Martian atmosphere is 7 Torr of mostly carbon dioxide, which makes it inherently difficult to use similar methods as those used for standard atmosphere static elimination tools. An initial prototype has been developed to show feasibility of static charge elimination at low pressure, using corona discharge. A needle point and thin wire loop are used as the corona generating electrodes. A photo of the test apparatus is shown below. Positive and negative high voltage pulses are sent to the needle point. This creates positive and negative ions that can be used for static charge neutralization. In a preliminary test, a floating metal plate was charged to approximately 600 volts under Martian atmospheric conditions. The static elimination tool was enabled and the voltage on the metal plate dropped rapidly to -100 volts. This test data is displayed below. Optimization is necessary to improve the electrostatic balance of the static elimination tool.

  16. A foundational methodology for determining system static complexity using notional lunar oxygen production processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Nicholas James

    This thesis serves to develop a preliminary foundational methodology for evaluating the static complexity of future lunar oxygen production systems when extensive information is not yet available about the various systems under consideration. Evaluating static complexity, as part of a overall system complexity analysis, is an important consideration in ultimately selecting a process to be used in a lunar base. When system complexity is higher, there is generally an overall increase in risk which could impact the safety of astronauts and the economic performance of the mission. To evaluate static complexity in lunar oxygen production, static complexity is simplified and defined into its essential components. First, three essential dimensions of static complexity are investigated, including interconnective complexity, strength of connections, and complexity in variety. Then a set of methods is developed upon which to separately evaluate each dimension. Q-connectivity analysis is proposed as a means to evaluate interconnective complexity and strength of connections. The law of requisite variety originating from cybernetic theory is suggested to interpret complexity in variety. Secondly, a means to aggregate the results of each analysis is proposed to create holistic measurement for static complexity using the Single Multi-Attribute Ranking Technique (SMART). Each method of static complexity analysis and the aggregation technique is demonstrated using notional data for four lunar oxygen production processes.

  17. Static potentials from an extended gauge symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doria, R.M.; Helayel Neto, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    Static potentials derived from the inclusion of more than one vector field in a single simple group are calculated. A confinement mechanism including colourful unphysical particle is discussed. (Author) [pt

  18. Static spherically symmetric wormholes in f(R, T) gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zubair, M.; Ahmad, Yasir [Institute Of Information Technology, Department of Mathematics, COMSATS, Lahore (Pakistan); Waheed, Saira [Prince Mohammad Bin Fahd University, Al Khobar (Saudi Arabia)

    2016-08-15

    In this work, we explore wormhole solutions in f(R, T) theory of gravity, where R is the scalar curvature and T is the trace of stress-energy tensor of matter. To investigate this, we consider a static spherically symmetric geometry with matter contents as anisotropic, isotropic, and barotropic fluids in three separate cases. By taking into account the Starobinsky f(R) model, we analyze the behavior of energy conditions for these different kinds of fluids. It is shown that the wormhole solutions can be constructed without exotic matter in few regions of space-time. We also give the graphical illustration of the results obtained and discuss the equilibrium picture for the anisotropic case only. It is concluded that the wormhole solutions with anisotropic matter are realistic and stable in this theory of gravity. (orig.)

  19. The Quasi-Static Electromagnetic Approximation for Weakly Conducting Media

    CERN Document Server

    Heubrandtner, T

    2002-01-01

    In a conducting dielectric charge and electric field decay with a time constant tau_R = \\varepsilon/\\sigma. In a weakly conducting medium, as e.g. glass or melamine-phenolic laminate in use in RPC's, this time is about 10^{-3} s; so it is long as compared to the time the charge cloud needs to move through the gap and to the time the signal needs to propagate through a dielectric to the electrode. A quasi-static theory to deal with transient phenomena in weakly conducting media has been developed in Haus and Melcher (1989), Fano, Chu and Adler (1963); it simplifies the analysis considerably since it requires only the solution of a scalar diffusion-type equations in place of the time-dependent Maxwell equations. This little known theory is applied to treat the generation of signals in simple models for chambers with such materials.

  20. Static Deadlock Detection in MPI Synchronization Communication

    OpenAIRE

    Ming-Xue, Liao; Xiao-Xin, He; Zhi-Hua, Fan

    2007-01-01

    It is very common to use dynamic methods to detect deadlocks in MPI programs for the reason that static methods have some restrictions. To guarantee high reliability of some important MPI-based application software, a model of MPI synchronization communication is abstracted and a type of static method is devised to examine deadlocks in such modes. The model has three forms with different complexity: sequential model, single-loop model and nested-loop model. Sequential model is a base for all ...

  1. Static quarks with improved statistical precision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Della Morte, M.; Duerr, S.; Molke, H.; Heitger, J.

    2003-09-01

    We present a numerical study for different discretisations of the static action, concerning cut-off effects and the growth of statistical errors with Euclidean time. An error reduction by an order of magnitude can be obtained with respect to the Eichten-Hill action, for time separations up to 2 fm, keeping discretization errors small. The best actions lead to a big improvement on the precision of the quark mass M b and F B s in the static approximation. (orig.)

  2. Statics formulas and problems : engineering mechanics 1

    CERN Document Server

    Gross, Dietmar; Wriggers, Peter; Schröder, Jörg; Müller, Ralf

    2017-01-01

    This book contains the most important formulas and more than 160 completely solved problems from Statics. It provides engineering students material to improve their skills and helps to gain experience in solving engineering problems. Particular emphasis is placed on finding the solution path and formulating the basic equations. Topics include: - Equilibrium - Center of Gravity, Center of Mass, Centroids - Support Reactions - Trusses - Beams, Frames, Arches - Cables - Work and Potential Energy - Static and Kinetic Friction - Moments of Inertia.

  3. Extremal static AdS black hole/CFT correspondence in gauged supergravities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lue, H.; Mei Jianwei; Pope, C.N.; Vazquez-Poritz, Justin F.

    2009-01-01

    A recently proposed holographic duality allows the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy of extremal rotating black holes to be calculated microscopically, by applying the Cardy formula to the two-dimensional chiral CFTs associated with certain reparameterisations of azimuthal angular coordinates in the solutions. The central charges are proportional to the angular momenta of the black hole, and so the method degenerates in the case of static (non-rotating) black holes. We show that the method can be extended to encompass such charged static extremal AdS black holes by using consistent Kaluza-Klein sphere reduction ansatze to lift them to exact solutions in the low-energy limits of string theory or M-theory, where the electric charges become reinterpreted as angular momenta associated with internal rotations in the reduction sphere. We illustrate the procedure for the examples of extremal charged static AdS black holes in four, five, six and seven dimensions

  4. Static loading and vertical displacement at southern Siberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton V. Timofeev

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Seismic method is usually used for elastic parametric estimation. This is why this method presents dynamic parameters of Earth. Frequency seismic range changes greatly from geodynamic modelling time. Now we have opportunity to use geodesy result for some years for elastic parameters estimation. Static solution from elastic theory may be used for the interpretation of long term results. It presents static elastic parameter. The inverse problem for different types of vertical surface loading on one year period is calculated. Two cases of loading with maximal and minimal area are presented. Results are determined by space geodesy and leveling methods. Current relation between atmospheric pressure and vertical displacements was estimated at the center of Siberian Anti Cyclone with size varied from 2000 km to 3000 km. Pressure-displacement coefficients (PDC can be achieved by three years observation (0.997 mm/mbar for NVSK GPS station. It is used for elastic module study of geology medium with maximum thickness up to 600 km. In the context of elastic model, the modulus of rigidity is estimated to be 113 GPa. Vast expanse of anti-cyclone may relate with rheology of crust and upper mantle. Smaller size of surface loading – local loading is seasonal variation of water reservoir. Annual vertical changes were obtained by leveling near the dam of the reservoir. PDC ratio was 1.15 mm/bar for these places. In elastic theory, the Young modulus E = 80 GPa (Poisson ratio = 0.25, the modulus of rigidity = 32 GPa was calculated by sixteen years of leveling measurements. This result can effectively be represented for upper crust. Our results were checked by solution for coseismic displacement of Chyia-Altai earthquake (Sep. 27, 2003, M = 7.3. Coseismic results calculated by static modules agree with experimental coseismic GPS data at 10% level.

  5. Static Members of Classes in C#

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian LUPASC

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The C# language is object-oriented, which is why the declared member data must be part of a class. Thus, there is no possibility to declare certain variables that can be accessed from anywhere within the application, as it happens, for example, with global variables at the C language level. Making this work in C# is possible through static members of the class. Declaring a class implies defining some of its member data that later receive values when creating each object. A static member of the class can be interpreted as belonging only to the class, not to the objects subsequently created, which means that for the non-static data, there are as many children as there were objects created, while for the static ones there is only one copy, regardless of the number of created objects. In this regard, this paper presents the main aspects that characterize these abstract concepts of object oriented programming in general and C# language in particular, detailing how to develop an application that includes both static and non-static members. At the same time, particularities in the mirror for the two types of data, restrictions on use and potential limitations are presented.

  6. 1S0 proton superfluidity in neutron star matter: Impact of bulk properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanigawa, Tomonori; Matsuzaki, Masayuki; Chiba, Satoshi

    2004-01-01

    We study the 1 S 0 proton pairing gap in neutron star matter putting emphasis on influence of the Dirac effective mass and the proton fraction on the gap within the relativistic Hartree-Bogoliubov model. The gap equation is solved using the Bonn-B potential as a particle-particle channel interaction. It is found that the maximal pairing gap Δ max is 1-2 MeV, which has a strong correlation with the Dirac effective mass. Hence we suggest that it serves as a guide to narrow down parameter sets of the relativistic effective field theory. Furthermore, the more slowly protons increase with density in the core region of neutron stars, the wider the superfluid range and the slightly lower the peak of the gap become

  7. Neutron halo in deformed nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Shangui; Meng Jie; Ring, P.; Zhao Enguang

    2010-01-01

    Halo phenomena in deformed nuclei are investigated within a deformed relativistic Hartree Bogoliubov (DRHB) theory. These weakly bound quantum systems present interesting examples for the study of the interdependence between the deformation of the core and the particles in the halo. Contributions of the halo, deformation effects, and large spatial extensions of these systems are described in a fully self-consistent way by the DRHB equations in a spherical Woods-Saxon basis with the proper asymptotic behavior at a large distance from the nuclear center. Magnesium and neon isotopes are studied and detailed results are presented for the deformed neutron-rich and weakly bound nucleus 44 Mg. The core of this nucleus is prolate, but the halo has a slightly oblate shape. This indicates a decoupling of the halo orbitals from the deformation of the core. The generic conditions for the occurrence of this decoupling effects are discussed.

  8. Evolution of the low-lying dipole strength in deformed nuclei with extreme neutron excess with the Relativistic QRPA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pena Arteaga, D.; Khan, E.; Ring, P.

    2009-01-01

    Covariant density functional theory, in the framework of self-consistent Relativistic Hartree Bogoliubov (HFB) and Relativistic Quasiparticle Random Phase approximation (RQRPA), is for the first time applied to axially deformed nuclei [1]. The fully self-consistent RHB+RQRPA equations are posed for the case of axial symmetry and different energy functionals, and solved with the help of a new parallel code. As a sample application, the El strength is systematically analyzed in very neutron-rich Sn nuclei, beyond 1 32S n until 1 66S n [2]. The great neutron excess favors the appearance of a deformed ground state for 1 42-162S n. The evolution of the low-lying strength in deformed nuclei is discussed, and in particular its dependence on the interplay of two major and competing factors, isospin asymmetry and deformation.(author)

  9. Description of rotating N=Z nuclei in terms of isovector pairing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afanasjev, A.V.; Frauendorf, S.

    2005-01-01

    A systematic investigation of the rotating N=Z even-even nuclei in the mass A=68-80 region has been performed within the frameworks of the cranked relativistic mean field, cranked relativistic Hartree-Bogoliubov theories, and cranked Nilsson-Strutinsky approach. Most of the experimental data are well accounted for in the calculations. The present study suggests the presence of strong isovector np pair field at low spin, whose strength is defined by the isospin symmetry. At high spin, the isovector pair field is destroyed and the data are well described by the calculations assuming zero pairing. No clear evidence for the existence of the isoscalar t=0 np pairing has been obtained in the present investigation performed at the mean field level

  10. From Static Output Feedback to Structured Robust Static Output Feedback: A Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Sadabadi , Mahdieh ,; Peaucelle , Dimitri

    2016-01-01

    This paper reviews the vast literature on static output feedback design for linear time-invariant systems including classical results and recent developments. In particular, we focus on static output feedback synthesis with performance specifications, structured static output feedback, and robustness. The paper provides a comprehensive review on existing design approaches including iterative linear matrix inequalities heuristics, linear matrix inequalities with rank constraints, methods with ...

  11. Mathematical modeling of the lithium, thionyl chloride static cell: acid electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsaur, K.-C.; Pollard, R.

    1984-05-01

    A mathematical model for a complete Li/SOCl/sub 2/ static cell with acid electrolyte is presented. Concentrated solution theory is extended to account for the presence of two neutral species in the electrolyte. The effects of initial acid concentration, positive electrode thickness, and galvanostatic discharge rate on cell performance are elucidated. Results are compared with equivalent cells that use a neutral electrolyte.

  12. Measuring Cognitive Load in Test Items: Static Graphics versus Animated Graphics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dindar, M.; Kabakçi Yurdakul, I.; Inan Dönmez, F.

    2015-01-01

    The majority of multimedia learning studies focus on the use of graphics in learning process but very few of them examine the role of graphics in testing students' knowledge. This study investigates the use of static graphics versus animated graphics in a computer-based English achievement test from a cognitive load theory perspective. Three…

  13. On scattering of scalar waves in static space-times, particularly Schwarzschild

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beig, R.

    1982-01-01

    This paper aims at laying foundations of a rigorous scattering theory for scalar waves in a static space-time. The treatment includes geometries which can be thought of as representing the exterior of a black hole. Schwarzschild space-time, as a particular example, is studied in more detail. (Auth.)

  14. Risk communication: Framing versus interdependence theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawless, W.F.; Burns, Chad W.

    1992-01-01

    Prospect theory has gained wide acceptance since its introduction by Kahneman and Tversky, especially where it has been applied extensively by DOE and others. But as conceived, it is a static process theory that may not apply to dynamic environments or dynamic processes; indeed, the recent extension to group situations by one of its authors modified the original conclusions. Although most social science research is static in nature, if prospect theory is to apply to human behavior, as the authors do with their sweeping generalizations about human irrationality, because behavior is dynamic and not static, then the challenge is to study prospect theory in a dynamic environment. This study will briefly review prospect and interdependence theories, representative evidence that distinguishes between the two theories, and the implications for DOE nuclear waste management. (author)

  15. Static and kinetic friction characteristics of nanowire on different substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun-Joon [Department of Precision Mechanical Engineering, Kyungpook National University, Sangju 37224 (Korea, Republic of); Nguyen, Gia Hau; Ky, Dinh Le Cao; Tran, Da Khoa [School of Mechanical Engineering, University of Ulsan, Ulsan 44610 (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Ki-Joon [Department of Environmental Engineering, Inha University, Incheon 22212 (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Koo-Hyun, E-mail: khchung@ulsan.ac.kr [School of Mechanical Engineering, University of Ulsan, Ulsan 44610 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-08-30

    Highlights: • Direct measurement of kinetic friction of oxidized Si NW using AFM. • Determination of static friction of oxidized Si NW from most bent state. • Friction characteristics of oxidized Si NW on SiO{sub 2} and graphene. • Estimation of shear stress between cylindrical NW and flat substrate. • No significant dependence of shear stress on NW radius. - Abstract: Friction characteristics of nanowires (NWs), which may be used as building blocks for nano-devices, are crucial, especially for cases where contact sliding occurs during the device operation. In this work, the static and kinetic friction characteristics of oxidized Si NWs deposited on thermally grown SiO{sub 2} and chemical vapor-deposited single layer graphene were investigated using an atomic force microscope (AFM). Kinetic friction between the oxidized Si NWs and the substrates was directly measured by the AFM. Static friction was also obtained from the most bent state of the NWs using the individually determined elastic moduli of the NWs from kinetic friction experiments based on elastic beam theory. Furthermore, the shear stress between the oxidized Si NWs and the substrates was estimated based on adhesive contact theory. It was found that both static and kinetic friction increased as the radius of the NWs increased. The friction of the oxidized Si NWs on the graphene substrate was found to be smaller than that on the SiO{sub 2} substrate, which suggests that chemical vapor-deposited graphene can be used as a lubricant or as a protective layer in nano-devices to reduce friction. The shear stress estimated from the kinetic friction data between the oxidized Si NWs and the SiO{sub 2} substrate ranged from 7.5 to 12.3 MPa while that between the oxidized Si NWs and the graphene substrate ranged from 4.7 to 7.0 MPa. The result also indicated that the dependence of shear stress on the radius of the NWs was not significant. These findings may provide insight into the friction characteristics

  16. Static and kinetic friction characteristics of nanowire on different substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyun-Joon; Nguyen, Gia Hau; Ky, Dinh Le Cao; Tran, Da Khoa; Jeon, Ki-Joon; Chung, Koo-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Direct measurement of kinetic friction of oxidized Si NW using AFM. • Determination of static friction of oxidized Si NW from most bent state. • Friction characteristics of oxidized Si NW on SiO 2 and graphene. • Estimation of shear stress between cylindrical NW and flat substrate. • No significant dependence of shear stress on NW radius. - Abstract: Friction characteristics of nanowires (NWs), which may be used as building blocks for nano-devices, are crucial, especially for cases where contact sliding occurs during the device operation. In this work, the static and kinetic friction characteristics of oxidized Si NWs deposited on thermally grown SiO 2 and chemical vapor-deposited single layer graphene were investigated using an atomic force microscope (AFM). Kinetic friction between the oxidized Si NWs and the substrates was directly measured by the AFM. Static friction was also obtained from the most bent state of the NWs using the individually determined elastic moduli of the NWs from kinetic friction experiments based on elastic beam theory. Furthermore, the shear stress between the oxidized Si NWs and the substrates was estimated based on adhesive contact theory. It was found that both static and kinetic friction increased as the radius of the NWs increased. The friction of the oxidized Si NWs on the graphene substrate was found to be smaller than that on the SiO 2 substrate, which suggests that chemical vapor-deposited graphene can be used as a lubricant or as a protective layer in nano-devices to reduce friction. The shear stress estimated from the kinetic friction data between the oxidized Si NWs and the SiO 2 substrate ranged from 7.5 to 12.3 MPa while that between the oxidized Si NWs and the graphene substrate ranged from 4.7 to 7.0 MPa. The result also indicated that the dependence of shear stress on the radius of the NWs was not significant. These findings may provide insight into the friction characteristics of NWs.

  17. Acceleration of a Static Observer Near the Event Horizon of a Static Isolated Black Hole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doughty, Noel A.

    1981-01-01

    Compares the magnitude of the proper acceleration of a static observer in a static, isolated, spherically symmetric space-time region with the Newtonian result including the situation in the interior of a perfect-fluid star. This provides a simple physical interpretation of surface gravity and illustrates the global nature of the event horizon.…

  18. Statics and rotational dynamics of composite beams

    CERN Document Server

    Ghorashi, Mehrdaad

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive study of the nonlinear statics and dynamics of composite beams and consists of solutions with and without active elements embedded in the beams. The static solution provides the initial conditions for the dynamic analysis. The dynamic problems considered include the analyses of clamped (hingeless) and articulated (hinged) accelerating rotating beams. Two independent numerical solutions for the steady state and the transient responses are presented. The author illustrates that the transient solution of the nonlinear formulation of accelerating rotating beam converges to the steady state solution obtained by the shooting method. Other key areas considered include calculation of the effect of perturbing the steady state solution, coupled nonlinear flap-lag dynamics of a rotating articulated beam with hinge offset and aerodynamic damping, and static and dynamic responses of nonlinear composite beams with embedded anisotropic piezo-composite actuators. The book is intended as a t...

  19. Extending and Enhancing SAS (Static Analysis Suite)

    CERN Document Server

    Ho, David

    2016-01-01

    The Static Analysis Suite (SAS) is an open-source software package used to perform static analysis on C and C++ code, helping to ensure safety, readability and maintainability. In this Summer Student project, SAS was enhanced to improve ease of use and user customisation. A straightforward method of integrating static analysis into a project at compilation time was provided using the automated build tool CMake. The process of adding checkers to the suite was streamlined and simplied by developing an automatic code generator. To make SAS more suitable for continuous integration, a reporting mechanism summarising results was added. This suitability has been demonstrated by inclusion of SAS in the Future Circular Collider Software nightly build system. Scalability of the improved package was demonstrated by using the tool to analyse the ROOT code base.

  20. Sawja: Static Analysis Workshop for Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubert, Laurent; Barré, Nicolas; Besson, Frédéric; Demange, Delphine; Jensen, Thomas; Monfort, Vincent; Pichardie, David; Turpin, Tiphaine

    Static analysis is a powerful technique for automatic verification of programs but raises major engineering challenges when developing a full-fledged analyzer for a realistic language such as Java. Efficiency and precision of such a tool rely partly on low level components which only depend on the syntactic structure of the language and therefore should not be redesigned for each implementation of a new static analysis. This paper describes the Sawja library: a static analysis workshop fully compliant with Java 6 which provides OCaml modules for efficiently manipulating Java bytecode programs. We present the main features of the library, including i) efficient functional data-structures for representing a program with implicit sharing and lazy parsing, ii) an intermediate stack-less representation, and iii) fast computation and manipulation of complete programs. We provide experimental evaluations of the different features with respect to time, memory and precision.

  1. Static Analysis for JavaScript

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Simon Holm

    . This dissertation describes the design and implementation of a static analysis for JavaScript that can assist programmers in finding bugs in code during development. We describe the design of a static analysis tool for JavaScript, built using the monotone framework. This analysis infers detailed type information......Web applications present unique challenges to designers of static analysis tools. One of these challenges is the language JavaScript used for client side scripting in the browser. JavaScript is a complex language with many pitfalls and poor tool support compared to other languages...... about programs. This information can be used to detect bugs such as null pointer dereferences and unintended type coercions. The analysis is sound, enabling it to prove the absence of certain program errors. JavaScript is usually run within the context of the browser and the DOM API. The major...

  2. On the geometric phenomenology of static friction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Shankar; Merin, A P; Nitsure, Nitin

    2017-09-06

    In this note we introduce a hierarchy of phase spaces for static friction, which give a graphical way to systematically quantify the directional dependence in static friction via subregions of the phase spaces. We experimentally plot these subregions to obtain phenomenological descriptions for static friction in various examples where the macroscopic shape of the object affects the frictional response. The phase spaces have the universal property that for any experiment in which a given object is put on a substrate fashioned from a chosen material with a specified nature of contact, the frictional behaviour can be read off from a uniquely determined classifying map on the control space of the experiment which takes values in the appropriate phase space.

  3. Pheromone Static Routing Strategy for Complex Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Mao-Bin; Henry, Y. K. Lau; Ling, Xiang; Jiang, Rui

    2012-12-01

    We adopt the concept of using pheromones to generate a set of static paths that can reach the performance of global dynamic routing strategy [Phys. Rev. E 81 (2010) 016113]. The path generation method consists of two stages. In the first stage, a pheromone is dropped to the nodes by packets forwarded according to the global dynamic routing strategy. In the second stage, pheromone static paths are generated according to the pheromone density. The output paths can greatly improve traffic systems' overall capacity on different network structures, including scale-free networks, small-world networks and random graphs. Because the paths are static, the system needs much less computational resources than the global dynamic routing strategy.

  4. Static Einstein--Maxwell field equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, A.

    1979-01-01

    The static Einstein--Maxwell field equations are investigated in the presence of both electric and magnetic fields. The sources or bodies are assumed to be of finite size and to not affect the connectivity of the associated space. Furthermore, electromagnetic and metric fields are assumed to have reasonable differentiabilities. It is then proved that the electric and magnetic field vectors are constant multiples of one another. Moreover, the static Einstein--Maxwell equations reduce to the static magnetovac case. If, furthermore, the variational derivation of the Einstein--Maxwell equations is assumed, then both the total electric and magnetic charge of each body must vanish. As a physical consequence it is pointed out that if a suspended magnet be electrically charged then it must experience a purely general relativistic torque

  5. Utility of the Static-99 and Static-99R With Latino Sex Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leguízamo, Alejandro; Lee, Seung C; Jeglic, Elizabeth L; Calkins, Cynthia

    2017-12-01

    The predictive validity of the Static-99 measures with ethnic minorities in the United States has only recently been assessed with mixed results. We assessed the predictive validity of the Static-99 and Static-99R with a sample of Latino sex offenders ( N = 483) as well as with two subsamples (U.S.-born, including Puerto Rico, and non-U.S.-born). The overall sexual recidivism rate was very low (1.9%). Both the Static-99 measures were able to predict sexual recidivism for offenders born in the United States and Puerto Rico, but neither was effective in doing so for other Latino immigrants. Calibration analyses ( N = 303) of the Static-99R were consistent with the literature and provided support for the potential use of the measure with Latinos born in the United States and Puerto Rico. These findings and their implications are discussed as they pertain to the assessment of Latino sex offenders.

  6. Thermal effects in static friction: thermolubricity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchini, A; Bortolani, V; Santoro, G; Brigazzi, M

    2008-10-01

    We present a molecular dynamics analysis of the static friction between two thick slabs. The upper block is formed by N2 molecules and the lower block by Pb atoms. We study the effects of the temperature as well as the effects produced by the structure of the surface of the lower block on the static friction. To put in evidence the temperature effects we will compare the results obtained with the lower block formed by still atoms with those obtained when the atoms are allowed to vibrate (e.g., with phonons). To investigate the importance of the geometry of the surface of the lower block we apply the external force in different directions, with respect to a chosen crystallographic direction of the substrate. We show that the interaction between the lattice dynamics of the two blocks is responsible for the strong dependence of the static friction on the temperature. The lattice dynamics interaction between the two blocks strongly reduces the static friction, with respect to the case of the rigid substrate. This is due to the large momentum transfer between atoms and the N2 molecules which disorders the molecules of the interface layer. A further disorder is introduced by the temperature. We perform calculations at T = 20K which is a temperature below the melting, which for our slab is at 50K . We found that because of the disorder the static friction becomes independent of the direction of the external applied force. The very low value of the static friction seems to indicate that we are in a regime of thermolubricity similar to that observed in dynamical friction.

  7. Static measurements at PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syed Nahar Bin Syed Hussin Shabuddin; Sharifuldin Bin Salleh, Mohd Amin; Harasawa, Susumu

    1985-06-01

    Static measurements at the PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor (RTP) were made to study the variation of its fuel temperature with reactor power. Some constants that relate power to fuel temperature behaviour were also determined. These constants are reflective of the coolling characteristics in the reactor core. Comparison was also made between the negative temperature coefficient of reactivity obtained from these measurements to those published in the Safety Analysis Report, SAR. The differences between these values are attributable to a delayed effect found in static measurements but not included in the SAR calculation which consider the prompt effect only.

  8. Static compensators (STATCOMs) in power systems

    CERN Document Server

    Shahnia, Farhad; Ghosh, Arindam

    2014-01-01

    A static compensator (STATCOM), also known as static synchronous compensator, is a member of the flexible alternating current transmission system (FACTS) devices. It is a power-electronics based regulating device which is composed of a voltage source converter (VSC) and is shunt-connected to alternating current electricity transmission and distribution networks. The voltage source is created from a DC capacitor and the STATCOM can exchange reactive power with the network. It can also supply some active power to the network, if a DC source of power is connected across the capacitor. A STATCOM

  9. MEMS linear and nonlinear statics and dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Younis, Mohammad I

    2011-01-01

    MEMS Linear and Nonlinear Statics and Dynamics presents the necessary analytical and computational tools for MEMS designers to model and simulate most known MEMS devices, structures, and phenomena. This book also provides an in-depth analysis and treatment of the most common static and dynamic phenomena in MEMS that are encountered by engineers. Coverage also includes nonlinear modeling approaches to modeling various MEMS phenomena of a nonlinear nature, such as those due to electrostatic forces, squeeze-film damping, and large deflection of structures. The book also: Includes examples of nume

  10. Static multiplicities in heterogeneous azeotropic distillation sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Klavs; Andersen, Torben Ravn; Jørgensen, Sten Bay

    1998-01-01

    In this paper the results of a bifurcation analysis on heterogeneous azeotropic distillation sequences are given. Two sequences suitable for ethanol dehydration are compared: The 'direct' and the 'indirect' sequence. It is shown, that the two sequences, despite their similarities, exhibit very...... different static behavior. The method of Petlyuk and Avet'yan (1971), Bekiaris et al. (1993), which assumes infinite reflux and infinite number of stages, is extended to and applied on heterogeneous azeotropic distillation sequences. The predictions are substantiated through simulations. The static sequence...

  11. de Sitter relativity in static charts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotaescu, Ion I. [West University of Timisoara, Timisoara (Romania)

    2018-02-15

    The relative geodesic motion in static (and spherically symmetric) local charts on the (1 + 3)-dimensional de Sitter spacetimes is studied in terms of conserved quantities. The Lorentzian isometries are derived, relating the coordinates of the local chart of a fixed observer with the coordinates of a mobile chart considered as the rest frame of a massive particle freely moving on a timelike geodesic. The time dilation and Lorentz contraction are discussed pointing out some notable features of the de Sitter relativity in static charts. (orig.)

  12. Analysis of the elastic behaviour of nonclassical nonlinear mesoscopic materials in quasi-static experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruffino, E.; Scalerandi, M.

    2000-01-01

    As discovered by recent quasi-static and dynamic resonance experiments, the classical nonlinear theory fails in describing the hysteretic behaviour of nonlinear mesoscopic materials like rocks, concrete, etc. The paper applies the local interaction simulation approach (LISA) for studying such kind of nonclassical nonlinearity. To this purpose, in the LISA treatment of ultrasonic wave propagation has been included a phenomenological model, based on the PM space approach, of the local mesoscopic features of rocks and other materials with localized damages. A quantitative comparison of simulation and experimental results in quasi-static experiments is also presented

  13. [Research on Spectral Polarization Imaging System Based on Static Modulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hai-bo; Li, Huan; Lin, Xu-ling; Wang, Zheng

    2015-04-01

    The main disadvantages of traditional spectral polarization imaging system are: complex structure, with moving parts, low throughput. A novel method of spectral polarization imaging system is discussed, which is based on static polarization intensity modulation combined with Savart polariscope interference imaging. The imaging system can obtain real-time information of spectral and four Stokes polarization messages. Compared with the conventional methods, the advantages of the imaging system are compactness, low mass and no moving parts, no electrical control, no slit and big throughput. The system structure and the basic theory are introduced. The experimental system is established in the laboratory. The experimental system consists of reimaging optics, polarization intensity module, interference imaging module, and CCD data collecting and processing module. The spectral range is visible and near-infrared (480-950 nm). The white board and the plane toy are imaged by using the experimental system. The ability of obtaining spectral polarization imaging information is verified. The calibration system of static polarization modulation is set up. The statistical error of polarization degree detection is less than 5%. The validity and feasibility of the basic principle is proved by the experimental result. The spectral polarization data captured by the system can be applied to object identification, object classification and remote sensing detection.

  14. Quasi-static responses and variational principles in gradient plasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Quoc-Son

    2016-12-01

    Gradient models have been much discussed in the literature for the study of time-dependent or time-independent processes such as visco-plasticity, plasticity and damage. This paper is devoted to the theory of Standard Gradient Plasticity at small strain. A general and consistent mathematical description available for common time-independent behaviours is presented. Our attention is focussed on the derivation of general results such as the description of the governing equations for the global response and the derivation of related variational principles in terms of the energy and the dissipation potentials. It is shown that the quasi-static response under a loading path is a solution of an evolution variational inequality as in classical plasticity. The rate problem and the rate minimum principle are revisited. A time-discretization by the implicit scheme of the evolution equation leads to the increment problem. An increment of the response associated with a load increment is a solution of a variational inequality and satisfies also a minimum principle if the energy potential is convex. The increment minimum principle deals with stables solutions of the variational inequality. Some numerical methods are discussed in view of the numerical simulation of the quasi-static response.

  15. INTRODUCTION AND STATIC ELECTRICITY, VOLUME 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    KLAUS, DAVID J.; AND OTHERS

    THIS VOLUME, PART OF A TWO-VOLUME SET, PROVIDES AUTOINSTRUCTION IN PHYSICS. THE MATERIAL COVERS UNITS ON (1) STATIC ELECTRICITY AND ELECTRICAL CHARGES, (2) COULOMB'S LAW, (3) DISTRIBUTION OF CHARGE AND FLOW OF CURRENT, (4) DIFFERENCE OF POTENTIAL, (5) BATTERIES AND CIRCUITS, (6) RESISTANCE AND RESISTORS, (7) POTENTIAL DIVIDER AND WHEATSTONE…

  16. Static Analysis for Java Servlets and JSP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Christian; Møller, Anders

    2006-01-01

    We present an approach for statically reasoning about the behavior of Web applications that are developed using Java Servlets and JSP. Specifically, we attack the problems of guaranteeing that all output is well-formed and valid XML and ensuring consistency of XHTML form fields and session state...

  17. Static Analysis of XML Transformations in Java

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Christian; Møller, Anders; Schwartzbach, Michael I.

    2004-01-01

    of XML documents to be defined, there are generally no automatic mechanisms for statically checking that a program transforms from one class to another as intended. We introduce Xact, a high-level approach for Java using XML templates as a first-class data type with operations for manipulating XML values...

  18. Static, Lightweight Includes Resolution for PHP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A. Hills (Mark); P. Klint (Paul); J.J. Vinju (Jurgen)

    2014-01-01

    htmlabstractDynamic languages include a number of features that are challenging to model properly in static analysis tools. In PHP, one of these features is the include expression, where an arbitrary expression provides the path of the file to include at runtime. In this paper we present two

  19. Static timing analysis for nanometer designs

    CERN Document Server

    Bhasker, J

    2009-01-01

    Covers topics such as cell timing and power modeling; interconnect modeling and analysis, delay calculation, crosstalk, noise and the chip timing verification using static timing analysis. For each of these topics, this book provides a theoretical background as well as detailed examples to elaborate the concepts.

  20. Device measures static friction of magnetic tape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, P. T.

    1967-01-01

    Device measures the coefficient of static friction of magnetic tape over a range of temperatures and relative humidities. It uses a strain gage to measure the force of friction between a reference surface and the tape drawn at a constant velocity of approximately 0.0001 inch per second relative to the reference surface.

  1. The static gravitational field near spatial infinity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beig, R.

    1980-01-01

    A static solution to Einstein's equations, which is asymptotically flat near spatial infinity, is shown to be asymptotically Schwarzschildian. As an application of this result a technical lemma on the existence of asymptotically flat harmonic coordinates near infinity is proved. (author)

  2. Static and evolutionary quantum public goods games

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao Zeyang; Qin Gan; Hu Lingzhi; Li Songjian; Xu Nanyang [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Science at Microscale and Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Du Jiangfeng [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Science at Microscale and Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Fachbereich Physik, Universitaet Dortmund, 44221 Dortmund (Germany)], E-mail: djf@ustc.edu.cn

    2008-05-12

    We apply the continuous-variable quantization scheme to quantize public goods game and find that new pure strategy Nash equilibria emerge in the static case. Furthermore, in the evolutionary public goods game, entanglement can also contribute to the persistence of cooperation under various population structures without altruism, voluntary participation, and punishment.

  3. Static electromagnetic properties of giant resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, W.K.

    1986-03-01

    Static electric monopole and quadrupole matrix elements, which are related to the mean square radius and quadrupole moment respectively, are derived for giant resonances of arbitrary multipolarity. The results furnish information on the size and shape of the nucleus in the excited giant states. (author)

  4. A Progression of Static Equilibrium Laboratory Exercises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutzner, Mickey; Kutzner, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Although simple architectural structures like bridges, catwalks, cantilevers, and Stonehenge have been integral in human societies for millennia, as have levers and other simple tools, modern students of introductory physics continue to grapple with Newton's conditions for static equilibrium. As formulated in typical introductory physics…

  5. Automatic incrementalization of Prolog based static analyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eichberg, Michael; Kahl, Matthias; Saha, Diptikalyan

    2007-01-01

    Modem development environments integrate various static analyses into the build process. Analyses that analyze the whole project whenever the project changes are impractical in this context. We present an approach to automatic incrementalization of analyses that are specified as tabled logic prog...

  6. Model of the static universe within GR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karbanovski, V. V.; Tarasova, A. S.; Salimova, A. S.; Bilinskaya, G. V.; Sumbulov, A. N.

    2011-01-01

    Within GR, the problems of the Robertson-Walker universe are discussed. The approach based on transition to a nondiagonal line element is suggested. Within the considered approach, the static universe model is investigated. The possibility of constructing scenarios without an initial singularity and “exotic” matter is discussed. Accordance of the given model to the properties of the observable universe is discussed.

  7. A scanning bi-static SODAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behrens, P; Bradley, S [Physics Department, Auckland University, 38 Princes Street, Auckland (New Zealand); Hunerbein, S von [Acoustics Department, Newton Building, University of Salford, Greater Manchester M5 4WT (United Kingdom)

    2008-05-01

    Field results are given from a bi-static SODAR which uses a single central vertical transmission and three distributed microphone array receivers. Fourier transform delay methods are applied to data sampled from each microphone to retrospectively scan in angle and follow the transmitted pulse. Advantages of sampling a narrow atmospheric column, rather than distributed volumes are discussed.

  8. A scanning bi-static SODAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behrens, P; Bradley, S; Hunerbein, S von

    2008-01-01

    Field results are given from a bi-static SODAR which uses a single central vertical transmission and three distributed microphone array receivers. Fourier transform delay methods are applied to data sampled from each microphone to retrospectively scan in angle and follow the transmitted pulse. Advantages of sampling a narrow atmospheric column, rather than distributed volumes are discussed

  9. Static Checking of Interrupt-driven Software

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brylow, Dennis; Damgaard, Niels; Palsberg, Jens

    2001-01-01

    at the assembly level. In this paper we present the design and implementation of a static checker for interrupt-driven Z86-based software with hard real-time requirements. For six commercial microcontrollers, our checker has produced upper bounds on interrupt latencies and stack sizes, as well as verified...

  10. Characterization of classical static noise via qubit as probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javed, Muhammad; Khan, Salman; Ullah, Sayed Arif

    2018-03-01

    The dynamics of quantum Fisher information (QFI) of a single qubit coupled to classical static noise is investigated. The analytical relation for QFI fixes the optimal initial state of the qubit that maximizes it. An approximate limit for the time of coupling that leads to physically useful results is identified. Moreover, using the approach of quantum estimation theory and the analytical relation for QFI, the qubit is used as a probe to precisely estimate the disordered parameter of the environment. Relation for optimal interaction time with the environment is obtained, and condition for the optimal measurement of the noise parameter of the environment is given. It is shown that all values, in the mentioned range, of the noise parameter are estimable with equal precision. A comparison of our results with the previous studies in different classical environments is made.

  11. Gauge invariance and the quark-antiquark static potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cahill, K.; Stump, D.R.

    1979-01-01

    We calculate the quark-antiquark static potential to order g 4 in temporal-gauge quantum chromodynamics by constructing a suitably general family of gauge-invariant qq-bar states and then selecting the one whose energy is minimal for a given qq-bar separation r. Our results agree with those of conventional perturbation theory. We study various ways in which quark confinement might arise from nonperturbative effects related to the Gribov ambiguity. We find that the presence of long-range gauge fields can change the asymptotic behavior of the Coulomb Green's function from r -1 to r/sup -1/2/. We illustrate this possibility by a simple example. After making some simplifying assumptions, we obtain a minimally confining potential V (r) that rises logarithmically for large r

  12. Buchdahl compactness limit for a pure Lovelock static fluid star

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadhich, Naresh; Chakraborty, Sumanta

    2017-03-01

    We obtain the Buchdahl compactness limit for a pure Lovelock static fluid star and verify that the limit following from the uniform-density Schwarzschild's interior solution, which is universal irrespective of the gravitational theory (Einstein or Lovelock), is true in general. In terms of surface potential Φ (r ) , it means at the surface of the star r =r0, Φ (r0)Lovelock order, respectively. For a given N , Φ (r0) is maximum for d =2 N +2 , while it is always 4 /9 , Buchdahl's limit, for d =3 N +1 . It is also remarkable that for N =1 Einstein gravity, or for pure Lovelock in d =3 N +1 , Buchdahl's limit is equivalent to the criterion that gravitational field energy exterior to the star must be less than half its gravitational mass, having no reference to the interior at all.

  13. On the stability of Einstein static universe at background level in massive bigravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mousavi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We study the static cosmological solutions and their stability at background level in the framework of massive bigravity theory with Friedmann–Robertson–Walker (FRW metrics. By the modification proposed in the cosmological equations subject to a perfect fluid we obtain new solutions interpreted as the Einstein static universe. It turns out that the non-vanishing size of initial scale factor of Einstein static universe depends on the non-vanishing three-dimensional spatial curvature of FRW metrics and also the graviton's mass. By dynamical system approach and numerical analysis, we find that the extracted solutions for closed and open universes can be stable for some viable ranges of equation of state parameter, viable values of fraction of two scale factors, and viable values of graviton's mass obeying the hierarchy m<

  14. On the screening of static electromagnetic fields in hot QED plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaizot, J.P.

    1995-01-01

    The screening of static magnetic and electric fields was studied in massless quantum electrodynamics (QED) and massless scalar electrodynamics (SQED) at temperature T. Various exact relations for the static polarization tensor are first reviewed, and then verified perturbatively to fifth order (in the coupling) in QED and fourth order in SQED, using different resummation techniques. The magnetic and electric screening masses squared, as defined through the pole of the static propagators, are also calculated to fifth order in QED and fourth order in SQED, and their gauge-independence and renormalisation-group invariance is checked. Finally, arguments are provided for the vanishing of the magnetic mass to all orders in perturbation theory. (author) 26 refs

  15. Development of a commercially viable piezoelectric force sensor system for static force measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Luo, Xinwei; Liu, Jingcheng; Li, Min; Qin, Lan

    2017-09-01

    A compensation method for measuring static force with a commercial piezoelectric force sensor is proposed to disprove the theory that piezoelectric sensors and generators can only operate under dynamic force. After studying the model of the piezoelectric force sensor measurement system, the principle of static force measurement using a piezoelectric material or piezoelectric force sensor is analyzed. Then, the distribution law of the decay time constant of the measurement system and the variation law of the measurement system’s output are studied, and a compensation method based on the time interval threshold Δ t and attenuation threshold Δ {{u}th} is proposed. By calibrating the system and considering the influences of the environment and the hardware, a suitable Δ {{u}th} value is determined, and the system’s output attenuation is compensated based on the Δ {{u}th} value to realize the measurement. Finally, a static force measurement system with a piezoelectric force sensor is developed based on the compensation method. The experimental results confirm the successful development of a simple compensation method for static force measurement with a commercial piezoelectric force sensor. In addition, it is established that, contrary to the current perception, a piezoelectric force sensor system can be used to measure static force through further calibration.

  16. Comparison of Static and Dynamic Elastic Modules of Different Strength Concretes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uyanık, Osman; Sabbaǧ, Nevbahar

    2016-04-01

    In this study, the static and dynamic elastic (Young) modules of concrete with different strength was intended to compare. For this purpose 150mm dimensions 9 for each design cubic samples prepared and they were subjected to water cure during 28 days. After Seismic Ultrasonic P and S wave travel time measurements of samples, P and S wave velocities and taking advantage of elasticity theory the dynamic elastic modules were calculated. Concrete strength was obtained from the uniaxial compression tests in order to calculate the static elastic modules of the samples. The static elastic modulus is calculated by using the empirical relationships used in international standards. The obtained static and dynamic elastic modules have been associated. A curve was obtained from this association result that approximately similar to the stress-strain curve of obtaining at failure criterion of the sample. This study was supported with OYP05277-DR-14 Project No. by SDU and State Hydraulic Works 13th Regional/2012-01 Project No. Keywords: Concrete Strength, P and S wave Velocities, Static, Dynamic, Young Modules

  17. Elements of magnetohydrodynamic stability theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spies, G.O.

    1976-11-01

    The nonlinear equations of ideal magnetohydrodynamics are discussed along with the following topics: (1) static equilibrium, (2) strict linear theory, (3) stability of a system with one degree of freedom, (4) spectrum and variational principles in magnetohydrodynamics, (5) elementary proof of the modified energy principle, (6) sufficient stability criteria, (7) local stability, and (8) normal modes

  18. Static devices with new permanent magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chavanne, J.; Laforest, J.; Pauthenet, R.

    1987-01-01

    The high remanence and coercivity of the new permanent magnet materials are of special interest in the static applications. High ordering temperature and are uniaxial anisotropy at the origin of their good permanent magnet properties are obtained in rare earth-transition metal compounds. Binary SmCo/sub 5/ and Sm/sub 2/Co/sub 17/ and ternary Nd/sub 2/Fe/sub 14/B compounds are the basis materials of the best permanent magnets. new concepts of calculations of static devices with these magnets can be applied: the magnetization can be considered as ridig, the density of the surface Amperian current is constant, the relative permeability is approximately 1 and the induction calculations are linear. Examples of hexapoles with Sm-Co and NdFeB magnets are described and the performances are compared. The problems of temperature behavior and corrosion resistance are underlined

  19. Quasi-Static Electric Field Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Generazio, Edward R. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    A generator for producing an electric field for with an inspection technology system is provided. The generator provides the required variable magnitude quasi-static electric fields for the "illumination" of objects, areas and volumes to be inspected by the system, and produces human-safe electric fields that are only visible to the system. The generator includes a casing, a driven, non-conducting and triboelectrically neutral rotation shaft mounted therein, an ungrounded electrostatic dipole element which works in the quasi-static range, and a non-conducting support for mounting the dipole element to the shaft. The dipole element has a wireless motor system and a charging system which are wholly contained within the dipole element and the support that uses an electrostatic approach to charge the dipole element.

  20. On static and radiative space-times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedrich, H.

    1988-01-01

    The conformal constraint equations on space-like hypersurfaces are discussed near points which represent either time-like or spatial infinity for an asymptotically flat solution of Einstein's vacuum field equations. In the case of time-like infinity a certain 'radiativity condition' is derived which must be satisfied by the data at that point. The case of space-like infinity is analysed in detail for static space-times with non-vanishing mass. It is shown that the conformal structure implied here on a slice of constant Killing time, which extends analytically through infinity, satisfies at spatial infinity the radiativity condition. Thus to any static solution exists a certain 'radiative solution' which has a smooth structure at past null infinity and is regular at past time-like infinity. A characterization of these solutions by their 'free data' is given and non-symmetry properties are discussed. (orig.)

  1. Comparing numerically exact and modelled static friction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krengel Dominik

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently there exists no mechanically consistent “numerically exact” implementation of static and dynamic Coulomb friction for general soft particle simulations with arbitrary contact situations in two or three dimension, but only along one dimension. We outline a differential-algebraic equation approach for a “numerically exact” computation of friction in two dimensions and compare its application to the Cundall-Strack model in some test cases.

  2. A field theoretic model for static friction

    OpenAIRE

    Mahyaeh, I.; Rouhani, S.

    2013-01-01

    We present a field theoretic model for friction, where the friction coefficient between two surfaces may be calculated based on elastic properties of the surfaces. We assume that the geometry of contact surface is not unusual. We verify Amonton's laws to hold that friction force is proportional to the normal load.This model gives the opportunity to calculate the static coefficient of friction for a few cases, and show that it is in agreement with observed values. Furthermore we show that the ...

  3. Calibration of a pitot-static rake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stump, H. P.

    1977-01-01

    A five-element pitot-static rake was tested to confirm its accuracy and determine its suitability for use at Langley during low-speed tunnel calibration primarily at full-scale tunnel. The rake was tested at one airspeed of 74 miles per hour (33 meters per second) and at pitch and yaw angles of 0 to + or - 20 degrees in 4 deg increments.

  4. Predicting environmental restoration activities through static simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, T.L.; King, D.A.; Wilkins, M.L.; Forward, M.F.

    1994-12-01

    This paper discusses a static simulation model that predicts several performance measures of environmental restoration activities over different remedial strategies. Basic model operation consists of manipulating and processing waste streams via selecting and applying remedial technologies according to the strategy. Performance measure prediction is possible for contaminated soil, solid waste, surface water, groundwater, storage tank, and facility sites. Simulations are performed for the U.S. Department of Energy in support of its Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement

  5. Static nuclear polarisation and polarised targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heeringa, W.

    1984-12-01

    Recent progress and status of statically polarised nuclear targets are reviewed. Special attention is given to polarised 1 H and 3 He. An important quantity in the determination of the target polarisation is the thermal gradient over the target sample. The dependence of this gradient on heat input, sample geometry, and thermal conductivity of the sample is discussed. Possibilities of performing experiments with proton beams are indicated. (orig.) [de

  6. Static Analysis Alert Audits: Lexicon and Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-04

    1 Audit Rules and Lexicon Date 00, 2016 © 2016 Carnegie Mellon University [DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A] This material has been approved for public...DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A] This material has been approved for public release and unlimited distribution. REV-03.18.2016.0 Static Analysis Alert Audits ...Lexicon And Rules William Snavely 2 Audit Rules and Lexicon Date 00, 2016 © 2016 Carnegie Mellon University [DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A] This material

  7. Variational formulation of two scalar-tetradic theories of gravitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saez, D.

    1983-01-01

    In this paper we obtain two scalar-tetradic theories of gravitation (theories A and B) from a variational principle. In these theories the gravitational energy is localized and the principle of equivalence holds. They combine some aspects of Moller theory and the Brans-Dicke theory. The first-order approximations and an introduction to the study of both theories in the static spherically symmetric case are presented

  8. Non-local means filter for trim statics

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Yunsong; Wang, Xin; Schuster, Gerard T.

    2014-01-01

    this problem, we propose a trim statics inspired by the non-local means algorithm originally developed for image denoising. This method differs from the conventional one in two fundamental respects. First, the trim statics are computed by comparing image

  9. A new formulation of the effective theory for heavy particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aglietti, U.; Capitani, S.

    1994-01-01

    We derive the effective theories for heavy particles with a functional integral approach by integrating away the states with high velocity and with high virtuality. This formulation is non-perturbative and has a close connection with the Wilson renormalization group transformation. The fixed point hamiltonian of our transformation coincides with the static hamiltonian and irrelevant operators can be identified with the usual 1/M corrections to the static theory. No matching condition has to be imposed between the full and the static theory operators with our approach. The values of the matching constants come out as a dynamical effect of the renormalization group flow. ((orig.))

  10. Analytical general solutions for static wormholes in f(R,T) gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, P. H. R. S.; Correa, R. A. C.; Lobato, R. V.

    2017-07-01

    Originally proposed as a tool for teaching the general theory of relativity, wormholes are today approached in many different ways and are seeing as an efficient alternative for interstellar and time travel. Attempts to achieve observational signatures of wormholes have been growing as the subject has become more and more popular. In this article we investigate some f(R,T) theoretical predictions for static wormholes, i.e., wormholes whose throat radius can be considered a constant. Since the T-dependence in f(R,T) gravity is due to the consideration of quantum effects, a further investigation of wormholes in such a theory is well motivated. We obtain the energy conditions of static wormholes in f(R,T) gravity and apply an analytical approach to find their physical and geometrical solutions. We highlight that our results are in agreement with previous solutions and assumptions presented in the literature.

  11. Analytical general solutions for static wormholes in f ( R , T ) gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moraes, P.H.R.S.; Correa, R.A.C.; Lobato, R.V., E-mail: moraes.phrs@gmail.com, E-mail: fis04132@gmail.com, E-mail: ronaldo.lobato@icranet.org [ITA-Instituto Tecnológico de Aeronáutica, 12228-900, São José dos Campos, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Originally proposed as a tool for teaching the general theory of relativity, wormholes are today approached in many different ways and are seeing as an efficient alternative for interstellar and time travel. Attempts to achieve observational signatures of wormholes have been growing as the subject has become more and more popular. In this article we investigate some f ( R , T ) theoretical predictions for static wormholes, i.e., wormholes whose throat radius can be considered a constant. Since the T -dependence in f ( R , T ) gravity is due to the consideration of quantum effects, a further investigation of wormholes in such a theory is well motivated. We obtain the energy conditions of static wormholes in f ( R , T ) gravity and apply an analytical approach to find their physical and geometrical solutions. We highlight that our results are in agreement with previous solutions and assumptions presented in the literature.

  12. The information entropy of a static dilaton black hole

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In accordance with holographic principle, by calculating the statistical entropy of the quantum field just at the event horizon of the Garfinkle-Horowitz-Strominger dilaton black hole, the information entropy of the black hole was investigated and the Bekenstein-Hawking formula was obtained. The results show that black hole entropy is identical with the statistical entropy of the quantum field at the horizon. Using the generalized uncertainty relation, the divergence of the state density near the event horizon in usual quantum field theory was removed, and the cutoffs and the little mass approximation in the heat gas method of black hole entropy were avoided. Thus, the microstates of the massive scalar field just at the event horizon of the static dilaton black hole were studied directly and a description on holograph principle was presented. By using residue theorem, the integral difficulty in the calculation was overcome, and the information entropy and the Bekenstein-Hawking formula were obtained quantitatively. Compared with the black hole entropy from the loop quantum gravity, the consistency of methods and results of calculating black hole entropy in non-commutative quantum field theory and loop quantum gravity was investigated. By this, the gravity correction constant in the generalized uncertainty relation was suggested and the sense of holographic principle was discussed.

  13. Static wormhole solution for higher-dimensional gravity in vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dotti, Gustavo; Oliva, Julio; Troncoso, Ricardo

    2007-01-01

    A static wormhole solution for gravity in vacuum is found for odd dimensions greater than four. In five dimensions the gravitational theory considered is described by the Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet action where the coupling of the quadratic term is fixed in terms of the cosmological constant. In higher dimensions d=2n+1, the theory corresponds to a particular case of the Lovelock action containing higher powers of the curvature, so that in general, it can be written as a Chern-Simons form for the AdS group. The wormhole connects two asymptotically locally AdS spacetimes each with a geometry at the boundary locally given by RxS 1 xH d-3 . Gravity pulls towards a fixed hypersurface located at some arbitrary proper distance parallel to the neck. The causal structure shows that both asymptotic regions are connected by light signals in a finite time. The Euclidean continuation of the wormhole is smooth independently of the Euclidean time period, and it can be seen as instanton with vanishing Euclidean action. The mass can also be obtained from a surface integral and it is shown to vanish

  14. Exact EGB models for spherical static perfect fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansraj, Sudan; Chilambwe, Brian; Maharaj, Sunil D. [University of KwaZulu-Natal, Astrophysics and Cosmology Research Unit, School of Mathematics, Statistics and Computer Science, Private Bag 54001, Durban (South Africa)

    2015-06-15

    We obtain a new exact solution to the field equations for a 5-dimensional spherically symmetric static distribution in the Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet modified theory of gravity. By using a transformation, the study is reduced to the analysis of a single second order nonlinear differential equation. In general the condition of pressure isotropy produces a first order differential equation which is an Abel equation of the second kind. An exact solution is found. The solution is examined for physical admissibility. In particular a set of constants is found which ensures that a pressure-free hypersurface exists which defines the boundary of the distribution. Additionally the isotropic pressure and the energy density are shown to be positive within the radius of the sphere. The adiabatic sound-speed criterion is also satisfied within the fluid ensuring a subluminal sound speed. Furthermore, the weak, strong and dominant conditions hold throughout the distribution. On setting the Gauss-Bonnet coupling to zero, an exact solution for 5-dimensional perfect fluids in the standard Einstein theory is obtained. Plots of the dynamical quantities for the Gauss-Bonnet and the Einstein case reveal that the pressure is unaffected, while the energy density increases under the influence of the Gauss-Bonnet term. (orig.)

  15. The Static Ladder Problem with Two Sources of Friction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Jonathan; Mauney, Alex

    2011-01-01

    The problem of a ladder leaning against a wall in static equilibrium is a classic example encountered in introductory mechanics texts. Most discussions of this problem assume that the static frictional force between the ladder and wall can be ignored. A few authors consider the case where the static friction coefficients between ladder/wall…

  16. The usefulness of cardiofocal collimator in static renal imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evren, I.; Durak, H.; Degirmenci, B.; Derebek, E.; Oezbilek, E.; Capa, G.

    2001-01-01

    Static renal imaging is best performed using pinhole collimator. But this technique takes too much time and generally parallel hole collimators are preferred for static renal imaging in nuclear medicine departments. The purpose of this study was to investigate the usefulness of the cardio-focal collimator used for myocardial perfusion imaging in static renal scintigraphy

  17. Comparison of pressure perception of static and dynamic two point ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the right and left index finger (p<0.05). Conclusion: Age and gender did not affect the perception of static and dynamic two point discrimination while the limb side (left or right) affected the perception of static and dynamic two point discrimination. The index finger is also more sensitive to moving rather static sensations.

  18. Static potential for a string with a topological term

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaikov, R.P.; Zlatev, S.I.

    1991-01-01

    We study the static potential for a string in (2+1)-dimensional space-time with action including a topological term. An appropriate static solution is found and the corresponding potential is obtained. Such a solution does not exist beyond a critical distance between the ends of the string. The one-loop corrections to the static potential are calculated. (orig.)

  19. Available states and available space: static properties that predict self-diffusivity of confined fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goel, Gaurav; Krekelberg, William P; Pond, Mark J; Truskett, Thomas M; Mittal, Jeetain; Shen, Vincent K; Errington, Jeffrey R

    2009-01-01

    Although classical density functional theory provides reliable predictions for the static properties of simple equilibrium fluids under confinement, a theory of comparative accuracy for the transport coefficients has yet to emerge. Nonetheless, there is evidence that knowledge of how confinement modifies static behavior can aid in forecasting dynamics. Specifically, recent molecular simulation studies have shown that the relationship between excess entropy and self-diffusivity of a bulk equilibrium fluid changes only modestly when the fluid is isothermally confined, indicating that knowledge of the former might allow semi-quantitative predictions of the latter. Do other static measures, such as those that characterize free or available volume, also strongly correlate with single-particle dynamics of confined fluids? Here, we investigate this question for both the single-component hard-sphere fluid and hard-sphere mixtures. Specifically, we use molecular simulations and fundamental measure theory to study these systems at approximately 10 3 equilibrium state points. We examine three different confining geometries (slit pore, square channel, and cylindrical pore) and the effects of particle packing fraction and particle–boundary interactions. Although average density fails to predict some key qualitative trends for the self-diffusivity of confined fluids, we provide strong empirical evidence that a new generalized measure of available volume for inhomogeneous fluids correlates excellently with self-diffusivity across a wide parameter space in these systems, approximately independently of the degree of confinement. An important consequence, which we demonstrate here, is that density functional theory predictions of this static property can be used together with knowledge of bulk fluid behavior to semi-quantitatively estimate the self-diffusion coefficient of confined fluids under equilibrium conditions

  20. Quasi-Static Evolution, Catastrophe, and Failed Eruption of Solar Flux Ropes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-30

    Ropes James Chen Beam Physics Branch Plasma Physics Division December 30, 2016 Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. i REPORT...pressure gradient force combine to balance the major radial hoop force. The macroscopic forces on the flux ropes and onset conditions are quantified...Solar physics theory 67-4989-07 Quasi-Static Evolution, Catastrophe, and “Failed” Eruption of Solar Flux Ropes James Chen1 Plasma Physics Division

  1. Study of static properties of magnetron-type space charges; Etude des proprietes statiques des charges d'espace du type magnetron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delcroix, Jean-Loup

    1953-05-30

    This research thesis reports an in-depth analysis of physical properties of static regimes to address the issue of space charges. This theoretical study of the Hull magnetron is followed by the description of experiments on the Hull magnetron which highlight transitions between the different regimes. Then, another theoretical approach aims at generalising the magnetron theory, based on other types of magnetron theory (general equations of magnetron-type space charges, inverted Hull magnetron theory, circular field magnetron theory)

  2. Suboptimal Criterion Learning in Static and Dynamic Environments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elyse H Norton

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Humans often make decisions based on uncertain sensory information. Signal detection theory (SDT describes detection and discrimination decisions as a comparison of stimulus "strength" to a fixed decision criterion. However, recent research suggests that current responses depend on the recent history of stimuli and previous responses, suggesting that the decision criterion is updated trial-by-trial. The mechanisms underpinning criterion setting remain unknown. Here, we examine how observers learn to set a decision criterion in an orientation-discrimination task under both static and dynamic conditions. To investigate mechanisms underlying trial-by-trial criterion placement, we introduce a novel task in which participants explicitly set the criterion, and compare it to a more traditional discrimination task, allowing us to model this explicit indication of criterion dynamics. In each task, stimuli were ellipses with principal orientations drawn from two categories: Gaussian distributions with different means and equal variance. In the covert-criterion task, observers categorized a displayed ellipse. In the overt-criterion task, observers adjusted the orientation of a line that served as the discrimination criterion for a subsequently presented ellipse. We compared performance to the ideal Bayesian learner and several suboptimal models that varied in both computational and memory demands. Under static and dynamic conditions, we found that, in both tasks, observers used suboptimal learning rules. In most conditions, a model in which the recent history of past samples determines a belief about category means fit the data best for most observers and on average. Our results reveal dynamic adjustment of discrimination criterion, even after prolonged training, and indicate how decision criteria are updated over time.

  3. Static third-harmonic lines in widely variable fiber continuum generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Haohua; Zhao, Youbo; Liu, Yuan; Boppart, Stephen A.

    2014-01-01

    An intriguing phenomenon of third-harmonic generation under fiber continuum generation is the emission of an anharmonic signal. One popular interpretation of this effect has developed into a general theory of fiber third-harmonic generation. Here we produce "static" third-harmonic lines dictated fully by fiber properties independent of pump parameters, in contrast to the signals of all known phase-matched nonlinear optical processes that vary dynamically with these parameters. We argue that the anharmonic signal is an illusion of the continuum generation, that it is in fact harmonic, and that this theory should be reevaluated.

  4. QuickChecking Static Analysis Properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Midtgaard, Jan; Møller, Anders

    2015-01-01

    A static analysis can check programs for potential errors. A natural question that arises is therefore: who checks the checker? Researchers have given this question varying attention, ranging from basic testing techniques, informal monotonicity arguments, thorough pen-and-paper soundness proofs...... of a lattice. Moreover, we offer a number of generic, type-safe combinators to check transfer functions and operators on lattices, to help ensure that these are, e.g., monotone, strict, or invariant. We substantiate our claims by quickchecking a type analysis for the Lua programming language...

  5. QuickChecking static analysis properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Midtgaard, Jan; Møller, Anders

    2017-01-01

    A static analysis can check programs for potential errors. A natural question that arises is therefore: who checks the checker? Researchers have given this question varying attention, ranging from basic testing techniques, informal monotonicity arguments, thorough pen-and-paper soundness proofs....... Moreover, we offer a number of generic, type-safe combinators to check transfer functions and operators on lattices, to help ensure that these are, eg, monotone, strict, or invariant. We substantiate our claims by quickchecking a type analysis for the Lua programming language....

  6. Automatic incrementalization of Prolog based static analyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eichberg, Michael; Kahl, Matthias; Saha, Diptikalyan

    2007-01-01

    Modem development environments integrate various static analyses into the build process. Analyses that analyze the whole project whenever the project changes are impractical in this context. We present an approach to automatic incrementalization of analyses that are specified as tabled logic...... programs and evaluated using incremental tabled evaluation, a technique for efficiently updating memo tables in response to changes in facts and rules. The approach has been implemented and integrated into the Eclipse IDE. Our measurements show that this technique is effective for automatically...

  7. Superconductor in a weak static gravitational field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ummarino, Giovanni Alberto [Dipartimento DISAT, Politecnico di Torino, Turin (Italy); National Research Nuclear University MEPhI-Moscow Engineering Physics Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Gallerati, Antonio [Dipartimento DISAT, Politecnico di Torino, Turin (Italy)

    2017-08-15

    We provide the detailed calculation of a general form for Maxwell and London equations that takes into account gravitational corrections in linear approximation. We determine the possible alteration of a static gravitational field in a superconductor making use of the time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau equations, providing also an analytic solution in the weak field condition. Finally, we compare the behavior of a high-T{sub c} superconductor with a classical low-T{sub c} superconductor, analyzing the values of the parameters that can enhance the reduction of the gravitational field. (orig.)

  8. Pro-static Agents in Jet Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-08-16

    recent survey of jet fuels at 10 airports and 3 military bases in the United States [6]. Consequently , the results of the present study can be directly...as quickly as it is generated. Consequently , compounds that increase conductivity above 50 pS/m are not pro-static agents in the sense implied here...Additive Con, 1000 pPm CORROSION INHIBITORS UNiCOrn J COPIOCO T- 60 LU$RIZOL 541 TOLAD 245 OCI 4A] PRO ig ., NALCO 5400 TOLAD 244 , MALCO 5402 GULF 170 "Y2

  9. Static analysis of software the abstract interpretation

    CERN Document Server

    Boulanger, Jean-Louis

    2013-01-01

    The existing literature currently available to students and researchers is very general, covering only the formal techniques of static analysis. This book presents real examples of the formal techniques called ""abstract interpretation"" currently being used in various industrial fields: railway, aeronautics, space, automotive, etc. The purpose of this book is to present students and researchers, in a single book, with the wealth of experience of people who are intrinsically involved in the realization and evaluation of software-based safety critical systems. As the authors are people curr

  10. Monotone Comparative Statics for the Industry Composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laugesen, Anders Rosenstand; Bache, Peter Arendorf

    2015-01-01

    We let heterogeneous firms face decisions on a number of complementary activities in a monopolistically-competitive industry. The endogenous level of competition and selection regarding entry and exit of firms introduces a wedge between monotone comparative statics (MCS) at the firm level and MCS...... for the industry composition. The latter phenomenon is defined as first-order stochastic dominance shifts in the equilibrium distributions of all activities across active firms. We provide sufficient conditions for MCS at both levels of analysis and show that we may have either type of MCS without the other...

  11. Static validation of licence conformance policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Rene Rydhof; Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    2008-01-01

    Policy conformance is a security property gaining importance due to commercial interest like Digital Rights Management. It is well known that static analysis can be used to validate a number of more classical security policies, such as discretionary and mandatory access control policies, as well...... as communication protocols using symmetric and asymmetric cryptography. In this work we show how to develop a Flow Logic for validating the conformance of client software with respect to a licence conformance policy. Our approach is sufficiently flexible that it extends to fully open systems that can admit new...

  12. Mechanics of quasi-static crack growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rice, J R

    1978-10-01

    Results on the mechanics of quasi-static crack growth are reviewed. These include recent studies on the geometry and stability of crack paths in elastic-brittle solids, and on the thermodynamics of Griffith cracking, including environmental effects. The relation of crack growth criteria to non-elastic rheological models is considered and paradoxes with energy balance approaches, based on singular crack models, are discussed for visco-elastic, diffuso-elastic, and elastic-plastic materials. Also, recent approaches to prediction of stable crack growth in ductile, elastic-plastic solids are discussed.

  13. Static axisymmetric discs and gravitational collapse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chamorro, A.; Gregory, R.; Stewart, J.M.

    1987-09-08

    Regular static axisymmetric vacuum solutions of Einstein's field equations representing the exterior field of a finite thin disc are found. These are used to describe the slow collapse of a disc-like object. If no conditions are placed on the matter, a naked singularity is formed and the cosmic censorship hypothesis would be violated. Imposition of the weak energy condition, however, prevents slow collapse to a singularity and preserves the validity of this hypothesis. The validity of the hoop conjecture is also discussed.

  14. On geometrized gravitation theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logunov, A.A.; Folomeshkin, V.N.

    1977-01-01

    General properties of the geometrized gravitation theories have been considered. Geometrization of the theory is realized only to the extent that by necessity follows from an experiment (geometrization of the density of the matter Lagrangian only). Aor a general case the gravitation field equations and the equations of motion for matter are formulated in the different Riemann spaces. A covariant formulation of the energy-momentum conservation laws is given in an arbitrary geometrized theory. The noncovariant notion of ''pseudotensor'' is not required in formulating the conservation laws. It is shown that in the general case (i.e., when there is an explicit dependence of the matter Lagrangian density on the covariant derivatives) a symmetric energy-momentum tensor of the matter is explicitly dependent on the curvature tensor. There are enlisted different geometrized theories that describe a known set of the experimental facts. The properties of one of the versions of the quasilinear geometrized theory that describes the experimental facts are considered. In such a theory the fundamental static spherically symmetrical solution has a singularity only in the coordinate origin. The theory permits to create a satisfactory model of the homogeneous nonstationary Universe

  15. Learning from static versus animated pictures of embodied knowledge : A pilot study on reconstructing a ballet choreography as concept map

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fürstenau, B.; Kuhtz, M.; Simon-Hatala, B.; Kneppers, L.; Cañas, A.; Reiska, P.; Novak, J.

    2016-01-01

    In a research study we investigated whether static or animated pictures better support learning of abstract pedagogical content about action-oriented learning. For that purpose, we conducted a study with two experimental groups. One group received a narration about learning theory and a supporting

  16. Evaluation of Advanced Nonlinear Static Procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Ali Shayanfar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Having very simplicity, nonlinear static procedures (NSPs are the most popular tools for estimation of structural capacity. These approaches construct a graphic display of the overall structural response via a pushover curve. The overall response of the system provides a direct simulation of the building as single degree of freedom (SDOF system that simplifies the design and evaluation of the structure. In this research, the first step in any nonlinear static analysis or in other words perform a pushover analysis has been studied. Applied lateral load to the structural model not only affects the overall responses of the structure through structural capacity curve, but also directly affects the local responses of the structure. In order to evaluate these lateral loads, steel buckling restrained braced frame structures are examined by advanced modal pushovers. Next, the results of these pushover analyses will be compared with nonlinear time history analysis as the most accurate method. Finally, the most efficient method in this particular structure is introduced. The analysis conducted in these structures shows that the lateral load pattern based on story shears offers a good prediction of the maximum response of the concentrically buckling restrained braced frame buildings.

  17. Boson-mediated interactions between static sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolsterli, M.

    1983-01-01

    The techniques are now available for doing accurate computations of static potentials arising from the exchange of virtual mesons. Such computations must take account of the fact that different approximation methods must be used in the regions where R is large and where R is small. In the asymptotic region, the distorted-field approximation provides an appropriate starting-point, but it must be improved before trustworthy results are obtained for all but the largest values of R. In the region of small R, accurate strong-coupling methods are based on the use of states with coherent meson pairs. For small R, it is also important to take account of the possibility of meson emission or near-emission. Current work is aimed at applying the techniques described to the case of static sources interacting via pion field. In particular, it will be interesting to see how sensitive the potential is to the value of the cutoff Λ. Other areas of application are the study of the effects of nonlinearity and models of quark-quark and quark-antiquark potentials. 17 references

  18. Static viscoelasticity of biomass polyethylene composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keyan Yang

    Full Text Available The biomass polyethylene composites filled with poplar wood flour, rice husk, cotton stalk or corn stalk were prepared by extrusion molding. The static viscoelasticity of composites was investigated by the dynamic thermal mechanical analyzer (DMA. Through the stress-strain scanning, it is found that the linear viscoelasticity interval of composites gradually decreases as the temperature rises, and the critical stress and strain values are 0.8 MPa and 0.03% respectively. The experiment shows that as the temperature rises, the creep compliance of biomass polyethylene composites is increased; under the constant temperature, the creep compliance decreases with the increase of content of biomass and calcium carbonate. The biomass and calcium carbonate used to prepare composites as filler can improve damping vibration attenuation and reduce stress deformation of composites. The stress relaxation modulus of composites is reduced and the relaxation rate increases at the higher temperature. The biomass and calcium carbonate used to prepare composites as filler not only can reduce costs, but also can increase stress relaxation modulus and improve the size thermostability of composites. The corn stalk is a good kind of biomass raw material for composites since it can improve the creep resistance property and the stress relaxation resistance property of composites more effectively than other three kinds of biomass (poplar wood flour, rice husk and cotton stalk. Keywords: Biomass, Composites, Calcium carbonate, Static viscoelasticity, Creep, Stress relaxation

  19. Robot-Crawler: Statically Balanced Gaits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Parasuraman

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new statically balanced walking technique for a robot-crawler. The gait design and the control of the robot crawler aim to achieve stability while walking. This statically balanced gait has to be designed in a different fashion to a wheeled robot, as there are discrete changes in the support of the robot when its legs are lifted or placed on the ground. The stability of the robot depends on how the legs are positioned relative to the body and also on the sequence and timing with which the legs are lifted and placed. In order to reduce the risk of stability loss while walking, a measure for the robot stability (so-called stability margin is typically used in the gait and motion planning. In this paper different biological behaviours of four-legged animals are studied and mapped on a quad-legrobot-crawler. Experiments were carried out on the forward walking gaits of lizards and horses. Based on these results, the stability margins of different gaits are discussed and compared.

  20. Static Code Analysis with Gitlab-CI

    CERN Document Server

    Datko, Szymon Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    Static Code Analysis is a simple but efficient way to ensure that application’s source code is free from known flaws and security vulnerabilities. Although such analysis tools are often coming with more advanced code editors, there are a lot of people who prefer less complicated environments. The easiest solution would involve education – where to get and how to use the aforementioned tools. However, counting on the manual usage of such tools still does not guarantee their actual usage. On the other hand, reducing the required effort, according to the idea “setup once, use anytime without sweat” seems like a more promising approach. In this paper, the approach to automate code scanning, within the existing CERN’s Gitlab installation, is described. For realization of that project, the Gitlab-CI service (the “CI” stands for "Continuous Integration"), with Docker assistance, was employed to provide a variety of static code analysers for different programming languages. This document covers the gene...

  1. Static and Dynamic Criticality: Are They Different?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cullen, D E; Clouse, C J; Procassini, R; Little, R C

    2003-01-01

    Let us start by stating that this paper does not contain anything new. It only contains material that has been known for decades, but which is periodically forgotten. As such this paper is intended merely to refresh people's memories. We will also mention that this paper is an example of the occasional discrepancy between textbook methodologies and real world applications, in the sense that the conclusions reached here contradict what it says in most textbooks, i.e., most textbooks incorrectly interpret the methods presented here, particularly with respect to the use of importance sampling to maintain population control. This paper is not intended as a general tutorial on criticality calculations. It is intended only to clarify the accuracy of various methods for solving criticality problems, such as a true time dependent dynamic calculation, versus an alpha or K static calculation. In particular, we address the long standing controversy between users of the TART code [1] with the dynamic method, and users of the MCNP code [2] with the alpha static method. In this paper we will prove which methods are accurate and inaccurate

  2. Static non-reciprocity in mechanical metamaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulais, Corentin; Sounas, Dimitrios; Alù, Andrea

    2017-02-23

    Reciprocity is a general, fundamental principle governing various physical systems, which ensures that the transfer function-the transmission of a physical quantity, say light intensity-between any two points in space is identical, regardless of geometrical or material asymmetries. Breaking this transmission symmetry offers enhanced control over signal transport, isolation and source protection. So far, devices that break reciprocity (and therefore show non-reciprocity) have been mostly considered in dynamic systems involving electromagnetic, acoustic and mechanical wave propagation associated with fields varying in space and time. Here we show that it is possible to break reciprocity in static systems, realizing mechanical metamaterials that exhibit vastly different output displacements under excitation from different sides, as well as one-way displacement amplification. This is achieved by combining large nonlinearities with suitable geometrical asymmetries and/or topological features. In addition to extending non-reciprocity and isolation to statics, our work sheds light on energy propagation in nonlinear materials with asymmetric crystalline structures and topological properties. We anticipate that breaking reciprocity will open avenues for energy absorption, conversion and harvesting, soft robotics, prosthetics and optomechanics.

  3. Prediction of beauty particle masses with the heavy quark effective theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aglietti, U.

    1992-01-01

    Using symmetry properties of the static theory for heavy quarks, the spectrum of beauty particles is predicted in terms of the spectrum of charmed particles. A simple technique for cancelling spin dependent corrections to the static theory is explained and systematically applied. (orig.)

  4. DO TANZANIAN COMPANIES PRACTICE PECKING ORDER THEORY, AGENCY COST THEORY OR TRADE-OFF THEORY? AN EMPIRICAL STUDY IN TANZANIAN LISTED COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ntogwa Ng'habi Bundala

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The empirical study was focused predominantly on validity tests of the three theories on capital structures, the static trade-off theory, the pecking order theory (information asymmetry theory, and agency cost theory in the Tanzanian context. The study used secondary data from eight of the non-financial companies listed in Dar Es Salaam Stock Exchange (DSE from 2006-2012. The study used descriptive (quantitative approach to test the practicality of the theories in Tanzania. The multiple regressions model used to test the theoretical relationship between the financial leverage and characteristics of the company. The research found that there is no strong evidence for validation of static trade off theory, little support of pecking order theory, but the agency cost theory is confirmed to be valid and practiced in Tanzania. It recommended that Tanzanian companies should be adhering to the determinants of the capital structure in the Tanzanian context found by this study.

  5. MaxEnt-Based Ecological Theory: A Template for Integrated Catchment Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harte, J.

    2017-12-01

    The maximum information entropy procedure (MaxEnt) is both a powerful tool for inferring least-biased probability distributions from limited data and a framework for the construction of complex systems theory. The maximum entropy theory of ecology (METE) describes remarkably well widely observed patterns in the distribution, abundance and energetics of individuals and taxa in relatively static ecosystems. An extension to ecosystems undergoing change in response to disturbance or natural succession (DynaMETE) is in progress. I describe the structure of both the static and the dynamic theory and show a range of comparisons with census data. I then propose a generalization of the MaxEnt approach that could provide a framework for a predictive theory of both static and dynamic, fully-coupled, eco-socio-hydrological catchment systems.

  6. Screw-vector bond graphs for kinetic-static modelling and analysis of mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bidard, Catherine

    1994-01-01

    This dissertation deals with the kinetic-static modelling and analysis of spatial mechanisms used in robotics systems. A framework is proposed, which embodies a geometrical and a network approach for kinetic-static modelling. For this purpose we use screw theory and bond graphs. A new form of bond graphs is introduced: the screw-vector bond graph, whose power variables are defined to be wrenches and twists expressed as intrinsic screw-vectors. The mechanism is then identified as a network, whose components are kinematic pairs and whose topology is described by a directed graph. A screw-vector Simple Junction Structure represents the topological constraints. Kinematic pairs are represented by one-port elements, defined by two reciprocal screw-vector spaces. Using dual bases of screw-vectors, a generic decomposition of kinematic pair elements is given. The reduction of kinetic-static models of series and parallel kinematic chains is used in order to derive kinetic-static functional models in geometric form. Thereupon, the computational causality assignment is adapted for the graphical analysis of the mobility and the functioning of spatial mechanisms, based on completely or incompletely specified models. (author) [fr

  7. A 3D inversion for all-space magnetotelluric data with static shift correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kun

    2017-04-01

    Base on the previous studies on the static shift correction and 3D inversion algorithms, we improve the NLCG 3D inversion method and propose a new static shift correction method which work in the inversion. The static shift correction method is based on the 3D theory and real data. The static shift can be detected by the quantitative analysis of apparent parameters (apparent resistivity and impedance phase) of MT in high frequency range, and completed correction with inversion. The method is an automatic processing technology of computer with 0 cost, and avoids the additional field work and indoor processing with good results. The 3D inversion algorithm is improved (Zhang et al., 2013) base on the NLCG method of Newman & Alumbaugh (2000) and Rodi & Mackie (2001). For the algorithm, we added the parallel structure, improved the computational efficiency, reduced the memory of computer and added the topographic and marine factors. So the 3D inversion could work in general PC with high efficiency and accuracy. And all the MT data of surface stations, seabed stations and underground stations can be used in the inversion algorithm.

  8. A no-hair theorem for stars in Horndeski theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehébel, A.; Babichev, E.; Charmousis, C., E-mail: antoine.lehebel@th.u-psud.fr, E-mail: eugeny.babichev@th.u-psud.fr, E-mail: christos.charmousis@th.u-psud.fr [Laboratoire de Physique Théorique, CNRS, Univ. Paris-Sud, Université Paris-Saclay, 91405 Orsay (France)

    2017-07-01

    We consider a generic scalar-tensor theory involving a shift-symmetric scalar field and minimally coupled matter fields. We prove that the Noether current associated with shift-symmetry vanishes in regular, spherically symmetric and static spacetimes. We use this fact to prove the absence of scalar hair for spherically symmetric and static stars in Horndeski and beyond theories. We carefully detail the validity of this no-hair theorem.

  9. Weyl curvature tensor in static spherical sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponce de Leon, J.

    1988-01-01

    The role of the Weyl curvature tensor in static sources of the Schwarzschild field is studied. It is shown that in general the contribution from the Weyl curvature tensor (the ''purely gravitational field energy'') to the mass-energy inside the body may be positive, negative, or zero. It is proved that a positive (negative) contribution from the Weyl tensor tends to increase (decrease) the effective gravitational mass, the red-shift (from a point in the sphere to infinity), as well as the gravitational force which acts on a constituent matter element of a body. It is also proved that the contribution from the Weyl tensor always is negative in sources with surface gravitational potential larger than (4/9. It is pointed out that large negative contributions from the Weyl tensor could give rise to the phenomenon of gravitational repulsion. A simple example which illustrates the results is discussed

  10. Structural Encoding of Static Single Assignment Form

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gal, Andreas; Probst, Christian; Franz, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Static Single Assignment (SSA) form is often used as an intermediate representation during code optimization in Java Virtual Machines. Recently, SSA has successfully been used for bytecode verification. However, constructing SSA at the code consumer is costly. SSAbased mobile code transport formats...... Java bytecode. While the resulting bytecode sequence can still be directly executed by traditional Virtual Machines, our novel VM can infer SSA form and confirm its safety with virtually no overhead....... have been shown to eliminate this cost by shifting SSA creation to the code producer. These new formats, however, are not backward compatible with the established Java class-file format. We propose a novel approach to transport SSA information implicitly through structural code properties of standard...

  11. Construction of STACY (Static Experiment Critical Facility)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, Kiyonobu; Onodera, Seiji; Hirose, Hideyuki

    1998-08-01

    Two critical assemblies, STACY (Static Experiment Critical Facility) and TRACY (Transient Experiment Critical Facility), were constructed in NUCEF (Nuclear Fuel Cycle Safety Engineering Research Facility) to promote researches on the criticality safety at a reprocessing facility. STACY aims at providing critical data of uranium nitrate solution, plutonium nitrate solution and their mixture while varying concentration of solution fuel, core tank shape and size and neutron reflecting condition. STACY achieved first criticality in February 1995, and passed the licensing inspection by STA (Science and Technology Agency of Japan) in May. After that a series of critical experiments commenced with 10 w/o enriched uranium solution. This report describes the outline of STACY at the end of FY 1996. (author)

  12. Static Load Distribution in Ball Bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, Mario

    2010-01-01

    A numerical procedure for computing the internal loading distribution in statically loaded, single-row, angular-contact ball bearings when subjected to a known combined radial and thrust load is presented. The combined radial and thrust load must be applied in order to avoid tilting between inner and outer rings. The numerical procedure requires the iterative solution of Z + 2 simultaneous nonlinear equations - where Z is the number of the balls - to yield an exact solution for axial and radial deflections, and contact angles. Numerical results for a 218 angular-contact ball bearing have been compared with those from the literature and show significant differences in the magnitudes of the ball loads, contact angles, and the extent of the loading zone.

  13. Accelerated particle interaction with static gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hvelplund, P.

    1977-01-01

    This work describes experimental studies of stopping power and electron capture and loss associated with the passage of fast atomic particles through static gas targets. Most of the results, as well as a detailed description of the experimental procedures, have been reported in a series of articles. After an introduction to particle-gas collisions follows a short description of some theoretical approaches used in the field of stopping power and charge-changing collisions. The last part is concerned with a review of the experimental procedures employed in the papers. At the same time, the data reported in these papers are used as a starting point for further discussion of experimental studies of stopping power and charge-changing collisions. (Auth.)

  14. Static and dynamic friction of hierarchical surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costagliola, Gianluca; Bosia, Federico; Pugno, Nicola M

    2016-12-01

    Hierarchical structures are very common in nature, but only recently have they been systematically studied in materials science, in order to understand the specific effects they can have on the mechanical properties of various systems. Structural hierarchy provides a way to tune and optimize macroscopic mechanical properties starting from simple base constituents and new materials are nowadays designed exploiting this possibility. This can be true also in the field of tribology. In this paper we study the effect of hierarchical patterned surfaces on the static and dynamic friction coefficients of an elastic material. Our results are obtained by means of numerical simulations using a one-dimensional spring-block model, which has previously been used to investigate various aspects of friction. Despite the simplicity of the model, we highlight some possible mechanisms that explain how hierarchical structures can significantly modify the friction coefficients of a material, providing a means to achieve tunability.

  15. Orienting Paramecium with intense static magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valles, James M., Jr.; Guevorkian, Karine; Quindel, Carl

    2004-03-01

    Recent experiments on cell division suggest the application of intense static magnetic fields as a novel tool for the manipulation of biological systems [1]. The magnetic field appears to couple to the intrinsic anisotropies in the diamagnetic components of the cells. Here, we present measurements of the intrinsic average diamagnetic anisotropy of the whole single celled ciliate, Paramecium Caudatum. Magnetic fields, 2.5 T Paramecium Caudatum that were suspended in a density matched medium. The organisms align with their long axis parallel to the applied magnetic field. Their intrinsic diamagnetic anisotropy is 3x10-11 in cgs units. We will discuss the implications of these results for employing magnetic fields to probe the behavior of swimming Paramecium. [1] J. M. Valles, Jr. et al., Expt. Cell Res.274, 112-118 (2002).

  16. FACET Tolerances for Static and Dynamic Misalignments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Federico, Joel

    2012-07-13

    The Facility for AdvancedAccelerator and Experimental Tests (FACET) at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory is designed to deliver a beam with a transverse spot size on the order of 10 {micro}m x 10 {micro}m in a new beamline constructed at the two kilometer point of the SLAC linac. Commissioning the beamline requires mitigating alignment errors and their effects, which can be significant and result in spot sizes orders of magnitude larger. Sextupole and quadrupole alignment errors in particular can introduce errors in focusing, steering, and dispersion which can result in spot size growth, beta mismatch, and waist movement. Alignment errors due to static misalignments, mechanical jitter, energy jitter, and other physical processes can be analyzed to determine the level of accuracy and precision that the beamline requires. It is important to recognize these effects and their tolerances in order to deliver a beam as designed.

  17. Static analysis of an office desk construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Novotný

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the paper is a static analysis of a desk construction and the determination of its probable mechanical behaviour using Finite Element Method. The construction was modelled and numerically analysed in Autocad Inventor 2011 and the stability of the entire desk was calculated with the size and placement of the loading force based on the standards and cited literature. Possible locations and directions of the deformation were analysed and a solution for its prevention was proposed and the stability of the desk as well as the extreme position of the stand were calculated. The verification of the obtained results in an accredited furniture testing lab is planned using a prototype of the office desk.

  18. Multipoint vibrometry with dynamic and static holograms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haist, T.; Lingel, C.; Osten, W. [Institut für Technische Optik, Stuttgart Research Center of Photonic Engineering (SCOPE), University of Stuttgart, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Winter, M.; Giesen, M.; Ritter, F.; Sandfort, K.; Rembe, C. [Polytec GmbH, Polytec-Platz 1-7, D-76337 Waldbronn (Germany); Bendel, K. [Corporate Sector Research and Advanced Engineering, Robert Bosch GmbH, Gerlingen (Germany)

    2013-12-15

    We report on two multipoint vibrometers with user-adjustable position of the measurement spots. Both systems are using holograms for beam deflection. The measurement is based on heterodyne interferometry with a frequency difference of 5 MHz between reference and object beam. One of the systems uses programmable positioning of the spots in the object volume but is limited concerning the light efficiency. The other system is based on static holograms in combination with mechanical adjustment of the measurement spots and does not have such a general efficiency restriction. Design considerations are given and we show measurement results for both systems. In addition, we analyze the sensitivity of the systems which is a major limitation compared to single point scanning systems.

  19. Multipoint vibrometry with dynamic and static holograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haist, T; Lingel, C; Osten, W; Winter, M; Giesen, M; Ritter, F; Sandfort, K; Rembe, C; Bendel, K

    2013-12-01

    We report on two multipoint vibrometers with user-adjustable position of the measurement spots. Both systems are using holograms for beam deflection. The measurement is based on heterodyne interferometry with a frequency difference of 5 MHz between reference and object beam. One of the systems uses programmable positioning of the spots in the object volume but is limited concerning the light efficiency. The other system is based on static holograms in combination with mechanical adjustment of the measurement spots and does not have such a general efficiency restriction. Design considerations are given and we show measurement results for both systems. In addition, we analyze the sensitivity of the systems which is a major limitation compared to single point scanning systems.

  20. Network Completion for Static Gene Expression Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natsu Nakajima

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We tackle the problem of completing and inferring genetic networks under stationary conditions from static data, where network completion is to make the minimum amount of modifications to an initial network so that the completed network is most consistent with the expression data in which addition of edges and deletion of edges are basic modification operations. For this problem, we present a new method for network completion using dynamic programming and least-squares fitting. This method can find an optimal solution in polynomial time if the maximum indegree of the network is bounded by a constant. We evaluate the effectiveness of our method through computational experiments using synthetic data. Furthermore, we demonstrate that our proposed method can distinguish the differences between two types of genetic networks under stationary conditions from lung cancer and normal gene expression data.

  1. Canonical quantization of static spherically symmetric geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christodoulakis, T; Dimakis, N; Terzis, P A; Doulis, G; Grammenos, Th; Melas, E; Spanou, A

    2013-01-01

    The conditional symmetries of the reduced Einstein–Hilbert action emerging from a static, spherically symmetric geometry are used as supplementary conditions on the wave function. Based on their integrability conditions, only one of the three existing symmetries can be consistently imposed, while the unique Casimir invariant, being the product of the remaining two symmetries, is calculated as the only possible second condition on the wave function. This quadratic integral of motion is identified with the reparametrization generator, as an implication of the uniqueness of the dynamical evolution, by fixing a suitable parametrization of the r-lapse function. In this parametrization, the determinant of the supermetric plays the role of the mesure. The combined Wheeler – DeWitt and linear conditional symmetry equations are analytically solved. The solutions obtained depend on the product of the two ''scale factors''

  2. Quasi-static acoustic tweezing thromboelastometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, R G; Luo, D; Gruver, N; Khismatullin, D B

    2017-07-01

    Essentials Blood coagulation measurement during contact with an artificial surface leads to unreliable data. Acoustic tweezing thromboelastometry is a novel non-contact method for coagulation monitoring. This method detects differences in the blood coagulation state within 10 min. Coagulation data were obtained using a much smaller sample volume (4 μL) than currently used. Background Thromboelastography is widely used as a tool to assess the coagulation status of critical care patients. It allows observation of changes in material properties of whole blood, beginning with early stages of clot formation and ending with clot lysis. However, the contact activation of the coagulation cascade at surfaces of thromboelastographic systems leads to inherent variability and unreliability in predicting bleeding or thrombosis risks. Objectives To develop acoustic tweezing thromboelastometry as a non-contact method for perioperative assessment of blood coagulation. Methods Acoustic tweezing is used to levitate microliter drops of biopolymer and human blood samples. By quasi-statically changing the acoustic pressure we control the sample drop location and deformation. Sample size, deformation and location are determined by digital imaging at each pressure. Results Simple Newtonian liquid solutions maintain a constant, reversible location vs. deformation curve. In contrast, the location/deformation curves for gelatin, alginate, whole blood and blood plasma uniquely change as the samples solidify. Increasing elasticity causes the sample to deform less, leading to steeper stress/strain curves. By extracting a linear regime slope, we show that whole blood or blood plasma exhibits a unique slope profile as it begins to clot. By exposing blood samples to pro- or antithrombotic agents, the slope profile changes, allowing detection of hyper- or hypocoagulable states. Conclusions We demonstrate that quasi-static acoustic tweezing can yield information about clotting onset, maturation

  3. Why innovation theories make no sense

    OpenAIRE

    Moldaschl, Manfred

    2010-01-01

    In this paper I argue that it makes no sense to have "innovation theories", or the use of the concept in describing the potential of social and economic theories to explain the phenomenon of non-equilibrium. If we wish to explain dynamic, change, evolution, revolution, etc. in socio-economic systems, then theories that are genuinely capable of doing so are indispensable. We don't need static theories of society, economy, organization, the firm, etc. which need an "additional" theory of incong...

  4. Role of temperature on static correlational properties in a spin-polarized electron gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arora, Priya; Moudgil, R. K., E-mail: rkmoudgil@kuk.ac.in [Department of Physics, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra – 136 119 (India); Kumar, Krishan [S. D. College (Lahore), Ambala Cantt. - 133001 (India)

    2016-05-06

    We have studied the effect of temperature on the static correlational properties of a spin-polarized three-dimensional electron gas (3DEG) over a wide coupling and temperature regime. This problem has been very recently studied by Brown et al. using the restricted path-integral Monte Carlo (RPIMC) technique in the warm-dense regime. To this endeavor, we have used the finite temperature version of the dynamical mean-field theory of Singwi et al, the so-called quantum STLS (qSTLS) approach. The static density structure factor and the static pair-correlation function are calculated, and compared with the RPIMC simulation data. We find an excellent agreement with the simulation at high temperature over a wide coupling range. However, the agreement is seen to somewhat deteriorate with decreasing temperature. The pair-correlation function is found to become small negative for small electron separation. This may be attributed to the inadequacy of the mean-field theory in dealing with the like spin electron correlations in the strong-coupling domain. A nice agreement with RPIMC data at high temperature seems to arise due to weakening of both the exchange and coulomb correlations with rising temperature.

  5. Higher-order relationship between eigen-value separation and static flux tilts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckner, W.D.

    1975-01-01

    Spatial kinetics phenomena in nuclear reactors, such as xenon-induced spatial flux oscillations, are currently being analyzed using the higher harmonic solutions to the static reactor balance equation. An important parameter in such an analysis is a global quantity called eigenvalue separation. It is desirable to be able to experimentally measure this parameter in power reactors in order to confirm design calculations. Since spatial distortions in the flux shape depend on the eigenvalue separation of the reactor, an attempt has been made previously to use this fact as a means of measuring the parameter. It was postulated that an induced flux distortion or ''static flux tilt'' could be measured and theoretically related to eigenvalue separation. Unfortunately, the behavior of experimental data did not exactly agree with theoretical predictions, and values of the parameter found using the original static flux tilt technique were consistently low. The theory has been re-evaluated here and the previously observed discrepancy eliminated. Techniques have been also developed to allow for more accurate interpretation of experimental data. In order to make the method applicable to real systems, the theory has been extended to two spatial dimensions; extension to three dimensions follows directly. Possible trouble areas have been investigated, and experimental procedures for use of the technique to measure the eigenvalue separation in power reactors are presented

  6. Static Isolated Horizons: SU(2 Invariant Phase Space, Quantization, and Black Hole Entropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Perez

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available We study the classical field theoretical formulation of static generic isolated horizons in a manifestly SU(2 invariant formulation. We show that the usual classical description requires revision in the non-static case due to the breaking of diffeomorphism invariance at the horizon leading to the non-conservation of the usual pre-symplectic structure. We argue how this difficulty could be avoided by a simple enlargement of the field content at the horizon that restores diffeomorphism invariance. Restricting our attention to static isolated horizons we study the effective theories describing the boundary degrees of freedom. A quantization of the horizon degrees of freedom is proposed. By defining a statistical mechanical ensemble where only the area aH of the horizon is fixed macroscopically—states with fluctuations away from spherical symmetry are allowed—we show that it is possible to obtain agreement with the Hawkings area law (S = aH /(4l 2p without fixing the Immirzi parameter to any particular value: consistency with the area law only imposes a relationship between the Immirzi parameter and the level of the Chern-Simons theory involved in the effective description of the horizon degrees of freedom.

  7. Newton gauge cosmological perturbations for static spherically symmetric modifications of the de Sitter metric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santa Vélez, Camilo; Enea Romano, Antonio

    2018-05-01

    Static coordinates can be convenient to solve the vacuum Einstein's equations in presence of spherical symmetry, but for cosmological applications comoving coordinates are more suitable to describe an expanding Universe, especially in the framework of cosmological perturbation theory (CPT). Using CPT we develop a method to transform static spherically symmetric (SSS) modifications of the de Sitter solution from static coordinates to the Newton gauge. We test the method with the Schwarzschild de Sitter (SDS) metric and then derive general expressions for the Bardeen's potentials for a class of SSS metrics obtained by adding to the de Sitter metric a term linear in the mass and proportional to a general function of the radius. Using the gauge invariance of the Bardeen's potentials we then obtain a gauge invariant definition of the turn around radius. We apply the method to an SSS solution of the Brans-Dicke theory, confirming the results obtained independently by solving the perturbation equations in the Newton gauge. The Bardeen's potentials are then derived for new SSS metrics involving logarithmic, power law and exponential modifications of the de Sitter metric. We also apply the method to SSS metrics which give flat rotation curves, computing the radial energy density profile in comoving coordinates in presence of a cosmological constant.

  8. Assessing Static Performance of the Dashengguan Yangtze Bridge by Monitoring the Correlation between Temperature Field and Its Static Strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao-Xin Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Taking advantage of the structural health monitoring system installed on the steel truss arch girder of Dashengguan Yangtze Bridge, the temperature field data and static strain data are collected and analyzed for the static performance assessment of the bridge. Through analysis, it is found that the static strain changes are mainly caused by temperature field (temperature and temperature difference and train. After the train-induced static strains are removed, the correlation between the remaining static strains and the temperature field shows apparent linear characteristics, which can be mathematically modeled for the description of static performance. Therefore, multivariate linear regression function combined with principal component analysis is introduced to mathematically model the correlation. Furthermore, the residual static strains of mathematical model are adopted as assessment indicator and three kinds of degradation regulations of static performance are obtained after simulation of the residual static strains. Finally, it is concluded that the static performance of Dashengguan Yangtze Bridge was in a good condition during that period.

  9. The impact of marriage and parenthood on male body mass index: Static and dynamic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syrda, Joanna

    2017-08-01

    Numerous cross-sectional studies investigated the link between marital status and BMI in the context of competing social science theories (marriage market, marriage selection, marriage protection and social obligation), frequently offering conflicting theoretical predictions and conflicting empirical findings. This study analysed the effects of marriage, divorce, pregnancy, and parenthood on male BMI in a longitudinal setting, avoiding the estimation bias of cross-sectional studies and allowing for an analysis of BMI fluctuation over time and the dynamic effects of these events. Using the Panel Study of Income Dynamics 1999-2013 dataset (N = 8729), this study was the first to employ a dynamic panel-data estimation to examine the static and dynamic effects of marriage, divorce, and fatherhood on male BMI. The study showed that married men have higher BMI, but marital status changes largely drove this static effect, namely, an increase in BMI in the period following marriage, and a decrease in BMI preceding and following divorce. Thus, this study found marked evidence in support of the marriage market and social obligation theories' predictions about male BMI, and supports neither marriage protection theory nor marriage selection theory. Wives' pregnancies had no significant effect on BMI; instead, men tend to have higher BMI in the periods following childbirth. Finally, analyses showed marked contemporaneous correlations between husband and wife BMI over the course of marriage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Statics and dynamics in spherical poly-electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belloni, Luc

    1987-01-01

    Statics and dynamics of globular poly-electrolytes are studied in the framework of the primitive model. All particle, poly-ions and ions, are taken explicitly into account and are considered as charged hard-spheres. In the first part A, the equilibrium and structural properties are calculated with the hyper-netted chain integral equation. The strong accumulation of counterions near the poly-ion surface is studied in terms of condensation. In the large charge regime, the primitive model leads to a liquid-gas like phase separation. The theoretical scattering spectra improve the results of the classical one-component model. Specific applications are presented for micellar solutions. Some improvements of the HNC equation are discussed. In the second part B, the diffusional modes are calculated with the multi-component Smoluchowski equation or with the normal modes macroscopic theory. The non-instantaneous diffusion of ions decreases the velocity of macromolecules, especially at low salinity. The hydrodynamic interactions in concentrated solutions are studied with the screened Navier-Stokes equation. Lastly, the ionic relaxation around colloids is discussed qualitatively. (author) [fr

  11. Static and Dynamic Path Planning Using Incremental Heuristic Search

    OpenAIRE

    Khattab, Asem

    2018-01-01

    Path planning is an important component in any highly automated vehicle system. In this report, the general problem of path planning is considered first in partially known static environments where only static obstacles are present but the layout of the environment is changing as the agent acquires new information. Attention is then given to the problem of path planning in dynamic environments where there are moving obstacles in addition to the static ones. Specifically, a 2D car-like agent t...

  12. Active Design Method for the Static Characteristics of a Piezoelectric Six-Axis Force/Torque Sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Jun; Li, Min; Qin, Lan; Liu, Jingcheng

    2014-01-01

    To address the bottleneck issues of an elastic-style six-axis force/torque sensor (six-axis force sensor), this work proposes a no-elastic piezoelectric six-axis force sensor. The operating principle of the piezoelectric six-axis force sensor is analyzed, and a structural model is constructed. The static-active design theory of the piezoelectric six-axis force sensor is established, including a static analytical/mathematical model and numerical simulation model (finite element model). A piezo...

  13. The primary extinction and static Debye-Waller factor in the characterization of textured nickel by X-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kryshtab, T.; Palacios G, J.; Cadena A, A.; Kryvko, A.

    2015-01-01

    The texture analysis using X-ray diffraction (XRD) implies measurement of pole figures (Pf) from the diffracted intensities considering the model of kinematical dispersion. The extinction phenomenon results in a decrease of diffracted intensity and that in turn in a decrease of pole densities (Pds). The phenomenon appears in the kinematical theory of XRD as the primary extinction and the secondary extinction to characterize the loss of intensity of kinematical dispersion. In turn, the static Debye-Waller factor is an integral characteristic of defects in crystals that is introduced in the kinematical theory of XRD and also is used in dynamical theory of XRD. In this work the correlation between the primary extinction coefficient and the static Debye-Waller factor in the case of textured nickel was determined. The value of static Debye-Waller factor was determined from the value of the calculated primary extinction coefficient. For the evaluation there were used Pds in the maxima of Pf obtained for 111 and 200 reflections with Mo Kα radiation, and the Pds in the maxima of Pf obtained for the first and second orders of these reflections with Cu Kα and Co Kα radiations. There were calculated the dislocation densities in grains using values of static Debye-Waller factor and the extinction coefficients. The dislocation densities calculated from these two characteristics are practically equal. (Author)

  14. Fast static field CIPT mapping of unpatterned MRAM film stacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Daniel; Hansen, Ole; Henrichsen, Henrik Hartmann

    2015-01-01

    Current In-Plane Tunneling (CIPT) method measures both RA and TMR, but the usefulness for uniformity mapping, e.g. for tool optimization, is limited by excessive measurement time. Thus, we develop and demonstrate a fast complementary static magnetic field method focused only on measurement of RA. We...... compare the static field method to the standard CIPT method and find perfect agreement between the extracted RA values and measurement repeatability while the static field method is several times faster. The static field CIPT method is demonstrated for 200 mm wafer mapping showing radial as well...

  15. From Flow Logic to static type systems for coordination languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Nicola, Rocco; Gorla, Daniele; Hansen, Rene Rydhof

    2010-01-01

    checks; therefore, the correctness properties cannot be statically enforced. By contrast, static analysis approaches based on Flow Logic usually guarantee properties statically. In this paper, we show how the insights from the Flow Logic approach can be used to construct a type system for statically......Coordination languages are often used to describe open-ended systems. This makes it challenging to develop tools for guaranteeing the security of the coordinated systems and the correctness of their interaction. Successful approaches to this problem have been based on type systems with dynamic...

  16. From Flow Logic to Static Type Systems in Coordination Languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Nicola, Rocco; Gorla, Daniele; Hansen, René Rydhof

    2008-01-01

    ; therefore, the correctness properties cannot be statically enforced. By contrast, static analysis approaches based on Flow Logic usually guarantee properties statically. In this paper we show how to combine these two approaches to obtain a static type system for describing secure access to tuple spaces......Coordination languages are often used to describe open ended systems. This makes it challenging to develop tools for guaranteeing security of the coordinated systems and correctness of their interaction. Successful approaches to this problem have been based on type systems with dynamic checks...

  17. Evidential Equilibria: Heuristics and Biases in Static Games of Complete Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali al-Nowaihi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Standard equilibrium concepts in game theory find it difficult to explain the empirical evidence from a large number of static games, including the prisoners’ dilemma game, the hawk-dove game, voting games, public goods games and oligopoly games. Under uncertainty about what others will do in one-shot games, evidence suggests that people often use evidential reasoning (ER, i.e., they assign diagnostic significance to their own actions in forming beliefs about the actions of other like-minded players. This is best viewed as a heuristic or bias relative to the standard approach. We provide a formal theoretical framework that incorporates ER into static games by proposing evidential games and the relevant solution concept: evidential equilibrium (EE. We derive the relation between a Nash equilibrium and an EE. We illustrate these concepts in the context of the prisoners’ dilemma game.

  18. Coupled cluster calculations for static and dynamic polarizabilities of C60

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Karol; Hammond, Jeff R.; de Jong, Wibe A.; Sadlej, Andrzej J.

    2008-12-01

    New theoretical predictions for the static and frequency dependent polarizabilities of C60 are reported. Using the linear response coupled cluster approach with singles and doubles and a basis set especially designed to treat the molecular properties in external electric field, we obtained 82.20 and 83.62 Å3 for static and dynamic (λ =1064 nm) polarizabilities. These numbers are in a good agreement with experimentally inferred data of 76.5±8 and 79±4 Å3 [R. Antoine et al., J. Chem. Phys.110, 9771 (1999); A. Ballard et al., J. Chem. Phys.113, 5732 (2000)]. The reported results were obtained with the highest wave function-based level of theory ever applied to the C60 system.

  19. Metal magnetic memory effect caused by static tension load in a case-hardened steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, C.L.; Dong, S.Y.; Xu, B.S.; He, P.

    2010-01-01

    For investigating the magnetic abnormality influenced by stress in ferromagnetic materials, static tension tests on a case-hardened steel were carried out. Different loads, which covered tensile elastic loads up to plastic deformation and break, were applied. Meanwhile, the normal component of magnetic flux leakage, H p (y), was measured by metal magnetic memory testing. The results indicate that H p (y) values change with the tensile loads and positions. There exists a relationship between k, which is the inclination of the linear amplitude-locus magnetic flux leakage curve, and static tension load. A simple model is derived. Additionally, the mechanism of the magnetic memory effect can be explained by the theory of the interaction between dislocations and domains. The research provides the potential possibility of quantitative inspection for metal magnetic memory testing.

  20. Non-perturbative renormalization of static-light four-fermion operators in quenched lattice QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palombi, F. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Papinutto, M.; Pena, C. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland). Physics Dept., Theory Div.; Wittig, H. [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernphysik

    2007-06-15

    We perform a non-perturbative study of the scale-dependent renormalization factors of a multiplicatively renormalizable basis of {delta}B=2 parity-odd four-fermion operators in quenched lattice QCD. Heavy quarks are treated in the static approximation with various lattice discretizations of the static action. Light quarks are described by nonperturbatively O(a) improved Wilson-type fermions. The renormalization group running is computed for a family of Schroedinger functional (SF) schemes through finite volume techniques in the continuum limit. We compute non-perturbatively the relation between the renormalization group invariant operators and their counterparts renormalized in the SF at a low energy scale. Furthermore, we provide non-perturbative estimates for the matching between the lattice regularized theory and all the SF schemes considered. (orig.)

  1. Recoiling black holes in static and evolving dark matter halo potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smole M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We follow trajectories of kicked black holes in static and evolving dark matter halo potential. We explore both NFW and Einasto dark matter density distributions. Considered dark matter halos represent hosts of massive spiral and elliptical field galaxies. We study critical amplitude of kick velocity necessary for complete black hole ejection at various redshifts and find that ~40% lower kick velocities can remove black holes from their host haloes at z = 7 compared to z = 1. The greatest difference between static and evolving potential occurs near the critical velocity for black hole ejection and at high redshifts. When NFW and Einasto density distributions are compared ~30% higher kick velocities are needed for complete removal of BHs from dark matter halo described by NFW profile. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 176021: Visible and invisible matter in nearby galaxies: Theory and observations

  2. Utsu aftershock productivity law explained from geometric operations on the permanent static stress field of mainshocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mignan, Arnaud

    2018-03-01

    The aftershock productivity law is an exponential function of the form K ∝ exp(αM), with K being the number of aftershocks triggered by a given mainshock of magnitude M and α ≈ ln(10) being the productivity parameter. This law remains empirical in nature although it has also been retrieved in static stress simulations. Here, we parameterize this law using the solid seismicity postulate (SSP), the basis of a geometrical theory of seismicity where seismicity patterns are described by mathematical expressions obtained from geometric operations on a permanent static stress field. We first test the SSP that relates seismicity density to a static stress step function. We show that it yields a power exponent q = 1.96 ± 0.01 for the power-law spatial linear density distribution of aftershocks, once uniform noise is added to the static stress field, in agreement with observations. We then recover the exponential function of the productivity law with a break in scaling obtained between small and large M, with α = 1.5ln(10) and ln(10), respectively, in agreement with results from previous static stress simulations. Possible biases of aftershock selection, proven to exist in epidemic-type aftershock sequence (ETAS) simulations, may explain the lack of break in scaling observed in seismicity catalogues. The existence of the theoretical kink, however, remains to be proven. Finally, we describe how to estimate the solid seismicity parameters (activation density δ+, aftershock solid envelope r∗ and background stress amplitude range Δo∗) for large M values.

  3. Alteration of the ground state by external magnetic fields. [External field, coupling constant ratio, static tree level approximation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrington, B J; Shepard, H K [New Hampshire Univ., Durham (USA). Dept. of Physics

    1976-03-22

    By fully exploiting the mathematical and physical analogy to the Ginzburg-Landau theory of superconductivity, a complete discussion of the ground state behavior of the four-dimensional Abelian Higgs model in the static tree level approximation is presented. It is shown that a sufficiently strong external magnetic field can alter the ground state of the theory by restoring a spontaneously broken symmetry, or by creating a qualitatively different 'vortex' state. The energetically favored ground state is explicitly determined as a function of the external field and the ratio between coupling constants of the theory.

  4. Static Posturography in Aging and Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guntram W. Ickenstein

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In clinical practise, evaluation of postural control is based on the neurological examination, including Romberg’s test, examination of gait and performance of pull test as part of the Unified Parkinson´s Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS. The goal of our study was to identify posturographic parameters since quantitative technical methods for the measurement of postural control are not established in clinical routine yet. Methods: In this cross-sectional study design we examined patients with Parkinson's disease (Hoehn & Yahr <3; PD n=12 on a static posturographic platform (eyes open and eyes closed, performing a standard Romberg’s test during neurological examination and compared the results with an age-matched control group (healthy adult control; HAC n=10 and a healthy young control (HYC n=21.Results: In the platform Romberg’s test with open eyes, the patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD showed a significantly greater mean sway (PD: 14.98 vs. HAC: 8.77 [mm], p<0.003 vs. HYC 7.80 [mm], greater mean radius (PD: 28.31 vs. HAC: 16.36 [mm], p<0.008 vs. HYC: 14.19 [mm] and greater marked area (PD: 2.38 vs. HAC: 0.88 [cm2], p<0.016 vs. HYC: 0.78 [cm2] compared to the healthy adult control (HAC. The Romberg’s test with closed eyes revealed a significantly greater mean sway (PD: 13.83 vs. HAC: 10.12 [mm], p<0.033 vs. HYC: 5.82 [mm] and greater mean radius (PD: 25.03 vs. HAC: 18.15 [mm], p<0.045 vs. HYC: 9.11 [mm] compared to both groups.Conclusions: The platform Romberg test with closed eyes detected significant differences in elderly people and patients with Parkinson's disease, which could be objectively quantified with static posturography testing. Age alone showed significant changes, only detectable with closed eyes. Therefore balance testing with a new computerized approach could help to identify balance problems in a geriatric assessment in clinical routine, especially with the parameters marked area and mean sway.

  5. Spirometry, Static Lung Volumes, and Diffusing Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz Fragoso, Carlos A; Cain, Hilary C; Casaburi, Richard; Lee, Patty J; Iannone, Lynne; Leo-Summers, Linda S; Van Ness, Peter H

    2017-09-01

    Spirometric Z-scores from the Global Lung Initiative (GLI) rigorously account for age-related changes in lung function and are thus age-appropriate when establishing spirometric impairments, including a restrictive pattern and air-flow obstruction. However, GLI-defined spirometric impairments have not yet been evaluated regarding associations with static lung volumes (total lung capacity [TLC], functional residual capacity [FRC], and residual volume [RV]) and gas exchange (diffusing capacity). We performed a retrospective review of pulmonary function tests in subjects ≥40 y old (mean age 64.6 y), including pre-bronchodilator measures for: spirometry ( n = 2,586), static lung volumes by helium dilution with inspiratory capacity maneuver ( n = 2,586), and hemoglobin-adjusted single-breath diffusing capacity ( n = 2,508). Using multivariable linear regression, adjusted least-squares means (adj LS Means) were calculated for TLC, FRC, RV, and hemoglobin-adjusted single-breath diffusing capacity. The adj LS Means were expressed with and without height-cubed standardization and stratified by GLI-defined spirometry, including normal ( n = 1,251), restrictive pattern ( n = 663), and air-flow obstruction (mild, [ n = 128]; moderate, [ n = 150]; and severe, [ n = 394]). Relative to normal spirometry, restrictive-pattern had lower adj LS Means for TLC, FRC, RV, and hemoglobin-adjusted single-breath diffusing capacity ( P ≤ .001). Conversely, relative to normal spirometry, mild, moderate, and severe air-flow obstruction had higher adj LS Means for FRC and RV ( P < .001). However, only mild and moderate air-flow obstruction had higher adj LS Means for TLC ( P < .001), while only moderate and severe air-flow obstruction had higher adj LS Means for RV/TLC ( P < .001) and lower adj LS Means for hemoglobin-adjusted single-breath diffusing capacity ( P < .001). Notably, TLC (calculated as FRC + inspiratory capacity) was not increased in severe air-flow obstruction ( P ≥ .11

  6. Numerical optimization of piezolaminated beams under static and dynamic excitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajan L. Wankhade

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Shape and vibration controls of smart structures in structural applications have gained much attraction due to their ability of actuation and sensing. The response of structure to bending, vibration, and buckling can be controlled by the use of this ability of a piezoelectric material. In the present work, the static and dynamic control of smart piezolaminated beams is presented. The optimal locations of piezoelectric patches are found out and then a detailed analysis is performed using finite element modeling considering the higher order shear deformation theory. In the first part, for an extension mode, the piezolaminated beam with stacking sequence PZT5/Al/PZT5 is considered. The length of the beam is 100 mm, whereas the thickness of an aluminum core is 16 mm and that of the piezo layer is of 1 mm. The PZT actuators are positioned with an identical poling direction along the thickness and are excited by a direct current voltage of 10 V. For the shear mode, the stacking sequence Al/PZT5/Al is adopted. The length of the beam is kept the same as the extension mechanism i.e. 100 mm, whereas the thickness of the aluminum core is 8 mm and that of the piezo layer is of 2 mm. The actuator is excited by a direct current voltage of 20 V. In the second part, the control of the piezolaminated beam with an optimal location of the actuator is investigated under a dynamic excitation. Electromechanical loading is considered in the finite element formulation for the analysis purpose. Results are provided for beams with different boundary conditions and loading for future references. Both the extension and shear actuation mechanisms are employed for the piezolaminated beam. These results may be used to identify the response of a beam under static and dynamic excitations. From the present work, the optimal location of a piezoelectric patch can be easily identified for the corresponding boundary condition of the beam.

  7. Salinas : theory manual.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, Timothy Francis; Reese, Garth M.; Bhardwaj, Manoj Kumar

    2011-11-01

    Salinas provides a massively parallel implementation of structural dynamics finite element analysis, required for high fidelity, validated models used in modal, vibration, static and shock analysis of structural systems. This manual describes the theory behind many of the constructs in Salinas. For a more detailed description of how to use Salinas, we refer the reader to Salinas, User's Notes. Many of the constructs in Salinas are pulled directly from published material. Where possible, these materials are referenced herein. However, certain functions in Salinas are specific to our implementation. We try to be far more complete in those areas. The theory manual was developed from several sources including general notes, a programmer notes manual, the user's notes and of course the material in the open literature.

  8. Waltz's Theory of Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wæver, Ole

    2009-01-01

    -empiricism and anti-positivism of his position. Followers and critics alike have treated Waltzian neorealism as if it was at bottom a formal proposition about cause-effect relations. The extreme case of Waltz being so victorious in the discipline, and yet being consistently mis-interpreted on the question of theory......, shows the power of a dominant philosophy of science in US IR, and thus the challenge facing any ambitious theorising. The article suggests a possible movement of fronts away from the ‘fourth debate' between rationalism and reflectivism towards one of theory against empiricism. To help this new agenda...

  9. Static and Dynamic Energetic Disorders in the C 60 , PC 61 BM, C 70 , and PC 71 BM Fullerenes

    KAUST Repository

    Tummala, Naga Rajesh

    2015-09-17

    We use a combination of molecular dynamics simulations and density functional theory calculations to investigate the energetic disorder in fullerene systems. We show that the energetic disorder evaluated from an ensemble average contains contributions of both static origin (time-independent, due to loose packing) and dynamic origin (time-dependent, due to electron-vibration interactions). In order to differentiate between these two contributions, we compare the results obtained from an ensemble average approach with those derived from a time average approach. It is found that in both amorphous C60 and C70 bulk systems, the degrees of static and dynamic disorder are comparable, while in the amorphous PC61BM and PC71BM systems, static disorder is about twice as large as dynamic disorder. © 2015 American Chemical Society.

  10. Artificial neural networks for static security assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niebur, D.; Fischl, R.

    1997-12-31

    A reliable, continuous supply of electric energy is essential for the functioning of today`s complex societies. Due to a combination of increasing energy consumption and impediments of various kinds to the extension of existing electric transmission networks, these power systems are operated closer and closer to their limits. This situation requires a significantly less conservative power system operation and control regime which, in turn, is possible only by monitoring the system state in much more detail than was necessary previously. Fortunately, the large quantity of information required can be provided in many cases through recent advances in telecommunications and computing techniques. There is, however, a lack of evaluation techniques required to extract the salient information and to use it for higher-order processing. Whilst the sheer quantity of available information is always a problem, this situation is aggravated in emergency situations when rapid decisions are required. Furthermore, the behaviour of power systems is highly non-linear. Monitoring and control involves several hundred variables which are only partly available by measurements. Load demands and dynamic loads are difficult to model. Therefore models appropriate for normal situations might become invalid in emergency situations. These problems provide important motivation to explore novel data processing and programming techniques from the vast pool of artificial intelligence techniques. The following section gives a short introduction to static security assessment. (Author)

  11. Static Magnetic Cloak without a Superconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wei; Ma, Yungui; He, Sailing

    2018-05-01

    Similar to its electromagnetic counterpart, magnetic cloaking also has very important technological applications. However, the traditional method to build a static magnetic cloak requires the use of superconducting materials as the diamagnetic component, which seriously limits the practical potential because of the cryogenic condition. We show that a diamagnetic active current boundary combined with a high-permeability magnetic inner shell (MIS) can be designed to solve this problem, rendering an ideal magnetic cloaking effect at zero frequency. We first theoretically prove that a current boundary could magnetically behave as a superconductor to external observers. Based on this phenomena, we introduce a high-permeability MIS made of magnetically ultrasoft metallic sheets (permeability μ >103 ) and experimentally prove that the bilayer combination can exactly balance out the disturbance to the external probing field and, meanwhile, have a large invisible inner space. We also show that the active boundary currents can be accordingly configured to overcome the permeability and frequency band limits, leading to a robust cloak over the entire quasistatic frequency region. Our work creates an efficient way to circumvent the traditional limits of metamaterials to build magnetic cloaks for ultralow frequencies. The active-passive hybrid approach could be generally extended to yield other artificial magnetic devices or systems as well.

  12. The influence of music on static posturography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forti, Stella; Filipponi, Eliana; Di Berardino, Federica; Barozzi, Stefania; Cesarani, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    It is well known that high intensity sounds modify balance by activating the saccule, which is sensitive to both vestibular and acoustic stimuli. Few studies have examined the effects of music on the postural responses in healthy subjects. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of different types of music (Mozart, Köhler, Köhler with a carrier of 12 KHz and subjects' favourite music) on twelve healthy subjects standing on a stabilometric platform. With each type of music, all subjects underwent static posturography with eyes opened and eyes closed, and with and without foam pads. We evaluated the length and the surface of body sway and the correlation between them, and we analyzed the visual, vestibular and somatosensory sub-components. Listening to different types of music did not significantly change the stabilometric variables, with the exception of listening to Mozart's Jupiter, which caused a significant reduction in the visual component with a consequent increase in both the vestibular and somatosensory inputs. Further studies are needed to determine the effect of Mozart's music in modifying the sensory strategy in the rehabilitation of patients with vestibular impairments.

  13. Static speckle experiments using white synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sant, Tushar; Panzner, Tobias; Pietsch, Ullrich [Solid State Physics Group, University of Siegen (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Static speckle experiments were performed using coherent white X-ray radiation from a bending magnet at BESSYII. Semiconductor and polymer surfaces were investigated under incidence condition smaller than the critical angle of total external reflection. The scattering pattern of the sample results from the illumination function modified by the surface undulations. The periodic oscillations are caused by the illumination function whereas other irregular features are associated with sample surface. The speckle map of reflection from a laterally periodic structure like GaAs grating is studied. Under coherent illumination the grating peaks split into speckles because of fluctuations on the sample surface. It is important to understand which length scales on the sample surface are responsible for the oscillations in reflectivity map. To investigate this experiments are done with a triangular shaped sample. Different parts of the sample are illuminated with the footprint on the sample larger or smaller than the actual sample length. This gives prior information about total illuminated area on the sample. Using this additional information a detailed surface profile of the sample is reconstructed.

  14. Liquid methanol under a static electric field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cassone, Giuseppe, E-mail: giuseppe.cassone@impmc.upmc.fr [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR 7590, IMPMC, F-75005 Paris (France); CNRS, UMR 7590, IMPMC, F-75005 Paris (France); Università degli Studi di Messina, Dipartimento di Fisica e di Scienze della Terra, Contrada Papardo, 98166 Messina (Italy); CNR-IPCF, Viale Ferdinando Stagno d’Alcontres 37, 98158 Messina (Italy); Giaquinta, Paolo V., E-mail: paolo.giaquinta@unime.it [Università degli Studi di Messina, Dipartimento di Fisica e di Scienze della Terra, Contrada Papardo, 98166 Messina (Italy); Saija, Franz, E-mail: saija@ipcf.cnr.it [CNR-IPCF, Viale Ferdinando Stagno d’Alcontres 37, 98158 Messina (Italy); Saitta, A. Marco, E-mail: marco.saitta@impmc.upmc.fr [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR 7590, IMPMC, F-75005 Paris (France); CNRS, UMR 7590, IMPMC, F-75005 Paris (France)

    2015-02-07

    We report on an ab initio molecular dynamics study of liquid methanol under the effect of a static electric field. We found that the hydrogen-bond structure of methanol is more robust and persistent for field intensities below the molecular dissociation threshold whose value (≈0.31 V/Å) turns out to be moderately larger than the corresponding estimate obtained for liquid water. A sustained ionic current, with ohmic current-voltage behavior, flows in this material for field intensities above 0.36 V/Å, as is also the case of water, but the resulting ionic conductivity (≈0.40 S cm{sup −1}) is at least one order of magnitude lower than that of water, a circumstance that evidences a lower efficiency of proton transfer processes. We surmise that this study may be relevant for the understanding of the properties and functioning of technological materials which exploit ionic conduction, such as direct-methanol fuel cells and Nafion membranes.

  15. Constitutive equation of butter at static loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šárka Nedomová

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the constitutive modelling of finite deformation in the commercially obtained butter (composition is 83 % of milk fat at the temperature 17–20 °C. The specimens from the butter (height L0=14.6 mm and diameter 20 mm have been compressed between two parallel metal plates at a fixed crosshead speed 20 mm/min using of the testing device TIRA TEST. The force F and the deformation ∆L are measured during compression and both quantities are recorded. The experimental records force F – displacement (deformation were obtained. These records have been transformed into stress–strain dependences and into true stress–true strain. The basic data on the strain behaviour of a butter under low strain rates have been obtained. Experimental results show that the behaviour of butter can be described by a hyperelastic material model. In this model, the quasi–static response is defined by compressible hyperelasticity, whereby the strain energy potential is assumed to be representable by a newly proposed polynomial series with three independent parameters. The material parameters in the constitutive model are determined from compression test. A comparison of predictions based on the proposed constitutive equation with experiments shows that the model is able to describe the strain behaviour of the butter examined.

  16. A multinuclear static NMR study of geopolymerisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Favier, Aurélie, E-mail: aurelie.favier@epfl.ch [Univ Paris-Est, IFSTTAR, Materials Department, 14-20 bd Newton, F-77447 Marne la Vallée Cedex 2 (France); Habert, Guillaume [Institute for Construction and Infrastructure Management, ETH Zurich, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Roussel, Nicolas [Univ Paris-Est, IFSTTAR, Materials Department, 14-20 bd Newton, F-77447 Marne la Vallée Cedex 2 (France); D' Espinose de Lacaillerie, Jean-Baptiste [Ecole Supérieure de Physique et de Chimie Indusrtrielles de la Ville de Paris (ESPCI), ParisTech, PSL Research University, Soft Matter Sciences and Engineering Laboratory SIMM, CNRS UMR 7615, 10 rue Vauquelin, F-75005 Paris (France)

    2015-09-15

    Geopolymers are inorganic binders obtained by alkali activation of aluminosilicates. While the structure of geopolymers is now well understood, the details of the geopolymerisation reaction and their impact on the rheology of the paste remain uncertain. In this work, we follow the elastic properties of a paste made with metakaolin and sodium silicate solution. After the first sharp increase of elastic modulus occurring a few hundred of seconds after mixing and related to the heterogeneous formation of an alumina–silicate gel with a molar ratio Si/Al < 4 located at the grains boundaries, we focus on the progressive increase in elastic modulus on a period of few hours during the setting of the geopolymer. In this study, we combine the study of rheological properties of the paste with {sup 23}Na, {sup 27}Al and {sup 29}Si static NMR measurement in order to better understand the origin of this second increase in elastic modulus. Our results show that, after a few hours, Al and Na evolution in the liquid phase are concomitant. This suggests the precipitation of an aluminosilicate phase where Al is in tetrahedral position and Na compensates the charge. Furthermore, Si speciation confirms this result and allows us to identify the precipitation of a product, which has a chemical composition close to the final composition of geopolymer. This study provides strong evidence for a heterogeneous formation of an aluminosilicate glass directly from the first gel and the silicate solution without the need for a reorganisation of Gel 1 into Gel 2.

  17. Slipping and Tipping: Measuring Static Friction with a Straightedge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Eric; Aguilar, Isaac

    2012-01-01

    Following a discussion of forces, torques, and the conditions for static equilibrium, I tell my introductory mechanics class that I will show them how to measure the coefficient of static friction, us, between the surfaces of a block and the front bench using "nothing but a straightedge". After a few seconds of hushed anticipation, I nudge the…

  18. Survey of approaches for handling static analysis alarms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muske, T.; Serebrenik, A.

    2016-01-01

    Static analysis tools have showcased their importance and usefulness in automated detection of code anomalies and defects. However, the large number of alarms reported and cost incurred in their manual inspections have been the major concerns with the usage of static analysis tools. Existing studies

  19. Navigating on handheld displays: Dynamic versus Static Keyhole Navigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mehra, S.; Werkhoven, P.; Worring, M.

    2006-01-01

    Handheld displays leave little space for the visualization and navigation of spatial layouts representing rich information spaces. The most common navigation method for handheld displays is static peephole navigation: The peephole is static and we move the spatial layout behind it (scrolling). A

  20. Static and dynamical properties of light hadrons in QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ioffe, B.L.

    1984-01-01

    The review of QCD determination of static and dynamical properties of hadrons is given. Hadron masses, their transition constants into quark currents, meson formfactors at intermediate momentum transfers, mesonic partial widths and structure functions at small x are considered. A special attention is paid to calculation of static paramaters of hadrons in external fields (nucleon and hyperon magnetic moments, interaction constants with axial currents)

  1. 14 CFR 25.1325 - Static pressure systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... installation of the static pressure system must be such that— (1) Positive drainage of moisture is provided..., the other is blocked off; and (2) Both sources cannot be blocked off simultaneously. (h) For... other static pressure source being open or blocked. [Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as...

  2. Non-static vacuum strings: exterior and interior solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stein-Schabes, J.A.

    1986-01-01

    New non-static cylindrically symmetric solutions of Einsteins's equations are presented. Some of these solutions represent string-like objects. An exterior vacuum solution is matched to a non-vacuum interior solution for different forms of the energy-momentum tensor. They generalize the standard static string. 12 refs

  3. 14 CFR 27.610 - Lightning and static electricity protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Lightning and static electricity protection....610 Lightning and static electricity protection. (a) The rotorcraft must be protected against catastrophic effects from lightning. (b) For metallic components, compliance with paragraph (a) of this section...

  4. 14 CFR 29.610 - Lightning and static electricity protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Lightning and static electricity protection... § 29.610 Lightning and static electricity protection. (a) The rotorcraft structure must be protected against catastrophic effects from lightning. (b) For metallic components, compliance with paragraph (a) of...

  5. 14 CFR 25.173 - Static longitudinal stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Static longitudinal stability. 25.173... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Flight Stability § 25.173 Static... forces (including friction) must be as follows: (a) A pull must be required to obtain and maintain speeds...

  6. 14 CFR 23.173 - Static longitudinal stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Static longitudinal stability. 23.173... Stability § 23.173 Static longitudinal stability. Under the conditions specified in § 23.175 and with the airplane trimmed as indicated, the characteristics of the elevator control forces and the friction within...

  7. Multiple histogram method and static Monte Carlo sampling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Inda, M.A.; Frenkel, D.

    2004-01-01

    We describe an approach to use multiple-histogram methods in combination with static, biased Monte Carlo simulations. To illustrate this, we computed the force-extension curve of an athermal polymer from multiple histograms constructed in a series of static Rosenbluth Monte Carlo simulations. From

  8. 40 CFR 53.64 - Test procedure: Static fractionator test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test procedure: Static fractionator test. 53.64 Section 53.64 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Performance Characteristics of Class II Equivalent Methods for PM2.5 § 53.64 Test procedure: Static...

  9. On the relationship between ontogenetic and static allometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pélabon, Christophe; Bolstad, Geir H; Egset, Camilla K; Cheverud, James M; Pavlicev, Mihaela; Rosenqvist, Gunilla

    2013-02-01

    Ontogenetic and static allometries describe how a character changes in size when the size of the organism changes during ontogeny and among individuals measured at the same developmental stage, respectively. Understanding the relationship between these two types of allometry is crucial to understanding the evolution of allometry and, more generally, the evolution of shape. However, the effects of ontogenetic allometry on static allometry remain largely unexplored. Here, we first show analytically how individual variation in ontogenetic allometry and body size affect static allometry. Using two longitudinal data sets on ontogenetic and static allometry, we then estimate variances and covariances for the different parameters of the ontogenetic allometry defined in our model and assess their relative contribution to the static allometric slope. The mean ontogenetic allometry is the main parameter that determines the static allometric slope, while the covariance between the ontogenetic allometric slope and body size generates most of the discrepancies between ontogenetic and static allometry. These results suggest that the apparent evolutionary stasis of the static allometric slope is not generated by internal (developmental) constraints but more likely results from external constraints imposed by selection.

  10. CONTINUOUS PRODUCTION OF HYDROXYPROPYL STARCH IN A STATIC MIXER REACTOR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    LAMMERS, G; STAMHUIS, EJ; BEENACKERS, AACM

    A novel type of reactor for the chemical derivatization of starch pastes is presented. The design is based on the application of static mixers. The reactor shows excellent plug flow behaviour with a Peclet number of about 100. The viscosity behaviour of concentrated starch pastes in the static mixer

  11. Hanging an Airplane: A Case Study in Static Equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Debora M.

    2009-01-01

    Our classrooms are filled with engineering majors who take a semester-long course in static equilibrium. Many students find this class too challenging and drop their engineering major. In our introductory physics class, we often breeze through static equilibrium; to physicists equilibrium is just a special case of Newton's second law. While it is…

  12. THE EXPERIENCE OF COMPARISON OF STATIC SECURITY CODE ANALYZERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Markov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a methodological approach to comparison of static security code analyzers. It substantiates the comparison of the static analyzers as to efficiency and functionality indicators, which are stipulated in the international regulatory documents. The test data for assessment of static analyzers efficiency is represented by synthetic sets of open-source software, which contain vulnerabilities. We substantiated certain criteria for quality assessment of the static security code analyzers subject to standards NIST SP 500-268 and SATEC. We carried out experiments that allowed us to assess a number of the Russian proprietary software tools and open-source tools. We came to the conclusion that it is of paramount importance to develop Russian regulatory framework for testing software security (firstly, for controlling undocumented features and evaluating the quality of static security code analyzers.

  13. An easily implemented static condensation method for structural sensitivity analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangadharan, S. N.; Haftka, R. T.; Nikolaidis, E.

    1990-01-01

    A black-box approach to static condensation for sensitivity analysis is presented with illustrative examples of a cube and a car structure. The sensitivity of the structural response with respect to joint stiffness parameter is calculated using the direct method, forward-difference, and central-difference schemes. The efficiency of the various methods for identifying joint stiffness parameters from measured static deflections of these structures is compared. The results indicate that the use of static condensation can reduce computation times significantly and the black-box approach is only slightly less efficient than the standard implementation of static condensation. The ease of implementation of the black-box approach recommends it for use with general-purpose finite element codes that do not have a built-in facility for static condensation.

  14. Topics in atomic collision theory

    CERN Document Server

    Geltman, Sydney; Brueckner, Keith A

    1969-01-01

    Topics in Atomic Collision Theory originated in a course of graduate lectures given at the University of Colorado and at University College in London. It is recommended for students in physics and related fields who are interested in the application of quantum scattering theory to low-energy atomic collision phenomena. No attention is given to the electromagnetic, nuclear, or elementary particle domains. The book is organized into three parts: static field scattering, electron-atom collisions, and atom-atom collisions. These are in the order of increasing physical complexity and hence necessar

  15. Evaluation method of longitudinal static stability of tailless airplane. Mubiyokuki no tate no seianteisei no hyokaho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ando, S; Kajita, H [Nagoya University, Nagoya (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1992-01-05

    As for the tailless airplane which has the swept taper wing of linear leading and tailing edges, the longitudinal static stability was evaluated by using the modified strip or airfoil theory and the lifting surface theory (DLM method). The sectional lift coefficient of the whole wing, the pitching moment coefficient around the center of gravity, and the equation relating to the elevon were shown. It is thought as a weak point of any tailless airplane that the spanwise lift distribution may keep away from the optimal one because the wash-out is necessary to keep the longitudinal static stability. In order to evaluate this fact, the inductive drag was calculated by using the calculation soft for the induced drag based on the lift surface method to obtain the airplane efficiency factor. The Northrop XB-35 was used for the model of this calculation. Both theories agreed qualititatively. The allowable range of longitudinal center of gravity was 12.5% of the mean chord length. The structural twist is about 9{degree}, and this value gives hardly any adverse effect to the airplane efficiency factor for crusing configuration. 13 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Asymptotic properties of spherically symmetric, regular and static solutions to Yang-Mills equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cronstrom, C.

    1987-01-01

    In this paper the author discusses the asymptotic properties of solutions to Yang-Mills equations with the gauge group SU(2), for spherically symmetric, regular and static potentials. It is known, that the pure Yang-Mills equations cannot have nontrivial regular solutions which vanish rapidly at space infinity (socalled finite energy solutions). So, if regular solutions exist, they must have non-trivial asymptotic properties. However, if the asymptotic behaviour of the solutions is non-trivial, then the fact must be explicitly taken into account in constructing the proper action (and energy) for the theory. The elucidation of the appropriate surface correction to the Yang-Mills action (and hence the energy-momentum tensor density) is one of the main motivations behind the present study. In this paper the author restricts to the asymptotic behaviour of the static solutions. It is shown that this asymptotic behaviour is such that surface corrections (at space-infinity) are needed in order to obtain a well-defined (classical) theory. This is of relevance in formulating a quantum Yang-Mills theory

  17. Gravitation as Gauge theory of Poincare Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stedile, E.

    1982-08-01

    The geometrical approach to gauge theories, based on fiber-bundles, is shown in detail. Several gauge formalisms for gravitation are examined. In particular, it is shown how to build gauge theories for non-semisimple groups. A gravitational theory for the Poincare group, with all the essential characteristics of a Yang-Mills theory is proposed. Inonu-Wigner contractions of gauge theories are introduced, which provide a Lagrangian formalism, equivalent to a Lagrangian de Sitter theory supplemented by weak constraints. Yang and Einstein theories for gravitation become particular cases of a Yang-Mills theory. The classical limit of the proposed formalism leads to the Poisson equation, for the static case. (Author) [pt

  18. Static friction between rigid fractal surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Marroquin, Fernando; Huang, Pengyu; Hanaor, Dorian A H; Flores-Johnson, E A; Proust, Gwénaëlle; Gan, Yixiang; Shen, Luming

    2015-09-01

    Using spheropolygon-based simulations and contact slope analysis, we investigate the effects of surface topography and atomic scale friction on the macroscopically observed friction between rigid blocks with fractal surface structures. From our mathematical derivation, the angle of macroscopic friction is the result of the sum of the angle of atomic friction and the slope angle between the contact surfaces. The latter is obtained from the determination of all possible contact slopes between the two surface profiles through an alternative signature function. Our theory is validated through numerical simulations of spheropolygons with fractal Koch surfaces and is applied to the description of frictional properties of Weierstrass-Mandelbrot surfaces. The agreement between simulations and theory suggests that for interpreting macroscopic frictional behavior, the descriptors of surface morphology should be defined from the signature function rather than from the slopes of the contacting surfaces.

  19. 'Static' octupole deformation at high spin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazarewicz, W.

    1985-01-01

    Rotational bands characterized by spin states of alternating parity p=(-1) I connected by enhanced E1 transitions have recently been observed in several nuclei from the Ra-Th region. They can be interpreted by means of a reflection asymmetric mean field theory. The interplay between octupole deformation and rotation is briefly discussed. For nuclei with ground state octupole deformation a transition to a reflection symmetric shape is expected around I=22. (orig.)

  20. Active design method for the static characteristics of a piezoelectric six-axis force/torque sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Li, Min; Qin, Lan; Liu, Jingcheng

    2014-01-02

    To address the bottleneck issues of an elastic-style six-axis force/torque sensor (six-axis force sensor), this work proposes a no-elastic piezoelectric six-axis force sensor. The operating principle of the piezoelectric six-axis force sensor is analyzed, and a structural model is constructed. The static-active design theory of the piezoelectric six-axis force sensor is established, including a static analytical/mathematical model and numerical simulation model (finite element model). A piezoelectric six-axis force sensor experimental prototype is developed according to the analytical mathematical model and numerical simulation model, and selected static characteristic parameters (including sensitivity, isotropic degree and cross-coupling) are tested using this model with three approaches. The measured results are in agreement with the analytical results from the static-active design method. Therefore, this study has successfully established a foundation for further research into the piezoelectric multi-axis force sensor and an overall design approach based on static characteristics.

  1. Imaginary part of the next-to-leading-order static gluon self-energy in an anisotropic plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrington, M. E.; Rebhan, A.

    2009-01-01

    Using hard-loop (HL) effective theory for an anisotropic non-Abelian plasma, which even in the static limit involves nonvanishing HL vertices, we calculate the imaginary part of the static next-to-leading-order gluon self-energy in the limit of a small anisotropy and with external momentum parallel to the anisotropy direction. At leading order, the static propagator has spacelike poles corresponding to plasma instabilities. On the basis of a calculation using bare vertices, it has been conjectured that, at next-to-leading order, the static gluon self-energy acquires an imaginary part which regulates these spacelike poles. We find that the one-loop resummed expression taken over naively from the imaginary-time formalism does yield a nonvanishing imaginary part even after including all HL vertices. However, this result is not correct. Starting from the real-time formalism, which is required in a nonequilibrium situation, we construct a resummed retarded HL propagator with correct causality properties and show that the static limit of the retarded one-loop-resummed gluon self-energy is real. This result is also required for the time-ordered propagator to exist at next-to-leading order.

  2. Literature review Quasi-static and Dynamic pile load tests : Primarily report on non-static pile load tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huy, N.Q.

    2010-01-01

    Pile testing, which plays an importance role in the field of deep foundation design, is performed by static and non-static methods to provide information about the following issues: (Poulos, 1998) - The ultimate capacity of a single pile. - The load-displacement behavior of a pile. - The performance

  3. A PSP-based small-signal MOSFET model for both quasi-static and nonquasi-static operations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarts, A.C.T.; Smit, G.D.J.; Scholten, A.J.; Klaassen, D.B.M.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, a small-signal MOSFET model is described, which takes the local effects of both velocity saturation and transverse mobility reduction into account. The model is based on the PSP model and is valid for both quasi-static and nonquasi-static (NQS) operations. Recently, it has been found

  4. Static mechanical properties of buffer material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takaji, Kazuhiko; Suzuki, Hideaki

    1999-11-01

    The buffer material is expected to maintain its low water permeability, self-sealing properties, radionuclides adsorption and retardation properties, thermal conductivity, chemical buffering properties, overpack supporting properties, stress buffering properties, etc. over a long period of time. Natural clay is mentioned as a material that can relatively satisfy above. Among the kinds of natural clay, bentonite when compacted is superior because (i) it has exceptionally low water permeability and properties to control the movement of water in buffer, (ii) it fills void spaces in the buffer and fractures in the host rock as it swells upon water uptake, (iii) it has the ability to exchange cations and to adsorb cationic radioelements. In order to confirm these functions for the purpose of safety assessment, it is necessary to evaluate buffer properties through laboratory tests and engineering-scale tests, and to make assessments based on the ranges in the data obtained. This report describes the procedures, test conditions, results and examinations on the buffer material of unconfined compression tests, one-dimensional consolidation tests, consolidated-undrained triaxial compression tests and consolidated-undrained triaxial creep tests that aim at getting hold of static mechanical properties. We can get hold of the relationship between the dry density and tensile stress etc. by Brazilian tests, between the dry density and unconfined compressive strength etc. by unconfined compression tests, between the consolidation stress and void ratio etc. by one-dimensional consolidation tests, the stress pass of each effective confining pressure etc. by consolidated-undrained triaxial compression tests and the axial strain rate with time of each axial stress etc. by consolidated-undrained triaxial creep tests. (author)

  5. Dynamic statistical information theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    In recent years we extended Shannon static statistical information theory to dynamic processes and established a Shannon dynamic statistical information theory, whose core is the evolution law of dynamic entropy and dynamic information. We also proposed a corresponding Boltzmman dynamic statistical information theory. Based on the fact that the state variable evolution equation of respective dynamic systems, i.e. Fokker-Planck equation and Liouville diffusion equation can be regarded as their information symbol evolution equation, we derived the nonlinear evolution equations of Shannon dynamic entropy density and dynamic information density and the nonlinear evolution equations of Boltzmann dynamic entropy density and dynamic information density, that describe respectively the evolution law of dynamic entropy and dynamic information. The evolution equations of these two kinds of dynamic entropies and dynamic informations show in unison that the time rate of change of dynamic entropy densities is caused by their drift, diffusion and production in state variable space inside the systems and coordinate space in the transmission processes; and that the time rate of change of dynamic information densities originates from their drift, diffusion and dissipation in state variable space inside the systems and coordinate space in the transmission processes. Entropy and information have been combined with the state and its law of motion of the systems. Furthermore we presented the formulas of two kinds of entropy production rates and information dissipation rates, the expressions of two kinds of drift information flows and diffusion information flows. We proved that two kinds of information dissipation rates (or the decrease rates of the total information) were equal to their corresponding entropy production rates (or the increase rates of the total entropy) in the same dynamic system. We obtained the formulas of two kinds of dynamic mutual informations and dynamic channel

  6. Distribution of electron orbits having a definite angular momentum in a static magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olszewski, S.

    1996-01-01

    Electron orbits having a definite angular momentum in a static magnetic field are calculated with the aid of the Bohr-Sommerfeld quantization rules. The quantization gives that orbits are arranged along a straight line but the distance between the centers of two neighboring orbits decreases with increase of the absolute value of the angular momentum. With the energy correction equal to the zero-point energy of the harmonic oscillator, the distribution of orbits becomes identical to that obtained recently with the aid of a mixed semiclassical and quantum mechanical theory. 16 refs., 1 fig

  7. Sufficient condition for confinement of static quarks by a vortex condensation mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mack, G.; Petkova, V.B.

    1978-11-01

    We derive a sufficient condition for confinement of static quarks by a vortex condensation mechanism. It admits vortices that are thick at all times at the cost of constraining them to a finite volume Λi whose complement is not simply connected. The confining potential V(L) is estimated in terms of the change of free energy of a system enclosed in Λi which is induced by a change in vorticity (= singular gauge transformation applied to boundary conditions on deltaΛi). For Abelian gauge theories in 3 dimensions the confining Coulomb potential is reproduced as a lower bound. (orig.) [de

  8. Research on Monte Carlo improved quasi-static method for reactor space-time dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Qi; Wang Kan; Li Shirui; Yu Ganglin

    2013-01-01

    With large time steps, improved quasi-static (IQS) method can improve the calculation speed for reactor dynamic simulations. The Monte Carlo IQS method was proposed in this paper, combining the advantages of both the IQS method and MC method. Thus, the Monte Carlo IQS method is beneficial for solving space-time dynamics problems of new concept reactors. Based on the theory of IQS, Monte Carlo algorithms for calculating adjoint neutron flux, reactor kinetic parameters and shape function were designed and realized. A simple Monte Carlo IQS code and a corresponding diffusion IQS code were developed, which were used for verification of the Monte Carlo IQS method. (authors)

  9. The hidden symmetries and their algebraic structure of the static axially symmetric SDYM fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao Sanru

    1993-01-01

    A new explicit transformation about the static axially symmetric self-dual Yang-Mills (SDYM) fields is presented. The theory has proved that the new transformation is a symmetric one. For the two kinds of the Lie algebraic generators of the Lie group SL (N. R) /SO (N), the corresponding transformations are given. By making use of the Yang-Baxter equality and their square brackets, the loop and conformal algebraic structures of the symmetric transformations for the basic fields have been obtained. All the results obtained can be directly generalized to the other models

  10. Electronic structure and static dipole polarizability of C60-C240

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zope, Rajendra R

    2008-01-01

    The electronic structure of C 60 -C 240 and its first-order response to a static electric field is studied by an all-electron density functional theory calculation using large polarized Gaussian basis sets. Our results show that the outer C 240 shell almost completely shields the inner C 60 as inferred from the practically identical values of dipole polarizability of the C 60 -C 240 onion (449 A 3 ) and that of the isolated C 240 fullerene (441 A 3 ). The C 60 -C 240 is thus a near-perfect Faraday cage

  11. Experimentally attainable example of chaotic tunneling: The hydrogen atom in parallel static electric and magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delande, Dominique; Zakrzewski, Jakub

    2003-01-01

    Statistics of tunneling rates in the presence of chaotic classical dynamics is discussed on a realistic example: a hydrogen atom placed in parallel, uniform, static electric, and magnetic fields, where tunneling is followed by ionization along the fields direction. Depending on the magnetic quantum number, one may observe either a standard Porter-Thomas distribution of tunneling rates or, for strong scarring by a periodic orbit parallel to the external fields, strong deviations from it. For the latter case, a simple model based on random matrix theory gives the correct distribution

  12. On the recent warming in the subcloud layer entropy and vertically integrated moist static energy over South Asian Monsoon region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konduru, R.; Gupta, A.; Matsumoto, J.; Takahashi, H. G.

    2017-12-01

    In order to explain monsoon circulation, surface temperature gradients described as most traditional concept. However, it cannot explain certain important aspects of monsoon circulation. Later, convective quasi-equilibrium framework and vertically integrated atmospheric energy budget has become recognized theories to explain the monsoon circulation. In this article, same theories were analyzed and observed for the duration 1979-2010 over south Asian summer monsoon region. With the help of NCEP-R2, NOAA 20th Century, and Era-Interim reanalysis an important feature was noticed pertained to subcloud layer entropy and vertical moist static energy. In the last 32 years, subcloud layer entropy and vertically integrated moist static energy has shown significant seasonal warming all over the region with peak over the poleward flank of the cross-equatorial cell. The important reason related to the warming was found to be increase in surface enthalpy fluxes. Instead, other dynamical contributions pertained to the warming was also observed. Increase in positive anomalies of vertical advection of moist static energy over northern Bay of Bengal, Central India, Peninsular India, Eastern Arabian Sea, and Equatorial Indian Ocean was found to be an important dynamic factor contributing for warming of vertically integrated moist static energy. Along with it vertical moist stability has also supported the argument. Similar interpretations were perceived in the AMIP simulation of CCSM4 model. Further modeling experiments on this warming will be helpful to know the exact mechanism behind it.

  13. Moving vortices in noncommutative gauge theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horvathy, P.A.; Stichel, P.C.

    2004-01-01

    Exact time-dependent solutions of nonrelativistic noncommutative Chern-Simons gauge theory are presented in closed analytic form. They are different from (indeed orthogonal to) those discussed recently by Hadasz, Lindstroem, Rocek and von Unge. Unlike theirs, our solutions can move with an arbitrary constant velocity, and can be obtained from the previously known static solutions by the recently found 'exotic' boost symmetry

  14. Topology in the Weinberg-Salam theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manton, N.S.

    1983-01-01

    We show that the configuration space of the classical, bosonic Weinberg-Salam theory has a noncontractible loop. This probably implies that there is an unstable, static, finite-energy solution of the field equations. Its energy is the height of the barrier for tunneling between ''topologically distinct'' vacuums. We establish an upper bound on this energy of order 10 TeV

  15. Quantum theory of the electron liquid

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Giuliani, Gabriele; Vignale, Giovanni

    2005-01-01

    ... to the Wigner crystal, from the Luttinger liquid to the quantum Hall liquid, are extensively discussed. Both static and time-dependent density functional theory are presented in detail. Although the emphasis is on the development of the basic physical ideas and on a critical discussion of the most useful approximations, the formal derivation of the r...

  16. Fluffy dust forms icy planetesimals by static compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataoka, Akimasa; Tanaka, Hidekazu; Okuzumi, Satoshi; Wada, Koji

    2013-09-01

    Context. Several barriers have been proposed in planetesimal formation theory: bouncing, fragmentation, and radial drift problems. Understanding the structure evolution of dust aggregates is a key in planetesimal formation. Dust grains become fluffy by coagulation in protoplanetary disks. However, once they are fluffy, they are not sufficiently compressed by collisional compression to form compact planetesimals. Aims: We aim to reveal the pathway of dust structure evolution from dust grains to compact planetesimals. Methods: Using the compressive strength formula, we analytically investigate how fluffy dust aggregates are compressed by static compression due to ram pressure of the disk gas and self-gravity of the aggregates in protoplanetary disks. Results: We reveal the pathway of the porosity evolution from dust grains via fluffy aggregates to form planetesimals, circumventing the barriers in planetesimal formation. The aggregates are compressed by the disk gas to a density of 10-3 g/cm3 in coagulation, which is more compact than is the case with collisional compression. Then, they are compressed more by self-gravity to 10-1 g/cm3 when the radius is 10 km. Although the gas compression decelerates the growth, the aggregates grow rapidly enough to avoid the radial drift barrier when the orbital radius is ≲6 AU in a typical disk. Conclusions: We propose a fluffy dust growth scenario from grains to planetesimals. It enables icy planetesimal formation in a wide range beyond the snowline in protoplanetary disks. This result proposes a concrete initial condition of planetesimals for the later stages of the planet formation.

  17. Liouvillian integrability of gravitating static isothermal fluid spheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iacono, Roberto; Llibre, Jaume

    2014-01-01

    We examine the integrability properties of the Einstein field equations for static, spherically symmetric fluid spheres, complemented with an isothermal equation of state, ρ = np. In this case, Einstein's equations can be reduced to a nonlinear, autonomous second order ordinary differential equation (ODE) for m/R (m is the mass inside the radius R) that has been solved analytically only for n = −1 and n = −3, yielding the cosmological solutions by De Sitter and Einstein, respectively, and for n = −5, case for which the solution can be derived from the De Sitter's one using a symmetry of Einstein's equations. The solutions for these three cases are of Liouvillian type, since they can be expressed in terms of elementary functions. Here, we address the question of whether Liouvillian solutions can be obtained for other values of n. To do so, we transform the second order equation into an equivalent autonomous Lotka–Volterra quadratic polynomial differential system in R 2 , and characterize the Liouvillian integrability of this system using Darboux theory. We find that the Lotka–Volterra system possesses Liouvillian first integrals for n = −1, −3, −5, which descend from the existence of invariant algebraic curves of degree one, and for n = −6, a new solvable case, associated to an invariant algebraic curve of higher degree (second). For any other value of n, eventual first integrals of the Lotka–Volterra system, and consequently of the second order ODE for the mass function must be non-Liouvillian. This makes the existence of other solutions of the isothermal fluid sphere problem with a Liouvillian metric quite unlikely

  18. Liouvillian integrability of gravitating static isothermal fluid spheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iacono, Roberto, E-mail: roberto.iacono@enea.it [ENEA-C. R. Casaccia, Via Anguillarese 301, 00123 Roma (Italy); Llibre, Jaume, E-mail: jllibre@mat.uab.cat [Departament de Matemàtiques, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain)

    2014-10-01

    We examine the integrability properties of the Einstein field equations for static, spherically symmetric fluid spheres, complemented with an isothermal equation of state, ρ = np. In this case, Einstein's equations can be reduced to a nonlinear, autonomous second order ordinary differential equation (ODE) for m/R (m is the mass inside the radius R) that has been solved analytically only for n = -1 and n = -3, yielding the cosmological solutions by De Sitter and Einstein, respectively, and for n = -5, case for which the solution can be derived from the De Sitter's one using a symmetry of Einstein's equations. The solutions for these three cases are of Liouvillian type, since they can be expressed in terms of elementary functions. Here, we address the question of whether Liouvillian solutions can be obtained for other values of n. To do so, we transform the second order equation into an equivalent autonomous Lotka–Volterra quadratic polynomial differential system in R² and characterize the Liouvillian integrability of this system using Darboux theory. We find that the Lotka–Volterra system possesses Liouvillian first integrals for n = -1, -3, -5, which descend from the existence of invariant algebraic curves of degree one, and for n = -6, a new solvable case, associated to an invariant algebraic curve of higher degree (second). For any other value of n, eventual first integrals of the Lotka–Volterra system, and consequently of the second order ODE for the mass function must be non-Liouvillian. This makes the existence of other solutions of the isothermal fluid sphere problem with a Liouvillian metric quite unlikely.

  19. Pre-exposure to moving form enhances static form sensitivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas S A Wallis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Motion-defined form can seem to persist briefly after motion ceases, before seeming to gradually disappear into the background. Here we investigate if this subjective persistence reflects a signal capable of improving objective measures of sensitivity to static form. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We presented a sinusoidal modulation of luminance, masked by a background noise pattern. The sinusoidal luminance modulation was usually subjectively invisible when static, but visible when moving. We found that drifting then stopping the waveform resulted in a transient subjective persistence of the waveform in the static display. Observers' objective sensitivity to the position of the static waveform was also improved after viewing moving waveforms, compared to viewing static waveforms for a matched duration. This facilitation did not occur simply because movement provided more perspectives of the waveform, since performance following pre-exposure to scrambled animations did not match that following pre-exposure to smooth motion. Observers did not simply remember waveform positions at motion offset, since removing the waveform before testing reduced performance. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Motion processing therefore interacts with subsequent static visual inputs in a way that can improve performance in objective sensitivity measures. We suggest that the brief subjective persistence of motion-defined forms that can occur after motion offsets is a consequence of the decay of a static form signal that has been transiently enhanced by motion processing.

  20. Static and dynamic deformations of actinide nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozmej, P.

    1985-09-01

    The zero-point quadrupole-hexadecapole vibrations have been taken into account to calculate dynamical deformations for even-even actinide nuclei. The collective and intrinsic motions are separated according to the Born-Oppenheimer approximation. The collective Hamiltonian is constructed using the macroscopic-microscopic method in the potential energy part and the cranking model in the kinetic energy part. The BCS theory with a modified oscillator potential is applied to describe the intrinsic motion of nucleons. A new set of Nilsson potential parameters, which produces a much better description of the properties of light actinide nuclei, has also been found. (orig.)

  1. Contagion processes on the static and activity driven coupling networks

    OpenAIRE

    Lei, Yanjun; Jiang, Xin; Guo, Quantong; Ma, Yifang; Li, Meng; Zheng, Zhiming

    2015-01-01

    The evolution of network structure and the spreading of epidemic are common coexistent dynamical processes. In most cases, network structure is treated either static or time-varying, supposing the whole network is observed in a same time window. In this paper, we consider the epidemic spreading on a network consisting of both static and time-varying structures. At meanwhile, the time-varying part and the epidemic spreading are supposed to be of the same time scale. We introduce a static and a...

  2. Static Compression of Hydrous Komatiite Liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agee, C. B.

    2005-12-01

    High pressure sink/float experiments have been performed on komatiite with 3 and 10 wt% added H2O in order to investigate the effect of water on magma density at high pressure and to determine if density crossovers between equilibrium olivine and hydrous komatiite can exist in the upper mantle. The starting composition komatiite, from Munro Township, with MgO=28 wt%, has been previously studied using sink/float experiments under anhydrous conditions up to 9.3 GPa (Agee and Walker, 1988, 1993). In the present study the starting material mechanical mixtures consisted of powdered komatiite, brucite, fayalite, and reagent oxides of SiO2, Al203, and CaO. Samples were contained in compression-sealed molybdenum capsules. Sink/float marker spheres implemented were gem quality synthetic forsterite (Fo100) and San Carlos olivine (Fo90). Experimental run times were 30 seconds, thus minimizing sphere-liquid reactions and liquid reaction with capsule and pressure media. All experiments were carried out in a Walker multi-anvil apparatus at the Institute of Meteoritics, University of New Mexico. The komatiite + 3 wt% H2O liquid density was bracketed at 1900-1950°C by a float of Fo100 at 7 GPa and a sink at 6 GPa. Neutral buoyancy of Fo100 was observed at 6.4 GPa. An additional neutral buoyancy of Fo90 was observed at 9 GPa. These preliminary results suggest that a density crossover between equilibrium olivine (Fo93) and hydrous komatiite with up to 3 wt% H2O can exist in the mantle, thus lending support to the water filter hypothesis for the region above the 410 km discontinuity (Bercovici and Karato, 2003). Our results for static compression of komatiite + 3 wt% H2O are in good agreement with diamond sink/float observations by Sakamaki et al.(2005) on MORB + 2 wt% H2O. Our komatiite + 10 wt% H2O liquid density measurements are still in progress; however, flotation of Fo100 has not been observed in these experiments up to 9.2 GPa.

  3. Static sampling of dynamic processes - a paradox?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mälicke, Mirko; Neuper, Malte; Jackisch, Conrad; Hassler, Sibylle; Zehe, Erwin

    2017-04-01

    Environmental systems monitoring aims at its core at the detection of spatio-temporal patterns of processes and system states, which is a pre-requisite for understanding and explaining their baffling heterogeneity. Most observation networks rely on distributed point sampling of states and fluxes of interest, which is combined with proxy-variables from either remote sensing or near surface geophysics. The cardinal question on the appropriate experimental design of such a monitoring network has up to now been answered in many different ways. Suggested approaches range from sampling in a dense regular grid using for the so-called green machine, transects along typical catenas, clustering of several observations sensors in presumed functional units or HRUs, arrangements of those cluster along presumed lateral flow paths to last not least a nested, randomized stratified arrangement of sensors or samples. Common to all these approaches is that they provide a rather static spatial sampling, while state variables and their spatial covariance structure dynamically change in time. It is hence of key interest how much of our still incomplete understanding stems from inappropriate sampling and how much needs to be attributed to an inappropriate analysis of spatial data sets. We suggest that it is much more promising to analyze the spatial variability of processes, for instance changes in soil moisture values, than to investigate the spatial variability of soil moisture states themselves. This is because wetting of the soil, reflected in a soil moisture increase, is causes by a totally different meteorological driver - rainfall - than drying of the soil. We hence propose that the rising and the falling limbs of soil moisture time series belong essentially to different ensembles, as they are influenced by different drivers. Positive and negative temporal changes in soil moisture need, hence, to be analyzed separately. We test this idea using the CAOS data set as a benchmark

  4. Perturbative expansions from Monte Carlo simulations at weak coupling: Wilson loops and the static-quark self-energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trottier, H. D.; Shakespeare, N. H.; Lepage, G. P.; MacKenzie, P. B.

    2002-05-01

    Perturbative coefficients for Wilson loops and the static-quark self-energy are extracted from Monte Carlo simulations at weak coupling. The lattice volumes and couplings are chosen to ensure that the lattice momenta are all perturbative. Twisted boundary conditions are used to eliminate the effects of lattice zero modes and to suppress nonperturbative finite-volume effects due to Z(3) phases. Simulations of the Wilson gluon action are done with both periodic and twisted boundary conditions, and over a wide range of lattice volumes (from 34 to 164) and couplings (from β~9 to β~60). A high precision comparison is made between the simulation data and results from finite-volume lattice perturbation theory. The Monte Carlo results are shown to be in excellent agreement with perturbation theory through second order. New results for third-order coefficients for a number of Wilson loops and the static-quark self-energy are reported.

  5. Ring Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Jara, Pascual; Torrecillas, Blas

    1988-01-01

    The papers in this proceedings volume are selected research papers in different areas of ring theory, including graded rings, differential operator rings, K-theory of noetherian rings, torsion theory, regular rings, cohomology of algebras, local cohomology of noncommutative rings. The book will be important for mathematicians active in research in ring theory.

  6. Game theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendricks, Vincent F.

    Game Theory is a collection of short interviews based on 5 questions presented to some of the most influential and prominent scholars in game theory. We hear their views on game theory, its aim, scope, use, the future direction of game theory and how their work fits in these respects....

  7. Spin Glasses : Statics and Dynamics : Summer School

    CERN Document Server

    Bovier, Anton

    2009-01-01

    Over the last decade, spin glass theory has turned from a fascinating part of t- oretical physics to a ?ourishing and rapidly growing subject of probability theory as well. These developments have been triggered to a large part by the mathem- ical understanding gained on the fascinating and previously mysterious “Parisi solution” of the Sherrington–Kirkpatrick mean ?eld model of spin glasses, due to the work of Guerra, Talagrand, and others. At the same time, new aspects and applications of the methods developed there have come up. The presentvolumecollects a number of reviewsaswellas shorterarticlesby lecturers at a summer school on spin glasses that was held in July 2007 in Paris. These articles range from pedagogical introductions to state of the art papers, covering the latest developments. In their whole, they give a nice overview on the current state of the ?eld from the mathematical side. The review by Bovier and Kurkova gives a concise introduction to mean ?eld models, starting with the Curie–...

  8. Asymptotically flat black holes in Horndeski theory and beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babichev, E.; Charmousis, C.; Lehébel, A., E-mail: eugeny.babichev@th.u-psud.fr, E-mail: christos.charmousis@th.u-psud.fr, E-mail: antoine.lehebel@th.u-psud.fr [Laboratoire de Physique Théorique, CNRS, Univ. Paris-Sud, Université Paris-Saclay, 91405 Orsay (France)

    2017-04-01

    We find spherically symmetric and static black holes in shift-symmetric Horndeski and beyond Horndeski theories. They are asymptotically flat and sourced by a non trivial static scalar field. The first class of solutions is constructed in such a way that the Noether current associated with shift symmetry vanishes, while the scalar field cannot be trivial. This in certain cases leads to hairy black hole solutions (for the quartic Horndeski Lagrangian), and in others to singular solutions (for a Gauss-Bonnet term). Additionally, we find the general spherically symmetric and static solutions for a pure quartic Lagrangian, the metric of which is Schwarzschild. We show that under two requirements on the theory in question, any vacuum GR solution is also solution to the quartic theory. As an example, we show that a Kerr black hole with a non-trivial scalar field is an exact solution to these theories.

  9. Weak interactions in Graphane/BN systems under static electric fields—A periodic ab-initio study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinkasserer, Lukas Eugen Marsoner; Gaston, Nicola; Paulus, Beate

    2015-04-21

    Ab-initio calculations via periodic Hartree-Fock (HF) and local second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory (LMP2) are used to investigate the adsorption properties of combined Graphane/boron nitride systems and their response to static electric fields. It is shown how the latter can be used to alter both structural as well as electronic properties of these systems.

  10. String theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan Hongmo.

    1987-10-01

    The paper traces the development of the String Theory, and was presented at Professor Sir Rudolf Peierls' 80sup(th) Birthday Symposium. The String theory is discussed with respect to the interaction of strings, the inclusion of both gauge theory and gravitation, inconsistencies in the theory, and the role of space-time. The physical principles underlying string theory are also outlined. (U.K.)

  11. Effective medium theory principles and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Choy, Tuck C

    2015-01-01

    Effective medium theory dates back to the early days of the theory of electricity. Faraday in 1837 proposed one of the earliest models for a composite metal-insulator dielectric and around 1870 Maxwell and later Garnett (1904) developed models to describe a composite or mixed material medium. The subject has been developed considerably since and while the results are useful for predicting materials performance, the theory can also be used in a wide range of problems in physics and materials engineering. This book develops the topic of effective medium theory by bringing together the essentials of both the static and the dynamical theory. Electromagnetic systems are thoroughly dealt with, as well as related areas such as the CPA theory of alloys, liquids, the density functional theory etc., with applications to ultrasonics, hydrodynamics, superconductors, porous media and others, where the unifying aspects of the effective medium concept are emphasized. In this new second edition two further chapters have been...

  12. Static models, recursive estimators and the zero-variance approach

    KAUST Repository

    Rubino, Gerardo

    2016-01-01

    When evaluating dependability aspects of complex systems, most models belong to the static world, where time is not an explicit variable. These models suffer from the same problems than dynamic ones (stochastic processes), such as the frequent

  13. Interaction mechanisms and biological effects of static magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tenforde, T.S.

    1994-06-01

    Mechanisms through which static magnetic fields interact with living systems are described and illustrated by selected experimental observations. These mechanisms include electrodynamic interactions with moving, ionic charges (blood flow and nerve impulse conduction), magnetomechanical interactions (orientation and translation of molecules structures and magnetic particles), and interactions with electronic spin states in charge transfer reactions (photo-induced electron transfer in photosynthesis). A general summary is also presented of the biological effects of static magnetic fields. There is convincing experimental evidence for magnetoreception mechanisms in several classes of lower organisms, including bacteria and marine organisms. However, in more highly evolved species of animals, there is no evidence that the interactions of static magnetic fields with flux densities up to 2 Tesla (1 Tesla [T] = 10{sup 4} Gauss) produce either behavioral or physiolocical alterations. These results, based on controlled studies with laboratory animals, are consistent with the outcome of recent epidemiological surveys on human populations exposed occupationally to static magnetic fields.

  14. Passive elimination of static electricity in oil industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaćanović Mićo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study explains the existing and real conditions of a possible passive elimination of static electricity when loading oil and oil derivatives. We are considering the formation and survival of gas bubbles both in the volume of oil in its depth, but also at the surface of oil and oil derivatives of the partly filled reservoir, and formation of both volume and surface electric charge in oil and oil derivatives. The study presents the research of formation and survival of static electricity in both reservoirs and tank trucks of different geometric shapes partly filled with oil and oil derivatives. We are proposing a new original possibility of passive elimination of static electricity when loading oil and oil derivatives in reservoirs and tank trucks. The proposed passive device for elimination of static electricity is protected at the international level in the domain of intellectual property (with a patent, model and distinctive mark.

  15. Gene expression programming for power system static security ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Keywords: static security, gene expression programming, probabilistic neural network ... Hence digital computers are usually installed in operations control centers to gather ...... power system protection, and applications of AI in power systems.

  16. Toward the Static Detection of Deadlock in Java Software

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fadul, Jose E

    2006-01-01

    ... from continuing while each waits for resources to be freed by the continuation of the other. This thesis proposes a flow-insensitive interprocedural static analysis that detects the possibility that a program can deadlock at runtime...

  17. Static delectric behavior of charged fluids near freezing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fasolino, A.; Parrinello, M.; Tosi, M.P.

    1978-01-01

    The wavenumber-dependent, static dielectric function of classical charged fluids near freezing is obtained from structural data based on computer simulation or neutron diffraction, and its behavior is connected with the freezing process. (Auth.)

  18. Static Extraction of Object-Oriented Runtime Architectures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Abi-Antoun, Marwan; Aldrich, Jonathan

    2008-01-01

    .... But it is hard to statically extract runtime object graphs that provide architectural abstraction from an arbitrary program written in a general purpose language that follows common design idioms...

  19. Effects of Static Stretching and Playing Soccer on Knee Laxity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baumgart, Christian; Gokeler, Alli; Donath, Lars; Hoppe, Matthias W.; Freiwald, Juergen

    Objective: This study investigated exercise-induced effects of static stretching and playing soccer on anterior tibial translation (ATT) of the knee joint. Design: Randomized controlled trial. Setting: University biomechanics laboratory. Participants: Thirty-one athletes were randomly assigned into

  20. A Transformational Approach to Parametric Accumulated-Cost Static Profiling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haemmerlé, Rémy; López García, Pedro; Liqat, Umer

    2016-01-01

    Traditional static resource analyses estimate the total resource usage of a program, without executing it. In this paper we present a novel resource analysis whose aim is instead the static profiling of accumulated cost, i.e., to discover, for selected parts of the program, an estimate or bound...... of the resource usage accumulated in each of those parts. Traditional resource analyses are parametric in the sense that the results can be functions on input data sizes. Our static profiling is also parametric, i.e., our accumulated cost estimates are also parameterized by input data sizes. Our proposal is based...... on the concept of cost centers and a program transformation that allows the static inference of functions that return bounds on these accumulated costs depending on input data sizes, for each cost center of interest. Such information is much more useful to the software developer than the traditional resource...

  1. Einstein's conversion from his static to an expanding universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nussbaumer, Harry

    2014-02-01

    In 1917 Einstein initiated modern cosmology by postulating, based on general relativity, a homogenous, static, spatially curved universe. To counteract gravitational contraction he introduced the cosmological constant. In 1922 Alexander Friedman showed that Albert Einstein's fundamental equations also allow dynamical worlds, and in 1927 Georges Lemaître, backed by observational evidence, concluded that our universe was expanding. Einstein impetuously rejected Friedman's as well as Lemaître's findings. However, in 1931 he retracted his former static model in favour of a dynamic solution. This investigation follows Einstein on his hesitating path from a static to the expanding universe. Contrary to an often advocated belief the primary motive for his switch was not observational evidence, but the realisation that his static model was unstable.

  2. Effects of Static Stretching and Playing Soccer on Knee Laxity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baumgart, Christian; Gokeler, Alli; Donath, Lars; Hoppe, Matthias W.; Freiwald, Juergen

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated exercise-induced effects of static stretching and playing soccer on anterior tibial translation (ATT) of the knee joint. Design: Randomized controlled trial. Setting: University biomechanics laboratory. Participants: Thirty-one athletes were randomly assigned into

  3. Static charged spheres with anisotropic pressure in general relativity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Department of Mathematics, Vasavi Engineering College, Hyderabad 500 031, India. £ ... In both cases the field equations are integrated completely. ... 1. Introduction. Spherically symmetric static charged dust/perfect fluid distributions of null ...

  4. Glycerol and microwave preservation of annual statice (Limonium sinuatum Mill.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paparozzi, E.T.; McCallister, D.E.

    1988-01-01

    Stems of annual statice (Limonium sinuatum Mill.) were harvested from the field in 1982 and soaked in varying concentrations of glycerol: water solutions for 24 and 48 h and then microwaved for 0, 1, 3 or 5 min. Half of the branch stems were measured for flexibility, with the remainder being assessed 1 year later. Stems harvested in 1983 were wet- and dry-stored at 3°C for varying lengths of time and then preserved. Preservation was best when statice was preserved immediately. Cold storage decreased preserved statice flexibility, but was better than air-drying. Fresh cut statice stems, up to 34 cm long, should be preserved by soaking in a 1:2 or 1:3 glycerol: water solution for 48 h followed by microwaving for 1 min at medium-high (34°C)

  5. Tools and Workflows for Collaborating on Static Website Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaitlin Newson

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Static website generators have seen a significant increase in popularity in recent years, offering many advantages over their dynamic counterparts. While these generators were typically used for blogs, they have grown in usage for other web-based projects, including documentation, conference websites, and image collections. However, because of their technical complexity, these tools can be inaccessible to content creators depending on their level of technical skill and comfort with web development technologies. Drawing from experience with a collaborative static website project, this article will provide an overview of static website generators, review different tools available for managing content, and explore workflows and best practices for collaborating with teams on static website projects.

  6. Effects of static electricity and fabrication parameters on PVDF film ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2018-03-28

    Mar 28, 2018 ... Degree of crystallinity and β-phase fraction are important factors in ... performance. In the present work, effects of intrinsic static electricity, substrate type, PVDF ... the best electroactive properties among all polymers [1] and.

  7. Static-light meson masses from twisted mass lattice QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansen, Karl; Michael, Chris; Shindler, Andrea; Wagner, Marc

    2008-08-01

    We compute the static-light meson spectrum using two-flavor Wilson twisted mass lattice QCD. We have considered five different values for the light quark mass corresponding to 300 MeV PS S mesons. (orig.)

  8. Secure communication of static information by electronic means

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gritton, Dale G.

    1994-01-01

    A method and apparatus (10) for the secure transmission of static data (16) from a tag (11) to a remote reader (12). Each time the static data (16) is to be transmitted to the reader (12), the 10 bits of static data (16) are combined with 54 bits of binary data (21), which constantly change from one transmission to the next, into a 64-bit number (22). This number is then encrypted and transmitted to the remote reader (12) where it is decrypted (26) to produce the same 64 bit number that was encrypted in the tag (11). With a continual change in the value of the 64 bit number (22) in the tag, the encrypted numbers transmitted to the reader (12) will appear to be dynamic in character rather than being static.

  9. Gene expression programming for power system static security ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    fuzzy logic, artificial neural networks and expert systems have been explored for static security assessment problems (Bansal et ..... MATLAB version 7.6 neural network toolbox was ..... Vision 2020 Dynamic Security Assessment in Real time.

  10. Formula for Forced Vibration Analysis of Structures Using Static ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some methods of dynamic analysis are based on using static factored response ... on a false assumption of direct linear variation in the stress-displacement relationship. Based on the flexible frame model and stiffness formulation a formula for ...

  11. New Sufficient LMI Conditions for Static Output Stabilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adegas, Fabiano Daher

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents new linear matrix inequality conditions to the static output feedback stabilization problem. Although the conditions are only sufficient, numerical experiments show excellent success rates in finding a stabilizing controller....

  12. Constituent gluons and the static quark potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greensite, Jeff [San Francisco State Univ., CA (United States); Szczepaniak, Adam P. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States); Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)

    2016-04-01

    We suggest that Hamiltonian matrix elements between physical states in QCD might be approximated, in Coulomb gauge, by "lattice-improved" tree diagrams; i.e. tree diagram contributions with dressed ghost, transverse gluon, and Coulomb propagators obtained from lattice simulations. Such matrix elements can be applied to a variational treatment of hadronic states which include constituent gluons. As an illustration and first application of this hybrid approach, we derive a variational estimate of the heavy quark potential for distances up to 2.5 fm. The Coulomb string tension in SU(3) gauge theory is about a factor of four times greater than the asymptotic string tension. In our variational approach, using for simplicity a single variational parameter, we can reduce this overshoot by nearly the factor required. The building blocks of our approach are Coulomb gauge propagators, and in this connection we present new lattice results for the ghost and transverse gluon propagators in position space.

  13. Basis set convergence on static electric dipole polarizability calculations of alkali-metal clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Fabio A. L. de; Jorge, Francisco E.

    2013-01-01

    A hierarchical sequence of all-electron segmented contracted basis sets of double, triple and quadruple zeta valence qualities plus polarization functions augmented with diffuse functions for the atoms from H to Ar was constructed. A systematic study of basis sets required to obtain reliable and accurate values of static dipole polarizabilities of lithium and sodium clusters (n = 2, 4, 6 and 8) at their optimized equilibrium geometries is reported. Three methods are examined: Hartree-Fock (HF), second-order Moeller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2), and density functional theory (DFT). By direct calculations or by fitting the directly calculated values through one extrapolation scheme, estimates of the HF, MP2 and DFT complete basis set limits were obtained. Comparison with experimental and theoretical data reported previously in the literature is done (author)

  14. Basis set convergence on static electric dipole polarizability calculations of alkali-metal clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Fabio A. L. de; Jorge, Francisco E., E-mail: jorge@cce.ufes.br [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo, 29060-900 Vitoria-ES (Brazil)

    2013-07-15

    A hierarchical sequence of all-electron segmented contracted basis sets of double, triple and quadruple zeta valence qualities plus polarization functions augmented with diffuse functions for the atoms from H to Ar was constructed. A systematic study of basis sets required to obtain reliable and accurate values of static dipole polarizabilities of lithium and sodium clusters (n = 2, 4, 6 and 8) at their optimized equilibrium geometries is reported. Three methods are examined: Hartree-Fock (HF), second-order Moeller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2), and density functional theory (DFT). By direct calculations or by fitting the directly calculated values through one extrapolation scheme, estimates of the HF, MP2 and DFT complete basis set limits were obtained. Comparison with experimental and theoretical data reported previously in the literature is done (author)

  15. Hydrogen generation through static-feed water electrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, F. C.; Schubert, F. H.

    1975-01-01

    A static-feed water electrolysis system (SFWES), developed under NASA sponsorship, is presented for potential applicability to terrestrial hydrogen production. The SFWES concept uses (1) an alkaline electrolyte to minimize power requirements and materials-compatibility problems, (2) a method where the electrolyte is retained in a thin porous matrix eliminating bulk electrolyte, and (3) a static water-feed mechanism to prevent electrode and electrolyte contamination and to promote system simplicity.

  16. Extending Graphic Statics for User-Controlled Structural Morphogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Fivet, Corentin; Zastavni, Denis; Cap, Jean-François; Structural Morphology Group International Seminar 2011

    2011-01-01

    The first geometrical definitions of any structure are of primary importance when considering pertinence and efficiency in structural design processes. Engineering history has taught us how graphic statics can be a very powerful tool since it allows the designer to take shapes and forces into account simultaneously. However, current and past graphic statics methods are more suitable for analysis than structural morphogenesis. This contribution introduces new graphical methods that can supp...

  17. Pilot Study: Foam Wedge Chin Support Static Tolerance Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-24

    AFRL-SA-WP-SR-2017-0026 Pilot Study: Foam Wedge Chin Support Static Tolerance Testing Austin M. Fischer, BS1; William W...COVERED (From – To) April – October 2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Pilot Study: Foam Wedge Chin Support Static Tolerance Testing 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) USAF School of Aerospace

  18. Simulations of the Static Friction Due to Adsorbed Molecules

    OpenAIRE

    He, Gang; Robbins, Mark O.

    2001-01-01

    The static friction between crystalline surfaces separated by a molecularly thin layer of adsorbed molecules is calculated using molecular dynamics simulations. These molecules naturally lead to a finite static friction that is consistent with macroscopic friction laws. Crystalline alignment, sliding direction, and the number of adsorbed molecules are not controlled in most experiments and are shown to have little effect on the friction. Temperature, molecular geometry and interaction potenti...

  19. Miniature Flow-Direction/Pitot-Static Pressure Probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashby, George C., Jr.; Coombs, David S.; Eves, John W.; Price, Howard E.; Vasquez, Peter

    1989-01-01

    Precision flow-direction/pitot-static pressure probes, ranging from 0.035 to 0.090 inch (0.89 to 2.29 mm) in outside diameter, successfully fabricated and calibrated for use in Langley 20-inch Mach 6 Tunnel. Probes simultaneously measure flow direction and static and pitot pressures in flow fields about configurations in hypersonic flow at temperatures up to 500 degree F (260 degree C).

  20. Rapid Moment Magnitude Estimation Using Strong Motion Derived Static Displacements

    OpenAIRE

    Muzli, Muzli; Asch, Guenter; Saul, Joachim; Murjaya, Jaya

    2015-01-01

    The static surface deformation can be recovered from strong motion records. Compared to satellite-based measurements such as GPS or InSAR, the advantage of strong motion records is that they have the potential to provide real-time coseismic static displacements. The use of these valuable data was optimized for the moment magnitude estimation. A centroid grid search method was introduced to calculate the moment magnitude by using1 model. The method to data sets was applied of the 2011...

  1. String theory or field theory?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshakov, A.V.

    2002-01-01

    The status of string theory is reviewed, and major recent developments - especially those in going beyond perturbation theory in the string theory and quantum field theory frameworks - are analyzed. This analysis helps better understand the role and place of experimental phenomena, it is emphasized that there are some insurmountable problems inherent in it - notably the impossibility to formulate the quantum theory of gravity on its basis - which prevent it from being a fundamental physical theory of the world of microscopic distances. It is this task, the creation of such a theory, which string theory, currently far from completion, is expected to solve. In spite of its somewhat vague current form, string theory has already led to a number of serious results and greatly contributed to progress in the understanding of quantum field theory. It is these developments, which are our concern in this review [ru

  2. Comparison of stochastic resonance in static and dynamical nonlinearities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Yumei; Duan, Fabing

    2014-01-01

    We compare the stochastic resonance (SR) effects in parallel arrays of static and dynamical nonlinearities via the measure of output signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). For a received noisy periodic signal, parallel arrays of both static and dynamical nonlinearities can enhance the output SNR by optimizing the internal noise level. The static nonlinearity is easily implementable, while the dynamical nonlinearity has more parameters to be tuned, at the risk of not exploiting the beneficial role of internal noise components. It is of interest to note that, for an input signal buried in the external Laplacian noise, we show that the dynamical nonlinearity is superior to the static nonlinearity in obtaining a better output SNR. This characteristic is assumed to be closely associated with the kurtosis of noise distribution. - Highlights: • Comparison of SR effects in arrays of both static and dynamical nonlinearities. • Static nonlinearity is easily implementable for the SNR enhancement. • Dynamical nonlinearity yields a better output SNR for external Laplacian noise

  3. Effects of a static electric field on nonsequential double ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Hongyun; Wang Bingbing; Li Xiaofeng; Fu Panming; Chen Jing; Liu Jie; Jiang Hongbing; Gong Qihuang; Yan Zongchao

    2007-01-01

    Using a three-dimensional semiclassical method, we perform a systematic analysis of the effects of an additional static electric field on nonsequential double ionization (NSDI) of a helium atom in an intense, linearly polarized laser field. It is found that the static electric field influences not only the ionization rate, but also the kinetic energy of the ionized electron returning to the parent ion, in such a way that, if the rate is increased, then the kinetic energy of the first returning electron is decreased, and vice versa. These two effects compete in NSDI. Since the effect of the static electric field on the ionization of the first electron plays a more crucial role in the competition, the symmetric double-peak structure of the He 2+ momentum distribution parallel to the polarization of the laser field is destroyed. Furthermore, the contribution of the trajectories with multiple recollisions to the NSDI is also changed dramatically by the static electric field. As the static electric field increases, the trajectories with two recollisions, which start at the time when the laser and the static electric field are in the same direction, become increasingly important for the NSDI

  4. Modeling of static characteristics of switched reluctance motor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asgharmemon, A.; Hussain, I.; Daudpoto, J.

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the running characteristics of a switched reluctance motor, the static characteristics and related input data tables are required. The static characteristics comprise of flux linkage, co-energy and static torque characteristics. The co-energy and static torque are calculated once data of magnetization characteristics is available. The data of co-energy is required for the calculation of static torque characteristics. The simulation model includes the data of static characteristics for prediction of the instantaneous and steady state performance of the motor. In this research a computer based procedure of experiments is carried out for measurement of the magnetization characteristics. For every set of measurements, the removal of eddy current is carefully addressed. The experiments are carried out on an existing 8/6 pole rotary switched reluctance motor. Additionally, the instantaneous phase current, instantaneous torque and flux waveforms are produced by using linear, which is by default and spline data interpolation separately. The information obtained from theses simulation results will help in an improved simulation model for predicting the performance of the machine. (author)

  5. Multiaxial pedicle screw designs: static and dynamic mechanical testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford, Ralph Edward; Loefler, Andreas Herman; Stanford, Philip Mark; Walsh, William R

    2004-02-15

    Randomized investigation of multiaxial pedicle screw mechanical properties. Measure static yield and ultimate strengths, yield stiffness, and fatigue resistance according to an established model. Compare these measured properties with expected loads in vivo. Multiaxial pedicle screws provide surgical versatility, but the complexity of their design may reduce their strength and fatigue resistance. There is no published data on the mechanical properties of such screws. Screws were assembled according to a vertebrectomy model for destructive mechanical testing. Groups of five assemblies were tested in static tension and compression and subject to three cyclical loads. Modes of failure, yield, and ultimate strength, yield stiffness, and cycles to failure were determined for six designs of screw. Static compression yield loads ranged from 217.1 to 388.0 N and yield stiffness from 23.7 to 38.0 N/mm. Cycles to failure ranged from 42 x 10(3) to 4,719 x 10(3) at 75% of static ultimate load. There were significant differences between designs in all modes of testing. Failure occurred at the multiaxial link in static and cyclical compression. Bending yield strengths just exceeded loads expected in vivo. Multiaxial designs had lower static bending yield strength than fixed screw designs. Five out of six multiaxial screw designs achieved one million cycles at 200 N in compression bending. "Ball-in-cup" multiaxial locking mechanisms were vulnerable to fatigue failure. Smooth surfaces and thicker material appeared to be protective against fatigue failure.

  6. Probing static disorder in Arrhenius kinetics by single-molecule force spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Tzu-Ling; Garcia-Manyes, Sergi; Li, Jingyuan; Barel, Itay; Lu, Hui; Berne, Bruce J; Urbakh, Michael; Klafter, Joseph; Fernández, Julio M

    2010-06-22

    The widely used Arrhenius equation describes the kinetics of simple two-state reactions, with the implicit assumption of a single transition state with a well-defined activation energy barrier DeltaE, as the rate-limiting step. However, it has become increasingly clear that the saddle point of the free-energy surface in most reactions is populated by ensembles of conformations, leading to nonexponential kinetics. Here we present a theory that generalizes the Arrhenius equation to include static disorder of conformational degrees of freedom as a function of an external perturbation to fully account for a diverse set of transition states. The effect of a perturbation on static disorder is best examined at the single-molecule level. Here we use force-clamp spectroscopy to study the nonexponential kinetics of single ubiquitin proteins unfolding under force. We find that the measured variance in DeltaE shows both force-dependent and independent components, where the force-dependent component scales with F(2), in excellent agreement with our theory. Our study illustrates a novel adaptation of the classical Arrhenius equation that accounts for the microscopic origins of nonexponential kinetics, which are essential in understanding the rapidly growing body of single-molecule data.

  7. Two alternative derivations of the static contribution to the radiation-induced intermolecular energy shift

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salam, A.

    2007-01-01

    Two contrasting physical viewpoints and calculational approaches are adopted within the framework of molecular quantum electrodynamics for the evaluation of the static contribution to the change in mutual interaction energy between a pair of electric dipole polarizable molecules in an intense radiation field. This term arises when a real photon is scattered by the same molecular center with coupling between the two bodies occurring via exchange of a single virtual photon. In one method it is found that utilization of an effective three-photon interaction operator enables the energy shift to be obtained using second order perturbation theory with summation over only four time-ordered diagrams, each of which contain collapsed interaction vertices. The result is then shown to be obtained even more easily in a second approach that involves calculating the expectation values for both molecules in the ground electronic state and the field containing N photons of mode (k-vector,λ) of the electric dipole moments induced at each molecule by the incident field, which are coupled to the resonant dipole-dipole interaction tensor. The static contribution in question is shown to arise from the interaction of a permanent electric dipole moment in one species with the first hyperpolarizability of the other. Both methods are compared and contrasted with a previous computation in which contributions to the energy shift arising from 48 time-ordered diagrams were summed using fourth order perturbation theory

  8. Opinion formation models in static and dynamic social networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Pramesh

    We study models of opinion formation on static as well as dynamic networks where interaction among individuals is governed by widely accepted social theories. In particular, three models of competing opinions based on distinct interaction mechanisms are studied. A common feature in all of these models is the existence of a tipping point in terms of a model parameter beyond which a rapid consensus is reached. In the first model that we study on a static network, a node adopts a particular state (opinion) if a threshold fraction of its neighbors are already in that state. We introduce a few initiator nodes which are in state '1' in a population where every node is in state '0'. Thus, opinion '1' spreads through the population until no further influence is possible. Size of the spread is greatly affected by how these initiator nodes are selected. We find that there exists a critical fraction of initiators pc that is needed to trigger global cascades for a given threshold phi. We also study heuristic strategies for selecting a set of initiator nodes in order to maximize the cascade size. The structural properties of networks also play an important role in the spreading process. We study how the dynamics is affected by changing the clustering in a network. It turns out that local clustering is helpful in spreading. Next, we studied a model where the network is dynamic and interactions are homophilic. We find that homophily-driven rewiring impedes the reaching of consensus and in the absence of committed nodes (nodes that are not influenceable on their opinion), consensus time Tc diverges exponentially with network size N . As we introduce a fraction of committed nodes, beyond a critical value, the scaling of Tc becomes logarithmic in N. We also find that slight change in the interaction rule can produce strikingly different scaling behaviors of T c . However, introducing committed agents in the system drastically improves the scaling of the consensus time regardless of

  9. Static electric field enhancement in nanoscale structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lepetit, Bruno, E-mail: bruno.lepetit@irsamc.ups-tlse.fr; Lemoine, Didier, E-mail: didier.lemoine@irsamc.ups-tlse.fr [Université de Toulouse, UPS, Laboratoire Collisions Agrégats Réactivité, IRSAMC, F-31062 Toulouse (France); CNRS, UMR 5589, F-31062 Toulouse (France); Márquez-Mijares, Maykel, E-mail: mmarquez@instec.cu [Université de Toulouse, UPS, Laboratoire Collisions Agrégats Réactivité, IRSAMC, F-31062 Toulouse (France); CNRS, UMR 5589, F-31062 Toulouse (France); Instituto Superior de Tecnologías y Ciencias Aplicadas, Avenida Salvador Allende 1110, Quinta de los Molinos, La Habana (Cuba)

    2016-08-28

    We study the effect of local atomic- and nano-scale protrusions on field emission and, in particular, on the local field enhancement which plays a key role as known from the Fowler-Nordheim model of electronic emission. We study atomic size defects which consist of right angle steps forming an infinite length staircase on a tungsten surface. This structure is embedded in a 1 GV/m ambient electrostatic field. We perform calculations based upon density functional theory in order to characterize the total and induced electronic densities as well as the local electrostatic fields taking into account the detailed atomic structure of the metal. We show how the results must be processed to become comparable with those of a simple homogeneous tungsten sheet electrostatic model. We also describe an innovative procedure to extrapolate our results to nanoscale defects of larger sizes, which relies on the microscopic findings to guide, tune, and improve the homogeneous metal model, thus gaining predictive power. Furthermore, we evidence analytical power laws for the field enhancement characterization. The main physics-wise outcome of this analysis is that limited field enhancement is to be expected from atomic- and nano-scale defects.

  10. STATIC{sub T}EMP: a useful computer code for calculating static formation temperatures in geothermal wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santoyo, E. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Centro de Investigacion en Energia, Temixco (Mexico); Garcia, A.; Santoyo, S. [Unidad Geotermia, Inst. de Investigaciones Electricas, Temixco (Mexico); Espinosa, G. [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Co. Vicentina (Mexico); Hernandez, I. [ITESM, Centro de Sistemas de Manufactura, Monterrey (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    The development and application of the computer code STATIC{sub T}EMP, a useful tool for calculating static formation temperatures from actual bottomhole temperature data logged in geothermal wells is described. STATIC{sub T}EMP is based on five analytical methods which are the most frequently used in the geothermal industry. Conductive and convective heat flow models (radial, spherical/radial and cylindrical/radial) were selected. The computer code is a useful tool that can be reliably used in situ to determine static formation temperatures before or during the completion stages of geothermal wells (drilling and cementing). Shut-in time and bottomhole temperature measurements logged during well completion activities are required as input data. Output results can include up to seven computations of the static formation temperature by each wellbore temperature data set analysed. STATIC{sub T}EMP was written in Fortran-77 Microsoft language for MS-DOS environment using structured programming techniques. It runs on most IBM compatible personal computers. The source code and its computational architecture as well as the input and output files are described in detail. Validation and application examples on the use of this computer code with wellbore temperature data (obtained from specialised literature) and with actual bottomhole temperature data (taken from completion operations of some geothermal wells) are also presented. (Author)

  11. Supergravity theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uehara, S.

    1985-01-01

    Of all supergravity theories, the maximal, i.e., N = 8 in 4-dimension or N = 1 in 11-dimension, theory should perform the unification since it owns the highest degree of symmetry. As to the N = 1 in d = 11 theory, it has been investigated how to compactify to the d = 4 theories. From the phenomenological point of view, local SUSY GUTs, i.e., N = 1 SUSY GUTs with soft breaking terms, have been studied from various angles. The structures of extended supergravity theories are less understood than those of N = 1 supergravity theories, and matter couplings in N = 2 extended supergravity theories are under investigation. The harmonic superspace was recently proposed which may be useful to investigate the quantum effects of extended supersymmetry and supergravity theories. As to the so-called Kaluza-Klein supergravity, there is another possibility. (Mori, K.)

  12. Topos theory

    CERN Document Server

    Johnstone, PT

    2014-01-01

    Focusing on topos theory's integration of geometric and logical ideas into the foundations of mathematics and theoretical computer science, this volume explores internal category theory, topologies and sheaves, geometric morphisms, other subjects. 1977 edition.

  13. Probability theory

    CERN Document Server

    Dorogovtsev, A Ya; Skorokhod, A V; Silvestrov, D S; Skorokhod, A V

    1997-01-01

    This book of problems is intended for students in pure and applied mathematics. There are problems in traditional areas of probability theory and problems in the theory of stochastic processes, which has wide applications in the theory of automatic control, queuing and reliability theories, and in many other modern science and engineering fields. Answers to most of the problems are given, and the book provides hints and solutions for more complicated problems.

  14. Gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, B.W.

    1976-01-01

    Some introductory remarks to Yang-Mills fields are given and the problem of the Coulomb gauge is considered. The perturbation expansion for quantized gauge theories is discussed and a survey of renormalization schemes is made. The role of Ward-Takahashi identities in gauge theories is discussed. The author then discusses the renormalization of pure gauge theories and theories with spontaneously broken symmetry. (B.R.H.)

  15. Static and Dynamic Handgrip Strength Endurance: Test-Retest Reproducibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerodimos, Vassilis; Karatrantou, Konstantina; Psychou, Dimitra; Vasilopoulou, Theodora; Zafeiridis, Andreas

    2017-03-01

    This study investigated the reliability of static and dynamic handgrip strength endurance using different protocols and indicators for the assessment of strength endurance. Forty young, healthy men and women (age, 18-22 years) performed 2 handgrip strength endurance protocols: a static protocol (sustained submaximal contraction at 50% of maximal voluntary contraction) and a dynamic one (8, 10, and 12 maximal repetitions). The participants executed each protocol twice to assess the test-retest reproducibility. Total work and total time were used as indicators of strength endurance in the static protocol; the strength recorded at each maximal repetition, the percentage change, and fatigue index were used as indicators of strength endurance in the dynamic protocol. The static protocol showed high reliability irrespective of sex and hand for total time and work. The 12-repetition dynamic protocol exhibited moderate-high reliability for repeated maximal repetitions and percentage change; the 8- and 10-repetition protocols demonstrated lower reliability irrespective of sex and hand. The fatigue index was not a reliable indicator for the assessment of dynamic handgrip endurance. Static handgrip endurance can be measured reliably using the total time and total work as indicators of strength endurance. For the evaluation of dynamic handgrip endurance, the 12-repetition protocol is recommended, using the repeated maximal repetitions and percentage change as indicators of strength endurance. Practitioners should consider the static (50% maximal voluntary contraction) and dynamic (12 repeated maximal repetitions) protocols as reliable for the assessment of handgrip strength endurance. The evaluation of static endurance in conjunction with dynamic endurance would provide more complete information about hand function. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Matching tomographic IMRT fields with static photon fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sethi, A.; Leybovich, L.; Dogan, N.; Emami, B.

    2001-01-01

    The matching of abutting radiation fields presents a challenging problem in radiation therapy. Due to sharp penumbra of linear accelerator beams, small (1-2 mm) errors in field positioning can lead to large (>30%) hot or cold spots in the abutment region. With head and neck immobilization devices (thermoplastic mask/aquaplast) an average setup error of 3 mm has been reported. Therefore hot or cold spots approaching 50% of the prescription dose may occur along the matchline. Although abutting radiation fields have been investigated for static fields, there is no reported study regarding matching of tomographic IMRT and static fields. Compared to static fields, the matching of tomographic IMRT fields with static fields is more complicated. Since IMRT and static fields are planned on separate treatment planning computers, the dose in the abutment region is not specified. In addition, commonly used techniques for matching fields, such as feathering of junctions, are not practical. We have developed a method that substantially reduces dose inhomogeneity in the abutment region. In this method, a 'buffer zone' around the matchline was created and was included as part of the target for both IMRT and static field plans. In both fields, a small dose gradient (≤3%/mm) in the buffer zone was created. In the IMRT plan, the buffer zone was divided into three sections with dose varying from 83% to 25% of prescription dose. The static field dose profile was modified using either a specially designed physical (hard) or a dynamic (soft) wedge. When these modified fields were matched, the combined dose in the abutment region varied by ≤10% in the presence of setup errors spanning 4 mm (±2 mm) when the hard wedge was used and 10 mm (±5 mm) with the soft wedge

  17. Big bang models in string theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craps, Ben [Theoretische Natuurkunde, Vrije Universiteit Brussel and The International Solvay Institutes Pleinlaan 2, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium)

    2006-11-07

    These proceedings are based on lectures delivered at the 'RTN Winter School on Strings, Supergravity and Gauge Theories', CERN, 16-20 January 2006. The school was mainly aimed at PhD students and young postdocs. The lectures start with a brief introduction to spacetime singularities and the string theory resolution of certain static singularities. Then they discuss attempts to resolve cosmological singularities in string theory, mainly focusing on two specific examples: the Milne orbifold and the matrix big bang.

  18. Application of elasticity theory at Sandia Labortories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davison, L.

    1975-01-01

    Examples are given of the application of linear elasticity theory to the solution of practical problems encountered at Sandia Laboratories. It is being applied to a very broad range of problems: those in one, two, and three spatial dimensions, some involving static and some dynamic response, to materials having isotropic and anisotropic symmetry, to homogeneous and inhomogeneous bodies, etc. Various extensions of the theory to include electric, magnetic and thermal effects, to account for material microstructure, for radiation and spall damage, chemical reactions, and other phenomena have been developed and/or applied. In some applications linear elasticity represents the physics of a problem well and is the theory of choice. In others the theory was used because it lent insight into a larger problem that was also attacked by means of other theories and/or experiment, and in some cases it serves as a part of a more encompassing theory

  19. Dyson quantum field theory. The worldwide known introduction by one of the fathers of the QED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyson, Freeman

    2014-01-01

    The content: The Dirac equation - scattering problems and the Born approximation - the classical and quantum-mechanical field theory - examples of quantized field theories (Maxwell field, Dirac electrons) - scattering problems of free particles (pair annihilation, Moller scattering, Klein-Nishina formula) - general theory of the scattering (Feynman graphs, infrared catastrophe) - scattering on a static potential and experimental results.

  20. Atomic theories

    CERN Document Server

    Loring, FH

    2014-01-01

    Summarising the most novel facts and theories which were coming into prominence at the time, particularly those which had not yet been incorporated into standard textbooks, this important work was first published in 1921. The subjects treated cover a wide range of research that was being conducted into the atom, and include Quantum Theory, the Bohr Theory, the Sommerfield extension of Bohr's work, the Octet Theory and Isotopes, as well as Ionisation Potentials and Solar Phenomena. Because much of the material of Atomic Theories lies on the boundary between experimentally verified fact and spec

  1. Grounded theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Tina

    2015-04-29

    Grounded theory is a popular research approach in health care and the social sciences. This article provides a description of grounded theory methodology and its key components, using examples from published studies to demonstrate practical application. It aims to demystify grounded theory for novice nurse researchers, by explaining what it is, when to use it, why they would want to use it and how to use it. It should enable nurse researchers to decide if grounded theory is an appropriate approach for their research, and to determine the quality of any grounded theory research they read.

  2. Number theory via Representation theory

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-11-09

    Number theory via Representation theory. Eknath Ghate. November 9, 2014. Eightieth Annual Meeting, Chennai. Indian Academy of Sciences1. 1. This is a non-technical 20 minute talk intended for a general Academy audience.

  3. On the static loop modes in the marching-on-in-time solution of the time-domain electric field integral equation

    KAUST Repository

    Shi, Yifei; Bagci, Hakan; Lu, Mingyu

    2014-01-01

    When marching-on-in-time (MOT) method is applied to solve the time-domain electric field integral equation, spurious internal resonant and static loop modes are always observed in the solution. The internal resonant modes have recently been studied by the authors; this letter investigates the static loop modes. Like internal resonant modes, static loop modes, in theory, should not be observed in the MOT solution since they do not satisfy the zero initial conditions; their appearance is attributed to numerical errors. It is discussed in this letter that the dependence of spurious static loop modes on numerical errors is substantially different from that of spurious internal resonant modes. More specifically, when Rao-Wilton-Glisson functions and Lagrange interpolation functions are used as spatial and temporal basis functions, respectively, errors due to space-time discretization have no discernible impact on spurious static loop modes. Numerical experiments indeed support this discussion and demonstrate that the numerical errors due to the approximate solution of the MOT matrix system have dominant impact on spurious static loop modes in the MOT solution. © 2014 IEEE.

  4. Static friction between silicon nanowires and elastomeric substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Qingquan; Zhu, Yong

    2011-09-27

    This paper reports the first direct measurements of static friction force and interfacial shear strength between silicon (Si) nanowires (NWs) and poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS). A micromanipulator is used to manipulate and deform the NWs under a high-magnification optical microscope in real time. The static friction force is measured based on "the most-bent state" of the NWs. The static friction and interface shear strength are found to depend on the ultraviolet/ozone (UVO) treatment of PDMS. The shear strength starts at 0.30 MPa without UVO treatment, increases rapidly up to 10.57 MPa at 60 min of treatment and decreases for longer treatment. Water contact angle measurements suggest that the UVO-induced hydrophobic-to-hydrophilic conversion of PDMS surface is responsible for the increase in the static friction, while the hydrophobic recovery effect contributes to the decrease. The static friction between NWs and PDMS is of critical relevance to many device applications of NWs including NW-based flexible/stretchable electronics, NW assembly and nanocomposites (e.g., supercapacitors). Our results will enable quantitative interface design and control for such applications. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  5. Enhancement of sedimentation and coagulation with static magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zieliński, Marcin; Dębowski, Marcin; Hajduk, Anna; Rusanowska, Paulina

    2017-11-01

    The static magnetic field can be an alternative method for wastewater treatment. It has been proved that this physical factor, accelerates the biochemical processes, catalyzes advanced oxidation, intensifies anaerobic and aerobic processes or reduces swelling of activated sludge. There are also reports proving the positive impact of the static magnetic field on the coagulation and sedimentation, as well as the conditioning and dewatering of sludge. In order to be applied in larger scale the published results should be verified and confirmed. In the studies, the enhancement of sedimentation by the static magnetic field was observed. The best sedimentation was noted in the experiment, where magnetizers were placed on activated sludge bioreactor and secondary settling tank. No effect of the static magnetic field on coagulation with the utilization of PIX 113 was observed. However, the static magnetic field enhanced coagulation with the utilization of PAX-XL9. The results suggest that increased sedimentation of colloids and activated sludge, can in practice mean a reduction in the size of the necessary equipment for sedimentation with an unchanged efficiency of the process.

  6. Relationship between Static Stiffness and Modal Stiffness of Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianjian Ji Tianjian Ji

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper derives the relationship between the static stiffness and modal stiffness of a structure. The static stiffness and modal stiffness are two important concepts in both structural statics and dynamics. Although both stiffnesses indicate the capacity of the structure to resist deformation, they are obtained using different methods. The former is calculated by solving the equations of equilibrium and the latter can be obtained by solving an eigenvalue problem. A mathematical relationship between the two stiffnesses was derived based on the definitions of two stiffnesses. This relationship was applicable to a linear system and the derivation of relationships does not reveal any other limitations. Verification of the relationship was given by using several examples. The relationship between the two stiffnesses demonstrated that the modal stiffness of the fundamental mode was always larger than the static stiffness of a structure if the critical point and the maximum mode value are at the same node, i.e. for simply supported beam and seven storeys building are 1.5% and 15% respectively. The relationship could be applied into real structures, where the greater the number of modes being considered, the smaller the difference between the modal stiffness and the static stiffness of a structure.

  7. Superstring theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarz, J.H.

    1985-01-01

    Dual string theories, initially developed as phenomenological models of hadrons, now appear more promising as candidates for a unified theory of fundamental interactions. Type I superstring theory (SST I), is a ten-dimensional theory of interacting open and closed strings, with one supersymmetry, that is free from ghosts and tachyons. It requires that an SO(eta) or Sp(2eta) gauge group be used. A light-cone-gauge string action with space-time supersymmetry automatically incorporates the superstring restrictions and leads to the discovery of type II superstring theory (SST II). SST II is an interacting theory of closed strings only, with two D=10 supersymmetries, that is also free from ghosts and tachyons. By taking six of the spatial dimensions to form a compact space, it becomes possible to reconcile the models with our four-dimensional perception of spacetime and to define low-energy limits in which SST I reduces to N=4, D=4 super Yang-Mills theory and SST II reduces to N=8, D=4 supergravity theory. The superstring theories can be described by a light-cone-gauge action principle based on fields that are functionals of string coordinates. With this formalism any physical quantity should be calculable. There is some evidence that, unlike any conventional field theory, the superstring theories provide perturbatively renormalizable (SST I) or finite (SST II) unifications of gravity with other interactions

  8. New aspects in the implementation of the quasi-static method for the solution of neutron diffusion problems in the framework of a nodal method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caron, D.; Dulla, S.; Ravetto, P.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The implementation of the quasi-static method in 3D nodal diffusion theory model in hexagonal-z geometry is described. • Different formulations of the quasi-static technique are discussed. • The results presented illustrate the features of the various formulations, highlighting advantages and drawbacks. • A novel adaptive procedure for the selection of the time interval between shape recalculations is presented. - Abstract: The ability to accurately model the dynamic behaviour of the neutron distribution in a nuclear system is a fundamental aspect of reactor design and safety assessment. Due to the heavy computational burden associated to the direct time inversion of the full model, the quasi-static method has become a standard approach to the numerical solution of the nuclear reactor dynamic equations on the full phase space. The present paper is opened by an introductory critical review of the basics of the quasi-static scheme for the general neutron kinetic problem. Afterwards, the implementation of the quasi-static method in the context of a three-dimensional nodal diffusion theory model in hexagonal-z geometry is described, including some peculiar aspects of the adjoint nodal equations and the explicit formulation of the quasi-static nodal equations. The presentation includes the discussion of different formulations of the quasi-static technique. The results presented illustrate the features of the various formulations, highlighting the corresponding advantages and drawbacks. An adaptive procedure for the selection of the time interval between shape recalculations is also presented, showing its usefulness in practical applications.

  9. Integrated dynamic and static tactile sensor: focus on static force sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wettels, Nicholas; Pletner, Baruch

    2012-04-01

    Object grasping by robotic hands in unstructured environments demands a sensor that is durable, compliant, and responsive to static and dynamic force conditions. In order for a tactile sensor to be useful for grasp control in these, it should have the following properties: tri-axial force sensing (two shear plus normal component), dynamic event sensing across slip frequencies, compliant surface for grip, wide dynamic range (depending on application), insensitivity to environmental conditions, ability to withstand abuse and good sensing behavior (e.g. low hysteresis, high repeatability). These features can be combined in a novel multimodal tactile sensor. This sensor combines commercial-off-the-shelf MEMS technology with two proprietary force sensors: a high bandwidth device based on PZT technology and low bandwidth device based on elastomers and optics. In this study, we focus on the latter transduction mechanism and the proposed architecture of the completed device. In this study, an embedded LED was utilized to produce a constant light source throughout a layer of silicon rubber which covered a plastic mandrel containing a set of sensitive phototransistors. Features about the contacted object such as center of pressure and force vectors can be extracted from the information in the changing patterns of light. The voltage versus force relationship obtained with this molded humanlike finger had a wide dynamic range that coincided with forces relevant for most human grip tasks.

  10. String theory or field theory?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshakov, Andrei V

    2002-01-01

    The status of string theory is reviewed, and major recent developments - especially those in going beyond perturbation theory in the string theory and quantum field theory frameworks - are analyzed. This analysis helps better understand the role and place of string theory in the modern picture of the physical world. Even though quantum field theory describes a wide range of experimental phenomena, it is emphasized that there are some insurmountable problems inherent in it - notably the impossibility to formulate the quantum theory of gravity on its basis - which prevent it from being a fundamental physical theory of the world of microscopic distances. It is this task, the creation of such a theory, which string theory, currently far from completion, is expected to solve. In spite of its somewhat vague current form, string theory has already led to a number of serious results and greatly contributed to progress in the understanding of quantum field theory. It is these developments which are our concern in this review. (reviews of topical problems)

  11. Dependence theory via game theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grossi, D.; Turrini, P.

    2011-01-01

    In the multi-agent systems community, dependence theory and game theory are often presented as two alternative perspectives on the analysis of social interaction. Up till now no research has been done relating these two approaches. The unification presented provides dependence theory with the sort

  12. Technology advancement of the static feed water electrolysis process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, F. H.; Wynveen, R. A.

    1977-01-01

    A program to advance the technology of oxygen- and hydrogen-generating subsystems based on water electrolysis was studied. Major emphasis was placed on static feed water electrolysis, a concept characterized by low power consumption and high intrinsic reliability. The static feed based oxygen generation subsystem consists basically of three subassemblies: (1) a combined water electrolysis and product gas dehumidifier module; (2) a product gas pressure controller and; (3) a cyclically filled water feed tank. Development activities were completed at the subsystem as well as at the component level. An extensive test program including single cell, subsystem and integrated system testing was completed with the required test support accessories designed, fabricated, and assembled. Mini-product assurance activities were included throughout all phases of program activities. An extensive number of supporting technology studies were conducted to advance the technology base of the static feed water electrolysis process and to resolve problems.

  13. Static aeroelastic behavior of an adaptive laminated piezoelectric composite wing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisshaar, T. A.; Ehlers, S. M.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of using an adaptive material to modify the static aeroelastic behavior of a uniform wing is examined. The wing structure is idealized as a laminated sandwich structure with piezoelectric layers in the upper and lower skins. A feedback system that senses the wing root loads applies a constant electric field to the piezoelectric actuator. Modification of pure torsional deformaton behavior and pure bending deformation are investigated, as is the case of an anisotropic composite swept wing. The use of piezoelectric actuators to create an adaptive structure is found to alter static aeroelastic behavior in that the proper choice of the feedback gain can increase or decrease the aeroelastic divergence speed. This concept also may be used to actively change the lift effectiveness of a wing. The ability to modify static aeroelastic behavior is limited by physical limitations of the piezoelectric material and the manner in which it is integrated into the parent structure.

  14. Vitamins and glucose metabolism: The role of static magnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahbib, Aïda; Ghodbane, Soumaya; Sakly, Mohsen; Abdelmelek, Hafedh

    2014-12-01

    This review focuses on our own data and other data from the literature of static magnetic fields (SMF) bioeffects and vitamins and glucose metabolism. Three main areas of investigation have been covered: Static magnetic field and glucose metabolism, static magnetic field and vitamins and the role of vitamins on glucose metabolism. Considering these articles comprehensively, the conclusions are as follows: The primary cause of changes in cells after incubation in external SMF is disruption of free radical metabolism and elevation of their concentration. Such disruption causes oxidative stress leading to an unsteadiness of glucose level and insulin release. Moreover, based on available data, it was concluded that exposure to SMF alters plasma levels of vitamin A, C, D and E; these parameters can take part in disorder of glucose homeostasis and insulin release.

  15. Biological interactions and human health effects of static magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tenforde, T.S.

    1994-09-01

    Mechanisms through which static magnetic fields interact with living systems will be described and illustrated by selected experimental observations. These mechanisms include electrodynamic interactions with moving ionic charges (blood flow and nerve impulse conduction), magnetomechanical interactions (orientation and translation of molecular structures and magnetic particles), and interactions with electronic spin states in charge transfer reactions (photo-induced electron transfer in photosynthesis). A general summary will also be presented of the biological effects of static magnetic fields studied in the laboratory and in natural settings. One aspect of magnetic field effects that merits special concern is their influence on implanted medical electronic devices such as cardiac pacemakers. Several extensive studies have demonstrated closure of the reed switch in pacemakers exposed to relatively weak static magnetic fields, thereby causing them to revert to an asynchronous mode of operation that is potentially hazardous. Recommendations for human exposure limits are provided

  16. Rigidity of generalized Bach-flat vacuum static spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Gabjin; Hwang, Seungsu

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, we study the structure of generalized Bach-flat vacuum static spaces. Generalized Bach-flat metrics are considered as extensions of both Einstein and Bach-flat metrics. First, we prove that a compact Riemannian n-manifold with n ≥ 4 which is a generalized Bach-flat vacuum static space is Einstein. A generalized Bach-flat vacuum static space with the potential function f having compact level sets is either Ricci-flat or a warped product with zero scalar curvature when n ≥ 5, and when n = 4, it is Einstein if f has its minimum. Secondly, we consider critical metrics for another quadratic curvature functional involving the Ricci tensor, and prove similar results. Lastly, by applying the technique developed above, we prove Besse conjecture when the manifold is generalized Bach-flat.

  17. Determinacy in Static Analysis of jQuery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Esben; Møller, Anders

    2014-01-01

    Static analysis for JavaScript can potentially help programmers find errors early during development. Although much progress has been made on analysis techniques, a major obstacle is the prevalence of libraries, in particular jQuery, which apply programming patterns that have detrimental conseque......Static analysis for JavaScript can potentially help programmers find errors early during development. Although much progress has been made on analysis techniques, a major obstacle is the prevalence of libraries, in particular jQuery, which apply programming patterns that have detrimental...... present a static dataflow analysis for JavaScript that infers and exploits determinacy information on-the-fly, to enable analysis of some of the most complex parts of jQuery. The techniques are implemented in the TAJS analysis tool and evaluated on a collection of small programs that use jQuery. Our...

  18. On perfect fluids and black holes in static equilibrium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrasco, Alberto; Mars, Marc; Simon, Walter [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Salamanca, Plaza de la Merced s/n, 37008 Salamanca (Spain)

    2007-05-15

    Proofs of spherical symmetry of static black holes and of spherical symmetry of static perfect fluids normally require, a priori, 'black holes only' or 'fluid only'. In a recent paper Shiromizu, Yamada and Yoshino admit a priori (and exclude) coexistence of fluids and holes. This work assumes connectedness of the fluid region and the same assumptions on the equation of state as earlier papers on the 'fluid only' case, and requires in addition an upper bound for the fluid mass in terms of the black holes masses. We discuss this paper. As a new result we show that there cannot exist static fluid shells (i.e. fluid regions of the topology of an annulus) even if one a priori admits, inside and outside the shell, any arrangement of black holes or additional matter which satisfies the energy condition.

  19. On perfect fluids and black holes in static equilibrium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrasco, Alberto; Mars, Marc; Simon, Walter

    2007-01-01

    Proofs of spherical symmetry of static black holes and of spherical symmetry of static perfect fluids normally require, a priori, 'black holes only' or 'fluid only'. In a recent paper Shiromizu, Yamada and Yoshino admit a priori (and exclude) coexistence of fluids and holes. This work assumes connectedness of the fluid region and the same assumptions on the equation of state as earlier papers on the 'fluid only' case, and requires in addition an upper bound for the fluid mass in terms of the black holes masses. We discuss this paper. As a new result we show that there cannot exist static fluid shells (i.e. fluid regions of the topology of an annulus) even if one a priori admits, inside and outside the shell, any arrangement of black holes or additional matter which satisfies the energy condition

  20. Non-local means filter for trim statics

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Yunsong

    2014-08-05

    Structures will be mispositioned across prestack migration gathers in the presence of inaccuracies in the velocity model. Stacking these misaligned gathers runs the risk of destroying important structures in the stacked migration image. To mitigate this problem, we propose a trim statics inspired by the non-local means algorithm originally developed for image denoising. This method differs from the conventional one in two fundamental respects. First, the trim statics are computed by comparing image patches instead of individual image traces. Second, no global pilot trace is needed because only two migration images at a time participate in trim statics and are stacked into one image. A multitude of migration images are stacked recursively in this two-to-one fashion. Tests with a Gulf of Mexico dataset show a noticeable improvement in the feature coherency of the stacked migration image.

  1. From Static to Interactive: Transforming Data Visualization to Improve Transparency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracey L Weissgerber

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Data presentation for scientific publications in small sample size studies has not changed substantially in decades. It relies on static figures and tables that may not provide sufficient information for critical evaluation, particularly of the results from small sample size studies. Interactive graphics have the potential to transform scientific publications from static reports of experiments into interactive datasets. We designed an interactive line graph that demonstrates how dynamic alternatives to static graphics for small sample size studies allow for additional exploration of empirical datasets. This simple, free, web-based tool (http://statistika.mfub.bg.ac.rs/interactive-graph/ demonstrates the overall concept and may promote widespread use of interactive graphics.

  2. Android Application Protection against Static Reverse Engineering based on Multidexing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nak Young Kim

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available DEX files are executable files of Android applications. Since DEX files are in the format of Java bytecodes, their Java source codes can be easily obtained using static reverse engineering tools. This results in numerous Android application thefts. There are some tools (e.g. bangcle, ijiami, liapp that protect Android applications against static reverse engineering utilizing dynamic code loading. These tools usually encrypt classes.dex in an APK file. When the application is launched, the encrypted classes.dex file is decrypted and dynamically loaded. However, these tools fail to protect multidex APKs, which include more than one DEX files (classes2.dex, classes3.dex, ... to accommodate large-sized execution codes. In this paper, we propose a technique that protects multidex Android applications against static reverse engineering. The technique can encrypt/decrypt multiple DEX files in APK files and dynamically load them. The experimental results show that the proposed technique can effiectively protect multidex APKs.

  3. Evolution in a fully constituted world: Charles Darwin's debts towards a static world in the Origin of Species (1859).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delisle, Richard G

    2014-01-01

    The Transformist Revolution was a long intellectual quest that has expanded from the 18th century to today. One area of inquiry after another has confronted the necessity of recasting its object of study under an evolutionary view: human history, geology, biology, astronomy, etc. No single scholar fully managed to make the transition from a static worldview to an evolutionary one during his or her own lifetime; Charles Darwin is no exception. Many versions of evolutionism were proposed during this revolution, versions offering all sorts of compromises between old and new views. Not sufficiently acknowledged in the historiography is the profoundness of Darwin's debts towards the old static view. As a dual child of the Scientific Revolution and natural theology, Darwin inherited key concepts such as stability, completeness, timelessness, unity, permanence, and uniformity. Darwin took these concepts into consideration while erecting his theory of biological evolution. Unsurprisingly, this theory was ill-equipped to embrace the directionality, historicity, and novelty that came along with a new evolutionary world. This paper analyses a fundamental idea at the heart of Darwin's Origins of Species (1859) inherited from a static, stable, and machine-like conception of the world: the notion of a fully constituted world. Although in principle antithetical to the very idea of evolution itself, Darwin found a way to 'loosen up' this notion so as to retain it in a way that allows for some kind of evolutionary change. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Plasticity Theory of Fillet Welds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    a safe and statically admissible stress distribution is established. The plasticity solutions are compared with tests carried out at the Engineering Academy of Denmark, Lyngby, in the early nineties, and old fillet weld tests. The new failure conditions are in very good agreement with the yield load......This paper deals with simple methods for calculation of fillet welds based on the theory of plasticity. In developing the solutions the lower-bound theorem is used. The welding material and parts of the base material are subdivided into triangular regions with homogeneous stress fields; thereby...... tests, but not so good agreement with the old failure load tests....

  5. Lorentz covariant theory of gravitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fagundes, H.V.

    1974-12-01

    An alternative method for the calculation of second order effects, like the secular shift of Mercury's perihelium is developed. This method uses the basic ideas of thirring combined with the more mathematical approach of Feyman. In the case of a static source, the treatment used is greatly simplified. Besides, Einstein-Infeld-Hoffmann's Lagrangian for a system of two particles and spin-orbit and spin-spin interactions of two particles with classical spin, ie, internal angular momentum in Moller's sense, are obtained from the Lorentz covariant theory

  6. DEPTH-CHARGE static and time-dependent perturbation/sensitivity system for nuclear reactor core analysis. Revision I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, J.R.

    1985-04-01

    This report provides the background theory, user input, and sample problems required for the efficient application of the DEPTH-CHARGE system - a code black for both static and time-dependent perturbation theory and data sensitivity analyses. The DEPTH-CHARGE system is of modular construction and has been implemented within the VENTURE-BURNER computational system at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The DEPTH module (coupled with VENTURE) solves for the three adjoint functions of Depletion Perturbation Theory and calculates the desired time-dependent derivatives of the response with respect to the nuclide concentrations and nuclear data utilized in the reference model. The CHARGE code is a collection of utility routines for general data manipulation and input preparation and considerably extends the usefulness of the system through the automatic generation of adjoint sources, estimated perturbed responses, and relative data sensitivity coefficients. Combined, the DEPTH-CHARGE system provides, for the first time, a complete generalized first-order perturbation/sensitivity theory capability for both static and time-dependent analyses of realistic multidimensional reactor models. This current documentation incorporates minor revisions to the original DEPTH-CHARGE documentation (ORNL/CSD-78) to reflect some new capabilities within the individual codes

  7. Structural testing for static failure, flutter and other scary things

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricketts, R. H.

    1983-01-01

    Ground test and flight test methods are described that may be used to highlight potential structural problems that occur on aircraft. Primary interest is focused on light-weight general aviation airplanes. The structural problems described include static strength failure, aileron reversal, static divergence, and flutter. An example of each of the problems is discussed to illustrate how the data acquired during the tests may be used to predict the occurrence of the structural problem. While some rules of thumb for the prediction of structural problems are given the report is not intended to be used explicitly as a structural analysis handbook.

  8. Static Friction between Elastic Solids due to Random Asperities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokoloff, J. B.

    2001-01-01

    Several workers have established that the Larkin domains for two three-dimensional nonmetallic elastic solids in contact with each other at a disordered but atomically flat interface are enormously large, implying that there should be negligible static friction per unit area in the macroscopic solid limit. In contrast, the present Letter argues that when the Larkin domains are calculated for disorder on the multiasperity scale, they are much smaller than the interface size. This can account for the virtual universal occurrence of static friction

  9. Static and Dynamic Nonlinearity of A/D Converters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Villa

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic range of broadband digital system is mostly limited byharmonics and spurious arising from ADC nonlinearity. The nonlinearitymay be described in several ways. The distinction between static anddynamic contributions has strong theoretical motivations but it isdifficult to independently measure these contributions. A morepractical approach is based upon analysis of the complex spectrum,which is well defined, easily measured, and may be used to optimize theADC working point and to somehow characterize both static and dynamicnonlinearity. To minimize harmonics and spurious components we need asufficient level of input noise (dither, which destroys theperiodicity at multistage pipelined ADC, combined with a carefulanalysis of the different sources of nonlinearity.

  10. Effects of Static Stretching and Playing Soccer on Knee Laxity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgart, Christian; Gokeler, Alli; Donath, Lars; Hoppe, Matthias W; Freiwald, Jürgen

    2015-11-01

    This study investigated exercise-induced effects of static stretching and playing soccer on anterior tibial translation (ATT) of the knee joint. Randomized controlled trial. University biomechanics laboratory. Thirty-one athletes were randomly assigned into a stretching (26.9 ± 6.2 years, 1.77 ± 0.09 m, 67.9 ± 10.7 kg) and a control group (27.9 ± 7.4 years, 1.75 ± 0.08 m, 72.0 ± 14.9 kg). Thirty-one amateur soccer players in an additional soccer group (25.1 ± 5.6 years, 1.74 ± 0.10 m, 71.8 ± 14.8 kg). All participants had no history of knee injury requiring surgery and any previous knee ligament or cartilage injury. The stretching group performed 4 different static stretching exercises with a duration of 2 × 20 seconds interspersed with breaks of 10 seconds. The soccer group completed a 90-minute soccer-specific training program. The control group did not perform any physical activity for approximately 30 minutes. Anterior tibial translation was measured with the KT-1000 knee arthrometer at forces of 67 N, 89 N, and maximal manual force (Max) before and after the intervention. There was a significant increase in ATT after static stretching and playing soccer at all applied forces. Maximal manual testing revealed a mean increase of ATT after static stretching of 2.1 ± 1.6 mm (P soccer of 1.0 ± 1.5 mm (P = 0.001). The ATT increase after static stretching at 67 and 89 N is significantly higher than in controls. At maximum manual testing, significant differences were evident between all groups. Static stretching and playing soccer increase ATT and may consequently influence mechanical factors of the anterior cruciate ligament. The ATT increase after static stretching was greater than after playing soccer. The observed increase in ATT after static stretching and playing soccer may be associated with changes in kinesthetic perception and sensorimotor control, activation of muscles, joint stability, overall performance, and higher injury risk.

  11. Ergonomic solutions to support forced static positions at work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suszyński Marcin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the available ergonomic constructions used for the support of the musculoskeletal system during static, prolonged work performed in forced positions. Possible evaluation methods are presented as well as ergonomic considerations of work performed in inclined positions, where there is no possibility of influencing the working plane. As a result of the presented work, a set of criteria has been proposed and the requirements for methods which can be used to evaluate the technical constructions supporting the worker during tasks performed in forced and static positions.

  12. Static telescope aberration measurement using lucky imaging techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Marrero, Marcos; Rodríguez-Ramos, Luis Fernando; Marichal-Hernández, José Gil; Rodríguez-Ramos, José Manuel

    2012-07-01

    A procedure has been developed to compute static aberrations once the telescope PSF has been measured with the lucky imaging technique, using a nearby star close to the object of interest as the point source to probe the optical system. This PSF is iteratively turned into a phase map at the pupil using the Gerchberg-Saxton algorithm and then converted to the appropriate actuation information for a deformable mirror having low actuator number but large stroke capability. The main advantage of this procedure is related with the capability of correcting static aberration at the specific pointing direction and without the need of a wavefront sensor.

  13. Java bytecode verification via static single assignment form

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gal, Andreas; Probst, Christian W.; Franz, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Java Virtual Machines (JVMs) traditionally perform bytecode verification by way of an iterative data-flow analysis. Bytecode verification is necessary to ensure type safety because temporary variables in the JVM are not statically typed. We present an alternative verification mechanism that trans......Java Virtual Machines (JVMs) traditionally perform bytecode verification by way of an iterative data-flow analysis. Bytecode verification is necessary to ensure type safety because temporary variables in the JVM are not statically typed. We present an alternative verification mechanism...

  14. Ischemic Preconditioning of One Forearm Enhances Static and Dynamic Apnea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeld, Thomas; Rasmussen, Mads Reinholdt; Jattu, Timo

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Ischemic preconditioning enhances ergometer cycling and swimming performance. We evaluated whether ischemic preconditioning of one forearm (four times for 5 min) also affects static breath hold and underwater swimming, whereas the effect of similar preconditioning on ergometer rowing...... preconditioning reduced the forearm oxygen saturation from 65% ± 7% to 19% ± 7% (mean ± SD; P right thigh.......05). CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that while the effect of ischemic preconditioning (of one forearm) on ergometer rowing was minimal, probably because of reduced muscle oxygenation during the warm-up, ischemic preconditioning does enhance both static and dynamic apnea, supporting that muscle ischemia is an important...

  15. Human body capacitance: static or dynamic concept? [ESD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonassen, Niels M

    1998-01-01

    A standing human body insulated from ground by footwear and/or floor covering is in principle an insulated conductor and has, as such, a capacitance, i.e. the ability to store a charge and possibly discharge the stored energy in a spark discharge. In the human body, the human body capacitance (HBC...... when a substantial part of the flux extends itself through badly defined stray fields. Since the concept of human body capacitance is normally used in a static (electric) context, it is suggested that the HBC be determined by a static method. No theoretical explanation of the observed differences...

  16. Static and quasi-static analysis of lobed-pumpkin balloon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashino, Kyoichi; Sasaki, Makoto; Hashimoto, Satoshi; Saito, Yoshitaka; Izutsu, Naoki

    The present study is motivated by the need to improve design methodology for super pressure balloon with 3D gore design concept, currently being developed at the Scientific Balloon Center of ISAS/JAXA. The distinctive feature of the 3-D gore design is that the balloon film has excess materials not only in the circumferential direction but also in the meridional direction; the meridional excess is gained by attaching the film boundaries to the corresponding tendons of a shorter length with a controlled shortening rate. The resulting balloon shape is a pumpkin-like shape with large bulges formed between adjacent tendons. The balloon film, when fully inflated, develops wrinkles in the circumferential direction over its entire region, so that the stresses in the film are limited to a small amount of uniaxial tension in the circumferential direction while the high meridional loads are carried by re-enforced tendons. Naturally, the amount of wrinkling in the film is dominated by the shortening rate between the film boundaries and the tendon curve. In the 3-D gore design, as a consequence, the shortening rate becomes a fundamental design parameter along with the geometric parameters of the gore. In view of this, we have carried out a series of numerical study of the lobed-pumpkin balloon with varying gore geometry as well as with varying shortening rate. The numerical simula-tions were carried out with a nonlinear finite element code incorporating the wrinkling effect. Numerical results show that there is a threshold value for the shortening rate beyond which the stresses in the balloon film increases disproportionately. We have also carried out quasi-static simulations of the inflation process of the lobed-pumpkin balloon, and have obtained asymmetric deformations when the balloon films are in uniaxial tension state.

  17. Model theory

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, CC

    2012-01-01

    Model theory deals with a branch of mathematical logic showing connections between a formal language and its interpretations or models. This is the first and most successful textbook in logical model theory. Extensively updated and corrected in 1990 to accommodate developments in model theoretic methods - including classification theory and nonstandard analysis - the third edition added entirely new sections, exercises, and references. Each chapter introduces an individual method and discusses specific applications. Basic methods of constructing models include constants, elementary chains, Sko

  18. Viability Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Aubin, Jean-Pierre; Saint-Pierre, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Viability theory designs and develops mathematical and algorithmic methods for investigating the adaptation to viability constraints of evolutions governed by complex systems under uncertainty that are found in many domains involving living beings, from biological evolution to economics, from environmental sciences to financial markets, from control theory and robotics to cognitive sciences. It involves interdisciplinary investigations spanning fields that have traditionally developed in isolation. The purpose of this book is to present an initiation to applications of viability theory, explai

  19. Galois Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Cox, David A

    2012-01-01

    Praise for the First Edition ". . .will certainly fascinate anyone interested in abstract algebra: a remarkable book!"—Monatshefte fur Mathematik Galois theory is one of the most established topics in mathematics, with historical roots that led to the development of many central concepts in modern algebra, including groups and fields. Covering classic applications of the theory, such as solvability by radicals, geometric constructions, and finite fields, Galois Theory, Second Edition delves into novel topics like Abel’s theory of Abelian equations, casus irreducibili, and the Galo

  20. Game theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufwenberg, Martin

    2011-03-01

    Game theory is a toolkit for examining situations where decision makers influence each other. I discuss the nature of game-theoretic analysis, the history of game theory, why game theory is useful for understanding human psychology, and why game theory has played a key role in the recent explosion of interest in the field of behavioral economics. WIREs Cogni Sci 2011 2 167-173 DOI: 10.1002/wcs.119 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Elastoplasticity theory

    CERN Document Server

    Hashiguchi, Koichi

    2009-01-01

    This book details the mathematics and continuum mechanics necessary as a foundation of elastoplasticity theory. It explains physical backgrounds with illustrations and provides descriptions of detailed derivation processes..

  2. The research on static bifurcation characteristics and parametric effect of two-phase natural circulation and passive system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Jijun; Yang Yanhua; Kuang Bo; Yao Wei; Zhang Ronghua; Tong Lili

    2001-01-01

    The formation of dissipative structures has long been known to occur in hydrodynamics. The two-phase natural circulation and passive system (TPNCPS) instability is a dissipative structure problem in multiphase hydrodynamics. The spectrum of the static bifurcation solutions (SBS) of TPNCPS through the variation of a parameter (one or more) has been derived in terms of Bifurcation Theory and DERPAR Numerical Method. Based on the appearance of Thermal-Siphon Hysteresis, the transport heat capability, static excursion criterion, stationary margin, transport heat capability of specific mass flow-rate and the disappear of bifurcation-the transition of single-valued region with the change of parameter have been defined. Such phenomena are the problems of describing self-organization, i.e. detailed study of stationary and/or time dependent status evolving with changes of characteristic parameter. A comparison between computational curves and low-pressure experimental data shows the tendency of evolutionary processes compatibly. The further tests are needed

  3. Beyond the static money multiplier: in search of a dynamic theory of money

    OpenAIRE

    Berardi, Michele

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze the process of money creation in a credit economy. We start from the consideration that the traditional money multiplier is a poor description of this process and present an alternative and dynamic approach that takes into account the heterogeneity of agents in the economy and their interactions. We show that this heterogeneity can account for the instability of the multiplier and that it can make the system path-dependent. By using concepts and techniques borrowed f...

  4. Uniqueness theorem for static phantom wormholes in Einstein–Maxwell-dilaton theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boian Lazov

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available We prove a uniqueness theorem for completely regular traversable electrically charged wormhole solutions in the Einstein–Maxwell-dilaton gravity with a phantom scalar field and a possible phantom electromagnetic field. In a certain region of the parameter space, determined by the asymptotic values of the scalar field and the lapse function, the regular wormholes are completely specified by their mass, scalar charge and electric charge. The argument is based on the positive energy theorem applied on an appropriate conformally transformed Riemannian space.

  5. A Novel Control Algorithm for Static Series Compensators by Use of PQR Instantaneous Power Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Sang-Joon; Kim, Hyosung; Sul, Seung-Ki

    2004-01-01

    in coordinates is very simple and clear, has better steady state and dynamic performance. The controlled variables in coordinates are then inversely transformed to the original coordinates without time delay, generating control signals to SSCs. The control algorithm can be used for various kinds of SSCs...

  6. Symmetry considerations in the quasi-static approximation of volume conductor theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Munck, J.C.; de Munck, J.C.; van Dijk, B.W.

    1991-01-01

    In living subjects electromagnetic signals are generated which can be measured electrically with electrodes and normal amplifiers or magnetically, by means of SQUID-magnetometers. The former technique is called EEG (electro-encephalography), the latter MEG (magneto-encephalography). Since the

  7. Stability of the static solitons in a pure spinor theory with fractional power nonlinearities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akdeniz, K.G.; Tezgor, G.; Barut, A.O.; Kalayci, J.; Okan, S.E.

    1988-08-01

    Soliton solutions are obtained in a pure fermionic model with fractional power nonlinear self-interactions. The stability properties of the minimum solutions have also been investigated within the framework of the Shatah-Strauss formalism. (author). 10 refs

  8. Static and dynamic stability of pneumatic vibration isolators and systems of isolators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryaboy, Vyacheslav M.

    2014-01-01

    Pneumatic vibration isolation is the most widespread effective method for creating vibration-free environments that are vital for precise experiments and manufacturing operations in optoelectronics, life sciences, microelectronics, nanotechnology and other areas. The modeling and design principles of a dual-chamber pneumatic vibration isolator, basically established a few decades ago, continue to attract attention of researchers. On the other hand, behavior of systems of such isolators was never explained in the literature in sufficient detail. This paper covers a range of questions essential for understanding the mechanics of pneumatic isolation systems from both design and application perspectives. The theory and a model of a single standalone isolator are presented in concise form necessary for subsequent analysis. Then the dynamics of a system of isolators supporting a payload is considered with main attention directed to two aspects of their behavior: first, the static stability of payloads with high positions of the center of gravity; second, dynamic stability of the feedback system formed by mechanical leveling valves. The direct method of calculating the maximum stable position of the center of gravity is presented and illustrated by three-dimensional stability domains; analytic formulas are given that delineate these domains. A numerical method for feedback stability analysis of self-leveling valve systems is given, and the results are compared with the analytical estimates for a single isolator. The relation between the static and dynamic phenomena is discussed.

  9. Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet metrics: black holes, black strings and a staticity theorem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogdanos, C.; Charmousis, C.; Gouteraux, B.; Zegers, R.

    2009-01-01

    We find the general solution of the 6-dimensional Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet equations in a large class of space and time-dependent warped geometries. Several distinct families of solutions are found, some of which include black string metrics, space and time-dependent solutions and black holes with exotic horizons. Among these, some are shown to verify a Birkhoff type staticity theorem, although here, the usual assumption of maximal symmetry on the horizon is relaxed, allowing exotic horizon geometries. We provide explicit examples of such static exotic black holes, including ones whose horizon geometry is that of a Bergman space. We find that the situation is very different from higher-dimensional general relativity, where Einstein spaces are admissible black hole horizons and the associated black hole potential is not even affected. In Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet theory, on the contrary, the non-trivial Weyl tensor of such exotic horizons is exposed to the bulk dynamics through the higher order Gauss-Bonnet term, severely constraining the allowed horizon geometries and adding a novel charge-like parameter to the black hole potential. The latter is related to the Euler characteristic of the four-dimensional horizon and provides, in some cases, additional black hole horizons.

  10. Static and dynamic behaviours of railway prestressed concrete sleepers with longitudinal through hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngamkhanong, C.; Kaewunruen, S.; Remennikov, A. M.

    2017-10-01

    As the crosstie beam in railway track systems, the prestressed concrete sleepers (or railroad ties) are principally designed in order to carry wheel loads from the rails to the ground. Their design takes into account static and dynamic loading conditions. It is evident that prestressed concrete has played a significant role as to maintain the high endurance of the sleepers under low to moderate repeated impact loads. In spite of the most common use of the prestressed concrete sleepers in railway tracks, there have always been many demands from rail engineers to improve serviceability and functionality of concrete sleepers. For example, signalling, fibre optic, equipment cables are often damaged either by ballast corners or by tamping machine. There has been a need to re-design concrete sleeper to cater cables internally so that they would not experience detrimental or harsh environments. Accordingly, this study will investigate the effects of through hole or longitudinal hole on static and dynamic behaviours of concrete sleepers under rail shock loading. The modified compression field theory for ultimate strength design of concrete sleepers will be highlighted in this study. The outcome of this study will enable the new design and calculation methods for prestressed concrete sleepers with holes and web opening that practically benefits civil, track and structural engineers in railway industry.

  11. Influence of the oscillating electric field on the photodetachment of H− ion in a static electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, De-hua

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The photodetachment of H − in an oscillating electric field has been studied using the time-dependent closed orbit theory. • An analytical formula for calculating the photodetachement cross section has been put forward. • Our study provides a clear physical picture for the photodetachment of negative ion in an oscillating electric filed. • Our work is useful in guiding the experimental research for the photodetachment dynamics in the time-dependent field. - Abstract: Using the time-dependent closed orbit theory, we study the photodetachment of H − ion in a time-dependent electric field. The photodetachment cross section is specifically studied in the presence of a static electric field plus an oscillating electric field. We find that the photodetachment of negative ion in the time-dependent electric field becomes much more complicated than the case in a static electric field. The oscillating electric field can weaken the photodetachment cross section greatly when the strength of the oscillating electric field is less than the static electric field. However, as the strength of the oscillating electric field is larger than the static electric field, four types of closed orbits are identified for the detached electron, which makes the oscillating amplitude in the photodetachment cross section gets increased again. The connection between the detached electron’s closed orbit with the oscillating cross section is analyzed quantitatively. This study provides a clear and intuitive picture for the understanding of the connections between quantum and classical description for the time-dependent Hamiltonian systems and may guide the future experimental research for the photodetachment dynamics in the time-dependent electric field.

  12. The enhancon mechanism in string theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarv, Laur

    2002-01-01

    The enhancon mechanism is a specific phenomenon in string theory which resolves a certain naked spacetime singularity arising in the supergravity description related to N = 2 supersymmetric pure gauge theory. After reviewing the problem of singularities in general relativity as well as in string theory, and discussing the prototypical enhancon example constructed by wrapping D6-branes on a K3 surface, the thesis presents three generalisations to this static spherically symmetric case pertaining to large N SU(N) gauge theory. First we will use orientifolds to show how the enhancon mechanism also works in similar situations related to SO(2N+1), USp(2N) and SO(2N) gauge theories. Second we will wrap D-brane distributions on K3 to obtain the enhancon in oblate, toroidal and prolate shapes. Third we will study a rotating enhancon configuration and consider its implications for the black hole entropy and the second law of thermodynamics. (author)

  13. Causality and hyperbolicity of Lovelock theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reall, Harvey S; Tanahashi, Norihiro; Way, Benson

    2014-01-01

    In Lovelock theories, gravity can travel faster or slower than light. The causal structure is determined by the characteristic hypersurfaces. We generalize a recent result of Izumi to prove that any Killing horizon is a characteristic hypersurface for all gravitational degrees of freedom of a Lovelock theory. Hence gravitational signals cannot escape from the region inside such a horizon. We investigate the hyperbolicity of Lovelock theories by determining the characteristic hypersurfaces for various backgrounds. First we consider Ricci flat type N spacetimes. We show that characteristic hypersurfaces are generically all non-null and that Lovelock theories are hyperbolic in any such spacetime. Next we consider static, maximally symmetric black hole solutions of Lovelock theories. Again, characteristic surfaces are generically non-null. For some small black holes, hyperbolicity is violated near the horizon. This implies that the stability of such black holes is not a well-posed problem. (paper)

  14. Interplay of static and dynamic features in biomimetic smart ears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannala, Mittu; Meymand, Sajjad Zeinoddini; Müller, Rolf

    2013-06-01

    Horseshoe bats (family Rhinolophidae) have sophisticated biosonar systems with outer ears (pinnae) that are characterized by static local shape features as well as dynamic non-rigid changes to their overall shapes. Here, biomimetic prototypes fabricated from elastic rubber sheets have been used to study the impact of these static and dynamic features on the acoustic device characteristics. The basic shape of the prototypes was an obliquely truncated horn augmented with three static local shape features: vertical ridge, pinna-rim incision and frontal flap (antitragus). The prototype shape was deformed dynamically using a one-point actuation mechanism to produce a biomimetic bending of the prototype's tip. In isolation, the local shape features had little impact on the device beampattern. However, strong interactions were observed between these features and the overall deformation. The further the prototype tip was bent down, the stronger the beampatterns associated with combinations of multiple features differed from the upright configuration in the prominence of sidelobes. This behavior was qualitatively similar to numerical predictions for horseshoe bats. Hence, the interplay between static and dynamic features could be a bioinspired principle for affecting large changes through the dynamic manipulations of interactions that are sensitive to small geometrical changes.

  15. Modelling of static friction in rubber-metal contact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deladi, E.L.; de Rooij, Matthias B.; Schipper, Dirk J.

    2007-01-01

    A static friction model for contact between rough rubber and metal surfaces is developed. This model is based on the contact of a viscoelastic–rigid asperity couple. Single asperity contact is modelled in such a way that the asperities stick together in a central region and slip over an annulus at

  16. Quasi-static structural optimization under the seismic loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, W. S.; Lee, K. M.; Kim, T. W.

    2001-01-01

    For preliminaries to optimization of SMART under the seismic loads, a quasi-static structural optimization for elastic structures under dynamic loads is presented. An equivalent static load (ESL) set is defined as a static load set, which generates the same displacement field as that from a dynamic load at a certain time. Multiple ESL sets calculated at all the time intervals are employed to represent the various states of the structure under the dynamic load. They can cover all the critical states that might happen at arbitrary times. The continuous characteristics of a dynamic load are considered by multiple static load sets. The calculated sets of ESLs are utilized as a multiple loading condition in the optimization process. A design cycle is defined as a circulated process between an analysis domain and a design domain. The analysis domain gives the loading condition needed in the design domain. The design domain gives a new updated design to be verified by the analysis domain in the next design cycle. The design cycles are iterated until the design converges. Structural optimization with dynamic loads is tangible by the proposed method. Standard example problems are solved to verify the validity of the method

  17. Static And Kinematic Formulation Of Planar Reciprocal Assemblies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parigi, Dario; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2013-01-01

    Planar reciprocal frames are two dimensional structures formed by elements joined together according to the principle of structural reciprocity. In this paper a rigorous formulation of the static and kinematic problem is proposed and developed by extending the work on pin-jointed assemblies by Pe...

  18. Three-way flexible cantilever probes for static contact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Fei; Petersen, Dirch Hjorth; Jensen, Helle Vendelbo

    2011-01-01

    In micro four-point probe measurements, three-way flexible L-shaped cantilever probes show significant advantages over conventional straight cantilever probes. The L-shaped cantilever allows static contact to the sample surface which reduces the frictional wear of the cantilever tips. We analyze...

  19. Statics and kinematics of discrete Cosserat-type granular materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruyt, Nicolaas P.

    2003-01-01

    A theoretical framework is presented for the statics and kinematics of discrete Cosserat-type granular materials. In analogy to the force and moment equilibrium equations for particles, compatibility equations for closed loops are formulated in the two-dimensional case for relative displacements and

  20. Oscillations of the static meson fields at finite baryon density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Florkowski, W.; Friman, B.; Technische Hochschule Darmstadt

    1996-04-01

    The spatial dependence of static meson correlation functions at finite baryon density is studied in the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model. In contrast to the finite temperature case, we find that the correlation functions at finite density are not screened but exhibit long-range oscillations. The observed phenomenon is analogous to the Friedel oscillations in a degenerate electron gas. (orig.)

  1. Can static regular black holes form from gravitational collapse?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yiyang; Zhu, Yiwei; Modesto, Leonardo; Bambi, Cosimo

    2015-01-01

    Starting from the Oppenheimer-Snyder model, we know how in classical general relativity the gravitational collapse of matter forms a black hole with a central spacetime singularity. It is widely believed that the singularity must be removed by quantum-gravity effects. Some static quantum-inspired singularity-free black hole solutions have been proposed in the literature, but when one considers simple examples of gravitational collapse the classical singularity is replaced by a bounce, after which the collapsing matter expands for ever. We may expect three possible explanations: (i) the static regular black hole solutions are not physical, in the sense that they cannot be realized in Nature, (ii) the final product of the collapse is not unique, but it depends on the initial conditions, or (iii) boundary effects play an important role and our simple models miss important physics. In the latter case, after proper adjustment, the bouncing solution would approach the static one. We argue that the ''correct answer'' may be related to the appearance of a ghost state in de Sitter spacetimes with super Planckian mass. Our black holes have indeed a de Sitter core and the ghost would make these configurations unstable. Therefore we believe that these black hole static solutions represent the transient phase of a gravitational collapse but never survive as asymptotic states. (orig.)

  2. Static Progressive Orthoses for Elbow Contracture: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. As one of the most common musculoskeletal complications following trauma, elbow contracture is a frequent source of disabled daily activities. Conventional interventions are inadequate to provide favorable outcome. The static progressive orthoses are getting popular in the treatment of this problem. Objective. The purpose of this review was to assess the effectiveness of static progressive orthoses for elbow contracture. Methods. Literatures when written in English published during 1 January 1997 and 31 January 2017 were searched in the following databases: Web of Science, Cochrane Library, PubMed, and EBSCOhost. Articles are quality-assessed by two assessors, each article was summarized in evidence tables, and a narrative synthesis was also performed. Results. Ten clinical trials were included. The study design and outcome measures used varied. Significant immediate improvement in the range of motion was reported by all studies, and those effects were still significant at follow-up. No significant difference was shown between static progressive and dynamic orthoses for elbow contracture in one randomized control trial. Conclusions. Current low-quality evidence suggested that static progressive orthoses provided assistance for elbow contracture through improving range of motion. Further research is recommended using high-quality randomized controlled trials.

  3. Static friction in elastic adhesion contacts in MEMS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tas, Niels Roelof; Gui, C.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt

    2003-01-01

    Static friction in a shearing mode can be expressed as the product of the shear strength of the interface and the real contact area. The influence of roughness on friction in elastic adhesion contact is analyzed. The effect of adhesion is included using Maugis' expansion of the Greenwood and

  4. Static friction in elastic adhesive MEMS contacts, models and experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tas, Niels Roelof; Gui, C.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt

    2000-01-01

    Static friction in shearing mode can be expressed as the product of the shear strength of the interface and the real contact area. The influence of roughness on friction in elastic adhesive contact is analyzed. Special attention is paid to low loading conditions, in which the number of contact

  5. Emotion attribution to basic parametric static and dynamic stimuli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visch, V.; Goudbeek, M.B.; Cohn, J.; Nijholt, A.; Pantic, P.

    2009-01-01

    The following research investigates the effect of basic visual stimuli on the attribution of basic emotions by the viewer. In an empirical study (N = 33) we used two groups of visually minimal expressive stimuli: dynamic and static. The dynamic stimuli consisted of an animated circle moving

  6. Hybrid static-runtime information flow and declassification enforcement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pontes Soares Rocha, B.; Conti, M.; Etalle, S.; Crispo, B.

    2013-01-01

    There are different paradigms for enforcing information flow and declassification policies. These approaches can be divided into static analyzers and runtime enforcers. Each class has its own strengths and weaknesses, each being able to enforce a different set of policies. In this paper we introduce

  7. Hybrid static-runtime information flow and declassification enforcement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rocha, Bruno P.S.; Conti, Mauro; Etalle, Sandro; Crispo, Bruno

    There are different paradigms for enforcing information flow and declassification policies. These approaches can be divided into static analyzers and runtime enforcers. Each class has its own strengths and weaknesses, each being able to enforce a different set of policies. In this paper, we

  8. Possibilities of Obtaining Flat Static Characteristic of DC Ferromagnetic Actuator

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Doležel, Ivo; Dvořák, P.; Mach, M.; Ulrych, B.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 220, č. 1 (2005), s. 29-39 ISSN 0032-6216 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LN00B084 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20570509 Keywords : flat static characteristic * DC ferromagnetic actuator Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering

  9. Effects of moderate static magnetic field presowing treatment on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Improvement of seed performance by static magnetic field (SMF) constitutes a safe ecological way to substitute chemicals use. In laboratory conditions, we studied the effects of presowing seeds of two varieties of Raphanus sativus (Red: R.R, Red and White: R+W) by moderate SMF on seedlings' growth and oxidative status ...

  10. Static and runtime verification, competitors or friends? : (Track summary)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiziana, Margaria; Gurov, Dilian; Havelund, Klaus; Bernhard, Steffen; Huisman, Marieke; Monahan, Rosemary; Margaria, Tiziana; Steffen, Bernhard

    2016-01-01

    Over the last years, significant progress has been made both on static and runtime program verification techniques, focusing on increasing the quality of software. Within this track, we would like to investigate how we can leverage these techniques by combining them. Questions that will be addressed

  11. Cognitive Strategies for Learning from Static and Dynamic Visuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewalter, D.

    2003-01-01

    Studied the effects of including static or dynamic visuals in an expository text on a learning outcome and the use of learning strategies when working with these visuals. Results for 60 undergraduates for both types of illustration indicate different frequencies in the use of learning strategies relevant for the learning outcome. (SLD)

  12. Determination of the Static Friction Coefficient from Circular Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Bolívar, J. A.; Cabrerizo-Vílchez, M. A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a physics laboratory exercise for determining the coefficient of static friction between two surfaces. The circular motion of a coin placed on the surface of a rotating turntable has been studied. For this purpose, the motion is recorded with a high-speed digital video camera recording at 240 frames s[superscript-1], and the…

  13. Static and dynamic behaviour of antiferromagnetic linear chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henkens, L.S.J.M.

    1977-01-01

    This thesis deals with an experimental study of the static and dynamic behaviour of s=1/2 heisenberg antiferromagnetic linear chains in the temperature range of 0,05K 4 , CuSeO 4 .5H 2 O, and CuBeF 4 .5H 2 O, all of which are isomorphic salts

  14. Static and dynamic through thickness lamina properties of thick laminates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lahuerta, F.; Nijssen, R.P.L.; Van der Meer, F.P.; Sluys, L.J.

    2015-01-01

    Thick laminates are increasingly present in large composites structures such as wind turbine blades. Different factors are suspected to be involved in the decreased static and dynamic performance of thick laminates. These include the effect of self-heating, the scaling effect, and the manufacturing

  15. A Minimum Leakage Quasi-Static RAM Bitcell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Teman

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available As SRAMs continue to grow and comprise larger percentages of the area and power consumption in advanced systems, the need to minimize static currents becomes essential. This brief presents a novel 9T Quasi-Static RAM Bitcell that provides aggressive leakage reduction and high write margins. The quasi-static operation method of this cell, based on internal feedback and leakage ratios, minimizes static power while maintaining sufficient, albeit depleted, noise margins. This paper presents the concept of the novel cell, and discusses the stability of the cell under hold, read and write operations. The cell was implemented in a low-power 40 nm TSMC process, showing as much as a 12× reduction in leakage current at typical conditions, as compared to a standard 6T or 8T bitcell at the same supply voltage. The implemented cell showed full functionality under global and local process variations at nominal and low voltages, as low as 300 mV.

  16. On the scaling of gas leakage from static seals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chivers, T.C.; Hunt, R.P.

    1977-01-01

    The interaction between gas leakage from static seals and eight potential variables is discussed. From a consideration of the interaction of these various parameters and the mechanical design of the seal system the importance of correctly interpreting leakage data is demonstrated. Given a situation where model experiments are necessary, this document forms a basis for the definition and interpretation of a test programme. (author)

  17. Relationship between static foot posture and foot mobility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McPoil Thomas G

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is not uncommon for a person's foot posture and/or mobility to be assessed during a clinical examination. The exact relationship, however, between static posture and mobility is not known. Objective The purpose of this study was to determine the degree of association between static foot posture and mobility. Method The static foot posture and foot mobility of 203 healthy individuals was assessed and then analyzed to determine if low arched or "pronated" feet are more mobile than high arched or "supinated" feet. Results The study demonstrated that those individuals with a lower standing dorsal arch height and/or a wider standing midfoot width had greater mobility in their foot. In addition, those individuals with higher Foot Posture Index (FPI values demonstrated greater mobility and those with lower FPI values demonstrated less mobility. Finally, the amount of foot mobility that an individual has can be predicted reasonably well using either a 3 or 4 variable linear regression model. Conclusions Because of the relationship between static foot posture and mobility, it is recommended that both be assessed as part of a comprehensive evaluation of a individual with foot problems.

  18. Implementation of the quasi-static method for neutron transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcaro, Fabio; Dulla, Sandra; Ravetto, Piero; Le Tellier, Romain; Suteau, Christophe

    2011-01-01

    The study of the dynamic behavior of next generation nuclear reactors is a fundamental aspect for safety and reliability assessments. Despite the growing performances of modern computers, the full solution of the neutron Boltzmann equation in the time domain is still an impracticable task, thus several approximate dynamic models have been proposed for the simulation of nuclear reactor transients; the quasi-static method represents the standard tool currently adopted for the space-time solution of neutron transport problems. All the practical applications of this method that have been proposed contain a major limit, consisting in the use of isotropic quantities, such as scalar fluxes and isotropic external neutron sources, being the only data structures available in most deterministic transport codes. The loss of the angular information produces both inaccuracies in the solution of the kinetic model and the inconsistency of the quasi-static method itself. The present paper is devoted to the implementation of a consistent quasi-static method. The computational platform developed by CEA in Cadarache has been used for the creation of a kinetic package to be coupled with the existing SNATCH solver, a discrete-ordinate multi-dimensional neutron transport solver, employed for the solution of the steady-state Boltzmann equation. The work aims at highlighting the effects of the angular treatment of the neutron flux on the transient analysis, comparing the results with those produced by the previous implementations of the quasi-static method. (author)

  19. A Micro Dynamically Tuned Gyroscope with Adjustable Static Capacitance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lun Kong

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel micro dynamically tuned gyroscope (MDTG with adjustable static capacitance. First, the principle of MDTG is theoretically analyzed. Next, some simulations under the optimized structure parameters are given as a reference for the mask design of the rotor wafer and electrode plates. As two key components, the process flows of the rotor wafer and electrode plates are described in detail. All the scanning electron microscopy (SEM photos show that the fabrication process is effective and optimized. Then, an assembly model is designed for the static capacitance adjustable MDTG, whose static capacitance can be changed by rotating the lower electrode plate support and substituting gasket rings of different thicknesses. Thus, the scale factor is easily changeable. Afterwards, the digitalized closed-loop measurement circuit is simulated. The discrete correction and decoupling modules are designed to make the closed-loop stable and cross-coupling effect small. The dual axis closed-loop system bandwidths can reach more than 60 Hz and the dual axis scale factors are completely symmetrical. All the simulation results demonstrate the proposed fabrication of the MDTG can meet the application requirements. Finally, the paper presents the test results of static and dynamic capacitance values which are consistent with the simulation values.

  20. Requirements for moment connections in statically indeterminate timber structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leijten, A.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    In statically indeterminate structures, connections play a vital role in the moment distribution. Demonstrated here is a method to evaluate the conditions, taking full advantage of the benefits offered by the indeterminate nature of the structures, and using the well-established, graphical beam-line