WorldWideScience

Sample records for harmonic blade feathering

  1. Application of higher harmonic blade feathering on the OH-6A helicopter for vibration reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, F. K.; Byrns, E. V., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    The design, implementation, and flight test results of higher harmonic blade feathering for vibration reduction on the OH-6A helicopter are described. The higher harmonic control (HHC) system superimposes fourth harmonic inputs upon the stationary swashplate. These inputs are transformed into 3P, 4P and 5P blade feathering angles. This results in modified blade loads and reduced fuselage vibrations. The primary elements of this adaptive vibration suppression system are: (1) acceleration transducers sensing the vibratory response of the fuselage; (2) a higher harmonic blade pitch actuator system; (3) a flightworthy microcomputer, incorporating the algorithm for reducing vibrations, and (4) a signal conditioning system, interfacing between the sensors, the microcomputer and the HHC actuators. The program consisted of three distinct phases. First, the HHC system was designed and implemented on the MDHC OH-6A helicopter. Then, the open loop, or manual controlled, flight tests were performed, and finally, the closed loop adaptive control system was tested. In 1983, one portion of the closed loop testing was performed, and in 1984, additional closed loop tests were conducted with improved software. With the HHC system engaged, the 4P pilot seat vibration levels were significantly lower than the baseline ON-6A levels. Moreover, the system did not adversely affect blade loads or helicopter performance. In conclusion, this successful proof of concept project demonstrated HHC to be a viable vibration suppression mechanism.

  2. [Use of Harmonic blade in face lifting].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firmin, F; Vincent, P-L

    2017-10-01

    Rapid recovery and return to social activities are what every patient wishes when considering to undergo a face lifting procedure. In our practice, the use of the Harmonic scalpel in order to achieve this goal has greatly improved the postoperative period. We have performed 920 face lifting procedures exclusively using the Harmonic scalpel from 2001 to May 2017. A retrospective chart review was performed. Mean operative time was 110minutes for facelift involving SMAS plication only, and 180minutes for facelift involving SMAS plication with the addition of submental approach for anterior platysma plasty. Return to normal social life was achieved on the 8th postoperative day for the majority of cases. The use of the Harmonic scalpel, once properly integrated in the face lifting procedure, significantly reduces postoperative ecchymosis and oedema and allows a prompt return to normal social life. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. High precision cell slicing by harmonically actuated ultra-sharp SixNy blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Hwapyeong; Li, Tao; Gianchandani, Yogesh B.; Park, Jaesung

    2015-02-01

    We describe a micro-knife system with an ultra-sharp blade that is harmonically actuated by lead zirconate titanate (PZT). In particular, harmonic actuation along its cutting direction is demonstrated to provide clean and sharp cut lines for hepatocytes. Such performance is not provided by ordinary ultrasonic actuation. The blade is 500 nm-thick silicon nitride (SixNy); it can cut a single cell. Finite element analysis and measurements of displacement around resonant frequencies were used to optimize the dimensions, driving frequency and voltage. To evaluate the cutting precision, commercial scalpels and the SixNy blade without and with harmonic actuation were compared. When used to cut primary hepatocytes in a mono-layer, a commercial stainless scalpel burst cells, and the SixNy blade without harmonic actuation cut cells with a wide and ragged line. However, due to the controlled ultrasonic mode shape, operating frequency, high frequency and low applied power, the SixNy blade with harmonic actuation at 1Vpp and 70.1 kHz provided a clean and sharp cut line which was as narrow as 2 µm. The SixNy blade with harmonic actuation has potential applications as a tool for minimally invasive surgery.

  4. Harmonic hopping, and both punctuated and gradual evolution of acoustic characters in Selasphorus hummingbird tail-feathers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher James Clark

    Full Text Available Models of character evolution often assume a single mode of evolutionary change, such as continuous, or discrete. Here I provide an example in which a character exhibits both types of change. Hummingbirds in the genus Selasphorus produce sound with fluttering tail-feathers during courtship. The ancestral character state within Selasphorus is production of sound with an inner tail-feather, R2, in which the sound usually evolves gradually. Calliope and Allen's Hummingbirds have evolved autapomorphic acoustic mechanisms that involve feather-feather interactions. I develop a source-filter model of these interactions. The 'source' comprises feather(s that are both necessary and sufficient for sound production, and are aerodynamically coupled to neighboring feathers, which act as filters. Filters are unnecessary or insufficient for sound production, but may evolve to become sources. Allen's Hummingbird has evolved to produce sound with two sources, one with feather R3, another frequency-modulated sound with R4, and their interaction frequencies. Allen's R2 retains the ancestral character state, a ∼1 kHz "ghost" fundamental frequency masked by R3, which is revealed when R3 is experimentally removed. In the ancestor to Allen's Hummingbird, the dominant frequency has 'hopped' to the second harmonic without passing through intermediate frequencies. This demonstrates that although the fundamental frequency of a communication sound may usually evolve gradually, occasional jumps from one character state to another can occur in a discrete fashion. Accordingly, mapping acoustic characters on a phylogeny may produce misleading results if the physical mechanism of production is not known.

  5. Bladed wheels damage detection through Non-Harmonic Fourier Analysis improved algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neri, P.

    2017-05-01

    Recent papers introduced the Non-Harmonic Fourier Analysis for bladed wheels damage detection. This technique showed its potential in estimating the frequency of sinusoidal signals even when the acquisition time is short with respect to the vibration period, provided that some hypothesis are fulfilled. Anyway, previously proposed algorithms showed severe limitations in cracks detection at their early stage. The present paper proposes an improved algorithm which allows to detect a blade vibration frequency shift due to a crack whose size is really small compared to the blade width. Such a technique could be implemented for condition-based maintenance, allowing to use non-contact methods for vibration measurements. A stator-fixed laser sensor could monitor all the blades as they pass in front of the spot, giving precious information about the wheel health. This configuration determines an acquisition time for each blade which become shorter as the machine rotational speed increases. In this situation, traditional Discrete Fourier Transform analysis results in poor frequency resolution, being not suitable for small frequency shift detection. Non-Harmonic Fourier Analysis instead showed high reliability in vibration frequency estimation even with data samples collected in a short time range. A description of the improved algorithm is provided in the paper, along with a comparison with the previous one. Finally, a validation of the method is presented, based on finite element simulations results.

  6. Non-linear dynamic response of a wind turbine blade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopra, I.; Dugundji, J.

    1979-01-01

    The paper outlines the nonlinear dynamic analysis of an isolated three-degree flap-lag-feather wind turbine blade under a gravity field and with shear flow. Lagrangian equations are used to derive the nonlinear equations of motion of blade for arbitrarily large angular deflections. The limit cycle analysis for forced oscillations and the determination of the principal parametric resonance of the blade due to periodic forces from the gravity field and wind shear are performed using the harmonic balance method. Results are obtained first for a two-degree flap-lag blade, then the effect of the third degree of freedom (feather) is studied. The self-excited flutter solutions are obtained for a uniform wind and with gravity forces neglected. The effects of several parameters on the blade stability are examined, including coning angle, structural damping, Lock number, and feather frequency. The limit cycle flutter solution of a typical configuration shows a substantial nonlinear softening spring behavior.

  7. RESEARCH OF THE HIGH HARMONICS INDIVIDUAL BLADE CONTROL EFFECT ON VIBRATIONS CAUSED BY THE HELICOPTER MAIN ROTOR THRUST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents numerical results analysis of main rotor vibration due to helicopter main rotor thrust pulsation.The calculation method, the object of research and numerical research results with the aim to reduce the amplitude of the vibrations transmitted to the hub from the helicopters main rotor by the individual blade control in azimuth by the installation angle of blades cyclic changes are set out in the article. The individual blades control law for a five-blade main rotor based on the blade frequencies is made. It allows reducing the vibration from thrust. Research takes into account the main rotor including and excluding the blade flapping motion. The minimal vibrations regime is identified.Numerical study of variable loads caused by unsteady flow around the main rotor blades at high relative speeds of flight, which transmitted to the rotor hub, is made. The scheme of a thin lifting surface and the rotor vortex theory are used for simulation of the aerodynamic loads on blades. Non - uniform loads caused by the thrust, decomposed on the blade harmonic and its overtones. The largest values of deviation from the mean amplitude thrust are received. The analysis of variable loads with a traditional control system is made. Algorithms of higher harmonics individual blade control capable of reducing the thrust pulsation under the average value of thrust are developed.Numerical research shows that individual blade control of high harmonics reduces variable loads. The necessary change in the blade installation is about ± 0,2 degree that corresponds to the maximum displacement of the additional con- trol stick is about 1 mm.To receive the overall picture is necessary to consider all six components of forces and moments. Control law with own constants will obtained for each of them. It is supposed, that each of six individual blade control laws have an impact on other components. Thus, the problem reduces to the optimization issue. The

  8. blades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashishekara S. Talya

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Design optimization of a gas turbine blade geometry for effective film cooling toreduce the blade temperature has been done using a multiobjective optimization formulation. Three optimization formulations have been used. In the first, the average blade temperature is chosen as the objective function to be minimized. An upper bound constraint has been imposed on the maximum blade temperature. In the second, the maximum blade temperature is chosen as the objective function to be minimized with an upper bound constraint on the average blade temperature. In the third formulation, the blade average and maximum temperatures are chosen as objective functions. Shape optimization is performed using geometric parameters associated with film cooling and blade external shape. A quasi-three-dimensional Navier–Stokes solver for turbomachinery flows is used to solve for the flow field external to the blade with appropriate modifications to incorporate the effect of film cooling. The heat transfer analysis for temperature distribution within the blade is performed by solving the heat diffusion equation using the finite element method. The multiobjective Kreisselmeier–Steinhauser function approach has been used in conjunction with an approximate analysis technique for optimization. The results obtained using both formulations are compared with reference geometry. All three formulations yield significant reductions in blade temperature with the multiobjective formulation yielding largest reduction in blade temperature.

  9. On the Use of Active Higher Harmonic Blade Pitch Control for Helicopter Vibration Reduction,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-06-01

    superimposing non-rotating swashplate motions at the blade passage frequency (4P for a 4 bladed rotor) upon the basic collective and cyclic flight...is changed using a remotely controlled hydraulic actuator and electric servo system. The rotor control system is a conventional swashplate system...measured by linear potentiometers connected to the swashplate . Rotor blade flapping and lagging are measured by rotary potentiometers mounted on the

  10. Comparison of harmonic blade versus traditional approach in canine patients undergoing spinal decompressive surgery for naturally occurring thoracolumbar disk extrusion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca F Hettlich

    Full Text Available To assess feasibility of the harmonic Osteovue blade (HOB for use in the soft tissue approach for dogs undergoing hemilaminectomy and to compare outcomes between dogs undergoing HOB or traditional approach (TRAD.A prospective randomized clinical trial was performed using 20 client-owned dogs with thoracolumbar intervertebral disk extrusion requiring hemilaminectomy. Dogs were randomly assigned to HOB or TRAD. Neurologic function and pain scores were assessed pre-operatively. Intraoperative blood loss and surgical approach time as well as postoperative pain and wound healing scores were recorded. Additionally, neurologic recovery and owner perceived quality of life were recorded at day 10 and 30 postoperative.There was no significant difference in sex distribution, weight, age, preoperative neurological grade and pain score, and perioperative outcome measures between groups. Intraoperative total blood loss was minimal for HOB and TRAD (median: 0 ml (range 0-9 and 2.2 ml (range 0-6.8, respectively; p = 0.165 and approach times were similar (median: 7 min (range 5-12 and 8 min (range 5-13, respectively; p = 0.315. While changes in wound healing scores were similar, changes in postoperative pain scores and neurological function were significantly improved in the HOB compared to the TRAD group. Postoperative complications in the HOB group consisted of automutilation of part of the incision and development of a small soft, non-painful subcutaneous swelling in 1 dog each.The HOB is a safe and effective tool for the soft tissue approach for routine spinal surgery in dogs and is associated with decreased pain and increased neurological function post-surgery.

  11. Non-harmonic root-pitch individual-blade control for the reduction of blade-vortex interaction noise in rotorcraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malovrh, Brendon D.

    One of the greatest obstacles to public acceptance of rotorcraft is the high levels of noise they produce, particularly in low-speed descent. In this flight condition, the trailing edge vortex of one blade often passes in close proximity to other blades resulting in impulsive changes in lift. This Blade-Vortex Interaction (BVI) creates high levels of both noise and vibration. The objective of this dissertation is to evaluate the effectiveness of using physically motivated pulse-type Individual Blade Control for reducing the noise associated with the BVI. First, the major parameters that affect the severity of the interaction, such as vortex strength and blade-vortex miss-distance, are analyzed. Second, inputs designed specifically to alter the parameters previously identified as key are explored, resulting in elimination of advancing side noise and overall peak BVI Sound Pressure Level (BVISPL) reductions of up to 4.6 dB. Lastly, different feedback mechanisms for closed-loop control of IBC are examined to allow implementation of the developed inputs.

  12. Feathered Dinosaurs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norell, Mark A.; Xu, Xing

    2005-01-01

    Recent fossil discoveries from Early Cretaceous rocks of Liaoning Province, China, have provided a wealth of spectacular specimens. Included in these are the remains of several different kinds of small theropod dinosaurs, many of which are extremely closely related to modern birds. Unique preservation conditions allowed soft tissues of some of these specimens to be preserved. Many dinosaur specimens that preserve feathers and other types of integumentary coverings have been recovered. These fossils show a progression of integumentary types from simple fibers to feathers of modern aspect. The distribution of these features on the bodies of these animals is surprising in that some show large tail plumes, whereas others show the presence of wing-like structures on both fore and hind limbs. The phylogenetic distribution of feather types is highly congruent with models of feather evolution developed from developmental biology.

  13. Unzipping bird feathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalev, Alexander; Filippov, Alexander E; Gorb, Stanislav N

    2014-03-06

    The bird feather vane can be separated into two parts by pulling the barbs apart. The original state can be re-established easily by lightly stroking through the feather. Hooklets responsible for holding vane barbs together are not damaged by multiple zipping and unzipping cycles. Because numerous microhooks keep the integrity of the feather, their properties are of great interest for understanding mechanics of the entire feather structure. This study was undertaken to estimate the separation force of single hooklets and their arrays using force measurement of an unzipping feather vane. The hooklets usually separate in some number synchronously (20 on average) with the highest observed separation force of 1.74 mN (average force 0.27 mN), whereas the single hooklet separation force was 14 μN. A simple numerical model was suggested for a better understanding of zipping and unzipping behaviour in feathers. The model demonstrates features similar to those observed in experiments.

  14. Separated Pitch Control at Tip: Innovative Blade Design Explorations for Large MW Wind Turbine Blades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjeet Agarwala

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the deployment and evaluation of a separated pitch control at blade tip (SePCaT control strategy for large megawatt (MW wind turbine blade and explorations of innovative blade designs as a result of such deployment. SePCaT configurations varied from five to thirty percent of the blade length in 5 percentage increments (SePCaT5, SePCaT10, SePCaT15, SePCaT20, SePCaT25, and SePCaT30 are evaluated by comparing them to aerodynamical responses of the traditional blade. For low, moderate, high, and extreme wind speed variations treated as 10, 20, 30, and 40 percent of reference wind speeds, rotor power abatement in region 3 of the wind speed power curve is realized by feathering full length blade by 6, 9, 12, and 14 degrees, respectively. Feathering SePCaT30, SePCaT25, SePCaT20, and SePCaT15 by 14, 16, 26, and 30 degrees, respectively, achieves the same power abatement results when compared to traditional blade at low wind speeds. Feathering SePCaT30, SePCaT25, and SePCaT20 by 18, 26, and 30 degrees on the other hand has the same effect at high wind speeds. SePCaT30 feathered to 26 and 30 degrees has the same abatement effects when compared to traditional blade at high and extreme wind speeds.

  15. Feather loss and feather destructive behavior in pet birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinstein, Jonathan; Lightfoot, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Feather loss in psittacine birds is a common and frustrating clinical presentation. Causes include medical and nonmedical causes of feather loss with and without overt feather destructive behavior. Underlying causes include inappropriate husbandry and housing; parasitic, viral and bacterial infections; metabolic and allergic diseases; and behavioral disorders. Prior to a diagnosis of a behavioral disorder, medical causes of feather loss must be excluded through a complete medical work-up including history, physical examination, and diagnostic testing. This article focuses on common medical and nonmedical causes of feather loss and feather destructive behavior and approaches to diagnosis and treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Novel Compressor Blade Design Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivas, Abhay

    Jet engine efficiency goals are driving compressors to higher pressure ratios and engines to higher bypass ratios, each one driving to smaller cores. This is leading to larger tip gaps relative to the blade height. These larger relative tip clearances would negate some of the cycle improvements, and ways to mitigate this effect must be found. A novel split tip blade geometry has been created which helps improve the efficiency at large clearances while also improving operating range. Two identical blades are leaned in opposite directions starting at 85% span. They are cut at mid chord and the 2 halves then merged together so a split tip is created. The result is similar to the alula feathers on a soaring bird. The concept is that the split tip will energize the tip flow and increase range. For higher relative tip clearance, this will also improve efficiency. The 6th rotor of a highly loaded 10 stage machine was chosen as the baseline for this study. Three dimensional CFD simulations were performed using CD Adapco's Star-CCM+ at 5 clearances for the baseline and split tip geometry. The choking flow and stall margin of the split tip blade was higher than that of the baseline blade for all tip clearances. The pressure ratio of the novel blade was higher than that of the baseline blade near choke, but closer to stall it decreased. The sensitivity of peak efficiency to clearance was improved. At tight clearances of 0.62% of blade height, the maximum efficiency of the new design was less than the baseline blade, but as the tip clearance was increased above 2.5%, the maximum efficiency increased. Structural analysis was also performed to ascertain the feasibility of the design.

  17. Microscopic identification of feathers and feather fragments of Palearctic birds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brom, Tim G.

    1986-01-01

    Using light microscopy, a method has been developed for the identification of feathers and feather fragments collected after collisions between birds and aircraft. Characters of the downy barbules of feathers are described for 22 orders of birds. The use of a key in combination with the macroscopic

  18. The colour of fossil feathers

    OpenAIRE

    Vinther, Jakob; Briggs, Derek E. G.; Prum, Richard O; Saranathan, Vinodkumar

    2008-01-01

    Feathers are complex integumentary appendages of birds and some other theropod dinosaurs. They are frequently coloured and function in camouflage and display. Previous investigations have concluded that fossil feathers are preserved as carbonized traces composed of feather-degrading bacteria. Here, an investigation of a colour-banded feather from the Lower Cretaceous Crato Formation of Brazil revealed that the dark bands are preserved as elongate, oblate carbonaceous bodies 1–2 μm long, where...

  19. Design of a wind turbine swept blade through extensive load analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pavese, Christian; Kim, Taeseong; Murcia, Juan Pablo

    2017-01-01

    The main focus of this work is to offer an extensive investigation regarding the use of backward swept blades for passive load alleviation on wind turbines. Sweeping blades backward produces a structural coupling between flapwise bending towards the tower and torsion towards feathering....... This coupling mitigates loads on the wind turbine structure due to a decrease in the angle of attack. The load alleviation can be achieved by changing the blade geometry according to three parameters: starting point for the change of shape along the blade span, blade tip sweep, and blade forward sweep...

  20. Investigation of potential extreme load reduction for a two-bladed upwind turbine with partial pitch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Taeseong; Larsen, Torben J.; Yde, Anders

    2015-01-01

    that the blade vibrations are transferred differently from the rotor to the tower. For a three-bladed turbine, blade vibrations seen in a fixed frame of reference are split with ±1P only. A two-bladed turbine has a similar split of ±1P but also includes contributions on higher harmonics (±2P, ±3P, … etc...

  1. Fractal harmonic law and waterproof/dustproof

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kong Hai-Yan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The fractal harmonic law admits that the friction between the pure water and the moving surface is the minimum when fractal dimensions of water in Angstrom scale are equal to fractal dimensions of the moving surface in micro scale. In the paper, the fractal harmonic law is applied to demonstrate the mechanism of waterproof/ dustproof. The waterproof phenomenon of goose feathers and lotus leaves is illustrated to verify our results and experimental results agree well with our theoretical analysis.

  2. Feather loss in laying hens

    OpenAIRE

    Hristov Slavča; Mitrović Sreten; Todorović Mirjana; Đermanović Vladan; Cvetković Ivica

    2006-01-01

    The paper examined the incidence of different forms of feather loss and cannibalism in laying hens aged 74 weeks following moulting and in laying hens following exploitation for a period of one year. The forms of feather loss were considered in detail through a repeated examination of video recordings and they were sorted according to localization - to feather loss on the ventral part of the neck, on the dorsal part of the neck, and on the back between the wings. Feather loss on the ventral p...

  3. Hummingbird feather sounds are produced by aeroelastic flutter, not vortex-induced vibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Christopher J; Elias, Damian O; Prum, Richard O

    2013-09-15

    Males in the 'bee' hummingbird clade produce distinctive, species-specific sounds with fluttering tail feathers during courtship displays. Flutter may be the result of vortex shedding or aeroelastic interactions. We investigated the underlying mechanics of flutter and sound production of a series of different feathers in a wind tunnel. All feathers tested were capable of fluttering at frequencies varying from 0.3 to 10 kHz. At low airspeeds (Uair) feather flutter was highly damped, but at a threshold airspeed (U*) the feathers abruptly entered a limit-cycle vibration and produced sound. Loudness increased with airspeed in most but not all feathers. Reduced frequency of flutter varied by an order of magnitude, and declined with increasing Uair in all feathers. This, along with the presence of strong harmonics, multiple modes of flutter and several other non-linear effects indicates that flutter is not simply a vortex-induced vibration, and that the accompanying sounds are not vortex whistles. Flutter is instead aeroelastic, in which structural (inertial/elastic) properties of the feather interact variably with aerodynamic forces, producing diverse acoustic results.

  4. Kinematics and constraints associated with swashplate blade pitch control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyland, Jane A.

    1993-01-01

    An important class of techniques to reduce helicopter vibration is based on using a Higher Harmonic controller to optimally define the Higher Harmonic blade pitch. These techniques typically require solution of a general optimization problem requiring the determination of a control vector which minimizes a performance index where functions of the control vector are subject to inequality constraints. Six possible constraint functions associated with swashplate blade pitch control were identified and defined. These functions constrain: (1) blade pitch Fourier Coefficients expressed in the Rotating System, (2) blade pitch Fourier Coefficients expressed in the Nonrotating System, (3) stroke of the individual actuators expressed in the Nonrotating System, (4) blade pitch expressed as a function of blade azimuth and actuator stroke, (5) time rate-of-change of the aforementioned parameters, and (6) required actuator power. The aforementioned constraints and the associated kinematics of swashplate blade pitch control by means of the strokes of the individual actuators are documented.

  5. Plasma harmonics

    CERN Document Server

    Ganeev, Rashid A

    2014-01-01

    Preface; Why plasma harmonics? A very brief introduction Early stage of plasma harmonic studies - hopes and frustrations New developments in plasma harmonics studies: first successes Improvements of plasma harmonics; Theoretical basics of plasma harmonics; Basics of HHG Harmonic generation in fullerenes using few-cycle pulsesVarious approaches for description of observed peculiarities of resonant enhancement of a single harmonic in laser plasmaTwo-colour pump resonance-induced enhancement of odd and even harmonics from a tin plasmaCalculations of single harmonic generation from Mn plasma;Low-o

  6. Load Consequences when Sweeping Blades - A Case Study of a 5 MW Pitch Controlled Wind Turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verelst, David Robert; Larsen, Torben J.

    The generic 5 MW NREL wind turbine model is used in Risø’s aeroelastic simulator HAWC2 to investigate 120 different swept blade configurations (forward and backward sweep). Sensitivity for 2 different controllers is considered as well. Backward sweep results in a pitch to feather torsional moment...... for backward sweep since the blade twist is optimized as a rigid structure, ignoring the torsional deformations which for a swept blade can be significant....

  7. Moulting tail feathers in a juvenile oviraptorisaur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prum, Richard O

    2010-11-04

    Xu et al. describe the extraordinarily preserved feathers from two subadults of the oviraptorisaur Similicaudipteryx from the Yixian Formation of Liaoning, China. The preserved tail feathers of the juvenile specimen (STM4.1) show a morphology not previously observed in any fossil feathers. The tail feathers of an older, immature specimen (STM22-6) show a typical closed pennaceous structure with a prominent, planar vane. I propose that the feathers of the tail of the juvenile specimen are not a specialized feather generation, but fossilized 'pin feathers' or developing feather germs.

  8. Relative feather mass indices: are feather masses needed to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    During the moult of primary wing feathers in birds it is likely that new feather material is being produced at an approximately constant rate if the energetic requirements of the birds are met. In moult regression analyses it is, therefore, desirable to transform moult measurements into a variable based on the amount of new ...

  9. The colour of fossil feathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinther, Jakob; Briggs, Derek E G; Prum, Richard O; Saranathan, Vinodkumar

    2008-10-23

    Feathers are complex integumentary appendages of birds and some other theropod dinosaurs. They are frequently coloured and function in camouflage and display. Previous investigations have concluded that fossil feathers are preserved as carbonized traces composed of feather-degrading bacteria. Here, an investigation of a colour-banded feather from the Lower Cretaceous Crato Formation of Brazil revealed that the dark bands are preserved as elongate, oblate carbonaceous bodies 1-2 microm long, whereas the light bands retain only relief traces on the rock matrix. Energy dispersive X-ray analysis showed that the dark bands preserve a substantial amount of carbon, whereas the light bands show no carbon residue. Comparison of these oblate fossil bodies with the structure of black feathers from a living bird indicates that they are the eumelanin-containing melanosomes. We conclude that most fossil feathers are preserved as melanosomes, and that the distribution of these structures in fossil feathers can preserve the colour pattern in the original feather. The discovery of preserved melanosomes opens up the possibility of interpreting the colour of extinct birds and other dinosaurs.

  10. Development, regeneration, and evolution of feathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chih-Feng; Foley, John; Tang, Pin-Chi; Li, Ang; Jiang, Ting Xin; Wu, Ping; Widelitz, Randall B; Chuong, Cheng Ming

    2015-01-01

    The feather is a complex ectodermal organ with hierarchical branching patterns. It provides functions in endothermy, communication, and flight. Studies of feather growth, cycling, and health are of fundamental importance to avian biology and poultry science. In addition, feathers are an excellent model for morphogenesis studies because of their accessibility, and their distinct patterns can be used to assay the roles of specific molecular pathways. Here we review the progress in aspects of development, regeneration, and evolution during the past three decades. We cover the development of feather buds in chicken embryos, regenerative cycling of feather follicle stem cells, formation of barb branching patterns, emergence of intrafeather pigmentation patterns, interplay of hormones and feather growth, and the genetic identification of several feather variants. The discovery of feathered dinosaurs redefines the relationship between feathers and birds. Inspiration from biomaterials and flight research further fuels biomimetic potential of feathers as a multidisciplinary research focal point.

  11. Paths of Improving the Technological Process of Manufacture of GTE Turbine Blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vdovin, R. A.; Smelov, V. G.; Bolotov, M. A.; Pronichev, N. D.

    2016-08-01

    The article provides an analysis of the problems at manufacture of blades of the turbine of gas-turbine engines and power stations is provided in article, and also paths of perfecting of technological process of manufacture of blades are offered. The analysis of the main systems of basing of blades in the course of machining and the control methods of the processed blades existing at the enterprises with the indication of merits and demerits is carried out. In work criteria in the form of the mathematical models of a spatial distribution of an allowance considering the uniform distribution of an allowance on a feather profile are developed. The considered methods allow to reduce percent of release of marriage and to reduce labor input when polishing path part of a feather of blades of the turbine.

  12. Piezoelectric Vibration Damping Study for Rotating Composite Fan Blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, James B.; Duffy, Kirsten P.; Choi, Benjamin B.; Provenza, Andrew J.; Kray, Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    Resonant vibrations of aircraft engine blades cause blade fatigue problems in engines, which can lead to thicker and aerodynamically lower performing blade designs, increasing engine weight, fuel burn, and maintenance costs. In order to mitigate undesirable blade vibration levels, active piezoelectric vibration control has been investigated, potentially enabling thinner blade designs for higher performing blades and minimizing blade fatigue problems. While the piezoelectric damping idea has been investigated by other researchers over the years, very little study has been done including rotational effects. The present study attempts to fill this void. The particular objectives of this study were: (a) to develop and analyze a multiphysics piezoelectric finite element composite blade model for harmonic forced vibration response analysis coupled with a tuned RLC circuit for rotating engine blade conditions, (b) to validate a numerical model with experimental test data, and (c) to achieve a cost-effective numerical modeling capability which enables simulation of rotating blades within the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) Dynamic Spin Rig Facility. A numerical and experimental study for rotating piezoelectric composite subscale fan blades was performed. It was also proved that the proposed numerical method is feasible and effective when applied to the rotating blade base excitation model. The experimental test and multiphysics finite element modeling technique described in this paper show that piezoelectric vibration damping can significantly reduce vibrations of aircraft engine composite fan blades.

  13. Coloration strategies in peacock feathers

    OpenAIRE

    Zi, Jian; Yu, Xindi; Li, Yizhou; Hu, Xinhua; Xu, Chun; Wang, Xingjun; Liu, Xiaohan; Fu, Rongtang

    2003-01-01

    We report the mechanism of color production in peacock feathers. We find that the cortex in differently colored barbules, which contains a 2D photonic-crystal structure, is responsible for coloration. Simulations reveal that the photonic-crystal structure possesses a partial photonic bandgap along the direction normal to the cortex surface, for frequencies within which light is strongly reflected. Coloration strategies in peacock feathers are very ingenious and simple: controlling the lattice...

  14. Feather loss in laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hristov Slavča

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper examined the incidence of different forms of feather loss and cannibalism in laying hens aged 74 weeks following moulting and in laying hens following exploitation for a period of one year. The forms of feather loss were considered in detail through a repeated examination of video recordings and they were sorted according to localization - to feather loss on the ventral part of the neck, on the dorsal part of the neck, and on the back between the wings. Feather loss on the ventral part of the neck was established in 47.9% hens, and in the dorsal part in 16.77% hens of the 167 laying hens aged 74 weeks following moulting. The group of 129 laying hens that were observed following one-year exploitation exhibited considerably more frequent feather loss, in 96.90% hens it was localized on the ventral part of the neck, in 60.47% hens on the dorsal part of the neck, and in 20.16% hens it was localized on the back between the wings. A comparison of the results of the incidence of co localized forms of feather loss in the one and the other group of laying hens using the t-test showed statistically very significant differences. A detailed consideration of the video recordings using the method of sequence analysis did not reveal any cannibalism in either group of laying hens.

  15. Modal dynamics of structures with bladed isotropic rotors and its complexity for 2-bladed rotors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten Hartvig

    2016-01-01

    The modal dynamics of structures with bladed isotropic rotors is analyzed using Hill’s method. First, analytical derivation of the periodic system matrix shows that isotropic rotors with more than two blades can be represented by an exact Fourier series with 3/rev as the highest order. For 2-bladed...... rotors, the inverse mass matrix has an infinite Fourier series with harmonic components of decreasing norm, thus the system matrix can be approximated by a truncated Fourier series of predictable accuracy. Second, a novel method for automatically identifying the principal solutions of Hill’s eigenvalue...

  16. Bioplastics from feather quill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Aman; Vasanthan, Thavaratnam; Bressler, David; Elias, Anastasia L; Wu, Jianping

    2011-10-10

    Poultry feather quills have been extruded in a twin screw extruder with sodium sulfite treatment as a reducing agent. The effect of four different plasticizers (ethylene glycol, propylene glycol, glycerol, and diethyl tartrate) on the thermoplastic properties was then investigated. Conformational changes and plasticizer-protein interactions in the extruded resins were assessed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), while viscoelastic behavior of the quill keratin plasticized with different plasticizers was investigated by dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used to determine the effect of different plasticizers on protein denaturation. Thermal degradation patterns of the extrudates were studied by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The effect of plasticizers on the mechanical properties of resins was also assessed by tensile strength measurements. Results indicated that ethylene glycol was able to interact more effectively with quill keratin at the molecular level, exhibiting only one sharp glass transition, better mechanical properties, and higher transparency compared to other plasticized resins. The two phases found in glycerol plasticized material were attributed to glycerol-rich and protein-rich zones. Propylene glycol and diethyl tartrate exhibited lower H-bonding interactions and showed wide transition regions in DMA profiles during heating, suggesting weak and heterogeneous interactions between quill keratin and these plasticizers.

  17. Wind Turbine Blade Design

    OpenAIRE

    Peter J. Schubel; Richard J. Crossley

    2012-01-01

    A detailed review of the current state-of-art for wind turbine blade design is presented, including theoretical maximum efficiency, propulsion, practical efficiency, HAWT blade design, and blade loads. The review provides a complete picture of wind turbine blade design and shows the dominance of modern turbines almost exclusive use of horizontal axis rotors. The aerodynamic design principles for a modern wind turbine blade are detailed, including blade plan shape/quantity, aerofoil selection ...

  18. Acetylation of chicken feathers for thermoplastic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chunyan; Reddy, Narendra; Yan, Kelu; Yang, Yiqi

    2011-10-12

    Poultry feathers are renewable resources, inexpensive and abundantly available, but have limited applications. Although keratin extracted from feathers has been chemically modified, there are no reports on the chemical modification or development of thermoplastics from poultry feathers. Acetylation is an inexpensive and environmentally friendly approach to make biopolymers thermoplastic. Several biopolymers have been acetylated and used to produce fibers, films, and extrudates. In this research, chicken feathers were acetylated, and the structure and properties of the acetylated feathers were studied. Acetylation conditions such as concentration of chemicals and catalyst and time and temperature of acetylation were optimized. Acetylation of feathers was confirmed using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (P-GC-MS). The acetylated feathers were analyzed using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) to understand their thermal behavior. Acetylated feathers were thermoplastic and could be compression molded to form transparent films despite the relatively low percentage of acetyl content.

  19. Air-permeable hole-pattern and nose-droop control improve aerodynamic performance of primary feathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eder, Heinrich; Fiedler, Wolfgang; Pascoe, Xaver

    2011-01-01

    Primary feathers of soaring land birds have evolved into highly specialized flight feathers characterized by morphological improvements affecting aerodynamic performance. The foremost feathers in the cascade have to bear high lift-loading with a strong bending during soaring flight. A challenge to the study of feather aerodynamics is to understand how the observed low drag and high lift values in the Reynolds (Re) regime from 1.0 to 2.0E4 can be achieved. Computed micro-tomography images show that the feather responds to high lift-loading with an increasing nose-droop and profile-camber. Wind-tunnel tests conducted with the foremost primary feather of a White Stork (Ciconia ciconia) at Re = 1.8E4 indicated a surprisingly high maximum lift coefficient of 1.5 and a glide ratio of nearly 10. We present evidence that this is due to morphologic characteristics formed by the cristae dorsales as well as air-permeable arrays along the rhachis. Measurements of lift and drag forces with open and closed pores confirmed the efficiency of this mechanism. Porous structures facilitate a blow out, comparable to technical blow-hole turbulators for sailplanes and low speed turbine-blades. From our findings, we conclude that the mechanism has evolved in order to affect the boundary layer and to reduce aerodynamic drag of the feather.

  20. Blade couple with dry friction connection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Půst L.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Vibration of a blade couple damped by a dry friction contact in the shroud is investigated by means of hysteresis loops and response curves analysis. The studied system is excited by one harmonic external force in a frequency range near to the lowest eigenfrequency of real blades. Blades are connected by means of a damping element consisting of dry friction part linked in series with linear spring. This "stick-slip" damping element is supposed to be either weightless or of a very small mass which models the mass of elastically deformed parts of contacting bodies near the friction surface. Two approximate mathematical models of "stick-slip" dry friction elements are suggested and analysed. The response curves of blade couple connected by stick-slip damping element are presented for different values of slip friction forces and two values of mass of elastically deformed parts.

  1. Exogenous and endogenous corticosterone alter feather quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DesRochers, David W; Reed, J Michael; Awerman, Jessica; Kluge, Jonathan A; Wilkinson, Julia; van Griethuijsen, Linnea I; Aman, Joseph; Romero, L Michael

    2009-01-01

    We investigated how exogenous and endogenous glucocorticoids affect feather replacement in European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) after approximately 56% of flight feathers were removed. We hypothesized that corticosterone would retard feather regrowth and decrease feather quality. After feather regrowth began, birds were treated with exogenous corticosterone or sham implants, or endogenous corticosterone by applying psychological or physical (food restriction) stressors. Exogenous corticosterone had no impact on feather length and vane area, but rectrices were lighter than controls. Exogenous corticosterone also decreased inter-barb distance for all feathers and increased barbule number for secondaries and rectrices. Although exogenous corticosterone had no affect on rachis tensile strength and stiffness, barbicel hooking strength was reduced. Finally, exogenous corticosterone did not alter the ability of Bacillus licheniformis to degrade feathers or affect the number of feathers that failed to regrow. In contrast, endogenous corticosterone via food restriction resulted in greater inter-barb distances in primaries and secondaries, and acute and chronic stress resulted in greater inter-barb distances in rectrices. Food-restricted birds had significantly fewer barbules in primaries than chronic stress birds and weaker feathers compared to controls. We conclude that, although exogenous and endogenous corticosterone had slightly different effects, some flight feathers grown in the presence of high circulating corticosterone are lighter, potentially weaker, and with altered feather micro-structure.

  2. Wind Turbine Blade Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J. Crossley

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A detailed review of the current state-of-art for wind turbine blade design is presented, including theoretical maximum efficiency, propulsion, practical efficiency, HAWT blade design, and blade loads. The review provides a complete picture of wind turbine blade design and shows the dominance of modern turbines almost exclusive use of horizontal axis rotors. The aerodynamic design principles for a modern wind turbine blade are detailed, including blade plan shape/quantity, aerofoil selection and optimal attack angles. A detailed review of design loads on wind turbine blades is offered, describing aerodynamic, gravitational, centrifugal, gyroscopic and operational conditions.

  3. Colourful parrot feathers resist bacterial degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burtt, Edward H.; Schroeder, Max R.; Smith, Lauren A.; Sroka, Jenna E.; McGraw, Kevin J.

    2011-01-01

    The brilliant red, orange and yellow colours of parrot feathers are the product of psittacofulvins, which are synthetic pigments known only from parrots. Recent evidence suggests that some pigments in bird feathers function not just as colour generators, but also preserve plumage integrity by increasing the resistance of feather keratin to bacterial degradation. We exposed a variety of colourful parrot feathers to feather-degrading Bacillus licheniformis and found that feathers with red psittacofulvins degraded at about the same rate as those with melanin and more slowly than white feathers, which lack pigments. Blue feathers, in which colour is based on the microstructural arrangement of keratin, air and melanin granules, and green feathers, which combine structural blue with yellow psittacofulvins, degraded at a rate similar to that of red and black feathers. These differences in resistance to bacterial degradation of differently coloured feathers suggest that colour patterns within the Psittaciformes may have evolved to resist bacterial degradation, in addition to their role in communication and camouflage. PMID:20926430

  4. Eagle Feathers, the Highest Honor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaverhead, Pete

    Following his own advice that elders of the tribe share their knowledge so that "the way of the Indians would come back to the children of today," Pete Beaverhead (1899-1975) tells of the traditions of respect and honor surrounding the eagle feather in a booklet illustrated with black and white drawings. The eagle is an Indian symbol of…

  5. Harmonic statistics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eliazar, Iddo, E-mail: eliazar@post.tau.ac.il

    2017-05-15

    The exponential, the normal, and the Poisson statistical laws are of major importance due to their universality. Harmonic statistics are as universal as the three aforementioned laws, but yet they fall short in their ‘public relations’ for the following reason: the full scope of harmonic statistics cannot be described in terms of a statistical law. In this paper we describe harmonic statistics, in their full scope, via an object termed harmonic Poisson process: a Poisson process, over the positive half-line, with a harmonic intensity. The paper reviews the harmonic Poisson process, investigates its properties, and presents the connections of this object to an assortment of topics: uniform statistics, scale invariance, random multiplicative perturbations, Pareto and inverse-Pareto statistics, exponential growth and exponential decay, power-law renormalization, convergence and domains of attraction, the Langevin equation, diffusions, Benford’s law, and 1/f noise. - Highlights: • Harmonic statistics are described and reviewed in detail. • Connections to various statistical laws are established. • Connections to perturbation, renormalization and dynamics are established.

  6. The evolutionary origin of feathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regal, P J

    1975-03-01

    Previous theories relating the origin of feathers to flight or to heat conservation are considered to be inadequate. There is need for a model of feather evolution that gives attention to the function and adaptive advantage of intermediate structures. The present model attempts to reveal and to deal with, the spectrum of complex questions that must be considered. In several genera of modern lizards, scales are elongated in warm climates. It is argued that these scales act as small shields to solar radiation. Experiments are reported that tend to confirm this. Using lizards as a conceptual model, it is argued that feathers likewise arose as adaptations to intense solar radiation. Elongated scales are assumed to have subdivided into finely branched structures that produced a heat-shield, flexible as well as long and broad. Associated muscles had the function of allowing the organism fine control over rates of heat gain and loss: the specialized scales or early feathers could be moved to allow basking in cool weather or protection in hot weather. Subdivision of the scales also allowed a close fit between the elements of the insulative integument. There would have been mechanical and thermal advantages to having branches that interlocked into a pennaceous structure early in evolution, so the first feathers may have been pennaceous. A versatile insulation of movable, branched scales would have been a preadaptation for endothermy. As birds took to the air they faced cooling problems despite their insulative covering because of high convective heat loss. Short glides may have initially been advantageous in cooling an animal under heat stress, but at some point the problem may have shifted from one of heat exclusion to one of heat retention. Endothermy probably evolved in conjunction with flight. If so, it is an unnecessary assumption to postulate that the climate cooled and made endothermy advantageous. The development of feathers is complex and a model is proposed that

  7. A Mesozoic bird from Gondwana preserving feathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Ismar de Souza; Novas, Fernando E; Agnolín, Federico L; Isasi, Marcelo P; Freitas, Francisco I; Andrade, José A

    2015-06-02

    The fossil record of birds in the Mesozoic of Gondwana is mostly based on isolated and often poorly preserved specimens, none of which has preserved details on feather anatomy. We provide the description of a fossil bird represented by a skeleton with feathers from the Early Cretaceous of Gondwana (NE Brazil). The specimen sheds light on the homology and 3D structure of the rachis-dominated feathers, previously known from two-dimensional slabs. The rectrices exhibit a row of rounded spots, probably corresponding to some original colour pattern. The specimen supports the identification of the feather scapus as the rachis, which is notably robust and elliptical in cross-section. In spite of its juvenile nature, the tail plumage resembles the feathering of adult individuals of modern birds. Documentation of rachis-dominated tail in South American enantiornithines broadens the paleobiogeographic distribution of basal birds with this tail feather morphotype, up to now only reported from China.

  8. Applying chemical stimuli on feathers to reduce feather pecking in laying hens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harlander Matauschek, A.; Rodenburg, T.B.

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that spraying a distasteful substance (quinine) on a bird's feather cover reduced short-term feather pecking. The present experiment evaluated if other substances offer similar or better protection against feather pecking. One hundred and twenty birds were divided into 12

  9. Pure keratin membrane and fibers from chicken feather.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Bomou; Qiao, Xue; Hou, Xiuliang; Yang, Yiqi

    2016-08-01

    In this research, keratin was extracted from the disposable chicken feather using l-cysteine as reducing agent. Then, it was re-dissolved in the sodium carbonate-sodium bicarbonate buffer, and the pure keratin membrane and fiber were fabricated by doctor-blade casting process and wet spinning method, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) were used to characterize the chemical and physical properties of resulting powder, membrane and fiber. Compared with the raw chicken feather, the regenerated keratin materials retain its chemical structure and thermal stability, their relative crystallinity is a little different depend on the shaping method, which leads to the difference in moisture regain. The mechanical results show that tensile strength of the keratin membrane researches 3.5MPa, have potential application in biomedical fields. However, the keratin fiber presents low tenacity, i.e. 0.5cN/dtex, this problem should be solved in order to apply the new fiber in textile and material science. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Turbomachine blade assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Crespo, Andres Jose

    2016-11-01

    Embodiments of the present disclosure include a system comprising a turbomachine blade assembly having a blade portion, a shank portion, and a mounting portion, wherein the blade portion, the shank portion, and the mounting portion comprise a first plurality of plies extending from a tip of the airfoil to a base of the dovetail.

  11. Hydrodynamic blade guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaedel, Kenneth L.; Davis, Pete J.; Landram, Charles S.

    2000-01-01

    A saw having a self-pumped hydrodynamic blade guide or bearing for retaining the saw blade in a centered position in the saw kerf (width of cut made by the saw). The hydrodynamic blade guide or bearing utilizes pockets or grooves incorporated into the sides of the blade. The saw kerf in the workpiece provides the guide or bearing stator surface. Both sides of the blade entrain cutting fluid as the blade enters the kerf in the workpiece, and the trapped fluid provides pressure between the blade and the workpiece as an inverse function of the gap between the blade surface and the workpiece surface. If the blade wanders from the center of the kerf, then one gap will increase and one gap will decrease and the consequent pressure difference between the two sides of the blade will cause the blade to re-center itself in the kerf. Saws using the hydrodynamic blade guide or bearing have particular application in slicing slabs from boules of single crystal materials, for example, as well as for cutting other difficult to saw materials such as ceramics, glass, and brittle composite materials.

  12. Turbomachine blade reinforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia Crespo, Andres Jose

    2016-09-06

    Embodiments of the present disclosure include a system having a turbomachine blade segment including a blade and a mounting segment coupled to the blade, wherein the mounting segment has a plurality of reinforcement pins laterally extending at least partially through a neck of the mounting segment.

  13. Wind Turbine Blade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    The invention relates to a blade for a wind turbine, particularly to a blade that may be produced by an advanced manufacturing process for producing a blade with high quality structural components. Particularly, the structural components, which are preferably manufactured from fibre reinforced...

  14. Review: cornification, morphogenesis and evolution of feathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alibardi, Lorenzo

    2017-05-01

    Feathers are corneous microramifications of variable complexity derived from the morphogenesis of barb ridges. Histological and ultrastructural analyses on developing and regenerating feathers clarify the three-dimensional organization of cells in barb ridges. Feather cells derive from folds of the embryonic epithelium of feather germs from which barb/barbule cells and supportive cells organize in a branching structure. The following degeneration of supportive cells allows the separation of barbule cells which are made of corneous beta-proteins and of lower amounts of intermediate filament (IF)(alpha) keratins, histidine-rich proteins, and corneous proteins of the epidermal differentiation complex. The specific protein association gives rise to a corneous material with specific biomechanic properties in barbules, rami, rachis, or calamus. During the evolution of different feather types, a large expansion of the genome coding for corneous feather beta-proteins occurred and formed 3-4-nm-thick filaments through a different mechanism from that of 8-10 nm IF keratins. In the chick, over 130 genes mainly localized in chromosomes 27 and 25 encode feather corneous beta-proteins of 10-12 kDa containing 97-105 amino acids. About 35 genes localized in chromosome 25 code for scale proteins (14-16 kDa made of 122-146 amino acids), claws and beak proteins (14-17 kDa proteins of 134-164 amino acids). Feather morphogenesis is periodically re-activated to produce replacement feathers, and multiple feather types can result from the interactions of epidermal and dermal tissues. The review shows schematic models explaining the translation of the morphogenesis of barb ridges present in the follicle into the three-dimensional shape of the main types of branched or un-branched feathers such as plumulaceous, pennaceous, filoplumes, and bristles. The temporal pattern of formation of barb ridges in different feather types and the molecular control from the dermal papilla through

  15. Blade reliability collaborative :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashwill, Thomas D.; Ogilvie, Alistair B.; Paquette, Joshua A.

    2013-04-01

    The Blade Reliability Collaborative (BRC) was started by the Wind Energy Technologies Department of Sandia National Laboratories and DOE in 2010 with the goal of gaining insight into planned and unplanned O&M issues associated with wind turbine blades. A significant part of BRC is the Blade Defect, Damage and Repair Survey task, which will gather data from blade manufacturers, service companies, operators and prior studies to determine details about the largest sources of blade unreliability. This report summarizes the initial findings from this work.

  16. Feather-like structures in positive streamers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Wormeester (Gideon); S. Nijdam (Sander); U. Ebert (Ute)

    2010-01-01

    htmlabstractIn experiments positive streamers can have a feather-like structure, with small hairs connected to the main streamer channel. These feathers were observed in pure nitrogen (with impurities of 1ppm oxygen or less) but not in air. Based on results of numerical simulations, we provide a

  17. Cell structure of barb ridges in down feathers and juvenile wing feathers of the developing chick embryo: barb ridge modification in relation to feather evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alibardi, Lorenzo

    2006-07-01

    The present study deals with the cell structure and three-dimensional organization of barb and barbule cells within barb ridges of down feathers and juvenile feathers in the chick embryo. Juvenile feathers represent the second generation of feathers in the wing, and replace down feathers some weeks after hatching. Within the follicle of juvenile feathers, at 16-18 days of embryonic development, barb ridges are more numerous than in down feathers. Barb ridges of juvenile feathers contain more cells in their barbule and axial plates with respect to barb ridges of down feathers. This condition determines the formation of longer barbules inserted in the rami of juvenile feathers than barbules of down feathers. Barb ridges of juvenile feathers merge with the rachidial ridge so that pennaceous feathers are formed. Barbule cells are surrounded by cytoplasmic elongation from barb vane ridge cells located in the axial plate, which constitute most of the axial plate. The degeneration of supportive cells among barbule cells branching from barbs determine the formation of spaces between barbules. The study emphasizes that, in addition to the size of the dermal papilla, it is the length of barb ridges and the infiltration of barb ridge vane cells among barbule cells that determine the size and length of feathers. The knowledge of the cell structure of barb ridges allows understanding not only of how feathers develop but also gives insights into their evolution. Based on changes of the process of barb ridge morphogenesis some hypotheses on the evolution of plumulaceous and pennaceous feathers are presented. Feathers derived from the process of carving-out supportive cells within barb ridges and from the specific pattern of fusion of barb/barbule cells. This process initially produced variably branched down feathers and later, after barb ridge fusion, a rachis. From the modulation in the pattern of barb ridge formation various pennaceous feathers later evolved.

  18. Harmonic Analysis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Harish-Chandra, Gelfand and several other mathematicians and physicists, group-theoretic harmonic analysis is a flourishing industry today paving the way to new developments in the con- text of noncompact Lie groups as well as quantum groups. Since B(n, z) = zn the expansion (3) suggests a link between Fourier series.

  19. Harmonic Analysis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 10. Harmonic Analysis Fourier Series and Beyond. K R Parthasarathy. Book Review Volume 1 Issue 10 October 1996 pp 87-91. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/001/10/0087-0091 ...

  20. Kingfisher feathers - colouration by pigments, spongy nanostructures and thin films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stavenga, Doekele G.; Tinbergen, Jan; Leertouwer, Hein L.; Wilts, Bodo D.

    2011-01-01

    The colours of the common kingfisher, Alcedo atthis, reside in the barbs of the three main types of feather: the orange breast feathers, the cyan back feathers and the blue tail feathers. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the orange barbs contain small pigment granules. The cyan and blue

  1. Preliminary study on chicken feather protein-based wood adhesives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehui Jiang; Daochun Qin; Chung-Yun Hse; Monlin Kuo; Zhaohui Luo; Ge Wang; Yan Yu

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this preliminary study was to partially replace phenol in the synthesis of phenol-formaldehyde resin with feather protein. Feather protein–based resins, which contained one part feather protein and two parts phenol, were formulated under the conditions of two feather protein hydrolysis methods (with and without presence of phenol during...

  2. Harmonic engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Charles L [Livermore, CA

    2009-10-20

    A high efficiency harmonic engine based on a resonantly reciprocating piston expander that extracts work from heat and pressurizes working fluid in a reciprocating piston compressor. The engine preferably includes harmonic oscillator valves capable of oscillating at a resonant frequency for controlling the flow of working fluid into and out of the expander, and also preferably includes a shunt line connecting an expansion chamber of the expander to a buffer chamber of the expander for minimizing pressure variations in the fluidic circuit of the engine. The engine is especially designed to operate with very high temperature input to the expander and very low temperature input to the compressor, to produce very high thermal conversion efficiency.

  3. Transient flow in a compressor blade row for a periodic vibration motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idres, Moumen; Labanie, Mohamed; Okasha, Mohamed

    2018-01-01

    The goal of this work is to conduct a transient compressor blade row flow simulation as part of blade flutter modeling. An integral step of blade flutter modeling is the calculation of the aerodynamic damping factor as a function of the possible vibration mode shapes. Using Fourier method, the number of blade passages required for transient flow analysis is kept to a minimum of two for all vibration modes. In this work, a compressor rotor blade row is considered. The vibration modes are obtained using ANSYS mechanical, then, unsteady flow is obtained for vibrating blades with a harmonic motion. Work of the flow on the blade is calculated and hence the aerodynamic damping is obtained.

  4. Fault bars and the risk of feather damage in cranes

    OpenAIRE

    Jovani, Roger; Blas, Julio; Stoffel, M.J.; Bortolotti, L.E.; Bortolotti, Gary R.

    2010-01-01

    Fault bars are translucent areas across feathers grown under stressful conditions. They are ubiquitous across avian species and feather tracts. Because fault bars weaken feather structure and can lead to feather breakage, they may reduce flight performance and lower fitness. Therefore, natural selection might prime mechan- isms aimed at reducing the cost of fault bars, penalizing their occurrence in those feathers more relevant for flight. Here, we tested one prediction of this ‘fault...

  5. Towards a comprehensive model of feather regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maderson, Paul F A; Hillenius, Willem J; Hiller, Uwe; Dove, Carla C

    2009-10-01

    Understanding of the regeneration of feathers, despite a 140 year tradition of study, has remained substantially incomplete. Moreover, accumulated errors and mis-statements in the literature have confounded the intrinsic difficulties in describing feather regeneration. Lack of allusion to Rudall's (Rudall [1947] Biochem Biophys Acta 1:549-562) seminal X-ray diffraction study that revealed two distinct keratins, beta- and alpha-, in a mature feather, is one of the several examples where lack of citation long inhibited progress in understanding. This article reviews and reevaluates the available literature and provides a synthetic, comprehensive, morphological model for the regeneration of a generalized, adult contour feather. Particular attention is paid to several features that have previously been largely ignored. Some of these, such as the beta-keratogenic sheath and the alpha-keratogenic, supra-umbilical, pulp caps, are missing from mature, functional feathers sensu stricto because they are lost through preening, but these structures nevertheless play a critical role in development. A new developmental role for a tissue unique to feathers, the medullary pith of the rachis and barb rami, and especially its importance in the genesis of the superior umbilical region (SUR) that forms the transition from the spathe (rachis and vanes) to the calamus, is described. It is postulated that feathers form through an intricate interplay between cyto- and histodifferentiative processes, determined by patterning signals that emanate from the dermal core, and a suite of interacting biomechanical forces. Precisely regulated patterns of loss of intercellular adhesivity appear to be the most fundamental aspect of feather morphogenesis and regeneration: rather than a hierarchically branched structure, it appears more appropriate to conceive of feathers as a sheet of mature keratinocytes that is "full of holes. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Transcriptomic analyses of regenerating adult feathers in chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Chen Siang; Chen, Chih-Kuan; Fan, Wen-Lang; Wu, Ping; Wu, Siao-Man; Chen, Jiun-Jie; Lai, Yu-Ting; Mao, Chi-Tang; Lu, Mei-Yeh Jade; Chen, Di-Rong; Lin, Ze-Shiang; Yang, Kai-Jung; Sha, Yuan-An; Tu, Tsung-Che; Chen, Chih-Feng; Chuong, Cheng-Ming; Li, Wen-Hsiung

    2015-10-06

    Feathers have diverse forms with hierarchical branching patterns and are an excellent model for studying the development and evolution of morphological traits. The complex structure of feathers allows for various types of morphological changes to occur. The genetic basis of the structural differences between different parts of a feather and between different types of feather is a fundamental question in the study of feather diversity, yet there is only limited relevant information for gene expression during feather development. We conducted transcriptomic analysis of five zones of feather morphologies from two feather types at different times during their regeneration after plucking. The expression profiles of genes associated with the development of feather structure were examined. We compared the gene expression patterns in different types of feathers and different portions of a feather and identified morphotype-specific gene expression patterns. Many candidate genes were identified for growth control, morphogenesis, or the differentiation of specific structures of different feather types. This study laid the ground work for studying the evolutionary origin and diversification of feathers as abundant data were produced for the study of feather morphogenesis. It significantly increased our understanding of the complex molecular and cellular events in feather development processes and provided a foundation for future studies on the development of other skin appendages.

  7. The evolution of the feather: Sinosauropteryx, life, death and preservation of an alleged feathered dinosaur

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lingham-Soliar, Theagarten

    2012-01-01

    Among the spectacular dinosaur fossils reported from the Jehol Group of northeastern China is the most celebrated, Sinosauropteryx, which continues to excite interest in questions concerning feather...

  8. Characterization of Deficiencies in the Frequency Domain Forced Response Analysis Technique for Turbine Bladed Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Andrew M.; Schmauch, Preston

    2012-01-01

    Turbine blades in rocket and jet engine turbomachinery experience enormous harmonic loading conditions. These loads result from the integer number of upstream and downstream stator vanes as well as the other turbine stages. The standard technique for forced response analysis to assess structural integrity is to decompose a CFD generated flow field into its harmonic components, and to then perform a frequency response analysis at the problematic natural frequencies. Recent CFD analysis and water-flow testing at NASA/MSFC, though, indicates that this technique may miss substantial harmonic and non-harmonic excitation sources that become present in complex flows. These complications suggest the question of whether frequency domain analysis is capable of capturing the excitation content sufficiently. Two studies comparing frequency response analysis with transient response analysis, therefore, have been performed. The first is of a bladed disk with each blade modeled by simple beam elements. It was hypothesized that the randomness and other variation from the standard harmonic excitation would reduce the blade structural response, but the results showed little reduction. The second study was of a realistic model of a bladed-disk excited by the same CFD used in the J2X engine program. The results showed that the transient analysis results were up to 10% higher for "clean" nodal diameter excitations and six times larger for "messy" excitations, where substantial Fourier content around the main harmonic exists.

  9. New and little known feather mites (Acari)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feather mites (Acari: Astigmata) were analyzed with low temperature scanning electron microscopy (LT-SEM), including the description of three new species: Plicatalloptes atrichogynus sp. nov. (Analgoidea: Alloptidae) from the Neotropical cormorant Phalacrocorax brasilianus (Gmelin, 1789) (Pelecanifo...

  10. Blade Runner forever

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dickson, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    Om de påfaldende ligheder mellem scenografien til Ridley Scotts 'Blade Runner'og de faktuelle bymiljøer i nutidens Tokyo.......Om de påfaldende ligheder mellem scenografien til Ridley Scotts 'Blade Runner'og de faktuelle bymiljøer i nutidens Tokyo....

  11. Modal Properties and Stability of Bend-Twist Coupled Wind Turbine Blades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stäblein, Alexander R.; Hansen, Morten Hartvig; Verelst, David Robert

    2017-01-01

    Coupling between bending and twist has a significant influence on the aeroelastic response of wind turbine blades. The coupling can arise from the blade geometry (e.g. sweep, prebending or deflection under load) or from the anisotropic properties of the blade material. Bend-twist coupling can...... a steady-state equilibrium using the aero-servo-elastic tool HAWCStab2 which has been extended by a beam element that allows for fully coupled cross-sectional properties. Bend-twist coupling is introduced in the cross-sectional stiffness matrix by means of coupling coefficients that introduce twist...... for flapwise (flap-twist coupling) or edgewise (edge-twist coupling) bending. Edge-twist coupling can increase or decrease the damping of the edgewise mode relative to the reference blade, depending on the operational condition of the turbine. Edge-twist to feather coupling for edgewise deflection towards...

  12. The investigation of a variable camber blade lift control for helicopter rotor systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awani, A. O.

    1982-01-01

    A new rotor configuration called the variable camber rotor was investigated numerically for its potential to reduce helicopter control loads and improve hover performance. This rotor differs from a conventional rotor in that it incorporates a deflectable 50% chord trailing edge flap to control rotor lift, and a non-feathering (fixed) forward portion. Lift control is achieved by linking the blade flap to a conventional swashplate mechanism; therefore, it is pilot action to the flap deflection that controls rotor lift and tip path plane tilt. This report presents the aerodynamic characteristics of the flapped and unflapped airfoils, evaluations of aerodynamics techniques to minimize flap hinge moment, comparative hover rotor performance and the physical concepts of the blade motion and rotor control. All the results presented herein are based on numerical analyses. The assessment of payoff for the total configuration in comparison with a conventional blade, having the same physical characteristics as an H-34 helicopter rotor blade was examined for hover only.

  13. Testing of rotor blades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busmann, H.G.; Kensche, C.; Berg-Pollack, A.; Buerkner, F.; Sayer, F.; Wiemann, K. [Fraunhofer-Center fuer Windenergie- und Meerestechnik, Bremerhaven (Germany)

    2007-02-15

    Current approval of rotor blades comprises characterization of materials, full-blade tests with static up- and down-bending, and a modal analysis. In addition to these tests, cyclic testing of full-size rotor blades is increasingly discussed to become subject of official certification procedures. Open questions regarding their operational relevance, large investment costs and long duration of up to 4 months for forthcoming large blades now deepen the demand for a new testing methodology. Component testing and scaling methods, highly developed calculation methods, and the definition of blade families of closely related structures are proposed to increase the relevance as well as to decrease costs and duration of the approval procedure. (orig.)

  14. Ice Formation Delay on Penguin Feathers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadehbirjandi, Elaheh; Tavakoli-Dastjerdi, Faryar; St. Leger, Judy; Davis, Stephen H.; Rothstein, Jonathan P.; Kavehpour, H. Pirouz

    2015-11-01

    Antarctic penguins reside in a harsh environment where air temperature may reach -40 °C with wind speed of 40 m/s and water temperature remains around -2.2 °C. Penguins are constantly in and out of the water and splashed by waves, yet even in sub-freezing conditions, the formation of macroscopic ice is not observed on their feathers. Bird feathers are naturally hydrophobic; however, penguins have an additional hydrophobic coating on their feathers to reinforce their non-wetting properties. This coating consists of preen oil which is applied to the feathers from the gland near the base of the tail. The combination of the feather's hydrophobicity and surface texture is known to increase the contact angle of water drops on penguin feathers to over 140 ° and classify them as superhydrophobic. We here develop an in-depth analysis of ice formation mechanism on superhydrophobic surfaces through careful experimentations and development of a theory to address how ice formation is delayed on these surfaces. Furthermore, we investigate the anti-icing properties of warm and cold weather penguins with and without preen oil to further design a surface minimizing the frost formation which is of practical interest especially in aircraft industry.

  15. Effects of mistuning on blade torsional flutter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, A. V.; Kurkov, A.

    1981-01-01

    An analytical model for the prediction of fan blade flutter is presented and evaluated using data from NASA tests on an advanced high performance engine. For the cascade conditions appropriate to the test points studied, the aerodynamic theory cannot predict subcritical flutter. Under the assumptions of a tuned assembly, the imaginary part of the aerodynamic coefficients does indicate flutter for a limited number of interblade phase angles, but these interblade phase angles are close to those at which the acoustic resonance is predicted. Upon using the individual blade frequencies and solving the mistuned system with aerodynamic coupling only, the results show a stable system. Eigenvectors calculated for the mistuned system demonstrate the presence of several harmonics in each mistuned mode. Inclusion of both mechanical and aerodynamic coupling in the solution of the eigenproblem influences not only the frequencies but also damping in the system with a trend toward stability.

  16. Harmonic engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Charles L.; Sewall, Noel; Boroa, Carl

    2014-08-19

    An engine based on a reciprocating piston engine that extracts work from pressurized working fluid. The engine includes a harmonic oscillator inlet valve capable of oscillating at a resonant frequency for controlling the flow of working fluid into of the engine. In particular, the inlet valve includes an inlet valve head and a spring arranged together as a harmonic oscillator so that the inlet valve head is moveable from an unbiased equilibrium position to a biased closed position occluding an inlet. Upon releasing the inlet valve the inlet valve head undergoes a single oscillation past the equilibrium positio to a maximum open position and returns to a biased return position close to the closed position to choke the flow and produce a pressure drop across the inlet valve causing the inlet valve to close. Protrusions carried either by the inlet valve head or piston head are used to bump open the inlet valve from the closed position and initiate the single oscillation of the inlet valve head, and protrusions carried either by the outlet valve head or piston head are used to close the outlet valve ahead of the bump opening of the inlet valve.

  17. The fearful feather pecker : applying the principles to practice to prevent feather pecking in laying hens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haas, de E.N.

    2014-01-01

    Billions of laying hens are kept worldwide. Severe feather pecking (SFP) is a behaviour which occurs with a high prevalence on commercial farms. SFP, the pecking and plucking of feathers of another bird, induces pain and stress and can ultimately lead to cannibalism. Moreover, SFP can occur if a

  18. Harmonic analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Helson, Henry

    2010-01-01

    This second edition has been enlarged and considerably rewritten. Among the new topics are infinite product spaces with applications to probability, disintegration of measures on product spaces, positive definite functions on the line, and additional information about Weyl's theorems on equidistribution. Topics that have continued from the first edition include Minkowski's theorem, measures with bounded powers, idempotent measures, spectral sets of bounded functions and a theorem of Szego, and the Wiener Tauberian theorem. Readers of the book should have studied the Lebesgue integral, the elementary theory of analytic and harmonic functions, and the basic theory of Banach spaces. The treatment is classical and as simple as possible. This is an instructional book, not a treatise. Mathematics students interested in analysis will find here what they need to know about Fourier analysis. Physicists and others can use the book as a reference for more advanced topics.

  19. Interferometric study on birds' feathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De la Torre-Ibarra, Manuel H; Santoyo, Fernando Mendoza

    2013-05-01

    Optical techniques such as speckle pattern interferometry are well known in the nondestructive testing measurement community. They can be used, for instance, as a predictor of the mechanical behavior of a sample under study. However, in almost all circumstances, a mathematical model has to be applied in order to make sense of these measurements. This is a critical issue when an organic sample is studied, mainly due to its complex deformation response. A good example of this is observed in the birds' feathers. They have extraordinary mechanical and aerodynamic properties thanks to their stiffness and lightness. A couple of live birds are safely situated in front of an out-of-plane sensitive digital holographic interferometer (DHI), an optical system capable of recovering the optical phase in this type of nonrepeatable or unpredictable experiment. In order to recover the backscattering signal and its interferometric response, several images are recorded from different sections of the plumage. Displacement maps are obtained from what is, as far as is known, the first time that full field microdisplacement maps are presented over a hummingbird and a parakeet plumage.

  20. Reduction of Helicopter Blade-Vortex Interaction Noise by Active Rotor Control Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yung H.; Gmelin, Bernd; Splettstoesser, Wolf; Brooks, Thomas F.; Philippe, Jean J.; Prieur, Jean

    1997-01-01

    Helicopter blade-vortex interaction noise is one of the most severe noise sources and is very important both in community annoyance and military detection. Research over the decades has substantially improved basic physical understanding of the mechanisms generating rotor blade-vortex interaction noise and also of controlling techniques, particularly using active rotor control technology. This paper reviews active rotor control techniques currently available for rotor blade vortex interaction noise reduction, including higher harmonic pitch control, individual blade control, and on-blade control technologies. Basic physical mechanisms of each active control technique are reviewed in terms of noise reduction mechanism and controlling aerodynamic or structural parameters of a blade. Active rotor control techniques using smart structures/materials are discussed, including distributed smart actuators to induce local torsional or flapping deformations, Published by Elsevier Science Ltd.

  1. Phononic High Harmonic Generation

    OpenAIRE

    Ganesan, Adarsh; Do, Cuong; Seshia, Ashwin A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports the first experimental evidence for phononic low-order to high-order harmonic conversion leading to high harmonic generation. Similar to parametric resonance, phononic high harmonic generation is also mediated by a threshold dependent instability of a driven phonon mode. Once the threshold for instability is met, a cascade of harmonic generation processes is triggered. Firstly, the up-conversion of first harmonic phonons into second harmonic phonons is established. Subseque...

  2. Carbon Fibers from Chicken Feather Keratin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Melissa E.; Wool, Richard

    2006-03-01

    As the availability of synthetic and fossil-fuel based resources is becoming limited, bio-based materials offer an environmentally friendly alternative. Chicken feathers remain a huge agricultural waste. The feathers are comprised of approximately 97% keratin, but are currently used only to enrich animal feed. However, this usage is becoming a problem with the spread of diseases such as Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy, commonly called ``Mad Cow Disease.'' The hollow, microcrystalline, oriented keratin feather fibers offer a novel, low cost approach to producing carbon fibers through controlled pyrolysis. Carbonized feather fibers (CFF) were prepared by first heating to 225 ^oC (below the melting point)in N2 for 26 hours to crosslink and stabilize the fiber structure; then carbonization occurred by increasing the temperature to 450 ^oC for two more hours. The resulting CFF were hollow, stiff and strong and had an affine 80% weight loss, which is near the theoretical value for the C-content of keratin. Initial studies showed that a composite with the CFF and an epoxidized soybean oil (AESO) gave an improved fiber modulus ECFF of order 13.5--66.1 GPa. With continued research, the goals are to increase the stiffness of the feathers to 100 GPa, while increasing the strength in the range of 5-10 GPa.

  3. Flexible Blades for Wind Turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Madeline Carlisle; Macphee, David; Harris, Caleb

    2016-11-01

    Previous research has shown that windmills with flexible blades are more efficient than those with rigid blades. Flexibility offers passive pitch control, preferable to active pitch control which is costly and requires maintenance. Flexible blades morph such that the blade more closely resembles its design point at part load and over load. The lift-to-drag ratios on individual blades was investigated. A mold was designed and machined from an acrylic slab for the casting of blades with a NACA 0012 cross section. A flexible blade was cast from silicone and a rigid blade was cast from polyurethane. Each of these blades was tested in a wind tunnel, cantilever mounted, spanning the whole test section. The angle of attack was varied by rotating the mount. All tests were performed at the same wind speed. A load cell within the mount measured forces on the blade, from which the lift and drag forces were calculated. The stall point for the flexible blade occurred later than for the rigid blade, which agrees with previous research. Lift-to-drag ratios were larger for the flexible blade at all angles of attack tested. Flexible blades seem to be a viable option for passive pitch control. Future research will include different airfoil cross sections, wind speeds, and blade materials. Funding from NSF REU site Grant EEC 1358991 is greatly appreciated.

  4. Towing Tank and Flume Testing of Passively Adaptive Composite Tidal Turbine Blades: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, Robynne [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ordonez-Sanchez, Stephanie [University of Strathclyde; Porter, Kate E. [University of Strathclyde; Johnstone, Cameron M. [University of Strathclyde; Doman, Darrel A. [Dalhousie University; Pegg, Michael J. [Dalhousie University

    2017-09-28

    Composite tidal turbine blades with bend-twist (BT) coupled layups allow the blade to self-adapt to local site conditions by passively twisting. Passive feathering has the potential to increase annual energy production and shed thrust loads and power under extreme tidal flows. Decreased hydrodynamic thrust and power during extreme conditions meann that the turbine support structure, generator, and other components can be sized more appropriately, resulting in a higher utilization factor and increased cost effectiveness. This paper presents new experimental data for a small-scale turbine with BT composite blades. The research team tested the turbine in the Kelvin Hydrodynamics Laboratory towing tank at the University of Strathclyde in Glasgow, United Kingdom, and in the recirculating current flume at the l Institut Francais de Recherche pour l Exploitation de la Mer Centre in Boulogne-sur-Mer, France. Tests were also performed on rigid aluminum blades with identical geometry, which yielded baseline test sets for comparison. The results from both facilities agreed closely, supporting the hypothesis that increased blade flexibility can induce load reductions. Under the most extreme conditions tested the turbine with BT blades had up to 11 percent lower peak thrust loads and a 15 percent reduction in peak power compared to the turbine with rigid blades. The load reductions varied as a function of turbine rotational velocity and ambient flow velocity.

  5. Feather eating and its associations with plumage damage and feathers on the floor in commercial farms of laying hens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, Anja Brinch; Hinrichsen, Lena Karina

    2016-01-01

    Feather eating has been associated with feather pecking, which continues to pose economic and welfare problems in egg production. Knowledge on feather eating is limited and studies of feather eating in commercial flocks of laying hens have not been performed previously. Therefore, the main...... objective was to investigate feather eating and its association with plumage damage and floor feather characteristics in commercial flocks of layers in barn and organic production systems. The study was performed in 13 flocks of barn layers and 17 flocks of organic layers. Each flock was visited at around.......3% in organic; P=0.99). Our hypothesis about a positive correlation between feather eating and plumage damage was not supported as no correlation was found between the prevalence of poor plumage condition and the prevalence of droppings with feather content. However, the prevalence of pecking damaged floor...

  6. Evaluation of a novel feather scoring system for monitoring feather damaging behaviour in parrots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zeeland, Yvonne R A; Bergers, Madeleine J; van der Valk, Lisette; Schoemaker, Nico J; Lumeij, Johannes T

    2013-05-01

    Feather damaging behaviour is common in captive psittacine birds and there is a need for reliable methods to evaluate the efficacy of therapeutic and preventive interventions. This study compared the inter- and intra-observer reliabilities of a novel feather scoring system with an existing system to assess the plumage of grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus). Regions of the body were photographed separately at 1 week intervals and shown at random to 35 examiners (avian veterinarians and veterinary students), who used the two scoring systems to assess plumage. Since the quality of the photographs was insufficient to allow accurate assessment of the individual flight and tail feathers, the novel scoring system was only evaluated for its reliability regarding covert and down feathers. Inter- and intra-observer reliabilities were determined using the intra-class correlation coefficient. Bland-Altman analysis was performed to determine absolute reliabilities for both systems. Correlation coefficients were 0.90 and 0.95 for intra-observer reliability and 0.83 and 0.89 for inter-observer reliability for the existing and novel feather scoring systems, respectively. When using the novel system, a change in plumage condition of ≥10% was needed to ensure that the change reflected a real difference in 95% of cases, while a change of ≥15% was needed for the existing system. Since it may take from 4 weeks (covert or down feathers) to over 1 year (flight or tail feathers) for feathers to regrow, sufficient time should be allowed to elapse between two scoring sessions to reliably evaluate the efficacy of preventive or therapeutic interventions for feather damaging behaviour. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Isolation and characterization of feather degrading bacteria from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study is aimed at isolating and characterizing new culturable feather degrading bacteria from soils of the University of Mauritius Farm. Bacteria that were isolated were tested for their capability to grow on feather meal agar (FMA). Proteolytic bacteria were tested for feather degradation and were further identified ...

  8. Stabilization of solutions of feather keratins by sodium dodecyl sulphate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrooyen, P.M.M.; Dijkstra, Pieter J.; Oberthür, Radulf C.; Bantjes, A.; Bantjes, Adriaan; Feijen, Jan

    2001-01-01

    Feather keratins were extracted from chicken feathers with aqueous solutions of urea and 2-mercaptoethanol. After filtration of the insoluble residue, a feather keratin solution was obtained. Removal of 2-mercaptoethanol and urea by dialysis resulted in aggregation of the keratin polypeptide chains

  9. Improvement of antioxidant potential in rats consuming feathers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2012-01-12

    Jan 12, 2012 ... Key words: Feather protein hydrolysate, Bacillus pumilus, lipids peroxidation, oxidative stress, dietary ingredient. INTRODUCTION. Feathers are produced in large amounts as a waste by- product at poultry-processing industries, reaching millions of tons annually throughout the world. Feathers, consisted.

  10. Improvement of antioxidant potential in rats consuming feathers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2012-01-12

    Jan 12, 2012 ... highlighting the in vivo antioxidant potential of a keratinous waste hydrolysate. The effect of dietary supplementation with feathers protein hydrolysate, ...... Chicken feathers. Bioresour. Technol. 97: 1337-1343. Dalev PG (1994). Utilization of waste feathers from poultry slaughter for production of protein ...

  11. Application of higher harmonic control to hingeless rotor systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Khanh; Chopra, Inderjit

    1990-01-01

    A comprehensive analytical formulation has been dveloped to predict the vibratory hub loads of a helicopter rotor system in forward flight. The analysis is used to calculate the optimal higher harmonic control inputs and associated actuator power required to minimize these hub loads. The present formulation is based on a finite element method in space and time. A nonlinear time domain, unsteady aerodynamic model is used to obtain the airloads, and the rotor induced inflow is calculated using a nonuniform inflow model. Predicted vibratory hub loads are correlated with experimental data obtained from a scaled model rotor. Results of a parametric study on a hingeless rotor show that blade flap, lag and torsion vibration characteristics, offset of blade center of mass from elastic axis, offset of elastic axis from quarter-chord axis, and blade thrust greatly affect the higher harmonic control actuator power requirement.

  12. Failure of flight feathers under uniaxial compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schelestow, Kristina; Troncoso, Omar P; Torres, Fernando G

    2017-09-01

    Flight feathers are light weight engineering structures. They have a central shaft divided in two parts: the calamus and the rachis. The rachis is a thinly walled conical shell filled with foam, while the calamus is a hollow tube-like structure. Due to the fact that bending loads are produced during birds' flight, the resistance to bending of feathers has been reported in different studies. However, the analysis of bent feathers has shown that compression could induce failure by buckling. Here, we have studied the compression of feathers in order to assess the failure mechanisms involved. Axial compression tests were carried out on the rachis and the calamus of dove and pelican feathers. The failure mechanisms and folding structures that resulted from the compression tests were observed from images obtained by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The rachis and calamus fail due to structural instability. In the case of the calamus, this instability leads to a progressive folding process. In contrast, the rachis undergoes a typical Euler column-type buckling failure. The study of failed specimens showed that delamination buckling, cell collapse and cell densification are the primary failure mechanisms of the rachis structure. The role of the foam is also discussed with regard to the mechanical response of the samples and the energy dissipated during the compression tests. Critical stress values were calculated using delamination buckling models and were found to be in very good agreement with the experimental values measured. Failure analysis and mechanical testing have confirmed that flight feathers are complex thin walled structures with mechanical adaptations that allow them to fulfil their functions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Standard Sine Fitting Algorithms Applied To Blade Tip Timing Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaźmierczak Krzysztof

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Blade Tip Timing (BTT is a non-intrusive method to measure blade vibration in turbomachinery. Time of Arrival (TOA is recorded when a blade is passing a stationary sensor. The measurement data, in form of undersampled (aliased tip-deflection signal, are difficult to analyze with standard signal processing methods like digital filters or Fourier Transform. Several indirect methods are applied to process TOA sequences, such as reconstruction of aliased spectrum and Least-Squares Fitting to harmonic oscillator model. We used standard sine fitting algorithms provided by IEEE-STD-1057 to estimate blade vibration parameters. Blade-tip displacement was simulated in time domain using SDOF model, sampled by stationary sensors and then processed by the sinefit.m toolkit. We evaluated several configurations of different sensor placement, noise level and number of data. Results of the linear sine fitting, performed with the frequency known a priori, were compared with the non-linear ones. Some of non-linear iterations were not convergent. The algorithms and testing results are aimed to be used in analysis of asynchronous blade vibration.

  14. HARMONIC DRIVE SELECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr FOLĘGA

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The variety of types and sizes currently in production harmonic drive is a problem in their rational choice. Properly selected harmonic drive must meet certain requirements during operation, and achieve the anticipated service life. The paper discusses the problems associated with the selection of the harmonic drive. It also presents the algorithm correct choice of harmonic drive. The main objective of this study was to develop a computer program that allows the correct choice of harmonic drive by developed algorithm.

  15. Branched integumental structures in Sinornithosaurus and the origin of feathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, X; Zhou, Z; Prum, R O

    2001-03-08

    The evolutionary origin of feathers has long been obscured because no morphological antecedents were known to the earliest, structurally modern feathers of Archaeopteryx. It has been proposed that the filamentous integumental appendages on several theropod dinosaurs are primitive feathers; but the homology between these filamentous structures and feathers has been disputed, and two taxa with true feathers (Caudipteryx and Protarchaeopteryx) have been proposed to be flightless birds. Confirmation of the theropod origin of feathers requires documentation of unambiguously feather-like structures in a clearly non-avian theropod. Here we describe our observations of the filamentous integumental appendages of the basal dromaeosaurid dinosaur Sinornithosaurus millenii, which indicate that they are compound structures composed of multiple filaments. Furthermore, these appendages exhibit two types of branching structure that are unique to avian feathers: filaments joined in a basal tuft, and filaments joined at their bases in series along a central filament. Combined with the independent phylogenetic evidence supporting the theropod ancestry of birds, these observations strongly corroborate the hypothesis that the integumental appendages of Sinornithosaurus are homologous with avian feathers. The plesiomorphic feathers of Sinornithosaurus also conform to the predictions of an independent, developmental model of the evolutionary origin of feathers.

  16. Turbojet engine blade damping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, A. V.; Cutts, D. G.; Sridhar, S.

    1981-01-01

    The potentials of various sources of nonaerodynamic damping in engine blading are evaluated through a combination of advanced analysis and testing. The sources studied include material hysteresis, dry friction at shroud and root disk interfaces as well as at platform type external dampers. A limited seris of tests was conducted to evaluate damping capacities of composite materials (B/AL, B/AL/Ti) and thermal barrier coatings. Further, basic experiments were performed on titanium specimens to establish the characteristics of sliding friction and to determine material damping constants J and n. All the tests were conducted on single blades. Mathematical models were develthe several mechanisms of damping. Procedures to apply this data to predict damping levels in an assembly of blades are developed and discussed.

  17. The Weight of Iron and Feathers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zendri, G.; Gratton, L. M.; Oss, S.

    2014-01-01

    We discuss the popular question concerning the difference in weight between 1 kg of iron and 1 kg of feathers, by taking into account the non-trivial aspect of the semantic interpretation of "weight" and the weighting procedure. The inclusion of air buoyancy makes the correct answer an interesting one. We describe and comment on the…

  18. Scaling of avian primary feather length.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert L Nudds

    Full Text Available The evolution of the avian wing has long fascinated biologists, yet almost no work includes the length of primary feathers in consideration of overall wing length variation. Here we show that the length of the longest primary feather (f(prim contributing to overall wing length scales with negative allometry against total arm (ta = humerus+ulna+manus. The scaling exponent varied slightly, although not significantly so, depending on whether a species level analysis was used or phylogeny was controlled for using independent contrasts: f(prim is proportional to ta(0.78-0.82. The scaling exponent was not significantly different from that predicted (0.86 by earlier work. It appears that there is a general trend for the primary feathers of birds to contribute proportionally less, and ta proportionally more, to overall wingspan as this dimension increases. Wingspan in birds is constrained close to mass (M(1/3 because of optimisation for lift production, which limits opportunities for exterior morphological change. Within the wing, variations in underlying bone and feather lengths nevertheless may, in altering the joint positions, permit a range of different flight styles by facilitating variation in upstroke kinematics.

  19. Composite material bend-twist coupling for wind turbine blade applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Justin M.

    Current efforts in wind turbine blade design seek to employ bend-twist coupling of composite materials for passive power control by twisting blades to feather. Past efforts in this area of study have proved to be problematic, especially in formulation of the bend-twist coupling coefficient alpha. Kevlar/epoxy, carbon/epoxy and glass/epoxy specimens were manufactured to study bend-twist coupling, from which numerical and analytical models could be verified. Finite element analysis was implemented to evaluate fiber orientation and material property effects on coupling magnitude. An analytical/empirical model was then derived to describe numerical results and serve as a replacement for the commonly used coupling coefficient alpha. Through the results from numerical and analytical models, a foundation for aeroelastic design of wind turbines blades utilizing biased composite materials is provided.

  20. Application of a Nonlinear Technique: Flutter Analysis for Turbomachinery Blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-30

    rotors[11], flutter analysis in cascades[12] and wind turbine aeroelastics[13]. Another advantage for the high-dimensional harmonic balance method is...rotors and low pressure turbines . The occurrence of flutter could cause high cycle fatigue of blades, shorten engine life time, or in the worst case...engine trends to be increased continually so as to achieve a better efficiency to reduce the fuel consumption. However, it is very challenging for

  1. Harmonic polynomials, hyperspherical harmonics, and atomic spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery, John Scales

    2010-01-01

    The properties of monomials, homogeneous polynomials and harmonic polynomials in d-dimensional spaces are discussed. The properties are shown to lead to formulas for the canonical decomposition of homogeneous polynomials and formulas for harmonic projection. Many important properties of spherical harmonics, Gegenbauer polynomials and hyperspherical harmonics follow from these formulas. Harmonic projection also provides alternative ways of treating angular momentum and generalised angular momentum. Several powerful theorems for angular integration and hyperangular integration can be derived in this way. These purely mathematical considerations have important physical applications because hyperspherical harmonics are related to Coulomb Sturmians through the Fock projection, and because both Sturmians and generalised Sturmians have shown themselves to be extremely useful in the quantum theory of atoms and molecules.

  2. Failure Analysis of Fencing Blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibaroglu, D.; Baydogan, M.; Cimenoglu, H.; Bas, B.; Yagsi, C.; Aliyeva, N.

    2017-05-01

    This study deals with the failure analysis of broken fencing blades (one épée and one foil). For the characterization of the broken blades, metallographic examinations, chemical analysis, hardness measurements, fracture surface examinations and tensile tests were performed. Maximum stress occurred at the outer fibres of the blades was estimated as high as 1456 MPa and 1298 MPa for épée and foil, respectively. Results showed that failure of the blades was initiated from a notch, which has been formed as the result of an impact action during training, or from the groove machined along the blade for inserting an electrical wire. In order to increase resistance of the blades against such failures, alternative blade material, modified blade geometry and a surface hardening treatment were proposed.

  3. Cooled snubber structure for turbine blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Clinton A; Campbell, Christian X; Whalley, Andrew; Marra, John J

    2014-04-01

    A turbine blade assembly in a turbine engine. The turbine blade assembly includes a turbine blade and a first snubber structure. The turbine blade includes an internal cooling passage containing cooling air. The first snubber structure extends outwardly from a sidewall of the turbine blade and includes a hollow interior portion that receives cooling air from the internal cooling passage of the turbine blade.

  4. NedWind 25 Blade Testing at NREL for the European Standards Measurement and Testing Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larwood, S.; Musial, W.; Freebury, G.; Beattie, A.G.

    2001-04-19

    In the mid-90s the European community initiated the Standards, Measurements, and Testing (SMT) program to harmonize testing and measurement procedures in several industries. Within the program, a project was carried out called the European Wind Turbine Testing Procedure Development. The second part of that project, called Blade Test Methods and Techniques, included the United States and was devised to help blade-testing laboratories harmonize their testing methods. This report provides the results of those tests conducted by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory.

  5. A blade deflection monitoring system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    A wind turbine blade comprising a system for monitoring the deflection of a wind turbine blade is described. The system comprises a wireless range-measurement system, having at least one wireless communication device located towards the root end of the blade and at least one wireless communication...

  6. Effects of higher harmonic control on rotor performance and control loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Khanh; Chopra, Inderjit

    1990-01-01

    An analytical study, based on an advanced Higher Harmonic Control (HHC) analysis for helicopter rotor systems, is carried out to investigate HHC application for rotor performance enhancement. The effects of HHC on stall characteristics of rotor and blade pitch-link loads when the system is configured to suppress vibration are also examined. For vibration control, simulated results indicate that HHC may promote early blade stall. Effects of blade torsion frequencies on HHC performance are moderate, and torsionally stiff blades require less actuator power than torsionally soft blades. For rotor performance improvement, a 3 to 5 percent reduction in rotor shaft power can be achieved with 2 deg of two-per-rev blade pitch control.

  7. Study of design and technology factors influencing gas turbine blade cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevchenko, I. V.; Garanin, I. V.; Rogalev, A. N.; Kindra, V. O.; Khudyakova, V. P.

    2017-11-01

    The knowledge of aerodynamic and thermal parameters of turbulators used in order to design an efficient blade cooling system. However, all experimental tests of the hydraulic and thermal characteristics of the turbulators were conducted on the rectangular shape channels with a strongly defined air flow direction. The actual blades have geometry of the channels that essentially differs from the rectangular shape. Specifically, the air flow in the back cavity of a blade with one and half-pass cooling channel changes its direction throughout the feather height. In most cases the ribs and pins are made with a tilt to the channel walls, which is determined by the moving element design of a mould for the ceramic rod element fabrication. All of the factors described above may result in the blade thermohydraulic model being developed failing to fully simulate the air flow and the heat exchange processes in some sections of the cooling path. Hence, the design temperature field will differ from the temperature field of an actual blade. This article studied the numerical data of design and technology factors influencing heat transfer in the cooling channels. The results obtained showed their substantial impact on the blade cooling efficiency.

  8. Special moult of breast and belly feathers during breeding in Golden Plovers Pluvialis apricaria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jukema, Joop; Piersma, Theunis

    1987-01-01

    Samples of breast feathers of Golden Plovers were collected from live birds captured in spring and autumn staging areas in The Netherlands. Three types of feathers were distinguished: winter and summer feathers, and a peculiar type, called the striped feather. Striped feathers were not found in

  9. Wootz Damascus steel blades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verhoeven, J.D.; Gibson, E.D. [Ames Lab., IA (United States); Pendray, A.H. [ABS Master Bladesmith, Williston, FL (United States)

    1996-07-01

    Wootz Damascus steel blades contain surface patterns produced by bands of cementite particles which are generated in situ as the blades are forged from small ingots. A process for making these blades has recently been developed which involves making ingots in a gas-fired furnace followed by forging to blade shapes. This study presents a series of additional experiments which provide strong evidence that the mechanism responsible for the formation of the aligned cementite bands is similar to the mechanism that produces banded hypoeutectoid steels. That mechanism attributes the selective formation of ferrite bands to microsegregated alloying elements. The results of this study show that the cementite bands will form in ultraclean hypereutectoid steels (P and S levels <0.003 wt. %) by the addition of small amounts of carbide-forming elements V, Cr, and Ti at a combined level of <0.02 wt. %. The results present strong evidence that the cementite bands are formed by a selective coarsening of cementite particles during the thermal cycling of the forging process. The particle coarsening is induced to occur preferentially in the interdendritic regions of the alloys by the very small additions of the carbide-forming elements.

  10. Database about blade faults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branner, Kim; Ghadirian, Amin

    This report deals with the importance of measuring the reliability of the rotor blades and describing how they can fail. The Challenge is that very little non-confidential data is available and that the quality and detail in the data is limited....

  11. Isolation, identification, and characterization of a feather-degrading bacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, C M; Richter, C S; Mackenzie, J M; Shih, J C

    1990-06-01

    A feather-degrading culture was enriched with isolates from a poultry waste digestor and adapted to grow with feathers as its primary source of carbon, sulfur, and energy. Subsequently, a feather-hydrolytic, endospore-forming, motile, rod-shaped bacterium was isolated from the feather-degrading culture. The organism was Gram stain variable and catalase positive and demonstrated facultative growth at thermophilic temperatures. The optimum rate of growth in nutrient broth occurred at 45 to 50 degrees C and at pH 7.5. Electron microscopy of the isolate showed internal crystals. The microorganism was identified as Bacillus licheniformis PWD-1. Growth on hammer-milled-feather medium of various substrate concentrations was determined by plate colony count. Maximum growth (approximately 10 cells per ml) at 50 degrees C occurred 5 days postinoculation on 1% feather substrate. Feather hydrolysis was evidenced as free amino acids produced in the medium. The most efficient conditions for feather fermentation occurred during the incubation of 1 part feathers to 2 parts B. licheniformis PWD-1 culture (10 cells per ml) for 6 days at 50 degrees C. These data indicate a potential biotechnique for degradation and utilization of feather keratin.

  12. Axial Fan Blade Vibration Assessment under Inlet Cross-Flow Conditions Using Laser Scanning Vibrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Till Heinemann

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In thermal power plants equipped with air-cooled condensers (ACCs, axial cooling fans operate under the influence of ambient flow fields. Under inlet cross-flow conditions, the resultant asymmetric flow field is known to introduce additional harmonic forces to the fan blades. This effect has previously only been studied numerically or by using blade-mounted strain gauges. For this study, laser scanning vibrometry (LSV was used to assess fan blade vibration under inlet cross-flow conditions in an adapted fan test rig inside a wind tunnel test section. Two co-rotating laser beams scanned a low-pressure axial fan, resulting in spectral, phase-resolved surface vibration patterns of the fan blades. Two distinct operating points with flow coefficients of 0.17 and 0.28 were examined, with and without inlet cross-flow influence. While almost identical fan vibration patterns were found for both reference operating points, the overall blade vibration increased by 100% at the low fan flow rate as a result of cross-flow, and by 20% at the high fan flow rate. While numerically predicted natural frequency modes could be confirmed from experimental data as minor peaks in the vibration amplitude spectrum, they were not excited significantly by cross-flow. Instead, primarily higher rotation-rate harmonics were amplified; that is, a synchronous blade-tip flapping was strongly excited at the blade-pass frequency.

  13. Incipient Crack Detection in Composite Wind Turbine Blades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Stuart G. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Choi, Mijin [Chonbuk National University, Korea; Jeong, Hyomi [Chonbuk National University, Korea; Jang, Jae Kyeong [Chonbuk National University, Korea; Park, Gyuhae [Chonnam National University, Korea; Farinholt, Kevin [Commonwealth Center for Advanced Manufacturing, VA; Farrar, Charles R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ammerman, Curtt N. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Todd, Michael D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lee, Jung-Ryul [Chonbuk National University, Korea

    2012-08-28

    This paper presents some analysis results for incipient crack detection in a 9-meter CX-100 wind turbine blade that underwent fatigue loading to failure. The blade was manufactured to standard specifications, and it underwent harmonic excitation at its first resonance using a hydraulically-actuated excitation system until reaching catastrophic failure. This work investigates the ability of an ultrasonic guided wave approach to detect incipient damage prior to the surfacing of a visible, catastrophic crack. The blade was instrumented with piezoelectric transducers, which were used in an active, pitchcatch mode with guided waves over a range of excitation frequencies. The performance results in detecting incipient crack formation in the fiberglass skin of the blade is assessed over the range of frequencies in order to determine the point at which the incipient crack became detectable. Higher excitation frequencies provide consistent results for paths along the rotor blade's carbon fiber spar cap, but performance falls off with increasing excitation frequencies for paths off of the spar cap. Lower excitation frequencies provide more consistent performance across all sensor paths.

  14. Identification of a feather β-keratin gene exclusively expressed in pennaceous barbule cells of contour feathers in chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowata, Kinue; Nakaoka, Minori; Nishio, Kaori; Fukao, Ayaka; Satoh, Akira; Ogoshi, Maho; Takahashi, Sumio; Tsudzuki, Masaoki; Takeuchi, Sakae

    2014-05-25

    Feathers are elaborate skin appendages shared by birds and theropod dinosaurs that have hierarchical branching of the rachis, barbs, and barbules. Feather filaments consist of β-keratins encoded by multiple genes, most of which are located in tandem arrays on chromosomes 2, 25, and 27 in chicken. The expansion of the genes is thought to have contributed to feather evolution; however, it is unclear how the individual genes are involved in feather formation. The aim of the present study was to identify feather keratin genes involved in the formation of barbules. Using a combination of microarray analysis, reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, and in situ hybridization, we found an uncharacterized keratin gene on chromosome 7 that was expressed specifically in barbule cells in regenerating chicken feathers. We have named the gene barbule specific keratin 1 (BlSK1). The BlSK1 gene structure was similar to the gene structure of previously characterized feather keratin genes, and consisted of a non-coding leader exon, an intron, and an exon with an open reading frame (ORF). The ORF was predicted to encode a 98 aa long protein, which shared 59% identity with feather keratin B. Orthologs of BlSK1 were found in the genomes of other avian species, including turkey, duck, zebra finch, and flycatcher, in regions that shared synteny with chromosome 7 of chicken. Interestingly, BlSK1 was expressed in feather follicles that generated pennaceous barbules but not in follicles that generated plumulaceous barbules. These results suggested that the composition of feather keratins probably varies depending on the structure of the feather filaments and, that individual feather keratin genes may be involved in building different portions and/or types of feathers in chicken. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Harmonic Morphisms Projecting Harmonic Functions to Harmonic Functions

    OpenAIRE

    Mustafa, M. T.

    2012-01-01

    For Riemannian manifolds $M$ and $N$ , admitting a submersion $\\varphi $ with compact fibres, we introduce the projection of a function via its decomposition intohorizontal and vertical components. By comparing the Laplacians on $M$ and $N$ , we determine conditions under which a harmonic function on $U={\\varphi }^{-1}(V)\\subset M$ projects down, via its horizontal component, to a harmonic function on $V\\subset N$ .

  16. Adaptive harmonic analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heemink, Arnold; de Jong, B.; Prins, Harrie

    1991-01-01

    In this paper we describe a new approach to the harmonic analysis of the tide. For a number of reasons the harmonic constants are not really constant but vary slowly in time. Therefore, we introduce a narrow-band noise process to model the time-varying behaviour of these harmonic parameters.

  17. Feather pecking in growers: a study with individually marked birds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wechsler, B; Huber-Eicher, B; Nash, David Richard

    1998-01-01

    1. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether individual birds specialise in feather pecking. Growers were individually marked and reared in groups of 30 or 31 in pens with a slatted floor. At an age of 4 to 6 weeks feather pecking was frequent in all pens. 2. On average 83% of all...... group members (10 groups, experiment 1) were recorded at least once as initiator of a feather pecking interaction. In each group 2 to 6 individuals feather pecked more than twice as often as the average for the group, and were defined as 'high rate peckers'. They initiated 39% of all recorded feather...... pecking interactions. 3. Every interaction was classified (with increasing intensity) as pecking, pinching, pulling or plucking. Compared to the others, 'high rate peckers' had more of their feather pecking classified as plucking and less classified as pecking. 4. There was no evidence that particular...

  18. Aeroelastic Computations of a Compressor Stage Using the Harmonic Balance Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, T. S. R.

    2010-01-01

    The aeroelastic characteristics of a compressor stage were analyzed using a computational fluid dynamic (CFD) solver that uses the harmonic balance method to solve the governing equations. The three dimensional solver models the unsteady flow field due to blade vibration using the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes equations. The formulation enables the study of the effect of blade row interaction through the inclusion of coupling modes between blade rows. It also enables the study of nonlinear effects of high amplitude blade vibration by the inclusion of higher harmonics of the fundamental blade vibration frequency. In the present work, the solver is applied to study in detail the aeroelastic characteristics of a transonic compressor stage. Various parameters were included in the study: number of coupling modes, blade row axial spacing, and operating speeds. Only the first vibration mode is considered with amplitude of oscillation in the linear range. Both aeroelastic stability (flutter) of rotor blade and unsteady loading on the stator are calculated. The study showed that for the stage considered, the rotor aerodynamic damping is not influenced by the presence of the stator even when the axial spacing is reduced by nearly 25 percent. However, the study showed that blade row interaction effects become important for the unsteady loading on the stator when the axial spacing is reduced by the same amount.

  19. Helicopter gust alleviation, attitude stabilization, and vibration alleviation using individual-blade-control through a conventional swash plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, N. D.

    1985-01-01

    The novel active control system presented for helicopter rotor aerodynamic and aeroelastic problems involves the individual control of each blade in the rotating frame over a wide range of frequencies (up to the sixth harmonic of rotor speed). This Individual Blade Control (IBC) system controls blade pitch by means of broadband electrohydraulic actuators attached to the swash plate (in the case of three blades) or individually to each blade, using acceleratometer signals to furnish control commands to the actuators. Attention is given to IBC's application to blade lag, flapping, and bending dynamics. It is shown that gust alleviation, attitude stabilization, vibration alleviation, and air/ground resonance suppression, are all achievable with a conventional helicopter swash plate.

  20. Spatially modulated structural colour in bird feathers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parnell, Andrew J.; Washington, Adam L.; Mykhaylyk, Oleksandr O.; Hill, Christopher J.; Bianco, Antonino; Burg, Stephanie L.; Dennison, Andrew J. C.; Snape, Mary; Cadby, Ashley J.; Smith, Andrew; Prevost, Sylvain; Whittaker, David M.; Jones, Richard A. L.; Fairclough, J. Patrick. A.; Parker, Andrew R.

    2015-12-01

    Eurasian Jay (Garrulus glandarius) feathers display periodic variations in the reflected colour from white through light blue, dark blue and black. We find the structures responsible for the colour are continuous in their size and spatially controlled by the degree of spinodal phase separation in the corresponding region of the feather barb. Blue structures have a well-defined broadband ultra-violet (UV) to blue wavelength distribution; the corresponding nanostructure has characteristic spinodal morphology with a lengthscale of order 150 nm. White regions have a larger 200 nm nanostructure, consistent with a spinodal process that has coarsened further, yielding broader wavelength white reflectance. Our analysis shows that nanostructure in single bird feather barbs can be varied continuously by controlling the time the keratin network is allowed to phase separate before mobility in the system is arrested. Dynamic scaling analysis of the single barb scattering data implies that the phase separation arrest mechanism is rapid and also distinct from the spinodal phase separation mechanism i.e. it is not gelation or intermolecular re-association. Any growing lengthscale using this spinodal phase separation approach must first traverse the UV and blue wavelength regions, growing the structure by coarsening, resulting in a broad distribution of domain sizes.

  1. Fearfulness and feather damage in laying hens divergently selected for high and low feather pecking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodenburg, T Bas; de Haas, Elske N; Nielsen, Birte Lindstrøm

    2010-01-01

    Feather pecking (FP) remains a major welfare and economic problem in laying hens. FP has been found to be related to other behavioural characteristics, such as fearfulness. There are indications that fearful birds are more likely to develop FP. Furthermore, FP can lead to increased fearfulness...... in the victims. To investigate further the relationship between FP and fearfulness, feather damage and behavioural fear responses were recorded in three White Leghorn lines of laying hens: a line selected for high FP (HFP line), a line selected for low FP (LFP line) and an unselected control line (10th...... in fear responses between the HFP and LFP lines were not found, neither in the TI-test, nor in the HA or NO test. As expected, birds from the HFP line had considerably more feather damage than birds from the LFP line and birds from the unselected control line were intermediate. Cages that withdrew from...

  2. Improving digestibility of feather meal by steam flash explosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yiqi; Yang, Ruijin; Zhao, Wei

    2014-04-02

    Poultry feathers are available in large quantities. However, natural feathers have poor digestibility and are often considered as solid wastes. To improve the digestibility of poultry feathers, steam flash explosion (SFE) was applied to duck feathers at different pressures ranging from 0.5 to 2.5 MPa for 1 min. The pepsin digestibility, disulfide bond content, and major secondary structure component (β-sheets) of duck feathers before and after the process were examined. The results showed that SFE could effectively increase pepsin digestibility of feather meal. Under the optimal conditions (1.8 MPa for 1 min), the pepsin digestibility of exploded feather meal achieved approximately 91%, which was about 9 times higher than that of the original feathers. The pepsin digestibility was highly correlated with the degree of reduction of disulfide bonds (R(2) = 0.98) and slightly negatively correlated with β-sheet structure. SFE is an effective method to improve the bio-utilization of feather meal.

  3. Effects of oil and oil burn residues on seabird feathers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fritt-Rasmussen, Janne; Linnebjerg, Jannie Fries; Sørensen, Martin X.

    2016-01-01

    . To protect seabirds, a rapid removal of oil is crucial and in situ burning could be an efficient method. In the present work exposure effects of oil and burn residue in different doses was studied on seabird feathers from legally hunted Common eider (Somateria mollissima) by examining changes in total weight...... of the feather and damages on the microstructure (Amalgamation Index) of the feathers before and after exposure. The results of the experiments indicate that burn residues from in situ burning of an oil spill have similar or larger fouling and damaging effects on seabird feathers, as compared to fresh oil....

  4. Numerical investigation of airfoil dynamic stall in simultaneous harmonic oscillatory and translatory motion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekaterinaris, J.A.; Sørensen, Niels N.; Rasmussen, F.

    1998-01-01

    Wind turbine blades are subject to complex flow conditions. For operation in yaw and turbulent inflow the blade sections appear to execute a motion more complex than a harmonic blade oscillation which causes dynamic stall. Predictions of dynamic stall caused by simple harmonic oscillation...... are crucial to efforts in understanding and improving wind turbine performance. investigation of dynamic stall development caused by a combined oscillatory and translatory motion contributes to better understand blade loading under complex flow conditions. In this paper, numerical predictions of light...... and deep stall caused by simple oscillatory motion are obtained first. The ability of the numerical solution to predict dynamic stall lends caused by a combined motion is further investigated The numerical solution is obtained with a factorized, upwind-biased numerical scheme. The turbulent flow region...

  5. Blade Vibration Measurement System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    The Phase I project successfully demonstrated that an advanced noncontacting stress measurement system (NSMS) could improve classification of blade vibration response in terms of mistuning and closely spaced modes. The Phase II work confirmed the microwave sensor design process, modified the sensor so it is compatible as an upgrade to existing NSMS, and improved and finalized the NSMS software. The result will be stand-alone radar/tip timing radar signal conditioning for current conventional NSMS users (as an upgrade) and new users. The hybrid system will use frequency data and relative mode vibration levels from the radar sensor to provide substantially superior capabilities over current blade-vibration measurement technology. This frequency data, coupled with a reduced number of tip timing probes, will result in a system capable of detecting complex blade vibrations that would confound traditional NSMS systems. The hardware and software package was validated on a compressor rig at Mechanical Solutions, Inc. (MSI). Finally, the hybrid radar/tip timing NSMS software package and associated sensor hardware will be installed for use in the NASA Glenn spin pit test facility.

  6. Monolithic geometric anti-spring blades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cella, G. [Universita di Pisa, Pisa (Italy); Sannibale, V. [LIGO Project, California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Blvd, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)]. E-mail: sannibale_v@ligo.caltech.edu; DeSalvo, R. [LIGO Project, California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Blvd, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Marka, S. [LIGO Project, California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Blvd, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Takamori, A. [University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)

    2005-03-21

    In this article we investigate the principle and properties of a vertical passive seismic noise attenuator conceived for ground based gravitational wave interferometers. This mechanical attenuator based on a particular geometry of cantilever blades called monolithic geometric anti springs (MGAS) permits the design of mechanical harmonic oscillators with very low resonant frequency (below 10 mHz). Here we address the theoretical description of the mechanical device, focusing on the most important quantities for the low-frequency regime, on the distribution of internal stresses, and on the thermal stability. In order to obtain physical insight of the attenuator peculiarities, we devise some simplified models, rather than use the brute force of finite element analysis. Those models have been used to optimize the design of a seismic attenuation system prototype for LIGO advanced configurations and for the next generation of the TAMA interferometer.

  7. Harmonic function theory

    CERN Document Server

    Axler, Sheldon; Ramey, Wade

    2013-01-01

    This is a book about harmonic functions in Euclidean space. Readers with a background in real and complex analysis at the beginning graduate level will feel comfortable with the material presented here. The authors have taken unusual care to motivate concepts and simplify proofs. Topics include: basic properties of harmonic functions, Poisson integrals, the Kelvin transform, spherical harmonics, harmonic Hardy spaces, harmonic Bergman spaces, the decomposition theorem, Laurent expansions, isolated singularities, and the Dirichlet problem. The new edition contains a completely rewritten chapter on spherical harmonics, a new section on extensions of Bocher's Theorem, new exercises and proofs, as well as revisions throughout to improve the text. A unique software package-designed by the authors and available by e-mail - supplements the text for readers who wish to explore harmonic function theory on a computer.

  8. Fine structure of juvenile feathers of the zebrafinch in relation to the evolution and diversification of pennaceous feathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alibardi, L

    2005-11-01

    The present ultrastructural study describes the formation of feather ramification in developing juvenile feathers of the zebrafinch, a small passeraceous bird. The study stresses the importance of the detailed knowledge on the cell structure of barb ridges for the understanding of feather development and evolution. Feather formation depends on the morphogenesis of long barb ridges, in which cells are displaced into lateral barbule plates and a medial barb cells region. These cells merge into long chains and form a syncitium organized in a ramified structure that preserves the original cell disposition within the barb ridge. Barb vane ridge cells surround barb and barbule cells. Barbules separate after the degeneration of barb vane ridge cells. In barbule cells the formation of hooklets resembles the process of formation of climbing setae of digital pads of some lizards. The cytoplasm of barb vane ridge cells is localized among tile-like overlapped barbule cells that form barbule chains, and maintains a serrated outline. When barb vane ridge cells degenerate among keratinized barbules, keratinized hooklets remain. Hooklets allow the ordered grasping of barbules to form a close and planar vane of feathers. The rachis of juvenile feathers seems to be formed from the fusion of two or more barb ridges localized in the dorsal part of the follicle, but the process of fusion is unclear. Juvenile and adult feathers contain the same type of feather keratin present in downfeathers: this indicates that stem cells for the regeneration of a new feather remain in the follicle after shedding of downfeathers. The presence of embryonic organelles (periderm granules) in barb vane ridge cells of juvenile feathers further indicates that also stem cells for the regeneration of the latter cells remain in the follicle. Molting feathers are therefore derived from stem cells. The permanence of stem cells in the follicle and the modulation of barb ridges dimension and fusion into different

  9. Rachis morphology cannot accurately predict the mechanical performance of primary feathers in extant (and therefore fossil) feathered flyers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lees, John; Garner, Terence; Cooper, Glen; Nudds, Robert

    2017-02-01

    It was previously suggested that the flight ability of feathered fossils could be hypothesized from the diameter of their feather rachises. Central to the idea is the unvalidated assumption that the strength of a primary flight feather (i.e. its material and structural properties) may be consistently calculated from the external diameter of the feather rachis, which is the only dimension that is likely to relate to structural properties available from fossils. Here, using three-point bending tests, the relationship between feather structural properties (maximum bending moment, Mmax and Young's modulus, Ebend) and external morphological parameters (primary feather rachis length, diameter and second moment of area at the calamus) in 180 primary feathers from four species of bird of differing flight style was investigated. Intraspecifically, both Ebend and Mmax were strongly correlated with morphology, decreasing and increasing, respectively, with all three morphological measures. Without accounting for species, however, external morphology was a poor predictor of rachis structural properties, meaning that precise determination of aerial performance in extinct, feathered species from external rachis dimensions alone is not possible. Even if it were possible to calculate the second moment of area of the rachis, our data suggest that feather strength could still not be reliably estimated.

  10. Snubber assembly for turbine blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, John J

    2013-09-03

    A snubber associated with a rotatable turbine blade in a turbine engine, the turbine blade including a pressure sidewall and a suction sidewall opposed from the pressure wall. The snubber assembly includes a first snubber structure associated with the pressure sidewall of the turbine blade, a second snubber structure associated with the suction sidewall of the turbine blade, and a support structure. The support structure extends through the blade and is rigidly coupled at a first end portion thereof to the first snubber structure and at a second end portion thereof to the second snubber structure. Centrifugal loads exerted by the first and second snubber structures caused by rotation thereof during operation of the engine are at least partially transferred to the support structure, such that centrifugal loads exerted on the pressure and suctions sidewalls of the turbine blade by the first and second snubber structures are reduced.

  11. Impact of blade motion on mass flux to seagrass blade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, J.; Nepf, H. M.

    2016-12-01

    Seagrass and other freshwater macrophytes can acquire nutrients from surrounding water through their blades. This mass flux may depend on the flow velocity (U), which can influence both the posture/motion of flexible blades (reconfiguration) and the thickness of the flux-limiting diffusive layer. Flow over sufficiently pronated, hydraulically-smooth blades resembles flow over a flat-plate, on which a laminar boundary layer develops, producing mass flux that proportionally increases with the square root of the current speed (U0.5). Our laboratory experiments show that a laminar boundary layer condition is appropriate when the blades are sufficiently flexible; however, the model overestimates the flux when the blades are stiff. A meadow-scale analysis suggests that the mass exchange at the blade scale controls the uptake at the meadow scale, so that uptake at the meadow scale should also follow a U0.5 dependence. This is consistent with field measurements under unidirectional current, for which the flux, represented by a transfer velocity (K), exhibits a dependence on velocity of U0.4±0.2. For purely oscillatory flows we anticipate that the mass flux depends on the relative motion between the blade and the water flow. Preliminary flume experiments show that blade motion under wave conditions has two distinct regimes. In the first regime, the blade moves passively with the flow, which diminishes the relative motion and the mass flux. The second regime occurs when the blade is stiff. In this case, the phase lag between the blade and the flow enhances the relative motion, and thus also the mass flux.

  12. Value-added products from chicken feather fiber and protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xiuling

    Worldwide poultry consumption has generated a huge amount of feather "waste" annually. Currently, the feather has a low value-being used for animal feed in the world. The quality of fibrous air filters depend on their main component, fibers. The main physical structure of chicken feathers is barbs which can be used directly as fibers. They have small diameter, which makes them a good choice for air filtration. The main chemical structure of chicken feathers is structural fibrous protein, keratin. Therefore, chicken feathers could potentially be used for protein fiber production. To obtain chicken feather fibers, barbs were stripped from the quills by a stripping device and separated with a blender. Some feather fibers were entangled with polyester staple fibers, and needlepunched to form a nonwoven fabric. Some feather fibers were blended with CelBond(TM) bi-component polyester as binder fibers, and pressed between two hot plates to produce thermobonded nonwovens. Whole chicken feathers were ground into powder and their keratin was reduced in water. The reduced keratin was salt precipitated, dried and dissolved in ionic liquid with/without bleach cotton. The reduced chicken feather keratin ionic liquid solutions were spun into regenerated fibers through dry-jet wet spinning. The needlepunched and thermobonded nonwovens were tested for filtration and other properties. With an increase of areal density and feather fiber composition, the air permeability of the needlepunched nonwovens decreased, and their filtration efficiency and pressure drop both increased. The case can be made that feather fibers gave fabrics better filtration at the same fabric weight, but at the expense of air permeability and pressure drop. The scrim and needlepunching process improved the filtration efficiency. Their strength depended on scrim. The hot-press process was very simple. The thermobonded nonwovens had very high air permeability. In them, there was also an inverse relation between

  13. Characterization of a new feather-degrading bacterium from Calotes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 842 spore-forming strains were isolated from 221 animal feces samples, in which a new feather-degrading bacterium identified as Bacillus sp. 50-3 based on morphological, biochemical and 16S rDNA tests was isolated from Calotes versicolor (an agamid lizard) feces. The bacterium can degrade native feather ...

  14. Valorisation of chicken feathers: Characterisation of chemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesfaye, Tamrat; Sithole, Bruce; Ramjugernath, Deresh; Chunilall, Viren

    2017-10-01

    The characterisation of the chemical properties of the whole chicken feather and its fractions (barb and rachis), was undertaken to identify opportunities for valorizing this waste product. The authors have described the physical, morphological, mechanical, electrical and thermal properties of the chicken feathers and related them to potential valorisation routes of the waste. However, identification of their chemical properties is necessary to complete a comprehensive description of chicken feather fractions. Hence, the chicken feathers were thoroughly characterised by proximate and ultimate analyses, elemental composition, spectroscopic analyses, durability in different solvents, burning test, and hydrophobicity. The proximate analysis of chicken feathers revealed the following compositions: crude lipid (0.83%), crude fibre (2.15%), crude protein (82.36%), ash (1.49%), NFE (1.02%) and moisture content (12.33%) whereas the ultimate analyses showed: carbon (64.47%), nitrogen (10.41%), oxygen (22.34%), and sulphur (2.64%). FTIR analysis revealed that the chicken feather fractions contain amide and carboxylic groups indicative of proteinious functional groups; XRD showed a crystallinity index of 22. Durability and burning tests confirmed that feathers behaved similarly to animal fibre. This reveals that chicken feather can be a valuable raw material in textile, plastic, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, biomedical and bioenergy industries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Pretreatment of chicken feather waste for improved biogas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forgács, Gergely; Lundin, Magnus; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J; Sárvári Horváth, Ilona

    2013-04-01

    This study deals with the utilization of chicken feather waste as a substrate for anaerobic digestion and improving biogas production by degradation of the compact structure of the feather keratin. In order to increase the digestibility of the feather, different pretreatments were investigated, including thermal pretreatment at 120 °C for 10 min, enzymatic hydrolysis with an alkaline endopeptidase [0.53-2.66 mL/g volatile solids (VS) feathers] for 0, 2, or 24 h at 55 °C, as well as a combination of these pretreatments. The effects of the treatments were then evaluated by anaerobic batch digestion assays at 55 °C. The enzymatic pretreatment increased the methane yield to 0.40 Nm(3)/kg VS(added), which is 122 % improvement compared to the yield of the untreated feathers. The other treatment conditions were less effective, increasing the methane yield by 11-50 %. The long-term effects of anaerobic digestion of feathers were examined by co-digestion of the feather with organic fraction of municipal solid waste performed with and without the addition of enzyme. When enzyme was added together with the feed, CH(4) yield of 0.485 Nm(3)/kg VS(-1) d(-1) was achieved together with a stable reactor performance, while in the control reactor, a decrease in methane production, together with accumulation of undegraded feather, was observed.

  16. Feather pecking and monoamines - a behavioral and neurobiological approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kops, M.S.

    2014-01-01

    Severe feather pecking (SFP) remains one of the major welfare issues in laying hens. SFP is the pecking at and pulling out of feathers, inflicting damage to the plumage and skin of the recipient. The neurobiological profile determining the vulnerability of individual hens to develop into a severe

  17. 50 CFR 20.91 - Commercial use of feathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Commercial use of feathers. 20.91 Section 20.91 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR..., or barter for millinery or ornamental use the feathers of migratory game birds taken under authority...

  18. Tuned-Mass Damper For Turbine Blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, John J.

    1993-01-01

    Resonances altered to suppress vibrations. Damping ring designed to suppress fundamental-bending-mode vibrations of blades on integrally bladed turbine rotor. Damping ring and turbine blades behave analogously to two-mass, two-spring system.

  19. A Reinforced Blade for a Wind Turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention relates to a reinforced blade for a wind turbine having elongated reinforcing members in the blade extending substantially in the plane of the profile chord in order to strengthen the blade against edgewise and flapwise forces....

  20. Experimental Blade Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eder, Martin Alexander; Branner, Kim; Berring, Peter

    This report is a summary of the results obtained in the project: Experimental Blade Research – phase 2 (EBR2). The project was supported by the Danish Energy Authority through the 2010 Energy Technology Development and Demonstration Program (EUDP 2010-II) and has journal no. 64011-0006. The project...... has been running from spring 2011 to the end of 2014. Being a summary report, this report only contains a collection of the research topics and the major results. For more details, see the publications listed at the end of this report....

  1. Parametric Investigation of the Effect of Hub Pitching Moment on Blade Vortex Interaction (BVI) Noise of an Isolated Rotor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-19

    tip path plane angle of attack, deg c1 longitudinal blade flapping, deg s1 lateral blade flapping, deg  flight path angle, deg s  rotor...equilibrium. In certain flight conditions, the ensuing aerodynamic loading on the rotor( s ) can result in highly obtrusive harmonic noise. The effect of the...measurements for model validation because instrumented UH-60/ S -70 rotors have been the subject of numerous wind-tunnel and flight tests conducted by

  2. Fourier Plane Image Combination by Feathering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton, W. D.

    2017-09-01

    Astronomical objects frequently exhibit structure over a wide range of scales whereas many telescopes, especially interferometer arrays, only sample a limited range of spatial scales. To properly image these objects, images from a set of instruments covering the range of scales may be needed. These images then must be combined in a manner to recover all spatial scales. This paper describes the feathering technique for image combination in the Fourier transform plane. Implementations in several packages are discussed and example combinations of single dish and interferometric observations of both simulated and celestial radio emission are given.

  3. Integrated circuit cooled turbine blade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ching-Pang; Jiang, Nan; Um, Jae Y.; Holloman, Harry; Koester, Steven

    2017-08-29

    A turbine rotor blade includes at least two integrated cooling circuits that are formed within the blade that include a leading edge circuit having a first cavity and a second cavity and a trailing edge circuit that includes at least a third cavity located aft of the second cavity. The trailing edge circuit flows aft with at least two substantially 180-degree turns at the tip end and the root end of the blade providing at least a penultimate cavity and a last cavity. The last cavity is located along a trailing edge of the blade. A tip axial cooling channel connects to the first cavity of the leading edge circuit and the penultimate cavity of the trailing edge circuit. At least one crossover hole connects the penultimate cavity to the last cavity substantially near the tip end of the blade.

  4. Iterative tuning of feedforward IPC for two-bladed wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulders, SP; van Solingen, E.; van Wingerden, JW; Beerens, J.

    2016-09-01

    At present, the cost of offshore wind energy does not meet the level of onshore wind and fossil-based energy sources. One way to extend the turbine lifetime, and thus reduce cost, is by reduction of the fatigue loads of blades and other turbine parts using Individual Pitch Control (IPC). This type of control, which is generally implemented by feedback control using the MultiBlade Coordinate transformation on blade load measurement signals, is capable of mitigating the most dominant periodic loads. The main goal of this article is to develop a self-optimizing feedforward IPC strategy for a two-bladed wind turbine to reduce actuator duty cycle and reduce the dependency on blade load measurement signals. The approach uses blade load measurement data only initially for tuning of the feedforward controller, which is scheduled on the rotor azimuth angle and wind speed. The feedforward strategy will be compared to the feedback implementation in terms of load alleviation capabilities and actuator duty cycle. Results show that the implementation is capable of learning the optimal feedforward IPC controller in constant and turbulent wind conditions, to alleviate the pitch actuator duty cycle, and to considerably reduce harmonic fatigue loads without the need for blade load measurement signals after tuning.

  5. Papovavirus Induced Feather Abnormalities and Skin Lesions in the Budgerigar: Clinical and Pathological Findings

    OpenAIRE

    Bernier, G; Morin, M.; Marsolais, G

    1984-01-01

    Feather abnormalities and skin lesions caused by a papovavirus infection in budgerigars are described. Diseased one to 15 day old birds displayed a lack of nestling down feathers and filoplumes on the head and neck. Survivors older than 15 days exhibited retarded growth and temporary absence of feathers variable from bird to bird. Several birds between 15 and 25 days of age had flight feathers with total absence or marked sparseness of the vanes. After 25 days, feathers began to grow, althoug...

  6. Dynamically Tuned Blade Pitch Links for Vibration Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milgram, Judah; Chopra, Inderjit; Kottapalli, Sesi

    1994-01-01

    A passive vibration reduction device in which the conventional main rotor blade pitch link is replaced by a spring/damper element is investigated using a comprehensive rotorcraft analysis code. A case study is conducted for a modern articulated helicopter main rotor. Correlation of vibratory pitch link loads with wind tunnel test data is satisfactory for lower harmonics. Inclusion of unsteady aerodynamics had little effect on the correlation. In the absence of pushrod damping, reduction in pushrod stiffness from the baseline value had an adverse effect on vibratory hub loads in forward flight. However, pushrod damping in combination with reduced pushrod stiffness resulted in modest improvements in fixed and rotating system hub loads.

  7. A lightweight, biological structure with tailored stiffness: The feather vane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Tarah N; Pissarenko, Andreï; Herrera, Steven A; Kisailus, David; Lubarda, Vlado A; Meyers, Marc A

    2016-09-01

    The flying feathers of birds are keratinous appendages designed for maximum performance with a minimum weight penalty. Thus, their design contains ingenious combinations of components that optimize lift, stiffness, aerodynamics, and damage resistance. This design involves two main parts: a central shaft that prescribes stiffness and lateral vanes which allows for the capture of air. Within the feather vane, barbs branch from the shaft and barbules branch from barbs, forming a flat surface which ensures lift. Microhooks at the end of barbules hold barbs tightly together, providing the close-knit, unified structure of the feather vane and enabling a repair of the structure through the reattachment of un-hooked junctions. Both the shaft and barbs are lightweight biological structures constructed of keratin using the common motif of a solid shell and cellular interior. The cellular core increases the resistance to buckling with little added weight. Here we analyze the detailed structure of the feather barb and, for the first time, explain its flexural stiffness in terms of the mechanics of asymmetric foam-filled beams subjected to bending. The results are correlated and validated with finite element modeling. We compare the flexure of single barbs as well as arrays of barbs and find that the interlocking adherence of barbs to one another enables a more robust structure due to minimized barb rotation during deflection. Thus, the flexure behavior of the feather vane can be tailored by the adhesive hooking between barbs, creating a system that mitigates damage. A simplified three-dimensional physical model for this interlocking mechanism is constructed by additive manufacturing. The exceptional architecture of the feather vane will motivate the design of bioinspired structures with tailored and unique properties ranging from adhesives to aerospace materials. Despite its importance to bird flight, literature characterizing the feather vane is extremely limited. The feather

  8. An HST Archival Survey of Feathers in Spiral Galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    La Vigne, Misty A.; Vogel, Stuart N.; Ostriker, Eve C.

    2006-01-01

    We present a survey of spiral arm extinction substructure referred to as feathers in 223 spiral galaxies using HST WFPC2 images. The sample includes all galaxies in the RC3 catalog with cz < 5000 km/s, B_T < 15, i < 60 degrees, and types Sa--Sd with well-exposed broadband WFPC2 images. The detection frequency of delineated, periodic feathers in this sample is 20% (45 of 223). This work is consistent with Lynds (1970), who concluded that feathers are common in prototypical Sc galaxies; we find...

  9. Mechanochromic response of the barbules in peacock tail feather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yonggang; Wang, Rui; Feng, Lin; Zhang, Deyuan

    2018-01-01

    Peacock tail feathers exhibit diverse striking brilliancy, as the cortex in different colored barbules of the feathers contains a 2-D photonic-crystal structure. The mechanochromic response of the 2-D photonic structure in peacock feather barbules is measured for the first time, by combining an in-situ stretching device and a reflectivity measurement system. The reflectance spectra of the barbule specimen blueshifts own to stretching along its longitudinal direction. A high strain sensitivity of 5.3 nm/% is obtained for green barbules. It could be of great help in bionic design of strain sensors using 2D photonic crystal structures.

  10. Design of Wind Turbine Blades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McGugan, Malcolm

    2016-01-01

    In this section the research program framework for European PhD network MARE-WINT is presented, particularly the technology development work focussing on reliability/maintenance and the models describing multi-body fluid structure interaction for the Rotor Blade structure. In order to give a cont...... a context for the effort undertaken by the individual researchers this section gives a general background for Wind Turbine blades identifying the trends and issues of importance for these structures as well as concepts for “smarter” blades that address these issues....

  11. Optical Blade Position Tracking System Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fingersh, L. J.

    2006-01-01

    The Optical Blade Position Tracking System Test measures the blade deflection along the span of the blade using simple off-the-shelf infrared security cameras along with blade-mounted retro-reflective tape and video image processing hardware and software to obtain these measurements.

  12. Inclusion of exogenous enzymes to feathers during processing on the digestible energy content of feather meal for adult dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Faria Estivallet Pacheco

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study was conducted to determine the coefficient of total tract apparent digestibility (CTTAD of nutrients and gross energy (GE, metabolizable energy (ME, coefficient of metabolizability of gross energy (CM of GE, and fecal characteristics of dogs fed diets with two levels of feather meal, with or without addition of an enzyme blend containing lipase and protease activity. Ten adult Beagle dogs (aged between 1 and 2 years and weighing 10.2±1.4 kg were arranged in a 5 × 3 incomplete Latin square design with five treatments and three periods. The extruded basal diet was provided in equal amounts to all dogs (220 g/d, and 7.5 and 15% of hydrolyzed feather meal without enzymes (HFM or HFM processed with addition of the enzyme blend (HFM EB was added on top of the basal diet just before feeding. The contrast analysis showed that inclusion of 7.5 or 15% feather meal negatively affected CTTAD of crude protein (CP, GE, and ME of the diets with no apparent effect of the enzyme treatment. However, when both feather meal samples were evaluated, the HFM EB resulted in better CTTAD of GE and CM of GE (0.774 vs. 0.666 than HFM without enzymes (0.670 vs. 0.567, respectively. There was no effect of either feather meal on fecal score. Regression analysis showed that the enzymes added to the feathers during the digestion process increased digestible energy by 600 kcal/kg of dry matter in the diet containing HFM EB. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC analysis demonstrated that feather meal had a low molecular weight, with about 95% of the molecules below 10,000 Da. Addition of enzymes during the feather hydrolysis process may improve the energy content of the feather meal when included in diets for adult dogs.

  13. Rotor blade assembly having internal loading features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soloway, Daniel David

    2017-05-16

    Rotor blade assemblies and wind turbines are provided. A rotor blade assembly includes a rotor blade having exterior surfaces defining a pressure side, a suction side, a leading edge and a trailing edge each extending between a tip and a root, the rotor blade defining a span and a chord, the exterior surfaces defining an interior of the rotor blade. The rotor blade assembly further includes a loading assembly, the loading assembly including a weight disposed within the interior and movable generally along the span of the rotor blade, the weight connected to a rotor blade component such that movement of the weight towards the tip causes application of a force to the rotor blade component by the weight. Centrifugal force due to rotation of the rotor blade biases the weight towards the tip.

  14. Theory of the development of curved barbs and their effects on feather morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feo, Teresa J; Simon, Emma; Prum, Richard O

    2016-08-01

    Feathers exhibit an extraordinary diversity of shapes, which are used by birds to accomplish a diverse set of functions. Pennaceous feathers have a double branched morphology that develops from a tube of epidermis, and variation in branch geometry determines feather shape. Feather development is both complex (i.e., a simple developmental modification can have multiple effects on mature feather shape), and redundant (i.e., different developmental modifications can create the same shape). Due to this, it is not readily apparent how different feather shapes develop. In many feathers, barbs are not straight, but instead curve in toward, or away, from the feather tip. Barb curvature can affect the shape of mature feathers but the development of curved barbs is unknown. Previous research has hypothesized that barb curvature could develop either during the helical growth of barb ridges in the tubular feather germ, or during barb angle expansion as the feather unfurls from the sheath. To better understand the development of curved barbs and their effects on mature feathers we present a theoretical model of curved barb development and test the model with empirical investigations of feathers. We find that curved barbs affect many aspects of feather morphology including vane width, barb length, and barb spacing. In real feathers, curved barbs can develop both during helical barb ridge growth and during barb angle expansion, with most of the observed curvature due to barb angle expansion. Our results demonstrate that barb angle expansion as a feather unfurls from the sheath is a complex and dynamic process that plays an important role in determining the shape and structure of mature feathers. Curved barbs create heterogeneity in barb geometry within the feather vane, which could have important implications for aerodynamic function and the development of within feather pigmentation patterns. J. Morphol. 277:995-1013, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley

  15. Quantification of feather structure, wettability and resistance to liquid penetration

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Srinivasan, Siddarth; Chhatre, Shreerang S; Guardado, Jesus O; Park, Kyoo-Chul; Parker, Andrew R; Rubner, Michael F; McKinley, Gareth H; Cohen, Robert E

    2014-01-01

    .... To investigate whether wetting and wing-spreading are related to feather structure, microscopy and photographic studies have previously been used to extract structural parameters for barbs and barbules...

  16. Ticks parasitised feathered dinosaurs as revealed by Cretaceous amber assemblages

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Enrique Peñalver; Antonio Arillo; Xavier Delclòs; David Peris; David A Grimaldi; Scott R Anderson; Paul C Nascimbene; Ricardo Pérez-de la Fuente

    2017-01-01

    .... Here, we report direct and indirect evidence in 99 million-year-old Cretaceous amber showing that hard ticks and ticks of the extinct new family Deinocrotonidae fed on blood from feathered dinosaurs...

  17. Vertical transmission in feather mites: insights into its adaptive value

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dona, Jorge; Potti, Jaime; De La Hera, Ivan; Blanco, Guillermo; Frias, Oscar; Jovani, Roger

    2017-01-01

    1. The consequences of symbiont transmission strategies are better understood than their adaptive causes. 2. Feather mites are permanent ectosymbionts of birds assumed to be transmitted mainly vertically from parents to offspring. The transmission of Proctophyllodes doleophyes Gaud (Astigmata,

  18. Application of OMA to an Operating Wind Turbine: now including Vibration Data from the Blades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tcherniak, Dmitri; Larsen, Gunner Chr.

    2013-01-01

    The presented study continues the work on application of Output Only Modal Analysis (OMA) to operating wind turbines. It is known from previous studies that issues like the time-varying nature of the equations of motion of an operating wind turbine (in particular the significant harmonic components...... the blades as well. It is believed that the availability of vibration data from the blades will improve the observability of the main global vibration modes (especially the heavily damped out-of-plane modes), and thus will assure a better estimation of modal parameters, especially the damping. The paper...

  19. Harmonizing Tort Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.H. van Boom (Willem)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThis paper presents a review of the literature on comparative tort law and economics. It pays special attention to the economics arguments against and in favour of harmonization of tort law in Europe.

  20. Harmonic vibro-acoustography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shigao; Kinnick, Randall R; Greenleaf, James F; Fatemi, Mostafa

    2007-07-01

    Vibro-acoustography is an imaging method that uses the radiation force of two interfering ultrasound beams of slightly different frequency to probe an object. An image is made using the acoustic emission resulted from the object vibration at the difference frequency. In this paper, the feasibility of imaging objects at twice the difference frequency (harmonic acoustic emission) is studied. Several possible origins of harmonic acoustic emission are explored. As an example, it is shown that microbubbles close to resonance can produce significant harmonic acoustic emission due to its high nonlinearity. Experiments demonstrate that, compared to the fundamental acoustic emission, harmonic acoustic emission greatly improves the contrast between microbubbles and other objects in vibro-acoustography (an improvement of 17-23 dB in these experiments). Applications of this technique include imaging the nonlinearity of the object and selective detection of microbubbles for perfusion imaging. The impact of microbubble destruction during the imaging process also is discussed.

  1. Bionic Research on Bird Feather for Drag Reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Beibei Feng; Darong Chen; Jiadao Wang; Xingtuan Yang

    2015-01-01

    To reduce friction drag with bionic method in a more feasible way, the surface microstructure of bird feather was analyzed attempting to reveal the biologic features responding to skin friction drag reduction. Then comparative bionic surface mimicking bird feather was fabricated through hot-rolling technology for drag reduction. The microriblet film was formed on a PVC substrate through a self-developed hot-rolling equipment. The bionic surface with micron-scale riblets formed spontaneously d...

  2. The Topobiology of Chemical Elements in Seabird Feathers

    OpenAIRE

    Nicholas R. Howell; Lavers, Jennifer L.; Sayaka Uematsu; David Paterson; Howard, Daryl L.; Kathryn Spiers; de Jonge, Martin D.; Tracey Hanley; Richard Garrett; Banati, Richard B.

    2017-01-01

    The highly organized morphogenesis of bird feathers holds important phylo- and ontogenetic information on the evolution of birds, organogenesis, tissue regeneration, and the health status of individual animals. Altered topobiological patterns are regularly used as retrospective evidence for disturbed developmental trajectories due to the past exposure to environmental stressors. Using the most advanced high-resolution (5?70??m) X-ray fluorescence microscopy (XFM), we describe in the feathers ...

  3. Quantification of feather structure, wettability and resistance to liquid penetration

    OpenAIRE

    Srinivasan, Siddarth; Chhatre, Shreerang S.; Guardado, Jesus O.; Park, Kyoo-Chul; ANDREW R. PARKER; Rubner, Michael F; McKinley, Gareth H.; Cohen, Robert E.

    2014-01-01

    Birds in the cormorant (Phalacrocoracidae) family dive tens of metres into water to prey on fish while entraining a thin layer of air (a plastron film) within the microstructures of their feathers. In addition, many species within the family spread their wings for long periods of time upon emerging from water. To investigate whether wetting and wing-spreading are related to feather structure, microscopy and photographic studies have previously been used to extract structural parameters for ba...

  4. Fossil evidence for evolution of the shape and color of penguin feathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Julia A; Ksepka, Daniel T; Salas-Gismondi, Rodolfo; Altamirano, Ali J; Shawkey, Matthew D; D'Alba, Liliana; Vinther, Jakob; DeVries, Thomas J; Baby, Patrice

    2010-11-12

    Penguin feathers are highly modified in form and function, but there have been no fossils to inform their evolution. A giant penguin with feathers was recovered from the late Eocene (~36 million years ago) of Peru. The fossil reveals that key feathering features, including undifferentiated primary wing feathers and broad body contour feather shafts, evolved early in the penguin lineage. Analyses of fossilized color-imparting melanosomes reveal that their dimensions were similar to those of non-penguin avian taxa and that the feathering may have been predominantly gray and reddish-brown. In contrast, the dark black-brown color of extant penguin feathers is generated by large, ellipsoidal melanosomes previously unknown for birds. The nanostructure of penguin feathers was thus modified after earlier macrostructural modifications of feather shape linked to aquatic flight.

  5. Advanced thin dicing blade for sapphire substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koji Matsumaru, Atsushi Takata and Kozo Ishizaki

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Advanced thin dicing blades for cutting sapphire were fabricated and evaluated for cutting performance with respect to dicing blade wear and meandering of cutting lines. Three kinds of different commercial blades were used to compare the cutting performance. These blades had the same thickness and the same diamond grain size. The matrix material of one dicing blade was nickel–phosphorus alloy and two other were a vitric material. Newly developed dicing blades consisted of a vitric material with pore. A dicing machine was used for cutting sapphire. Turning velocity, cutting depth and feeding rate were 20,000 min−1, 200 μm and 1 mm s−1, respectivity. Cutting directions were 110 and 010. All blades could cut 1000 mm and more in the 110 direction. On the other hand, commercial dicing blades generated meandering lines and were broken only by 50 mm of cutting length in 010 direction. Fabricated blade can cut 1000 mm and more in 010 direction. The wear of fabricated dicing blade was the largest in the dicing blades. Although cutting performance of commercial dicing blades depended on the sapphire orientation, that of fabricated blade was independent of the sapphire orientation. It has been confirmed that the fabricated dicing blade was kept a cutting ability by flash diamonds on the dicing blade surface, which were created by wear of blade during cutting sapphire. Low cutting ability of commercial blades increased cutting force between with increase of cutting length. The increased cutting force produced to bend a blade and cutting lines, and finally a fracture of blade.

  6. FeatherSail - Design, Development and Future Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhorn, Dean C.; Scheierl, J. M.

    2010-01-01

    To the present day, the idea of using solar sails for space propulsion is still just a concept, but one that provides a great potential for future space exploration missions. Several notable solar propulsion missions and experiments have been performed and more are still in the development stage. Solar Sailing is a method of space flight propulsion, which utilizes the light photons to propel spacecrafts through the vacuum of space. This concept will be tested in the near future with the launch of the NanoSail-D satellite. NanoSail-D is a nano-class satellite, design concept, dubbed FeatherSail, has been developed. The goal of the FeatherSail project is to create a sail vehicle with the ability to provide steering from the sails and increase the areal density. The FeatherSail design will utilize the NanoSail-D based extendable boom technology with only one sail on each set of booms. This design also allows each of the four sails to feather as much as ninety degrees. The FeatherSail concept uses deployable solar arrays to generate the power necessary for deep space missions. In addition, recent developments in low power, low temperature Silicon-Germanium electronics provide the capability for long duration deep space missions. It is envisioned that the FeatherSail conceptual design will provide the impetus for future sail vehicles, which may someday visit distant places that mankind has only observed.

  7. Feathering instability of spiral arms. II. Parameter study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Wing-Kit, E-mail: wklee@asiaa.sinica.edu.tw [Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093-0424, USAAND (United States); Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, Taipei 115, Taiwan (China)

    2014-09-10

    We report the results of a parameter study of the feathering stability in the galactic spiral arms. A two-dimensional, razor-thin magnetized self-gravitating gas disk with an imposed two-armed stellar spiral structure is considered. Using the formulation developed previously by Lee and Shu, a linear stability analysis of the spiral shock is performed in a localized Cartesian geometry. Results of the parameter study of the base state with a spiral shock are also presented. The single-mode feathering instability that leads to growing perturbations may explain the feathering phenomenon found in nearby spiral galaxies. The self-gravity of the gas, characterized by its average surface density, is an important parameter that (1) shifts the spiral shock farther downstream and (2) increases the growth rate and decreases the characteristic spacing of the feathering structure due to the instability. On the other hand, while the magnetic field suppresses the velocity fluctuation associated with the feathers, it does not strongly affect their growth rate. Using a set of typical parameters of the grand-design spiral galaxy M51 at 2 kpc from the center, the spacing of the feathers with the maximum growth rate is found to be 530 pc, which agrees with the previous observational studies.

  8. Feathering Instability of Spiral Arms. II. Parameter Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wing-Kit

    2014-09-01

    We report the results of a parameter study of the feathering stability in the galactic spiral arms. A two-dimensional, razor-thin magnetized self-gravitating gas disk with an imposed two-armed stellar spiral structure is considered. Using the formulation developed previously by Lee & Shu, a linear stability analysis of the spiral shock is performed in a localized Cartesian geometry. Results of the parameter study of the base state with a spiral shock are also presented. The single-mode feathering instability that leads to growing perturbations may explain the feathering phenomenon found in nearby spiral galaxies. The self-gravity of the gas, characterized by its average surface density, is an important parameter that (1) shifts the spiral shock farther downstream and (2) increases the growth rate and decreases the characteristic spacing of the feathering structure due to the instability. On the other hand, while the magnetic field suppresses the velocity fluctuation associated with the feathers, it does not strongly affect their growth rate. Using a set of typical parameters of the grand-design spiral galaxy M51 at 2 kpc from the center, the spacing of the feathers with the maximum growth rate is found to be 530 pc, which agrees with the previous observational studies.

  9. Multiple feather follicle cysts in a Moroseta hen (Gallus gallus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutinelli, Franco; Corro', Michela; Catania, Salvatore; Melchiotti, Erica

    2008-06-01

    An 8-month-old white feathered, black skinned Moroseta hen was presented for examination because of numerous 2 mm- to 30 mm-diameter irregularly shaped, hard nodules in the skin of the head, wings, back, and abdomen. The nodules were confined to the skin and did not involve subcutaneous tissues. Nodules consisted of dilated feather follicles packed with a caseous tan-to-pale-yellow material admixed with feather remnants. Histologically, affected feather follicles were markedly dilated and filled with laminated keratin debris. Necrosis of the epidermis and perifollicular lymphocyte infiltration was also present. Bacteriologic investigation of internal organs was negative, while secondary bacteria, Proteus spp. and Bacillus spp., were isolated from skin nodules. A concomitant lice infestation of Menopon spp., as well as leg mange caused by Cnemidocoptes spp., were also present. These bacterial isolates and parasites were not related to the disease condition. The condition observed was differentiated from benign feather follicle tumors, and a diagnosis of multiple feather follicle cysts was made. In addition, a breed predisposition was hypothesized.

  10. Do feather-degrading bacteria affect sexually selected plumage color?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shawkey, Matthew D.; Pillai, Shreekumar R.; Hill, Geoffrey E.

    2009-01-01

    Models of parasite-mediated sexual selection propose that males with more elaborate sexual traits will have fewer parasites. These models have generally been tested using metazoan or protozoan parasites of the blood, gut, or integument. Fewer studies have examined sexual ornaments in relation to bacterial infections. While most surface bacteria are harmless or beneficial, feather-degrading bacteria may have detrimental effects. In this study, we examined the relationships between overall bacterial load, feather-degrading bacterial load, and sexually selected carotenoid-based plumage color in a wild population of house finches ( Carpodacus mexicanus). We found that males with the redder plumage preferred by females had similar overall bacterial loads, but lower feather-degrading bacterial loads, than males with less red plumage. These data suggest that plumage color can signal abundance of feather-degrading bacteria to potential mates. It remains unclear whether feather-degrading bacteria directly or indirectly affect plumage color, but the observed correlations suggest that feather-degrading bacteria may play some role in sexual selection.

  11. Reduction of Helicopter BVI Noise, Vibration, and Power Consumption Through Individual Blade Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacklin, Stephen A.; Blaas, Achim; Teves, Dietrich; Kube, Roland; Warmbrodt, William (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    A wind tunnel test was conducted with a full-scale BO 105 helicopter rotor to evaluate the potential of open-loop individual blade control (IBC) to improve rotor performance, to reduce blade vortex interaction (BVI) noise, and to alleviate helicopter vibrations. The wind tunnel test was an international collaborative effort between NASA/U.S. Army AFDD, ZF Luftfahrttechnik, Eurocopter Deutschland, and the German Aerospace Laboratory (DLR) and was conducted under the auspices of the U.S./German MOU on Rotorcraft Aeromechanics. In this test the normal blade pitch links of the rotor were replaced by servo-actuators so that the pitch of each blade could be controlled independently of the other blades. The specially designed servoactuators and IBC control system were designed and manufactured by ZF Luftfahrttechnik, GmbH. The wind tunnel test was conducted in the 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel at the NASA Ames Research Center. An extensive amount of measurement information was acquired for each IBC data point. These data include rotor performance, static and dynamic hub forces and moments, rotor loads, control loads, inboard and outboard blade pitch motion, and BVI noise data. The data indicated very significant (80 percent) simultaneous reductions in both BVI noise and hub vibrations could be obtained using multi-harmonic input at the critical descent (terminal approach) condition. The data also showed that performance improvements of up to 7 percent could be obtained using 2P input at high-speed forward flight conditions.

  12. Aeroelastic simulation of higher harmonic control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Lawson H.; Friedmann, Peretz P.

    1994-01-01

    This report describes the development of an aeroelastic analysis of a helicopter rotor and its application to the simulation of helicopter vibration reduction through higher harmonic control (HHC). An improved finite-state, time-domain model of unsteady aerodynamics is developed to capture high frequency aerodynamic effects. An improved trim procedure is implemented which accounts for flap, lead-lag, and torsional deformations of the blade. The effect of unsteady aerodynamics is studied and it is found that its impact on blade aeroelastic stability and low frequency response is small, but it has a significant influence on rotor hub vibrations. Several different HHC algorithms are implemented on a hingeless rotor and their effectiveness in reducing hub vibratory shears is compared. All the controllers are found to be quite effective, but very differing HHC inputs are required depending on the aerodynamic model used. Effects of HHC on rotor stability and power requirements are found to be quite small. Simulations of roughly equivalent articulated and hingeless rotors are carried out, and it is found that hingeless rotors can require considerably larger HHC inputs to reduce vibratory shears. This implies that the practical implementation of HHC on hingeless rotors might be considerably more difficult than on articulated rotors.

  13. Quantification of feather structure, wettability and resistance to liquid penetration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Siddarth; Chhatre, Shreerang S; Guardado, Jesus O; Park, Kyoo-Chul; Parker, Andrew R; Rubner, Michael F; McKinley, Gareth H; Cohen, Robert E

    2014-07-06

    Birds in the cormorant (Phalacrocoracidae) family dive tens of metres into water to prey on fish while entraining a thin layer of air (a plastron film) within the microstructures of their feathers. In addition, many species within the family spread their wings for long periods of time upon emerging from water. To investigate whether wetting and wing-spreading are related to feather structure, microscopy and photographic studies have previously been used to extract structural parameters for barbs and barbules. In this work, we describe a systematic methodology to characterize the quasi-hierarchical topography of bird feathers that is based on contact angle measurements using a set of polar and non-polar probing liquids. Contact angle measurements on dip-coated feathers of six aquatic bird species (including three from the Phalacrocoracidae family) are used to extract two distinguishing structural parameters, a dimensionless spacing ratio of the barbule (D*) and a characteristic length scale corresponding to the spacing of defect sites. The dimensionless spacing parameter can be used in conjunction with a model for the surface topography to enable us to predict a priori the apparent contact angles of water droplets on feathers as well as the water breakthrough pressure required for the disruption of the plastron on the feather barbules. The predicted values of breakthrough depths in water (1-4 m) are towards the lower end of typical diving depths for the aquatic bird species examined here, and therefore a representative feather is expected to be fully wetted in a typical deep dive. However, thermodynamic surface energy analysis based on a simple one-dimensional cylindrical model of the feathers using parameters extracted from the goniometric analysis reveals that for water droplets on feathers of all six species under consideration, the non-wetting 'Cassie-Baxter' composite state represents the global energy minimum of the system. By contrast, for other wetting

  14. Tower wake/blade interaction noise of a wind turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiwaki, Hideo; Takeda, Katsumi

    1987-10-01

    A scale model of a 1.5m dia. two-bladed windturbine was used in an anechoic chamber that provided a free-stream velocity of 8m/s. The blades used were a 1.5/8 scale model of a test machine for a local energy utilization project promoted by the Science and Technology Agency. The height of the tower from the ground level was 1.8m. The acoustic measurements were made in a circle of 1.6m downstream from the machine at the height of the windmill centerline. The noise level of the on-axis spectra was about 15dB larger than that of the off-axis. This is a result of the dipole nature of the acoustic impulse. The Wortmann airfoil (FX 77-W series) was employed for the blade profiles and the Reynolds number was 10(5), based on the tip chord length. The experiment revealed that the sound intensity at each harmonic was not proportional to the axial and radial extents of the wake. The elliptic slender configuration was the quietest, while the square configuration was the loudest. From a practical point of view, it is suggested that the circular section is most suitable for the tower leg.

  15. Aerodynamic Analysis of Morphing Blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Caleb; Macphee, David; Carlisle, Madeline

    2016-11-01

    Interest in morphing blades has grown with applications for wind turbines and other aerodynamic blades. This passive control method has advantages over active control methods such as lower manufacturing and upkeep costs. This study has investigated the lift and drag forces on individual blades with experimental and computational analysis. The goal has been to show that these blades delay stall and provide larger lift-to-drag ratios at various angles of attack. Rigid and flexible airfoils were cast from polyurethane and silicone respectively, then lift and drag forces were collected from a load cell during 2-D testing in a wind tunnel. Experimental data was used to validate computational models in OpenFOAM. A finite volume fluid-structure-interaction solver was used to model the flexible blade in fluid flow. Preliminary results indicate delay in stall and larger lift-to-drag ratios by maintaining more optimal angles of attack when flexing. Funding from NSF REU site Grant EEC 1358991 is greatly appreciated.

  16. Fast Harmonic Chirp Summation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper Kjær; Jensen, Tobias Lindstrøm; Jensen, Jesper Rindom

    2017-01-01

    The harmonic chirp signal model has only very recently been in- troduced for modelling approximately periodic signals with a time- varying fundamental frequency. A number of estimators for the pa- rameters of this model have already been proposed, but they are ei- ther inaccurate, non-robust to n......The harmonic chirp signal model has only very recently been in- troduced for modelling approximately periodic signals with a time- varying fundamental frequency. A number of estimators for the pa- rameters of this model have already been proposed, but they are ei- ther inaccurate, non......-robust to noise, or very computationally inten- sive. In this paper, we propose a fast algorithm for the harmonic chirp summation method which has been demonstrated in the liter- ature to be accurate and robust to noise. The proposed algorithm is orders of magnitudes faster than previous algorithms which is also...

  17. Harmonic uniflow engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Charles L.

    2016-03-22

    A reciprocating-piston uniflow engine includes a harmonic oscillator inlet valve capable of oscillating at a resonant frequency for controlling the flow of working fluid into the engine. In particular, the inlet valve includes an inlet valve head and a spring arranged together as a harmonic oscillator so that the inlet valve head is moveable from an unbiased equilibrium position to a biased closed position occluding an inlet. When released, the inlet valve head undergoes a single oscillation past the equilibrium position to a maximum open position and returns to a biased return position close to the closed position to choke the flow and produce a pressure drop across the inlet valve causing the inlet valve to close. In other embodiments, the harmonic oscillator arrangement of the inlet valve enables the uniflow engine to be reversibly operated as a uniflow compressor.

  18. Second harmonic generation imaging

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Second-harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy has shown great promise for imaging live cells and tissues, with applications in basic science, medical research, and tissue engineering. Second Harmonic Generation Imaging offers a complete guide to this optical modality, from basic principles, instrumentation, methods, and image analysis to biomedical applications. The book features contributions by experts in second-harmonic imaging, including many pioneering researchers in the field. Written for researchers at all levels, it takes an in-depth look at the current state of the art and possibilities of SHG microscopy. Organized into three sections, the book: Provides an introduction to the physics of the process, step-by-step instructions on how to build an SHG microscope, and comparisons with related imaging techniques Gives an overview of the capabilities of SHG microscopy for imaging tissues and cells—including cell membranes, muscle, collagen in tissues, and microtubules in live cells—by summarizing experi...

  19. General Criterion for Harmonicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proesmans, Karel; Vandebroek, Hans; Van den Broeck, Christian

    2017-10-01

    Inspired by Kubo-Anderson Markov processes, we introduce a new class of transfer matrices whose largest eigenvalue is determined by a simple explicit algebraic equation. Applications include the free energy calculation for various equilibrium systems and a general criterion for perfect harmonicity, i.e., a free energy that is exactly quadratic in the external field. As an illustration, we construct a "perfect spring," namely, a polymer with non-Gaussian, exponentially distributed subunits which, nevertheless, remains harmonic until it is fully stretched. This surprising discovery is confirmed by Monte Carlo and Langevin simulations.

  20. Harmonic arbitrary waveform generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, Brock Franklin

    2017-11-28

    High frequency arbitrary waveforms have applications in radar, communications, medical imaging, therapy, electronic warfare, and charged particle acceleration and control. State of the art arbitrary waveform generators are limited in the frequency they can operate by the speed of the Digital to Analog converters that directly create their arbitrary waveforms. The architecture of the Harmonic Arbitrary Waveform Generator allows the phase and amplitude of the high frequency content of waveforms to be controlled without taxing the Digital to Analog converters that control them. The Harmonic Arbitrary Waveform Generator converts a high frequency input, into a precision, adjustable, high frequency arbitrary waveform.

  1. Quantum harmonically kicked environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custódio, M. S.; Strunz, W. T.; Beims, M. W.

    2017-11-01

    In this work we derive a generalized map which describes the time evolution of a quantum system coupled to a quantum environment composed by a finite number of free particles kicked harmonically at periodic times. Dissipation is introduced via the interaction between system and environment, which is switched on and off simultaneously at regular time intervals. The dynamics of the environmental particles occurs along rotated ellipsis in phase space and can be described by unrotated harmonic oscillators with a new frequency which depends on the kicking time. With the definition of a thermal bath we show that our quantum kicked environment induces an unusual fluctuation-dissipation relation.

  2. Modeling dynamic stall on wind turbine blades under rotationally augmented flow fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guntur, Srinivas; Sørensen, Niels N.; Schreck, Scott

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an investigation of two well-known aerodynamic phenomena, rotational augmentation and dynamic stall, together in the inboard parts of wind turbine blades. This analysis is carried out using the following: (1) the National Renewable Energy Laboratory’s Unsteady Aerodynamics...... a reduced order dynamic stall model that uses rotationally augmented steady-state polars obtained from steady Phase VI experimental sequences, instead of the traditional two-dimensional, non-rotating data. The aim of this work is twofold. First, the blade loads estimated by the DDES simulations are compared...... with those from the dynamic stall model. This allowed the differences between the stall phenomenon on the inboard parts of harmonically pitching blades on a rotating wind turbine and the classic dynamic stall representation in two-dimensional flow to be investigated. Results indicated a good qualitative...

  3. Booster Double Harmonic Setup Notes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner, C. J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.

    2015-02-17

    The motivation behind implementing a booster double harmonic include the reduced transverse space charge force from a reduced peak beam current and reduced momentum spread of the beam, both of which can be achieved from flattening the RF bucket. RF capture and acceleration of polarized protons (PP) is first set up in the single harmonic mode with RF harmonic h=1. Once capture and acceleration have been set up in the single harmonic mode, the second harmonic system is brought on and programmed to operate in concert with the single harmonic system.

  4. Smoother Turbine Blades Resist Thermal Shock Better

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerniak, Paul; Longenecker, Kent; Paulus, Don; Ullman, Zane

    1991-01-01

    Surface treatment increases resistance of turbine blades to low-cycle fatigue. Smoothing removes small flaws where cracks start. Intended for blades in turbines subject to thermal shock of rapid starting. No recrystallization occurs at rocket-turbine operating temperatures.

  5. Seeking carotenoid pigments in amber-preserved fossil feathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Daniel B; Nascimbene, Paul C; Dove, Carla J; Grimaldi, David A; James, Helen F

    2014-06-09

    Plumage colours bestowed by carotenoid pigments can be important for visual communication and likely have a long evolutionary history within Aves. Discovering plumage carotenoids in fossil feathers could provide insight into the ecology of ancient birds and non-avian dinosaurs. With reference to a modern feather, we sought chemical evidence of carotenoids in six feathers preserved in amber (Miocene to mid-Cretaceous) and in a feather preserved as a compression fossil (Eocene). Evidence of melanin pigmentation and microstructure preservation was evaluated with scanning electron and light microscopies. We observed fine microstructural details including evidence for melanin pigmentation in the amber and compression fossils, but Raman spectral bands did not confirm the presence of carotenoids in them. Carotenoids may have been originally absent from these feathers or the pigments may have degraded during burial; the preservation of microstructure may suggest the former. Significantly, we show that carotenoid plumage pigments can be detected without sample destruction through an amber matrix using confocal Raman spectroscopy.

  6. A feather precipitation hydrogen isoscape for New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, K. M.; Wassenaar, L. I.; Soto, D. X.; Bartle, J. A.

    2012-04-01

    Forensic isotopic assays of feathers from historical Maori cloaks are a potential tool to link historical artefacts back to their native locales (Iwi) in New Zealand. In order to test this approach, we sampled feathers from extant museum archived birds of known origin for their feather hydrogen isotopes (δyHf) to assign their regional origin and location over time. We obtained feathers from two non-migratory bird species widely distributed around New Zealand, tui (Prosthemadera novaeseelandiae) and quail (Callipepla californica). Feathers were sampled from archived birds collected between 1880-2002 held in 3 New Zealand museum collections. We determined regression coefficients of δ2H on location, latitude, δ2Hprecipitation, and age. The data showed that ground dwelling quail had higher regression coefficients with respect to latitude (r2=0.46) than the nectar feeding tui (r2=0.39). On the whole, both resident birds showed promise as regional geographical indicators of their habitat (r2=0.58). Year of collection had no meaningful effect on isotopic composition. We conclude that isotopic assays may therefore be used to aid in regional assignments relevant to the interpretation of historical artefacts.

  7. Seeking carotenoid pigments in amber-preserved fossil feathers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Daniel B.; Nascimbene, Paul C.; Dove, Carla J.; Grimaldi, David A.; James, Helen F.

    2014-06-01

    Plumage colours bestowed by carotenoid pigments can be important for visual communication and likely have a long evolutionary history within Aves. Discovering plumage carotenoids in fossil feathers could provide insight into the ecology of ancient birds and non-avian dinosaurs. With reference to a modern feather, we sought chemical evidence of carotenoids in six feathers preserved in amber (Miocene to mid-Cretaceous) and in a feather preserved as a compression fossil (Eocene). Evidence of melanin pigmentation and microstructure preservation was evaluated with scanning electron and light microscopies. We observed fine microstructural details including evidence for melanin pigmentation in the amber and compression fossils, but Raman spectral bands did not confirm the presence of carotenoids in them. Carotenoids may have been originally absent from these feathers or the pigments may have degraded during burial; the preservation of microstructure may suggest the former. Significantly, we show that carotenoid plumage pigments can be detected without sample destruction through an amber matrix using confocal Raman spectroscopy.

  8. Barn owl feathers as biomonitors of mercury: sources of variation in sampling procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roque, Inês; Lourenço, Rui; Marques, Ana; Coelho, João Pedro; Coelho, Cláudia; Pereira, Eduarda; Rabaça, João E; Roulin, Alexandre

    2016-04-01

    Given their central role in mercury (Hg) excretion and suitability as reservoirs, bird feathers are useful Hg biomonitors. Nevertheless, the interpretation of Hg concentrations is still questioned as a result of a poor knowledge of feather physiology and mechanisms affecting Hg deposition. Given the constraints of feather availability to ecotoxicological studies, we tested the effect of intra-individual differences in Hg concentrations according to feather type (body vs. flight feathers), position in the wing and size (mass and length) in order to understand how these factors could affect Hg estimates. We measured Hg concentration of 154 feathers from 28 un-moulted barn owls (Tyto alba), collected dead on roadsides. Median Hg concentration was 0.45 (0.076-4.5) mg kg(-1) in body feathers, 0.44 (0.040-4.9) mg kg(-1) in primary and 0.60 (0.042-4.7) mg kg(-1) in secondary feathers, and we found a poor effect of feather type on intra-individual Hg levels. We also found a negative effect of wing feather mass on Hg concentration but not of feather length and of its position in the wing. We hypothesize that differences in feather growth rate may be the main driver of between-feather differences in Hg concentrations, which can have implications in the interpretation of Hg concentrations in feathers. Finally, we recommend that, whenever possible, several feathers from the same individual should be analysed. The five innermost primaries have lowest mean deviations to both between-feather and intra-individual mean Hg concentration and thus should be selected under restrictive sampling scenarios.

  9. Nutritional stress affects corticosterone deposition in feathers of Caspian tern chicks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Allison G. L.; Kitaysky, Alexander S.; Lyons, Donald E.; Roby, Daniel D.

    2015-01-01

    Stressful environmental conditions affect the adrenocortical function of developing animals, which can have consequences for their fitness. Discovery of the avian stress hormone corticosterone (CORT) in feathers has the potential to broaden the application of endocrine research in ecological and evolutionary studies of wild birds by providing a long-term measure of CORT secretion. Mechanisms of CORT deposition in feathers are not well known and few studies have related feather CORT to circulating plasma CORT during feather growth. Our objective was to experimentally test the validity of using feather CORT as a measure of CORT secretion in developing birds experiencing nutritional stress. Caspian tern Hydroprogne caspia chicks were fed ad libitum or restricted (35% less than ad libitum) diets for four weeks. We measured CORT in feathers from these chicks to examine the relationship between feather CORT concentrations and nutritional limitation, circulating plasma CORT, and feather development. We found that feather CORT was higher in controls fed ad libitum than in restricted individuals, despite higher levels of plasma CORT in restricted chicks compared to controls. Feather mass and growth rates were strongly and positively related to feather CORT concentrations in both treatments. This is the first experimental study to show that feather CORT concentrations can be lower in response to nutritional stress, even when plasma CORT concentrations are elevated. Our results indicate that CORT deposition in feathers may be confounded when feather mass and growth rates are compromised by nutritional stress. We conclude that feather CORT can be used for assessing nutritional stress in growing birds, but the direction of response depends on how strongly stress affects feather development.

  10. Wind Turbine Blade with Angled Girders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    The present invention relates to a reinforced blade for a wind turbine, particularly to a blade having a new arrangement of two or more girders in the blade, wherein each of the girders is connected to the upper part and the lower part of the shell and forms an angle with another girder thereby...... strengthening the shell against transverse shear distortion....

  11. Individual blade pitch for yaw control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Navalkar, S.T.; Van Wingerden, J.W.; Van Kuik, G.A.M.

    2014-01-01

    Individual pitch control (IPC) for reducing blade loads has been investigated and proven successful in recent literature. For IPC, the multi-blade co-ordinate (MBC) transformation is used to process the blade load signals from the rotating to a stationary frame of reference. In the stationary frame

  12. Thermal-Transient Testing Of Turbine Blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, William R.; Pidcoke, Louis H.

    1990-01-01

    Testing apparatus applies pulses of heat to turbine blade to determine resistance to thermal fatigue. Uses nonintrusive inductive heating and records distribution of temperature on blade with infrared video camera. Allows precise control of heating and cooling. Designed for testing blades used in advanced high-pressure, high-temperature turbines.

  13. Harmonic Intravascular Ultrasound

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.E. Frijlink (Martijn)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractMedical ultrasound is a popular imaging modality in cardiology. Harmonic Imaging is a technique that has been shown to increase the image quality of diagnostic ultrasound at frequencies below 10 MHz. However, Intravascular Ultrasound, which is a technique to acoustically investigate

  14. Feather damaging behaviour in parrots : A review with consideration of comparative aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zeeland, Yvonne R. A.; Spruit, Berry M.; Rodenburg, T. Bas; Riedstra, Bernd; van Hierden, Yvonne M.; Buitenhuis, Bart; Korte, S. Mechiel; Lumeij, Johannes T.

    2009-01-01

    Feather damaging behaviour (also referred to as feather picking or feather plucking) is a behavioural disorder that is frequently encountered in captive parrots. This disorder has many characteristics that are similar to trichotillomania, an impulse control disorder in humans. Unfortunately, to date

  15. Theoretical morphology and development of flight feather vane asymmetry with experimental tests in parrots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feo, Teresa J; Prum, Richard O

    2014-06-01

    Asymmetry in flight feather vane width is a major functional innovation associated with the evolution of flight in the ancestors of birds. However, the developmental and morphological basis of feather shape is not simple, and the developmental processes involved in vane width asymmetry are poorly understood. We present a theoretical model of feather morphology and development that describes the possible ways to modify feather development and produce vane asymmetry. Our model finds that the theoretical morphospace of feather shape is redundant, and that many different combinations of parameters could be responsible for vane asymmetry in a given feather. Next, we empirically measured morphological and developmental model parameters in asymmetric and symmetric feathers from two species of parrots to identify which combinations of parameters create vane asymmetry in real feathers. We found that both longer barbs, and larger barb angles in the relatively wider trailing vane drove asymmetry in tail feathers. Developmentally, longer barbs were the result of an offset of the radial position of the new barb locus, whereas larger barb angles were produced by differential expansion of barbs as the feather unfurls from the tubular feather germ. In contrast, the helical angle of barb ridge development did not contribute to vane asymmetry and could be indicative of a constraint. This research provides the first comprehensive description of both the morphological and developmental modifications responsible for vane asymmetry within real feathers, and identifies key steps that must have occurred during the evolution of vane asymmetry. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Feather damaging behaviour in parrots: A review with consideration of comparative aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeeland, van Y.R.A.; Spruit, B.M.; Rodenburg, T.B.; Riedstra, B.; Hierden, van Y.M.; Buitenhuis, A.J.; Korte, S.M.; Lumeij, J.T.

    2009-01-01

    Feather damaging behaviour (also referred to as feather picking or feather plucking) is a behavioural disorder that is frequently encountered in captive parrots. This disorder has many characteristics that are similar to trichotillomania, an impulse control disorder in humans. Unfortunately, to date

  17. Chemical composition and amino acid profile of differently processed feather meal

    OpenAIRE

    Adejumo Oluseun Isaac; Adetunji Oluwaseun Charles; Ogundipe Kunle; Osademe Ndudi Sonia

    2016-01-01

    Feather wastes represent potential alternative ingredients for animal feedstuffs which can ameliorate the protein shortage for food and feed. Previous attempts to provide information about the nutrient composition of feather meal are either too complicated for rural livestock farmers in developing countries or they provided incomplete information on chemical composition. Washed feathers were subjected to different processing techniques such as pre-soaking i...

  18. the structure of the water-holding feathers of the namaqua sandgrouse

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cade & Maclean (1967) have given a detailed account of the method of water transport by the male Namaqua sandgrouse to its young. This transport is made possible by the water-holding properties of the abdominal feathers, the lower breast feathers and, to a reduced extent, the upper breast feathers. The structure of ...

  19. Spectral tuning of Amazon parrot feather coloration by psittacofulvin pigments and spongy structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tinbergen, Jan; Wilts, Bodo D.; Stavenga, Doekele G.

    2013-01-01

    The feathers of Amazon parrots are brightly coloured. They contain a unique class of pigments, the psittacofulvins, deposited in both barbs and barbules, causing yellow or red coloured feathers. In specific feather areas, spongy nanostructured barb cells exist, reflecting either in the blue or

  20. Young children's harmonic perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa-Giomi, Eugenia

    2003-11-01

    Harmony and tonality are two of the most difficult elements for young children to perceive and manipulate and are seldom taught in the schools until the end of early childhood. Children's gradual harmonic and tonal development has been attributed to their cumulative exposure to Western tonal music and their increasing experiential knowledge of its rules and principles. Two questions that are relevant to this problem are: (1) Can focused and systematic teaching accelerate the learning of the harmonic/tonal principles that seem to occur in an implicit way throughout childhood? (2) Are there cognitive constraints that make it difficult for young children to perceive and/or manipulate certain harmonic and tonal principles? A series of studies specifically addressed the first question and suggested some possible answers to the second one. Results showed that harmonic instruction has limited effects on children's perception of harmony and indicated that the drastic improvement in the perception of implied harmony noted approximately at age 9 is due to development rather than instruction. I propose that young children's difficulty in perceiving implied harmony stems from their attention behaviors. Older children have less memory constraints and more strategies to direct their attention to the relevant cues of the stimulus. Younger children focus their attention on the melody, if present in the stimulus, and specifically on its concrete elements such as rhythm, pitch, and contour rather than its abstract elements such as harmony and key. The inference of the abstract harmonic organization of a melody required in the perception of implied harmony is thus an elusive task for the young child.

  1. Molecular composition and ultrastructure of Jurassic paravian feathers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindgren, Johan; Sjövall, Peter; Carney, Ryan M.; Cincotta, Aude; Uvdal, Per; Hutcheson, Steven W.; Gustafsson, Ola; Lefèvre, Ulysse; Escuillié, François; Heimdal, Jimmy; Engdahl, Anders; Gren, Johan A.; Kear, Benjamin P.; Wakamatsu, Kazumasa; Yans, Johan; Godefroit, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Feathers are amongst the most complex epidermal structures known, and they have a well-documented evolutionary trajectory across non-avian dinosaurs and basal birds. Moreover, melanosome-like microbodies preserved in association with fossil plumage have been used to reconstruct original colour, behaviour and physiology. However, these putative ancient melanosomes might alternatively represent microorganismal residues, a conflicting interpretation compounded by a lack of unambiguous chemical data. We therefore used sensitive molecular imaging, supported by multiple independent analytical tests, to demonstrate that the filamentous epidermal appendages in a new specimen of the Jurassic paravian Anchiornis comprise remnant eumelanosomes and fibril-like microstructures, preserved as endogenous eumelanin and authigenic calcium phosphate. These results provide novel insights into the early evolution of feathers at the sub-cellular level, and unequivocally determine that melanosomes can be preserved in fossil feathers. PMID:26311035

  2. Tyrannosauroid integument reveals conflicting patterns of gigantism and feather evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Phil R; Campione, Nicolás E; Persons, W Scott; Currie, Philip J; Larson, Peter L; Tanke, Darren H; Bakker, Robert T

    2017-06-01

    Recent evidence for feathers in theropods has led to speculations that the largest tyrannosaurids, including Tyrannosaurus rex, were extensively feathered. We describe fossil integument from Tyrannosaurus and other tyrannosaurids (Albertosaurus, Daspletosaurus, Gorgosaurus and Tarbosaurus), confirming that these large-bodied forms possessed scaly, reptilian-like skin. Body size evolution in tyrannosauroids reveals two independent occurrences of gigantism; specifically, the large sizes in Yutyrannus and tyrannosaurids were independently derived. These new findings demonstrate that extensive feather coverings observed in some early tyrannosauroids were lost by the Albian, basal to Tyrannosauridae. This loss is unrelated to palaeoclimate but possibly tied to the evolution of gigantism, although other mechanisms exist. © 2017 The Author(s).

  3. Melanin concentration gradients in modern and fossil feathers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J Field

    Full Text Available In birds and feathered non-avian dinosaurs, within-feather pigmentation patterns range from discrete spots and stripes to more subtle patterns, but the latter remain largely unstudied. A ∼55 million year old fossil contour feather with a dark distal tip grading into a lighter base was recovered from the Fur Formation in Denmark. SEM and synchrotron-based trace metal mapping confirmed that this gradient was caused by differential concentration of melanin. To assess the potential ecological and phylogenetic prevalence of this pattern, we evaluated 321 modern samples from 18 orders within Aves. We observed that the pattern was found most frequently in distantly related groups that share aquatic ecologies (e.g. waterfowl Anseriformes, penguins Sphenisciformes, suggesting a potential adaptive function with ancient origins.

  4. Fan Flutter Computations Using the Harmonic Balance Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhle, Milind A.; Thomas, Jeffrey P.; Reddy, T.S.R.

    2009-01-01

    An experimental forward-swept fan encountered flutter at part-speed conditions during wind tunnel testing. A new propulsion aeroelasticity code, based on a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) approach, was used to model the aeroelastic behavior of this fan. This threedimensional code models the unsteady flowfield due to blade vibrations using a harmonic balance method to solve the Navier-Stokes equations. This paper describes the flutter calculations and compares the results to experimental measurements and previous results from a time-accurate propulsion aeroelasticity code.

  5. Composite blade damaging under impact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menouillard, T.; Réthoré, J.; Bung, H.; Suffis, A.

    2006-01-01

    Composites materials are now being used in primary aircraft structures, and other domains because of numerous advantages. A part of a continuous in-flight operating costs, gas turbine engine manufacturers are always looking for ways to decrease engine weight. This is the case of compressor blades

  6. Harmonic Patterns in Forex Trading

    OpenAIRE

    Nemček, Sebastian

    2013-01-01

    This diploma thesis is committed to examination of validity of Harmonic Patterns in Forex trading. Scott Carney described existing and introduced new Harmonic Patterns in 1999 in his book Harmonic Trader. These patterns use the Fibonacci principle to analyze price action and to provide both bullish and bearish trading signals. The goal of this thesis is to find out whether harmonic trading strategy on selected pairs is profitable in FX market, which patterns are the most profitable and what i...

  7. Morphology of primary feathers in two falcon species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honisch, B.; Bleckmann, H.; Schmitz, H.; Schmitz, A.

    2012-04-01

    Primary feathers allow birds to fly; however, morphology and material properties of theses feathers vary in different bird species. We therefore analysed both morphology and material properties of primary feathers in two raptor species, the peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus) which is the fastest vertical flyer known, and the kestrel (Falco tinnunculus), using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and nanoindentation. The program AutoCAD was used for the computation of the moments of inertia. The reduced E-modulus of the cortex of the rachis of the first, fifth, and tenth primary were measured at proximal (10% of total rachis length), central (50%) and distal (75%) cross-sections. In all cross sections the kestrel showed higher E-moduli than the peregrine falcon (values varied between 6.7 and 9.1 GPa). In the primaries, values increased from proximal to central but decreased distally. Looking at the hardness, the kestrel had higher values than the peregrine falcon yet again. The main differences occurred in the first primary. Values ranged between 0.17 and 0.4 GPa. SEM studies revealed that the tenth primary was more stable in the peregrine falcon, featuring more hamuli than the kestrel at all analysed positions and longer hamuli at the distal positions. The higher moments of inertia found in the peregrine falcon caused a much higher bending stiffness in this species. Values were 4.4 to 9.1 times larger in the peregrine falcon than in the kestrel. Because the given structures are responsible for the stability of the feather face it seems that the feathers of F. peregrinus are more robust than those of F. tinnunculus. Even when considering the higher body mass of the peregrine falcon compared to the kestrel (3.4 times), the determined stability of the feather compensates for this problem.

  8. Characterization of Deficiencies in the Frequency Domain Forced Response Analysis Technique for Supersonic Turbine Bladed Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Andrew M.; Schmauch, Preston

    2012-01-01

    Turbine blades in rocket and jet engine turbomachinery experience enormous harmonic loading conditions. These loads result from the integer number of upstream and downstream stator vanes as well as the other turbine stages. Assessing the blade structural integrity is a complex task requiring an initial characterization of whether resonance is possible and then performing a forced response analysis if that condition is met. The standard technique for forced response analysis in rocket engine turbines is to decompose a computational fluid dynamics (CFD).generated flow field into its harmonic components, and to then perform a frequency response analysis at the problematic natural frequencies using cyclically symmetric structural dynamic models. Recent CFD analysis and water-flow testing at NASA/MSFC, though, indicates that this technique may miss substantial harmonic and non ]harmonic excitation sources that become present in complex flows. This complex content can only be captured by a CFD flow field encompassing at least an entire revolution. A substantial development effort to create a series of software programs to enable application of the 360 degree forcing function in a frequency response analysis on cyclic symmetric models has been completed (to be described in a future paper), but the question still remains whether the frequency response analysis itself is capable of capturing the excitation content sufficiently. Two studies comparing frequency response analysis with transient response analysis, therefore, of bladed-disks undergoing this complex flow environment have been performed. The first is of a bladed disk with each blade modeled by simple beam elements and the disk modeled with plates (using the finite element code MSC/NASTRAN). The focus of this model is to be representative of response of realistic bladed disks, and so the dimensions are roughly equivalent to the new J2X rocket engine 1st stage fuel pump turbine. The simplicity of the model allows

  9. Turbine blade tip gap reduction system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diakunchak, Ihor S.

    2012-09-11

    A turbine blade sealing system for reducing a gap between a tip of a turbine blade and a stationary shroud of a turbine engine. The sealing system includes a plurality of flexible seal strips extending from a pressure side of a turbine blade generally orthogonal to the turbine blade. During operation of the turbine engine, the flexible seal strips flex radially outward extending towards the stationary shroud of the turbine engine, thereby reducing the leakage of air past the turbine blades and increasing the efficiency of the turbine engine.

  10. Recursive Harmonic Numbers and Binomial Coefficients

    OpenAIRE

    Maw, Aung Phone; Kyaw, Aung

    2017-01-01

    We define recursive harmonic numbers as a generalization of harmonic numbers. The table of recursive harmonic numbers, which is like Pascal's triangle, is constructed. A formula for recursive harmonic numbers containing binomial coefficients is also presented.

  11. Linking the molecular evolution of avian beta (β) keratins to the evolution of feathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwold, Matthew J; Sawyer, Roger H

    2011-12-15

    Feathers of today's birds are constructed of beta (β)-keratins, structural proteins of the epidermis that are found solely in reptiles and birds. Discoveries of "feathered dinosaurs" continue to stimulate interest in the evolutionary origin of feathers, but few studies have attempted to link the molecular evolution of their major structural proteins (β-keratins) to the appearance of feathers in the fossil record. Using molecular dating methods, we show that before the appearance of Anchiornis (∼155 Million years ago (Ma)) the basal β-keratins of birds began diverging from their archosaurian ancestor ∼216 Ma. However, the subfamily of feather β-keratins, as found in living birds, did not begin diverging until ∼143 Ma. Thus, the pennaceous feathers on Anchiornis, while being constructed of avian β-keratins, most likely did not contain the feather β-keratins found in the feathers of modern birds. Our results demonstrate that the evolutionary origin of feathers does not coincide with the molecular evolution of the feather β-keratins found in modern birds. More likely, during the Late Jurassic, the epidermal structures that appeared on organisms in the lineage leading to birds, including early forms of feathers, were constructed of avian β-keratins other than those found in the feathers of modern birds. Recent biophysical studies of the β-keratins in feathers support the view that the appearance of the subfamily of feather β-keratins altered the biophysical nature of the feather establishing its role in powered flight. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., A Wiley Company.

  12. Analysis of severe feather pecking behavior in a high feather pecking selection line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Labouriau, R; Kjaer, J B; Abreu, G C G

    2009-01-01

    Even though feather pecking (FP) in laying hens has been extensively studied, a good solution to prevent chickens from this behavior under commercial circumstances has not been found. Selection against FP behavior is possible, but for a more effective selection across different populations......, it is necessary to characterize the genetic mechanism associated with this behavior. In this study, we use a high FP selection line, which has been selected for 8 generations. We present evidence of the presence of a major dominant allele affecting the FP behavior by using an argument based on the presence...... of mixture in the distribution of the observed FP and by studying the evolution of the proportion of very high FP along the sequence of 8 generations. This hypothesis is further supported by the fact that the gene transcription profile of the birds performing high FP differs from the profile of the other...

  13. Aeroelastic analysis for helicopter rotors with blade appended pendulum vibration absorbers. Mathematical derivations and program user's manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielawa, R. L.

    1982-01-01

    Mathematical development is presented for the expanded capabilities of the United Technologies Research Center (UTRC) G400 Rotor Aeroelastic Analysis. This expanded analysis, G400PA, simulates the dynamics of teetered rotors, blade pendulum vibration absorbers and the higher harmonic excitations resulting from prescribed vibratory hub motions and higher harmonic blade pitch control. Formulations are also presented for calculating the rotor impedance matrix appropriate to these higher harmonic blade excitations. This impedance matrix and the associated vibratory hub loads are intended as the rotor blade characteristics elements for use in the Simplified Coupled Rotor/Fuselage Vibration Analysis (SIMVIB). Sections are included presenting updates to the development of the original G400 theory, and material appropriate to the user of the G400PA computer program. This material includes: (1) a general descriptionof the tructuring of the G400PA FORTRAN coding, (2) a detaild description of the required input data and other useful information for successfully running the program, and (3) a detailed description of the output results.

  14. Wind turbine blade fatigue tests: lessons learned and application to SHM system development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Stuart G. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Farinholt, Kevin M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Jeong, Hyomi [Chonbuk National University, Korea; Jang, JaeKyung [Chonbuk National University, Korea; Park, Gyu Hae [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Todd, Michael D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Farrar, Charles R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ammerman, Curtt N. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-06-28

    This paper presents experimental results of several structural health monitoring (SHM) methods applied to a 9-meter CX-100 wind turbine blade that underwent fatigue loading. The blade was instrumented with piezoelectric transducers, accelerometers, acoustic emission sensors, and foil strain gauges. It underwent harmonic excitation at its first natural frequency using a hydraulically actuated resonant excitation system. The blade was initially excited at 25% of its design load, and then with steadily increasing loads until it failed. Various data were collected between and during fatigue loading sessions. The data were measured over multiple frequency ranges using a variety of acquisition equipment, including off-the-shelf systems and specially designed hardware developed by the authors. Modal response, diffuse wave-field transfer functions, and ultrasonic guided wave methods were applied to assess the condition of the wind turbine blade. The piezoelectric sensors themselves were also monitored using a sensor diagnostics procedure. This paper summarizes experimental procedures and results, focusing particularly on fatigue crack detection, and concludes with considerations for implementing such damage identification systems, which will be used as a guideline for future SHM system development for operating wind turbine blades.

  15. Principles of harmonic analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Deitmar, Anton

    2014-01-01

    This book offers a complete and streamlined treatment of the central principles of abelian harmonic analysis: Pontryagin duality, the Plancherel theorem and the Poisson summation formula, as well as their respective generalizations to non-abelian groups, including the Selberg trace formula. The principles are then applied to spectral analysis of Heisenberg manifolds and Riemann surfaces. This new edition contains a new chapter on p-adic and adelic groups, as well as a complementary section on direct and projective limits. Many of the supporting proofs have been revised and refined. The book is an excellent resource for graduate students who wish to learn and understand harmonic analysis and for researchers seeking to apply it.

  16. Investigation of UWB Wind Turbine Blade Deflection Sensing with a Tip Antenna inside a Blade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Shuai; Jensen, Tobias Lindstrøm; Franek, Ondrej

    2016-01-01

    An UWB blade deflection sensing system with a tip antenna inside a blade is investigated in this paper. The lower UWB band of 3.1-5.3 GHz is utilized. This system composes of two UWB radio links between one antenna inside the blade tip and two antennas outside the blade root. Blade deflections......-blade time-domain measurements are proposed to verify the simulations and realize the blade deflection sensing with an in-blade tip antenna. With the optimized in-blade tip antenna polarization and two root antenna locations, an accuracy of 2 cm is achieved for the tip-root antenna distance estimation......, and the sensing system can realize the deflection tracking with a maximum deviation of 0.21 m and root mean squared error of 0.11 m....

  17. Harmonics in transmission power systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiechowski, Wojciech Tomasz

    Some time ago, Energinet.dk, the Transmission System Operator of the 150 kV and 400 kV transmission network in Denmark, had experienced operational malfunctions of some of the measuring and protection equipment. Also an overloading of a harmonic filter has been reported, and therefore, a need...... to perform more detailed harmonic studies emerged. Since the transmission network has a complex structure and its impedance varies with frequency in a nonlinear fashion, such harmonic study would require a detailed computer model of the network. Consequently, a PhD project proposal titled "Harmonics......, provided that background harmonic distortion, and the network configuration, are not changing during the measurement. It is shown that switching of a shunt linear power system component can result in variation of the harmonic levels that can be measured and used to verify the harmonic model of the network...

  18. Harmonic and geometric analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Citti, Giovanna; Pérez, Carlos; Sarti, Alessandro; Zhong, Xiao

    2015-01-01

    This book presents an expanded version of four series of lectures delivered by the authors at the CRM. Harmonic analysis, understood in a broad sense, has a very wide interplay with partial differential equations and in particular with the theory of quasiconformal mappings and its applications. Some areas in which real analysis has been extremely influential are PDE's and geometric analysis. Their foundations and subsequent developments made extensive use of the Calderón–Zygmund theory, especially the Lp inequalities for Calderón–Zygmund operators (Beurling transform and Riesz transform, among others) and the theory of Muckenhoupt weights.  The first chapter is an application of harmonic analysis and the Heisenberg group to understanding human vision, while the second and third chapters cover some of the main topics on linear and multilinear harmonic analysis. The last serves as a comprehensive introduction to a deep result from De Giorgi, Moser and Nash on the regularity of elliptic partial differen...

  19. Evaluation of strain, dietary energy level and stocking density on broiler feathering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Moreira

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effects of strain, stocking density and dietary energy level on the feathering of broiler chickens. Four trials were carried out between September 2000 and April 2002. There were 10,685 broiler chicks from the strains Ross 308, Cobb 500, Hybro PG, Hubbard, MPK, and Isa Vedette. The bids were reared at stocking densities varying between 10 and 16 birds/m² and were given diets containing different metabolizable energy levels. Broiler feathering was evaluated either by atrributing scores from 1 to 10 to feather covering along the thigh and back (visual inspection, or by determining the percentage weight of the feathers at 28 and 42 days of age. Increasing rearing densities resulted in poorer feathering, mainly if 12 or 13 birds/m² were compared with 16 birds/m². The strains showed different feathering; it was better in Cobb 500 and MPK birds, whereas Hubbard birds showed poorer feathering, mostly along the back. The energy level in the diet has also affected feathering scores. Medium energy level resulted in better feathering along the back at 28 days, and the low level, in better feathering along the thigh at 35 days of age. Finally, feather scores were better in females than in males.

  20. Towards a quantitative indicator of feather disruption following the cleansing of oiled birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigger, Stephen W; Ngeh, Lawrence N; Dann, Peter; Orbell, John D

    2017-07-15

    A computer-based imaging method for determining feather microstructure coherency following a cleansing treatment, was developed, calibrated and trialled on Mallard Duck (Anas platyrhyhchos) feathers. The feathers were initially contaminated with a light crude oil and then cleansed by either detergent (Deacon 90) treatment or, alternatively, by magnetic particle technology (MPT) using iron powder. The imaging method provides a single quantitative parameter for the coherence of feather microstructure and the results confirm that MPT treatment imparts less disruption to the feather microstructure than detergent treatment. It is proposed that this imaging method can be developed and implemented for the assessment of feather disruption and possibly damage, either for the trialling of different treatment protocols, or as a tool during the rehabilitation process, along with other such indicators, to give a more comprehensive assessment of feather condition than is currently available. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Melanosomes or Microbes: Testing an Alternative Hypothesis for the Origin of Microbodies in Fossil Feathers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyer, Alison E.; Zheng, Wenxia; Johnson, Elizabeth A.; Lamanna, Matthew C.; Li, Da-Qing; Lacovara, Kenneth J.; Schweitzer, Mary H.

    2014-03-01

    Microbodies associated with fossil feathers, originally attributed to microbial biofilm, have been reinterpreted as melanosomes: pigment-containing, eukaryotic organelles. This interpretation generated hypotheses regarding coloration in non-avian and avian dinosaurs. Because melanosomes and microbes overlap in size, distribution and morphology, we re-evaluate both hypotheses. We compare melanosomes within feathers of extant chickens with patterns induced by microbial overgrowth on the same feathers, using scanning (SEM), field emission (FESEM) and transmission (TEM) electron microscopy. Melanosomes are always internal, embedded in a morphologically distinct keratinous matrix. Conversely, microbes grow across the surface of feathers in continuous layers, more consistent with published images from fossil feathers. We compare our results to both published literature and new data from a fossil feather ascribed to Gansus yumenensis (ANSP 23403). `Mouldic impressions' were observed in association with both the feather and sediment grains, supporting a microbial origin. We propose criteria for distinguishing between these two microbodies.

  2. Three-dimensional simulations of harmonic radiation and harmonic lasing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitt, M.J.; McVey, B.D.

    1990-01-01

    Characteristics of the harmonic emission from free-electron lasers (FELs) are examined in the spontaneous, coherent-spontaneous and stimulated emission regimes. The radiation at both odd and even harmonic frequencies is treated for electron beams with finite emittance and energy spread. In the spontaneous emission regime, the transverse radiation patterns including the transverse frequency dependences, are given. How this expression is modified to include energy spread and emittance is described. In the coherent-spontaneous emission and stimulated emission regimes, the interaction of the radiation fields with the electrons must be treated self-consistently. Here, a single-frequency distributed transverse source function for each electron is used in the harmonic version of the 3-D code FELEX to model the harmonic radiation. The code has recently been modified to simultaneously model the fundamental and harmonic interactions for multiple-pass oscillator simulations. These modifications facilitate the examination of FELs under various operating conditions. When the FEL is lasing at the fundamental, the evolution of the harmonic fields can be examined. This evolution is unique in the sense that the electron beam radiates at the harmonic frequencies in the presence of the harmonic radiation circulating in the cavity. As a result, enhancements of the harmonic emission can be observed. Finally, harmonic lasing can occur in cases where there is sufficient gain to overcome cavity losses and lasing at the fundamental can be suppressed. The characteristics and efficiency of these interactions are explored. 11 refs., 9 figs.

  3. Improvement of antioxidant potential in rats consuming feathers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The in vitro and in vivo antioxidant activities of feathers protein hydrolysate (FPH), produced by fermentation with the keratinolytic bacterium, Bacillus pumilus strain A1, were evaluated. The antioxidant activities of FPH, evaluated using DNA nicking and ferrozine assays, demonstrate that FPH present an important ...

  4. The disposition of oxytetracycline to feathers after poultry treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berendsen, B.J.A.; Bor, G.; Gerritsen, H.W.; Jansen, L.J.M.; Zuidema, T.

    2013-01-01

    In the combat against bacterial resistance, there is a clear need to check the use of antibiotics in animal husbandry, including poultry breeding. The use of chicken feathers as a tool for the detection of use of antibiotics was investigated. An extraction method for the analysis of oxytetracycline

  5. Plumage disorders in psittacine birds - part 2: feather damaging behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zeeland, Y.R.A.; Schoemaker, N.J.

    2014-01-01

    Plumage disorders in parrots represent one of the more common, but also one of the more challenging and frustrating problems that veterinarians dealing with parrots in their daily practice face on a day-to-day basis. This second part of the review will deal with diseases causing lack of feather

  6. Feathering Instability of Spiral Arms. I. Formulation of the Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wing-Kit; Shu, Frank H.

    2012-09-01

    In this paper, we study the feathering substructures along spiral arms by considering the perturbational gas response to a spiral shock. Feathers are density fluctuations that jut out from the spiral arm to the interarm region at pitch angles given by the quantum numbers of the doubly periodic structure. In a localized asymptotic approximation, related to the shearing sheet except that the inhomogeneities occur in space rather than in time, we derive the linearized perturbation equations for a razor-thin disk with turbulent interstellar gas, frozen-in magnetic field, and gaseous self-gravity. Apart from the modal quantum numbers, the individual normal modes of the system depend on seven dimensionless quantities that characterize the underlying time-independent axisymmetric state plus its steady, nonlinear, two-armed spiral-shock response to a hypothesized background density wave supported by the disk stars of the galaxy. We show that some of these normal modes have positive growth rates. Their overdensity contours in the post-shock region are very reminiscent of observed feathering substructures in full magnetohydrodynamic simulations. The feathering substructures are parasitic instabilities intrinsic to the system; thus, their study not only provides potential diagnostics for important parameters that characterize the interstellar medium of external galaxies, but also yields a deeper understanding of the basic mechanism that drives the formation of the giant molecular clouds and the OB stars that outline observed grand-design spirals.

  7. Purification and characterization of a keratinase from the feather ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keratinase was purified and characterized from the solid cultures of Aspergillus flavipes using chicken feather as substrate under solid state fermentation. The enzyme was purified by about 2.67 fold compared to the crude enzyme preparation. 40-60% ammonium sulphate saturation was used followed by anion exchange ...

  8. Mercury bioaccumulation in Southern Appalachian birds, assessed through feather concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebecca Hylton Keller; Lingtian Xie; David B. Buchwalter; Kathleen E. Franzreb; Theodore R Simons

    2014-01-01

    Mercury contamination in wildlife has rarely been studied in the Southern Appalachians despite high deposition rates in the region. From 2006 to 2008 we sampled feathers from 458 birds representing 32 species in the Southern Appalachians for total mercury and stable isotope ä 15N. Mercury concentrations (mean ± SE) averaged 0.46...

  9. Repeatability of feather mite prevalence and intensity in passerine birds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Diaz-Real

    Full Text Available Understanding why host species differ so much in symbiont loads and how this depends on ecological host and symbiont traits is a major issue in the ecology of symbiosis. A first step in this inquiry is to know whether observed differences among host species are species-specific traits or more related with host-symbiont environmental conditions. Here we analysed the repeatability (R of the intensity and the prevalence of feather mites to partition within- and among-host species variance components. We compiled the largest dataset so far available: 119 Paleartic passerine bird species, 75,944 individual birds, ca. 1.8 million mites, seven countries, 23 study years. Several analyses and approaches were made to estimate R and adjusted repeatability (R(adj after controlling for potential confounding factors (breeding period, weather, habitat, spatial autocorrelation and researcher identity. The prevalence of feather mites was moderately repeatable (R = 0.26-0.53; R(adj = 0.32-0.57; smaller values were found for intensity (R = 0.19-0.30; R(adj = 0.18-0.30. These moderate repeatabilities show that prevalence and intensity of feather mites differ among species, but also that the high variation within species leads to considerable overlap among bird species. Differences in the prevalence and intensity of feather mites within bird species were small among habitats, suggesting that local factors are playing a secondary role. However, effects of local climatic conditions were partially observed for intensity.

  10. Multiple piece turbine rotor blade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimmel, Keith D.; Plank, William L.

    2016-07-19

    A spar and shell turbine rotor blade with a spar and a tip cap formed as a single piece, the spar includes a bottom end with dovetail or fir tree slots that engage with slots on a top end of a root section, and a platform includes an opening on a top surface for insertion of the spar in which a shell made from an exotic high temperature resistant material is secured between the tip cap and the platform. The spar is tapered to form thinner walls at the tip end to further reduce the weight and therefore a pulling force due to blade rotation. The spar and tip cap piece is made from a NiAL material to further reduce the weight and the pulling force.

  11. Blade-element/momentum theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jens Nørkær

    2016-01-01

    Although there exists a large variety of methods for predicting performance and loadings of wind turbines, the only approach used today by wind turbine manufacturers is based on the blade-element/momentum (BEM) theory by Glauert (Aerodynamic theory. Springer, Berlin, pp. 169-360, 1935). A basic...... assumption in the BEM theory is that the flow takes place in independent stream tubes and that the loading is determined from two-dimensional sectional airfoil characteristics....

  12. Rotor blades for turbine engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piersall, Matthew R; Potter, Brian D

    2013-02-12

    A tip shroud that includes a plurality of damping fins, each damping fin including a substantially non-radially-aligned surface that is configured to make contact with a tip shroud of a neighboring rotor blade. At least one damping fin may include a leading edge damping fin and at least one damping fin may include a trailing edge damping fin. The leading edge damping fin may be configured to correspond to the trailing edge damping fin.

  13. Allometry of the duration of flight feather molt in birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohwer, Sievert; Ricklefs, Robert E; Rohwer, Vanya G; Copple, Michelle M

    2009-06-01

    We used allometric scaling to explain why the regular replacement of the primary flight feathers requires disproportionately more time for large birds. Primary growth rate scales to mass (M) as M(0.171), whereas the summed length of the primaries scales almost twice as fast (M(0.316)). The ratio of length (mm) to rate (mm/day), which would be the time needed to replace all the primaries one by one, increases as the 0.14 power of mass (M(0.316)/M(0.171) = M(0.145)), illustrating why the time required to replace the primaries is so important to life history evolution in large birds. Smaller birds generally replace all their flight feathers annually, but larger birds that fly while renewing their primaries often extend the primary molt over two or more years. Most flying birds exhibit one of three fundamentally different modes of primary replacement, and the size distributions of birds associated with these replacement modes suggest that birds that replace their primaries in a single wave of molt cannot approach the size of the largest flying birds without first transitioning to a more complex mode of primary replacement. Finally, we propose two models that could account for the 1/6 power allometry between feather growth rate and body mass, both based on a length-to-surface relationship that transforms the linear, cylindrical growing region responsible for producing feather tissue into an essentially two-dimensional structure. These allometric relationships offer a general explanation for flight feather replacement requiring disproportionately more time for large birds.

  14. Allometry of the duration of flight feather molt in birds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sievert Rohwer

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available We used allometric scaling to explain why the regular replacement of the primary flight feathers requires disproportionately more time for large birds. Primary growth rate scales to mass (M as M(0.171, whereas the summed length of the primaries scales almost twice as fast (M(0.316. The ratio of length (mm to rate (mm/day, which would be the time needed to replace all the primaries one by one, increases as the 0.14 power of mass (M(0.316/M(0.171 = M(0.145, illustrating why the time required to replace the primaries is so important to life history evolution in large birds. Smaller birds generally replace all their flight feathers annually, but larger birds that fly while renewing their primaries often extend the primary molt over two or more years. Most flying birds exhibit one of three fundamentally different modes of primary replacement, and the size distributions of birds associated with these replacement modes suggest that birds that replace their primaries in a single wave of molt cannot approach the size of the largest flying birds without first transitioning to a more complex mode of primary replacement. Finally, we propose two models that could account for the 1/6 power allometry between feather growth rate and body mass, both based on a length-to-surface relationship that transforms the linear, cylindrical growing region responsible for producing feather tissue into an essentially two-dimensional structure. These allometric relationships offer a general explanation for flight feather replacement requiring disproportionately more time for large birds.

  15. Preparation and characterization of sponge film made from feathers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhuang, Yuan; Wu, Xiaoqian [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Cao, Zhangjun [College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Zhao, Xiaoxiang; Zhou, Meihua [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Gao, Pin, E-mail: gaopin@mail.dhu.edu.cn [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China)

    2013-12-01

    Feather wastes generated from poultry farms will pose a problem for disposal, but they are sustainable resources of keratin. Reduction is one of the commonly used methods to obtain soluble keratin from feather. However, the residues generated during feather reduction reaction were rarely investigated. In this study, the residues were transformed into a porous and flexible sponge film by freeze-drying without pretreatment or addition of cross-linking agents. Glycerol was used to alter the physical and chemical characteristics of the sponge film. The film was characterized with a fiber strong stretch instrument, a Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer, scanning electron microscopy, an elemental analyzer, a differential scanning calorimeter and an automatic air permeability apparatus. Tensile strength and melting point of the sponge film with the optimum glycerol content were 6.2 MPa and 170 °C respectively. Due to air permeability of 368 mm/s, the film can potentially be used in medicine, biology, textile, environmental technology, and so on. It is ecologically friendly and will produce additional benefits from the renewable materials. The film was utilized as adsorbents to remove Cr(VI) from aqueous solutions and as a filtering material for air pollution. Its maximum Cr(VI) uptake capacity was about 148.8 mg/g and the removal rate of PM{sub 10} was 98.3%. - Graphical abstract: The reduction residues were made into a smooth, elastic, porous and flexible sponge film through freeze drying, no pretreatment and no cross-linking agent added. - Highlights: • The residue from feather waste reduction was turned into a sponge film. • A glycerol content of 5% produced a sponge with the optimum characteristics. • The sponge was uniform, stable up to 160 °C, and had an air permeability of 368 mm/s. • Feather-derived sponge film has potential applications in medicine and technology.

  16. Wind Turbine Blade Design for Subscale Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanzadeh, Arash; Naughton, Jonathan W.; Kelley, Christopher L.; Maniaci, David C.

    2016-09-01

    Two different inverse design approaches are proposed for developing wind turbine blades for sub-scale wake testing. In the first approach, dimensionless circulation is matched for full scale and sub-scale wind turbine blades for equal shed vorticity in the wake. In the second approach, the normalized normal and tangential force distributions are matched for large scale and small scale wind turbine blades, as these forces determine the wake dynamics and stability. The two approaches are applied for the same target full scale turbine blade, and the shape of the blades are compared. The results show that the two approaches have been successfully implemented, and the designed blades are able to produce the target circulation and target normal and tangential force distributions.

  17. Why plasma harmonics?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganeev, R A [Ophthalmology and Advanced Laser Medical Center, Saitama Medical University, Saitama 350-0495 (Japan)

    2015-09-30

    We discuss the emergence of interest in the high-order harmonic generation (HHG) of ultrashort pulses propagated through laser-produced plasmas. It is shown that, during the last few years, substantial amendments of plasma HHG allowed in some cases the characteristics of gas HHG to be surpassed. The attractiveness of a new approach in coherent extreme ultraviolet radiation generation is demonstrated, which can also be used as a tool for laser-ablation-induced HHG spectroscopy of a giant class of solids. We present general ideas and prospects for this relatively new field of nonlinear optics. (review)

  18. Harmonic analysis and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Heil, Christopher

    2007-01-01

    This self-contained volume in honor of John J. Benedetto covers a wide range of topics in harmonic analysis and related areas. These include weighted-norm inequalities, frame theory, wavelet theory, time-frequency analysis, and sampling theory. The chapters are clustered by topic to provide authoritative expositions that will be of lasting interest. The original papers collected are written by prominent researchers and professionals in the field. The book pays tribute to John J. Benedetto's achievements and expresses an appreciation for the mathematical and personal inspiration he has given to

  19. HLH Rotor Blade Manufacturing Technology Development Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-09-01

    length, and weighing approximately 350 pounds, is the largest blade presently produced at Boeing Vertol. A blade of this size can still oe manually ...to check contour during core siachining. The fairings will have a trim operacion added to remove the rough edges along the skin. 142 The assembly will...through-transmission evaluation required that the root end specimen be filled -,tith water and the search unit be manipulated manually .) BLADE

  20. Lightning transient analysis in wind turbine blades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Candela Garolera, Anna; Holbøll, Joachim; Madsen, Søren Find

    2013-01-01

    The transient behavior of lightning surges in the lightning protection system of wind turbine blades has been investigated in this paper. The study is based on PSCAD models consisting of electric equivalent circuits with lumped and distributed parameters involving different lightning current...... and other internal conductive elements of the blade is studied. Finally, several methods to prevent internal arcing are discussed in order to improve the lightning protection of the blade....

  1. Interpopulation variation in contour feather structure is environmentally determined in great tits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broggi, Juli; Gamero, Anna; Hohtola, Esa; Orell, Markku; Nilsson, Jan-Åke

    2011-01-01

    The plumage of birds is important for flying, insulation and social communication. Contour feathers cover most of the avian body and among other functions they provide a critical insulation layer against heat loss. Feather structure and composition are known to vary among individuals, which in turn determines variation in the insulation properties of the feather. However, the extent and the proximate mechanisms underlying this variation remain unexplored. We analyzed contour feather structure from two different great tit populations adapted to different winter regimes, one northern population in Oulu (Finland) and one southern population in Lund (Sweden). Great tits from the two populations differed significantly in feather structure. Birds from the northern population had a denser plumage but consisting of shorter feathers with a smaller proportion containing plumulaceous barbs, compared with conspecifics from the southern population. However, differences disappeared when birds originating from the two populations were raised and moulted in identical conditions in a common-garden experiment located in Oulu, under ad libitum nutritional conditions. All birds raised in the aviaries, including adult foster parents moulting in the same captive conditions, developed a similar feather structure. These feathers were different from that of wild birds in Oulu but similar to wild birds in Lund, the latter moulting in more benign conditions than those of Oulu. Wild populations exposed to different conditions develop contour feather differences either due to plastic responses or constraints. Environmental conditions, such as nutrient availability during feather growth play a crucial role in determining such differences in plumage structure among populations.

  2. Bristles before down: a new perspective on the functional origin of feathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persons, Walter S; Currie, Philip J

    2015-04-01

    Over the course of the last two decades, the understanding of the early evolution of feathers in nonavian dinosaurs has been revolutionized. It is now recognized that early feathers had a simple form comparable in general structure to the hairs of mammals. Insight into the prevalence of simple feathers throughout the dinosaur family tree has gradually arisen in tandem with the growing evidence for endothermic dinosaur metabolisms. This has led to the generally accepted opinion that the early feather coats of dinosaurs functioned as thermo insulation. However, thermo insulation is often erroneously stated to be a likely functional explanation for the origin of feathers. The problem with this explanation is that, like mammalian hair, simple feathers could serve as insulation only when present in sufficiently high concentrations. The theory therefore necessitates the origination of feathers en masse. We advocate for a novel origin theory of feathers as bristles. Bristles are facial feathers common among modern birds that function like mammalian tactile whiskers, and are frequently simple and hair-like in form. Bristles serve their role in low concentrations, and therefore offer a feasible first stage in feather evolution. © 2015 The Author(s).

  3. Isolation, Identification, and Characterization of a Feather-Degrading Bacterium †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, C. M.; Richter, C. S.; MacKenzie, J. M.; Shih, Jason C. H.

    1990-01-01

    A feather-degrading culture was enriched with isolates from a poultry waste digestor and adapted to grow with feathers as its primary source of carbon, sulfur, and energy. Subsequently, a feather-hydrolytic, endospore-forming, motile, rod-shaped bacterium was isolated from the feather-degrading culture. The organism was Gram stain variable and catalase positive and demonstrated facultative growth at thermophilic temperatures. The optimum rate of growth in nutrient broth occurred at 45 to 50°C and at pH 7.5. Electron microscopy of the isolate showed internal crystals. The microorganism was identified as Bacillus licheniformis PWD-1. Growth on hammer-milled-feather medium of various substrate concentrations was determined by plate colony count. Maximum growth (approximately 109 cells per ml) at 50°C occurred 5 days postinoculation on 1% feather substrate. Feather hydrolysis was evidenced as free amino acids produced in the medium. The most efficient conditions for feather fermentation occurred during the incubation of 1 part feathers to 2 parts B. licheniformis PWD-1 culture (107 cells per ml) for 6 days at 50°C. These data indicate a potential biotechnique for degradation and utilization of feather keratin. Images PMID:16348199

  4. The morphology of neoptile feathers: ancestral state reconstruction and its phylogenetic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foth, Christian

    2011-04-01

    Avian neoptile feathers are defined as the first feather generation, which covers the chick after hatching, and usually described as simple structures consisting of numerous downy barbs which are radially symmetrically arranged and come together in a short calamus. In contrast, in some birds (e.g., Anas platyrhynchos, Dromaius novaehollandiae) the neoptile feathers have a prominent rhachis, and therefore display clear bilateral symmetry. Because the symmetrical variety found in neoptile feathers is poorly understood, their morphology was studied in a more comprehensive and phylogenetic approach. Neoptile body feathers from over 22 bird species were investigated using light microscopy, SEM, and MicroCT. Characters such as an anterior-posterior axis, a central rhachis, medullary cells, and structure of the calamus wall were defined and mapped onto recent phylogenetic hypotheses for extant birds. It can be shown that bilaterally symmetric neoptile feathers (with a solid calamus wall) were already present in the stem lineage of crown-group birds (Neornithes). In contrast, simple radially symmetric neoptile feathers (with a fragile calamus wall) are an apomorphic character complex for the clade Neoaves. The simple morphology of this feather type may be the result of a reduced period of development during embryogenesis. To date, embryogenesis of neoptile feathers from only a few bird species was used as a model to reconstruct feather evolution. Because this study shows that the morphology of neoptile feathers is more diverse and even shows a clear phylogenetic signal, it is necessary to expand the spectrum of "model organisms" to species with bilaterally symmetric neoptile feathers and compare differences in the frequency of feather development from a phylogenetic point of view. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Wind turbine blade testing under combined loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roczek-Sieradzan, Agnieszka; Nielsen, Magda; Branner, Kim

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents full-scale blade tests under a combined flap- and edgewise loading. The main aim of this paper is to present the results from testing a wind turbine blade under such conditions and to study the structural behavior of the blade subjected to combined loading. A loading method using...... anchor plates was applied, allowing transverse shear distortion. The global and local deformation of the blade as well as the reproducibility of the test was studied and the results from the investigations are presented....

  6. Structural Testing of the Blade Reliability Collaborative Effect of Defect Wind Turbine Blades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desmond, M. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hughes, S. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Paquette, J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-06-08

    Two 8.3-meter (m) wind turbine blades intentionally constructed with manufacturing flaws were tested to failure at the National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) south of Boulder, Colorado. Two blades were tested; one blade was manufactured with a fiberglass spar cap and the second blade was manufactured with a carbon fiber spar cap. Test loading primarily consisted of flap fatigue loading of the blades, with one quasi-static ultimate load case applied to the carbon fiber spar cap blade. Results of the test program were intended to provide the full-scale test data needed for validation of model and coupon test results of the effect of defects in wind turbine blade composite materials. Testing was part of the Blade Reliability Collaborative (BRC) led by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). The BRC seeks to develop a deeper understanding of the causes of unexpected blade failures (Paquette 2012), and to develop methods to enable blades to survive to their expected operational lifetime. Recent work in the BRC includes examining and characterizing flaws and defects known to exist in wind turbine blades from manufacturing processes (Riddle et al. 2011). Recent results from reliability databases show that wind turbine rotor blades continue to be a leading contributor to turbine downtime (Paquette 2012).

  7. Experimental Blade Research - phase 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eder, Martin Alexander; Branner, Kim; Berring, Peter

    This report is a summary of the results obtained in the project: Experimental Blade Research – phase 2 (EBR2). The project was supported by the Danish Energy Authority through the 2010 Energy Technology Development and Demonstration Program (EUDP 2010-II) and has journal no. 64011-0006. The project...... has been running from spring 2011 to the end of 2014. Being a summary report, this report only contains a collection of the research topics and the major results. For more details, see the publications listed at the end of this report....

  8. On the similarity of the Coleman and Lyapunov-Floquet transformations for modal analysis of bladed rotor structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjoldan, P.F.; Hansen, Morten Hartvig

    2009-01-01

    Structures with isotropic bladed rotors can be modally analyzed by eigenvalue analysis of time-invariant Coleman transformed equations of motion related to the inertial frame or by Floquet analysis of the periodic equations of motion. The Coleman transformation is here shown to be a special case...... of the Lyapunov–Floquet (L–F) transformation which transforms system equations of structures with anisotropic bladed rotors into a time-invariant system using the transition matrix and Floquet eigenvectors as a basis. The L–F transformation is not unique, whereby eigensolutions of the time-invariant system...... the Floquet analysis yields a periodic mode shape that contains harmonics of integer multiples of the rotor speed for inertial state variables. These harmonic components show up as resonance frequencies on the sides of the corresponding modal frequency in a computed frequency response function of a simple...

  9. Health State Monitoring of Bladed Machinery with Crack Growth Detection in BFG Power Plant Using an Active Frequency Shift Spectral Correction Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Weifang; Yao, Bin; He, Yuchao; Chen, Binqiang; Zeng, Nianyin; He, Wangpeng

    2017-08-09

    Power generation using waste-gas is an effective and green way to reduce the emission of the harmful blast furnace gas (BFG) in pig-iron producing industry. Condition monitoring of mechanical structures in the BFG power plant is of vital importance to guarantee their safety and efficient operations. In this paper, we describe the detection of crack growth of bladed machinery in the BFG power plant via vibration measurement combined with an enhanced spectral correction technique. This technique enables high-precision identification of amplitude, frequency, and phase information (the harmonic information) belonging to deterministic harmonic components within the vibration signals. Rather than deriving all harmonic information using neighboring spectral bins in the fast Fourier transform spectrum, this proposed active frequency shift spectral correction method makes use of some interpolated Fourier spectral bins and has a better noise-resisting capacity. We demonstrate that the identified harmonic information via the proposed method is of suppressed numerical error when the same level of noises is presented in the vibration signal, even in comparison with a Hanning-window-based correction method. With the proposed method, we investigated vibration signals collected from a centrifugal compressor. Spectral information of harmonic tones, related to the fundamental working frequency of the centrifugal compressor, is corrected. The extracted spectral information indicates the ongoing development of an impeller blade crack that occurred in the centrifugal compressor. This method proves to be a promising alternative to identify blade cracks at early stages.

  10. Health State Monitoring of Bladed Machinery with Crack Growth Detection in BFG Power Plant Using an Active Frequency Shift Spectral Correction Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weifang Sun

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Power generation using waste-gas is an effective and green way to reduce the emission of the harmful blast furnace gas (BFG in pig-iron producing industry. Condition monitoring of mechanical structures in the BFG power plant is of vital importance to guarantee their safety and efficient operations. In this paper, we describe the detection of crack growth of bladed machinery in the BFG power plant via vibration measurement combined with an enhanced spectral correction technique. This technique enables high-precision identification of amplitude, frequency, and phase information (the harmonic information belonging to deterministic harmonic components within the vibration signals. Rather than deriving all harmonic information using neighboring spectral bins in the fast Fourier transform spectrum, this proposed active frequency shift spectral correction method makes use of some interpolated Fourier spectral bins and has a better noise-resisting capacity. We demonstrate that the identified harmonic information via the proposed method is of suppressed numerical error when the same level of noises is presented in the vibration signal, even in comparison with a Hanning-window-based correction method. With the proposed method, we investigated vibration signals collected from a centrifugal compressor. Spectral information of harmonic tones, related to the fundamental working frequency of the centrifugal compressor, is corrected. The extracted spectral information indicates the ongoing development of an impeller blade crack that occurred in the centrifugal compressor. This method proves to be a promising alternative to identify blade cracks at early stages.

  11. Tiltrotor Vibration Reduction Through Higher Harmonic Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, Mark W.; Kvaternik, Raymond G.; Settle, T. Ben

    1997-01-01

    The results of a joint NASA/Army/Bell Helicopter Textron wind-tunnel test to assess the potential of higher harmonic control (HHC) for reducing vibrations in tiltrotor aircraft operating in the airplane mode of flight, and to evaluate the effectiveness of a Bell-developed HHC algorithm called MAVSS (Multipoint Adaptive Vibration Suppression System) are presented. The test was conducted in the Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel using an unpowered 1/5-scale semispan aeroelastic model of the V-22 which was modified to incorporate an HHC system employing both the rotor swashplate and the wing flaperon. The effectiveness of the swashplate and the flaperon acting either singly or in combination in reducing IP and 3P wing vibrations over a wide range of tunnel airspeeds and rotor rotational speeds was demonstrated. The MAVSS algorithm was found to be robust to variations in tunnel airspeed and rotor speed, requiring only occasional on-line recalculations of the system transfer matrix. HHC had only a small (usually beneficial) effect on blade loads but increased pitch link loads by 25%. No degradation in aeroelastic stability was noted for any of the conditions tested.

  12. Harmonic Balance Computations of Fan Aeroelastic Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhle, Milind A.; Reddy, T. S. R.

    2010-01-01

    A harmonic balance (HB) aeroelastic analysis, which has been recently developed, was used to determine the aeroelastic stability (flutter) characteristics of an experimental fan. To assess the numerical accuracy of this HB aeroelastic analysis, a time-domain aeroelastic analysis was also used to determine the aeroelastic stability characteristics of the same fan. Both of these three-dimensional analysis codes model the unsteady flowfield due to blade vibrations using the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations. In the HB analysis, the unsteady flow equations are converted to a HB form and solved using a pseudo-time marching method. In the time-domain analysis, the unsteady flow equations are solved using an implicit time-marching approach. Steady and unsteady computations for two vibration modes were carried out at two rotational speeds: 100 percent (design) and 70 percent (part-speed). The steady and unsteady results obtained from the two analysis methods compare well, thus verifying the recently developed HB aeroelastic analysis. Based on the results, the experimental fan was found to have no aeroelastic instability (flutter) at the conditions examined in this study.

  13. Both feather peckers and victims are more asymmetrical than control hens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Machado Tahamtani, Fernanda; Forkman, Björn; Hinrichsen, Lena Karina

    2017-01-01

    Feather pecking is the major welfare issue facing the egg farming industry worldwide. Previous research has found a relationship between cannibalistic behaviour, fluctuating asymmetry of bilateral traits (FA) and body weight in laying hens. As cannibalism is linked to severe feather pecking......, it could be suggested that a relationship between feather pecking, FA and body weight also exists. The purpose of this study was to analyse the association between feather pecking behaviour and a) FA, b) body weight and c) comb size in laying hens. Sixty-four laying hens were categorised as feather peckers......, victims or control hens based on weekly performance of feather pecking behaviour from age 0–23 weeks and plumage condition at age 23 weeks. After culling at 23 weeks of age, the lengths of ulna, tarsus and middle toe as well as the widths of tarsus and hock were measured twice in each side. Each trait...

  14. Both feather preckers and victims are more asymmetrical than control hens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tahamtani, Fernanda M; Forkman, Björn; Hinrichsen, Lena Karina

    2017-01-01

    Feather pecking is the major welfare issue facing the egg farming industry worldwide. Previous research has found a relationship between cannibalistic behaviour, fluctuating asymmetry of bilateral traits (FA) and body weight in laying hens. As cannibalism is linked to severe feather pecking......, it could be suggested that a relationship between feather pecking, FA and body weight also exists. The purpose of this study was to analyse the association between feather pecking behaviour and a) FA, b) body weight and c) comb size in laying hens. Sixty-four laying hens were categorised as feather peckers......, victims or control hens based on weekly performance of feather pecking behaviour from age 0–23 weeks and plumage condition at age 23 weeks. After culling at 23 weeks of age, the lengths of ulna, tarsus and middle toe as well as the widths of tarsus and hock were measured twice in each side. Each trait...

  15. A biotechnological process for treatment and recycling poultry feathers as a feed ingredient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertsch, A; Coello, N

    2005-10-01

    A strain of Kocuria rosea with keratinolytic capacity was cultured aerobically on submerged feathers to obtain a fermented feather meal (FFM). This FFM enriched with cells of K. rosea mainly contains crude protein (71%). The pepsin digestibility of the fermented product (88%) was similar to the value of the commercial feather meal and more than 70% greater that untreated feathers. The bacterial biomass improved the content of amino acids lysine (3.46%), histidine (0.94%) and methionine (0.69%). Additionally, the amino acid availability tested by in vivo assay was greater than commercial feather meal. The microbial cells also supplied carotenoid pigments to FFM (68 ppm). These results suggest that feather meal enriched with K. rosea may be useful in animal feeding as protein and pigment source.

  16. Fabrication of hierarchical feather-mimetic polymer nanofibres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Shenshen; Wang, Tao; Zhong, Longgang; Peng, Meiling; Yao, Juming; Wang, Sheng

    2018-01-01

    In this study, hierarchically feather-mimetic structures formed of poly(m-phenylene isophthalamide) (PMIA) nanofibres were prepared by electrospinning and subsequent crystallisation for superwettability applications. X-ray diffraction measurementsand scanning electron microscopy show that a feather-mimetic structure of crystallised nanoflakes was formed following a hydrothermal treatment process. The nanoflakes formed a nanosized fine texture on top of a coarser-textured membrane, which greatly improved the membrane roughness and yielded a hierarchical topography. After fluorination, the membrane exhibited superamphiphobicity, with surface contact angles of 151° and 136° for water and hexadecane, respectively. The method provides new insight for the design and development of functional bionic membranes based on PMIA.

  17. Harmonic Series Meets Fibonacci Sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hongwei; Kennedy, Chris

    2012-01-01

    The terms of a conditionally convergent series may be rearranged to converge to any prescribed real value. What if the harmonic series is grouped into Fibonacci length blocks? Or the harmonic series is arranged in alternating Fibonacci length blocks? Or rearranged and alternated into separate blocks of even and odd terms of Fibonacci length?

  18. The Cardiff paediatric laryngoscope blade: a comparison with the Miller size 1 and Macintosh size 2 laryngoscope blades

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    R. M. Jones; P. L. Jones; C. D. Gildersleve; J. E. Hall; L. J. E. Harding; M. S. Chawathe

    2004-01-01

    .... This open, randomised, crossover study compared the Cardiff blade with the straight, size 1, Miller laryngoscope blade in 39 infants under 1 years of age and the curved, size 2, Macintosh blade in 39...

  19. Replacement Value of Feather Meal for Fishmeal on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two hundred and fifty (250) Light Sussex cockerels were used in a 56 days feeding trial on a deep litter house to assess the effect of replacement of feather meal (FEM) for fishmeal (FM) on their performance. Five replacement levels 0, 2.5, 5 7.5 and 10% of FEM were used for the treatments, (1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 respectively) ...

  20. FeatherSail--Design, Development and Future Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhorn, Dean C.; Scheierl, John M.

    2010-01-01

    This CD contains the slide presentation and a brief video of the solar sail concept. Solar Sailing is a method of space flight propulsion, which utilizes the light photons to propel spacecrafts through the vacuum of space. The goal of the FeatherSail project is to create a sail vehicle with the ability to provide steering from the sails and increase the areal density.

  1. Coevolution of caudal skeleton and tail feathers in birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felice, Ryan N

    2014-12-01

    Birds are capable of a wide range of aerial locomotor behaviors in part because of the derived structure and function of the avian tail. The tail apparatus consists of a several mobile (free) caudal vertebrae, a terminal skeletal element (the pygostyle), and an articulated fan of tail feathers that may be spread or folded, as well as muscular and fibroadipose structures that facilitate tail movements. Morphological variation in both the tail fan and the caudal skeleton that supports it are well documented. The structure of the tail feathers and the pygostyle each evolve in response to functional demands of differing locomotor behaviors. Here, I test whether the integument and skeleton coevolve in this important locomotor module. I quantified feather and skeletal morphology in a diverse sample of waterbirds and shorebirds using a combination of linear and geometric morphometrics. Covariation between tail fan shape and skeletal morphology was then tested using phylogenetic comparative methods. Pygostyle shape is found to be a good predictor of tail fan shape (e.g., forked, graduated), supporting the hypothesis that the tail fan and the tail skeleton have coevolved. This statistical relationship is used to reconstruct feather morphology in an exemplar fossil waterbird, Limnofregata azygosternon. Based on pygostyle morphology, this taxon is likely to have exhibited a forked tail fan similar to that of its extant sister clade Fregata, despite differing in inferred ecology and other aspects of skeletal anatomy. These methods may be useful in reconstructing rectricial morphology in other extinct birds and thus assist in characterizing the evolution of flight control surfaces in birds. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Seagull feather shaft: Correlation between structure and mechanical response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bin; Meyers, Marc André

    2017-01-15

    Flight feathers are unique among a variety of keratinous appendages in that they are lightweight, stiff and strong. They are designed to withstand aerodynamic forces, but their morphology and structure have been oversimplified and thus understudied historically. Here we present an investigation of the shaft from seagull primary feathers, elucidate the hierarchical fibrous and porous structure along the shaft length, and correlate the tensile and nanomechanical properties to the fiber orientation. An analysis of the compressive behavior of the rachis based on a square-section model shows a good fit with experimental results, and demonstrates the synergy between the cortex and medulla. Flexural properties of the shaft along the shaft length, analyzed as a sandwich composite, reveal that although all flexural parameters decrease towards the distal shaft, the specific equivalent flexural modulus and strength increase by factors of 2 and 3, respectively. The failure mode in flexure for all specimens is buckling on the compressive surface, whereas the foamy medulla prevents destructive axial cracking and introduces important toughening mechanisms: crack deflection, fiber bridging, and microcracking. Using mechanics principles, we analyze the feather shaft as a composite beam and demonstrate that the flexural strength is extraordinary, considering its weight and tailored along the length. The cross section changes from circular in the proximal base to square/rectangular in the distal end. We also discovered that the composite design, a solid shell enclosing a foam core, produces synergistic strengthening and toughening to the feather at a minimum of weight. Copyright © 2016 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Repeatability of Feather Mite Prevalence and Intensity in Passerine Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Real, Javier; Serrano, David; Pérez-Tris, Javier; Fernández-González, Sofía; Bermejo, Ana; Calleja, Juan A.; De la Puente, Javier; De Palacio, Diana; Martínez, José L.; Moreno-Opo, Rubén; Ponce, Carlos; Frías, Óscar; Tella, José L.; Møller, Anders P.; Figuerola, Jordi; Pap, Péter L.; Kovács, István; Vágási, Csongor I.; Meléndez, Leandro; Blanco, Guillermo; Aguilera, Eduardo; Senar, Juan Carlos; Galván, Ismael; Atiénzar, Francisco; Barba, Emilio; Cantó, José L.; Cortés, Verónica; Monrós, Juan S.; Piculo, Rubén; Vögeli, Matthias; Borràs, Antoni; Navarro, Carlos; Mestre, Alexandre; Jovani, Roger

    2014-01-01

    Understanding why host species differ so much in symbiont loads and how this depends on ecological host and symbiont traits is a major issue in the ecology of symbiosis. A first step in this inquiry is to know whether observed differences among host species are species-specific traits or more related with host-symbiont environmental conditions. Here we analysed the repeatability (R) of the intensity and the prevalence of feather mites to partition within- and among-host species variance components. We compiled the largest dataset so far available: 119 Paleartic passerine bird species, 75,944 individual birds, ca. 1.8 million mites, seven countries, 23 study years. Several analyses and approaches were made to estimate R and adjusted repeatability (Radj) after controlling for potential confounding factors (breeding period, weather, habitat, spatial autocorrelation and researcher identity). The prevalence of feather mites was moderately repeatable (R = 0.26–0.53; Radj = 0.32–0.57); smaller values were found for intensity (R = 0.19–0.30; Radj = 0.18–0.30). These moderate repeatabilities show that prevalence and intensity of feather mites differ among species, but also that the high variation within species leads to considerable overlap among bird species. Differences in the prevalence and intensity of feather mites within bird species were small among habitats, suggesting that local factors are playing a secondary role. However, effects of local climatic conditions were partially observed for intensity. PMID:25216248

  4. Grafting of Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes with Chicken Feather Keratin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoxkin Estévez-Martínez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Keratin, obtained from chicken feathers, was grafted on the surface of commercially available carbon nanotubes. The original procedure developed allows a covalent interaction between some specific chemical groups characteristic of the keratin, with some functional groups introduced on purpose on the surface of the nanotubes, as revealed by infrared and Raman spectroscopies, which also allowed to determine structural changes introduced during the process, such as crystallinity, which lead to changes in other properties, as well.

  5. Poultry feather wastes recycling possibility as soil nutrient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Mézes

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Poultry feathers are produced in large amounts as a waste in poultry slaughterhouses. Only 60-70% of the poultry slaughterhouse products are edible for human being. This means more million tons annually worldwide (Papadopoulus et al., 1986; Williams et al., 1991; Hegedűs et al., 1998. The keratin-content of feather can be difficulty digested, so physical, chemical and/or biological pre-treatment are needed in practice, which have to be set according to the utilization method. Feather was enzymatic degraded, and then fermented in separated bioreactors. The anaerobic bioreactor system (4 digesters with 6 litre volume was controlled by ACE SCADA software running on Linux platforms. Pot scale seed germination tests were established to suggest the quantity of digested slurry to be utilized. The chosen test plants were lettuce (Lactuca sativa. In case of reproduction test Student’s t-test was applied to examine significant differences between the root lengths of the control and the treated plant species. In case of pot seed germination variance analysis with Tukey B’s and Duncan test was applied to examine significant differences between the root lengths of plants, grown on different treatments. The effect of treatments on germination ability of the plant species was expressed in the percentage of the controls. According to Student’s t-test significant difference was found between root lengths of different treatments. Based on variance analysis with Tukey B’s and Duncan tests could be detected a significant difference between the treatments. Utilization of the fermented material reduces the use of fertilizers and because of its large moisture content it reduces the watering costs. Recycle of the slaughterhouse feather and different agricultural wastes and by-products can solve three main problems: disposal of harmful materials, producing of renewable energy and soil nutrient, measuring reflectance at the certain spectral range, which can

  6. Improved keratinase production for feather degradation by Bacillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... to optimize concentrations of glucose, corn steep flour and K2HPO4 for further improvement of keratinase productivity showed that the optimal medium was composed of glucose (20 g/l), corn steep flour (7.5 g/l), K2HPO4 (1 g/l) and feather (20 g/l). The result of submerged batch cultivation of B. licheniformis ZJUEL31410 ...

  7. Robust control for variable-speed two-bladed horizontal-axis wind turbines via chattering control

    OpenAIRE

    Acho Zuppa, Leonardo; Vidal Seguí, Yolanda; Pozo Montero, Francesc

    2009-01-01

    A robust controller with chattering is proposed for variable speed control of a two-bladed horizontal axis wind turbine similar to the DOE MOD-0 model. The chattering term provides robustness against un-modeled non-linearities. To validate the performance of the proposed controller, a dynamic wind model has also been developed. This model is based on using an harmonic oscillator with an additive white noise to capture some stochastic behavior of the wind perturbation.

  8. Sulfitolytic and keratinolytic potential of Chryseobacterium sp. RBT revealed hydrolysis of melanin containing feathers

    OpenAIRE

    Gurav, Ranjit G.; Tang, Jingchun; Jadhav, Jyoti P.

    2016-01-01

    In black feathers, melanin is embedded in keratin matrix that makes feather more resistance to the microbial degradation. Chryseobacterium sp. RBT previously isolated from the poultry waste disposable site revealed strong sulfitolytic and keratinolytic activities. Maximum keratinase activity was observed at 48?h (89.12?U?ml?1) showed 83?% of native black feather degradation. The concentration of free sulfhydryl groups released during degradation was 0.648???10?4?M?(12?h), 2.144???10?4?M?(96?h...

  9. Massachusetts Large Blade Test Facility Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahul Yarala; Rob Priore

    2011-09-02

    Project Objective: The Massachusetts Clean Energy Center (CEC) will design, construct, and ultimately have responsibility for the operation of the Large Wind Turbine Blade Test Facility, which is an advanced blade testing facility capable of testing wind turbine blades up to at least 90 meters in length on three test stands. Background: Wind turbine blade testing is required to meet international design standards, and is a critical factor in maintaining high levels of reliability and mitigating the technical and financial risk of deploying massproduced wind turbine models. Testing is also needed to identify specific blade design issues that may contribute to reduced wind turbine reliability and performance. Testing is also required to optimize aerodynamics, structural performance, encourage new technologies and materials development making wind even more competitive. The objective of this project is to accelerate the design and construction of a large wind blade testing facility capable of testing blades with minimum queue times at a reasonable cost. This testing facility will encourage and provide the opportunity for the U.S wind industry to conduct more rigorous testing of blades to improve wind turbine reliability.

  10. Discussion paper on managing composite blade waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skelton, Kristen

    recyclable and treated accordingly. Nevertheless, wind turbine blades represent a challenge due to the materials used and their complex composition. The objective of this research note is to provide an overview of the different methods used for sectioning and recycling wind turbine blades as well...

  11. Design Procedure of 4-Bladed Propeller

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. O. E. OSUAGWU

    2013-09-01

    Sep 1, 2013 ... from the beginning to the end. Thus, this work used the Bp standard chart using the optimum design line to carry out the design analysis of propellers for a ship with a detailed calculation of the various stages involved ..... To estimate the weight of all blades and the polar moment of inertia of a blade, the ...

  12. Hinged-Blade, Vertical-Shaft Windmill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shultz, B., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Vertical-shaft windmill concept calls for hinged, flapping blades to increase energy-conversion efficiency by reducing wind-energy loss. Hinged Blade Halves unfold to catch wind when moving with it, then fold away from wind when moving against it.

  13. Flutter of Darrieus wind turbine blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, N. D.

    1978-01-01

    The testing of Darrieus wind turbines has indicated that under certain conditions, serious vibrations of the blades can occur, involving flatwise bending, torsion, and chordwise bending. A theoretical method of predicting the aeroelastic stability of the coupled bending and torsional motion of such blades with a view to determining the cause of these vibrations, and a means of suppressing them was developed.

  14. The Topobiology of Chemical Elements in Seabird Feathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    R Howell, Nicholas; Lavers, Jennifer L; Uematsu, Sayaka; Paterson, David; Howard, Daryl L; Spiers, Kathryn; Jonge, Martin D de; Hanley, Tracey; Garrett, Richard; Banati, Richard B

    2017-05-17

    The highly organized morphogenesis of bird feathers holds important phylo- and ontogenetic information on the evolution of birds, organogenesis, tissue regeneration, and the health status of individual animals. Altered topobiological patterns are regularly used as retrospective evidence for disturbed developmental trajectories due to the past exposure to environmental stressors. Using the most advanced high-resolution (5-70 µm) X-ray fluorescence microscopy (XFM), we describe in the feathers from three species of Procellariiformes hitherto unknown, depositions of elements (Zn, Ca, Br, Cu, Fe) that are independent of pigmentation or any underlying variation in density or polymer structure. In the case of Zn, the pattern across several species of Procellariiformes, but not other species, consisted of highly regular bands of Zn numbering 30-32, which may reflect the estimated number of days of active feather growth or the duration of the moult period. Thus, speculatively, the highly consistent Zn pattern might be the result of a so far unknown diurnal systemic regulation rather than local heterogeneity amongst the follicular stem cells.

  15. Shrimp pond wastewater treatment using pyrolyzed chicken feather as adsorbent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Wei Chek; Jbara, Mohamad Hasan; Palaniandy, Puganeshwary; Yusoff, Mohd Suffian

    2017-10-01

    In this study, chicken feather fiber was used as a raw material to prepare a non-expensive adsorbent by pyrolysis without chemical activation. The main pollutants treated in this study were chemical oxygen demand (COD) and ammoniacal nitrogen (NH3-N) from shrimp pond wastewater containing high concentrations of nutrients, which caused the eutrophication phenomenon in adjacent water. Batch adsorption studies were performed to investigate the effect of pH (5-8), mass of adsorbent (0.5-3 g), and shaking time (0.5-2 h) on the removal efficiency of COD and NH3- N. Experimental results showed that the optimum conditions were as follows: pH 5, 0.5 g of adsorbent, and 0.5 h of shaking. Under these conditions, 34.01% and 40.47% of COD and NH3-N were removed, respectively, from shrimp pond wastewater. The adsorption processes were best described by the Langmuir isotherm model for COD and NH3-N removal, with maximum monolayer adsorption capacity of 36.9 and 7.24 mg/g for COD and NH3-N, respectively. The results proved that chicken feather could remove COD and NH3-N from shrimp pond wastewater. However, further studies on thermal treatment should be carried out to increase the removal efficiency of pyrolyzed chicken feather fiber.

  16. Fully Biodegradable Biocomposites with High Chicken Feather Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibon Aranberri

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to develop new biodegradable polymeric materials with high loadings of chicken feather (CF. In this study, the effect of CF concentration and the type of biodegradable matrix on the physical, mechanical and thermal properties of the biocomposites was investigated. The selected biopolymers were polylactic acid (PLA, polybutyrate adipate terephthalate (PBAT and a PLA/thermoplastic copolyester blend. The studied biocomposites were manufactured with a torque rheometer having a CF content of 50 and 60 wt %. Due to the low tensile strength of CFs, the resulting materials were penalized in terms of mechanical properties. However, high-loading CF biocomposites resulted in lightweight and thermal-insulating materials when compared with neat bioplastics. Additionally, the adhesion between CFs and the PLA matrix was also investigated and a significant improvement of the wettability of the feathers was obtained with the alkali treatment of the CFs and the addition of a plasticizer like polyethylene glycol (PEG. Considering all the properties, these 100% fully biodegradable biocomposites could be adequate for panel components, flooring or building materials as an alternative to wood–plastic composites, contributing to the valorisation of chicken feather waste as a renewable material.

  17. Bionic Research on Bird Feather for Drag Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beibei Feng

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available To reduce friction drag with bionic method in a more feasible way, the surface microstructure of bird feather was analyzed attempting to reveal the biologic features responding to skin friction drag reduction. Then comparative bionic surface mimicking bird feather was fabricated through hot-rolling technology for drag reduction. The microriblet film was formed on a PVC substrate through a self-developed hot-rolling equipment. The bionic surface with micron-scale riblets formed spontaneously due to the elastic-plastic deformation of PVC in high temperature and high pressure environment. Comparative experiments between micro-structured bionic surface and smooth surface were performed in a wind tunnel to evaluate the effect of bionic surface on drag reduction, and significant drag reduction efficiency was obtained. Numerical simulation results show that microvortex induced in the solid-gas interface of bionic surface has the effect of shear stress reduction and the small level of an additional pressure drag resulting from pressure distribution deviation on bird feather like surface, hence reducing the skin friction drag significantly. Therefore, with remarkable drag reduction performance and simple fabrication technology, the proposed drag reduction technique shows the promise for practical applications.

  18. Melanosome evolution indicates a key physiological shift within feathered dinosaurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Quanguo; Clarke, Julia A; Gao, Ke-Qin; Zhou, Chang-Fu; Meng, Qingjin; Li, Daliang; D'Alba, Liliana; Shawkey, Matthew D

    2014-03-20

    Inference of colour patterning in extinct dinosaurs has been based on the relationship between the morphology of melanin-containing organelles (melanosomes) and colour in extant bird feathers. When this relationship evolved relative to the origin of feathers and other novel integumentary structures, such as hair and filamentous body covering in extinct archosaurs, has not been evaluated. Here we sample melanosomes from the integument of 181 extant amniote taxa and 13 lizard, turtle, dinosaur and pterosaur fossils from the Upper-Jurassic and Lower-Cretaceous of China. We find that in the lineage leading to birds, the observed increase in the diversity of melanosome morphologies appears abruptly, near the origin of pinnate feathers in maniraptoran dinosaurs. Similarly, mammals show an increased diversity of melanosome form compared to all ectothermic amniotes. In these two clades, mammals and maniraptoran dinosaurs including birds, melanosome form and colour are linked and colour reconstruction may be possible. By contrast, melanosomes in lizard, turtle and crocodilian skin, as well as the archosaurian filamentous body coverings (dinosaur 'protofeathers' and pterosaur 'pycnofibres'), show a limited diversity of form that is uncorrelated with colour in extant taxa. These patterns may be explained by convergent changes in the key melanocortin system of mammals and birds, which is known to affect pleiotropically both melanin-based colouration and energetic processes such as metabolic rate in vertebrates, and may therefore support a significant physiological shift in maniraptoran dinosaurs.

  19. Kinetic study of sulphuric acid hydrolysis of protein feathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Hamad Bouhamed, Sana; Kechaou, Nabil

    2017-05-01

    Poultry feather keratin is the most important by-product from the poultry industry due to its abundance. Different methods have been still applied to process this by-product such as enzymatic hydrolysis which is expensive and inapplicable at the industrial level. This paper presents a study of acid hydrolysis of poultry feathers using different types of acids, sulphuric acid concentration, different temperatures and solid to liquid ratio to obtain a liquid product rich in peptides. The feathers analysis revealed a crude protein content of 88.83%. A maximum peptides production of 676 mg/g was reached using sulphuric acid, 1 molar acid concentration and 50 g/l solid to liquid ratio at a temperature of 90 °C after 300 min. A reaction scheme for protein aggregation and decomposition to polypeptides and amino acids was proposed and a kinetic model for peptides production was developed. The proposed kinetic model proved to be well adapted to the experimental data with R (2) = 0.99.

  20. Wave-induced dynamics of flexible blades

    CERN Document Server

    Luhar, M

    2015-01-01

    We present an experimental and numerical study that describes the motion of flexible blades, scaled to be dynamically similar to natural aquatic vegetation, forced by wave-induced oscillatory flows. For the conditions tested, blade motion is governed primarily by two dimensionless variables: (i) the Cauchy number, $Ca$, which represents the ratio of the hydrodynamic forcing to the restoring force due to blade stiffness, and (ii) the ratio of the blade length to the wave orbital excursion, $L$. For flexible blades with $Ca \\gg 1$, the relationship between drag and velocity can be described by two different scaling laws at the large- and small-excursion limits. For large excursions ($L \\ll 1$), the flow resembles a unidirectional current and the scaling laws developed for steady-flow reconfiguration studies hold. For small excursions ($L \\gg 1$), the beam equations may be linearized and a different scaling law for drag applies. The experimental force measurements suggest that the small-excursion scaling applies...

  1. Advanced Blade Manufacturing Project - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    POORE, ROBERT Z.

    1999-08-01

    The original scope of the project was to research improvements to the processes and materials used in the manufacture of wood-epoxy blades, conduct tests to qualify any new material or processes for use in blade design and subsequently build and test six blades using the improved processes and materials. In particular, ABM was interested in reducing blade cost and improving quality. In addition, ABM needed to find a replacement material for the mature Douglas fir used in the manufacturing process. The use of mature Douglas fir is commercially unacceptable because of its limited supply and environmental concerns associated with the use of mature timber. Unfortunately, the bankruptcy of FloWind in June 1997 and a dramatic reduction in AWT sales made it impossible for ABM to complete the full scope of work. However, sufficient research and testing were completed to identify several promising changes in the blade manufacturing process and develop a preliminary design incorporating these changes.

  2. The SNL100-01 blade :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffith, Daniel

    2013-02-01

    A series of design studies to investigate the effect of carbon on blade weight and performance for large blades was performed using the Sandia 100-meter All-glass Baseline Blade design as a starting point. This document provides a description of the final carbon blade design, which is termed as SNL100-01. This report includes a summary of the design modifications applied to the baseline all-glass 100-meter design and a description of the NuMAD model files that are made publicly available. This document is intended primarily to be a companion document to the distribution of the NuMAD blade model files for SNL100-01.

  3. Magnetic nondestructive testing of rotor blade tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardelli, E.; Faba, A.; Marsili, R.; Rossi, G.; Tomassini, R.

    2015-05-01

    This paper deals with a particular magnetic nondestructive technique applied to the control of the position of the steel blades in rotating parts of turbines and engines. The working principle is based on a bridge of four identical magneto-resistive sensors. One sensor is placed near the blades, and the change in magnetic field produced by a permanent magnet and deviated by the change in position of the blade is detected by the sensor bridge. The position of the sensor is indicated, via dedicated FEM simulations, in order to have high sensitivity to the position change and high output signal. The accuracy and effectiveness of the proposed method are shown by experimental tests carried out in our laboratories. In particular, the tests indicate that the proposed magnetic nondestructive technique can be used in an almost large velocity range, and for quite different values of blade tip. The method seems also promising for the detection of blade vibrations.

  4. A Two-Bladed Concept Wind Turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Taeseong

    2012-01-01

    This article shows the potential for reducing extreme loads with an innovative design of wind turbine, a partial pitch two-bladed concept turbine. The most extreme conditions to test a turbine are considered to be stand-still combined with a grid failure in which the wind comes from all directions...... from 0 to 360 degrees. All aeroelastic load simulations are done by using the aeroelastic code HAWC2. From the load comparisons between the partial pitch two-bladed turbine and a conventional three-bladed turbine it is observed that the partial pitch two-bladed turbine can reduce the extreme tower...... bottom bending moment by approximately 33% compared to the three-bladed turbine....

  5. A diverse assemblage of Late Cretaceous dinosaur and bird feathers from Canadian amber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKellar, Ryan C; Chatterton, Brian D E; Wolfe, Alexander P; Currie, Philip J

    2011-09-16

    The fossil record of early feathers has relied on carbonized compressions that lack fine structural detail. Specimens in amber are preserved in greater detail, but they are rare. Late Cretaceous coal-rich strata from western Canada provide the richest and most diverse Mesozoic feather assemblage yet reported from amber. The fossils include primitive structures closely matching the protofeathers of nonavian dinosaurs, offering new insights into their structure and function. Additional derived morphologies confirm that plumage specialized for flight and underwater diving had evolved in Late Cretaceous birds. Because amber preserves feather structure and pigmentation in unmatched detail, these fossils provide novel insights regarding feather evolution.

  6. Melanin-based color of plumage: role of condition and of feathers' microstructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alba, Liliana; Van Hemert, Caroline R.; Spencer, Karen A.; Heidinger, Britt J.; Gill, Lisa; Evans, Neil P.; Monaghan, Pat; Handel, Colleen M.; Shawkey, Matthew D.

    2014-01-01

    Whether melanin-based colors honestly signal a bird's condition during the growth of feathers is controversial, and it is unclear if or how the physiological processes underlying melanogenesis or color-imparting structural feather microstructure may be adversely affected by condition. Here we report results from two experiments designed to measure the effect of condition on expression of eumelanic and pheomelanic coloration in black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus) and zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata), respectively. In chickadees, we compared feathers of birds affected and unaffected by avian keratin disorder, while in zebra finches we compared feathers of controls with feathers of those subjected to an unpredictable food supply during development. In both cases we found that control birds had brighter feathers (higher total reflectance) and more barbules, but similar densities of melanosomes. In addition, the microstructure of the feathers explained variation in color more strongly than did melanosome density. Together, these results suggest that melanin-based coloration may in part be condition-dependent, but that this may be driven by changes in keratin and feather development, rather than melanogenesis itself. Researchers should be cautious when assigning variation in melanin-based color to melanin alone and microstructure of the feather should be taken into account.

  7. Development of feather keratin nanoparticles and investigation of their hemostatic efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ju; Hao, Shilei; Luo, Tiantian; Yang, Qian; Wang, Bochu

    2016-11-01

    Chicken feathers are considered as the major waste in poultry industry, which are mostly constituted of keratin proteins. Development of feather keratin for biomedical application is very attractive for chicken feather recycling. Human hair keratins have been demonstrated the significant hemostatic efficacy in the previous studies, but there are few reports of feather keratin for the hemostatic application. Here, the chicken feather keratin nanoparticle was developed for use as a hemostatic agent. Keratin was extracted from chicken feather in the present study, and a modified ultrasonic dispersion method was used to prepare keratin nanoparticles. The characterizations of feather keratin extracts and nanoparticles were investigated, including electrophoretic separation, amino acid composition, particle size, zeta potential, morphology, chemical structure and crystal form. Additionally, the hemostatic efficacy in vitro and in vivo of keratin nanoparticles were also studied. The results of hemostatic tests showed that the bleeding time and blood loss in tail amputation and liver scratch rat models can be significantly decreased after application of feather keratin nanoparticles, which demonstrated the potential application of feather keratin nanoparticles for hemostasis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Homology and Potential Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms for the Development of Unique Feather Morphologies in Early Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Connor, Jingmai K.; Chiappe, Luis M.; Chuong, Cheng-ming; Bottjer, David J.; You, Hailu

    2013-01-01

    At least two lineages of Mesozoic birds are known to have possessed a distinct feather morphotype for which there is no neornithine (modern) equivalent. The early stepwise evolution of apparently modern feathers occurred within Maniraptora, basal to the avian transition, with asymmetrical pennaceous feathers suited for flight present in the most basal recognized avian, Archaeopteryx lithographica. The number of extinct primitive feather morphotypes recognized among non-avian dinosaurs continues to increase with new discoveries; some of these resemble feathers present in basal birds. As a result, feathers between phylogenetically widely separated taxa have been described as homologous. Here we examine the extinct feather morphotypes recognized within Aves and compare these structures with those found in non-avian dinosaurs. We conclude that the “rachis dominated” tail feathers of Confuciusornis sanctus and some enantiornithines are not equivalent to the “proximally ribbon-like” pennaceous feathers of the juvenile oviraptorosaur Similicaudipteryx yixianensis. Close morphological analysis of these unusual rectrices in basal birds supports the interpretation that they are modified pennaceous feathers. Because this feather morphotype is not seen in living birds, we build on current understanding of modern feather molecular morphogenesis to suggest a hypothetical molecular developmental model for the formation of the rachis dominated feathers of extinct basal birds. PMID:24003379

  9. Homology and Potential Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms for the Development of Unique Feather Morphologies in Early Birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Bottjer

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available At least two lineages of Mesozoic birds are known to have possessed a distinct feather morphotype for which there is no neornithine (modern equivalent. The early stepwise evolution of apparently modern feathers occurred within Maniraptora, basal to the avian transition, with asymmetrical pennaceous feathers suited for flight present in the most basal recognized avian, Archaeopteryx lithographica. The number of extinct primitive feather morphotypes recognized among non-avian dinosaurs continues to increase with new discoveries; some of these resemble feathers present in basal birds. As a result, feathers between phylogenetically widely separated taxa have been described as homologous. Here we examine the extinct feather morphotypes recognized within Aves and compare these structures with those found in non-avian dinosaurs. We conclude that the “rachis dominated” tail feathers of Confuciusornis sanctus and some enantiornithines are not equivalent to the “proximally ribbon-like” pennaceous feathers of the juvenile oviraptorosaur Similicaudipteryx yixianensis. Close morphological analysis of these unusual rectrices in basal birds supports the interpretation that they are modified pennaceous feathers. Because this feather morphotype is not seen in living birds, we build on current understanding of modern feather molecular morphogenesis to suggest a hypothetical molecular developmental model for the formation of the rachis dominated feathers of extinct basal birds.

  10. Crack of a first stage blade in a steam turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nurbanasari

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The failure of the first stage blade in a steam turbine of 55 MW was investigated. The blade was made of 17-4 PH stainless steel and has been used for 12 years before failure. The current work aims to find out the main cause of the first stage blade failure. The methods for investigation were metallurgical analysis, chemical composition test, and hardness measurement. The result showed that there was no evidence the blade failure was due to material. The damage found on the blade namely crack on the blade root. Two locations of the crack observed at the blade root, which was at the tang and the fillet, with different failure modes. In general, the damage of the blade was started by the corrosion occurred on the blade root. The crack at the blade root tang was due to corrosion fatigue and the crack occurred at the blade root fillet owing to stress corrosion cracking.

  11. Optimization of oar blade design for improved performance in rowing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, Nicholas; Gardner, Trevor N

    2007-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to find a more optimal blade design for rowing performance than the Big Blade, which has been shown to be less than optimal for propulsion. As well as the Big Blade, a flat Big Blade, a flat rectangular blade, and a rectangular blade with the same curvature and projected area as the Big Blade were tested in a water flume to determine their fluid dynamic characteristics at the full range of angles at which the oar blade might present itself to the water. Similarities were observed between the flat Big Blade and rectangular blades. However, the curved rectangular blade generated significantly more lift in the angle range 0-90 degrees than the curved Big Blade, although it was similar between 90 and 180 degrees. This difference was attributed to the shape of the upper and lower edges of the blade and their influence on the fluid flow around the blade. Although the influence of oar blade design on boat speed was not investigated here, the significant increases in fluid force coefficients for the curved rectangular blade suggest that this new oar blade design could elicit a practically significant improvement in rowing performance.

  12. Influence of pitch, twist, and taper on a blade`s performance loss due to roughness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tangler, J.L. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of blade geometric parameters such as pitch, twist, and taper on a blade`s sensitivity to leading edge roughness. The approach began with an evaluation of available test data of performance degradation due to roughness effects for several rotors. In addition to airfoil geometry, this evaluation suggested that a rotor`s sensitivity to roughness was also influenced by the blade geometric parameters. Parametric studies were conducted using the PROP computer code with wind-tunnel airfoil characteristics for smooth and rough surface conditions to quantify the performance loss due to roughness for tapered and twisted blades relative to a constant-chord, non-twisted blade at several blade pitch angles. The results indicate that a constant-chord, non-twisted blade pitched toward stall will have the greatest losses due to roughness. The use of twist, taper, and positive blade pitch angles all help reduce the angle-of-attack distribution along the blade for a given wind speed and the associated performance degradation due to roughness. 8 refs., 6 figs.

  13. Influence of pitch, twist, and taper on a blade`s performance loss due to roughness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tangler, J.L. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado (United States)

    1997-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of blade geometric parameters such as pitch, twist, and taper on a blade`s sensitivity to leading edge roughness. The approach began with an evaluation of available test data of performance degradation due to roughness effects for several rotors. In addition to airfoil geometry, this evaluation suggested that a rotor`s sensitivity to roughness was also influenced by the blade geometric parameters. Parametric studies were conducted using the PROP computer code with wind-tunnel airfoil characteristics for smooth and rough surface conditions to quantify the performance loss due to roughness for tapered and twisted blades relative to a constant-chord, non-twisted blade at several blade pitch angles. The results indicate that a constant-chord, non-twisted blade pitched toward stall will have the greatest losses due to roughness. The use of twist, taper, and positive blade pitch angles all help reduce the angle-of-attack distribution along the blade for a given wind speed and the associated performance degradation due to roughness. (au)

  14. Power quality issues current harmonics

    CERN Document Server

    Mikkili, Suresh

    2015-01-01

    Power Quality Issues: Current Harmonics provides solutions for the mitigation of power quality problems related to harmonics. Focusing on active power filters (APFs) due to their excellent harmonic and reactive power compensation in two-wire (single phase), three-wire (three-phase without neutral), and four-wire (three-phase with neutral) AC power networks with nonlinear loads, the text:Introduces the APF technology, describing various APF configurations and offering guidelines for the selection of APFs for specific application considerationsCompares shunt active filter (SHAF) control strategi

  15. The SNL100-02 blade :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffith, Daniel

    2013-11-01

    A series of design studies are performed to investigate the effects of advanced core materials and a new core material strategy on blade weight and performance for large blades using the Sandia 100-meter blade designs as a starting point. The initial core material design studies were based on the SNL100-01 100- meter carbon spar design. Advanced core material with improved performance to weight was investigated with the goal to reduce core material content in the design and reduce blade weight. A secondary element of the core study was to evaluate the suitability of core materials from natural, regrowable sources such as balsa and recyclable foam materials. The new core strategy for the SNL100-02 design resulted in a design mass of 59 tons, which is a 20% reduction from the most recent SNL100-01 carbon spar design and over 48% reduction from the initial SNL100-00 all-glass baseline blade. This document provides a description of the final SNL100-02 design, includes a description of the major design modifications, and summarizes the pertinent blade design information. This document is also intended to be a companion document to the distribution of the NuMAD blade model files for SNL100-02 that are made publicly available.

  16. Investigation of passive blade cyclic pitch variation using an automatic yaw control system. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hohenemser, K.H.; Swift, A.H.P.

    1982-08-01

    The investigation of passive cyclic pitch variation using an automatic yaw control system made use of the test equipment and of the results of an earlier study. The atmospheric test equipment consisted of a horizontal axis wind turbine with vane controlled upwind two-bladed rotor of 7.6 m (25 ft) diameter having passive cyclic pitch variation. An automatically triggered electric furl actuator prevented over-speeds and over-torques by furling the rotor which means yawing the rotor out of the winds. The atmospheric test equipment was modified to accept two alternative fully automatic yaw or furl control systems. The first system was of the active type and included a hydraulic single acting constant speed governor as it is used for aircraft propeller controls. Upon reaching the rotor speed limit, the governor delivered pressurized oil to a hydraulic furl actuator which then overcame the unfurling spring force and furled the rotor. When the rotor speed fell below the set value, the governor admitted oil flow from the hydraulic actuator into the oil reservoir and the rotor was unfurled by the spring. The second automatic control system was of a purely mechanical passive type. The rotor thrust, which was laterally off-set from the yaw axis, in combination with a yawing component of the rotor torque due to uptilt of the rotor axis overcame at rated power the unfurling spring and furled the rotor. The analytically predicted and experimentally substantiated negative rotor yaw damping would cause excessive furling rates unless alleviated by a furl damper. The tests were supported by a specially developed dynamic yawing analysis. Both analysis and tests indicated that the two-bladed passive cyclic pitch wind rotor can be effectively torque or speed limited by rotor yaw control systems which are less costly and more reliable than the conventional blade feathering control systems.

  17. Wind turbine blade waste in 2050.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pu; Barlow, Claire Y

    2017-04-01

    Wind energy has developed rapidly over the last two decades to become one of the most promising and economically viable sources of renewable energy. Although wind energy is claimed to provide clean renewable energy without any emissions during operation, but it is only one side of the coin. The blades, one of the most important components in the wind turbines, made with composite, are currently regarded as unrecyclable. With the first wave of early commercial wind turbine installations now approaching their end of life, the problem of blade disposal is just beginning to emerge as a significant factor for the future. This paper is aimed at discovering the magnitude of the wind turbine blade waste problem, looking not only at disposal but at all stages of a blade's lifecycle. The first stage of the research, the subject of this paper, is to accurately estimate present and future wind turbine blade waste inventory using the most recent and most accurate data available. The result will provide a solid reference point to help the industry and policy makers to understand the size of potential environmental problem and to help to manage it better. This study starts by estimating the annual blade material usage with wind energy installed capacity and average blade weight. The effect of other waste contributing factors in the full lifecycle of wind turbine blades is then included, using industrial data from the manufacturing, testing and in-service stages. The research indicates that there will be 43 million tonnes of blade waste worldwide by 2050 with China possessing 40% of the waste, Europe 25%, the United States 16% and the rest of the world 19%. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Wind turbine blade with viscoelastic damping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sievers, Ryan A.; Mullings, Justin L.

    2017-01-10

    A wind turbine blade (60) damped by viscoelastic material (54, 54A-F) sandwiched between stiffer load-bearing sublayers (52A, 52B, 56A, 56B) in portions of the blade effective to damp oscillations (38) of the blade. The viscoelastic material may be located in one or more of: a forward portion (54A) of the shell, an aft portion (54D) of the shell, pressure and suction side end caps (54B) of an internal spar, internal webbing walls (54C, 54E), and a trailing edge core (54F).

  19. Resonant vibration control of wind turbine blades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Martin Nymann; Krenk, Steen; Høgsberg, Jan Becker

    2010-01-01

    The paper deals with introduction of damping to specific vibration modes of wind turbine blades, using a resonant controller with acceleration feedback. The wind turbine blade is represented by three-dimensional, two-node finite elements in a local, rotating frame of reference. The element....... The efficiency of the resonant controller is demonstrated for a representative turbine blade exposed to turbulent wind loading. It is found that the present explicit tuning procedure yields close to optimal tuning, with very limited modal spill-over and effective reduction of the vibration amplitudes....

  20. A razor blade in the gastrointestinal system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ertuğrul Altınbilek

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Swallowing of a foreign object is the second most common endoscopic emergency after gastrointestinal bleeding. We aimed to report a case of razor blade swallowing that presented with abdominal pain. A 33-year-old man was brought to the emergency department by his relatives with the complaint of abdominal pain that had started after swallowing a razor blade 1 day earlier. His past history was notable for schizoaffective disorder. A plain abdominal radiogram showed multiple appearances consistent with metallic, shiny foreign objects (razor blade at multiple levels. J Clin Exp Invest 2015; 6 (3: 309-311

  1. ASPECTS REGARDING THE ROTOR BLADE GEOMETRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARZA Carmen

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The consumers’ energy needs and the variable wind potential have led the wind turbine producers to construct turbines that could efficiently operate in an as wide as possible range of wind speed power and domain. The rotor blade geometry is one of the factors that directly affect the turbine efficiency. The performance of the wind turbine depends upon blade and shape size but also upon their number. One of the main objectives in the design of the rotor blades lies in having an aerodynamic shape with high lift capacity and small drag force.

  2. Variable diameter wind turbine rotor blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamieson, Peter McKeich; Hornzee-Jones, Chris; Moroz, Emilian M.; Blakemore, Ralph W.

    2005-12-06

    A system and method for changing wind turbine rotor diameters to meet changing wind speeds and control system loads is disclosed. The rotor blades on the wind turbine are able to adjust length by extensions nested within or containing the base blade. The blades can have more than one extension in a variety of configurations. A cable winching system, a hydraulic system, a pneumatic system, inflatable or elastic extensions, and a spring-loaded jack knife deployment are some of the methods of adjustment. The extension is also protected from lightning by a grounding system.

  3. Shape Optimization of Wind Turbine Blades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xudong; Shen, Wen Zhong; Zhu, Wei Jun

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a design tool for optimizing wind turbine blades. The design model is based on an aerodynamic/aero-elastic code that includes the structural dynamics of the blades and the Blade Element Momentum (BEM) theory. To model the main aero-elastic behaviour of a real wind turbine...... in the European Commision-sponsored project Model Experiments in Controlled Conditions, (MEXICO) and the computed aero-elastic results are examined against the FLEX code for flow post the Tjereborg 2 MW rotor. To illustrate the optimization technique, three wind turbine rotors of different sizes (the MEXICO 25 k...

  4. Sexual dimorphism and population differences in structural properties of barn swallow (Hirundo rustica) wing and tail feathers

    OpenAIRE

    Pap, Péter L.; Gergely Osváth; José Miguel Aparicio; Lőrinc Bărbos; Piotr Matyjasiak; Diego Rubolini; Nicola Saino; Vágási, Csongor I.; Orsolya Vincze; Anders Pape Møller

    2015-01-01

    Sexual selection and aerodynamic forces affecting structural properties of the flight feathers of birds are poorly understood. Here, we compared the structural features of the innermost primary wing feather (P1) and the sexually dimorphic outermost (Ta6) and monomorphic second outermost (Ta5) tail feathers of barn swallows (Hirundo rustica) from a Romanian population to investigate how sexual selection and resistance to aerodynamic forces affect structural differences among these feathers. Fu...

  5. Rotor blade full-scale fatigue testing technology and research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Hørlyk; Berring, Peter; Pavese, Christian

    Full scale fatigue test is an important part of the development and design of wind turbine blades. Testing is also needed for the approval of the blades in order for them to be used on large wind turbines. However, usually only one prototype blade is tested. Fatigue test of wind turbine blades wa...

  6. Investigation of blade performance of horizontal axis wind turbine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The shape of rotor blade plays an important role in determining the overall aerodynamic performance of a horizontal axis wind turbine. In this work, blade is designed for a 5KW horizontal axis wind turbine which is already in market. For designing blade, blade element momentum theory (BEMT) is used and a computer ...

  7. Introduction to abstract harmonic analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Loomis, Lynn H

    2011-01-01

    Written by a prominent figure in the field of harmonic analysis, this classic monograph is geared toward advanced undergraduates and graduate students and focuses on methods related to Gelfand's theory of Banach algebra. 1953 edition.

  8. Tissue Harmonic Synthetic Aperture Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Joachim

    The main purpose of this PhD project is to develop an ultrasonic method for tissue harmonic synthetic aperture imaging. The motivation is to advance the field of synthetic aperture imaging in ultrasound, which has shown great potentials in the clinic. Suggestions for synthetic aperture tissue...... system complexity compared to conventional synthetic aperture techniques. In this project, SASB is sought combined with a pulse inversion technique for 2nd harmonic tissue harmonic imaging. The advantages in tissue harmonic imaging (THI) are expected to further improve the image quality of SASB....... The first part of the scientific contribution investigates an implementation of pulse inversion for THI on the experimental ultrasound system SARUS. The technique is initially implemented for linear array transducers and then expanded for convex array transducers. The technique is evaluated based on spatial...

  9. Harmonic structures and intrinsic torsion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conti, Diego; Madsen, Thomas Bruun

    We discuss the construction of 8-manifolds with harmonic Sp(2)Sp(1)-structures. In particular, we find 10 new examples of nilmanifolds that admit a closed 4-form Omega whose stabiliser is Sp(2)Sp(1). Our constructions entail the notion of SO(4)-structures on 7-manifolds. We present a thorough inv...... investigation of the intrinsic torsion of such structures; in addition to the construction of harmonic structures, this analysis leads to explicit Lie group examples with invariant intrinsic torsion....

  10. The Prospect of Hydrolyzed Feather Meal as Ruminant Feeds Through Protein Quality Improvement by Microbes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CH Prayitno

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The waste of the broiler processing (feather is a potential source for animal feed. However the presence of keratins cause limited of feather use. Before using, therefore, feather must be treated to hydrolyze cysteine disulfide bound dominating keratins protein. Enzymatic (biological treatment using microbes will produce specific feather hydrolyzed and does not have negative impact on environment. The research objected to get the microbes which degradated selected keratins, improve protein quality of feather meal and find out the best ration formulation true in vitro the basic information to formulate in vivo ration. The research has been done in Laboratory of Animal Feedstuff Faculty of Animal Science UNSOED for eight months. Fermentation trial was done on liquid media with bath system. In vitro trial used of Tilley and Terry methods with parameter observe was dry matter digestibility, organic matter digestibility, protein degradation, total VFA and solubility in pepsin. Based on all parameter, on fermentation trial with Bacillus licheniformis decides broiler chicken feather had good prospect to be developed on feed protein source. In vitro trial recommended ration with formulation of fermented feather meal concentrate (15 percent, soybeans meal (5 percent, rice bran (20 percent, molasses (4 percent, mineral mix (1 percent, with forage: concentrate ratio 40 : 60 could be used as in vivo ration. (Animal Production 5(1: 19-24 (2003   Key words : Hydrolyze, Feather, Keratin, Digestibility, Ruminant

  11. Structural and mechanical differences between original and replaced feathers in Blackcaps Sylvia atricapilla

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De la Hera, I.; Hedenström, A.; Pérez-Tris, J.; Tellería, J.L.

    2010-01-01

    Many bird species are able to replace accidentally lost feathers out of the normal moulting periods, but whether such replaced feathers are able to restore the original mechanical properties of the plumage has not been evaluated before. In this study we analysed the structure and mechanical

  12. Moult of wing and tail-feathers in the Ostrich, Struthio camelus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brom, Tim G.; Dekker, René W.R.J.

    1990-01-01

    Structure and moult of wing and tail of a full-grown Ostrich, Struthio camelus, are described. In the wing, at least three feather generations could be recognized. The pattern of moult is more or less symmetrical in both wings and the sequence of feather replacement is not random. The tail consisted

  13. 76 FR 76115 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Feather River Air Quality Management District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-06

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Feather River Air Quality Management District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: EPA is proposing a limited approval and limited disapproval of revisions to the Feather River Air Quality...

  14. The prevention and control of feather pecking: application to commercial systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nicol, C.J.; Bestman, M.; Gilani, A.M.; Haas, de E.N.; Jong, de I.C.; Lampton, S.; Wagenaar, J.P.; Weeks, C.A.; Rodenburg, T.B.

    2013-01-01

    Studies on the prevalence of feather pecking in different commercial laying hen 23 systems and its welfare and economic impacts are reviewed in the following paper. 24 Current methods for controlling feather pecking include beak-trimming and alterations to light regimes, but these methods have

  15. Feather bedding and childhood asthma associated with house dust mite sensitisation : a randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glasgow, Nicholas J.; Ponsonby, Anne-Louise; Kemp, Andrew; Tovey, Euan; van Asperen, Peter; McKay, Karen; Forbes, Samantha

    Introduction Observational studies report inverse associations between the use of feather upper bedding (pillow and/or quilt) and asthma symptoms but there is no randomised controlled trial (RCT) evidence assessing the role of feather upper bedding as a secondary prevention measure. Objective To

  16. Variation in the mechanical properties of flight feathers of the blackcap Sylvia atricapilla in relation to migration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De la Hera, I.; Hedenström, A.; Pérez-Tris, J.; Tellería, J.L.

    2010-01-01

    Migration causes temporal and energetic constraints during plumage development, which can compromise feather structure and function. In turn, given the importance of a good quality of flight feathers in migratory movements, selection may have favoured the synthesis of feathers with better mechanical

  17. Trace element contamination in feather and tissue samples from Anna’s hummingbirds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikoni, Nicole A.; Poppenga, Robert H.; Ackerman, Joshua T.; Foley, Janet E.; Hazlehurst, Jenny; Purdin, Güthrum; Aston, Linda; Hargrave, Sabine; Jelks, Karen; Tell, Lisa A.

    2017-01-01

    Trace element contamination (17 elements; Be, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Mo, Cd, Ba, Hg, Tl, and Pb) of live (feather samples only) and deceased (feather and tissue samples) Anna's hummingbirds (Calypte anna) was evaluated. Samples were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS; 17 elements) and atomic absorption spectrophotometry (Hg only). Mean plus one standard deviation (SD) was considered the benchmark, and concentrations above the mean + 1 SD were considered elevated above normal. Contour feathers were sampled from live birds of varying age, sex, and California locations. In order to reduce thermal impacts, minimal feathers were taken from live birds, therefore a novel method was developed for preparation of low mass feather samples for ICP-MS analysis. The study found that the novel feather preparation method enabled small mass feather samples to be analyzed for trace elements using ICP-MS. For feather samples from live birds, all trace elements, with the exception of beryllium, had concentrations above the mean + 1 SD. Important risk factors for elevated trace element concentrations in feathers of live birds were age for iron, zinc, and arsenic, and location for iron, manganese, zinc, and selenium. For samples from deceased birds, ICP-MS results from body and tail feathers were correlated for Fe, Zn, and Pb, and feather concentrations were correlated with renal (Fe, Zn, Pb) or hepatic (Hg) tissue concentrations. Results for AA spectrophotometry analyzed samples from deceased birds further supported the ICP-MS findings where a strong correlation between mercury concentrations in feather and tissue (pectoral muscle) samples was found. These study results support that sampling feathers from live free-ranging hummingbirds might be a useful, non-lethal sampling method for evaluating trace element exposure and provides a sampling alternative since their small body size limits traditional sampling of blood and tissues. The

  18. General Lp-harmonic Blaschke bodies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Lutwak introduced the harmonic Blaschke combination and the harmonic Blaschke body of a star body. Further, Feng and Wang introduced the concept of the -harmonic Blaschke body of a star body. In this paper, we define the notion of general -harmonic Blaschke bodies and establish some of its properties.

  19. General Lp-harmonic Blaschke bodies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Lutwak introduced the harmonic Blaschke combination and the harmonic. Blaschke body of a star body. Further, Feng and Wang introduced the concept of the L p- harmonic Blaschke body of a star body. In this paper, we define the notion of general. L p-harmonic Blaschke bodies and establish some of its ...

  20. Birds of a Feather: Neanderthal Exploitation of Raptors and Corvids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finlayson, Clive; Brown, Kimberly; Blasco, Ruth; Rosell, Jordi; Negro, Juan José; Finlayson, Geraldine; Sánchez Marco, Antonio; Giles Pacheco, Francisco; Rodríguez Vidal, Joaquín; Carrión, José S.; Fa, Darren A.; Rodríguez Llanes, José M.

    2012-01-01

    The hypothesis that Neanderthals exploited birds for the use of their feathers or claws as personal ornaments in symbolic behaviour is revolutionary as it assigns unprecedented cognitive abilities to these hominins. This inference, however, is based on modest faunal samples and thus may not represent a regular or systematic behaviour. Here we address this issue by looking for evidence of such behaviour across a large temporal and geographical framework. Our analyses try to answer four main questions: 1) does a Neanderthal to raptor-corvid connection exist at a large scale, thus avoiding associations that might be regarded as local in space or time?; 2) did Middle (associated with Neanderthals) and Upper Palaeolithic (associated with modern humans) sites contain a greater range of these species than Late Pleistocene paleontological sites?; 3) is there a taphonomic association between Neanderthals and corvids-raptors at Middle Palaeolithic sites on Gibraltar, specifically Gorham's, Vanguard and Ibex Caves? and; 4) was the extraction of wing feathers a local phenomenon exclusive to the Neanderthals at these sites or was it a geographically wider phenomenon?. We compiled a database of 1699 Pleistocene Palearctic sites based on fossil bird sites. We also compiled a taphonomical database from the Middle Palaeolithic assemblages of Gibraltar. We establish a clear, previously unknown and widespread, association between Neanderthals, raptors and corvids. We show that the association involved the direct intervention of Neanderthals on the bones of these birds, which we interpret as evidence of extraction of large flight feathers. The large number of bones, the variety of species processed and the different temporal periods when the behaviour is observed, indicate that this was a systematic, geographically and temporally broad, activity that the Neanderthals undertook. Our results, providing clear evidence that Neanderthal cognitive capacities were comparable to those of

  1. Birds of a feather: Neanderthal exploitation of raptors and corvids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clive Finlayson

    Full Text Available The hypothesis that Neanderthals exploited birds for the use of their feathers or claws as personal ornaments in symbolic behaviour is revolutionary as it assigns unprecedented cognitive abilities to these hominins. This inference, however, is based on modest faunal samples and thus may not represent a regular or systematic behaviour. Here we address this issue by looking for evidence of such behaviour across a large temporal and geographical framework. Our analyses try to answer four main questions: 1 does a Neanderthal to raptor-corvid connection exist at a large scale, thus avoiding associations that might be regarded as local in space or time?; 2 did Middle (associated with Neanderthals and Upper Palaeolithic (associated with modern humans sites contain a greater range of these species than Late Pleistocene paleontological sites?; 3 is there a taphonomic association between Neanderthals and corvids-raptors at Middle Palaeolithic sites on Gibraltar, specifically Gorham's, Vanguard and Ibex Caves? and; 4 was the extraction of wing feathers a local phenomenon exclusive to the Neanderthals at these sites or was it a geographically wider phenomenon?. We compiled a database of 1699 Pleistocene Palearctic sites based on fossil bird sites. We also compiled a taphonomical database from the Middle Palaeolithic assemblages of Gibraltar. We establish a clear, previously unknown and widespread, association between Neanderthals, raptors and corvids. We show that the association involved the direct intervention of Neanderthals on the bones of these birds, which we interpret as evidence of extraction of large flight feathers. The large number of bones, the variety of species processed and the different temporal periods when the behaviour is observed, indicate that this was a systematic, geographically and temporally broad, activity that the Neanderthals undertook. Our results, providing clear evidence that Neanderthal cognitive capacities were comparable to

  2. Birds of a feather: Neanderthal exploitation of raptors and corvids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finlayson, Clive; Brown, Kimberly; Blasco, Ruth; Rosell, Jordi; Negro, Juan José; Bortolotti, Gary R; Finlayson, Geraldine; Sánchez Marco, Antonio; Giles Pacheco, Francisco; Rodríguez Vidal, Joaquín; Carrión, José S; Fa, Darren A; Rodríguez Llanes, José M

    2012-01-01

    The hypothesis that Neanderthals exploited birds for the use of their feathers or claws as personal ornaments in symbolic behaviour is revolutionary as it assigns unprecedented cognitive abilities to these hominins. This inference, however, is based on modest faunal samples and thus may not represent a regular or systematic behaviour. Here we address this issue by looking for evidence of such behaviour across a large temporal and geographical framework. Our analyses try to answer four main questions: 1) does a Neanderthal to raptor-corvid connection exist at a large scale, thus avoiding associations that might be regarded as local in space or time?; 2) did Middle (associated with Neanderthals) and Upper Palaeolithic (associated with modern humans) sites contain a greater range of these species than Late Pleistocene paleontological sites?; 3) is there a taphonomic association between Neanderthals and corvids-raptors at Middle Palaeolithic sites on Gibraltar, specifically Gorham's, Vanguard and Ibex Caves? and; 4) was the extraction of wing feathers a local phenomenon exclusive to the Neanderthals at these sites or was it a geographically wider phenomenon?. We compiled a database of 1699 Pleistocene Palearctic sites based on fossil bird sites. We also compiled a taphonomical database from the Middle Palaeolithic assemblages of Gibraltar. We establish a clear, previously unknown and widespread, association between Neanderthals, raptors and corvids. We show that the association involved the direct intervention of Neanderthals on the bones of these birds, which we interpret as evidence of extraction of large flight feathers. The large number of bones, the variety of species processed and the different temporal periods when the behaviour is observed, indicate that this was a systematic, geographically and temporally broad, activity that the Neanderthals undertook. Our results, providing clear evidence that Neanderthal cognitive capacities were comparable to those of

  3. Blade system design studies volume II : preliminary blade designs and recommended test matrix.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffin, Dayton A. (Global Energy Concepts, LLC, Kirkland, WA)

    2004-06-01

    As part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Wind Partnerships for Advanced Component Technologies (WindPACT) program, Global Energy Concepts, LLC is performing a Blade System Design Study (BSDS) concerning innovations in materials, processes and structural configurations for application to wind turbine blades in the multi-megawatt range. The BSDS Volume I project report addresses issues and constraints identified to scaling conventional blade designs to the megawatt size range, and evaluated candidate materials, manufacturing and design innovations for overcoming and improving large blade economics. The current report (Volume II), presents additional discussion of materials and manufacturing issues for large blades, including a summary of current trends in commercial blade manufacturing. Specifications are then developed to guide the preliminary design of MW-scale blades. Using preliminary design calculations for a 3.0 MW blade, parametric analyses are performed to quantify the potential benefits in stiffness and decreased gravity loading by replacement of a baseline fiberglass spar with carbon-fiberglass hybrid material. Complete preliminary designs are then presented for 3.0 MW and 5.0 MW blades that incorporate fiberglass-to-carbon transitions at mid-span. Based on analysis of these designs, technical issues are identified and discussed. Finally, recommendations are made for composites testing under Part I1 of the BSDS, and the initial planned test matrix for that program is presented.

  4. Hydrophobic duck feathers and their simulation on textile substrates for water repellent treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuyang; Chen, Xianqiong; Xin, J H

    2008-12-01

    Inspired by the non-wetting phenomena of duck feathers, the water repellent property of duck feathers was studied at the nanoscale. The microstructures of the duck feather were investigated by a scanning electron microscope (SEM) imaging method through a step-by-step magnifying procedure. The SEM results show that duck feathers have a multi-scale structure and that this multi-scale structure as well as the preening oil are responsible for their super hydrophobic behavior. The microstructures of the duck feather were simulated on textile substrates using the biopolymer chitosan as building blocks through a novel surface solution precipitation (SSP) method, and then the textile substrates were further modified with a silicone compound to achieve low surface energy. The resultant textiles exhibit super water repellent properties, thus providing a simple bionic way to create super hydrophobic surfaces on soft substrates using flexible material as building blocks.

  5. Spectral tuning of Amazon parrot feather coloration by psittacofulvin pigments and spongy structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinbergen, Jan; Wilts, Bodo D; Stavenga, Doekele G

    2013-12-01

    The feathers of Amazon parrots are brightly coloured. They contain a unique class of pigments, the psittacofulvins, deposited in both barbs and barbules, causing yellow or red coloured feathers. In specific feather areas, spongy nanostructured barb cells exist, reflecting either in the blue or blue-green wavelength range. The blue-green spongy structures are partly enveloped by a blue-absorbing, yellow-colouring pigment acting as a spectral filter, thus yielding a green coloured barb. Applying reflection and transmission spectroscopy, we characterized the Amazons' pigments and spongy structures, and investigated how they contribute to the feather coloration. The reflectance spectra of Amazon feathers are presumably tuned to the sensitivity spectra of the visual photoreceptors.

  6. Feathered non-avian dinosaurs from North America provide insight into wing origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelenitsky, Darla K; Therrien, François; Erickson, Gregory M; DeBuhr, Christopher L; Kobayashi, Yoshitsugu; Eberth, David A; Hadfield, Frank

    2012-10-26

    Previously described feathered dinosaurs reveal a fascinating record of feather evolution, although substantial phylogenetic gaps remain. Here we report the occurrence of feathers in ornithomimosaurs, a clade of non-maniraptoran theropods for which fossilized feathers were previously unknown. The Ornithomimus specimens, recovered from Upper Cretaceous deposits of Alberta, Canada, provide new insights into dinosaur plumage and the origin of the avian wing. Individuals from different growth stages reveal the presence of a filamentous feather covering throughout life and winglike structures on the forelimbs of adults. The appearance of winglike structures in older animals indicates that they may have evolved in association with reproductive behaviors. These specimens show that primordial wings originated earlier than previously thought, among non-maniraptoran theropods.

  7. Doctor Blade-Coated Polymer Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Cho, Nam Chul

    2016-10-25

    In this work, we report polymer solar cells based on blade-coated P3HT:PC71BM and PBDTTT-EFT:PC71BM bulk heterojunction photoactive layers. Enhanced power conversion efficiency of 2.75 (conventional structure) and 3.03% (inverted structure) with improved reproducibility was obtained from blade-coated P3HT:PC71BM solar cells, compared to spin-coated ones. Furthermore, by demonstrating 3.10% efficiency flexible solar cells using blade-coated PBDTTT-EFT:PC71BM films on the plastic substrates, we suggest the potential applicability of blade coating technique to the high throughput roll-to-roll fabrication systems.

  8. [Cutting and incision tools: the scalpel: blades].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illana Esteban, Emilio

    2006-11-01

    The blades of a scalpel form an extensive set of stainless steel cutting sheets which have a fenestration where they link to a scalpel's handle comfortably; these handles can be small, number 3 or large, number 4.

  9. Blade Vibration Measurement System for Unducted Fans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marscher, William

    2014-01-01

    With propulsion research programs focused on new levels of efficiency and noise reduction, two avenues for advanced gas turbine technology are emerging: the geared turbofan and ultrahigh bypass ratio fan engines. Both of these candidates are being pursued as collaborative research projects between NASA and the engine manufacturers. The high bypass concept from GE Aviation is an unducted fan that features a bypass ratio of over 30 along with the accompanying benefits in fuel efficiency. This project improved the test and measurement capabilities of the unducted fan blade dynamic response. In the course of this project, Mechanical Solutions, Inc. (MSI) collaborated with GE Aviation to (1) define the requirements for fan blade measurements; (2) leverage MSI's radar-based system for compressor and turbine blade monitoring; and (3) develop, validate, and deliver a noncontacting blade vibration measurement system for unducted fans.

  10. Wireless Sensors for Wind Turbine Blades Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iftimie, N.; Steigmann, R.; Danila, N. A.; Rosu, D.; Barsanescu, P. D.; Savin, A.

    2017-06-01

    The most common defects in turbine blades may be faulty microscopic and mesoscopic appeared in matrix, no detected by classical nondestructive testing (i.e. using phased array sensors), broken fibers can also appear and develop under moderated loads, or cracks and delaminations due to low energy impacts, etc. The paper propose to present the results obtained from testing of glass fiber reinforced plastic used in the construction of the wind turbine blades as well as the monitoring of the entire scalable blade using wireless sensors placed on critical location on blade. In order to monitories the strain/stress during the tests, the determination of the location and the nature of defects have been simulated using FEM.

  11. Aerodynamics and Ecomorphology of Flexible Feathers and Morphing Bird Wings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaassen van Oorschot, Brett

    Birds are talented fliers capable of vertical take-off and landing, navigating turbulent air, and flying thousands of miles without rest. How is this possible? What allows birds to exploit the aerial environment with such ease? In part, it may be because bird wings are unlike any engineered wing. They are flexible, strong, lightweight, and dynamically capable of changes in shape on a nearly instantaneous basis (Rayner, 1988; Tobalske, 2007). Moreover, much of this change is passive, modulated only by changes in airflow angle and velocity. Birds actively morph their wings and their feathers morph passively in response to airflow to meet aerodynamic demands. Wings are highly adapted to myriad aeroecological factors and aerodynamic conditions (e.g. Lockwood et al., 1998; Bowlin and Winkler, 2004). This dissertation contains the results of my research on the complexities of morphing avian wings and feathers. I chose to study three related-but-discrete aspects of the avian wing: 1) the aerodynamics of morphing wings during take-off and gliding flight, 2) the presence and significance of wing tip slots across the avian clade, and 3) the aerodynamic role of the emarginate primary feathers that form these wing tip slots. These experiments ask fundamental questions that have intrigued me since childhood: Why do birds have different wing shapes? And why do some birds have slotted wing tips? It's fair to say that you will not find definitive answers here--rather, you will find the methodical, incremental addition of new hypotheses and empirical evidence which will serve future researchers in their own pursuits of these questions. The first chapter explores active wing morphing in two disparate aerodynamic regimes: low-advance ratio flapping (such as during takeoff) and high-advance ratio gliding. This chapter was published in the Journal of Experimental Biology (Klaassen van Oorschot et al., 2016) with the help of an undergraduate researcher, Emily Mistick. We found that wing

  12. Mechanisms and evolution of iridescent feather colors in birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliason, Chad M.

    A longstanding question in biology is why phenotypic diversity is unevenly distributed across the tree of life. Such differences can be caused by both extrinsic (e.g., natural selection) and intrinsic factors (e.g., how a trait functions). Despite numerous examples of diversification in form and function of complex biomechanical traits, we know relatively little about these processes in ornamental traits. Diverse ornamental feather colors in birds can be produced either by absorption (pigment-based colors) or scattering of light by feather nanostructures (structural colors). Because structural colors are deterministically related to the nanostructures that produce them, they are excellent systems to study form-function relationships and diversity of ornamental traits. In my dissertation I combine methods from physics and evolutionary biology to understand how proximate mechanisms explaining color (coherent light scattering) explain patterns of color diversity using iridescent feathers as a model system. Specifically, I ask two fundamental questions, one proximate and one ultimate, about iridescent colors: i) How are iridescent colors produced? and ii) What are the implications of how iridescent traits function for how they evolve? To tackle these questions, I sampled a nanostructurally diverse range of species, quantified their nanostructures with TEM and optical microscopy, experimentally tested the roles of different nanostructural traits in producing color by modifying them at the nanometer scale with FIB milling or humidity changes, and linked form and function with optical modeling. I then used simulation-based approaches and large-scale comparative analysis of color diversity to explore evolutionary consequences of functionally modular nanostructures in feathers. Together, my results suggest that morphological novelties in birds have, at least in part, allowed birds to achieve their vast morphological and colour diversity, and the way a color is produced has

  13. Prony Analysis for Power System Transient Harmonics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Cartes

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Proliferation of nonlinear loads in power systems has increased harmonic pollution and deteriorated power quality. Not required to have prior knowledge of existing harmonics, Prony analysis detects frequencies, magnitudes, phases, and especially damping factors of exponential decaying or growing transient harmonics. In this paper, Prony analysis is implemented to supervise power system transient harmonics, or time-varying harmonics. Further, to improve power quality when transient harmonics appear, the dominant harmonics identified from Prony analysis are used as the harmonic reference for harmonic selective active filters. Simulation results of two test systems during transformer energizing and induction motor starting confirm the effectiveness of the Prony analysis in supervising and canceling power system transient harmonics.

  14. Desulfurization Of Gas-Turbine Blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Outlaw, Ronald A.

    1994-01-01

    Sulfur removed from nickel-base superalloy used to make gas-turbine blades by heating alloy and simultaneously subjecting it to sputtering by directed Ar(Sup+) ions from ion gun or from glow discharge. Reduction of sulfur content of superalloy by factor of 10 increases lifetime of turbine blade made of alloy by similar factor, because stability of protective surface oxide formed during operation of turbine increased.

  15. Data Management Techniques for Blade Vibration Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przysowa Radosław

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Well-designed procedures are required to handle large amounts of data, generated by complex measurement systems used in engine tests. The paper presents selected methodologies and software tools for characterisation and monitoring of blade vibration. Common file formats and data structures as well as methods to process and visualise tip-timing data are discussed. Report Generation Framework (RGF developed in Python is demonstrated as a flexible tool for processing and publishing blade vibration results.

  16. High efficiency turbine blade coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youchison, Dennis L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gallis, Michail A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-06-01

    The development of advanced thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) of yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) that exhibit lower thermal conductivity through better control of electron beam - physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD) processing is of prime interest to both the aerospace and power industries. This report summarizes the work performed under a two-year Lab-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project (38664) to produce lower thermal conductivity, graded-layer thermal barrier coatings for turbine blades in an effort to increase the efficiency of high temperature gas turbines. This project was sponsored by the Nuclear Fuel Cycle Investment Area. Therefore, particular importance was given to the processing of the large blades required for industrial gas turbines proposed for use in the Brayton cycle of nuclear plants powered by high temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs). During this modest (~1 full-time equivalent (FTE)) project, the processing technology was developed to create graded TBCs by coupling ion beam-assisted deposition (IBAD) with substrate pivoting in the alumina-YSZ system. The Electron Beam - 1200 kW (EB-1200) PVD system was used to deposit a variety of TBC coatings with micron layered microstructures and reduced thermal conductivity below 1.5 W/m.K. The use of IBAD produced fully stoichiometric coatings at a reduced substrate temperature of 600°C and a reduced oxygen background pressure of 0.1 Pa. IBAD was also used to successfully demonstrate the transitioning of amorphous PVD-deposited alumina to the -phase alumina required as an oxygen diffusion barrier and for good adhesion to the substrate Ni2Al3 bondcoat. This process replaces the time consuming thermally grown oxide formation required before the YSZ deposition. In addition to the process technology, Direct Simulation Monte Carlo plume modeling and spectroscopic characterization of the PVD plumes were performed. The project consisted of five tasks. These included the

  17. Does feather corticosterone reflect individual quality or external stress in arctic-nesting migratory birds?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Legagneux

    Full Text Available The effects of environmental perturbations or stressors on individual states can be carried over to subsequent life stages and ultimately affect survival and reproduction. The concentration of corticosterone (CORT in feathers is an integrated measure of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activity during the molting period, providing information on the total baseline and stress-induced CORT secreted during the period of feather growth. Common eiders and greater snow geese replace all flight feathers once a year during the pre-basic molt, which occurs following breeding. Thus, CORT contained in feathers of pre-breeding individuals sampled in spring reflects the total CORT secreted during the previous molting event, which may provide insight into the magnitude or extent of stress experienced during this time period. We used data from multiple recaptures to disentangle the contribution of individual quality vs. external factors (i.e., breeding investment or environmental conditions on feather CORT in arctic-nesting waterfowl. Our results revealed no repeatability of feather CORT within individuals of either species. In common eiders, feather CORT was not affected by prior reproductive investment, nor by pre-breeding (spring body condition prior to the molting period. Individual feather CORT greatly varied according to the year, and August-September temperatures explained most of the annual variation in feather CORT. Understanding mechanisms that affect energetic costs and stress responses during molting will require further studies either using long-term data or experiments. Although our study period encompassed only five years, it nonetheless provides evidence that CORT measured in feathers likely reflects responses to environmental conditions experienced by birds during molt, and could be used as a metric to study carry-over effects.

  18. Biomechanics of the Peacock’s Display: How Feather Structure and Resonance Influence Multimodal Signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dakin, Roslyn; McCrossan, Owen; Hare, James F.; Montgomerie, Robert; Amador Kane, Suzanne

    2016-01-01

    Courtship displays may serve as signals of the quality of motor performance, but little is known about the underlying biomechanics that determines both their signal content and costs. Peacocks (Pavo cristatus) perform a complex, multimodal “train-rattling” display in which they court females by vibrating the iridescent feathers in their elaborate train ornament. Here we study how feather biomechanics influences the performance of this display using a combination of field recordings and laboratory experiments. Using high-speed video, we find that train-rattling peacocks stridulate their tail feathers against the train at 25.6 Hz, on average, generating a broadband, pulsating mechanical sound at that frequency. Laboratory measurements demonstrate that arrays of peacock tail and train feathers have a broad resonant peak in their vibrational spectra at the range of frequencies used for train-rattling during the display, and the motion of feathers is just as expected for feathers shaking near resonance. This indicates that peacocks are able to drive feather vibrations energetically efficiently over a relatively broad range of frequencies, enabling them to modulate the feather vibration frequency of their displays. Using our field data, we show that peacocks with longer trains use slightly higher vibration frequencies on average, even though longer train feathers are heavier and have lower resonant frequencies. Based on these results, we propose hypotheses for future studies of the function and energetics of this display that ask why its dynamic elements might attract and maintain female attention. Finally, we demonstrate how the mechanical structure of the train feathers affects the peacock’s visual display by allowing the colorful iridescent eyespots–which strongly influence female mate choice–to remain nearly stationary against a dynamic iridescent background. PMID:27119380

  19. Biomechanics of the Peacock's Display: How Feather Structure and Resonance Influence Multimodal Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dakin, Roslyn; McCrossan, Owen; Hare, James F; Montgomerie, Robert; Amador Kane, Suzanne

    2016-01-01

    Courtship displays may serve as signals of the quality of motor performance, but little is known about the underlying biomechanics that determines both their signal content and costs. Peacocks (Pavo cristatus) perform a complex, multimodal "train-rattling" display in which they court females by vibrating the iridescent feathers in their elaborate train ornament. Here we study how feather biomechanics influences the performance of this display using a combination of field recordings and laboratory experiments. Using high-speed video, we find that train-rattling peacocks stridulate their tail feathers against the train at 25.6 Hz, on average, generating a broadband, pulsating mechanical sound at that frequency. Laboratory measurements demonstrate that arrays of peacock tail and train feathers have a broad resonant peak in their vibrational spectra at the range of frequencies used for train-rattling during the display, and the motion of feathers is just as expected for feathers shaking near resonance. This indicates that peacocks are able to drive feather vibrations energetically efficiently over a relatively broad range of frequencies, enabling them to modulate the feather vibration frequency of their displays. Using our field data, we show that peacocks with longer trains use slightly higher vibration frequencies on average, even though longer train feathers are heavier and have lower resonant frequencies. Based on these results, we propose hypotheses for future studies of the function and energetics of this display that ask why its dynamic elements might attract and maintain female attention. Finally, we demonstrate how the mechanical structure of the train feathers affects the peacock's visual display by allowing the colorful iridescent eyespots-which strongly influence female mate choice-to remain nearly stationary against a dynamic iridescent background.

  20. Biomechanics of the Peacock's Display: How Feather Structure and Resonance Influence Multimodal Signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roslyn Dakin

    Full Text Available Courtship displays may serve as signals of the quality of motor performance, but little is known about the underlying biomechanics that determines both their signal content and costs. Peacocks (Pavo cristatus perform a complex, multimodal "train-rattling" display in which they court females by vibrating the iridescent feathers in their elaborate train ornament. Here we study how feather biomechanics influences the performance of this display using a combination of field recordings and laboratory experiments. Using high-speed video, we find that train-rattling peacocks stridulate their tail feathers against the train at 25.6 Hz, on average, generating a broadband, pulsating mechanical sound at that frequency. Laboratory measurements demonstrate that arrays of peacock tail and train feathers have a broad resonant peak in their vibrational spectra at the range of frequencies used for train-rattling during the display, and the motion of feathers is just as expected for feathers shaking near resonance. This indicates that peacocks are able to drive feather vibrations energetically efficiently over a relatively broad range of frequencies, enabling them to modulate the feather vibration frequency of their displays. Using our field data, we show that peacocks with longer trains use slightly higher vibration frequencies on average, even though longer train feathers are heavier and have lower resonant frequencies. Based on these results, we propose hypotheses for future studies of the function and energetics of this display that ask why its dynamic elements might attract and maintain female attention. Finally, we demonstrate how the mechanical structure of the train feathers affects the peacock's visual display by allowing the colorful iridescent eyespots-which strongly influence female mate choice-to remain nearly stationary against a dynamic iridescent background.

  1. Evaluating cleansing effects on trace elements and stable isotope values in feathers of oiled birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valladares, Sonia; Moreno, Roćio; Jover, Lluis; Sanpera, Carola

    2010-01-01

    Feathers of seabirds are widely used as a nondestructive tissue for pollution monitoring of trace elements, as well as convenient samples for trophic ecology studies by means of stable isotope analysis (SIA). Nevertheless, feathers can be occasionally impregnated with oil from deliberate ship discharges and from massive oil spill accidents. The feather structure makes them effective traps for particles and are subject to external contamination. It is unknown to what extent the oil adhered to feathers can change trace element concentrations or stable isotope signatures. This study has two primary objectives: (1) to assess if there are differences between trace element concentrations and stable isotope signatures of oiled and clean feathers, and (2) to determine if the cleansing of oiled feathers using commonly applied techniques such as sodium hydroxide (NaOH) washes in combination with an organic solvent (hexane) is more effective than using NaOH alone. In order to do this, we analysed trace elements (Se, Hg, Pb, Cu and Zn) and stable isotopes (delta(13)C and delta(15)N) of individual feathers of yellow-legged gulls (Larus michahellis) which were affected by the 2002 Prestige oil spill in Galicia (NW Spain). Two sets of feathers were analysed, one group were oil-free (Control group) and the other had oil adhered to its surface (Oiled group). We expected to find differences between control and oiled feathers when cleaning exclusively with NaOH and no differences when using hexane. Our results did not show significant differences between Control and Oiled groups as a consequence of the cleansing method used. Unexpectedly, the additional cleansing with hexane resulted in decreasing selenium concentrations and increasing zinc and delta(15)N values in all groups of feathers.

  2. Interpopulation Variation in Contour Feather Structure Is Environmentally Determined in Great Tits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broggi, Juli; Gamero, Anna; Hohtola, Esa; Orell, Markku; Nilsson, Jan-Åke

    2011-01-01

    Background The plumage of birds is important for flying, insulation and social communication. Contour feathers cover most of the avian body and among other functions they provide a critical insulation layer against heat loss. Feather structure and composition are known to vary among individuals, which in turn determines variation in the insulation properties of the feather. However, the extent and the proximate mechanisms underlying this variation remain unexplored. Methodology/Principal Findings We analyzed contour feather structure from two different great tit populations adapted to different winter regimes, one northern population in Oulu (Finland) and one southern population in Lund (Sweden). Great tits from the two populations differed significantly in feather structure. Birds from the northern population had a denser plumage but consisting of shorter feathers with a smaller proportion containing plumulaceous barbs, compared with conspecifics from the southern population. However, differences disappeared when birds originating from the two populations were raised and moulted in identical conditions in a common-garden experiment located in Oulu, under ad libitum nutritional conditions. All birds raised in the aviaries, including adult foster parents moulting in the same captive conditions, developed a similar feather structure. These feathers were different from that of wild birds in Oulu but similar to wild birds in Lund, the latter moulting in more benign conditions than those of Oulu. Conclusions/Significance Wild populations exposed to different conditions develop contour feather differences either due to plastic responses or constraints. Environmental conditions, such as nutrient availability during feather growth play a crucial role in determining such differences in plumage structure among populations. PMID:21949798

  3. A trade-off between reproduction and feather growth in the barn swallow (Hirundo rustica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Saino

    Full Text Available Physiological trade-offs mediated by limiting energy, resources or time constrain the simultaneous expression of major functions and can lead to the evolution of temporal separation between demanding activities. In birds, plumage renewal is a demanding activity, which accomplishes fundamental functions, such as allowing thermal insulation, aerodynamics and socio-sexual signaling. Feather renewal is a very expensive and disabling process, and molt is often partitioned from breeding and migration. However, trade-offs between feather renewal and breeding have been only sparsely studied. In barn swallows (Hirundo rustica breeding in Italy and undergoing molt during wintering in sub-Saharan Africa, we studied this trade-off by removing a tail feather from a large sample of individuals and analyzing growth bar width, reflecting feather growth rate, and length of the growing replacement feather in relation to the stage in the breeding cycle at removal and clutch size. Growth bar width of females and length of the growing replacement feather of both sexes were smaller when the original feather had been removed after clutch initiation. Importantly, in females both growth bar width and replacement feather length were negatively predicted by clutch size, and more strongly so for large clutches and when feather removal occurred immediately after clutch completion. Hence, we found strong, coherent evidence for a trade-off between reproduction, and laying effort in particular, and the ability to generate new feathers. These results support the hypothesis that the derived condition of molting during wintering in long-distance migrants is maintained by the costs of overlapping breeding and molt.

  4. A lifting line model to investigate the influence of tip feathers on wing performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fluck, M; Crawford, C

    2014-11-24

    Bird wings have been studied as prototypes for wing design since the beginning of aviation. Although wing tip slots, i.e. wings with distinct gaps between the tip feathers (primaries), are very common in many birds, only a few studies have been conducted on the benefits of tip feathers on the wing's performance, and the aerodynamics behind tip feathers remains to be understood. Consequently most aircraft do not yet copy this feature. To close this knowledge gap an extended lifting line model was created to calculate the lift distribution and drag of wings with tip feathers. With this model, is was easily possible to combine several lifting surfaces into various different birdwing-like configurations. By including viscous drag effects, good agreement with an experimental tip slotted reference case was achieved. Implemented in C++ this model resulted in computation times of less than one minute per wing configuration on a standard notebook computer. Thus it was possible to analyse the performance of over 100 different wing configurations with and without tip feathers. While generally an increase in wing efficiency was obtained by splitting a wing tip into distinct, feather-like winglets, the best performance was generally found when spreading more feathers over a larger dihedral angle out of the wing plane. However, as the results were very sensitive to the precise geometry of the feather fan (especially feather twist) a careless set-up could just as easily degrade performance. Hence a detailed optimization is recommended to realize the full benefits by simultaneously optimizing feather sweep, twist and dihedral angles.

  5. Interpopulation variation in contour feather structure is environmentally determined in great tits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juli Broggi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The plumage of birds is important for flying, insulation and social communication. Contour feathers cover most of the avian body and among other functions they provide a critical insulation layer against heat loss. Feather structure and composition are known to vary among individuals, which in turn determines variation in the insulation properties of the feather. However, the extent and the proximate mechanisms underlying this variation remain unexplored. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We analyzed contour feather structure from two different great tit populations adapted to different winter regimes, one northern population in Oulu (Finland and one southern population in Lund (Sweden. Great tits from the two populations differed significantly in feather structure. Birds from the northern population had a denser plumage but consisting of shorter feathers with a smaller proportion containing plumulaceous barbs, compared with conspecifics from the southern population. However, differences disappeared when birds originating from the two populations were raised and moulted in identical conditions in a common-garden experiment located in Oulu, under ad libitum nutritional conditions. All birds raised in the aviaries, including adult foster parents moulting in the same captive conditions, developed a similar feather structure. These feathers were different from that of wild birds in Oulu but similar to wild birds in Lund, the latter moulting in more benign conditions than those of Oulu. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Wild populations exposed to different conditions develop contour feather differences either due to plastic responses or constraints. Environmental conditions, such as nutrient availability during feather growth play a crucial role in determining such differences in plumage structure among populations.

  6. Validation of phantom-based harmonization for patient harmonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panetta, Joseph V; Daube-Witherspoon, Margaret E; Karp, Joel S

    2017-07-01

    To improve the precision of multicenter clinical trials, several efforts are underway to determine scanner-specific parameters for harmonization using standardized phantom measurements. The goal of this study was to test the correspondence between quantification in phantom and patient images and validate the use of phantoms for harmonization of patient images. The National Electrical Manufacturers' Association image quality phantom with hot spheres was scanned on two time-of-flight PET scanners. Whole-body [18 F]-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-PET scans were acquired of subjects on the same systems. List-mode events from spheres (diam.: 10-28 mm) measured in air on each scanner were embedded into the phantom and subject list-mode data from each scanner to create lesions with known uptake with respect to the local background in the phantom and each subject's liver and lung regions, as a proxy to characterize true lesion quantification. Images were analyzed using the contrast recovery coefficient (CRC) typically used in phantom studies and serving as a surrogate for the standardized uptake value used clinically. Postreconstruction filtering (resolution recovery and Gaussian smoothing) was applied to determine if the effect on the phantom images translates equivalently to subject images. Three postfiltering strategies were selected to harmonize the CRCmean or CRCmax values between the two scanners based on the phantom measurements and then applied to the subject images. Both the average CRCmean and CRCmax values for lesions embedded in the lung and liver in four subjects (BMI range 25-38) agreed to within 5% with the CRC values for lesions embedded in the phantom for all lesion sizes. In addition, the relative changes in CRCmean and CRCmax resulting from the application of the postfilters on the subject and phantom images were consistent within measurement uncertainty. Further, the root mean squared percent difference (RMSpd ) between CRC values on the two scanners

  7. Influence of mistuning on blade torsional flutter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, A. V.

    1980-01-01

    An analytical technique for the prediction of fan blade flutter was evaluated by utilizing first stage fan flutter data from tests on an advanced high performance engine. The formulation includes both aerodynamic and mechanical coupling among all the blades of the assembly. Mistuning is accounted for in the analysis so that individual blade inertias, frequencies, or damping can be considered. Airfoil stability was predicted by calculating a flutter determinant, the eigenvalues of which indicate the extent of susceptibility to flutter. When blade to blade differences in frequencies are considered, a stable system is predicted for the test points examined. For a tuned system, it was found that torsional flutter can be predicted at a limited number of interblade phase angles. Examination of these phase angles indicated that they were "close" to the condition of acoustic resonance. For the range of Mach numbers and reduced frequencies considered, the so called subcritical flutter cannot be predicted. The essential influence of mechanical coupling among the blades is to change the frequencies of the system with little or no change in damping; however, aerodynamic coupling together with mechanical coupling could change not only frequencies, but also damping in the system, with a trend toward instability.

  8. Applied modal analysis of wind turbine blades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broen Pedersen, H.; Dahl Kristensen, O.J.

    2003-02-01

    In this project modal analysis has been used to determine the natural frequencies, damping and the mode shapes for wind turbine blades. Different methods to measure the position and adjust the direction of the measuring points are discussed. Different equipment for mounting the accelerometers are investigated and the most suitable are chosen. Different excitation techniques are tried during experimental campaigns. After a discussion the pendulum hammer were chosen, and a new improved hammer was manufactured. Some measurement errors are investigated. The ability to repeat the measured results is investigated by repeated measurement on the same wind turbine blade. Furthermore the flexibility of the test set-up is investigated, by use of accelerometers mounted on the flexible adapter plate during the measurement campaign. One experimental campaign investigated the results obtained from a loaded and unloaded wind turbine blade. During this campaign the modal analysis are performed on a blade mounted in a horizontal and a vertical position respectively. Finally the results obtained from modal analysis carried out on a wind turbine blade are compared with results obtained from the Stig Oeyes blade{sub E}V1 program. (au)

  9. Environmentally conscious redesign of turbine blade fixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bausch, John J., III

    2001-02-01

    This paper examines the re-design of turbine blade fixtures for the plasma spray coating process. The plasma spray process is used to apply a ceramic coating to turbine blades prior to gas turbine engine assembly. Without the ceramic coating, the blades would fail under the high temperatures produced during combustion. As a result, the plasma spray process is essential to modern gas turbine engines; the process as is stands, however, is environmentally expensive. Turbine blade holding fixtures are an integral part of the coating process, to both hold the blades within the furnace, and to protect precision assembly features on the root section of the turbine blade. In addition to the fuel costs and safety problems associated with the high temperature furnace, an environmentally hazardous acid bath is used to strip the ceramic coating from the fixtures to allow reuse. This acid bath is costly in terms of both production and the environment. The fixture re-design examines the functionality of the existing fixture design using a combination of classical, design for manufacturing, and axiomatic design methodologies, and develops a new design to eliminate the need for the acid bath. The new design also improves the productivity and safety of the plasma spray coating process. A prototype for the new design has been constructed and tested. The paper also discusses the economic benefits of the improved fixture design.

  10. Cooled gas turbine blade edge flow analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendonca, Marcio Teixeira de [Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica, Divisao de Engenharia Mecanica Aeronautica ITA/IEM, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: marcio@ita.br

    2010-07-01

    The flow on the rotating blades of a turbine is unsteady due to the wake of the stator blade row upstream. This unsteadiness is a source of losses and complex flow structures on the rotor blade due to the variation on the turbulence levels and location of the boundary layer laminar to turbulent transition. Convective cooled blades often time have cooling air ejected at the trailing edge right at the blade wake. The present investigation presents an analysis of a canonical flow consistent with the flow topology found at the trailing edge of a gas turbine blade with coolant ejection. A hydrodynamic stability analysis is performed for the combined wake and jet velocity profiles given by a gaussian distribution representing the turbulent rms wake and a laminar jet superposed. The growth rate of any instability found on the flow is an indication of faster mixing, resulting in a reduction on the wake velocity defect and consequently on the complexity associated with it. The results show that increasing the Mach number or the three-dimensionality of the disturbances result in a reduction of the amplification rate. When the flow at the trailing edge is modified by a jet, the amplification rates are lower, but the range of unstable stream wise wavenumbers is larger. (author)

  11. Recent Development in Turbine Blade Film Cooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Je-Chin Han

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Gas turbines are extensively used for aircraft propulsion, land-based power generation, and industrial applications. Thermal efficiency and power output of gas turbines increase with increasing turbine rotor inlet temperature (RIT. The current RIT level in advanced gas turbines is far above the .melting point of the blade material. Therefore, along with high temperature material development, a sophisticated cooling scheme must be developed for continuous safe operation of gas turbines with high performance. Gas turbine blades are cooled internally and externally. This paper focuses on external blade cooling or so-called film cooling. In film cooling, relatively cool air is injected from the inside of the blade to the outside surface which forms a protective layer between the blade surface and hot gas streams. Performance of film cooling primarily depends on the coolant to mainstream pressure ratio, temperature ratio, and film hole location and geometry under representative engine flow conditions. In the past number of years there has been considerable progress in turbine film cooling research and this paper is limited to review a few selected publications to reflect recent development in turbine blade film cooling.

  12. Feathering Instability of Spiral Arms and OB Star Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wing-Kit; Shu, F. H.

    2012-01-01

    Quasi-regular substructures of the spiral arm are commonly found in spiral galaxies. These substructures are known as feathers or spurs, and they jut out perpendicularly into the inter-arm region. They also associate with the Giant Molecular Clouds where massive star formation occurs. The formation of these density fluctuation can be studied from the perspective of perturbation of galactic spiral shock. We investigate the gas response under the influcence of the shock perturbation, and formulate the MHD equations in a local two-dimensional quasi-rectangular region between tightly-winding spiral arms. Our theoretical model includes the effect of magnetic field and self-gravity of the gas, we are able to reproduce feather-like structures in the post-shock region. In this semi-analytical framework, the periodic density fluctuations depends on the various background parameters such as pattern speed, strength of spiral arm, surface density of the gas and strength of magnetic field. Potentially this study can help understand the inter-arm environment that will be observed in the nearby galaxies using submillimeter telescope such ALMA in the coming years.

  13. TAX HARMONIZATION VERSUS FISCAL COMPETITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Alexandru MACSIM

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent years have brought into discussion once again subjects like tax harmonization and fiscal competition. Every time the European Union tends to take a step forward critics enter the scene and give contrary arguments to European integration. Through this article we have offered our readers a compelling view over the “battle” between tax harmonization and fiscal competition. While tax harmonization has key advantages as less costs regarding public revenues, leads to higher degree of integration and allows the usage of fiscal transfers between regions, fiscal competition is no less and presents key advantages as high reductions in tax rates and opens a large path for new investments, especially FDI. Choosing tax harmonization or fiscal competition depends on a multitude of variables, of circumstances, the decision of choosing one path or the other being ultimately influenced by the view of central and local authorities. Our analysis indicates that if we refer to a group of countries that are a part of a monetary union or that form a federation, tax harmonization seems to be the best path to choose. Moving the analysis to a group of regions that aren’t taking any kind of correlated actions or that have not signed any major treaties regarding monetary or fiscal policies, the optimal solution is fiscal competition.

  14. Reassessment of the wing feathers of Archaeopteryx lithographica suggests no robust evidence for the presence of elongated dorsal wing coverts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert L Nudds

    Full Text Available Recently it was proposed that the primary feathers of Archaeopteryx lithographica (HMN1880 were overlaid by long covert feathers, and that a multilayered feathered wing was a feature of early fossils with feathered forelimbs. The proposed long covert feathers of Archaeopteryx were previously interpreted as dorsally displaced remiges or a second set of impressions made by the wing. The following study shows that the qualitative arguments forwarded in support of the elongated covert hypothesis are neither robust nor supported quantitatively. The idea that the extant bird wing with its single layer of overlapping primaries evolved from an earlier multilayered heavily coveted feathered forelimb as seen in Anchiornis huxleyi is reasonable. At this juncture, however, it is premature to conclude unequivocally that the wing of Archaeopteryx consisted of primary feathers overlaid with elongated coverts.

  15. HARMONIZED EUROPE OR EUROPEAN HARMONY?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosmin Marinescu

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent evolutions in Europe raise questions on the viability of the present economic and social model that defines the European construction project. In this paper, the author will try to explain the viability of institutional European model that sticks between free market mechanisms and protectionism. The main challenge for the EU is about the possibility to bring together the institutional convergence and the welfare for all Europeans. This is the result of the view, still dominant, of European politics elite, according to which institutional harmonization is the solution of a more dynamic and prosper Europe. But, economic realities convince us that, more and more, a harmonized, standardized Europe is not necessarily identical with a Europe of harmony and social cooperation. If „development through integration” seems to be harmonization through „institutional transplant”, how could then be the European model one sufficiently wide open to market, which creates the prosperity so long waited for by new member countries?

  16. Keratin Production by Decomposing Feather Waste Using Some Local Bacillus spp. Isolated from Poultry Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Salouti

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Feather waste is generated in large amounts as a by-product of commercial poultry processing. The main component of feather is keratin. The main purpose of this study was to identify Bacillus spp. (the keratinolytic bacteria that are able to degrade the feather for producing keratin. Methods: Bacillus spp. Were isolated from the waste of poultries located in Miyaneh city. The bacteria were grown on basal medium containing 1% hen feather as the sole source of carbon ,nitrogen, sulfur and energy at 27ºC for 7 days. Then,the isolates capable of feather degrading were identified. The Bradford method was used to assay the production of keratin in the feather samples. Different pH and temperatures were studied to determine the best conditions for production of keratinase enzyme. Results: Seven Bacillus spp. including: B. pumilis, B. subtilis, B. firmus, B. macerance, B. popilliae, B. lentimorbus and B. larvae were found to be able to degrade the feather with different abilities. Conclusion: B. subtilis was found to be most productive isolate for keratinase enzyme production.

  17. Viscoelastic Characterization of Long-Eared Owl Flight Feather Shaft and the Damping Ability Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-li Gao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Flight feather shaft of long-eared owl is characterized by a three-parameter model for linear viscoelastic solids to reveal its damping ability. Uniaxial tensile tests of the long-eared owl, pigeon, and golden eagle flight feather shaft specimens were carried out based on Instron 3345 single column material testing system, respectively, and viscoelastic response of their stress and strain was described by the standard linear solid model. Parameter fitting result obtained from the tensile tests shows that there is no significant difference in instantaneous elastic modulus for the three birds’ feather shafts, but the owl shaft has the highest viscosity, implying more obvious viscoelastic performance. Dynamic mechanical property was characterized based on the tensile testing results. Loss factor (tanδ of the owl flight feather shaft was calculated to be 1.609 ± 0.238, far greater than those of the pigeon (0.896 ± 0.082 and golden eagle (1.087 ± 0.074. It is concluded that the long-eared owl flight feather has more outstanding damping ability compared to the pigeon and golden eagle flight feather shaft. Consequently, the long-eared owl flight feathers can dissipate the vibration energy more effectively during the flying process based on the principle of damping mechanism, for the purpose of vibration attenuation and structure radiated noise reduction.

  18. The presence of extreme feather peckers in groups of laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piepho, H-P; Lutz, V; Kjaer, J B; Grashorn, M; Bennewitz, J; Bessei, W

    2017-03-01

    Feather pecking is a serious economic and welfare problem in laying hens. Feather damage occurs mainly through severe feather pecking (SFP). Selection experiments have proved that this behavior is heritable and lines have been divergently selected for high (HFP) and low feather pecking (LFP). The number of bouts of SFP per hen follows a Poisson distribution with a maximum nearby 0. A few studies indicate that the distribution within flocks is not homogenous but contains sub-groups of birds showing extremely high levels of feather pecking (EFP). It was the aim of the current study to re-analyze data on SFP of lines selected for HFP/LFP and their F2 cross so as to uncover hidden sub-populations of EFP birds. Data of seven selection generations of HFP and LFP selection lines as well as their F2 cross have been used. We fitted a two-component mixture of Poisson distributions in order to separate the sub-group of EFP from the remaining birds. HFP and LFP lines differed mainly in mean bouts per bird. The proportion of EFP was only marginal in the LFP as compared with the HFP and the F2 population. Selection for LFP did not result in total elimination of EFP. The presence of even small proportions of EFP may play an important role in initiating outbreaks of feather pecking in large flocks. Further studies on feather pecking should pay special attention to the occurrence of EFP sub-groups.

  19. Internal Traits of Eggs and Their Relationship to Shank Feathering in Chicken Using Principal Component Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaker AS

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Chicken eggs represent an important source of protein to the growing human population and also supply repositories of unique genes that could be used worldwide. The inheritance of shank feathering trait is dominant upon non-feathering shank trait in chicken which is based on two factors: pti-1L and pti-1B that are located on Chromosomes 13, 15, and 24. Using 185 fertile eggs collected from two genetic lines (shank feathering and non-feathering shank of White Kurdish chicken, we found that egg weight highly (P < 0.01 correlated with yolk weight (r2=0.520, 0.704, respectively, albumen weight (r2=0.918, 0.835, and shell weight (r2=0.626, 0.225. The first two principal components explained the greatest variance in both the White with shank feathering (85.6% of total variance and non-feathering shank (76.5%. Therefore, differences in the component traits of the eggs between the two genetic lines may be influenced by the same gene actions as shank feathering trait. According to these results, the two genetic lines of Kurdish chicken yield significant differences in the internal traits of eggs.

  20. Feathers as a Tool to Assess Mercury Contamination in Gentoo Penguins: Variations at the Individual Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedro, Sara; Xavier, José C; Tavares, Sílvia; Trathan, Phil N; Ratcliffe, Norman; Paiva, Vitor H; Medeiros, Renata; Pereira, Eduarda; Pardal, Miguel A

    2015-01-01

    Feathers have been widely used to assess mercury contamination in birds as they reflect metal concentrations accumulated between successive moult periods: they are also easy to sample and have minimum impact on the study birds. Moult is considered the major pathway for mercury excretion in seabirds. Penguins are widely believed to undergo a complete, annual moult during which they do not feed. As penguins lose all their feathers, they are expected to have a low individual-variability in feather mercury concentration as all feathers are formed simultaneously from the same somatic reserves. This assumption is central to penguin studies that use feathers to examine the annual or among-individual variation in mercury concentrations in penguins. To test this assumption, we measured the mercury concentrations in 3-5 body feathers of 52 gentoo penguins (Pygoscelis papua) breeding at Bird Island, South Georgia (54°S 38°W). Twenty-five percent of the penguins studied showed substantial within-individual variation in the amount of mercury in their feathers (Coefficient of Variation: 34.7-96.7%). This variation may be caused by differences in moult patterns among individuals within the population leading to different interpretations in the overall population. Further investigation is now needed to fully understand individual variation in penguins' moult.

  1. Feathers as a Tool to Assess Mercury Contamination in Gentoo Penguins: Variations at the Individual Level.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Pedro

    Full Text Available Feathers have been widely used to assess mercury contamination in birds as they reflect metal concentrations accumulated between successive moult periods: they are also easy to sample and have minimum impact on the study birds. Moult is considered the major pathway for mercury excretion in seabirds. Penguins are widely believed to undergo a complete, annual moult during which they do not feed. As penguins lose all their feathers, they are expected to have a low individual-variability in feather mercury concentration as all feathers are formed simultaneously from the same somatic reserves. This assumption is central to penguin studies that use feathers to examine the annual or among-individual variation in mercury concentrations in penguins. To test this assumption, we measured the mercury concentrations in 3-5 body feathers of 52 gentoo penguins (Pygoscelis papua breeding at Bird Island, South Georgia (54°S 38°W. Twenty-five percent of the penguins studied showed substantial within-individual variation in the amount of mercury in their feathers (Coefficient of Variation: 34.7-96.7%. This variation may be caused by differences in moult patterns among individuals within the population leading to different interpretations in the overall population. Further investigation is now needed to fully understand individual variation in penguins' moult.

  2. Cadmium, lead, and mercury levels in feathers of small passerine birds: noninvasive sampling strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Nicola; Ancora, Stefania; di Fazio, Noemi; Leonzio, Claudio

    2008-10-01

    Bird feathers have been widely used as a nondestructive biological material for monitoring heavy metals. Sources of metals taken up by feathers include diet (metals are incorporated during feather formation), preening, and direct contact with metals in water, air, dust, and plants. In the literature, data regarding the origin of trace elements in feathers are not univocal. Only in the vast literature concerning mercury (as methyl mercury) has endogenous origin been determined. In the present study, we investigate cadmium, lead, and mercury levels in feathers of prey of Falco eleonorae in relation to the ecological characteristics (molt, habitat, and contamination by soil) of the different species. Cluster analysis identified two main groups of species. Differences and correlations within and between groups identified by cluster analysis were then checked by nonparametric statistical analysis. The results showed that mercury levels had a pattern significantly different from those of cadmium and lead, which in turn showed a significant positive correlation, suggesting different origins. Nests of F. eleonorae proved to be a good source for feathers of small trans-Saharan passerines collected by a noninvasive method. They provided abundant feathers of the various species in a relatively small area--in this case, the falcon colony on the Isle of San Pietro, Sardinia, Italy.

  3. The allometric pattern of sexually size dimorphic feather ornaments and factors affecting allometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuervo, José J; Møller, A P

    2009-07-01

    The static allometry of secondary sexual characters is currently subject to debate. While some studies suggest an almost universal positive allometry for such traits, but isometry or negative allometry for nonornamental traits, other studies maintain that any kind of allometric pattern is possible. Therefore, we investigated the allometry of sexually size dimorphic feather ornaments in 67 species of birds. We also studied the allometry of female feathers homologous to male ornaments (female ornaments in the following) and ordinary nonsexual traits. Allometries were estimated as reduced major axis slopes of trait length on tarsus length. Ornamental feathers showed positive allometric slopes in both sexes, although that was not a peculiarity for ornamental feathers, because nonsexual tail feathers also showed positive allometry. Migration distance (in males) and relative size of the tail ornament (in females) tended to be negatively related to the allometric slope of tail feather ornaments, although these results were not conclusive. Finally, we found an association between mating system and allometry of tail feather ornaments, with species with more intense sexual selection showing a smaller degree of allometry of tail ornaments. This study is consistent with theoretical models that predict no specific kind of allometric pattern for sexual and nonsexual characters.

  4. Tracking Seasonal Habitats Using Carbon and Nitrogen Stable Isotopes of Osprey Primary Flight Feathers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velinsky, D.; Zelanko, P.; Rice, N.

    2011-12-01

    The majority of bird migration studies use the latitudinal precipitation effect of hydrogen and oxygen stable isotopes of feathers to determine wintering and breeding grounds. Few studies have considered carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes to accomplish the same goal; exploiting the variation in dietary constitutes throughout yearly migration cycles. Also, there is no standard procedure of feather sampling; some use body, while others use wing feathers. This sampling discrepancy is not an issue for most migratory species since the majority of birds molt completely in one location, i.e. wintering verse breeding ground. Large birds of prey however, have a continuous molt that may last years, growing feathers on their breeding and wintering grounds. Therefore, a stable isotopic study of Osprey could not randomly sample feathers because it is impossible to know where individual feathers were grown. Here we present an in depth study of carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes from Mid-Atlantic Osprey primary flight feathers. Not only did we observe three signatures indicating the breeding ground and two distinct wintering grounds, we recorded dietary seasonality shifts within 2 to 3 year olds that remain on the wintering grounds for multiple years.

  5. The Effects of Crosswind Flight on Rotor Harmonic Noise Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, Eric; Sim, Ben W.

    2013-01-01

    In order to develop recommendations for procedures for helicopter source noise characterization, the effects of crosswinds on main rotor harmonic noise radiation are assessed using a model of the Bell 430 helicopter. Crosswinds are found to have a significant effect on Blade-Vortex Interaction (BVI) noise radiation when the helicopter is trimmed with the fuselage oriented along the inertial flight path. However, the magnitude of BVI noise remains unchanged when the pilot orients the fuselage along the aerodynamic velocity vector, crabbing for zero aerodynamic sideslip. The effects of wind gradients on BVI noise are also investigated and found to be smaller in the crosswind direction than in the headwind direction. The effects of crosswinds on lower harmonic noise sources at higher flight speeds are also assessed. In all cases, the directivity of radiated noise is somewhat changed by the crosswind. The model predictions agree well with flight test data for the Bell 430 helicopter captured under various wind conditions. The results of this investigation would suggest that flight paths for future acoustic flight testing are best aligned across the prevailing wind direction to minimize the effects of winds on noise measurements when wind cannot otherwise be avoided.

  6. Metals and trace elements in feathers: A geochemical approach to avoid misinterpretation of analytical responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghesi, Fabrizio; Migani, Francesca; Andreotti, Alessandro; Baccetti, Nicola; Bianchi, Nicola; Birke, Manfred; Dinelli, Enrico

    2016-02-15

    Assessing trace metal pollution using feathers has long attracted the attention of ecotoxicologists as a cost-effective and non-invasive biomonitoring method. In order to interpret the concentrations in feathers considering the external contamination due to lithic residue particles, we adopted a novel geochemical approach. We analysed 58 element concentrations in feathers of wild Eurasian Greater Flamingo Phoenicopterus roseus fledglings, from 4 colonies in Western Europe (Spain, France, Sardinia, and North-eastern Italy) and one group of adults from zoo. In addition, 53 elements were assessed in soil collected close to the nesting islets. This enabled to compare a wide selection of metals among the colonies, highlighting environmental anomalies and tackling possible causes of misinterpretation of feather results. Most trace elements in feathers (Al, Ce, Co, Cs, Fe, Ga, Li, Mn, Nb, Pb, Rb, Ti, V, Zr, and REEs) were of external origin. Some elements could be constitutive (Cu, Zn) or significantly bioaccumulated (Hg, Se) in flamingos. For As, Cr, and to a lesser extent Pb, it seems that bioaccumulation potentially could be revealed by highly exposed birds, provided feathers are well cleaned. This comprehensive study provides a new dataset and confirms that Hg has been accumulated in feathers in all sites to some extent, with particular concern for the Sardinian colony, which should be studied further including Cr. The Spanish colony appears critical for As pollution and should be urgently investigated in depth. Feathers collected from North-eastern Italy were the hardest to clean, but our methods allowed biological interpretation of Cr and Pb. Our study highlights the importance of external contamination when analysing trace elements in feathers and advances methodological recommendations in order to reduce the presence of residual particles carrying elements of external origin. Geochemical data, when available, can represent a valuable tool for a correct

  7. Elements of abstract harmonic analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Bachman, George

    2013-01-01

    Elements of Abstract Harmonic Analysis provides an introduction to the fundamental concepts and basic theorems of abstract harmonic analysis. In order to give a reasonably complete and self-contained introduction to the subject, most of the proofs have been presented in great detail thereby making the development understandable to a very wide audience. Exercises have been supplied at the end of each chapter. Some of these are meant to extend the theory slightly while others should serve to test the reader's understanding of the material presented. The first chapter and part of the second give

  8. Harmonic functions with varying coefficients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Dziok

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Complex-valued harmonic functions that are univalent and sense preserving in the open unit disk can be written in the form f = h + g ‾ $f=h+\\overline{g}$ , where h and g are analytic. In this paper we investigate some classes of univalent harmonic functions with varying coefficients related to Janowski functions. By using the extreme points theory we obtain necessary and sufficient convolution conditions, coefficients estimates, distortion theorems, and integral mean inequalities for these classes of functions. The radii of starlikeness and convexity for these classes are also determined.

  9. Optimal Selective Harmonic Control for Power Harmonics Mitigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Keliang; Yang, Yongheng; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2015-01-01

    of power harmonics. The proposed optimal SHC is of hybrid structure: all recursive SHC modules with weighted gains are connected in parallel. It bridges the real “nk+-m order RC” and the complex “parallel structure RC”. Compared to other IMP based control solutions, it offers an optimal trade-off among...

  10. Probabilistic Harmonic Modeling of Wind Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guest, Emerson; Jensen, Kim H.; Rasmussen, Tonny Wederberg

    2017-01-01

    A probabilistic sequence domain (SD) harmonic model of a grid-connected voltage-source converter is used to estimate harmonic emissions in a wind power plant (WPP) comprised of Type-IV wind turbines. The SD representation naturally partitioned converter generated voltage harmonics into those...... with deterministic phase and those with probabilistic phase. A case study performed on a string of ten 3MW, Type-IV wind turbines implemented in PSCAD was used to verify the probabilistic SD harmonic model. The probabilistic SD harmonic model can be employed in the planning phase of WPP projects to assess harmonic...

  11. Parametric Investigation of the Effect of Hub Pitching Moment on Blade Vortex Interaction (BVI) Noise of an Isolated Rotor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malpica, Carlos; Greenwood, Eric; Sim, Ben

    2016-01-01

    At the most fundamental level, main rotor loading noise is caused by the harmonically-varying aerodynamic loads (acoustic pressures) exerted by the rotating blades on the air. Rotorcraft main rotor noise is therefore, in principle, a function of rotor control inputs, and thus the forces and moments required to achieve steady, or "trim", flight equilibrium. In certain flight conditions, the ensuing aerodynamic loading on the rotor(s) can result in highly obtrusive harmonic noise. The effect of the propulsive force, or X-force, on Blade-Vortex Interaction (BVI) noise is well documented. This paper presents an acoustics parametric sensitivity analysis of the effect of varying rotor aerodynamic pitch hub trim moments on BVI noise radiated by an S-70 helicopter main rotor. Results show that changing the hub pitching moment for an isolated rotor, trimmed in nominal 80 knot, 6 and 12 deg descent, flight conditions, alters the miss distance between the blades and the vortex in ways that have varied and noticeable effects on the BVI radiated-noise directionality. Peak BVI noise level is however not significantly altered. The application of hub pitching moment allows the attitude of the fuselage to be controlled; for example, to compensate for the uncomfortable change in fuselage pitch attitude introduced by a fuselage-mounted X-force controller.

  12. Individual blade pitch for yaw control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navalkar, S. T.; van Wingerden, J. W.; van Kuik, G. A. M.

    2014-06-01

    Individual pitch control (IPC) for reducing blade loads has been investigated and proven successful in recent literature. For IPC, the multi-blade co-ordinate (MBC) transformation is used to process the blade load signals from the rotating to a stationary frame of reference. In the stationary frame of reference, the yaw error of a turbine can be appended to generate IPC actions that are able to achieve turbine yaw control for a turbine in free yaw. In this paper, IPC for yaw control is tested on a high-fidelity numerical model of a commercially produced wind turbine in free yaw. The tests show that yaw control using IPC has the distinct advantage that the yaw system loads and support structure loading are substantially reduced. However, IPC for yaw control also shows a reduction in IPC blade load reduction potential and causes a slight increase in pitch activity. Thus, the key contribution of this paper is the concept demonstration of IPC for yaw control. Further, using IPC for yaw as a tuning parameter, it is shown how the best trade-off between blade loading, pitch activity and support structure loading can be achieved for wind turbine design.

  13. 3X-100 blade field test.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zayas, Jose R.; Johnson, Wesley D.

    2008-03-01

    In support of a Work-For-Other (WFO) agreement between the Wind Energy Technology Department at Sandia National Laboratories and 3TEX, one of the three Micon 65/13M wind turbines at the USDA Agriculture Research Service (ARS) center in Bushland, Texas, has been used to test a set of 9 meter wind turbine blades, manufactured by TPI composites using the 3TEX carbon material for the spar cap. Data collected from the test has been analyzed to evaluate both the aerodynamic performance and the structural response from the blades. The blades aerodynamic and structural performance, the meteorological inflow and the wind turbine structural response has been monitored with an array of 57 instruments: 15 to characterize the blades, 13 to characterize inflow, and 15 to characterize the time-varying state of the turbine. For the test, data was sampled at a rate of 40 Hz using the ATLAS II (Accurate GPS Time-Linked Data Acquisition System) data acquisition system. The system features a time-synchronized continuous data stream and telemetered data from the turbine rotor. This paper documents the instruments and infrastructure that have been developed to monitor these blades, turbines and inflow, as well as both modeling and field testing results.

  14. Three-dimensional blade vortex interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davoudzadeh, Farhad; Buggein, Richard C.; Shamroth, Stephen J.; Kitaplioglu, Cahit

    1991-01-01

    A three-dimensional time dependent Navier-Stokes analysis was applied to the rotor blade vortex interaction problem. The numerical procedure is an iterative implicit procedure using three point central differences to represent spatial derivatives. A series of calculations were made to determine the time steps, pseudo-time steps, iterations, artificial dissipation level, etc. required to maintain a nondissipative vortex. Results show the chosen method to have excellent non-dissipative properties provided the correct parameters are chosen. This study was used to set parameters for both two- and three-dimensional blade vortex interaction studies. The case considered was the interaction between a vortex and a NACA0012 airfoil. The results showed the detailed physics during the interaction including the pressure pulse propagating from the blade. The simulated flow physics was qualitatively similar to that experimentally observed. The BVI phenomena is the result of the buildup and violent collapse of the shock waves and local supersonic pockets on the blade surfaces. The resulting pressure pulse build-up appears to be centered at the blade leading edge.

  15. High within-individual variation in total mercury concentration in seabird feathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Alexander L; Diamond, Antony W

    2008-11-01

    To our knowledge, no rigorous assessment of the variation in mercury concentrations within individual seabirds has been made using multiple body feathers. We analyzed five feathers from individual Arctic terns (Sterna paradisaea Pontoppidan), common terns (Sterna hirundo L.), and Leach's storm-petrels (Oceanodroma leucorhoa Veillot) and found levels of within-individual variability higher than population or time-series variation. Using a randomization procedure, we found a large range of possible mercury concentrations if only one feather per individual had been sampled. Researchers should report within-individual variability in future studies.

  16. Some Aspects of the Art of Feather Works in Prehispanic Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Navarijo Ornelas, Lourdes

    2006-01-01

    In a universal way feathers have been includes in different utilitarian and symbolic aspects. For that reason, the importance of the use of feathers in prehispanic Mexico is exposed based in the dress and head wear that some personages that are painted in the mural painting of the tomb 5 at Suchilquitongo in Oaxaca and in the rooms of Bonampak, Chiapas. The study is centered in tree points: the quantity of feathers used in the confection of the headdress; the results indicate the biological i...

  17. Service failure of hot-stage turbine blades:

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldfield, William; Oldfield, Freda M.

    1993-10-01

    Surface-connected porosity in current military aircraft hot-stage turbine engine blades is associated with blade failure. Oxidation ratcheting is suggested as the failure mechanism. Sta- tistical comparison of new and used blade populations showed that for blades cast with an equiaxed structure, the porosity in new blades was associated with crack formation on the con- cave surface of the used blades. The pores did not tend to develop into cracks on the compressed (convex) surface of the blade. Insufficient suitable data on directionally solidified blades pre- vented similar statistical correlations. However, metallography of the directionally solidified blades showed that the in-service cracks were related to oxidation inside surface-connected pores and that the cracks were oriented in the same direction as the (axial) casting pores. Thus, the proposed failure mechanism through ratcheting is based on the following insights: (1) the blades are thermally cycled as a normal part of service; (2) the hot blades expand and the open pores are filled with oxide; (3) when the blade is cooled, thermal contraction of the metal is greater than the oxide, causing compressive stress and yield; and (4) thermal expansion of the blades opens the pores again, since yield relaxed compressive stress at low temperature. These insights were supported by metallographic and computer-simulation studies which showed that the pores grow 20 to 50 pct in width per 100 missions (about 90 hours of operation) for a military aircraft on a typical mission profile.

  18. Sums of Generalized Harmonic Series

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 20; Issue 9. Sums of Generalized Harmonic Series: For Kids from Five to Fifteen. Zurab Silagadze. General Article Volume 20 Issue 9 September 2015 pp 822-843 ... Keywords. Riemann zeta function; integral representation; Basel problem.

  19. Bolt Cutter Blade's Imprint in Toolmarks Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkov, Nikolai; Finkelstein, Nir; Novoselsky, Yehuda; Tsach, Tsadok

    2015-11-01

    Bolt cutters are known as cutting tools which are used for cutting hard objects and materials, such as padlocks and bars. Bolt cutter blades leave their imprint on the cut objects. When receiving a cut object from a crime scene, forensic toolmarks examiners can determine whether the suspected cutting tool was used in a specific crime or not based on class characteristic marks and individual marks that the bolt cutter blades leave on the cut object. The paper presents preliminary results of a study on ten bolt cutters and suggests a quick preliminary examination-the comparison between the blade thickness and the width of the imprint left by the tool on the cut object. Based on the comparison result, if there is not a match, the examiner can eliminate the feasibility of the use of the suspected cutting tool in a specific crime. This examination simplifies and accelerates the comparison procedure. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  20. Methods of making wind turbine rotor blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingston, Jamie T [Pensacola, FL; Burke, Arthur H. E. [Gulf Breeze, FL; Bakhuis, Jan Willem [Nijverdal, NL; Van Breugel, Sjef [Enschede, NL; Billen, Andrew [Daarlerveen, NL

    2008-04-01

    A method of manufacturing a root portion of a wind turbine blade includes, in an exemplary embodiment, providing an outer layer of reinforcing fibers including at least two woven mats of reinforcing fibers, providing an inner layer of reinforcing fibers including at least two woven mats of reinforcing fibers, and positioning at least two bands of reinforcing fibers between the inner and outer layers, with each band of reinforcing fibers including at least two woven mats of reinforcing fibers. The method further includes positioning a mat of randomly arranged reinforcing fibers between each pair of adjacent bands of reinforcing fibers, introducing a polymeric resin into the root potion of the wind turbine blade, infusing the resin through the outer layer, the inner layer, each band of reinforcing fibers, and each mat of random reinforcing fibers, and curing the resin to form the root portion of the wind turbine blade.

  1. Higher harmonic control analysis for vibration reduction of helicopter rotor systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Khanh Q.

    1994-01-01

    An advanced higher harmonic control (HHC) analysis has been developed and applied to investigate its effect on vibration reduction levels, blade and control system fatigue loads, rotor performance, and power requirements of servo-actuators. The analysis is based on a finite element method in space and time. A nonlinear time domain unsteady aerodynamic model, based on the indicial response formulation, is used to calculate the airloads. The rotor induced inflow is computed using a free wake model. The vehicle trim controls and blade steady responses are solved as one coupled solution using a modified Newton method. A linear frequency-domain quasi-steady transfer matrix is used to relate the harmonics of the vibratory hub loads to the harmonics of the HHC inputs. Optimal HHC is calculated from the minimization of the vibratory hub loads expressed in term of a quadratic performance index. Predicted vibratory hub shears are correlated with wind tunnel data. The fixed-gain HHC controller suppresses completely the vibratory hub shears for most of steady or quasi-steady flight conditions. HHC actuator amplitudes and power increase significantly at high forward speeds (above 100 knots). Due to the applied HHC, the blade torsional stresses and control loads are increased substantially. For flight conditions where the blades are stalled considerably, the HHC input-output model is quite nonlinear. For such cases, the adaptive-gain controller is effective in suppressing vibratory hub loads, even though HHC may actually increase stall areas on the rotor disk. The fixed-gain controller performs poorly for such flight conditions. Comparison study of different rotor systems indicates that a soft-inplane hingeless rotor requires less actuator power at high speeds (above 130 knots) than an articulated rotor, and a stiff-inplane hingeless rotor generally requires more actuator power than an articulated or a soft-inplane hingeless rotor. Parametric studies for a hingeless rotor

  2. Colored reflections from the black-billed magpie feathers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigneron, Jean Pol; Lousse, Virginie

    2006-08-01

    The structural origin of the weak iridescence on some of the dark feathers of the black-billed magpie, Pica pica (Corvidae), is found in the structure of the ribbon-shaped barbules. The cortex of these barbules contains cylindrical holes distributed as the nodes of an hexagonal lattice in the hard layer cross-section. The cortex optical properties are described starting from a photonic-crystal film theory. The yellowish-green coloration of the bird's tail can be explained by the appearance of a reflection band related to the photonic-crystal lowest-lying gap. The bluish reflections from the wings are produced by a more complicated mechanism, involving the presence of a cortex "second gap".

  3. Darwin's finches treat their feathers with a natural repellent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimadom, Arno; Causton, Charlotte; Cha, Dong H; Damiens, David; Fessl, Birgit; Hood-Nowotny, Rebecca; Lincango, Piedad; Mieles, Alejandro E; Nemeth, Erwin; Semler, Elizabeth M; Teale, Stephen A; Tebbich, Sabine

    2016-10-10

    Darwin's finches are highly innovative. Recently we recorded for the first time a behavioural innovation in Darwin's finches outside the foraging context: individuals of four species rubbed leaves of the endemic tree Psidium galapageium on their feathers. We hypothesised that this behaviour serves to repel ectoparasites and tested the repellency of P. galapageium leaf extracts against parasites that negatively affect the fitness of Darwin's finches, namely mosquitoes and the invasive hematophagous fly Philornis downsi. Mosquitoes transmit pathogens which have recently been introduced by humans and the larvae of the fly suck blood from nestlings and incubating females. Our experimental evidence demonstrates that P. galapageium leaf extracts repel both mosquitoes and adult P. downsi and also inhibit the growth of P. downsi larvae. It is therefore possible that finches use this plant to repel ectopoarasites.

  4. Simulation of Rotor Blade Element Turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, R. E.; Duisenberg, Ken

    1996-01-01

    A turbulence model has been developed for blade-element helicopter simulation. This model, called Simulation of Rotor Blade Element Turbulence (SORBET), uses an innovative temporal and geometrical distribution algorithm that preserves the statistical characteristics of the turbulence spectra over the rotor disc, while providing velocity components in real time to each of five blade-element stations along each of four blades. An initial investigation of SORBET has been performed using a piloted, motion-based simulation of the Sikorsky UH60A Black Hawk. Although only the vertical component of stochastic turbulence was used in this investigation, vertical turbulence components induce vehicle responses in all translational and rotational degrees of freedom of the helicopter. The single-degree-of-freedom configuration of SORBET was compared to a conventional full 6-degrees-of-freedom baseline configuration, where translational velocity inputs are superimposed at the vehicle center of gravity, and rotational velocity inputs are created from filters that approximate the immersion rate into the turbulent field. For high-speed flight the vehicle responses were satisfactory for both models. Test pilots could not distinguish differences between the baseline configuration and SORBET. In low-speed flight the baseline configuration received criticism for its high frequency content, whereas the SORBET model elicited favorable pilot opinion. For this helicopter, which has fully articulated blades, results from SORBET show that vehicle responses to turbulent blade-station disturbances are severely attenuated. This is corroborated by in-flight observation of the rotor tip path plane as compared to vehicle responses.

  5. Tides and tidal harmonics at Umbharat, Gujarat

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Suryanarayana, A.; Swamy, G.N.

    A part of the data on tides recorded at Machiwada near Umbharat, Gulf of Cambay during April 1978 was subjected to harmonic analysis following the Admiralty procedure. The general tidal characteristics and the value of four major harmonic...

  6. Local modes analysis of a rotating marine ship propeller with higher order harmonic elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Chen; Yong, Chen; Hongxing, Hua

    2016-09-01

    An annular harmonic finite element for the computation of the local modes of a pretwisted ship propeller is developed. The elements take into account both the gyroscopic effect and centrifugal stiffening of the propeller blades. The displacement field is expressed by a truncated Fourier series along the angle and by polynomial shape functions in the radial direction. As an example, the dynamic behaviour, i.e. the nature frequency and local modes, of a ship propeller is studied, and compared with ANSYS, both of which have good consistency.

  7. New occurrences of fossilized feathers: systematics and taphonomy of the Santana Formation of the Araripe Basin (Cretaceous, NE, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo M.E.M. Prado

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Here we describe three fossil feathers from the Early Cretaceous Santana Formation of the Araripe Basin, Brazil. Feathers are the most complex multiform vertebrate integuments; they perform different functions, occurring in both avian and non-avian dinosaurs. Despite their rarity, fossil feathers have been found across the world. Most of the Brazilian feather fossil record comes from the Santana Formation. This formation is composed of two members: Crato (lake and Romualdo (lagoon; both of which are predominantly reduced deposits, precluding bottom dwelling organisms, resulting in exceptional preservation of the fossils. Despite arid and hot conditions during the Cretaceous, life teemed in the adjacency of this paleolake. Feathered non-avian dinosaurs have not yet been described from the Crato Member, even though there are suggestions of their presence in nearby basins. Our description of the three feathers from the Crato laminated limestone reveals that, despite the small sample size, they can be referred to coelurosaurian theropods. Moreover, based on comparisons with extant feather morphotypes they can be identified as one contour feather and two downy feathers. Despite their rareness and low taxonomic potential, fossilized feathers can offer insights about the paleobiology of its owners and the paleoecology of the Araripe Basin.

  8. The chicken frizzle feather is due to an α-keratin (KRT75 mutation that causes a defective rachis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Siang Ng

    Full Text Available Feathers have complex forms and are an excellent model to study the development and evolution of morphologies. Existing chicken feather mutants are especially useful for identifying genetic determinants of feather formation. This study focused on the gene F, underlying the frizzle feather trait that has a characteristic curled feather rachis and barbs in domestic chickens. Our developmental biology studies identified defects in feather medulla formation, and physical studies revealed that the frizzle feather curls in a stepwise manner. The frizzle gene is transmitted in an autosomal incomplete dominant mode. A whole-genome linkage scan of five pedigrees with 2678 SNPs revealed association of the frizzle locus with a keratin gene-enriched region within the linkage group E22C19W28_E50C23. Sequence analyses of the keratin gene cluster identified a 69 bp in-frame deletion in a conserved region of KRT75, an α-keratin gene. Retroviral-mediated expression of the mutated F cDNA in the wild-type rectrix qualitatively changed the bending of the rachis with some features of frizzle feathers including irregular kinks, severe bending near their distal ends, and substantially higher variations among samples in comparison to normal feathers. These results confirmed KRT75 as the F gene. This study demonstrates the potential of our approach for identifying genetic determinants of feather forms.

  9. Helicopter individual-blade-control and its applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, N. D.

    1984-01-01

    A new, advanced type of active control for helicopters and its applications are described. The system, based on previously developed M.I.T. Individual-Blade-Control hardware, employs blade-mounted accelerometers to sense blade motion and feeds back information to control blade pitch in such a manner as to reduce the response of selected blade modes. A linear model of the blade and control system dynamics is used to give guidance in the design process as well as to aid in analysis of experimental results. System performance in wind tunnel tests is described, and evidence is given of the system's ability to provide substantial reduction in blade modal responses, including blade bending vibration.

  10. Bayesian Estimation of Remaining Useful Life for Wind Turbine Blades

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jannie S Nielsen; John D Sørensen

    2017-01-01

    .... In this paper, a method is proposed for calibration of a Markov deterioration model based on past inspection data for a range of blades, and updating of the model for a specific wind turbine blade...

  11. Wind blade spar cap and method of making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Mansour H [Raleigh, NC

    2008-05-27

    A wind blade spar cap for strengthening a wind blade including an integral, unitary three-dimensional woven material having a first end and a second end, corresponding to a root end of the blade and a tip end of the blade, wherein the material tapers in width from the first to the second end while maintaining a constant thickness and decreasing weight therebetween, the cap being capable of being affixed to the blade for providing increased strength with controlled variation in weight from the root end to the tip end based upon the tapered width of the material thereof. The present inventions also include the method of making the wind blade spar cap and a wind blade including the wind blade spar cap.

  12. Computational method for the design of wind turbine blades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vitale, A.J. [Instituto Argentino de Oceanografia, Camino La Carrindanga Km. 7.5, CC 804, B8000FWB Bahia Blanca (Argentina); Universidad Tecnologica Nacional Facultad Regional Bahia Blanca, GESE, 11 de Abril 461, B8000LMI Bahia Blanca (Argentina); Universidad Nacional del Sur, Dpto. de Ing. Electrica y de Computadoras, Av. Alem 1253, 8000 Bahia Blanca (Argentina); Rossi, A.P. [Universidad Tecnologica Nacional Facultad Regional Bahia Blanca, GESE, 11 de Abril 461, B8000LMI Bahia Blanca (Argentina); Universidad Nacional del Sur, Dpto. de Ing. Electrica y de Computadoras, Av. Alem 1253, 8000 Bahia Blanca (Argentina)

    2008-07-15

    Zeus Disenador was developed to design low-power, horizontal-axis wind turbine blades, by means of an iterative algorithm. With this software, it is possible to obtain the optimum blade shape for a wind turbine to satisfy energy requirements of an electric system with optimum rotor efficiency. The number of blades, the airfoil curves and the average wind velocity can be specified by the user. The user can also request particular edge conditions for the width of the blades and for the pitch angle. Results are provided in different windows. Two- and three-dimensional graphics show the aspect of the resultant blade. Numerical results are displayed for blade length, blade surface, pitch angle variation along the blade span, rotor angular speed, rotor efficiency and rotor output power. Software verifications were made by comparing rotor power and rotor efficiency for different designs. Results were similar to those provided by commercial wind generator manufacturers. (author)

  13. Design and fabrication of a wind turbine blade | Laryea | Ghana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Institute of Industrial Research, Accra. Earlier turbine blades were manufactured from seasoned wood. The designed blade reported in the study was fabricated from fiberglass and epoxy resin compositions using wood for the mould pattern.

  14. Research overview on vibration damping of mistuned bladed disk assemblies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang ZHANG

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Bladed disk assemblies are very important parts in auto engine and gas turbine, and is widely used in practical engineering. The mistuning existing commonly in the bladed disk assemblies can destroy the vibration characteristics of the bladed disk assemblies, which is one of the reasons for the high cycle fatigue failure of bladed disk assemblies, so it is necessary to research how to reduce the vibration of the bladed disk assemblies. On the basis of the review of relevant research at home and abroad, the mistuning vibration mechanism of the bladed disk assemblies is introduced, and the main technical methods of the vibration damping of bladed disk assemblies are reviewed, such as artificially active mistuning, collision damping, friction damping and optimization of the blade position. Some future research directions are presented.

  15. Designing for hot-blade cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brander, David; Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas; Clausen, Kenn

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present a novel method for the generation of doubly-curved, architectural design surfaces using swept Euler elastica and cubic splines. The method enables a direct design to production workflow with robotic hot-blade cutting, a novel robotic fabrication method under development......-trivial constraints of blade-cutting in a bottom-up fashion, enabling an exploration of the unique architectural potential of this fabrication approach. The method is implemented as prototype design tools in MatLAB, C++, GhPython, and Python and demonstrated through cutting of expanded polystyrene foam design...

  16. Torsional Performance of Wind Turbine Blades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branner, Kim; Berring, Peter; Berggreen, Christian

    2007-01-01

    The present work investigates how well different finite element modeling techniques can predict bending and torsion behavior of a wind turbine blade. Two shell models are investigated. One model has element offsets and the other has the elements at the mid-thickness surfaces of the model. The last...... two models investigated use a combination of shell and solid elements. The results from the numerical investigations are compared with measurements from testing of a section of a full-scale wind turbine blade. It is found that only the combined shell/solid models give reliable results in torsion. Both...

  17. New airfoil sections for straight bladed turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boumaza, B.

    1987-07-01

    A theoretical investigation of aerodynamic performance for vertical axis Darrieus wind turbine with new airfoils sections is carried out. The blade section aerodynamics characteristics are determined from turbomachines cascade model. The model is also adapted to the vertical Darrieus turbine for the performance prediction of the machine. In order to choose appropriate value of zero-lift-drag coefficient in calculation, an analytical expression is introduced as function of chord-radius ratio and Reynolds numbers. New airfoils sections are proposed and analyzed for straight-bladed turbine.

  18. Different scales of spatial segregation of two species of feather mites on the wings of a passerine bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mestre, Alexandre; Mesquita-Joanes, Francesc; Proctor, Heather; Monrós, Juan S

    2011-04-01

    The "condition-specific competition hypothesis" proposes that coexistence of 2 species is possible when spatial or temporal variations in environmental conditions exist and each species responds differently to those conditions. The distribution of different species of feather mites on their hosts is known to be affected by intrinsic host factors such as structure of feathers and friction among feathers during flight, but there is also evidence that external factors such as humidity and temperature can affect mite distribution. Some feather mites have the capacity to move through the plumage rather rapidly, and within-host variation in intensity of sunlight could be one of the cues involved in these active displacements. We analyzed both the within- and between-feather spatial distribution of 2 mite species, Trouessartia bifurcata and Dolichodectes edwardsi , that coexist in flight feathers of the moustached warbler Acrocephalus melanopogon. A complex spatial segregation between the 2 species was observed at 3 spatial levels, i.e., "feather surfaces," "between feathers," and "within feathers." Despite certain overlapping distribution among feathers, T. bifurcata dominated proximal and medial regions on dorsal faces, while D. edwardsi preferred disto-ventral feather areas. An experiment to check the behavioral response of T. bifurcata to sunlight showed that mites responded to light exposure by approaching the feather bases and even leaving its dorsal face. Spatial heterogeneity across the 3 analyzed levels, together with response to light and other particular species adaptations, may have played a role in the coexistence and segregation of feather mites competing for space and food in passerine birds.

  19. Detection of Harmonic Occurring using Kalman Filtering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hussain, Dil Muhammad Akbar; Shoro, Ghulam Mustafa; Imran, Raja Muhammed

    2014-01-01

    As long as the load to a power system is linear which has been the case before 80's, typically no harmonics are produced. However, the modern power electronic equipment for controlled power consumption produces harmonic disturbances, these devices/equipment possess nonlinear voltage/current chara...... using Kalman filter. This may be very useful for example to quickly switching on certain filters based on the harmonic present. We are using a unique technique to detect the occurrence of harmonics....

  20. Aerodynamics and Optimal Design of Biplane Wind Turbine Blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Phillip

    In order to improve energy capture and reduce the cost of wind energy, in the past few decades wind turbines have grown significantly larger. As their blades get longer, the design of the inboard region (near the blade root) becomes a trade-off between competing structural and aerodynamic requirements. State-of-the-art blades require thick airfoils near the root to efficiently support large loads inboard, but those thick airfoils have inherently poor aerodynamic performance. New designs are required to circumvent this design compromise. One such design is the "biplane blade", in which the thick airfoils in the inboard region are replaced with thinner airfoils in a biplane configuration. This design was shown previously to have significantly increased structural performance over conventional blades. In addition, the biplane airfoils can provide increased lift and aerodynamic efficiency compared to thick monoplane inboard airfoils, indicating a potential for increased power extraction. This work investigates the fundamental aerodynamic aspects, aerodynamic design and performance, and optimal structural design of the biplane blade. First, the two-dimensional aerodynamics of biplanes with relatively thick airfoils are investigated, showing unique phenomena which arise as a result of airfoil thickness. Next, the aerodynamic design of the full biplane blade is considered. Two biplane blades are designed for optimal aerodynamic loading, and their aerodynamic performance quantified. Considering blades with practical chord distributions and including the drag of the mid-blade joint, it is shown that biplane blades have comparable power output to conventional monoplane designs. The results of this analysis also show that the biplane blades can be designed with significantly less chord than conventional designs, a characteristic which enables larger blade designs. The aerodynamic loads on the biplane blades are shown to be increased in gust conditions and decreased under

  1. Narrow primary feather rachises in Confuciusornis and Archaeopteryx suggest poor flight ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nudds, Robert L; Dyke, Gareth J

    2010-05-14

    The fossil birds Archaeopteryx and Confuciusornis had feathered wings resembling those of living birds, but their flight capabilities remain uncertain. Analysis of the rachises of their primary feathers shows that the rachises were much thinner and weaker than those of modern birds, and thus the birds were not capable of flight. Only if the primary feather rachises were solid in cross-section (the strongest structural configuration), and not hollow as in living birds, would flight have been possible. Hence, if Archaeopteryx and Confuciusornis were flapping flyers, they must have had a feather structure that was fundamentally different from that of living birds. Alternatively, if they were only gliders, then the flapping wing stroke must have appeared after the divergence of Confuciusornis, likely within the enantiornithine or ornithurine radiations.

  2. Feather damaging behaviour in parrots: A review with consideration of comparative aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Zeeland, Yvonne R A; Spruit, Berry M; Rodenburg, T Bas

    2009-01-01

    regarded as a grooming disorder. Grooming or preening is behaviour that serves both physical and social purposes. In the presence of stressors, such as novelty, so-called displacement grooming may develop that can result in excessive grooming when chronic stress is experienced (maladaptive behaviour......Feather damaging behaviour (also referred to as feather picking or feather plucking) is a behavioural disorder that is frequently encountered in captive parrots. This disorder has many characteristics that are similar to trichotillomania, an impulse control disorder in humans. Unfortunately...... similarities with behavioural disorders present in other bird species. Feather pecking (FP) in poultry is of particular interest in this case. Because of the major impacts on welfare and economy, the disorder has been thoroughly investigated. It has been shown that genetic, socio...

  3. The use of feathers of birds of prey as indicators of metal pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodenius, Martin; Solonen, Tapio

    2013-11-01

    Published results concerning metal levels in feathers of birds of prey were listed and evaluated. Mercury concentrations have been studied most and the background values normally vary between 0.1 and 5 mg/kg dry weight the highest concentrations being in birds from aquatic food chains. Pollution causes elevated levels of mercury in feathers. The concentrations of cadmium, copper, lead and zinc show reasonable variation between species, areas and time periods. Feathers of birds of prey have proved to be good indicators of the status of environmental heavy metal pollution. Special attention should be paid to clean sampling and preparation of samples. Interpretation of the results requires knowledge on food habit, molting and migration patterns of the species. Several species representing different food chains should be included in comprehensive monitoring surveys. Chick feathers reflect most reliably local conditions.

  4. Localization of natural modes of vibration in bladed disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendiksen, O. O.; Valero, N. A.

    1987-01-01

    A study is presented of the mode localization phenomenon in imperfect blade-disk and blade-shroud-disk assemblies. The results indicate that unshrouded blades mounted on stiff disks are especially susceptible, and even small blade imperfections within manufacturing tolerances are likely to trigger mode localization. Increasing the interblade coupling by adding shrouds or reducing the disk stiffness greatly reduces the localization susceptiblity, although certain modes may still become localized if the shrouds are free to slip.

  5. Innovative design approaches for large wind turbine blades : final report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2004-05-01

    The goal of the Blade System Design Study (BSDS) was investigation and evaluation of design and manufacturing issues for wind turbine blades in the one to ten megawatt size range. A series of analysis tasks were completed in support of the design effort. We began with a parametric scaling study to assess blade structure using current technology. This was followed by an economic study of the cost to manufacture, transport and install large blades. Subsequently we identified several innovative design approaches that showed potential for overcoming fundamental physical and manufacturing constraints. The final stage of the project was used to develop several preliminary 50m blade designs. The key design impacts identified in this study are: (1) blade cross-sections, (2) alternative materials, (3) IEC design class, and (4) root attachment. The results show that thick blade cross-sections can provide a large reduction in blade weight, while maintaining high aerodynamic performance. Increasing blade thickness for inboard sections is a key method for improving structural efficiency and reducing blade weight. Carbon/glass hybrid blades were found to provide good improvements in blade weight, stiffness, and deflection when used in the main structural elements of the blade. The addition of carbon resulted in modest cost increases and provided significant benefits, particularly with respect to deflection. The change in design loads between IEC classes is quite significant. Optimized blades should be designed for each IEC design class. A significant portion of blade weight is related to the root buildup and metal hardware for typical root attachment designs. The results show that increasing the number of blade fasteners has a positive effect on total weight, because it reduces the required root laminate thickness.

  6. Effective harmonic oscillator description of anharmonic molecular ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Abstract. The validity of an effective harmonic oscillator approximation for anharmonic molecular vibrations is tested and compared with vibrational self consistent field and vibrational configurational interaction results. The effective harmonic oscillator is constructed variationally, by taking the trial wave function as a harmonic ...

  7. Third Harmonic Imaging using a Pulse Inversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Joachim; Du, Yigang; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2011-01-01

    The pulse inversion (PI) technique can be utilized to separate and enhance harmonic components of a waveform for tissue harmonic imaging. While most ultrasound systems can perform pulse inversion, only few image the 3rd harmonic component. PI pulse subtraction can isolate and enhance the 3rd...

  8. Harmonic Detection at Initialization With Kalman Filter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hussain, Dil Muhammad Akbar; Imran, Raja Muhammad; Shoro, Ghulam Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    the affect of harmonics on the supply. For the detection of these harmonics various techniques are available and one of that technique is the Kalman filter. In this paper we investigate that what are the consequences when harmonic detection system based on Kalman Filtering is initialized...

  9. Assessment of the effect of housing on feather damage in laying hens using IR thermography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichová, K; Bilčík, B; Košt'ál, L'

    2017-04-01

    Plumage damage represents one of the animal-based measures of laying hens welfare. Damage occurs predominantly due to age, environment and damaging pecking. IR thermography, due to its non-invasiveness, objectivity and repeatability is a promising alternative to feather damage scoring systems such as the system included in the Welfare Quality ® assessment protocol for poultry. The aim of this study was to apply IR thermography for the assessment of feather damage in laying hens kept in two housing systems and to compare the results with feather scoring. At the start of the experiment, 16-week-old laying hens (n=30) were divided into two treatments such as deep litter pen and enriched cage. During 4 months, feather damage was assessed regularly in 2-week intervals. One more single assessment was done nine and a half months after the start of the experiment. The feather damage on four body regions was assessed by scoring and IR thermography: head and neck, back and rump, belly, and underneck and breast. Two variables obtained by IR thermography were used: the difference between the body surface temperature and ambient temperature (ΔTB) and the proportion of featherless areas, which were defined as areas with a temperature >33.5°C. Data were analyzed using a GLM model. The effects of housing, time, region and their interactions on feather damage, measured by the feather scoring and by both IR thermography measures, were all significant (Pdeep litter pens starting from week 6 of the experiment on the belly and back and rump regions, whereas ΔTB from week 6 in the belly and from week 8 on the back and rump region. The proportion of featherless areas in the belly region differed significantly between the housings from week 8 of the experiment and on the back and rump region from week 12. The IR thermography assessment of the feather damage revealed differences between hens kept in different housing systems in agreement with the feather scoring. In conclusion, it was

  10. Modeling dynamic stall on wind turbine blades under rotationally augmented flow fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guntur, S. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Schreck, S. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sorensen, N. N. [Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark); Bergami, L. [Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark)

    2015-04-22

    It is well known that airfoils under unsteady flow conditions with a periodically varying angle of attack exhibit aerodynamic characteristics different from those under steady flow conditions, a phenomenon commonly known as dynamic stall. It is also well known that the steady aerodynamic characteristics of airfoils in the inboard region of a rotating blade differ from those under steady two-dimensional (2D) flow conditions, a phenomenon commonly known as rotational augmentation. This paper presents an investigation of these two phenomena together in the inboard parts of wind turbine blades. This analysis is carried out using data from three sources: (1) the National Renewable Energy Laboratory’s Unsteady Aerodynamics Experiment Phase VI experimental data, including constant as well as continuously pitching blade conditions during axial operation, (2) data from unsteady Delayed Detached Eddy Simulations (DDES) carried out using the Technical University of Denmark’s in-house flow solver Ellipsys3D, and (3) data from a simplified model based on the blade element momentum method with a dynamic stall subroutine that uses rotationally augmented steady-state polars obtained from steady Phase VI experimental sequences, instead of the traditional 2D nonrotating data. The aim of this work is twofold. First, the blade loads estimated by the DDES simulations are compared to three select cases of the N sequence experimental data, which serves as a validation of the DDES method. Results show reasonable agreement between the two data in two out of three cases studied. Second, the dynamic time series of the lift and the moment polars obtained from the experiments are compared to those from the dynamic stall subroutine that uses the rotationally augmented steady polars. This allowed the differences between the stall phenomenon on the inboard parts of harmonically pitching blades on a rotating wind turbine and the classic dynamic stall representation in 2D flow to be

  11. Synthesis, structure and antimicrobial property of green composites from cellulose, wool, hair and chicken feather.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Chieu D; Prosencyes, Franja; Franko, Mladen; Benzi, Gerald

    2016-10-20

    Novel composites between cellulose (CEL) and keratin (KER) from three different sources (wool, hair and chicken feather) were successfully synthesized in a simple one-step process in which butylmethylimidazolium chloride (BMIm(+)Cl(-)), an ionic liquid, was used as the sole solvent. The method is green and recyclable because [BMIm(+)Cl(-)] used was recovered for reuse. Spectroscopy (FTIR, XRD) and imaging (SEM) results confirm that CEL and KER remain chemically intact and homogeneously distributed in the composites. KER retains some of its secondary structure in the composites. Interestingly, the minor differences in the structure of KER in wool, hair and feather produced pronounced differences in the conformation of their corresponding composites with wool has the highest α-helix content and feather has the lowest content. These results correlate well with mechanical and antimicrobial properties of the composites. Specifically, adding CEL into KER substantially improves mechanical strength of [CEL+KER] composites made from all three different sources, wool, hair and chicken feathers i.e., [CEL+wool], [CEL+hair] and [CEL+feather]. Since mechanical strength is due to CEL, and CEL has only random structure, [CEL+feather] has, expectedly, the strongest mechanical property because feather has the lowest content of α-helix. Conversely, [CEL+wool] composite has the weakest mechanical strength because wool has the highest α-helix content. All three composites exhibit antibacterial activity against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The antibacterial property is due not to CEL but to the protein and strongly depends on the type of the keratin, namely, the bactericidal effect is strongest for feather and weakest for wool. These results together with our previous finding that [CEL+KER] composites can control release of drug such as ciprofloxacin clearly indicate that these composites can potentially be used as wound dressing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier

  12. Time trends of mercury in feathers of West Greenland birds of prey during 1851-2003

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dietz, Rune; Riget, Frank Farsø; Boertmann, David

    2006-01-01

    Temporal trends of mercury (Hg) in West Greenland gyrfalcons, peregrine falcons, and white-tailed eagles were determined over 150 years from 1851 to 2003. Hg was measured in the fifth primary feather. Results showed that Hg increased in the order gyrfalcon (lowest)...) analysis. Of eight time trend analyses (three species and three age groups of which one was missing), seven showed an increase in primary feather concentrations. Of these...

  13. Sexual dimorphism in melanin pigmentation, feather coloration and its heritability in the barn swallow (Hirundo rustica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saino, Nicola; Romano, Maria; Rubolini, Diego; Teplitsky, Celine; Ambrosini, Roberto; Caprioli, Manuela; Canova, Luca; Wakamatsu, Kazumasa

    2013-01-01

    Melanin is the main pigment in animal coloration and considerable variation in the concentrations of the two melanin forms (pheo- and eumlanin) in pigmented tissues exists among populations and individuals. Melanin-based coloration is receiving increasing attention particularly in socio-sexual communication contexts because the melanocortin system has been hypothesized to provide a mechanistic basis for covariation between coloration and fitness traits. However, with few notable exceptions, little detailed information is available on inter-individual and inter-population variation in melanin pigmentation and on its environmental, genetic and ontogenetic components. Here, we investigate melanin-based coloration in an Italian population of a passerine bird, the barn swallow (Hirundo rustica rustica), its sex- and age-related variation, and heritability. The concentrations of eu- and pheomelanin in the throat (brown) and belly (white-to-brownish) feathers differed between sexes but not according to age. The relative concentration of either melanin (Pheo:Eu) differed between sexes in throat but not in belly feathers, and the concentrations in males compared to females were larger in belly than in throat feathers. There were weak correlations between the concentrations of melanins within as well as among plumage regions. Coloration of belly feathers was predicted by the concentration of both melanins whereas coloration of throat feathers was only predicted by pheomelanin in females. In addition, Pheo:Eu predicted coloration of throat feathers in females and that of belly feathers in males. Finally, we found high heritability of color of throat feathers. Melanization was found to differ from that recorded in Hirundo rustica rustica from Scotland or from H. r. erythrogaster from North America. Hence, present results show that pigmentation strategies vary in a complex manner according to sex and plumage region, and also among geographical populations, potentially

  14. Sexual dimorphism in melanin pigmentation, feather coloration and its heritability in the barn swallow (Hirundo rustica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Saino

    Full Text Available Melanin is the main pigment in animal coloration and considerable variation in the concentrations of the two melanin forms (pheo- and eumlanin in pigmented tissues exists among populations and individuals. Melanin-based coloration is receiving increasing attention particularly in socio-sexual communication contexts because the melanocortin system has been hypothesized to provide a mechanistic basis for covariation between coloration and fitness traits. However, with few notable exceptions, little detailed information is available on inter-individual and inter-population variation in melanin pigmentation and on its environmental, genetic and ontogenetic components. Here, we investigate melanin-based coloration in an Italian population of a passerine bird, the barn swallow (Hirundo rustica rustica, its sex- and age-related variation, and heritability. The concentrations of eu- and pheomelanin in the throat (brown and belly (white-to-brownish feathers differed between sexes but not according to age. The relative concentration of either melanin (Pheo:Eu differed between sexes in throat but not in belly feathers, and the concentrations in males compared to females were larger in belly than in throat feathers. There were weak correlations between the concentrations of melanins within as well as among plumage regions. Coloration of belly feathers was predicted by the concentration of both melanins whereas coloration of throat feathers was only predicted by pheomelanin in females. In addition, Pheo:Eu predicted coloration of throat feathers in females and that of belly feathers in males. Finally, we found high heritability of color of throat feathers. Melanization was found to differ from that recorded in Hirundo rustica rustica from Scotland or from H. r. erythrogaster from North America. Hence, present results show that pigmentation strategies vary in a complex manner according to sex and plumage region, and also among geographical populations

  15. Analysis of time domain active sensing data from CX-100 wind turbine blade fatigue tests for damage assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Mi Jin [Dept. of Aerospace Engineering and LANL-CBNU Engineering Institute, Chunbuk National University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Hwee Kwon; Park, Gyu Hae [School of Mechanical Engineering, Chonnam National University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Taylor, Stuart G.; Farinholt, Kevin M. [The Engineering Institute, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos (United States)

    2016-04-15

    This paper presents the results obtained using time-series-based methods for structural damage assessment. The methods are applied to a wind turbine blade structure subjected to fatigue loads. A 9 m CX-100 (carbon experimental 100 kW) blade is harmonically excited at its first natural frequency to introduce a failure mode. Consequently, a through-thickness fatigue crack is visually identified at 8.5 million cycles. The time domain data from the piezoelectric active-sensing techniques are measured during the fatigue loadings and used to detect incipient damage. The damage-sensitive features, such as the first four moments and a normality indicator, are extracted from the time domain data. Time series autoregressive models with exogenous inputs are also implemented. These features could efficiently detect a fatigue crack and are less sensitive to operational variations than the other methods.

  16. Calculation of transonic flow in radial turbine blade cascade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petr, Straka

    2017-09-01

    Numerical modeling of transonic centripetal turbulent flow in radial blade cascade is described in this paper. Attention is paid to effect of the outlet confusor on flow through the radial blade cascade. Parameters of presented radial blade cascade are compared with its linear representation

  17. Analysis of horizontal axis wind turbine blade using CFD | Nigam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Blade is very essential part of HAWT (horizontal axis wind turbine). Forces for Lift and drag on the blade has an important role in the wind turbine performance. The main purpose of this work is to perform CFD analysis of a blade and airfoil of wind turbine using k-ω SST model. In this present study NACA 634 -221 airfoil ...

  18. Intra-orbital knife blade foreign body: A case series

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-11-04

    Nov 4, 2013 ... Objective. To describe cases of intra-orbital knife blade foreign body following stabs to the orbit, together with a novel technique for removal. Methods. Retrospective case series of 3 patients. Results. All 3 patients had knife blades embedded in the orbit as a result of assault. The blades assumed the same ...

  19. Manufacture of Power Hacksaw Blades From Locally Available ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The manufacture of power hacksaw blades using worn out sawmill blades made of medium carbon steel has bean achieved. They were produced through carburization, hardening and tempering processes. The produced power hacksaw blade when compared with the imported one showed the former having a slightly ...

  20. Resonant vibration control of three-bladed wind turbine rotors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krenk, Steen; Svendsen, Martin Nymann; Høgsberg, Jan Becker

    2012-01-01

    Rotors with blades, as in wind turbines, are prone to vibrations due to the flexibility of the blades and the support. In the present paper a theory is developed for active control of a combined set of vibration modes in three-bladed rotors. The control system consists of identical collocated...

  1. A deflection monitoring system for a wind turbine blade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    A wind turbine blade comprising a system for monitoring the deflection of a wind turbine blade is described. The system comprises a wireless range-measurement system, having at least one wireless communication device located towards the root end of the blade and at least one wireless communication...

  2. Gas turbine engine turbine blade damaging estimate in maintenance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ель-Хожайрі Хусейн

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available  The factors determining character and intensity of corrosive damages of gas turbine blades are analyzed in the article. The classification of detrimental impurities polluting gas turbine airflow duct and injuring blade erosion damages are given. Common features of the method of turbine blade corrosive damage estimation are shown in the article.

  3. Channel flow analysis. [velocity distribution throughout blade flow field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsanis, T.

    1973-01-01

    The design of a proper blade profile requires calculation of the blade row flow field in order to determine the velocities on the blade surfaces. An analysis theory is presented for several methods used for this calculation and associated computer programs that were developed are discussed.

  4. Two new plumage mutations in the Japanese quail: "curly" feather and "rusty" plumage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moussu Chantal

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The genetics of plumage of Japanese quail is of interest both from a biological standpoint, for comparative studies between avian species, and from a zootechnical standpoint, for identifying commercial selection lines or crosses. There are only few plumage mutations reported in quail, and the present work describes a new color variant "rusty" and a new feather structure "curly", and their heredity from an F1 and F2 segregation experiment. Results Curly feathers result from abnormal early growth caused by transient joining of follicle walls of adjacent feathers around 10 days of age, but the expression of the trait is variable. Rusty plumage color results from the replacement of the wild-type plumage pattern on the tip of the feather by a reddish coloration, but the pigmentation of the bottom part of the feather is not affected. Two lines breeding true for the curly or the rusty phenotype were developed. Both characters are determined by autosomal recessive mutations which are independent. The curly mutation has also a positive effect on body weight at 5 weeks of age. Conclusion The curly line is a new model which may be used for further work on the growth of the feather, and the rusty mutation is a new addition to the panel of plumage mutations available for comparative studies in poultry, and more generally among avian species.

  5. DNA barcoding and minibarcoding as a powerful tool for feather mite studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doña, Jorge; Diaz-Real, Javier; Mironov, Sergey; Bazaga, Pilar; Serrano, David; Jovani, Roger

    2015-09-01

    Feather mites (Astigmata: Analgoidea and Pterolichoidea) are among the most abundant and commonly occurring bird ectosymbionts. Basic questions on the ecology and evolution of feather mites remain unanswered because feather mite species identification is often only possible for adult males, and it is laborious even for specialized taxonomists, thus precluding large-scale identifications. Here, we tested DNA barcoding as a useful molecular tool to identify feather mites from passerine birds. Three hundred and sixty-one specimens of 72 species of feather mites from 68 species of European passerine birds from Russia and Spain were barcoded. The accuracy of barcoding and minibarcoding was tested. Moreover, threshold choice (a controversial issue in barcoding studies) was also explored in a new way, by calculating through simulations the effect of sampling effort (in species number and species composition) on threshold calculations. We found one 200-bp minibarcode region that showed the same accuracy as the full-length barcode (602 bp) and was surrounded by conserved regions potentially useful for group-specific degenerate primers. Species identification accuracy was perfect (100%) but decreased when singletons or species of the Proctophyllodes pinnatus group were included. In fact, barcoding confirmed previous taxonomic issues within the P. pinnatus group. Following an integrative taxonomy approach, we compared our barcode study with previous taxonomic knowledge on feather mites, discovering three new putative cryptic species and validating three previous morphologically different (but still undescribed) new species. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. The evolution of avian wing shape and previously unrecognized trends in covert feathering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xia; Clarke, Julia A

    2015-10-07

    Avian wing shape has been related to flight performance, migration, foraging behaviour and display. Historically, linear measurements of the feathered aerofoil and skeletal proportions have been used to describe this shape. While the distribution of covert feathers, layered over the anterior wing, has long been assumed to contribute to aerofoil properties, to our knowledge no previous studies of trends in avian wing shape assessed their variation. Here, these trends are explored using a geometric-morphometric approach with landmarks describing the wing outline as well as the extent of dorsal and ventral covert feathers for 105 avian species. We find that most of the observed variation is explained by phylogeny and ecology but shows only a weak relationship with previously described flight style categories, wing loading and an investigated set of aerodynamic variables. Most of the recovered variation is in greater primary covert feather extent, followed by secondary feather length and the shape of the wing tip. Although often considered a plastic character strongly linked to flight style, the estimated ancestral wing morphology is found to be generally conservative among basal parts of most major avian lineages. The radiation of birds is characterized by successive diversification into largely distinct areas of morphospace. However, aquatic taxa show convergence in feathering despite differences in flight style, and songbirds move into a region of morphospace also occupied by basal taxa but at markedly different body sizes. These results have implications for the proposed inference of flight style in extinct taxa. © 2015 The Author(s).

  7. Diverse uses of feathers with emphasis on diagnosis of avian viral infections and vaccine virus monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Davidson

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The large amounts of feathers produced by the poultry industry, that is considered as a waste was explored for possible uses in various industries, such as meals for animals, biofuels, biodegradable plastic materials, combating water pollution and more. That review mentions these uses, but concentrate on the utilization of feathers for the diagnosis of viral infections and for monitoring vaccine viruses in chickens after vaccination. The viral diseases in which diagnosis using nucleic acids extracted from the feather shafts was described are, Marek's disease virus, circoviruses, chicken anemia virus, fowlpox virus, avian retroviruses, avian influenza virus and infectious laryngotracheitis virus. In two cases, of Marek's disease virus and of infectious laryngotracheitis virus, the differentiation of vaccine and wild-type viruses from feather shafts was made possible, thus allowing for monitoring the vaccination efficacy. The present review demonstrates also the stability of DNA viruses in feather shafts, and the possible evaluation of environmental dissemination of pathogens. When viruses are transmitted vertically, like in the cases of the retrovirus REV, a teratogenic effect on the development of feathers of the day-old newly hatched chick might occur in the case of avian influenza and the chicken anemia virus, which might indicate on a viral infection.

  8. The early evolution of feathers: fossil evidence from Cretaceous amber of France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrichot, Vincent; Marion, Loïc; Néraudeau, Didier; Vullo, Romain; Tafforeau, Paul

    2008-01-01

    The developmental stages of feathers are of major importance in the evolution of body covering and the origin of avian flight. Until now, there were significant gaps in knowledge of early morphologies in theoretical stages of feathers as well as in palaeontological material. Here we report fossil evidence of an intermediate and critical stage in the incremental evolution of feathers which has been predicted by developmental theories but hitherto undocumented by evidence from both the recent and the fossil records. Seven feathers have been found in an Early Cretaceous (Late Albian, ca 100 Myr) amber of western France, which display a flattened shaft composed by the still distinct and incompletely fused bases of the barbs forming two irregular vanes. Considering their remarkably primitive features, and since recent discoveries have yielded feathers of modern type in some derived theropod dinosaurs, the Albian feathers from France might have been derived either from an early bird or from a non-avian dinosaur. PMID:18285280

  9. Feather mites (Acari, Astigmata from Azorean passerines (Aves, Passeriformes: lower species richness compared to European mainland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigues Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ten passerine species were examined on three islands of the Azores (North Atlantic during 2013 and 2014 in order to identify their feather mite assemblages. We recorded 19 feather mite species belonging to four families of the superfamily Analgoidea (Analgidae, Proctophyllodidae, Psoroptoididae and Trouessartiidae. A high prevalence of feather mite species was recorded on the majority of the examined host species. Only three passerine species (Sylvia atricapilla, Regulus regulus and Serinus canaria presented the same full complex of mite species as commonly occurs in the plumage of their closest relatives in continental Europe. Passer domesticus presented the same limited fauna of feather mites living in the plumage as do its co-specifics in continental Europe. Carduelis carduelis bears the same feather mite species as do most of its continental populations in Europe, but it lacks one mite species occurring on this host in Egypt. Turdus merula, Pyrrhula murina and Fringilla coelebs are missing several mite species common to their continental relatives. This diminution could be explained by the founder effect, whereby a limited number of colonizing individuals did not transport the full set of feather mite species, or by the extinction of some mite species after initially having reached the Azores. The only individual of Motacilla cinerea sampled in this study presented a new host record for the mite species Trouessartia jedliczkai.

  10. A method to estimate wind turbine blade damage and to design damage-resilient blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiore, Giovanni

    Wind turbine blades are affected by continuous impacts with airborne particles that deteriorate the blade surface and yield to a drop in output power. Based on the climatic conditions and geographic locations of a given wind farm, multiple types of particles are observed in air. The present study focuses on simulating the impact of four types of particles, namely insects, sand grains, hailstones, and rain drops with the blade surface. A numerical inviscid flowfield code, coupled with a particle position predictor code was used. Upon impact, the damaging effect to the blade surface was evaluated. Each type of particle was associated with a damage mode, which depends on the mass, size, and hardness of the particle. It was found that insects strike and adhere to the blade in a region close to the leading edge. On the other hand, it was seen that sand grains promote erosion just downstream of the leading edge, where local velocity reaches a maximum and the impact angle is shallow. Moreover, particles such as rain drops are associated with fatigue and erosion at the very leading edge and on the upper side of the blade section. Finally, hailstones promote delamination and fatigue in the composite panels of the blade surface. Photographic evidence of damaged blade surfaces was used in the present research as a comparison with the simulations performed for various types of particle and different initial conditions. Based on such observations, a theorization of the damage pattern and evolution was proposed. Finally, given a set of well-established blade section geometries, such as the Delft University and NREL S airfoil families, a comparison of airfoil damage fitness was proposed and possible means of shape optimization were discussed. The investigation of blade geometry features to mitigate damage was performed. Based on previous results, it was argued that a viable blade section optimization may be performed for the lightest and smallest particles considered in the study

  11. Active Blade Pitch Control for Straight Bladed Darrieus Vertical Axis Wind Turbine of New Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chougule, Prasad; Nielsen, Søren R.K.; Basu, Biswajit

    2013-01-01

    at low rotational speed producing very less noise during operation, although these are less efficient than Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines (HAWT). The efficiency of a VAWT has been significantly improved by H-Darrieus VAWT design based on double airfoil technology as demonstrated by the authors......As Development of small vertical axis wind turbines (VAWT) for urban use is becoming an interesting topic both within industry and academia. However, there are few new designs of vertical axis turbines which are customized for building integration. These are getting importance because they operate...... in a previous publication. Further, it is well know that the variation of the blade pitch angle during the rotation improves the power efficiency. A blade pitch variation is implemented by active blade pitch control, which operates as per wind speed and position of the blade with respect to the rotor. A double...

  12. Coupled rotor-fuselage vibration reduction with multiple frequency blade pitch control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papavassiliou, I.; Friedmann, P. P.; Venkatesan, C.

    1991-01-01

    A nonlinear coupled rotor/flexible fuselage analysis has been developed and used to study the effects of higher harmonic blade pitch control on the vibratory hub loads and fuselage acceleration levels. Previous results, obtained with this model have shown that conventional higher harmonic control (HHC) inputs aimed at hub shear reduction cause an increase in the fuselage accelerations and vice-versa. It was also found that for simultaneous reduction of hub shears and fuselage accelerations, a pitch input representing a combination of two higher harmonic components of different frequencies was needed. Subsequently, it was found that this input could not be implemented through a conventional swashplate. This paper corrects a mistake originally made in the representation of the multiple frequency pitch input and shows that such a pitch input can be only implemented in the rotating reference frame. A rigorous mathematical solution is found, for the pitch input in the rotating reference frame, which produces simultaneous reduction of hub shears and fuselage acceleration. New insight on vibration reduction in coupled rotor/fuselage systems is obtained from the sensitivity of hub shears to the frequency and amplitude of the open loop HHC signal in the rotating reference frame. Finally the role of fuselage flexibility in this class of problems is determined.

  13. Static harmonization of dynamically harmonized Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhdanova, Ekaterina; Kostyukevich, Yury; Nikolaev, Eugene

    2017-08-01

    Static harmonization in the Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance cell improves the resolving power of the cell and prevents dephasing of the ion cloud in the case of any trajectory of the charged particle, not necessarily axisymmetric cyclotron (as opposed to dynamic harmonization). We reveal that the Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance cell with dynamic harmonization (paracell) is proved to be statically harmonized. The volume of the statically harmonized potential distribution increases with an increase in the number of trap segments.

  14. Hot Blade Cuttings for the Building Industries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brander, David; Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas; Evgrafov, Anton

    2016-01-01

    . The project aims to reduce the amount of manual labour as well as production time by applying robots to cut expanded polystyrene (EPS) moulds for the concrete to form doubly curved surfaces. The scheme is based upon the so-called Hot Wire or Hot Blade technology where the surfaces are essentially swept out...

  15. Vorticity Transport on a Rotating Blade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojcik, Craig; Buchholz, James

    2012-11-01

    The development of the leading-edge vortex (LEV) is investigated on the suction surface of a rectangular flat plate undergoing a starting rotation in a quiescent fluid for angles of attack between 25 and 45 degrees. For blade aspect ratios of 2 and 4, the LEV is shown to be compact and quasi-stationary at inboard regions of the blade, consistent with the results of some other recent investigations. A salient feature of this flow is a region of opposite-sign vorticity generated on the blade beneath the LEV which is observed to become partially entrained into the LEV. A detailed vorticity transport analysis on the LEV has revealed that the resulting annihilation of vorticity is an important mechanism regulating LEV circulation, and therefore its stability. A parametric study is discussed, which elucidates the roles of shear layer vorticity flux, spanwise flow, vortex tilting, and annihilation on the evolution of LEV circulation with changes in azimuthal position, blade aspect ratio, spanwise position, and Reynolds number. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation (EPSCoR grant EPS1101284), the Air Force Office of Scientific Research (grant FA9550-11-1-0019), and IIHR - Hydroscience & Engineering.

  16. The Evolution of Rotor and Blade Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tangler, J.

    2000-08-01

    The objective of this paper is to provide a historical perspective of the evolution of rotor and blade design during the last 20 years. This evolution is a balanced integration of economic, aerodynamic, structural dynamic, noise, and aesthetic considerations, which are known to be machine type and size dependent.

  17. Structural dynamic analysis of turbine blade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antony, A. Daniel; Gopalsamy, M.; Viswanadh, Chaparala B. V.; Krishnaraj, R.

    2017-10-01

    In any gas turbine design cycle, blade design is a crucial element which needs maximum attention to meet the aerodynamic performance, structural safety margins, manufacturing feasibility, material availability etc. In present day gas turbine engines, most of the failures occur during engine development test and in-service, in rotor and stator blades due to fatigue and resonance failures. To address this issue, an extensive structural dynamic analysis is carried out to predict the natural frequencies and mode shapes using FE methods. Using the dynamics characteristics, the Campbell diagram is constructed to study the possibility of resonance at various operating speeds. In this work, the feasibility of using composite material in place of titanium alloy from the structural dynamics point of view. This is being attempted in a Low-pressure compressor where the temperatures are relatively low and fixed with the casings. The analysis will be carried out using FE method for different composite material with different lamina orientations chosen through the survey. This study will focus on the sensitivity of blade mode shapes to different laminae orientations, which will be used to alter the natural frequency and tailor the mode shapes. Campbell diagrams of existing titanium alloy are compared with the composite materials with different laminae at all critical operating conditions. The existing manufacturing methods and the proven techniques for blade profiles will also be discussed in this report.

  18. Parametric study of composite wind turbine blades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Taeseong; Branner, Kim; Hansen, Anders Melchior

    2011-01-01

    In this paper an anisotropic beam element for a composite wind turbine blades is developed. Eigenvalue analysis with the new beam element is conducted in order to understand its responses associated with the wind turbine performances. From the results of natural frequencies and mode shapes it is ...

  19. Gas Turbine Blade Damper Optimization Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. K. Giridhar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The friction damping concept is widely used to reduce resonance stresses in gas turbines. A friction damper has been designed for high pressure turbine stage of a turbojet engine. The objective of this work is to find out effectiveness of the damper while minimizing resonant stresses for sixth and ninth engine order excitation of first flexure mode. This paper presents a methodology that combines three essential phases of friction damping optimization in turbo-machinery. The first phase is to develop an analytical model of blade damper system. The second phase is experimentation and model tuning necessary for response studies while the third phase is evaluating damper performance. The reduced model of blade is developed corresponding to the mode under investigation incorporating the friction damper then the simulations were carried out to arrive at an optimum design point of the damper. Bench tests were carried out in two phases. Phase-1 deals with characterization of the blade dynamically and the phase-2 deals with finding optimal normal load at which the blade resonating response is minimal for a given excitation. The test results are discussed, and are corroborated with simulated results, are in good agreement.

  20. Torsional Performance of Wind Turbine Blades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berring, Peter; Branner, Kim; Berggreen, Christian

    2007-01-01

    The complete 3D static responses of two different eight meter long wind turbine blade sections were tested. To experimentally investigate the 3D response, an advanced 3D digital optical deformation measuring system (ARAMIS 2M and 4M) was applied in this work. This system measures the full-field d...

  1. The Finite-Bladed Betz Rotor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jens Nørkær

    2016-01-01

    The finite-bladed optimum Betz rotor is treated. It is first very recently that a complete description of this rotor has been derived. In the chapter, a full analytical solution to the Betz rotor problem will be given, and the results will be compared to other optimum rotor models, both...

  2. Sparkling feather reflections of a bird-of-paradise explained by finite-difference time-domain modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilts, Bodo D.; Michielsen, Kristel; De Raedt, Hans; Stavenga, Doekele G.

    2014-01-01

    Birds-of-paradise are nature’s prime examples of the evolution of color by sexual selection. Their brilliant, structurally colored feathers play a principal role in mating displays. The structural coloration of both the occipital and breast feathers of the bird-of-paradise Lawes’ parotia is produced by melanin rodlets arranged in layers, together acting as interference reflectors. Light reflection by the silvery colored occipital feathers is unidirectional as in a classical multilayer, but the reflection by the richly colored breast feathers is three-directional and extraordinarily complex. Here we show that the reflection properties of both feather types can be quantitatively explained by finite-difference time-domain modeling using realistic feather anatomies and experimentally determined refractive index dispersion values of keratin and melanin. The results elucidate the interplay between avian coloration and vision and indicate tuning of the mating displays to the spectral properties of the avian visual system. PMID:24591592

  3. Sparkling feather reflections of a bird-of-paradise explained by finite-difference time-domain modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilts, Bodo D; Michielsen, Kristel; De Raedt, Hans; Stavenga, Doekele G

    2014-03-25

    Birds-of-paradise are nature's prime examples of the evolution of color by sexual selection. Their brilliant, structurally colored feathers play a principal role in mating displays. The structural coloration of both the occipital and breast feathers of the bird-of-paradise Lawes' parotia is produced by melanin rodlets arranged in layers, together acting as interference reflectors. Light reflection by the silvery colored occipital feathers is unidirectional as in a classical multilayer, but the reflection by the richly colored breast feathers is three-directional and extraordinarily complex. Here we show that the reflection properties of both feather types can be quantitatively explained by finite-difference time-domain modeling using realistic feather anatomies and experimentally determined refractive index dispersion values of keratin and melanin. The results elucidate the interplay between avian coloration and vision and indicate tuning of the mating displays to the spectral properties of the avian visual system.

  4. Data harmonization and model performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Joint Committee on Urban Storm Drainage of the International Association for Hydraulic Research (IAHR) and International Association on Water Pollution Research and Control (IAWPRC) was formed in 1982. The current committee members are (no more than two from a country): B. C. Yen, Chairman (USA); P. Harremoes, Vice Chairman (Denmark); R. K. Price, Secretary (UK); P. J. Colyer (UK), M. Desbordes (France), W. C. Huber (USA), K. Krauth (FRG), A. Sjoberg (Sweden), and T. Sueishi (Japan).The IAHR/IAWPRC Joint Committee is forming a Task Group on Data Harmonization and Model Performance. One objective is to promote international urban drainage data harmonization for easy data and information exchange. Another objective is to publicize available models and data internationally. Comments and suggestions concerning the formation and charge of the Task Group are welcome and should be sent to: B. C. Yen, Dept. of Civil Engineering, Univ. of Illinois, 208 N. Romine St., Urbana, IL 61801.

  5. Harmonic vibrations of multispan beams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyrbye, Claes

    1996-01-01

    Free and forced harmonic vibrations of multispan beams are determined by a method which implies 1 equation regardless of the configuration. The necessary formulas are given in the paper. For beams with simple supports and the same length of all (n) spans, there is a rather big difference between...... the n´th and the (n+1)´th eigenfrequency. The reason for this phenomenon is explained.Keywords: Vibrations, Eigenfrequencies, Beams....

  6. Representation Discovery using Harmonic Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Mahadevan, Sridhar

    2008-01-01

    Representations are at the heart of artificial intelligence (AI). This book is devoted to the problem of representation discovery: how can an intelligent system construct representations from its experience? Representation discovery re-parameterizes the state space - prior to the application of information retrieval, machine learning, or optimization techniques - facilitating later inference processes by constructing new task-specific bases adapted to the state space geometry. This book presents a general approach to representation discovery using the framework of harmonic analysis, in particu

  7. Harmonic ratcheting for fast acceleration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Cook

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A major challenge in the design of rf cavities for the acceleration of medium-energy charged ions is the need to rapidly sweep the radio frequency over a large range. From low-power medical synchrotrons to high-power accelerator driven subcritical reactor systems, and from fixed focus alternating gradient accelerators to rapid cycling synchrotrons, there is a strong need for more efficient, and faster, acceleration of protons and light ions in the semirelativistic range of hundreds of MeV/u. A conventional way to achieve a large, rapid frequency sweep (perhaps over a range of a factor of 6 is to use custom-designed ferrite-loaded cavities. Ferrite rings enable the precise tuning of the resonant frequency of a cavity, through the control of the incremental permeability that is possible by introducing a pseudoconstant azimuthal magnetic field. However, rapid changes over large permeability ranges incur anomalous behavior such as the “Q-loss” and “f-dot” loss phenomena that limit performance while requiring high bias currents. Notwithstanding the incomplete understanding of these phenomena, they can be ameliorated by introducing a “harmonic ratcheting” acceleration scheme in which two or more rf cavities take turns accelerating the beam—one turns on when the other turns off, at different harmonics—so that the radio frequency can be constrained to remain in a smaller range. Harmonic ratcheting also has straightforward performance advantages, depending on the particular parameter set at hand. In some typical cases it is possible to halve the length of the cavities, or to double the effective gap voltage, or to double the repetition rate. This paper discusses and quantifies the advantages of harmonic ratcheting in general. Simulation results for the particular case of a rapid cycling medical synchrotron ratcheting from harmonic number 9 to 2 show that stability and performance criteria are met even when realistic engineering details

  8. Renormalization for free harmonic oscillators

    OpenAIRE

    Sonoda, H.

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a model of free harmonic oscillators that requires renormalization. The model is similar to but simpler than the soluble Lee model. We introduce two concrete examples: the first, resembling the three dimensional $\\phi^4$ theory, needs only mass renormalization, and the second, resembling the four dimensional $\\phi^4$ theory and the Lee model, needs additional renormalization of a coupling and a wave function.

  9. Evaluating Color and Fading of Red-Shafted Flicker (Colaptes auratus cafer) Feathers: Technical and Cultural Considerations

    OpenAIRE

    Pearlstein, Ellen; Keene, Lionel

    2010-01-01

    Fading behavior of undyed feathers has not received much attention in conservation literature and as a result feathers are categorized with other natural materials as being fugitive to display lighting, based on anecdotal evidence. The authors investigated Red-shafted Flicker feathers, which have carotenoid-based colorant systems and significance in North American native regalia, to demonstrate how lighting guidelines could be informed by a multivariate approach that considers material sensit...

  10. A method for turbine blade temperature data segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Chi; Wang, Li; Gao, Shan

    2017-08-01

    Turbine blade, as one of the key components of the engine, operates in the badly working conditions. In order to better monitor the temperature status of turbine blades, research on temperature distribution of working blades is significant. The paper applies discrete Fourier transform to develop mathematical models, and the changes of period and peaks are summarized. The changing trends of temperature are reflected in each blade. The trends can be treated as one of the bases of the blade condition monitoring and fault diagnosis.

  11. Structural optimization study of composite wind turbine blade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Jin; Shen, Wen Zhong; Wang, Quan

    2013-01-01

    -way fluid-structure interaction method is introduced. A procedure combining finite element analysis and particle swarm algorithm to optimize composite structures of the wind turbine blade is developed. The procedure proposed not only allows thickness variation but also permits the spar cap location......In this paper the initial layout of a 2. MW composite wind turbine blade is designed first. The new airfoils families are selected to design a 2. MW wind turbine blade. The finite element parametric model for the blade is established. Based on the modified Blade Element Momentum theory, a new one...

  12. Vibration-based SHM System: Application to Wind Turbine Blades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tcherniak, D.; Mølgaard, Lasse Lohilahti

    2015-01-01

    This study presents an vibration-based system designed for structural health monitoring of wind turbine blades. Mechanical energy is introduced by means of an electromechanical actuator mounted inside the blade. The actuator's plunger periodically hits the blade structure; the induced vibrations...... signal-to-noise ratio. Simultaneously, the frequencies are low enough to be able to propagate the entire blade length, so good results can be obtained even using only one actuator. The system is demonstrated on a real 34m blade mounted on a test rig. Using the suggested approach, the system enables...

  13. Crack of a first stage blade in a steam turbine

    OpenAIRE

    M. Nurbanasari; Abdurrachim

    2014-01-01

    The failure of the first stage blade in a steam turbine of 55 MW was investigated. The blade was made of 17-4 PH stainless steel and has been used for 12 years before failure. The current work aims to find out the main cause of the first stage blade failure. The methods for investigation were metallurgical analysis, chemical composition test, and hardness measurement. The result showed that there was no evidence the blade failure was due to material. The damage found on the blade namely crack...

  14. New Design of Blade Untwisting Device of Cyclone Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. I. Misiulia

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a new design of a blade untwisting device where blades are considered as a main element of the device. A profile of the blades corresponds to a circular arch. An inlet angle of  the blades is determined by stream aerodynamics in an exhaust pipe, and an exit angle is determined by rectilinear gas motion. Optimum geometrical parameters of the untwisting device have been determined and its application allows to reduce a pressure drop in the ЦН-15 cyclones by 28–30 % while screw-blade untwisting device recovers only 19–20 % of energy.

  15. Measurements of blade aerodynamics on a rotor in the field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, J.M.R. [Imperical College, Dept. of Aeronautics, London (United Kingdom)

    1997-12-31

    This contribution describes the field test measurements undertaken on an instrumented rotor at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Oxfordshire, UK, during the period 1994 - 97. The programme was directed at improving the prediction of the steady and unsteady rotor blade loading, particularly the loads arising from the stalling of the blade. The measured data consisted of blade surface pressure distributions sampled at 50Hz at 6 sections along the span of one blade of the 17m diameter, 3 bladed, fixed pitch, upwind H.A.W.T., together with measurements of the incident velocity. (au)

  16. Evolution of the structure of tail feathers: implications for the theory of sexual selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparicio, José Miguel; Bonal, Raúl; Cordero, Pedro J

    2003-02-01

    Bird tails are extraordinarily variable in length and functionality. In some species, males have evolved exaggeratedly long tails as a result of sexual selection. Changes in tail length should be associated with changes in feather structure. The study of the evolution of feather structure in bird tails could give insight to understand the causes and means of evolution in relation to processes of sexual selection. In theory, three possible means of tail length evolution in relation to structural components might be expected: (1) a positive relationship between the increase in length and size of structural components maintaining the mechanical properties of the feather; (2) no relationship; that is, enlarging feather length without changes in the structural components; and (3) a negative relationship; that is, enlarging feather length by reducing structural components. These hypotheses were tested using phylogenetic analyses to examine changes in both degree of exaggeration in tail length and structural characteristics of tail feathers (rachis width and density of barbs) in 36 species, including those dimorphic and nondimorphic in tail length. The degree of sexual dimorphism in tail length was negatively correlated with both rachis width and density of barbs in males but not in females. Reinforcing this result, we found that dimorphism in tail length was negatively associated with dimorphism in tail feather structure (rachis width and density of barbs). These results support the third hypothesis, in which the evolution of long feathers occurs at the expense of making them simpler and therefore less costly to produce. However, we do not know the effects of enfeeblement on the costs of bearing. If the total costs increased, the enfeeblement of feathers could be explained as a reinforcement of the honesty of the signal. Alternatively, if total costs were reduced, the strategy could be explained by cheating processes. The study of female preferences for fragile tail

  17. Influence of the applied pressure of processing upon bioactive components of diets made of feathers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kormanjoš Šandor M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The feathers gained by slaughtering fattening chickens can be processed into protein meal for feeding certain animals, as indicated by its chemical characteristics. However, raw feather proteins (keratin are faintly digestible (cca. 19%, even inert in digestive tract. Digestion of feather proteins could be improved by hydrolysis (alkaline, enzymatic, microbiological or hydrothermal. Practically, hydrothermal processing of raw feathers is mostly applied. The influence of hydrothermal processing under the pressures of 3.0, 3.5 or 4.0 bar on the nutritive value of the resulting meal is presented in this paper. For the hydrolysis of raw feathers, semi continuous procedure was applied. Semi continuous procedure of feathers processing comprise hydrolysis of raw wet feathers followed by partial drying of hydrolyzed mass that has to be done in a hydrolyser with indirect heating. Continuous tubular dryer with recycled air was used during the final process of drying. Protein nitrogen decreased by 3.46% and 4.80% in comparison with total protein nitrogen content in raw feathers under the pressure of 3.0 and 3.5 bar, respectively. The highest applied hydrolysis pressure caused the greatest loss of protein nitrogen up to 9.52%. Hydrothermal hydrolysis under pressure has increased in vitro protein digestibility significantly. Under pressure of 3.0, 3.5 and 4.0 bar digestibility of proteins increasing from 19.01 to 76.39, 81.71 and 87.03%, respectively. Under pressure of 3.0, 3.5 and 4.0 bar cysteine content decreased from 6.44 to 4.17% (loss 35.25%, 3.94 (loss 38.825% and to 3.75% (loss 41.77%, respectively. These decreases are statistically significant. It can be concluded that the hydrolysis carried out under the pressure of 3.5 bar, during the period of 25 minutes, and with the content of water in raw feathers of cca. 61% is the optimal technological process for converting raw feathers into diets for certain animal diets.

  18. Thermal Imaging of Medical Saw Blades and Guides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinwiddie, Ralph Barton [ORNL; Steffner, Thomas E [ORNL

    2007-01-01

    Better Than New, LLC., has developed a surface treatment to reduce the friction and wear of orthopedic saw blades and guides. The medical saw blades were thermally imaged while sawing through fresh animal bone and an IR camera was used to measure the blade temperature as it exited the bone. The thermal performance of as-manufactured saw blades was compared to surface-treated blades, and a freshly used blade was used for temperature calibration purposes in order to account for any emissivity changes due to organic transfer layers. Thermal imaging indicates that the treated saw blades cut faster and cooler than untreated blades. In orthopedic surgery, saw guides are used to perfectly size the bone to accept a prosthesis. However, binding can occur between the blade and guide because of misalignment. This condition increases the saw blade temperature and may result in tissue damage. Both treated ad untreated saw guides were also studied. The treated saw guide operated at a significantly lower temperature than untreated guide. Saw blades and guides that operate at a cooler temperature are expected to reduce the amount of tissue damage (thermal necrosis) and may reduce the number of post-operative complications.

  19. DNA content and distribution in ancient feathers and potential to reconstruct the plumage of extinct avian taxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawlence, Nicolas J; Wood, Jamie R; Armstrong, Kyle N; Cooper, Alan

    2009-10-07

    Feathers are known to contain amplifiable DNA at their base (calamus) and have provided an important genetic source from museum specimens. However, feathers in subfossil deposits generally only preserve the upper shaft and feather 'vane' which are thought to be unsuitable for DNA analysis. We analyse subfossil moa feathers from Holocene New Zealand rockshelter sites and demonstrate that both ancient DNA and plumage information can be recovered from their upper portion, allowing species identification and a means to reconstruct the appearance of extinct taxa. These ancient DNA sequences indicate that the distal portions of feathers are an untapped resource for studies of museum, palaeontological and modern specimens. We investigate the potential to reconstruct the plumage of pre-historically extinct avian taxa using subfossil remains, rather than assuming morphological uniformity with closely related extant taxa. To test the notion of colour persistence in subfossil feathers, we perform digital comparisons of feathers of the red-crowned parakeet (Cyanoramphus novaezelandiae novaezelandiae) excavated from the same horizons as the moa feathers, with modern samples. The results suggest that the coloration of the moa feathers is authentic, and computer software is used to perform plumage reconstructions of moa based on subfossil remains.

  20. Turbine blade squealer tip rail with fence members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, David A

    2012-11-20

    A turbine blade includes an airfoil, a blade tip section, a squealer tip rail, and a plurality of chordally spaced fence members. The blade tip section includes a blade tip floor located at an end of the airfoil distal from the root. The blade tip floor includes a pressure side and a suction side joined together at chordally spaced apart leading and trailing edges of the airfoil. The squealer tip rail extends radially outwardly from the blade tip floor adjacent to the suction side and extends from a first location adjacent to the airfoil trailing edge to a second location adjacent to the airfoil leading edge. The fence members are located between the airfoil leading and trailing edges and extend radially outwardly from the blade tip floor and axially from the squealer tip rail toward the pressure side.

  1. Investigation of mistuning impact on vibration of rotor bladed disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repetckii, O.; Ryzhikov, I.; Quyet Nguyen, Tien

    2018-01-01

    Mistuning often reduces the fatigue life of bladed disks. The objective of this study is to determine the degree of influence of various types of mistuning on bladed disk vibration. It is also important to determine how the position of the detuned blades in the bladed disk affects the vibrations. The results of experimental and numerical analysis of mistuned bladed disk vibration are presented. The authors investigated the effect of various types of mistuning (geometry, mass, etc.) on the free vibrations of the bladed disk. The worst cases with minimum mistuning and maximum localization were identified. The developed algorithms for calculating of mistuned bladed disks vibration and obtained results can be used, when designing turbomachines rotors.

  2. Input Harmonic Analysis on the Slim DC-Link Drive Using Harmonic State Space Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Feng; Kwon, Jun Bum; Wang, Xiongfei

    2017-01-01

    variation according to the switching instant, the harmonics at the steady-state condition, as well as the coupling between the multiple harmonic impedances. By using this model, the impaction on the harmonics performance by the film capacitor and the grid inductance is derived. Simulation and experimental......The harmonic performance of the slim dc-link adjustable speed drives has shown good performance in some studies but poor in some others. The contradiction indicates that a feasible theoretical analysis is still lacking to characterize the harmonic distortion for the slim dc-link drive. Considering...... the shortcomings of the present harmonic analysis methods, such as the time-domain simulation, or the Fourier analysis, this paper proposes a Harmonic State Space model to study the harmonics performance for this type of drive. In this study, this model is utilized to describe the behavior of the harmonic...

  3. Analysis, Validation, Prediction And Fundamental Understanding Of Rotor Blade Loads In An Unsteady Maneuver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abhishek, Abhishek

    the advancing blade transonic stall, observed from revolution 12 onwards, is a twist stall triggered by 5/rev elastic twist deformation resulting in shock induced flow separation. The 5/rev elastic twist is triggered by the two retreating blade stalls from previous revolution, which are separated by 1/5th rev. The accurate prediction of both stall cycles on retreating blade holds the key to prediction of advancing blade stall. In analysis, advancing blade stall is triggered by a correct combination of control angles and 5/rev elastic twist. Some discrepancies are observed in higher harmonics of predicted torsion moment, which are not resolved by using measured airloads. The structural model and the aerodynamic models are coupled together to predict blade loads for the maneuver. The structural model is refined to include a three degrees of freedom swashplate model to calculate servo loads and to study the effect of swashplate dynamics on rotor loads. Lifting-line coupled analysis, though of low fidelity, is ideally suited to isolate the effects of free wake and dynamic stall. It is concluded that the UTTAS maneuver is almost entirely dominated by stall with little or no wake induced effect on blade loads, even though the wake cuts through the disk twice during the maneuver. At the peak of the maneuver, almost 75% of the operating envelope of a typical airfoil lies beyond stall. The peak-to-peak structural loads prediction from the lifting-line analysis show an under-prediction of 10%--20% in flap and chord bending moments and 50% in torsion loads. The errors stem from the prediction of 4 and 5/rev stall loads. Swashplate dynamics appears to have a significant impact on the servo loads - unlike in level flight -- with more than 50% variation in peak loads. The coupled analysis using CFD/CSD tight coupling shows considerable improvements in the predicted results by using a CFD model over a traditional liftingline approach. In particular, the coupled CFD/CSD simulation is

  4. Featherless and feathered broilers under control versus hot conditions. 1. Breast meat yield and quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadad, Yair; Halevy, Orna; Cahaner, Avigdor

    2014-05-01

    The improved genetic potential of contemporary commercial broilers cannot be fully expressed under hot conditions that depress growth rate, decrease breast meat yield, and reduce meat quality. The negative heat effects are attributed to the insulating feather coverage, which, under high ambient temperatures (AT), hinders dissipation of the excessive internally produced heat. Accordingly, featherless broilers (sc/sc), their feathered sibs (+/sc), and contemporary broilers (+/+) were subjected to control AT (26°C) and hot AT (32°C) to test the hypothesis that lack of feathers contributes to higher breast muscle yield and better meat quality, especially under hot conditions, and that differences related to lack of feathers are related to cardiovascular capacity. In 2 similar trials, the superior genetic background of the contemporary broilers was manifested under control conditions; their mean BW was about 15% higher than the means of the featherless broilers and their feathered sibs. The hot conditions depressed BW of the 2 feathered groups by approximately 25%, with hardly any effect on featherless broiler BW. Breast meat yield (% of BW) in the featherless broilers was higher than in those with feathers, especially under the hot AT. Furthermore, the featherless broilers were characterized by superior meat quality as indicated by lower drip loss, lower lightness, and higher redness. The superior meat quality of the featherless broilers could be explained by their larger hearts and higher hematocrit values, suggesting superior cardiovascular capacity to supply oxygen and nutrients to the breast muscles. On the practical side, the results clearly indicate that modern featherless broilers can reach normal BW, as well as yield and quality of breast meat, under hot conditions as well. It appears that broiler meat production in hot regions and climates can be substantially improved by introducing the featherless gene into contemporary commercial broiler stocks. This has

  5. Niche Partitioning of Feather Mites within a Seabird Host, Calonectris borealis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefan, Laura M; Gómez-Díaz, Elena; Elguero, Eric; Proctor, Heather C; McCoy, Karen D; González-Solís, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    According to classic niche theory, species can coexist in heterogeneous environments by reducing interspecific competition via niche partitioning, e.g. trophic or spatial partitioning. However, support for the role of competition on niche partitioning remains controversial. Here, we tested for spatial and trophic partitioning in feather mites, a diverse and abundant group of arthropods. We focused on the two dominant mite species, Microspalax brevipes and Zachvatkinia ovata, inhabiting flight feathers of the Cory's shearwater, Calonectris borealis. We performed mite counts across and within primary and tail feathers on free-living shearwaters breeding on an oceanic island (Gran Canaria, Canary Islands). We then investigated trophic relationships between the two mite species and the host using stable isotope analyses of carbon and nitrogen on mite tissues and potential host food sources. The distribution of the two mite species showed clear spatial segregation among feathers; M. brevipes showed high preference for the central wing primary feathers, whereas Z. ovata was restricted to the two outermost primaries. Morphological differences between M. brevipes and Z. ovata support an adaptive basis for the spatial segregation of the two mite species. However, the two mites overlap in some central primaries and statistical modeling showed that Z. ovata tends to outcompete M. brevipes. Isotopic analyses indicated similar isotopic values for the two mite species and a strong correlation in carbon signatures between mites inhabiting the same individual host suggesting that diet is mainly based on shared host-associated resources. Among the four candidate tissues examined (blood, feather remains, skin remains and preen gland oil), we conclude that the diet is most likely dominated by preen gland oil, while the contribution of exogenous material to mite diets is less marked. Our results indicate that ongoing competition for space and resources plays a central role in

  6. Niche Partitioning of Feather Mites within a Seabird Host, Calonectris borealis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura M Stefan

    Full Text Available According to classic niche theory, species can coexist in heterogeneous environments by reducing interspecific competition via niche partitioning, e.g. trophic or spatial partitioning. However, support for the role of competition on niche partitioning remains controversial. Here, we tested for spatial and trophic partitioning in feather mites, a diverse and abundant group of arthropods. We focused on the two dominant mite species, Microspalax brevipes and Zachvatkinia ovata, inhabiting flight feathers of the Cory's shearwater, Calonectris borealis. We performed mite counts across and within primary and tail feathers on free-living shearwaters breeding on an oceanic island (Gran Canaria, Canary Islands. We then investigated trophic relationships between the two mite species and the host using stable isotope analyses of carbon and nitrogen on mite tissues and potential host food sources. The distribution of the two mite species showed clear spatial segregation among feathers; M. brevipes showed high preference for the central wing primary feathers, whereas Z. ovata was restricted to the two outermost primaries. Morphological differences between M. brevipes and Z. ovata support an adaptive basis for the spatial segregation of the two mite species. However, the two mites overlap in some central primaries and statistical modeling showed that Z. ovata tends to outcompete M. brevipes. Isotopic analyses indicated similar isotopic values for the two mite species and a strong correlation in carbon signatures between mites inhabiting the same individual host suggesting that diet is mainly based on shared host-associated resources. Among the four candidate tissues examined (blood, feather remains, skin remains and preen gland oil, we conclude that the diet is most likely dominated by preen gland oil, while the contribution of exogenous material to mite diets is less marked. Our results indicate that ongoing competition for space and resources plays a

  7. Response of sheep fed on concentrate containing feather meal and supplemented with mineral Chromium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulistiani D

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of substitution of protein concentrate with feather meal supplemented with organic chromium mineral on performance of lambs. Twenty five male lambs were fed basal feed of fresh chopped king grass ad libitum and were allotted to either one of five different supplements (five dietary treatments: Control (C; 10% of protein in concentrate was substituted by feather meal (FM; 10% of protein in concentrate was substituted by feather meal supplemented with Cr yeast at 1.5 mg (FMCrOrg; 10% of protein in concentrate was substituted by feather meal supplemented with Cr inorganic which equal to the amount of Cr bound in yeast (FMCr; Concentrate control supplemented with 1.5 mg Cr yeast (CCrOrg. Cr-organic was synthesized by incorporating CrCl3 in fermented rice flour by Rhizopus sp. The mineral is mixed with feather meal as a mineral carrier. Sheep in all treatments received iso protein concentrate. Parameters observed were body weight change, feed consumption and nutrient digestibility. Results shows that there was no significant effect of diet treatments on average daily gain (ADG, dry matter consumption and feed conversion, with the average value of 75.4 gr/day; 74.9 g/BW0.75 and 9.9 respectively, However diet treatment of organic chromium and protein substitution with feather meal (FMCrOrg showed tendency of having higher ADG (83.57 g/h/d. Average nutrient digestibility of dry matter, organic matter and NDF were 68.7; 69.6 and 60.9%, respectively. However NDF digestibility of FMCrOrg tended to be higher than other treatment (67.0%. It is concluded that partial substitution of protein concentrate by feather meal and 1.5 mg Cr-organic supplementation did not affect sheep performance.

  8. Harmonic generation in the generalized Sagdeev pseudopotential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari-Moghanjoughi, M.

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, we study the nonlinear harmonic generation effect in different oscillator models. For weakly nonlinear systems, we use the generalized forced Korteweg de Vries Burgers (KdVB) and modified KdVB (mKdVB) models in order to classify three fundamentally different harmonic structures in a nonlinear dynamical system. The first is called the internal harmonic structure which exists due to the self oscillation of the system in the absence of dissipation effect and is shown to follow either relations of nf or (2n - 1)f depending on the symmetry of oscillator potential in which n is an integer number and f is the fundamental frequency which is exactly obtained for the Helmholtz oscillator. The second structure is the resonant harmonics which appears in the presence of damping and follows the harmonic structure nf0 in which f0 is the linear resonance frequency. Finally, the last harmonic structure appears in the presence of dissipation and external periodic forcing effects which we call the external harmonic pattern. It is shown that the external harmonic pattern, in which f1 is the driving frequency, always follows the nf1 rule regardless of the potential symmetry. We then extend our analysis to study the harmonic generation in the fully nonlinear generalized Sagdeev potential for real plasmas with isothermal and adiabatic ion fluids and investigate the effects of different plasma parameters such as the fractional ion temperature and normalized ion acoustic speed on all three kinds of harmonic generation.

  9. The Effect of Non-Harmonic Active Twist Actuation on BVI Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogarty, David E.; Wilbur, Matthew L.; Sekula, Martin K.

    2011-01-01

    The results of a computational study examining the effects of non-harmonic active-twist control on blade-vortex interaction (BVI) noise for the Apache Active Twist Rotor are presented. Rotor aeroelastic behavior was modeled using the Comprehensive Analytical Model of Rotorcraft Aerodynamics and Dynamics code and the rotor noise was predicted using the acoustics code PSU-WOPWOP. The application of non-harmonic active-twist inputs to the main rotor blade system comprised three parameters: azimuthal location to start actuation, azimuthal duration of actuation, and magnitude of actuation. The acoustic analysis was conducted for a single low-speed flight condition of advance ratio mu=0.14 and shaft angle-of-attack, a(sub s)=+6deg. BVI noise levels were predicted on a flat plane of observers located 1.1 rotor diameters beneath the rotor. The results indicate significant reductions of up to 10dB in BVI noise using a starting azimuthal location for actuation of 90?, an azimuthal duration of actuation of 90deg, and an actuation magnitude of +1.5 ft-lb.

  10. Blade coating analysis of a Williamson fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, A. M.; Bhatti, S.; Rana, M. A.; Zahid, M.

    In this article, a mathematical model of a blade coating analysis of the thin film of a Williamson fluid is developed when it passes through the small gap between a blade and a moving substrate. The conservation equations in light of lubrication approximation theory (LAT) are non-dimensionalized and solutions for the velocity, volumetric flow rate and pressure gradient are presented analytically using Adomian decomposition method. Results of the important engineering quantities like coating thickness, pressure distribution, stresses and the power input are obtained. Some results are shown graphically while others are given in tabulated form. It is found that material parameter is used to control flow rate, coating thickness, power input and the pressure distribution.

  11. Souvenir knife: a retained transcranial knife blade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Neil L; Kahana, Tzipi; Hiss, Jehuda

    2004-09-01

    Upon necroscopic examination of a homeless male found comatose in the street and pronounced dead at a medical center 12 hours later, a sharp tip of a knife lodged in the right parietal region of his skull was incidentally discovered. The blade transected the diploe and penetrated the cerebral cortex. Subsequent police investigation revealed that this was the remnant of a stabbing attempt on his life several months prior to his death. The cause of death was determined to be unrelated to the metallic blade fragment, thus making it a truly incidental and rare finding of a "souvenir knife." Nevertheless, since the injury sustained in the stabbing was potentially life threatening, the investigation into that assault was reopened.A case report is presented, along with a brief review of the literature on "souvenir objects."

  12. Hot Blade Cuttings for the Building Industries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brander, David; Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas; Evgrafov, Anton

    2016-01-01

    variability in the (economically allowed) designs - i.e., to allow them to think out of the box. To address this challenge The Danish National Advanced Technology Foundation (now InnovationsFonden) is currently supporting the BladeRunner project that involves several Danish companies and public institutions....... The project aims to reduce the amount of manual labour as well as production time by applying robots to cut expanded polystyrene (EPS) moulds for the concrete to form doubly curved surfaces. The scheme is based upon the so-called Hot Wire or Hot Blade technology where the surfaces are essentially swept out...... are mainly concerned with the rationalization of the architects’ CAD drawings into surfaces that can be created via this particular sweeping and cutting technology....

  13. Sexual Dimorphism and Population Differences in Structural Properties of Barn Swallow (Hirundo rustica Wing and Tail Feathers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Péter L Pap

    Full Text Available Sexual selection and aerodynamic forces affecting structural properties of the flight feathers of birds are poorly understood. Here, we compared the structural features of the innermost primary wing feather (P1 and the sexually dimorphic outermost (Ta6 and monomorphic second outermost (Ta5 tail feathers of barn swallows (Hirundo rustica from a Romanian population to investigate how sexual selection and resistance to aerodynamic forces affect structural differences among these feathers. Furthermore, we compared structural properties of Ta6 of barn swallows from six European populations. Finally, we determined the relationship between feather growth bars width (GBW and the structural properties of tail feathers. The structure of P1 indicates strong resistance against aerodynamic forces, while the narrow rachis, low vane density and low bending stiffness of tail feathers suggest reduced resistance against airflow. The highly elongated Ta6 is characterized by structural modifications such as large rachis width and increased barbule density in relation to the less elongated Ta5, which can be explained by increased length and/or high aerodynamic forces acting at the leading tail edge. However, these changes in Ta6 structure do not allow for full compensation of elongation, as reflected by the reduced bending stiffness of Ta6. Ta6 elongation in males resulted in feathers with reduced resistance, as shown by the low barb density and reduced bending stiffness compared to females. The inconsistency in sexual dimorphism and in change in quality traits of Ta6 among six European populations shows that multiple factors may contribute to shaping population differences. In general, the difference in quality traits between tail feathers cannot be explained by the GBW of feathers. Our results show that the material and structural properties of wing and tail feathers of barn swallows change as a result of aerodynamic forces and sexual selection, although the

  14. Sexual Dimorphism and Population Differences in Structural Properties of Barn Swallow (Hirundo rustica) Wing and Tail Feathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pap, Péter L; Osváth, Gergely; Aparicio, José Miguel; Bărbos, Lőrinc; Matyjasiak, Piotr; Rubolini, Diego; Saino, Nicola; Vágási, Csongor I; Vincze, Orsolya; Møller, Anders Pape

    2015-01-01

    Sexual selection and aerodynamic forces affecting structural properties of the flight feathers of birds are poorly understood. Here, we compared the structural features of the innermost primary wing feather (P1) and the sexually dimorphic outermost (Ta6) and monomorphic second outermost (Ta5) tail feathers of barn swallows (Hirundo rustica) from a Romanian population to investigate how sexual selection and resistance to aerodynamic forces affect structural differences among these feathers. Furthermore, we compared structural properties of Ta6 of barn swallows from six European populations. Finally, we determined the relationship between feather growth bars width (GBW) and the structural properties of tail feathers. The structure of P1 indicates strong resistance against aerodynamic forces, while the narrow rachis, low vane density and low bending stiffness of tail feathers suggest reduced resistance against airflow. The highly elongated Ta6 is characterized by structural modifications such as large rachis width and increased barbule density in relation to the less elongated Ta5, which can be explained by increased length and/or high aerodynamic forces acting at the leading tail edge. However, these changes in Ta6 structure do not allow for full compensation of elongation, as reflected by the reduced bending stiffness of Ta6. Ta6 elongation in males resulted in feathers with reduced resistance, as shown by the low barb density and reduced bending stiffness compared to females. The inconsistency in sexual dimorphism and in change in quality traits of Ta6 among six European populations shows that multiple factors may contribute to shaping population differences. In general, the difference in quality traits between tail feathers cannot be explained by the GBW of feathers. Our results show that the material and structural properties of wing and tail feathers of barn swallows change as a result of aerodynamic forces and sexual selection, although the result of these

  15. The Harmonics of Kansei Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Su, Jianning; Restrepo-Giraldo, John Dairo

    2008-01-01

    Delivering the right product experience, which is a user’s reflection of a combination of functionality, usage, cost and appearance, is a key factor for product acquisition and commercial success. Establishing and representing the relation between a product’s shape and the perceived aesthetic...... sensibility it elicits on a person (kansei), is a key factor in the design of tools to support designers in delivering the right product’s appearance. This paper presents an approach to mathematically represent a product’s kansei based on the frequency signature (harmonics) of a shape. This mathematical...

  16. Making space for harmonic oscillators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michelotti, Leo; /Fermilab

    2004-11-01

    If we restrict the number of harmonic oscillator energy eigenstates to some finite value, N, then the discrete spectrum of the corresponding position operator comprise the roots of the Hermite polynomial H{sub N+1}. Its range is just large enough to accommodate classical motion at high energy. A negative energy term must be added to the Hamiltonian which affects only the last eigenstate, |N>, suggesting it is concentrated at the extrema of this finite ''space''. Calculations support a conjecture that, in the limit of large N, the global distribution of points approaches the differential form for classical action.

  17. Harmonic focus in thyroidectomy for substernal goiter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hahn, Christoffer Holst; Trolle, Waldemar; Sørensen, Christian Hjort

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: No previous prospective study has evaluated harmonic scalpel in thyroidectomy for substernal goiter. The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of harmonic scalpel (FOCUS shear, Ethicon Endo-Surgery) in thyroidectomy for substernal goiter for blood loss, operative time...... and 121 patients had harmonic scalpel thyroidectomy. RESULTS: The use of harmonic scalpel was associated with significant reduction in intraoperative blood loss (50 vs. 100mL, p=0.001), postoperative haemorrhage (4% vs. 12%, p=0.03) and length of hospital stay (2 vs. 3 days, p=0.001). The mean operative...... time was significantly longer in the harmonic group. CONCLUSION: Harmonic scalpel is a safe tool for thyroidectomy for substernal goiter. Its utilisation is associated with reduced blood loss, lower incidence of postoperative haemorrhage and shorter hospital stay....

  18. Wind turbine blade shear web disbond detection using rotor blade operational sensing and data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myrent, Noah; Adams, Douglas E; Griffith, D Todd

    2015-02-28

    A wind turbine blade's structural dynamic response is simulated and analysed with the goal of characterizing the presence and severity of a shear web disbond. Computer models of a 5 MW offshore utility-scale wind turbine were created to develop effective algorithms for detecting such damage. Through data analysis and with the use of blade measurements, a shear web disbond was quantified according to its length. An aerodynamic sensitivity study was conducted to ensure robustness of the detection algorithms. In all analyses, the blade's flap-wise acceleration and root-pitching moment were the clearest indicators of the presence and severity of a shear web disbond. A combination of blade and non-blade measurements was formulated into a final algorithm for the detection and quantification of the disbond. The probability of detection was 100% for the optimized wind speed ranges in laminar, 30% horizontal shear and 60% horizontal shear conditions. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  19. Materials for Wind Turbine Blades: An Overview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mishnaevsky, Leon; Branner, Kim; Petersen, Helga Nørgaard

    2017-01-01

    A short overview of composite materials for wind turbine applications is presented here. Requirements toward the wind turbine materials, loads, as well as available materials are reviewed. Apart from the traditional composites for wind turbine blades (glass fibers/epoxy matrix composites), natural...... composites, hybrid and nanoengineered composites are discussed. Manufacturing technologies for wind turbine composites, as well their testing and modelling approaches are reviewed....

  20. Materials for Wind Turbine Blades: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishnaevsky, Leon; Branner, Kim; Petersen, Helga Nørgaard; Beauson, Justine; McGugan, Malcolm; Sørensen, Bent F

    2017-11-09

    A short overview of composite materials for wind turbine applications is presented here. Requirements toward the wind turbine materials, loads, as well as available materials are reviewed. Apart from the traditional composites for wind turbine blades (glass fibers/epoxy matrix composites), natural composites, hybrid and nanoengineered composites are discussed. Manufacturing technologies for wind turbine composites, as well their testing and modelling approaches are reviewed.

  1. Advancing Blade Concept (ABC) Technology Demonstrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-04-01

    id5I:~ W Ith coIle t ior, I: a’ tlet- Liou tesýts, t~he 1total blades were iisa edad he ,! l01 ;wnq1 sys"tem11 tests and operationlal checks...Equipment The data acquisition system recording media was a Bell and Howell Model MARS-2000 14-track airborne analog magnetic tape recorder. The magnetic

  2. Integrated Blade Inspection System (IBIS) Upgrade Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-12-01

    location (cell) which approximates the actual sinusoidal curve. The original image is processed pixel by pixel, which causes the Hough array to...the 183 crack indications based on the position information from the MathCAD routine. The image processing por- tion of the software is now complete...uses an automated visual inspection system in conjunction with human inspectors to identify cracked jet engine blades that have been processed with

  3. A Take Stock of Turbine Blades Failure Phenomenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Abhijit

    2018-02-01

    Turbine Blade design and engineering is one of the most complicated and important aspects of turbine technology. Experiments with blades can be simple or very complicated, depending upon parameters of analysis. Turbine blades are subjected to vigorous environments, such as high temperatures, high stresses, and a potentially high vibration environment. All these factors can lead to blade failures, which can destroy the turbine, and engine, so careful design is the prime consideration to resist those conditions. A high cycle of fatigue of compressor and turbine blades due to high dynamic stress caused by blade vibration and resonance within the operating range of machinery is common failure mode for turbine machine. Continuous study and investigation on failure of turbine blades are going on since last five decades. Some review papers published during these days aiming to present a review on recent studies and investigations done on failures of turbine blades. All the detailed literature related with the turbine blades has not been described but emphasized to provide all the methodologies of failures adopted by various researches to investigate turbine blade. This paper illustrate on various factors of failure.

  4. An aerodynamic study on flexed blades for VAWT applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micallef, Daniel; Farrugia, Russell; Sant, Tonio; Mollicone, Pierluigi

    2014-12-01

    There is renewed interest in aerodynamics research of VAWT rotors. Lift type, Darrieus designs sometimes use flexed blades to have an 'egg-beater shape' with an optimum Troposkien geometry to minimize the structural stress on the blades. While straight bladed VAWTs have been investigated in depth through both measurements and numerical modelling, the aerodynamics of flexed blades has not been researched with the same level of detail. Two major effects may have a substantial impact on blade performance. First, flexing at the equator causes relatively strong trailing vorticity to be released. Secondly, the blade performance at each station along the blade is influenced by self-induced velocities due to bound vorticity. The latter is not present in a straight bladed configuration. The aim of this research is to investigate these effects in relation to an innovative 4kW wind turbine concept being developed in collaboration with industry known as a self-adjusting VAWT (or SATVAWT). The approach used in this study is based on experimental and numerical work. A lifting line free-wake vortex model was developed. Wind tunnel power and hot-wire velocity measurements were performed on a scaled down, 60cm high, three bladed model in a closed wind tunnel. Results show a substantial axial wake induction at the equator resulting in a lower power generation at this position. This induction increases with increasing degree of flexure. The self-induced velocities caused by blade bound vorticity at a particular station was found to be relatively small.

  5. A Take Stock of Turbine Blades Failure Phenomenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Abhijit

    2017-06-01

    Turbine Blade design and engineering is one of the most complicated and important aspects of turbine technology. Experiments with blades can be simple or very complicated, depending upon parameters of analysis. Turbine blades are subjected to vigorous environments, such as high temperatures, high stresses, and a potentially high vibration environment. All these factors can lead to blade failures, which can destroy the turbine, and engine, so careful design is the prime consideration to resist those conditions. A high cycle of fatigue of compressor and turbine blades due to high dynamic stress caused by blade vibration and resonance within the operating range of machinery is common failure mode for turbine machine. Continuous study and investigation on failure of turbine blades are going on since last five decades. Some review papers published during these days aiming to present a review on recent studies and investigations done on failures of turbine blades. All the detailed literature related with the turbine blades has not been described but emphasized to provide all the methodologies of failures adopted by various researches to investigate turbine blade. This paper illustrate on various factors of failure.

  6. Arc Discharge Synthesis and Photoluminescence of 3D Feather-like AlN Nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sl; Gao, Rs; Niu, Pl; Zou, Zy; Yu, Rh

    2011-12-01

    A complex three-dimensional (3D) feather-like AlN nanostructure was synthesized by a direct reaction of high-purity Al granules with nitrogen using an arc discharge method. By adjusting the discharge time, a coral-like nanostructure, which evolved from the feather-like nanostructure, has also been observed. The novel 3D feather-like AlN nanostructure has a hierarchical dendritic structure, which means that the angle between the trunk stem and its branch is always about 30° in any part of the structure. The fine branches on the surface of the feather-like nanostructure have shown a uniform fish scale shape, which are about 100 nm long, 10 nm thick and several tens of nanometers in width. An alternate growth model has been proposed to explain the novel nanostructure. The spectrum of the feather-like products shows a strong blue emission band centered at 438 nm (2.84 eV), which indicates their potential application as blue light-emitting diodes.

  7. Dramatic colour changes in a bird of paradise caused by uniquely structured breast feather barbules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavenga, Doekele G; Leertouwer, Hein L; Marshall, N Justin; Osorio, Daniel

    2011-07-22

    The breast-plate plumage of male Lawes' parotia (Parotia lawesii) produces dramatic colour changes when this bird of paradise displays on its forest-floor lek. We show that this effect is achieved not solely by the iridescence--that is an angular-dependent spectral shift of the reflected light--which is inherent in structural coloration, but is based on a unique anatomical modification of the breast-feather barbule. The barbules have a segmental structure, and in common with many other iridescent feathers, they contain stacked melanin rodlets surrounded by a keratin film. The unique property of the parotia barbules is their boomerang-like cross section. This allows each barbule to work as three coloured mirrors: a yellow-orange reflector in the plane of the feather, and two symmetrically positioned bluish reflectors at respective angles of about 30°. Movement during the parotia's courtship displays thereby achieves much larger and more abrupt colour changes than is possible with ordinary iridescent plumage. To our knowledge, this is the first example of multiple thin film or multi-layer reflectors incorporated in a single structure (engineered or biological). It nicely illustrates how subtle modification of the basic feather structure can achieve novel visual effects. The fact that the parotia's breast feathers seem to be specifically adapted to give much stronger colour changes than normal structural coloration implies that colour change is important in their courtship display.

  8. Razorbill (Alca torda) feathers as an alternative tool for evaluating exposure to organochlorine pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espín, Silvia; Martínez-López, Emma; María-Mojica, Pedro; García-Fernández, Antonio J

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the usefulness of feathers as a biomonitoring tool for organochlorine pesticides (OC) in a razorbill population (Alca torda). Fifteen OC were analyzed in feathers, including α-, β- and δ-hexachlorocyclohexane, lindane, aldrin, dieldrin, endrin, endosulfan I and II, endosulfan sulfate, p,p'-DDT, DDD, DDE, heptachlor and its epoxide. The geometric mean concentrations observed in this study were ∑DDT 67.40 ng/g, ∑HCH 62.88 ng/g, ∑Heptachlor 61.75 ng/g, ∑Endosulfan 19.70 ng/g, and ∑Drins 10.17 ng/g. The higher OC levels found in this study compared with other studies are probably affected by the razorbill diet and migration status. However, levels found in the feathers of the present study are related to concentrations in internal tissues below those which cause adverse reproductive and behavioral effects or other signs of organochlorine-pesticide poisoning in birds. Age does affect the concentration of OC pesticides in feathers. Thus, feathers would appear to be a promising tool for OC biomonitoring in seabirds, since it is possible to quantify OC compounds.

  9. Hidden keys to survival: the type, density, pattern and functional role of emperor penguin body feathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Cassondra L; Hagelin, Julie C; Kooyman, Gerald L

    2015-10-22

    Antarctic penguins survive some of the harshest conditions on the planet. Emperor penguins breed on the sea ice where temperatures drop below -40°C and forage in -1.8°C waters. Their ability to maintain 38°C body temperature in these conditions is due in large part to their feathered coat. Penguins have been reported to have the highest contour feather density of any bird, and both filoplumes and plumules (downy feathers) are reported absent in penguins. In studies modelling the heat transfer properties and the potential biomimetic applications of penguin plumage design, the insulative properties of penguin plumage have been attributed to the single afterfeather attached to contour feathers. This attribution of the afterfeather as the sole insulation component has been repeated in subsequent studies. Our results demonstrate the presence of both plumules and filoplumes in the penguin body plumage. The downy plumules are four times denser than afterfeathers and play a key, previously overlooked role in penguin survival. Our study also does not support the report that emperor penguins have the highest contour feather density. © 2015 The Author(s).

  10. Reflectance Spectra of Peacock Feathers and the Turning Angles of Melanin Rods in Barbules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okazaki, Toshio

    2018-02-01

    I analyzed the association between the reflectance spectra and melanin rod arrangement in barbules of the eyespot of peacock feathers. The reflectance spectra from the yellow-green feather of the eyespot indicated double peaks of 430 and 540 nm. The maximum reflectance spectrum of the blue feather was 480 nm, and that of the dark blue feather was 420 nm. The reflectance spectra from brown feathers indicated double peaks of 490 and 610 nm. Transmission electron microscopic analysis confirmed that melanin rods were arranged fanwise in the outer layer toward the barbule tips. In addition, using polarized light microscope, I attempted to determine whether the turning angles of melanin rods in the barbules reflected different colors. The turning angle of the polarizing axis of the barbules was supported by that of the melanin rods, observed using transmission electron microscopic images. To compare the turning angle of melanin rods in the respective barbules, I calculated the opening width of the fanwise melanin rods by dividing the width of the barbules by the turning angle of the polarizing axis of barbules and obtained a positive correlation between the reflectance spectra and opening width of the fanwise melanin rods. Moreover, the widely spreading reflection from the barbules may occur because of the fanwise melanin rod arrangement.

  11. Pitched Blade Turbine Efficiency at Particle Suspension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Ceres

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Mixing suspensions is a very important hydraulic operation. The pitched six-blade turbine is a widely-used axial-flow impeller. This paper deals with effect relative impeller size and particle content on theefficiency of a pitched six-blade turbine at particle suspension. Two pitched six-blade turbines were used in model measurements of just suspension impeller speed. The ratios of the vessel to agitator diameter D/d were 3 and 4.5. The measurements were carried out in a dish-bottomed vessel 300 mm in diameter. The just suspension impeller speeds were measured using an electrochemical method, and were checked visually. A 2.5 % NaCl water solution was used as the liquid phase, and glass particles with four equivalent diameters between 0.18 and 0.89 mmand volumetric concentration from 2.5 % to 40% were usedasthesolid phase. The criterion values πs=Po√Fr'3(d/D7 were calculated from the particle suspension and power consumption measurements. The dependencies of πs on particle content cv show that larger agitators are more efficient for higher particle content.

  12. Microwaves Sensor for Wind Turbine Blade Inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhen; Haigh, Arthur; Soutis, Constantinos; Gibson, Andrew; Sloan, Robin

    2017-04-01

    The structural integrity of wind turbine blades can be adversely affected by their structural dynamics, temperature extremes, lightning strikes, ultraviolet radiation from sunlight and airborne particulate matter such as hailstones and sand. If subsurface delamination occurs and is undetected then this can lead to fibre breakage and catastrophic failures in composite blades. In this paper we introduce a microwave scanning technique that detects such delamination in practical blade assemblies. Using an open-ended waveguide sensor, the electromagnetic signal reflected from the composite is found to have a phase profile that can detect changes in the composite cross section. Glass fibre T-joints are scanned and the results used to detect thickness variations (e.g., the presence of the web) and delamination. Results are compared across the 18-20 GHz frequency band. The dielectric permittivity of the composite system is measured and is used to estimate the stand-off distance and operating frequency of the sensor. This is critical to the system's ability to detect damage. When the sensor is close to the surface of the structure (standoff distance ≈ 5 mm), delamination down to 0.2 mm in width could be detected.

  13. Noise aspects at aerodynamic blade optimisation projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schepers, J.G. [Netherlands Energy Research Foundation, Petten (Netherlands)

    1997-12-31

    This paper shows an example of an aerodynamic blade optimisation, using the program PVOPT. PVOPT calculates the optimal wind turbine blade geometry such that the maximum energy yield is obtained. Using the aerodynamic optimal blade design as a basis, the possibilities of noise reduction are investigated. The aerodynamic optimised geometry from PVOPT is the `real` optimum (up to the latest decimal). The most important conclusion from this study is, that it is worthwhile to investigate the behaviour of the objective function (in the present case the energy yield) around the optimum: If the optimum is flat, there is a possibility to apply modifications to the optimum configuration with only a limited loss in energy yield. It is obvious that the modified configurations emits a different (and possibly lower) noise level. In the BLADOPT program (the successor of PVOPT) it will be possible to quantify the noise level and hence to assess the reduced noise emission more thoroughly. At present the most promising approaches for noise reduction are believed to be a reduction of the rotor speed (if at all possible), and a reduction of the tip angle by means of low lift profiles, or decreased twist at the outboard stations. These modifications were possible without a significant loss in energy yield. (LN)

  14. Efficient third harmonic generation in photonic nanowires

    OpenAIRE

    Broderick, N.G.R.; Lohe, M. A.; Lee, T; Shaaram, Afshar V.; Monro, T.M.

    2013-01-01

    In a photonic nanowire the strong optical confinement allows for the phase matching of nonlinear interactions that would not normally be phase matched, while the large longitudinal component of the electric field serves to further enhance the effective nonlinearity. Thus such waveguides are good choices for studying nonlinear effects such as third harmonic generation. In this paper we analyse third harmonic generation analytically and present the criteria for optimal harmonic generation. In a...

  15. Harmonics Monitoring Survey on LED Lamps

    OpenAIRE

    Abdelrahman Ahmed Akila; Kamelia Youssef; Ibrahim Yassin

    2017-01-01

    Light Emitting Diode (LED) lamps are being increasingly used in many applications. These LED lamps operate using a driver, which is a switching device. Hence, LED lamps will be a source of harmonics in the power system. These harmonics if not well treated, may cause severe performance and operational problems. In this paper, harmonics (amplitude and phase angles) generated by both LED lamps and conventional fluorescent lamps will be studied practically. Then they will be analyzed and evaluate...

  16. Introduction to classical and quantum harmonic oscillators

    CERN Document Server

    Bloch, Sylvan C

    2013-01-01

    From conch shells to lasers . harmonic oscillators, the timeless scientific phenomenon As intriguing to Galileo as they are to scientists today, harmonic oscillators have provided a simple and compelling paradigm for understanding the complexities that underlie some of nature's and mankind's most fascinating creations. From early string and wind instruments fashioned from bows and seashells to the intense precision of lasers, harmonic oscillators have existed in various forms, as objects of beauty and scientific use. And harmonic oscillation has endured as one of science's most fascinating con

  17. Effects of harmonic roving on pitch discrimination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santurette, Sébastien; de Kérangal, Mathilde le Gal; Joshi, Suyash Narendra

    2015-01-01

    to impair pitch discrimination performance. Fundamental-frequency difference limens (F0DLs) were obtained in normal-hearing listeners with and without musical training for complex tones filtered between 1.5 and 3.5 kHz with F0s of 300 Hz (resolved harmonics) and 75 Hz (unresolved harmonics). The harmonicity...... of the tone complexes was varied by systematically roving the frequency of individual harmonics, which was taken from a Gaussian distribution centered on the nominal frequency in every stimulus presentation. The amount of roving was determined by the standard deviation of this distribution, which varied...

  18. Effect of undulator harmonics field on free-electron laser harmonic generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qika Jia

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The harmonics field effect of a planar undulator on free-electron laser (FEL harmonic generation has been analyzed. For both the linear case and the nonlinear case, the harmonic fraction of the radiation can be characterized by the coupling coefficients. The modification of the coupling coefficients is given when the third harmonics magnetic field component exists, thus the enhancement of the harmonic radiation can be predicted. The numerical results show that with the third harmonics magnetic field component that has the opposite sign to the fundamental, the intensity of third-harmonic radiation can be increased distinctly for both the small signal gain and the nonlinear harmonic generation. The increase is larger for the smaller undulator deflecting parameter.

  19. New morphing blade section designs and structural solutions for smart blades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karakalas, Anargyros A.; Machairas, Theodore; Solomou, Alexandros

    2015-01-01

    of helicopter and wind turbine blade research have shown the potential of shape morphing in reducing blade loads. Morphing technologies, along with other control concepts, are investigated under Task 2.3 of WP “Lightweight Rotor”, against aerodynamic compliance and requirements of the complete wind turbine......Within INNWIND.EU new concepts are investigated having the ultimate goal to reduce the cost per kilowatt-hour of the produced energy. With increasing size of wind turbines, new approaches to load control are required to reduce the stresses in blades. Experimental and numerical studies in the fields...... system. As these efforts mature from an aeroelastic and control point of view, in order to get to the next stage of applying the solutions on wind turbine systems evaluation of the structural needs of the various proposed solutions and quantification of their potential is required. The report includes...

  20. Simulated Bladed MMC Disk LCF Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrick, H. F.; Costen, M.

    1998-01-01

    The goal of this program was to evaluate the low cycle fatigue behavior of an SCS-6/Ti-6Al-4V sub-component under bi-axial loading conditions at 316 C(600 F). A simulated bladed TMC disk was designed having thirty four blades representing the number that would be used in Allied Signal's JTAGG II impeller. The outer diameter of the bladed ring was 254 mm (10.0 inch) and the inner diameter 114.3 mm (4.50 inch). The outer and inner diameter of the composite zone was 177.8 mm (7.00 inch) and 127.O mm(5.00 inch) respectively. Stress analysis showed that the fatigue life of the bladed composite ring would be about 12000 cycles for the test conditions applied. A modal analysis was conducted which showed that the blades would have sufficient life margin from dynamic excitation. The arbor design was the same as that employed in the spin-to burst test of NAS3-27027. A systematic stress analysis of each part making up the arbor was undertaken to assure the design would meet the low cycle fatigue requirements of the program. The Textron Systems grooved foil-fiber process was chosen to make the SCS-6/Ti-6Al-4V core ring based on the success they had in contract NAS3-27027. Fiber buckling, however, was observed at several locations in the first ring made which rendered it unsuitable for spin testing. The fiber buckling was attributed to cracking of the graphite tooling during the consolidation process. On this basis a second ring was made but it too contained fiber buckling defects. Analysis by Textron indicated that the fiber buckling was most likely due to poor placement of the SCS-6 fiber in the etched grooves of the Ti-6Al-4V foil. This was also a contributor to the defects in the first ring. Since there was little indication of control in the process to manufacture a quality ring a third attempt at making a ring was not undertaken.