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Sample records for harmonic ion cyclotron

  1. Static harmonization of dynamically harmonized Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhdanova, Ekaterina; Kostyukevich, Yury; Nikolaev, Eugene

    2017-08-01

    Static harmonization in the Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance cell improves the resolving power of the cell and prevents dephasing of the ion cloud in the case of any trajectory of the charged particle, not necessarily axisymmetric cyclotron (as opposed to dynamic harmonization). We reveal that the Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance cell with dynamic harmonization (paracell) is proved to be statically harmonized. The volume of the statically harmonized potential distribution increases with an increase in the number of trap segments.

  2. Second-harmonic ion cyclotron resonance heating scenarios of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... Refresher Courses · Symposia · Live Streaming. Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 85; Issue 4. Second-harmonic ion cyclotron resonance heating scenarios of Aditya tokamak plasma. Asim Kumar Chattopadhyay S V Kulkarni R Srinivasan Aditya Team. Volume 85 Issue 4 October 2015 pp 713-721 ...

  3. Modelling third harmonic ion cyclotron acceleration of deuterium beams for JET fusion product studies experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, M.; Johnson, T.; Dumont, R.

    2016-01-01

    Recent JET experiments have been dedicated to the studies of fusion reactions between deuterium (D) and Helium-3 (3He) ions using neutral beam injection (NBI) in synergy with third harmonic ion cyclotron radio-frequency heating (ICRH) of the beam. This scenario generates a fast ion deuterium tail...

  4. Second-harmonic ion cyclotron resonance heating scenarios of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    at high field side. Direct electron heating experiment on the Aditya tokamak using fast waves (FW) in the IC frequency range has already been carried out in [3] and ... 1Spec (solid line) shows the power deposition profile of ions due to ... The vertical line indicates the second-harmonic resonance layer for hydrogen ions. 716.

  5. Experiments on ion cyclotron damping at the deuterium fourth harmonic in DIII-D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinsker, R.I.; Petty, C.C. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Baity, F.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Bernabei, S.; Greenough, N. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab., NJ (United States); Heidbrink, W.W. [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Mau, T.K. [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States); Porkolab, M. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1999-05-01

    Absorption of fast Alfven waves by the energetic ions of an injected beam is evaluated in the DIII-D tokamak. Ion cyclotron resonance absorption at the fourth harmonic of the deuteron cyclotron frequency is observed with deuterium neutral beam injection (f = 60 MHz, B{sub T} = 1.9 T). Enhanced D-D neutron rates are evidence of absorption at the Doppler-shifted cyclotron resonance. Characteristics of global energy confinement provide further proof of substantial beam acceleration by the rf. In many cases, the accelerated deuterons cause temporary stabilization of the sawtooth (monster sawteeth), at relatively low rf power levels of {approximately}1 MW.

  6. Ion Bernstein instability as a possible source for oxygen ion cyclotron harmonic waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Kyungguk; Denton, Richard E.; Liu, Kaijun; Gary, S. Peter; Spence, Harlan E.

    2017-05-01

    This paper demonstrates that an ion Bernstein instability can be a possible source for recently reported electromagnetic waves with frequencies at or near the singly ionized oxygen ion cyclotron frequency, ΩO+, and its harmonics. The particle measurements during strong wave activity revealed a relatively high concentration of oxygen ions (˜15%) whose phase space density exhibits a local peak at energy ˜20 keV. Given that the electron plasma-to-cyclotron frequency ratio is ωpe/Ωe≳1, this energy corresponds to the particle speed v/vA≳0.3, where vA is the oxygen Alfvén speed. Using the observational key plasma parameters, a simplified ion velocity distribution is constructed, where the local peak in the oxygen ion velocity distribution is represented by an isotropic shell distribution. Kinetic linear dispersion theory then predicts unstable Bernstein modes at or near the harmonics of ΩO+ and at propagation quasi-perpendicular to the background magnetic field, B0. If the cold ions are mostly protons, these unstable modes are characterized by a low compressibility (|δB∥|2/|δB|2≲0.01), a small phase speed (vph˜0.2vA), a relatively small ratio of the electric field energy to the magnetic field energy (between 10-4 and 10-3), and the Poynting vector directed almost parallel to B0. These linear properties are overall in good agreement with the properties of the observed waves. We demonstrate that superposition of the predicted unstable Bernstein modes at quasi-perpendicular propagation can produce the observed polarization properties, including the minimum variance direction on average almost parallel to B0.

  7. Modelling third harmonic ion cyclotron acceleration of deuterium beams for JET fusion product studies experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, M.; Johnson, T.; Dumont, R.

    2016-01-01

    Recent JET experiments have been dedicated to the studies of fusion reactions between deuterium (D) and Helium-3 (3He) ions using neutral beam injection (NBI) in synergy with third harmonic ion cyclotron radio-frequency heating (ICRH) of the beam. This scenario generates a fast ion deuterium tail...... ion diagnostics, showing an overall good agreement. Finally, a sawtooth activity for these experiments has been observed and interpreted using SPOT/RFOF simulations in the framework of Porcelli’s theoretical model, where NBI+ICRH accelerated ions are found to have a strong stabilizing effect, leading...

  8. Experiments on ion cyclotron damping at the deuterium fourth harmonic in DIII-D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinsker, R. I. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States); Baity, F. W. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (United States); Bernabei, S. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey (United States); Greenough, N. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey (United States); Heidbrink, W. W. [University of California, Irvine, California (United States); Mau, T. K. [University of California, San Diego, California (United States); Petty, C. C. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States); Porkolab, M. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts (United States)

    1999-09-20

    Absorption of fast Alfven waves by the energetic ions of an injected beam is evaluated in the DIII-D tokamak. Ion cyclotron resonance absorption at the fourth harmonic of the deuteron cyclotron frequency is observed with deuterium neutral beam injection (f=60 MHz, B{sub T}=1.9 T). Enhanced D-D neutron rates are evidence of absorption at the Doppler-shifted cyclotron resonance. Characteristics of global energy confinement provide further proof of substantial beam acceleration by the rf. In many cases, the accelerated deuterons cause temporary stabilization of the sawtooth (''monster sawteeth''), at relatively low rf power levels of {approx}1 MW. (c) 1999 American Institute of Physics.

  9. Fast wave current drive at high ion cyclotron harmonics on DIII-D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petty, C.C.; Grassie, J.S. de; Pinsker, R.I.; Prater, R. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Baity, F.W. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Mau, T.K. [University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States); Porkolab, M. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2001-12-01

    Current driven by the fast Alfven wave is measured at the fourth and eighth harmonics of the deuterium ion cyclotron frequency in identical plasmas on the DIII-D tokamak. In non-sawtoothing discharges with neutral beam injection heating, the radial profile of the fast wave current drive (FWCD) is determined by the response of the loop voltage profile to co- and counter-antenna phasings. The dimensionless current drive efficiency is a factor of two greater for the eighth harmonic case compared to the fourth harmonic case. Modelling of the fast wave absorption using a ray tracing code shows that the decrease in FWCD efficiency for the latter situation can be explained by high harmonic damping of the fast waves on energetic ions. (author)

  10. Harmonics generation near ion-cyclotron frequency of ECR plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Satyajit; Biswas, Subir; Chakrabarti, Nikhil; Pal, Rabindranath

    2017-10-01

    Wave excitation at different frequency regime is employed in the MaPLE device ECR plasma for varied excitation amplitude. At very low amplitude excitation, mainly fundamental frequency mode of the exciter signal frequency comes into play. With the increase in amplitude of applied perturbation, harmonics are generated and dominant over the fundamental frequency mode. There is a fixed critical amplitude of exciter to yield the harmonics and is independent of applied frequency. Observed harmonics and the main frequency mode has propagation characteristics and are discussed here. Exact mode number and propagation nature are also tried to measure in the experiment. Detailed experimental results will be presented. Department of Science and Technology of Government of India (Project No. SB/S2/HEP-005/2014).

  11. Phase-space resolved measurement of 2nd harmonic ion cyclotron heating using FIDA tomography at the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weiland, M.; Bilato, R.; Geiger, B.

    2017-01-01

    Recent upgrades to the FIDA (fast-ion D-alpha) diagnostic at ASDEX Upgrade allow to reconstruct the fast-ion phase space at several radial positions with decent energy and pitch resolution. These new diagnostic capabilities are applied to study the physics of 2nd harmonic ion cyclotron heating......, which is a foreseen heating scenario for ITER. In particular, the acceleration of deuterium beam ions above the injection energy by absorption of ion cyclotron waves at the 2nd harmonic is investigated and compared to theoretical predictions by the TORIC-SSFPQL and TORIC-NUBEAM code packages...

  12. Potential of dynamically harmonized Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance cell for high-throughput metabolomics fingerprinting: control of data quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habchi, Baninia; Alves, Sandra; Jouan-Rimbaud Bouveresse, Delphine; Appenzeller, Brice; Paris, Alain; Rutledge, Douglas N; Rathahao-Paris, Estelle

    2018-01-01

    Due to the presence of pollutants in the environment and food, the assessment of human exposure is required. This necessitates high-throughput approaches enabling large-scale analysis and, as a consequence, the use of high-performance analytical instruments to obtain highly informative metabolomic profiles. In this study, direct introduction mass spectrometry (DIMS) was performed using a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) instrument equipped with a dynamically harmonized cell. Data quality was evaluated based on mass resolving power (RP), mass measurement accuracy, and ion intensity drifts from the repeated injections of quality control sample (QC) along the analytical process. The large DIMS data size entails the use of bioinformatic tools for the automatic selection of common ions found in all QC injections and for robustness assessment and correction of eventual technical drifts. RP values greater than 106 and mass measurement accuracy of lower than 1 ppm were obtained using broadband mode resulting in the detection of isotopic fine structure. Hence, a very accurate relative isotopic mass defect (RΔm) value was calculated. This reduces significantly the number of elemental composition (EC) candidates and greatly improves compound annotation. A very satisfactory estimate of repeatability of both peak intensity and mass measurement was demonstrated. Although, a non negligible ion intensity drift was observed for negative ion mode data, a normalization procedure was easily applied to correct this phenomenon. This study illustrates the performance and robustness of the dynamically harmonized FT-ICR cell to perform large-scale high-throughput metabolomic analyses in routine conditions. Graphical abstract Analytical performance of FT-ICR instrument equipped with a dynamically harmonized cell.

  13. Twelve million resolving power on 4.7 T Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance instrument with dynamically harmonized cell--observation of fine structure in peptide mass spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, Igor A; Nagornov, Konstantin; Vladimirov, Gleb N; Kostyukevich, Yury I; Nikolaev, Eugene N

    2014-05-01

    Resolving power of about 12,000 000 at m/z 675 has been achieved on low field homogeneity 4.7 T magnet using a dynamically harmonized Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT ICR) cell. Mass spectra of the fine structure of the isotopic distribution of a peptide were obtained and strong discrimination of small intensity peaks was observed in case of resonance excitation of the ions of the whole isotopic cluster to the same cyclotron radius. The absence of some peaks from the mass spectra of the fine structure was explained basing on results of computer simulations showing strong ion cloud interactions, which cause the coalescence of peaks with m/z close to that of the highest magnitude peak. The way to prevent peak discrimination is to excite ion clouds of different m/z to different cyclotron radii, which was demonstrated and investigated both experimentally and by computer simulations.

  14. Ion cyclotron resonance cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, R.R.

    1995-02-14

    An ion cyclotron resonance cell is disclosed having two adjacent sections separated by a center trapping plate. The first section is defined by the center trapping plate, a first end trapping plate, and excitation and detector electrodes. The second section includes a second end trapping plate spaced apart from the center plate, a mirror, and an analyzer. The analyzer includes a wavelength-selective light detector, such as a detector incorporating an acousto-optical device (AOD) and a photodetector. One or more ion guides, grounded plates with holes for the ion beam, are positioned within the vacuum chamber of the mass spectrometer between the ion source and the cell. After ions are trapped and analyzed by ion cyclotron resonance techniques in the first section, the ions of interest are selected according to their mass and passed into the second section for optical spectroscopic studies. The trapped ions are excited by light from a laser and caused thereby to fluoresce. The fluorescent light emitted by the excited ions is reflected by the mirror and directed onto the detector. The AOD is scanned, and the photodetector output is recorded and analyzed. The ions remain in the second section for an extended period, enabling multiple studies to be carried out on the same ensemble of ions. 5 figs.

  15. Ion Cyclotron Resonance Facility (ICR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — his facility is charged with developing and exploiting the unique capabilities of Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometry, and leads the...

  16. Ion cyclotron emission by spontaneous emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Da Costa, O. [Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking; Gresillon, D. [Ecole Polytechnique, 91 - Palaiseau (France). Lab. de Physique des Milieux Ionises

    1994-07-01

    The goal of the study is to examine whether the spontaneous emission can account for ICE (ion cyclotron emission) experimental results, or part of them. A straightforward approach to plasma emission is chosen, investigating the near equilibrium wave radiation by gyrating ions, and thus building from the majority and fast fusion ions the plasma fluctuations and emission on the fast magnetoacoustic or compressional Alfven wave mode in the IC frequency range. Similarities with the ICE experiments are shown: the emission temperature in the presence of fast ions (even in a very small amount), the strong fast ion emission increase with the harmonic, the fine double-line splitting of each peak, the linear but not proportional increase of the peak width with the harmonic. 3 refs., 2 figs.

  17. Cyclotron transitions of bound ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezchastnov, Victor G.; Pavlov, George G.

    2017-06-01

    A charged particle in a magnetic field possesses discrete energy levels associated with particle rotation around the field lines. The radiative transitions between these levels are the well-known cyclotron transitions. We show that a bound complex of particles with a nonzero net charge displays analogous transitions between the states of confined motion of the entire complex in the field. The latter bound-ion cyclotron transitions are affected by a coupling between the collective and internal motions of the complex and, as a result, differ from the transitions of a "reference" bare ion with the same mass and charge. We analyze the cyclotron transitions for complex ions by including the coupling within a rigorous quantum approach. Particular attention is paid to comparison of the transition energies and oscillator strengths to those of the bare ion. Selection rules based on integrals of collective motion are derived for the bound-ion cyclotron transitions analytically, and the perturbation and coupled-channel approaches are developed to study the transitions quantitatively. Representative examples are considered and discussed for positive and negative atomic and cluster ions.

  18. Method and apparatus for ion cyclotron spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, David A [Idaho Falls, ID; Scott, Jill R [Idaho Falls, ID; McJunkin, Timothy R [Idaho Falls, ID

    2010-08-17

    An ion cyclotron spectrometer may include a vacuum chamber that extends at least along a z-axis and means for producing a magnetic field within the vacuum chamber so that a magnetic field vector is generally parallel to the z-axis. The ion cyclotron spectrometer may also include means for producing a trapping electric field within the vacuum chamber that includes at least a first section that induces a first magnetron effect that increases a cyclotron frequency of an ion and at least a second section that induces a second magnetron effect that decreases the cyclotron frequency of an ion. The cyclotron frequency changes induced by the first and second magnetron effects substantially cancel one another so that an ion traversing the at least first and second sections will experience no net change in cyclotron frequency.

  19. Cyclotron axial ion-beam-buncher system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamm, R.W.; Swenson, D.A.; Wangler, T.P.

    1982-02-11

    Adiabatic ion bunching is achieved in a cyclotron axial ion injection system through the incorporation of a radio frequency quadrupole system, which receives ions from an external ion source via an accelerate-decelerate system and a focusing einzel lens system, and which adiabatically bunches and then injects the ions into the median plane of a cyclotron via an electrostatic quadrupole system and an inflection mirror.

  20. Inverse ion-cyclotron damping and excitation of multiharmonic ion-cyclotron waves in the northern magnetospheric cusp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slapak, Rikard; Gunell, Herbert; Hamrin, Maria

    2017-04-01

    We have investigated a case of inverse ion-cyclotron damping taking place in the northern terrestrial magnetospheric cusp, exciting waves at the ion-cyclotron frequency and its harmonics. Magnetosheath influx in the cusps and the effect of convection and magnetic mirroring give rise to parallel velocity shears, dvallel/dx\\perp, often associated with instabilities in the plasma and corresponding ion-cyclotron waves, whose evolution is described by a damping factor. This damping factor depends on, for example, the wave numbers and the velocity shear itself and can under certain conditions be negative, hence describing inverse damping (or wave growth). However, an additional required condition for inverse ion-cyclotron damping is a velocity shear in the magnetic field-aligned ion-bulk flow, and this condition is only met for magnetosheath influx in the northern cusp, as oppose to the southern cusp. The ion-cyclotron waves are primarily seen as peaks in the magnetic-field spectral densities, as presented by Slapak et al., [GRL (2016), doi:10.1002/2016GL071680]. The corresponding peaks in the electric-field spectral densities are not as profound, suggesting a background electric field noise or other processes of wave generation causing the electric spectral densities to smoothen out more compared to the magnetic counterpart. We note that some ion-cyclotron wave activity is present in a few similar shear events in the southern cusp, which indicates that other mechanisms generating ion-cyclotron waves may also be present during such conditions.

  1. ITER Plasma at Ion Cyclotron Frequency Domain: The Fusion Alpha Particles Diagnostics Based on the Stimulated Raman Scattering of Fast Magnetosonic Wave off High Harmonic Ion Bernstein Modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefan, V. Alexander

    2014-10-01

    A novel method for alpha particle diagnostics is proposed. The theory of stimulated Raman scattering, SRS, of the fast wave and ion Bernstein mode, IBM, turbulence in multi-ion species plasmas, (Stefan University Press, La Jolla, CA, 2008). is utilized for the diagnostics of fast ions, (4)He (+2), in ITER plasmas. Nonlinear Landau damping of the IBM on fast ions near the plasma edge leads to the space-time changes in the turbulence level, (inverse alpha particle channeling). The space-time monitoring of the IBM turbulence via the SRS techniques may prove efficient for the real time study of the fast ion velocity distribution function, spatial distribution, and transport. Supported by Nikola Tesla Labs., La Jolla, CA 92037.

  2. Method and apparatuses for ion cyclotron spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, David A [Idaho Falls, ID; Scott, Jill R [Idaho Falls, ID; McJunkin, Timothy R [Idaho Falls, ID

    2012-03-06

    An ion cyclotron spectrometer may include a vacuum chamber that extends at least along a z-axis and means for producing a magnetic field within the vacuum chamber so that a magnetic field vector is generally parallel to the z-axis. The ion cyclotron spectrometer may also include means for producing a trapping electric field within the vacuum chamber. The trapping electric field may comprise a field potential that, when taken in cross-section along the z-axis, includes at least one section that is concave down and at least one section that is concave up so that ions traversing the field potential experience a net magnetron effect on a cyclotron frequency of the ions that is substantially equal to zero. Other apparatuses and a method for performing ion cyclotron spectrometry are also disclosed herein.

  3. Ion-Beam-Excited Electrostatic Ion Cyclotron Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Poul; Pécseli, Hans; Juul Rasmussen, Jens

    1976-01-01

    Self-excited electrostatic ion cyclotron waves were observed in an ion-beam-plasma system produced in a DP-operated Q-machine. The frequency of the waves showed the theoretically predicted variation with the magnetic field.......Self-excited electrostatic ion cyclotron waves were observed in an ion-beam-plasma system produced in a DP-operated Q-machine. The frequency of the waves showed the theoretically predicted variation with the magnetic field....

  4. Electron-cyclotron-resonance ion sources (review)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golovanivskii, K.S.; Dougar-Jabon, V.D. [People`s Friendship Univ., Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1992-01-01

    The physical principles are described and a brief survey of the present state is given of ion sources based on electron-cyclotron heating of plasma in a mirror trap. The characteristics of ECR sources of positive and negative ions used chiefly in accelerator technology are presented. 20 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Cyclotron Phase-Coherent Ion Spatial Dispersion in a Non-Quadratic Trapping Potential is Responsible for FT-ICR MS at the Cyclotron Frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagornov, Konstantin O.; Kozhinov, Anton N.; Tsybin, Yury O.

    2017-11-01

    Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) at the cyclotron frequency instead of the reduced cyclotron frequency has been experimentally demonstrated using narrow aperture detection electrode (NADEL) ICR cells. Here, based on the results of SIMION simulations, we provide the initial mechanistic insights into the cyclotron frequency regime generation in FT-ICR MS. The reason for cyclotron frequency regime is found to be a new type of a collective motion of ions with a certain dispersion in the initial characteristics, such as pre-excitation ion velocities, in a highly non-quadratic trapping potential as realized in NADEL ICR cells. During ion detection, ions of the same m/z move in phase for cyclotron ion motion but out of phase for magnetron (drift) ion motion destroying signals at the fundamental and high order harmonics that comprise reduced cyclotron frequency components. After an initial magnetron motion period, ion clouds distribute into a novel type of structures - ion slabs, elliptical cylinders, or star-like structures. These structures rotate at the Larmor (half-cyclotron) frequency on a plane orthogonal to the magnetic field, inducing signals at the true cyclotron frequency on each of the narrow aperture detection electrodes. To eliminate the reduced cyclotron frequency peak upon dipolar ion detection, a number of slabs or elliptical cylinders organizing a star-like configuration are formed. In a NADEL ICR cell with quadrupolar ion detection, a single slab or an elliptical cylinder is sufficient to minimize the intensity of the reduced cyclotron frequency components, particularly the second harmonic. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  6. Survey of Saturn electrostatic cyclotron harmonic wave intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menietti, J. D.; Averkamp, T. F.; Kurth, W. S.; Ye, S.-Y.; Gurnett, D. A.; Cecconi, B.

    2017-08-01

    We conduct a survey of electrostatic electron cyclotron harmonic (ECH) emissions observed at Saturn by the radio and plasma wave science investigation on board the Cassini spacecraft. These emissions are known to be effective at interacting with electrons in the terrestrial inner magnetosphere, producing electron scattering into the loss cone and acceleration (cf. Horne and Thorne, 2000; Thorne et al., 2010). At Saturn ECH emission occurs with high probability and at strong intensity near the magnetic equator, outside the Enceladus torus in the range 5 < L < 10. Inside the inner boundary of the torus, ECH emissions are also observed near the equator and at higher latitude. Intensity levels of ECH emission are comparable to those observed at Earth, higher than Saturn chorus and Z-mode emission, and are likely to scatter electrons into the loss cone as at Earth. ECH waves are particularly intense and extend to higher harmonics within some plasma injection regions. We present results for a survey of over 8 years of Saturn data for fundamental and up to three harmonics of fce, the electron cyclotron frequency.

  7. Van Allen Probes observations of oxygen cyclotron harmonic waves in the inner magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usanova, M.; Malaspina, D.; Jaynes, A. N.; Bruder, R.; Mann, I. R.; Wygant, J. R.; Ergun, R.

    2016-12-01

    Waves with frequencies in the vicinity of the oxygen cyclotron frequency and its harmonics have been regularly observed on the Van Allen Probes satellites during geomagnetic storms. We focus on properties of these waves and present events from the main phase of two storms on November 1, 2012 and March 17, 2013 and associated dropouts of few MeV electron fluxes. They are electromagnetic, in the frequency range 0.5 - several Hz, and amplitude 0.1- a few nT in magnetic and 0.1- a few mV/m in electric field, with both the wave velocity and the Poynting vector directed almost parallel to the background magnetic field. These properties are very similar to those of electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves, which are believed to contribute to loss of ring current ions and radiation belt electrons and therefore can be also important for inner magnetosphere dynamics.

  8. STEREO and Wind Observations of Intense Cyclotron Harmonic Waves at the Earth's Bow Shock and Inside the Magnetosheath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breneman, A. W.; Cattell, C.

    2013-01-01

    We present the first observations of electron cyclotron harmonic waves at the Earth's bow shock from STEREO and Wind burst waveform captures. These waves are observed at magnetic field gradients at a variety of shock geometries ranging from quasi-parallel to nearly perpendicular along with whistler mode waves, ion acoustic waves, and electrostatic solitary waves. Large amplitude cyclotron harmonic waveforms are also observed in the magnetosheath in association with magnetic field gradients convected past the bow shock. Amplitudes of the cyclotron harmonic waves range from a few tens to more than 500 millivolts/meter peak-peak. A comparison between the short (15 meters) and long (100 meters) Wind spin plane antennas shows a similar response at low harmonics and a stronger response on the short antenna at higher harmonics. This indicates that wavelengths are not significantly larger than 100 meters, consistent with the electron cyclotron radius. Waveforms are broadband and polarizations are distinctively comma-shaped with significant power both perpendicular and parallel to the magnetic field. Harmonics tend to be more prominent in the perpendicular directions. These observations indicate that the waves consist of a combination of perpendicular Bernstein waves and field-aligned waves without harmonics. A likely source is the electron cyclotron drift instability which is a coupling between Bernstein and ion acoustic waves. These waves are the most common type of high-frequency wave seen by STEREO during bow shock crossings and magnetosheath traversals and our observations suggest that they are an important component of the high-frequency turbulent spectrum in these regions.

  9. Unstable Electrostatic Ion Cyclotron Waves Exited by an Ion Beam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Poul; Pécseli, Hans; Juul Rasmussen, Jens

    1976-01-01

    Electrostatic ion cyclotron waves were observed in a quiescent cesium plasma into which a low‐energy beam of sodium ions was injected. The instability appeared when the beam velocity was above 12 times the ion thermal velocity. The waves propagated along the magnetic field with a velocity somewhat...

  10. High-Resolution Ion Cyclotron Mobility Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merenbloom, Samuel I.; Glaskin, Rebecca S.; Henson, Zachary B.; Clemmer, David E.

    2009-01-01

    A novel ion mobility spectrometry instrument incorporating a cyclotron geometry drift tube is presented. The drift tube consists of eight regions, four curved drift tubes and four ion funnels. Packets of ions are propagated around the drift tube by changing the drift field at a frequency that is resonant with the ion’s drift time through each region. The approach trims each packet of ions as it leaves and enters each new region. An electrostatic gate allows ions to be kept in the drift tube for numerous cycles, increasing the ability to resolve specified ions. We demonstrate the approach by isolating the [M+2H]2+ or [M+3H]3+ charge state of substance P as well as individual trisaccharide isomers from a mixture of melezitose and raffinose. Resolving powers in excess of 300 are obtainable with this approach. PMID:19143495

  11. Theory of the Current-Driven Ion Cyclotron Instability in the Bottomside Ionosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-11-11

    Davidson, 1972; Aamodt , 1970]. Recent nonlinear numerical simulations [Pritchett et al., 1981; Okuda and Ashour-Abdalla, 1981] of the collisionless ion...Y -.- d-. .-. .--. W REFERENCES Aamodt , R.E., Particle motion in the presence of three dimensional finite amplitude harmonic cyclotron

  12. Ion-Beam-Excited, Electrostatic, Ion Cyclotron Instability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Poul; Pécseli, Hans; Juul Rasmussen, Jens

    1977-01-01

    The stability limits of the ion‐beam‐excited, electrostatic, ion cyclotron instability were investigated in a Q‐machine plasma where the electrons could be heated by microwaves. In agreement with theory, the beam energy necessary for excitation decreased with increasing electron temperature....

  13. Ion-Beam-Excited Electrostatic Ion Cyclotron Instability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Poul; Pécseli, Hans; Juul Rasmussen, Jens

    1977-01-01

    The stability limits of the ion‐beam‐excited, electrostatic, ion cyclotron instability were investigated in a Q‐machine plasma where the electrons could be heated by microwaves. In agreement with theory, the beam energy necessary for excitation decreased with increasing electron temperature....

  14. Electromagnetic ion/ion cyclotron instability - Theory and simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winske, D.; Omidi, N.

    1992-01-01

    Linear theory and 1D and 2D hybrid simulations are employed to study electromagnetic ion/ion cyclotron (EMIIC) instability driven by the relative streaming of two field-aligned ion beams. The characteristics of the instability are studied as a function of beam density, propagation angle, electron-ion temperature ratios, and ion beta. When the propagation angle is near 90 deg the EMIIC instability has the characteristics of an electrostatic instability, while at smaller angles electromagnetic effects play a significant role as does strong beam coupling. The 2D simulations point to a narrowing of the wave spectrum and accompanying coherent effects during the linear growth stage of development. The EMIIC instability is an important effect where ion beta is low such as in the plasma-sheet boundary layer and upstream of slow shocks in the magnetotail.

  15. Ion source and injection line for high intensity medical cyclotron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, XianLu; Guan, Fengping; Yao, Hongjuan; Zhang, TianJue; Yang, Jianjun; Song, Guofang; Ge, Tao; Qin, Jiuchang

    2014-02-01

    A 14 MeV high intensity compact cyclotron, CYCIAE-14, was built at China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE). An injection system based on the external H- ion source was used on CYCIAE-14 so as to provide high intensity beam, while most positron emission tomography cyclotrons adopt internal ion source. A beam intensity of 100 μA/14 MeV was extracted from the cyclotron with a small multi-cusp H- ion source (CIAE-CH-I type) and a short injection line, which the H- ion source of 3 mA/25 keV H- beam with emittance of 0.3π mm mrad and the injection line of with only 1.2 m from the extraction of ion source to the medial plane of the cyclotron. To increase the extracted beam intensity of the cyclotron, a new ion source (CIAE-CH-II type) of 9.1 mA was used, with maximum of 500 μA was achieved from the cyclotron. The design and test results of the ion source and injection line optimized for high intensity acceleration will be given in this paper.

  16. Ultralow Frequency Waves In Saturn's Magnetosphere: More Than Ion Cyclotron Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crary, Frank; Dols, Vincent; Usanova, Maria; Meeks, Zachary; Simon, Sven

    2017-04-01

    Electromagnetic waves near the oxygen/water group cyclotron frequency are an ubiquitous feature of Saturn's inner magnetosphere. These left-circularly polarized, transverse waves are generated by the anisotropic velocity distribution of recently produced ions, and reflect the ion production rate. The properties and distribution of these emissions have been previous studies and related to the distribution of neutrals in the system (Leisner et al., 2006; Crary et al., 2013; Meeks et al., 2016.) In addition to these waves, other, related mode have been observed by the Cassini spacecraft. The waves near the W+ (water group) cyclotron frequency sometimes have a compressional component and/or accompanying emission the first (2f) harmonic (implying the waves are oblique rather than parallel propagating. Neither of these properties is predicted by the classic theory of wave growth from a ring-beam distribution. In addition, ion cyclotron waves are also observed near the gyrofrequency of a 32 AMU ion, suggesting production of O2+. While observed, O2+ is a very low abundance species outside of 4 Saturn radii, and in the regions where these waves are present. Finally, strong but linearly polarized waves are sometimes observed near the orbit of Enceladus. The association between these waves and W+ ion cyclotron waves is unclear. We will present the measurements of these ULF waves, their frequency of occurrence with respect to position and time, and discuss their implications for plasma production in Saturn's magnetosphere.

  17. Effect of ion clouds micromotion on measured signal in Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance: Computer simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vladimirov, Gleb; Kostyukevich, Yury; Kharybin, Oleg; Nikolaev, Eugene

    2017-08-01

    Particle-in-cell-based realistic simulation of Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance experiments could be used to generate ion trajectories and a signal induced on the detection electrodes. It has been shown recently that there is a modulation of "reduced" cyclotron frequencies in ion cyclotron resonance signal caused by Coulomb interaction of ion clouds. In this work it was proposed to use this modulation in order to determine frequency difference between an ion of known m/z and all other ions generating signal in ion cyclotron resonance cell. It is shown that with an increase of number of ions in ion cyclotron resonance trap, the modulation index increases, which lead to a decrease in the accuracy of determination of peak intensities by super Fourier transform resolution methods such as filter diagonalization method.

  18. Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry at the Cyclotron Frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagornov, Konstantin O; Kozhinov, Anton N; Tsybin, Yury O

    2017-04-01

    The phenomenon of ion cyclotron resonance allows for determining mass-to-charge ratio, m/z, of an ensemble of ions by means of measurements of their cyclotron frequency, ω c . In Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS), the ω c quantity is usually unavailable for direct measurements: the resonant state is located close to the reduced cyclotron frequency (ω+), whereas the ω c and the corresponding m/z values may be calculated via theoretical derivation from an experimental estimate of the ω+ quantity. Here, we describe an experimental observation of a new resonant state, which is located close to the ω c frequency and is established because of azimuthally-dependent trapping electric fields of the recently developed ICR cells with narrow aperture detection electrodes. We show that in mass spectra, peaks close to ω+ frequencies can be reduced to negligible levels relative to peaks close to ω c frequencies. Due to reduced errors with which the ω c quantity is obtained, the new resonance provides a means of cyclotron frequency measurements with precision greater than that achieved when ω+ frequency peaks are employed. The described phenomenon may be considered for a development into an FT-ICR MS technology with increased mass accuracy for applications in basic research, life, and environmental sciences. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  19. Application of compact electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muramatsu, M.; Kitagawa, A.; Iwata, Y.; Ogawa, H.; Hojo, S.; Kubo, T.; Kato, Y.; Biri, S.; Fekete, E.; Yoshida, Y.; Drentje, A. G.

    The compact electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source with a permanent magnet configuration (Kei2 source) has been developed at National Institute of Radiological Sciences for a new carbon therapy facility. The Kei2 source was designed for production of C(4+) ions; its performance such as beam

  20. Sub-harmonic bunching with the AGOR cyclotron

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandenburg, S; Roobol, LP; Stokroos, M; Marti, F

    2001-01-01

    A quasi-single gap buncher with saw-tooth voltage has been designed and is currently being built at the KVI. It operates at a sub-harmonic of the RF frequency and has a duty cycle of 80% at 15 MHz. We report on the design of the new buncher, and on results of tests with our sinusoidal buncher to

  1. Ion cyclotron resonance heating system on Aditya

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    1Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382 428, India. 2Variable Electron Cyclotron .... Requirements for RF generators for fusion research include high power, long pulse duration and reliability. ... Output of pre-driver (triode 3CX5000A7) grounded grid amplifier is made tunable within. 20 to 47 MHz by using a ...

  2. Three-dimensional simulations of ion dynamics in an Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Source

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijers, J. P. M.; Mironov, V.

    We present a three-dimensional simulation of the ion dynamics in an electron cyclotron resonance ion source. Ion trajectories in the min-B field of the source are calculated taking ion-ion and electron-ion collisions into account. The electrons are not tracked but considered as a neutralizing

  3. Numerical model of electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Mironov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Important features of the electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS operation are accurately reproduced with a numerical code. The code uses the particle-in-cell technique to model the dynamics of ions in ECRIS plasma. It is shown that a gas dynamical ion confinement mechanism is sufficient to provide the ion production rates in ECRIS close to the experimentally observed values. Extracted ion currents are calculated and compared to the experiment for a few sources. Changes in the simulated extracted ion currents are obtained with varying the gas flow into the source chamber and the microwave power. Empirical scaling laws for ECRIS design are studied and the underlying physical effects are discussed.

  4. Isotopic anomaly for carbon ions in an electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drentje, A. G.; Kitagawa, A.; Muramatsu, M.

    In many experiments methods were applied to increase the highly charged ion output from an electron cyclotron resonance ion source; the gas-mixing method is still generally being applied. The dominant role of the masses of the ions in the gas-mixture was apparent. Two basically differing mechanisms

  5. Stability of electrostatic ion cyclotron waves in a multi-ion plasma†

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We have studied the stability of the electrostatic ion cyclotron wave in a plasma consisting of isotropic hydrogen ions (H+) and temperature-anisotropic positively. (O+) and negatively (O−) charged oxygen ions, with the electrons drifting parallel to the magnetic field. Analytical expressions have been derived for the ...

  6. Coupling of electrostatic ion cyclotron and ion acoustic waves in the solar wind

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sreeraj, T., E-mail: sreerajt13@iigs.iigm.res.in [Indian Institute of Geomagnetism, Navi Mumbai (India); Singh, S. V., E-mail: satyavir@iigs.iigm.res.in; Lakhina, G. S., E-mail: gslakhina@gmail.com [Indian Institute of Geomagnetism, Navi Mumbai (India); University of the Western Cape, Bellville 7535, Capetown (South Africa)

    2016-08-15

    The coupling of electrostatic ion cyclotron and ion acoustic waves is examined in three component magnetized plasma consisting of electrons, protons, and alpha particles. In the theoretical model relevant to solar wind plasma, electrons are assumed to be superthermal with kappa distribution and protons as well as alpha particles follow the fluid dynamical equations. A general linear dispersion relation is derived for such a plasma system which is analyzed both analytically and numerically. For parallel propagation, electrostatic ion cyclotron (proton and helium cyclotron) and ion acoustic (slow and fast) modes are decoupled. For oblique propagation, coupling between the cyclotron and acoustic modes occurs. Furthermore, when the angle of propagation is increased, the separation between acoustic and cyclotron modes increases which is an indication of weaker coupling at large angle of propagation. For perpendicular propagation, only cyclotron modes are observed. The effect of various parameters such as number density and temperature of alpha particles and superthermality on dispersion characteristics is examined in details. The coupling between various modes occurs for small values of wavenumber.

  7. Glow plasma trigger for electron cyclotron resonance ion sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vodopianov, A V; Golubev, S V; Izotov, I V; Nikolaev, A G; Oks, E M; Savkin, K P; Yushkov, G Yu

    2010-02-01

    Electron cyclotron resonance ion sources (ECRISs) are particularly useful for nuclear, atomic, and high energy physics, as unique high current generators of multicharged ion beams. Plasmas of gas discharges in an open magnetic trap heated by pulsed (100 micros and longer) high power (100 kW and higher) high-frequency (greater than 37.5 GHz) microwaves of gyrotrons is promising in the field of research in the development of electron cyclotron resonance sources for high charge state ion beams. Reaching high ion charge states requires a decrease in gas pressure in the magnetic trap, but this method leads to increases in time, in which the microwave discharge develops. The gas breakdown and microwave discharge duration becomes greater than or equal to the microwave pulse duration when the pressure is decreased. This makes reaching the critical plasma density initiate an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) discharge during pulse of microwave gyrotron radiation with gas pressure lower than a certain threshold. In order to reduce losses of microwave power, it is necessary to shorten the time of development of the ECR discharge. For fast triggering of ECR discharge under low pressure in an ECRIS, we initially propose to fill the magnetic trap with the plasmas of auxiliary pulsed discharges in crossed ExB fields. The glow plasma trigger of ECR based on a Penning or magnetron discharge has made it possible not only to fill the trap with plasma with density of 10(12) cm(-3), required for a rapid increase in plasma density and finally for ECR discharge ignition, but also to initially heat the plasma electrons to T(e) approximately = 20 eV.

  8. Effects of energetic heavy ions on electromagnetic ion cyclotron wave generation in the plasmapause region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozyra, J. U.; Cravens, T. E.; Nagy, A. F.; Fontheim, E. G.; Ong, R. S. B.

    1984-01-01

    An expression for electromagnetic ion cyclotron convective growth rates is derived. The derivation of the dispersion relation and convective growth rates in the presence of a multicomponent energetic and cold plasma is presented. The effects that multiple heavy ions in the ring current and cold plasma produce in the growth and propagation characteristics of ion cyclotron waves are explored. Results of growth rate calculations using parameters consistent with conditions in the plasmapause region during the early recovery phase of geomagnetic storms are presented and compared with ground-based and satellite observations of waves in this region. The geophysical implications of the results are discussed.

  9. Stability of electrostatic ion cyclotron waves in a multi-ion plasma

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A detailed numerical study, for parameters relevant to comet Halley, shows that the growth rate is dependent on the magnitude of the frequency. The ion cyclotron waves are driven by the electron drift parallel to the magnetic field; the temperature anisotropy of the oxygen ions only slightly enhance the growth rates for small ...

  10. Selective minority-ion heating in the afterglow of an electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nadzeyka, A; Meyer, D; Barzangy, F; Drentje, AG; Wiesemann, K

    We report first experimental results on selective minority-ion heating in the afterglow mode of electron cyclotron resonance ion sources in Bochum and at the KVI (Groningen) in mixtures of Ar/O/He and in pure nitrogen. In addition we measured time resolved vacuum ultraviolet-line intensities of

  11. Quasilinear diffusion coefficients in a finite Larmor radius expansion for ion cyclotron heated plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jungpyo; Wright, John; Bertelli, Nicola; Jaeger, Erwin F.; Valeo, Ernest; Harvey, Robert; Bonoli, Paul

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, a reduced model of quasilinear velocity diffusion by a small Larmor radius approximation is derived to couple the Maxwell's equations and the Fokker Planck equation self-consistently for the ion cyclotron range of frequency waves in a tokamak. The reduced model ensures the important properties of the full model by Kennel-Engelmann diffusion, such as diffusion directions, wave polarizations, and H-theorem. The kinetic energy change ( W ˙ ) is used to derive the reduced model diffusion coefficients for the fundamental damping (n = 1) and the second harmonic damping (n = 2) to the lowest order of the finite Larmor radius expansion. The quasilinear diffusion coefficients are implemented in a coupled code (TORIC-CQL3D) with the equivalent reduced model of the dielectric tensor. We also present the simulations of the ITER minority heating scenario, in which the reduced model is verified within the allowable errors from the full model results.

  12. Ion cyclotron range of frequencies mode conversion electron heating in deuterium-hydrogen plasmas in the Alcator C-Mod tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Y [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Wukitch, S J [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Bonoli, P T [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Marmar, E [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Mossessian, D [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Nelson-Melby, E [Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas, Association EURATOM - Confederation Suisse, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Phillips, P [Fusion Research Center, University of Texas, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Porkolab, M [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Schilling, G [Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Wolfe, S [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Wright, J [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2003-06-01

    Localized direct electron heating (EH) by mode-converted (MC) ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) waves in D(H) tokamak plasmas has been clearly observed for the first time in Alcator C-Mod. Both on- and off-axis (high field side) mode conversion EH (MCEH) have been observed. The MCEH profile was obtained from a break-in-slope analysis of electron temperature signals in the presence of radio frequency shut-off. The temperature was measured by a 32-channel high spatial resolution ({<=}7 mm) 2nd harmonic heterodyne electron cyclotron emission system. The experimental profiles were compared with the predictions from a toroidal full-wave ICRF code TORIC. Using the hydrogen concentration measured by a high-resolution optical spectrometer, TORIC predictions were shown qualitatively in agreement with the experimental results for both on- and off-axis MC cases. From the simulations, the EH from MC ion cyclotron wave and ion Bernstein wave is examined.

  13. Abrupt variation in ion current with biased disk voltage in the electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taki, GS; Sarma, PR; Chakraborty, DK; Lhandari, RK; Ray, PK; Drentje, AG; Bhandari, R.K.

    The performance of the biased disk in the 6.4 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source at VECC, Kolkata was studied at a pressure of similar to 1 X 10(-7) Torr. We observed an abrupt variation of beam current with bias voltage. For low negative bias voltages (from 0 to -5 V) the beam current

  14. Parallel Spectral Acquisition with an Ion Cyclotron Resonance Cell Array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung-Gun; Anderson, Gordon A; Navare, Arti T; Bruce, James E

    2016-01-19

    Mass measurement accuracy is a critical analytical figure-of-merit in most areas of mass spectrometry application. However, the time required for acquisition of high-resolution, high mass accuracy data limits many applications and is an aspect under continual pressure for development. Current efforts target implementation of higher electrostatic and magnetic fields because ion oscillatory frequencies increase linearly with field strength. As such, the time required for spectral acquisition of a given resolving power and mass accuracy decreases linearly with increasing fields. Mass spectrometer developments to include multiple high-resolution detectors that can be operated in parallel could further decrease the acquisition time by a factor of n, the number of detectors. Efforts described here resulted in development of an instrument with a set of Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (ICR) cells as detectors that constitute the first MS array capable of parallel high-resolution spectral acquisition. ICR cell array systems consisting of three or five cells were constructed with printed circuit boards and installed within a single superconducting magnet and vacuum system. Independent ion populations were injected and trapped within each cell in the array. Upon filling the array, all ions in all cells were simultaneously excited and ICR signals from each cell were independently amplified and recorded in parallel. Presented here are the initial results of successful parallel spectral acquisition, parallel mass spectrometry (MS) and MS/MS measurements, and parallel high-resolution acquisition with the MS array system.

  15. Status report on electron cyclotron resonance ion sources at the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba

    CERN Document Server

    Kitagawa, A; Sekiguchi, M; Yamada, S; Jincho, K; Okada, T; Yamamoto, M; Hattori, T G; Biri, S; Baskaran, R; Sakata, T; Sawada, K; Uno, K

    2000-01-01

    The Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) is not only dedicated to cancer therapy, it is also utilized with various ion species for basic experiments of biomedical science, physics, chemistry, etc. Two electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources are installed for production of gaseous ions. One of them, the NIRS-ECR, is a 10 GHz ECR ion source, and is mainly operated to produce C/sup 4+/ ions for daily clinical treatment. This source realizes good reproducibility and reliability and it is easily operated. The other source, the NIRS-HEC, is an 18 GHz ECR ion source that is expected to produce heavier ion species. The output ion currents of the NIRS-ECR and the NIRS-HEC are 430e mu A for C/sup 4+/ and 1.1e mA for Ar/sup 8+/, respectively. (14 refs).

  16. Data processing in Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Yulin; O'Connor, Peter B

    2014-01-01

    The Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometer intricately couples advanced physics, instrumentation, and electronics with chemical and particularly biochemical research. However, general understanding of the data processing methodologies used lags instrumentation, and most data processing algorithms we are familiar with in FT-ICR are not well studied; thus, professional skill and training in FT-ICR operation and data analysis is still the key to achieve high performance in FT-ICR. This review article is focused on FT-ICR data processing, and explains the procedures step-by-step for users with the goal of maximizing spectral features, such as mass accuracy, resolving power, dynamic range, and detection limits. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Status of a compact electron cyclotron resonance ion source for National Institute of Radiological Sciences-930 cyclotron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hojo, S; Katagiri, K; Nakao, M; Sugiura, A; Muramatsu, M; Noda, A; Okada, T; Takahashi, Y; Komiyama, A; Honma, T; Noda, K

    2014-02-01

    The Kei-source is a compact electron cyclotron resonance ion source using only permanent magnets and a frequency of 10 GHz. It was developed at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) for producing C(4+) ions oriented for high-energy carbon therapy. It has also been used as an ion source for the NIRS-930 cyclotron. Its microwave band region for the traveling-wave-tube amplifier and maximum output power are 8-10 GHz and 350 W, respectively. Since 2006, it has provided various ion beams such as proton, deuteron, carbon, oxygen, and neon with sufficient intensity (200 μA for proton and deuteron, 50 μA for C(4+), for example) and good stability for radioisotope production, tests of radiation damage, and basic research experiments. Its horizontal and vertical emittances were measured using a screen monitor and waist-scan. The present paper reports the current status of the Kei-source.

  18. Status of a compact electron cyclotron resonance ion source for National Institute of Radiological Sciences-930 cyclotron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hojo, S.; Katagiri, K.; Nakao, M.; Sugiura, A.; Muramatsu, M.; Noda, A.; Okada, T.; Takahashi, Y.; Komiyama, A.; Honma, T.; Noda, K.

    2014-02-01

    The Kei-source is a compact electron cyclotron resonance ion source using only permanent magnets and a frequency of 10 GHz. It was developed at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) for producing C4+ ions oriented for high-energy carbon therapy. It has also been used as an ion source for the NIRS-930 cyclotron. Its microwave band region for the traveling-wave-tube amplifier and maximum output power are 8-10 GHz and 350 W, respectively. Since 2006, it has provided various ion beams such as proton, deuteron, carbon, oxygen, and neon with sufficient intensity (200 μA for proton and deuteron, 50 μA for C4+, for example) and good stability for radioisotope production, tests of radiation damage, and basic research experiments. Its horizontal and vertical emittances were measured using a screen monitor and waist-scan. The present paper reports the current status of the Kei-source.

  19. Multiply charged ion dissociation in Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Qinyuan; Bakhtair, R.; Sherman, M.G.; Hofstadler, S.A.; Smith, R.D. [Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Bimolecular ions of up to MDa size with thousands of charges have recently been trapped and studied in this laboratory using electrospray ionization (ESI) and Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer (FTICRMS). For structural analysis, multiply charged ions generated by ESI can be dissociated at the interface, by collision induced dissociation (CID) or Surface induced dissociation (SID). However, charge exchange with the surface and charge partition among the fragments significantly complicate the SID and CID spectra of multiply charged large ions. High resolution FTICR is an ideal solution to this problem.

  20. Development of an 18 GHz superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source at RCNP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorita, Tetsuhiko; Hatanaka, Kichiji; Fukuda, Mitsuhiro; Kibayashi, Mitsuru; Morinobu, Shunpei; Okamura, Hiroyuki; Tamii, Atsushi

    2008-02-01

    An 18 GHz superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source has recently been developed and installed in order to extend the variety and the intensity of ions at the RCNP coupled cyclotron facility. Production of several ions such as O, N, Ar, Kr, etc., is now under development and some of them have already been used for user experiments. For example, highly charged heavy ion beams like (86)Kr(21+,23+) and intense (16)O(5+,6+) and (15)N(6+) ion beams have been provided for experiments. The metal ion from volatile compounds method for boron ions has been developed as well.

  1. Measurement of ion cyclotron emissions by use of ICRF heating antennas in LHD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, K. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan)], E-mail: saito@nifs.ac.jp; Kasahara, H.; Seki, T.; Kumazawa, R.; Mutoh, T.; Watanabe, T.; Shimpo, F.; Nomura, G.; Osakabe, M. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Ichimura, M. [Tsukuba University, Plasma Research Center, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8577 (Japan); Higaki, H. [Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8530 (Japan); Komori, A. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan)

    2009-06-15

    Ion cyclotron emissions (ICEs) were clearly detected in the Large Helical Device (LHD) during perpendicular neutral beam (NB) injection. Antennas for the ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) heating were used as probes. The frequencies of ICEs were proportional to magnetic field strength. The location of ICE excitation was a peripheral region of plasma and the source particles were lost-ions injected by the perpendicular NB.

  2. Symmetry Properties of Proton Velocity Distributions: a Vlasov Simulation Study of the Ion Cyclotron Instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araneda, J. A.; López, R. A.; Vinas, A. F.

    2014-12-01

    The ion cyclotron instability is driven by a sufficiently large proton temperature anisotropy, generating a spectrum of counterpropagating field-aligned ion cyclotron fluctuations. In this work, we use low-noise one-dimensional electromagnetic Vlasov simulations in a magnetized and collisionless plasma of fluid electrons and one ion species to study the evolution of proton velocity distributions during the thermal relaxation process. Special attention is given to deviations from initial bi-Maxwellian shapes.

  3. Ion hole formation and nonlinear generation of electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves: THEMIS observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoji, Masafumi; Miyoshi, Yoshizumi; Katoh, Yuto; Keika, Kunihiro; Angelopoulos, Vassilis; Kasahara, Satoshi; Asamura, Kazushi; Nakamura, Satoko; Omura, Yoshiharu

    2017-09-01

    Electromagnetic plasma waves are thought to be responsible for energy exchange between charged particles in space plasmas. Such an energy exchange process is evidenced by phase space holes identified in the ion distribution function and measurements of the dot product of the plasma wave electric field and the ion velocity. We develop a method to identify ion hole formation, taking into consideration the phase differences between the gyromotion of ions and the electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves. Using this method, we identify ion holes in the distribution function and the resulting nonlinear EMIC wave evolution from Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS) observations. These ion holes are key to wave growth and frequency drift by the ion currents through nonlinear wave-particle interactions, which are identified by a computer simulation in this study.

  4. Ion cyclotron resonance heating system in the RT-1 magnetospheric plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiura, M.; Kawazura, Y.; Yoshida, Z.; Kenmochi, N.; Yano, Y.; Saitoh, H.; Yamasaki, M.; Mushiake, T.; Kashyap, A.; Takahashi, N.; Nakatsuka, M.; Fukuyama, A.

    2017-08-01

    We have developed an ion cyclotron resonance frequency (ICRF) heating system for the Ring Trap 1 (RT-1) magnetospheric device. We excite slow waves from the polar region of the dipole magnetic field. The target helium plasma is produced by electron cyclotron heating. The electrons comprise high-temperature (>10 keV) and low-temperature (wave electric field in the plasma.

  5. The ion cyclotron turbulence generated by a low frequency kinetic Alfvén wave and turbulent heating of ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhailenko, V. S.; Mikhailenko, V. V.; Lee, Hae June

    2018-01-01

    The ion cyclotron instability driven by a strong kinetic Alfvén wave is investigated as a possible source of anisotropic heating of ions in the sun's corona. We present a novel model of a plasma with coupled inhomogeneous current and shearing flow, which results from the particle's motion in the electric field of the kinetic Alfvén wave of finite wavelength. The investigation is performed employing the non-modal kinetic theory grounded on the shearing mode approach. The solution of the governing linear integral equation for the perturbed potential displays that the flow velocity shear, which for the corona conditions may be above the growth rate of the ion cyclotron instability in the plasma with steady current, changes the exponential growth of the ion cyclotron potential on the power function of time, that impedes the growth of the unstable ion cyclotron wave and reduces the turbulent heating rate of ions across the magnetic field.

  6. Ion cyclotron emission from fusion-born ions in large tokamak plasmas: a brief review from JET and TFTR to ITER

    CERN Document Server

    Dendy, R O

    2014-01-01

    Ion cyclotron emission (ICE) was the first collective radiative instability, driven by confined fusion-born ions, observed from deuterium-tritium plasmas in JET and TFTR. ICE comprises strongly suprathermal emission, which has spectral peaks at multiple ion cyclotron harmonic frequencies as evaluated at the outer mid-plane edge of tokamak plasmas. The measured intensity of ICE spectral peaks scaled linearly with measured fusion reactivity in JET. In other large tokamak plasmas, ICE is currently used as an indicator of fast ions physics. The excitation mechanism for ICE is the magnetoacoustic cyclotron instability (MCI); in the case of JET and TFTR, the MCI is driven by a set of centrally born fusion products, lying just inside the trapped-passing boundary in velocity space, whose drift orbits make large radial excursions to the outer mid-plane edge. Diagnostic exploitation of ICE in future experiments therefore rests in part on deep understanding of the MCI, and recent advances in computational plasma physics...

  7. Predicting high harmonic ion cyclotron heating efficiency in Tokamak plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, David L [ORNL; Jaeger, E. F. [XCEL; Berry, Lee A [ORNL; Chen, Guangye [ORNL; Ryan, Philip Michael [ORNL; Canik, John [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    Observations of improved radio frequency (RF) heating efficiency in high-confinement (H-) mode plasmas on the National Spherical Tokamak Experiment (NSTX) are investigated by whole-device linear simulation. We present the first full-wave simulation to couple kinetic physics of the well confined core plasma to the poorly confined scrape-off plasma. The new simulation is used to scan the launched fast-wave spectrum and examine the steady-state electric wave field structure for experimental scenarios corresponding to both reduced, and improved RF heating efficiency. We find that launching toroidal wave-numbers that required for fast-wave propagation excites large amplitude (kVm 1 ) coaxial standing modes in the wave electric field between the confined plasma density pedestal and conducting vessel wall. Qualitative comparison with measurements of the stored plasma energy suggest these modes are a probable cause of degraded heating efficiency. Also, the H-mode density pedestal and fast-wave cutoff within the confined plasma allow for the excitation of whispering gallery type eigenmodes localised to the plasma edge.

  8. Predicting high harmonic ion cyclotron heating efficiency in Tokamak plasmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, D L; Berry, L A; Chen, G; Ryan, P M; Canik, J M; Jaeger, E F

    2011-09-30

    Observations of improved radio frequency (rf) heating efficiency in ITER relevant high-confinement (H-)mode plasmas on the National Spherical Tokamak Experiment are investigated by whole-device linear simulation. The steady-state rf electric field is calculated for various antenna spectra and the results examined for characteristics that correlate with observations of improved or reduced rf heating efficiency. We find that launching toroidal wave numbers that give fast-wave propagation in the scrape-off plasma excites large amplitude (∼kV m(-1)) coaxial standing modes between the confined plasma density pedestal and conducting vessel wall. Qualitative comparison with measurements of the stored plasma energy suggests that these modes are a probable cause of degraded heating efficiency.

  9. Enhanced Physicochemical and Biological Properties of Ion-Implanted Titanium Using Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Csaba Hegedűs

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The surface properties of metallic implants play an important role in their clinical success. Improving upon the inherent shortcomings of Ti implants, such as poor bioactivity, is imperative for achieving clinical use. In this study, we have developed a Ti implant modified with Ca or dual Ca + Si ions on the surface using an electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS. The physicochemical and biological properties of ion-implanted Ti surfaces were analyzed using various analytical techniques, such as surface analyses, potentiodynamic polarization and cell culture. Experimental results indicated that a rough morphology was observed on the Ti substrate surface modified by ECRIS plasma ions. The in vitro electrochemical measurement results also indicated that the Ca + Si ion-implanted surface had a more beneficial and desired behavior than the pristine Ti substrate. Compared to the pristine Ti substrate, all ion-implanted samples had a lower hemolysis ratio. MG63 cells cultured on the high Ca and dual Ca + Si ion-implanted surfaces revealed significantly greater cell viability in comparison to the pristine Ti substrate. In conclusion, surface modification by electron cyclotron resonance Ca and Si ion sources could be an effective method for Ti implants.

  10. Development and experimental evaluation of theoretical models for ion cyclotron resonance frequency heating of tokamak plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mantsinen, M. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Espoo (Finland). Dept. of Technical Physics

    1999-06-01

    Heating with electromagnetic waves in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) is a well-established method for auxiliary heating of present-day tokamak plasmas and is envisaged as one of the main heating techniques for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) and future reactor plasmas. In order to predict the performance of ICRF heating in future machines, it is important to benchmark present theoretical modelling with experimental results on present tokamaks. This thesis reports on development and experimental evaluation of theoretical models for ICRF heating at the Joint European Torus (JET). Several ICRF physics effects and scenarios have been studied. Direct importance to the ITER is the theoretical analysis of ICRF heating experiments with deuterium-tritium (D-T) plasmas. These experiments clearly demonstrate the potential of ICRF heating for auxiliary heating of reactor plasmas. In particular, scenarios with potential for good bulk ion heating and enhanced D-T fusion reactivity have been identified. Good bulk ion heating is essential for reactor plasmas in order to obtain a high ion temperature and a high fusion reactivity. In JET good bulk ion heating with ICRF waves has been achieved in high-performance discharges by adding ICRF heating to neutral beam injection. In these experiments, as in other JET discharges where damping at higher harmonics of the ion cyclotron frequency takes place, so-called finite Larmor radius (FLR) effects play an important role. Due to FLR effects, the resonating ion velocity distribution function can have a strong influence on the power deposition. Evidence for this effect has been obtained from the third harmonic deuterium heating experiments. Because of FLR effects, the wave-particle interaction can also become weak at certain ion energies, which prevents resonating ions from reaching higher energies. When interacting with the wave, an ion receives not only a change in energy but also a change in

  11. Fully non-inductive second harmonic electron cyclotron plasma ramp-up in the QUEST spherical tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idei, H.; Kariya, T.; Imai, T.; Mishra, K.; Onchi, T.; Watanabe, O.; Zushi, H.; Hanada, K.; Qian, J.; Ejiri, A.; Alam, M. M.; Nakamura, K.; Fujisawa, A.; Nagashima, Y.; Hasegawa, M.; Matsuoka, K.; Fukuyama, A.; Kubo, S.; Shimozuma, T.; Yoshikawa, M.; Sakamoto, M.; Kawasaki, S.; Nakashima, H.; Higashijima, A.; Ide, S.; Maekawa, T.; Takase, Y.; Toi, K.

    2017-12-01

    Fully non-inductive second (2nd) harmonic electron cyclotron (EC) plasma current ramp-up was demonstrated with a newlly developed 28 GHz system in the QUEST spherical tokamak. A high plasma current of 54 kA was non-inductively ramped up and sustained stably for 0.9 s with a 270 kW 28 GHz wave. A higher plasma current of 66 kA was also non-inductively achieved with a slow ramp-up of the vertical field. We have achieved a significantly higher plasma current than those achieved previously with the 2nd harmonic EC waves. This fully non-inductive 2nd harmonic EC plasma ramp-up method might be useful for future burning plasma devices and fusion reactors, in particular for operations at half magnetic field with the same EC heating equipment.

  12. High current DC negative ion source for cyclotron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etoh, H; Onai, M; Aoki, Y; Mitsubori, H; Arakawa, Y; Sakuraba, J; Kato, T; Mitsumoto, T; Hiasa, T; Yajima, S; Shibata, T; Hatayama, A; Okumura, Y

    2016-02-01

    A filament driven multi-cusp negative ion source has been developed for proton cyclotrons in medical applications. In Cs-free operation, continuous H(-) beam of 10 mA and D(-) beam of 3.3 mA were obtained stably at an arc-discharge power of 3 kW and 2.4 kW, respectively. In Cs-seeded operation, H(-) beam current reached 22 mA at a lower arc power of 2.6 kW with less co-extracted electron current. The optimum gas flow rate, which gives the highest H(-) current, was 15 sccm in the Cs-free operation, while it decreased to 4 sccm in the Cs-seeded operation. The relationship between H(-) production and the design/operating parameters has been also investigated by a numerical study with KEIO-MARC code, which gives a reasonable explanation to the experimental results of the H(-) current dependence on the arc power.

  13. Isotope exchange by Ion Cyclotron Wall Conditioning on JET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wauters, T., E-mail: t.wauters@fz-juelich.de [Laboratory for Plasma Physics, ERM/KMS, TEC Partner, 1000 Brussels (Belgium); Douai, D.; Kogut, D. [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 St-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Lyssoivan, A. [Laboratory for Plasma Physics, ERM/KMS, TEC Partner, 1000 Brussels (Belgium); Brezinsek, S. [Forschungszentrum Jülich, Institut für Energie- und Klimaforschung Plasmaphysik, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Belonohy, E. [Max-Planck Institut für Plasmaphysik, 85748 Garching (Germany); Blackman, T. [JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Bobkov, V. [Max-Planck Institut für Plasmaphysik, 85748 Garching (Germany); Crombé, K. [Laboratory for Plasma Physics, ERM/KMS, TEC Partner, 1000 Brussels (Belgium); Drenik, A. [Jožef Stefan Institute, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Graham, M. [JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Joffrin, E. [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 St-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Lerche, E. [Laboratory for Plasma Physics, ERM/KMS, TEC Partner, 1000 Brussels (Belgium); Loarer, T. [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 St-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Lomas, P.L.; Mayoral, M.-L.; Monakhov, I. [JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Oberkofler, M. [Max-Planck Institut für Plasmaphysik, 85748 Garching (Germany); Philipps, V. [Forschungszentrum Jülich, Institut für Energie- und Klimaforschung Plasmaphysik, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Plyusnin, V. [IST, Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); and others

    2015-08-15

    The isotopic exchange efficiencies of JET Ion Cyclotron Wall Conditioning (ICWC) discharges produced at ITER half and full field conditions are compared for JET carbon (C) and ITER like wall (ILW). Besides an improved isotope exchange rate on the ILW providing cleaner plasma faster, the main advantage compared to C-wall is a reduction of the ratio of retained discharge gas to removed fuel. Complementing experimental data with discharge modeling shows that long pulses with high (∼240 kW coupled) ICRF power maximizes the wall isotope removal per ICWC pulse. In the pressure range 1–7.5 × 10{sup −3} Pa, this removal reduces with increasing discharge pressure. As most of the wall-released isotopes are evacuated by vacuum pumps in the post discharge phase, duty cycle optimization studies for ICWC on JET-ILW need further consideration. The accessible reservoir by H{sub 2}-ICWC at ITER half field conditions on the JET-ILW preloaded by D{sub 2} tokamak operation is estimated to be 7.3 × 10{sup 22} hydrogenic atoms, and may be exchanged within 400 s of cumulated ICWC discharge time.

  14. Accessibility condition of wave propagation and multicharged ion production in electron cyclotron resonance ion source plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Yushi; Yano, Keisuke; Nishiokada, Takuya; Nagaya, Tomoki; Kimura, Daiju; Kumakura, Sho; Imai, Youta; Hagino, Shogo; Otsuka, Takuro; Sato, Fuminobu

    2016-02-01

    A new tandem type source of electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasmas has been constructing for producing synthesized ion beams in Osaka University. Magnetic mirror field configuration with octupole magnets can be controlled to various shape of ECR zones, namely, in the 2nd stage plasma to be available by a pair mirror and a supplemental coil. Noteworthy correlations between these magnetic configurations and production of multicharged ions are investigated in detail, as well as their optimum conditions. We have been considering accessibility condition of electromagnetic and electrostatic waves propagating in ECR ion source plasma, and then investigated their correspondence relationships with production of multicharged ions. It has been clarified that there exits efficient configuration of ECR zones for producing multicharged ion beams experimentally, and then has been suggested from detail accessibility conditions on the ECR plasma that new resonance, i.e., upper hybrid resonance, must have occurred.

  15. Differentiating Fragmentation Pathways of Cholesterol by Two-Dimensional Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Agthoven, Maria A; Barrow, Mark P; Chiron, Lionel; Coutouly, Marie-Aude; Kilgour, David; Wootton, Christopher A; Wei, Juan; Soulby, Andrew; Delsuc, Marc-André; Rolando, Christian; O'Connor, Peter B

    2015-12-01

    Two-dimensional Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry is a data-independent analytical method that records the fragmentation patterns of all the compounds in a sample. This study shows the implementation of atmospheric pressure photoionization with two-dimensional (2D) Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry. In the resulting 2D mass spectrum, the fragmentation patterns of the radical and protonated species from cholesterol are differentiated. This study shows the use of fragment ion lines, precursor ion lines, and neutral loss lines in the 2D mass spectrum to determine fragmentation mechanisms of known compounds and to gain information on unknown ion species in the spectrum. In concert with high resolution mass spectrometry, 2D Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry can be a useful tool for the structural analysis of small molecules. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  16. A Tuning Method for Electrically Compensated Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometer Traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brustkern, Adam M.; Rempel, Don L.; Gross, Michael L.

    2010-01-01

    We describe a method for tuning electrically compensated ion cyclotron resonance (ICR) traps by tracking the observed cyclotron frequency of an ion cloud at different oscillation mode amplitudes. Although we have used this method to tune the compensation voltages of a custom-built electrically compensated trap, the approach is applicable to other designs that incorporate electrical compensation. To evaluate the effectiveness of tuning, we examined the frequency shift as a function of cyclotron orbit size at different z-mode oscillation amplitudes. The cyclotron frequencies varied by ~ 12 ppm for ions with low z-mode oscillation amplitudes compared to those with high z-mode amplitudes. This frequency difference decreased to ~1 ppm by one iteration of trap tuning. PMID:20060743

  17. Status report of the multipurpose superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ciavola, G.; Gammino, S.; Barbarino, S.; Celona, L.; Consoli, F.; Gallo, G.; Maimone, F.; Mascali, D.; Passarello, S.; Galata, A.; Tinschert, K.; Spaedtke, P.; Lang, R.; Maeder, J.; Rossbach, J.; Koivisto, H.; Savonen, M.; Koponen, T.; Suominen, P.; Ropponen, T.; Barue, C.; Lechartier, M.; Beijers, J. P. M.; Brandenburg, S.; Kremers, H. R.; Vanrooyen, D.; Kuchler, D.; Scrivens, R.; Schachter, L.; Dobrescu, S.; Stiebing, K.

    Intense heavy ion beam production with electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources is a common requirement for many of the accelerators under construction in Europe and elsewhere. An average increase of about one order of magnitude per decade in the performance of ECR ion sources was obtained up

  18. Techniques and mechanisms applied in electron cyclotron resonance sources for highly charged ions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drentje, AG

    Electron cyclotron resonance ion sources are delivering beams of highly charged ions for a wide range of applications in many laboratories. For more than two decades, the development of these ion sources has been to a large extent an intuitive and experimental enterprise. Much effort has been spent

  19. Intense highly charged ion beam production and operation with a superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. W. Zhao

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source with advanced design in Lanzhou (SECRAL is a superconducting-magnet-based electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS for the production of intense highly charged heavy ion beams. It is one of the best performing ECRISs worldwide and the first superconducting ECRIS built with an innovative magnet to generate a high strength minimum-B field for operation with heating microwaves up to 24–28 GHz. Since its commissioning in 2005, SECRAL has so far produced a good number of continuous wave intensity records of highly charged ion beams, in which recently the beam intensities of ^{40}Ar^{12+} and ^{129}Xe^{26+} have, for the first time, exceeded 1 emA produced by an ion source. Routine operations commenced in 2007 with the Heavy Ion accelerator Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL, China. Up to June 2017, SECRAL has been providing more than 28,000 hours of highly charged heavy ion beams to the accelerator demonstrating its great capability and reliability. The great achievement of SECRAL is accumulation of numerous technical advancements, such as an innovative magnetic system and an efficient double-frequency (24+18  GHz heating with improved plasma stability. This article reviews the development of SECRAL and production of intense highly charged ion beams by SECRAL focusing on its unique magnet design, source commissioning, performance studies and enhancements, beam quality and long-term operation. SECRAL development and its performance studies representatively reflect the achievements and status of the present ECR ion source, as well as the ECRIS impacts on HIRFL.

  20. Intense highly charged ion beam production and operation with a superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, H. W.; Sun, L. T.; Guo, J. W.; Lu, W.; Xie, D. Z.; Hitz, D.; Zhang, X. Z.; Yang, Y.

    2017-09-01

    The superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source with advanced design in Lanzhou (SECRAL) is a superconducting-magnet-based electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) for the production of intense highly charged heavy ion beams. It is one of the best performing ECRISs worldwide and the first superconducting ECRIS built with an innovative magnet to generate a high strength minimum-B field for operation with heating microwaves up to 24-28 GHz. Since its commissioning in 2005, SECRAL has so far produced a good number of continuous wave intensity records of highly charged ion beams, in which recently the beam intensities of 40Ar+ and 129Xe26+ have, for the first time, exceeded 1 emA produced by an ion source. Routine operations commenced in 2007 with the Heavy Ion accelerator Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL), China. Up to June 2017, SECRAL has been providing more than 28,000 hours of highly charged heavy ion beams to the accelerator demonstrating its great capability and reliability. The great achievement of SECRAL is accumulation of numerous technical advancements, such as an innovative magnetic system and an efficient double-frequency (24 +18 GHz ) heating with improved plasma stability. This article reviews the development of SECRAL and production of intense highly charged ion beams by SECRAL focusing on its unique magnet design, source commissioning, performance studies and enhancements, beam quality and long-term operation. SECRAL development and its performance studies representatively reflect the achievements and status of the present ECR ion source, as well as the ECRIS impacts on HIRFL.

  1. Unidirectional stripping extraction from a cyclotron which accelerates light as well as heavy ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasna L. Ristić-Djurović

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available The VINCY Cyclotron (VINča CYclotron is a multipurpose machine intended to accelerate light as well as heavy ions. To extract heavy ions with low energy and light ions an extraction system with stripping foil is used. Heavy ions with high energy will be extracted by means of an electrostatic deflector. The former extraction system will be manufactured and used first. The proposed unidirectional stripping extraction system is the optimal balance between the placement of the extraction line and the required diversity and quality of the extracted beam. The available range of extraction directions is set by geometry limitations.

  2. Ion cyclotron emission in tokamak plasmas; Emission cyclotronique ionique dans les plasmas de tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraboulet, D.

    1996-09-17

    Detection of {alpha}(3.5 MeV) fusion products will be of major importance for the achievement of self sustained discharges in fusion thermonuclear reactors. Due to their cyclotronic gyration in the confining magnetic field of a tokamak, {alpha} particles are suspected to radiate in the radio-frequency band [RF: 10-500 MHz]. Our aim is to determine whether detection of RF emission radiated from a reactor plasma can provide information concerning those fusion products. We observed experimentally that the RF emission radiated from fast ions situated in the core of the discharge is detectable with a probe located at the plasma edge. For that purpose, fast temporal acquisition of spectral power was achieved in a narrow frequency band. We also propose two complementary models for this emission. In the first one, we describe locally the energy transfer between the photon population and the plasma and we compute the radiation equilibrium taking place in the tokamak. {alpha} particles are not the unique species involved in the equilibrium and it is necessary to take into account all other species present in the plasma (Deuterium, Tritium, electrons,...). Our second model consists in the numerical resolution of the Maxwell-Vlasov with the use of a variational formulation, in which all polarizations are considered and the 4 first cyclotronic harmonics are included in a 1-D slab geometry. The development of this second model leads to the proposal for an experimental set up aiming to the feasibility demonstration of a routine diagnostic providing the central {alpha} density in a reactor. (author). 166 refs.

  3. The accuracy of heavy-ion mass measurements using time of flight-ion cyclotron resonance in a Penning trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollen, G.; Moore, R. B.; Savard, G.; Stolzenberg, H.

    1990-11-01

    Ion motion in a Penning trap and the electrical signals it can produce have been analyzed for the purpose of identifying the important causes of uncertainty in high-accuracy mass measurements of heavy ions. The role of the azimuthal quadrupole electric field in signal pickup, and its effects on ion motion at the sum frequency of the cyclotron and magnetron motions, have been identified. A useful scheme for calculating the signal strength and strength of the interaction between an applied field and the ion motion has been developed. The important sources of uncertainty in using the sum frequency of the cyclotron and magnetron motions for determining the ion mass are discussed. Particular application is made to the case of cyclotron resonance detection by observation of the time of flight of ejected ions.

  4. Three-dimensional simulations of ion dynamics in the plasma of an electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mironov, V.; Beijers, J.P.M.

    The ion production in an electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) is modeled using a particle-in-cell Monte-Carlo-collision code in a three-dimensional geometry. Only the heavy particles (ions and atoms) are tracked, while the electrons are represented using a Maxwell-Boltzmann energy

  5. C60 Secondary Ion Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Donald F.; Robinson, Errol W.; Tolmachev, Aleksey V.; Heeren, Ronald M.; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana

    2011-12-15

    Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) has seen increased application for high spatial chemical imaging of complex biological surfaces. The advent and commercial availability of cluster and polyatomic primary ion sources (e.g. Au and Bi cluster and buckminsterfullerene (C60)) provide improved secondary ion yield and decreased fragmentation of surface species, thus accessibility to intact molecular ions. Despite developments in primary ion sources, development of mass spectrometers to fully exploit their advantages has been limited. Tandem mass spectrometry for identification of secondary ions is highly desirable, but implementation has proven to be difficult. Similarly, high mass resolution and high mass measurement accuracy would greatly improve the chemical specificity of SIMS. Here we combine, for the first time, the advantages of a C60 primary ion source with the ultra-high mass resolving power and high mass measurement accuracy of Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry. Mass resolving power in excess of 100,000 (m/Δm50%) is demonstrated, with mass measurement accuracies below 3 parts-per-million. Imaging of mouse brain tissue at 40 μm pixel size is shown. Tandem mass spectrometry of ions from biological tissue is demonstrated and molecular formulae can be assigned to fragment ions.

  6. Kinetic structure of slow shocks - Effects of the electromagnetic ion/ion cyclotron instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omidi, N.; Winske, D.

    1992-01-01

    The structure of slow magnetosonic shocks in the low beta regime is analyzed with attention given to ion heating and the effects of waves upstream of the electromagnetic ion/ion cyclotron (EMIIC) instability. Shock formation is assessed by means of three methods - a relaxation method and two based on dynamic flow interactions - to determine the effects of initialization and boundary conditions on the formation. Good solutions are found with the piston method and the similar flow-flow method in which the plasma is injected from two boundaries to form two slow shocks. Plasma parameters and shock normal angle are found to be the key variables dictating the structure of the magnetosonic shocks. Four unique classes of resultant shock structures are described in which classical, steady, or nonsteady behavior is found. The analysis also yields insight into the relationship between EMIIC instability and ion dissipation.

  7. One-D full-wave description of plasma emission and absorption in the ion cyclotron range of frequency in tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraboulet, D.; Becoulet, A.; Nguyen, F

    1998-11-01

    To maintain the ignition state in a tokamak fusion reactor, a control must be performed on the population of alpha-products, and this implies the ability to diagnose those {alpha}-particles. It is studied here whether the detection of emission radiated in the ion cyclotron range of frequency be a reactor plasma can provide useful information concerning fusion products, especially concerning their density profile. It is shown that the detection of the radiation emitted by the fast alpha particles along their cyclotron motion can give access to moments of their distribution function. This requires to compute the phase of the emitted field, using a full-wave approach. Such a technique allows to set in a convenient way the inverse problem of the determination of the emitting {alpha}-particles distribution through the radiation detection. A brief analysis of the expected situation in a reactor-relevant plasma is given. In parallel, the 1-D full-wave code developed in this frame is also useful for studying the physics of Fast Wave plasma heating. It enables to take into account the mode conversion of the Fast Wave into the Ion Bernstein Wave that appears near each ion cyclotron resonance. Results show that higher order terms may significantly alter the energy partitioning, in hot plasma cases involving mode conversion heating and/or ion cyclotron high harmonics heating. (author) 47 refs.

  8. Generation of lower and upper bands of electrostatic electron cyclotron harmonic waves in the Van Allen radiation belts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qinghua; Xiao, Fuliang; Yang, Chang; Liu, Si; He, Yihua; Baker, D. N.; Spence, H. E.; Reeves, G. D.; Funsten, H. O.

    2017-06-01

    Electrostatic electron cyclotron harmonic (ECH) waves generated by the electron loss cone distribution can produce efficient scattering loss of plasma sheet electrons, which has a significant effect on the dynamics in the outer magnetosphere. Here we report two ECH emission events around the same location L≈ 5.7-5.8, MLT ≈ 12 from Van Allen Probes on 11 February (event A) and 9 January 2014 (event B), respectively. The spectrum of ECH waves was centered at the lower half of the harmonic bands during event A, but the upper half during event B. The observed electron phase space density in both events is fitted by the subtracted bi-Maxwellian distribution, and the fitting functions are used to evaluate the local growth rates of ECH waves based on a linear theory for homogeneous plasmas. ECH waves are excited by the loss cone instability of 50 eV-1 keV electrons in the lower half of harmonic bands in the low-density plasmasphere in event A, and 1-10 keV electrons in the upper half of harmonic bands in a relatively high-density region in event B. The current results successfully explain observations and provide a first direct evidence on how ECH waves are generated in the lower and upper half of harmonic frequency bands.

  9. Pitch-angle diffusion coefficients from resonant interactions with electrostatic electron cyclotron harmonic waves in planetary magnetospheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Tripathi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Pitch-angle diffusion coefficients have been calculated for resonant interaction with electrostatic electron cyclotron harmonic (ECH waves in the magnetospheres of Earth, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune. Calculations have been performed at two radial distances of each planet. It is found that observed wave electric field amplitudes in the magnetospheres of Earth and Jupiter are sufficient to put electrons on strong diffusion in the energy range of less than 100 eV. However, for Saturn, Uranus and Neptune, the observed ECH wave amplitude are insufficient to put electrons on strong diffusion at any radial distance.

  10. Impact of Ring Current Ions on Electromagnetic Ion Cyclotron Wave Dispersion Relation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazanov, G. V.; Gamayunov, K. V.

    2007-01-01

    Effect of the ring current ions in the real part of electromagnetic ion Cyclotron wave dispersion relation is studied on global scale. Recent Cluster observations by Engebretson et al. showed that although the temperature anisotropy of is energetic (> 10 keV) ring current protons was high during the entire 22 November 2003 perigee pass, electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves were observed only in conjunction with intensification of the ion fluxes below 1 keV by over an order of magnitude. To study the effect of the ring current ions on the wave dispersive properties and the corresponding global wave redistribution, we use a self-consistent model of interacting ring current and electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves, and simulate the May 1998 storm. The main findings of our simulation can be summarized as follows: First, the plasma density enhancement in the night MLT sector during the main and recovery storm phases is mostly caused by injection of suprathermal plasma sheet H + (approximately wave dispersion relation leads to a qualitative change of the wave patterns in the postmidnight-dawn sector for L > 4.75. This "new" wave activity is well organized by outward edges of dense suprathermal ring current spots, and the waves are not observed if the ring current ions are not included in the real part of dispersion relation. Third, the most intense wave-induced ring current precipitation is located in the night MLT sector and caused by modification of the wave dispersion relation. The strongest precipitating fluxes of about 8 X 10(exp 6)/ (cm(exp 2) - s X st) are found near L=5.75, MLT=2 during the early recovery phase on 4 May. Finally, the nightside precipitation is more intense than the dayside fluxes, even if there are less intense waves, because the convection field moves ring current ions into the loss cone on the nightside, but drives them out of the loss cone on the dayside. So convection and wave scattering reinforce each other in the nightside, but interfere in

  11. Production and decay of chlorine ion excited species in an electron cyclotron resonance ion source plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, J P; Martins, M C; Parente, F [Centro de Fisica Atomica, CFA, Departamento de Fisica, Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia, FCT, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Costa, A M; Marques, J P [Centro de Fisica Atomica, CFA, Departamento de Fisica, Faculdade de Ciencias, FCUL, Universidade de Lisboa, Campo Grande, 1749-016 Lisboa (Portugal); Indelicato, P, E-mail: jps@fct.unl.pt [Laboratoire Kastler Brossel, Ecole Normale Superieure, CNRS, Universite P et M Curie-Paris 6, Case 74, 4 place Jussieu, 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France)

    2011-06-15

    The most important processes for the creation of chlorine ion excited states from the ground configurations of Cl{sup 10+} to Cl{sup 15+} ions in an electron cyclotron resonance ion source, leading to the emission of K x-ray lines, were studied. Theoretical values for inner-shell excitation and ionization cross-sections, including double KL and triple KLL ionization, transition probabilities and energies for the de-excitation processes, were calculated in the framework of the multi-configuration Dirac-Fock method. With reasonable assumptions about the electron energy distribution, a theoretical K{alpha} x-ray spectrum was obtained, which was then compared with recent experimental data.

  12. Time evolution of bremsstrahlung and ion production of an electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarvainen, Ollie [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ropponen, Tommi [UNIV OF JYVASKYLA; Jones, Peter [UNIV OF JYVASKYLA; Peura, Pauli [UNIV OF JYVASKYLA

    2008-01-01

    Bremsstrahlung radiation measurement is one of the most commonly used plasma diagnostics methods. Most of the bremsstrahlung measurements with electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources have been performed in continuous operation mode yielding information only on the steady state bremsstrahlung emission. This article describes the results of bremsstrahlung and ion current measurement with the JYFL 14 GHz ECRIS operated in pulsed mode. The experiments reveal information about the bremsstrahlung radiation in plasma conditions before reaching the equilibrium. The time scale of bremsstrahlung production is compared to ion production time scale for different charge states. The bremsstrahlung data is presented with 2 millisecond time intervals as a function of neutral gas pressure and microwave power. Data from hundreds of microwave pulses is combined in order to have a sufficient amount of events at each time step. The relevant plasma physics phenomena during both, the leading and the trailing edge of the RF pulse, are discussed.

  13. Effect of pulse-modulated microwaves on fullerene ion production with electron cyclotron resonance ion source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaji, T; Uchida, T; Minezaki, H; Oshima, K; Racz, R; Muramatsu, M; Biri, S; Kitagawa, A; Kato, Y; Yoshida, Y

    2012-02-01

    Fullerene plasmas generated by pulse-modulated microwaves have been investigated under typical conditions at the Bio-Nano electron cyclotron resonance ion source. The effect of the pulse modulation is distinct from that of simply structured gases, and then the density of the fullerene plasmas increased as decreasing the duty ratio. The density for a pulse width of 10 μs at the period of 100 μs is 1.34 times higher than that for CW mode. We have studied the responses of fullerene and argon plasmas to pulsed microwaves. After the turnoff of microwave power, fullerene plasmas lasted ∼30 times longer than argon plasmas.

  14. The electrostatic ion-cyclotron instability excited by a current to a strip collector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul Rasmussen, Jens; Schrittwieser, R.; Skøelv, Å.

    1986-01-01

    The electrostatic ion-cyclotron instability is excited in a single-ended Q-machine by drawing an electron current to a strip collector crossing the entire plasma column. The instability is most easily excited when the widths of the strip is a few ion Larmor radii. The instability is confined within...

  15. Experiments with biased cylinder in electron cyclotron resonance ion source (plenary)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drentje, AG; Kitagawa, A; Muramatsu, M; Ogawa, H; Sakamoto, Y

    The shape of the magnetic field of an electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) gives rise to different particle fluxes (losses) from the plasma to the end plates (mainly diffusion of electrons), and to the side walls (mainly ions). The electron fluxes to the injection end plate can be reduced

  16. Study of ion beam transport from the SECRAL electron cyclotron resonance ion source at the Institute of Modern Physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Y; Lu, W; Zhang, W H; Sha, S; Yang, Y; Ma, B H; Wang, H; Zhu, Y H; Guo, J W; Fang, X; Lin, S H; Li, X X; Feng, Y C; Li, J Y; Zhao, H Y; Ma, H Y; Zhang, X Z; Guo, X H; Wu, Q; Sun, L T; Zhao, H W; Xie, D Z

    2012-02-01

    Ion beam transport from the Superconducting Electron Cyclotron Resonance ion source with Advanced design in Lanzhou (SECRAL) electron cyclotron resonance ion source was studied at the Institute of Modern Physics during 2010. Particle-in-cell simulations and experimental results have shown that both space charge and magnetic aberrations lead to a larger beam envelope and emittance growth. In the existing SECRAL extraction beam line, it has been shown that raising the solenoid lens magnetic field reduces aberrations in the subsequent dipole and results in lower emittance. Detailed beam emittance measurements are presented in this paper.

  17. Ion trap with narrow aperture detection electrodes for Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagornov, Konstantin O; Kozhinov, Anton N; Tsybin, Oleg Y; Tsybin, Yury O

    2015-05-01

    The current paradigm in ion trap (cell) design for Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) is the ion detection with wide aperture detection electrodes. Specifically, excitation and detection electrodes are typically 90° wide and positioned radially at a similar distance from the ICR cell axis. Here, we demonstrate that ion detection with narrow aperture detection electrodes (NADEL) positioned radially inward of the cell's axis is feasible and advantageous for FT-ICR MS. We describe design details and performance characteristics of a 10 T FT-ICR MS equipped with a NADEL ICR cell having a pair of narrow aperture (flat) detection electrodes and a pair of standard 90° excitation electrodes. Despite a smaller surface area of the detection electrodes, the sensitivity of the NADEL ICR cell is not reduced attributable to improved excite field distribution, reduced capacitance of the detection electrodes, and their closer positioning to the orbits of excited ions. The performance characteristics of the NADEL ICR cell are comparable with the state-of-the-art FT-ICR MS implementations for small molecule, peptide, protein, and petroleomics analyses. In addition, the NADEL ICR cell's design improves the flexibility of ICR cells and facilitates implementation of advanced capabilities (e.g., quadrupolar ion detection for improved mainstream applications). It also creates an intriguing opportunity for addressing the major bottleneck in FTMS-increasing its throughput via simultaneous acquisition of multiple transients or via generation of periodic non-sinusoidal transient signals.

  18. Sensitive test for ion-cyclotron resonant heating in the solar wind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasper, Justin C; Maruca, Bennett A; Stevens, Michael L; Zaslavsky, Arnaud

    2013-03-01

    Plasma carrying a spectrum of counterpropagating field-aligned ion-cyclotron waves can strongly and preferentially heat ions through a stochastic Fermi mechanism. Such a process has been proposed to explain the extreme temperatures, temperature anisotropies, and speeds of ions in the solar corona and solar wind. We quantify how differential flow between ion species results in a Doppler shift in the wave spectrum that can prevent this strong heating. Two critical values of differential flow are derived for strong heating of the core and tail of a given ion distribution function. Our comparison of these predictions to observations from the Wind spacecraft reveals excellent agreement. Solar wind helium that meets the condition for strong core heating is nearly 7 times hotter than hydrogen on average. Ion-cyclotron resonance contributes to heating in the solar wind, and there is a close link between heating, differential flow, and temperature anisotropy.

  19. Studies on a Q/A selector for the SECRAL electron cyclotron resonance ion source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y; Sun, L T; Feng, Y C; Fang, X; Lu, W; Zhang, W H; Cao, Y; Zhang, X Z; Zhao, H W

    2014-08-01

    Electron cyclotron resonance ion sources are widely used in heavy ion accelerators in the world because they are capable of producing high current beams of highly charged ions. However, the design of the Q/A selector system for these devices is challenging, because it must have a sufficient ion resolution while controlling the beam emittance growth. Moreover, this system has to be matched for a wide range of ion beam species with different intensities. In this paper, research on the Q/A selector system at the SECRAL (Superconducting Electron Cyclotron Resonance ion source with Advanced design in Lanzhou) platform both in experiment and simulation is presented. Based on this study, a new Q/A selector system has been designed for SECRAL II. The features of the new design including beam simulations are also presented.

  20. The electrostatic ion-cyclotron instability-a two-dimensional potential relaxation instability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Popa, G.; Schrittwieser, R.; Juul Rasmussen, Jens

    1985-01-01

    An experimental investigation shows that the electrostatic ion-cyclotron instability, driven by an electron current to a positively biased collector, is accompanied by strong coherent two-dimensional fluctuations of the plasma potential in front of the collector. These results suggest that this i......An experimental investigation shows that the electrostatic ion-cyclotron instability, driven by an electron current to a positively biased collector, is accompanied by strong coherent two-dimensional fluctuations of the plasma potential in front of the collector. These results suggest...

  1. Electron cyclotron emission at the fundamental harmonic in GDT magnetic mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalashov, A. G.; Solomakhin, A. L.; Gospodchikov, E. D.; Lubyako, L. V.; Yakovlev, D. V.; Bagryansky, P. A.

    2017-08-01

    New electron cyclotron emission (ECE) diagnostics has been installed to facilitate the successful experiment of electron cyclotron plasma heating (ECRH) in a large open magnetic trap GDT at Budker Institute. The particularities of ECE in the vicinity of the ECRH frequency were studied experimentally for a broad range of discharge scenarios. The measured thermal emission has partly validated the existing physical conceptions about microwave plasma heating in the machine. Besides the expected emission of thermal electrons, a clearly resolved non-thermal ECE was observed which unambiguously confirmed the presence of suprathermal electrons driven by high-power microwave heating.

  2. The ion cyclotron turbulence generated by a low frequency kinetic Alfven wave, and the related turbulent heating of ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mykhaylenko, Volodymyr S.; Mykhaylenko, Volodymyr V.; Lee, Hae June

    2017-10-01

    The ion cyclotron instability driven by the strong kinetic Alfven wave is investigated as a possible source of the anisotropic heating of ions in the coronal holes and solar wind. We present a novel model of a plasma with coupled inhomogeneous current and the sheared flow, which follows from the studies of the particles motion in the electric field of the kinetic Alfven wave of the finite wavelength. The investigation is performed employing the non-modal kinetic theory grounded on the shearing modes approach. The solution of the governing linear integral equation for the perturbed potential displays that the flow velocity shear, which for the corona conditions may be above the growth rate of the ion cyclotron instability in plasma with steady current, changes the exponential growth of the ion cyclotron potential on the power function of time, that impedes the growth of the unstable ion cyclotron wave and reduces the turbulent heating rate of ions across the magnetic field. This work was funded by National R&D Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) (Grant No. NRF-2015R1D1A1A01061160).

  3. Analytical study of effects of positron density and temperature anisotropy on electrostatic ion cyclotron instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barati Moqadam Niyat, M.; Khorashadizadeh, S. M.; Niknam, A. R.

    2017-03-01

    The effects of the positron concentration and ion temperature anisotropy on the electrostatic ion cyclotron instability are studied analytically, in a magnetized electron-positron-ion plasma with temperature anisotropy, using the linear kinetic theory. Positrons and electrons are supposed to drift either in the same direction or in opposite directions relative to singly ionized stationary ions and parallel to the magnetic field. The dispersion relation of the electrostatic ion cyclotron waves is derived, and then the conditions for exciting the instability of the waves are investigated. Moreover, the condition for the marginally stable state is also studied. It is found that as the positron concentration and perpendicular ion temperature increase, the growth rate of the electrostatic ion cyclotron instability decreases, whereas the critical drift velocity increases. It is also found that for the chosen set of parameters, with electrons and positrons drifting in the same direction, the instability in the plasma is stronger than when the electrons and positrons drift in opposite directions. In addition, a comparison is made to the normal electron-ion plasma.

  4. A CW radiofrequency ion source for production of negative hydrogen ion beams for cyclotrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalvas, T.; Tarvainen, O.; Komppula, J.; Koivisto, H.; Tuunanen, J. [University of Jyväskylä, Department of Physics (Finland); Potkins, D.; Stewart, T.; Dehnel, M. P. [D-Pace, Inc., Nelson, B.C. Canada (Canada)

    2015-04-08

    A CW 13.56 MHz radiofrequency-driven ion source RADIS for production of H{sup −} and D{sup −} beams is under development for replacing the filament-driven ion source of the MCC30/15 cyclotron. The RF ion source has a 16-pole multicusp plasma chamber, an electromagnet-based magnetic filter and an external planar spiral RF antenna behind an AlN window. The extraction is a 5-electrode system with an adjustable puller electrode voltage for optimizing the beam formation, a water-cooled electron dump electrode and an accelerating einzel lens. At 2650 W of RF power, the source produces 1 mA of H{sup −} (2.6 mA/cm{sup 2}), which is the intensity needed at injection for production of 200 µA H{sup +} with the filament-driven ion source. A simple pepperpot device has been developed for characterizing the beam emittance. Plans for improving the power efficiency with the use of a new permanent magnet front plate is discussed.

  5. Analysis of Chaperone Complexes by Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geels, R.B.J.

    2008-01-01

    Investigation of methodologies for analyses of noncovalently bound protein assemblies using Fourier transformation ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS) and quadrupole Time-of-Flight (qToF) mass spectrometry. Specifically, the co-chaperonins GroEL and gp31 are used to perform

  6. On-line microseparations with Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahl, J.H.; Hofstadler, S.A.; Zhao, Zhongxi; Gale, D.C.; Smith, R.D. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The combination of capillary electrophoresis (CE) with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI/MS) is a powerful bioanalytical tool. Accurate charge states are readily obtained through high resolution MS techniques such as Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR) mass spectrometry. In this study, the authors examine the practical considerations that were necessary for successful on-line CE-ESI/FTICR MS.

  7. Ion cyclotron waves during the Rosetta approach phase: a magnetic estimate of cometary outgassing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Volwerk

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A theoretical model for the ion cyclotron wave generation during the approach phase of Rosetta to 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko is presented. For various activity levels of the comet, the crossing of the observational threshold is determined, whose level is derived from the wave power in the undisturbed solar wind near the comet's location during the approach phase at the appropriate frequency. The Giotto flyby at 27P/Grigg–Skjellerup is used to obtain an estimate of how often water-group ion cyclotron waves are observed, and to get insight into the wave forms. At 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko one can expect to observe water-group ion cyclotron waves already at a distance of 600 000 km from the nucleus for a nominal outgassing rate of Q = 350 × 1023 molecules per second. The observed first location of cyclotron waves during the Rosetta approach phase will give an indication of the actual outgassing rate of the comet.

  8. Trapping, detection, and mass measurement of individual ions in a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce, J.E.; Cheng, X.; Bakhtiar, R.; Wu, Q.; Hofstadler, S.A.; Anderson, G.A.; Smith, R.D. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-08-24

    A fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR) mass spectrometer has been used to trap individual multiply charged ions of several high molecular weight polymers, including poly(ethylene oxide), sodium poly(styrene sulfonate), and the protein bovine serum albumin. Detection of these ions is performed with the nondestructive method distinctive of FTICR, which also allows remeasurement of the same ion or ion population over several hours. For the determination of the charge states (and hence the masses) of individual ions, a new scheme was developed on the basis of the observation of the stepwise m/z shifts that results from charge exchange reactions or adduction of a substance of known mass. A novel technique for mass determination of individual ions has been made possible with the observation of cyclotron frequency shifts during the time-domain acquisition period. This time-resolved ion correlation (TRIC) technique allows reactant and product ions to be correlated with confidence and provides the basis for simultaneously studying a moderate number of ions. In this work, a range of observations related to the detection and measurement of individual ions is presented, as are examples of mass determinations of individual ions performed by utilizing the TRIC technique. 47 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Status of the Bio-Nano electron cyclotron resonance ion source at Toyo University

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchida, T., E-mail: uchida-t@toyo.jp [Bio-Nano Electronics Research Centre, Toyo University, Kawagoe 350-8585 (Japan); Minezaki, H.; Ishihara, S. [Graduate School of Engineering, Toyo University, Kawagoe 350-8585 (Japan); Muramatsu, M.; Kitagawa, A.; Drentje, A. G. [National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Rácz, R.; Biri, S. [Institute for Nuclear Research (ATOMKI), H-4026 Debrecen (Hungary); Asaji, T. [Oshima National College of Maritime Technology, Yamaguchi 742-2193 (Japan); Kato, Y. [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, Suita 565-0871 (Japan); Yoshida, Y. [Bio-Nano Electronics Research Centre, Toyo University, Kawagoe 350-8585 (Japan); Graduate School of Engineering, Toyo University, Kawagoe 350-8585 (Japan)

    2014-02-15

    In the paper, the material science experiments, carried out recently using the Bio-Nano electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) at Toyo University, are reported. We have investigated several methods to synthesize endohedral C{sub 60} using ion-ion and ion-molecule collision reaction in the ECRIS. Because of the simplicity of the configuration, we can install a large choice of additional equipment in the ECRIS. The Bio-Nano ECRIS is suitable not only to test the materials production but also to test technical developments to improve or understand the performance of an ECRIS.

  10. Ion cyclotron waves at unmagnetized bodies: a comparison of Mars, Venus and Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, H.; Russell, C. T.; Cowee, M.; Blanco-Cano, X.; Zhang, T.; Dougherty, M. K.

    2009-12-01

    Mars, Venus and Titan do not have appreciable global magnetic fields. Their high-altitude neutral atmospheres are not shielded from being lost to the solar wind and the Saturnian magnetosphere. When the atmospheric hydrogen atoms of Mars and Venus are ionized and picked up by the solar wind, proton cyclotron waves are created from the free energy of the ring-beam distribution of the pick-up ions. At Mars, proton cyclotron waves observed by Mars Global Surveyor extend from the magnetosheath to over 12 Mars radii, with intermittent occurrence and amplitudes slowly varying with distance. The wave occurrence pattern indicates a disk-shaped hydrogen exosphere of Mars with asymmetry in the direction of the interplanetary electric field. Fast neutrals produced by neutralization of the pickup ions can travel across fieldlines to distant regions where they get re-ionized and produce waves far downstream. Thus the top of Mars exosphere extends in a disk to high altitude, with its orientation controlled by the interplanetary magnetic field. At Venus, plasma waves having properties similar to ion cyclotron waves are observed in the solar wind around the planet by Venus Express, with wave frequencies that range from 0.2 to 5.9 times of the proton gyrofrequency. Statistical study shows that the waves with frequency higher than 1.5 times the proton gyrofrequency are not generated locally and are similar to the waves observed at 0.3 AU and 1 AU which appear to be created near the Sun and convected outward with the solar wind. The rest of the waves are mostly magnetically connected to the bow shock, so they are probably generated by particles backstreaming from the shock and propagate out further from the foreshock. At Titan, ion cyclotron waves are not observed although wave generation is expected due to the large pickup rate of hydrocarbon ions at high altitude of Titan. We attempt to understand the lack of ion cyclotron waves at Titan using hybrid simulations. Studying and

  11. Results of RIKEN superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source with 28 GHz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higurashi, Y; Ohnishi, J; Nakagawa, T; Haba, H; Tamura, M; Aihara, T; Fujimaki, M; Komiyama, M; Uchiyama, A; Kamigaito, O

    2012-02-01

    We measured the beam intensity of highly charged heavy ions and x-ray heat load for RIKEN superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source with 28 GHz microwaves under the various conditions. The beam intensity of Xe(20+) became maximum at B(min) ∼ 0.65 T, which was ∼65% of the magnetic field strength of electron cyclotron resonance (B(ECR)) for 28 GHz microwaves. We observed that the heat load of x-ray increased with decreasing gas pressure and field gradient at resonance zone. It seems that the beam intensity of highly charged heavy ions with 28 GHz is higher than that with 18 GHz at same RF power.

  12. Observation of ion-cyclotron-frequency mode-conversion flow drive in tokamak plasmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Y; Rice, J E; Wukitch, S J; Greenwald, M J; Hubbard, A E; Ince-Cushman, A; Lin, L; Porkolab, M; Reinke, M L; Tsujii, N

    2008-12-05

    Strong toroidal flow (Vphi) and poloidal flow (Vtheta) have been observed in D-3He plasmas with ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) mode-conversion (MC) heating on the Alcator C-Mod tokamak. The toroidal flow scales with the rf power Prf (up to 30 km/s per MW), and is significantly larger than that in ICRF minority heated plasmas at the same rf power or stored energy. The central Vphi responds to Prf faster than the outer regions, and the Vphi(r) profile is broadly peaked for r/a or =1.5 MW and increases with power (up to 0.7 km/s per MW). The experimental evidence together with numerical wave modeling suggests a local flow drive source due to the interaction between the MC ion cyclotron wave and 3He ions.

  13. A Kinetic Model of Solar Wind Generation by Oblique Ion-cyclotron Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isenberg, Philip A.; Vasquez, Bernard J.

    2011-04-01

    The fast solar wind is generated by extended perpendicular ion heating in coronal holes, but the kinetic mechanism responsible for this heating has not been determined. One long-standing possibility is the resonant-cyclotron dissipation of ion-cyclotron waves, replenished from a turbulent cascade of interacting counter-propagating Alfvén waves. We present results of a kinetic model for proton heating by the quasilinear resonant-cyclotron wave-particle interaction in a coronal hole. The resonant wave spectrum is taken as a power law in wavenumber, uniformly distributed in propagation direction between 0° and 60° with respect to the large-scale radial magnetic field. We obtain the steady-state solution of the kinetic guiding-center equation for the proton distribution in an expanding coronal hole, including the effects of large-scale forces of gravity, charge-separation electric field, Alfvén wave ponderomotive force, and mirror force, along with the small-scale scattering from the wave dissipation. We find that plausible wave intensities can yield reasonable flow speeds and temperatures in the heliocentric radial range between 2 and 6 solar radii. We address the claim in earlier work that dissipation of parallel-propagating ion-cyclotron waves cannot provide enough acceleration and show that claim to be incorrect. We find that the combined action of the large-scale forces and the resonant-cyclotron scattering produces proton distribution functions with a characteristic structure: compressed in the sunward half of velocity space with a high-density shell separate from the origin, and relatively expanded in the anti-sunward half of velocity space. We suggest that qualitatively similar proton distributions would result from the kinetic evolution of any sufficiently effective perpendicular heating mechanism operating in an expanding coronal hole.

  14. Effect of Ring Current Ions on Electromagnetic Ion Cyclotron Wave Dispersion Relation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamayunov, K. V.; Khazanov, G. V.

    2006-01-01

    Electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves are widely observed in the inner and outer magnetosphere, at geostationary orbit, at high latitudes along the plasmapause, and at the ionospheric altitudes. Interaction of the Ring Current (RC) ions and EMIC waves causes ion scattering into the loss cone and leads to decay of the RC, especially during the main phase of storms when the RC decay times of about one hour or less are observed. The oblique EMIC waves damp due to Landau resonance with the thermal plasmaspheric electrons, and subsequent transport of the dissipating wave energy into the ionosphere below causes an ionosphere temperature enhancement. Induced scattering of these waves by the plasmaspheric thermal ions leads to ion temperature enhancement, and forms a so-called hot zone near the plasmapause where the temperature of core plasma ions can reach tens of thousands of degrees. Relativistic electrons in the outer radiation belt also interact well with the EMIC waves, and during the main and/or recovery phases of the storms these electrons can easily be scattered into the loss cone over a time scale from several hours to a day. The plasma density distribution in the magnetosphere and the ion content play a critical role in EMIC wave generation and propagation, but the wave dispersion relation in the known RC-EMIC wave interaction models is assumed to be determined by the thermal plasma distribution only. In these models, the modification of the EMIC wave dispersion relation caused by the RC ions is not taken into account, and the RC ions are only treated as a source of free energy in order to generate EMIC waves. At the same time, the RC ions can dominate the thermal magnetospheric content in the night MLT sector at great L shells during the main and/or recovery storm phase. In this study, using our self-consistent RC-EMIC wave model [Khazanov et al., 2006], we simulate the May 1998 storm in order to quantify the global EMIC wave redistribution caused by

  15. On the influence of the shape of kappa distributions of ions and electrons on the ion-cyclotron instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziebell, L. F.; Gaelzer, R.

    2017-10-01

    The dispersion relation for ion-cyclotron waves propagating along the direction of the ambient magnetic field is investigated numerically by considering different forms of kappa functions as velocity distributions of ions and electrons. General forms of kappa distributions, isotropic and anisotropic, are defined and used to obtain the dispersion relations for ion-cyclotron waves. With suitable choice of parameters, the general forms reduce to anisotropic versions of the kappa distributions most frequently employed in the literature. The analysis is focused in cases with a small value of the kappa index, for which the non thermal character of the kappa distributions is enhanced. The results show the effects of the superthermal tails of the velocity distributions of both particle species (ions and electrons) on the growth rate of the ion-cyclotron instability. It is seen that different forms of anisotropic kappa distributions, which are used in the current literature, can have a significantly different effect on the growth rates of the instability.

  16. Characteristics of the KVI electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kremers, HR; Beijers, JPM; Brandenburg, S

    In this article, an update will be given of last year's activities to modify the CAPRICE-type ECR ion source into an AECR-type ECR ion source as developed in Berkely, Argonne and Jyvaskyla. Here we will present measurements on the radial and the axial magnetic field, the vacuum system, report on the

  17. Ion cyclotron and spin-flip emissions from fusion products in tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arunasalam, V.; Greene, G.J.; Young, K.M.

    1993-02-01

    Power emission by fusion products of tokamak plasmas in their ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) and at their spin-flip resonance frequency is calculated for some specific model fusion product velocity-space distribution functions. The background plasma of say deuterium (D) is assumed to be in equilibrium with a Maxwellian distribution both for the electrons and ions. The fusion product velocity distributions analyzed here are: (1) A monoenergetic velocity space ring distribution. (2) A monoenergetic velocity space spherical shell distribution. (3) An anisotropic Maxwellian distribution with T {perpendicular} {ne} T{parallel}and with appreciable drift velocity along the confining magnetic field. Single ``dressed`` test particle spontaneous emission calculations are presented first and the radiation temperature for ion cyclotron emission (ICE) is analyzed both for black-body emission and nonequilibrium conditions. Thresholds for instability and overstability conditions are then examined and quasilinear and nonlinear theories of the electromagnetic ion cyclotron modes are discussed. Distinctions between ``kinetic or causal instabilities`` and ``hydrodynamic instabilities`` are drawn and some numerical estimates are presented for typical tokamak parameters. Semiquantitative remarks are offered on wave accessibility, mode conversion, and parametric decay instabilities as possible for spatially localized ICE. Calculations are carried out both for k{parallel} = 0 for k{parallel} {ne} 0. The effects of the temperature anisotropy and large drift velocities in the parallel direction are also examined. Finally, proton spin-flip resonance emission and absorption calculations are also presented both for thermal equilibrium conditions and for an ``inverted`` population of states.

  18. Production of hydrogen and deuterium negative ions in an electron cyclotron resonance driven plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dougar-Jabon, V.D. [Industrial Univ. of Santander, Bucaramanga (Colombia)

    2001-04-01

    An electron cyclotron resonance source with driven plasma rings for hydrogen isotope ion production is studied. Extracted currents of positive and negative ions depending on gas pressure, microwave power value and extraction voltage are obtained. The study shows that the negative ion yield is an order of magnitude higher than the yield of positive particles when a driven ring is in contact with the surface of the plasma electrode. The production of negative ions of deuterium, D{sup -}, is close to the production of negative ions of light hydrogen isotope, H{sup -}. The comparison of the experimental data with the calculated ones shows that the most probable process of the H{sup -} and D{sup -} ion formation in the electron cyclotron driven plasma is dissociative attachment of electrons to molecules in high Rydberg states. For hydrogen ions and ions of deuterium, the negative current at a microwave power of 200 W through a 3-mm aperture and 8 kV extraction voltage are 4.7 mA and 3.1 mA respectively. (orig.)

  19. Calculating method for confinement time and charge distribution of ions in electron cyclotron resonance sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dougar-Jabon, V.D. [Escuela de Fisica, Universidad Industrial de Santander, A.A. 678, Bucaramanga (Colombia); Umnov, A.M. [Russian Friendship University, 117198 Moscow (Russia); Kutner, V.B. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russia)

    1996-03-01

    It is common knowledge that the electrostatic pit in a core plasma of electron cyclotron resonance sources exerts strict control over generation of ions in high charge states. This work is aimed at finding a dependence of the lifetime of ions on their charge states in the core region and to elaborate a numerical model of ion charge dispersion not only for the core plasmas but for extracted beams as well. The calculated data are in good agreement with the experimental results on charge distributions and magnitudes for currents of beams extracted from the 14 GHz DECRIS source. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  20. The third generation superconducting 28 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source VENUS (invited)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyneis, C.; Leitner, D.; Leitner, M.; Taylor, C.; Abbott, S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, One Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2010-02-15

    VENUS is a third generation electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source, which incorporates a high field superconducting NbTi magnet structure, a 28 GHz gryotron microwave source and a state of the art closed cycle cryosystem. During the decade from initial concept to regular operation, it has demonstrated both the feasibility and the performance levels of this new generation of ECR ion sources and required innovation on magnet construction, plasma chamber design, and beam transport. In this paper, the development, performance, and major innovations are described as well as a look to the potential to construct a fourth generation ECR ion source.

  1. An ICR study of ion-molecule reactions of PH(n)+ ions. [of importance to interstellar chemistry, using ion cyclotron resonance techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, L. R.; Anicich, V. G.; Huntress, W. T.

    1983-01-01

    The reactions of PH(n)+ ions (n = 0-3) were examined with a number of neutrals using ion-cyclotron-resonance techniques. The reactions examined have significance for the distribution of phosphorus in interstellar molecules. The results indicate that interstellar molecules containing the P-O bond are likely to be more abundant than those containing the P-H bond.

  2. Collision cross section measurements for biomolecules within a high-resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Lu; Chen, Yu; Xin, Yi; Chen, Yu; Zheng, Li; Kaiser, Nathan K; Marshall, Alan G; Xu, Wei

    2015-04-21

    To understand the role and function of a biomolecule in a biosystem, it is important to know both its composition and structure. Here, a mass spectrometric based approach has been proposed and applied to demonstrate that collision cross sections and high-resolution mass spectra of biomolecule ions may be obtained simultaneously by Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry. With this method, the unfolding phenomena for ubiquitin ions that possess different number of charges have been investigated, and results agree well with ion mobility measurements. In the present approach, we extend ion collision cross-section measurements to lower pressures than in prior ion cyclotron resonance (ICR)-based experiments, thereby maintaining the potentially high resolution of Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICR MS), and enabling collision cross section (CCS) measurements for high-mass biomolecules.

  3. Experimental observations of mode-converted ion cyclotron waves in a tokamak plasma by phase contrast imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson-Melby, E; Porkolab, M; Bonoli, P T; Lin, Y; Mazurenko, A; Wukitch, S J

    2003-04-18

    The process of mode conversion, whereby an externally launched electromagnetic wave converts into a shorter wavelength mode(s) in a thermal plasma near a resonance in the index of refraction, is particularly important in a multi-ion species plasma near the ion cyclotron frequency. Using phase contrast imaging techniques (PCI), mode-converted electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves have been detected for the first time in the Alcator C-Mod tokamak near the H-3He ion-ion hybrid resonance region during high power rf heating experiments. The results agree with theoretical predictions.

  4. High-harmonic electron bunching in the field of a signal wave and the use of this effect in cyclotron masers with frequency multiplication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Bandurkin

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A method of organizing electron-wave interaction at the multiplied frequency of the signal wave is proposed. This type of electron-wave interaction provides multiplied-frequency electron bunching, which leads to formation of an intense harmonic of the electron current at a selected multiplied frequency of the signal wave. This effect is attractive for the use in klystron-type cyclotron masers with frequency multiplication as a way to increase the output frequency and improve the selectivity.

  5. Stabilization of ion fishbone activities by electron cyclotron resonance heating in a toroidal plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, W.; Yu, L. M.; Shi, P. W.; Ma, R.; Ji, X. Q.; Jiang, M.; Zhu, X. L.; Shi, Z. B.; Yu, D. L.; Yuan, B. S.; Li, Y. G.; Yang, Z. C.; Cao, J. Y.; Song, S. D.; Zhong, W. L.; He, H. D.; Dong, J. Q.; Ding, X. T.; Yan, L. W.; Liu, Yi.; Yang, Q. W.; Xu, M.; Duan, X. R.

    2018-01-01

    We report an experimental result on the stabilization of the energetic–ion driven internal kink mode (ion fishbone) by electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH), observed for the first time in a toroidal plasma. The mode asserts itself a resistive branch close to the marginal stability point. The resulting fishbone mode depends not only on the injected power but also on the radial deposition location of ECRH, and the instability can be completely suppressed when the injected ECRH power exceeds certain threshold. Analysis by the fishbone dispersion relation, including the resistive effect, suggests that the magnetic Reynolds number plays a key role in the mode stabilization—it weakens the mode growth-rate and enhances the critical energetic–ion beta without changing the energetic–ion population. This ion fishbone stabilization mechanism can be important for future devices such as ITER, which has significant ECRH capability.

  6. Development of Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Source for Synthesis of Endohedral Metallofullerenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, K.; Muramatsu, M.; Uchida, T.; Biri, S.; Asaji, T.; Shima, K.; Hanajiri, T.; Kitagawa, A.; Kato, Y.; Yoshida, Y.

    2008-11-01

    A new electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) has been constructed for synthesis of endohedral metallofullerenes. The main purpose of the ion source is to produce new biological and medical materials. The design is based on ECRIS for production of multicharged ion beams with a traditional minimum-B magnetic field. An 8-10 GHz traveling wave tube (TWT) amplifier and a 2.45 GHz magnetron have been applied as microwave sources. Fullerene and metal vapor are introduced with a filament heating micro-oven and an induction heating oven, respectively. In preliminary ion-extraction test, Ar+ is 54 μA. Many broken fullerenes such as C58 and C56 are observed in fullerene ion beams.

  7. Fullerene-rare gas mixed plasmas in an electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asaji, T., E-mail: asaji@oshima-k.ac.jp; Ohba, T. [Oshima National College of Maritime Technology, 1091-1 Komatsu, Suo-oshima, Oshima, Yamaguchi 742-2193 (Japan); Uchida, T.; Yoshida, Y. [Bio-Nano Electronics Research Centre, Toyo University, 2100 Kujirai, Kawagoe, Saitama 350-8585 (Japan); Minezaki, H.; Ishihara, S. [Graduate School of Engineering, Toyo University, 2100 Kujirai, Kawagoe, Saitama 350-8585 (Japan); Racz, R.; Biri, S. [Institute of Nuclear Research (ATOMKI), H-4026 Debrecen, Bem Tér 18/c (Hungary); Muramatsu, M.; Kitagawa, A. [National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Kato, Y. [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2014-02-15

    A synthesis technology of endohedral fullerenes such as Fe@C{sub 60} has developed with an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source. The production of N@C{sub 60} was reported. However, the yield was quite low, since most fullerene molecules were broken in the ECR plasma. We have adopted gas-mixing techniques in order to cool the plasma and then reduce fullerene dissociation. Mass spectra of ion beams extracted from fullerene-He, Ar or Xe mixed plasmas were observed with a Faraday cup. From the results, the He gas mixing technique is effective against fullerene destruction.

  8. The Spontaneous Loss of Coherence Catastrophe in Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizikov, Konstantin; Mathur, Raman; O’Connor, Peter B.

    2009-01-01

    The spontaneous loss of coherence catastrophe (SLCC) is a frequently observed, yet poorly studied, space-charge related effect in Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICR-MS). This manuscript presents an application of the filter diagonalization method (FDM) in the analysis of this phenomenon. The temporal frequency behavior reproduced by frequency shift analysis using the FDM shows the complex nature of the SLCC, which can be explained by a combination of factors occurring concurrently, governed by electrostatics and ion packet trajectories inside the ICR cell. PMID:19013078

  9. Preliminary results of ion trajectory tracking in the acceleration region of the VINCY cyclotron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilić Anđelija Ž.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In an accelerating region of a cyclotron, an ion makes a large number of turns; thus, its n the Runge-Kutta method of the fourth order with the adaptive time step has been developed. The accuracy requirement is simultaneously set on position and momentum calculation. Magnetic fields used as inputs, have been evaluated in terms of the radial fluctuations of the orbital frequency, i.e. their isochronisms. Ion trajectory tracking has been performed for the following four test beams: H-, H+3, 4He+, He+, and 40Ar6+.

  10. Development of DRAGON electron cyclotron resonance ion source at Institute of Modern Physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, W; Xie, D Z; Zhang, X Z; Xiong, B; Ruan, L; Sha, S; Zhang, W H; Cao, Y; Lin, S H; Guo, J W; Fang, X; Guo, X H; Li, X X; Ma, H Y; Yang, Y; Wu, Q; Zhao, H Y; Ma, B H; Wang, H; Zhu, Y H; Feng, Y C; Li, J Y; Li, J Q; Sun, L T; Zhao, H W

    2012-02-01

    A new room temperature electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source, DRAGON, is under construction at IMP. DRAGON is designed to operate at microwaves of frequencies of 14.5-18 GHz. Its axial solenoid coils are cooled with evaporative medium to provide an axial magnetic mirror field of 2.5 T at the injection and 1.4 T at the extraction, respectively. In comparison to other conventional room temperature ECR ion sources, DRAGON has so far the largest bore plasma chamber of inner diameter of 126 mm with maximum radial fields of 1.4-1.5 T produced by a non-Halbach permanent sextupole magnet.

  11. Diagnostics of a charge breeder electron cyclotron resonance ion source helium plasma with the injection of ^{23}Na^{1+} ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Tarvainen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the utilization of an injected ^{23}Na^{1+} ion beam as a diagnostics of the helium plasma of a charge breeder electron cyclotron resonance ion source. The obtained data allows estimating the upper limit for the ion-ion collision mean-free path of the incident sodium ions, the lower limit of ion-ion collision frequencies for all charge states of the sodium ions and the lower limit of the helium plasma density. The ion-ion collision frequencies of high charge state ions are shown to be at least on the order of 1–10 MHz and the plasma density is estimated to be on the order of 10^{11}  cm^{-3} or higher. The experimental results are compared to simulations of the ^{23}Na^{1+} capture into the helium plasma. The results indicate that the lower breeding efficiency of light ions in comparison to heavier elements is probably due to different capture efficiencies in which the in-flight ionization of the incident 1+ ions plays a vital role.

  12. Ion cyclotron range of frequencies heating of plasma with small impurity production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohkawa, Tihiro

    1987-01-01

    Plasma including plasma ions is magnetically confined by a magnetic field. The plasma has a defined outer surface and is intersected by resonance surfaces of respective common ion cyclotron frequency of a predetermined species of plasma ions moving in the magnetic field. A radio frequency source provides radio frequency power at a radio frequency corresponding to the ion cyclotron frequency of the predetermined species of plasma ions moving in the field at a respective said resonance surface. RF launchers coupled to the radio frequency source radiate radio frequency energy at the resonance frequency onto the respective resonance surface within the plasma from a plurality of locations located outside the plasma at such respective distances from the intersections of the respective resonance surface and the defined outer surface and at such relative phases that the resulting interference pattern provides substantially null net radio frequency energy over regions near and including substantial portions of the intersections relative to the radio frequency energy provided thereby at other portions of the respective resonance surface within the plasma.

  13. Boosting Sensitivity in Liquid Chromatography-Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance-Tandem Mass Spectrometry for Product Ion Analysis of Monoterpene Indole Alkaloids

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nakabayashi, Ryo; Tsugawa, Hiroshi; Kitajima, Mariko; Takayama, Hiromitsu; Saito, Kazuki

    2015-01-01

    .... However, the development of relevant analytical methods are less advanced. Here, we developed a method to boost sensitivity in liquid chromatography-Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance-tandem mass spectrometry analysis...

  14. Performance evaluation of a dual linear ion trap-Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer for proteomics research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisbrod, Chad R; Hoopmann, Michael R; Senko, Michael W; Bruce, James E

    2013-08-02

    A novel dual cell linear ion trap Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer (FT-ICR MS) and its performance characteristics are reported. A linear ion trap-Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer has been modified to incorporate a LTQ-Velos mass spectrometer. This modified instrument features efficient ion accumulation and fast MS/MS acquisition capabilities of dual cell linear RF ion trap instruments coupled to the high mass accuracy, resolution, and dynamic range of a FT-ICR for improved proteomic coverage. The ion accumulation efficiency is demonstrated to be an order of magnitude greater than that observed with LTQ-FT Ultra instrumentation. The proteome coverage with yeast was shown to increase over the previous instrument generation by 50% (100% increase on the peptide level). In addition, many lower abundance level yeast proteins were only detected with this modified instrument. This novel configuration also enables beam type CID fragmentation using a dual cell RF ion trap mass spectrometer. This technique involves accelerating ions between traps while applying an elevated DC offset to one of the traps to accelerate ions and induce fragmentation. This instrument design may serve as a useful option for labs currently considering purchasing new instrumentation or upgrading existing instruments. A novel hybrid mass spectrometer that allows increased MS/MS acquisition rates with high mass measurement accuracy and new ion fragmentation methods greatly improves the number of proteins, posttranslational modifications and protein-protein interactions that can be identified from cells. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Three-dimensional simulations of ion dynamics in the plasma of an electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Mironov

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The ion production in an electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS is modeled using a particle-in-cell Monte-Carlo-collision code in a three-dimensional geometry. Only the heavy particles (ions and atoms are tracked, while the electrons are represented using a Maxwell-Boltzmann energy distribution with the electron density determined from the requirement of quasineutrality, and the electron temperature considered as a free parameter. It is found that experimentally observed features of ECRIS plasma are closely reproduced by the code, including the charge-state distributions of extracted ion beams and sputtering patterns inside the source. The isotope anomaly is observed for the mixture of ^{20}Ne+^{22}Ne isotopes, and a possible explanation is proposed. Finally, the wall-coating effect is treated by modeling the neutralization of ions impinging on the walls of the plasma chamber.

  16. Dynamically Harmonized FT-ICR Cell with Specially Shaped Electrodes for Compensation of Inhomogeneity of the Magnetic Field. Computer Simulations of the Electric Field and Ion Motion Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostyukevich, Yury I.; Vladimirov, Gleb N.; Nikolaev, Eugene N.

    2012-12-01

    The recently introduced ion trap for FT-ICR mass spectrometers with dynamic harmonization showed the highest resolving power ever achieved both for ions with moderate masses 500-1000 Da (peptides) as well as ions with very high masses of up to 200 kDa (proteins). Such results were obtained for superconducting magnets of very high homogeneity of the magnetic field. For magnets with lower homogeneity, the time of transient duration would be smaller. In superconducting magnets used in FT-ICR mass spectrometry the inhomogeneity of the magnetic field in its axial direction prevails over the inhomogeneity in other directions and should be considered as the main factor influencing the synchronic motion of the ion cloud. The inhomogeneity leads to a dependence of the cyclotron frequency from the amplitude of axial oscillation in the potential well of the ion trap. As a consequence, ions in an ion cloud become dephased, which leads to signal attenuation and decrease in the resolving power. Ion cyclotron frequency is also affected by the radial component of the electric field. Hence, by appropriately adjusting the electric field one can compensate the inhomogeneity of the magnetic field and align the cyclotron frequency in the whole range of amplitudes of z-oscillations. A method of magnetic field inhomogeneity compensation in a dynamically harmonized FT-ICR cell is presented, based on adding of extra electrodes into the cell shaped in such a way that the averaged electric field created by these electrodes produces a counter force to the forces caused by the inhomogeneous magnetic field.

  17. First results of the 2.45 GHz Oshima electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asaji, T., E-mail: asaji@nc-toyama.ac.jp [National Institute of Technology, Toyama College, 13 Hongo, Toyama 939-8630 (Japan); Nakamura, T.; Furuse, M. [National Institute of Technology, Oshima College, 1091-1 Komatsu, Suouoshima, Oshima, Yamaguchi 742-2193 (Japan); Hitobo, T. [Tateyama Machine Co., Ltd., 30 Shimonoban, Toyama 930-1305 (Japan); Uchida, T. [Graduate School of Engineering, Toyo University, 2100 Kujirai, Kawagoe, Saitama 350-8585 (Japan); Muramatsu, M. [National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Kato, Y. [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2016-02-15

    A new electron cyclotron resonance ion source has been constructed at Oshima College with a 2.45 GHz magnetron microwave source and permanent magnets employed as the main components. In addition, a solid-state power amplifier with a frequency range of 2.5–6.0 GHz was installed to study two-frequency plasma heating. Three solenoid coils were set up for adjusting the axial magnetic fields. Argon plasma generation and ion beam production have been conducted during the first year of operation. Ion current densities in the ECR plasma were measured using a biased disk. For 2.45 and 4.65 GHz two-frequency plasma heating, the ion density was approximately 1.5 times higher than that of 2.45 GHz single-frequency heating.

  18. Status of charge breeding with electron cyclotron resonance ion sources (invited)

    CERN Document Server

    Lamy, T; Sortais, P; Thuillier, T; 10.1063/1.2149300

    2006-01-01

    Due to the production methods of exotic nuclei, an efficient acceleration of radioactive ion beams needs charge breeding of weakly charged ions. The upgrade of existing isotope separator on-line facilities (TRIUMF-isotope separation and acceleration, CERN-isotope separation on-line detector, etc.) or the development of projects for the acceleration of radioactive ion beams (GANIL-SPIRAL2, MAFF, EURISOL, etc.) requires charge breeders with high efficiency, fast charge breeding time, low background levels, and high intensity acceptance either in continuous or in pulsed mode. The optimization of these parameters is a challenge for the electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) community and is useful to get a better understanding of plasma physics in ECR ion sources (ECRISs). The ECR charge breeding technique has been developed for more than ten years at LPSC (former ISN) Grenoble, typical 1+rightward arrown+ efficiencies are in the 3%-10% range depending on the nature of the incoming beam (metallic, alkaline, and gaseo...

  19. The preliminary tests of the superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source DECRIS-SC2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efremov, A; Bekhterev, V; Bogomolov, S; Drobin, V; Loginov, V; Lebedev, A; Yazvitsky, N; Yakovlev, B

    2012-02-01

    A new compact version of the "liquid He-free" superconducting ECR ion source, to be used as an injector of highly charged heavy ions for the MC-400 cyclotron, is designed and built at the Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions in collaboration with the Laboratory of High Energy Physics of JINR. The axial magnetic field of the source is created by the superconducting magnet and the NdFeB hexapole is used for the radial plasma confinement. The microwave frequency of 14 GHz is used for ECR plasma heating. During the first tests, the source shows a good enough performance for the production of medium charge state ions. In this paper, we will present the design parameters and the preliminary results with gaseous ions.

  20. Superconducting magnets for the RAON electron cyclotron resonance ion source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, S; Kim, Y; Hong, I S; Jeon, D

    2014-02-01

    The RAON linear accelerator of Rare Isotope Science Project has been developed since 2011, and the superconducting magnet for ECRIS was designed. The RAON ECR ion source was considered as a 3rd generation source. The fully superconducting magnet has been designed for operating using 28 GHz radio frequency. The RAON ECRIS operates in a minimum B field configuration which means that a magnetic sextupole field for radial confinement is superimposed with a magnetic mirror field for axial confinement. The highest field strength reaches 3.5 T on axis and 2 T at the plasma chamber wall for operating frequency up to 28 GHz. In this paper, the design results are presented of optimized superconducting magnet consisting of four solenoids and sextupole. The prototype magnet for ECRIS was fabricated and tested to verify the feasibility of the design. On the basis of test results, a fully superconducting magnet will be fabricated and tested.

  1. Ion cyclotron and spin-flip emissions from fusion products in tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arunasalam, V.; Greene, G.J.; Young, K.M.

    1993-02-01

    Power emission by fusion products of tokamak plasmas in their ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) and at their spin-flip resonance frequency is calculated for some specific model fusion product velocity-space distribution functions. The background plasma of say deuterium (D) is assumed to be in equilibrium with a Maxwellian distribution both for the electrons and ions. The fusion product velocity distributions analyzed here are: (1) A monoenergetic velocity space ring distribution. (2) A monoenergetic velocity space spherical shell distribution. (3) An anisotropic Maxwellian distribution with T [perpendicular] [ne] T[parallel]and with appreciable drift velocity along the confining magnetic field. Single dressed'' test particle spontaneous emission calculations are presented first and the radiation temperature for ion cyclotron emission (ICE) is analyzed both for black-body emission and nonequilibrium conditions. Thresholds for instability and overstability conditions are then examined and quasilinear and nonlinear theories of the electromagnetic ion cyclotron modes are discussed. Distinctions between kinetic or causal instabilities'' and hydrodynamic instabilities'' are drawn and some numerical estimates are presented for typical tokamak parameters. Semiquantitative remarks are offered on wave accessibility, mode conversion, and parametric decay instabilities as possible for spatially localized ICE. Calculations are carried out both for k[parallel] = 0 for k[parallel] [ne] 0. The effects of the temperature anisotropy and large drift velocities in the parallel direction are also examined. Finally, proton spin-flip resonance emission and absorption calculations are also presented both for thermal equilibrium conditions and for an inverted'' population of states.

  2. Theory and observations of electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves in Saturn's inner magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, D. D.

    1993-01-01

    High-resolution Voyager 1 magnetic field observations of Saturn's inner magnetosphere are examined for the presence of ULF waves. Quasi-circular left-hand polarized transverse oscillations are found in the near-equatorial region of 5-7 Rs with a wave period about 10 s and peak amplitude of about 2 nT. The wave is identified as the electromagnetic oxygen cyclotron mode occurring at a frequency just below the O(+) ion cyclotron frequency. A theoretical model of wave excitation based on gyroresonant coupling through a temperature anisotropy of O(+) pickup ions is developed which accounts for the principal features of the wave spectrum. It is hypothesized that wave-particle interactions provide a level of scattering commensurate with the weak pitch angle diffusion regime but nonetheless one that regulates and maintains a constant thermal anisotropy of ions along the magnetic field. Arguments are also presented that O(+) was the dominant thermal ion of the Dione-Tethys plasma torus at the time of the Pioneer 11 encounter the year previous to the Voyager 1 measurements.

  3. Analysis of MMS observations of Ion Cyclotron Waves in the Magnetosheath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boardsen, S. A.; Vinas, A. F.; Gershman, D. J.; Dorelli, J.; Bellan, P. M.; Wendel, D. E.; Avanov, L. A.; Barrie, A. C.; Giles, B. L.; Moore, T. E.; Paterson, W. R.; Pollock, C.; Le, G.; Russell, C. T.; Fuselier, S. A.; Strangeway, R. J.; Torbert, R. B.; Burch, J. L.

    2016-12-01

    We will analyze magnetosheath ion cyclotron waves observed by the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) Spacecraft. One such event occurred on October 7, 2016, in which strong ion cyclotron waves were observed in the magnetosheath, near the bowshock, lasting for 1 hour. We will perform a detailed wave analysis of this and similar events, comparing and contrasting single spacecraft and multi-spacecraft analysis techniques. The later will consist of a) Balikhin's phase difference method, b) Bellan's k-spectral plasma current method, and c) k-Filtering multi-spacecraft technique. For the identified wave mode based on these techniques, the self-consistency between the ion/electron fluctuations and the electric and magnetic field fluctuations of these waves will be explored. No Fast Plasma Investigation burst mode data exists for these events, so trigger data, which is at the same temporal resolution as that of the burst mode will be used to compare the ion/electron fluctuations with that of the electric and magnetic fields

  4. Spatial dependence of electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves triggered by solar wind dynamic pressure enhancements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, J.-H.; Lee, D.-Y.; Noh, S.-J.; Kim, H.; Choi, C. R.; Lee, J.; Hwang, J.

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, using the multisatellite (the Van Allen Probes and two GOES satellites) observations in the inner magnetosphere, we examine two electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) wave events that are triggered by Pdyn enhancements under prolonged northward interplanetary magnetic field quiet time preconditions. For both events, the impact of enhanced Pdyn causes EMIC waves at multiple points. However, we find a strong spatial dependence that EMIC waves due to enhanced Pdyn impact can occur at multiple points (likely globally but not necessarily everywhere) but with different wave properties. For Event 1, three satellites situated at a nearly same dawnside zone but at slightly different L shells see occurrence of EMIC waves but in different frequencies relative to local ion gyrofrequencies and with different polarizations. These waves are found inside or at the outer edge of the plasmasphere. Another satellite near noon observes no dramatic EMIC wave despite the strongest magnetic compression there. For Event 2, the four satellites are situated at widely separated magnetic local time zones when they see occurrence of EMIC waves. They are again found at different frequencies relative to local ion gyrofrequencies with different polarizations and all outside the plasmasphere. We propose two possible explanations that (i) if triggered by enhanced Pdyn impact, details of ion cyclotron instability growth can be sensitive to local plasma conditions related to background proton distributions, and (ii) there can be preexisting waves with a specific spatial distribution, which determines occurrence and specific properties of EMIC waves depending on satellite's relative position after an enhanced Pdyn arrives.

  5. Numerical simulations of gas mixing effect in electron cyclotron resonance ion sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Mironov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The particle-in-cell Monte Carlo collisions code nam-ecris is used to simulate the electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS plasma sustained in a mixture of Kr with O_{2}, N_{2}, Ar, Ne, and He. The model assumes that ions are electrostatically confined in the ECR zone by a dip in the plasma potential. A gain in the extracted krypton ion currents is seen for the highest charge states; the gain is maximized when oxygen is used as a mixing gas. The special feature of oxygen is that most of the singly charged oxygen ions are produced after the dissociative ionization of oxygen molecules with a large kinetic energy release of around 5 eV per ion. The increased loss rate of energetic lowly charged ions of the mixing element requires a building up of the retarding potential barrier close to the ECR surface to equilibrate electron and ion losses out of the plasma. In the mixed plasmas, the barrier value is large (∼1  V compared to pure Kr plasma (∼0.01  V, with longer confinement times of krypton ions and with much higher ion temperatures. The temperature of the krypton ions is increased because of extra heating by the energetic oxygen ions and a longer time of ion confinement. In calculations, a drop of the highly charged ion currents of lighter elements is observed when adding small fluxes of krypton into the source. This drop is caused by the accumulation of the krypton ions inside plasma, which decreases the electron and ion confinement times.

  6. Increase of the performances of electron cyclotron resonance ion sources by using cold electron emission

    CERN Document Server

    Schaechter, I; Badescu-Singureanu, A I; Stiebing, K E; Runkel, S; Hohn, O; Schmidt, L; Schmidt-Böcking, H; Drentje, A; Rodríguez, G

    2003-01-01

    The possibility of a significant increase of the high charge state ion beams delivered by electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources was approached in IFIN-HH, Bucharest, Romania by a new method. It consists in the introduction in the plasma chamber of the ECR ion source of a metal-dielectric (MD) structure characterized by very high secondary electron emission properties. The intensities of argon ion beams extracted from the 14 GHz ECR ion sources of IKF, Frankfurt/Main, Germany and KVI, Groningen, Netherlands were measured both in the standard mode of operation of the sources and in the presence of a MD structure. Similar results were obtained in both experiments when the MD structure was used showing a net shift of the beam intensity towards higher charge states as compared with the usual standard plasma chamber of the ECR ion sources. Ion current enhancement factors of up to two orders of magnitude were obtained for Ar sup 1 sup 6 sup + ions. (authors)

  7. Beam experiments with the Grenoble test electron cyclotron resonance ion source at iThemba LABS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomae, R; Conradie, J; Fourie, D; Mira, J; Nemulodi, F; Kuechler, D; Toivanen, V

    2016-02-01

    At iThemba Laboratory for Accelerator Based Sciences (iThemba LABS) an electron cyclotron ion source was installed and commissioned. This source is a copy of the Grenoble Test Source (GTS) for the production of highly charged ions. The source is similar to the GTS-LHC at CERN and named GTS2. A collaboration between the Accelerators and Beam Physics Group of CERN and the Accelerator and Engineering Department of iThemba LABS was proposed in which the development of high intensity argon and xenon beams is envisaged. In this paper, we present beam experiments with the GTS2 at iThemba LABS, in which the results of continuous wave and afterglow operation of xenon ion beams with oxygen as supporting gases are presented.

  8. Beam experiments with the Grenoble test electron cyclotron resonance ion source at iThemba LABS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomae, R., E-mail: rthomae@tlabs.ac.za; Conradie, J.; Fourie, D.; Mira, J.; Nemulodi, F. [iThemba LABS, P.O. Box 722, Somerset West 7130 (South Africa); Kuechler, D.; Toivanen, V. [CERN, BE/ABP/HSL, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)

    2016-02-15

    At iThemba Laboratory for Accelerator Based Sciences (iThemba LABS) an electron cyclotron ion source was installed and commissioned. This source is a copy of the Grenoble Test Source (GTS) for the production of highly charged ions. The source is similar to the GTS-LHC at CERN and named GTS2. A collaboration between the Accelerators and Beam Physics Group of CERN and the Accelerator and Engineering Department of iThemba LABS was proposed in which the development of high intensity argon and xenon beams is envisaged. In this paper, we present beam experiments with the GTS2 at iThemba LABS, in which the results of continuous wave and afterglow operation of xenon ion beams with oxygen as supporting gases are presented.

  9. Development of a miniature microwave electron cyclotron resonance plasma ion thruster for exospheric micro-propulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Indranuj; Toyoda, Yuji; Yamamoto, Naoji; Nakashima, Hideki

    2015-12-01

    A miniature microwave electron cyclotron resonance plasma source [(discharge diameter)/(microwave cutoff diameter) micro-propulsion applications in the exosphere. The discharge source uses both radial and axial magnetostatic field confinement to facilitate electron cyclotron resonance and increase the electron dwell time in the volume, thereby enhancing plasma production efficiency. Performance of the ion thruster is studied at 3 microwave frequencies (1.2 GHz, 1.6 GHz, and 2.45 GHz), for low input powers (<15 W) and small xenon mass flow rates (<40 μg/s), by experimentally measuring the extracted ion beam current through a potential difference of ≅1200 V. The discharge geometry is found to operate most efficiently at an input microwave frequency of 1.6 GHz. At this frequency, for an input power of 8 W, and propellant (xenon) mass flow rate of 21 μg/s, 13.7 mA of ion beam current is obtained, equivalent to an calculated thrust of 0.74 mN.

  10. Consequences of the Ion Cyclotron Instability in the Inner Magnetospheric Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazanov, George V.

    2011-01-01

    The inner magnetospheric plasma is a very unique composition of different plasma particles and waves. Among these plasma particles and waves are Ring Current (RC) particles and Electromagnetic Ion Cyclotron (EMIC) waves. The RC is the source of free energy for the EMIC wave excitation provided by a temperature anisotropy of RC ions, which develops naturally during inward E x B convection from the plasma sheet. The cold plasmasphere, which is under the strong influence of the magnetospheric electric field, strongly mediates the RC-EMIC waves-coupling process, and ultimately becomes part of the particle and energy interplay, generated by the ion cyclotron instability of the inner magnetosphere. On the other hand, there is a strong influence of the RC on the inner magnetospheric electric and magnetic field configurations and these configurations, in turn, are important to RC dynamics. Therefore, one of the biggest needs for inner magnetospheric plasma physics research is the continued progression toward a coupled, interconnected system, with the inclusion of nonlinear feedback mechanisms between the plasma populations, the electric and magnetic fields, and plasma waves.

  11. Spectra of KeV Protons Related to Ion-Cyclotron Wave Packets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazanov, G. V.; Sibeck, D. G.; Tel'Nikhin, A. A.; Kronberg, T. K.

    2017-01-01

    We use the Fokker-Planck-Kolmogorov equation to study the statistical aspects of stochastic dynamics of the radiation belt (RB) protons driven by nonlinear electromagnetic ion-cyclotron (EMIC) wave packets. We obtain the spectra of keV protons scattered by these waves that showsteeping near the gyroresonance, the signature of resonant wave-particle interaction that cannot be described by a simple power law. The most likely mechanism for proton precipitation events in RBs is shown to be nonlinear wave-particle interaction, namely, the scattering of RB protons into the loss cone by EMIC waves.

  12. Ion cyclotron waves in the Earth’s magnetotail during CASSINI’s Earth swing-by

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. T. Bogdanov

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available The properties of low frequency magnetotail waves observed during CASSINI’s Earth swing-by are examined. A maximum in the distribution of the waves about half the proton cyclotron frequency and a peak at linear polarisation are found and their implications are analysed in detail. Data on the fluid plasma velocity for the observation interval are not available and thus no unique conclusions about Doppler shift influence on the properties of the waves can be made. This determines the need to analyse different hypotheses in order to understand the origin of the waves. The plausibility of competing interpretations, such as off-resonance proton cyclotron waves and bi-ion cyclotron waves at the gyrofrequency of a heavy ion component of the magneto-tail plasma in the form of He ++ ions of solar wind origin is questioned.Key words. Space plasma physics (waves and instabilities – Magnetospheric physics (plasma waves and instabilities; magnetotail

  13. Second harmonic plasma emission involving ion sound waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairns, Iver H.

    1987-01-01

    The theory for second harmonic plasma emission by the weak turbulence (or random phase) processes L + L + or - S to T, proceeding in two three-wave steps, L + or - S to L prime and L + L prime to T, where L, S and T denote Langmuir, ion sound and electromagnetic waves, respectively, is developed. Kinematic constraints on the characteristics and growth lengths of waves participating in the wave processes, and constraints on the characteristics of the source plasma, are derived. Limits on the brightness temperature of the radiation and the levels of the L prime and S waves are determined. Expressions for the growth rates and path-integrated wave temperatures are derived for simple models of the wave spectra and source plasma.

  14. Electron cyclotron resonance discharge as a source for hydrogen and deuterium ions production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chacon Velasco, A.J. [Universidad de Pamplona, Pamplona (Colombia); Dougar-Jabon, V.D. [Universidad Industrial de Santander, Bucaramanga (Colombia)

    2004-07-01

    In this report, we describe characteristics of a ring-structure hydrogen plasma heated in electron cyclotron resonance conditions and confined in a mirror magnetic trap and discuss the relative efficiency of secondary electrons and thermo-electrons in negative hydrogen and deuterium ion production. The obtained data and calculations of the balance equations for possible reactions demonstrate that the negative ion production is realized in two stages. First, the hydrogen and deuterium molecules are excited in collisions with the plasma electrons to high-laying Rydberg or vibrational levels in the plasma volume. The second stage leads to the negative ion production through the process of dissociative attachment of low energy electrons. The low energy electrons are originated due to a bombardment of the plasma electrode by ions of one of the driven rings and thermo-emission from heated tungsten filaments. Experiments seem to indicate that the negative ion generation occurs predominantly in the limited volume filled with thermo-electrons. Estimation of the negative ion generation rate shows that the main channel of H{sup -} and D{sup -} ion production involves the process of high Rydberg state excitation. (authors)

  15. On ion gyro-harmonic structuring in the stimulated electromagnetic emission spectrum during second electron gyro-harmonic heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samimi, A.; Scales, W. A.; Bernhardt, P. A.; Briczinski, S. J.; Selcher, C. A.; McCarrick, M. J.

    2012-11-01

    Recent observations show that, during ionospheric heating experiments at frequencies near the second electron gyro-harmonic, discrete spectral lines separated by harmonics of the ion-gyro frequency appear in the stimulated electromagnetic emission (SEE) spectrum within 1 kHz of the pump frequency. In addition to the ion gyro-harmonic structures, on occasion, a broadband downshifted emission is observed simultaneously with these spectral lines. Parametric decay of the pump field into upper hybrid/electron Bernstein (UH/EB) and low-frequency ion Bernstein (IB) and oblique ion acoustic (IA) modes is considered responsible for generation of these spectral features. Guided by predictions of an analytical model, a two-dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) computational model is employed to study the nonlinear processes during such heating experiments. The critical parameters that affect the spectrum, such as whether discrete gyro-harmonic on broadband structures is observed, include angle of the pump field relative to the background magnetic field, pump field strength, and proximity of the pump frequency to the gyro-harmonic. Significant electron heating along the magnetic field is observed in the parameter regimes considered.

  16. Precision mass measurements using the Phase-Imaging Ion-Cyclotron-Resonance detection technique

    CERN Document Server

    Karthein, Jonas

    This thesis presents the implementation and improvement of the Phase-Imaging Ion-Cyclotron-Resonance (PI-ICR) detection technique at the ISOLTRAP experiment, located at the ISOLDE / CERN, with the purpose of on-line high-precision and high-resolution mass spectrometry. Extensive simulation studies were performed with the aim of improving the phase-imaging resolution and finding the optimal position for detector placement. Following the outcome of these simulations, the detector was moved out of a region of electric-field distortion and closer to the center of the Penning trap, showing a dramatic improvement in the quality and reproducibility of the phase-imaging measurements. A new image reconstitution and analysis software for the MCP-PS detector was written in Python and ROOT and introduced in the framework of PI-ICR mass measurements. The state of the art in the field of time-of-flight ion-cyclotron-resonance measurements is illustrated through an analysis of on-line measurements of the mirror nuclei $...

  17. Intense beam production of highly charged heavy ions by the superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source SECRAL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, H W; Sun, L T; Zhang, X Z; Guo, X H; Cao, Y; Lu, W; Zhang, Z M; Yuan, P; Song, M T; Zhao, H Y; Jin, T; Shang, Y; Zhan, W L; Wei, B W; Xie, D Z

    2008-02-01

    There has been increasing demand to provide higher beam intensity and high enough beam energy for heavy ion accelerator and some other applications, which has driven electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source to produce higher charge state ions with higher beam intensity. One of development trends for highly charged ECR ion source is to build new generation ECR sources by utilization of superconducting magnet technology. SECRAL (superconducting ECR ion source with advanced design in Lanzhou) was successfully built to produce intense beams of highly charged ion for Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL). The ion source has been optimized to be operated at 28 GHz for its maximum performance. The superconducting magnet confinement configuration of the ion source consists of three axial solenoid coils and six sextupole coils with a cold iron structure as field booster and clamping. An innovative design of SECRAL is that the three axial solenoid coils are located inside of the sextupole bore in order to reduce the interaction forces between the sextupole coils and the solenoid coils. For 28 GHz operation, the magnet assembly can produce peak mirror fields on axis of 3.6 T at injection, 2.2 T at extraction, and a radial sextupole field of 2.0 T at plasma chamber wall. During the commissioning phase at 18 GHz with a stainless steel chamber, tests with various gases and some metals have been conducted with microwave power less than 3.5 kW by two 18 GHz rf generators. It demonstrates the performance is very promising. Some record ion beam intensities have been produced, for instance, 810 e microA of O(7+), 505 e microA of Xe(20+), 306 e microA of Xe(27+), and so on. The effect of the magnetic field configuration on the ion source performance has been studied experimentally. SECRAL has been put into operation to provide highly charged ion beams for HIRFL facility since May 2007.

  18. Self-Consistent Ring Current/Electromagnetic Ion Cyclotron Waves Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazanov, G. V.; Gamayunov, K.; Gallagher, D.

    2006-12-01

    The self-consistent treatment of ring current (RC) ion dynamics and electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves, which are thought to exert important influences on dynamic ion evolution and are an important missing element in our understanding of the storm-and recovery-time ring current evolution. For example, the EMIC waves cause the RC decay on a time scale of about one hour or less during the main phase of storms. The oblique EMIC waves damp due to Landau resonance with the thermal plasmaspheric electrons, and subsequent transport of the dissipating wave energy into the ionosphere below causes an ionosphere temperature enhancement. Under certain conditions, relativistic electrons, with energies ~1 MeV, can be removed from the outer radiation belt by EMIC wave scattering during a magnetic storm. That is why the modeling of EMIC waves is a critical and timely issue in magnetospheric physics. This study will generalize the self-consistent theoretical description of RC ions and EMIC waves that has been developed by Khazanov et al. [2002, 2003] and include the heavy ions and propagation effects of EMIC waves in global dynamic modeling of self-consistent RC - EMIC waves coupling. The results of our newly developed model will be presented, focusing mainly on the dynamics of EMIC waves and comparison of these results with the previous global RC modeling studies devoted to EMIC waves formation. We will also discuss RC ion precipitations and wave induced thermal electron fluxes into the ionosphere.

  19. First results from the new RIKEN superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source (invited).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, T; Higurashi, Y; Ohnishi, J; Aihara, T; Tamura, M; Uchiyama, A; Okuno, H; Kusaka, K; Kidera, M; Ikezawa, E; Fujimaki, M; Sato, Y; Watanabe, Y; Komiyama, M; Kase, M; Goto, A; Kamigaito, O; Yano, Y

    2010-02-01

    The next generation heavy ion accelerator facility, such as the RIKEN radio isotope (RI) beam factory, requires an intense beam of high charged heavy ions. In the past decade, performance of the electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources has been dramatically improved with increasing the magnetic field and rf frequency to enhance the density and confinement time of plasma. Furthermore, the effects of the key parameters (magnetic field configuration, gas pressure, etc.) on the ECR plasma have been revealed. Such basic studies give us how to optimize the ion source structure. Based on these studies and modern superconducting (SC) technology, we successfully constructed the new 28 GHz SC-ECRIS, which has a flexible magnetic field configuration to enlarge the ECR zone and to optimize the field gradient at ECR point. Using it, we investigated the effect of ECR zone size, magnetic field configuration, and biased disk on the beam intensity of the highly charged heavy ions with 18 GHz microwaves. In this article, we present the structure of the ion source and first experimental results with 18 GHz microwave in detail.

  20. Two-chamber configuration of Bio-Nano electron cyclotron resonance ion source for fullerene modification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchida, T., E-mail: uchida-t@toyo.jp [Bio-Nano Electronics Research Centre, Toyo University, Kawagoe 350-8585 (Japan); Graduate School of Interdisciplinary New Science, Toyo University, Kawagoe 350-8585 (Japan); Rácz, R.; Biri, S. [Institute for Nuclear Research (Atomki), Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Bem tér 18/C, H-4026 Debrecen (Hungary); Muramatsu, M.; Kitagawa, A. [National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Kato, Y. [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, Suita 565-0871 (Japan); Yoshida, Y. [Bio-Nano Electronics Research Centre, Toyo University, Kawagoe 350-8585 (Japan); Faculty of Science and Engineering, Toyo University, Kawagoe 350-8585 (Japan)

    2016-02-15

    We report on the modification of fullerenes with iron and chlorine using two individually controllable plasmas in the Bio-Nano electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS). One of the plasmas is composed of fullerene and the other one is composed of iron and chlorine. The online ion beam analysis allows one to investigate the rate of the vapor-phase collisional modification process in the ECRIS, while the offline analyses (e.g., liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry) of the materials deposited on the plasma chamber can give information on the surface-type process. Both analytical methods show the presence of modified fullerenes such as fullerene-chlorine, fullerene-iron, and fullerene-chlorine-iron.

  1. Two-chamber configuration of Bio-Nano electron cyclotron resonance ion source for fullerene modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, T; Rácz, R; Muramatsu, M; Kato, Y; Kitagawa, A; Biri, S; Yoshida, Y

    2016-02-01

    We report on the modification of fullerenes with iron and chlorine using two individually controllable plasmas in the Bio-Nano electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS). One of the plasmas is composed of fullerene and the other one is composed of iron and chlorine. The online ion beam analysis allows one to investigate the rate of the vapor-phase collisional modification process in the ECRIS, while the offline analyses (e.g., liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry) of the materials deposited on the plasma chamber can give information on the surface-type process. Both analytical methods show the presence of modified fullerenes such as fullerene-chlorine, fullerene-iron, and fullerene-chlorine-iron.

  2. Weak-field H3O+ ion cyclotron resonance alters water refractive index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Emilia, E; Ledda, M; Foletti, A; Lisi, A; Giuliani, L; Grimaldi, S; Liboff, A R

    2017-01-01

    Heretofore only observed in living systems, we report that weak-field ion cyclotron resonance (ICR) also occurs in inanimate matter. Weak magnetic field (50 nT) hydronium ICR at the field combination (7.84 Hz, 7.5 µT) markedly changes water structure, as evidenced by finding an altered index of refraction exactly at this combined field. This observation utilizes a novel technique which measures the scattering of a He-Ne laser beam as the sample is exposed to a ramped magnetic field frequency. In addition to the hydronium resonance, we find evidence of ICR coupling to a more massive structure, possibly a tetrahedral combination of three waters and a single hydronium ion. To check our observations, we extended this technique to D2O, successfully predicting the specific ICR charge-to-mass ratio for D3O+ that alters the index of refraction.

  3. On ion-cyclotron-resonance heating of the corona and solar wind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Marsch

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper concisely summarizes and critically reviews recent work by the authors on models of the heating of the solar corona by resonance of ions with high-frequency waves (up to the proton cyclotron frequency. The quasi-linear theory of pitch angle diffusion is presented in connection with relevant solar wind proton observations. Hybrid fluid-kinetic model equations, which include wave-particle interactions and collisions, are derived. Numerical solutions are discussed, representative of the inner corona and near-Sun solar wind. A semi-kinetic model for reduced velocity distributions is presented, yielding kinetic results for heavy ions in the solar corona. It is concluded that a self-consistent treatment of particle distributions and wave spectra is required, in order to adequately describe coronal physics and to obtain agreement with observations.

  4. Developing laser ablation in an electron cyclotron resonance ion source for actinide detection with AMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauder, W. [Argonne National Laboratory, Physics Division, 9600 S. Cass Ave, Lemont, IL 60439 (United States); University of Notre Dame, Nuclear Science Laboratory, 124 Nieuwland Science Hall, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Pardo, R.C.; Kondev, F.G.; Kondrashev, S.; Nair, C.; Nusair, O. [Argonne National Laboratory, Physics Division, 9600 S. Cass Ave, Lemont, IL 60439 (United States); Palchan, T. [Hebrew University, Racah Institute of Physics, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Scott, R.; Seweryniak, D.; Vondrasek, R. [Argonne National Laboratory, Physics Division, 9600 S. Cass Ave, Lemont, IL 60439 (United States); Collon, P. [University of Notre Dame, Nuclear Science Laboratory, 124 Nieuwland Science Hall, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Paul, M. [Hebrew University, Racah Institute of Physics, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel)

    2015-10-15

    A laser ablation material injection system has been developed at the ATLAS electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source for use in accelerator mass spectrometry experiments. Beam production with laser ablation initially suffered from instabilities due to fluctuations in laser energy and cratering on the sample surface by the laser. However, these instabilities were rectified by applying feedback correction for the laser energy and rastering the laser across the sample surface. An initial experiment successfully produced and accelerated low intensity actinide beams with up to 1000 counts per second. With continued development, laser ablation shows promise as an alternative material injection scheme for ECR ion sources and may help substantially reduce cross talk in the source.

  5. Studies for the ion cyclotron range of frequency heating in a tokamak fusion experimental device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saigusa, Mikio [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment

    1996-02-01

    Ion cyclotron range of frequency heating has been investigated as an efficient additional plasma heating and non-inductive current driving methods in a tokamak type fusion experimental device. At first, an ICRF antenna coupling code was developed for the estimation of the coupling properties of phased antenna array, so that the ICRF antennas were designed for JT-60 and JT-60U ICRF heating systems using the coupling codes. The ICRF heating experiments had been performed in JT-60 and JT-60U. The coupling properties of ICRF antenna, the physics of peripheral plasma and energy confinement by ICRF heating in various heating regimes have been investigated. Next, the Toroidicity induced Alfven Eigen (TAE) mode have been studied using minority ICRF heating for producing energetic ions which can excite TAE mode. The TAE mode could be suppressed by current profile control using current ramp operation and lower hybrid current drive. (author) 74 refs.

  6. Ion gyro-harmonic structuring in the stimulated radiation spectrum and optical emissions during electron gyro-harmonic heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudian, A.; Scales, W. A.; Bernhardt, P. A.; Samimi, A.; Kendall, E.; Ruohoniemi, J. M.; Isham, B.; Vega-Cancel, O.; Bordikar, M.

    2013-03-01

    Stimulated electromagnetic emissions (SEEs) are secondary radiation produced during active space experiments in which the ionosphere is actively heated with high power high frequency (HF) ground-based radio transmitters. Recently, there has been significant interest in ion gyro-harmonic structuring the SEE spectrum due to the potential for new diagnostic information available such as electron acceleration and creation of artificial ionization layers. These relatively recently discovered gyro-harmonic spectral features have almost exclusively been studied when the transmitting frequency is near the second electron gyro-harmonic frequency. The first extensive systematic experimental investigations of the possibility of these spectral features for third electron gyro-harmonic heating are provided here. Discrete spectral features shifted from the transmit frequency ordered by harmonics of the ion gyro-frequency were observed for third electron gyro-harmonic heating for the first time at a recent campaign at the High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) facility. These features were also closely correlated with a broader band feature at a larger frequency shift from the transmit frequency known as the downshifted peak (DP). The power threshold of these spectral features was measured, as well as their behavior with heater beam angle, and proximity of the transmit frequency to the third electron gyro-harmonic frequency. Comparisons were also made with similar spectral features observed during second electron gyro-harmonic heating during the same campaign. A theoretical model is provided that interprets these spectral features as resulting from parametric decay instabilities in which the pump field ultimately decays into high frequency upper hybrid/electron Bernstein and low frequency neutralized ion Bernstein IB and/or obliquely propagating ion acoustic waves at the upper hybrid interaction altitude. Coordinated optical and SEE observations were carried out

  7. Comparison of Dispersion Model of Magneto-Acoustic Cyclotron Instability with Experimental Observation of 3He Ion Cyclotron Emission on JT-60U

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumida, Shuhei; Shinohara, Kouji; Ikezoe, Ryuya; Ichimura, Makoto; Sakamoto, Mizuki; Hirata, Mafumi; Ide, Shunsuke

    2017-12-01

    The Magneto-acoustic Cyclotron Instability (MCI) is a possible emission mechanism for Ion Cyclotron Emissions (ICEs). A dispersion model of the MCI driven by a drifting-ring-type ion velocity distribution has been proposed. In this study, the model was compared with the experimental observations of 3He ICEs [ICEs(3He)] on JT-60U. For this purpose, at first, velocity distributions of deuterium-deuterium fusion produced fast 3He ions at the time of an appearance of the ICE(3He) were evaluated by using a fast ion orbit following code under a realistic condition. The calculated distribution at the edge of the plasma on the midplane on the low field side is shown to have an inverted population and strong anisotropy. This distribution can be reasonably approximated by the drifting-ring-type distribution. Next, dispersions of the MCIs driven by the drifting-ring-type distribution were compared with those of observed ICEs(3He). The comparison shows that toroidal wavenumbers and frequencies of the calculated MCIs agree with those of the observed ICEs(3He).

  8. Electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry of large biomolecules in complex buffer systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofstadler, S.A.; Bruce, J.E.; Cheng, X.; Anderson, G.A.; Smith, R.D. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Wang, K. [Univ.of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Swanek, F.; Ewing, A.G. [Penn State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Recent advances in electrospray ionization (ESI) Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR) mass spectrometry allow ultra-high resolution, precision mass measurements of a wide range of biochemically relevant species including proteins, glycoproteins, DNA, and non-covalent complexes. One of the most common difficulties encountered when analyzing biological samples derived from multi-step extraction procedures is obtaining an {open_quotes}electrosprayable{close_quotes} analyte solution which keeps the protein(s) of interest in solution and which does not create numerous background ions which overwhelm the analyte signal or adversely affect the electrospray ionization process. In addition to loss of sensitivity, ionized buffer ions introduce undesirable space charge to the trapped ion cell which limits dynamic range and adversely affects mass measurement precision. Thus, it is highly desirable to minimize the number of background ions in the trapped ion cell. In this poster the authors will present two distinct, and potentially complimentary, techniques which allow high performance mass analysis of biomolecules from complex buffer systems. The first technique, which is particularly well suited for larger analytes, discriminates against low mass matrix ions by the combination of kinetic energy dependent ion accumulation and mass dependent ion loss due to collisionally enhanced magnetron radii. An alternative technique, which is particularly applicable to smaller analytes, is based on electrophoretic separations using on-line capillary zone electrophoresis prior to mass analysis. Preliminary results are presented in which two classes of biomolecules were analyzed from complex buffer systems. These examples include large muscle proteins electrosprayed directly from a 5 M urea buffer and mass analysis from whole human erthrocytes extracted from a buffer which mimics physiological conditions.

  9. New development of advanced superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source SECRAL (invited).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, H W; Sun, L T; Lu, W; Zhang, X Z; Guo, X H; Cao, Y; Zhao, H Y; Feng, Y C; Li, J Y; Ma, H Y; Shang, Y; Ma, B H; Wang, H; Li, X X; Xie, D Z

    2010-02-01

    Superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source with advance design in Lanzhou (SECRAL) is an 18-28 GHz fully superconducting electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source dedicated for highly charged heavy ion beam production. SECRAL, with an innovative superconducting magnet structure of solenoid-inside-sextupole and at lower frequency and lower rf power operation, may open a new way for developing compact and reliable high performance superconducting ECR ion source. One of the recent highlights achieved at SECRAL is that some new record beam currents for very high charge states were produced by 18 GHz or 18+14.5 GHz double frequency heating, such as 1 e microA of (129)Xe(43+), 22 e microA of (209)Bi(41+), and 1.5 e microA of (209)Bi(50+). To further enhance the performance of SECRAL, a 24 GHz/7 kW gyrotron microwave generator was installed and SECRAL was tested at 24 GHz. Some promising and exciting results at 24 GHz with new record highly charged ion beam intensities were produced, such as 455 e microA of (129)Xe(27+) and 152 e microA of (129)Xe(30+), although the commissioning time was limited within 3-4 weeks and rf power only 3-4 kW. Bremsstrahlung measurements at 24 GHz show that x-ray is much stronger with higher rf frequency, higher rf power. and higher minimum mirror magnetic field (minimum B). Preliminary emittance measurements indicate that SECRAL emittance at 24 GHz is slightly higher that at 18 GHz. SECRAL has been put into routine operation at 18 GHz for heavy ion research facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL) accelerator complex since May 2007. The total operation beam time from SECRAL for HIRFL accelerator has been more than 2000 h, and (129)Xe(27+), (78)Kr(19+), (209)Bi(31+), and (58)Ni(19+) beams were delivered. All of these new developments, the latest results, and long-term operation for the accelerator have again demonstrated that SECRAL is one of the best in the performance of ECR ion source for highly charged heavy ion beam production

  10. Effect of hot anisotropic He+ ions on the growth and damping of electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves in the inner magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, D.-Y.; Noh, S.-J.; Choi, C.-R.; Lee, J. J.; Hwang, J. A.

    2017-05-01

    Physics of electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves is complicated by inclusion of heavy ions. In particular, He+ ions in the magnetosphere have long been considered to play important roles. Motivated by recent observations, we examine the effect of the inclusion of hot anisotropic He+ ions in addition to the usual hot anisotropic protons. We solve the kinetic dispersion relation for this examination and find the following results. First, inclusion of hot anisotropic He+ ions leads to the growth of EMIC waves at frequencies below the He+ gyrofrequency (He band) and a reduction of the EMIC wave growth rates (or damping of the waves) at frequencies between the proton and He+ gyrofrequencies (H band). Second, this effect is more dramatic for higher temperatures of He+ that would play a role in damping EMIC waves for both frequency bands and especially for cases without a He+ temperature anisotropy. Lastly, the effect is more prominent for cold plasma dominant conditions such as the region inside the plasmasphere or plume than for hot proton dominant conditions such as the region outside the plasmasphere. We propose that this last effect can at least partially explain the satellite observations indicating the preferred (though not exclusive) occurrence of He band waves inside the plasmasphere for the times when hot anisotropic He+ ions are supplied from the plasma sheet and ring current.

  11. Time evolution of endpoint energy of Bremsstrahlung spectra and ion production from an electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarvainen, Ollie [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ropponen, Tommi [JYFL; Jones, Peter [JYFL; Kalvas, Taneli [JYFL

    2008-01-01

    Electron cyclotron resonance ion sources (ECRIS) are used to produce high charge state heavy ion beams for the use of nuclear and materials science, for instance. The most powerful ECR ion sources today are superconducting. One of the problems with superconducting ECR ion sources is the use of high radio frequency (RF) power which results in bremsstrahlung radiation adding an extra heat load to the cryostat. In order to understand the electron heating process and timescales in the ECR plasma, time evolution measurement of ECR bremsstrahlung was carried out. In the measurements JYFL 14 GHz ECRIS was operated in a pulsed mode and bremsstrahlung data from several hundred RF pulses was recorded. Time evolution of ion production was also studied and compared to one of the electron heating theories. To analyze the measurement data at C++ program was developed. Endpoint energies of the bremsstrahlung spectra as a function of axial magnetic field strength, pressure and RF power are presented and ion production timescales obtained from the measurements are compared to bremsstrahlung emission timescales and one of the stochastic heating theories.

  12. Ion Gyro-Harmonic Structuring in the Stimulated Electromagnetic Emission Spectrum During Second Electron Gyro-Harmonic Heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scales, Wayne; Bernhardt, Paul; Samimi, Alireza; Bricinsky, Stanley; Selcher, Craig

    2012-07-01

    Recent observations of Stimulated Electromagnetic Emissions SEEs have shown structures ordered by the ion gyro-frequency. In particular, during experiments in which the heating frequency is near the second electron gyro-harmonic, unique discrete spectral features separated by the ion gyro-frequency have been observed within about 1 kHz of the pump frequency. On occasion, a broadband spectral feature near 500 Hz is observed that coexists with the ion gyro-harmonic spectral features. Explanations for these spectral features have been based on parametric decay of the pump field into upper hybrid/electron Bernstein and ion Bernstein and oblique ion acoustic waves at the upper hybrid layer. This presentation will first review important characteristics of these ion gyro-harmonic spectral features obtained during some recent experiments at the High Frequency Active Auroral Research HAARP facility. These characteristics are then compared to predications of an analytical model for three-wave parametric decay of the pump field into upper hybrid/electron Bernstein and ion Bernstein and oblique ion acoustic waves. It is shown from the analytical theory that important pump field parameters that influence the spectral characteristics include the angle of the pump field relative the background magnetic field, the frequency of the pump relative to the second gyro-harmonic, and the pump field strength. Two Dimensional Particle-In-Cell simulations are used to investigate aspects of the nonlinear evolution such as irregularity development and field aligned electron heating in more detail. These simulations show favorable comparisons with the analytical theory predications as well as the experimental observations. Finally, possibilities for utilizing the experimentally observed SEE spectra for diagnostic purposes are discussed.

  13. Metal impurity transport control in JET H-mode plasmas with central ion cyclotron radiofrequency power injection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valisa, M.; Carraro, L.; Predebon, I.

    2011-01-01

    The scan of ion cyclotron resonant heating (ICRH) power has been used to systematically study the pump out effect of central electron heating on impurities such as Ni and Mo in H-mode low collisionality discharges in JET. The transport parameters of Ni and Mo have been measured by introducing a t...

  14. Main-ion temperature and plasma rotation measurements based on scattering of electron cyclotron heating waves in ASDEX Upgrade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Morten Stejner; Rasmussen, Jesper; Nielsen, Stefan Kragh

    2017-01-01

    We demonstrate measurements of spectra of O-mode electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) waves scattered collectively from microscopic plasma fluctuations in ASDEX Upgrade discharges with an ITER-like ECRH scenario. The measured spectra are shown to allow determination of the main ion...

  15. Design of coupled cavity with energy modulated electron cyclotron resonance ion source for materials irradiation research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Wang (王智

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The surface topography of samples after irradiation with heavy ions, protons, and helium ions based on accelerators is an important issue in the study of materials irradiation. We have coupled the separated function radio frequency quadrupole (SFRFQ electrodes and the traditional RFQ electrodes into a single cavity that can provide a 0.8 MeV helium beam for our materials irradiation project. The higher accelerating efficiency has been verified by the successful commissioning of the prototype SFRFQ cavity. An energy modulated electron cyclotron resonance (ECR ion source can achieve a well-bunched beam by loading a sine wave voltage onto the extracted electrodes. Bunching is achieved without the need for an external bunch cavity, which can substantially reduce the cost of the system and the length of the beam line. The coupled RFQ-SFRFQ with an energy modulated ECR ion source will lead to a more compact accelerator system. The conceptual design of this novel structure is presented in this paper.

  16. Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance versus time of flight for precision mass measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kouzes, R.T.

    1993-02-01

    Both Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance and ICR Time-of-Flight mass spectroscopy (FTICR-MS and ICR-TOF-MS, respectively) have been applied to precision atomic mass measurements. This paper reviews the status of these approaches and compares their limitations. Comparisons are made of FTICR-MS and ICR-TOF-MS for application to precision atomic mass measurements of stable and unstable nuclei, where the relevant scale is an accuracy of 1 keV and where halflives are longer than 10 milliseconds (optimistically). The atomic mass table is built up from mass chains, and ICR-MS brings a method of producing new types of mass chains to the mass measurement arena.

  17. On-line capillary electrophoresis with Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofstadler, S.A.; Wahl, J.H.; Bruce, J.E.; Smith, R.D. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States))

    1993-07-28

    The role of capillary electrophoresis (CE) in chemical and biochemical characterization is growing rapidly due to its speed, resolution, and flexibility for the manipulation of extremely small samples. CE was first combined with mass spectrometry (MS) at our laboratory. In this communication we report results for the first on-line combination of CE with Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR) mass spectrometry, an approach that is capable of providing both high CE and MS resolution and high sensitivity. The advantages of FTICR include the ability to simultaneously realize ultrahigh MS resolution/mass measurement accuracy and high sensitivity, as well as the capability for higher order tandem MS methods (i.e., MS[sup n], where n [ge] 2) for structural studies because of its nondestructive detection method. 20 refs., 3 figs.

  18. Electron cyclotron resonance ion source plasma characterization by energy dispersive x-ray imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rácz, R.; Mascali, D.; Biri, S.; Caliri, C.; Castro, G.; Galatà, A.; Gammino, S.; Neri, L.; Pálinkás, J.; Romano, F. P.; Torrisi, G.

    2017-07-01

    Pinhole and CCD based quasi-optical x-ray imaging technique was applied to investigate the plasma of an electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS). Spectrally integrated and energy resolved images were taken from an axial perspective. The comparison of integrated images taken of argon plasma highlights the structural changes affected by some ECRIS setting parameters, like strength of the axial magnetic confinement, RF frequency and microwave power. Photon counting analysis gives precise intensity distribution of the x-ray emitted by the argon plasma and by the plasma chamber walls. This advanced technique points out that the spatial positions of the electron losses are strongly determined by the kinetic energy of the electrons themselves to be lost and also shows evidences how strongly the plasma distribution is affected by slight changes in the RF frequency.

  19. Prospects for advanced electron cyclotron resonance and electron beam ion source charge breeding methods for EURISOL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delahaye, P; Galata, A; Angot, J; Ban, G; Celona, L; Choinski, J; Gmaj, P; Jakubowski, A; Jardin, P; Kalvas, T; Koivisto, H; Kolhinen, V; Lamy, T; Lunney, D; Maunoury, L; Porcellato, A M; Prete, G F; Steckiewicz, O; Sortais, P; Thuillier, T; Tarvainen, O; Traykov, E; Varenne, F; Wenander, F

    2012-02-01

    As the most ambitious concept of isotope separation on line (ISOL) facility, EURISOL aims at producing unprecedented intensities of post-accelerated radioactive isotopes. Charge breeding, which transforms the charge state of radioactive beams from 1+ to an n+ charge state prior to post-acceleration, is a key technology which has to overcome the following challenges: high charge states for high energies, efficiency, rapidity and purity. On the roadmap to EURISOL, a dedicated R&D is being undertaken to push forward the frontiers of the present state-of-the-art techniques which use either electron cyclotron resonance or electron beam ion sources. We describe here the guidelines of this R&D.

  20. Growth of etiolated barley plants in weak static and 50 Hz electromagnetic fields tuned to calcium ion cyclotron resonance

    OpenAIRE

    Pazur, Alexander; Rassadina, Valentina; Dandler, Jörg; Zoller, Jutta

    2006-01-01

    Background The effects of weak magnetic and electromagnetic fields in biology have been intensively studied on animals, microorganisms and humans, but comparably less on plants. Perception mechanisms were attributed originally to ferrimagnetism, but later discoveries required additional explanations like the "radical pair mechanism" and the "Ion cyclotron resonance" (ICR), primarily considered by Liboff. The latter predicts effects by small ions involved in biological processes, that occur in...

  1. Nb3Sn superconducting magnets for electron cyclotron resonance ion sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferracin, P; Caspi, S; Felice, H; Leitner, D; Lyneis, C M; Prestemon, S; Sabbi, G L; Todd, D S

    2010-02-01

    Electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources are an essential component of heavy-ion accelerators. Over the past few decades advances in magnet technology and an improved understanding of the ECR ion source plasma physics have led to remarkable performance improvements of ECR ion sources. Currently third generation high field superconducting ECR ion sources operating at frequencies around 28 GHz are the state of the art ion injectors and several devices are either under commissioning or under design around the world. At the same time, the demand for increased intensities of highly charged heavy ions continues to grow, which makes the development of even higher performance ECR ion sources a necessity. To extend ECR ion sources to frequencies well above 28 GHz, new magnet technology will be needed in order to operate at higher field and force levels. The superconducting magnet program at LBNL has been developing high field superconducting magnets for particle accelerators based on Nb(3)Sn superconducting technology for several years. At the moment, Nb(3)Sn is the only practical conductor capable of operating at the 15 T field level in the relevant configurations. Recent design studies have been focused on the possibility of using Nb(3)Sn in the next generation of ECR ion sources. In the past, LBNL has worked on the VENUS ECR, a 28 GHz source with solenoids and a sextupole made with NbTi operating at fields of 6-7 T. VENUS has now been operating since 2004. We present in this paper the design of a Nb(3)Sn ECR ion source optimized to operate at an rf frequency of 56 GHz with conductor peak fields of 13-15 T. Because of the brittleness and strain sensitivity of Nb(3)Sn, particular care is required in the design of the magnet support structure, which must be capable of providing support to the coils without overstressing the conductor. In this paper, we present the main features of the support structure, featuring an external aluminum shell pretensioned with water

  2. Collision Cross Sections for 20 Protonated Amino Acids: Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance and Ion Mobility Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anupriya; Jones, Chad A.; Dearden, David V.

    2016-08-01

    We report relative dephasing cross sections for the 20 biogenic protonated amino acids measured using the cross sectional areas by Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (CRAFTI) technique at 1.9 keV in the laboratory reference frame, as well as momentum transfer cross sections for the same ions computed from Boltzmann-weighted structures determined using molecular mechanics. Cross sections generally increase with increasing molecular weight. Cross sections for aliphatic and aromatic protonated amino acids are larger than the average trend, suggesting these side chains do not fold efficiently. Sulfur-containing protonated amino acids have smaller than average cross sections, reflecting the mass of the S atom. Protonated amino acids that can internally hydrogen-bond have smaller than average cross sections, reflecting more extensive folding. The CRAFTI measurements correlate well with results from drift ion mobility (IMS) and traveling wave ion mobility (TWIMS) spectrometric measurements; CRAFTI results correlate with IMS values approximately as well as IMS and TWIMS values from independent measurements correlate with each other. Both CRAFTI and IMS results correlate well with the computed momentum transfer cross sections, suggesting both techniques provide accurate molecular structural information. Absolute values obtained using the various methods differ significantly; in the case of CRAFTI, this may be due to errors in measurements of collision gas pressure, measurement of excitation voltage, and/or dependence of cross sections on kinetic energy.

  3. Application of Local Time Dependent Ion Composition to Observations, Modeling, and Effects of Electromagnetic Ion Cyclotron Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J. H.; Angelopoulos, V.; Chen, L.; Thorne, R. M.

    2014-12-01

    Numerous global magnetospheric studies on electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves have revealed the typical wave properties observed throughout the Earth's magnetosphere. The observed trends in the wave properties at various geocentric distances and local time sectors, although in general agreement, elude satisfactory explanation without further details on the ambient plasma properties, the low-energy (few to ~100 eV) ions in particular. Recent studies also described techniques to deduce the presence and properties of low-energy ions and the application of such a technique to THEMIS (Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms) data has revealed the typical low-energy ion compositional properties throughout the Earth's magnetosphere. Motivated by the recent work on EMIC waves and low-energy ion composition, we analyze typical wave cases observed at each local time sector by the THEMIS satellites and apply the composition techniques or the statistical low-energy ion composition data to constrain the low-energy components in modeling of each wave case in the context of linear hot plasma theory. We find that the observed waves are modeled well with hot plasma theory and both are fully consistent with the composition of the ambient plasma. Our results suggest that combined ion composition and wave measurements are critical for further assessment of the effects of the waves on energetic particles. In the cases we report on here, we find the waves could resonantly interact with electrons at energies in excess of 2 MeV and therefore do not have an effect on the dominant trapped electron population.

  4. Electron cyclotron resonance heating by magnetic filter field in a negative hydrogen ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, June Young, E-mail: beacoolguy@snu.ac.kr; Cho, Won-Hwi; Dang, Jeong-Jeung; Chung, Kyoung-Jae, E-mail: jkjlsh1@snu.ac.kr; Hwang, Y. S. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    The influence of magnetic filter field on plasma properties in the heating region has been investigated in a planar-type inductively coupled radio-frequency (RF) H{sup −} ion source. Besides filtering high energy electrons near the extraction region, the magnetic filter field is clearly observed to increase the electron temperature in the heating region at low pressure discharge. With increasing the operating pressure, enhancement of electron temperature in the heating region is reduced. The possibility of electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) heating in the heating region due to stray magnetic field generated by a filter magnet located at the extraction region is examined. It is found that ECR heating by RF wave field in the discharge region, where the strength of an axial magnetic field is approximately ∼4.8 G, can effectively heat low energy electrons. Depletion of low energy electrons in the electron energy distribution function measured at the heating region supports the occurrence of ECR heating. The present study suggests that addition of axial magnetic field as small as several G by an external electromagnet or permanent magnets can greatly increase the generation of highly ro-vibrationally excited hydrogen molecules in the heating region, thus improving the performance of H{sup −} ion generation in volume-produced negative hydrogen ion sources.

  5. Atmospheric pressure chemical ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry for complex thiophenic mixture analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Hourani, Nadim

    2013-10-01

    Rationale Polycyclic aromatic sulfur heterocycles (PASHs) are detrimental species for refining processes in petroleum industry. Current mass spectrometric Methods that determine their composition are often preceded by derivatization and dopant addition approaches. Different ionization Methods have different impact on the molecular assignment of complex PASHs. The analysis of such species under atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) is still considered limited due to uncontrolled ion generation with low- and high-mass PASHs. Methods The ionization behavior of a model mixture of five selected PASH standards was investigated using an APCI source with nitrogen as the reagent gas. A complex thiophenic fraction was separated from a vacuum gas oil (VGO) and injected using the same method. The samples were analyzed using Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICR MS). RESULTS PASH model analytes were successfully ionized and mainly [M + H]+ ions were produced. The same ionization pattern was observed for the real thiophenic sample. It was found that S1 class species were the major sulfur-containing species found in the VGO sample. These species indicated the presence of alkylated benzothiophenic (BT), dibenzothiophenic (DBT) and benzonaphthothiophenic (BNT) series that were detected by APCI-FTICR MS. CONCLUSIONS This study provides an established APCI-FTICR MS method for the analysis of complex PASHs. PASHs were detected without using any derivatization and without fragmentation. The method can be used for the analysis of S-containing crude oil samples. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Spatial distribution of charged particles along the ion-optical axis in electron cyclotron resonance ion sources. Experimental results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panitzsch, Lauri

    2013-02-08

    The experimental determination of the spatial distribution of charged particles along the ion-optical axis in electron cyclotron resonance ion sources (ECRIS) defines the focus of this thesis. The spatial distributions of different ion species were obtained in the object plane of the bending magnet ({approx}45 cm downstream from the plasma electrode) and in the plane of the plasma electrode itself, both in high spatial resolution. The results show that each of the different ion species forms a bloated, triangular structure in the aperture of the plasma electrode. The geometry and the orientation of these structures are defined by the superposition of the radial and axial magnetic fields. The radial extent of each structure is defined by the charge of the ion. Higher charge states occupy smaller, more concentrated structures. The total current density increases towards the center of the plasma electrode. The circular and star-like structures that can be observed in the beam profiles of strongly focused, extracted ion beams are each dominated by ions of a single charge state. In addition, the spatially resolved current density distribution of charged particles in the plasma chamber that impinge on the plasma electrode was determined, differentiating between ions and electrons. The experimental results of this work show that the electrons of the plasma are strongly connected to the magnetic field lines in the source and thus spatially well confined in a triangular-like structure. The intensity of the electrons increases towards the center of the plasma electrode and the plasma chamber, as well. These electrons are surrounded by a spatially far less confined and less intense ion population. All the findings mentioned above were already predicted in parts by simulations of different groups. However, the results presented within this thesis represent the first (and by now only) direct experimental verification of those predictions and are qualitatively transferable to

  7. Towards analytically useful two-dimensional Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Agthoven, Maria A; Delsuc, Marc-André; Bodenhausen, Geoffrey; Rolando, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometry (MS) achieves high resolution and mass accuracy, allowing the identification of the raw chemical formulae of ions in complex samples. Using ion isolation and fragmentation (MS/MS), we can obtain more structural information, but MS/MS is time- and sample-consuming because each ion must be isolated before fragmentation. In 1987, Pfändler et al. proposed an experiment for 2D FT-ICR MS in order to fragment ions without isolating them and to visualize the fragmentations of complex samples in a single 2D mass spectrum, like 2D NMR spectroscopy. Because of limitations of electronics and computers, few studies have been conducted with this technique. The improvement of modern computers and the use of digital electronics for FT-ICR hardware now make it possible to acquire 2D mass spectra over a broad mass range. The original experiments used in-cell collision-induced dissociation, which caused a loss of resolution. Gas-free fragmentation modes such as infrared multiphoton dissociation and electron capture dissociation allow one to measure high-resolution 2D mass spectra. Consequently, there is renewed interest to develop 2D FT-ICR MS into an efficient analytical method. Improvements introduced in 2D NMR spectroscopy can also be transposed to 2D FT-ICR MS. We describe the history of 2D FT-ICR MS, introduce recent improvements, and present analytical applications to map the fragmentation of peptides. Finally, we provide a glossary which defines a few keywords for the 2D FT-ICR MS field.

  8. A proposal for a novel H ion source based on electron cyclotron resonance heating and surface ionization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarvainen, Ollie A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kurennoy, Sergey [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    A design for a novel H{sup -} ion source based on electron cyclotron resonance plasma heating and surface ionization is presented. The plasma chamber of the source is an rf-cavity designed for TE{sub 111} eigenmode at 2.45 GHz. The desired mode is excited with a loop antenna. The ionization process takes place on a cesiated surface of a biased converter electrode. The H{sup -} ion beam is further 'self-extracted' through the plasma region. The magnetic field of the source is optimized for plasma generation by electron cyclotron resonance heating, and beam extraction. The design features of the source are discussed in detail and the attainable H{sup -} ion current, beam emittance and duty factor of the novel source are estimated.

  9. Stability Limits of the Ion Beam Excited Electrostatic Ion Cyclotron Instability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Poul

    1976-01-01

    The dispersion relation for low‐frequency electrostatic waves was analyzed numerically to find the region of instability for an ion beam plasma versus beam velocity vb, and versus electron to ion temperature ratio. For Vb≳1.6 a the marginal unstable mode has a perpendicular wavenumber k⊥≠0....

  10. A double-layer based model of ion confinement in electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascali, D.; Neri, L.; Celona, L.; Castro, G.; Torrisi, G.; Gammino, S.; Sorbello, G.; Ciavola, G.

    2014-02-01

    The paper proposes a new model of ion confinement in ECRIS, which can be easily generalized to any magnetic configuration characterized by closed magnetic surfaces. Traditionally, ion confinement in B-min configurations is ascribed to a negative potential dip due to superhot electrons, adiabatically confined by the magneto-static field. However, kinetic simulations including RF heating affected by cavity modes structures indicate that high energy electrons populate just a thin slab overlapping the ECR layer, while their density drops down of more than one order of magnitude outside. Ions, instead, diffuse across the electron layer due to their high collisionality. This is the proper physical condition to establish a double-layer (DL) configuration which self-consistently originates a potential barrier; this "barrier" confines the ions inside the plasma core surrounded by the ECR surface. The paper will describe a simplified ion confinement model based on plasma density non-homogeneity and DL formation.

  11. A double-layer based model of ion confinement in electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mascali, D., E-mail: davidmascali@lns.infn.it; Neri, L.; Celona, L.; Castro, G.; Gammino, S.; Ciavola, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Torrisi, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Università Mediterranea di Reggio Calabria, Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell’Informazione, delle Infrastrutture e dell’Energia Sostenibile, Via Graziella, I-89100 Reggio Calabria (Italy); Sorbello, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Università degli Studi di Catania, Dipartimento di Ingegneria Elettrica Elettronica ed Informatica, Viale Andrea Doria 6, 95125 Catania (Italy)

    2014-02-15

    The paper proposes a new model of ion confinement in ECRIS, which can be easily generalized to any magnetic configuration characterized by closed magnetic surfaces. Traditionally, ion confinement in B-min configurations is ascribed to a negative potential dip due to superhot electrons, adiabatically confined by the magneto-static field. However, kinetic simulations including RF heating affected by cavity modes structures indicate that high energy electrons populate just a thin slab overlapping the ECR layer, while their density drops down of more than one order of magnitude outside. Ions, instead, diffuse across the electron layer due to their high collisionality. This is the proper physical condition to establish a double-layer (DL) configuration which self-consistently originates a potential barrier; this “barrier” confines the ions inside the plasma core surrounded by the ECR surface. The paper will describe a simplified ion confinement model based on plasma density non-homogeneity and DL formation.

  12. 21 Tesla Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometer Greatly Expands Mass Spectrometry Toolbox

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, Jared B.; Lin, Tzu-Yung; Leach, Franklin E.; Tolmachev, Aleksey V.; Tolić, Nikola; Robinson, Errol W.; Koppenaal, David W.; Paša-Tolić, Ljiljana

    2016-10-12

    We provide the initial performance evaluation of a 21 Tesla Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer operating at the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The spectrometer constructed for the 21T system employs a commercial dual linear ion trap mass spectrometer coupled to a FTICR spectrometer designed and built in-house. Performance gains from moving to higher magnetic field strength are exemplified by the measurement of peptide isotopic fine structure, complex natural organic matter mixtures, and large proteins. Accurate determination of isotopic fine structure was demonstrated for doubly charged substance P with minimal spectral averaging, and 8,158 molecular formulas assigned to Suwannee River Fulvic Acid standard with RMS error of 10 ppb. We also demonstrated superior performance for intact proteins; namely, broadband isotopic resolution of the entire charge state distribution of apotransferrin (78 kDa) and facile isotopic resolution of monoclonal antibody under a variety of acquisition parameters (e.g. 6 s time-domains with absorption mode processing yielded resolution of approximately 1M at m/z =2,700).

  13. Integrated Plasma Simulation of Ion Cyclotron and Lower Hybrid Range of Frequencies Actuators in Tokamaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonoli, P. T.; Shiraiwa, S.; Wright, J. C.; Harvey, R. W.; Batchelor, D. B.; Berry, L. A.; Chen, Jin; Poli, F.; Kessel, C. E.; Jardin, S. C.

    2012-10-01

    Recent upgrades to the ion cyclotron RF (ICRF) and lower hybrid RF (LHRF) components of the Integrated Plasma Simulator [1] have made it possible to simulate LH current drive in the presence of ICRF minority heating and mode conversion electron heating. The background plasma is evolved in these simulations using the TSC transport code [2]. The driven LH current density profiles are computed using advanced ray tracing (GENRAY) and Fokker Planck (CQL3D) [3] components and predictions from GENRAY/CQL3D are compared with a ``reduced'' model for LHCD (the LSC [4] code). The ICRF TORIC solver is used for minority heating with a simplified (bi-Maxwellian) model for the non-thermal ion tail. Simulation results will be presented for LHCD in the presence of ICRF heating in Alcator C-Mod. [4pt] [1] D. Batchelor et al, Journal of Physics: Conf. Series 125, 012039 (2008).[0pt] [2] S. C. Jardin et al, J. Comp. Phys. 66, 481 (1986).[0pt] [3] R. W. Harvey and M. G. McCoy, Proc. of the IAEA Tech. Comm. Meeting on Simulation and Modeling of Therm. Plasmas, Montreal, Canada (1992).[0pt] [4] D. Ignat et al, Nucl. Fus. 34, 837 (1994).[0pt] [5] M. Brambilla, Plasma Phys. and Cont. Fusion 41,1 (1999).

  14. A gain and bandwidth enhanced transimpedance preamplifier for Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tzu-Yung; Green, Roger J.; O'Connor, Peter B.

    2011-01-01

    The nature of the ion signal from a 12-T Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer and the electronic noise were studied to further understand the electronic detection limit. At minimal cost, a new transimpedance preamplifier was designed, computer simulated, built, and tested. The preamplifier design pushes the electronic signal-to-noise performance at room temperature to the limit, because of its enhanced tolerance of the capacitance of the detection device, lower intrinsic noise, and larger flat mid-band gain (input current noise spectral density of around 1 pA/\\documentclass[12pt]{minimal}\\begin{document}$\\sqrt{\\mbox{Hz}}$\\end{document}Hz when the transimpedance is about 85 dBΩ). The designed preamplifier has a bandwidth of ∼3 kHz to 10 MHz, which corresponds to the mass-to-charge ratio, m/z, of approximately 18 to 61 k at 12 T. The transimpedance and the bandwidth can be easily adjusted by changing the value of passive components. The feedback limitation of the circuit is discussed. With the maximum possible transimpedance of 5.3 MΩ when using an 0402 surface mount resistor, the preamplifier was estimated to be able to detect ∼110 charges in a single scan. PMID:22225232

  15. First Signal on the Cryogenic Fourier-Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Cheng; Mathur, Raman; Aizikov, Kostantin; O'Connor, Peter B.

    2009-01-01

    The construction and achievement of the first signal on a cryogenic Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer (FT-ICR-MS) are reported here, demonstrating proof-of-concept of this new instrument design. Building the FTICR cell into the cold bore of a superconducting magnet provided advantages over conventional warm bore design. At 4.2 K, the vacuum system cryopumps itself, thus removing the requirement for a large bore to achieve the desired pumping speed for maintaining base pressure. Furthermore, because the bore diameter has been reduced, the amount of magnet wire needed to achieve high field and homogeneity was also reduced, greatly decreasing the cost/Tesla of the magnet. The current instrument implements an actively shielded 14-Tesla magnet of vertical design with an external matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) source. The first signal was obtained by detecting the laser desorbed/ionized (LDI) C60+• ions, with the magnet at 7 Tesla, unshimmed, and the preamplifier mounted outside of the vacuum chamber at room temperature. A subsequent experiment done with the magnet at 14 Tesla and properly shimmed produced a C60 spectrum showing ∼350,000 resolving power at m/z ∼720. Increased magnetic field strength improves many FTMS performance parameters simultaneously, particularly mass resolving power and accuracy. PMID:17931882

  16. 21 Tesla Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometer Greatly Expands Mass Spectrometry Toolbox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Jared B.; Lin, Tzu-Yung; Leach, Franklin E.; Tolmachev, Aleksey V.; Tolić, Nikola; Robinson, Errol W.; Koppenaal, David W.; Paša-Tolić, Ljiljana

    2016-12-01

    We provide the initial performance evaluation of a 21 Tesla Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer operating at the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The spectrometer constructed for the 21T system employs a commercial dual linear ion trap mass spectrometer coupled to a FTICR spectrometer designed and built in-house. Performance gains from moving to higher magnetic field strength are exemplified by the measurement of peptide isotopic fine structure, complex natural organic matter mixtures, and large proteins. Accurate determination of isotopic fine structure was demonstrated for doubly charged Substance P with minimal spectral averaging, and 8158 molecular formulas assigned to Suwannee River Fulvic Acid standard with root-mean-square (RMS) error of 10 ppb. We also demonstrated superior performance for intact proteins; namely, broadband isotopic resolution of the entire charge state distribution of apo-transferrin (78 kDa) and facile isotopic resolution of monoclonal antibody under a variety of acquisition parameters (e.g., 6 s time-domains with absorption mode processing yielded resolution of approximately 1 M at m/z = 2700).

  17. Analysis Tools for the Ion Cyclotron Emission Diagnostic on DIII-D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Castillo, C. A.; Thome, K. E.; Pinsker, R. I.; Meneghini, O.; Pace, D. C.

    2017-10-01

    Ion cyclotron emission (ICE) waves are excited by suprathermal particles such as neutral beam particles and fusion products. An ICE diagnostic is in consideration for use at ITER, where it could provide important passive measurement of fast ions location and losses, which are otherwise difficult to determine. Simple ICE data analysis codes had previously been developed, but more sophisticated codes are required to facilitate data analysis. Several terabytes of ICE data were collected on DIII-D during the 2015-2017 campaign. The ICE diagnostic consists of antenna straps and dedicated magnetic probes that are both digitized at 200 MHz. A suite of Python spectral analysis tools within the OMFIT framework is under development to perform the memory-intensive analysis of this data. A fast and optimized analysis allows ready access to data visualizations as spectrograms and as plots of both frequency and time cuts of the data. A database of processed ICE data is being constructed to understand the relationship between the frequency and intensity of ICE and a variety of experimental parameters including neutral beam power and geometry, local and global plasma parameters, magnetic fields, and many others. Work supported in part by US DoE under the Science Undergraduate Laboratory Internship (SULI) program and under DE-FC02-04ER54698.

  18. Electrostatic ion cyclotron waves in a plasma with an ion beam and counterstreaming bulk electrons - Waves in the zero-frequency band. [in aurora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, N.; Conrad, J. R.; Schunk, R. W.

    1985-01-01

    A common feature of the auroral plasma in the region above field-aligned (parallel) potential drops are electrostatic hydrogen cyclotron (EHC) waves. The present paper has the objective to show that wave excitation in the zero-frequency band can occur when the ion beams and the current-carrying bulk electrons counterstream. The instability mechanism involves the Landau interaction of the slow (negative energy) ion-beam-cyclotron waves with the drifting electrons and also with the target (background) ions. Only the latter resonant interaction between the beam and the target ions was considered by Okuda and Nishikawa (1984). In this study, it is shown that an electron drift makes an additional unstable contribution to the waves in the zero-frequency band, including those discussed by Okuda and Nishikawa.

  19. Production of highly charged heavy ions by 18 GHz superconducting electron cyclotron resonance at Research Center for Nuclear Physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorita, Tetsuhiko; Hatanaka, Kichiji; Fukuda, Mitsuhiro; Kibayashi, Mitsuru; Morinobu, Shunpei; Okamura, Hiroyuki; Tamii, Atsushi

    2010-02-01

    An 18 GHz superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source has been installed as a subject of the azimuthally varying field cyclotron upgrade project (K. Hatanaka et al., in Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Cyclotrons and Their Applications, Tokyo, Japan, 18-22 October 2004, pp. 115-117), in order to increase beam currents and to extend the variety of ions. The production development of several ions has been performed since 2006 and some of them have already been used for user experiments [T. Yorita et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 02A311 (2008)]. Further optimizations for each component such as the material of plasma electrode, material, and shape of bias probe and mirror field have been continued and more intense ion beams have been obtained for O, N, and Ar. For the purpose of obtaining highly charged Xe with several microamperes, the optimization of position and shape of plasma electrode and bias disk has also been done and highly charged Xe(32+) beam has been obtained successfully.

  20. Generation of electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves in the near-Earth magnetotail during dipolarization: two-dimensional global hybrid simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhifang; Wu, Mingyu; Du, Amin

    2017-04-01

    We employ two-dimensional global hybrid simulations to study the generation, propagation and polarization of electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves in the near-Earth magnetotail during dipolarization. In our simulation, EMIC waves with left-hand polarized signals originate in the low-latitude magnetotail as a result of the ion temperature anisotropy which is due to ion heating by Alfvén waves. Subsequently, EMIC waves can propagate along the ambient magnetic field toward high-latitudes. Our work provides one possible mechanism for the generation of EMIC waves observed in the near-Earth magnetotail.

  1. Role of Parallel and Oblique Ion-Cyclotron Waves in Heating Ions in an Inhomogeneous Expanding Solar Wind Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofman, L.; Ozak, N. O.; Vinas, A. F.

    2014-12-01

    In-situ observations of fast solar wind streams at distances of 0.29 AU and beyond by Helios and recently by MESSENGER, and at ~1 AU by STEREO, ACE, and Wind spacecraft provide direct evidence for the presence of turbulent Alfvén wave spectrum and of left-hand polarized ion-cyclotron waves as well as He++ - proton drift in the solar wind plasma. The waves and the super-Alfvénic drift can produce temperature anisotropies by resonant absorption and perpendicular heating of the ions. Measurements indicate that proton velocity distributions are generally non-Maxwellian with evidence for beams, while remote sensing observations of coronal holes have shown that heavy ions are hotter than protons with a temperature anisotropy greater than one (Ti,perp> Ti,||). In addition to the anisotropy, it is expected that the solar wind will be inhomogeneous on decreasing scales approaching the Sun. Here we use a 2.5 D hybrid code and extend previous work to study the heating of solar wind ions (H+, He+) in an inhomogeneous plasma background. We explore the effects of an initial ion drift and of a turbulent wave spectrum on the perpendicular ion heating and cooling and on the spectrum of the magnetic fluctuations in the inhomogeneous background solar wind. Using the 2D hybrid model we find that inhomogeneities in the plasma generate significant power of oblique waves in the solar wind plasma, in addition to enhanced heating compared to the homogenous solar wind case. We find that the cooling effect due to the solar wind expansion is only significant when sub-Alfvénic drifts are explored. On the other hand, the cooling is not significant in the presence of a super-Alfvénic drift, and it is even less significant when we include an inhomogeneous background density. We are able to reproduce the ion temperature anisotropy seen in observations and previous models and find that small-scale inhomogeneities in the inner heliosphere can have a significant impact on resonant wave ion

  2. Effect of hot injections on electromagnetic ion-cyclotron waves in inner magnetosphere of Saturn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Jyoti; Kaur, Rajbir; Pandey, R. S.

    2018-02-01

    Encounter of Voyager with Saturn's environment revealed the presence of electromagnetic ion-cyclotron waves (EMIC) in Saturnian magnetosphere. Cassini provided the evidence of dynamic particle injections in inner magnetosphere of Saturn. Also inner magnetosphere of Saturn has highest rotational flow shear as compared to any other planet in our solar system. Hence during these injections, electrons and ions are transported to regions of stronger magnetic field, thus gaining energy. The dynamics of the inner magnetosphere of Saturn are governed by wave-particle interaction. In present paper we have investigated those EMIC waves pertaining in background plasma which propagates obliquely with respect to the magnetic field of Saturn. Applying kinetic approach, the expression for dispersion relation and growth rate has been derived. Magnetic field model has been used to incorporate magnetic field strength at different latitudes for radial distance of 6.18 R_{{s}} (1 R_{{s}}= 60{,}268 km). Various parameters affecting the growth of EMIC waves in cold bi-Maxwellian background and after the hot injections has been studied. Parametric analysis inferred that after hot injections, growth rate of EMIC waves increases till 10° and decreases eventually with increase in latitude due to ion density distribution in near-equatorial region. Also, growth rate of EMIC waves increases with increasing value of temperature anisotropy and AC frequency, but the growth rate decreases as the angle of propagation with respect to B0 (Magnetic field at equator) increases. The injection events which assume the Loss-cone distribution of particles, affect the lower wave numbers of the spectra.

  3. Characterization of the onset of ion cyclotron parametric decay instability of lower hybrid waves in a diverted tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baek, S. G., E-mail: sgbaek@mit.edu; Parker, R. R.; Shiraiwa, S.; Wallace, G. M.; Bonoli, P. T.; Porkolab, M.; Brunner, D.; Faust, I. C.; Hubbard, A. E.; LaBombard, B.; Lau, C. [MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Takase, Y. [University of Tokyo, Kashiwa 277-8561 (Japan)

    2014-06-15

    The goal of the lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) program on Alcator C-Mod is to develop and optimize reactor-relevant steady-state plasmas by controlling current density profile. However, current drive efficiency precipitously decreases as the line averaged density (n{sup ¯}{sub e}) increases above ∼1 × 10{sup 20} m{sup −3}. Previous simulations show that the observed loss of current drive efficiency in high density plasmas stems from the interactions of LH waves with edge/scrape-off layer plasmas [Wallace et al., Phys. Plasmas 19, 062505 (2012)]. A recent observation [Baek et al., Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 55, 052001 (2013)] shows that the configuration dependent ion cyclotron parametric decay instability (PDI) is excited in the density range where the discrepancy between the experiments and simulations remains. Comparing the observed spectra with the homogeneous growth rate spectra indicates that the observed ion cyclotron PDI can be excited not only at the low-field-side but also at the high-field-side (HFS) edge of the tokamak. The model analysis shows that a relevant PDI process to Alcator C-Mod LHCD experiments is decay into ion cyclotron quasi-mode driven by parallel coupling. The underlying cause of the observed onset of ion cyclotron PDI is likely due to the weaker radial penetration of the LH wave in high density plasmas, which can lead to enhanced convective growth. Configuration-dependent PDIs are found to be correlated with different edge density profiles in different magnetic configurations. While the HFS edge of the tokamak can be potentially susceptible to PDI, as evidenced by experimental observations and ray-tracing analyses, enhancing single-pass absorption is expected to help recover the LHCD efficiency at reactor-relevant densities because it could suppress several parasitic loss mechanisms that are exacerbated in multi-pass regimes.

  4. Characterization of the onset of ion cyclotron parametric decay instability of lower hybrid waves in a diverted tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, S. G.; Parker, R. R.; Shiraiwa, S.; Wallace, G. M.; Bonoli, P. T.; Porkolab, M.; Takase, Y.; Brunner, D.; Faust, I. C.; Hubbard, A. E.; LaBombard, B.; Lau, C.

    2014-06-01

    The goal of the lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) program on Alcator C-Mod is to develop and optimize reactor-relevant steady-state plasmas by controlling current density profile. However, current drive efficiency precipitously decreases as the line averaged density (n¯e) increases above ˜1 × 1020 m-3. Previous simulations show that the observed loss of current drive efficiency in high density plasmas stems from the interactions of LH waves with edge/scrape-off layer plasmas [Wallace et al., Phys. Plasmas 19, 062505 (2012)]. A recent observation [Baek et al., Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 55, 052001 (2013)] shows that the configuration dependent ion cyclotron parametric decay instability (PDI) is excited in the density range where the discrepancy between the experiments and simulations remains. Comparing the observed spectra with the homogeneous growth rate spectra indicates that the observed ion cyclotron PDI can be excited not only at the low-field-side but also at the high-field-side (HFS) edge of the tokamak. The model analysis shows that a relevant PDI process to Alcator C-Mod LHCD experiments is decay into ion cyclotron quasi-mode driven by parallel coupling. The underlying cause of the observed onset of ion cyclotron PDI is likely due to the weaker radial penetration of the LH wave in high density plasmas, which can lead to enhanced convective growth. Configuration-dependent PDIs are found to be correlated with different edge density profiles in different magnetic configurations. While the HFS edge of the tokamak can be potentially susceptible to PDI, as evidenced by experimental observations and ray-tracing analyses, enhancing single-pass absorption is expected to help recover the LHCD efficiency at reactor-relevant densities because it could suppress several parasitic loss mechanisms that are exacerbated in multi-pass regimes.

  5. Orbit-averaged quasilinear diffusion operator in the ion-cyclotron range of frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belmondo, V.; Bilato, R.; Brambilla, M.; Maj, O.

    2010-11-01

    The absorption of radio-frequency waves in the ion-cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) in fusion plasmas is adequately described in the frame of the quasilinear theory. A peculiarity of ICRF heating is to increase the fraction of trapped particles, whose the guiding-center trajectories are typically banana orbits with finite width. One possible way to properly account for the effects due to the finite-width orbits is provided by the orbit-averaged quasilinear theory. Here, we propose a routine for the evaluation of the orbit-averaged quasilinear diffusion tensor, given the the wave fields from the full wave code TORIC. Particular care is taken in the evaluation of the contribution of each wave-particle resonance as well as for the transition between the two regimes of correlated and uncorrelated resonances along the orbit. We discuss the quasilinear diffusion coefficient thus obtained and validate the result by comparing the power deposition profile computed from the orbit-averaged quasilinear operator with the one determined by TORIC. For future applications, a novel algorithm for the calculation of the corresponding Monte Carlo operators is also presented.

  6. High-Throughput Metabolic Profiling of Soybean Leaves by Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Ali; Rudolph, Heather L; Hurst, Jerod J; Wood, Troy D

    2016-01-19

    As a relatively recent research field, plant metabolomics has gained increasing interest in the past few years and has been applied to answer biological questions through large-scale qualitative and quantitative analyses of the plant metabolome. The combination of sensitivity and selectivity offered by mass spectrometry (MS) for measurement of many metabolites in a single shot makes it an indispensable platform in metabolomics. In this regard, Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR) has the unique advantage of delivering high mass resolving power and mass accuracy simultaneously, making it ideal for the study of complex mixtures such as plant extracts. Here we optimize soybean leaf extraction methods compatible with high-throughput reproducible MS-based metabolomics. In addition, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) and direct LDI of soybean leaves are compared for metabolite profiling. The extraction method combined with electrospray (ESI)-FTICR is supported by the significant reduction of chlorophyll and its related metabolites as the growing season moves from midsummer to the autumn harvest day. To our knowledge for the first time, the use of ESI-FTICR MS and MALDI-FTICR MS is described in a complementary manner with the aim of metabolic profiling of plant leaves that have been collected at different time points during the growing season.

  7. Theoretical and numerical modelling of chaotic electrostatic ion cyclotron (EIC) oscillations by Jerk equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wharton, A. M., E-mail: alpha.wharton@saha.ac.in; Kumar Shaw, Pankaj; Janaki, M. S.; Sekar Iyengar, A. N. [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Plasma Physics Division, 1/AF, Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700064 (India); Prasad, Awadhesh [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India)

    2014-02-15

    In the last few years, third order explicit autonomous differential equations, known as jerk equations, have generated great interest as they show features of regular and chaotic motion. In this paper, we have modelled chaotic electrostatic ion cyclotron oscillations using a third order nonlinear ordinary differential equation (ODE) and investigated its nonlinear dynamical properties. The nonlinear ODE has been derived for a plasma system from a two fluid model in the presence of a source term, under the influence of an external magnetic field, which is perpendicular to the direction of the wave vector. It is seen that the equation does not require an external forcing term to obtain chaotic behaviour. The stability of the solutions of the equation has been investigated analytically as well as numerically, and the bifurcation diagram obtained shows a number of interesting phenomena for various regimes of parameters. The coexisting attractors as well as their corresponding basins are shown and the phase space portraits at different conditions are obtained numerically and shown here. The results obtained here are in agreement with preliminary experiments conducted for a similar configuration of a plasma system.

  8. Theoretical and numerical modelling of chaotic electrostatic ion cyclotron (EIC) oscillations by Jerk equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wharton, A. M.; Kumar Shaw, Pankaj; Janaki, M. S.; Prasad, Awadhesh; Sekar Iyengar, A. N.

    2014-02-01

    In the last few years, third order explicit autonomous differential equations, known as jerk equations, have generated great interest as they show features of regular and chaotic motion. In this paper, we have modelled chaotic electrostatic ion cyclotron oscillations using a third order nonlinear ordinary differential equation (ODE) and investigated its nonlinear dynamical properties. The nonlinear ODE has been derived for a plasma system from a two fluid model in the presence of a source term, under the influence of an external magnetic field, which is perpendicular to the direction of the wave vector. It is seen that the equation does not require an external forcing term to obtain chaotic behaviour. The stability of the solutions of the equation has been investigated analytically as well as numerically, and the bifurcation diagram obtained shows a number of interesting phenomena for various regimes of parameters. The coexisting attractors as well as their corresponding basins are shown and the phase space portraits at different conditions are obtained numerically and shown here. The results obtained here are in agreement with preliminary experiments conducted for a similar configuration of a plasma system.

  9. Latitudinal dependence of nonlinear interaction between electromagnetic ion cyclotron wave and radiation belt relativistic electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Zhenpeng; Zhu, Hui; Xiao, Fuliang; Zheng, Huinan; Shen, Chao; Wang, Yuming; Wang, Shui

    2013-06-01

    Electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves are long suggested to account for the rapid loss of radiation belt relativistic electrons. Here we perform both theoretical analysis and numerical simulation to comprehensively investigate the nonlinear interaction between EMIC wave and relativistic electrons. In particular, we emphasize the dependence of nonlinear processes on the electron initial latitude. The nonlinear phase trapping yields negative equatorial pitch angle transport, with efficiency varying over the electron initial latitude, implying that it can increase the loss rate predicted by quasilinear theory. The nonlinear channel effect phase bunching produces positive equatorial pitch angle transport, less dependent on the electron initial latitude, suggesting that it can decrease the loss rate predicted by quasilinear theory. The nonlinear cluster effect phase bunching alternately causes positive and negative equatorial pitch angle transport, quasi-periodically dependent on the electron initial latitude, suggesting that it can either decrease or increase the loss rate predicted by the quasilinear theory. Such latitudinal dependence of nonlinear processes should be taken into account in the evaluation of radiation belt electron loss rate driven by EMIC waves.

  10. Dynamics of r.f. production of Stellarator plasmas in the ion cyclotron range of frequency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moiseenko, V.E. [Kharkov Inst. of Phys. and Tech. (Ukraine). Nat. Center; Lysoivan, A.I. [Kharkov Inst. of Phys. and Tech. (Ukraine). Nat. Center; Kasilov, S.V. [Kharkov Inst. of Phys. and Tech. (Ukraine). Nat. Center; Plyusnin, V.V. [Kharkov Inst. of Phys. and Tech. (Ukraine). Nat. Center

    1995-01-01

    The present study investigated numerically the process of r.f. production of plasma in the URAGAN-3M torsatron in the frequency range below the ion cyclotron frequency ({omega}<{omega}{sub ci}). The dynamics of r.f. plasma build-up at the stages of neutral gas burnout and plasma heating were studied using a zero-dimensional transport code, in which the plasma confinement law was determined by large helical device scaling. Two models for input r.f. power were used. In the first case, the r.f. power absorbed by the electrons was computed by a one-dimensional r.f. code solving Maxwell`s boundary problem equations. The mechanisms of electron heating through direct excitation of the slow wave (SW) by antennae as well as the conversion of fast wave (FW) into SW in the vicinity of Alfven resonance (scenario of Alfven heating) were taken into account in the computations. In the second case, an `ideal` model of r.f. power deposition onto the electrons as a linear function of plasma density was employed. A noticeable difference in plasma production dynamics computed for these two cases was found. Better agreement with experimental data obtained from the URAGAN-3M torsatron was found for the first case resulting from combination of the one-dimensional r.f. and zero-dimensional transport codes. ((orig.)).

  11. Conjugate observations of electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves associated with traveling convection vortex events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyomin; Clauer, C. Robert; Gerrard, Andrew J.; Engebretson, Mark J.; Hartinger, Michael D.; Lessard, Marc R.; Matzka, Jürgen; Sibeck, David G.; Singer, Howard J.; Stolle, Claudia; Weimer, Daniel R.; Xu, Zhonghua

    2017-07-01

    We report on simultaneous observations of electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves associated with traveling convection vortex (TCV) events caused by transient solar wind dynamic pressure (Pd) impulse events. The Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS) spacecraft located near the magnetopause observed radial fluctuations of the magnetopause, and the GOES spacecraft measured sudden compressions of the magnetosphere in response to sudden increases in Pd. During the transient events, EMIC waves were observed by interhemispheric conjugate ground-based magnetometer arrays as well as the GOES spacecraft. The spectral structures of the waves appear to be well correlated with the fluctuating motion of the magnetopause, showing compression-associated wave generation. In addition, the wave features are remarkably similar in conjugate hemispheres in terms of bandwidth, quasiperiodic wave power modulation, and polarization. Proton precipitation was also observed by the DMSP spacecraft during the wave events, from which the wave source region is estimated to be 72°-74° in magnetic latitude, consistent with the TCV center. The confluence of space-borne and ground instruments including the interhemispheric, high-latitude, fluxgate/induction coil magnetometer array allows us to constrain the EMIC source region while also confirming the relationship between EMIC waves and the TCV current system.

  12. Electric polarization and the viability of living systems: ion cyclotron resonance-like interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liboff, A R

    2009-01-01

    Wellness can be described in physical terms as a state that is a function of the organism's electric polarization vector P(r, t). One can alter P by invasive application of electric fields or by non invasive external pulsed magnetic fields (PMF) or ion cyclotron resonance (ICR)-like combinations of static and sinusoidal magnetic fields. Changes in human (total) body bioimpedance are significantly altered during exposure to ICR magnetic field combinations. The conductivities of polar amino acids in solution exhibit sharp discontinuities at ICR magnetic fields tuned to the specific charge to mass ratio of the amino acid. It has been reported that protein peptide bonds are broken by such amino acid ICR fields. Remarkably, some of these effects are only found at ultra-low AC magnetic intensities, on the order of .05 muT. This is approximately 10(3) below accepted levels determined by engineering estimates. Such strikingly low magnetic intensities imply the existence of physically equivalent endogenous weak electric field oscillations. These observations not only make claims related to electromagnetic pollution more credible but also provide a basis for future electromagnetic applications in medicine. They also reinforce the notion that physical factors acting to influence the electric polarization in living organisms play a key role in biology.

  13. Fast particle-driven ion cyclotron emission (ICE) in tokamak plasmas and the case for an ICE diagnostic in ITER

    CERN Document Server

    McClements, K G; Dendy, R O; Carbajal, L; Chapman, S C; Cook, J W S; Harvey, R W; Heidbrink, W W; Pinches, S D

    2014-01-01

    Fast particle-driven waves in the ion cyclotron frequency range (ion cyclotron emission or ICE) have provided a valuable diagnostic of confined and escaping fast ions in many tokamaks. This is a passive, non-invasive diagnostic that would be compatible with the high radiation environment of deuterium-tritium plasmas in ITER, and could provide important information on fusion {\\alpha}-particles and beam ions in that device. In JET, ICE from confined fusion products scaled linearly with fusion reaction rate over six orders of magnitude and provided evidence that {\\alpha}-particle confinement was close to classical. In TFTR, ICE was observed from super-Alfv\\'enic {\\alpha}-particles in the plasma edge. The intensity of beam-driven ICE in DIII-D is more strongly correlated with drops in neutron rate during fishbone excitation than signals from more direct beam ion loss diagnostics. In ASDEX Upgrade ICE is produced by both super-Alfv\\'enic DD fusion products and sub-Alfv\\'enic deuterium beam ions.

  14. Charge Breeding of Radioactive Ions in an Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Source(ECRIS) at ISOLDE

    CERN Multimedia

    Lindroos, M

    2002-01-01

    The development of an efficient charge breeding scheme for the next generation of RIB facilities will have a strong impact on the post-accelerator for several Radioactive Ion Beam (RIB) projects at European large scale facilities. At ISOLDE/CERN there will be the unique possibility to carry out experiments with the two possible charge breeding set-ups with a large variety of radioactive isotopes using identical injection conditions. One charge breeding set-up is the Penning trap/EBIS combination which feeds the REX-ISOLDE linear accelerator and which is in commissioning now. The second charge breeder is a new ECRIS PHOENIX developed at the ISN ion source laboratory at Grenoble. This ECRIS is now under investigation with a 14 GHz amplifier to characterize its performance. The experiments are accompanied by theoretical studies in computer simulations in order to optimize the capture of the ions in the ECRIS plasma. A second identical PHOENIX ECRIS which is under investigation at the Daresbury Laboratory is avai...

  15. Studies of the beam extraction system of the GTS-LHC electron cyclotron resonance ion source at CERN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toivanen, V; Küchler, D

    2016-02-01

    The 14.5 GHz GTS-LHC Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Source (ECRIS) provides multiply charged heavy ion beams for the CERN experimental program. The GTS-LHC beam formation has been studied extensively with lead, argon, and xenon beams with varied beam extraction conditions using the ion optical code IBSimu. The simulation model predicts self-consistently the formation of triangular and hollow beam structures which are often associated with ECRIS ion beams, as well as beam loss patterns which match the observed beam induced markings in the extraction region. These studies provide a better understanding of the properties of the extracted beams and a way to diagnose the extraction system performance and limitations, which is otherwise challenging due to the lack of direct diagnostics in this region and the limited availability of the ion source for development work.

  16. Emittance study of a 28 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source for the Rare Isotope Science Project superconducting linear accelerator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Bum-Sik; Hong, In-Seok; Jang, Ji-Ho; Jin, Hyunchang; Choi, Sukjin; Kim, Yonghwan

    2016-02-01

    A 28 GHz electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source is being developed for use as an injector for the superconducting linear accelerator of the Rare Isotope Science Project. Beam extraction from the ECR ion source has been simulated using the KOBRA3-INP software. The simulation software can calculate charged particle trajectories in three dimensional complex magnetic field structures, which in this case are formed by the arrangement of five superconducting magnets. In this study, the beam emittance is simulated to understand the effects of plasma potential, mass-to-charge ratio, and spatial distribution. The results of these simulations and their comparison to experimental results are presented in this paper.

  17. Studies of extraction and transport system for highly charged ion beam of 18 GHz superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source at Research Center for Nuclear Physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorita, T; Hatanaka, K; Fukuda, M; Ueda, H; Yasuda, Y; Morinobu, S; Tamii, A; Kamakura, K

    2014-02-01

    An 18 GHz superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source is installed to increase beam currents and to extend the variety of ions especially for highly charged heavy ions which can be accelerated by cyclotrons of Research Center for Nuclear Physics (RCNP), Osaka University. The beam production developments of several ions from B to Xe have been already done [T. Yorita, K. Hatanaka, M. Fukuda, M. Kibayashi, S. Morinobu, H.Okamura, and A. Tamii, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 02A311 (2008) and T. Yorita, K. Hatanaka, M. Fukuda, M. Kibayashi, S. Morinobu, H.Okamura, and A. Tamii, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 02A332 (2010)] and the further studies for those beam extraction and its transport have been done in order to increase the beam current more. The plasma electrode, extraction electrode, and einzel lens are modified. Especially extraction electrode can be applied minus voltage for the beam extraction and it works well to improve the extracted beam current. The extraction voltage dependences of transmission and emittance also have been studied for beam current improvement which is injected into azimuthally varying field cyclotron at RCNP.

  18. Heavy-ion injector based on an electron cyclotron ion source for the superconducting linear accelerator of the Rare Isotope Science Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, In-Seok; Kim, Yong-Hwan; Choi, Bong-Hyuk; Choi, Suk-Jin; Park, Bum-Sik; Jin, Hyun-Chang; Kim, Hye-Jin; Heo, Jeong-Il; Kim, Deok-Min; Jang, Ji-Ho

    2016-02-01

    The injector for the main driver linear accelerator of the Rare Isotope Science Project in Korea, has been developed to allow heavy ions up to uranium to be delivered to the inflight fragmentation system. The critical components of the injector are the superconducting electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources, the radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ), and matching systems for low and medium energy beams. We have built superconducting magnets for the ECR ion source, and a prototype with one segment of the RFQ structure, with the aim of developing a design that can satisfy our specifications, demonstrate stable operation, and prove results to compare the design simulation.

  19. Observations of compound sawteeth in ion cyclotron resonant heating plasma using ECE imaging on experimental advanced superconducting tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Azam; Zhao, Zhenling; Xie, Jinlin; Zhu, Ping; Liu, Wandong; Ti, Ang

    2016-04-01

    The spatial and temporal evolutions of compound sawteeth were directly observed using 2D electron cyclotron emission imaging on experimental advanced superconducting tokamak. The compound sawtooth consists of partial and full collapses. After partial collapse, the hot core survives as only a small amount of heat disperses outwards, whereas in the following full collapse a large amount of heat is released and the hot core dissipates. The presence of two q = 1 surfaces was not observed. Instead, the compound sawtooth occurs mainly at the beginning of an ion cyclotron resonant frequency heating pulse and during the L-H transition phase, which may be related to heat transport suppression caused by a decrease in electron heat diffusivity.

  20. Improved Ion Optics for Introduction of Ions into a 9.4 Tesla Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu; Leach, Franklin E.; Kaiser, Nathan K.; Dang, Xibei; Ibrahim, Yehia M.; Norheim, Randolph V.; Anderson, Gordon A.; Smith, Richard D.; Marshall, Alan G.

    2014-01-01

    Enhancements to the ion source and transfer optics of our 9.4 T FT-ICR mass spectrometer have resulted in improved ion transmission efficiency for more sensitive mass measurement of complex mixtures at the MS and MS/MS levels. The tube lens/skimmer has been replaced by a dual ion funnel and the following octopole by a quadrupole for reduced ion cloud radial expansion before transmission into a mass-selective quadrupole. The number of ions that reach the ICR cell is increased by an order of magnitude for the funnel/quadrupole relative to the tube lens/skimmer/octopole. PMID:25601704

  1. Using the Orbit Tracking Code Z3CYCLONE to Predict the Beam Produced by a Cold Cathode PIG Ion Source for Cyclotrons under DC Extraction

    CERN Document Server

    Forringer, Edward

    2005-01-01

    Experimental measurements of the emittance and luminosity of beams produced by a cold-cathode Phillips Ionization Guage (PIG) ion source for cyclotrons under dc extraction are reviewed. (The source being studied is of the same style as ones that will be used in a series of 250 MeV proton cyclotrons being constructed for cancer therapy by ACCEL Inst, Gmbh, of Bergisch Gladbach, Germany.) The concepts of 'plasma boundary' and 'plasma temperature' are presented as a useful set of parameters for describing the initial conditions used in computational orbit tracking. Experimental results for r-pr and z-pz emittance are compared to predictions from the MSU orbit tracking code Z3CYCLONE with results indicating that the code is able to predict the beam produced by these ion sources with adequate accuracy such that construction of actual cyclotrons can proceed with reasonably prudent confidence that the cyclotron will perform as predicted.

  2. The modulation of electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves by Pc 5 ULF waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. Loto'aniu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The modulation of electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC waves by longer-period ULF waves has been proposed as a method for producing pearl structured Pc 1–2 EMIC waves. This study examines frequency and phase relationship between Pc 1 EMIC wavepacket envelopes and simultaneously occurring Pc 5 ULF waves using magnetic data measured by the CRRES spacecraft. Intervals from three days in 1991 where CRRES observed pearls are presented along with simple statistics for 58 EMIC wavepackets. The observations were dominated by EMIC waves propagating away from the equatorial region. Comparisons between pearl wavepacket envelopes and Pc 5 waves show excellent agreement. The pearl wavepacket duration times, τdur, were statistically correlated with Pc 5 wave periods, TPc5, resulting in a correlation coefficient of R=0.7 and best fit equation τdur=0.8·TPc5+6 s. In general, phase differences varied although time intervals of constant in-phase or anti-phase correlation were observed. Anti-phase modulation may be explained by a decreasing background magnetic field due to the negative cycle of the ULF wave decreasing Alfvén velocity and minimum resonant energy. In-phase modulation could be the result of adiabatic modulation of temperature anisotropy in-phase with variations in the background field. Non-adiabatic processes may contribute to intervals that showed varying phase differences with time. Results suggest that future theoretical developments should take into account the full range of possible wave particle interactions inside the magnetosphere.

  3. Upconversion of whistler waves by gyrating ion beams in a plasma

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    linear interaction of high-frequency whistler waves with the negative energy beam cyclotron mode is made. ... It is shown that a gyrating ion-beam frequency upconverts the whistler waves separated by harmonics of beam gyro-frequency.

  4. Note: Optimized circuit for excitation and detection with one pair of electrodes for improved Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, T; Beu, S C; Kaiser, N K; Hendrickson, C L

    2014-06-01

    A conventional Fourier transform-Ion Cyclotron Resonance (ICR) detection cell is azimuthally divided into four equal sections. One pair of opposed electrodes is used for ion cyclotron excitation, and the other pair for ion image charge detection. In this work, we demonstrate that an appropriate electrical circuit facilitates excitation and detection on one pair of opposed electrodes. The new scheme can be used to minimize the number of electrically independent ICR cell electrodes and/or improve the electrode geometry for simultaneously increased ICR signal magnitude and optimal post-excitation radius, which results in higher signal-to-noise ratio and decreased space-charge effects.

  5. Measurements of ion cyclotron parametric decay of lower hybrid waves at the high-field side of Alcator C-Mod

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, S. G.; Parker, R. R.; Shiraiwa, S.; Wallace, G. M.; Bonoli, P. T.; Brunner, D.; Faust, I. C.; Hubbard, A. E.; LaBombard, B.; Porkolab, M.

    2013-05-01

    Ion cyclotron parametric decay instability (PDI) of lower hybrid (LH) waves is surveyed using edge Langmuir probes on the Alcator C-Mod tokamak. The measurement is carried out simultaneously at the high-field side (HFS) and low-field side (LFS) mid-plane of the tokamak, as well as in the outer divertor region. Different LH spectra are observed depending on the location of the probes and magnetic configuration in L-mode plasmas, with \\overrightarrow{B}\\times\\bigtriangledown B drift direction downward. In lower single null (LSN) plasmas, strong ion cyclotron PDI occurring at the HFS is observed for the first time. This instability is characterized by a frequency separation in sidebands corresponding to the ion cyclotron frequency (ωci) near the HFS scrape-off layer and develops with threshold-like behavior as density increases. In inner wall limited (IWL) plasmas, this HFS instability shows a higher density threshold compared with that in LSN plasmas. The pump width becomes broadened even in the absence of the sidebands. In upper single null plasmas with similar plasma parameters, ion cyclotron PDI sidebands have a frequency separation corresponding to ωci near the LFS and are weaker than those observed in the LSN and IWL plasmas. Correlation between the onset of ion cyclotron PDI and the observed loss of lower hybrid current drive efficiency (Wallace et al 2012 Phys. Plasmas 19 062505) is discussed.

  6. Optimizing C4+ and C5+ beams of the Kei2 electron cyclotron resonance ion source using a special gas-mixing technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drentje, A. G.; Muramatsu, M.; Kitagawa, A.

    With the prototype electron cyclotron resonance ion source for the next carbon therapy facility in Japan a series of measurements has been performed in order (a) to find the best condition for producing high beam currents of C4+ ions, and (b) to study the effect of "special" gas mixing by using a

  7. Self-Consistent Model of Magnetospheric Electric Field, Ring Current, Plasmasphere, and Electromagnetic Ion Cyclotron Waves: Initial Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamayunov, K. V.; Khazanov, G. V.; Liemohn, M. W.; Fok, M.-C.; Ridley, A. J.

    2009-01-01

    Further development of our self-consistent model of interacting ring current (RC) ions and electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves is presented. This model incorporates large scale magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling and treats self-consistently not only EMIC waves and RC ions, but also the magnetospheric electric field, RC, and plasmasphere. Initial simulations indicate that the region beyond geostationary orbit should be included in the simulation of the magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling. Additionally, a self-consistent description, based on first principles, of the ionospheric conductance is required. These initial simulations further show that in order to model the EMIC wave distribution and wave spectral properties accurately, the plasmasphere should also be simulated self-consistently, since its fine structure requires as much care as that of the RC. Finally, an effect of the finite time needed to reestablish a new potential pattern throughout the ionosphere and to communicate between the ionosphere and the equatorial magnetosphere cannot be ignored.

  8. submitter Beam experiments with the Grenoble test electron cyclotron resonance ion source at iThemba LABS

    CERN Document Server

    Thomae, R; Fourie, D; Mira, J; Nemulodi, F; Kuechler, D; Toivanen, V

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT At iThemba Laboratory for Accelerator Based Sciences (iThemba LABS) an electron cyclotron ion source was installed and commissioned. This source is a copy of the Grenoble Test Source (GTS) for the production of highly charged ions. The source is similar to the GTS-LHC at CERN and named GTS2. A collaboration between the Accelerators and Beam Physics Group of CERN and the Accelerator and Engineering Department of iThemba LABS was proposed in which the development of high intensity argon and xenon beams is envisaged. In this paper, we present beam experiments with the GTS2 at iThemba LABS, in which the results of continuous wave and afterglow operation of xenon ion beams with oxygen as supporting gases are presented.

  9. The effect of gas mixing and biased disc voltage on the preglow transient of electron cyclotron resonance ion source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarvainen, O; Toivanen, V; Komppula, J; Kalvas, T; Koivisto, H

    2012-02-01

    The effect of gas mixing and biased disc voltage on the preglow of electron cyclotron resonance ion source plasma has been studied with the AECR-U type 14 GHz ion source. It was found that gas mixing has a significant effect on the preglow. The extracted transient beam currents and efficiency of the heavier species increase, while the currents and efficiency of the lighter species decrease when gas mixing is applied. The effect of the biased disc was found to be pronounced in continuous operation mode in comparison to preglow. The data provide information on the time scales of the plasma processes explaining the effects of gas mixing and biased disc. The results also have implications on production of radioactive ion beams in preglow mode for the proposed Beta Beam neutrino factory.

  10. The investigation of the bio-oil produced by hydrothermal liquefaction of Spirulina platensis using ultrahigh resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostyukevich, Yury; Vlaskin, Mikhail; Vladimirov, Gleb; Zherebker, Alexander; Kononikhin, Alexey; Popov, Igor; Nikolaev, Eugene

    2017-04-01

    We report the investigation of the hydrothermal liquefaction products of the Spirulina platensis microalgae by using the Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry. The hydrothermal liquefaction produced two fractions: one with boiling temperature below 300℃ and the dense residue that remained in the reactor. It was observed that N 2 and N classes of compounds that dominate in the positive ESI Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance spectra for both fractions, and that the light fraction is considerably more saturated then the heavy one. The performed hydrogen/deuterium exchange reaction indicated the presence of the onium compounds in the bio-oil.

  11. Simulation of Ion Source’s Control System on Cyclotron using Programmable System on Chip (PSoC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.S. Darmawan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Cyclotron is an ion accelerator machine with spiral beam path. Ion source system is one of the main systems which its function is to produce ions that will be accelerated. In order to obtain maximum ion current, the ion source must be equipped with a control system that control mechanical system that will adjust the position of the ion source. The mechanical system able to make adjustment in three different axis, that is x, y and z axis. The mechanical system consists of a stepper motor and a set of gears. The control system using Programmable System on Chip (PSoC utilizes its user module from the Random Sequence group, that is 8-bit Pseudo Random Sequence Generator (PRS8.For x and y axis, if the stepper motor rotate one rotation that means the support will be pushed or pulled 2.5 mm. While for z axis if the stepper motor rotate one rotation that means the support will be pushed or pulled 0.83 mm. The largest deviation of the stepper motor is 2° with error percentage is 1.09%. The mean value of step of the stepper motor is 2.03 step per second

  12. Upgrade of the beam extraction system of the GTS-LHC electron cyclotron resonance ion source at CERN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toivanen, V; Bellodi, G; Dimov, V; Küchler, D; Lombardi, A M; Maintrot, M

    2016-02-01

    Linac3 is the first accelerator in the heavy ion injector chain of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), providing multiply charged heavy ion beams for the CERN experimental program. The ion beams are produced with GTS-LHC, a 14.5 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source, operated in afterglow mode. Improvement of the GTS-LHC beam formation and beam transport along Linac3 is part of the upgrade program of the injector chain in preparation for the future high luminosity LHC. A mismatch between the ion beam properties in the ion source extraction region and the acceptance of the following Low Energy Beam Transport (LEBT) section has been identified as one of the factors limiting the Linac3 performance. The installation of a new focusing element, an einzel lens, into the GTS-LHC extraction region is foreseen as a part of the Linac3 upgrade, as well as a redesign of the first section of the LEBT. Details of the upgrade and results of a beam dynamics study of the extraction region and LEBT modifications will be presented.

  13. First commissioning results with the Grenoble test electron cyclotron resonance ion source at iThemba LABS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomae, R.; Conradie, J.; Delsink, H.; Du Plessis, H.; Fourie, D.; Klopp, M.; Kohler, I.; Lussi, C.; McAlister, R.; Ntshangase, S.; Sakildien, M. [iThemba LABS, P.O Box 722, Somerset West 7130 (South Africa); Hitz, D. [CEA/DRFMC, 17 Av. Des Martyrs, 38054, Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Kuechler, D. [CERN, BE/ABP/HSL, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)

    2012-02-15

    iThemba Laboratory for Accelerator Based Science (iThemba LABS) is a multi-disciplinary accelerator facility. One of its main activities is the operation of a separated-sector cyclotron with a K-value of 200, which provides beams of various ion species. These beams are used for fundamental nuclear physics research in the intermediate energy region, radioisotope production, and medical physics applications. Due to the requirements of nuclear physics for new ion species and higher energies, the decision was made to install a copy of the so-called Grenoble test source (GTS) at iThemba LABS. In this paper, we will report on the experimental setup and the first results obtained with the GTS2 at iThemba LABS.

  14. Fabrication of an optimized hexapole magnet for a 14.5 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Byung-Hoon; Seo, Chang Seog; In, Sang-Ryul; Kim, Tae-Seong

    2010-02-01

    A hexapole magnet for a 14.5 GHz electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source, where the maximum radial field on the wall of the plasma chamber is higher than 1.1 T, has been designed and fabricated. The size of the outer diameter and the number of the sector of the hexapole are optimized for a 14.5 GHz ECR ion source with the help of a three-dimensional field calculation code. Moreover, to make a strong and long-life magnet against the demagnetic field on the hexapole multilayered structure in radial and axial directions is considered in the design. The distributions of the demagnetic fields are estimated by the calculation of the radial field in a hexapole magnet and the axial field from the solenoid coils. Proper grades of magnetic materials depending on the strength of the demagnetic field are applied for the different layers. The magnetic fields of the measured and calculated ones have been compared.

  15. Recent advances in physics and technology of ion cyclotron resonance heating in view of future fusion reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ongena, J.; Messiaen, A.; Kazakov, Ye O.; Koch, R.; Ragona, R.; Bobkov, V.; Crombé, K.; Durodié, F.; Goniche, M.; Krivska, A.; Lerche, E.; Louche, F.; Lyssoivan, A.; Vervier, M.; Van Eester, D.; Van Schoor, M.; Wauters, T.; Wright, J.; Wukitch, S.

    2017-05-01

    Ion temperatures of over 100 million degrees need to be reached in future fusion reactors for the deuterium-tritium fusion reaction to work. Ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) is a method that has the capability to directly heat ions to such high temperatures, via a resonant interaction between the plasma ions and radiofrequency waves launched in the plasma. This paper gives an overview of recent developments in this field. In particular a novel and recently developed three-ion heating scenario will be highlighted. It is a flexible scheme with the potential to accelerate heavy ions to high energies in high density plasmas as expected for future fusion reactors. New antenna designs will be needed for next step large future devices like DEMO, to deliver steady-state high power levels, cope with fast variations in coupling due to fast changes in the edge density and to reduce the possibility for impurity production. Such a new design is the traveling wave antenna (TWA) consisting of an array of straps distributed around the circumference of the machine, which is intrinsically resilient to edge density variations and has an optimized power coupling to the plasma. The structure of the paper is as follows: to provide the general reader with a basis for a good understanding of the later sections, an overview is given of wave propagation, coupling and RF power absorption in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies, including a brief summary of the traditionally used heating scenarios. A special highlight is the newly developed three-ion scenario together with its promising applications. A next section discusses recent developments to study edge-wave interaction and reduce impurity influx from ICRH: the dedicated devices IShTAR and Aline, field aligned and three-strap antenna concepts. The principles behind and the use of ICRH as an important option for first wall conditioning in devices with a permanent magnetic field is discussed next. The final section presents ongoing

  16. Direct charge number and molecular weight determination of large individual ions by electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, R.; Wu, Q.; Mitchell, D.W.; Hofstadler, S.A.; Rockwood, A.L.; Smith, R.D. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States))

    1994-11-15

    The coupling of electrospray ionization (ESI) techniques with Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR) mass spectrometry allows the analysis of individual (i.e., single) multiply charged ions. In this paper, we demonstrate that individual large ions can be directly characterized through their excitation and ejection behavior in the FTICR cell. We also report the direct measurement of the charge carried by an individual poly(ethylene glycol) ion (5 [times] 10[sup 6] nominal molecular weight) and thus obtain the molecular weight of an individual ion ([approximately] 4.1 [times] 10[sup 6]) directly from the m/z measurement. These results confirm that the observed ions are indeed large individual molecular ions produced by ESI, as opposed to small fragments, and that an approximate molecular weight can be directly measured on the basis of charge determination and measured m/z. This capability augments the ability for more precise mass determination based upon the observation of a known reaction process (e.g., proton transfer) for individual ions. 39 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Operation of Lanzhou all permanent electron cyclotron resonance ion source No. 2 on 320 kV platform with highly charged ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, W; Li, J Y; Kang, L; Liu, H P; Li, H; Li, J D; Sun, L T; Ma, X W

    2014-02-01

    The 320 kV platform for multi-discipline research with highly charged ions is a heavy ion beam acceleration instrument developed by Institute of Modern Physics, which is dedicated to basic scientific researches such as plasma, atom, material physics, and astrophysics, etc. The platform has delivered ion beams of 400 species for 36,000 h. The average operation time is around 5000 h/year. With the beams provided by the platform, lots of outstanding progresses were made in various research fields. The ion source of the platform is an all-permanent magnet electron cyclotron resonance ion source, LAPECR2 (Lanzhou All Permanent ECR ion source No. 2). The maximum axial magnetic fields are 1.28 T at injection and 1.07 T at extraction, and the radial magnetic field is up to 1.21 T at the inner wall of the plasma chamber. The ion source is capable to produce low, medium, and high charge state gaseous and metallic ion beams, such as H(+), (40)Ar(8+), (129)Xe(30+), (209)Bi(33+), etc. This paper will present the latest result of LAPECR2 and the routine operation status for the high voltage platform.

  18. A gas-jet transport and catcher technique for on-line production of radioactive ion beams using an electron cyclotron resonance ion-source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naik, V.; Chakrabarti, A.; Bhattacharjee, M.; Karmakar, P.; Bandyopadhyay, A.; Dechoudhury, S.; Mondal, M.; Pandey, H. K.; Lavanyakumar, D.; Mandi, T. K.; Dutta, D. P.; Kundu Roy, T.; Bhowmick, D.; Sanyal, D.; Srivastava, S. C. L.; Ray, A.; Ali, Md. S. [Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre (VECC), Sector-1, Block-AF, Bidhan Nagar, Kolkata 700064 (India); Bhattacharjee, S. [UGC-DAE CSR, Kolkata Centre, III/LB-8, Bidhan Nagar, Kolkata 700098 (India)

    2013-03-15

    Radioactive ion beams (RIB) have been produced on-line, using a gas-jet recoil transport coupled Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) ion-source at the VECC-RIB facility. Radioactive atoms/molecules carried through the gas-jet were stopped in a catcher placed inside the ECR plasma chamber. A skimmer has been used to remove bulk of the carrier gas at the ECR entrance. The diffusion of atoms/molecules through the catcher has been verified off-line using stable isotopes and on-line through transmission of radioactive reaction products. Beams of {sup 14}O (71 s), {sup 42}K (12.4 h), {sup 43}K (22.2 h), and {sup 41}Ar (1.8 h) have been produced by bombarding nitrogen and argon gas targets with proton and alpha particle beams from the K130 cyclotron at VECC. Typical measured intensity of RIB at the separator focal plane is found to be a few times 10{sup 3} particles per second (pps). About 3.2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 3} pps of 1.4 MeV {sup 14}O RIB has been measured after acceleration through a radiofrequency quadrupole linac. The details of the gas-jet coupled ECR ion-source and RIB production experiments are presented along with the plans for the future.

  19. Regulation of Ion Drifts and Anisotropies by Parametrically Unstable Finite-amplitude Alfvén-cyclotron Waves in the Fast Solar Wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maneva, Y. G.; Araneda, J. A.; Marsch, E.

    2014-03-01

    We study the preferential heating and differential acceleration of minor ions by dissipation of ion-acoustic waves (IAWs) generated by parametric instabilities of a finite-amplitude monochromatic Alfvén-cyclotron pump wave. We consider the associated kinetic effects of Landau damping and nonlinear pitch-angle scattering of protons and α particles in the tenuous plasma of coronal holes and the fast solar wind. Various data collected by Wind spacecraft show signatures for a local transverse heating of the minor ions, presumably by Alfvén-cyclotron wave dissipation, and an unexpected parallel heating by a so far unknown mechanism. Here, we present the results from a set of 1.5 dimensional hybrid simulations in search for a plausible explanation for the observed field-aligned kinetic features in the fast solar wind minor ions. We investigate the origin and regulation of ion relative drifts and temperature anisotropies in low plasma β, fast solar wind conditions. Depending on their initial drifts, both ion species can heat up not only transversely through cyclotron resonance and non-resonant wave-particle interactions, but also strongly in the parallel direction by Landau damping of the daughter IAWs. We discuss the dependence of the relative ion drifts and temperature anisotropies on the plasma β of the individual species and we describe the effect of the pump wave amplitude on the ion heating and acceleration.

  20. Trapping, detection, and mass determination of coliphage T4 DNA ions of 10{sup 8} Da by electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, R.; Cheng, X.; Mitchell, D.W.; Hofstadler, S.A.; Wu, Q.; Rockwood, A.L.; Sherman, M.G.; Smith, R.D. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-04-01

    The trapping, detection, and mass measurement of individual T4 DNA ions (nominal molecular weight, M{sub r} = 1.1 x 10{sup 8} Da) have been performed with a 7 T electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (ESI-FTICR) mass spectrometer. The ionic mass was obtained by direct measurement of the number of charges carried by individual T4 DNA ions. The ions detected are a factor of approximately 20 larger than any molecule previously studied by mass spectrometry. These gas-phase macroions demonstrate a high degree of stability, which allows the acquisition of long transients (>476 s) from individual ions and the study of relatively slow reactions or dissociation processes. These results show the potential utility of ESI-FTICR mass spectrometry for the analysis of very large biomolecules and microparticles and indicate that it is possible to transfer ions of 110 MDa size to the gas phase substantially intact. The potential applications of the FTICR analysis of such highly charged ions are briefly discussed. 33 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Boosting Sensitivity in Liquid Chromatography-Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance-Tandem Mass Spectrometry for Product Ion Analysis of Monoterpene Indole Alkaloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakabayashi, Ryo; Tsugawa, Hiroshi; Kitajima, Mariko; Takayama, Hiromitsu; Saito, Kazuki

    2015-01-01

    In metabolomics, the analysis of product ions in tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) is noteworthy to chemically assign structural information. However, the development of relevant analytical methods are less advanced. Here, we developed a method to boost sensitivity in liquid chromatography-Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance-tandem mass spectrometry analysis (MS/MS boost analysis). To verify the MS/MS boost analysis, both quercetin and uniformly labeled (13)C quercetin were analyzed, revealing that the origin of the product ions is not the instrument, but the analyzed compounds resulting in sensitive product ions. Next, we applied this method to the analysis of monoterpene indole alkaloids (MIAs). The comparative analyses of MIAs having indole basic skeleton (ajmalicine, catharanthine, hirsuteine, and hirsutine) and oxindole skeleton (formosanine, isoformosanine, pteropodine, isopteropodine, rhynchophylline, isorhynchophylline, and mitraphylline) identified 86 and 73 common monoisotopic ions, respectively. The comparative analyses of the three pairs of stereoisomers showed more than 170 common monoisotopic ions in each pair. This method was also applied to the targeted analysis of MIAs in Catharanthus roseus and Uncaria rhynchophylla to profile indole and oxindole compounds using the product ions. This analysis is suitable for chemically assigning features of the metabolite groups, which contributes to targeted metabolome analysis.

  2. Boosting Sensitivity in Liquid Chromatography–Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance–Tandem Mass Spectrometry for Product Ion Analysis of Monoterpene Indole Alkaloids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryo eNakabayashi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In metabolomics, the analysis of product ions in tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS is noteworthy to chemically assign structural information. However, the development of relevant analytical methods are less advanced. Here, we developed a method to boost sensitivity in liquid chromatography–Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance–tandem mass spectrometry analysis (MS/MS boost analysis. To verify the MS/MS boost analysis, both quercetin and uniformly labeled 13C quercetin were analyzed, revealing that the origin of the product ions is not the instrument, but the analyzed compounds resulting in sensitive product ions. Next, we applied this method to the analysis of monoterpene indole alkaloids (MIAs. The comparative analyses of MIAs having indole basic skeleton (ajmalicine, catharanthine, hirsuteine, and hirsutine and oxindole skeleton (formosanine, isoformosanine, pteropodine, isopteropodine, rhynchophylline, isorhynchophylline, and mitraphylline identified 86 and 73 common monoisotopic ions, respectively. The comparative analyses of the three pairs of stereoisomers showed more than 170 common monoisotopic ions in each pair. This method was also applied to the targeted analysis of MIAs in Catharanthus roseus and Uncaria rhynchophylla to profile indole and oxindole compounds using the product ions. This analysis is suitable for chemically assigning features of the metabolite groups, which contributes to targeted metabolome analysis.

  3. Electron cyclotron resonance ion source plasma characterization by X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mascali, David, E-mail: davidmascali@lns.infn.it; Castro, Giuseppe; Celona, Luigi; Neri, Lorenzo; Gammino, Santo [INFN–Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via S. Sofia 62, 95125 Catania (Italy); Biri, Sándor; Rácz, Richárd; Pálinkás, József [Institute for Nuclear Research (Atomki), Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Bem tér 18/c, H-4026 Debrecen (Hungary); Caliri, Claudia [INFN–Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via S. Sofia 62, 95125 Catania (Italy); Università degli Studi di Catania, Dip.to di Fisica e Astronomia, via Santa Sofia 64, 95123 Catania (Italy); Romano, Francesco Paolo [INFN–Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via S. Sofia 62, 95125 Catania (Italy); CNR, Istituto per i Beni Archeologici e Monumentali, Via Biblioteca 4, 95124 Catania (Italy); Torrisi, Giuseppe [INFN–Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via S. Sofia 62, 95125 Catania (Italy); Università Mediterranea di Reggio Calabria, DIIES, Via Graziella, I-89100 Reggio Calabria (Italy)

    2016-02-15

    An experimental campaign aiming to investigate electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma X-ray emission has been recently carried out at the ECRISs—Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Sources laboratory of Atomki based on a collaboration between the Debrecen and Catania ECR teams. In a first series, the X-ray spectroscopy was performed through silicon drift detectors and high purity germanium detectors, characterizing the volumetric plasma emission. The on-purpose developed collimation system was suitable for direct plasma density evaluation, performed “on-line” during beam extraction and charge state distribution characterization. A campaign for correlating the plasma density and temperature with the output charge states and the beam intensity for different pumping wave frequencies, different magnetic field profiles, and single-gas/gas-mixing configurations was carried out. The results reveal a surprisingly very good agreement between warm-electron density fluctuations, output beam currents, and the calculated electromagnetic modal density of the plasma chamber. A charge-coupled device camera coupled to a small pin-hole allowing X-ray imaging was installed and numerous X-ray photos were taken in order to study the peculiarities of the ECRIS plasma structure.

  4. An Investigation of (Diacetoxyiodo)arenes as Precursors for Preparing No-Carrier-Added [(18)F]Fluoroarenes from Cyclotron-Produced [(18)F]Fluoride Ion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskali, Mohammad B; Telu, Sanjay; Lee, Yong-Sok; Morse, Cheryl L; Lu, Shuiyu; Pike, Victor W

    2016-01-04

    Treatment of (diacetoxyiodo)arenes (1a-1u) with cyclotron-produced [(18)F]fluoride ion rapidly affords no-carrier-added [(18)F]fluoroarenes (2a-2u) in useful yields and constitutes a new method for converting substituted iodoarenes into substituted [(18)F]fluoroarenes in just two steps.

  5. Screening and confirmation criteria for hormone residue analysis using liquid chromatography accurate mass time-of-flight, Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance and orbitrap mass spectrometry techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nielen, M.W.F.; Engelen, M.C. van; Zuiderent, R.; Ramaker, R.

    2007-01-01

    An emerging trend is recognised in hormone and veterinary drug residue analysis from liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) based screening and confirmation towards accurate mass alternatives such as LC coupled with time-of-flight (TOF), Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance

  6. Generation of high charge state metal ion beams by electron cyclotron resonance heating of vacuum arc plasma in cusp trap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaev, A G; Savkin, K P; Oks, E M; Vizir, A V; Yushkov, G Yu; Vodopyanov, A V; Izotov, I V; Mansfeld, D A

    2012-02-01

    A method for generating high charge state heavy metal ion beams based on high power microwave heating of vacuum arc plasma confined in a magnetic trap under electron cyclotron resonance conditions has been developed. A feature of the work described here is the use of a cusp magnetic field with inherent "minimum-B" structure as the confinement geometry, as opposed to a simple mirror device as we have reported on previously. The cusp configuration has been successfully used for microwave heating of gas discharge plasma and extraction from the plasma of highly charged, high current, gaseous ion beams. Now we use the trap for heavy metal ion beam generation. Two different approaches were used for injecting the vacuum arc metal plasma into the trap--axial injection from a miniature arc source located on-axis near the microwave window, and radial injection from sources mounted radially at the midplane of the trap. Here, we describe preliminary results of heating vacuum arc plasma in a cusp magnetic trap by pulsed (400 μs) high power (up to 100 kW) microwave radiation at 37.5 GHz for the generation of highly charged heavy metal ion beams.

  7. Synthesis of carboxylated styrene polymer for internal calibration of Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass-spectrometry of humic substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zherebker, Alexander; Turkova, Alexandra V; Kostyukevich, Yury; Kononikhin, Alexey; Zaitsev, Kirill V; Popov, Igor A; Nikolaev, Eugene; Perminova, Irina V

    2017-08-01

    We report synthesis and application of the novel carboxylated styrene for internal calibration of Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass-spectra of humic substances. The calibrant was synthesized in five steps from acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) followed by spontaneous polymerization of vinyl salicylic acid. Aromatic nature of the prepared polymer enabled its simultaneous analysis in the presence of the Suwannee River fulvic acid without using dual-spray approach. The major advantage of the calibrant proposed in this study is a lack of suppression of humic substances signals and maintenance of peak intensity distribution. The appropriate calibration resulted in an increased number of unambiguous identification in Suwannee River fulvic acid. Thanks to the higher mass accuracy, it was also possible to refine attribution of the CHOS species to hydrolysable tannins as opposed to the erroneous previous assignment to the condensed tannins.

  8. Investigation of the ozonation products of natural complex mixtures using Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostyukevich, Yury; Stavitskaya, Anna; Zherebker, Alexander; Konstantinova, Marina; Vlaskin, Mikhail; Borisova, Ludmila; Kononikhin, Alexey; Popov, Igor; Nikolaev, Eugene

    2017-08-01

    Natural complex mixtures such as oil and dissolved organic matter play an important role in the economy and in the global carbon cycle. One of the most promising approaches for the investigation of the chemical structure of such substances is the combination of the high-resolution mass spectrometry and selective chemical reactions. Here, we report the investigation of the ozonation products of natural complex mixtures using Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry. Ozonation of crude oil results in the appearance of the new compounds with high content (up to 9 atom) of oxygen. Isotopic exchange reaction showed that those oxygen stem from the carbonyl groups. Ozonation of the dissolved organic matter leads to the destruction of the substance and shift towards the region of the saturated compounds.

  9. Probing regA/RNA interactions using electrospray ionization-Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance-mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, C.; Tolic, L.P.; Hofstadler, S.A.; Harms, A.C.; Smith, R.D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States). Environmental Molecular Sciences Lab.; Kang, C.H. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry and Biophysics; Sinha, N. [Boston Biosystems, Inc., Bedford, MA (United States)

    1998-08-15

    The interactions of bacteriophage T4 regA protein, a unique translational regulator, with RNAs of various size and sequence were studied using electrospray ionization-Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance-mass spectrometry. Using very gentle interface conditions, regA/RNA complexes with a 1:1 binding stoichiometry were observed for all four target RNAs studied, consistent with solution binding studies. Competitive binding of target RNAs and their degradation products with regA demonstrated that the loss of a single nucleotide resulted in a dramatic change in binding affinity in some cases. Competitive binding of regA with four target RNAs revealed similar relative binding affinity order to that suggested by previous in vitro repression experiments. The use of sustained off-resonance irradiation for collisionally induced dissociation of a regA/RNA complex suggested the potential for directly obtaining information regarding the regA binding domain.

  10. Superconducting magnet performance for 28 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source developed at the Korea Basic Science Institute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin Yong; Choi, Seyong; Lee, Byoung-Seob; Yoon, Jang-Hee; Ok, Jung-Woo; Kim, Byoung Chul; Shin, Chang Seouk; Ahn, Jung Keun; Won, Mi-Sook

    2014-02-01

    A superconducting magnet for use in an electron cyclotron resonance ion source was developed at the Korea Basic Science Institute. The superconducting magnet is comprised of three solenoids and a hexapole magnet. According to the design value, the solenoid magnets can generate a mirror field, resulting in axial magnetic fields of 3.6 T at the injection area and 2.2 T at the extraction region. A radial field strength of 2.1 T can also be achieved by hexapole magnet on the plasma chamber wall. NbTi superconducting wire was used in the winding process following appropriate techniques for magnet structure. The final assembly of the each magnet involved it being vertically inserted into the cryostat to cool down the temperature using liquid helium. The performance of each solenoid and hexapole magnet was separately verified experimentally. The construction of the superconducting coil, the entire magnet assembly for performance testing and experimental results are reported herein.

  11. Application of the laser induced fluorescence to the investigation of highly magnetized plasmas, heated by ion cyclotron resonance; Fluorescence induite par laser sur des plasmas fortement magnetises, chauffes par resonnance cyclotron ionique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pailloux, A. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Dept. des Procedes d`Enrichissement]|[Universite Louis Pasteur, 67 - Strasbourg (France)

    1997-12-31

    This work has been achieved in the frame of isotopic separation studies by in cyclotron resonance. For this purpose, in a highly magnetized (2 to 3 Tesla) and non-collisional (10{sup 12} ions/cm{sup 3}) plasma, composed of metallic ions, a wave near the ion cyclotron frequency is thrown in order to heat selectively a given species. A laser induced fluorescence (LIP) has been developed on barium and gadolinium plasmas. The Larmor gyration of ions greatly modifies the interaction, which has been modelled through the time-dependent Schroedinger equation. The obtained excitation probably has been integrated over all the ions excited in the measurement volume in order to check that the LIF still leads to the distribution function of ion velocities. The influence of the Larmor motion of ions on the spectral distribution of LIF has been derived both theoretically and experimentally. The LIF diagnostics has been achieved with a dye O`ring laser. The barium ion has been excited on the transition 6142 angstrom, using rhodamine 6G dye, and the gadolinium ion on the pseudo-triplet 3861 angstrom, using exalite dye. Data treatment has been developed taking into account the Zeeman effect and the different heating of isotopes. The ionic temperature (from 1 eV to some hundreds eV) has been measured as a function of radiofrequency heating. Our experimental results are in good agreement with the selective heating theory. Also, the ion velocity distribution function has been found locally Maxwellian. And the behaviour of the plasma has been studied as a function of control parameters of the plasma source. (author) 62 refs.

  12. Development of portable mass spectrometer with electron cyclotron resonance ion source for detection of chemical warfare agents in air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urabe, Tatsuya; Takahashi, Kazuya; Kitagawa, Michiko; Sato, Takafumi; Kondo, Tomohide; Enomoto, Shuichi; Kidera, Masanori; Seto, Yasuo

    2014-01-01

    A portable mass spectrometer with an electron cyclotron resonance ion source (miniECRIS-MS) was developed. It was used for in situ monitoring of trace amounts of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) in atmospheric air. Instrumental construction and parameters were optimized to realize a fast response, high sensitivity, and a small body size. Three types of CWAs, i.e., phosgene, mustard gas, and hydrogen cyanide were examined to check if the mass spectrometer was able to detect characteristic elements and atomic groups. From the results, it was found that CWAs were effectively ionized in the miniECRIS-MS, and their specific signals could be discerned over the background signals of air. In phosgene, the signals of the 35Cl+ and 37Cl+ ions were clearly observed with high dose-response relationships in the parts-per-billion level, which could lead to the quantitative on-site analysis of CWAs. A parts-per-million level of mustard gas, which was far lower than its lethal dosage (LCt50), was successfully detected with a high signal-stability of the plasma ion source. It was also found that the chemical forms of CWAs ionized in the plasma, i.e., monoatomic ions, fragment ions, and molecular ions, could be detected, thereby enabling the effective identification of the target CWAs. Despite the disadvantages associated with miniaturization, the overall performance (sensitivity and response time) of the miniECRIS-MS in detecting CWAs exceeded those of sector-type ECRIS-MS, showing its potential for on-site detection in the future. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Electromagnetic Ion Cyclotron Waves in the High-Altitude Cusp: Polar Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, G.; Blanco-Cano, X.; Russell, C. T.; Zhou, X.-W.; Mozer, F.; Trattner, K. J.; Fuselier, S. A.; Anderson, B. J.

    2005-01-01

    High-resolution magnetic field data from the Polar Magnetic Field Experiment (MFE) show that narrow-band waves at frequencies approx. 0.2-3 Hz are a permanent feature in the vicinity of the polar cusp. The waves have been found in the magnetosphere adjacent to the cusp (both poleward and equatorward of the cusp) and in the cusp itself. The occurrence of waves is coincident with depression of magnetic field strength associated with enhanced plasma density, indicating the entry of magnetosheath plasma into the cusp region. The wave frequencies are generally scaled by the local proton cyclotron frequency and vary between 0.2 and 1.7 times local proton cyclotron frequency. This suggests that the waves are generated in the cusp region by the precipitating magnetosheath plasma. The properties of the waves are highly variable. The waves exhibit both left-handed and right-handed polarization in the spacecraft frame. The propagation angles vary from nearly parallel to nearly perpendicular to the magnetic field. We find no correlation among wave frequency, propagation angle, and polarization. Combined magnetic field and electric field data for the waves indicate that the energy flux of the waves is guided by the background magnetic field and points downward toward the ionosphere.

  14. Electromagnetic Ion Cyclotron Waves in the High Altitude Cusp: Polar Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Guan; Blanco-Cano, X.; Russell, C. T.; Zhou, X.-W.; Mozer, F.; Trattner, K. J.; Fuselier, S. A.; Anderson, B. J.; Vondrak, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    High-resolution magnetic field data from the Polar Magnetic Field Experiment (MFE) show that narrow band waves at frequencies approximately 0.2 to 3 Hz are a permanent feature in the vicinity of the polar cusp. The waves have been found in the magnetosphere adjacent to the cusp (both poleward and equatorward of the cusp) and in the cusp itself. The occurrence of waves is coincident with depression of magnetic field strength associated with enhanced plasma density, indicating the entry of magnetosheath plasma into the cusp region. The wave frequencies are generally scaled by the local proton cyclotron frequency, and vary between 0.2 and 1.7 times local proton cyclotron frequency. This suggests that the waves are generated in the cusp region by the precipitating magnetosheath plasma. The properties of the waves are highly variable. The waves exhibit both lefthanded and right-handed polarization in the spacecraft frame. The propagation angles vary from nearly parallel to nearly perpendicular to the magnetic field. We find no correlation among wave frequency, propagation angle and polarization. Combined magnetic field and electric field data for the waves indicate that the energy flux of the waves is guided by the background magnetic field and points downward toward the ionosphere.

  15. Dimer ion formation and intermolecular fragmentation of 1,2-diacylglycerols revealed by electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry for more comprehensive lipid analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Constanze; Kanawati, Basem; Rock, Theresa M; Forcisi, Sara; Moritz, Franco; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe

    2014-08-15

    The ionization of neutral diacylglycerols (DAGs) by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) is challenging compared with other lipid classes which possess ionic head group conjugations. Although ESI-MS is the method of choice in lipidomic analysis, it is questionable whether all lipid classes can be efficiently ionized by this method. Actually, various lipids were not efficiently detected (due to poor ionization) in many studies which claimed to comprehensively describe lipid profiles. Since neutral lipids are precursors for the biosynthesis of most other lipid classes, the necessity for improved or alternative ionization and identification schemes becomes obvious. We identified the 1,2-diacylglycerol (DAG) dimer ion formation in the gas phase by ultra-high-resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS) in negative electrospray ionization ((-)ESI) mode. The geometry of the dimer ion was investigated by accurate density functional theory (DFT) calculations at the B3LYP/6-311+G(d)//B3LYP/LANL2DZ level of theory. Fragmentation of the dimer ions of many investigated DAGs has been achieved via collision-induced dissociation (CID) experiments with several elevated collision energies (0-12 eV). We revealed the possibility to ionize neutral DAGs as dimer ions in the negative ESI mode. Quantum mechanical calculations revealed a polar head-to-head intermolecular interaction between one charged DAG and one DAG neutral. This represents an energy minimum structure for the DAG dimer ions. We could furthermore detect CID fragmentation product ions that can only result from intermolecular reactions in this head-to-head conformation (SN2 nucleophilic substitution reactions inside the dimer DAG ion). Here, we present for the first time the opportunity to ionize and identify DAGs as dimer ions. This new finding provides a new alternative for investigations of important diacylglycerol lipids and provides the opportunity to obtain

  16. Carbon beam extraction with 14.5 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Cheol Ho; Oh, Byung-Hoon; Chang, Dae-Sik; Jeong, Sun-Chan

    2014-02-01

    A 14.5 GHz Electron Cyclotron Resonance ion source (ECRIS) has been made to produce C(4+) beam for using a carbon therapy facility and recently tested at KAERI. Highly charged carbon ions have been successfully extracted. When using only CO2 gas, the beam current of C(4+) was almost 14 μA at 15 kV extraction voltage. To get higher current of the C(4+) beam, while optimizing confinement magnetic field configuration (e.g., axial strengths at minimum and extraction side), gas-mixing (CO2/He), and biased disk were introduced. When the gas mixing ratio of the CO2/He gas is 1:8 at an operational pressure of 5 × 10(-7) mbar and the disk was biased to -150 V relative to the ion source body, the highest current of the C(4+) beam was achieved to be 50 μA, more than three times higher than previously observed only with CO2 gas. Some details on the operating conditions of the ECRIS were discussed.

  17. Harmonic plasma waves excitation and structure evolution of intense ion beams in background plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Zhang-Hu, E-mail: zhanghu@dlut.edu.cn; Wang, You-Nian [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)

    2016-08-15

    The long-term dynamic evolutions of intense ion beams in plasmas have been investigated with two-dimensional electromagnetic particle simulations, taking into account the effect of the two-stream instability between beam ions and plasma electrons. Depending on the initial beam radial density profile and velocity distribution, ring structures may be formed in the beam edge regions. At the later stage of beam-plasma interactions, the ion beams are strongly modulated by the two-stream instability and multiple density spikes are formed in the longitudinal direction. The formation of these density spikes is shown to result from the excitation of harmonic plasma waves when the instability gets saturated. Comparisons between the beam cases with initial flat-top and Gaussian radial density profiles are made, and a higher instability growth rate is observed for the flat-top profile case.

  18. Observation of CO2 and solvent adduct ions during negative mode electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometric analysis of monohydric alcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xibin; Zhang, Yahe; Zhao, Suoqi; Hsu, Chang Samuel; Shi, Quan

    2013-12-15

    Monohydric alcohols are common in natural products, bio-oils, and medicine. We have found that monohydric alcohols can form O3 (ions containing three oxygen atoms) and O4 adduct ions in negative electrospray ionization (ESI) Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS), which would significantly affect the composition analysis of alcohols, especially in a complex mixture. It is necessary to study the reaction pathways and the method to eliminate or reduce the 'artifact' adducts. Octadecanol, cholesterol, squalanol and two complex monohydric alcohol mixtures were selected as model compounds. These samples were subjected to negative ion ESI FT-ICR MS analysis. The composition and formation mechanism of adducts were studied by the ultrahigh-resolution accurate mass measurement for elemental composition, along with the MS(2) isolation and collision-induced dissociation (CID) experiments for structural determination. The reaction pathway of O3 adduct formation is the coupling of a monohydric alcohol ion with a CO2 to form a stable O3 ionic species by likely a covalent bond (source of CO2 is not clear). The O4 species are formed by O3 ionic species adducted with an alcohol molecule of the solvent, such as methanol or ethanol, by likely a hydrogen bond. These adduct ions could be eliminated or reduced by increasing collision energy. However, excessive collision energy would fragment monohydric alcohol ions. The formation mechanisms of O3 and O4 adducts from monohydric alcohols in negative ion ESI FT-ICR MS were proposed. The solvent adduction effects can be eliminated or reduced by optimizing the collision energy of CID in FT-ICR MS. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. The effect of broad-band Alfven-cyclotron waves spectra on the preferential heating and differential acceleration of He{sup ++} ions in the solar wind

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maneva, Y. G. [Department of Physics, Catholic University of America, Washington DC, 20064 (United States) and Heliophysics Science Devision, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Ofman, L. [Department of Physics, Catholic University of America, Washington, DC 20064 (United States) and Heliophysics Science Devision, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Vinas, A. F. [Heliophysics Science Devision, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2013-06-13

    In anticipation of results from inner heliospheric missions such as the Solar Orbiter and the Solar Probe we present the results from 1.5D hybrid simulations to study the role of magnetic fluctuations for the heating and differential acceleration of He{sup ++} ions in the solar wind. We consider the effects of nonlinear Alfven-cyclotron waves at different frequency regimes. Monochromatic nonlinear Alfven-alpha-cyclotron waves are known to preferentially heat and accelerate He{sup ++} ions in collisionless low beta plasma. In this study we demonstrate that these effects are preserved when higherfrequency monochromatic and broad-band spectra of Alfven-proton-cyclotron waves are considered. Comparison between several nonlinear monochromatic waves shows that the ion temperatures, anisotropies and relative drift are quantitatively affected by the shift in frequency. Including a broad-band wave-spectrum results in a significant reduction of both the parallel and the perpendicular temperature components for the He{sup ++} ions, whereas the proton heating is barely influenced, with the parallel proton temperature only slightly enhanced. The differential streaming is strongly affected by the available wave power in the resonant daughter ion-acoustic waves. Therefore for the same initial wave energy, the relative drift is significantly reduced in the case of initial wave-spectra in comparison to the simulations with monochromatic waves.

  20. Ion Behavior and Gas Mixing in electron cyclotron resonance plasmas as sources of highly charged ions (concept)

    CERN Document Server

    Melin, G; Girard, A; Hitz, D

    1999-01-01

    An ECR ion source is basically an ECR heated plasma confinement machine, with hot electrons and cold ions. The main parameters of the ion population have been analyzed, including temperature, losses, and confinement time. The "gas mixing" effect has been studied in this context. An expression is derived for determining the ion temperature from the values of all extracted ion currents. One aim is to study the ion temperature behavior in argon plasmas without and with mixing different gases into the plasma. For that purpose a series of experiments has been performed where systematically one or a few parameters where changed. One conclusion is that the ion temperature indeed is decreasing due to gas mixing. A second conclusion is that the decreasing ion temperature is not a sufficient requirement for the beneficial effect of gas mixing to the production of highest charge states of argon.

  1. Ion Behavior and Gas Mixing in electron cyclotron resonance plasmas as sources of highly charged ions (concept

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melin, G.; Drentje, A. G.; Girard, A.; Hitz, D.

    1999-01-01

    Abstract: An ECR ion source is basically an ECR heated plasma confinement machine, with hot electrons and cold ions. The main parameters of the ion population have been analyzed, including temperature, losses, and confinement time. The "gas mixing" effect has been studied in this context. An

  2. Pb-ions in harmonic number 4653 at SPS flat bottom

    CERN Document Server

    Bartosik, H; Huschauer, A

    2017-01-01

    Pb-ion beams suer from strong beam degradation suchas transverse emittance growth and losses on the long flatbottom of the SPS cycles used for LHC filling. A possiblecontribution to the losses could come from RF noise, espe-cially due to the frequency and amplitude modulation duringeach revolution period of the fixed frequency accelerationmode required for the acceleration of these beams. A ma-chine development session in 2016 was devoted to a directcomparison of a cycle with fixed harmonic number at flatbottom and a cycle with the usually used fixed frequencymode. The main results are reported here.

  3. Progress of superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion sources at Institute of Modern Physics (IMP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, L; Lu, W; Feng, Y C; Zhang, W H; Zhang, X Z; Cao, Y; Zhao, Y Y; Wu, W; Yang, T J; Zhao, B; Zhao, H W; Ma, L Z; Xia, J W; Xie, D

    2014-02-01

    Superconducting ECR ion sources can produce intense highly charged ion beams for the application in heavy ion accelerators. Superconducting Electron Resonance ion source with Advanced Design (SECRAL) is one of the few fully superconducting ECR ion sources that has been successfully built and put into routine operation for years. With enormous efforts and R&D work, promising results have been achieved with the ion source. Heated by the microwave power from a 7 kW/24 GHz gyrotron microwave generator, very intense highly charged gaseous ion beams have been produced, such as 455 eμA Xe(27+), 236 eμA Xe(30+), and 64 eμA Xe(35+). Since heavy metallic ion beams are being more and more attractive and important for many accelerator projects globally, intensive studies have been made to produce highly charged heavy metal ion beams, such as those from bismuth and uranium. Recently, 420 eμA Bi(30+) and 202 eμA U(33+) have been produced with SECRAL source. This paper will present the latest results with SECRAL, and the operation status will be discussed as well. An introduction of recently started SECRAL II project will also be given in the presentation.

  4. Metabolic profile of Kudiezi injection in rats by UHPLC coupled with Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingdan; Zhang, Xiaoxue; Zhao, Yangyang; Song, Aihua; Sun, Wei; Yin, Ran

    2017-11-13

    In this study, a reliable and sensitive ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry method was developed for the systematic study of the metabolic profile of Kudiezi injection in rat plasma, bile, urine, and feces after intravenous administration of a single dose. The chromatographic separation was performed on an Agilent Eclipse Plus C18 column (4.6 mm × 50 mm, 1.8 μm) and the identification of prototype components and metabolites was achieved on a Bruker Solarix 7.0 T ultra-high resolution spectrometer in negative ion mode. Results indicated that a total of 76 constituents including 29 prototype compounds and 47 metabolites (10 phase I metabolites and 37 phase II metabolites) were tentatively identified. And the metabolic pathways of these prototype compounds including hydroxylation, dehydrogenation, glucuronidation, and sulfate conjugation. In conclusion, the developed method with high resolution and sensitivity was effective for screening and identification of prototypes and metabolites of Kudiezi injection in vivo. Moreover, these results would provide significant information for further pharmacokinetic and pharmacological research of Kudiezi injection in vivo. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Statistical Study of the Occurrence of POES Relativistic Electron Precipitation (REP) in Correlation with Electromagnetic Ion Cyclotron (EMIC) Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hembeck, J.; Lessard, M.; Engebretson, M. J.; Rodger, C. J.; Hendry, A.

    2016-12-01

    Electromagnetic Ion Cyclotron (EMIC) waves are phenomena that exist within the Earth's magnetosphere caused by an ion temperature anisotropy. The ideal conditions for EMIC wave growth occur during solar storms. In this statistical study, Polar Orbiting Environmental Satellites (POES) relativistic electron precipitation (REP) data are compared to EMIC wave data from Halley Bay in the years ranging from 2008-2010. This statistical study considers a specific type of EMIC wave events known as Intervals of Pulsations of Diminishing Periods (IPDP) to see whether this type of EMIC wave causes a statistically greater occurrence of REP. In this study, different types of IPDP are characterized based on the increase in frequency over time of each wave form. Another considered characteristic of the IPDP waves is whether the wave is continuous or appears as discrete packets, which may actually be separate events. IPDP events are cataloged and then compared to REP events from the POES data set, forming a study that is complementary to that of Hendry et al. [2016], who compared REP from POES data to the presence of EMIC waves at Halley Bay.

  6. A comprehensive method for lipid profiling by liquid chromatography-ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry[S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauland, Alexander; Köfeler, Harald; Trötzmüller, Martin; Knopf, Astrid; Hartler, Jürgen; Eberl, Anita; Chitraju, Chandramohan; Lankmayr, Ernst; Spener, Friedrich

    2011-01-01

    This work aims to combine chromatographic retention, high mass resolution and accuracy, MS/MS spectra, and a package for automated identification and quantitation of lipid species in one platform for lipidomic analysis. The instrumental setup elaborated comprises reversed-phase HPLC coupled to a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer (LTQ-FT), and Lipid Data Analyzer (LDA) software. Data analysis for lipid species quantification in this platform is based on retention time, mass resolution of 200,000, and mass accuracy below 2 ppm. In addition, automatically generated MS/MS spectra provide structural information at molecular level. This LC/MS technology allows analyzing complex biological samples in a quantitative manner as shown here paradigmatically for murine lipid droplets having a huge surplus of triacylglycerol species. Chromatographic preseparation of the bulk lipid class alleviates the problem of ion suppression of lipid species from other classes. Extension of 1D to 2D chromatography is possible, yet time consuming. The platform affords unambiguous detection of lipid species as low as 0.1‰ within major lipid classes. Taken together, a novel lipidomic LC/MS platform based on chromatographic retention, high mass resolution and accuracy, MS/MS analysis, and quantitation software enables analysis of complex samples as demonstrated for lipid droplets. PMID:21960706

  7. Trans-sonic cusped shaped, periodic waves and solitary waves of the electrostatic ion-cyclotron type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. F. McKenzie

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available By adopting an essentially fluid dynamic viewpoint we derive the wave structure equation for stationary, fully nonlinear, electrostatic, ion-cyclotron waves. The existence of two fundamental constants of the motion, namely, conservation of momentum flux parallel to the ambient magnetic field, and energy flux parallel to the direction of wave propagation, enables the wave structure equation to be reduced to a first order differential equation, which has solutions that are physically transparent. The analysis shows that sufficiently oblique waves, propagating at sub-ion acoustic speeds, form soliton pulse-like solutions whose amplitudes are greatest for perpendicular propagation. Waves that propagate supersonically have periodic cnoidal waveforms, which are asymmetric about the compressive and rarefactive phases of the wave. It is also shown that there exist critical driver fields for which the end point of the compressive phase goes sonic (in the wave frame, with the consequence that the wave form develops a cusp. It is possible that this trans-sonic, choked flow feature provides a mechanism for the 'spiky' waveforms observed in auroral electric field measurements.

  8. Methods of measuring of the ion beam transversal emittance in the injection channel of the cyclotron DC-72

    CERN Document Server

    Kazarinov, N; Kalagin, I V; Kazacha, V I

    2002-01-01

    The methods of measuring of the transversal emittance of ion beams in the cyclotron DC-72 injection channel with the help of the 'pepper-pot' and gradient means are discussed in this work. Two ways for the reconstruction of the ion beam transversal emittance are proposed for the 'pepper-pot' method. The first one can be used for beams having the uniform distribution of particles in the phase space. At that the values of the Twiss matrix and the full beam emittance are reconstructed according to the measurement results with the help of the phase ellipse fitting by the least-squares method. The corresponding FORTRAN code was created. On simulation the beam emittance was reconstructed with accuracy of 5%. The second method of the beam emittance reconstruction can be used in the common case at the arbitrary particle distribution in the phase space. It is based on calculation of the mean-square parameters of the beam according to the measurement results in the plane of the 'pepper-pot' mask. The mean-square emitta...

  9. High electronegativity multi-dipolar electron cyclotron resonance plasma source for etching by negative ions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stamate, Eugen; Draghici, M.

    2012-01-01

    A large area plasma source based on 12 multi-dipolar ECR plasma cells arranged in a 3 x 4 matrix configuration was built and optimized for silicon etching by negative ions. The density ratio of negative ions to electrons has exceeded 300 in Ar/SF6 gas mixture when a magnetic filter was used to re...

  10. Dosimetry in radiobiological studies with the heavy ion beam of the Warsaw cyclotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaźmierczak, U. [Heavy Ion Laboratory, University of Warsaw, ul. Pasteura 5A, 02-093 Warsaw (Poland); Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw, ul. Pasteura 5, 02-093 Warsaw (Poland); Banaś, D.; Braziewicz, J. [Institute of Physics, Jan Kochanowski University, ul. Świętokrzyska 15, 25-406 Kielce (Poland); Holycross Cancer Center, ul. Artwińskiego 3, 25-734 Kielce (Poland); Czub, J. [Institute of Physics, Jan Kochanowski University, ul. Świętokrzyska 15, 25-406 Kielce (Poland); Jaskóła, M.; Korman, A. [National Centre for Nuclear Research, ul. Andrzeja Sołtana 7, 05-400 Otwock (Poland); Kruszewski, M. [Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, ul. Dorodna 16, 03-195 Warsaw (Poland); Institute of Rural Health, ul. Jaczewskiego 2, 20-090 Lublin (Poland); Lankoff, A. [Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, ul. Dorodna 16, 03-195 Warsaw (Poland); Institute of Biology, Jan Kochanowski University, ul. Świętokrzyska 15, 25-406 Kielce (Poland); Lisowska, H. [Institute of Biology, Jan Kochanowski University, ul. Świętokrzyska 15, 25-406 Kielce (Poland); Malinowska, A. [National Centre for Nuclear Research, ul. Andrzeja Sołtana 7, 05-400 Otwock (Poland); Stępkowski, T. [Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, ul. Dorodna 16, 03-195 Warsaw (Poland); Szefliński, Z. [Heavy Ion Laboratory, University of Warsaw, ul. Pasteura 5A, 02-093 Warsaw (Poland); and others

    2015-12-15

    The aim of this study was to verify various dosimetry methods in the irradiation of biological materials with a {sup 12}C ion beam at the Heavy Ion Laboratory of the University of Warsaw. To this end the number of ions hitting the cell nucleus, calculated on the basis of the Si-detector system used in the set-up, was compared with the number of ion tracks counted in irradiated Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors and with the number of ion tracks detected in irradiated Chinese Hamster Ovary cells processed for the γ-H2AX assay. Tests results were self-consistent and confirmed that the system serves its dosimetric purpose.

  11. Performance and operation of advanced superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source SECRAL at 24 GHz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, H W; Lu, W; Zhang, X Z; Feng, Y C; Guo, J W; Cao, Y; Li, J Y; Guo, X H; Sha, S; Sun, L T; Xie, D Z

    2012-02-01

    SECRAL (superconducting ECR ion source with advanced design in Lanzhou) ion source has been in routine operation for Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL) accelerator complex since May 2007. To further enhance the SECRAL performance in order to satisfy the increasing demand for intensive highly charged ion beams, 3-5 kW high power 24 GHz single frequency and 24 GHz +18 GHz double frequency with an aluminum plasma chamber were tested, and some exciting results were produced with quite a few new record highly charged ion beam intensities, such as (129)Xe(35+) of 64 eμA, (129)Xe(42+) of 3 eμA, (209)Bi(41+) of 50 eμA, (209)Bi(50+) of 4.3 eμA and (209)Bi(54+) of 0.2 eμA. In most cases SECRAL is operated at 18 GHz to deliver highly charged heavy ion beams for the HIRFL accelerator, only for those very high charge states and very heavy ion beams such as (209)Bi(36+) and (209)Bi(41+), SECRAL has been operated at 24 GHz. The total operation beam time provided by SECRAL up to July 2011 has exceeded 7720 hours. In this paper, the latest performance, development, and operation status of SECRAL ion source are presented. The latest results and reliable long-term operation for the HIRFL accelerator have demonstrated that SECRAL performance for production of highly charged heavy ion beams remains improving at higher RF power with optimized tuning.

  12. Channel for Applied Investigations on Low Energy Ion Beams of Cyclotron DC-60

    CERN Document Server

    Gikal, B N; Borisenko, A N; Fateev, A A; Gulbekyan, G G; Kalagin, I V; Kazacha, V I; Kazarinov, N Yu; Kolesov, I V; Lebedev, N I; Lysukhin, S N; Melnikov, V N

    2006-01-01

    The channel intended for carrying out applied investigations on the low energy ion beams having the kinetic energy 25 $Z/A$ keV/a.u. and transported from the ECR-source to a target is worked out. The channel structure and parameters of all its optics elements are defined. The calculation results of different ion types transportation are given. It is shown that ions having the ratio of their mass to charge Z/A=2-20 can be transported in the worked out channel with enough high expected efficiency. At that the ion beam diameter on the target is $\\sim$40 mm. The characteristics of the basic optical elements of the channel are also given.

  13. Observation of ion cyclotron range of frequencies mode conversion plasma flow drive on Alcator C-Moda)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Y.; Rice, J. E.; Wukitch, S. J.; Greenwald, M. J.; Hubbard, A. E.; Ince-Cushman, A.; Lin, L.; Marmar, E. S.; Porkolab, M.; Reinke, M. L.; Tsujii, N.; Wright, J. C.; Alcator C-Mod Team

    2009-05-01

    At modest H3e levels (n3He/ne˜8%-12%), in relatively low density D(H3e) plasmas, n¯e≤1.3×1020 m-3, heated with 50 MHz rf power at Bt0˜5.1 T, strong (up to 90 km/s) toroidal rotation (Vϕ) in the cocurrent direction has been observed by high-resolution x-ray spectroscopy on Alcator C-Mod. The change in central Vϕ scales with the applied rf power (≤30 km s-1 MW-1), and is generally at least a factor of 2 higher than the empirically determined intrinsic plasma rotation scaling. The rotation in the inner plasma (r /a≤0.3) responds to the rf power more quickly than that of the outer region (r /a≥0.7), and the rotation profile is broadly peaked for r /a≤0.5. Localized poloidal rotation (0.3≤r/a≤0.6) in the ion diamagnetic drift direction (˜2 km/s at 3 MW) is also observed, and similarly increases with rf power. Changing the toroidal phase of the antenna does not affect the rotation direction, and it only weakly affects the rotation magnitude. The mode converted ion cyclotron wave (MC ICW) has been detected by a phase contrast imaging system and the MC process is confirmed by two-dimensional full wave TORIC simulations. The simulations also show that the MC ICW is strongly damped on H3e ions in the vicinity of the MC layer, approximately on the same flux surfaces where the rf driven flow is observed. The flow shear in our experiment is marginally sufficient for plasma confinement enhancement based on the comparison of the E ×B shearing rate and gyrokinetic linear stability analysis.

  14. Effect of magnetic field inhomogeneity on ion cyclotron motion coherence at high magnetic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vladimirov, Gleb; Kostyukevich, Yury; Hendrickson, Christopher L; Blakney, Greg T; Nikolaev, Eugene

    2015-01-01

    A three-dimensional code based on the particle-in-cell algorithm modified to account for the inhomogeneity of the magnetic field was applied to determine the effect of Z(1), Z(2), Z(3), Z(4), X, Y, ZX, ZY, XZ(2) YZ(2), XY and X(2)-Y(2) components of an orthogonal magnetic field expansion on ion motion during detection in an FT-ICR cell. Simulations were performed for magnetic field strengths of 4.7, 7, 14.5 and 21 Tesla, including experimentally determined magnetic field spatial distributions for existing 4.7 T and 14.5 T magnets. The effect of magnetic field inhomogeneity on ion cloud stabilization ("ion condensation") at high numbers of ions was investigated by direct simulations of individual ion trajectories. Z(1), Z(2), Z(3) and Z(4) components have the largest effect (especially Z(1)) on ion cloud stability. Higher magnetic field strength and lower m/z demand higher relative magnetic field homogeneity to maintain cloud coherence for a fixed time period. The dependence of mass resolving power upper limit on Z(1) inhomogeneity is evaluated for different magnetic fields and m/z. The results serve to set the homogeneity requirements for various orthogonal magnetic field components (shims) for future FT-ICR magnet design.

  15. A mode converter to generate a Gaussian-like mode for injection into the VENUS electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyneis, C., E-mail: CMLyneis@lbl.gov; Benitez, J.; Hodgkinson, A.; Strohmeier, M.; Todd, D. [Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Plaum, B. [Institut für Grenzflächenverfahrenstechnik und Plasmatechnologie (IGVP), Stuttgart (Germany); Thuillier, T. [Laboratoire de Physique Subatomique et de Cosmologie, Université Joseph Fourier Grenoble 1, CNRS/IN2P3, Institut Polytechnique de Grenoble, 53 rue des martyrs 38026 Grenoble cedex (France)

    2014-02-15

    A number of superconducting electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources use gyrotrons at either 24 or 28 GHz for ECR heating. In these systems, the microwave power is launched into the plasma using the TE{sub 01} circular waveguide mode. This is fundamentally different and may be less efficient than the typical rectangular, linearly polarized TE{sub 10} mode used for launching waves at lower frequencies. To improve the 28 GHz microwave coupling in VENUS, a TE{sub 01}-HE{sub 11} mode conversion system has been built to test launching HE{sub 11} microwave power into the plasma chamber. The HE{sub 11} mode is a quasi-Gaussian, linearly polarized mode, which should couple strongly to the plasma electrons. The mode conversion is done in two steps. First, a 0.66 m long “snake” converts the TE{sub 01} mode to the TE{sub 11} mode. Second, a corrugated circular waveguide excites the HE{sub 11} mode, which is launched directly into the plasma chamber. The design concept draws on the development of similar devices used in tokamaks and stellerators. The first tests of the new coupling system are described below.

  16. Matrix-free mass spectrometric imaging using laser desorption ionisation Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Richard J A; Pitt, Andrew R; Harrison, David; Weidt, Stefan K; Langridge-Smith, Pat R R; Barrett, Michael P; Logan Mackay, C

    2011-01-01

    Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) is a powerful tool in metabolomics and proteomics for the spatial localization and identification of pharmaceuticals, metabolites, lipids, peptides and proteins in biological tissues. However, sample preparation remains a crucial variable in obtaining the most accurate distributions. Common washing steps used to remove salts, and solvent-based matrix application, allow analyte spreading to occur. Solvent-free matrix applications can reduce this risk, but increase the possibility of ionisation bias due to matrix adhesion to tissue sections. We report here the use of matrix-free MSI using laser desorption ionisation performed on a 12 T Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR) mass spectrometer. We used unprocessed tissue with no post-processing following thaw-mounting on matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation (MALDI) indium-tin oxide (ITO) target plates. The identification and distribution of a range of phospholipids in mouse brain and kidney sections are presented and compared with previously published MALDI time-of-flight (TOF) MSI distributions. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:21416534

  17. Unambiguous identification and discovery of bacterial siderophores by direct injection 21 Tesla Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Lawrence R; Tfaily, Malak M; Shaw, Jared B; Hess, Nancy J; Paša-Tolić, Ljiljana; Koppenaal, David W

    2017-01-25

    Under iron-limiting conditions, bacteria produce low molecular mass Fe(iii) binding molecules known as siderophores to sequester the Fe(iii), along with other elements, increasing their bioavailability. Siderophores are thought to influence iron cycling and biogeochemistry in both marine and terrestrial ecosystems and hence the need for rapid, confident characterization of these compounds has increased. In this study, the type of siderophores produced by two marine bacterial species, Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 and Vibrio cyclitrophicus 1F53, were characterized by use of a newly developed 21 T Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometer (FTICR MS) with direct injection electrospray ionization. This technique allowed for the rapid detection of synechobactins from Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 as well as amphibactins from Vibrio cyclitrophicus 1F53 based on high mass accuracy and resolution allowing for observation of specific Fe isotopes and isotopic fine structure enabling highly confident identification of these siderophores. When combined with molecular network analysis two new amphibactins were discovered and verified by tandem MS. These results show that high-field FTICR MS is a powerful technique that will greatly improve the ability to rapidly identify and discover metal binding species in the environment.

  18. Capillary electrophoresis-electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry for direct analysis of cellular proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofstadler, S.A.; Gale, D.C.; Smith, R.D. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Swanek, F.D.; Ewing, A.G. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    1995-04-15

    The combination of capillary electrophoresis (CE) with electrospray ionization (ESI) mass spectrometry has proven to be broadly applicable to a wide range of biologically important compounds. When combined with Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR) mass spectrometry, the combined method, in addition to high-resolution separations, affords high-resolution precision mass measurements for analytes separated from complex mixtures. Direct chemical analysis of single cells has received considerable attention in recent years; the single cell approach provides a major step toward answering important questions in the field of cellular biochemistry. In this work we present preliminary results which demonstrate the feasibility of using the CE-ESI-FTICR combination as a high-performance detection scheme for the analysis of cellular proteins acquired directly from small populations (i.e., 5-10) of intact living cells. The human erythrocyte was chosen as a model system owing to its availability, relatively homogeneous composition, and thorough documentation of contents by previous researchers. In this work we demonstrate the on-line acquisition of high-resolution mass spectra (average resolution >45 000 fwhm) of both the {alpha} and the {beta} chains of hemoglobin acquired from the injection of 10 human erythrocytes. 33 refs., 3 figs.

  19. Unambiguous identification and discovery of bacterial siderophores by direct injection 21 Tesla Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Lawrence R.; Tfaily, Malak M.; Shaw, Jared B.; Hess, Nancy J.; Pasa Tolic, Ljiljana; Koppenaal, David W.

    2017-01-01

    Under iron-limiting conditions, bacteria produce low molecular mass Fe(III) binding molecules known as siderophores to sequester the Fe(III), along with other elements, increasing their bioavailibility. Siderophores are thought to influence iron cycling and biogeochemistry in both marine and terrestrial ecosystems and hence the need for rapid, confident characterization of these compounds has increased. In this study, the type of siderophores produced by two marine bacterial species, Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 and Vibrio cyclitrophicus 1F53, were characterized using a newly developed 21T Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometer (FTICR MS) with direct injection electrospray ionization. This technique allowed for the rapid detection of synechobactins from Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 as well as amphibactins from Vibrio cyclitrophicus 1F53 based on high mass accuracy and resolution allowing for observation of specific Fe isotopic peaks and fine isotopic structure enables highly confident identification of these sideropohores. When combined with molecular network analysis two new amphibactins were discovered and verified by tandem MS. These results show that high-field FTICR MS is a powerful technique that will greatly improve the ability to rapidly identify and discover metal binding species in the environment.

  20. Surface-Induced Dissociation of Protein Complexes in a Hybrid Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Jing; Zhou, Mowei; Gilbert, Joshua D.; Wolff, Jeremy J.; Somogyi, Árpád; Pedder, Randall E.; Quintyn, Royston S.; Morrison, Lindsay J.; Easterling, Michael L.; Paša-Tolić, Ljiljana; Wysocki, Vicki H.

    2017-01-03

    Mass spectrometry continues to develop as a valuable tool in the analysis of proteins and protein complexes. In protein complex mass spectrometry studies, surface-induced dissociation (SID) has been successfully applied in quadrupole time-of-flight (Q-TOF) instruments. SID provides structural information on non-covalent protein complexes that is complementary to other techniques. However, the mass resolution of Q-TOF instruments can limit the information that can be obtained for protein complexes by SID. Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) provides ultrahigh resolution and ultrahigh mass accuracy measurements. In this study, an SID device was designed and successfully installed in a hybrid FT-ICR instrument in place of the standard gas collision cell. The SID-FT-ICR platform has been tested with several protein complex systems (homooligomers, a heterooligomer, and a protein-ligand complex, ranging from 53 kDa to 85 kDa), and the results are consistent with data previously acquired on Q-TOF platforms, matching predictions from known protein interface information. SID fragments with the same m/z but different charge states are well-resolved based on distinct spacing between adjacent isotope peaks, and the addition of metal cations and ligands can also be isotopically resolved with the ultrahigh mass resolution available in FT-ICR.

  1. Effect of double frequency heating on the lead afterglow beam currents of an electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toivanen, V.; Bellodi, G.; Küchler, D.; Wenander, F.; Tarvainen, O.

    2017-10-01

    The effect of double frequency heating on the performance of the CERN GTS-LHC 14.5 GHz Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) ion source in afterglow mode is reported. The source of the secondary microwave frequency was operated both in pulsed and continuous wave (CW) modes within the range of 12-18 GHz. The results demonstrate that the addition of the secondary frequency can significantly impact the extracted beam currents and the temporal stability of the beam during the afterglow discharge. For example, up to a factor of 2.6 increase was achieved for 208Pb 35 and a factor of 3.1 for 208Pb 37+ compared to single frequency afterglow currents. It is shown that these effects are dependent on the choice of the secondary frequency with respect to the primary one and on the temporal synchronization between the two microwave sources. Overall, the results provide new insight into the afterglow discharge supporting the prevailing understanding of the physical processes behind the phenomenon.

  2. Improved optimization of the Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry phase correction function using a genetic algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilgour, David P A; Neal, Mark J; Soulby, Andrew J; O'Connor, Peter B

    2013-09-15

    Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance mass spectra exhibit improved resolving power, mass accuracy and signal-to-noise ratio when presented in absorption mode; a process which requires calculation of a phase correction function. Mass spectrometric images can contain many thousands of pixels; hence methods of decreasing the time required to solve for a phase correction function will result in significant improvements in this application. A genetic algorithm approach for optimizing the phase correction function has been developed and compared with a previously described convergent iteration technique. The genetic algorithm method has been shown to offer a five-fold improvement in processing speed compared with the previous iterative approach used in the Autophaser algorithm, while maintaining the levels of accuracy. This translates to an 11 hour improvement in processing for a 20 000 pixel mass spectrometric image. The genetic algorithm method described in this manuscript offers significant processing speed advantages over the previously described convergent iteration technique. This improvement is key to allowing the future routine use of absorption mode mass spectrometric images. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. A mode converter to generate a Gaussian-like mode for injection into the VENUS electron cyclotron resonance ion source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyneis, C; Benitez, J; Hodgkinson, A; Plaum, B; Strohmeier, M; Thuillier, T; Todd, D

    2014-02-01

    A number of superconducting electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources use gyrotrons at either 24 or 28 GHz for ECR heating. In these systems, the microwave power is launched into the plasma using the TE01 circular waveguide mode. This is fundamentally different and may be less efficient than the typical rectangular, linearly polarized TE10 mode used for launching waves at lower frequencies. To improve the 28 GHz microwave coupling in VENUS, a TE01-HE11 mode conversion system has been built to test launching HE11 microwave power into the plasma chamber. The HE11 mode is a quasi-Gaussian, linearly polarized mode, which should couple strongly to the plasma electrons. The mode conversion is done in two steps. First, a 0.66 m long "snake" converts the TE01 mode to the TE11 mode. Second, a corrugated circular waveguide excites the HE11 mode, which is launched directly into the plasma chamber. The design concept draws on the development of similar devices used in tokamaks and stellerators. The first tests of the new coupling system are described below.

  4. Recent results on Ion Cyclotron Wall Conditioning in mid and large size tokamaks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douai, D.; Lyssoivan, A.; Philipps, V.; Rohde, V.; Wauters, T.; Blackman, T.; Bobkov, V.; Bremond, S.; Brezinsek, S.; Clairet, F.; De La Cal, E.; Coyne, T.; Gauthier, E.; Gerbaud, T.; Graham, M.; Jachmich, S.; Joffrin, E.; Koch, R.; Kreter, A.; Laengner, R.; Lamalle, P. U.; Lerche, E.; Lombard, G.; Maslov, M.; Mayoral, M. L.; Miller, A.; Monakhov, I.; Noterdaeme, J. M.; Ongena, J.; Paul, M. K.; Pegourie, B.; Pitts, R.A.; Plyusnin, V.; Schüller, F. C.; Sergienko, G.; Shimada, M.; Sirinelli, A.; Suttrop, W.; Sozzi, C.; Tsalas, M.; Tsitrone, E.; Unterberg, B.; Van Eester, D.

    2011-01-01

    Wall conditioning techniques applicable in the presence of permanent toroidal magnetic field will be required for the operation of ITER, in particular for recovery from disruptions, vent and air leak, isotopic ratio control, recycling control and mitigation of the tritium inventory build-up. Ion

  5. R&D activities on RF contacts for the ITER ion cyclotron resonance heating launcher

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hillairet, Julien, E-mail: julien.hillairet@cea.fr [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Argouarch, Arnaud [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Bamber, Rob [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Beaumont, Bertrand [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 St. Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Bernard, Jean-Michel; Delaplanche, Jean-Marc [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Durodié, Frédéric [Laboratory for Plasmas Physics, 1000 Brussels (Belgium); Lamalle, Philippe [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 St. Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Lombard, Gilles [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Nicholls, Keith; Shannon, Mark [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Vulliez, Karl [Maestral Laboratory, Technetics Group, Pierrelatte (France); Cantone, Vincent; Hatchressian, Jean-Claude; Larroque, Sébastien; Lebourg, Philippe; Martinez, André; Mollard, Patrick; Mouyon, David; Pagano, Marco [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); and others

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • CEA have developed a dedicated test-bed for testing RF contact in ITER relevant conditions (vacuum, temperature, RF current). • A prototype of RF contacts have been designed and manufactured, with copper lamellas brazed on a titanium holder. • This RF contact prototype failed at RF current larger than 1.8 kA. • Extensive R&D is foreseen with new RF contact designs. - Abstract: Embedded RF contacts are integrated within the ITER ICRH launcher to allow assembling, sliding and to lower the thermo-mechanical stress. They have to withstand a peak RF current up to 2.5 kA at 55 MHz in steady-state conditions, in the vacuum environment of the machine. The contacts have to sustain a temperature up to 250 °C during several days in baking operations and have to be reliable during the whole life of the launcher without degradation. The RF contacts are critical components for the launcher performance and intensive R&D is therefore required, since no RF contacts have so far been qualified at these specifications. In order to test and validate the anticipated RF contacts in operational conditions, CEA has prepared a test platform consisting of a steady-state vacuum pumped RF resonator. In collaboration with ITER Organization and the CYCLE consortium (CYclotron CLuster for Europe), an R&D program has been conducted to develop RF contacts that meet the ITER ICRH launcher specifications. A design proposed by CYCLE consortium, using brazed lamellas supported by a spring to improve thermal exchange efficiency while guaranteeing high contact force, was tested successfully in the T-resonator up to 1.7 kA during 1200 s, but failed for larger current values due to a degradation of the contacts. Details concerning the manufacturing of the brazed contacts on its titanium holder, the RF tests results performed on the resonator and the non-destructive tests analysis of the contacts are given in this paper.

  6. Self-Consistent Ring Current Modeling with Propagating Electromagnetic Ion Cyclotron Waves in the Presence of Heavy Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazanov, George V.

    2006-01-01

    The self-consistent treatment of the RC ion dynamics and EMIC waves, which are thought to exert important influences on the ion dynamical evolution, is an important missing element in our understanding of the storm-and recovery-time ring current evolution. Under certain conditions, relativistic electrons, with energies 21 MeV, can be removed from the outer radiation belt by EMIC wave scattering during a magnetic storm. That is why the modeling of EMIC waves is critical and timely issue in magnetospheric physics. To describe the RC evolution itself this study uses the ring current-atmosphere interaction model (RAM). RAM solves the gyration and bounce-averaged Boltzmann-Landau equation inside of geosynchronous orbit. Originally developed at the University of Michigan, there are now several branches of this model currently in use as describe by Liemohn namely those at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center This study will generalize the self-consistent theoretical description of RC ions and EMIC waves that has been developed by Khazanov and include the heavy ions and propagation effects of EMIC waves in the global dynamic of self-consistent RC - EMIC waves coupling. The results of our newly developed model that will be presented at GEM meeting, focusing mainly on the dynamic of EMIC waves and comparison of these results with the previous global RC modeling studies devoted to EMIC waves formation. We also discuss RC ion precipitations and wave induced thermal electron fluxes into the ionosphere.

  7. Advanced light ion source extraction system for a new electron cyclotron resonance ion source geometry at Saclay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delferriere, O.; Gobin, R.; Harrault, F.; Nyckees, S.; Sauce, Y.; Tuske, O. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, CEA/Saclay, DSM/IRFU, 91191 Gif/Yvette (France)

    2012-02-15

    One of the main goal of intense light ion injector projects such as IPHI, IFMIF, or SPIRAL2, is to produce high current beams while keeping transverse emittance as low as possible. To prevent emittance growth induced in a dual solenoid low energy transfer line, its length has to be minimized. This can be performed with the advanced light ion source extraction system concept that we are developing: a new ECR 2.45 GHz type ion source based on the use of an additional low energy beam transport (LEBT) short length solenoid close to the extraction aperture to create the resonance in the plasma chamber. The geometry of the source has been considerably modified to allow easy maintenance of each component and to save space in front of the extraction. The source aims to be very flexible and to be able to extract high current ion beams at energy up to 100 kV. A specific experimental setup for this source is under installation on the BETSI test bench, to compare its performances with sources developed up to now in the laboratory, such as SILHI, IFMIF, or SPIRAL2 ECR sources. This original extraction source concept is presented, as well as electromagnetic simulations with OPERA-2D code. Ion beam extraction in space charge compensation regime with AXCEL, and beam dynamics simulation with SOLMAXP codes show the beam quality improvement at the end of the LEBT.

  8. Advanced light ion source extraction system for a new electron cyclotron resonance ion source geometry at Saclay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delferrière, O; Gobin, R; Harrault, F; Nyckees, S; Sauce, Y; Tuske, O

    2012-02-01

    One of the main goal of intense light ion injector projects such as IPHI, IFMIF, or SPIRAL2, is to produce high current beams while keeping transverse emittance as low as possible. To prevent emittance growth induced in a dual solenoid low energy transfer line, its length has to be minimized. This can be performed with the advanced light ion source extraction system concept that we are developing: a new ECR 2.45 GHz type ion source based on the use of an additional low energy beam transport (LEBT) short length solenoid close to the extraction aperture to create the resonance in the plasma chamber. The geometry of the source has been considerably modified to allow easy maintenance of each component and to save space in front of the extraction. The source aims to be very flexible and to be able to extract high current ion beams at energy up to 100 kV. A specific experimental setup for this source is under installation on the BETSI test bench, to compare its performances with sources developed up to now in the laboratory, such as SILHI, IFMIF, or SPIRAL2 ECR sources. This original extraction source concept is presented, as well as electromagnetic simulations with OPERA-2D code. Ion beam extraction in space charge compensation regime with AXCEL, and beam dynamics simulation with SOLMAXP codes show the beam quality improvement at the end of the LEBT.

  9. Ultrafast third-harmonic spectroscopy of single nanoantennas fabricated using helium-ion beam lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollmann, H.; Esmann, M.; Becker, S. F.; Piao, X.; Huynh, C.; Kautschor, L.-O.; Bösker, G.; Vieker, H.; Beyer, A.; Gölzhäuser, A.; Park, N.; Silies, M.; Lienau, C.

    2016-03-01

    Metallic nanoantennas are able to spatially localize far-field electromagnetic waves on a few nanometer length scale in the form of surface plasmon excitations 1-3. Standard tools for fabricating bowtie and rod antennas with sub-20 nm feature sizes are Electron Beam Lithography or Ga-based Focused Ion Beam (FIB) Milling. These structures, however, often suffer from surface roughness and hence show only a limited optical polarization contrast and therefore a limited electric field localization. Here, we combine Ga- and He-ion based milling (HIM) for the fabrication of gold bowtie and rod antennas with gap sizes of less than 6 nm combined with a high aspect ratio. Using polarization-sensitive Third-Harmonic (TH) spectroscopy, we compare the nonlinear optical properties of single HIM-antennas with sub-6-nm gaps with those produced by standard Ga-based FIB. We find a pronounced enhancement of the total TH intensity of more than three in comparison to Ga-FIB antennas and a highly improved polarization contrast of the TH intensity of 250:1 for Heion produced antennas 4. These findings combined with Finite-Element Method calculations demonstrate a field enhancement of up to one hundred in the few-nanometer gap of the antenna. This makes He-ion beam milling a highly attractive and promising new tool for the fabrication of plasmonic nanoantennas with few-nanometer feature sizes.

  10. Experimental Study of an ion cyclon resonance accelerator presentation of his thesis

    CERN Document Server

    Ramsell, C T

    1999-01-01

    The Ion Cyclotron Resonance Accelerator (ICRA) uses the operating principles of cyclotrons and gyrotrons. The novel geometry of the ICRA allows an ion beam to drift axially while being accelerated in the azimuthal direction. Previous work on electron cyclotron resonance acceleration used waveguide modes to accelerate an electron beam [5]. This research extends cyclotron resonance acceleration to ions by using a high field superconducting magnet and an rf driven magnetron operating at a harmonic of the cyclotron frequency. The superconducting solenoid provides an axial magnetic field for radial confinement and an rf driven magnetron provides azimuthal electric fields for acceleration. The intent of the ICRA concept is to create an ion accelerator which is simple, compact, lightweight, and inexpensive. Furthermore, injection and extraction are inherently simple since the beam drifts through the acceleration region. However, use of this convenient geometry leads to an accelerated beam with a large energy spread....

  11. Harmonic analysis and field quality improvement of an HTS quadrupole magnet for a heavy ion accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Zhan; Wei, Shaoqing; Lee, Sang Jin [Uiduk University, Gyeongju (Korea, Republic of); Jo, Hyun Chul; Kim, Do Gyun; Kim, Jong Won [Rare Isotope Science Project, Institute for Basic Science, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    In recent years, the iron-dominated high-temperature superconductor (HTS) quadrupole magnets are being developed for heavy ion accelerators. Field analyses for iron-dominated quadrupole magnets were based on the normal-conducting (NC) quadrupole magnet early in the development for accelerators. Some conclusions are still in use today. However, the magnetic field of iron-dominated HTS quadrupole magnets cannot fully follow these conclusions. This study established an HTS quadrupole magnet model and an NC quadrupole magnet model, respectively. The harmonic characteristics of two magnets were analyzed and compared. According to the comparison, the conventional iron-dominated quadrupole magnets can be designed for maximum field gradient; the HTS quadrupole magnet, however, should be considered with varying field gradient. Finally, the HTS quadrupole magnet was designed for the changing field gradient. The field quality of the design was improved comparing with the result of the previous study. The new design for the HTS quadrupole magnet has been suggested.

  12. Measurements of ion cyclotron range of frequencies mode converted wave intensity with phase contrast imaging in Alcator C-Mod and comparison with full-wave simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsujii, N.; Porkolab, M.; Bonoli, P. T.; Lin, Y.; Wright, J. C.; Wukitch, S. J. [MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Jaeger, E. F. [XCEL Engineering, Inc., Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37830 (United States); Green, D. L. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Harvey, R. W. [CompX, Del Mar, California 92014 (United States)

    2012-08-15

    Radio frequency waves in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) are widely used to heat tokamak plasmas. In ICRF heating schemes involving multiple ion species, the launched fast waves convert to ion cyclotron waves or ion Bernstein waves at the two-ion hybrid resonances. Mode converted waves are of interest as actuators to optimise plasma performance through current drive and flow drive. In order to describe these processes accurately in a realistic tokamak geometry, numerical simulations are essential, and it is important that these codes be validated against experiment. In this study, the mode converted waves were measured using a phase contrast imaging technique in D-H and D-{sup 3}He plasmas. The measured mode converted wave intensity in the D-{sup 3}He mode conversion regime was found to be a factor of {approx}50 weaker than the full-wave predictions. The discrepancy was reduced in the hydrogen minority heating regime, where mode conversion is weaker.

  13. The study of individual large ions using fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance: An approach for increasing mass range and sensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, R.D.; Bruce, J.E.; Cheng, Xueheng; Hofstadler, S.A.; Anderson, G.A.; Wu, Qinyuan; Chen, Ruidan; Van Orden, S.L.; Rockwood, A.L.; Mitchell, D.W. [Pacific National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-12-31

    ESI-FTICR offers the benefits of mass spectrometry combined with nondestructive detection. Because detection is nondestructive, ions can be remeasured many times. In this work, the feasibility of detecting a single molecule with multiple charges is considered. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) was used a test molecule.

  14. Numerical solution of the Maxwell-Vlasov equations in the periodic regime. Application to the study of isotope separation by ion cyclotron resonance; Resolution numerique des equations de Maxwell-Vlasov en regime periodique. Application a l'etude de la separation isotopique par resonance cyclotron ionique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omnes, P

    1999-01-25

    This work is dedicated to the study of the behaviour of a magnetic confined plasma that is excited by a purely sinusoidal electric current delivered by an antenna. The response of the electrons to the electromagnetic field is considered as linear,whereas the ions of the plasma are represented by a non-relativistic Vlasov equation. In order to avoid transients, the coupled Maxwell-Vlasov equations are solved in a periodic mode and in a bounded domain. An equivalent electric conductivity tensor has been defined, this tensor is a linear operator that links the electric current generated by the movement of the particles to the electromagnetic field. Theoretical considerations can assure the existence and uniqueness of a periodical solution to Vlasov equations and of a solution to Maxwell equations in harmonic mode. The system of equations is periodical and has been solved by using an iterative method. The application of this method to the simulation of a isotopic separation device based on ionic cyclotron resonance has shown that the convergence is reached in a few iterations and that the solution is valid. Furthermore a method based on a finite-volume formulation of Maxwell equations in the time domain is presented. 2 new variables are defined in order to better take into account the Gauss' law and the conservation of the magnetic flux, the new system is still hyperbolic. The parallelization of the process has been successfully realized. (A.C.)

  15. Poynting vector measurements of electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves in the plasmasphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labelle, J.; Treumann, R. A.

    1992-01-01

    Results are presented from an analysis of the June 6, 1985 Pc 2 measurements for which E, B, and delta-N were all analyzed. The event occurred in the duskside overlap region between the plasmaspheric bulge and the ion ring current. Results of the Poynting vector analysis of the R and L mode components show both of them to be characterized by northward Poynting vector, indicating energy flux away from the equator. The value of the Poynting vector was found to be about 3 microW/sq m.

  16. Comprehensive characterization of natural organic matter by MALDI- and ESI-Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Dong [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2871, 18 Shuangqing Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100085 (China); Huang, Huogao [Department of Endocrinology and Rheumatology, Navy General Hospital, PLA, 6 Fucheng Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100048 (China); Hu, Ming [Central Lab Navy General Hospital, PLA, 6 Fucheng Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100048 (China); Cui, Lin; Geng, Fanglan; Rao, Ziyu; Niu, Hongyun; Cai, Yaqi [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2871, 18 Shuangqing Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100085 (China); Kang, Yuehui, E-mail: yhkang@rcees.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2871, 18 Shuangqing Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100085 (China)

    2015-03-25

    Highlights: • MALDI-FT-ICR-MS was firstly employed for molecular characterization of NOM. • 1,8-Bis(dimethyl-amino)-naphthalene (DMAN) was used as matrix. • Mass spectra of NOM generated by MALDI and ESI methods were compared. • Complementary molecular information of NOM was provided by MALDI. - Abstract: Natural organic matter (NOM) is a complex and non-uniform mixture of organic compounds which plays an important role in environmental processes. Due to the complexity, it is challenging to obtain fully detailed structural information about NOM. Although Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS) has been demonstrated to be a powerful tool for providing molecular information about NOM, multiple ionization methods are needed for comprehensive characterization of NOM at the molecular level considering the ionizing selectivity of different ionization methods. This paper reports the first use of matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) method coupled with FT-ICR-MS for molecular characterization of NOM within a mass range of 200–800 Da. The mass spectral data obtained by MALDI were systematically compared with data generated by electrospray ionization (ESI). It showed that complementary molecular information about NOM which could not be detected by ESI, were provided by MALDI. More unsaturated and aromatic constituents of NOM with lower O/C ratio (O/C ratio < 0.5) were preferentially ionized in MALDI negative mode, whereas more polar constituents of NOM with higher O/C ratio were preferentially ionized in ESI negative mode. Molecular anions of NOM appearing at even m/z in MALDI negative ion mode were detected. The results show that NOM molecules with aromatic structures, moderate O/C ratio (0.7 > O/C ratio > 0.25) and lower H/C ratio were liable to form molecular anions at even m/z, whereas those with higher H/C ratio are more likely to form deprotonated ions at odd m/z. It is speculated that almost half of the NOM

  17. A hybrid electron cyclotron resonance metal ion source with integrated sputter magnetron for the production of an intense Al{sup +} ion beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weichsel, T., E-mail: tim.weichsel@fep.fraunhofer.de; Hartung, U.; Kopte, T. [Fraunhofer Institute for Organic Electronics, Electron Beam and Plasma Technology FEP, 01277 Dresden (Germany); Zschornack, G. [Institute of Solid State Physics, Dresden University of Technology, 01062 Dresden, Germany and Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research, Dresden (Germany); Kreller, M.; Philipp, A. [DREEBIT GmbH, 01900 Grossroehrsdorf (Germany)

    2015-09-15

    A metal ion source prototype has been developed: a combination of magnetron sputter technology with 2.45 GHz electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source technology—a so called magnetron ECR ion source (MECRIS). An integrated ring-shaped sputter magnetron with an Al target is acting as a powerful metal atom supply in order to produce an intense current of singly charged metal ions. Preliminary experiments show that an Al{sup +} ion current with a density of 167 μA/cm{sup 2} is extracted from the source at an acceleration voltage of 27 kV. Spatially resolved double Langmuir probe measurements and optical emission spectroscopy were used to study the plasma states of the ion source: sputter magnetron, ECR, and MECRIS plasma. Electron density and temperature as well as Al atom density were determined as a function of microwave and sputter magnetron power. The effect of ECR heating is strongly pronounced in the center of the source. There the electron density is increased by one order of magnitude from 6 × 10{sup 9} cm{sup −3} to 6 × 10{sup 10} cm{sup −3} and the electron temperature is enhanced from about 5 eV to 12 eV, when the ECR plasma is ignited to the magnetron plasma. Operating the magnetron at constant power, it was observed that its discharge current is raised from 1.8 A to 4.8 A, when the ECR discharge was superimposed with a microwave power of 2 kW. At the same time, the discharge voltage decreased from about 560 V to 210 V, clearly indicating a higher plasma density of the MECRIS mode. The optical emission spectrum of the MECRIS plasma is dominated by lines of excited Al atoms and shows a significant contribution of lines arising from singly ionized Al. Plasma emission photography with a CCD camera was used to prove probe measurements and to identify separated plasma emission zones originating from the ECR and magnetron discharge.

  18. Characterization of the mutual influence of Ion Cyclotron and Lower Hybrid Range of frequencies systems on EAST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urbanczyk Guillaume

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Waves in the Ion Cyclotron (ICRF and Lower Hybrid (LH Range of Frequencies are efficient techniques respectively to heat the plasma and drive current. Main difficulties come from a trade-off between good RF coupling and acceptable level of impurities release. The mutual influence of both systems makes such equilibrium often hard to reach [1]. In order to investigate those interactions based on Scrape-Off Layer (SOL plasma parameters, a new reciprocating probe was designed allying a three tips Langmuir probe with an emissive wire. The emissive filament provides a precise measure of plasma potential [2], which can be used to calibrate Langmuir probe's results. This paper reports on experimental results obtained on EAST, where there are two ICRF antennas and two LH launchers. Among others diagnostics, the new reciprocating probe enabled to evidence the deleterious influence of ICRF power on LHWs coupling in L-mode plasmas. In areas connected with an active ICRF antenna, SOL potentials increase while densities tend to decrease, respectively enhancing impurities release and deteriorating LHWs coupling. This phenomenon has mostly been attributed to RF sheath; the one that forms on top of Plasma Facing Components (PFCs and causes ExB density convections [3]. From those experiments it seems ICRF has a strong influence on magnetically connected areas, both in the near field – influencing ICRF waves coupling – and in farther locations such as in front of LH grills. Moreover, influence of ICRF on LH system was observed both in L and H modes. Those results are consistent with RF sheath rectification process. Concerning the influence of LHWs on ICRF coupling, nothing was observed in L-mode. Besides during H-mode experiments, LHWs have been identified as having a mitigating effect on ELMs [4], which on average lowers the pedestal, increasing edge densities to the profit of ICRF waves coupling.

  19. Characterization of the mutual influence of Ion Cyclotron and Lower Hybrid Range of frequencies systems on EAST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanczyk, Guillaume; Zhang, Xinjun; Qin, Chengming; Zhao, Yanping; Zhang, Tao; Zhang, Ling; Li, Jiangang; Yuan, Shuai; Chen, Liang; Zhang, Heng; Zhang, Jiahui; Wang, Jianhua; Yang, Xiuda; Qian, Jinping

    2017-10-01

    Waves in the Ion Cyclotron (ICRF) and Lower Hybrid (LH) Range of Frequencies are efficient techniques respectively to heat the plasma and drive current. Main difficulties come from a trade-off between good RF coupling and acceptable level of impurities release. The mutual influence of both systems makes such equilibrium often hard to reach [1]. In order to investigate those interactions based on Scrape-Off Layer (SOL) plasma parameters, a new reciprocating probe was designed allying a three tips Langmuir probe with an emissive wire. The emissive filament provides a precise measure of plasma potential [2], which can be used to calibrate Langmuir probe's results. This paper reports on experimental results obtained on EAST, where there are two ICRF antennas and two LH launchers. Among others diagnostics, the new reciprocating probe enabled to evidence the deleterious influence of ICRF power on LHWs coupling in L-mode plasmas. In areas connected with an active ICRF antenna, SOL potentials increase while densities tend to decrease, respectively enhancing impurities release and deteriorating LHWs coupling. This phenomenon has mostly been attributed to RF sheath; the one that forms on top of Plasma Facing Components (PFCs) and causes ExB density convections [3]. From those experiments it seems ICRF has a strong influence on magnetically connected areas, both in the near field - influencing ICRF waves coupling - and in farther locations such as in front of LH grills. Moreover, influence of ICRF on LH system was observed both in L and H modes. Those results are consistent with RF sheath rectification process. Concerning the influence of LHWs on ICRF coupling, nothing was observed in L-mode. Besides during H-mode experiments, LHWs have been identified as having a mitigating effect on ELMs [4], which on average lowers the pedestal, increasing edge densities to the profit of ICRF waves coupling.

  20. Electromagnetic ion-cyclotron instability in the presence of a parallel electric field with general loss-cone distribution function - particle aspect analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Ahirwar

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available The effect of parallel electric field on the growth rate, parallel and perpendicular resonant energy and marginal stability of the electromagnetic ion-cyclotron (EMIC wave with general loss-cone distribution function in a low β homogeneous plasma is investigated by particle aspect approach. The effect of the steepness of the loss-cone distribution is investigated on the electromagnetic ion-cyclotron wave. The whole plasma is considered to consist of resonant and non-resonant particles. It is assumed that resonant particles participate in the energy exchange with the wave, whereas non-resonant particles support the oscillatory motion of the wave. The wave is assumed to propagate parallel to the static magnetic field. The effect of the parallel electric field with the general distribution function is to control the growth rate of the EMIC waves, whereas the effect of steep loss-cone distribution is to enhance the growth rate and perpendicular heating of the ions. This study is relevant to the analysis of ion conics in the presence of an EMIC wave in the auroral acceleration region of the Earth's magnetoplasma.

  1. Growth of etiolated barley plants in weak static and 50 Hz electromagnetic fields tuned to calcium ion cyclotron resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazur, Alexander; Rassadina, Valentina; Dandler, Jörg; Zoller, Jutta

    2006-01-01

    Background The effects of weak magnetic and electromagnetic fields in biology have been intensively studied on animals, microorganisms and humans, but comparably less on plants. Perception mechanisms were attributed originally to ferrimagnetism, but later discoveries required additional explanations like the "radical pair mechanism" and the "Ion cyclotron resonance" (ICR), primarily considered by Liboff. The latter predicts effects by small ions involved in biological processes, that occur in definite frequency- and intensity ranges ("windows") of simultaneously impacting magnetic and electromagnetic fields related by a linear equation, which meanwhile is proven by a number of in vivo and in vitro experiments. Methods Barley seedlings (Hordeum vulgare, L. var. Steffi) were grown in the dark for 5 and 6 days under static magnetic and 50 Hz electromagnetic fields matching the ICR conditions of Ca2+. Control cultures were grown under normal geomagnetic conditions, not matching this ICR. Morphology, pigmentation and long-term development of the adult plants were subsequently investigated. Results The shoots of plants exposed to Ca2+-ICR exposed grew 15–20% shorter compared to the controls, the plant weight was 10–12% lower, and they had longer coleoptiles that were adhering stronger to the primary leaf tissue. The total pigment contents of protochlorophyllide (PChlide) and carotenoids were significantly decreased. The rate of PChlide regeneration after light irradiation was reduced for the Ca2+-ICR exposed plants, also the Shibata shift was slightly delayed. Even a longer subsequent natural growing phase without any additional fields could only partially eliminate these effects: the plants initially exposed to Ca2+-ICR were still significantly shorter and had a lower chlorophyll (a+b) content compared to the controls. A continued cultivation and observation of the adult plants under natural conditions without any artificial electromagnetic fields showed a

  2. Chemical Assignment of Structural Isomers of Sulfur-Containing Metabolites in Garlic by Liquid Chromatography-Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance-Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakabayashi, Ryo; Sawada, Yuji; Aoyagi, Morihiro; Yamada, Yutaka; Hirai, Masami Yokota; Sakurai, Tetsuya; Kamoi, Takahiro; Rowan, Daryl D; Saito, Kazuki

    2016-02-01

    The chemical assignment of metabolites is crucial to understanding the relation between food composition and biological activity. This study was designed to detect and chemically assign sulfur-containing metabolites by using LC-Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance-mass spectrometry (FTICR-MS) in Allium plants. Ultrahigh resolution (>250,000 full width at half-maximum) and mass accuracy (<1 mDa) by FTICR-MS allowed us to distinguish ions containing sulfur isotopes ((32)S and (34)S). Putative 69 S-containing monoisotopic ions (S-ions) were extracted from the metabolome data of onion (Allium cepa), green onion (Allium fistulosum), and garlic (Allium sativum) on the basis of theoretical mass differences between (32)S-ions and their (34)S-substituted counterparts and on the natural abundance of (34)S. Eight S-ions were chemically assigned by using the reference data according to the guidelines of the Metabolomics Standards Initiative. Three ions detected in garlic were assigned as derived from the isomers γ-glutamyl-S-1-propenylcysteine and γ-glutamyl-S-2-propenylcysteine and as S-2-propenylmercaptoglutathione on the basis of differences in key product ions identified in reference tandem MS spectra. The ability to discriminate between such geometric isomers will be extremely useful for the chemical assignment of unknown metabolites in MS-based metabolomics. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  3. Direct Analysis in Real Time (DART of an Organothiophosphate at Ultrahigh Resolution by Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry and Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laszlo Prokai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Direct analysis in real time (DART is a recently developed ambient ionization technique for mass spectrometry to enable rapid and sensitive analyses with little or no sample preparation. After swab-based field sampling, the organothiophosphate malathion was analyzed using DART-Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR mass spectrometry (MS and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS. Mass resolution was documented to be over 800,000 in full-scan MS mode and over 1,000,000 for an MS/MS product ion produced by collision-induced dissociation of the protonated analyte. Mass measurement accuracy below 1 ppm was obtained for all DART-generated ions that belonged to the test compound in the mass spectra acquired using only external mass calibration. This high mass measurement accuracy, achievable at present only through FTMS, was required for unequivocal identification of the corresponding molecular formulae.

  4. Laser ablation of aluminosilicates: Comparison between allophane and mixed alumina/silicas by Fourier Transform-Ion Cyclotron Resonance-Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castello, J.; Gaumet, J. J.; Muller, J. F.; Derousseaux, S.; Guilment, J.; Poncelet, O.

    2007-07-01

    Laser ablation coupled to Fourier Transform-Ion Cyclotron Resonance-Mass Spectrometry [FT-ICR-MS] was used for analysing allophane aluminosilicates and mixtures of Al 2O 3/SiO 2. We show that both positive and negative ionization modes in FT-ICR-MS allows direct analysis of the various Al/Si ratios in allophanes and mixed alumina/silica samples. FT-ICR-MS technique provides a routine analytical methodology providing insight into the Al/Si molar composition and the origin of any aluminosilicate materials.

  5. ITER Plasma at Electron Cyclotron Frequency Domain: Stimulated Raman Scattering off Gould-Trivelpiece Modes and Generation of Suprathermal Electrons and Energetic Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefan, V. Alexander

    2011-04-01

    Stimulated Raman scattering in the electron cyclotron frequency range of the X-Mode and O-Mode driver with the ITER plasma leads to the ``tail heating'' via the generation of suprathermal electrons and energetic ions. The scattering off Trivelpiece-Gould (T-G) modes is studied for the gyrotron frequency of 170GHz; X-Mode and O-Mode power of 24 MW CW; on-axis B-field of 10T. The synergy between the two-plasmon decay and Raman scattering is analyzed in reference to the bulk plasma heating. Supported in part by Nikola TESLA Labs, La Jolla, CA

  6. Simultaneous generation of ions and high-order harmonics from thin conjugated polymer foil irradiated with ultrahigh contrast laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, I. W.; Kim, I J.; Pae, K. H.; Nam, K. H.; Lee, C.-L.; Yun, H.; Kim, H. T.; Lee, S. K.; Yu, T. J.; Sung, J. H.; Lee, J. [Advanced Photonics Research Institute, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of); Pirozhkov, A. S.; Ogura, K.; Orimo, S.; Daido, H. [Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Kizugawa, Kyoto 619-0215 (Japan)

    2011-10-31

    We report the manufacturing of an (ultra-)thin foil target made of conjugated polymer, poly(9,9'-dioctylfluorene-co-benzothiadiazole) (F8BT), and the simultaneous observation of laser-accelerated ions and second harmonic radiation, when irradiated with ultrahigh-contrast laser pulse at a maximum intensity of 4 x 10{sup 19 }W/cm{sup 2}. Maximum proton energy of 8 MeV is achieved along the target normal direction. Strong second harmonic with over 6% energy ratio compared to fundamental is emitted along the specular direction. Two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations confirm the simultaneous generation of protons and high-order harmonics, which demonstrates the feasibility of applications requiring particle and radiation sources at once, effectively using the same laser and target.

  7. Novel molecular-level evidence of iodine binding to natural organic matter from Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Chen, E-mail: xuchen66@tamu.edu [Laboratory for Environmental and Oceanographic Research, Department of Marine Sciences, Texas A and M University, Building 3029, Galveston, TX 77551 (United States); Chen, Hongmei [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA 23529 (United States); Sugiyama, Yuko [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA 23529 (United States); University of Hyogo, 1-1-12, Shinzaike-honcho, Himeji, Hyogo 670-0092 (Japan); Zhang, Saijin; Li, Hsiu-Ping; Ho, Yi-Fang; Chuang, Chia-ying; Schwehr, Kathleen A. [Laboratory for Environmental and Oceanographic Research, Department of Marine Sciences, Texas A and M University, Building 3029, Galveston, TX 77551 (United States); Kaplan, Daniel I. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States); Yeager, Chris [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Roberts, Kimberly A. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States); Hatcher, Patrick G. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA 23529 (United States); Santschi, Peter H. [Laboratory for Environmental and Oceanographic Research, Department of Marine Sciences, Texas A and M University, Building 3029, Galveston, TX 77551 (United States)

    2013-04-01

    Major fractions of radioiodine ({sup 129}I) are associated with natural organic matter (NOM) in the groundwater and surface soils of the Savannah River Site (SRS). Electrospray ionization coupled to Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (ESI-FTICR-MS) was applied to elucidate the interactions between inorganic iodine species (iodide and iodate) and a fulvic acid (FA) extracted from a SRS surface soil. Iodate is likely reduced to reactive iodine species by the lignin- and tannin-like compounds or the carboxylic-rich alicyclic molecules (CRAM), during which condensed aromatics and lignin-like compounds were generated. Iodide is catalytically oxidized into reactive iodine species by peroxides, while FA is oxidized by peroxides into more aliphatic and less aromatic compounds. Only 9% of the total identified organo-iodine compounds derived from molecules originally present in the FA, whereas most were iodine binding to newly-produced compounds. The resulting iodinated molecules were distributed in three regions in the van Krevelen diagrams, denoting unsaturated hydrocarbons, lignin and protein. Moreover, characteristics of these organo-iodine compounds, such as their relatively low O/C ratios (< 0.2 or < 0.4) and yet some degree of un-saturation close to that of lignin, have multiple important environmental implications concerning possibly less sterically-hindered aromatic ring system for iodine to get access to and a lower hydrophilicity of the molecules thus to retard their migration in the natural aquatic systems. Lastly, ∼ 69% of the identified organo-iodine species contains nitrogen, which is presumably present as -NH{sub 2} or -HNCOR groups and a ring-activating functionality to favor the electrophilic substitution. The ESI-FTICR-MS technique provides novel evidence to better understand the reactivity and scavenging properties of NOM towards radioiodine and possible influence of NOM on {sup 129}I migration. Highlights: ► IO{sub 3}{sup

  8. Characterization and performance of a field aligned ion cyclotron range of frequency antenna in Alcator C-Moda)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wukitch, S. J.; Garrett, M. L.; Ochoukov, R.; Terry, J. L.; Hubbard, A.; Labombard, B.; Lau, C.; Lin, Y.; Lipschultz, B.; Miller, D.; Reinke, M. L.; Whyte, D.; Alcator C-Mod Team

    2013-05-01

    Ion cyclotron range of frequency (ICRF) heating is expected to provide auxiliary heating for ITER and future fusion reactors where high Z metallic plasma facing components (PFCs) are being considered. Impurity contamination linked to ICRF antenna operation remains a major challenge particularly for devices with high Z metallic PFCs. Here, we report on an experimental investigation to test whether a field aligned (FA) antenna can reduce impurity contamination and impurity sources. We compare the modification of the scrape of layer (SOL) plasma potential of the FA antenna to a conventional, toroidally aligned (TA) antenna, in order to explore the underlying physics governing impurity contamination linked to ICRF heating. The FA antenna is a 4-strap ICRF antenna where the current straps and antenna enclosure sides are perpendicular to the total magnetic field while the Faraday screen rods are parallel to the total magnetic field. In principle, alignment with respect to the total magnetic field minimizes integrated E|| (electric field along a magnetic field line) via symmetry. A finite element method RF antenna model coupled to a cold plasma model verifies that the integrated E|| should be reduced for all antenna phases. Monopole phasing in particular is expected to have the lowest integrated E||. Consistent with expectations, we observed that the impurity contamination and impurity source at the FA antenna are reduced compared to the TA antenna. In both L and H-mode discharges, the radiated power is 20%-30% lower for a FA-antenna heated discharge than a discharge heated with the TA-antennas. However, inconsistent with expectations, we observe RF induced plasma potentials (via gas-puff imaging and emissive probes to be nearly identical for FA and TA antennas when operated in dipole phasing). Moreover, the highest levels of RF-induced plasma potentials are observed using monopole phasing with the FA antenna. Thus, while impurity contamination and sources are indeed

  9. Relativistic down-shift frequency effect on the application of electron cyclotron emission measurements to JT-60U tokamak plasmas. Second harmonics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Masayasu; Isei, Nobuaki; Ishida, Sinichi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment

    1995-11-01

    Effect of relativistic frequency down-shift on the determination of the electron temperature profile from electron cyclotron emission(ECE) in JT-60U tokamak plasmas is studied. The radial shift of the electron temperature profile due to the effects is not negligible, compared with the spatial resolution of ECE measurement systems of JT-60U. Therefore it is necessary to correct the effect for precise measurement of the electron temperature profile. Dependencies of the shifted frequency on the electron density, electron temperature and toroidal magnetic field are studied for the uniform electron density and parabolic electron temperature profile in JT-60U. It is revealed to be necessary for the estimation of shift due to the relativistic down-shift frequency to take into account of the optical thickness. (author).

  10. Sub-microsecond temporal evolution of edge density during edge localized modes in KSTAR tokamak plasmas inferred from ion cyclotron emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, B.; Dendy, R. O.; McClements, K. G.; Chapman, S. C.; Yun, G. S.; Thatipamula, S. G.; Kim, M. H.

    2017-12-01

    During edge localised mode (ELM) crashes in KSTAR deuterium plasmas, bursts of spectrally structured ion cyclotron emission (ICE) are detected. Usually the ICE spectrum chirps downwards during an ELM crash, on sub-microsecond timescales. For KSTAR ICE where the separation of spectral peak frequencies is close to the proton cyclotron frequency Ω_cp at the outer plasma edge, we show that the driving population of energetic ions is likely to be a subset of the 3 MeV fusion protons, born centrally on deeply passing orbits which drift from the core to the edge plasma. We report first principles modelling of this scenario using a particle-in-cell code, which evolves the full orbit dynamics of large numbers of energetic protons, thermal deuterons, and electrons self-consistently with the electric and magnetic fields. The Fourier transform of the excited fields in the nonlinear saturated regime of the simulations is the theoretical counterpart to the measured ICE spectra. Multiple simulation runs for different, adjacent, values of the plasma density under KSTAR edge conditions enable us to infer the theoretical dependence of ICE spectral structure on the local electron number density. By matching this density dependence to the observed time-dependence of chirping ICE spectra in KSTAR, we obtain sub-microsecond time resolution of the evolving local electron number density during the ELM crash.

  11. A liquid-helium-free superconducting coil system forming a flat minimum-magnetic-field distribution of an electron cyclotron resonance ion source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Ken-ichi; Nara, Takayuki; Saitoh, Yuichi; Yokota, Watalu

    2014-02-01

    A flat distribution of the minimum magnetic field (flat-Bmin) of an electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) is expected to perform better in highly charged ion production than classical Bmin. To form a flat-Bmin structure with a liquid helium-free superconducting device, a coil system of seven coils with four current leads has been designed. The lead number was reduced by connecting the plural coils in series to maintain the flat-Bmin structure even when the coil currents are changed for adjustment. This coil system can be operated with a helium-free cryostat, since the estimation of heat from the leads to the coils is nearly equivalent to the existing superconducting ECRIS of a similar type.

  12. A liquid-helium-free superconducting coil system forming a flat minimum-magnetic-field distribution of an electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Ken-ichi, E-mail: yoshida.kennichi71@jaea.go.jp; Nara, Takayuki; Saitoh, Yuichi; Yokota, Watalu [Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Institute, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 1233 Watanuki, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan)

    2014-02-15

    A flat distribution of the minimum magnetic field (flat-B{sub min}) of an electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) is expected to perform better in highly charged ion production than classical B{sub min}. To form a flat-B{sub min} structure with a liquid helium-free superconducting device, a coil system of seven coils with four current leads has been designed. The lead number was reduced by connecting the plural coils in series to maintain the flat-B{sub min} structure even when the coil currents are changed for adjustment. This coil system can be operated with a helium-free cryostat, since the estimation of heat from the leads to the coils is nearly equivalent to the existing superconducting ECRIS of a similar type.

  13. Gas Chromatography/Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization-Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry of Pyrolysis Oil from German Brown Coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuber, Jan; Kroll, Marius M.; Rathsack, Philipp; Otto, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Pyrolysis oil from the slow pyrolysis of German brown coal from Schöningen, obtained at a temperature of 500°C, was separated and analyzed using hyphenation of gas chromatography with an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization source operated in negative ion mode and Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (GC-APCI-FT-ICR-MS). Development of this ultrahigh-resolving analysis method is described, that is, optimization of specific GC and APCI parameters and performed data processing. The advantages of GC-APCI-FT-ICR-MS hyphenation, for example, soft ionization, ultrahigh-resolving detection, and most important isomer separation, were demonstrated for the sample liquid. For instance, it was possible to separate and identify nine different propylphenol, ethylmethylphenol, and trimethylphenol isomers. Furthermore, homologous series of different acids, for example, alkyl and alkylene carboxylic acids, were verified, as well as homologous series of alkyl phenols, alkyl dihydroxy benzenes, and alkoxy alkyl phenols. PMID:27066076

  14. A liquid-helium-free superconducting coil system forming a flat minimum-magnetic-field distribution of an electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Ken-ichi; Nara, Takayuki; Saitoh, Yuichi; Yokota, Watalu

    2014-02-01

    A flat distribution of the minimum magnetic field (flat-Bmin) of an electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) is expected to perform better in highly charged ion production than classical Bmin. To form a flat-Bmin structure with a liquid helium-free superconducting device, a coil system of seven coils with four current leads has been designed. The lead number was reduced by connecting the plural coils in series to maintain the flat-Bmin structure even when the coil currents are changed for adjustment. This coil system can be operated with a helium-free cryostat, since the estimation of heat from the leads to the coils is nearly equivalent to the existing superconducting ECRIS of a similar type.

  15. Gas Chromatography/Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization-Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry of Pyrolysis Oil from German Brown Coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Zuber

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pyrolysis oil from the slow pyrolysis of German brown coal from Schöningen, obtained at a temperature of 500°C, was separated and analyzed using hyphenation of gas chromatography with an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization source operated in negative ion mode and Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (GC-APCI-FT-ICR-MS. Development of this ultrahigh-resolving analysis method is described, that is, optimization of specific GC and APCI parameters and performed data processing. The advantages of GC-APCI-FT-ICR-MS hyphenation, for example, soft ionization, ultrahigh-resolving detection, and most important isomer separation, were demonstrated for the sample liquid. For instance, it was possible to separate and identify nine different propylphenol, ethylmethylphenol, and trimethylphenol isomers. Furthermore, homologous series of different acids, for example, alkyl and alkylene carboxylic acids, were verified, as well as homologous series of alkyl phenols, alkyl dihydroxy benzenes, and alkoxy alkyl phenols.

  16. Gas Chromatography/Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization-Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry of Pyrolysis Oil from German Brown Coal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuber, Jan; Kroll, Marius M; Rathsack, Philipp; Otto, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Pyrolysis oil from the slow pyrolysis of German brown coal from Schöningen, obtained at a temperature of 500°C, was separated and analyzed using hyphenation of gas chromatography with an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization source operated in negative ion mode and Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (GC-APCI-FT-ICR-MS). Development of this ultrahigh-resolving analysis method is described, that is, optimization of specific GC and APCI parameters and performed data processing. The advantages of GC-APCI-FT-ICR-MS hyphenation, for example, soft ionization, ultrahigh-resolving detection, and most important isomer separation, were demonstrated for the sample liquid. For instance, it was possible to separate and identify nine different propylphenol, ethylmethylphenol, and trimethylphenol isomers. Furthermore, homologous series of different acids, for example, alkyl and alkylene carboxylic acids, were verified, as well as homologous series of alkyl phenols, alkyl dihydroxy benzenes, and alkoxy alkyl phenols.

  17. Exploiting the Rotational Dynamics of Asymmetric Top Molecules to make Angle Resolved, Molecular Frame Ion Yield and High Harmonic Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhija, Varun; Ren, Xiaoming; Tross, Jan; Mondal, Sudipta; Le, Anh-Thu; Trallero, Carlos; Kumarappan, Vinod; JRM HHG-Alignment Collaboration

    2013-05-01

    We extract the angle-dependent ionization rate of ethylene in an intense femtosecond laser pulse from the rotational revivals of the yield of the singly-charged molecular ion. By fitting the measured delay-dependent ion yield to the molecular axis distribution calculated using a rigid rotor code for asymmetric top molecules, we show that the dependence of the ionization rate on two Euler angles can be on obtained. Additionally we explore the possibility of extracting molecular frame information from similar pump-probe measurements of high harmonic generation. Office of Basic Energy Sciences, U.S. Department of Energy.

  18. Interaction between fast ions and ion cyclotron heating in a tokamak plasma; Interaction des ions rapides avec les ondes a la frequence cyclotronique ionique dans un plasma de tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergeaud, V

    2001-11-01

    In an ignited fusion reactor, the plasma temperature is sustained by the fusion reactions. However, before this regime is reached, it is necessary to bring an additional power to the plasma. One of the methods that enables the coupling of power is the use of an electromagnetic wave in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF). This thesis deals with the interaction between ICRF heating and the fast ions. The thesis contains a theoretical study of the influence of ICRF heating on the ion distribution function. A particular emphasis is put on the importance of the toroidal spectrum of the modes of propagation of the wave in the tokamak. It is necessary to take into account all these modes in order to correctly assess the strength of the wave particle interaction, especially for high energy particles (of the order of hundreds of keV). The classical treatment of the wave particle interaction is based on the hypothesis that the cyclotron phase of the particle and the wave phase are de-correlated between successive resonant interactions. One is therefore led to consider ICRF heating as a diffusive process. This hypothesis is reconsidered in this thesis and it is shown that strong correlations exist in a large part of the velocity space. For this study, a numerical code that computes the full trajectory of particles interacting with a complete electromagnetic field has been developed. The thesis also deals with the problem of fast ion losses due to the breaking of the toroidal symmetry of the confinement magnetic field (called the ripple modulation). Between two toroidal coils, local magnetic wells exist, and particles can be trapped there. When trapped they undergo a vertical drift that makes them quit the plasma rapidly. The ripple modulation also causes an enhancement of the radial diffusion, thereby increasing the losses. A Monte Carlo model describing these mechanisms is presented. This model is validated thanks to a comparison with an experimental database from

  19. Interaction of fast ions with ion cyclotron electromagnetic waves in tokamak plasma; Interaction des ions rapides avec les ondes a la frequence cyclotronique ionique dans un plasma de tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergeaud, V

    2000-12-01

    In an ignited fusion reactor, the plasma temperature is sustained by the fusion reactions. However, before this regime is reached, it is necessary to bring an additional power to the plasma. One of the methods that enables the coupling of power is the use of an electromagnetic wave in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF). This thesis deals with the interaction between ICRF heating and the fast ions. The thesis contains a theoretical study of the influence of ICRF heating on the ion distribution function. A particular emphasis is put on the importance of the toroidal spectrum of the modes of propagation of the wave in the tokamak. It is necessary to take into account all these modes in order to correctly assess the strength of the wave particle interaction, especially for high energy particles (of the order of hundreds of keV). The classical treatment of the wave particle interaction is based on the hypothesis that the cyclotron phase of the particle and the wave phase are de-correlated between successive resonant interactions. One is therefore led to consider ICRF heating as a diffusive process. This hypothesis is reconsidered in this thesis and it is shown that strong correlations exist in a large part of the velocity space. For this study, a numerical code that computes the full trajectory of particles interacting with a complete electromagnetic field has been developed. The thesis also deals with the problem of fast ion losses due to the breaking of the toroidal symmetry of the confinement magnetic field (called the ripple modulation). Between two toroidal coils, local magnetic wells exist, and particles can be trapped there. When trapped they undergo a vertical drift that makes them quit the plasma rapidly. The ripple modulation also causes an enhancement of the radial diffusion, thereby increasing the losses. A Monte Carlo model describing these mechanisms is presented. This model is validated thanks to a comparison with an experimental database from

  20. UV laser ablation of GdCa4O(BO3)3 (GdCOB) investigated by Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chéty-Gimondo, Rachel; Aubriet, Frédéric; Millon, Eric; Muller, J-F

    2004-01-01

    The ions generated by laser ablation (LA) of calcium and gadolinium oxoborate GdCa4O(BO3)3 (GdCOB) were investigated by Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICRMS), a powerful tool for the characterization of ionic species produced by laser interaction with solid material. In order to better understand the matter transfer and the mechanism of thin film growth by pulsed-laser deposition (PLD), cationic and anionic clusters generated by UV laser ablation of GdCOB bulk material were studied. Laser ablation of GdCOB leads to the formation of various cluster ions which result from association of CaO, BO and B2O3 building blocks (BB) with different charge carriers (CC): H+, BO+, GdO+ in positive ion mode, and BO2-, OK-, OH-, Cl-, WO3- in negative ion mode. LA-FTICRMS investigations allow us to assign a valence state to each metallic atom included in each BB. A +II chemical state may be associated with calcium and +II and +III ones to boron. UV laser ablation of GdCOB therefore induces reduction processes of boron species in the gas phase. The oxygen reactive atmosphere used during PLD experiments allows the growth of stoichiometric thin films by fixation of oxygen on the ablated species. 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. BEST medical radioisotope production cyclotrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabaiduc, Vasile; Milton, Bruce; Suthanthiran, Krishnan; Johnson, Richard R. [Best Cyclotron Systems Inc., 7-8765 Ash Street, Vancouver, British Columbia, V6P 6T3 (Canada); Gelbart, W. Z. [Advanced System Designs Inc., 5295 Bear Bay Road, Garden Bay, BC, V0N 1S1 (Canada)

    2013-04-19

    Best Cyclotron Systems Inc (BCSI) is currently developing 14 MeV, 25 MeV, 35MeV and 70MeV cyclotrons for radioisotope production and research applications as well as the entire spectrum of targets and nuclear synthesis modules for the production of Positron Emission Tomography (PET), Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) and radiation therapy isotopes. The company is a subsidiary of Best Medical International, renowned in the field of medical instrumentation and radiation therapy. All cyclotrons have external negative hydrogen ion sources, four radial sectors with two dees in opposite valleys, cryogenic vacuum system and simultaneous beam extraction on opposite lines. The beam intensity ranges from 400 {mu}A to 1000 {mu}A, depending on the cyclotron energy and application.

  2. Bioconversion of red ginseng saponins in the gastro-intestinal tract in vitro model studied by high-performance liquid chromatography-high resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kong, H.; Wang, M.; Venema, K.; Maathuis, A.; Heijden, R. van der; Greef, J. van der; Xu, G.; Hankemeier, T.

    2009-01-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatography-high resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (HPLC-FTICR-MS) method was developed to investigate the metabolism of ginsenosides in in vitro models of the gastro-intestinal tract. The metabolites were identified by

  3. Beyond Naphthenic Acids: Environmental Screening of Water from Natural Sources and the Athabasca Oil Sands Industry Using Atmospheric Pressure Photoionization Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrow, Mark P; Peru, Kerry M; Fahlman, Brian; Hewitt, L Mark; Frank, Richard A; Headley, John V

    2015-09-01

    There is a growing need for environmental screening of natural waters in the Athabasca region of Alberta, Canada, particularly in the differentiation between anthropogenic and naturally-derived organic compounds associated with weathered bitumen deposits. Previous research has focused primarily upon characterization of naphthenic acids in water samples by negative-ion electrospray ionization methods. Atmospheric pressure photoionization is a much less widely used ionization method, but one that affords the possibility of observing low polarity compounds that cannot be readily observed by electrospray ionization. This study describes the first usage of atmospheric pressure photoionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (in both positive-ion and negative-ion modes) to characterize and compare extracts of oil sands process water, river water, and groundwater samples from areas associated with oil sands mining activities. When comparing mass spectra previously obtained by electrospray ionization and data acquired by atmospheric pressure photoionization, there can be a doubling of the number of components detected. In addition to polar compounds that have previously been observed, low-polarity, sulfur-containing compounds and hydrocarbons that do not incorporate a heteroatom were detected. These latter components, which are not amenable to electrospray ionization, have potential for screening efforts within monitoring programs of the oil sands.

  4. Structural characterization of arginine-vasopressin and lysine-vasopressin by Fourier- transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry and infrared multiphoton dissociation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, Giuliana; Battista, Fabio; Buchicchio, Alessandro; Amarena, Concetta G; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe; Guerrieri, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Arginine-vasopressin (AVP) and lysine-vasopressin (LVP) were analyzed by reversed-phase liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC-MS) using Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometry (MS) electrospray ionization (ESI) in the positive ion mode. LVP and AVP exhibited the protonated adduct [M+H](+) as the predominant ion at m/z 1056.43965 and at m/z 1084.44561, respectively. Infrared multiphoton dissociation (IRMPD), using a CO(2) laser source at a wavelength of 10.6 μm, was applied to protonated vasopressin molecules. The IRMPD mass spectra presented abundant mass fragments essential for a complete structural information. Several fragment ions, shared between two target molecules, are discussed in detail. Some previously unpublished fragments were identified unambiguously utilizing the high resolution and accurate mass information provided by the FT-ICR mass spectrometer. The opening of the disulfide loop and the cleavage of the peptide bonds within the ring were observed even under low-energy fragmentation conditions. Coupling the high-performance FT-ICR mass spectrometer with IRMPD as a contemporary fragmentation technique proved to be very promising for the structural characterization of vasopressin.

  5. Calibration laws based on multiple linear regression applied to matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, D Keith; Chadwick, M Ashley; Williams, Taufika Islam; Muddiman, David C

    2008-12-01

    Operation of any mass spectrometer requires implementation of mass calibration laws to translate experimentally measured physical quantities into a m/z range. While internal calibration in Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS) offers several attractive features, including exposure of calibrant and analyte ions to identical experimental conditions (e.g. space charge), external calibration affords simpler pulse sequences and higher throughput. The automatic gain control method used in hybrid linear trap quadrupole (LTQ) FT-ICR-MS to consistently obtain the same ion population is not readily amenable to matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) FT-ICR-MS, due to the heterogeneous nature and poor spot-to-spot reproducibility of MALDI. This can be compensated for by taking external calibration laws into account that consider magnetic and electric fields, as well as relative and total ion abundances. Herein, an evaluation of external mass calibration laws applied to MALDI-FT-ICR-MS is performed to achieve higher mass measurement accuracy (MMA). Copyright (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. EBCO Technologies TR Cyclotrons, Dynamics, Equipment, and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, R. R.; Erdman, K. L.; Gyles, Wm.; Burbee, J.; VanLier, E.; Kovacs, M.; Perron, F.

    2003-08-01

    The Ebco Technologies TR cyclotrons have a common parent in the 500 MeV negative ion cyclotron at TRIUMF in Vancouver. As such, the TR cyclotrons have features that can be adapted for specific application. The cyclotron design is modularized into ion source and injection system, central region and then extraction. The cyclotron ion source is configured for cyclotron beam currents ranging from 50 microAmps to 2 milliAmps. The injection line can be operated in either continuous (CW) or in pulsed mode. The center region of the cyclotron is configured to match the ion source configuration. The extracted beams are directed either to a local target station or to beam lines and thence to target stations. There has been development both in solid, liquid and gas targets. There has been development in radioisotope handling techniques, target material recovery and radiochemical synthesis.

  7. Combination of statistical methods and Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry for more comprehensive, molecular-level interpretations of petroleum samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Manhoi; Yeo, Injoon; Park, Eunsuk; Kim, Young Hwan; Yoo, Jongshin; Kim, Eunkyoung; No, Myoung-han; Koh, Jaesuk; Kim, Sunghwan

    2010-01-01

    Complex petroleum mass spectra obtained by Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICR MS) were successfully interpreted at the molecular level by applying principle component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA). A total of 40 mass spectra were obtained from 20 crude oil samples using both positive and negative atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI). Approximately 400,000 peaks were identified at the molecular level. Conventional data analyses would have been impractical with so much data. However, PCA grouped samples into score plots based on their molecular composition. In this way, the overall compositional difference between samples could be easily displayed and identified by comparing score and loading plots. HCA was also performed to group and compare samples based on selected peaks that had been grouped by PCA. Subsequent heat map analyses revealed detailed compositional differences among grouped samples. This study demonstrates a promising new approach for studying multiple, complex petroleum samples at the molecular level.

  8. Amyloid Hydrogen Bonding Polymorphism Evaluated by (15)N{(17)O}REAPDOR Solid-State NMR and Ultra-High Resolution Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Juan; Antzutkin, Oleg N; Filippov, Andrei V; Iuga, Dinu; Lam, Pui Yiu; Barrow, Mark P; Dupree, Ray; Brown, Steven P; O'Connor, Peter B

    2016-04-12

    A combined approach, using Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICR-MS) and solid-state NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance), shows a high degree of polymorphism exhibited by Aβ species in forming hydrogen-bonded networks. Two Alzheimer's Aβ peptides, Ac-Aβ(16-22)-NH2 and Aβ(11-25), selectively labeled with (17)O and (15)N at specific amino acid residues were investigated. The total amount of peptides labeled with (17)O as measured by FTICR-MS enabled the interpretation of dephasing observed in (15)N{(17)O}REAPDOR solid-state NMR experiments. Specifically, about one-third of the Aβ peptides were found to be involved in the formation of a specific >C═(17)O···H-(15)N hydrogen bond with their neighbor peptide molecules, and we hypothesize that the rest of the molecules undergo ± n off-registry shifts in their hydrogen bonding networks.

  9. Range finding of Alfvén oscillations and direction finding of ion-cyclotron waves by using the ground-based ULF finder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Guglielmi

    Full Text Available A new approach to the problem of direction and distance finding of magnetospheric ULF oscillations is described. It is based on additional information about the structure of geoelectromagnetic field at the Earth's surface which is contained in the known relations of the theory of magnetovariation and magnetotelluric sounding. This allows us to widen the range of diagnostic tools by using observations of Alfvén oscillations in the Pc 3–5 frequency band and the ion-cyclotron waves in the Pc 1 frequency band. Preliminary results of the remote sensing of the magnetosphere at low-latitudes using the MHD ranger technique are presented. The prospects for remote sensing of the plasmapause position are discussed.

  10. Multi‐instrument observations from Svalbard of a traveling convection vortex, electromagnetic ion cyclotron wave burst, and proton precipitation associated with a bow shock instability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engebretson, M. J.; Yeoman, T. K.; Oksavik, K.

    2013-01-01

    An isolated burst of 0.35 Hz electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves was observed at four sites on Svalbard from 0947 to 0954 UT 2 January 2011, roughly 1 h after local noon. This burst was associated with one of a series of ~50 nT magnetic impulses observed at the northernmost stations......-based observations of the Hα line at Longyearbyen indicated proton precipitation at the same time as the EMIC wave burst, and NOAA-19, which passed over the west coast of Svalbard between 0951 and 0952, observed a clear enhancement of ring current protons at the same latitude. Electron precipitation from this same...... satellite indicated that the EMIC burst was located on closed field lines, but near to the polar cap boundary. We believe these are the first simultaneous observations of EMIC waves and precipitating energetic protons so near to the boundary of the dayside magnetosphere. Although several spacecraft upstream...

  11. Higher harmonics of azimuthal anisotropy in relativistic heavy ion collisions in HYDJET++ model

    CERN Document Server

    Bravina, L V; Eyyubova, G. Kh.; Korotkikh, V.L.; Lokhtin, I.P.; Malinina, L.V.; Petrushanko, S.V.; Snigirev, A.M.; Zabrodin, E.E.

    2014-01-01

    The LHC data on azimuthal anisotropy harmonics from PbPb collisions at center-of-mass energy 2.76 TeV per nucleon pair are analyzed and interpreted in the framework of the HYDJET++ model. The cross-talk of elliptic $v_2$ and triangular $v_3$ flow in the model generates both even and odd harmonics of higher order. Comparison with the experimental data shows that this mechanism is able to reproduce the $p_{\\rm T}$ and centrality dependencies of quadrangular flow $v_4$, and also the basic trends for pentagonal $v_5$ and hexagonal $v_6$ flows.

  12. Surface treatment of a-axis EuBa2Cu3O7 - y thin films by an electron cyclotron resonance ion beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, H.; Asahi, M.; Kimachi, Y.

    1993-07-01

    An electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion beam has been utilized for a developing surface cleaning process of high-Tc superconducting thin films. By means of silver-contact resistivity measurements, and ex situ surface analysis using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED), the effects of ECR treatment on an air-exposed surface of a-axis EuBa2Cu3O7-y (EBCO) films are examined. Ag/EBCO contacts are made with exposure of the EBCO surface to an ECR oxygen ion beam with ion current densities of 100 μA/cm2 at room temperature for about 30 min and the in situ deposition of silver. The contacts, which are not annealed in oxygen, exhibit low contact resistivity in the 10-8-10-7 Ω cm2 range. These values are about five orders of magnitude lower than those of samples fabricated without ECR treatment. Based on XPS and RHEED data, change in the EBCO surface caused by ECR treatment is surmised.

  13. Comparing Laser Desorption Ionization and Atmospheric Pressure Photoionization Coupled to Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry To Characterize Shale Oils at the Molecular Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yunjo; Jin, Jang Mi; Witt, Matthias; Birdwell, Justin E.; Na, Jeong-Geol; Roh, Nam-Sun; Kim, Sunghwan

    2013-01-01

    Laser desorption ionization (LDI) coupled to Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) was used to analyze shale oils. Previous work showed that LDI is a sensitive ionization technique for assessing aromatic nitrogen compounds, and oils generated from Green River Formation oil shales are well-documented as being rich in nitrogen. The data presented here demonstrate that LDI is effective in ionizing high-double-bond-equivalent (DBE) compounds and, therefore, is a suitable method for characterizing compounds with condensed structures. Additionally, LDI generates radical cations and protonated ions concurrently, the distribution of which depends upon the molecular structures and elemental compositions, and the basicity of compounds is closely related to the generation of protonated ions. This study demonstrates that LDI FT-ICR MS is an effective ionization technique for use in the study of shale oils at the molecular level. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that LDI FT-ICR MS has been applied to shale oils.

  14. Preparative free-flow electrophoretic offline ESI-Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance/MS analysis of Suwannee River fulvic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspar, Andras; Harir, Mourad; Hertkorn, Norbert; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe

    2010-06-01

    Free-flow electrophoresis (FFE), a preparative free zone electrophoretic method, was used offline in conjunction with ultrahigh-resolution FT/ion cyclotron resonance -MS to resolve the complexity of Suwannee River fulvic acid (SRFA). Before MS, the FFE separation conditions and the compatibility with ESI were optimized. The constituents in SRFA were effectively separated based on their charge states and sizes. The obtained mass spectra were compared by means of van Krevelen diagrams and the calculated aromaticity indices of the individual constituents were used to describe the distribution of aromatic/unsaturated structures across the FFE-fractionated samples. The consolidated number of ions observed within the individual SRFA fractions were much higher than those of the bulk samples alone, demonstrating extensive ion suppression effects in bulk SRFA likely also operating in the analysis of complex biogeochemical mixtures in flow injection mode. The FFE approach allows for producing sizable amounts of sample from dilute solutions, which can be easily fractionated into dozens of individual samples with the possibility of further in-depth characterization.

  15. Validation of full-wave simulations for mode conversion of waves in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies with phase contrast imaging in Alcator C-Mod

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujii, N.; Porkolab, M.; Bonoli, P. T.; Edlund, E. M.; Ennever, P. C.; Lin, Y.; Wright, J. C.; Wukitch, S. J.; Jaeger, E. F.; Green, D. L.; Harvey, R. W.

    2015-08-01

    Mode conversion of fast waves in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) is known to result in current drive and flow drive under optimised conditions, which may be utilized to control plasma profiles and improve fusion plasma performance. To describe these processes accurately in a realistic toroidal geometry, numerical simulations are essential. Quantitative comparison of these simulations and the actual experimental measurements is important to validate their predictions and to evaluate their limitations. The phase contrast imaging (PCI) diagnostic has been used to directly detect the ICRF waves in the Alcator C-Mod tokamak. The measurements have been compared with full-wave simulations through a synthetic diagnostic technique. Recently, the frequency response of the PCI detector array on Alcator C-Mod was recalibrated, which greatly improved the comparison between the measurements and the simulations. In this study, mode converted waves for D-3He and D-H plasmas with various ion species compositions were re-analyzed with the new calibration. For the minority heating cases, self-consistent electric fields and a minority ion distribution function were simulated by iterating a full-wave code and a Fokker-Planck code. The simulated mode converted wave intensity was in quite reasonable agreement with the measurements close to the antenna, but discrepancies remain for comparison at larger distances.

  16. Validation of full-wave simulations for mode conversion of waves in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies with phase contrast imaging in Alcator C-Mod

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsujii, N., E-mail: tsujii@k.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Chiba 277-8561 (Japan); Porkolab, M.; Bonoli, P. T.; Edlund, E. M.; Ennever, P. C.; Lin, Y.; Wright, J. C.; Wukitch, S. J. [MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Jaeger, E. F. [XCEL Engineering, Inc., Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37830 (United States); Green, D. L. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Harvey, R. W. [CompX, Del Mar, California 92014 (United States)

    2015-08-15

    Mode conversion of fast waves in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) is known to result in current drive and flow drive under optimised conditions, which may be utilized to control plasma profiles and improve fusion plasma performance. To describe these processes accurately in a realistic toroidal geometry, numerical simulations are essential. Quantitative comparison of these simulations and the actual experimental measurements is important to validate their predictions and to evaluate their limitations. The phase contrast imaging (PCI) diagnostic has been used to directly detect the ICRF waves in the Alcator C-Mod tokamak. The measurements have been compared with full-wave simulations through a synthetic diagnostic technique. Recently, the frequency response of the PCI detector array on Alcator C-Mod was recalibrated, which greatly improved the comparison between the measurements and the simulations. In this study, mode converted waves for D-{sup 3}He and D-H plasmas with various ion species compositions were re-analyzed with the new calibration. For the minority heating cases, self-consistent electric fields and a minority ion distribution function were simulated by iterating a full-wave code and a Fokker-Planck code. The simulated mode converted wave intensity was in quite reasonable agreement with the measurements close to the antenna, but discrepancies remain for comparison at larger distances.

  17. Upconversion of whistler waves by gyrating ion beams in a plasma

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. A gyrating ion beam, with a ring-shaped distribution in velocity, supports negative energy beam modes near the harmonics of beam gyro-frequency. An investigation of the non-linear interaction of high-frequency whistler waves with the negative energy beam cyclotron mode is made. A non-linear dispersion ...

  18. Closure of multi-fluid and kinetic equations for cyclotron-resonant interactions of solar wind ions with Alfvén waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Marsch

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on quasilinear theory, a closure scheme for anisotropic multi-component fluid equations is developed for the wave-particle interactions of ions with electromagnetic Alfvén and ion-cyclotron waves propagating along the mean magnetic field. Acceleration and heating rates are calculated. They may be used in the multi-fluid momentum and energy equations as anomalous transport terms. The corresponding evolution equation for the average wave spectrum is established, and the effective growth/damping rate for the spectrum is calculated. Given a simple power-law spectrum, an anomalous collision frequency can be derived which depends on the slope and average intensity of the spectrum, and on the gyrofrequency and the differential motion (with respect to the wave frame of the actual ion species considered. The wave-particle interaction terms attain simple forms resembling the ones for collisional friction and temperature anisotropy relaxation (due to pitch angle scattering with collision rates that are proportional to the gyrofrequency but diminished substantially by the relative wave energy or the fluctuation level with respect the background field. In addition, a set of quasilinear diffusion equations is derived for the reduced (with respect to the perpendicular velocity component velocity distribution functions (VDFs, as they occur in the wave dispersion equation and the related dielectric function for parallel propagation. These reduced VDFs allow one to describe adequately the most prominent observed features, such as an ion beam and temperature anisotropy, in association with the resonant interactions of the particles with the waves on a kinetic level, yet have the advantage of being only dependent upon the parallel velocity component.

  19. The effect of cavity tuning on oxygen beam currents of an A-ECR type 14 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarvainen, O., E-mail: olli.tarvainen@jyu.fi; Orpana, J.; Kronholm, R.; Kalvas, T.; Laulainen, J.; Koivisto, H. [Department of Physics (JYFL), University of Jyväskylä, 40500 Jyväskylä (Finland); Izotov, I.; Skalyga, V. [Institute of Applied Physics, RAS, 46 Ul’yanova St., 603950 Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny Novgorod (UNN), 23 Gagarina St., 603950 Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Toivanen, V. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)

    2016-09-15

    The efficiency of the microwave-plasma coupling plays a significant role in the production of highly charged ion beams with electron cyclotron resonance ion sources (ECRISs). The coupling properties are affected by the mechanical design of the ion source plasma chamber and microwave launching system, as well as damping of the microwave electric field by the plasma. Several experiments attempting to optimize the microwave-plasma coupling characteristics by fine-tuning the frequency of the injected microwaves have been conducted with varying degrees of success. The inherent difficulty in interpretation of the frequency tuning results is that the effects of microwave coupling system and the cavity behavior of the plasma chamber cannot be separated. A preferable approach to study the effect of the cavity properties of the plasma chamber on extracted beam currents is to adjust the cavity dimensions. The results of such cavity tuning experiments conducted with the JYFL 14 GHz ECRIS are reported here. The cavity properties were adjusted by inserting a conducting tuner rod axially into the plasma chamber. The extracted beam currents of oxygen charge states O{sup 3+}–O{sup 7+} were recorded at various tuner positions and frequencies in the range of 14.00–14.15 GHz. It was observed that the tuner position affects the beam currents of high charge state ions up to several tens of percent. In particular, it was found that at some tuner position / frequency combinations the plasma exhibited “mode-hopping” between two operating regimes. The results improve the understanding of the role of plasma chamber cavity properties on ECRIS performances.

  20. Analysis of cancer cell lipids using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization 15-T Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hyo-Jik; Park, Kyu Hwan; Lim, Dong Wan; Kim, Hyun Sik; Kim, Jeongkwon

    2012-03-30

    A combination of methodologies using the extremely high mass accuracy and resolution of 15-T Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometry (MS) was introduced for the identification of intact cancer cell phospholipids. Lipids from a malignant glioma cell line were initially analyzed at a resolution of >200,000 and identified by setting the mass tolerance to ±1 mDa using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) 15-T FT-ICR MS in positive ion mode. In most cases, a database search of potential lipid candidates using the exact masses of the lipids yielded only one possible chemical composition. Extremely high mass accuracy (800,000), yielded well-resolved isotopic fine structures allowing for the identification of lipids by MALDI 15-T FT-ICR MS without using tandem mass spectrometric (MS/MS) analysis. Using this method, a total of 38 unique lipids were successfully identified. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Observation of hydrogen-deuterium exchange of ubiquitin by direct analysis of electrospray capillary-skimmer dissociation with Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akashi, S; Naito, Y; Takio, K

    1999-11-01

    The structure of ubiquitin, a small cytoplasmic protein with an extended beta-sheet and an alpha-helix surrounding a hydrophobic core, has been characterized by hydrogen-deuterium (H/D) exchange labeling in conjunction with successive analysis by capillary-skimmer dissociation with electrospray ionization-Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (ESI-FTICR MS). The deuterium content of each fragment ion was investigated at different times, and the results indicate that the deuterium incorporation rate into the backbone amides of ubiquitin varied depending on the environment of the amide hydrogens. Amide hydrogens of the N-terminal beta-strand showed quite slow exchange while those of the 35-39 loop were exchanged within a short exposure time to deuterium oxide. It was also possible to evaluate the difference in hydrogen-bond stability. The present data are consistent with the structural features obtained by X-Ray and NMR analyses. Although some of the labeling information might be lost by the scrambling of amide protons during capillary-skimmer dissociation, the results demonstrate that the present method provides useful higher-order structural information for proteins.

  2. Effects of temperature anisotropy on electrostatic ion-cyclotron (EIC) wave in multi-component plasma around polar cusp region-particle aspect approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raikwar, B. D.; Varma, P.; Tiwari, M. S.

    2017-09-01

    Particle aspect analysis is used to describe electrostatic ion-cyclotron (EIC) wave with multi-ion plasma (H+, He+ and O+) around polar cusp region. Variations of resonant energy and growth rate with general loss-cone distribution function and temperature anisotropy with perpendicular wave number are studied. The whole plasma is considered to consist of resonant and non-resonant particles. The resonant particles participate in energy exchange with wave, while non-resonant particles support the oscillatory motion of the wave. The wave is assumed to propagate obliquely to the static magnetic field. It is found that the temperature anisotropy enhances the transverse, parallel resonant energies of particles and growth rate of the wave. Distribution indices also enhance the growth rate and parallel resonant energy and reduce the perpendicular resonant energy. The study may explain the EIC waves observed in polar cusp region. The results are interpreted for the space plasma parameters appropriate to the polar cusp region in the earth's magnetosphere.

  3. Native Top-Down ESI-MS of 158 kDa Protein Complex by High Resolution Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huilin; Wolff, Jeremy J.; Van Orden, Steve L.; Loo, Joseph A.

    2014-01-01

    Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) delivers high resolving power, mass measurement accuracy, and the capabilities for unambiguously sequencing by a top-down MS approach. Here, we report isotopic resolution of a 158 kDa protein complex - tetrameric aldolase with an average absolute deviation of 0.36 ppm and an average resolving power of ~520,000 at m/z 6033 for the 26+ charge state in magnitude mode. Phase correction further improves the resolving power and average absolute deviation by 1.3 fold. Furthermore, native top-down electron capture dissociation (ECD) enables the sequencing of 149 C-terminal amino acid (AA) residues out of 463 total AAs. Combining the data from top-down MS of native and denatured aldolase complexes, a total of 58% of the backbone cleavages efficiency is achieved. The observation of complementary product ion pairs confirms the correctness of the sequence and also the accuracy of the mass fitting of the isotopic distribution of the aldolase tetramer. Top-down MS of the native protein provides complementary sequence information to top-down ECD and CAD MS of the denatured protein. Moreover, native top-down ECD of aldolase tetramer reveals that ECD fragmentation is not limited only to the flexible regions of protein complexes and that regions located on the surface topology are prone to ECD cleavage. PMID:24313806

  4. Subsequent radical fragmentation reactions of N, N-diethylamino-substituted azobenzene derivatives in a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer using collision-induced dissociation and photodissociation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemen, Martin; Grotemeyer, Jürgen

    2017-12-01

    The fragmentation behavior of N, N-diethylamino-substituted azobenzene derivatives is investigated by high-resolving mass spectrometry using a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer. Former investigations by photodissociation as well as collision-induced dissociation experiments used to induce a loss of C 3 H 8 from the diethylamino group. The position of the additional proton in [M + H] + ions is important due to the sequences of radical fragmentation reactions. Two possibilities arise. First, a charge is located at the azo group leading to a methyl radical loss. The second possibility is that the charge has been located on the aniline nitrogen of the molecule resulting in an ethyl radical loss. Only o-ethyl red has shown the overall loss of C 3 H 8 in a two-step radical reaction mechanism. Nevertheless, p-ethyl red and ethyl yellow have shown systematic fragmentation reactions as well. Loss of C 3 H 8 has not been likely regarding both these molecules. All experimental findings together with quantum chemical calculations as well as kinetic calculations support the proposed fragmentation mechanisms of the three azo dyes.

  5. The effect of electron cyclotron heating on density fluctuations at ion and electron scales in ITER baseline scenario discharges on the DIII-D tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinoni, A.; Pinsker, R. I.; Porkolab, M.; Rost, J. C.; Davis, E. M.; Burrell, K. H.; Candy, J.; Staebler, G. M.; Grierson, B. A.; McKee, G. R.; Rhodes, T. L.; The DIII-D Team

    2017-12-01

    Experiments simulating the ITER baseline scenario on the DIII-D tokamak show that torque-free pure electron heating, when coupled to plasmas subject to a net co-current beam torque, affects density fluctuations at electron scales on a sub-confinement time scale, whereas fluctuations at ion scales change only after profiles have evolved to a new stationary state. Modifications to the density fluctuations measured by the phase contrast imaging diagnostic (PCI) are assessed by analyzing the time evolution following the switch-off of electron cyclotron heating (ECH), thus going from mixed beam/ECH to pure neutral beam heating at fixed βN . Within 20 ms after turning off ECH, the intensity of fluctuations is observed to increase at frequencies higher than 200 kHz in contrast, fluctuations at lower frequency are seen to decrease in intensity on a longer time scale, after other equilibrium quantities have evolved. Non-linear gyro-kinetic modeling at ion and electron scales scales suggest that, while the low frequency response of the diagnostic is consistent with the dominant ITG modes being weakened by the slow-time increase in flow shear, the high frequency response is due to prompt changes to the electron temperature profile that enhance electron modes and generate a larger heat flux and an inward particle pinch. These results suggest that electron heated regimes in ITER will feature multi-scale fluctuations that might affect fusion performance via modifications to profiles.

  6. Analysis of O-glycan heterogeneity in IgA1 myeloma proteins by Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry: implications for IgA nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Renfrow, MB; Mackay, CL; Chalmers, MJ

    2007-01-01

    IgA nephropathy (IgAN) is the most common form of primary glomerulonephritis. In IgAN, IgA1 molecules with incompletely galactosylated O-linked glycans in the hinge region (HR) are present in mesangial immunodeposits and in circulating immune complexes. It is not known whether the galactose...... deficiency in IgA1 proteins occurs randomly or preferentially at specific sites. We have previously demonstrated the first direct localization of multiple O-glycosylation sites on a single IgA1 myeloma protein by use of activated ion-electron capture dissociation (AI-ECD) Fourier transform ion cyclotron...... resonance (FT-ICR) tandem mass spectrometry. Here, we report the analysis of IgA1 O-glycan heterogeneity by use of FT-ICR MS and liquid chromatography FT-ICR MS to obtain unbiased accurate mass profiles of IgA1 HR glycopeptides from three different IgA1 myeloma proteins. Additionally, we report the first AI...

  7. Critical energy in the cyclotron heating of ions in a mirror machine; Energia critica en el calentamiento ciclotronico de los iones en una maquina espejo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez T, C.; Hernandez A, O. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2002-07-01

    The problem of heating in the plasma sources where the geometry of the magnetic field forms a magnetic mirror as it is the case of the Ecr sources type, for maintaining the reload, it continues being an actual important problem. There are two methods for the analysis of this problem. The first of these methods is the stochastic mechanism of a particle where it is considered the existence of three characteristic frequencies as the cyclotron frequency, the electromagnetic field frequency and the transit frequency. The second method is that related with the non linear interaction of waves where the collective effects of the particles are the most important. In this work, in the Hamiltonian formalism, the stochastic mechanism in the cyclotron heating is analysed. It is considered the particular case of a plasma source with an external magnetic field, type mirror where a TE{sub 11} electromagnetic wave is injected. The critical energy in the resonance mixing is calculated by the Poincare mapping method. The heterogeneity of the magnetic field is analysed. (Author)

  8. Development of a fast cyclotron gas stopper for intense rare isotope beams from projectile fragmentation: Study of ion extraction with a radiofrequency carpet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bollen, Georg [Michigan State University; Morrissey, David [Michigan State University

    2011-01-16

    Research and development has been performed in support of the design of a future rare isotope beam facility in the US. An important aspect of plans for earlier RIA (Rare Isotope Accelerator) and a requirement of FRIB (Facility of Rare Isotope Beams) to be built at Michigan State University are the availability of so-called “stopped beams” for research that contributes to answering questions like how elements in the universe are created and to provide better insight into the nature of Fundamental Interactions. In order to create “stopped beams” techniques are required that transform fast rare isotopes beams as they are available directly after addresses questions like the origin of that will allow and High priority is given to the evaluation of intensity limitations and the efficiency of stopping of fast fragment beams in gas cells and to the exploration of options to increase the efficiency and the reduction of space charge effects. Systematic studies performed at MSU as part of the RIA R&D with a linear gas cell under conditions close to those expected at RIA and related simulations confirm that the efficiency of stopping and extracting ions decreases with increasing beam intensity. Similar results have also been observed at RIKEN in Japan. These results indicate the concepts presently under study will not be able to cover the full range of intensities of fast beams expected at RIA without major losses. The development of a more robust concept is therefore critical to the RIA concept. Recent new beam simulation studies performed at the NSCL show that the stopping of heavy ions in a weakly focusing gas-filled magnetic field can overcome the intensity limitation of present systems while simultaneously providing a much faster ion extraction. We propose to design and build such a cyclotron gas stopper and to test it at the NSCL under conditions as close as possible to those found at RIA.

  9. Fluctuations of harmonic and radial flow in heavy ion collisions with principal components

    OpenAIRE

    Mazeliauskas, Aleksas; Teaney, Derek

    2015-01-01

    We analyze the spectrum of harmonic flow, $v_n(p_T)$ for $n=0\\text{--}5$, in event-by-event hydrodynamic simulations of Pb+Pb collisions at the CERN Large Hadron Collider ($\\sqrt{s_{NN}}=2.76\\,{\\text{TeV}}$) with principal component analysis (PCA). The PCA procedure finds two dominant contributions to the two-particle correlation function. The leading component is identified with the event plane $v_n(p_T)$, while the subleading component is responsible for factorization breaking in hydrodynam...

  10. CLOVERLEAF CYCLOTRON

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, E.M.; Judd, D.L.

    1959-02-01

    A cyclotron is presented embodying a unique magnetic field configuration, which configuration increases in intensity with radius and therefore compensates for the reltivistic mass effect, the field having further convolutions productive of axial stability in the particle beam. By reconciling the seemingly opposed requirements of mass increase compensation on one hand and anial stability on the other, the production of extremely high current particle beams in the relativistie energy range is made feasible. Certain further advantages inhere in the invention, notably an increase in the usable magnet gap, simplified and more efficient extraction of the beam from the accelerator, and ready adaptation to the use of multiply phased excitation as contrasted with the single phased systems herstofore utilized. General

  11. Online quench-flow electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry for elucidating kinetic and chemical enzymatic reaction mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, David J; Stokes, Adam A; Langridge-Smith, Pat; Mackay, C Logan

    2010-03-01

    We have developed an automated quench-flow microreactor which interfaces directly to an electrospray ionization (ESI) mass spectrometer. We have used this device in conjunction with ESI Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICR MS) to demonstrate the potential of this approach for studying the mechanistic details of enzyme reactions. For the model system chosen to test this device, namely, the pre-steady-state hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl acetate by the enzyme chymotrypsin, the kinetic parameters obtained are in good agreement with those in the literature. To our knowledge, this is the first reported use of online quench-flow coupled with FTICR MS. Furthermore, we have exploited the power of FTICR MS to interrogate the quenched covalently bound enzyme intermediate using top-down fragmentation. The accurate mass capabilities of FTICR MS permitted the nature of the intermediate to be assigned with high confidence. Electron capture dissociation (ECD) fragmentation allowed us to locate the intermediate to a five amino acid section of the protein--which includes the known catalytic residue, Ser(195). This experimental approach, which uniquely can provide both kinetic and chemical details of enzyme mechanisms, is a potentially powerful tool for studies of enzyme catalysis.

  12. Molecular Characterization of Thiols in Fossil Fuels by Michael Addition Reaction Derivatization and Electrospray Ionization Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meng; Zhao, Suoqi; Liu, Xuxia; Shi, Quan

    2016-10-04

    Thiols widely occur in sediments and fossil fuels. However, the molecular composition of these compounds is unclear due to the lack of appropriate analytical methods. In this work, a characterization method for thiols in fossil fuels was developed on the basis of Michael addition reaction derivatization followed by electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (ESI FT-ICR MS). Model thiol compound studies showed that thiols were selectively reacted with phenylvinylsulfone and transformed to sulfones with greater than 98% conversions. This method was applied to a coker naphtha, light and heavy gas oils, and crude oils from various geological sources. The results showed that long alkyl chain thiols are readily present in petroleum, which have up to 30 carbon atoms. Large DBE dispersity of thiols indicates that naphthenic and aromatic thiols are also present in the petroleum. This method is capable of detecting thiol compounds in the part per million range by weight. This method allows characterization of thiols in a complex hydrocarbon matrix, which is complementary to the comprehensive analysis of sulfur compounds in fossil fuels.

  13. Inferring electromagnetic ion cyclotron wave intensity from low altitude POES proton flux measurements: A detailed case study with conjugate Van Allen Probes observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Shi, Run; Ni, Binbin; Gu, Xudong; Zhang, Xianguo; Zuo, Pingbing; Fu, Song; Xiang, Zheng; Wang, Qi; Cao, Xing; Zou, Zhengyang

    2017-03-01

    Electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves play an important role in the magnetospheric particle dynamics and can lead to resonant pitch-angle scattering and ultimate precipitation of ring current protons. Commonly, the statistics of in situ EMIC wave measurements is adopted for quantitative investigation of wave-particle interaction processes, which however becomes questionable for detailed case studies especially during geomagnetic storms and substorms. Here we establish a novel technique to infer EMIC wave amplitudes from low-altitude proton measurements onboard the Polar Operational Environmental Satellites (POES). The detailed procedure is elaborated regarding how to infer the EMIC wave intensity for one specific time point. We then test the technique with a case study comparing the inferred root-mean-square (RMS) EMIC wave amplitude with the conjugate Van Allen Probes EMFISIS wave measurements. Our results suggest that the developed technique can reasonably estimate EMIC wave intensities from low-altitude POES proton flux data, thereby providing a useful tool to construct a data-based, near-real-time, dynamic model of the global distribution of EMIC waves once the proton flux measurements from multiple POES satellites are available for any specific time period.

  14. Metabolic profile of salidroside in rats using high-performance liquid chromatography combined with Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Fei; Li, Yan-ting; Mao, Xin-juan; Zhang, Xiao-shu; Guan, Jiao; Song, Ai-hua; Yin, Ran

    2016-03-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (HPLC-FT-ICR MS) method was developed to study the in vivo metabolism of salidroside for the first time. Plasma, urine, bile, and feces samples were collected from male rats after a single intragastric gavage of salidroside at a dose of 50 mg/kg. Besides the parent drug, a total of seven metabolites (three phase I and four phase II metabolites) were detected and tentatively identified by comparing their mass spectrometry profiles with those of salidroside. Results indicated that metabolic pathways of salidroside in male rats included hydroxylation, dehydrogenation, glucuronidation, and sulfate conjugation. Among them, glucuronidation and sulfate conjugation were the major metabolic reactions. And most important, the detection of the sulfation metabolite of p-tyrosol provides a clue for whether the deglycosylation of salidroside occurs in vivo after intragastric gavage. In summary, results obtained in this study may contribute to the better understanding of the safety and mechanism of action of salidroside.

  15. Molecular evidence of heavy-oil weathering following the M/V Cosco Busan spill: insights from Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemkau, Karin L; McKenna, Amy M; Podgorski, David C; Rodgers, Ryan P; Reddy, Christopher M

    2014-04-01

    Recent studies have highlighted a critical need to investigate oil weathering beyond the analytical window afforded by conventional gas chromatography (GC). In particular, techniques capable of detecting polar and higher molecular weight (HMW; > 400 Da) components abundant in crude and heavy fuel oils (HFOs) as well as transformation products. Here, we used atmospheric pressure photoionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (APPI FT-ICR MS) to identify molecular transformations in oil-residue samples from the 2007 M/V Cosco Busan HFO spill (San Francisco, CA). Over 617 days, the abundance and diversity of oxygen-containing compounds increased relative to the parent HFO, likely from bio- and photodegradation. HMW, highly aromatic, alkylated compounds decreased in relative abundance concurrent with increased relative abundance of less alkylated stable aromatic structures. Combining these results with GC-based data yielded a more comprehensive understanding of oil spill weathering. For example, dealkylation trends and the overall loss of HMW species observed by FT-ICR MS has not previously been documented and is counterintuitive given losses of lower molecular weight species observed by GC. These results suggest a region of relative stability at the interface of these techniques, which provides new indicators for studying long-term weathering and identifying sources.

  16. Pathway confirmation and flux analysis of central metabolicpathways in Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough using GasChromatography-Mass Spectrometry and Fourier Transform-Ion CyclotronResonance Mass Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Yinjie; Pingitore, Francesco; Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila; Phan,Richard; Hazen, Terry C.; Keasling, Jay D.

    2007-03-15

    Flux distribution in central metabolic pathways ofDesulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough was examined using 13C tracerexperiments. Consistent with the current genome annotation andindependent evidence from enzyme activity assays, the isotopomer resultsfrom both GC-MS and Fourier Transform-Ion Cyclotron Resonance massspectrometry (FT-ICR MS) indicate the lack of oxidatively functional TCAcycle and an incomplete pentose phosphate pathway. Results from thisstudy suggest that fluxes through both pathways are limited tobiosynthesis. The data also indicate that>80 percent of the lactatewas converted to acetate and the reactions involved are the primary routeof energy production (NAD(P)H and ATP production). Independent of the TCAcycle, direct cleavage of acetyl-CoA to CO and 5,10-methyl-THF also leadsto production of NADH and ATP. Although the genome annotation implicatesa ferredoxin-dependentoxoglutarate synthase, isotopic evidence does notsupport flux through this reaction in either the oxidative or reductivemode; therefore, the TCA cycle is incomplete. FT-ICR MS was used tolocate the labeled carbon distribution in aspartate and glutamate andconfirmed the presence of an atypical enzyme for citrate formationsuggested in previous reports (the citrate synthesized by this enzyme isthe isotopic antipode of the citrate synthesized by the (S)-citratesynthase). These findings enable a better understanding of the relationbetween genome annotation and actual metabolic pathways in D. vulgaris,and also demonstrate FT-ICR MS as a powerful tool for isotopomeranalysis, overcoming problems in both GC-MS and NMRspectroscopy.

  17. A study of three-half-turn and frame antennae for ion cyclotron range of frequency plasma heating in the URAGAN-3M torsatron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lysoivan, A.I. [Kharkov Inst. of Phys. and Tech. (Ukraine). Nat. Sci. Center; Moiseenko, V.E. [Kharkov Inst. of Phys. and Tech. (Ukraine). Nat. Sci. Center; Plyusnin, V.V. [Kharkov Inst. of Phys. and Tech. (Ukraine). Nat. Sci. Center; Kasilov, S.V. [Kharkov Inst. of Phys. and Tech. (Ukraine). Nat. Sci. Center; Bondarenko, V.N. [Kharkov Inst. of Phys. and Tech. (Ukraine). Nat. Sci. Center; Chechkin, V.V. [Kharkov Inst. of Phys. and Tech. (Ukraine). Nat. Sci. Center; Fomin, I.P. [Kharkov Inst. of Phys. and Tech. (Ukraine). Nat. Sci. Center; Grigor`eva, L.I. [Kharkov Inst. of Phys. and Tech. (Ukraine). Nat. Sci. Center; Konovalov, V.G. [Kharkov Inst. of Phys. and Tech. (Ukraine). Nat. Sci. Center; Koval`ov, S.V. [Kharkov Inst. of Phys. and Tech. (Ukraine). Nat. Sci. Center; Litvinov, A.P. [Kharkov Inst. of Phys. and Tech. (Ukraine). Nat. Sci. Center; Mironov, Yu.K. [Kharkov Inst. of Phys. and Tech. (Ukraine). Nat. Sci. Center; Nazarov, N.I. [Kharkov Inst. of Phys. and Tech. (Ukraine). Nat. Sci. Center; Pavlichenko, O.S. [Kharkov Inst. of Phys. and Tech. (Ukraine). Nat. Sci. Center; Pavlichenko, R.O. [Kharkov Inst. of Phys. and Tech. (Ukraine). Nat. Sci. Center; Shapoval, A.N. [Kharkov Inst. of Phys. and Tech. (Ukraine). Nat. Sci. Center; Skibenko, A.I. [Kharkov Inst. of Phys. and Tech. (Ukraine). Nat. Sci. Center; Volkov, E.D. [Kharkov Inst. of Phys. and Tech. (Ukraine). Nat. Sci. Center

    1995-01-01

    Numerical and experimental results of Alfven wave heating of plasmas in the frequency range below the ion cyclotron frequency ({omega}<{omega}{sub ci}) are presented. Two different types of antenna were used for plasma production and heating: a frame type antenna (FTA) conventionally used in the URAGAN-3M device and a three-half-turn antenna (THTA) proposed recently to avoid the deleterious effects of conversion of fast wave to slow wave in the plasma periphery and to perform plasma core heating more effectively. Numerical modeling of electromagnetic field excitation in the URAGAN-3M plasma by the FTA and THTA was performed using a one-dimensional code. The results of calculations showed better performance of the compact THTA compared with the FTA for the case of a high density plasma (approximately 10{sup 13}cm{sup -3}). When using the THTA, the experiments performed showed the possibility of dense plasma production (more than 2x10{sup 13}cm{sup -3}) and heating, which had not been obtained earlier in the URAGAN-3M. Shifting the power deposition profile deeper inside the plasma body with the THTA resulted in modification of the plasma density profile and an improvement in plasma confinement. ((orig.)).

  18. Photoelectron Spectroscopy of EuBa2Cu3O7-y Thin Film Surfaces Treated by an Electron Cyclotron Resonance Oxygen Ion Beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Hidefumi; Suzuki, Minoru; Kiyokura, Takanori; Maeda, Fumihiko; Menz, Andreas; Watanabe, Yoshio; Oshima, Masaharu

    1995-04-01

    Surface modification of EuBa2Cu3O7- y (EBCO) thin films induced by an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) oxygen ion beam treatment has been studied using X-ray and synchrotron-radiation photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS and SRPES). The in situ characterization has been performed during the course of 50 eV ECR oxygen treatment for 30 min. Time-dependent analysis shows that the contaminant carbon layer on the surface region can be removed at the initial stage of the treatment (<2 min), and that the copper valence of the surfaces can be recovered to Cu2+ after 30 min treatment. It is found that room-temperature treatment using ECR oxygen can alter the contaminated, oxygen-depleted surface to a clean, well-oxygenated surface. The present results suggest that ECR treatment which can modify the surfaces in a well-defined manner would be a feasible technique for surface cleaning of high-temperature superconductors.

  19. Chemical Composition of Microbe-derived Dissolved Organic Matter in Cryoconite in Tibetan Plateau Glaciers: Insights from Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, F.; Zhong, X. J.; Shichang, K.; Xiaofei, L.; Yang, L.; Quan, S.; Bin, J.

    2016-12-01

    ryoconite in mountain glaciers plays important roles in glacial ablation and biogeochemical cycles. The compositions and sources of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in cryoconite from the ablation regions of two Tibetan Plateau glaciers were determined using ultrahigh-resolution electrospray-ionization Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry and fluorescence spectrometry. A marked absorbance between 300 and 350 nm in the DOM absorption spectra was consistent with microbe-derived mycosporine-like amino acids. The high-resolution mass spectra showed cryoconite DOM from both glaciers contained diverse lignins, lipids, proteins, and unsaturated hydrocarbons. The lipids and proteins were consistent with material from microbial sources, and the lignins and unsaturated hydrocarbons were probably from vascular plant material supplied in atmospheric aerosols and debris from around the glaciers. Almost one third of the identified DOM molecules had low C/N ratios (≤20), indicating their bioavailability. Using a conservative cryoconite distribution on Chinese mountain glacier surfaces and an average debris mass per square meter of cryoconite, we found that cryoconite in Chinese glaciers could produce as much as 0.5 Gg of dissolved organic carbon per year. This dissolved organic carbon may absorb solar radiation, accelerating glacial melting, and could be an important source of bioavailable DOM to proglacier and downstream ecosystems. Key words:cryoconite, DOM, FT-ICR-MS

  20. Characterization of chemical constituents in Rhodiola Crenulate by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer (HPLC-FT-ICR MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Fei; Li, Yanting; Mao, Xinjuan; Xu, Rui; Yin, Ran

    2016-05-01

    In this work, an approach using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode-array detection and Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer (HPLC-FT-ICR MS) for the identification and profiling of chemical constituents in Rhodiola crenulata was developed for the first time. The chromatographic separation was achieved on an Inertsil ODS-3 column (150 mm × 4.6 mm,3 µm) using a gradient elution program, and the detection was performed on a Bruker Solarix 7.0 T mass spectrometer equipped with electrospray ionization source in both positive and negative modes. Under the optimized conditions, a total of 48 chemical compounds, including 26 alcohols and their glycosides, 12 flavonoids and their glycosides, 5 flavanols and gallic acid derivatives, 4 organic acids and 1 cyanogenic glycoside were identified or tentatively characterized. The results indicated that the developed HPLC-FT-ICR MS method with ultra-high sensitivity and resolution is suitable for identifying and characterizing the chemical constituents in R. crenulata. And it provides a helpful chemical basis for further research on R. crenulata. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Investigation of bio-oil produced by hydrothermal liquefaction of food waste using ultrahigh resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostyukevich, Yury; Vlaskin, Mikhail; Borisova, Ludmila; Zherebker, Alexander; Perminova, Irina; Kononikhin, Alexey; Popov, Igor; Nikolaev, Eugene

    2018-02-01

    Recent research has revealed that more than 1.3 billion tons of food is wasted globally every year. The disposal of such huge biomass has become a challenge. In the present paper, we report the production of the bio-oil by hydrothermal liquefaction of three classes of food waste: meat, cheese and fruits. The highest yield of the bio-oil was observed for meat (∼60%) and cheese (∼75%), while for fruits, it was considerably low (∼10%). The molecular composition of the obtained bio-oil was investigated using ultrahigh resolution Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance mass spectrometry and was found to be similar to that obtained from algae. Several thousand heteroatom compounds (N, N2, ON2, etc. classes) were reliably identified from each sample. It was found that bio-oils produced from meat and cheese have many compounds (∼90%) with common molecular formulas, while bio-oil produced from fruits differs considerably (∼30% of compounds are unique).

  2. Identification of black carbon derived structures in a volcanic ash soil humic acid by Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Robert W; Kujawinski, Elizabeth B; Hatcher, Patrick G

    2004-06-15

    Electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS), coupled with cross-polarization magic angle spinning 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and Kendrick mass defect analysis, was used to study the molecular composition of an aromatic carbon-rich humic acid extracted from a dark black soil from Iwata, Japan. Black carbon, produced by the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels and organic matter, has been suggested as a major component of humic acids having intense peaks in the aromatic and carboxyl regions of the 13C NMR spectrum. Taking advantage of the high resolving power of FT-ICR MS to make precise formula assignments, three different types of highly carboxylated polycyclic aromatic compounds were identified in the sample: linearly fused aromatic structures, aromatic structures linked by carbon-carbon single bonds, and highly condensed aromatic structures. These carboxylated aromatic structures have a low mass defect in their mass spectra due to their abundance of oxygen and deficiency of hydrogen. This mass defect is observed in the vast majority of peaks present in the entire mass spectrum, differentiating them from structures that are hydrogen-rich (e.g., fatty acids, proteins, carbohydrates). Thus, we conclude that the bulk of the sample analyzed is comprised of these heavily carboxylated, hydrogen-deficient, condensed aromatic structures, features believed to be characteristic of black carbon-like material.

  3. Rapid Profiling of Bovine and Human Milk Gangliosides by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyeyoung; An, Hyun Joo; Lerno, Larry A; German, J Bruce; Lebrilla, Carlito B

    2011-08-15

    Gangliosides are anionic glycosphingolipids widely distributed in vertebrate tissues and fluids. Their structural and quantitative expression patterns depend on phylogeny and are distinct down to the species level. In milk, gangliosides are exclusively associated with the milk fat globule membrane. They may participate in diverse biological processes but more specifically to host-pathogen interactions. However, due to the molecular complexities, the analysis needs extensive sample preparation, chromatographic separation, and even chemical reaction, which makes the process very complex and time-consuming. Here, we describe a rapid profiling method for bovine and human milk gangliosides employing matrix-assisted desorption/ionization (MALDI) Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR) mass spectrometry (MS). Prior to the analyses of biological samples, milk ganglioside standards GM3 and GD3 fractions were first analyzed in order to validate this method. High mass accuracy and high resolution obtained from MALDI FTICR MS allow for the confident assignment of chain length and degree of unsaturation of the ceramide. For the structural elucidation, tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS), specifically as collision-induced dissociation (CID) and infrared multiphoton dissociation (IRMPD) were employed. Complex ganglioside mixtures from bovine and human milk were further analyzed with this method. The samples were prepared by two consecutive chloroform/methanol extraction and solid phase extraction. We observed a number of differences between bovine milk and human milk. The common gangliosides in bovine and human milk are NeuAc-NeuAc-Hex-Hex-Cer (GD3) and NeuAc-Hex-Hex-Cer (GM3); whereas, the ion intensities of ganglioside species are different between two milk samples. Kendrick mass defect plot yields grouping of ganglioside peaks according to their structural similarities. Gangliosides were further probed by tandem MS to confirm the compositional and structural assignments

  4. Generation of multi-charged high current ion beams using the SMIS 37 gas-dynamic electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorf, M. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Zorin, V. G. [Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation). Inst. of Applied Physics; Sidorov, A. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation). Inst. of Applied Physics; Bokhanov, A. F. [Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation). Inst. of Applied Physics; Izotov, I. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation). Inst. of Applied Physics; Razin, S. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation). Inst. of Applied Physics; Skalyga, V. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation). Inst. of Applied Physics

    2013-06-02

    A gas-dynamic ECR ion source (GaDIS) is distinguished by its ability to produce high current and high brightness beams of moderately charged ions. Contrary to a classical ECR ion source where the plasma confinement is determined by the slow electron scattering into an empty loss-cone, the higher density and lower electron temperature in a GaDIS plasma lead to an isotropic electron distribution with the confinement time determined by the prompt gas-dynamic flow losses. As a result, much higher ion fluxes are available, however a decrease in the confinement time of the GaDIS plasma lowers the ion charge state. The gas-dynamic ECR ion source concept has been successfully realized in the SMIS 37 experimental facility operated at the Institute of Applied Physics, Russia. The use of high-power (~100 kW) microwave (37.5 GHz) radiation provides a dense plasma (~1013 cm-3) with a relatively low electron temperature (~50- 100 eV) and allows for the generation of high current (~1 A/cm2) beams of multi-charged ions. In this work we report on the present status of the SMIS 37 ion source and discuss the advanced numerical modeling of ion beam extraction using the particle-in-cell code WARP

  5. Cyclotrons: From Science to Human Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craddock, Michael

    2011-04-01

    Lawrence's invention of the cyclotron, whose 80th anniversary we have just celebrated, not only revolutionized nuclear physics, but proved the starting point for a whole variety of recirculating accelerators, from the smallest microtron to the largest synchrotron, that have had an enormous impact in almost every branch of science and in several areas of medicine and industry. Cyclotrons themselves have proved remarkably adaptable, incorporating a variety of new ideas and technologies over the years: frequency modulation, edge focusing, AG focusing, separate magnet sectors, axial and azimuthal injection, ring geometries, stripping extraction, superconducting magnets and rf...... Even FFAGs, those most complex members of the cyclotron (fixed-magnetic-field) family, are making a comeback. Currently there are more than 50 medium or large cyclotrons around the world devoted to research. These provide intense primary beams of protons or stable ions, and correspondingly intense secondary beams of neutrons, pions, muons and radioactive ions, for experiments in nuclear, particle and condensed-matter physics, and in the materials and life sciences. Far outnumbering these, however, are the 800 or so small and medium cyclotrons used to produce radioisotopes for medical and other purposes. In addition, a rapidly growing number of 230-MeV proton cyclotrons are being built for cancer therapy -12 brought into operation since 1998 and as many more in the works. Altogether, cyclotrons are flourishing!

  6. 10 GHz ECRIS for Warsaw Cyclotron

    CERN Document Server

    Sudlitz, K

    1999-01-01

    Cusp type, 10 GHz ECRIS has been built and tested earlier. For obtaining intensive beams, more relevant for cyclotron, cusp geometry has been replaced by hexapole. Discharge chamber (stainless steel, 50 mm diameter, 250 mm long) is an extension of a coaxial line, feeding RF (9,6 GHz, up to 200 W) to the plasma. The NdFeB hexapole (0,52 T on the surface) has been used. The axial magnetic field is created by water cooled coils. The axial injection line dedicated to K160 isochronous heavy ion cyclotron has been constructed. The line consists of Glaser lenses, double focusing magnet, solenoid and mirror type inflector. The system provides sufficient transmission of the beam from ECR ion source to the firsts orbits of the cyclotron for m/q ranging from 7 to 2. After successful initial tests which were done in July 1997 the ECRIS serves as an external source for Warsaw Cyclotron.

  7. Identification of glucosinolates in capers by LC-ESI-hybrid linear ion trap with Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-LTQ-FTICR MS) and infrared multiphoton dissociation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, Giuliana; Lelario, Filomena; Battista, Fabio Giuseppe; Bufo, Sabino A; Cataldi, Tommaso R I

    2012-09-01

    An liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method using electrospray ionization in negative ion mode coupled with a hybrid quadrupole linear ion trap and Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR) mass spectrometer was applied to characterize of intact glucosinolates (GLSs) in crude sample extracts of wild bud flowers of Capparis spinosa (Capparis species, family Capparaceae). Structural information of GLSs was obtained upon precursor ions' isolation within the FTICR trapping cell and subsequent fragmentation induced by infrared multiphoton dissociation (IRMPD). Such a fragmentation was found very useful in terms of chemical identification of all precursor ions [M-H](-) including sulfur-rich GLSs reported here for the first time. Along with most common GLSs already found in capers such as glucocapparin, isopropyl/n-propyl-GLS, mercapto-glucocapparin, and two indolic GLS, i.e., 4-hydroxyglucobrassicin and glucobrassicin, the occurrence of the uncommon glycinyl-glucocapparin as well as two sulfur-rich GLSs is reported. IRMPD showed an increased selectivity towards disulfide bond cleavages with thiol migration, suggesting the side chain structure of non-targeted compounds, i.e., disulfanyl-glucocapparin and trisulfanyl-glucocapparin. Glucocapparin [2.05 ± 0.25 mg/g, dry weight (dw)] was the most abundant GLS, followed by glucobrassicin (232 ± 18 µg/g, dw) and 4-hydroxyglucobrassicin (89 ± 12 µg/g, dw). All other compounds were present at very low content ranging from 0.5 to 1.5 µg/g dw. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. V.U.V. plasma spectroscopy diagnostic of electron cyclotron resonance multicharged ion sources; Diagnostic de plasmas crees dans des sources d'ions multicharges a resonance cyclotronique electronique par spectroscopie V.U.V

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berreby, R

    1997-12-15

    To characterize the multicharged ions within the plasma of an E.C.R. ion source, the V.U.V. spectroscopy is used as a non invasive diagnostic of excited matter. In E.C.R.I. S. (electron cyclotron resonance ion source) electrons are heated and magnetically confined within the mirror machine to overcome the successive ionization potentials of the desired elements. As the electrons bounce inside the magnetic configuration in their gyration movement, they interact with the microwaves injected into the source at the resonance frequency. To enhance the performances in high charge states and extracted currents delivered by E.C.R.I.S., the fundamental parameters of the plasma created in these machines must be known. The goal of spectroscopic diagnostics in the V.U.V. range installed on the sources is to determine electron density and temperature on one hand, and the ionic densities and confinement time on the other hand. We used microchannel plates as detector on a 3 meter grazing incidence spectrometer equipped with a 600 lines/mm holographic grating. The calibration of the whole grating with detector was performed by two different methods. These are the branching ratio and charge exchange methods. Identification of lines emitted by a plasma, which gather the whole charge states of ions is necessary to make an exhaustive study of the plasma state. And finally, the determination of plasma parameters like electron density and temperature and ion densities and confinement times that uses theoretical models were the aim of this work. (author)

  9. Ion Bernstein wave heating research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ono, Masayuki.

    1992-03-01

    Ion Bernstein wave heating (IBWH) utilizes the ion Bernstein wave (IBW), a hot plasma wave, to carry the radio frequency (rf) power to heat tokamak reactor core. Earlier wave accessibility studies have shown that this finite-Larmor-radius (FLR) mode should penetrate into a hot dense reactor plasma core without significant attenuation. Moreover, the IBW's low phase velocity ({omega}/k{sub {perpendicular}} {approx} V{sub Ti} {much lt} V{sub {alpha}}) greatly reduces the otherwise serious wave absorption by the 3.5 MeV fusion {alpha}-particles. In addition, the property of IBW's that k{sub {perpendicular}} {rho}{sub i} {approx} 1 makes localized bulk ion heating possible at the ion cyclotron harmonic layers. Such bulk ion heating can prove useful in optimizing fusion reactivity. In another vein, with proper selection of parameters, IBW's can be made subject to strong localized electron Landau damping near the major ion cyclotron harmonic resonance layers. This property can be useful, for example, for rf current drive in the reactor plasma core. This paper discusses this research.

  10. Ion Bernstein wave heating research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ono, Masayuki

    1992-03-01

    Ion Bernstein wave heating (IBWH) utilizes the ion Bernstein wave (IBW), a hot plasma wave, to carry the radio frequency (rf) power to heat tokamak reactor core. Earlier wave accessibility studies have shown that this finite-Larmor-radius (FLR) mode should penetrate into a hot dense reactor plasma core without significant attenuation. Moreover, the IBW`s low phase velocity ({omega}/k{sub {perpendicular}} {approx} V{sub Ti} {much_lt} V{sub {alpha}}) greatly reduces the otherwise serious wave absorption by the 3.5 MeV fusion {alpha}-particles. In addition, the property of IBW`s that k{sub {perpendicular}} {rho}{sub i} {approx} 1 makes localized bulk ion heating possible at the ion cyclotron harmonic layers. Such bulk ion heating can prove useful in optimizing fusion reactivity. In another vein, with proper selection of parameters, IBW`s can be made subject to strong localized electron Landau damping near the major ion cyclotron harmonic resonance layers. This property can be useful, for example, for rf current drive in the reactor plasma core. This paper discusses this research.

  11. Characterization of organic aerosol in Beijing by laser desorption ionization coupled with Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Jinjuan; Li, Yafeng; Xie, Xiaobo; Xiong, Caiqiao; Liu, Huihui; Chen, Suming; Nie, Zongxiu; Chen, Chuncheng; Zhao, Jincai

    2017-06-01

    In order to resolve the organic compositions in the atmospheric aerosol which is significant for understanding the formation mechanism of particulate matter and their harm for human health, a direct laser desorption ionization (LDI) coupled with Fourier Transform Resonance Mass (FT-ICR MS) was utilized for characterizing the aerosol particles collected in Beijing during winter. A lot of organic compounds can be detected by direct laser desorption ionization of the aerosol particular with different size collected on aluminum foil without complicated sample pretreatment process. In addition, semi quantification of the organic compounds can be achieved with solvent extraction procedure. It was found that the ubiquitous polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) contaminants in the aerosol could serve as matrix, which helps the detection of many kinds of compounds including highly saturated amphiphilic long alkyl chain compounds (carbon number>16), like aliphatic amines in positive ion mode and organosulfates in negative ion mode. Based on the accurate mass measurement results, elemental compositions of over 1500 peaks in the mass spectrum were derived, and we categorized them into five groups according to their elemental compositions in order to provide helpful information for tracing the pollution source. It is demonstrated that abundant information about the organic components in the atmospheric aerosol can be provided by direct LDI FT-ICR MS method, and these information will largely facilitate further studies on origin and formation process of the aerosol.

  12. A new ion cyclotron range of frequency scenario for bulk ion heating in deuterium-tritium plasmas: How to utilize intrinsic impurities in our favour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazakov, Ye. O.; Ongena, J.; Van Eester, D.; Lerche, E.; Messiaen, A. [Laboratory for Plasma Physics, LPP-ERM/KMS, EUROfusion Consortium Member, Brussels (Belgium); Bilato, R. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany); Dumont, R. [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Mantsinen, M. [Catalan Institution for Research and Advanced Studies, Barcelona (Spain); Barcelona Supercomputing Center (BSC), Barcelona (Spain)

    2015-08-15

    A fusion reactor requires plasma pre-heating before the rate of deuterium-tritium fusion reactions becomes significant. In ITER, radio frequency (RF) heating of {sup 3}He ions, additionally puffed into the plasma, is one of the main options considered for increasing bulk ion temperature during the ramp-up phase of the pulse. In this paper, we propose an alternative scenario for bulk ion heating with RF waves, which requires no extra {sup 3}He puff and profits from the presence of intrinsic Beryllium impurities in the plasma. The discussed method to heat Be impurities in D-T plasmas is shown to provide an even larger fraction of fuel ion heating.

  13. Fluctuations of harmonic and radial flow in heavy ion collisions with principal components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazeliauskas, Aleksas; Teaney, Derek

    2016-02-01

    We analyze the spectrum of harmonic flow, vn(pT) for n =0 -5 , in event-by-event hydrodynamic simulations of Pb+Pb collisions at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (√{sN N}=2.76 TeV ) with principal component analysis (PCA). The PCA procedure finds two dominant contributions to the two-particle correlation function. The leading component is identified with the event plane vn(pT) , while the subleading component is responsible for factorization breaking in hydrodynamics. For v0, v1, and v3 the subleading flow is a response to the radial excitation of the corresponding eccentricity. By contrast, for v2 the subleading flow in peripheral collisions is dominated by the nonlinear mixing between the leading elliptic flow and radial flow fluctuations. In the v2 case, the sub-sub-leading mode more closely reflects the response to the radial excitation of ɛ2. A consequence of this picture is that the elliptic flow fluctuations and factorization breaking change rapidly with centrality, and in central collisions (where the leading v2 is small and nonlinear effects can be neglected) the sub-sub-leading mode becomes important. Radial flow fluctuations and nonlinear mixing also play a significant role in the factorization breaking of v4 and v5. We construct good geometric predictors for the orientation and magnitudes of the leading and subleading flows based on a linear response to the geometry, and a quadratic mixing between the leading principal components. Finally, we suggest a set of measurements involving three point correlations which can experimentally corroborate the nonlinear mixing of radial and elliptic flow and its important contribution to factorization breaking as a function of centrality.

  14. The impact of plasma-wall interaction on the gas mixing efficiency in electron cyclotron resonance ion source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schachter, L; Stiebing, K E; Dobrescu, S

    2012-02-01

    It is generally accepted that different effects are necessary to explain the gas mixing method of increasing the output of highly charged ions from an ECRIS. The two most important effects are the mass effect and the dilution effect. Their relative weights have not been determined experimentally yet, but it is generally assumed that the mass effect is dominant in standard ECRIS installations with stainless steel plasma chambers. In order to gain more insight into the physics of the gas mixing effect and in particular on the relevance of the dilution process, we have carried out a study where we have investigated the role of the plasma-wall interaction on the gas mixing effect. In this contribution, we shall discuss Charge state distributions spectra, measured at the Frankfurt ECRIS using different working gases, pure argon, a mixture of argon and oxygen, and argon mixed with neon.

  15. Chemical Composition of Microbe-Derived Dissolved Organic Matter in Cryoconite in Tibetan Plateau Glaciers: Insights from Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Lin; Xu, Jianzhong; Kang, Shichang; Li, Xiaofei; Li, Yang; Jiang, Bin; Shi, Quan

    2016-12-20

    Cryoconite in mountain glaciers plays important roles in glacial ablation and biogeochemical cycles. In this study, the composition and sources of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in cryoconite from the ablation regions of two Tibetan Plateau glaciers were determined using electrospray ionization (ESI) Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS) and fluorescence spectrometry. A marked absorbance between 300 and 350 nm in the DOM absorption spectra was observed which was consistent with microbe-derived mycosporine-like amino acids. Fluorescence excitation-emission matrices showed that DOM had intense signals at protein-like substance peaks and weak signals at humic-like substance peaks. The high-resolution mass spectra of FT-ICR-MS showed cryoconite DOM from both glaciers contained diverse lignins, lipids, proteins, and unsaturated hydrocarbons. The lipids and proteins were consistent with material from microbial sources, and the lignins and unsaturated hydrocarbons were probably from vascular plant material supplied in atmospheric aerosols and debris from around the glaciers. Almost one-third of the identified DOM molecules had low C/N ratios (≤20), indicating their high bioavailability. Using a conservative cryoconite distribution on Chinese mountain glacier surfaces (6%) and an average debris mass per square meter of cryoconite (292 ± 196 g m-2), we found that the amount of DOC produced in cryoconite on Chinese glaciers as much as 0.23 ± 0.1 Gg per cryoconite formation process. This dissolved organic carbon may absorb solar radiation, accelerate glacial melting, and be an important source of bioavailable DOM to proglacial and downstream aquatic ecosystems.

  16. Synthesis of model humic substances: a mechanistic study using controllable H/D exchange and Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zherebker, Alexander Ya; Airapetyan, David; Konstantinov, Andrey I; Kostyukevich, Yury I; Kononikhin, Alexey S; Popov, Igor A; Zaitsev, Kirill V; Nikolaev, Eugene N; Perminova, Irina V

    2015-07-07

    The products of the oxidative coupling of phenols are frequently used as synthetic analogues to natural humic substances (HS) for biomedical research. However, their molecular compositions and exact structures remain largely unknown. The objective of this study was to develop a novel approach for the molecular-level analysis of phenolic polymerisates that is capable of inventorying molecular constituents and resolving their distinct structural formulas. For this purpose, we have synthesized the model HS using the oxidative coupling of a specifically designed phenylpropanoic monomer, 3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-3-oxopropionic acid, to hydroquinone. We have characterized the synthesized model HS using high resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICR MS), (1)H NMR spectroscopy, and controllable hydrogen/deuterium (H/D) exchange. We succeeded in the molecular inventory of the model HS. The assigned molecular formulas occupied the substantial space of CHO compositions in the Van Krevelen diagram with a maximum density found in the regions of tannins and lignins, resembling those of natural HS. To identify the exact structural formulas of the individual constituents in the model HS, we have applied selective H/D exchange of non-labile backbone protons by a choice of basic or acidic catalytic conditions followed by FTICR MS. The determined formulas allowed us to verify the proposed pathways of hydroxylation and carboxylation in the course of the phenolic coupling and to identify the acetylation of aromatic rings as an important side reaction. We conclude that the proposed analytical approach may be used to identify the molecular carriers of biological activity within the phenolic polymerisates and eventually within natural HS.

  17. Bounce-averaged advection and diffusion coefficients for monochromatic electromagnetic ion cyclotron wave: Comparison between test-particle and quasi-linear models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Z.; Zhu, H.; Xiao, F.; Zheng, H.; Shen, C.; Wang, Y.; Wang, S.

    2012-12-01

    The electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) wave has been long suggested to be responsible for the rapid loss of radiation belt relativistic electrons. The test-particle simulations are performed to calculate the bounce-averaged pitch-angle advection and diffusion coefficients for parallel-propagating monochromatic EMIC waves. The comparison between test-particle (TP) and quasi-linear (QL) transport coefficients is further made to quantify the influence of nonlinear processes. For typical EMIC waves, four nonlinear physical processes, i.e., the boundary reflection effect, finite perturbation effect, phase bunching and phase trapping, are found to occur sequentially from small to large equatorial pitch angles. The pitch-angle averaged finite perturbation effect yields slight differences between the transport coefficients of TP and QL models. The boundary reflection effect and phase bunching produce an average reduction of >80% in the diffusion coefficients but a small change in the corresponding average advection coefficients, tending to lower the loss rate predicted by QL theory. In contrast, the phase trapping causes continuous negative advection toward the loss cone and a minor change in the corresponding diffusion coefficients, tending to increase the loss rate predicted by QL theory. For small amplitude EMIC waves, the transport coefficients grow linearly with the square of wave amplitude. As the amplitude increases, the boundary reflection effect, phase bunching and phase trapping start to occur. Consequently, the TP advection coefficients deviate from the linear growth with the square of wave amplitude, and the TP diffusion coefficients become saturated with the amplitude approaching 1nT or above. The current results suggest that these nonlinear processes can cause significant deviation of transport coefficients from the prediction of QL theory, which should be taken into account in the future simulations of radiation belt dynamics driven by the EMIC waves.

  18. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy to monitor ion cyclotron range of frequency wall cleaning Li/D co-deposition in EAST tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, P.; Wu, D.; Sun, L.Y.; Zhao, D.Y.; Hai, R.; Li, C. [Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Laser, Ion and Electron Beams, Chinese Ministry of Education, School of Physics and Optical Electronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, 116024 (China); Ding, H., E-mail: hding@dlut.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Laser, Ion and Electron Beams, Chinese Ministry of Education, School of Physics and Optical Electronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, 116024 (China); Hu, Z.H.; Wang, L.; Hu, J.S.; Chen, J.L.; Luo, G.N. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 1126, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China)

    2017-05-15

    Highlights: • LIBS was applied to EAST for monitoring the cleaning performance of the first wall using He-ICRF cleaning. • The cleaning performance is effective under helium ambient gas and some measurements have been obtained. • The results also indicate that the influence of magnetic field on LIBS signal is much stronger in helium ambient gas. • The effect of delay time and laser fluence on the LIBS signal has been investigated. - Abstract: In this paper, laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) under magnetic field condition has been studied in laboratory and EAST tokamak. The experimental results reveal that in helium ambient gas, the magnetic field significantly enhances the LIBS signal intensity (∼3 times). The effect of time delay and laser fluence on the intensity of LIBS has been investigated for optimizing the signal to background ratio (S/B). The developed LIBS approach has been applied to monitor the cleaning performance of the first wall in the fusion device of EAST using the ion cyclotron range of frequency (ICRF). The experimental results demonstrate that the cleaning performance for Li/D co-deposition layer is effective under helium ambient gas. The removing rate of Li on the surface of W tile is faster than that on Mo tile in He-ICRF cleaning and the D/(D + H) ratio on Mo tile is higher by ∼1.2 times than that on W tile. This work would indicate the feasibility of using LIBS to monitor the wall cleaning processes in EAST tokamak.

  19. Coumarins as new matrices for matrix-assisted laser-desorption/ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometric analysis of hydrophobic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hang, E-mail: hangwang@sjtu.edu.cn [Instrumental Analysis Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Dongchuan Road 800, Shanghai 200240 (China); Dai, Bona [Instrumental Analysis Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Dongchuan Road 800, Shanghai 200240 (China); Liu, Bin [Key Laboratory of Kidney Disease Pathogenesis and Intervention of Hubei Province, College of Medicine, Hubei Polytechnic University, Huangshi, Hubei 435003 (China); Lu, Han [Department of Anesthesiology, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine (SJTU-SM), 197, Rui Jin Er Road, Shanghai 200025 (China)

    2015-07-02

    Highlights: • Coumarins were used as new MALDI matrices. • Coumarins were used for MALDI-FT ICR MS detection of hydrophobic compounds. • DCA had improvement in detection sensitivity, stability, selectivity and reproducibility. • DCA was applied to sterols detection in yeast cells. - Abstract: Hydrophobic compounds with hydroxyl, aldehyde or ketone groups are generally difficult to detect using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS), because these compounds have low proton affinity and are poorly ionized by MALDI. Herein, coumarins have been used as new matrices for MALDI-MS analysis of a variety of hydrophobic compounds with low ionization efficiency, including steroids, coenzyme Q10, a cyclic lipopeptide and cholesterol oleate. Five coumarins, including coumarin, umbelliferone, esculetin, 7-hydroxycoumarin-3-carboxylic acid (HCA) and 6,7-dihydroxycoumarin-3-carboxylic acid (DCA), were compared with the conventional matrices of 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHB) and α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (CHCA). Coumarins with hydroxyl or carboxylic acid groups enabled detection. Taking DCA as an example, this matrix proved to be superior to DHB or CHCA in detection sensitivity, stability, spot-to-spot and sample-to-sample reproducibility, and accuracy. DCA increased the stability of the target compounds and decreased the loss of water. The [M + Na]{sup +} peaks were observed for all target compounds by adding NaCl as an additive, and the [M − H{sub 2}O + H]{sup +} and [M + H]{sup +} peaks decreased. DCA was selected for the identification of sterols in yeast cells, and thirteen sterols were detected by Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT ICR) mass spectrometry. This work demonstrates the potential of DCA as a new matrix for detection of hydrophobic molecules by MALDI-MS and provides an alternative tool for screening sterols in antifungal research.

  20. Technical Note: Molecular characterization of aerosol-derived water soluble organic carbon using ultrahigh resolution electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Dickhut

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite the acknowledged relevance of aerosol-derived water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC to climate and biogeochemical cycling, characterization of aerosol WSOC has been limited. Electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (ESI FT-ICR MS was utilized in this study to provide detailed molecular level characterization of the high molecular weight (HMW; m/z>223 component of aerosol-derived WSOC collected from rural sites in Virginia and New York, USA. More than 3000 peaks were detected by ESI FT-ICR MS within a m/z range of 223–600 for each sample. Approximately 86% (Virginia and 78% (New York of these peaks were assigned molecular formulas using only carbon (C, hydrogen (H, oxygen (O, nitrogen (N, and sulfur (S as elemental constituents. H/C and O/C molar ratios were plotted on van Krevelen diagrams and indicated a strong contribution of lignin-like and lipid-like compounds to the aerosol-derived WSOC samples. Approximately 1–4% of the peaks in the aerosol-derived WSOC mass spectra were classified as black carbon (BC on the basis of double bond equivalents calculated from the assigned molecular formulas. In addition, several high-magnitude peaks in the mass spectra of samples from both sites corresponded to molecular formulas proposed in previous secondary organic aerosol (SOA laboratory investigations indicating that SOAs are important constituents of the WSOC. Overall, ESI FT-ICR MS provides a level of resolution adequate for detailed compositional and source information of the HMW constituents of aerosol-derived WSOC.

  1. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in ambient aerosols from Beijing: characterization of low volatile PAHs by positive-ion atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) coupled with Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Bin; Liang, Yongmei; Xu, Chunming; Zhang, Jingyi; Hu, Miao; Shi, Quan

    2014-05-06

    Aromatic fractions derived from aerosol samples were characterized by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS), high temperature simulated distillation (SIMDIS), and positive-ion atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS), respectively. It was found that about 27 wt % compounds in aromatic fractions could not be eluted from a GC column and some large molecule PAHs were neglected in GC-MS analysis. APPI FT-ICR MS was proven to be a powerful approach for characterizing the molecular composition of aromatics, especially for the large molecular species. An aromatic sample from Beijing urban aerosol was successfully characterized by APPI FT-ICR MS. Results showed that most abundant aromatic compounds in PM2.5 (particles with aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 μm) were highly condensed hydrocarbons with 4-8 aromatic rings and their homologues with very short alkyl chains. Furthermore, heteroatom-containing hydrocarbons were found as the significant components of the aromatic fractions: O1, O2, N1, and S1 class species with 10-28 DBEs (double bond equivalents) and 14-38 carbon numbers were identified by APPI FT-ICR MS. The heteroatom PAHs had similar DBEs and carbon number distribution as regular PAHs.

  2. Fourier Transform-Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry as a Platform for Characterizing Multimeric Membrane Protein Complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippens, Jennifer L.; Nshanian, Michael; Spahr, Chris; Egea, Pascal F.; Loo, Joseph A.; Campuzano, Iain D. G.

    2017-10-01

    Membrane protein characterization is consistently hampered by challenges with expression, purification, and solubilization. Among several biophysical techniques employed for their characterization, native-mass spectrometry (MS) has emerged as a powerful tool for the analysis of membrane proteins and complexes. Here, two MS platforms, the FT-ICR and Q-ToF, have been explored to analyze the homotetrameric water channel protein, AquaporinZ (AqpZ), under non-denaturing conditions. This 97 kDa membrane protein complex can be readily liberated from the octylglucoside (OG) detergent micelle under a range of instrument conditions on both MS platforms. Increasing the applied collision energy of the FT-ICR collision cell yielded varying degrees of tetramer (97 kDa) liberation from the OG micelles, as well as dissociation into the trimeric (72 kDa) and monomeric (24 kDa) substituents. Tandem-MS on the Q-ToF yielded higher intensity tetramer signal and, depending on the m/z region selected, the observed monomer signal varied in intensity. Precursor ion selection of an m/z range above the expected protein signal distribution, followed by mild collisional activation, is able to efficiently liberate AqpZ with a high S/N ratio. The tetrameric charge state distribution obtained on both instruments demonstrated superpositioning of multiple proteoforms due to varying degrees of N-terminal formylation. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  3. Cyclotron waves in plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Lominadze, D G

    2013-01-01

    Cyclotron Waves in Plasma is a four-chapter text that covers the basic physical concepts of the theory of cyclotron waves and cyclotron instabilities, brought about by the existence of steady or alternating plasma currents flowing perpendicular to the magnetic field.This book considers first a wide range of questions associated with the linear theory of cyclotron oscillations in equilibrium plasmas and in electron plasmas in metals and semiconductors. The next chapter deals with the parametric excitation of electron cyclotron oscillations in plasma in an alternating electric field. A chapter f

  4. IDENTIFICATION OF MICROCYSTIN TOXINS FROM A STRAIN OF MICROCYSTIS AERUGINOSA BY LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY INTRODUCTION INTO A HYBRID LINEAR ION TRAP-FOURIER TRANSFORM ION CYCLOTRON RESONANCE MASS SPECTROMETER

    Science.gov (United States)

    The cyclic heptapeptide microcystin toxins produced by a strain of Microcystis aeruginosa that has not been investigated previously were separated by liquid chromatography and identified by high-accuracy m/z measurements of their [M + H]+ ions and the fragment i...

  5. Identification of unsaturated N-acylhomoserine lactones in bacterial isolates of Rhodobacter sphaeroides by liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization-hybrid linear ion trap-Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cataldi, Tommaso R I; Bianco, Giuliana; Abate, Salvatore; Losito, Ilario

    2011-07-15

    The identification of two unsaturated N-acylhomoserine lactones (AHLs) produced by Rhodobacter sphaeroides bacteria, based on liquid chromatography (LC) coupled to a hybrid quadrupole linear ion trap (LTQ)-Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR) mass spectrometer upon electrospray ionization (ESI), is presented. Besides the confirmation of the signaling molecule already described in the literature, i.e. (Z)-N-tetradec-7-enoyl-homoserine lactone (C(14:1)-HSL), we have discovered the occurrence, at low, yet significant levels, of another monounsaturated compound, C(12:1) -HSL, which may extend the number of small diffusible chemical signals known for R. sphaeroides. Both unsaturated AHLs were identified by high-resolution FTICR mass spectrometry in extracts of bacterial culture media and the occurrence of a C=C bond was assessed upon their conversion into bromohydrins. Collision-induced dissociation (CID) spectra were then collected on the LTQ mass analyzer. A careful comparison of tandem MS spectra of monounsaturated (i.e., C(12:1)-HSL and C(14:1)-HSL) and saturated AHLs (i.e. C(12)-HSL and C(14)-HSL) led to the emphasis of two series of product ions, exhibiting 14 Da spaced m/z ratios. Both series were referred to progressive fragmentations at the aliphatic end of the AHL acyl chains, followed by neutral losses of terminal alkenes (i.e. CH(2)=CH(CH(2))(n)H). In particular, the series located at the higher end of the explored m/z range (>200 Da), observed only for monounsaturated species, enabled the location of the C=C bond between carbons 7 and 8 of the acyl chain. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Plasma harmonics

    CERN Document Server

    Ganeev, Rashid A

    2014-01-01

    Preface; Why plasma harmonics? A very brief introduction Early stage of plasma harmonic studies - hopes and frustrations New developments in plasma harmonics studies: first successes Improvements of plasma harmonics; Theoretical basics of plasma harmonics; Basics of HHG Harmonic generation in fullerenes using few-cycle pulsesVarious approaches for description of observed peculiarities of resonant enhancement of a single harmonic in laser plasmaTwo-colour pump resonance-induced enhancement of odd and even harmonics from a tin plasmaCalculations of single harmonic generation from Mn plasma;Low-o

  7. Ion acceleration and abundance enhancements by electron beam instabilities in impulsive solar flares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, James A.; Vinas, Adolfo F.

    1993-01-01

    We show that a nonrelativistic electron beam in a hydrogen-helium solar flare plasma will excite H(+) electromagnetic ion cyclotron, shear Alfven, and R-X waves, in addition to waves resulting from the two-stream instability. The H(+) electromagnetic ion cyclotron and shear Alfven waves are able to selectively accelerate ambient He-3 and Fe, respectively, to MeV energies through first harmonic gyroresonance, and thereby account for the large (He-3)/(He-4) and Fe/C ratios seen in the energetic particles from impulsive solar flares. In this model, separate heating and acceleration mechanisms for either He-3 or Fe are not required, and Fe acceleration is quite efficient since it does not need to occur by second harmonic gyroresonance. The combination of the other two unstable modes is able to accelerate ions to hundreds of MeV if the particles become trapped in an electrostatic potential well of a two-stream wave.

  8. Stabilization of sawteeth with third harmonic deuterium ICRF-accelerated beam in JET plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girardo, Jean-Baptiste [EUROfusion Consortium, JET, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Sharapov, Sergei; Fitzgerald, Michael; Hawkes, Nick; Kiptily, Vasily; Lupelli, Ivan [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Boom, Jurrian [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, 85748 Garching (Germany); Dumont, Rémi; Garbet, Xavier; Sarazin, Yanick; Schneider, Mireille [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Eriksson, Jacob [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, 751 20 Uppsala (Sweden); Mantsinen, Mervi [Catalan Institution for Research and Advanced Studies, 08010 Barcelona (Spain); Barcelona Supercomputing Center, 08034 Barcelona (Spain)

    2016-01-15

    Sawtooth stabilisation by fast ions is investigated in deuterium (D) and D-helium 3 (He3) plasmas of JET heated by deuterium Neutral Beam Injection combined in synergy with Ion Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ICRH) applied on-axis at 3rd beam cyclotron harmonic. A very significant increase in the sawtooth period is observed, caused by the ICRH-acceleration of the beam ions born at 100 keV to the MeV energy range. Four representative sawteeth from four different discharges are compared with Porcelli's model. In two discharges, the sawtooth crash appears to be triggered by core-localized Toroidal Alfvén Eigenmodes inside the q = 1 surface (also called “tornado” modes) which expel the fast ions from within the q = 1 surface, over time scales comparable with the sawtooth period. Two other discharges did not exhibit fast ion-driven instabilities in the plasma core, and no degradation of fast ion confinement was found in both modelling and direct measurements of fast ion profile with the neutron camera. The developed sawtooth scenario without fast ion-driven instabilities in the plasma core is of high interest for the burning plasmas. Possible causes of the sawtooth crashes on JET are discussed.

  9. Stabilization of sawteeth with third harmonic deuterium ICRF-accelerated beam in JET plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girardo, Jean-Baptiste; Sharapov, Sergei; Boom, Jurrian; Dumont, Rémi; Eriksson, Jacob; Fitzgerald, Michael; Garbet, Xavier; Hawkes, Nick; Kiptily, Vasily; Lupelli, Ivan; Mantsinen, Mervi; Sarazin, Yanick; Schneider, Mireille

    2016-01-01

    Sawtooth stabilisation by fast ions is investigated in deuterium (D) and D-helium 3 (He3) plasmas of JET heated by deuterium Neutral Beam Injection combined in synergy with Ion Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ICRH) applied on-axis at 3rd beam cyclotron harmonic. A very significant increase in the sawtooth period is observed, caused by the ICRH-acceleration of the beam ions born at 100 keV to the MeV energy range. Four representative sawteeth from four different discharges are compared with Porcelli's model. In two discharges, the sawtooth crash appears to be triggered by core-localized Toroidal Alfvén Eigenmodes inside the q = 1 surface (also called "tornado" modes) which expel the fast ions from within the q = 1 surface, over time scales comparable with the sawtooth period. Two other discharges did not exhibit fast ion-driven instabilities in the plasma core, and no degradation of fast ion confinement was found in both modelling and direct measurements of fast ion profile with the neutron camera. The developed sawtooth scenario without fast ion-driven instabilities in the plasma core is of high interest for the burning plasmas. Possible causes of the sawtooth crashes on JET are discussed.

  10. High-Frequency Electrostatic Wave Generation and Transverse Ion Acceleration by Low Alfvenic Wave Components of BBELF Turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Nagendra; Khazanov, George; Mukhter, Ali

    2006-01-01

    Satellite observations in the auroral plasma have revealed that extremely low frequency (ELF) waves play a dominant role in the acceleration of electrons and ions in the auroral plasma. The electromagnetic components of the ELF (EMELF) waves are the electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves below the cyclotron frequency of the lightest ion species in a multi-ion plasma. Shear Alfv6n waves (SAWS) constitute the lowest frequency components of the ELF waves below the ion cyclotron frequency of the heaviest ion. The -2 mechanism for the transfer of energy from such EMELF waves to ions affecting transverse ion heating still remains a matter of debate. A very ubiquitous fe8ture of ELF waves now observed in several rocket and satellite experiments is that they occur in conjunction with high-frequency electrostatic waves. The frequency spectrum of the composite wave turbulence extends from the low frequency of the Alfvenic waves to the high frequency of proton plasma frequency and/or the lower hybrid frequency. The spectrum does not show any feature organized by the ion cyclotron frequencies and their harmonics. Such broadband waves consisting of both the EM and ES waves are now popularly referred as BBELF waves. We present results here from 2.5-D particle-in-cell simulations showing that the ES components are directly generated by cross- field plasma instabilities driven by the drifts of the ions and electrons in the EM component of the BBELF waves.

  11. Simultaneous molecular formula determinations of natural compounds in a plant extract using 15 T Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kyu Hwan; Kim, Min Sun; Baek, Sun Jong; Bae, Ik Hyun; Seo, Sang-Wan; Kim, Jongjin; Shin, Yong Kook; Lee, Yong-Moon; Kim, Hyun Sik

    2013-01-01

    Plant extracts are a reservoir of pharmacologically active substances; however, conventional analytical methods can analyze only a small portion of an extract. Here, we report a high-throughput analytical method capable of determining most phytochemicals in a plant extract and of providing their molecular formulae from a single experiment using ultra-high-resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (UHR ESI MS). UHR mass profiling was used to analyze natural compounds in a 70% ethanol ginseng extract, which was directly infused into a 15 T Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometer for less than 10 min without a separation process. The UHR FT-ICR MS yielded a mass accuracy of 0.5 ppm and a mass resolving power (m/Δm) of 1,000,000-270,000 for the range m/z 290-1,100. The mass resolution was sufficient to resolve the isotopic fine structure (IFS) of many compounds in the extract. After noise removal from 1,552 peaks, 405 compounds were detected. The molecular formulae of 123 compounds, including 33 ginsenosides, were determined using the observed IFS, exact monoisotopic mass, and exact mass difference. Liquid chromatography (LC)/FT-ICR MS of the extract was performed to compare the high-throughput performance of UHR ESI FT-ICR MS. The LC/FT-ICR MS detected only 129 compounds, including 19 ginsenosides. The result showed that UHR ESI FT-ICR MS identified three times more compounds than LC/FT-ICR MS and in a relatively shorter time. The molecular formula determination by UHR FT-ICR MS was validated by LC and tandem MS analyses of three known ginsenosides. UHR mass profiling of a plant extract by 15 T FT-ICR MS showed that multiple compounds were simultaneously detected and their molecular formulae were decisively determined by a single experiment with ultra-high mass resolution and mass accuracy. Simultaneous molecular determination of multiple natural products by UHR ESI FT-ICR MS would be a powerful method to profile a wide

  12. Development of a fast scintillator based beam phase measurement system for compact superconducting cyclotrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharjee, Tanushyam; Kanti Dey, Malay; Dhara, Partha; Roy, Suvodeep; Debnath, Jayanta; Balakrishna Bhole, Rajendra; Dutta, Atanu; Pradhan, Jedidiah; Pal, Sarbajit; Pal, Gautam; Roy, Amitava; Chakrabarti, Alok [Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700064 (India)

    2013-05-15

    In an isochronous cyclotron, measurements of central phase of the ion beam with respect to rf and the phase width provide a way to tune the cyclotron for maximum energy gain per turn and efficient extraction. We report here the development of a phase measurement system and the measurements carried out at the Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre's (VECC's) K= 500 superconducting cyclotron. The technique comprises detecting prompt {gamma}-rays resulting from the interaction of cyclotron ion beam with an aluminium target mounted on a radial probe in coincidence with cyclotron rf. An assembly comprising a fast scintillator and a liquid light-guide inserted inside the cyclotron was used to detect the {gamma}-rays and to transfer the light signal outside the cyclotron where a matching photo-multiplier tube was used for light to electrical signal conversion. The typical beam intensity for this measurement was a few times 10{sup 11} pps.

  13. Identification of chemical components in Baidianling Capsule based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography combined with Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wenying; Chen, Yu; Wang, Binjie; Sun, Xiaoyang; Guo, Ping; Chen, Xiaohui

    2017-08-01

    Baidianling Capsule, which is made from 16 Chinese herbs, has been widely used for treating vitiligo clinically. In this study, the sensitive and rapid method has been developed for the analysis of chemical components in Baidianling Capsule by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in combination with retention indices and high-performance liquid chromatography combined with Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry. Firstly, a total of 110 potential volatile compounds obtained from different extraction procedures including alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, ketones, ethers, aldehydes, alcohols, phenols, organic acids, esters, furans, pyrrole, acid amides, heterocycles, and oxides were detected from Baidianling Capsule by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, of which 75 were identified by mass spectrometry in combination with the retention index. Then, a total of 124 components were tentatively identified by high-performance liquid chromatography combined with Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry. Fifteen constituents from Baidianling Capsule were accurately identified by comparing the retention times with those of reference compounds, others were identified by comparing the retention times and mass spectrometry data, as well as retrieving the reference literature. This study provides a practical strategy for rapidly screening and identifying the multiple constituents of a complex traditional Chinese medicine. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Beam stripping extraction from the VINCY cyclotron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ristić-Đurović Jasna L.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The extraction system of a cyclotron guides an ion beam from a spiral acceleration orbit, through an extraction trajectory, into a high energy transport line. The two methods commonly used to direct an ion into the extraction path are deflection, by the electric field of an electrostatic deflector, and ion stripping, by a thin carbon foil. Compared to the electrostatic deflector system, the stripping extraction provides a fast and easy change of the extracted ion energy and is easier to manufacture operate, and maintain. However, the extraction trajectory and dynamics of an ion beam after stripping are highly dependant on the ion energy and specific charge. Thus, when a multipurpose machine such as the VINCY Cyclotron is concerned, it is far from easy to deliver a variety of ion beams into the same high energy transport line and at the same time preserve a reasonable compactness of the extraction system. The front side stripping extraction system of the VINCY Cyclotron provides high (~70 MeV and mid (~30 MeV energy protons, as well as a number of heavy ions in broad energy ranges. The back side stripping extraction system extracts low energy protons (~18 MeV and enables their simultaneous use with high energy protons at the front side of the machine.

  15. Cyclotron Line Measurements with INTEGRAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pottschmidt, K.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Caballero, I.; Fritz, S.; Schoenherr, G.; Kretschmar, P.; Wilms, J.; McBride, V. A.; Suchy, S.; Rothschild, R. E.

    2008-01-01

    Due to its broadband energy coverage, INTEGRAL has made important contributions to observing and interpreting cyclotron lines, which are present in the 10-100 keV range of a sample of accreting pulsars. In these systems photons with energies fulfilling the resonance condition inelastically Compton scatter off electrons quantized in the accretion column above the neutron star's magnetic pole(s). This process gives rise to the broad, absorption-like lines or 'cyclotron resonant scattering features' (CRSF). The observed lines allow to directly measure the B-fields of these sources, resulting in values of a few times 1E12G. In this overview I will present recent highlights regarding CRSF observations as well as discuss current ideas and models for the physical conditions in the accretion column. Among the former are the stability of the spectrum of Vela X-1 during giant flares in 2003, the observation of three cyclotron lines during the 2004 outburst of V0332+53, the confirmation of the fundamental line at approximately 45 keV during a 2005 normal outburst of A0535-26, and the simultaneous detection of the two lines in the dipping source 4U 1907+09 (for which also a torque reversal was detected for the first time). Through these and other observations it has become increasingly apparent that two types of observations can potentially be used to constrain the accretion column geometry: the determination of energy ratios for multiple harmonic lines (only two sources with greater than 2 lines are known), was well as the evolution of the fundamental line centroid, which, for different sources, may or may not be correlated with flux. Furthermore, first steps have been taken away from the usual phenomenological description of the lines, towards a physical approach based on self-consistent CRSF modeling. Initial applications are presented.

  16. ELECTRON CYCLOTRON WAVES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhof, E.

    2010-01-01

    This lecture gives an overview of heating and current drive with electron cyclotron waves. We present the main theoretical aspects of wave propagation, wave absorption, and non-inductive current drive, as well as important technical aspects for the application of high power electron cyclotron waves,

  17. Electron cyclotron waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhof, E.

    2012-01-01

    This lecture gives an overview of heating and current drive with electron cyclotron waves. We present the main theoretical aspects of wave propagation, wave absorption, and non-inductive current drive, as well as important technical aspects for the application of high power electron cyclotron waves,

  18. Electron cyclotron waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhof, E.

    2008-01-01

    This lecture gives an overview of heating and current drive with electron cyclotron waves. We present the main theoretical aspects of wave propagation, wave absorption, and non-inductive current drive, as well as important technical aspects for the application of high power electron cyclotron waves,

  19. Synchro-cyclotron

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1972-01-01

    The electromagnetic coil which forms the first section of the proton extraction channel in the improved synchro-cyclotron. The photograph shows the positioning gear and the current septum. An extraction efficiency above 50% is expected.

  20. Reduction of axial kinetic energy induced perturbations on observed cyclotron frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Nathan K; Weisbrod, Chad R; Webb, Brian N; Bruce, James E

    2008-04-01

    With Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR) mass spectrometry one determines the mass-to-charge ratio of an ion by measuring its cyclotron frequency. However, the need to confine ions to the trapping region of the ion cyclotron resonance (ICR) cell with electric fields induces deviations from the unperturbed cyclotron frequency. Additional perturbations to the observed cyclotron frequency are often attributed to changes in space charge conditions. This study presents a detailed investigation of the observed ion cyclotron frequency as a function of ion z-axis kinetic energy. In a perfect three-dimensional quadrupolar field, cyclotron frequency is independent of position within the trap. However, in most ICR cell designs, this ideality is approximated only near the trap center and deviations arise from this ideal quadrupolar field as the ion moves both radially and axially from the center of the trap. To allow differentiation between deviations in observed cyclotron frequency caused from changes in space charge conditions or differences in oscillation amplitude, ions with identical molecular weights but different axial kinetic energy, and thus amplitude of z-axis motion, were simultaneously trapped within the ICR cell. This allows one to attribute deviations in observed cyclotron frequency to differences in the average force from the radial electric field experienced by ions of different axial amplitude. Experimentally derived magnetron frequency is compared with the magnetron frequency calculated using SIMION 7.0 for ions of different axial amplitude. Electron promoted ion coherence, or EPIC, is used to reduce the differences in radial electric fields at different axial positions. Thus with the application of EPIC, the differences in observed cyclotron frequencies are minimized for ions of different axial oscillation amplitudes.

  1. Periodic Beam Current Oscillations Driven by Electron Cyclotron Instabilities in ECRIS Plasmas

    OpenAIRE

    Tarvainen, Olli; Kalvas, Taneli; Koivisto, Hannu; Komppula, Jani; Kronholm, Risto; Laulainen, Janne; Izotov, I.; Mansfeld, D.; Skalyga, V.; Toivanen, V.

    2014-01-01

    Experimental observation of cyclotron instabilities in electron cyclotron resonance ion source plasma operated in cwmode is reported. The instabilities are associated with strong microwave emission and a burst of energetic electrons escaping the plasma, and explain the periodic oscillations of the extracted beam currents. The instabilities are shown to restrict the parameter space available for the optimization of high charge state ion currents.

  2. Dynamics of the storm time ring current and relativistic electrons : particle scattering by ion cyclotron waves inside the anisotropic proton zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandanger, Marit Irene J.

    2009-07-01

    processes with no new injections of ring current particles and the Dst recovers fast to quiet day values. Paper II investigated the precipitation of relativistic electrons throughout a geomagnetic storm, and how their loss relates to the precipitating ring current protons. The precipitation of relativistic electrons takes place within the anisotropic proton zone. Inside this region, proton spikes will be found in association with increased loss of relativistic electrons. The proton population of the anisotropic proton zone and in the proton spikes are unstable and can cause growth of Electromagnetic Ion Cyclotron (EMIC) wave, which can in turn scatter relativistic electrons into the atmospheric loss cone. The precipitation of relativistic electrons are found at all Magnetic Local Time (MLT) considered in the study.

  3. New analytical technique for establishing the quality of Soil Organic Matter affected by a wildfire. A first approach using Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Morillo, Nicasio T.; González-Pérez, José A.; Waggoner, Derek C.; Almendros, Gonzalo; González-Vila, Francisco J.; Hatcher, Patrick G.

    2016-04-01

    Introduction: Fire is one of the most important modulator factors of the environment and the forest. It is able to induce chemical and biological shifts and these, in turn, can alter the physical properties of soil. Generally, fire affects the most reactive fraction, soil organic matter (SOM) (González-Pérez et al., 2004) resulting in changes to several soil properties and functions. To study changes in SOM following a wildfire, researchers can count on several traditional as well as new analytical techniques. One of the most recently employed techniques is Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS). This new powerful ultra-high resolution mass spectral technique, together with graphic interpretation tools such as van Krevelen diagrams (Kim et al, 2003), may be used to shed light on alterations caused by the burning of SOM. The objective of this research is to study fire impacts on SOM, using a sandy soil collected under a Cork oak (Quercus suber) in Doñana National Park, Southwest Spain. that was affected by a wildfire in August 2012. Methods: The impact of fire on SOM was studied in various different sieve fractions (coarse, 1-2 mm, and fine, tannins, lignin, lipids, protein and carbohydrate derived. The unburnt SOM in the coarse fraction was mainly composed of compounds with a high intensity in the tannin-like, lignin-like and carbohydrate-like regions of the van Krevelen diagram, whereas the SOM in the fine fraction showed a high intensity in the lipid-like and protein-like regions. These results suggest that the SOM in the coarse fraction was less altered than that of the fine fraction; the latter believed to be subjected to higher microbial activity. We suggest that the observed changes occurs via a methylation process, producing a SOM that is highly humified (Jiménez-Morillo et al., 2014). The SOM in the coarse fraction affected by fire, showed a high relative intensity of chemical compounds in the carbohydrate-like and

  4. SC Cyclotron and RIB Facilities in Kolkata

    CERN Document Server

    Sinha, Bikash; Chakrabarti, Alok

    2005-01-01

    The superconducting cyclotron under construction at this Centre has bending limit (K-bend) of 520 and focusing limit (K-foc) of 160. It is being constructed, primarily, for nuclear physics experiments with heavy ion beams at intermediate energies. The 100-ton main magnet is currently in the commissioning phase with the main coil already at 4.2K temperature. Magnetic field measurements will be carried out over the next several months. All other systems of the cyclotron are in an advanced stage of fabrication or development. We plan to start assembly of the complete cyclotron around the end of 2005. In the phase-I of the project one beam line has been provided. Construction of three more beam lines and various experimental facilities for nuclear physics as well as irradiation experiments has also been funded and the work is well on its way. An ISOL type Radioactive Ion Beam (RIB) facility is being built with the existing K=130 room temperature cyclotron, VEC, as the primary beam source. In-beam RIB production a...

  5. UF-CHERS Measurements of Ion Temperature and Toroidal Rotation Fluctuations Associated with the Edge Harmonic Oscillation in Quiescent H-mode Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, D. D.; Fonck, R. J.; McKee, G. R.; Yan, Z.; Grierson, B. A.

    2016-10-01

    The UF-CHERS (Ultra Fast CHarge Exchange Recombination Spectroscopy) diagnostic at DIII-D measures local, long-wavelength ion temperature and toroidal velocity fluctuations at turbulence-relevant spatiotemporal scales from emission of the CVI n=8 ->7 transition. During Quiescent H-mode (QH-mode) plasmas, which offer ELM-free improved confinement, UF-CHERS measurements observed coherent, low frequency (fo 10kHz) pedestal oscillations in Ti and vtor at the Edge Harmonic Oscillation (EHO) frequency while several modes between 35-75 kHz are suppressed when the EHO appears. Although broadband ion temperature and density fluctuations were reduced by the EHO, the toroidal rotation showed increased fluctuation amplitude. Investigating ion temperature and toroidal fluctuations associated with the EHO may provide insights into the saturated instability driving the EHO. Supported by DOE Grants DE-FG02-08ER54999, DE-FC02-04ER54698, and NSF GRFP Grant DGE-1256259.

  6. Fast ion energy distribution from third harmonic radio frequency heating measured with a single crystal diamond detector at the Joint European Torus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nocente, M.; Rebai, M.; Gorini, G. [EUROfusion Consortium, JET, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Dipartimento di Fisica “G. Occhialini,” Università degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca, Milano (Italy); Istituto di Fisica del Plasma “P. Caldirola,” Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Milano (Italy); Cazzaniga, C. [EUROfusion Consortium, JET, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Istituto di Fisica del Plasma “P. Caldirola,” Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Milano (Italy); Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, ISIS Facility, Didcot (United Kingdom); Tardocchi, M.; Giacomelli, L.; Muraro, A. [EUROfusion Consortium, JET, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Istituto di Fisica del Plasma “P. Caldirola,” Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Milano (Italy); Binda, F.; Eriksson, J. [EUROfusion Consortium, JET, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden); Sharapov, S. [EUROfusion Consortium, JET, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxfordshire OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Collaboration: (EUROfusion Consortium, JET, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom)

    2015-10-15

    Neutron spectroscopy measurements with a single crystal diamond detector have been carried out at JET, for the first time in an experiment aimed at accelerating deuterons to MeV energies with radio frequency heating at the third harmonic. Data are interpreted by means of the expected response function of the detector and are used to extract parameters of the highly non-Maxwellian distribution function generated in this scenario. A comparison with observations using a time of flight and liquid scintillator neutron spectrometers is also presented. The results demonstrate the capability of diamond detectors to contribute to fast ion physics studies at JET and are of more general relevance in view of the application of such detectors for spectroscopy measurements in the neutron camera of next step tokamak devices.

  7. Cyclotron-based neutron source for BNCT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsumoto, T.; Yajima, S.; Tsutsui, H.; Ogasawara, T.; Fujita, K.; Tanaka, H.; Sakurai, Y.; Maruhashi, A.

    2013-04-01

    Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute (KURRI) and Sumitomo Heavy Industries, Ltd. (SHI) have developed a cyclotron-based neutron source for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT). It was installed at KURRI in Osaka prefecture. The neutron source consists of a proton cyclotron named HM-30, a beam transport system and an irradiation & treatment system. In the cyclotron, H- ions are accelerated and extracted as 30 MeV proton beams of 1 mA. The proton beams is transported to the neutron production target made by a beryllium plate. Emitted neutrons are moderated by lead, iron, aluminum and calcium fluoride. The aperture diameter of neutron collimator is in the range from 100 mm to 250 mm. The peak neutron flux in the water phantom is 1.8×109 neutrons/cm2/sec at 20 mm from the surface at 1 mA proton beam. The neutron source have been stably operated for 3 years with 30 kW proton beam. Various pre-clinical tests including animal tests have been done by using the cyclotron-based neutron source with 10B-p-Borono-phenylalanine. Clinical trials of malignant brain tumors will be started in this year.

  8. Cyclotron-based neutron source for BNCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitsumoto, T.; Yajima, S.; Tsutsui, H.; Ogasawara, T.; Fujita, K. [Sumitomo Heavy Industries, Ltd (Japan); Tanaka, H.; Sakurai, Y.; Maruhashi, A. [Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute (Japan)

    2013-04-19

    Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute (KURRI) and Sumitomo Heavy Industries, Ltd. (SHI) have developed a cyclotron-based neutron source for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT). It was installed at KURRI in Osaka prefecture. The neutron source consists of a proton cyclotron named HM-30, a beam transport system and an irradiation and treatment system. In the cyclotron, H- ions are accelerated and extracted as 30 MeV proton beams of 1 mA. The proton beams is transported to the neutron production target made by a beryllium plate. Emitted neutrons are moderated by lead, iron, aluminum and calcium fluoride. The aperture diameter of neutron collimator is in the range from 100 mm to 250 mm. The peak neutron flux in the water phantom is 1.8 Multiplication-Sign 109 neutrons/cm{sup 2}/sec at 20 mm from the surface at 1 mA proton beam. The neutron source have been stably operated for 3 years with 30 kW proton beam. Various pre-clinical tests including animal tests have been done by using the cyclotron-based neutron source with {sup 10}B-p-Borono-phenylalanine. Clinical trials of malignant brain tumors will be started in this year.

  9. Metabolomic profiling of prostate cancer by matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization-Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry imaging using Matrix Coating Assisted by an Electric Field (MCAEF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaodong; Han, Jun; Hardie, Darryl B; Yang, Juncong; Pan, Jingxi; Borchers, Christoph H

    2017-07-01

    In this work, we combined the use of two MALDI matrices (quercetin and 9-aminoacridine), a recently developed new matrix coating technique - matrix coating assisted by an electric field (MCAEF), and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization - Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (MALDI-FTICRMS) to detect and image endogenous compounds in the cancerous and non-cancerous regions of three human prostate cancer (stage II) tissue specimens. After three rounds of imaging data acquisitions (i.e., quercetin for positive and negative ion detection and 9-aminoacridine for negative ion detection), and metabolite identification, a total of 1091 metabolites including 1032 lipids and 59 other metabolites were routinely detected and successfully localized. Of these compounds, 250 and 217 were only detected in either the cancerous or the non-cancerous regions respectively, although we cannot rule out the presence of these metabolites at concentrations below the detection limit. In addition, 152 of the other 624 metabolites showed differential distributions (p<0.05, t-test) between the two regions of the tissues. Further studies on a larger number of clinical specimens will need to be carried out to confirm this large number of apparently cancer-related metabolites. The successful determination of the spatial locations and abundances of these endogenous biomolecules indicated significant metabolism abnormalities - e.g., increased energy charge and under-expression of neutral acyl glycerides, in the prostate cancer samples. To our knowledge, this work has resulted in MALDI-MS imaging of the largest group of metabolites in prostate cancer thus far and demonstrated the importance of using complementary matrices for comprehensive metabolomic imaging by MALDI-MS. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: MALDI Imaging, edited by Dr. Corinna Henkel and Prof. Peter Hoffmann. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Ammonia-treated N-(1-naphthyl) ethylenediamine dihydrochloride as a novel matrix for rapid quantitative and qualitative determination of serum free fatty acids by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yaping; Wang, Yanmin; Guo, Shuai; Guo, Yumei; Liu, Hui; Li, Zhili

    2013-09-10

    The blood free fatty acids (FFAs), which provide energy to the cell and act as substrates in the synthesis of fats, lipoproteins, liposaccharides, and eicosanoids, involve in a number of important physiological processes. In the present study, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (MALDI-FTICR MS) with ammonia-treated N-(1-naphthyl) ethylenediamine dihydrochloride (ATNEDC) as a novel MALDI matrix in a negative ion mode was employed to directly quantify serum FFAs. Multiple point internal standard calibration curves between the concentration ratios of individual fatty acids to internal standard (IS, C17:0) versus their corresponding intensity ratios were constructed for C14:0, C16:1, C16:0, C18:0, C18:1, C18:2, C18:3, C20:4, and C22:6, respectively, in their mixture, with correlation coefficients between 0.991 and 0.999 and limits of detection (LODs) between 0.2 and 5.4μM, along with the linear dynamic range of more than two orders of magnitude. The results indicate that the multiple point internal standard calibration could reduce the impact of ion suppression and improve quantification accuracy in the MALDI mode. The quantitative results of nine FFAs from 339 serum samples, including 161 healthy controls, 118 patients with hyperglycemia and 60 patients without hyperglycemia show that FFAs levels in hyperglycemic patient sera are significantly higher than those in healthy controls and patients without hyperglycemia, and elevated FFA levels are also associated with increased levels of fasting blood glucose (FBG) in hyperglycemic patient sera. Serum FFAs were identified on the basis of the observed accurate molecular masses and reliable isotope distributions obtained by MALDI-FTICR MS. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Neutron field inside a PET Cyclotron vault room

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vega C, H.R. [UAZ, C. Cipres 10, 98068 Zacatecas (Mexico); Mendez, R. [CIEMAT, Ave. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Iniguez, M.P. [Universidad de Valladolid, Po Prado de la Magdalena s/n, 47011 Valladolid (Spain); Climent, J.M.; Penuelas, I. [Servicio de Medicina Nuclear de la Clinica Universitaria de Navarra, Pamplona (Spain); Barquero, R. [Hospital Universitario Rio Hortega, Valladolid (Spain)]. e-mail: fermineutron@yahoo.com

    2006-07-01

    The neutron field around a Positron Emission Tomography cyclotron was investigated during {sup 18} F radioisotope production with an 18 MeV proton beam. In this study the Ion Beam Application cyclotron, model Cyclone 18/9, was utilized. Measurements were carried out with a Bonner sphere neutron spectrometer with pairs of thermoluminescent dosemeters (TLD600 and TLD700) as thermal neutron detector. The TLDs readouts were utilized to unfold the neutron spectra at three different positions inside the cyclotron's vault room. With the spectra the Ambient dose equivalent was calculated. Neutron spectra unfolding were performed with the BUNKIUT code and the UTA4 response matrix. Neutron spectra were also determined by Monte Carlo calculations using a detailed model of cyclotron and vault room. (Author)

  12. Design of 10 MeV cyclotron accelerator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Solhju

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Design and construction of 10MeV cyclotron has been started at Amirkabir University of Technology since 2012. So far, the conceptual and detail engineering design phases have been finalized. The main purpose of this baby cyclotron is to generate proton beam for the production of PET radioisotopes. The cyclotron consists of magnet, cavity, ion source, RF and LLRF system, vacuum system, cooling system, power amplifiers and power supplies system. In this paper, a brief of design principles for all the parts of cyclotron and their final simulation results is presented. It should be noted that these simulations have been performed and optimized by the most accurate softwares such as TOSCA, ANSYS, HFSS, SolidWorks and CST. Also, the manufacturing feasibility of all the parts is performed and their dimensions and parameters are synchronized with manufacturing standards

  13. Harmonic statistics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eliazar, Iddo, E-mail: eliazar@post.tau.ac.il

    2017-05-15

    The exponential, the normal, and the Poisson statistical laws are of major importance due to their universality. Harmonic statistics are as universal as the three aforementioned laws, but yet they fall short in their ‘public relations’ for the following reason: the full scope of harmonic statistics cannot be described in terms of a statistical law. In this paper we describe harmonic statistics, in their full scope, via an object termed harmonic Poisson process: a Poisson process, over the positive half-line, with a harmonic intensity. The paper reviews the harmonic Poisson process, investigates its properties, and presents the connections of this object to an assortment of topics: uniform statistics, scale invariance, random multiplicative perturbations, Pareto and inverse-Pareto statistics, exponential growth and exponential decay, power-law renormalization, convergence and domains of attraction, the Langevin equation, diffusions, Benford’s law, and 1/f noise. - Highlights: • Harmonic statistics are described and reviewed in detail. • Connections to various statistical laws are established. • Connections to perturbation, renormalization and dynamics are established.

  14. Design of the 1.5 MW, 30-96 MHz ultra-wideband 3 dB high power hybrid coupler for Ion Cyclotron Resonance Frequency (ICRF) heating in fusion grade reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yadav, Rana Pratap, E-mail: ranayadav97@gmail.com; Kumar, Sunil; Kulkarni, S. V. [Thapar University, Patiala, Punjab 147004, India and Institute for Plasma Research, Gandhinagar 382428 (India)

    2016-01-15

    Design and developmental procedure of strip-line based 1.5 MW, 30-96 MHz, ultra-wideband high power 3 dB hybrid coupler has been presented and its applicability in ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) in tokamak is discussed. For the high power handling capability, spacing between conductors and ground need to very high. Hence other structural parameters like strip-width, strip thickness coupling gap, and junction also become large which can be gone upto optimum limit where various constrains like fabrication tolerance, discontinuities, and excitation of higher TE and TM modes become prominent and significantly deteriorates the desired parameters of the coupled lines system. In designed hybrid coupler, two 8.34 dB coupled lines are connected in tandem to get desired coupling of 3 dB and air is used as dielectric. The spacing between ground and conductors are taken as 0.164 m for 1.5 MW power handling capability. To have the desired spacing, each of 8.34 dB segments are designed with inner dimension of 3.6 × 1.0 × 40 cm where constraints have been significantly realized, compensated, and applied in designing of 1.5 MW hybrid coupler and presented in paper.

  15. Enumeration of non-labile oxygen atoms in dissolved organic matter by use of ¹⁶O/ ¹⁸O exchange and Fourier transform ion-cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostyukevich, Yury; Kononikhin, Alexey; Zherebker, Alexander; Popov, Igor; Perminova, Irina; Nikolaev, Eugene

    2014-10-01

    We report a simple approach for enumeration of non-labile oxygen atoms in individual molecules of dissolved organic matter (DOM), using acid-catalyzed (16)O/(18)O exchange and ultrahigh-resolution Fourier-transform ion-cyclotron-resonance mass spectrometry (FTICR-MS). We found that by dissolving DOM in H2 (18)O at 95 °C for 20 days it is possible to replace all oxygen atoms of DOM molecules (excluding oxygen from ether groups) with (18)O. The number of exchanges in each molecule can be determined using high-resolution FTICR. Using the proposed method we identified the number of non-labile oxygen atoms in 231 molecules composing DOM. Also, using a previously developed hydrogen-deuterium (H/D)-exchange approach we identified the number of labile hydrogen atoms in 450 individual molecular formulas. In addition, we observed that several backbone hydrogen atoms can be exchanged for deuterium under acidic conditions. The method can be used for structural and chemical characterization of individual DOM molecules, comparing different DOM samples, and investigation of biological pathways of DOM in the environment.

  16. Design of RF system for CYCIAE-230 superconducting cyclotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, Zhiguo, E-mail: bitbearAT@hotmail.com; Ji, Bin; Fu, Xiaoliang; Cao, Xuelong; Zhao, Zhenlu; Zhang, Tinajue

    2017-05-11

    The CYCIAE230 is a low-current, compact superconducting cyclotron designed for proton therapy. The Radio Frequency system consists of four RF cavities and applies second harmonic to accelerate beams. The driving power for the cavity system is estimated to be approximately 150 kW. The LLRF controller is a self-made device developed and tested at low power using a small-scale cavity model. In this paper, the resonator systems of an S.C. cyclotron in history are reviewed. Contrary to those RF systems, the cavities of the CYCIAE230 cyclotron connect two opposite dees. Two high-power RF windows are included in the system. Each window carries approximately 75 kW RF power from the driver to the cavities. Thus, the RF system for the CY-CIAE230 cyclotron is operated in driven push–pull mode. The two-way amplifier-coupler-cavity systems are operated with approximately the same amount of RF power but 180° out of phase compared with each other. The design, as well as the technical advantage and limitations of this operating mode, of the CYCIAE230 cyclotron RF system is analyzed.

  17. Design of RF system for CYCIAE-230 superconducting cyclotron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Zhiguo; Ji, Bin; Fu, Xiaoliang; Cao, Xuelong; Zhao, Zhenlu; Zhang, Tinajue

    2017-05-01

    The CYCIAE230 is a low-current, compact superconducting cyclotron designed for proton therapy. The Radio Frequency system consists of four RF cavities and applies second harmonic to accelerate beams. The driving power for the cavity system is estimated to be approximately 150 kW. The LLRF controller is a self-made device developed and tested at low power using a small-scale cavity model. In this paper, the resonator systems of an S.C. cyclotron in history are reviewed. Contrary to those RF systems, the cavities of the CYCIAE230 cyclotron connect two opposite dees. Two high-power RF windows are included in the system. Each window carries approximately 75 kW RF power from the driver to the cavities. Thus, the RF system for the CY-CIAE230 cyclotron is operated in driven push-pull mode. The two-way amplifier-coupler-cavity systems are operated with approximately the same amount of RF power but 180° out of phase compared with each other. The design, as well as the technical advantage and limitations of this operating mode, of the CYCIAE230 cyclotron RF system is analyzed.

  18. Distinguishing of Ile/Leu amino acid residues in the PP3 protein by (hot) electron capture dissociation in Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Frank; Haselmann, Kim F; Sørensen, Esben Skipper

    2003-01-01

    In hot electron capture dissociation (HECD), multiply protonated polypeptides fragment upon capturing approximately 11-eV electrons. The excess of energy upon the primary c, z* cleavage induces secondary fragmentation in z* fragments. The resultant w ions allow one to distinguish between the isom...

  19. Electromagnetic Cyclotron Waves in the Solar Wind: Wind Observation and Wave Dispersion Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, L. K.; Moya, P. S.; Vinas, A. F.; Stevens, M.

    2016-01-01

    Wind observed long-lasting electromagnetic cyclotron waves near the proton cyclotron frequency on 11 March 2005, in the descending part of a fast wind stream. Bi-Maxwellian velocity distributions are fitted for core protons, beam protons, and alpha-particles. Using the fitted plasma parameters we conduct kinetic linear dispersion analysis and find ion cyclotron and/or firehose instabilities grow in six of 10 wave intervals. After Doppler shift, some of the waves have frequency and polarization consistent with observation, thus may be correspondence to the cyclotron waves observed.

  20. Combination of electrospray ionization, atmospheric pressure photoionization and laser desorption ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotronic resonance mass spectrometry for the investigation of complex mixtures – Application to the petroleomic analysis of bio-oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hertzog, Jasmine [LCP-A2MC, FR 2843 Institut Jean Barriol de Chimie et Physique Moléculaires et Biomoléculaires, FR 3624 Réseau National de Spectrométrie de Masse FT-ICR à très haut champ, Université de Lorraine, ICPM, 1 boulevard Arago, 57078 Metz Cedex 03 (France); Carré, Vincent, E-mail: vincent.carre@univ-lorraine.fr [LCP-A2MC, FR 2843 Institut Jean Barriol de Chimie et Physique Moléculaires et Biomoléculaires, FR 3624 Réseau National de Spectrométrie de Masse FT-ICR à très haut champ, Université de Lorraine, ICPM, 1 boulevard Arago, 57078 Metz Cedex 03 (France); Le Brech, Yann [LRGP, CNRS, Université de Lorraine, ENSIC, 1, Rue Grandville, 54000 Nancy (France); Mackay, Colin Logan [SIRCAMS, School of Chemistry, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, EH9 3FJ, Scotland (United Kingdom); Dufour, Anthony [LRGP, CNRS, Université de Lorraine, ENSIC, 1, Rue Grandville, 54000 Nancy (France); Mašek, Ondřej [UK Biochar Research Center, School of Geosciences, University of Edinburgh, Kings Buildings, Edinburgh, EH9 3JN (United Kingdom); and others

    2017-05-29

    The comprehensive description of complex mixtures such as bio-oils is required to understand and improve the different processes involved during biological, environmental or industrial operation. In this context, we have to consider how different ionization sources can improve a non-targeted approach. Thus, the Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) has been coupled to electrospray ionization (ESI), laser desorption ionization (LDI) and atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) to characterize an oak pyrolysis bio-oil. Close to 90% of the all 4500 compound formulae has been attributed to C{sub x}H{sub y}O{sub z} with similar oxygen class compound distribution. Nevertheless, their relative abundance in respect with their double bound equivalent (DBE) value has evidenced significant differences depending on the ion source used. ESI has allowed compounds with low DBE but more oxygen atoms to be ionized. APPI has demonstrated the efficient ionization of less polar compounds (high DBE values and less oxygen atoms). The LDI behavior of bio-oils has been considered intermediate in terms of DBE and oxygen amounts but it has also been demonstrated that a significant part of the features are specifically detected by this ionization method. Thus, the complementarity of three different ionization sources has been successfully demonstrated for the exhaustive characterization by petroleomic approach of a complex mixture. - Highlights: • Non-targeted mass spectrometry by combining electrospray ionization, atmospheric pressure photoionization and laser/desorption ionization. • Exhaustive description of pyrolytic bio-oil components. • Distinction of sugaric derivatives, lignin derivatives and lipids contained in a woody-based pyrolytic bio-oil.

  1. Production of cyclotron radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh, Yong Sup; Lim, Sang Moo; Yang, Seung Dae; Chun, Kwon Soo; Ahn, Soon Hyuk; Yun, Yong Kee; Park, Hyun; Lee, Ji Sup; Lee, Jong Doo; Chai, Jong Seo; Kim, Yoo Seok; Hong, Sung Suk; Lee, Min Yong; Beak, Seung Ki [Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul (Korea)

    1999-12-01

    In the project, 11,492mCi of {sup 201}Tl, 4,384mCi of {sup 67}Ga, 1,245mCi of {sup 123}l, 523mCi of [{sup 123}I]mlBG and 1,283mCi of {sup 18}FDG were supplied, and the revenue were 304,723,000won. In the production of RI, 13 deg for {sup 201}Tl and {sup 67}Ga, 45 deg for {sup 123}l angle solid target have been used, and liquid target system has been used for {sup 18}F production. For the efficient use of the cyclotron, the MC-50 cyclotron was opened to outside user and basic research project was carried out. The technical supports and radionuclides analysis were done during the execution of the research. Then the facilities of safety supervision and handling techniques of radioisotope production were improved. 7 refs., 9 figs., 8 tabs. (Author)

  2. Production of cyclotron radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chun, Kwon Soo; Lim, Sang Moo; Yang, Seung Dae; Suh, Yong Sup; Ahn, Soon Hyuk; Yun, Yong Kee; Park, Hyun; Lee, Ji Sup; Chai, Jong Seo; Kim, Yoo Seok; Hong, Sung Suk; Lee, Min Yong; Beak, Seung Ki; Kim, Jang Hye; Kim, Gi Sup [Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul (Korea)

    2000-12-01

    In the project, 12,077mCi of {sup 201}Tl, 5,717mCi of {sup 67}Ga, 2,096mCi of {sup 123}l, 482mCi of [{sup 123}I]mlBG and 2,738mCi of {sup 18}FDG were supplied, and the revenue were 387,253,000won. In the production of RI, 13 deg for {sup 201}Tl and {sup 67}Ga, 45 deg for {sup 123}l angle solid target have been used, and liquid target system has been used for {sup 18}F production. For the efficient use of the cyclotron, the MC-50 cyclotron was opened to outside user and basic research project was carried out. The technical supports and radionuclides analysis were done during the execution of the research. Then the facilities of safety supervision and handling techniques of radioisotope production were improved. 7 refs., 8 figs., 9 tabs. (Author)

  3. Operational Experience with Beam Alignment and Monitoring Using Non-Destructive Beam Position Monitors in the Cyclotron Beamlines at iThemba LABS

    CERN Document Server

    Conradie, J L; Delsink, J L G; Fourie, D T; Kormany, Z; Mansfield, P T; Rohwer, P F; Sakildien, M

    2005-01-01

    At iThemba LABS proton beams, accelerated in a K=200 separated-sector cyclotron with a K=8 solid-pole injector cyclotron, are utilized for the production of radioisotopes and particle radiotherapy. Beams of heavy ions and polarized protons, pre-accelerated in a second injector cyclotron, are available for nuclear physics research. Beam position monitors have been developed for non-destructive alignment and continuous display of the beam position in the beam lines for the more intense beams used for therapy and the production of radioisotopes in cooperation* with Forschungszentrum Jülich. The monitors consist of four-section strip lines. Narrow-band super-heterodyne RF electronic equipment with automatic frequency and gain control measures the signals at the selected harmonic. A control module sequentially processes the signals and delivers calculated horizontal and vertical beam position data via a serial network to the computer control system. Eleven monitors have been installed in the transfer beam line be...

  4. Two-frequency heating technique at the 18 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source of the National Institute of Radiological Sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Biri, S; Muramatsu, M; Drentje, A G; Rácz, R; Yano, K; Kato, Y; Sasaki, N; Takasugi, W

    2015-01-01

    The two-frequency heating technique was studied to increase the beam intensities of highly charged ions provided by the high-voltage extraction configuration (HEC) ion source at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS). The observed dependences on microwave power and frequency suggested that this technique improved plasma stability but it required precise frequency tuning and more microwave power than was available before 2013. Recently, a new, high-power (1200 W) wide bandwidth (17.1-18.5 GHz) travelling-wave-tube amplifier (TWTA) was installed. After some single tests with klystron and TWT amplifiers the simultaneous injection of the two microwaves has been successfully realized. The dependence of highly charged ions (HCI) currents on the superposed microwave power was studied by changing only the output power of one of the two amplifiers, alternatively. While operating the klystron on its fixed 18.0 GHz, the frequency of the TWTA was swept within its full limits (17.1-18.5 GHz), and the effec...

  5. Influence of injection beam emittance on beam transmission efficiency in a cyclotron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurashima, Satoshi; Kashiwagi, Hirotsugu; Miyawaki, Nobumasa; Yoshida, Ken-Ichi; Okumura, Susumu

    2014-02-01

    The JAEA AVF cyclotron accelerates various kinds of high-energy ion beams for research in biotechnology and materials science. Beam intensities of an ion species of the order of 10(-9)-10(-6) ampere are often required for various experiments performed sequentially over a day. To provide ion beams with sufficient intensity and stability, an operator has to retune an ion source in a short time. However, the beam intensity downstream of the cyclotron rarely increases in proportion to the intensity at the ion source. To understand the cause of this beam behavior, transmission efficiencies of a (12)C(5+) beam from an electron cyclotron resonance ion source to the cyclotron were measured for various conditions of the ion source. Moreover, a feasible region for acceleration in the emittance of the injection beam was clarified using a transverse-acceptance measuring system. We confirmed that the beam emittance and profile were changed depending on the condition of the ion source and that matching between the beam emittance and the acceptance of the cyclotron was degraded. However, after fine-tuning to improve the matching, beam intensity downstream of the cyclotron increased.

  6. Cyclotron instabilities driven by temperature anisotropy in the solar wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noreen, N.; Yoon, P. H.; Zaheer, S.

    2017-10-01

    Kinetic plasma instabilities are important for regulating the temperature anisotropies of electrons and ions in solar wind. For the low beta regime, it is known that electromagnetic ion/electron cyclotron instabilities are important, but in the literature these unstable modes are discussed under the assumption of parallel propagation. The present paper extends the analysis to two (or with cylindrical symmetry, three) dimensions. The analysis is further extended to include quasilinear description with the assumption of the bi-Maxwellian velocity distribution function. Such an analysis lays the foundation for an eventual study in which cyclotron instabilities as well as obliquely propagating unstable modes such as the mirror instability are simultaneously taken into account. The present paper first lays down the basis for such future efforts in which the two- or three dimensional linear and quasilinear theories of cyclotron instabilities in the low beta regime are formulated.

  7. Space-charge compensation measurements in electron cyclotron resonance ion source low energy beam transport lines with a retarding field analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winklehner, D; Leitner, D; Cole, D; Machicoane, G; Tobos, L

    2014-02-01

    In this paper we describe the first systematic measurement of beam neutralization (space charge compensation) in the ECR low energy transport line with a retarding field analyzer, which can be used to measure the potential of the beam. Expected trends for the space charge compensation levels such as increase with residual gas pressure, beam current, and beam density could be observed. However, the overall levels of neutralization are consistently low (<60%). The results and the processes involved for neutralizing ion beams are discussed for conditions typical for ECR injector beam lines. The results are compared to a simple theoretical beam plasma model as well as simulations.

  8. Harmonic generation in laser-produced plasmas containing atoms, ions and clusters: a review. JMO Series: Attosecond and Strong Field Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganeev, R. A.

    2012-03-01

    A review of studies of the high-order harmonic generation of laser radiation in laser-produced plasma revealed recent developments in this field. These include new approaches in application of two-colour pumps, generation of extremely broadened harmonics, further developments in harmonic generation in clusters (fullerenes, carbon nanotubes), destructive interference of harmonics from different emitters, new approaches in resonance-induced enhancement of harmonics, applications of high pulse repetition rate lasers for the enhancement of average power of generating harmonics and observation of quantum path signatures, etc. We show that this method of frequency conversion of laser radiation towards the extreme ultraviolet range became mature during multiple sets of studies carried out in many laboratories worldwide and demonstrated new approaches in the generation of strong coherent short-wavelength radiation for various applications.

  9. Ammonia-treated N-(1-naphthyl) ethylenediamine dihydrochloride as a novel matrix for rapid quantitative and qualitative determination of serum free fatty acids by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yaping [Department of Biophysics and Structural Biology, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and School of Basic Medicine, Peking Union Medical College, 5 Dongdan San Tiao, Beijing 100005 (China); Wang, Yanmin [Department of Clinical Laboratory, Heze Municipal Hospital, Shandong (China); Guo, Shuai; Guo, Yumei; Liu, Hui [Department of Biophysics and Structural Biology, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and School of Basic Medicine, Peking Union Medical College, 5 Dongdan San Tiao, Beijing 100005 (China); Li, Zhili, E-mail: lizhili@ibms.pumc.edu.cn [Department of Biophysics and Structural Biology, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and School of Basic Medicine, Peking Union Medical College, 5 Dongdan San Tiao, Beijing 100005 (China)

    2013-09-10

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •A novel MALDI matrix for the detection of serum free fatty acids is ammonia-treated N-(1-naphthyl) ethylenediamine dihydrochloride. •Multiple point internal standard calibration curves were constructed for nine FFAs, respectively, with excellent correlation coefficients between 0.991 and 0.999. •The MALDI-MS approach was used to rapidly differentiate the patients with and without hyperglycemia and healthy controls. -- Abstract: The blood free fatty acids (FFAs), which provide energy to the cell and act as substrates in the synthesis of fats, lipoproteins, liposaccharides, and eicosanoids, involve in a number of important physiological processes. In the present study, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (MALDI-FTICR MS) with ammonia-treated N-(1-naphthyl) ethylenediamine dihydrochloride (ATNEDC) as a novel MALDI matrix in a negative ion mode was employed to directly quantify serum FFAs. Multiple point internal standard calibration curves between the concentration ratios of individual fatty acids to internal standard (IS, C{sub 17:0}) versus their corresponding intensity ratios were constructed for C{sub 14:0}, C{sub 16:1}, C{sub 16:0}, C{sub 18:0}, C{sub 18:1}, C{sub 18:2}, C{sub 18:3}, C{sub 20:4}, and C{sub 22:6}, respectively, in their mixture, with correlation coefficients between 0.991 and 0.999 and limits of detection (LODs) between 0.2 and 5.4 μM, along with the linear dynamic range of more than two orders of magnitude. The results indicate that the multiple point internal standard calibration could reduce the impact of ion suppression and improve quantification accuracy in the MALDI mode. The quantitative results of nine FFAs from 339 serum samples, including 161 healthy controls, 118 patients with hyperglycemia and 60 patients without hyperglycemia show that FFAs levels in hyperglycemic patient sera are significantly higher than those in healthy

  10. Transition From High Harmonic Fast Wave to Whistler/Helicon Regime in Tokamaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, S. P.; Pinsker, R. I.; Porkolab, M.

    2014-10-01

    Experiments are being prepared1 on DIII-D in which fast waves (FWs) at 0.5 GHz will be used to drive current noninductively in the mid-radius region. Previous DIII-D experiments used FWs at ~0.1 GHz to drive central current; in this work we examine the frequency dependence of wave propagation and damping in the 0.1-1.0 GHz range with the goal of identifying the optimum frequency range for a particular application. Strongly enhanced electron damping and reduced ion damping at higher frequencies must be weighed against increasing coupling difficulties at higher frequencies and more restrictive wave accessibility at low toroidal field. Wave propagation and accessibility is studied with ray tracing models in slab, cylindrical, and fully toroidal geometries. Analytic expressions for electron and ion damping will be derived with an emphasis on understanding the transition from the moderate-to-high ion cyclotron harmonic regime to the very high harmonic or ``whistler''/``helicon''/lower hybrid FW regime. Work supported in part by the National Undergraduate Fellowship Program in Plasma Physics and Fusion Energy Sciences and the US Department of Energy under DE-FC02-04ER54698.

  11. Study of microwave components for an electron cyclotron resonance ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Microwave system; microwave studio software; network analyser; electron cyclotron resonance ion source. ... of ∼13 eV was obtained. This article describes various aspects of the microwave system including design, fabrication, characterization and performance studies of the microwave components.

  12. Study of microwave components for an electron cyclotron resonance ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    rious aspects of the microwave system including design, fabrication, characterization and performance studies of the microwave components. Keywords. Microwave system; microwave studio software; network analyser; electron cyclotron resonance ion source. 1. Introduction. Microwave systems at 2.45 GHz have been ...

  13. Unstable plasma characteristics in mirror field electron cyclotron ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Electron cyclotron plasma reactor are prone to instabilities in specific input power [3–7] region (150–450 watts). In this region power absorption by gas molecules in the cavity is very poor and enhanced input power gets reflected substantially without increasing ion density. There are abrupt changes in plasma characteristics ...

  14. Observation of High-Frequency Electrostatic Waves in the Vicinity of the Reconnection Ion Diffusion Region by the Spacecraft of the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, M.; Ashour-Abdalla, M.; Berchem, J.; Walker, R. J.; Liang, H.; El-Alaoui, M.; Goldstein, M. L.; Lindqvist, P.-A.; Marklund, G.; Khotyaintsev, Y. V.; hide

    2016-01-01

    We report Magnetospheric Multiscale observations of high-frequency electrostatic waves in the vicinity of the reconnection ion diffusion region on the dayside magnetopause. The ion diffusion region is identified during two magnetopause crossings by the Hall electromagnetic fields, the slippage of ions with respect to the magnetic field, and magnetic energy dissipation. In addition to electron beam modes that have been previously detected at the separatrix on the magnetospheric side of the magnetopause, we report, for the first time, the existence of electron cyclotron harmonic waves at the magnetosheath separatrix. Broadband waves between the electron cyclotron and electron plasma frequencies, which were probably generated by electron beams, were found within the magnetopause current sheet. Contributions by these high-frequency waves to the magnetic energy dissipation were negligible in the diffusion regions as compared to those of lower-frequency waves.

  15. Cyclotrons and positron emitting radiopharmaceuticals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolf, A.P.; Fowler, J.S.

    1984-01-01

    The state of the art of Positron Emission Tomography (PET) technology as related to cyclotron use and radiopharmaceutical production is reviewed. The paper discusses available small cyclotrons, the positron emitters which can be produced and the yields possible, target design, and radiopharmaceutical development and application. 97 refs., 12 tabs. (ACR)

  16. Harmonic Analysis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Harish-Chandra, Gelfand and several other mathematicians and physicists, group-theoretic harmonic analysis is a flourishing industry today paving the way to new developments in the con- text of noncompact Lie groups as well as quantum groups. Since B(n, z) = zn the expansion (3) suggests a link between Fourier series.

  17. Harmonic Analysis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 10. Harmonic Analysis Fourier Series and Beyond. K R Parthasarathy. Book Review Volume 1 Issue 10 October 1996 pp 87-91. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/001/10/0087-0091 ...

  18. Harmonic generation in the generalized Sagdeev pseudopotential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari-Moghanjoughi, M.

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, we study the nonlinear harmonic generation effect in different oscillator models. For weakly nonlinear systems, we use the generalized forced Korteweg de Vries Burgers (KdVB) and modified KdVB (mKdVB) models in order to classify three fundamentally different harmonic structures in a nonlinear dynamical system. The first is called the internal harmonic structure which exists due to the self oscillation of the system in the absence of dissipation effect and is shown to follow either relations of nf or (2n - 1)f depending on the symmetry of oscillator potential in which n is an integer number and f is the fundamental frequency which is exactly obtained for the Helmholtz oscillator. The second structure is the resonant harmonics which appears in the presence of damping and follows the harmonic structure nf0 in which f0 is the linear resonance frequency. Finally, the last harmonic structure appears in the presence of dissipation and external periodic forcing effects which we call the external harmonic pattern. It is shown that the external harmonic pattern, in which f1 is the driving frequency, always follows the nf1 rule regardless of the potential symmetry. We then extend our analysis to study the harmonic generation in the fully nonlinear generalized Sagdeev potential for real plasmas with isothermal and adiabatic ion fluids and investigate the effects of different plasma parameters such as the fractional ion temperature and normalized ion acoustic speed on all three kinds of harmonic generation.

  19. Identification of water-soluble heavy crude oil organic-acids, bases, and neutrals by electrospray ionization and field desorption ionization fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford, Lateefah A; Kim, Sunghwan; Klein, Geoffrey C; Smith, Donald F; Rodgers, Ryan P; Marshall, Alan G

    2007-04-15

    We identify water-soluble (23 degrees C) crude oil NSO nonvolatile acidic, basic, and neutral crude oil hydrocarbons by negative-ion ESI and continuous flow FD FT-ICR MS at an average mass resolving power, m/deltam50% = 550,000. Of the 7000+ singly charged acidic species identified in South American crude oil, surprisingly, many are water-soluble, and much more so in pure water than in seawater. The truncated m/z distributions for water-soluble components exhibit preferential molecular weight, size, and heteroatom class influences on hydrocarbon solubility. Acidic water-soluble heteroatomic classes detected at >1% relative abundance include O, O2, O3, O4, OS, O2S, O3S, O4S, NO2, NO3, and NO4. Parent oil class abundance does not directly relate to abundance in the water-soluble fraction. Acidic oxygen-containing classes are most prevalent in the water-solubles, whereas acidic nitrogen-containing species are least soluble. In contrast to acidic nitrogen-containing heteroatomic classes, basic nitrogen classes are water-soluble. Water-soluble heteroatomic basic classes detected at >1% relative abundance include N, NO, NO2, NS, NS2, NOS, NO2S, N2, N2O, N2O2, OS, O2S, and O2S2.

  20. Dephosphorylation of intact glycoprotein to greatly improve digestion efficiency coupled with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fenjie; Wang, Xiaodong; Liu, Yujie; Liu, Hui; Li, Zhili

    2013-07-17

    Sialylation is essential for a variety of cellular functions. Herein, we used bovine fetuin with three potential N-linked glycosylation sites containing complex-type glycan structures, four potential O-linked glycosylation sites and six potential phosphorylation sites as a model compound to develop a highly-efficient digestion strategy for sialylated glycoproteins and efficient enrichment strategy for sialylated glycopeptides using titanium dioxide. The former according to the process of alkaline phosphatase digestion followed by tryptic digestion and then proteinase K digestion could greatly improve the enzymatic efficiency on fetuin, and the latter could obviously enhance the enrichment efficiency for multisialylated glycopeptides using phosphoric acid solution as elution buffer. The mass spectra of the enriched glycopeptides derived from fetuin reveal that several series of the ion clusters with mass difference of 291 Da correspond to the presence of multisialylated glycopeptides. In addition, the approach was applied to characterize the sialylated status of α2-macroglobulin and transferrin, respectively, from the sera of healthy subjects and sex- and age-matched patients with thyroid cancer, and their spectra indicate that the change in the amount of the glycoforms containing different number of sialic acid (SA) residues from one glycosylation site may be used to differentiate between healthy subjects and cancer cases. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Discrete-Spectrum Waves in the Vicinity of Cyclotron Resonance in Silver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsen, J. O.

    1970-01-01

    Cyclotron-resonance studies of silver have revealed two additional series of oscillations, one between the fundamental and the second harmonic, the other above the fundamental resonance. These series are caused by the excitation of weakly damped discrete-spectrum waves propagating perpendicular...

  2. Electromagnetic cyclotron waves near the proton cyclotron frequency in the solar wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Lan K.; Boardsen, Scott; Moya, Pablo; Stevens, Michael; Alexander, Robert; Vinas, Adolfo

    2015-04-01

    Strong narrow-band electromagnetic waves around the proton cyclotron frequency (fpc) have been found sporadically in the solar wind from 0.3 to 0.7 AU during MESSENGER spacecraft’s cruise phase. These waves are transverse and circularly polarized, and they propagate in directions quasi-parallel to the magnetic field. The wave power decreases quadratically with heliocentric distance, faster than the trend if assuming the conservation of Poynting flux for wave packets, suggesting there is energy dissipation from the waves, which could contribute to the heating and acceleration of solar wind plasma. Although the wave frequency is a few times of fpc in the spacecraft frame, it is a fraction of fpc in the solar wind plasma frame after removing the Doppler shift effect. In this frequency range, the waves can be left-hand (LH) polarized ion cyclotron waves or right-hand (RH) polarized magnetosonic waves. Because the waves are LH or RH polarized in the spacecraft frame with otherwise nearly identical characteristics, they could be due to Doppler shift of a same type of waves or a mixture of waves with intrinsically different polarizations. Through the assistance of audification, we have studied the long-lasting wave events in 2005 using high-cadence magnetic field data from the Wind mission. Statistically, in contrast with general solar wind, the protons at these waves are distributed closer to the proton instability thresholds, while the alpha particles at these waves are distributed further away from the alpha instability thresholds. For selected events of extensive waves, the ion distribution is analyzed in detail. A mixture of temperature anisotropies for core protons, beam protons, and alpha particles, as well as proton beam drift are often found in such events. We conduct linear wave dispersion analysis using these ion moments to examine whether these waves can be explained by the local generation of kinetic instabilities such as the LH ion cyclotron, the RH

  3. Ion–Cyclotron Resonance Frequency Interval Dependence on the O ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The frequency intervals in which O VI ions get in resonance with ion–cyclotron waves are calculated using the kinetic model, for the latest six values found in literature on O VI ion number densities in the 1.5–3 region of the NPCH. It is found that the common resonance interval is 1.5 kHz to 3 kHz. The -variations of wave ...

  4. Harmonic engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Charles L [Livermore, CA

    2009-10-20

    A high efficiency harmonic engine based on a resonantly reciprocating piston expander that extracts work from heat and pressurizes working fluid in a reciprocating piston compressor. The engine preferably includes harmonic oscillator valves capable of oscillating at a resonant frequency for controlling the flow of working fluid into and out of the expander, and also preferably includes a shunt line connecting an expansion chamber of the expander to a buffer chamber of the expander for minimizing pressure variations in the fluidic circuit of the engine. The engine is especially designed to operate with very high temperature input to the expander and very low temperature input to the compressor, to produce very high thermal conversion efficiency.

  5. Effect of ion compensation of the beam space charge on gyrotron operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fokin, A. P.; Glyavin, M. Yu. [Institute of Applied Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Nizhny Novgorod 603950 (Russian Federation); Nusinovich, G. S. [Institute for Research in Electronics and Applied Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742-3511 (United States)

    2015-04-15

    In gyrotrons, the coherent radiation of electromagnetic waves takes place when the cyclotron resonance condition between the wave frequency and the electron cyclotron frequency or its harmonic holds. The voltage depression caused by the beam space charge field changes the relativistic cyclotron frequency and, hence, can play an important role in the beam-wave interaction process. In long pulse and continuous-wave regimes, the beam space charge field can be partially compensated by the ions, which appear due to the beam impact ionization of neutral molecules of residual gases in the interaction space. In the present paper, the role of this ion compensation of the beam space charge on the interaction efficiency is analyzed. We also analyze the effect of the electron velocity spread on the limiting currents and discuss some effects restricting the ion-to-beam electron density ratio in the saturation stage. It is shown that the effect of the ion compensation on the voltage depression caused by the beam space charge field can cause significant changes in the efficiency of gyrotron operation and, in some cases, even result in the break of oscillations.

  6. Gyro-viscosity and linear dispersion relations in pair-ion magnetized plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kono, M. [Faculty of Policy Studies, Chuo University, Tokyo 192-0393 (Japan); Vranjes, J. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, Tenerife E38205 (Spain); Departamento de Astrofisica, Universidad de La Laguna, Tenerife E38205 (Spain)

    2015-11-15

    A fluid theory has been developed by taking account of gyro-viscosity to study wave propagation characteristics in a homogeneous pair-ion magnetized plasma with a cylindrical symmetry. The exact dispersion relations derived by the Hankel-Fourier transformation are shown comparable with those observed in the experiment by Oohara and co-workers. The gyro-viscosity is responsible for the change in propagation characteristics of the ion cyclotron wave from forward to backward by suppressing the effect of the thermal pressure which normally causes the forward nature of dispersion. Although the experiment has been already explained by a kinetic theory by the present authors, the kinetic derivations are so involved because of exact particle orbits in phase space, finite Lamor radius effects, and higher order ion cyclotron resonances. The present fluid theory provides a simple and transparent structure to the dispersion relations since the gyro-viscosity is renormalized into the ion cyclotron frequency which itself indicates the backward nature of dispersion. The usual disadvantage of a fluid theory, which treats only fundamental modes of eigen-waves excited in a system and is not able to describe higher harmonics that a kinetic theory does, is compensated by simple derivations and clear picture based on the renormalization of the gyro-viscosity.

  7. The development of technology for the improvement of cyclotron performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chai, Jong Seo; Kim, Y. S.; Ha, J. H.; Lee, M. Y.; Lee, H. S

    1999-05-01

    We show the first-order beam optics theory which is a simplified theory that can be used to carry out the initial design of a cyclotron. Based on this, a computer program has been developed to determine main cyclotron parameters such as number of magnet sectors, sector angle, hill and valley fields, and overall size of the cyclotron etc. We then show the result of two-dimensional magnetic field calculation using POISSON program. By using this program, one can determine magnet yoke geometry and the average magnetic fields etc. Finally, the three-dimensional computer program OPERA-3D had been invoked to determine magnet pole tips (i.e. sector). Validity of the design can be seen by investigating magnetic fields, radial and vertical focusing frequencies as a function of the beam energy. In this report, we show the results of cyclotron magnet design. And we designed 72 MHz RF system and ion source system. We tested RF resonance each coupling methods. We show the result of RF design and prototype operation. Our developed ion source is PIG type. We described our design methods and implementation. We report the result of getting negative hydrogen ion.

  8. Ion transport from plasma ion source at ISOLTRAP

    CERN Document Server

    Steinsberger, Timo Pascal

    2017-01-01

    In this report, my work as CERN Summer Student at the ISOLTRAP experiment at ISOLDE is described. A new plasma ion source used as oine source for calibration and implemented before my arrival was commissioned and transportation settings for the produced ions to the ion traps were found. The cyclotron frequencies of 40Ar and the xenon isotopes 129-132Xe were measured using time-of-flight and phase-imaging ion-cyclotron-resonance mass spectroscopy.

  9. Intense Harmonic Emissions Observed in Saturn's Ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaiman, A. H.; Kurth, W. S.; Persoon, A. M.; Menietti, J. D.; Farrell, W. M.; Ye, S.-Y.; Hospodarsky, G. B.; Gurnett, D. A.; Hadid, L. Z.

    2017-12-01

    The Cassini spacecraft's first Grand Finale orbit was carried out in April 2017. This set of 22 orbits had an inclination of 63° with a periapsis grazing Saturn's ionosphere, thus providing unprecedented coverage and proximity to the planet. Cassini's Radio and Plasma Wave Science instrument repeatedly detected intense electrostatic waves and their harmonics near closest approach in the dayside equatorial topside ionosphere. The fundamental modes were found to both scale and trend best with the H+ plasma or lower hybrid frequencies, depending on the plasma composition considered. The fine-structured harmonics are unlike previous observations, which scale with cyclotron frequencies. We explore their generation mechanism and show strong evidence of their association with whistler mode waves, consistent with theory. The possibility of Cassini's presence in the ionosphere influencing the resonance and harmonics is discussed. Given their link to the lower hybrid frequency, these emissions may offer clues to constraining Saturn's ionospheric properties.

  10. Self-consistent calculation of the effects of RF injection in the HHFW heating regimes on the evolution of fast ions in toroidal plasmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertelli Nicola

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A critical question for the use of ion cyclotron range of frequency (ICRF heating in the ITER device and beyond is interaction of fast waves with energetic ion populations from neutral beam injection (NBI, fusion reactions, and minority ions accelerated by the RF waves themselves. Several experiments have demonstrated that the interaction between fast waves and fast ions can indeed be strong enough to significantly modify the NB ion population. To model the RF/fast ion interaction and the resulting fast ion distribution, a recent extension of the full wave solver TORIC v.5 that includes non-Maxwellian effects has been combined with the Monte Carlo NUBEAM code through an RF “kick” operator. In this work, we present an initial verification of the NUBEAM RF “kick” operator for high harmonic fast wave (HHFW heating regime in NSTX plasma.

  11. Resonant second harmonic generation of a Gaussian electromagnetic beam in a collisional magnetoplasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Sukhdeep; Sharma, A. K.; Salih, Hyder A.

    2009-04-01

    Second harmonic generation of a right circularly polarized Gaussian electromagnetic beam in a magnetized plasma is investigated. The beam causes Ohmic heating of electrons and subsequent redistribution of the plasma, leading to self-defocusing. The radial density gradient, in conjunction with the oscillatory electron velocity, produces density oscillation at the wave frequency. The density oscillation beats with the oscillatory velocity to produce second harmonic current density, giving rise to resonant second harmonic radiation when the wave frequency is one-third of electron cyclotron frequency. The second harmonic field has azimuthal dependence as exp(iθ). The self-defocusing causes a reduction in the efficiency of harmonic generation.

  12. EC-5 fifth international workshop on electron cyclotron emission and electron cyclotron heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prater, R.; Lohr, J. [eds.

    1985-12-31

    This report contains papers on the following topics: electron cyclotron emission measurements; electron cyclotron emission theory; electron cyclotron heating; gyrotron development; and ECH systems and waveguide development. These paper have been indexed separately elsewhere. (LSP).

  13. Advanced characterisation of organic matter in oil sands and tailings sands used for land reclamation by Fourier transform-ion cyclotron resonance-mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noah, M.; Vieth-Hillebrand, A.; Wilkes, H.

    2012-04-01

    subsequent separation into asphaltenes, aliphatic hydrocarbons, aromatic hydrocarbons, neutral nitrogen, sulphur, oxygen (NSO) compounds and carboxylic acids. The asphaltene fractions are analysed using pyrolysis-GC, all other fractions are analysed by GC-MS. Additionally Fourier transform-ion cyclotron resonance-mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS) is used to study the chemical composition of the samples on the molecular level using different ionisation methods.

  14. Cyclotron for Beam Therapy Application

    CERN Document Server

    Alenitsky, Yu G; Karamysheva, G A; Kostromin, S A; Mitsyn, G V; Molokanov, A G; Onishchenko, L M; Samsonov, E V; Vorozhtsov, S B; Zaplatin, N L

    2005-01-01

    The basic parameters of the proton isochronous cyclotron on the fixed energy are considered. The energy of protons is $E_{p}\\sim $ 220~MeV, intensity of the extracted beam is $I_{p}\\sim $ 0.1~$\\mu$A. The cyclotron is projected on the basis of compact magnet with four sectors and the diameter of poles 300 cm. Two dees of the accelerating system are located in valleys.

  15. Harmonic engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Charles L.; Sewall, Noel; Boroa, Carl

    2014-08-19

    An engine based on a reciprocating piston engine that extracts work from pressurized working fluid. The engine includes a harmonic oscillator inlet valve capable of oscillating at a resonant frequency for controlling the flow of working fluid into of the engine. In particular, the inlet valve includes an inlet valve head and a spring arranged together as a harmonic oscillator so that the inlet valve head is moveable from an unbiased equilibrium position to a biased closed position occluding an inlet. Upon releasing the inlet valve the inlet valve head undergoes a single oscillation past the equilibrium positio to a maximum open position and returns to a biased return position close to the closed position to choke the flow and produce a pressure drop across the inlet valve causing the inlet valve to close. Protrusions carried either by the inlet valve head or piston head are used to bump open the inlet valve from the closed position and initiate the single oscillation of the inlet valve head, and protrusions carried either by the outlet valve head or piston head are used to close the outlet valve ahead of the bump opening of the inlet valve.

  16. Ion cyclotron resonance heating system on Aditya

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Duration of 500 ms is sufficient for operation on Aditya, however, the same system feeds the final stage of the 1·5 MW ICRH system being prepared for the steady-state superconducting tokamak (SST-1) for a duration of 1000 s. Radio frequency (RF) power (225 kW) has been generated and successfully tested on a dummy ...

  17. High-throughput and high-sensitivity quantitative analysis of serum unsaturated fatty acids by chip-based nanoelectrospray ionization-Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry: early stage diagnostic biomarkers of pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yaping; Qiu, Ling; Wang, Yanmin; Qin, Xuzhen; Li, Zhili

    2014-04-07

    In this study, Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICR MS) coupled with chip-based direct-infusion nanoelectrospray ionization source (CBDInanoESI) in a negative ion mode is first employed to evaluate the effect of serum and its corresponding supernatant matrixes on the recoveries of serum free fatty acids (FFAs) based on spike-and-recovery experimental strategy by adding analytes along with analog internal standard (IS). The recoveries between serum (69.8-115.6%) and the supernatant (73.6-99.0%) matrixes are almost identical. Multiple point internal standard calibration curves between the concentration ratios of individual fatty acids to ISs, (C(17:1) as IS of C(16:1), C(18:3), C(18:2), or C(18:1) or C(21:0) as IS of C(20:4) or C(22:6)) versus their corresponding intensity ratios were constructed for C(16:1), C(18:3), C(18:2), C(18:1), C(20:4) and C(22:6), respectively, with correlation coefficients of greater than 0.99, lower limits of detection between 0.3 and 1.8 nM, and intra- and inter-day precision (relative standard deviations <18%), along with the linear dynamic range of three orders of magnitude. Sequentially, this advanced analytical platform was applied to perform simultaneous quantitative and qualitative analysis of multiple targets, e.g., serum supernatant unsaturated FFAs from 361 participants including 95 patients with pancreatic cancer (PC), 61 patients with pancreatitis and 205 healthy controls. Experimental results indicate that the levels of C(18:1), C(18:2), C(18:3), C(20:4) and C(22:6), as well as the level ratios of C(18:2)/C(18:1) and C(18:3)/C(18:1) of the PC patients were significantly decreased compared with those of healthy controls and the patients with pancreatitis (p < 0.01). It is worth noting that the ratio of C(18:2)/C(18:1), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) (C(18:2), C(18:3), C(20:4), and C(22:6)), panel a (C(16:1), C(18:3), C(18:2), C(20:4) and C(22:6)) and panel b (C(18:2)/C(18:1) and C(18:3)/C(18

  18. Multicavity proton cyclotron accelerator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Hirshfield

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available A mechanism for acceleration of protons is described, in which energy gain occurs near cyclotron resonance as protons drift through a sequence of rotating-mode TE_{111} cylindrical cavities in a strong nearly uniform axial magnetic field. Cavity resonance frequencies decrease in sequence from one another with a fixed frequency interval Δf between cavities, so that synchronism can be maintained between the rf fields and proton bunches injected at intervals of 1/Δf. An example is presented in which a 122 mA, 1 MeV proton beam is accelerated to 961 MeV using a cascade of eight cavities in an 8.1 T magnetic field, with the first cavity resonant at 120 MHz and with Δf=8 MHz. Average acceleration gradient exceeds 40 MV/m, average effective shunt impedance is 223 MΩ/m, but maximum surface field in the cavities does not exceed 7.2 MV/m. These features occur because protons make many orbital turns in each cavity and thus experience acceleration from each cavity field many times. Longitudinal and transverse stability appear to be intrinsic properties of the acceleration mechanism, and an example to illustrate this is presented. This acceleration concept could be developed into a proton accelerator for a high-power neutron spallation source, such as that required for transmutation of nuclear waste or driving a subcritical fission burner, provided a number of significant practical issues can be addressed.

  19. Harmonic analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Helson, Henry

    2010-01-01

    This second edition has been enlarged and considerably rewritten. Among the new topics are infinite product spaces with applications to probability, disintegration of measures on product spaces, positive definite functions on the line, and additional information about Weyl's theorems on equidistribution. Topics that have continued from the first edition include Minkowski's theorem, measures with bounded powers, idempotent measures, spectral sets of bounded functions and a theorem of Szego, and the Wiener Tauberian theorem. Readers of the book should have studied the Lebesgue integral, the elementary theory of analytic and harmonic functions, and the basic theory of Banach spaces. The treatment is classical and as simple as possible. This is an instructional book, not a treatise. Mathematics students interested in analysis will find here what they need to know about Fourier analysis. Physicists and others can use the book as a reference for more advanced topics.

  20. First results of electron cyclotron emission measurements at the GDT magnetic mirror

    CERN Document Server

    Shalashov, A G; Gospodchikov, E D; Lubyako, L V; Yakovlev, D V; Bagryansky, P A

    2016-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of experiments on electron cyclotron emission (ECE) measurements at the fundamental harmonic recently performed at the axially symmetric magnetic mirror device GDT (Budker Institute, Novosibirsk). New ECE diagnostics is installed to facilitate the successful electron cyclotron resonance heating experiment and operates in the vicinity of the heating frequency of 54.5 GHz. Besides expected emission of thermal electrons, a clearly resolved non-thermal ECE is observed indicating the presence of suprathermal electrons driven by high-power microwave heating. The particulars of plasma emission are studied experimentally in a broad range of discharge scenarios.

  1. Destabilization of Fast Magnetoacoustic Waves by Circulating Energetic Ions in Toroidal Plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    V.S. Belikov; Ya. I. Kolesnichenko; R. B. White

    2003-08-21

    An instability of fast magnetoacoustic waves (FMW) driven by circulating energetic ions in axisymmetric toroidal plasmas and characterized by the frequencies below the ion gyrofrequency is considered. An important role of the l=0 resonance (l is the number of a cyclotron harmonic) in the wave-particle interaction is revealed: It is shown that this resonance considerably extends an unstable region in the space of the pitch-angles of the energetic ions and the wave frequencies. The analysis is carried out for a ''slow'' instability, which has the growth rate less than the bounce frequency of the energetic ions. Specific examples relevant to the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) [J. Spitzer et al., Fusion Technol. 30 (1996) 1337], where instabilities of this kind were observed, are considered.

  2. Bi-directional Alfv\\'en Cyclotron Instabilities in the Mega-Amp Spherical Tokamak

    CERN Document Server

    Sharapov, S E; Akers, R; Ayed, N Ben; Cecconello, M; Cook, J W C; Cunningham, G; Verwichte, E; Tea, the MAST

    2014-01-01

    Alfv\\'en cyclotron instabilities excited by velocity gradients of energetic beam ions were investigated in MAST experiments with super-Alfv\\'enic NBI over a wide range of toroidal magnetic fields from ~0.34 T to ~0.585 T. In MAST discharges with high magnetic field, a discrete spectrum of modes in the sub-cyclotron frequency range is excited toroidally propagating counter to the beam and plasma current (toroidal mode numbers n < 0).

  3. Phononic High Harmonic Generation

    OpenAIRE

    Ganesan, Adarsh; Do, Cuong; Seshia, Ashwin A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports the first experimental evidence for phononic low-order to high-order harmonic conversion leading to high harmonic generation. Similar to parametric resonance, phononic high harmonic generation is also mediated by a threshold dependent instability of a driven phonon mode. Once the threshold for instability is met, a cascade of harmonic generation processes is triggered. Firstly, the up-conversion of first harmonic phonons into second harmonic phonons is established. Subseque...

  4. Practical aspects of trapped ion mass spectrometry, 5 applications of ion trapping devices

    CERN Document Server

    March, Raymond E

    2009-01-01

    Examines ion/neutral and ion/ion reactions, ion spectroscopy, and the structural characterization of proteins and peptides using quadropole ion trap mass spectrometry, Fourier transform - ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometry, and traveling wave ion mobility mass spectrometry.

  5. Converting an AEG Cyclotron to H- Acceleration and Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Fred; Carroll, Lewis; Rathmann, Tom; Huenges, Ernst; Bechtold, Matthias Mentler Volker

    2009-03-01

    Clinical Trials are under way to evaluate agents labeled with the nuclide 225Ac and its decay product 213Bi, in targeted alpha-immuno-therapy [1]. 225Ac can be produced on a medium-energy cyclotron via the nuclear reaction 226Ra(p,n)225Ac. To demonstrate proof-of-principle, a vintage AEG cyclotron, Model E33 [2], with an internal target, had been employed in a pilot production program at the Technical University of Munich (TUM). To enhance production capability and further support the clinical studies, the TUM facility has recently been refurbished and upgraded, adding a new external beam-line, automated target irradiation and transport systems, new laboratories, hot cells, etc. [3]. An improved high-power rotating target has been built and installed [4]. The AEG cyclotron itself has also been modified and upgraded to accelerate and extract H- ions. We have designed, built, and tested a new axial Penning-type ion source which is optimized for the production of H- ions. The ion source has continued to evolve through experiment and experience. Steady improvements in materials and mechanics have led to enhanced source stability, life-time, and H- production. We have also designed and built a precision H- charge-exchange beam-extraction system which is equipped with a vacuum lock. To fit within the tight mechanical constraint imposed by the narrow magnet gap, the system incorporates a novel chain-drive foil holder and foil-changer mechanism. The reconfigured cyclotron system has now been in operation for more than 1 year. Three long-duration target irradiations have been conducted. The most recent bombardment ran 160 continuous hours at a beam on target of ˜80 microamperes for a total yield of ˜70 milli-curies of 225Ac.

  6. MC-50 AVF cyclotron operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chae, Jong Seo; Lee, Dong Hoon; Kim, You Seok; Park, Chan Won; Lee, Yong Min; Hong, Sung Seok; Lee, Min Yong

    1995-12-01

    The first cyclotron in Korea, MC-59 cyclotron is used for neutron irradiation, radionuclide development, production and material and biomedical research. 50.5MeV and 35MeV proton beam have been extracted with 20-70 .mu.A. A total of beam extraction time are 1095.7 hours. 206.5 hours are used for the developments and 663.8 hours are for radionuclide production and development and 225.4 hours for application researches. The shutdown days are 23days. Fundamental data for failure decrement and efficient beam extraction were composed and maintenance technologies were developed. (author). 8 tabs., 17 figs., 10 refs.

  7. MC-50 AVF cyclotron operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yu Seok; Chai, Jong Seo; Bak, Seong Ki; Park, Chan Won; Jo, Young Ho; Hong, Seong Seok; Lee, Min Yong; Jang Ho Ha

    2000-01-01

    The first cyclotron in Korea, MC-50 cyclotron is used for neutron irradiation, radionuclide development, production and material and biomedical research. 50.5MeV and 35MeV proton beam have been extracted with 20-60{mu}A. A total of beam extraction time are 1095.7 hours. 206.5 hours are used for the developments and 663.8 hours are for radionuclide production and development and 225.4 hours for application researches. The shutdown days are 23 days. Fundamental data for failure decrement and efficient beam extraction were composed and maintenance technologies were developed.

  8. Comparison between off-resonance and electron Bernstein waves heating regime in a microwave discharge ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, G.; Di Giugno, R.; Miracoli, R. [INFN- Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Universita degli Studi di Catania, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, V. S. Sofia 64, 95123 Catania (Italy); Mascali, D. [INFN- Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); CSFNSM, Viale A. Doria 6, 95125 Catania (Italy); Romano, F. P. [INFN- Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); CNR-IBAM Via Biblioteca 4, 95124 Catania (Italy); Celona, L.; Gammino, S.; Lanaia, D.; Ciavola, G. [INFN- Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Serafino, T. [CSFNSM, Viale A. Doria 6, 95125 Catania (Italy); Di Bartolo, F. [Universita di Messina, Ctr. da Papardo-Sperone, 98100 Messina (Italy); Gambino, N. [INFN- Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Universita degli Studi di Catania, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, V. S. Sofia 64, 95123 Catania (Italy); IET-Institute of Energy Technology, LEC-Laboratory for Energy Conversion, ETH Zurich, Sonneggstrasse 3, CH-8092 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2012-02-15

    A microwave discharge ion source (MDIS) operating at the Laboratori Nazionali del Sud of INFN, Catania has been used to compare the traditional electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) heating with an innovative mechanisms of plasma ignition based on the electrostatic Bernstein waves (EBW). EBW are obtained via the inner plasma electromagnetic-to-electrostatic wave conversion and they are absorbed by the plasma at cyclotron resonance harmonics. The heating of plasma by means of EBW at particular frequencies enabled us to reach densities much larger than the cutoff ones. Evidences of EBW generation and absorption together with X-ray emissions due to high energy electrons will be shown. A characterization of the discharge heating process in MDISs as a generalization of the ECR heating mechanism by means of ray tracing will be shown in order to highlight the fundamental physical differences between ECR and EBW heating.

  9. Large second-harmonic generation in thermally poled silica waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arentoft, Jesper; Kristensen, Martin; Pedersen, K.

    2001-01-01

    We report the observation of very large second-harmonic signals from thermally poled silica waveguide samples. Secondary ion mass spectrometry measurements show that significant amounts of silver ions are injected from the top electrode during poling.......We report the observation of very large second-harmonic signals from thermally poled silica waveguide samples. Secondary ion mass spectrometry measurements show that significant amounts of silver ions are injected from the top electrode during poling....

  10. Modern compact accelerators of cyclotron type for medical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, V.; Vorozhtsov, S.

    2016-09-01

    Ion beam therapy and hadron therapy are types of external beam radiotherapy. Recently, the vast majority of patients have been treated with protons and carbon ions. Typically, the types of accelerators used for therapy were cyclotrons and synchrocyclotrons. It is intuitively clear that a compact facility fits best to a hospital environment intended for particle therapy and medical diagnostics. Another criterion for selection of accelerators to be mentioned in this article is application of superconducting technology to the magnetic system design of the facility. Compact isochronous cyclotrons, which accelerate protons in the energy range 9-30 MeV, have been widely used for production of radionuclides. Energy of 230 MeV has become canonical for all proton therapy accelerators. Similar application of a carbon beam requires ion energy of 430 MeV/u. Due to application of superconducting coils the magnetic field in these machines can reach 4-5 T and even 9 T in some cases. Medical cyclotrons with an ironless or nearly ironless magnetic system that have a number of advantages over the classical accelerators are in the development stage. In this work an attempt is made to describe some conceptual and technical features of modern accelerators under consideration. The emphasis is placed on the magnetic and acceleration systems along with the beam extraction unit, which are very important from the point of view of the facility compactness and compliance with the strict medical requirements.

  11. Jets, Mach cones, hot spots, ridges, harmonic flow, dihadron, and γ-hadron correlations in high-energy heavy-ion collisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Guo-Liang; Wang, Xin-Nian

    2011-04-22

    Within the AMPT Monte Carlo model, fluctuations in the initial transverse parton density are shown to lead to harmonic flows. The net back-to-back dihadron azimuthal correlation after subtraction of contributions from harmonic flows still has a double peak that is independent of the initial geometric triangularity and unique to the jet-induced Mach cone and expanding hot spots distorted by radial flow. The longitudinal structure of hot spots also leads to a nearside ridge in dihadron correlation with a large rapidity gap. By successively randomizing the azimuthal angle of the transverse momenta and positions of initial partons, one can isolate the effects of jet-induced medium excitation and expanding hot spots on the dihadron azimuthal correlation. The double peaks in the net dihadron and γ-hadron correlation are quantitatively different since the later is caused only by jet-induced Mach cone.

  12. Theory of anomalous backscattering in second harmonic X-mode ECRH experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gusakov, E. Z.; Popov, A. Yu. [Ioffe Institute, 26 Polytekhnicheskaya st., St. Petersburg 194021 (Russian Federation)

    2016-08-15

    A quantitative model explaining generation of the anomalous backscattering signal in the second harmonic X-mode electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) experiments at TEXTOR tokamak as a secondary nonlinear process which accompanies a primary low-threshold parametric decay instability (PDI) leading to excitation of two—upper hybrid (UH)—plasmons trapped in plasma is developed. The primary absolute PDI enhancing the UH wave fluctuations from the thermal noise level is supposed to be saturated due to a cascade of secondary low-threshold decays of the daughter UH wave leading to excitation of the secondary UH waves down-shifted in frequency and the ion Bernstein wave. A set of equations describing the cascade is derived and solved numerically. The results of numerical modelling are shown to be in agreement with the analytical estimations of the growth rate of the initial and secondary parametric decays and the saturation level. The generation of backscattering signal is explained by coupling of the daughter UH waves. The fine details of the frequency spectrum of the anomalously reflected extraordinary wave and the absolute value of the observed backscattering signal in the second harmonic X-mode ECRH experiments at TEXTOR are reproduced.

  13. Comparison of collective Thomson scattering signals due to fast ions in ITER scenarios with fusion and auxiliary heating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salewski, Mirko; Asunta, O.; Eriksson, L.-G.

    2009-01-01

    Auxiliary heating such as neutral beam injection (NBI) and ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) will accelerate ions in ITER up to energies in the MeV range, i.e. energies which are also typical for alpha particles. Fast ions of any of these populations will elevate the collective Thomson...... is chosen such that near perpendicular and near parallel velocity components are resolved. In the investigated ICRH scenario, waves at 50MHz resonate with tritium at the second harmonic off-axis on the low field side. Effects of a minority heating scheme with He-3 are also considered. CTS scattering...... functions for fast deuterons, fast tritons, fast He-3 and the fusion born alphas are presented, revealing that fusion alphas dominate the measurable signal by an order of magnitude or more in the Doppler shift frequency ranges typical for fast ions. Hence the observable CTS signal can mostly be attributed...

  14. HARMONIC DRIVE SELECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr FOLĘGA

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The variety of types and sizes currently in production harmonic drive is a problem in their rational choice. Properly selected harmonic drive must meet certain requirements during operation, and achieve the anticipated service life. The paper discusses the problems associated with the selection of the harmonic drive. It also presents the algorithm correct choice of harmonic drive. The main objective of this study was to develop a computer program that allows the correct choice of harmonic drive by developed algorithm.

  15. Realistic simulations of a cyclotron spiral inflector within a particle-in-cell framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winklehner, Daniel; Adelmann, Andreas; Gsell, Achim; Kaman, Tulin; Campo, Daniela

    2017-12-01

    We present an upgrade to the particle-in-cell ion beam simulation code opal that enables us to run highly realistic simulations of the spiral inflector system of a compact cyclotron. This upgrade includes a new geometry class and field solver that can handle the complicated boundary conditions posed by the electrode system in the central region of the cyclotron both in terms of particle termination, and calculation of self-fields. Results are benchmarked against the analytical solution of a coasting beam. As a practical example, the spiral inflector and the first revolution in a 1 MeV /amu test cyclotron, located at Best Cyclotron Systems, Inc., are modeled and compared to the simulation results. We find that opal can now handle arbitrary boundary geometries with relative ease. Simulated injection efficiencies and beam shape compare well with measured efficiencies and a preliminary measurement of the beam distribution after injection.

  16. Harmonic polynomials, hyperspherical harmonics, and atomic spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery, John Scales

    2010-01-01

    The properties of monomials, homogeneous polynomials and harmonic polynomials in d-dimensional spaces are discussed. The properties are shown to lead to formulas for the canonical decomposition of homogeneous polynomials and formulas for harmonic projection. Many important properties of spherical harmonics, Gegenbauer polynomials and hyperspherical harmonics follow from these formulas. Harmonic projection also provides alternative ways of treating angular momentum and generalised angular momentum. Several powerful theorems for angular integration and hyperangular integration can be derived in this way. These purely mathematical considerations have important physical applications because hyperspherical harmonics are related to Coulomb Sturmians through the Fock projection, and because both Sturmians and generalised Sturmians have shown themselves to be extremely useful in the quantum theory of atoms and molecules.

  17. Magnetic Cyclotron Waves near the Proton Cyclotron Frequency in the Solar Wind: Wind and ACE Observations in 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broiles, T. W.; Jian, L.; Stevens, M. L.; Gary, S. P.; Lepri, S. T.; Vinas, A. F.; Moya, P. S.; Alexander, R.

    2016-12-01

    Strong narrow-band electromagnetic waves near the proton cyclotron frequency (fpc) have been observed extensively in the solar wind throughout the inner heliosphere. They are transverse and near-circularly polarized, and propagate in directions quasi-parallel or anti-parallel to the magnetic field. Their frequency is a few times of fpc in the spacecraft frame and a fraction of fpc in the plasma frame after removing the Doppler shift effect. These waves are left-hand (LH) or right-hand (RH) polarized in the spacecraft frame with otherwise similar characteristics except LH ones appear more often and have higher wave power. Intrinsically they can be LH polarized Alfven-cyclotron waves or RH polarized magnetosonic waves. Through the assistance of audification, we have studied the long-lasting wave events near fpc in 2005 using the high-cadence magnetic field data and well-calibrated plasma data from the Wind mission. A mixture of temperature anisotropies for core protons, beam protons, and alpha particles, as well as proton beam drift are often found for selected events of extensive waves. The wave dispersion analysis using these ion moments indicate these waves are likely to be associated with unstable Alfven-cyclotron anisotropy instability or ion beam instability, and suggest there is a mixture of Alfven-cyclotron waves and magnetosonic waves in the solar wind. Using the conjunction of Wind and ACE spacecraft when they were within 50 Earth radii of each other, we study how often the two spacecraft observe the same waves and whether there is noticeable heating for heavy ions associated with these waves.

  18. Nonlocal weakly relativistic permittivity tensor of magnetized plasma near electron cyclotron resonances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakharov, A. S.

    2017-11-01

    Compact expressions are derived for the nonlocal permittivity tensor of weakly relativistic plasma in a 2D nonuniform magnetic field near the resonances at the second harmonic of the electron cyclotron frequency for an extraordinary wave and at the first harmonic for an ordinary wave. It is shown that the wave equation with allowance for the obtained thermal correction to the permittivity tensor in the form of a differential operator in transverse (with respect to the external magnetic field) coordinates possesses an integral in the form of the energy conservation law.

  19. Parametric decay instability of an obliquely propagating ordinary wave in the electron cyclotron frequency range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusakov, E. Z.; Popov, A. Yu.

    2018-01-01

    The possibility of the low-power-threshold parametric decay of an obliquely propagating ordinary wave to an upper hybrid wave and a low-hybrid wave is analysed under conditions of nonmonotonic plasma density profile in a magnetic trap. The instability threshold and growth rate are derived explicitly. The analytical results are illustrated under the conditions typical of the ordinary mode fundamental electron cyclotron resonance heating harmonic experiments at the FTU tokamak.

  20. Analysis of relay based valley coil system of K-130 Cyclotron and an approach to computer controlled system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shoor, B.

    2016-09-11

    To overcome the first harmonic field imperfection in sector focused cyclotron, a set of coils placed in valleys are used to produce an opposite first harmonic effect. Usually, at the time of beam tuning the phase of the first harmonic is varied using a relay system. It can be shown analytically that magnitude of it changes simultaneously, when phase is changed. This is not desirable at the time of beam tuning. Moreover phase changes in long steps, which hampers accuracy of beam tuning. To overcome this, a computer controlled system is suggested where amplitude remains constant at the time of phase change. Moreover, phase can be changed continuously which gives better tuning accuracy.

  1. Ion sheath effects on RF plasma probes - Experimental results in laboratory plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kist, R.

    1977-01-01

    Laboratory work dealing with the frequency characteristic of the plasma impedance of spherical and cylindrical electrode systems is reported. The influence of the ion sheath on various features of the impedance characteristic is emphasized. Those features are the series and parallel resonance as well as additional resonances due to the excitation of electroacoustic and cyclotron harmonic waves. The dependence of the series and parallel resonances on dc biasing leads to a method of determining the ion sheath capacity for a cylindrical electrode system. The obtained values agree fairly well with those obtained from a theoretical model for the density and potential distribution in the sheath of a cylindrical sensor aligned with a supersonic plasma flow. The amplitude of resonances due to excitation of longitudinal plasma waves (electroacoustic and cyclotron harmonic) is reduced or even vanishes for sufficiently negative dc bias. Positive bias first leads to an increased amplitude up to a certain dc bias value above which, however, the amplitude decreases again due to electron absorption at the sensor surface.

  2. Electromagnetic waves near the proton cyclotron frequency: Stereo observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jian, L. K. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Wei, H. Y.; Russell, C. T. [Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Luhmann, J. G. [Space Science Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Klecker, B. [Max-Planck-Institut für Extraterrestrische Physik, D-85741 Garching (Germany); Omidi, N. [Solana Scientific Inc., Solana Beach, CA 92075 (United States); Isenberg, P. A. [Institute for the Study of Earth, Oceans, and Space, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824 (United States); Goldstein, M. L.; Figueroa-Viñas, A. [Heliophysics Science Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, MD 20771 (United States); Blanco-Cano, X., E-mail: lan.jian@nasa.gov [Instituto de Geofisica, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Coyoacán D.F. (Mexico)

    2014-05-10

    Transverse, near-circularly polarized, parallel-propagating electromagnetic waves around the proton cyclotron frequency were found sporadically in the solar wind throughout the inner heliosphere. They could play an important role in heating and accelerating the solar wind. These low-frequency waves (LFWs) are intermittent but often occur in prolonged bursts lasting over 10 minutes, named 'LFW storms'. Through a comprehensive survey of them from Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory A using dynamic spectral wave analysis, we have identified 241 LFW storms in 2008, present 0.9% of the time. They are left-hand (LH) or right-hand (RH) polarized in the spacecraft frame with similar characteristics, probably due to Doppler shift of the same type of waves or waves of intrinsically different polarities. In rare cases, the opposite polarities are observed closely in time or even simultaneously. Having ruled out interplanetary coronal mass ejections, shocks, energetic particles, comets, planets, and interstellar ions as LFW sources, we discuss the remaining generation scenarios: LH ion cyclotron instability driven by greater perpendicular temperature than parallel temperature or by ring-beam distribution, and RH ion fire hose instability driven by inverse temperature anisotropy or by cool ion beams. The investigation of solar wind conditions is compromised by the bias of the one-dimensional Maxwellian fit used for plasma data calibration. However, the LFW storms are preferentially detected in rarefaction regions following fast winds and when the magnetic field is radial. This preference may be related to the ion cyclotron anisotropy instability in fast wind and the minimum in damping along the radial field.

  3. The 88-Inch Cyclotron: A One-Stop Facility for Electronics Radiation and Detector Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kireeff Covo, M.; Albright, R. A.; Ninemire, B. F.; Johnson, M. B.; Hodgkinson, A.; Loew, T.; Benitez, J. Y.; Todd, D. S.; Xie, D. Z.; Perry, T.; Phair, L.; Bernsteiny, L. A.; Bevins, J.; Brown, J. A.; Goldblum, B. L.; Harasty, M.; Harrig, K. P.; Laplace, T. A.; Matthews, E. F.; Bushmaker, A.; Walker, D.; Oklejas, V.; Hopkins, A. R.; Bleuel, D. L.; Chen, J.; Cronin, S. B.

    2017-10-01

    In outer space down to the altitudes routinely flown by larger aircrafts, radiation can pose serious issues for microelectronics circuits. The 88-Inch Cyclotron at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is a sector-focused cyclotron and home of the Berkeley Accelerator Space Effects Facility, where the effects of energetic particles on sensitive microelectronics are studied with the goal of designing electronic systems for the space community. This paper describes the flexibility of the facility and its capabilities for testing the bombardment of electronics by heavy ions, light ions, and neutrons. Experimental capabilities for the generation of neutron beams from deuteron breakups and radiation testing of carbon nanotube field effect transistor will be discussed.

  4. TRIUMF cyclotron vacuum system refurbishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekachev, I.

    2008-03-01

    The cyclotron at TRIUMF was commissioned to full energy in 1974. The volume of the cyclotron vacuum tank is about 100 m3 and it operates at 5×10-8 Torr pressure during beam production. The pumping is mainly based on a Phillips B-20 cryogenerator (Stirling cycle 4-cylinder engine). The cryogenerator supplies helium gas at 16 K and 70 K to cryopanels in the tank. The decreasing reliability of the B-20 and demanding maintenance requirements triggered the decision to completely overhaul or replace the cryogenerator. Replacement with the LINDE-1630 helium refrigerator was found to be the most attractive (technically and economically) option. The details of the proposal with installation of the helium refrigerator and with a continuous flow liquid nitrogen shield cooling system are presented.

  5. The development of cyclotron radiopharmaceuticals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Seung Dae; Chun, K. W.; Suh, Y. S.; Lee, J. D.; Ahn, S. H. and others

    1999-03-01

    The purpose of this project is to developthe radiopharmaceuticals and automatic synthetic unit for labelled compounds, and to establish mass production system of radiopharmaceuticals. These will contribute to the early diagnosis of the disease hard to cure. The contents of this project are as follows, the development of the radiopharmaceutical for imaging of cancer, the development of automatic synthesizer for the synthesis of radio-pharmaceuticals, the development of hormone derivatives labelled with {sup 12}'3I, the development of the radiopharmaceuticals for therapy of cancer labelled with cyclotron produced radionuclides, the development of radiopharmaceuticals for therapy of cancer labelled with cyclotron produced radionuclides, the development of radiopharmaceuticals for imaging of myocardial metabolism.

  6. Numerical Simulation Of The Beam Transmission Efficiency For Design Of Vacuum System Of The Dc-72 Cyclotron

    CERN Document Server

    Tikhomirov, A V; Gulbekyan, G G; Oganesyan, R T

    2004-01-01

    The results of a numerical modelling of the transmission efficiency of ion beams in conditions of ion recharge on the residual gas in the channel of the axial injection, in the cyclotron vacuum chamber, as well as in transport lines of accelerated beams are presented. The computer simulation programs GENAP and VACLOS have been developed and tested on the basis of experiments on four cyclotrons of heavy ions of the Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions. They estimate beam losses on the basis of calculations of pressure distributions in vacuum chambers of any arbitrary geometry and cross sections of a recharge of ions in exchange reactions by electrons with molecules of residual gas in a wide range of energies and masses of ions. The outcomes of simulation have provided determination of main parameters and technical requirements for the vacuum system of the DC-72 cyclotron.

  7. Electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves in the helium branch induced by multiple electromagnetic ion cyclotron triggered emissions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Shoji, M.; Omura, Y.; Grison, Benjamin; Pickett, J.; Dandouras, I.; Engebretson, M.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 38, - (2011), L17102/1-L17102/5 ISSN 0094-8276 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GPP209/11/P848 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : 1-2 MAGNETIC PULSATIONS * EQUATORIAL MAGNETOSPHERE * DISTRIBUTIONS * STORMS Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 3.792, year: 2011 http://www.agu.org/pubs/crossref/2011/2011GL048427.shtml

  8. Harmonic Morphisms Projecting Harmonic Functions to Harmonic Functions

    OpenAIRE

    Mustafa, M. T.

    2012-01-01

    For Riemannian manifolds $M$ and $N$ , admitting a submersion $\\varphi $ with compact fibres, we introduce the projection of a function via its decomposition intohorizontal and vertical components. By comparing the Laplacians on $M$ and $N$ , we determine conditions under which a harmonic function on $U={\\varphi }^{-1}(V)\\subset M$ projects down, via its horizontal component, to a harmonic function on $V\\subset N$ .

  9. Adaptive harmonic analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heemink, Arnold; de Jong, B.; Prins, Harrie

    1991-01-01

    In this paper we describe a new approach to the harmonic analysis of the tide. For a number of reasons the harmonic constants are not really constant but vary slowly in time. Therefore, we introduce a narrow-band noise process to model the time-varying behaviour of these harmonic parameters.

  10. Phase coherence of parametric-decay modes during high-harmonic fast-wave heating in the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsson, J. A., E-mail: carlsson@pppl.gov [Crow Radio and Plasma Science, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States); Wilson, J. R.; Hosea, J. C.; Greenough, N. L.; Perkins, R. J. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, P.O. Box 451, Princeton, New Jersey 08543-0451 (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Third-order spectral analysis, in particular, the auto bicoherence, was applied to probe signals from high-harmonic fast-wave heating experiments in the National Spherical Torus Experiment. Strong evidence was found for parametric decay of the 30 MHz radio-frequency (RF) pump wave, with a low-frequency daughter wave at 2.7 MHz, the local majority-ion cyclotron frequency. The primary decay modes have auto bicoherence values around 0.85, very close to the theoretical value of one, which corresponds to total phase coherence with the pump wave. The threshold RF pump power for onset of parametric decay was found to be between 200 kW and 400 kW.

  11. High order harmonic generation in rare gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budil, Kimberly Susan [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    1994-05-01

    The process of high order harmonic generation in atomic gases has shown great promise as a method of generating extremely short wavelength radiation, extending far into the extreme ultraviolet (XUV). The process is conceptually simple. A very intense laser pulse (I ~1013-1014 W/cm2) is focused into a dense (~1017 particles/cm3) atomic medium, causing the atoms to become polarized. These atomic dipoles are then coherently driven by the laser field and begin to radiate at odd harmonics of the laser field. This dissertation is a study of both the physical mechanism of harmonic generation as well as its development as a source of coherent XUV radiation. Recently, a semiclassical theory has been proposed which provides a simple, intuitive description of harmonic generation. In this picture the process is treated in two steps. The atom ionizes via tunneling after which its classical motion in the laser field is studied. Electron trajectories which return to the vicinity of the nucleus may recombine and emit a harmonic photon, while those which do not return will ionize. An experiment was performed to test the validity of this model wherein the trajectory of the electron as it orbits the nucleus or ion core is perturbed by driving the process with elliptically, rather than linearly, polarized laser radiation. The semiclassical theory predicts a rapid turn-off of harmonic production as the ellipticity of the driving field is increased. This decrease in harmonic production is observed experimentally and a simple quantum mechanical theory is used to model the data. The second major focus of this work was on development of the harmonic "source". A series of experiments were performed examining the spatial profiles of the harmonics. The quality of the spatial profile is crucial if the harmonics are to be used as the source for experiments, particularly if they must be refocused.

  12. 76 FR 80982 - International Cyclotron, Inc., Hato Rey, Puerto Rico; Order Suspending Licensed Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-27

    ...-0292] International Cyclotron, Inc., Hato Rey, Puerto Rico; Order Suspending Licensed Activities I International Cyclotron, Inc. (International Cyclotron; Licensee) is the holder of Byproduct Materials License... International Cyclotron submitted its NRC license application related to the cyclotron, it requested...

  13. Harmonic function theory

    CERN Document Server

    Axler, Sheldon; Ramey, Wade

    2013-01-01

    This is a book about harmonic functions in Euclidean space. Readers with a background in real and complex analysis at the beginning graduate level will feel comfortable with the material presented here. The authors have taken unusual care to motivate concepts and simplify proofs. Topics include: basic properties of harmonic functions, Poisson integrals, the Kelvin transform, spherical harmonics, harmonic Hardy spaces, harmonic Bergman spaces, the decomposition theorem, Laurent expansions, isolated singularities, and the Dirichlet problem. The new edition contains a completely rewritten chapter on spherical harmonics, a new section on extensions of Bocher's Theorem, new exercises and proofs, as well as revisions throughout to improve the text. A unique software package-designed by the authors and available by e-mail - supplements the text for readers who wish to explore harmonic function theory on a computer.

  14. The NSCL cyclotron gas stopper – Entering commissioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwarz, S. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, East Lansing, MI (United States); Bollen, G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI (United States); Facility for Rare Isotope Beams, East Lansing, MI (United States); Chouhan, S. [Facility for Rare Isotope Beams, East Lansing, MI (United States); Das, J.J. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, East Lansing, MI (United States); Green, M. [Facility for Rare Isotope Beams, East Lansing, MI (United States); Magsig, C. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, East Lansing, MI (United States); Morrissey, D.J. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, East Lansing, MI (United States); Department of Chemistry, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Ottarson, J.; Sumithrarachchi, C. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, East Lansing, MI (United States); Villari, A.C.C.; Zeller, A. [Facility for Rare Isotope Beams, East Lansing, MI (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Linear gas stopping cells have been used successfully at NSCL to slow down ions produced by projectile fragmentation from the 100 MeV/u to the keV energy range. These ‘stopped beams’ have first been used for low-energy high precision experiments and more recently for NSCLs re-accelerator ReA. A gas-filled reverse cyclotron is currently under construction by the NSCL to complement the existing stopping cells: Due to its extended stopping length, efficient stopping and fast extraction is expected even for light and medium-mass ions, which are difficult to thermalize in linear gas cells. The device is based on a 2.6 T maximum-field cyclotron-type magnet to confine the injected beam while it is slowed down in ≈100 mbar of LN{sub 2}-temperature helium gas. Once thermalized, the beam will be transported to the center of the device by a traveling-wave RF-carpet system, extracted along the symmetry axis with an ion conveyor and miniature RF-carpets, and accelerated to a few tens of keV of energy for delivery to the users. The superconducting magnet has been constructed on a 60 kV platform and energized to its nominal field strength. The magnet’s two cryostats use 3 cryo-refrigerators each and liquid-nitrogen cooled thermal shields to cool the coil pair to superconductivity. This concept, chosen not to have to rely on external liquid helium, has been working well. Measurements of axial and radial field profiles confirm the field calculations. The individual RF-ion guiding components for low-energy ion transport through the device have been tested successfully. The beam stopping chamber with its 0.9 m-diameter RF carpet system and the ion extraction system are being prepared for installation inside the magnet for low-energy ion transport tests.

  15. Harmonic ratcheting for fast acceleration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Cook

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A major challenge in the design of rf cavities for the acceleration of medium-energy charged ions is the need to rapidly sweep the radio frequency over a large range. From low-power medical synchrotrons to high-power accelerator driven subcritical reactor systems, and from fixed focus alternating gradient accelerators to rapid cycling synchrotrons, there is a strong need for more efficient, and faster, acceleration of protons and light ions in the semirelativistic range of hundreds of MeV/u. A conventional way to achieve a large, rapid frequency sweep (perhaps over a range of a factor of 6 is to use custom-designed ferrite-loaded cavities. Ferrite rings enable the precise tuning of the resonant frequency of a cavity, through the control of the incremental permeability that is possible by introducing a pseudoconstant azimuthal magnetic field. However, rapid changes over large permeability ranges incur anomalous behavior such as the “Q-loss” and “f-dot” loss phenomena that limit performance while requiring high bias currents. Notwithstanding the incomplete understanding of these phenomena, they can be ameliorated by introducing a “harmonic ratcheting” acceleration scheme in which two or more rf cavities take turns accelerating the beam—one turns on when the other turns off, at different harmonics—so that the radio frequency can be constrained to remain in a smaller range. Harmonic ratcheting also has straightforward performance advantages, depending on the particular parameter set at hand. In some typical cases it is possible to halve the length of the cavities, or to double the effective gap voltage, or to double the repetition rate. This paper discusses and quantifies the advantages of harmonic ratcheting in general. Simulation results for the particular case of a rapid cycling medical synchrotron ratcheting from harmonic number 9 to 2 show that stability and performance criteria are met even when realistic engineering details

  16. Emittance Measurement for Beamline Extension at the PET Cyclotron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sae-Hoon Park

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Particle-induced X-ray emission is used for determining the elemental composition of materials. This method uses low-energy protons (of several MeV, which can be obtained from high-energy (of tens MeV accelerators. Instead of manufacturing an accelerator for generating the MeV protons, the use of a PET cyclotron has been suggested for designing the beamline for multipurpose applications, especially for the PIXE experiment, which has a dedicated high-energy (of tens MeV accelerator. The beam properties of the cyclotron were determined at this experimental facility by using an external beamline before transferring the ion beam to the experimental chamber. We measured the beam profile and calculated the emittance using the pepper-pot method. The beam profile was measured as the beam current using a wire scanner, and the emittance was measured as the beam distribution at the beam dump using a radiochromic film. We analyzed the measurement results and are planning to use the results obtained in the simulations of external beamline and aligned beamline components. We will consider energy degradation after computing the beamline simulation. The experimental study focused on measuring the emittance from the cyclotron, and the results of this study are presented in this paper.

  17. PRODUCTION OF 11 C-METHIONINE BY CYCLOTRON AVF JAERI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Hastini

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available At the Takasaki-site of JAERI, an AVF cyclotron has been constructed for advanced radiation technology research. The cyclotron produces extracted beams particularly light and heavy ions of proton as well as deutron. Target chamber is available for production of 11CO2 a positron emitter radioisotope, by bombardment of proton from nitrogen gas as a target, by 14 N (p,a 11C reaction. The use of incident energy on target was estimated to be 11 MeV for primary proton energy of 20 MeV and the beam current was 0,1 m A and the irradiation time was 10 minutes for production of 11CO2 and the yield was about 30 MBq (EOBand for irradiation time 15 minutes and the beam current was 1 mA for production of 11C-Methionine, the yield was about 70 MBq (EOB. Remotely operated automatic and semiautomatic processing systems are used for the production of the 11 C-Methionine agent and the radiochemical purity of the product obtained was determined by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC with cation exchange column was LC 10 AD MERCK LICHROSPHER 100 RP-18 and the mobile phase was 10 mM ammonium phormmate, the mean of retention time was 1,815 minutes and the radiochemical purity to be more than 90 %. The product was used for plant studies and visualized by PETIS (Positron Emission Tracer Imaging System   Keywords: cyclotron, Positron emitter, 11C-Methionine.

  18. Tailored semiconductors for high-harmonic optoelectronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivis, Murat; Taucer, Marco; Vampa, Giulio; Johnston, Kyle; Staudte, André; Naumov, Andrei Yu; Villeneuve, D M; Ropers, Claus; Corkum, P B

    2017-07-21

    The advent of high-harmonic generation in gases 30 years ago set the foundation for attosecond science and facilitated ultrafast spectroscopy in atoms, molecules, and solids. We explore high-harmonic generation in the solid state by means of nanostructured and ion-implanted semiconductors. We use wavelength-selective microscopic imaging to map enhanced harmonic emission and show that the generation medium and the driving field can be locally tailored in solids by modifying the chemical composition and morphology. This enables the control of high-harmonic technology within precisely engineered solid targets. We demonstrate customized high-harmonic wave fields with wavelengths down to 225 nanometers (ninth-harmonic order of 2-micrometer laser pulses) and present an integrated Fresnel zone plate target in silicon, which leads to diffraction-limited self-focusing of the generated harmonics down to 1-micrometer spot sizes. Copyright © 2017 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  19. Practical experience and challenges in the operation of medical cyclotron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rajeev; Sonkawade, Rajendra G; Pandey, Anil K; Tripathi, Madhavi; Damle, Nishikant A; Kumar, Praveen; Bal, Chandra S

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this article was to share 10 years of operational experience of medical cyclotron and to provide working knowledge on the same. This experience has helped us gain working knowledge on cyclotron operation with practical points, which may help in improving F yield, minimizing the breakdown time, and help in the prevention of the occurrence of unusual events. Our facility has a self-shielded radioisotope delivery system eclipse 111 medical cyclotron with an 11 MeV proton beam in use for the past 10 years to produce positron emitters - namely, F, N, and F-2 gas - for PET imaging. During F production, we have followed a set protocol comprising the following: monitoring target pressure, rinsing the target with O water just immediately after bombardment, ion source feedback, radiofrequency (RF) feedback, and recording any unusual events that occurred during the operation. Besides this, enrichment of O water, target volume, target current, energy of the beam, variation in argon pressure on the target, bombardment duration, target status (new or old target or total number of previous bombardments on the same target), status of the delivery lines from target to the radiochemistry module (old or new) were also recorded. Rinsing with O water immediately after bombardment increases the life of the target and delivery line. The frequent problems encountered were with the ion source, RF, and target foil rupture. These problems were solved by rebuilding the ion source, changing the fuse of RF, and rebuilding the target. F yield can be increased by rinsing with O water immediately after bombardment. The effect of target leak - that is, rupture of vacuum window - can be avoided by immediate stoppage of bombardment.

  20. ROKCY-12 (KCCH PET-dedicated cyclotron): main features and improvements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chai, J. S.; Kim, Y. S.; Yang, Y. T.; Jung, I. S.; Hong, S. S.; Lee, M. Y.; Jang, H. S.; Kim, J. H. [Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-07-01

    In this paper, we describe the development of 13 MeV cyclotron (ROKCY-12) that can be used for a Position Emission Tomography(PET) purpose. This cyclotron with a maximum beam energy of 13 MeV can produce radio isotopes especially {sup 18}F which has a relatively short half lifetime of 110 minutes. First, we show the beam characteristics can be used to carry out the operation of ROCKY-12. Based on this, a computer program has been developed to determine main cyclotron parameters such as cyclotron magnet, RF system, ion source, vacuum system and other cyclotron operation parameters. And then we show the result of design and manufacturing feature of ROKCY-12. By using this design program, one can determines magnet yoke geometry and the average magnetic fields etc. And then the three-dimensional computer program OPERA-3D has been invoked to determine magnet pole tips. Validity of the design can be seen by investigating magnetic fields, radial and vertical focusing frequencies as a function of the beam energy. In this paper, we show the results of cyclotron beam by ROCKY-12. We designed 77.3 MHz RF system and ion source system. We tested RF resonance each coupling methods. We show the result of RF design and prototype operation. Developed ion source is PIG type. We described our design methods and implementation. We report the result of getting negative hydrogen ion. Cyclotron controller asks inputs of every sensor and output of every instrument for notifying current condition to operator. It has independent controllers, for example DC power supply, vacuum system, beam profile system, beam extraction system, RF system, ion source, cooling unit and so on. Basically, each control system uses RS-485 for communication to main control computer. Consumers reward products and services that feature quality, originality, a distinct personality and charm. The International Standardization Organization (ISO) requires, as its mission, that we achieve competitive superiority by