Palma, G
2009-01-01
The probability density function (PDF) of some global average quantity plays a fundamental role in critical and highly correlated systems. We explicitly compute this quantity as a function of the magnetization for the two dimensional XY model in its harmonic approximation. Numerical simulations and perturbative results have shown a Gumbel-like shape of the PDF, in spite of the fact that the average magnetization is not an extreme variable. Our analytical result allows to test both perturbative analytical expansions and also numerical computations performed previously. Perfect agreement is found for the first moments of the PDF. Also for large volume and in the high temperature limit the distribution becomes Gaussian, as it should be. In the low temperature regime its numerical evaluation is compatible with a Gumbel distribution.
Topological Lattice Actions for the 2d XY Model
Bietenholz, W; Niedermayer, F; Pepe, M; Rejón-Barrera, F G; Wiese, U -J
2012-01-01
We consider the 2d XY Model with topological lattice actions, which are invariant against small deformations of the field configuration. These actions constrain the angle between neighbouring spins by an upper bound, or they explicitly suppress vortices (and anti-vortices). Although topological actions do not have a classical limit, they still lead to the universal behaviour of the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless (BKT) phase transition - at least up to moderate vortex suppression. Thus our study underscores the robustness of universality, which persists even when basic principles of classical physics are violated. In the massive phase, the analytically known Step Scaling Function (SSF) is reproduced in numerical simulations. In the massless phase, the BKT value of the critical exponent eta_c is confirmed. Hence, even though for some topological actions vortices cost zero energy, they still drive the standard BKT transition. In addition we identify a vortex-free transition point, which deviates from the BKT be...
An electric-field representation of the harmonic XY model
Faulkner, Michael F.; Bramwell, Steven T.; Holdsworth, Peter C. W.
2017-03-01
The two-dimensional harmonic XY (HXY) model is a spin model in which the classical spins interact via a piecewise parabolic potential. We argue that the HXY model should be regarded as the canonical classical lattice spin model of phase fluctuations in two-dimensional condensates, as it is the simplest model that guarantees the modular symmetry of the experimental systems. Here we formulate a lattice electric-field representation of the HXY model and contrast this with an analogous representation of the Villain model and the two-dimensional Coulomb gas with a purely rotational auxiliary field. We find that the HXY model is a spin-model analogue of a lattice electric-field model of the Coulomb gas with an auxiliary field, but with a temperature-dependent vacuum (electric) permittivity that encodes the coupling of the spin vortices to their background spin-wave medium. The spin vortices map to the Coulomb charges, while the spin-wave fluctuations correspond to auxiliary-field fluctuations. The coupling explains the striking differences in the high-temperature asymptotes of the specific heats of the HXY model and the Coulomb gas with an auxiliary field. Our results elucidate the propagation of effective long-range interactions throughout the HXY model (whose interactions are purely local) by the lattice electric fields. They also imply that global spin-twist excitations (topological-sector fluctuations) generated by local spin dynamics are ergodically excluded in the low-temperature phase. We discuss the relevance of these results to condensate physics.
2d Affine XY-Spin Model/4d Gauge Theory Duality and Deconfinement
Anber, Mohamed M.; Poppitz, Erich; /Toronto U.; Unsal, Mithat; /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /San Francisco State U.
2012-08-16
We introduce a duality between two-dimensional XY-spin models with symmetry-breaking perturbations and certain four-dimensional SU(2) and SU(2) = Z{sub 2} gauge theories, compactified on a small spatial circle R{sup 1,2} x S{sup 1}, and considered at temperatures near the deconfinement transition. In a Euclidean set up, the theory is defined on R{sup 2} x T{sup 2}. Similarly, thermal gauge theories of higher rank are dual to new families of 'affine' XY-spin models with perturbations. For rank two, these are related to models used to describe the melting of a 2d crystal with a triangular lattice. The connection is made through a multi-component electric-magnetic Coulomb gas representation for both systems. Perturbations in the spin system map to topological defects in the gauge theory, such as monopole-instantons or magnetic bions, and the vortices in the spin system map to the electrically charged W-bosons in field theory (or vice versa, depending on the duality frame). The duality permits one to use the two-dimensional technology of spin systems to study the thermal deconfinement and discrete chiral transitions in four-dimensional SU(N{sub c}) gauge theories with n{sub f} {ge} 1 adjoint Weyl fermions.
Temperature dependence of universal fluctuations in the two-dimensional harmonic XY model.
Palma, G
2006-04-01
We compute exact analytical expressions for the skewness and kurtosis in the two-dimensional harmonic XY model. These quantities correspond to the third and fourth normalized moments of the probability density function (PDF) of the magnetization of the model. From their behavior, we conclude that they depend explicitly on the system temperature even in the thermodynamic limit, and hence the PDF itself must depend on it. Our results correct the hypothesis called universal fluctuations, they confirm and extend previous results which showed a T dependence of the PDF, including perturbative expansions within the XY model up to first order in temperature.
2D magnetic nanoparticle imaging using magnetization response second harmonic
Tanaka, Saburo, E-mail: tanakas@ens.tut.ac.jp [Toyohashi University of Technology, 1-1 Tempaku-cho, Toyohashi, Aichi 441-8580 (Japan); Murata, Hayaki; Oishi, Tomoya; Suzuki, Toshifumi [Toyohashi University of Technology, 1-1 Tempaku-cho, Toyohashi, Aichi 441-8580 (Japan); Zhang, Yi [Peter Gruenberg Institute, Forschungszentrum Juelich, Juelich D-52425 (Germany)
2015-06-01
A detection method and an imaging technique for magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) have been investigated. In MNP detection and in magnetic particle imaging (MPI), the most commonly employed method is the detection of the odd harmonics of the magnetization response. We examined the advantage of using the second harmonic response when applying an AC magnetic modulation field and a DC bias field. If the magnetization response is detected by a Cu-wound-coil detection system, the output voltage from the coil is proportional to the change in the flux, dϕ/dt. Thus, the dependence of the derivative of the magnetization, M, on an AC magnetic modulation field and a DC bias field were calculated and investigated. The calculations were in good agreement with the experimental results. We demonstrated that the use of the second harmonic response for the detection of MNPs has an advantage compared with the usage of the third harmonic response, when the Cu-wound-coil detection system is employed and the amplitude of the ratio of the AC modulation field and a knee field H{sub ac}/H{sub k} is less than 2. We also constructed a 2D MPI scanner using a pair of permanent ring magnets with a bore of ϕ80 mm separated by 90 mm. The magnets generated a gradient of G{sub z}=3.17 T/m transverse to the imaging bore and G{sub x}=1.33 T/m along the longitudinal axis. An original concentrated 10 μl Resovist solution in a ϕ2×3 mm{sup 2} vessel was used as a sample, and it was imaged by the scanner. As a result, a 2D contour map image could be successfully generated using the method with a lock-in amplifier.
Komura, Yukihiro
2014-01-01
We present sample CUDA programs for the GPU computing of the Swendsen-Wang multi-cluster spin flip algorithm. We deal with the classical spin models; the Ising model, the $q$-state Potts model, and the classical XY model. As for the lattice, both the 2D (square) lattice and the 3D (simple cubic) lattice are treated. We already reported the idea of the GPU implementation for 2D models [Comput. Phys. Commun. 183 (2012) 1155-1161]. We here explain the details of sample programs, and discuss the performance of the present GPU implementation for the 3D Ising and XY models. We also show the calculated results of the moment ratio for these models, and discuss phase transitions.
A 2-D/3-D cartesian geometry non-conforming spherical harmonic neutron transport solver
Van Criekingen, S. [Laboratoire J.-L. Lions, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, 175 rue du Chevaleret, 75013 Paris (France)]. E-mail: vancriekingen@ann.jussieu.fr
2007-03-15
A new 2-D/3-D transport core solver for the time-independent Boltzmann transport equation is presented. This solver, named FIESTA, is based on the second-order even-parity form of the transport equation. The angular discretization is performed through the expansion of the angular neutron flux into spherical harmonics (P {sub N} method). The novelty of this solver is the use of non-conforming finite elements for the spatial discretization. Such elements lead to a discontinuous scalar flux approximation. This interface continuity requirement relaxation property is shared with mixed-dual formulations discretized using Raviart-Thomas finite elements. Encouraging numerical results are presented.
Shao, Yonghong; Liu, Honghai; Qin, Wan; Qu, Junle; Peng, Xiang; Niu, Hanben; Gao, Bruce Z
2012-09-01
We present an addressable, large-field second harmonic generation microscope by combining a 2D acousto-optical deflector with a spatial light modulator. The SLM shapes an incoming mode-locked, near-infrared Ti:Sapphire laser beam into a multifocus array, which can be rapidly scanned by changing the incident angle of the laser beam using a 2D acousto-optical deflector. Compared to the single-beam-scan technique, the multifocus array scan can increase the scanning rate and the field-of-view size with the multi-region imaging ability.
Second harmonic spectroscopy to optically detect valley polarization in 2D materials
Hipolito, F.; Pereira, Vitor M.
2017-06-01
Valley polarization (VP), an induced imbalance in the populations of a multi-valley electronic system, allows emission of second harmonic (SH) light even in centrosymmetric crystals such as graphene. Whereas in systems such as MoS{{}2} or BN this adds to their intrinsic quadratic response, SH generation in a multi-valley inversion-symmetric crystal can provide a direct measure of valley polarization. By computing the nonlinear response and characterizing theoretically the respective SH as a function of polarization, temperature, electron density, and degree of VP, we demonstrate the possibility of disentangling and individually quantifying the intrinsic and valley contributions to the SH. A specific experimental setup is proposed to obtain direct quantitative information about the degree of VP and allow its remote mapping. This approach could prove useful for direct, contactless, real-space monitoring of valley injection and other applications of valley transport and valleytronics.
A dynamical systems approach to Bohmian trajectories in a 2D harmonic oscillator
Borondo, F [Departamento de Quimica, and Instituto Mixto de Ciencias Matematicas CSIC-UAM-UC3M-UCM, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco-28049 Madrid (Spain); Luque, A; Villanueva, J [Departament de Matematica Aplicada I, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Wisniacki, D A [Departamento de Fisica ' J. J. Giambiagi' , FCEN, UBA, Pabellon 1, Ciudad Universitaria, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina)], E-mail: f.borondo@uam.es, E-mail: alejandro.luque@upc.edu, E-mail: jordi.villanueva@upc.edu, E-mail: wisniacki@df.uba.ar
2009-12-11
Vortices are known to play a key role in the dynamics of the quantum trajectories defined within the framework of the de Broglie-Bohm formalism of quantum mechanics. It has been rigourously proved that the motion of a vortex in the associated velocity field can induce chaos in these trajectories, and numerical studies have explored the rich variety of behaviors that due to their influence can be observed. In this paper, we go one step further and show how the theory of dynamical systems can be used to construct a general and systematic classification of such dynamical behaviors. This should contribute to establish some firm grounds on which the studies on the intrinsic stochasticity of Bohm's quantum trajectories can be based. An application to the two-dimensional isotropic harmonic oscillator is presented as an illustration.
Reem Yassine
2016-12-01
Full Text Available The frequency response function is a quantitative measure used in structural analysis and engineering design; hence, it is targeted for accuracy. For a large structure, a high number of substructures, also called cells, must be considered, which will lead to a high amount of computational time. In this paper, the recursive method, a finite element method, is used for computing the frequency response function, independent of the number of cells with much lesser time costs. The fundamental principle is eliminating the internal degrees of freedom that are at the interface between a cell and its succeeding one. The method is applied solely for free (no load nodes. Based on the boundary and interior degrees of freedom, the global dynamic stiffness matrix is computed by means of products and inverses resulting with a dimension the same as that for one cell. The recursive method is demonstrated on periodic structures (cranes and buildings under harmonic vibrations. The method yielded a satisfying time decrease with a maximum time ratio of 1 18 and a percentage difference of 19%, in comparison with the conventional finite element method. Close values were attained at low and very high frequencies; the analysis is supported for two types of materials (steel and plastic. The method maintained its efficiency with a high number of forces, excluding the case when all of the nodes are under loads.
Heerens, W.C.; Laham, C.D.; Holman, A.E.
1997-01-01
An XY-displacement device (1) with a four-fold symmetry comprises a reference frame (10); an object mount (20) for holding an object (22) to be displaced; an X-manipulator (100) coupled between the reference frame (10) and the object mount (20), which provides a rigid coupling between the object mou
Lindhardt Johansen, Marie; Hagen, Casper P; Rajpert-De Meyts, Ewa;
2012-01-01
Most previous studies of 45,X/46,XY mosaicism are case reports or have described single aspects of the disease.......Most previous studies of 45,X/46,XY mosaicism are case reports or have described single aspects of the disease....
Bhaskar, Mahajan Sagar; Sanjeevikumar, Padmanaban; Wheeler, Patrick
2016-01-01
A New breed of a buck boost converter, named as the XY converter family is proposed in this article. In the XY family, 16 topologies are presented which are highly suitable for renewable energy applications which require a high ratio of DC-DC converter; such as a photovoltaic multilevel inverter...... system, high voltage automotive applications and industrial drives. Compared to the traditional boost converter and existing recent converters, the proposed XY converter family has the ability to provide a higher output voltage by using less number of power devices and reactive components. Other distinct...... features of the XY converter family are i) Single control switch ii) Provide negative output voltage iii) Non-isolated topologies iv) High conversion ratio without making the use of high duty cycle and v) modular structure. XY family is compared with the recent high step-up converters and the detailed...
Generando entrelazamiento en cadenas XY - (Generating entanglement in XY chains)
Schmiegelow, C T
2006-01-01
Se estudia en este trabajo la capacidad de generar entrelazamiento de una cadena de espines con acoplamiento de Heisenberg XY y un campo magnetico uniforme a partir de un estado inicial en el que los espines estan completamente alineados. Se encuentra que la capacidad de generar estados entrelazados no muestra un comportamiento monotono con el campo presentando, en cambio, plateaus y resonancias. Tambien se muestra que, a pesar de que la anisotropia es necesaria para que se generen estados entrelazados, una mayor anisotropia no implica necesariamente mejores condiciones para generar entrelazamiento que sirva para usarse en una computadora cuantica. Inclusive, se observa que, se genera una cantidad finita de entrelazamiento en el limite de pequena anisotropia. (The maximum entanglement reached by an initially fully aligned state evolving in a XY Heisenberg spin chain placed in a uniform transverse magnetic field is studied. It is shown that the capacity to create entangled states (both of one qubit with the re...
Generando entrelazamiento en cadenas XY - (Generating entanglement in XY chains)
Schmiegelow, C. T.
2006-01-01
Se estudia en este trabajo la capacidad de generar entrelazamiento de una cadena de espines con acoplamiento de Heisenberg XY y un campo magnetico uniforme a partir de un estado inicial en el que los espines estan completamente alineados. Se encuentra que la capacidad de generar estados entrelazados no muestra un comportamiento monotono con el campo presentando, en cambio, plateaus y resonancias. Tambien se muestra que, a pesar de que la anisotropia es necesaria para que se generen estados en...
Measurement of chromatic X-Y coupling
Ohnishi, Y.; Ohmi, K.; Koiso, H.; Masuzawa, M.; Morita, A.; Mori, K.; Oide, K.; Seimiya, Y.; Zhou, D.
2009-09-01
We have measured and corrected chromatic X-Y coupling at an interaction point to improve the luminosity of KEKB. We have measured the beam position of betatron oscillations induced by the kicker using turn-by-turn beam position monitors. A phase space structure reconstructed by the beam position provides us not only the Twiss parameters but also information regarding X-Y coupling. We have also determined chromatic X-Y coupling using the measured X-Y coupling at each momentum deviation from the designed beam energy. Skew sextupole magnets are used to correct the chromatic X-Y coupling.
Domain-wall induced XY disorder in the fully frustrated XY model
Granato, Enzo
1987-02-01
The defect-mediated phase transition in the fully frustrated XY model is discussed. A Migdal-Kadanoff position-space renormalization group analysis is employed to investigate the critical behavior of a similar model in the same universality class as the fully frustrated XY model. The resulting phase diagram shows that XY order cannot co-exist with Ising disorder. This is in agreement with recently suggested phase-transition scenario in the fully frustrated XY model.
Form factors of the finite quantum XY-chain
Iorgov, Nikolai, E-mail: iorgov@bitp.kiev.ua [Bogolyubov Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kiev 03680 (Ukraine)
2011-08-19
Explicit factorized formulas for the matrix elements (form factors) of the spin operators {sigma}{sup x} and {sigma}{sup y} between the eigenvectors of the Hamiltonian of the finite quantum periodic XY-chain in a transverse field were derived. The derivation is based on the relations between three models: the model of quantum XY-chain, Ising model on 2D lattice and N = 2 Baxter-Bazhanov-Stroganov {tau}{sup (2)}-model. Due to these relations we transfer the formulas for the form factors of the latter model recently obtained by the use of separation of variables method to the model of quantum XY-chain. Hopefully, the formulas for the form factors will help in analysis of multipoint dynamic correlation functions at a finite temperature. As an example, we re-derive the asymptotics of the two-point correlation function in the disordered phase without the use of the Toeplitz determinants and the Wiener-Hopf factorization method.
XY-sliding phases - mirage of the Renormalization Group
Vayl, Steven; Kuklov, Anatoly; Oganesyan, Vadim
The so called sliding XY phases in layered systems are predicted to occur if the one loop renormalization group (RG) flow renders the interlayer Josephson coupling irrelevant, while each layer still features broken U(1) symmetry. In other words, such a layered system remains essentially two-dimensional despite the presence of inter-layer Josephson coupling. We have analyzed numerically a layered system consisting of groups of asymmetric layers where the RG analysis predicts sliding phases to occur. Monte Carlo simulations of such a system have been conducted in the dual representation by Worm Algorithm in terms of the closed loops of J-currents for layer sizes varying from 4 ×4 to 640 ×640 and the number of layers - from 2 to 40. The resulting flow of the inter-layer XY-stiffness has been found to be inconsistent with the RG prediction and fully consistent with the behavior of the 3D standard XY model where the bare inter-layer Josephson coupling is much smaller than the intra-layer stiffness. This result emphasizes the importance of the compactness of the U(1) variable for 2D to 3D transformation. This work was supported by the NSF Grant PHY1314469.
Steerneman, A.G.M.; van Perlo -ten Kleij, Frederieke
2005-01-01
The main topic of this paper is the matrix V = A - XY*, where A is a nonsingular complex k x k matrix and X and Y are k x p complex matrices of full column rank. Because properties of the matrix V can be derived from those of the matrix Q = I - XY*, we will consider in particular the case where A =
Ganeev, Rashid A
2014-01-01
Preface; Why plasma harmonics? A very brief introduction Early stage of plasma harmonic studies - hopes and frustrations New developments in plasma harmonics studies: first successes Improvements of plasma harmonics; Theoretical basics of plasma harmonics; Basics of HHG Harmonic generation in fullerenes using few-cycle pulsesVarious approaches for description of observed peculiarities of resonant enhancement of a single harmonic in laser plasmaTwo-colour pump resonance-induced enhancement of odd and even harmonics from a tin plasmaCalculations of single harmonic generation from Mn plasma;Low-o
Generation of fertile and fecund F0 XY female mice from XY ES cells.
Kuno, Junko; Poueymirou, William T; Gong, Guochun; Siao, Chia-Jen; Clarke, Georgia; Esau, Lakeisha; Kojak, Nada; Posca, Julita; Atanasio, Amanda; Strein, John; Yancopoulos, George D; Lai, Ka-Man Venus; DeChiara, Thomas M; Frendewey, David; Auerbach, Wojtek; Valenzuela, David M
2015-02-01
Known examples of male to female sex reversal in mice are caused by either strain incompatibilities or mutations in genes required for male sex determination. The resultant XY females are often sterile or exhibit very poor fertility. We describe here embryonic stem (ES) cell growth conditions that promote the production of healthy, anatomically normal fertile and fecund female F0 generation mice completely derived from gene-targeted XY male ES cells. The sex reversal is a transient trait that is not transmitted to the F1 progeny. Growth media with low osmolality and reduced sodium bicarbonate, maintained throughout the gene targeting process, enhance the yield of XY females. As a practical application of the induced sex reversal, we demonstrate the generation of homozygous mutant mice ready for phenotypic studies by the breeding of F0 XY females with their isogenic XY male clonal siblings, thereby eliminating one generation of breeding and the associated costs.
Goodenough, David; Levy, Josh; Kristinsson, Smari; Fredriksson, Jesper; Olafsdottir, Hildur; Healy, Austin
2016-09-08
Increasingly, the advent of multislice CT scanners, volume CT scanners, and total body spiral acquisition modes has led to the use of Multi Planar Reconstruction and 3D datasets. In considering 3D resolution properties of a CT system it is important to note that both the in-plane (x,y) and z-axis (slice thickness) influence the visual-ization and detection of objects within the scanned volume. This study investigates ways to consider both the in-plane resolution and the z-axis resolution in a single phantom wherein analytic or visualized analysis can yield information on these combined effects. A new phantom called the "Wave Phantom" is developed that can be used to sample the 3D resolution properties of a CT image, including in-plane (x,y) and z-axis information. The key development in this Wave Phantom is the incorporation of a z-axis aspect of a more traditional step (bar) resolution gauge phantom. The phantom can be examined visually wherein a cutoff level may be seen; and/or the analytic analysis of the various characteristics of the waveform profile by including amplitude, frequency, and slope (rate of climb) of the peaks, can be extracted from the Wave Pattern using mathematical analysis such as the Fourier transform. The combined effect of changes in in-plane resolution and z-axis (thickness), are shown, as well as the effect of changes in either in-plane resolu-tion, or z-axis thickness. Examples of visual images of the Wave pattern as well as the analytic characteristics of the various harmonics of a periodic Wave pattern resulting from changes in resolution filter and/or slice thickness, and position in the field of view are shown. The Wave Phantom offers a promising way to investigate 3D resolution results from combined effect of in-plane (x-y) and z-axis resolution as contrasted to the use of simple 2D resolution gauges that need to be used with separate measures of z-axis dependency, such as angled ramps. It offers both a visual pattern as well as a
Goodenough, David; Levy, Josh; Kristinsson, Smari; Fredriksson, Jesper; Olafsdottir, Hildur; Healy, Austin
2016-09-01
Increasingly, the advent of multislice CT scanners, volume CT scanners, and total body spiral acquisition modes has led to the use of Multi Planar Reconstruction and 3D datasets. In considering 3D resolution properties of a CT system it is important to note that both the in-plane (x,y) and z-axis (slice thickness) influence the visualization and detection of objects within the scanned volume. This study investigates ways to consider both the in-plane resolution and the z-axis resolution in a single phantom wherein analytic or visualized analysis can yield information on these combined effects. A new phantom called the "Wave Phantom" is developed that can be used to sample the 3D resolution properties of a CT image, including in-plane (x,y) and z-axis information. The key development in this Wave Phantom is the incorporation of a z-axis aspect of a more traditional step (bar) resolution gauge phantom. The phantom can be examined visually wherein a cutoff level may be seen; and/or the analytic analysis of the various characteristics of the waveform profile by including amplitude, frequency, and slope (rate of climb) of the peaks, can be extracted from the Wave Pattern using mathematical analysis such as the Fourier transform. The combined effect of changes in in-plane resolution and z-axis (thickness), are shown, as well as the effect of changes in either in-plane resolution, or z-axis thickness. Examples of visual images of the Wave pattern as well as the analytic characteristics of the various harmonics of a periodic Wave pattern resulting from changes in resolution filter and/or slice thickness, and position in the field of view are shown. The Wave Phantom offers a promising way to investigate 3D resolution results from combined effect of in-plane (x-y) and z-axis resolution as contrasted to the use of simple 2D resolution gauges that need to be used with separate measures of z-axis dependency, such as angled ramps. It offers both a visual pattern as well as a
Probability-changing cluster algorithm for two-dimensional XY and clock models
Tomita, Yusuke; Okabe, Yutaka
2002-05-01
We extend the newly proposed probability-changing cluster (PCC) Monte Carlo algorithm to the study of systems with the vector order parameter. Wolff's idea of the embedded cluster formalism is used for assigning clusters. The Kosterlitz-Thouless (KT) transitions for the two-dimensional (2D) XY and q-state clock models are studied by using the PCC algorithm. Combined with the finite-size scaling analysis based on the KT form of the correlation length, ξ~exp(c/(T/TKT-1)), we determine the KT transition temperature and the decay exponent η as TKT=0.8933(6) and η=0.243(4) for the 2D XY model. We investigate two transitions of the KT type for the 2D q-state clock models with q=6,8,12 and confirm the prediction of η=4/q2 at T1, the low-temperature critical point between the ordered and XY-like phases, systematically.
Correlation Inequalities for the Quantum XY Model
Benassi, Costanza; Lees, Benjamin; Ueltschi, Daniel
2016-09-01
We show the positivity or negativity of truncated correlation functions in the quantum XY model with spin 1/2 (at any temperature) and spin 1 (in the ground state). These Griffiths-Ginibre inequalities of the second kind generalise an earlier result of Gallavotti.
45,X/46,XY/47,XY, +21 mosaicism in a hypogonadal phenotypic male.
Sparagana, M; Wong, P W; Dorsch, T R; Casten, C; Rauer, M; Szego, K.
1980-01-01
A phenotypically normal male was found to have a chromosomal complement of 45,X/46,XY/47,XY, +21. This mosaic pattern has been reported only twice before. Although the patient had apparently fathered two children, he now has progressive impotence, absence of sperm in the seminal fluid, atrophic testes, almost complete absence of germ cells in testicular biopsies, high plasma LH and FSH, and a low normal testosterone. There were no physical characteristics of Turner's or Down's syndromes excep...
2D semiconductor optoelectronics
Novoselov, Kostya
The advent of graphene and related 2D materials has recently led to a new technology: heterostructures based on these atomically thin crystals. The paradigm proved itself extremely versatile and led to rapid demonstration of tunnelling diodes with negative differential resistance, tunnelling transistors, photovoltaic devices, etc. By taking the complexity and functionality of such van der Waals heterostructures to the next level we introduce quantum wells engineered with one atomic plane precision. Light emission from such quantum wells, quantum dots and polaritonic effects will be discussed.
Eliazar, Iddo
2017-05-01
The exponential, the normal, and the Poisson statistical laws are of major importance due to their universality. Harmonic statistics are as universal as the three aforementioned laws, but yet they fall short in their 'public relations' for the following reason: the full scope of harmonic statistics cannot be described in terms of a statistical law. In this paper we describe harmonic statistics, in their full scope, via an object termed harmonic Poisson process: a Poisson process, over the positive half-line, with a harmonic intensity. The paper reviews the harmonic Poisson process, investigates its properties, and presents the connections of this object to an assortment of topics: uniform statistics, scale invariance, random multiplicative perturbations, Pareto and inverse-Pareto statistics, exponential growth and exponential decay, power-law renormalization, convergence and domains of attraction, the Langevin equation, diffusions, Benford's law, and 1/f noise.
Entanglement Enhancement in an XY Spin Chain
SU Xiao-Qiang
2011-01-01
We study evolution of entanglement in an XY-type spin channel and find that the entanglement can be enhanced by the spin channel. The parameter regions of the initial states for different numbers of sites are obtained.Furthermore, we consider a common spin environment coupling to the spin chains and find that the entanglement enhancement can also be implemented only for the chains with the odd numbers of sites.%@@ We study evolution of entanglement in an XY-type spin channel and find that the entanglement can be enhanced by the spin channel.The parameter regions of the initial states for different numbers of sites are obtained.Furthermore,we consider a common spin environment coupling to the spin chains and find that the entanglement enhancement can also be implemented only for the chains with the odd numbers of sites.
Activated sludge model No. 2d, ASM2d
Henze, M.
1999-01-01
The Activated Sludge Model No. 2d (ASM2d) presents a model for biological phosphorus removal with simultaneous nitrification-denitrification in activated sludge systems. ASM2d is based on ASM2 and is expanded to include the denitrifying activity of the phosphorus accumulating organisms (PAOs...
Eliazar, Iddo, E-mail: eliazar@post.tau.ac.il
2017-05-15
The exponential, the normal, and the Poisson statistical laws are of major importance due to their universality. Harmonic statistics are as universal as the three aforementioned laws, but yet they fall short in their ‘public relations’ for the following reason: the full scope of harmonic statistics cannot be described in terms of a statistical law. In this paper we describe harmonic statistics, in their full scope, via an object termed harmonic Poisson process: a Poisson process, over the positive half-line, with a harmonic intensity. The paper reviews the harmonic Poisson process, investigates its properties, and presents the connections of this object to an assortment of topics: uniform statistics, scale invariance, random multiplicative perturbations, Pareto and inverse-Pareto statistics, exponential growth and exponential decay, power-law renormalization, convergence and domains of attraction, the Langevin equation, diffusions, Benford’s law, and 1/f noise. - Highlights: • Harmonic statistics are described and reviewed in detail. • Connections to various statistical laws are established. • Connections to perturbation, renormalization and dynamics are established.
Return to equilibrium in the XY model
Hume, L.; Robinson, D.W.
1986-09-01
We prove that the locally perturbed XY model returns to equilibrium under the unperturbed evolution but the unperturbed model does not necessarily approach equilibrium under the perturbed evolution. In fact this latter property is false for perturbation by a local magnetization. The failure is directly attributable to the formation of bound states. If the perturbation is quadratic these problems are reduced to spectral analysis of the one-particle Hamiltonian. We demonstrate that the perturbed Hamiltonian has a finite set of eigenvalues of finite multiplicity together with some absolutely continuous spectrum. Eigenvalues can occur in the continuum if, and only if, the perturbation dislocates the system. Singular continuous spectrum cannot occur.
GE Rong-Chun; LI Chuan-Feng; GUO Guang-Can
2012-01-01
We investigate the dynamics of entanglement,quantum correlation and classical correlation for the one-dimensional XY model in a transverse magnetic field.With the initial state polarized along the z axis,we find that the first maximum of the classical correlation between the nearest neighbor sites peaks around the critical point for large anisotropy parameter.It may indicate the quantum phase transition.For all kinds of correlation,we find that their behaviors between the nearest neighbor sites are significantly different from those of the next-nearestneighbor sites.
Entanglement in spin-1 Heisenberg XY chain
2008-01-01
We investigated the quantum entanglement in spin-1 Heisenberg XY chain for two-spin-qutrit and multi-particle systems. As a measure of the entanglement, the negativity of this state was analyzed as a function of the temperature and the magnetic field. We gave some numerical results and discussed them in detail. We found that the negativity increases monotonously with the coupling constants |J1| and |J2|, and it showed a symmetry with respect to the point of J1=0 and J2=0. In addition to the above features, there is evidence that the critical temperature is independent of the length of the chain.
Quantum Correlations in Heisenberg XY Chain
ZHU Yin-Yan; ZHANG Yong
2013-01-01
Quantum correlations measured by quantum discord (QD),measurement-induced distance (MID),and geometric measure of quantum discord (GMQD) in two-qubit Heisenberg XY spin chain are investigated.The effects of DM interaction and anisotropic on the three correlations are considered.Characteristics of various correlation measures for the two-qubit states are compared.The increasing Dz increases QD,MID and GMQD monotonously while the increasing anisotropy both increases and decreases QD and GMQD.The three quantum correlations are always existent at very high temperature.MID is always larger than QD,but there is no definite ordering between QD and GMQD.
Entanglement in spin-1 Heisenberg XY chain
QIN Meng; TAO YingJuan; HU MingLiang; TIAN DongPing
2008-01-01
We investigated the quantum entanglement in spin-1 Heisenberg XY chain for two-spin-qutrit and multi-particle systems. As a measure of the entanglement, the negativity of this state was analyzed as a function of the temperature and the magnetic field. We gave some numerical results and discussed them in detail. We found that the negativity increases monotonously with the coupling constants |J1|and |J2|, and it showed a symmetry with respect to the point of J1=0 and J2= 0. In addition to the above features, there is evidence that the critical temperature is independent of the length of the chain.
Lattice distortion in disordered antiferromagnetic XY models
Li Peng-Fei; Cao Hai-Jing
2012-01-01
The behavior of lattice distortion in spin 1/2 antiferromagnetic XY models with random magnetic modulation is investigated with the consideration of spin-phonon coupling in the adiabatic limit.It is found that lattice distortion relies on the strength of the random modulation.For strong or weak enough spin-phonon couplings,the average lattice distortion may decrease or increase as the random modulation is strengthened.This may be the result of competition between the random magnetic modulation and the spin-phonon coupling.
Simulating the classical XY model with a laser network
Tamate, Shuhei; Marandi, Alireza; McMahon, Peter; Utsunomiya, Shoko
2016-01-01
Drawing fair samples from the Boltzmann distribution of a statistical model is a challenging task for modern digital computers. We propose a physical implementation of a Boltzmann sampler for the classical XY model by using a laser network. The XY spins are mapped onto the phases of multiple laser pulses in a fiber ring cavity and the steady-state distribution of phases naturally realizes the Boltzmann distribution of the corresponding XY model. We experimentally implement the laser network by using an actively mode-locked fiber laser with optical delay lines, and demonstrate Boltzmann sampling for a one-dimensional XY ring.
WFR-2D: an analytical model for PWAS-generated 2D ultrasonic guided wave propagation
Shen, Yanfeng; Giurgiutiu, Victor
2014-03-01
This paper presents WaveFormRevealer 2-D (WFR-2D), an analytical predictive tool for the simulation of 2-D ultrasonic guided wave propagation and interaction with damage. The design of structural health monitoring (SHM) systems and self-aware smart structures requires the exploration of a wide range of parameters to achieve best detection and quantification of certain types of damage. Such need for parameter exploration on sensor dimension, location, guided wave characteristics (mode type, frequency, wavelength, etc.) can be best satisfied with analytical models which are fast and efficient. The analytical model was constructed based on the exact 2-D Lamb wave solution using Bessel and Hankel functions. Damage effects were inserted in the model by considering the damage as a secondary wave source with complex-valued directivity scattering coefficients containing both amplitude and phase information from wave-damage interaction. The analytical procedure was coded with MATLAB, and a predictive simulation tool called WaveFormRevealer 2-D was developed. The wave-damage interaction coefficients (WDICs) were extracted from harmonic analysis of local finite element model (FEM) with artificial non-reflective boundaries (NRB). The WFR-2D analytical simulation results were compared and verified with full scale multiphysics finite element models and experiments with scanning laser vibrometer. First, Lamb wave propagation in a pristine aluminum plate was simulated with WFR-2D, compared with finite element results, and verified by experiments. Then, an inhomogeneity was machined into the plate to represent damage. Analytical modeling was carried out, and verified by finite element simulation and experiments. This paper finishes with conclusions and suggestions for future work.
Spin correlations in the two-dimensional quantum s=1/2 XY model
Sznajd, J.
1995-08-01
A quantum version of the Niemeijer-van Leeuwen real-space renormalization-group method is used to study the temperature dependence of the two- and four-spin correlations in the quantum XY model on the triangular lattice. The first-order cumulant expansion results suggest, similarly to other methods, a low-temperature phase of an essentially different kind from that predicted for the classical model. The possible explanation of the origin of the spurious 2D Heisenberg-like nontrivial fixed point in some renormalization-group calculations is also proposed.
Wei, Hongjiang; Zhang, Yuyao; Gibbs, Eric; Chen, Nan-Kuei; Wang, Nian; Liu, Chunlei
2017-04-01
Quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) measures tissue magnetic susceptibility and typically relies on time-consuming three-dimensional (3D) gradient-echo (GRE) MRI. Recent studies have shown that two-dimensional (2D) multi-slice gradient-echo echo-planar imaging (GRE-EPI), which is commonly used in functional MRI (fMRI) and other dynamic imaging techniques, can also be used to produce data suitable for QSM with much shorter scan times. However, the production of high-quality QSM maps is difficult because data obtained by 2D multi-slice scans often have phase inconsistencies across adjacent slices and strong susceptibility field gradients near air-tissue interfaces. To address these challenges in 2D EPI-based QSM studies, we present a new data processing procedure that integrates 2D and 3D phase processing. First, 2D Laplacian-based phase unwrapping and 2D background phase removal are performed to reduce phase inconsistencies between slices and remove in-plane harmonic components of the background phase. This is followed by 3D background phase removal for the through-plane harmonic components. The proposed phase processing was evaluated with 2D EPI data obtained from healthy volunteers, and compared against conventional 3D phase processing using the same 2D EPI datasets. Our QSM results were also compared with QSM values from time-consuming 3D GRE data, which were taken as ground truth. The experimental results show that this new 2D EPI-based QSM technique can produce quantitative susceptibility measures that are comparable with those of 3D GRE-based QSM across different brain regions (e.g. subcortical iron-rich gray matter, cortical gray and white matter). This new 2D EPI QSM reconstruction method is implemented within STI Suite, which is a comprehensive shareware for susceptibility imaging and quantification. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Panuzzo, P.; Li, J.; Caux, E.
2012-09-01
The Herschel Interactive Processing Environment (HIPE) was developed by the European Space Agency (ESA) in collaboration with NASA and the Herschel Instrument Control Centres, to provide the astronomical community a complete environment to process and analyze the data gathered by the Herschel Space Observatory. One of the most important components of HIPE is the plotting system (named PlotXY) that we present here. With PlotXY it is possible to produce easily high quality publication-ready 2D plots. It provides a long list of features, with fully configurable components, and interactive zooming. The entire code of HIPE is written in Java and is open source released under the GNU Lesser General Public License version 3. A new version of PlotXY is being developed to be independent from the HIPE code base; it is available to the software development community for the inclusion in other projects at the URL google.com/p/jplot2d/'>http://code.google.com/p/jplot2d/.
Phenotypic spectrum of 45,X/46,XY individuals.
Rosenberg, C; Frota-Pessoa, O; Vianna-Morgante, A M; Chu, T H
1987-07-01
We report on five patients with 45,X/46,XY mosaicism. In these subjects, as well as in 58 individuals from the literature with a similar chromosome constitution, we did not find a preponderance of 46,XY cells among patients showing ambiguous to abnormal male external genitalia when compared to those patients with slight or no virilization. However, the average frequency of 46,XY cells in blood in these mosaic individuals suggests that this sample includes mainly individuals whose mosaicism originated early in embryonic cell division. Those individuals whose mosaicism originated later are not significantly represented in this sample and would have higher frequencies of 46,XY cells. These individuals would be excluded from an intersex sample if they had well-virilized genitalia. This ascertainment bias suggests that the degree of virilization depends on the frequency of 46,XY cells.
True hermaphroditism in 45,X/46,XY mosaicism.
Linskens, R K; Odink, R J; van der Linden, J C; Ekkelkamp, S; Delemarre-van de Waal, H A
1992-01-01
This report discusses the clinical findings on two patients with 45,X/46,XY mosaicism, two boys presented with penile hypospadias and cryptorchidism. A dysgenetic ovary and a testis were found in one boy, and a dysgenetic ovary in the other. Both patients can be considered to be true hermaphrodites on the basis of histology and clinical and hormonal observations. 45,X/46,XY mosaics have a wide range of phenotypic appearances and their gonadal morphology can also show great differences. However, the incidence of true hermaphroditism in individuals with 45,X/46,XY mosaicism is low and the reports in the literature rare. It is likely that males with 45,X/46,XY who suffer only mild maldevelopment of the external genitalia will not be recognized. In all patients with penoscrotal hypospadias and cryptorchidism with 45,X/46,XY mosaicism, the possibility of true hermaphroditism should be considered.
Bennett, Charles L.
2009-10-20
A high efficiency harmonic engine based on a resonantly reciprocating piston expander that extracts work from heat and pressurizes working fluid in a reciprocating piston compressor. The engine preferably includes harmonic oscillator valves capable of oscillating at a resonant frequency for controlling the flow of working fluid into and out of the expander, and also preferably includes a shunt line connecting an expansion chamber of the expander to a buffer chamber of the expander for minimizing pressure variations in the fluidic circuit of the engine. The engine is especially designed to operate with very high temperature input to the expander and very low temperature input to the compressor, to produce very high thermal conversion efficiency.
The XY model coupled to two-dimensional quantum gravity
Baillie, C. F.; Johnston, D. A.
1992-09-01
We perform Monte Carlo simulations using the Wolff cluster algorithm of the XY model on both fixed and dynamical phi-cubed graphs (i.e. without and with coupling to two-dimensional quantum gravity). We compare the numerical results with the theoretical expectation that the phase transition remains of KT type when the XY model is coupled to gravity. We also examine whether the universality we discovered in our earlier work on various Potts models with the same value of the central charge, c, carries over to the XY model, which has c=1.
The XY Model Coupled to Two-Dimensional Quantum Gravity
Baillie, C F; 10.1016/0370-2693(92)91037-A
2009-01-01
We perform Monte Carlo simulations using the Wolff cluster algorithm of the XY model on both fixed and dynamical phi-cubed graphs (i.e. without and with coupling to two-dimensional quantum gravity). We compare the numerical results with the theoretical expectation that the phase transition remains of KT type when the XY model is coupled to gravity. We also examine whether the universality we discovered in our earlier work on various Potts models with the same value of the central charge, $c$, carries over to the XY model, which has $c=1$.
HypGrid2D. A 2-d mesh generator
Soerensen, N.N.
1998-03-01
The implementation of a hyperbolic mesh generation procedure, based on an equation for orthogonality and an equation for the cell face area is described. The method is fast, robust and gives meshes with good smoothness and orthogonality. The procedure is implemented in a program called HypGrid2D. The HypGrid2D program is capable of generating C-, O- and `H`-meshes for use in connection with the EllipSys2D Navier-Stokes solver. To illustrate the capabilities of the program, some test examples are shown. First a series of C-meshes are generated around a NACA-0012 airfoil. Secondly a series of O-meshes are generated around a NACA-65-418 airfoil. Finally `H`-meshes are generated over a Gaussian hill and a linear escarpment. (au)
Multipartite geometric entanglement in finite size XY model
Blasone, Massimo; Dell' Anno, Fabio; De Siena, Silvio; Giampaolo, Salvatore Marco; Illuminati, Fabrizio, E-mail: blasone@sa.infn.i [Dipartimento di Matematica e Informatica, Universita degli Studi di Salerno, Via Ponte don Melillo, I-84084 Fisciano (Italy)
2009-06-01
We investigate the behavior of the multipartite entanglement in the finite size XY model by means of the hierarchical geometric measure of entanglement. By selecting specific components of the hierarchy, we study both global entanglement and genuinely multipartite entanglement.
One-dimensional XY model: Ergodic properties and hydrodynamic limit
Shuhov, A. G.; Suhov, Yu. M.
1986-11-01
We prove theorems on convergence to a stationary state in the course of time for the one-dimensional XY model and its generalizations. The key point is the well-known Jordan-Wigner transformation, which maps the XY dynamics onto a group of Bogoliubov transformations on the CAR C *-algebra over Z 1. The role of stationary states for Bogoliubov transformations is played by quasifree states and for the XY model by their inverse images with respect to the Jordan-Wigner transformation. The hydrodynamic limit for the one-dimensional XY model is also considered. By using the Jordan-Wigner transformation one reduces the problem to that of constructing the hydrodynamic limit for the group of Bogoliubov transformations. As a result, we obtain an independent motion of "normal modes," which is described by a hyperbolic linear differential equation of second order. For the XX model this equation reduces to a first-order transfer equation.
Yang, Hong-Liu; Radons, Günter
2008-01-01
Crossover from weak to strong chaos in high-dimensional Hamiltonian systems at the strong stochasticity threshold (SST) was anticipated to indicate a global transition in the geometric structure of phase space. Our recent study of Fermi-Pasta-Ulam models showed that corresponding to this transition the energy density dependence of all Lyapunov exponents is identical apart from a scaling factor. The current investigation of the dynamic XY model discovers an alternative scenario for the energy dependence of the system dynamics at SSTs. Though similar in tendency, the Lyapunov exponents now show individually different energy dependencies except in the near-harmonic regime. Such a finding restricts the use of indices such as the largest Lyapunov exponent and the Ricci curvatures to characterize the global transition in the dynamics of high-dimensional Hamiltonian systems. These observations are consistent with our conjecture that the quasi-isotropy assumption works well only when parametric resonances are the dominant sources of dynamical instabilities. Moreover, numerical simulations demonstrate the existence of hydrodynamical Lyapunov modes (HLMs) in the dynamic XY model and show that corresponding to the crossover in the Lyapunov exponents there is also a smooth transition in the energy density dependence of significance measures of HLMs. In particular, our numerical results confirm that strong chaos is essential for the appearance of HLMs.
Correspondenceless 3D-2D registration based on expectation conditional maximization
Kang, X.; Taylor, R. H.; Armand, M.; Otake, Y.; Yau, W. P.; Cheung, P. Y. S.; Hu, Y.
2011-03-01
3D-2D registration is a fundamental task in image guided interventions. Due to the physics of the X-ray imaging, however, traditional point based methods meet new challenges, where the local point features are indistinguishable, creating difficulties in establishing correspondence between 2D image feature points and 3D model points. In this paper, we propose a novel method to accomplish 3D-2D registration without known correspondences. Given a set of 3D and 2D unmatched points, this is achieved by introducing correspondence probabilities that we model as a mixture model. By casting it into the expectation conditional maximization framework, without establishing one-to-one point correspondences, we can iteratively refine the registration parameters. The method has been tested on 100 real X-ray images. The experiments showed that the proposed method accurately estimated the rotations (< 1°) and in-plane (X-Y plane) translations (< 1 mm).
Cardiovascular pathology in males and females with 45,X/46,XY mosaicism
Katya De Groote; Martine Cools; Jean De Schepper; Margarita Craen; Inge François; Daniel Devos; Karlien Carbonez; Benedicte Eyskens; Daniel De Wolf
2013-01-01
Context: The phenotype of 45,X/46,XY mosaicism is heterogeneous ranging from females with Turner syndrome (TS) to apparently normal males. Males with 45,X/46,XY frequently show stigmata typically associated with TS. We hypothesised that males with 45,X/46,XY have similar cardiovascular pathology as females with 45,X/46,XY. Objective: To investigate cardiovascular abnormalities in 45,X/46,XY males and to compare them with 45,X/46,XY females. Design: Patients with 45,X/46,XY mosaicism w...
Hamerly, Ryan; Inagaki, Takahiro; Takesue, Hiroki; Yamamoto, Yoshihisa; Mabuchi, Hideo
2016-01-01
A network of optical parametric oscillators is used to simulate classical Ising and XY spin chains. The collective nonlinear dynamics of this network, driven by quantum noise rather than thermal fluctuations, seeks out the Ising / XY ground state as the system transitions from below to above the lasing threshold. We study the behavior of this "Ising machine" for three canonical problems: a 1D ferromagnetic spin chain, a 2D square lattice, and problems where next-nearest-neighbor couplings give rise to frustration. If the pump turn-on time is finite, topological defects form (domain walls for the Ising model, winding number and vortices for XY) and their density can be predicted from a numerical model involving a linear "growth stage" and a nonlinear "saturation stage". These predictions are compared against recent data for a 10,000-spin 1D Ising machine.
Hamerly, Ryan; Inaba, Kensuke; Inagaki, Takahiro; Takesue, Hiroki; Yamamoto, Yoshihisa; Mabuchi, Hideo
2016-09-01
A network of optical parametric oscillators (OPOs) is used to simulate classical Ising and XY spin chains. The collective nonlinear dynamics of this network, driven by quantum noise rather than thermal fluctuations, seeks out the Ising/XY ground state as the system transitions from below to above the lasing threshold. We study the behavior of this “Ising machine” for three canonical problems: a 1D ferromagnetic spin chain, a 2D square lattice and problems where next-nearest-neighbor couplings give rise to frustration. If the pump turn-on time is finite, topological defects form (domain walls for the Ising model, winding number and vortices for XY) and their density can be predicted from a numerical model involving a linear “growth stage” and a nonlinear “saturation stage”. These predictions are compared against recent data for a 10,000-spin 1D Ising machine.
Phononic High Harmonic Generation
Ganesan, Adarsh; Seshia, Ashwin A
2016-01-01
This paper reports the first experimental evidence for phononic low-order to high-order harmonic conversion leading to high harmonic generation. Similar to parametric resonance, phononic high harmonic generation is also mediated by a threshold dependent instability of a driven phonon mode. Once the threshold for instability is met, a cascade of harmonic generation processes is triggered. Firstly, the up-conversion of first harmonic phonons into second harmonic phonons is established. Subsequently, the down-conversion of second harmonic phonons into first harmonic phonons and conversion of first and second harmonic phonons into third harmonic phonons occur. On the similar lines, an eventual conversion of third harmonic phonons to high orders is also observed to commence. This surprising physical pathway for phononic low-order to high-order harmonic conversion may find general relevance to other physical systems.
Ahmed, Zeeshan
2010-01-01
Designing and developing quality based computer game is always a challenging task for developers. In this paper I briefly discuss aero fighting war game based on simple 2D gaming concepts and developed in C & C++ programming languages, using old bitmapping concepts. Going into the details of the game development, I discuss the designed strategies, flow of game and implemented prototype version of game, especially for beginners of game programming.
Spin fluctuations and excitations in a 2D xy-ferromagnet: CoCl/sub 2/ in graphite
Wiesler, D.G.; Zabel, H.
1989-01-01
We have investigated by neutron scattering the spin fluctuations and excitations in the stage 2 CoCl/sub 2/ -- graphite intercalation compound. This compound has easy-plane anisotropy and sufficiently weak interplanar interaction to qualify as a test material for Kosterlitz-Thouless-Berezinsky type phase transitions. We have carried out quasi-elastic scattering measurements to determine the temperature variation of the spin correlation length /xi/ above the two dimensional ordering transition. We have also probed the dependence on wave vector and temperature of the inelastic scattering cross section, consisting of both a central peak, associated with vortex diffusion, and spin wave, which become strongly damped above the transition temperature. 15 refs., 5 figs.
Magnetic and structural characterization of the 2D XY-ferromagnet Rb2CrCl2I2 (abstract)
Visser, D.; Bramwell, S. T.; Kremer, R. K.
1991-04-01
Rb2CrCl2I2 crystallizes with a Jahn-Teller deformed K2NiF4 structure. This results in a ferromagnetic behavior for this compound. Rb2CrCl2I2 orders ferromagnetically at Tc=56.9(2) K. Magnetization and magnetic susceptibility measurements, using a vibrating sample magnetometer, Faraday balance, and SQUID magnetometer, on polycrystalline samples were used for the magnetic characterization. Rb2CrCl2I2 shows a Curie-Weiss behavior between 150 and 300 K. The intraplanar superexchange constant J/k=5.8 K. The intra- and interplanar anisotropy have been obtained from the magnetization curves at 4.2 K and are estimated at Hintra=0.16(2) T and Hinter=4.5(2) T.
MexXY multidrug efflux system of Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Yuji eMorita
2012-11-01
Full Text Available Anti-pseudomonas aminoglycosides, such as amikacin and tobramycin, are used in the treatment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections. However, their use is linked to the development of resistance. During the last decade, the MexXY multidrug efflux system has been comprehensively studied, and numerous reports of laboratory and clinical isolates have been published. This system has been increasingly recognized as one of the primary determinants of aminoglycoside resistance in P. aeruginosa. In P. aeruginosa cystic fibrosis isolates, upregulation of the pump is considered the most common mechanism of aminoglycoside resistance. Non-fermentative Gram-negative pathogens possessing very close MexXY orthologues such as Achromobacter xylosoxidans and various Burkholderia species [e.g., B. pseudomallei and B. cepacia complexes], but not B. gladioli, are intrinsically resistant to aminoglycosides. Here, we summarize the properties (e.g., discovery, mechanism, gene expression, clinical significance of the P. aeruginosa MexXY pump and other aminoglycoside efflux pumps such as AcrD of Escherichia coli, AmrAB-OprA of B. pseudomallei, and AdeABC of Acinetobacter baumannii. MexXY inducibility of the PA5471 gene product, which is dependent on ribosome inhibition or oxidative stress, is noteworthy. Moreover, the discovery of the cognate outer membrane component (OprA of MexXY in the multidrug-resistant clinical isolate PA7, serotype O12 deserves special attention.
19-vertex version of the fully frustrated XY model
Knops, Yolanda M. M.; Nienhuis, Bernard; Knops, Hubert J. F.; Blöte, Henk W. J.
1994-07-01
We investigate a 19-vertex version of the two-dimensional fully frustrated XY (FFXY) model. We construct Yang-Baxter equations for this model and show that there is no solution. Therefore we have chosen a numerical approach based on the transfer matrix. The results show that a coupled XY Ising model is in the same universality class as the FFXY model. We find that the phase coupling over an Ising wall is irrelevant at criticality. This leads to a correction of earlier determinations of the dimension x*h,Is of the Ising disorder operator. We find x*h,Is=0.123(5) and a conformal anomaly c=1.55(5). These results are consistent with the hypothesis that the FFXY model behaves as a superposition of an Ising model and an XY model. However, the dimensions associated with the energy, xt=0.77(3), and with the XY magnetization xh,XY~=0.17, refute this hypothesis.
MESH2D GRID GENERATOR DESIGN AND USE
Flach, G.; Smith, F.
2012-01-20
Mesh2d is a Fortran90 program designed to generate two-dimensional structured grids of the form [x(i),y(i,j)] where [x,y] are grid coordinates identified by indices (i,j). The x(i) coordinates alone can be used to specify a one-dimensional grid. Because the x-coordinates vary only with the i index, a two-dimensional grid is composed in part of straight vertical lines. However, the nominally horizontal y(i,j{sub 0}) coordinates along index i are permitted to undulate or otherwise vary. Mesh2d also assigns an integer material type to each grid cell, mtyp(i,j), in a user-specified manner. The complete grid is specified through three separate input files defining the x(i), y(i,j), and mtyp(i,j) variations. The overall mesh is constructed from grid zones that are typically then subdivided into a collection of smaller grid cells. The grid zones usually correspond to distinct materials or larger-scale geometric shapes. The structured grid zones are identified through uppercase indices (I,J). Subdivision of zonal regions into grid cells can be done uniformly, or nonuniformly using either a polynomial or geometric skewing algorithm. Grid cells may be concentrated backward, forward, or toward both ends. Figure 1 illustrates the above concepts in the context of a simple four zone grid.
Fallow), Stray
2009-01-01
Having trouble with geometry? Do Pi, The Pythagorean Theorem, and angle calculations just make your head spin? Relax. With Head First 2D Geometry, you'll master everything from triangles, quads and polygons to the time-saving secrets of similar and congruent angles -- and it'll be quick, painless, and fun. Through entertaining stories and practical examples from the world around you, this book takes you beyond boring problems. You'll actually use what you learn to make real-life decisions, like using angles and parallel lines to crack a mysterious CSI case. Put geometry to work for you, and
Computational 2D Materials Database
Rasmussen, Filip Anselm; Thygesen, Kristian Sommer
2015-01-01
We present a comprehensive first-principles study of the electronic structure of 51 semiconducting monolayer transition-metal dichalcogenides and -oxides in the 2H and 1T hexagonal phases. The quasiparticle (QP) band structures with spin-orbit coupling are calculated in the G(0)W(0) approximation...... and used as input to a 2D hydrogenic model to estimate exciton binding energies. Throughout the paper we focus on trends and correlations in the electronic structure rather than detailed analysis of specific materials. All the computed data is available in an open database....
Quantum coherence and uncertainty in the anisotropic XY chain
2014-01-01
We explore the local quantum coherence and the local quantum uncertainty, based on Wigner-Yanase skew information, in the ground state of the anisotropic spin-1/2 XY chain in transverse magnetic field. We show that the skew information, as a figure of merit, supplies the necessary information to reveal the occurrence of the second order phase transition and the completely factorized ground state in the XY model. Additionally, in the same context, we also discuss the usefulness of a simple exp...
Double transitions in the fully frustrated XY model
Jeon, Gun Sang; Park, Sung Yong; Choi, M. Y.
1997-06-01
The fully frustrated XY model is studied via the position-space renormalization group approach. The model is mapped into two coupled XY models, for which the scaling equations are derived. By integrating directly the scaling equations, we observe that there exists a narrow temperature range in which both the vortex and coupling charge fugacities grow large, suggesting double transitions in the system. While the transition at lower temperature is identified to be of the Kosterlitz-Thouless type, the higher-temperature one appears not to be of the Ising universality class.
Thermal Entanglement of Anisotropic XY Chains in a Transverse Field
ZHAI Xiao-Yue; TONG Pei-Qing
2007-01-01
By using the concept of concurrence, we numerically investigate the thermal entanglement between any two nearest-neighbour spins in uniform and periodic anisotropic XY chains in a transverse field at finite temperature T. It is found that the entanglement has more than one critical temperatures on some parameter regions for uniform and periodic chains. We also discuss the behaviour of the thermal entanglement at the vicinity of quantum phase transition of periodic anisotropic XY chains and find that all the derivatives (δ)λC have similar behaviour as that of the uniform chain.
Disorder-Induced Order in Quantum XY Chains
Niederberger, Armand; Dziarmaga, Jacek; Cucchietti, Fernando M; Wehr, Jan; Lewenstein, Maciej
2010-01-01
We observe signatures of disorder-induced order in 1D XY spin chains with an external, site-dependent uni-axial random field within the XY plane. We numerically investigate signatures of a quantum phase transition at T=0, in particular an upsurge of the magnetization in the direction orthogonal to the external magnetic field, and the scaling of the block-entropy with the amplitude of this field. Also, we discuss possible realizations of this effect in ultra-cold atom experiments.
Mohanan Geetha Gopisankar
2017-10-01
Full Text Available Cytochromes are proteins that catalyze electron transfer reactions of many metabolic pathways. They are involved in drug metabolism and thus determines the therapeutic safety and efficacy of drugs in patients. Cytochrome P450 in mitochondria accounts for 90% of the oxidative metabolism of clinically used drugs during phase 1 reaction. CYP2D6 is a major gene member of this superfamily as it carries out metabolism of 25% of drugs currently available in the market. Contrary to the concept of specificity of enzyme action these can metabolize substrates of different chemistry. Since its discovery, many have intensively studied this unique hemoprotein and contributed to the elucidation of its molecular properties and physiological functions and also the structure-activity relationships of its substrates and inhibitors. Its activity ranges considerably within a population due to genetic polymorphisms which lead to varied responses to drug intake. Studying such polymorphisms which cause a significant impact in the management of patients and helps to achieve the final target of personalizing medicine. This review briefs about history, structure, and function, molecular genetics, substrates, regulators and inhibitors of CYP2D6 and its clinical pharmacogenomics.
Piotr FOLĘGA
2014-03-01
Full Text Available The variety of types and sizes currently in production harmonic drive is a problem in their rational choice. Properly selected harmonic drive must meet certain requirements during operation, and achieve the anticipated service life. The paper discusses the problems associated with the selection of the harmonic drive. It also presents the algorithm correct choice of harmonic drive. The main objective of this study was to develop a computer program that allows the correct choice of harmonic drive by developed algorithm.
Dynamics of Quarks in a 2D Flux Tube
Koshelkin, Andrey V. [Moscow Institute for Physics and Engineering, Russia; Wong, Cheuk-Yin [ORNL
2015-01-01
On the basis of a compactification of the (3+1) into (1+1) dimensional space-time [1], the quark states inside the 2D flux tube are studied for the case of a linear transverse confining potential. The derived states are classified by both the projections of the orbital momentum and the spin along the tube direction. The spectrum of the fermion states is evaluated. It is found that the energy eigenvalues of the quarks appear to be approximately related to the square root of the eigenvalues of the two-dimensional harmonic oscillator.
Graphics of (X,Y) spectrum for microcomputer; Graficado de espectro (X,Y) para microcomputadora
Macias B, L.R
1991-08-15
When carrying out diffraction works is frequently required to visualize the spectra of the data obtained in order to analyzing them. The design for the obtaining of data in the neutron diffractometer by means of the microcomputer allows to store them in a file by means of the one which transferring to the CYBER system so that by means of its utilities the mentioned spectrum is observed in a graph. In diffraction works, it is sought to study crystalline materials by means of the execution of the Bragg law by that the mounted sample on the diffractometer is subjected to a scanning of the sample with a radiation of a well-known wavelength and this way varying the angles, the corresponding interplanar distances are determined. The main objective of this work, is starting of a data set generated by the diffractometer, to generate the graph of the corresponding (X,Y) spectra in visual form in the screen of a microcomputer and if it is required, to obtain the graph in printed form by means of the same computer program for microcomputer. (Author)
Graphics of (X,Y) spectrum for microcomputer; Graficado de espectro (X,Y) para microcomputadora
Macias B, L.R
1991-08-15
When carrying out diffraction works is frequently required to visualize the spectra of the data obtained in order to analyzing them. The design for the obtaining of data in the neutron diffractometer by means of the microcomputer allows to store them in a file by means of the one which transferring to the CYBER system so that by means of its utilities the mentioned spectrum is observed in a graph. In diffraction works, it is sought to study crystalline materials by means of the execution of the Bragg law by that the mounted sample on the diffractometer is subjected to a scanning of the sample with a radiation of a well-known wavelength and this way varying the angles, the corresponding interplanar distances are determined. The main objective of this work, is starting of a data set generated by the diffractometer, to generate the graph of the corresponding (X,Y) spectra in visual form in the screen of a microcomputer and if it is required, to obtain the graph in printed form by means of the same computer program for microcomputer. (Author)
Structural Complexity and Phonon Physics in 2D Arsenenes.
Carrete, Jesús; Gallego, Luis J; Mingo, Natalio
2017-03-15
In the quest for stable 2D arsenic phases, four different structures have been recently claimed to be stable. We show that, due to phonon contributions, the relative stability of those structures differs from previous reports and depends crucially on temperature. We also show that one of those four phases is in fact mechanically unstable. Furthermore, our results challenge the common assumption of an inverse correlation between structural complexity and thermal conductivity. Instead, a richer picture emerges from our results, showing how harmonic interactions, anharmonicity, and symmetries all play a role in modulating thermal conduction in arsenenes. More generally, our conclusions highlight how vibrational properties are an essential element to be carefully taken into account in theoretical searches for new 2D materials.
Waldin, Nicholas
2016-06-24
2D color maps are often used to visually encode complex data characteristics such as heat or height. The comprehension of color maps in visualization is affected by the display (e.g., a monitor) and the perceptual abilities of the viewer. In this paper we present a novel method to measure a user\\'s ability to distinguish colors of a two-dimensional color map on a given monitor. We show how to adapt the color map to the user and display to optimally compensate for the measured deficiencies. Furthermore, we improve user acceptance of the calibration procedure by transforming the calibration into a game. The user has to sort colors along a line in a 3D color space in a competitive fashion. The errors the user makes in sorting these lines are used to adapt the color map to his perceptual capabilities.
无
2003-01-01
A novel pilot stage valve called simplified 2D valve, which utilizes both rotary and linear motions of a single spool, is presented.The rotary motion of the spool incorporating hydraulic resistance bridge, formed by a damper groove and a crescent overlap opening, is utilized as pilot to actuate linear motion of the spool.A criterion for stability is derived from the linear analysis of the valve.Special experiments are designed to acquire the mechanical stiffness, the pilot leakage and the step response.It is shown that the sectional size of the spiral groove affects the dynamic response and the stiffness contradictorily and is also very sensitive to the pilot leakage.Therefore, it is necessary to establish a balance between the static and dynamic characteristics in deciding the structural parameters.Nevertheless, it is possible to sustain the dynamic response at a fairly high level, while keeping the leakage of the pilot stage at an acceptable level.
VCA Direct-Drive High Speed and Precision XY Table
ZHAO Xingyu; FENG Xiaomei; ZHANG Dawei
2007-01-01
In order to compensate for the limitation of conventional XY table used in semiconductor integrated circuits(IC) packaging and improve its speed and accuracy, a voice coil actuator (VCA)direct-drive high-speed and precision positioning XY table used in wire bonder was proposed. Also, a novel flexible decoupling mechanism was used in the positioning table, and the small moving mass enabled the positioning table to move at high speed and precision. XY table deformation interference caused by assembly error and instant interference generated by dynamic load moving with high speed and acceleration can be eliminated through the flexible decoupling mechanism. Considering the positioning table as lumped mass spring system, the dynamic equations of the mechanical sys-tem and the VCA were built according to the Newton mechanics principle and electromagnetic theory. Then the electromechanical coupling control model of the system was created through Laplace transform. Based on displacement PID controller, the Icop-locked controlling algorithm of the positioning system was investigated. The dynamic control algorithm effectively improved the system dynamic performance. The precision test of the prototype machine was carried out, and the results val-idated the correctness of the model and the theory. Compared with traditional XY table, the tablehas higher speed, acceleration and positioning accuracy.
A healthy, female chimera with 46,XX/46,XY karyotype.
Binkhorst, M.; Leeuw, N. de; Otten, B.J.
2009-01-01
We report a healthy and unambiguously female newborn, whose phenotypic sex contradicted the expected male sex based on previously performed prenatal cytogenetic analysis. Both 46,XX and 46,XY cells were detected in a villus sample, the former having been attributed to maternal cell contamination. Po
Quantum coherence selective 2D Raman-2D electronic spectroscopy.
Spencer, Austin P; Hutson, William O; Harel, Elad
2017-03-10
Electronic and vibrational correlations report on the dynamics and structure of molecular species, yet revealing these correlations experimentally has proved extremely challenging. Here, we demonstrate a method that probes correlations between states within the vibrational and electronic manifold with quantum coherence selectivity. Specifically, we measure a fully coherent four-dimensional spectrum which simultaneously encodes vibrational-vibrational, electronic-vibrational and electronic-electronic interactions. By combining near-impulsive resonant and non-resonant excitation, the desired fifth-order signal of a complex organic molecule in solution is measured free of unwanted lower-order contamination. A critical feature of this method is electronic and vibrational frequency resolution, enabling isolation and assignment of individual quantum coherence pathways. The vibronic structure of the system is then revealed within an otherwise broad and featureless 2D electronic spectrum. This method is suited for studying elusive quantum effects in which electronic transitions strongly couple to phonons and vibrations, such as energy transfer in photosynthetic pigment-protein complexes.
Pathogenetics of 45,X/46,XY gonadal mosaicism.
Reddy, K S; Sulcova, V
1998-01-01
Five patients with 45,X/46,XY mosaicism ranging from 8% to 66% of 46, XY lymphocytes in the peripheral blood were studied. Their age when chromosome studies were performed ranged from a few days to 37 yr. The phenotypic presentations were two females with gonadal dysgenesis and Turner syndrome features (cases 1 and 2), two males with ambiguous genitalia and mixed gonadal dysgenesis (cases 3 and 4), and an infertile male with an atrophic testis (case 5). Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using dual-color X and Y probes on paraffin-embedded sections of the gonads was performed to assess mosaicism. A mosaic cell line with a Y chromosome was present in the streak ovary, dysgenetic gonad, and testis. In the mixed gonadal dysgenesis cases (cases 3 and 4), the testis had a higher percentage (greater than two fold) of XY cells than the ovary had. However, the highest ratio of cells with a Y chromosome was in the atrophic testis of the infertile male (case 5). The distribution of mosaic clones in the different gonadal cell types was examined. Both females (cases 1 and 2) with dysgenetic gonads had scant ovarian stroma and nests of Leydig or hilus cells. In FISH studies, the coelomic epithelial cells were predominantly 46,XY; in comparison, the Leydig and hilus cells had a lower percentage and the ovarian stroma the least number of cells with a Y signal. A mixed gonadal dysgenesis case (case 3) possessed a right testis with an XY complement in approximately 21% of Sertoli cells and approximately 14% of Leydig cells. The infertile male had an atrophic testis with interstitial hyperplasia (case 5). His testis contained Sertoli cells but no evidence of spermatogenesis. FISH detected a Y signal in about 50-60% of the Sertoli and Leydig cells.
GPU computing for 2-d spin systems: CUDA vs OpenGL
Anselmi, V; Di Renzo, F
2008-01-01
In recent years the more and more powerful GPU's available on the PC market have attracted attention as a cost effective solution for parallel (SIMD) computing. CUDA is a solid evidence of the attention that the major companies are devoting to the field. CUDA is a hardware and software architecture developed by Nvidia for computing on the GPU. It qualifies as a friendly alternative to the approach to GPU computing that has been pioneered in the OpenGL environment. We discuss the application of both the CUDA and the OpenGL approach to the simulation of 2-d spin systems (XY model).
de Silva, K S H; Sirisena, N D; Wijenayaka, H K; Cooray, J G; Jayasekara, R W; Dissanayake, V H W
2015-12-01
There are several conditions giving rise to 46, XY disorders of sex development (DSD) with different modes of inheritance. Therefore definitive diagnosis based on molecular genetic confirmation would be the ideal to counsel parents regarding the future implications of the condition affecting their baby. This is the first report from Sri Lanka documenting the presence of mutations in the androgen receptor (AR) gene in a cohort of children with 46, XY DSD. To describe the socio-demographic and clinical features and document the presence of mutations in the androgen receptor (AR) gene in a cohort of children with 46, XY DSD. 46, XY patients with ambiguous genitalia followed up in the University Unit at the Lady Ridgeway Hospital, Colombo, and clinically identified as having androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS) or a testosterone biosynthetic defect were recruited for the study. Their socio-demographic details and clinical features were documented. Exons 1 to 8 of the AR gene were screened for mutations by DNA sequencing on a venous blood sample. SRY gene mutations were also assayed. Thirty-four patients were studied, 3 of whom were clinically diagnosed as having complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS). Sex of rearing was female and male in 4 and 30 respectively. AR gene mutations were detected in 6 patients (17.6%). None of the patients had SRY gene mutations. Majority (88%) of the patients were raised as males. Six patients (17.6%) including the 3 with CAIS, had genetically confirmed AIS with the detection of AR gene mutations.
Berglund, Agnethe; Johannsen, Trine H; Krag, Kirstine Stochholm
2016-01-01
, prevalence, age at diagnosis, and clinical presentation at diagnosis in 46,XY females. DESIGN AND SETTING: A nationwide study covering all known females with a 46,XY karyotype in Denmark since 1960. The diagnosis of 46,XY disorder of sex development (DSD) was determined by medical record evaluation, data...
2D transition metal dichalcogenides
Manzeli, Sajedeh; Ovchinnikov, Dmitry; Pasquier, Diego; Yazyev, Oleg V.; Kis, Andras
2017-08-01
Graphene is very popular because of its many fascinating properties, but its lack of an electronic bandgap has stimulated the search for 2D materials with semiconducting character. Transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs), which are semiconductors of the type MX2, where M is a transition metal atom (such as Mo or W) and X is a chalcogen atom (such as S, Se or Te), provide a promising alternative. Because of its robustness, MoS2 is the most studied material in this family. TMDCs exhibit a unique combination of atomic-scale thickness, direct bandgap, strong spin-orbit coupling and favourable electronic and mechanical properties, which make them interesting for fundamental studies and for applications in high-end electronics, spintronics, optoelectronics, energy harvesting, flexible electronics, DNA sequencing and personalized medicine. In this Review, the methods used to synthesize TMDCs are examined and their properties are discussed, with particular attention to their charge density wave, superconductive and topological phases. The use of TMCDs in nanoelectronic devices is also explored, along with strategies to improve charge carrier mobility, high frequency operation and the use of strain engineering to tailor their properties.
Lanty, Gaëtan; Jemli, Khaoula; Wei, Yi; Leymarie, Joël; Even, Jacky; Lauret, Jean-Sébastien; Deleporte, Emmanuelle
2014-11-20
We focus here our attention on a particular family of 2D-layered and 3D hybrid perovskite molecular crystals, the mixed perovskites (C6H5-C2H4-NH3)2PbZ4(1-x)Y4x and (CH3-NH3)PbZ3(1-x)Y3x, where Z and Y are halogen ions such as I, Br, and Cl. Studying experimentally the disorder-induced effects on the optical properties of the 2D mixed layered materials, we demonstrate that they can be considered as pseudobinary alloys, exactly like Ga1-xAlxAs, Cd1-xHgxTe inorganic semiconductors, or previously reported 3D mixed hybrid perovskite compounds. 2D-layered and 3D hybrid perovskites afford similar continuous optical tunability at room temperature. Our theoretical analysis allows one to describe the influence of alloying on the excitonic properties of 2D-layered perovskite molecular crystals. This model is further refined by considering different Bohr radii for pure compounds. This study confirms that despite a large binding energy of several 100 meV, the 2D excitons present a Wannier character rather than a Frenkel character. The small inhomogeneous broadening previously reported in 3D hybrid compounds at low temperature is similarly consistent with the Wannier character of free excitons.
BEM TECHNIQUE FOR THE ANALYSIS OF 2D ELASTIC SOLIDS DYNAMICS
Vorona Yu.V.
2014-12-01
Full Text Available A numerical approach to calculating the singular parts of the Boundary Integral Equations for 2D elastic solids harmonic vibration is proposed. The validation of the approach in wide range of frequencies is demonstrated. The developed numerical BEM technique is appliead to the problem of elastic solids periodical vibration.
General -Harmonic Blaschke Bodies
Yibin Feng; Weidong Wang
2014-02-01
Lutwak introduced the harmonic Blaschke combination and the harmonic Blaschke body of a star body. Further, Feng and Wang introduced the concept of the -harmonic Blaschke body of a star body. In this paper, we define the notion of general -harmonic Blaschke bodies and establish some of its properties. In particular, we obtain the extreme values concerning the volume and the -dual geominimal surface area of this new notion.
Learn Unity for 2D game development
Thorn, Alan
2013-01-01
The only Unity book specifically covering 2D game development Written by Alan Thorn, experience game developer and author of seven books on game programming Hands-on examples of all major aspects of 2D game development using Unity
Quenched disorder and spin-glass correlations in XY nematics
Petridis, L; Terentjev, E M [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, J J Thomson Avenue, Cambridge, CB3 0HE (United Kingdom)
2006-08-04
We present a theoretical study of the equilibrium ordering in a 3D XY nematic system with quenched random disorder. Within this model, treated with the replica trick and Gaussian variational method, the correlation length is obtained as a function of the local nematic order parameter Q and the effective disorder strength {gamma}. These results, {xi} {approx} Q{sup 2}e{sup 1/Q{sup 2}} and {xi} {approx} (1/{gamma}) e{sup -{gamma}}, clarify what happens in the limiting cases of diminishing Q and {gamma}, that is near a phase transition of a pure system. In particular, it is found that quenched disorder is irrelevant as Q {yields} 0 and hence does not change the character of the continuous XY nematic-isotropic phase transition. We discuss how these results compare with experiments and simulations.
Quantum coherence and uncertainty in the anisotropic XY chain
Karpat, G.; ćakmak, B.; Fanchini, F. F.
2014-09-01
We explore the local quantum coherence and the local quantum uncertainty, based on Wigner-Yanase skew information, in the ground state of the anisotropic spin-1/2 XY chain in a transverse magnetic field. We show that the skew information, as a figure of merit, supplies the necessary information to reveal the occurrence of the second-order phase transition and the completely factorized ground state in the XY model. Additionally, in the same context, we also discuss the usefulness of a simple experimentally friendly lower bound of local quantum coherence. Furthermore, we demonstrate how the connection between the appearance of nonanalyticities in the local quantum uncertainty of the ground state and the quantum phase transitions does not hold in general, by providing explicit examples of the situation. Lastly, we discuss the ability of the local quantum coherence to accurately estimate the critical point of the phase transition, and we investigate the robustness of the factorization phenomenon at low temperatures.
Graph spectral characterisation of the XY model on complex networks
Expert, Paul; Takaguchi, Taro; Lambiotte, Renaud
2016-01-01
There is recent evidence that the $XY$ spin model on complex networks can display three different macroscopic states in response to the topology of the network underpinning the interactions of the spins. In this work, we present a novel way to characterise the macroscopic states of the $XY$ spin model based on the spectral decomposition of time series using topological information about the underlying networks. We use three different classes of networks to generate time series of the spins for the three possible macroscopic states. We then use the temporal Graph Signal Transform technique to decompose the time series of the spins on the eigenbasis of the Laplacian. From this decomposition, we produce spatial power spectra, which summarise the activation of structural modes by the non-linear dynamics, and thus coherent patterns of activity of the spins. These signatures of the macroscopic states are independent of the underlying networks and can thus be used as universal signatures for the macroscopic states. ...
Review and management of 46,XY disorders of sex development.
Massanyi, Eric Z; Dicarlo, Heather N; Migeon, Claude J; Gearhart, John P
2013-06-01
Disorders of sex development (DSD) among 46,XY individuals are rare and challenging conditions. Abnormalities of karyotype, gonadal formation, androgen synthesis, and androgen action are responsible for the multiple disorders that result in undervirilization during development. Phenotypic appearance and timing of presentation are quite variable. The focus of treatment has shifted from early gender assignment and corrective surgery to careful diagnosis, proper education of patients and their families, and individualized treatment by a multi-disciplinary team. The modern management of these patients is difficult and controversial. Conflicting data on long-term outcomes of these individuals have been reported in the literature. The various etiologies of 46,XY DSD, current approaches to diagnosis and treatment, and reported long-term results are reviewed.
X-Y separable pyramid steerable scalable kernels
Shy, Douglas; Perona, Pietro
1994-01-01
A new method for generating X-Y separable, steerable, scalable approximations of filter kernels is proposed which is based on a generalization of the singular value decomposition (SVD) to three dimensions. This “pseudo-SVD” improves upon a previous scheme due to Perona (1992) in that it reduces convolution time and storage requirements. An adaptation of the pseudo-SVD is proposed to generate steerable and scalable kernels which are suitable for use with a Laplacian pyramid. The properties of ...
Agonadism in a 46,XY patient with CHARGE association.
Kushnick, T; Wiley, J E; Palmer, S M
1992-01-01
We report on an infant girl born with findings of CHARGE association who proved to be a genetic male (46,XY) on cytogenetic study. Further investigation of the genitalia demonstrated partially female internal organs but absence of gonads by ultrasonography, hormone studies, and absence of ZFY by DNA probe of Yp. Pelvic exploration confirmed lack of gonadal tissue and uterus. Facial phenotype was compatible with CHARGE appearance.
2D Nano-Motion Actuator for Precise Track Following
Mori, Shigeki; Sato, Yuudai; Sakurada, Akira; Naganawa, Akihiro; Shibuya, Yotsugi; Obinata, Goro
The authors proposed a new actuator for track following on a spin-stand that evaluated magnetic heads and media for high density magnetic recording with high speed. The new actuator was named “Nano-Motion Actuator (NMA)” by the authors. At the present time, effect of azimuth angle which causes between a center line of a head slider and a tangential direction of the track is increasingly actualized as a track pitch of the head becomes narrow. Therefore, if a discrete track media (DTM) will be put to practical use, the effect of the azimuth angle will be actualized more clearly. Because, DTM will have large RRO (Repeatable Run-Out) that is caused by eccentricity error between a medium and a hub of an air-spindle. Furthermore, NRRO (Non-Repeatable Run-Out) which is caused by mechanical vibration of the air-spindle, flutter of the medium, turbulence around a HGA (Head gimbals Assembly) and so on is overlapped with the RRO. Especially in case of the large NRRO, since the azimuth angle will rapidly change, compensations of the azimuth angle should be absolutely necessary. Therefore, precision positioning actuator with high speed on an X-Y plane which is coplanar will be required the evaluation of the high density magnetic recording. We proposed a new actuator which was consisted of a NMA mechanism and a translation mechanism. The translation mechanism was composed of a stacked piezoelectric that was supported by two elastic springs. The new actuator that was called “2D Nano-Motion Actuator (2D NMA)” could move within 10 square micrometer and be positioned by nanometer resolution with high speed.
Realizing the classical XY Hamiltonian in polariton simulators.
Berloff, Natalia G; Silva, Matteo; Kalinin, Kirill; Askitopoulos, Alexis; Töpfer, Julian D; Cilibrizzi, Pasquale; Langbein, Wolfgang; Lagoudakis, Pavlos G
2017-09-25
The vast majority of real-life optimization problems with a large number of degrees of freedom are intractable by classical computers, since their complexity grows exponentially fast with the number of variables. Many of these problems can be mapped into classical spin models, such as the Ising, the XY or the Heisenberg models, so that optimization problems are reduced to finding the global minimum of spin models. Here, we propose and investigate the potential of polariton graphs as an efficient analogue simulator for finding the global minimum of the XY model. By imprinting polariton condensate lattices of bespoke geometries we show that we can engineer various coupling strengths between the lattice sites and read out the result of the global minimization through the relative phases. Besides solving optimization problems, polariton graphs can simulate a large variety of systems undergoing the U(1) symmetry-breaking transition. We realize various magnetic phases, such as ferromagnetic, anti-ferromagnetic, and frustrated spin configurations on a linear chain, the unit cells of square and triangular lattices, a disordered graph, and demonstrate the potential for size scalability on an extended square lattice of 45 coherently coupled polariton condensates. Our results provide a route to study unconventional superfluids, spin liquids, Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless phase transition, and classical magnetism, among the many systems that are described by the XY Hamiltonian.
Multipole shimming of permanent magnets using harmonic corrector rings.
Jachmann, R C; Trease, D R; Bouchard, L-S; Sakellariou, D; Martin, R W; Schlueter, R D; Budinger, T F; Pines, A
2007-03-01
Shimming systems are required to provide sufficient field homogeneity for high resolution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). In certain specialized applications, such as rotating-field NMR and mobile ex situ NMR, permanent magnet-based shimming systems can provide considerable advantages. We present a simple two-dimensional shimming method based on harmonic corrector rings which can provide arbitrary multipole order shimming corrections. Results demonstrate, for example, that quadrupolar order shimming improves the linewidth by up to an order of magnitude. An additional order of magnitude reduction is in principle achievable by utilizing this shimming method for z-gradient correction and higher order xy gradients.
Axler, Sheldon; Ramey, Wade
2013-01-01
This is a book about harmonic functions in Euclidean space. Readers with a background in real and complex analysis at the beginning graduate level will feel comfortable with the material presented here. The authors have taken unusual care to motivate concepts and simplify proofs. Topics include: basic properties of harmonic functions, Poisson integrals, the Kelvin transform, spherical harmonics, harmonic Hardy spaces, harmonic Bergman spaces, the decomposition theorem, Laurent expansions, isolated singularities, and the Dirichlet problem. The new edition contains a completely rewritten chapter on spherical harmonics, a new section on extensions of Bocher's Theorem, new exercises and proofs, as well as revisions throughout to improve the text. A unique software package-designed by the authors and available by e-mail - supplements the text for readers who wish to explore harmonic function theory on a computer.
Cross-Correlating 2D and 3D Galaxy Surveys
Passaglia, Samuel [Chicago U., KICP; Manzotti, Alessandro [Chicago U., KICP; Dodelson, Scott [Fermilab
2017-02-09
Galaxy surveys probe both structure formation and the expansion rate, making them promising avenues for understanding the dark universe. Photometric surveys accurately map the 2D distribution of galaxy positions and shapes in a given redshift range, while spectroscopic surveys provide sparser 3D maps of the galaxy distribution. We present a way to analyse overlapping 2D and 3D maps jointly and without loss of information. We represent 3D maps using spherical Fourier-Bessel (sFB) modes, which preserve radial coverage while accounting for the spherical sky geometry, and we decompose 2D maps in a spherical harmonic basis. In these bases, a simple expression exists for the cross-correlation of the two fields. One very powerful application is the ability to simultaneously constrain the redshift distribution of the photometric sample, the sample biases, and cosmological parameters. We use our framework to show that combined analysis of DESI and LSST can improve cosmological constraints by factors of ${\\sim}1.2$ to ${\\sim}1.8$ on the region where they overlap relative to identically sized disjoint regions. We also show that in the overlap of DES and SDSS-III in Stripe 82, cross-correlating improves photo-$z$ parameter constraints by factors of ${\\sim}2$ to ${\\sim}12$ over internal photo-$z$ reconstructions.
SIJMONS, RH; LEEGTE, B; VANLINGEN, RA; DEPATER, JM; VANDERVEEN, AY; DELCANHO, H; TENKATE, LP; BREED, ASPM
1993-01-01
We describe a 1-year-old boy with a rare de novo 46,XY/47,XY,+ i(5p) mosaicism (ratios 28/3 in peripheral blood lymphocytes and 2/12 in skin fibroblasts). The boy, born after a pregnancy of 34 weeks, had lung hypoplasia, persistent hypotonia, and postnatal growth failure. Craniofacial anomalies were
Žukovič, Milan
2016-07-01
Ground-state phases of a generalized XY model with magnetic and generalized nematic couplings on a nonbipartite triangular lattice are investigated in the exchange interactions parameter space. We demonstrate that the model displays a number of ordered and quasiordered phases as a result of geometrical frustration and/or competition between the magnetic and the generalized nematic interactions. The nature and the extent of the respective phases depend on the parameter q that characterizes the higher-order harmonics term in the Hamiltonian. Motivated by a recent discovery of the experimental realization of the model with q =2 in a seemingly unrelated field of the system chemistry [A. B. Cairns, M. J. Cliffe, J. A. M. Paddison, D. Daisenberger, M. G. Tucker, F.-X. Coudert, and A. L. Goodwin, Nature Chemistry 8, 442 (2016), 10.1038/nchem.2462], the model with q ≥2 is discussed in the context of the prediction of structural phases of a class of bimetallic cyanides based on a mapping between the two systems.
Perspectives for spintronics in 2D materials
Wei Han
2016-03-01
Full Text Available The past decade has been especially creative for spintronics since the (rediscovery of various two dimensional (2D materials. Due to the unusual physical characteristics, 2D materials have provided new platforms to probe the spin interaction with other degrees of freedom for electrons, as well as to be used for novel spintronics applications. This review briefly presents the most important recent and ongoing research for spintronics in 2D materials.
Bedform characterization through 2D spectral analysis
Lefebvre, Alice; Ernstsen, Verner Brandbyge; Winter, Christian
2011-01-01
characteristics using twodimensional (2D) spectral analysis is presented and tested on seabed elevation data from the Knudedyb tidal inlet in the Danish Wadden Sea, where large compound bedforms are found. The bathymetric data were divided into 20x20 m areas on which a 2D spectral analysis was applied. The most...... energetic peak of the 2D spectrum was found and its energy, frequency and direction were calculated. A power-law was fitted to the average of slices taken through the 2D spectrum; its slope and y-intercept were calculated. Using these results the test area was morphologically classified into 4 distinct...
THE SCHUR CONVEXITY OF GINI MEAN VALUES IN THE SENSE OF HARMONIC MEAN
Xia Weifeng; Chu Yuming
2011-01-01
We prove that the Gini mean values S(a, b; x, y) are Schur harmonic convex with respect to (x, y) ∈(0, ∞)×(0, ∞) if and only if (a, b) ∈{(a, b) : a≥O, a≥b, a+b+1≥ 0}∪{(a, b) : b≥0, b≥a, a+b+1≥0}and Schur harmonic concave with respect to (x,y) ∈(0, ∞)×(0, ∞) if and only if (a,b) ∈{(a,b) :a≤0,b≤0,a+b+1≤0}.
A rare case report of 46XY mixed gonadal dysgenesis
Rakesh Arora
2013-01-01
Full Text Available A 16-year-old person, reared as female presented with complaints of genital ambiguity and primary amenorrhoea along with lack of secondary sexual characters, but without short stature and Turner′s stigmata. She was taking steroids after being misdiagnosed as congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH. Karyotype analysis revealed 46XY karyotype. There was no evidence of hypocortisolemia (cortisol 9.08 μg/dl, adrenocorticotropic hormone [ACTH] 82.5 pg/ml or elevated level of 17-OH-progesterone (0.16 ng/ml. Pooled luteinizing hormone (LH was 11.79 mIU/ml and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH was 66.37 mIU/ml. Serum estradiol level was 25 pg/ml (21-251. Basal and 72 h post beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG levels of androstenedione and testosterone levels were done (basal testosterone of 652 ng/dl and basal androstenedione of 1.17 ng/ml; 72 h post hCG testosterone of 896 ng/dl and androstenedione of 1.34 ng/ml. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI pelvis (with ultrasonogrphy [USG] correlation revealed uterus didelphys with obstructed right moiety and bilateral ovarian-like structures. Right sided gonads and adjacent tubal structures were visualized laparoscopically and removed. Left sided gonads were not visualized and Mullerian remnants were adhered to sigmoid colon. Histopathological examination revealed presence of testicular tissue showing atrophic seminiferous tubules with hyperplasia of Leydig cells. No ovarian tissue was seen. Based on these results a diagnosis of 46XY mixed gonadal dysgenesis (MGD was made, which is rare and is difficult to distinguish from 46XY ovotesticular disorder of sexual differentiation (OT-DSD. The patient was managed with a multidisciplinary approach and fertility issues discussed with the patient′s caregivers.
Acne in Klinefelter syndrome-46XY/47XXY mosaicism?
Chembolli Lakshmi
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Klinefelter syndrome (KFS is the most common non-heritable sex chromosome anomaly caused by nondisjunction during cell division and contains two or more X chromosomes. More than two third of all cases are homogenous (47XXY and the remaining are mosaic (46XY/47XXY. Lower limb ulcers are frequently observed and attributed to impaired fibrinolysis. A case of KFS with post acne scars and leg ulcers is presented. The rarity of acne in this syndrome is explained by the phenomenon of mosaicism.
Transport of Entanglement Through a Heisenberg-XY Spin Chain
Subramanian, V; Lakshminarayan, Arul
2004-01-01
The entanglement dynamics of spin chains is investigated using Heisenberg-XY spin Hamiltonian dynamics. The various measures of two-qubit entanglement are calculated analytically in the time-evolved state starting from initial states with no entanglement and exactly one pair of maximally-entangled qubits. The localizable entanglement between a pair of qubits at the end of chain captures the essential features of entanglement transport across the chain, and it displays the difference between an initial state with no entanglement and an initial state with one pair of maximally-entangled qubits.
Multiple origins of XY female mice (genus Akodon): phylogenetic and chromosomal evidence.
Hoekstra, H. E.; Edwards, S.V.
2000-01-01
Despite the diversity in sex determination across organisms, theory predicts that the evolution of XY females is rare in mammals due to fitness consequences associated with infertility or the loss of YY zygotes. We investigated this hypothesis from a phylogenetic perspective by examining the inter- and intraspecific distribution of Y chromosomes in males and females (XY females) in South American field mice (Akodon). We found that XY females occurred at appreciable frequencies (10-66%) in at ...
New adaptive routing pattern for 2D Mesh structure%2D Mesh结构中一种新的自适应路由模式
张麟麟; 李东生; 雍爱霞
2012-01-01
针对2D Mesh拓扑结构中的损坏节点会导致静态XY路由算法无法有效传输的问题,提出了一种新的路由算法——FTXY路由算法.首先对网络拓扑结构中的平均延时、理想平均吞吐量和能量消耗进行了理论评估,然后在NIRGAM仿真软平台上采用FTXY路由算法对上述三个参数进行验证,并与XY路由算法进行比较.实验结果显示,新的路由算法可以有效地绕过损坏节点,并且不会造成阻塞,提高了网络的传输性能.%For the problem that the static XY routing algorithm could not transmit effectively on account of the damaged nodes in 2D Mesh topology, this paper introduced a new routing algorithm; FTXY routing algorithm. Firstly,it evaluated the average latency, average throughput and the energy consumption theoretically, then used FTXY routing algorithm to validate the above three parameters in NIRGAM software, and compared with the XY routing algorithm. The experimental results show that the new routing algorithm can effectively round the damaged nodes and it cannot induce block, thus improving the transmission performance of the network.
Annotated Bibliography of EDGE2D Use
J.D. Strachan and G. Corrigan
2005-06-24
This annotated bibliography is intended to help EDGE2D users, and particularly new users, find existing published literature that has used EDGE2D. Our idea is that a person can find existing studies which may relate to his intended use, as well as gain ideas about other possible applications by scanning the attached tables.
Burcharth, Hans F.; Andersen, Thomas Lykke; Jensen, Palle Meinert
This report present the results of 2D physical model tests (length scale 1:50) carried out in a waveflume at Dept. of Civil Engineering, Aalborg University (AAU).......This report present the results of 2D physical model tests (length scale 1:50) carried out in a waveflume at Dept. of Civil Engineering, Aalborg University (AAU)....
Structural Theory of 2-d Adinkras
Iga, Kevin
2015-01-01
Adinkras are combinatorial objects developed to study 1-dimensional supersymmetry representations. Recently, 2-d Adinkras have been developed to study 2-dimensional supersymmetry. In this paper, we classify all 2-d Adinkras, confirming a conjecture of T. H\\"ubsch. Along the way, we obtain other structural results, including a simple characterization of H\\"ubsch's even-split doubly even code.
A clinical and cytogenetic study of fifteen patients with 45,X/46XY gonadal dysgenesis.
Gantt, P A; Byrd, J R; Greenblatt, R B; McDonough, P G
1980-09-01
The cytogenetic and phenotypic findings in 15 patients with 45,X/46,XY mosaicism are described. Six patients presented with delayed sexual development without masculinization. The remaining nine patients had varying degrees of masculinization, ranging from clitoromegaly to hypospadic male phenotypes. Cardiovascular/renal anomalies were detected in 2 of the 15 patients. Gonadoblastomas were present in two patients and did not appear to correlate with the degree of masculinization or percentage of 46,XY cells present. Structural Y chromosome abnormalities were seen in three of the 45,X/46,XY probands. MZ twinning occurred in one of the 45,X/46,XY sibships.
Covariant harmonic oscillators and coupled harmonic oscillators
Han, Daesoo; Kim, Young S.; Noz, Marilyn E.
1995-01-01
It is shown that the system of two coupled harmonic oscillators shares the basic symmetry properties with the covariant harmonic oscillator formalism which provides a concise description of the basic features of relativistic hadronic features observed in high-energy laboratories. It is shown also that the coupled oscillator system has the SL(4,r) symmetry in classical mechanics, while the present formulation of quantum mechanics can accommodate only the Sp(4,r) portion of the SL(4,r) symmetry. The possible role of the SL(4,r) symmetry in quantum mechanics is discussed.
DFIG Harmonic Current Controlling with the Grid Low Harmonic Voltage
Huan Wang
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This study presents a vector control strategy based on stator harmonic current closed-loop, it adds individually the control loop about of each stator harmonic current to restrain the stator harmonic current, in order to meet the THD criteria. The control strategy of restraining the harmonic current presents the design of the stator harmonic current restrains the current controller. It influences the rotor voltage of the stator harmonic current restraining strategies.
Freeform optical design of an XY-zoom beam expander
Duerr, Fabian; Thienpont, Hugo
2016-04-01
Laser sources have become indispensable for industrial materials processing applications. These applications are accompanied with a variety of different demands and requirements on the delivered laser irradiance distributions. With a high spatial uniformity, top-hat beams provide benefits for applications like surface heat treatment or welding, in which it is desirable to uniformly illuminate a target surface. Some applications might not only favor a specific beam irradiance distribution but can benefit additionally from time-varying distributions. In this work, we present the analytic design of an XY-zoom beam expander based on movable freeform optics that allows to simultaneously vary the magnification in x- and y-direction, respectively. This optical functionality is not new; what is new is the idea that axially moving freeform lenses are used to achieve such an optical functionality by optimally exploiting the additional degrees of freedom that freeform surfaces offer. The developed analytic solution is fully described by very few initial parameters and does allow an increasingly accurate calculation of four freeform lenses described by high order XY Taylor polynomial surfaces. Moreover, this solution approach can be adapted to cope with additional optical surfaces and/or lens groups to further enhance the overall optical performance. In comparison with (existing) combinations of rotated cylindrically symmetric zoom beam expanders, such a freeform system consists of less optical elements and provides a much more compact solution, yet achieving excellent overall optical performance throughout the full range of zoom positions.
Spatial dependence of entanglement renormalization in XY model
Usman, M.; Ilyas, Asif; Khan, Khalid
2017-09-01
In this article, a comparative study of the renormalization of entanglement in one-, two- and three-dimensional space and its relation with quantum phase transition (QPT) near the critical point is presented by implementing the quantum renormalization group (QRG) method using numerical techniques. Adopting the Kadanoff's block approach, numerical results for the concurrence are obtained for the spin {-}1/2 XY model in all the spatial dimensions. The results show similar qualitative behavior as we move from the lower to the higher dimensions in space, but the number of iterations reduces for achieving the QPT in the thermodynamic limit. We find that in the two-dimensional and three-dimensional spin {-}1/2 XY model, maximum value of the concurrence reduce by the factor of 1 / n (n=2,3) with reference to the maximum value of one-dimensional case. Moreover, we study the scaling behavior and the entanglement exponent. We compare the results for one-, two- and three-dimensional cases and illustrate how the system evolves near the critical point.
Avalanches and hysteresis in frustrated superconductors and XY spin glasses.
Sharma, Auditya; Andreanov, Alexei; Müller, Markus
2014-10-01
We study avalanches along the hysteresis loop of long-range interacting spin glasses with continuous XY symmetry, which serves as a toy model of granular superconductors with long-range and frustrated Josephson couplings. We identify sudden jumps in the T=0 configurations of the XY phases as an external field is increased. They are initiated by the softest mode of the inverse susceptibility matrix becoming unstable, which induces an avalanche of phase updates (or spin alignments). We analyze the statistics of these events and study the correlation between the nonlinear avalanches and the soft mode that initiates them. We find that the avalanches follow the directions of a small fraction of the softest modes of the inverse susceptibility matrix, similarly as was found in avalanches in jammed systems. In contrast to the similar Ising spin glass (Sherrington-Kirkpatrick) studied previously, we find that avalanches are not distributed with a scale-free power law but rather have a typical size which scales with the system size. We also observe that the Hessians of the spin-glass minima are not part of standard random matrix ensembles as the lowest eigenvector has a fractal support.
2D materials for nanophotonic devices
Xu, Renjing; Yang, Jiong; Zhang, Shuang; Pei, Jiajie; Lu, Yuerui
2015-12-01
Two-dimensional (2D) materials have become very important building blocks for electronic, photonic, and phononic devices. The 2D material family has four key members, including the metallic graphene, transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) layered semiconductors, semiconducting black phosphorous, and the insulating h-BN. Owing to the strong quantum confinements and defect-free surfaces, these atomically thin layers have offered us perfect platforms to investigate the interactions among photons, electrons and phonons. The unique interactions in these 2D materials are very important for both scientific research and application engineering. In this talk, I would like to briefly summarize and highlight the key findings, opportunities and challenges in this field. Next, I will introduce/highlight our recent achievements. We demonstrated atomically thin micro-lens and gratings using 2D MoS2, which is the thinnest optical component around the world. These devices are based on our discovery that the elastic light-matter interactions in highindex 2D materials is very strong. Also, I would like to introduce a new two-dimensional material phosphorene. Phosphorene has strongly anisotropic optical response, which creates 1D excitons in a 2D system. The strong confinement in phosphorene also enables the ultra-high trion (charged exciton) binding energies, which have been successfully measured in our experiments. Finally, I will briefly talk about the potential applications of 2D materials in energy harvesting.
Hybridized Plasmons in 2D Nanoslits: From Graphene to Anisotropic 2D Materials
Gonçalves, P. A. D.; Xiao, Sanshui; Peres, N. M. R.
2017-01-01
of arbitrary width, and remains valid irrespective of the 2D conductive material (e.g., doped graphene, 2D transition metal dichalcogenides, or phosphorene). We derive the dispersion relation of the hybrid modes of a 2D nanoslit along with the corresponding induced potential and electric field distributions...
Dekker, T.; de Zwart, S. T.; Willemsen, O. H.; Hiddink, M. G. H.; IJzerman, W. L.
2006-02-01
A prerequisite for a wide market acceptance of 3D displays is the ability to switch between 3D and full resolution 2D. In this paper we present a robust and cost effective concept for an auto-stereoscopic switchable 2D/3D display. The display is based on an LCD panel, equipped with switchable LC-filled lenticular lenses. We will discuss 3D image quality, with the focus on display uniformity. We show that slanting the lenticulars in combination with a good lens design can minimize non-uniformities in our 20" 2D/3D monitors. Furthermore, we introduce fractional viewing systems as a very robust concept to further improve uniformity in the case slanting the lenticulars and optimizing the lens design are not sufficient. We will discuss measurements and numerical simulations of the key optical characteristics of this display. Finally, we discuss 2D image quality, the switching characteristics and the residual lens effect.
Ginsparg, P.
1991-01-01
These are introductory lectures for a general audience that give an overview of the subject of matrix models and their application to random surfaces, 2d gravity, and string theory. They are intentionally 1.5 years out of date.
Ginsparg, P.
1991-12-31
These are introductory lectures for a general audience that give an overview of the subject of matrix models and their application to random surfaces, 2d gravity, and string theory. They are intentionally 1.5 years out of date.
2D Saturable Absorbers for Fibre Lasers
Robert I. Woodward
2015-11-01
Full Text Available Two-dimensional (2D nanomaterials are an emergent and promising platform for future photonic and optoelectronic applications. Here, we review recent progress demonstrating the application of 2D nanomaterials as versatile, wideband saturable absorbers for Q-switching and mode-locking fibre lasers. We focus specifically on the family of few-layer transition metal dichalcogenides, including MoS2, MoSe2 and WS2.
Image processing of 2D crystal images.
Arheit, Marcel; Castaño-Díez, Daniel; Thierry, Raphaël; Gipson, Bryant R; Zeng, Xiangyan; Stahlberg, Henning
2013-01-01
Electron crystallography of membrane proteins uses cryo-transmission electron microscopy to image frozen-hydrated 2D crystals. The processing of recorded images exploits the periodic arrangement of the structures in the images to extract the amplitudes and phases of diffraction spots in Fourier space. However, image imperfections require a crystal unbending procedure to be applied to the image before evaluation in Fourier space. We here describe the process of 2D crystal image unbending, using the 2dx software system.
Applications of 2D helical vortex dynamics
Okulov, Valery; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær
2010-01-01
In the paper, we show how the assumption of helical symmetry in the context of 2D helical vortices can be exploited to analyse and to model various cases of rotating flows. From theory, examples of three basic applications of 2D dynamics of helical vortices embedded in flows with helical symmetry...... of the vorticity field are addressed. These included some of the problems related to vortex breakdown, instability of far wakes behind rotors and vortex theory of ideal rotors....
Comparison between 2D and 3D Modelling of Induction Machine Using Finite Element Method
Zelmira Ferkova
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The paper compares two different ways (2D and 3D of modelling of two-phase squirrel-cage induction machine using the finite element method (FEM. It focuses mainly on differences between starting characteristics given from both types of the model. It also discusses influence of skew rotor slots on harmonic content in air gap flux density and summarizes some issues of both approaches.
Yang, Li-Ming; Dornfeld, Matthew; Frauenheim, Thomas; Ganz, Eric
2015-10-21
We predict a highly stable and robust atomically thin gold monolayer with a hexagonal close packed lattice stabilized by metallic bonding with contributions from strong relativistic effects and aurophilic interactions. We have shown that the framework of the Au monolayer can survive 10 ps MD annealing simulations up to 1400 K. The framework is also able to survive large motions out of the plane. Due to the smaller number of bonds per atom in the 2D layer compared to the 3D bulk we observe significantly enhanced energy per bond (0.94 vs. 0.52 eV per bond). This is similar to the increase in bond strength going from 3D diamond to 2D graphene. It is a non-magnetic metal, and was found to be the global minima in the 2D space. Phonon dispersion calculations demonstrate high kinetic stability with no negative modes. This 2D gold monolayer corresponds to the top monolayer of the bulk Au(111) face-centered cubic lattice. The close-packed lattice maximizes the aurophilic interactions. We find that the electrons are completely delocalized in the plane and behave as 2D nearly free electron gas. We hope that the present work can inspire the experimental fabrication of novel free standing 2D metal systems.
2d index and surface operators
Gadde, Abhijit; Gukov, Sergei
2014-03-01
In this paper we compute the superconformal index of 2d (2, 2) supersymmetric gauge theories. The 2d superconformal index, a.k.a. flavored elliptic genus, is computed by a unitary matrix integral much like the matrix integral that computes the 4d superconformal index. We compute the 2d index explicitly for a number of examples. In the case of abelian gauge theories we see that the index is invariant under flop transition and under CY-LG correspondence. The index also provides a powerful check of the Seiberg-type duality for non-abelian gauge theories discovered by Hori and Tong. In the later half of the paper, we study half-BPS surface operators in = 2 super-conformal gauge theories. They are engineered by coupling the 2d (2, 2) supersymmetric gauge theory living on the support of the surface operator to the 4d = 2 theory, so that different realizations of the same surface operator with a given Levi type are related by a 2d analogue of the Seiberg duality. The index of this coupled system is computed by using the tools developed in the first half of the paper. The superconformal index in the presence of surface defect is expected to be invariant under generalized S-duality. We demonstrate that it is indeed the case. In doing so the Seiberg-type duality of the 2d theory plays an important role.
Prenatal diagnosis of 45,X/46,XY mosaicism in a fetus with asymmetric gonadal dysgenesis.
Kirkilionis, A J; Rodney, P; Sergovich, F R; Armstrong, R
1987-09-01
An 18 week abortus had been prenatally diagnosed as a 45,X/46,XY mosaic. The fetus was a phenotypic male with glandular hypospadias, a horseshoe kidney and asymmetric gonadal dysgenesis. This case represents a rare instance of prenatally diagnosed 45,X/46,XY mosaicism with an abnormal phenotype.
Leonetti Stefania
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background This study was conducted to assess the accuracy of harmonic imaging 2D-transthoracic echocardiography (2D-TTE segmental analysis compared to surgical findings, in degenerative mitral regurgitation (MR. Methods Seventy-seven consecutive patients with severe degenerative MR were prospectively enrolled. Preoperative 2D-TTE with precise localization of prolapsing or flailing scallops/segments was performed. All patients underwent mitral valve surgical repair. Surgical reports (SR, including valve description, were used as references for comparisons. A postoperative control 2D-TTE was performed. Results Out of 462 scallops/segments studied, surgical inspection identified 102 prolapses or flails (22%, 92 of which had previously been detected by 2D-TTE (90.2% sensitivity, 100% specificity. Agreement between preoperative 2D-TTE segmental analysis and SR was 97.8% (k = 0.93; p Conclusions 2D-TTE, performed by an experienced echo-lab, has very good diagnostic accuracy in localizing the scallops/segments involved in degenerative MR, particularly for the middle ones (P2-A2, which represent almost the totality of prolapses. More invasive, time consuming and expensive exams should be reserved to selected cases.
2-D DOA Estimation Based on 2D-MUSIC%基于2D-MUSIC算法的DOA估计
康亚芳; 王静; 张清泉; 行小帅
2014-01-01
This paper discussed the performance of classical two-dimensional DOA estimation with 2D-MUSIC, based on the mathematical model of planar array and 2D-MUSIC DOA estimation, Taking uniform planar array for example, comput-er simulation experiment was carried for the effect of three kinds of different parameters on 2-D DOA estimation, and the simulation results were analyzed. And also verification test about the corresponding algorithm performance under the differ-ent parameters was discussed.%利用经典的2D-MUSIC算法对二维阵列的DOA估计进行了研究，在平面阵列数学模型以及2D-MUSIC算法的DOA估计模型基础上，以均匀平面阵列为例，对3种不同参数的DOA估计进行了计算机仿真，分析了仿真结果。得出了在不同参数变化趋势下DOA估计的相应变化情况。
General Quantum State Swap: an XY model analysis
Liu, Ben-Qiong; Shao, Bin; Zou, Jian
2011-01-01
We consider an exact state swap, defined as the swap between two quantum states |A> and |B> in the Hilbert space of a quantum system. We show that, given an arbitrary Hamiltonian dynamics, there is a straightforward approach to calculating the probability of the occurrence of an exact state swap, by employing an exchange operator P_{AB}. For a given dynamics, the feasibilities of proposed quantum setups, such as quantum state amplifications and transfers can be evaluated. These setups are only distinguished by different forms of P_{AB}, which easily lead to innovative designs of quantum setups or devices. We illustrate the method with the isotropic XY model, whose unnoticed features are revealed.
Cardiovascular pathology in males and females with 45,X/46,XY mosaicism.
Katya De Groote
Full Text Available CONTEXT: The phenotype of 45,X/46,XY mosaicism is heterogeneous ranging from females with Turner syndrome (TS to apparently normal males. Males with 45,X/46,XY frequently show stigmata typically associated with TS. We hypothesised that males with 45,X/46,XY have similar cardiovascular pathology as females with 45,X/46,XY. OBJECTIVE: To investigate cardiovascular abnormalities in 45,X/46,XY males and to compare them with 45,X/46,XY females. DESIGN: Patients with 45,X/46,XY mosaicism were selected from the Belgian Registry for Growth and Puberty problems and via the multidisciplinary clinic for disorders of sexual development. PATIENTS: EIGHTEEN PATIENTS WERE INCLUDED: 8 raised as females (F and 10 as males (M. INTERVENTION: Complete cardiac examination with blood pressure measurement, ECG, echocardiography and MRI. MAIN OUTCOME MEASUREMENT: Cardiac parameters were registered for both groups. In a second phase, clinical features and external masculinisation score (EMS were retrospectively collected from the medical files. RESULTS: A structural heart defect was diagnosed before inclusion in 1 F with coarctation and 1 M with spontaneously closed VSD. A bicuspid aortic valve was found in 8 (3 F, 5 M. Dilation of the ascending aorta was present in 4 M and was severe in 2 young boys. QTc was prolonged in 3 F and 2 M. CONCLUSION: Males with 45,X/46,XY mosaicism have similar cardiovascular pathology as 45,X/46,XY females. Dilation of the ascending aorta can be important, also in males. We advise cardiac screening and life-long monitoring in all males with 45,X/46,XY mosaicism according to the existing guidelines for Turner syndrome.
45,X/46,XY mosaicism: the role of ultrasound in prenatal diagnosis and counselling.
Lazebnik, N; Filkins, K A; Jackson, C L; Linn, K B; Doshi, N N; Hogge, W A
1996-11-01
The purpose of this study was to assess the benefit of ultrasound evaluation for fetuses with prenatally diagnosed 45,X/46,XY mosaicism. The charts of all patients who underwent chorionic villus sampling and/or amniocentesis between 1 March 1990 and 31 October 1995 were screened for 45,X/46,XY mosaicism. Cases were divided on the basis of the results of the confirmatory amniocentesis into two groups: (1) confined placental mosaicism (n = 4); and (2) true fetal 45,X/46,XY mosaicism (n = 4). All patients underwent high-resolution detailed ultrasound study between 16 and 22 weeks. If the initial ultrasound study failed to visualize fetal genitalia, scanning was repeated in 2 weeks. Chromosome analysis was carried out on the newborn's skin to confirm the prenatal result. Six cases were found to have 45,X/46,XY mosaicism on chorionic villus sampling. Amniocentesis indicated a normal 46,XY male karyotype for three fetuses and true fetal 45,X/46,XY mosaicism for two cases. One patient declined follow-up amniocentesis. At birth, this newborn was documented to have normal male genitalia and a 46,XY karyotype. An additional two cases underwent amniocentesis only and were documented to have 45,X/46,XY mosaicism. High-resolution detailed ultrasound study between 16 and 22 weeks revealed seven fetuses with normal male genitalia and one fetus with ambiguous genitalia. Of the four neonates with true 45,X/46,XY mosaicism this was the only one found to have ambiguous genitalia. We conclude that the work-up of patients with 45,X/46,XY mosaicism should include ultrasound study to look for ambiguous genitalia. This allows appropriate counselling regarding the natural history of the condition and aids in the planning for management in the postnatal period.
Atomically Phase-Matched Second-Harmonic Generation in a 2D Crystal
2016-08-26
2H-MoS2 is significantly reduced. Aside from the 2H phase, MoS2 coexists in the equally stable bulk noncentrosymmetric 3R polytype. The orientation...through the Materials Education Program for the Future Leaders in Research, Industry and Technology (MERIT). AUTHOR CONTRIBUTIONS MZ, ZY and RS
Hohmann, Manuel [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Tartu (Estonia)
2016-07-01
Tensor harmonics are a useful mathematical tool for finding solutions to differential equations which transform under a particular representation of the rotation group SO(3). In order to make use of this tool also in the setting of Finsler geometry, where the objects of relevance are d-tensors instead of tensors, we construct a set of d-tensor harmonics for both SO(3) and SO(4) symmetries and show how these can be used for calculations in Finsler geometry and gravity.
2d Index and Surface operators
Gadde, Abhijit
2013-01-01
In this paper we compute the superconformal index of 2d (2,2) supersymmetric gauge theories. The 2d superconformal index, a.k.a. flavored elliptic genus, is computed by a unitary matrix integral much like the matrix integral that computes 4d superconformal index. We compute the 2d index explicitly for a number of examples. In the case of abelian gauge theories we see that the index is invariant under flop transition and CY-LG correspondence. The index also provides a powerful check of the Seiberg-type duality for non-abelian gauge theories discovered by Hori and Tong. In the later half of the paper, we study half-BPS surface operators in N=2 superconformal gauge theories. They are engineered by coupling the 2d (2,2) supersymmetric gauge theory living on the support of the surface operator to the 4d N=2 theory, so that different realizations of the same surface operator with a given Levi type are related by a 2d analogue of the Seiberg duality. The index of this coupled system is computed by using the tools de...
IGUANA A high-performance 2D and 3D visualisation system
Alverson, G; Muzaffar, S; Osborne, I; Taylor, L; Tuura, L A
2004-01-01
The IGUANA project has developed visualisation tools for multiple high-energy experiments. At the core of IGUANA is a generic, high- performance visualisation system based on OpenInventor and OpenGL. This paper describes the back-end and a feature-rich 3D visualisation system built on it, as well as a new 2D visualisation system that can automatically generate 2D views from 3D data, for example to produce R/Z or X/Y detector displays from existing 3D display with little effort. IGUANA has collaborated with the open-source gl2ps project to create a high-quality vector postscript output that can produce true vector graphics output from any OpenGL 2D or 3D display, complete with surface shading and culling of invisible surfaces. We describe how it works. We also describe how one can measure the memory and performance costs of various OpenInventor constructs and how to test scene graphs. We present good patterns to follow and bad patterns to avoid. We have added more advanced tools such as per-object clipping, sl...
Optical modulators with 2D layered materials
Sun, Zhipei; Martinez, Amos; Wang, Feng
2016-04-01
Light modulation is an essential operation in photonics and optoelectronics. With existing and emerging technologies increasingly demanding compact, efficient, fast and broadband optical modulators, high-performance light modulation solutions are becoming indispensable. The recent realization that 2D layered materials could modulate light with superior performance has prompted intense research and significant advances, paving the way for realistic applications. In this Review, we cover the state of the art of optical modulators based on 2D materials, including graphene, transition metal dichalcogenides and black phosphorus. We discuss recent advances employing hybrid structures, such as 2D heterostructures, plasmonic structures, and silicon and fibre integrated structures. We also take a look at the future perspectives and discuss the potential of yet relatively unexplored mechanisms, such as magneto-optic and acousto-optic modulation.
Automatic Contour Extraction from 2D Image
Panagiotis GIOANNIS
2011-03-01
Full Text Available Aim: To develop a method for automatic contour extraction from a 2D image. Material and Method: The method is divided in two basic parts where the user initially chooses the starting point and the threshold. Finally the method is applied to computed tomography of bone images. Results: An interesting method is developed which can lead to a successful boundary extraction of 2D images. Specifically data extracted from a computed tomography images can be used for 2D bone reconstruction. Conclusions: We believe that such an algorithm or part of it can be applied on several other applications for shape feature extraction in medical image analysis and generally at computer graphics.
Orthotropic Piezoelectricity in 2D Nanocellulose
García, Y.; Ruiz-Blanco, Yasser B.; Marrero-Ponce, Yovani; Sotomayor-Torres, C. M.
2016-10-01
The control of electromechanical responses within bonding regions is essential to face frontier challenges in nanotechnologies, such as molecular electronics and biotechnology. Here, we present Iβ-nanocellulose as a potentially new orthotropic 2D piezoelectric crystal. The predicted in-layer piezoelectricity is originated on a sui-generis hydrogen bonds pattern. Upon this fact and by using a combination of ab-initio and ad-hoc models, we introduce a description of electrical profiles along chemical bonds. Such developments lead to obtain a rationale for modelling the extended piezoelectric effect originated within bond scales. The order of magnitude estimated for the 2D Iβ-nanocellulose piezoelectric response, ~pm V‑1, ranks this material at the level of currently used piezoelectric energy generators and new artificial 2D designs. Such finding would be crucial for developing alternative materials to drive emerging nanotechnologies.
2D microwave imaging reflectometer electronics
Spear, A. G.; Domier, C. W., E-mail: cwdomier@ucdavis.edu; Hu, X.; Muscatello, C. M.; Ren, X.; Luhmann, N. C. [Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Tobias, B. J. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)
2014-11-15
A 2D microwave imaging reflectometer system has been developed to visualize electron density fluctuations on the DIII-D tokamak. Simultaneously illuminated at four probe frequencies, large aperture optics image reflections from four density-dependent cutoff surfaces in the plasma over an extended region of the DIII-D plasma. Localized density fluctuations in the vicinity of the plasma cutoff surfaces modulate the plasma reflections, yielding a 2D image of electron density fluctuations. Details are presented of the receiver down conversion electronics that generate the in-phase (I) and quadrature (Q) reflectometer signals from which 2D density fluctuation data are obtained. Also presented are details on the control system and backplane used to manage the electronics as well as an introduction to the computer based control program.
Assessing 2D electrophoretic mobility spectroscopy (2D MOSY) for analytical applications.
Fang, Yuan; Yushmanov, Pavel V; Furó, István
2016-12-08
Electrophoretic displacement of charged entity phase modulates the spectrum acquired in electrophoretic NMR experiments, and this modulation can be presented via 2D FT as 2D mobility spectroscopy (MOSY) spectra. We compare in various mixed solutions the chemical selectivity provided by 2D MOSY spectra with that provided by 2D diffusion-ordered spectroscopy (DOSY) spectra and demonstrate, under the conditions explored, a superior performance of the former method. 2D MOSY compares also favourably with closely related LC-NMR methods. The shape of 2D MOSY spectra in complex mixtures is strongly modulated by the pH of the sample, a feature that has potential for areas such as in drug discovery and metabolomics. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Magnetic Resonance in Chemistry published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. StartCopTextCopyright © 2016 The Authors. Magnetic Resonance in Chemistry published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
On the harmonic index of graph operations
B. Shwetha Shetty
2015-12-01
Full Text Available The harmonic index of a connected graph G , denoted by H(G , is defined as H(G=∑ uv∈E(G 2d u +d v where d v is the degree of a vertex v in G. In this paper, expressions for the Harary indices of the join, corona product, Cartesian product, composition and symmetric difference of graphs are derived.
On the harmonic index of graph operations
B. Shwetha Shetty; V. Lokesha; Ranjini, P.S.
2015-01-01
The harmonic index of a connected graph G , denoted by H(G) , is defined as H(G)=∑ uv∈E(G) 2d u +d v where d v is the degree of a vertex v in G. In this paper, expressions for the Harary indices of the join, corona product, Cartesian product, composition and symmetric difference of graphs are derived.
Effect of MexXY overexpression on ceftobiprole susceptibility in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
Baum, Ellen Z; Crespo-Carbone, Steven M; Morrow, Brian J; Davies, Todd A; Foleno, Barbara D; He, Wenping; Queenan, Anne Marie; Bush, Karen
2009-07-01
Ceftobiprole, an anti-methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus broad-spectrum cephalosporin, has activity (MIC for 50% of strains tested, ceftobiprole clinical studies, paired isolates of P. aeruginosa from four subjects demonstrated ceftobiprole MICs of 2 to 4 microg/ml at baseline but 16 microg/ml posttreatment, unrelated to beta-lactamase levels. Within each pair, the level of mexXY RNA, but not mexAB, mexCD, and mexEF, increased by an average of 50-fold from baseline to posttreatment isolates. Sequencing of the negative regulatory gene mexZ indicated that each posttreatment isolate contained a mutation not present at baseline. mexXY expression as a primary ceftobiprole and cefepime resistance mechanism was further examined in isogenic pairs by using cloned mexXY and mexZ. Expression of cloned mexXY in strain PAO1 or in a baseline isolate increased the ceftobiprole MIC to that for the posttreatment isolate. In contrast, in posttreatment isolates, lowering mexXY expression via introduction of cloned mexZ decreased the ceftobiprole MIC to that for the baseline isolates. Similar changes were observed for cefepime. A spontaneous mutant selectively overexpressing mexXY displayed a fourfold elevation in its ceftobiprole MIC, while overexpression of mexAB, -CD, and -EF had a minimal effect. These data indicate that ceftobiprole, like cefepime, is an atypical beta-lactam that is a substrate for the MexXY efflux pump in P. aeruginosa.
Spectroscopic investigation of the 3d 2D → nf 2F transitions in lithium
Shahzada, S.; Shah, M.; Haq, S. U.; Nawaz, M.; Ahmed, M.; Nadeem, Ali
2016-05-01
We report term energies and effective quantum numbers of the odd parity 3d 2D → nf 2F series of lithium using multi-step and multi-photon laser excitation schemes. The experiments were performed using three dye lasers simultaneously pumped by the second harmonic (532 nm) of a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser in conjunction with an atomic beam apparatus and thermionic diode ion detector. The first ionization potential of lithium has been determined as 43,487.13 ± 0.02 cm- 1 from the much extended 3d 2D → nf 2F (17 ≤ n ≤ 70) series. In addition, the oscillator strengths of the 3d 2D → nf 2F (15 ≤ n ≤ 48) transitions have been determined, showing a decreasing trend with the increase in principal quantum number n.
Partially Loaded Cavity Analysis by Using the 2-D FDTD Method
YAO Bin; ZHENG Qin-Hong; PENG Jin-Hui; ZHONG Ru-Neng; XIANG Tai; XU Wan-Song
2011-01-01
A compact two-dimensional (2-D) finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method is proposed to calculate the resonant frequencies and quality factors ofa partially loaded cavity that is uniform in the z-direction and has an arbitrary cross section in the x-y plane.With the description of z dependence by kz,the three-dimensional (3-D) problem can be transformed into a 2-D problem.Therefore,less memory and CPU time are required as compared to the conventional 3-D FDTD method.Three representative examples,a half-loaded rectangular cavity,an inhomogeneous cylindrical cavity and a cubic cavity loaded with dielectric post,are presented to validate the utility and efficiency of the proposed method.Since the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD)method was first introduced by Yee,[1] it has been widely used to solve electromagnetic problems.[2,3]Among them,endeavors have been made to achieve faster resonator computation and some numerical techniques have been combined with the FDTD method for faster computation.The numerical teehniques include digital filtering,the modern spectrum estimation technique,Prony analysis,Padé approximation and the Baker algorithm.[4-8] Benefiting from these techniques,the analysis time of resonators has been greatly reduced.However,there are two deficiencies in the above-mentioned literature.First,these approaches are still based on a three-dimensional (3-D)mesh,which needs numerous computational resources.%A compact two-dimensioned (2-D) finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method is proposed to calculate the resonant frequencies and quality factors of a partially loaded cavity that is uniform in the z-direction and has an arbitrary cross section in the x-y plane. With the description of z dependence by kz, the three-dimensional (3-D) problem can be transformed into a 2-D problem. Therefore, less memory and CPU time are required as compared to the conventional 3-D FDTD method. Three representative examples, a half-loaded rectangular cavity, an
Aircraft height estimation using 2-D radar
Hakl, H
2010-01-01
Full Text Available A method to infer height information from an aircraft tracked with a single 2-D search radar is presented. The method assumes level flight in the target aircraft and a good estimate of the speed of the aircraft. The method yields good results...
Canonical structure of 2D black holes
Navarro-Salas, J; Talavera, C F
1994-01-01
We determine the canonical structure of two-dimensional black-hole solutions arising in $2D$ dilaton gravity. By choosing the Cauchy surface appropriately we find that the canonically conjugate variable to the black hole mass is given by the difference of local (Schwarzschild) time translations at right and left spatial infinities. This can be regarded as a generalization of Birkhoff's theorem.
Andersen, Thomas Lykke; Frigaard, Peter
This report present the results of 2D physical model tests carried out in the shallow wave flume at Dept. of Civil Engineering, Aalborg University (AAU), on behalf of Energy E2 A/S part of DONG Energy A/S, Denmark. The objective of the tests was: to investigate the combined influence of the pile...
2D PIM Simulation Based on COMSOL
Wang, Xinbo; Cui, Wanzhao; Wang, Jingyu;
2011-01-01
Passive intermodulation (PIM) is a problematic type of nonlinear distortion en- countered in many communication systems. To analyze the PIM distortion resulting from ma- terial nonlinearity, a 2D PIM simulation method based on COMSOL is proposed in this paper. As an example, a rectangular wavegui...
45,X/46,XY gonadal dysgenesis in an infertile adult male.
Gassó-Matoses, M; Picó-Alfonso, A; Fernández-García, J; Lobato-Encinas, J; Mira-Llinares, A
1992-01-01
A 33-year-old male was referred for infertility. Examination revealed bilateral scrotal gonads of soft consistency and small size. Semen analysis showed azoospermia. Elevated serum follicle-stimulating hormone levels and normal testosterone values were found. Surgical exploration and histopathology diagnosed dysgenetic testes with complete epididymis, and remnants of Fallopian tubes attached to the albuginea, with normal vas deferens and seminal vesicles showed on deferentovesiculography. Karyotype was 45,X/46,XY del(Y)(q11) with only 15% of 46XY cells in gonadal tissue. The clinical spectrum of 45,X/46,XY mosaicism and significance of this chromosomic anomaly is discussed.
Kinodynamic Motion Planning for an X4-Flyer Using a 2-Dimentional Harmonic Potential Field
Keigo Watanabe
2014-10-01
Full Text Available In this research, we present a control method using kinodynamic motion planning based on a harmonic potential field (HPF for an X4-Flyer moving in a 3-dimensional space. In the previous research, it was confirmed that a controller using two HPFs generated on the X-Y and X-Z planes was able to guide the X4-Flyer to the arbitrary target point in a 3-dimensional space. In this paper, the previous method is extended to the case where three HPFs generated on the X-Y, X-Z, and Y-Z planes are used, and it is verified that the X4-Flyer can move efficiently by using the proposed method through some simulations.
Second harmonic generation imaging
2013-01-01
Second-harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy has shown great promise for imaging live cells and tissues, with applications in basic science, medical research, and tissue engineering. Second Harmonic Generation Imaging offers a complete guide to this optical modality, from basic principles, instrumentation, methods, and image analysis to biomedical applications. The book features contributions by experts in second-harmonic imaging, including many pioneering researchers in the field. Written for researchers at all levels, it takes an in-depth look at the current state of the art and possibilities of SHG microscopy. Organized into three sections, the book: Provides an introduction to the physics of the process, step-by-step instructions on how to build an SHG microscope, and comparisons with related imaging techniques Gives an overview of the capabilities of SHG microscopy for imaging tissues and cells—including cell membranes, muscle, collagen in tissues, and microtubules in live cells—by summarizing experi...
Bennett, Charles L.
2016-03-22
A reciprocating-piston uniflow engine includes a harmonic oscillator inlet valve capable of oscillating at a resonant frequency for controlling the flow of working fluid into the engine. In particular, the inlet valve includes an inlet valve head and a spring arranged together as a harmonic oscillator so that the inlet valve head is moveable from an unbiased equilibrium position to a biased closed position occluding an inlet. When released, the inlet valve head undergoes a single oscillation past the equilibrium position to a maximum open position and returns to a biased return position close to the closed position to choke the flow and produce a pressure drop across the inlet valve causing the inlet valve to close. In other embodiments, the harmonic oscillator arrangement of the inlet valve enables the uniflow engine to be reversibly operated as a uniflow compressor.
2D Fourier series representation of gravitational functionals in spherical coordinates
Ghobadi-Far, Khosro; Sharifi, Mohammad Ali; Sneeuw, Nico
2016-09-01
2D Fourier series representation of a scalar field like gravitational potential is conventionally derived by making use of the Fourier series of the Legendre functions in the spherical harmonic representation. This representation has been employed so far only in the case of a scalar field or the functionals that are related to it through a radial derivative. This paper provides a unified scheme to represent any gravitational functional in terms of spherical coordinates using a 2D Fourier series representation. The 2D Fourier series representation for each individual point is derived by transforming the spherical harmonics from the geocentric Earth-fixed frame to a rotated frame so that its equator coincides with the local meridian plane of that point. In the obtained formulation, each functional is linked to the potential in the spectral domain using a spectral transfer. We provide the spectral transfers of the first-, second- and third-order gradients of the gravitational potential in the local north-oriented reference frame and also those of some functionals of frequent use in the physical geodesy. The obtained representation is verified numerically. Moreover, spherical harmonic analysis of anisotropic functionals and contribution analysis of the third-order gradient tensor are provided as two numerical examples to show the power of the formulation. In conclusion, the 2D Fourier series representation on the sphere is generalized to functionals of the potential. In addition, the set of the spectral transfers can be considered as a pocket guide that provides the spectral characteristics of the functionals. Therefore, it extends the so-called Meissl scheme.
Order by virtual crystal field fluctuations in pyrochlore XY antiferromagnets
Rau, Jeffrey G.; Petit, Sylvain; Gingras, Michel J. P.
2016-05-01
Conclusive evidence of order by disorder is scarce in real materials. Perhaps one of the strongest cases presented has been for the pyrochlore XY antiferromagnet Er2Ti2O7 , with the ground state selection proceeding by order by disorder induced through the effects of quantum fluctuations. This identification assumes the smallness of the effect of virtual crystal field fluctuations that could provide an alternative route to picking the ground state. Here we show that this order by virtual crystal field fluctuations is not only significant, but competitive with the effects of quantum fluctuations. Further, we argue that higher-multipolar interactions that are generically present in rare-earth magnets can dramatically enhance this effect. From a simplified bilinear-biquadratic model of these multipolar interactions, we show how the virtual crystal field fluctuations manifest in Er2Ti2O7 using a combination of strong-coupling perturbation theory and the random-phase approximation. We find that the experimentally observed ψ2 state is indeed selected and the experimentally measured excitation gap can be reproduced when the bilinear and biquadratic couplings are comparable while maintaining agreement with the entire experimental spin-wave excitation spectrum. Finally, we comment on possible tests of this scenario and discuss implications for other order-by-disorder candidates in rare-earth magnets.
Spin-dynamics simulations of the triangular antiferromagnetic XY model*
Nho, Kwangsik; Landau, D. P.
2003-03-01
Using Monte Carlo and spin-dynamics methods, we have studied the dynamic behavior of the classical, antiferromagnetic XY model on a triangular lattice. The temporal evolutions of spin configurations were obtained by solving numerically the coupled equations of motion for each spin using fourth-order Suzuki-Trotter decompositions of exponential operators. We calculated the dynamic structure factor S(q,w) for momentum q and frequency w. Below T_KT (Kosteritz-Thouless transition), both the in-plane (S^xx) and out-of-plane (S^zz) components exhibit very strong and sharp spin-wave peaks. Well above T_KT, S^xx and S^zz apparently display a central peak, and spin-wave signatures are still seen in S^zz. In addition, we also observed an almost dispersionless domain-wall peak at high w below Tc (Ising transition), where long-range order appears in the staggered chirality[1]. We found that our results demonstrate the consistency of the dynamic finite-size scaling theory for the characteristic frequency wm and S(q,w). *Supported by NSF [1] D.H. Lee, J.D. Joannopoulos, J.W. Negele, and D.P. Landau, Phys. Rev. Lett. 52, 433 (1984)
Spin-dynamics simulations of the antiferromagnetic triangular XY model*
Nho, Kwangsik; Landau, D. P.
2002-03-01
Using Monte Carlo and spin-dynamics methods, we have simulated the dynamic behavior of the classical, antiferromagnetic XY model on a triangular lattice. The temporal evolutions of spin configurations were obtained by solving numerically the coupled equations of motion for each spin using fourth-order Suzuki-Trotter decompositions of exponential operators. From space-and time-displaced spin-spin correlation functions and their space-time Fourier transforms we obtained the dynamic structure factor S(q,w) for momentum q and frequency w. Below T_c, where long-range order appears in the staggered chirality[1], S(q,w) exhibits very strong and sharp spin-wave peaks in the in-plane-component S^xx. We also observe two-spin-wave peaks at low w and an almost dispersionless domain-wall peak at high w. Above T_c, a weak spin-wave peak persists but the domain-wall peak disappears for all q. We have calculated the dispersion relation and the linewidth of the spin-wave peak in S^xx by fitting the line shape to simple Lorentzians. *Supported by NSF [1] D.H. Lee, J.D. Joannopoulos, J.W. Negele, and D.P. Landau, Phys. Rev. Lett. 52, 433 (1984)
[XY gonadal dysgenesis with female phenotype (author's transpl)].
Trias, J V; Martínez, F B
1975-01-01
In this paper, we are dealing with the study of a case of multiple somatic malformations, with external female genitals and 46 XY caryotype. The anatomical and histological study of the genital organs, allows us to verify the existence of internal genital organs; consisting essentially in tubes, bicornous uterus, a gonadal ligament in a normotopical position, Wolffian remains and the absence of a vagina. The external female genitals are completely normal. When we interpreted these findings, we paid special attention to the relation existing between the abnormal presence of the Wolffian remains, male genotype, and typical female genital structures. Taking account of the latest scientific advances concerning genital development, we considered the possibility of the existence of secretions of a "masculinizing" substance from the gonad, before its morphological differentiation, which was interrupted by an etiological undetermined noxa. When this evolution was arrested, together with the secretions of the masculinizing substance, the genital development continued normally for a female. The terminal teratogenic period for this malformation is situated from the 5th to the 6th week of gestation (human embryos from 11 to 14 mm., Streeter Horizon XVII).
Application of 2D Non-Graphene Materials and 2D Oxide Nanostructures for Biosensing Technology.
Shavanova, Kateryna; Bakakina, Yulia; Burkova, Inna; Shtepliuk, Ivan; Viter, Roman; Ubelis, Arnolds; Beni, Valerio; Starodub, Nickolaj; Yakimova, Rositsa; Khranovskyy, Volodymyr
2016-02-06
The discovery of graphene and its unique properties has inspired researchers to try to invent other two-dimensional (2D) materials. After considerable research effort, a distinct "beyond graphene" domain has been established, comprising the library of non-graphene 2D materials. It is significant that some 2D non-graphene materials possess solid advantages over their predecessor, such as having a direct band gap, and therefore are highly promising for a number of applications. These applications are not limited to nano- and opto-electronics, but have a strong potential in biosensing technologies, as one example. However, since most of the 2D non-graphene materials have been newly discovered, most of the research efforts are concentrated on material synthesis and the investigation of the properties of the material. Applications of 2D non-graphene materials are still at the embryonic stage, and the integration of 2D non-graphene materials into devices is scarcely reported. However, in recent years, numerous reports have blossomed about 2D material-based biosensors, evidencing the growing potential of 2D non-graphene materials for biosensing applications. This review highlights the recent progress in research on the potential of using 2D non-graphene materials and similar oxide nanostructures for different types of biosensors (optical and electrochemical). A wide range of biological targets, such as glucose, dopamine, cortisol, DNA, IgG, bisphenol, ascorbic acid, cytochrome and estradiol, has been reported to be successfully detected by biosensors with transducers made of 2D non-graphene materials.
Application of 2D Non-Graphene Materials and 2D Oxide Nanostructures for Biosensing Technology
Kateryna Shavanova
2016-02-01
Full Text Available The discovery of graphene and its unique properties has inspired researchers to try to invent other two-dimensional (2D materials. After considerable research effort, a distinct “beyond graphene” domain has been established, comprising the library of non-graphene 2D materials. It is significant that some 2D non-graphene materials possess solid advantages over their predecessor, such as having a direct band gap, and therefore are highly promising for a number of applications. These applications are not limited to nano- and opto-electronics, but have a strong potential in biosensing technologies, as one example. However, since most of the 2D non-graphene materials have been newly discovered, most of the research efforts are concentrated on material synthesis and the investigation of the properties of the material. Applications of 2D non-graphene materials are still at the embryonic stage, and the integration of 2D non-graphene materials into devices is scarcely reported. However, in recent years, numerous reports have blossomed about 2D material-based biosensors, evidencing the growing potential of 2D non-graphene materials for biosensing applications. This review highlights the recent progress in research on the potential of using 2D non-graphene materials and similar oxide nanostructures for different types of biosensors (optical and electrochemical. A wide range of biological targets, such as glucose, dopamine, cortisol, DNA, IgG, bisphenol, ascorbic acid, cytochrome and estradiol, has been reported to be successfully detected by biosensors with transducers made of 2D non-graphene materials.
Booster Double Harmonic Setup Notes
Gardner, C. J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.
2015-02-17
The motivation behind implementing a booster double harmonic include the reduced transverse space charge force from a reduced peak beam current and reduced momentum spread of the beam, both of which can be achieved from flattening the RF bucket. RF capture and acceleration of polarized protons (PP) is first set up in the single harmonic mode with RF harmonic h=1. Once capture and acceleration have been set up in the single harmonic mode, the second harmonic system is brought on and programmed to operate in concert with the single harmonic system.
Schottky diodes from 2D germanane
Sahoo, Nanda Gopal; Esteves, Richard J.; Punetha, Vinay Deep; Pestov, Dmitry; Arachchige, Indika U.; McLeskey, James T.
2016-07-01
We report on the fabrication and characterization of a Schottky diode made using 2D germanane (hydrogenated germanene). When compared to germanium, the 2D structure has higher electron mobility, an optimal band-gap, and exceptional stability making germanane an outstanding candidate for a variety of opto-electronic devices. One-atom-thick sheets of hydrogenated puckered germanium atoms have been synthesized from a CaGe2 framework via intercalation and characterized by XRD, Raman, and FTIR techniques. The material was then used to fabricate Schottky diodes by suspending the germanane in benzonitrile and drop-casting it onto interdigitated metal electrodes. The devices demonstrate significant rectifying behavior and the outstanding potential of this material.
Schottky diodes from 2D germanane
Sahoo, Nanda Gopal; Punetha, Vinay Deep [Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Centre, Department of Chemistry, Kumaun University, Nainital, 263001 Uttarakhand (India); Esteves, Richard J; Arachchige, Indika U. [Department of Chemistry, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23284 (United States); Pestov, Dmitry [Nanomaterials Core Characterization Center, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23284 (United States); McLeskey, James T., E-mail: JamesMcLeskey@rmc.edu [Department of Physics, Randolph-Macon College, Ashland, Virginia 23005 (United States)
2016-07-11
We report on the fabrication and characterization of a Schottky diode made using 2D germanane (hydrogenated germanene). When compared to germanium, the 2D structure has higher electron mobility, an optimal band-gap, and exceptional stability making germanane an outstanding candidate for a variety of opto-electronic devices. One-atom-thick sheets of hydrogenated puckered germanium atoms have been synthesized from a CaGe{sub 2} framework via intercalation and characterized by XRD, Raman, and FTIR techniques. The material was then used to fabricate Schottky diodes by suspending the germanane in benzonitrile and drop-casting it onto interdigitated metal electrodes. The devices demonstrate significant rectifying behavior and the outstanding potential of this material.
Infant with mos45,X/46,XY/47,XYY/48,XYYY: Genetic and clinical findings
Fox, J.E.; Blumenthal, D.; Zaslav, A.L. [North Shore Univ. Hospital, Manhasset, NY (United States)] [and others
1995-12-04
We describe an infant with mos45,X/46,XY/47,XYY/48,XYYY who presented with ambiguous genitalia. Her phenotype was also remarkable for minor ear and eye anomalies and coarctation of the aorta with bicuspid aortic valve. Laparoscopy revealed bilateral Fallopian tubes and a left infantile testis with epididymis. Chromosomal analyses of blood, skin, aorta, right Fallopian tube, and left gonadal tissue showed mos 45,X46/XY/47,XYY/48,XYYY. The 46,XY cell line was identified with routine trypsin Giemsa banding only in cultured cells from an aortic biopsy. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was utilized to identify the presence of 46,XY cells in other tissues. The clinical manifestations of this patient are discussed and compared with those of similar cases of Y chromosome aneuploidy. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a patient with this unusual karyotype. 14 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.
2D Metals by Repeated Size Reduction.
Liu, Hanwen; Tang, Hao; Fang, Minghao; Si, Wenjie; Zhang, Qinghua; Huang, Zhaohui; Gu, Lin; Pan, Wei; Yao, Jie; Nan, Cewen; Wu, Hui
2016-10-01
A general and convenient strategy for manufacturing freestanding metal nanolayers is developed on large scale. By the simple process of repeatedly folding and calendering stacked metal sheets followed by chemical etching, free-standing 2D metal (e.g., Ag, Au, Fe, Cu, and Ni) nanosheets are obtained with thicknesses as small as 1 nm and with sizes of the order of several micrometers.
Smith, Greg; Lankshear, Allan
1998-07-01
2dF is a multi-object instrument mounted at prime focus at the AAT capable of spectroscopic analysis of 400 objects in a single 2 degree field. It also prepares a second 2 degree 400 object field while the first field is being observed. At its heart is a high precision robotic positioner that places individual fiber end magnetic buttons on one of two field plates. The button gripper is carried on orthogonal gantries powered by linear synchronous motors and contains a TV camera which precisely locates backlit buttons to allow placement in user defined locations to 10 (mu) accuracy. Fiducial points on both plates can also be observed by the camera to allow repeated checks on positioning accuracy. Field plates rotate to follow apparent sky rotation. The spectrographs both analyze light from the 200 observing fibers each and back- illuminate the 400 fibers being re-positioned during the observing run. The 2dF fiber position and spectrograph system is a large and complex instrument located at the prime focus of the Anglo Australian Telescope. The mechanical design has departed somewhat from the earlier concepts of Gray et al, but still reflects the audacity of those first ideas. The positioner is capable of positioning 400 fibers on a field plate while another 400 fibers on another plate are observing at the focus of the telescope and feeding the twin spectrographs. When first proposed it must have seemed like ingenuity unfettered by caution. Yet now it works, and works wonderfully well. 2dF is a system which functions as the result of the combined and coordinated efforts of the astronomers, the mechanical designers and tradespeople, the electronic designers, the programmers, the support staff at the telescope, and the manufacturing subcontractors. The mechanical design of the 2dF positioner and spectrographs was carried out by the mechanical engineering staff of the AAO and the majority of the manufacture was carried out in the AAO workshops.
2D-Tasks for Cognitive Rehabilitation
Caballero Hernandez, Ruth; Martinez Moreno, Jose Maria; García Molina, A.; Ferrer Celma, S.; Solana Sánchez, Javier; Sanchez Carrion, R.; Fernandez Casado, E.; Pérez Rodríguez, Rodrigo; Gomez Pulido, A.; Anglès Tafalla, C.; Cáceres Taladriz, César; Ferre Vergada, M.; Roig Rovira, Teresa; Garcia Lopez, P.; Tormos Muñoz, Josep M.
2011-01-01
Neuropsychological Rehabilitation is a complex clinic process which tries to restore or compensate cognitive and behavioral disorders in people suffering from a central nervous system injury. Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) in Biomedical Engineering play an essential role in this field, allowing improvement and expansion of present rehabilitation programs. This paper presents a set of cognitive rehabilitation 2D-Tasks for patients with Acquired Brain Injury (ABI). These t...
Quasiparticle interference in unconventional 2D systems
Chen, Lan; Cheng, Peng; Wu, Kehui
2017-03-01
At present, research of 2D systems mainly focuses on two kinds of materials: graphene-like materials and transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDs). Both of them host unconventional 2D electronic properties: pseudospin and the associated chirality of electrons in graphene-like materials, and spin-valley-coupled electronic structures in the TMDs. These exotic electronic properties have attracted tremendous interest for possible applications in nanodevices in the future. Investigation on the quasiparticle interference (QPI) in 2D systems is an effective way to uncover these properties. In this review, we will begin with a brief introduction to 2D systems, including their atomic structures and electronic bands. Then, we will discuss the formation of Friedel oscillation due to QPI in constant energy contours of electron bands, and show the basic concept of Fourier-transform scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy (FT-STM/STS), which can resolve Friedel oscillation patterns in real space and consequently obtain the QPI patterns in reciprocal space. In the next two parts, we will summarize some pivotal results in the investigation of QPI in graphene and silicene, in which systems the low-energy quasiparticles are described by the massless Dirac equation. The FT-STM experiments show there are two different interference channels (intervalley and intravalley scattering) and backscattering suppression, which associate with the Dirac cones and the chirality of quasiparticles. The monolayer and bilayer graphene on different substrates (SiC and metal surfaces), and the monolayer and multilayer silicene on a Ag(1 1 1) surface will be addressed. The fifth part will introduce the FT-STM research on QPI in TMDs (monolayer and bilayer of WSe2), which allow us to infer the spin texture of both conduction and valence bands, and present spin-valley coupling by tracking allowed and forbidden scattering channels.
Engineering light outcoupling in 2D materials
Lien, Derhsien
2015-02-11
When light is incident on 2D transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs), it engages in multiple reflections within underlying substrates, producing interferences that lead to enhancement or attenuation of the incoming and outgoing strength of light. Here, we report a simple method to engineer the light outcoupling in semiconducting TMDCs by modulating their dielectric surroundings. We show that by modulating the thicknesses of underlying substrates and capping layers, the interference caused by substrate can significantly enhance the light absorption and emission of WSe2, resulting in a ∼11 times increase in Raman signal and a ∼30 times increase in the photoluminescence (PL) intensity of WSe2. On the basis of the interference model, we also propose a strategy to control the photonic and optoelectronic properties of thin-layer WSe2. This work demonstrates the utilization of outcoupling engineering in 2D materials and offers a new route toward the realization of novel optoelectronic devices, such as 2D LEDs and solar cells.
Irreversibility-inversions in 2D turbulence
Bragg, Andrew; de Lillo, Filippo; Boffetta, Guido
2016-11-01
We consider a recent theoretical prediction that for inertial particles in 2D turbulence, the nature of the irreversibility of their pair dispersion inverts when the particle inertia exceeds a certain value. In particular, when the particle Stokes number, St , is below a certain value, the forward-in-time (FIT) dispersion should be faster than the backward-in-time (BIT) dispersion, but for St above this value, this should invert so that BIT becomes faster than FIT dispersion. This non-trivial behavior arises because of the competition between two physically distinct irreversibility mechanisms that operate in different regimes of St . In 3D turbulence, both mechanisms act to produce faster BIT than FIT dispersion, but in 2D, the two mechanisms have opposite effects because of the inverse energy cascade in the turbulent velocity field. We supplement the qualitative argument given by Bragg et al. by deriving quantitative predictions of this effect in the short-time dispersion limit. These predictions are then confirmed by results of inertial particle dispersion in a direct numerical simulation of 2D turbulence.
A Case of Ullrich-Turner Syndrome with 45,X/46,XY Karyotype
Yüce, Hüseyin; AKIN, Haluk; ETEM, Ebru; DEVECİ, Şükriye DERYA
2004-01-01
The presence of mosaic 45,X/46,XY is a very rare chromosomal anomaly, with an incidence of about 1.5 per 10.000 in newborn infants and in midtrimester amniocentesis. The phenotype can vary from a normal male to a classical Ullrich-Turner syndrome (UTS). This patients are often infertile. The proposita presented at short stature, primary amenorrhea and hypoplasic uterus. Clinical examination revealed multiple Turner syndrome stigmata. Proposita karyotype was determined as 45,X/46,XY by cytogen...
45,X/46,XY chromosome mosaicism detected by midtrimester amniocentesis in amniocyte clones.
Hecht, F; Hecht, B K
1982-07-01
Amniocyte clones from a mild-trimester pregnancy disclosed 45,X/46,XY sex chromosome mosaicism. Because of the uncertainty concerning the phenotype of the fetus, the parents elected to terminate the pregnancy. Mixed (asymmetrical) gonadal dysgenesis was not found. The fetus appeared to have a normal male uro-genital system. No malformations of any type were detected, although as expected, the fetus did have 45,X/46,XY mosaicism.
Effects of staggered magnetic field on entanglement in the anisotropic XY model
Sun, Z; Li, Y Q; Sun, Zhe; Wang, XiaoGuang; Li, You-Quan
2004-01-01
We investigate effects of staggered magnetic field on thermal entanglement in the anisotropic XY model. The analytic results of entanglement for the two-site cases are obtained. For the general case of even sites, we show that when the anisotropic parameter is zero, the entanglement in the XY model with a staggered magnetic field is the same as that with a uniform magnetic field.
Harmonic Intravascular Ultrasound
M.E. Frijlink (Martijn)
2006-01-01
textabstractMedical ultrasound is a popular imaging modality in cardiology. Harmonic Imaging is a technique that has been shown to increase the image quality of diagnostic ultrasound at frequencies below 10 MHz. However, Intravascular Ultrasound, which is a technique to acoustically investigate arte
Gluck, P.; Krakower, Zeev
2010-01-01
We present a unit comprising theory, simulation and experiment for a body oscillating on a vertical spring, in which the simultaneous use of a force probe and an ultrasonic range finder enables one to explore quantitatively and understand many aspects of simple and damped harmonic motions. (Contains 14 figures.)
Harmonic Intravascular Ultrasound
M.E. Frijlink (Martijn)
2006-01-01
textabstractMedical ultrasound is a popular imaging modality in cardiology. Harmonic Imaging is a technique that has been shown to increase the image quality of diagnostic ultrasound at frequencies below 10 MHz. However, Intravascular Ultrasound, which is a technique to acoustically investigate arte
Harmonization versus Mutual Recognition
Jørgensen, Jan Guldager; Schröder, Philipp
with the opportunity to start export sales. In contrast, harmonization, in particular the prospect that one’s own national (but not the foreign) standard becomes the only globally accepted standard, opens the foreign market without balancing entry at home. We study these scenarios in a reduced form lobby game with two...
ZHAOZhen-gang
2005-01-01
We have constructed the positive definite metric matrixes for the bounded domains of Rn and proved an inequality which is about the Jacobi matrix of a harmonic mapping on a bounded domain of Rn and the metric matrix of the same bounded domain.
2D superconductivity by ionic gating
Iwasa, Yoshi
2D superconductivity is attracting a renewed interest due to the discoveries of new highly crystalline 2D superconductors in the past decade. Superconductivity at the oxide interfaces triggered by LaAlO3/SrTiO3 has become one of the promising routes for creation of new 2D superconductors. Also, the MBE grown metallic monolayers including FeSe are also offering a new platform of 2D superconductors. In the last two years, there appear a variety of monolayer/bilayer superconductors fabricated by CVD or mechanical exfoliation. Among these, electric field induced superconductivity by electric double layer transistor (EDLT) is a unique platform of 2D superconductivity, because of its ability of high density charge accumulation, and also because of the versatility in terms of materials, stemming from oxides to organics and layered chalcogenides. In this presentation, the following issues of electric filed induced superconductivity will be addressed; (1) Tunable carrier density, (2) Weak pinning, (3) Absence of inversion symmetry. (1) Since the sheet carrier density is quasi-continuously tunable from 0 to the order of 1014 cm-2, one is able to establish an electronic phase diagram of superconductivity, which will be compared with that of bulk superconductors. (2) The thickness of superconductivity can be estimated as 2 - 10 nm, dependent on materials, and is much smaller than the in-plane coherence length. Such a thin but low resistance at normal state results in extremely weak pinning beyond the dirty Boson model in the amorphous metallic films. (3) Due to the electric filed, the inversion symmetry is inherently broken in EDLT. This feature appears in the enhancement of Pauli limit of the upper critical field for the in-plane magnetic fields. In transition metal dichalcogenide with a substantial spin-orbit interactions, we were able to confirm the stabilization of Cooper pair due to its spin-valley locking. This work has been supported by Grant-in-Aid for Specially
Harmonics in transmission power systems
Wiechowski, Wojciech Tomasz
to perform more detailed harmonic studies emerged. Since the transmission network has a complex structure and its impedance varies with frequency in a nonlinear fashion, such harmonic study would require a detailed computer model of the network. Consequently, a PhD project proposal titled "Harmonics....... It is concluded that since some background harmonic distortion is practically always present in the network, a method based on variation of harmonic values must be used. The incremental values of harmonic distortion will allow to verify the harmonic model, despite the existence of background harmonic distortion...... GPS-synchronized OMICRON CMC256 units. Two such units are installed at 400 kV substations at both ends of the disconnected line and a third unit is located at a substation in a distance of 80 km. Time domain "snap-shot" measurements of three-phase voltages and currents are synchronously taken for some...
xy9902抗大鼠心肌重构作用的实验研究%Experimental study of xy9902 on rat myocardial remodeling
曾菊绒; 胥晓丽; 侯进; 弥曼; 熊晓云; 徐天娇; 于晓江; 臧伟进
2012-01-01
Aim To investigate the effects and mechanisms of xy9902 on myocardial remodeling induced by pressure overload in rats. Methods Abdominal aortic constriction ( AAC ) method was applied to establish myocardial remodeling models. Captopril (10 mg · kg-01· d-1 ) and xy9902 ( 10 mg · kg-1 · d-1 ) were administered intragastrically for treatment. Collagen content in myocardium was determined by reforming Mallory' s staining. Superoxide dismutase ( SOD ) activity and malonicdialdehyde ( MDA ) content were determined by xanthine oxidase and 2-thiobarbituric acid respectively. Results Myocardial cells distributed disorder, filaments breakage, and collagen hyperplasia in AAC group, but these phenomenon turned to better in Captopril and xy9902 groups. Compared with sham group, SOD activity was down-regulated but MDA content was up-regulated in AAC group( P <0. 01 ); however, SOD activity was up-regulated but MDA content was down-regulated in Captopril and xy9902 groups( P < 0. 01 ). Furthermore, Correlation analysis showed that CVF was negatively correlated with the ratio of SOD/MDA( r = - 0. 801, P < 0. 01 ). Conclusion Xy9902 can prevent myocardial remodeling, and the disproportion of SOD and MDA may be one of the molecular mechanisms.%目的 研究新型选择性雌激素受体调节剂(SERMs)xy9902对大鼠心肌重构的干预作用,并初步探讨其机制.方法 腹主动脉缩窄复制压力负荷增高致大鼠心肌重构动物模型,术后2周存活动物分为模型组 (AAC)、卡托普利组(Cap)及xy9902组(xy9902),另设假手术组(Sham).Mallory三色染色观察心肌组织胶原纤维含量的变化.黄嘌呤氧化酶法测定心肌组织SOD活性,硫代巴比妥酸法测定MDA含量.结果 与Sham组比较,AAC组心脏指数HMI及LVMI增加,心肌细胞排列紊乱、增粗,细胞间隙明显增宽,可见大量异常胶原纤维堆积,CVF增大,然而Cap组和xy9902组明显好转.AAC组心肌SOD活性下降,MDA含量增加,Cap组和xy9902组与AAC组
Young children's harmonic perception.
Costa-Giomi, Eugenia
2003-11-01
Harmony and tonality are two of the most difficult elements for young children to perceive and manipulate and are seldom taught in the schools until the end of early childhood. Children's gradual harmonic and tonal development has been attributed to their cumulative exposure to Western tonal music and their increasing experiential knowledge of its rules and principles. Two questions that are relevant to this problem are: (1) Can focused and systematic teaching accelerate the learning of the harmonic/tonal principles that seem to occur in an implicit way throughout childhood? (2) Are there cognitive constraints that make it difficult for young children to perceive and/or manipulate certain harmonic and tonal principles? A series of studies specifically addressed the first question and suggested some possible answers to the second one. Results showed that harmonic instruction has limited effects on children's perception of harmony and indicated that the drastic improvement in the perception of implied harmony noted approximately at age 9 is due to development rather than instruction. I propose that young children's difficulty in perceiving implied harmony stems from their attention behaviors. Older children have less memory constraints and more strategies to direct their attention to the relevant cues of the stimulus. Younger children focus their attention on the melody, if present in the stimulus, and specifically on its concrete elements such as rhythm, pitch, and contour rather than its abstract elements such as harmony and key. The inference of the abstract harmonic organization of a melody required in the perception of implied harmony is thus an elusive task for the young child.
Second harmonic optical coherence tomography
Jiang,Yi; Tomov, Ivan; Wang, Yimin; Chen, Zhongping
2004-01-01
Second harmonic optical coherence tomography, which uses coherence gating of second-order nonlinear optical response of biological tissues for imaging, is described and demonstrated. Femtosecond laser pulses were used to excite second harmonic waves from collagen harvested from rat tail tendon and a reference nonlinear crystal. Second harmonic interference fringe signals were detected and used for image construction. Because of the strong dependence of second harmonic generation on molecular ...
2-D Prony-Huang Transform: A New Tool for 2-D Spectral Analysis
Schmitt, Jérémy; Borgnat, Pierre; Flandrin, Patrick; Condat, Laurent
2014-01-01
This work proposes an extension of the 1-D Hilbert Huang transform for the analysis of images. The proposed method consists in (i) adaptively decomposing an image into oscillating parts called intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) using a mode decomposition procedure, and (ii) providing a local spectral analysis of the obtained IMFs in order to get the local amplitudes, frequencies, and orientations. For the decomposition step, we propose two robust 2-D mode decompositions based on non-smooth convex optimization: a "Genuine 2-D" approach, that constrains the local extrema of the IMFs, and a "Pseudo 2-D" approach, which constrains separately the extrema of lines, columns, and diagonals. The spectral analysis step is based on Prony annihilation property that is applied on small square patches of the IMFs. The resulting 2-D Prony-Huang transform is validated on simulated and real data.
3D Vector Velocity Estimation using a 2D Phased Array
Pihl, Michael Johannes; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt
2011-01-01
A method to estimate the three dimensional (3D) velocity vector is presented is this paper. 3D velocity vector techniques are needed to measure the full velocity and characterize the complicated flow patterns in the human body. The Transverse Oscillation (TO) method introduces oscillations...... transverse to the ultrasound beam, which enables the estimation of the transverse velocity. To expand the method from 2D to 3D, it is proposed to decouple the velocity estimation into separate estimates of vx, vy, and vz in combination with a 2D phased matrix array. Through simulations the feasibility...... of using the TO method for estimation 3D velocity vectors, and the proposed decoupling is demonstrated. A 64x64 and a 32x32 elements transducer are emulated using Field II. Plug flow with a speed of 1 m/s in a small region is rotated in the XY -plane. A binary flow example with [vx,vy]=[1,0] and [0,1] m...
GBL-2D Version 1.0: a 2D geometry boolean library.
McBride, Cory L. (Elemental Technologies, American Fort, UT); Schmidt, Rodney Cannon; Yarberry, Victor R.; Meyers, Ray J. (Elemental Technologies, American Fort, UT)
2006-11-01
This report describes version 1.0 of GBL-2D, a geometric Boolean library for 2D objects. The library is written in C++ and consists of a set of classes and routines. The classes primarily represent geometric data and relationships. Classes are provided for 2D points, lines, arcs, edge uses, loops, surfaces and mask sets. The routines contain algorithms for geometric Boolean operations and utility functions. Routines are provided that incorporate the Boolean operations: Union(OR), XOR, Intersection and Difference. A variety of additional analytical geometry routines and routines for importing and exporting the data in various file formats are also provided. The GBL-2D library was originally developed as a geometric modeling engine for use with a separate software tool, called SummitView [1], that manipulates the 2D mask sets created by designers of Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS). However, many other practical applications for this type of software can be envisioned because the need to perform 2D Boolean operations can arise in many contexts.
Priddle, Thomas H; Crow, Timothy J
2013-06-01
Annett's right-shift theory proposes that human cerebral dominance (the functional and anatomical asymmetry or torque along the antero-posterior axis) and handedness are determined by a single "right-shift" gene. Familial transmission of handedness and specific deviations of cerebral dominance in sex chromosome aneuploidies implicate a locus within an X-Y homologous region of the sex chromosomes. The Xq21.3/Yp11.2 human-specific region of homology includes the protocadherin 11X/Y (PCDH11X/Y) gene pair, which encode cell adhesion molecules subject to accelerated evolution following the separation of the human and chimpanzee lineages six million years ago. PCDH11X and PCDH11Y, differentially regulated by retinoic acid, are highly expressed in the ventricular zone, subplate, and cortical plate of the developing cerebral cortex. Both proteins interact with β-catenin, a protein that plays a role in determining axis formation and regulating cortical size. In this way, the PCDH11X/Y gene pair determines cerebral asymmetry by initiating the right shift in Homo sapiens.
Extrinsic curvature induced 2-d gravity
Viswanathan, K S
1993-01-01
Abtract: 2-dimensional fermions are coupled to extrinsic geometry of a conformally immersed surface in ${\\bf R}^3$ through gauge coupling. By integrating out the fermions, we obtain a WZNW action involving extrinsic curvature of the surface. Restricting the resulting effective action to surfaces of $h\\sqrt g=1$, an explicit form of the action invariant under Virasaro symmetry is obtained. This action is a sum of the geometric action for the Virasaro group and the light-cone action of 2-d gravity plus an interaction term. The central charges of the theory in both the left and right sectors are calculated.
Temple, Aidan
2013-01-01
Filled with practical, step-by-step instructions and clear explanations for the most important and useful tasks. The step-by-step approach taken by this book will show you how to develop a 2D HTML5 platformer-based game that you will be able to publish to multiple devices.This book is great for anyone who has an interest in HTML5 games development, and who already has a basic to intermediate grasp on both the HTML markup and JavaScript programming languages. Therefore, due to this requirement, the book will not discuss the inner workings of either of these languages but will instead attempt to
Robust and resistant 2D shape alignment
Larsen, Rasmus; Eiriksson, Hrafnkell
2001-01-01
\\_\\$\\backslash\\$infty\\$ norm alignments are formulated as linear programming problems. The linear vector function formulation along with the different norms results in alignment methods that are both resistant from influence from outliers, robust wrt. errors in the annotation and capable of handling missing datapoints......We express the alignment of 2D shapes as the minimization of the norm of a linear vector function. The minimization is done in the \\$l\\_1\\$, \\$l\\_2\\$ and the \\$l\\_\\$\\backslash\\$infty\\$ norms using well known standard numerical methods. In particular, the \\$l\\_1\\$ and the \\$l...
Another solution of 2D Ising model
Vergeles, S. N.
2009-04-01
The partition function of the Ising model on a two-dimensional regular lattice is calculated by using the matrix representation of a Clifford algebra (the Dirac algebra), with number of generators equal to the number of lattice sites. It is shown that the partition function over all loops in a 2D lattice including self-intersecting ones is the trace of a polynomial in terms of Dirac matrices. The polynomial is an element of the rotation group in the spinor representation. Thus, the partition function is a function of a character on an orthogonal group of a high degree in the spinor representation.
Target tracking using a 2D radar
Kriel, M
2012-08-01
Full Text Available is omitted. This can be an important consideration as aircraft altitude limits the attack pro�les a target can��y [1]. 33.2 HEIGHT ESTIMATION The current literature regarding height estimation restricts itself to computations involving two or more 2D... is instrumental in determining the aircraft altitude. The accuracy to which these speeds are known is directly pro- portional to the accuracy to which the altitude can be determined. Knowledge of aircraft speed can be obtained in a variety of ways. For example...
Komura, Yukihiro; Okabe, Yutaka
2016-03-01
We present new versions of sample CUDA programs for the GPU computing of the Swendsen-Wang multi-cluster spin flip algorithm. In this update, we add the method of GPU-based cluster-labeling algorithm without the use of conventional iteration (Komura, 2015) to those programs. For high-precision calculations, we also add a random-number generator in the cuRAND library. Moreover, we fix several bugs and remove the extra usage of shared memory in the kernel functions.
Reddy, T. S. R.
1995-01-01
This guide describes the input data required for using ECAP2D (Euler Cascade Aeroelastic Program-Two Dimensional). ECAP2D can be used for steady or unsteady aerodynamic and aeroelastic analysis of two dimensional cascades. Euler equations are used to obtain aerodynamic forces. The structural dynamic equations are written for a rigid typical section undergoing pitching (torsion) and plunging (bending) motion. The solution methods include harmonic oscillation method, influence coefficient method, pulse response method, and time integration method. For harmonic oscillation method, example inputs and outputs are provided for pitching motion and plunging motion. For the rest of the methods, input and output for pitching motion only are given.
Principles of harmonic analysis
Deitmar, Anton
2014-01-01
This book offers a complete and streamlined treatment of the central principles of abelian harmonic analysis: Pontryagin duality, the Plancherel theorem and the Poisson summation formula, as well as their respective generalizations to non-abelian groups, including the Selberg trace formula. The principles are then applied to spectral analysis of Heisenberg manifolds and Riemann surfaces. This new edition contains a new chapter on p-adic and adelic groups, as well as a complementary section on direct and projective limits. Many of the supporting proofs have been revised and refined. The book is an excellent resource for graduate students who wish to learn and understand harmonic analysis and for researchers seeking to apply it.
Remarks on thermalization in 2D CFT
de Boer, Jan; Engelhardt, Dalit
2016-12-01
We revisit certain aspects of thermalization in 2D conformal field theory (CFT). In particular, we consider similarities and differences between the time dependence of correlation functions in various states in rational and non-rational CFTs. We also consider the distinction between global and local thermalization and explain how states obtained by acting with a diffeomorphism on the ground state can appear locally thermal, and we review why the time-dependent expectation value of the energy-momentum tensor is generally a poor diagnostic of global thermalization. Since all 2D CFTs have an infinite set of commuting conserved charges, generic initial states might be expected to give rise to a generalized Gibbs ensemble rather than a pure thermal ensemble at late times. We construct the holographic dual of the generalized Gibbs ensemble and show that, to leading order, it is still described by a Banados-Teitelboim-Zanelli black hole. The extra conserved charges, while rendering c <1 theories essentially integrable, therefore seem to have little effect on large-c conformal field theories.
Yang, Shengxue; Jiang, Chengbao; Wei, Su-huai
2017-06-01
Two-dimensional (2D) layered inorganic nanomaterials have attracted huge attention due to their unique electronic structures, as well as extraordinary physical and chemical properties for use in electronics, optoelectronics, spintronics, catalysts, energy generation and storage, and chemical sensors. Graphene and related layered inorganic analogues have shown great potential for gas-sensing applications because of their large specific surface areas and strong surface activities. This review aims to discuss the latest advancements in the 2D layered inorganic materials for gas sensors. We first elaborate the gas-sensing mechanisms and introduce various types of gas-sensing devices. Then, we describe the basic parameters and influence factors of the gas sensors to further enhance their performance. Moreover, we systematically present the current gas-sensing applications based on graphene, graphene oxide (GO), reduced graphene oxide (rGO), functionalized GO or rGO, transition metal dichalcogenides, layered III-VI semiconductors, layered metal oxides, phosphorene, hexagonal boron nitride, etc. Finally, we conclude the future prospects of these layered inorganic materials in gas-sensing applications.
Comments on Thermalization in 2D CFT
de Boer, Jan
2016-01-01
We revisit certain aspects of thermalization in 2D CFT. In particular, we consider similarities and differences between the time dependence of correlation functions in various states in rational and non-rational CFTs. We also consider the distinction between global and local thermalization and explain how states obtained by acting with a diffeomorphism on the ground state can appear locally thermal, and we review why the time-dependent expectation value of the energy-momentum tensor is generally a poor diagnostic of global thermalization. Since all 2D CFTs have an infinite set of commuting conserved charges, generic initial states might be expected to give rise to a generalized Gibbs ensemble rather than a pure thermal ensemble at late times. We construct the holographic dual of the generalized Gibbs ensemble and show that, to leading order, it is still described by a BTZ black hole. The extra conserved charges, while rendering $c < 1$ theories essentially integrable, therefore seem to have little effect o...
Gorji Ghalamestani, Setareh; Vandevelde, Lieven; Dirckx, Joris J. J.; Melkebeek, Jan A. A.
2014-05-01
The effect of the fifth harmonic in the grid voltage (with fundamental frequency of 50 Hz) on the vibrations of a three-phase transformer core is computed, since such harmonic has the largest contribution in the European grid voltage. The computational method is a two-dimensional (2D) finite element technique. The modal vibrations under various magnetisations (viz with different fifth harmonic components) are compared with those obtained under a purely sinusoidal magnetisation and showed that the variations for the 100 Hz harmonic of the vibrations are small. However, the 200 Hz harmonic showed a significant increase when a fifth harmonic was present on the applied voltage. In fact, the presence of a fundamental component with 50 Hz frequency and a fifth harmonic on the magnetisation signal generates a 200 Hz harmonic on the magnetostriction strains (and the magnetic forces), and thus this harmonic increases significantly.
Harmonization versus Mutual Recognition
Jørgensen, Jan Guldager; Schröder, Philipp
The present paper examines trade liberalization driven by the coordination of product standards. For oligopolistic firms situated in separate markets that are initially sheltered by national standards, mutual recognition of standards implies entry and reduced profits at home paired......, harmonized standards may fail to harvest the full pro-competitive effects from trade liberalization compared to mutual recognition; moreover, the issue is most pronounced in markets featuring price competition....
Cryptic genomic rearrangements in three patients with 46,XY disorders of sex development.
Maki Igarashi
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: 46,XY disorders of sex development (46,XY DSD are genetically heterogeneous conditions. Recently, a few submicroscopic genomic rearrangements have been reported as novel genetic causes of 46,XY DSD. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To clarify the role of cryptic rearrangements in the development of 46,XY DSD, we performed array-based comparative genomic hybridization analysis for 24 genetic males with genital abnormalities. Heterozygous submicroscopic deletions were identified in three cases (cases 1-3. A ∼8.5 Mb terminal deletion at 9p24.1-24.3 was detected in case 1 that presented with complete female-type external genitalia and mental retardation; a ∼2.0 Mb interstitial deletion at 20p13 was identified in case 2 with ambiguous external genitalia and short stature; and a ∼18.0 Mb interstitial deletion at 2q31.1-32 was found in case 3 with ambiguous external genitalia, mental retardation and multiple anomalies. The genital abnormalities of case 1 could be ascribed to gonadal dysgenesis caused by haploinsufficiency of DMRT1, while those of case 3 were possibly associated with perturbed organogenesis due to a deletion of the HOXD cluster. The deletion in case 2 affected 36 genes, none of which have been previously implicated in sex development. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results indicate that cryptic genomic rearrangements constitute an important part of the molecular bases of 46,XY DSD and that submicroscopic deletions can lead to various types of 46,XY DSD that occur as components of contiguous gene deletion syndromes. Most importantly, our data provide a novel candidate locus for 46,XY DSD at 20p13.
Harmonic and geometric analysis
Citti, Giovanna; Pérez, Carlos; Sarti, Alessandro; Zhong, Xiao
2015-01-01
This book presents an expanded version of four series of lectures delivered by the authors at the CRM. Harmonic analysis, understood in a broad sense, has a very wide interplay with partial differential equations and in particular with the theory of quasiconformal mappings and its applications. Some areas in which real analysis has been extremely influential are PDE's and geometric analysis. Their foundations and subsequent developments made extensive use of the Calderón–Zygmund theory, especially the Lp inequalities for Calderón–Zygmund operators (Beurling transform and Riesz transform, among others) and the theory of Muckenhoupt weights. The first chapter is an application of harmonic analysis and the Heisenberg group to understanding human vision, while the second and third chapters cover some of the main topics on linear and multilinear harmonic analysis. The last serves as a comprehensive introduction to a deep result from De Giorgi, Moser and Nash on the regularity of elliptic partial differen...
Evolution of Matter Wave Interference of Bose-Condensed Gas in a 2D Optical Lattice
XUZhi-Jun; LINGuo-Cheng; XUJun; LIZhen
2005-01-01
We investigate the average particle-number distribution of the atoms in the combined potential of 2D optical lattices and 31) harmonic magnetic trap based on the Gross-Pitaevskii equation. After the combined potential is switched of[, and only the optical lattice is switched off, we give the analytical results of the wavefunction of the Bosecondensed gas at any time t by using a propagator method. For both disk-shaped and cigar-shaped Bose-condensed gas,we discuss the evolution process of the central and side peaks of the interference pattern.
Wave spectra of 2D Yukawa solids and liquids in the presence of a magnetic field
Hou, L J; Piel, A; Miskovic, Z L
2009-01-01
Thermally excited phonon spectra of 2D Yukawa solids and liquids in the presence of an external magnetic field are studied using computer simulations. Special attention is paid to the variation of wave spectra in terms of several key parameters, such as the strength of coupling, the screening parameter, and the intensity of the magnetic field. In addition, comparisons are made with several analytical theories, including random-phase approximation, quasi-localized charge approximation, and harmonic approximation, and the validity of those theories is discussed in the present context.
2-D Model Test of Dolosse Breakwater
Burcharth, Hans F.; Liu, Zhou
1994-01-01
The rational design diagram for Dolos armour should incorporate both the hydraulic stability and the structural integrity. The previous tests performed by Aalborg University (AU) made available such design diagram for the trunk of Dolos breakwater without superstructures (Burcharth et al. 1992......). To extend the design diagram to cover Dolos breakwaters with superstructure, 2-D model tests of Dolos breakwater with wave wall is included in the project Rubble Mound Breakwater Failure Modes sponsored by the Directorate General XII of the Commission of the European Communities under Contract MAS-CT92...... was on the Dolos breakwater with a high superstructure, where there was almost no overtopping. This case is believed to be the most dangerous one. The test of the Dolos breakwater with a low superstructure was also performed. The objective of the last part of the experiment is to investigate the influence...
Alignment free characterization of 2D gratings
Madsen, Morten Hannibal; Hansen, Poul-Erik; Jørgensen, Jan Friis
2015-01-01
Fast characterization of 2-dimensional gratings is demonstrated using a Fourier lens optical system and a differential optimization algorithm. It is shown that both the grating specific parameters such as the basis vectors and the angle between them and the alignment of the sample, such as the rotation of the sample around the x-, y-, and z-axis, can be deduced from a single measurement. More specifically, the lattice vectors and the angle between them have been measured, while the corrections of the alignment parameters are used to improve the quality of the measurement, and hence reduce the measurement uncertainty. Alignment free characterization is demonstrated on both a 2D hexagonal grating with a period of 700 nm and a checkerboard grating with a pitch of 3000 nm. The method can also be used for both automatic alignment and in-line characterization of gratings.
2D Cooling of Magnetized Neutron Stars
Aguilera, Deborah N; Miralles, Juan A
2007-01-01
Context: Many thermally emitting isolated neutron stars have magnetic fields larger than 10^{13}G. A realistic cooling model should be reconsidered including the presence of high magnetic fields. Aims: We investigate the effects of anisotropic temperature distribution and Joule heating on the cooling of magnetized neutron stars. Methods: The 2D heat transfer equation with anisotropic thermal conductivity tensor and including all relevant neutrino emission processes is solved for realistic models of the neutron star interior and crust. Results: The presence of the magnetic field affects significantly the thermal surface distribution and the cooling history during both, the early neutrino cooling era and the late photon cooling era. Conclusions: There is a huge effect of the Joule heating on the thermal evolution of strongly magnetized neutron stars. Magnetic fields and Joule heating play a key role in maintaining magnetars warm for a long time. Moreover, this effect is also important for intermediate field neu...
Lie symmetries and 2D Material Physics
Belhaj, Adil
2014-01-01
Inspired from Lie symmetry classification, we establish a correspondence between rank two Lie symmetries and 2D material physics. The material unit cell is accordingly interpreted as the geometry of a root system. The hexagonal cells, appearing in graphene like models, are analyzed in some details and are found to be associated with A_2 and G_2 Lie symmetries. This approach can be applied to Lie supersymmetries associated with fermionic degrees of freedom. It has been suggested that these extended symmetries can offer a new way to deal with doping material geometries. Motivated by Lie symmetry applications in high energy physics, we speculate on a possible connection with (p,q) brane networks used in the string theory compactification on singular Calabi-Yau manifolds.
2-d Simulations of Test Methods
Thrane, Lars Nyholm
2004-01-01
approach is presented by showing initial results from 2-d simulations of the empirical test methods slump flow and L-box. This method assumes a homogeneous material, which is expected to correspond to particle suspensions e.g. concrete, when it remains stable. The simulations have been carried out when......One of the main obstacles for the further development of self-compacting concrete is to relate the fresh concrete properties to the form filling ability. Therefore, simulation of the form filling ability will provide a powerful tool in obtaining this goal. In this paper, a continuum mechanical...... using both a Newton and Bingham model for characterisation of the rheological properties of the concrete. From the results, it is expected that both the slump flow and L-box can be simulated quite accurately when the model is extended to 3-d and the concrete is characterised according to the Bingham...
Full revivals in 2D quantum walks
Stefanak, M; Jex, I [Department of Physics, FJFI CVUT v Praze, Brehova 7, 115 19 Praha 1-Stare Mesto (Czech Republic); Kollar, B; Kiss, T, E-mail: martin.stefanak@fjfi.cvut.c [Department of Quantum Optics and Quantum Information, Research Institute for Solid State Physics and Optics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Konkoly-Thege M. u. 29-33, H-1121 Budapest (Hungary)
2010-09-01
Recurrence of a random walk is described by the Polya number. For quantum walks, recurrence is understood as the return of the walker to the origin, rather than the full revival of its quantum state. Localization for two-dimensional quantum walks is known to exist in the sense of non-vanishing probability distribution in the asymptotic limit. We show, on the example of the 2D Grover walk, that one can exploit the effect of localization to construct stationary solutions. Moreover, we find full revivals of a quantum state with a period of two steps. We prove that there cannot be longer cycles for a four-state quantum walk. Stationary states and revivals result from interference, which has no counterpart in classical random walks.
2-D Model Test of Dolosse Breakwater
Burcharth, Hans F.; Liu, Zhou
1994-01-01
The rational design diagram for Dolos armour should incorporate both the hydraulic stability and the structural integrity. The previous tests performed by Aalborg University (AU) made available such design diagram for the trunk of Dolos breakwater without superstructures (Burcharth et al. 1992......). To extend the design diagram to cover Dolos breakwaters with superstructure, 2-D model tests of Dolos breakwater with wave wall is included in the project Rubble Mound Breakwater Failure Modes sponsored by the Directorate General XII of the Commission of the European Communities under Contract MAS-CT92......-0042. Furthermore, Task IA will give the design diagram for Tetrapod breakwaters without a superstructure. The more complete research results on Dolosse can certainly give some insight into the behaviour of Tetrapods armour layer of the breakwaters with superstructure. The main part of the experiment...
2D Electrostatic Actuation of Microshutter Arrays
Burns, Devin E.; Oh, Lance H.; Li, Mary J.; Jones, Justin S.; Kelly, Daniel P.; Zheng, Yun; Kutyrev, Alexander S.; Moseley, Samuel H.
2015-01-01
An electrostatically actuated microshutter array consisting of rotational microshutters (shutters that rotate about a torsion bar) were designed and fabricated through the use of models and experiments. Design iterations focused on minimizing the torsional stiffness of the microshutters, while maintaining their structural integrity. Mechanical and electromechanical test systems were constructed to measure the static and dynamic behavior of the microshutters. The torsional stiffness was reduced by a factor of four over initial designs without sacrificing durability. Analysis of the resonant behavior of the microshutter arrays demonstrates that the first resonant mode is a torsional mode occurring around 3000 Hz. At low vacuum pressures, this resonant mode can be used to significantly reduce the drive voltage necessary for actuation requiring as little as 25V. 2D electrostatic latching and addressing was demonstrated using both a resonant and pulsed addressing scheme.
Rafael Fabiano Machado Rosa
2008-11-01
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: verificar a prevalência e as características clínicas de pacientes com amenorréia primária e cariótipo XY avaliadas em nosso Serviço com o intuito de identificar achados que possam auxiliar em seu reconhecimento. MÉTODOS: no período de Janeiro de 1975 a Novembro de 2007, foram avaliadas 104 pacientes com amenorréia primária. Para todos os casos foi realizada a análise pelo cariótipo por bandas GTG. Destas, 21 (20,2% apresentavam uma constituição 46,XY. Contudo, duas foram excluídas do estudo por terem prontuários incompletos. Das 19 pacientes que compuseram a amostra, a maior parte veio encaminhada pela ginecologia (63,2%. Suas idades variaram entre 16 e 41 anos (média de 22,1 anos. Realizou-se uma coleta de dados sobre sua história familiar e pregressa, exame físico e resultados de exames complementares. Para determinação dos seus diagnósticos levaram-se em consideração essas informações. RESULTADOS: a síndrome de resistência aos androgênios foi o diagnóstico predominante (n=12; 63,2%. Cinco pacientes (26,3% apresentavam disgenesia gonadal pura XY (DGP XY, uma (5,3% deficiência de 17-alfa hidroxilase e uma (5,3% deficiência de 5-alfa redutase. Achados clínicos freqüentemente observados nessas pacientes incluíram desenvolvimento anormal dos caracteres sexuais secundários (n=19, agenesia uterina com vagina em fundo de saco (n=14, história familiar de amenorréia (n=8 e gônadas palpáveis no canal inguinal (n=5. Duas delas apresentavam história de hérnia inguinal. Hipertensão arterial sistêmica foi diagnosticada somente na paciente com deficiência de 17-alfa hidroxilase, e malignização gonadal, naquela com DGP XY. CONCLUSÕES: a freqüência de pacientes com cariótipo XY (20% foi superior à usualmente descrita na literatura (3 a 11%. Acreditamos que isso tenha relação com a forma de encaminhamento das pacientes ao Serviço. Certos achados da história clínica e do exame físico deveriam
Fast 2-D Complex Gabor Filter with Kernel Decomposition
Um, Suhyuk; Kim, Jaeyoon; Min, Dongbo
2017-01-01
2-D complex Gabor filtering has found numerous applications in the fields of computer vision and image processing. Especially, in some applications, it is often needed to compute 2-D complex Gabor filter bank consisting of the 2-D complex Gabor filtering outputs at multiple orientations and frequencies. Although several approaches for fast 2-D complex Gabor filtering have been proposed, they primarily focus on reducing the runtime of performing the 2-D complex Gabor filtering once at specific...
Metrology for graphene and 2D materials
Pollard, Andrew J.
2016-09-01
The application of graphene, a one atom-thick honeycomb lattice of carbon atoms with superlative properties, such as electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity and strength, has already shown that it can be used to benefit metrology itself as a new quantum standard for resistance. However, there are many application areas where graphene and other 2D materials, such as molybdenum disulphide (MoS2) and hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN), may be disruptive, areas such as flexible electronics, nanocomposites, sensing and energy storage. Applying metrology to the area of graphene is now critical to enable the new, emerging global graphene commercial world and bridge the gap between academia and industry. Measurement capabilities and expertise in a wide range of scientific areas are required to address this challenge. The combined and complementary approach of varied characterisation methods for structural, chemical, electrical and other properties, will allow the real-world issues of commercialising graphene and other 2D materials to be addressed. Here, examples of metrology challenges that have been overcome through a multi-technique or new approach are discussed. Firstly, the structural characterisation of defects in both graphene and MoS2 via Raman spectroscopy is described, and how nanoscale mapping of vacancy defects in graphene is also possible using tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (TERS). Furthermore, the chemical characterisation and removal of polymer residue on chemical vapour deposition (CVD) grown graphene via secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) is detailed, as well as the chemical characterisation of iron films used to grow large domain single-layer h-BN through CVD growth, revealing how contamination of the substrate itself plays a role in the resulting h-BN layer. In addition, the role of international standardisation in this area is described, outlining the current work ongoing in both the International Organization of Standardization (ISO) and the
Hirobe, Tomohisa; Ito, Shosuke; Wakamatsu, Kazumasa
2013-09-01
The novel mutation named ru2(d) /Hps5(ru2-d) , characterized by light-colored coats and ruby-eyes, prohibits differentiation of melanocytes by inhibiting tyrosinase (Tyr) activity, expression of Tyr, Tyr-related protein 1 (Tyrp1), Tyrp2, and Kit. However, it is not known whether the ru2(d) allele affects pheomelanin synthesis in recessive yellow (e/Mc1r(e) ) or in pheomelanic stage in agouti (A) mice. In this study, effects of the ru2(d) allele on pheomelanin synthesis were investigated by chemical analysis of melanin present in dorsal hairs of 5-week-old mice from F2 generation between C57BL/10JHir (B10)-co-isogenic ruby-eye 2(d) and B10-congenic recessive yellow or agouti. Eumelanin content was decreased in ruby-eye 2(d) and ruby-eye 2(d) agouti mice, whereas pheomelanin content in ruby-eye 2(d) recessive yellow and ruby-eye 2(d) agouti mice did not differ from the corresponding Ru2(d) /- mice, suggesting that the ru2(d) allele inhibits eumelanin but not pheomelanin synthesis. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Towards automated biomedical ontology harmonization.
Uribe, Gustavo A; Lopez, Diego M; Blobel, Bernd
2014-01-01
The use of biomedical ontologies is increasing, especially in the context of health systems interoperability. Ontologies are key pieces to understand the semantics of information exchanged. However, given the diversity of biomedical ontologies, it is essential to develop tools that support harmonization processes amongst them. Several algorithms and tools are proposed by computer scientist for partially supporting ontology harmonization. However, these tools face several problems, especially in the biomedical domain where ontologies are large and complex. In the harmonization process, matching is a basic task. This paper explains the different ontology harmonization processes, analyzes existing matching tools, and proposes a prototype of an ontology harmonization service. The results demonstrate that there are many open issues in the field of biomedical ontology harmonization, such as: overcoming structural discrepancies between ontologies; the lack of semantic algorithms to automate the process; the low matching efficiency of existing algorithms; and the use of domain and top level ontologies in the matching process.
Harmonic space and quaternionic manifolds
Galperin, A; Ogievetsky, O V
1994-01-01
We find a principle of harmonic analyticity underlying the quaternionic (quaternion-K\\"ahler) geometry and solve the differential constraints which define this geometry. To this end the original $4n$-dimensional quaternionic manifold is extended to a bi-harmonic space. The latter includes additional harmonic coordinates associated with both the tangent local $Sp(1)$ group and an extra rigid $SU(2)$ group rotating the complex structures. Then the constraints can be rewritten as integrability conditions for the existence of an analytic subspace in the bi-harmonic space and solved in terms of two unconstrained potentials on the analytic subspace. Geometrically, the potentials have the meaning of vielbeins associated with the harmonic coordinates. We also establish a one-to-one correspondence between the quaternionic spaces and off-shell $N=2$ supersymmetric sigma-models coupled to $N=2$ supergravity. The general $N=2$ sigma-model Lagrangian when written in the harmonic superspace is composed of the quaternionic ...
Next generation data harmonization
Armstrong, Chandler; Brown, Ryan M.; Chaves, Jillian; Czerniejewski, Adam; Del Vecchio, Justin; Perkins, Timothy K.; Rudnicki, Ron; Tauer, Greg
2015-05-01
Analysts are presented with a never ending stream of data sources. Often, subsets of data sources to solve problems are easily identified but the process to align data sets is time consuming. However, many semantic technologies do allow for fast harmonization of data to overcome these problems. These include ontologies that serve as alignment targets, visual tools and natural language processing that generate semantic graphs in terms of the ontologies, and analytics that leverage these graphs. This research reviews a developed prototype that employs all these approaches to perform analysis across disparate data sources documenting violent, extremist events.
Second harmonic generation microscopy
Brüggemann, Dagmar Adeline; Brewer, Jonathan R.; Risbo, Jens
2010-01-01
Myofibers and collagen show non-linear optical properties enabling imaging using second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy. The technique is evaluated for use as a tool for real-time studies of thermally induced changes in thin samples of unfixed and unstained pork. The forward and the backward......-temperature endotherm peak observable in the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) thermograms. DSC analysis of epimysium, the connective tissue layer that enfold skeletal muscles, produces one large endotherm starting at 57 °C and peaking at 59.5 °C. SHG microscopy of collagen fibers reveals a variability of thermal...
Computing with Harmonic Functions
Axler, Sheldon
2015-01-01
This document is the manual for a free Mathematica package for computing with harmonic functions. This package allows the user to make calculations that would take a prohibitive amount of time if done without a computer. For example, the Poisson integral of any polynomial can be computed exactly. This software can find exact solutions to Dirichlet, Neumann, and biDirichlet problems in R^n with polynomial data on balls, ellipsoids, and annular regions. It can also find bases for spaces of sphe...
M. A. Navascués
2013-01-01
Full Text Available This paper tackles the construction of fractal maps on the unit sphere. The functions defined are a generalization of the classical spherical harmonics. The methodology used involves an iterated function system and a linear and bounded operator of functions on the sphere. For a suitable choice of the coefficients of the system, one obtains classical maps on the sphere. The different values of the system parameters provide Bessel sequences, frames, and Riesz fractal bases for the Lebesgue space of the square integrable functions on the sphere. The Laplace series expansion is generalized to a sum in terms of the new fractal mappings.
Analysis of the IEA 2D test. 2D, 3D, steady or unsteady airflow?
Cortes, Ines Olmedo; Nielsen, Peter V.
The “IEA Annex 20 two-dimensional test case” was defined by proffesor Peter V. Nielsen (1990) and was originally considered two-dimensional and steady flow. However, some recent works considering the case as three dimensional have shown different solutions from the 2D case as well as different so...
Dierks, Claudia; Sieme, Harald; Piechotta, Marion; Lehner, Stephanie; Merkt, Jan Carlos; Uphaus, Hubert; Klug, Erich; Distl, Ottmar
2015-01-01
A female thoroughbred successful in horse racing was positively tested for high testosterone values. This horse neither showed stallion-like-behaviour nor signs of ambiguous external genitalia. The karyotype of this horse was 2n = 64,XY and the sex-determining region of Y (SRY) PCR was positive. Hair samples tested for naturally testosterone revealed values normal for stallions, and tests for eight synthetic testosterone esters remained negative. The phenotype, ultrasonographic examination, hormone status, cytogenetic evaluation and molecular diagnostics lead to the diagnosis of an XY testicular disorder of sexual development (DSD) due to a complete androgen insensitivity syndrome. To our knowledge this is the first report about a thoroughbred in racing sports with an XY testicular disorder of sexual development. To date, intersex racing horses have never been described in thoroughbreds or a regulation for intersexes in regard to horse races has been issued.
45,X/46,XY Mosaicism and Possible Association With Hypothyroidism in Males.
Hojat, Leila; Schweiger, Michelle
2016-06-01
Mosaicism has a wide phenotypic spectrum but frequently manifests as the normal male phenotype. Its association with short stature has been well recognized and appears to respond effectively to growth hormone therapy. We present 2 phenotypically normal males who both initially presented with short stature and were found to have hypothyroidism. They were treated for hypothyroidism but their growth did not improve as expected. Further testing revealed 45,X/46,XY mosaicism in both males. We propose that a potential link exists between 45,X/46,XY mosaicism and hypothyroidism, which has not been previously described in the literature. Furthermore, it may be beneficial to evaluate for other disorders such as 45,X/46,XY mosaicism in young males with short stature and hypothyroidism if their growth does not improve once they become euthyroid.
[Low stature in males with normal phenotype and 45,X/46,XY mosaicism].
Lara Orejas, E; Golmayo Gaztelu, L; Núñez Estevez, M; San Román Cos-Gayón, M A; Alonso Blanco, M; Barrio Castellanos, R
2008-02-01
There is wide variation in the clinical expression of 45,X/46,XY mosaicism. Ninety percent of prenatally diagnosed boys have normal male phenotype at birth, while those diagnosed postnatally show a wide spectrum of phenotypes, ranging from Turner syndrome, mixed gonadal dysgenesis, and male pseudohermaphroditism to apparent normality. We report the clinical, cytogenetic, endocrinologic and histologic findings in three boys with an apparently normal male phenotype and 45,X/46,XY mosaicism who were diagnosed postnatally because of their short stature. With the exception of one patient with Turner stigmata, no other abnormal features were found. No correlation between the proportion of 45,X/46,XY cell lines in blood, gonads and phenotype was found. Both prenatally and postnatally diagnosed boys with normal male phenotype must be followed-up because they can develop late-onset abnormalities, such as dysgenetic testes leading to infertility or neoplastic transformation, and short stature, which could be improved with growth hormone therapy.
Ret Finger Protein: An E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Juxtaposed to the XY Body in Meiosis
Isabelle Gillot
2009-01-01
Full Text Available During prophase I of male meiosis, the sex chromosomes form a compact structure called XY body that associates with the nuclear membrane of pachytene spermatocytes. Ret Finger Protein is a transcriptional repressor, able to interact with both nuclear matrix-associated proteins and double-stranded DNA. We report the precise and unique localization of Ret Finger Protein in pachytene spermatocytes, in which Ret Finger Protein takes place of lamin B1, between the XY body and the inner nuclear membrane. This localization of Ret Finger Protein does not seem to be associated with O-glycosylation or sumoylation. In addition, we demonstrate that Ret Finger Protein contains an E3 ubiquitin ligase activity. These observations lead to an attractive hypothesis in which Ret Finger Protein would be involved in the positioning and the attachment of XY body to the nuclear lamina of pachytene spermatocytes.
45,X/46,XY mosaicism: a cause of short stature in males.
Efthymiadou, Alexandra; Stefanou, Eunice G; Chrysis, Dionisios
2012-01-01
45,X/46,XY mosaicism is associated with a broad spectrum of phenotypes ranging from apparently normal male development to individuals with incomplete sexual differentiation and clinical signs of Turner syndrome in both males and females. The most common presentation among individuals with a 45,X/46,XY karyotype is sexual ambiguity, accounting for approximately 60% of cases, while the least common category of 45,X/46,XY patients consists of those with bilaterally descended testes, found in 11-12%. We report on two patients with an apparently normal male phenotype and 45,X/46,XY mosaicism who were diagnosed postnatally because of short stature. Both of these boys presented at the age of 15 years with short stature, minor Turner-like stigmata, normal male external genitalia and spontaneous pubertal development. One of them had coarctaction of the aorta with bicuspid aortic valve, an uncommon clinical feature in boys with mosaicism. The same patient underwent a trial of GH replacement therapy with poor response and his sperm analysis revealed azoospermia. Like our patients, most mosaic 45,X/46,XY children with bilateral scrotal testes go unrecognised at birth and throughout childhood unless they have somatic features of Turner syndrome or significant growth retardation. We recommend that boys with otherwise unexplained short stature, being short for their families, should be karyotyped routinely as is recommended in short-stature girls. In addition, boys with 45,X/46,XY mosaicism require a thorough clinical evaluation similar to that performed in girls with Turner syndrome and must be routinely followed up for their potential to respond favorably to GH treatment and for late onset abnormalities, such as infertility and gonadal tumors.
[New aspects of diagnosing and treating pure gonadal dysgenesis 46XY and 46XX].
Baron, J; Warenik-Szymankiewicz, A; Miedzianowski, J; Baron, J J
1993-01-01
Among 67 women with pure gonadal dysgenesis, karyotype 46XY was found in 46 and karyotype 46XX in 21 (26.3% of all intersexual subjects). Karyotype 46XY was either of pure type or mosaicism 45,X/46,XY (10.9%). Primary amenorrhea, underdevelopment of mammary glands and lack or poor development of pubic hair were the main complaints of the patients. In gonadal dysgenesis 46XY mammary glands were developed in 21.8% and pubic hair in 26% suggesting the presence within the gonads of the hormonally active tumor or the state after hormonal treatment. The patients with gonadal dysgenesis 46XX had lowered levels of estrogens and elevated levels of FSH and LH. Karyotype 46XY was not associated with evident changes in hormonal levels. Estrogens were both low and normal, and FSH was elevated (21.5 + 16.6 ug/ml) or normal (3.2-5.0 ng/ml). Total testosterone values were normal or slightly elevated. Such situation can be explained by the presence in some patients of tumors secreting either estrogens or androgens. Taeniform character of gonads was observed by ultrasonography whenever the presence of gonadal tumor was excluded. Histology of specimens taken from gonads or tumors demonstrated the presence of dysgerminoma or gonadoblastoma type of malignancy in 53.1%, foci or proliferation of the Leydig cells in 31.3% and typical morphology of residual gonads without germinal cells only in 12.5%. The differentiation between pure gonadal dysgenesis 46XX and primary ovarian insufficiency is required whenever no characteristic pattern emerges from clinical, hormonal, cytogenetic or ultrasonographic examination. Diagnosis of pure gonadal dysgenesis 46XX can be finally confirmed by the absence of gonocytes in the residual gonad. Besides of removal of gonads or tumors by surgery, the treatment of patients with 46XY karyotype consists in cyclic administration of estrogens and progestagens restoring menstruation and bringing development of secondary sex attributes.
van den Berg, C; Van Opstal, D; Brandenburg, H; Los, F J
2000-07-31
We report on a prenatally detected case of discordant non-mosaic karyotypes following chorionic villus sampling. A 45,X karyotype was found in cytotrophoblast cells and a 46,XY karyotype in mesenchymal core cells. A subsequent amniocentesis showed a true 45,X/46,XY mosaicism. Confirmatory studies, including fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in various fetal and placental tissues as well as in the original villi preparations changed the presumed condition of generalized mosaicism with culture confined normality to that of generalized mosaicism with absolute concordance. This case underscores the importance of the investigation of both short-term and cultured villi preparations, the implementation of prenatal FISH studies, and the need for thorough follow-up investigation in cases of discrepant results.
Analysis list: Kmt2d [Chip-atlas[Archive
Full Text Available Kmt2d Adipocyte,Pluripotent stem cell + mm9 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Kmt2d....1.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Kmt2d.5.tsv http://dbarchiv...e.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Kmt2d.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Kmt2d....Adipocyte.tsv,http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Kmt2d.Pluripo
High harmonics focusing undulator
Varfolomeev, A.A.; Hairetdinov, A.H.; Smirnov, A.V.; Khlebnikov, A.S. [Kurchatov Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)
1995-12-31
It was shown in our previous work that there exist a possibility to enhance significantly the {open_quote}natural{close_quote} focusing properties of the hybrid undulator. Here we analyze the actual undulator configurations which could provide such field structure. Numerical simulations using 2D code PANDIRA were carried out and the enhanced focusing properties of the undulator were demonstrated. The obtained results provide the solution for the beam transport in a very long (short wavelength) undulator schemes.
Intermittency in 2D soap film turbulence
Cerbus, R T
2013-01-01
The Reynolds number dependency of intermittency for 2D turbulence is studied in a flowing soap film. The Reynolds number used here is the Taylor microscale Reynolds number R_{\\lambda}, which ranges from 20 to 800. Strong intermittency is found for both the inverse energy and direct enstrophy cascades as measured by (a) the pdf of velocity differences P(\\delta u(r)) at inertial scales r, (b) the kurtosis of P(\\partial_x u), and (c) the scaling of the so-called intermittency exponent \\mu, which is zero if intermittency is absent. Measures (b) and (c) are quantitative, while (a) is qualitative. These measurements are in disagreement with some previous results but not all. The velocity derivatives are nongaussian at all R_{\\lambda} but show signs of becoming gaussian as R_{\\lambda} increases beyond the largest values that could be reached. The kurtosis of P(\\delta u(r)) at various r indicates that the intermittency is scale dependent. The structure function scaling exponents also deviate strongly from the Kraichn...
Competing coexisting phases in 2D water
Zanotti, Jean-Marc; Judeinstein, Patrick; Dalla-Bernardina, Simona; Creff, Gaëlle; Brubach, Jean-Blaise; Roy, Pascale; Bonetti, Marco; Ollivier, Jacques; Sakellariou, Dimitrios; Bellissent-Funel, Marie-Claire
2016-05-01
The properties of bulk water come from a delicate balance of interactions on length scales encompassing several orders of magnitudes: i) the Hydrogen Bond (HBond) at the molecular scale and ii) the extension of this HBond network up to the macroscopic level. Here, we address the physics of water when the three dimensional extension of the HBond network is frustrated, so that the water molecules are forced to organize in only two dimensions. We account for the large scale fluctuating HBond network by an analytical mean-field percolation model. This approach provides a coherent interpretation of the different events experimentally (calorimetry, neutron, NMR, near and far infra-red spectroscopies) detected in interfacial water at 160, 220 and 250 K. Starting from an amorphous state of water at low temperature, these transitions are respectively interpreted as the onset of creation of transient low density patches of 4-HBonded molecules at 160 K, the percolation of these domains at 220 K and finally the total invasion of the surface by them at 250 K. The source of this surprising behaviour in 2D is the frustration of the natural bulk tetrahedral local geometry and the underlying very significant increase in entropy of the interfacial water molecules.
Ion Transport in 2-D Graphene Nanochannels
Xie, Quan; Foo, Elbert; Duan, Chuanhua
2015-11-01
Graphene membranes have recently attracted wide attention due to its great potential in water desalination and selective molecular sieving. Further developments of these membranes, including enhancing their mass transport rate and/or molecular selectivity, rely on the understanding of fundamental transport mechanisms through graphene membranes, which has not been studied experimentally before due to fabrication and measurement difficulties. Herein we report the fabrication of the basic constituent of graphene membranes, i.e. 2-D single graphene nanochannels (GNCs) and the study of ion transport in these channels. A modified bonding technique was developed to form GNCs with well-defined geometry and uniform channel height. Ion transport in such GNCs was studied using DC conductance measurement. Our preliminary results showed that the ion transport in GNCs is still governed by surface charge at low concentrations (10-6M to 10-4M). However, GNCs exhibits much higher ionic conductances than silica nanochannels with the same geometries in the surface-charge-governed regime. This conductance enhancement can be attributed to the pre-accumulation of charges on graphene surfaces. The work is supported by the Faculty Startup Fund (Boston University, USA).
2D DIGITAL SIMPLIFIED FLOW VALVE
Ruan Jian; Li Sheng; Pei Xiang; Burton R; Ukrainetz P; Bitner D
2004-01-01
The 2D digital simplified flow valve is composed of a pilot-operated valve designed with both rotary and linear motions of a single spool,and a stepper motor under continual control.How the structural parameters affect the static and dynamic characteristics of the valve is first clarified and a criterion for stability is presented.Experiments are designed to test the performance of the valve.It is necessary to establish a balance between the static and dynamic characteristics in deciding the structural parameters.Nevertheless,it is possible to maintain the dynamic response at a fairly high level,while keeping the leakage of the pilot stage at an acceptable level.One of the features of the digital valve is stage control.In stage control the nonlinearities,such as electromagnetic saturation and hysteresis,are greatly reduced.To a large extent the dynamic response of the valve is decided by the executing cycle of the control algorithm.
A Study of Self-adaptive X/Y Flow Classification Method in LER
无
2001-01-01
According to the X/Y flow classification method based on TCP and UDP port, a new method named self-adaptive X/Y flow classification method is proposed in the paper, which can make the curve of the ratio of label resource usage more stable than ever so as to improve the performance of both L3 forwarding and L2 label switching of LER in MPLS networks. With the simulation of real Internet data, a satisfactory classification result has been obtained.
Inverse kinematics analysis and numerical control experiment for PRS-XY style hybrid machining tool
JIA Dongyong; ZHANG Jianmin; NIU Zhigang; SUN Hongchang
2007-01-01
This paper analyzed the inverse kinematics for the new Parallel rotate slider-X Y axes(PRS-XY)style hybrid machining tool and educed the five axes linkage inverse kinematics transform formula on the basis of the coordinates of the X,Y,Z,A and B virtual axes.The program for the PRS-XY style hybrid machining tool in accordance with the program manner for the common numerical control(NC)machine tool was made.The results of the experiments prove that the inverse kinematics transform formula is correct.
Dysgerminoma in a case of 46, XY pure gonadal dysgenesis (swyer syndrome: a case report
He Anguang
2011-09-01
Full Text Available Abstract Simple 46, XY gonadal dysgenesis syndrome, also called Swyer syndrome, is known as pure gonadal dysgenesis. Individuals with the syndrome are characterized by 46, XY karyotype and phenotypically female with female genital appearance, normal Müllerian structures and absent testicular tissue. The condition usually first becomes apparent in adolescence with delayed puberty and primary amenorrhea due to the gonads have no hormonal or reproductive potential. Herein, we report a case of dysgerminoma diagnosed in a dysgenetic gonad of a 21-year-old patient with Swyer syndrome.
柑橘绿霉病菌木聚糖酶基因（PdXY2）功能初步研究%Preliminary study on the function of PdXY2 in Penicillium digitatum
由书妍; 刘红霞; 于瑞君; 郑丽君; 范诗言; 李红叶
2016-01-01
Penicillium digitatum is one of the most important pathogen causing green mold disease which impedes the development of citrus industry.In this study,we cloned a xylanase gene PdXY2 and characterized its functions via knock-out strategy.The expression of PdXY2 was up-regulated during the primary stage of infection,and reached a peak at 48 h.However,PdXY2-disrupted mutant (ΔPdXY2)showed no reduction in virulence.Taken together,our results demonstrated that PdXY2 may play an important role in infection and single knock-out of PdXY2 showed no reduction in virulence.%柑橘绿霉病菌（Penicillium digitatum）是引起柑橘储藏期腐烂最主要的病原之一，严重影响了柑橘产业发展。本试验克隆了柑橘绿霉病菌的木聚糖酶基因（PdXY2），对其表达进行研究，在柑橘发病过程中，PdXY2的表达显著升高，至48 h 达到最高，其表达量为对照的4倍。为进一步明确PdXY2基因功能，构建了PdXY2基因缺失突变株（ΔPdXY2），ΔPdXY2突变株的致病性与野生型相比没有明显差异。由此我们推断，在柑橘绿霉病菌侵染柑橘的过程中 PdXY2有一定的作用，但是单一缺失木聚糖酶 PdXY2基因不能影响其致病性。
2-D Animation's Not Just for Mickey Mouse.
Weinman, Lynda
1995-01-01
Discusses characteristics of two-dimensional (2-D) animation; highlights include character animation, painting issues, and motion graphics. Sidebars present Silicon Graphics animations tools and 2-D animation programs for the desktop computer. (DGM)
Chimerism 47,XY,+21/46,XX in a female infant with anencephaly and other congenital defects
Danielle R. Lucon
2006-01-01
Full Text Available Chimerism is rare in humans and is usually discovered accidentally when a 46,XX and 46,XY karyotype is found in a same individual. We describe a malformed female infant with neural tube defect (NTD and a 47,XY,+21[5]/46,XX[30] karyotype.
Positive Integer Solutions of the Diophantine Equation $x^2 - L_n xy + (-1)^n y^2 = ± 5^r$
Refik Keskin; Zafer Şiar
2014-08-01
In this paper, we consider the equation $x^2-L_n xy+(-1)^n y^2=± 5^r$ and determine the values of for which the equation has positive integer solutions and . Moreover, we give all positive integer solutions of the equation $x^2-L_n xy+(-1)^n y^2=± 5^r$ when the equation has positive integer solutions.
Shen, Ming; Hu, Bingwen; Lafon, Oliver; Trébosc, Julien; Chen, Qun; Amoureux, Jean-Paul
2012-10-01
We demonstrate that inter-residue (13)C-(13)C proximities (of about 380 pm) in uniformly (13)C-labeled proteins can be probed by applying robust first-order recoupling during several milliseconds in single-quantum single-quantum dipolar homo-nuclear correlation (SQ-SQ D-HOMCOR) 2D experiments. We show that the intensity of medium-range homo-nuclear correlations in these experiments is enhanced using broadband first-order finite-pulse radio-frequency-driven recoupling (fp-RFDR) NMR sequence with a nested (XY8)4(1) super-cycling. The robustness and the efficiency of the fp-RFDR-(XY8)4(1) method is demonstrated at high magnetic field (21.1T) and high Magic-Angle Spinning (MAS) speeds (up to 60 kHz). The introduced super-cycling, formed by combining phase inversion and a global four-quantum phase cycle, improves the robustness of fp-RFDR to (i) chemical shift anisotropy (CSA), (ii) spread in isotropic chemical shifts, (iii) rf-inhomogeneity and (iv) hetero-nuclear dipolar couplings for long recoupling times. We show that fp-RFDR-(XY8)4(1) is efficient sans (1)H decoupling, which is beneficial for temperature-sensitive biomolecules. The efficiency and the robustness of fp-RFDR-(XY8)4(1) is investigated by spin dynamics numerical simulations as well as solid-state NMR experiments on [U-(13)C]-L-histidine·HCl, a tetra-peptide (Fmoc-[U-(13)C,(15)N]-Val-[U-(13)C,(15)N]-Ala-[U-(13)C,(15)N]-Phe-Gly-t-Boc) and Al(PO(3))(3).
On The Harmonic Oscillator Group
Lopez, Raquel M; Vega-Guzman, Jose M
2011-01-01
We discuss the maximum kinematical invariance group of the quantum harmonic oscillator from a view point of the Ermakov-type system. The invariance group of generalized driven harmonic oscillator is shown to be isomorphic to the corresponding Schroedinger group of the free particle.
EXTENSIONS OF EULER HARMONIC SUMS
Djurdje Cvijović
2012-10-01
Full Text Available Three new closed-form summation formulae involving harmonic numbers are established using simple arguments and they are very general extensions of Euler’s famous harmonic sum identity. Some illustrative special cases as well as immediate consequences of the main results are also considered.
Harmonic Series Meets Fibonacci Sequence
Chen, Hongwei; Kennedy, Chris
2012-01-01
The terms of a conditionally convergent series may be rearranged to converge to any prescribed real value. What if the harmonic series is grouped into Fibonacci length blocks? Or the harmonic series is arranged in alternating Fibonacci length blocks? Or rearranged and alternated into separate blocks of even and odd terms of Fibonacci length?
Tissue Harmonic Synthetic Aperture Imaging
Rasmussen, Joachim
The main purpose of this PhD project is to develop an ultrasonic method for tissue harmonic synthetic aperture imaging. The motivation is to advance the field of synthetic aperture imaging in ultrasound, which has shown great potentials in the clinic. Suggestions for synthetic aperture tissue...... system complexity compared to conventional synthetic aperture techniques. In this project, SASB is sought combined with a pulse inversion technique for 2nd harmonic tissue harmonic imaging. The advantages in tissue harmonic imaging (THI) are expected to further improve the image quality of SASB...... harmonic techniques have been made, but none of these methods have so far been applicable for in-vivo imaging. The basis of this project is a synthetic aperture technique known as synthetic aperture sequential beamforming (SASB). The technique utilizes a two step beamforming approach to drastically reduce...
Schweizer, Katinka; Brunner, Franziska; Schutzmann, Karsten; Schonbucher, Verena; Richter-Appelt, Hertha
2009-01-01
Individuals living with an intersex condition have not received much attention in counseling psychology, although a high need for psychosocial care is obvious. Using a mixed-methods multiple case study with qualitative and quantitative data, the authors explore coping and gender experiences in seven 46, XY intersexual persons with deficiencies of…
Equal-time temperature correlators of the one-dimensional Heisenberg $XY$ chain
Izergin, A G; Kitanine, N A
1997-01-01
Representations as determinants of $M\\times M$ dimensional matrices are obtained for equal-time temperature correlators of the anisotropic Heisenberg XY chain. These representations are simple deformations of the answers for the isotropic XX0 chain. In the thermodynamic limit, the correlators are expressed in terms of the Fredholm determinants of linear integral operators.
The Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless transition and correlations in the XY kagome antiferromagnet
Cherepanov, V B; Podivilov, E V
2001-01-01
The problem of the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless transition in the highly frustrated XY antiferromagnetic is solved. The transition temperature is found. It is shown that the spin correlation function exponentially decays with distance even in the low-temperature phase, in contrast to the order parameter correlation function, which decays algebraically with distance
[Azoospermia and 45,X/46,XY chromosomal mosaicism: a case report].
Le Chatton, M; Zaccabri, A; Agopiantz, M; Leheup, B; Weryha, G; Foliguet, B
2013-03-01
Chromosomal abnormalities are common in patients with oligozoospermia or azoospermia. We report the case of a 32-year patient, with male phenotype, and without hormonal or morphological abnormalities, with a severely reduced spermatogenesis. It was revealed a 45,X/46,XY gonadal dysgenesis. We have reviewed the various problems inherent in the discovery of this rare gonadal dysgenesis, including genetic, cancer and fertility risks.
Entanglement in One-Dimensional Random XY Spin Chain with Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya Interaction
SHAN Chuan-Jia; CHENG Wei-Wen; LIU Tang-Kun; HUANG Yan-Xia; LI Hong
2008-01-01
@@ The impurities of exchange couplings,external magnetic fields and Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya (DM)interaction considered as Ganssian distribution.and the entanglement in one-dimensional random XY spin systems is investigated by the method of solving the different spin-spin correlation functions and the average magnetization per spin.
Novel Heterozygous Genetic Variants in Patients with 46,XY Gonadal Dysgenesis.
Chauhan, Vasundhera; Jyotsna, Viveka P; Jain, Vandana; Khadgawat, Rajesh; Dada, Rima
2017-01-01
46,XY gonadal dysgenesis (GD) constitutes a rare group of disorders characterized by the presence of dysfunctional testes in genotypic males. The molecular etiology is not known in about 2 thirds of instances. The aim of this study was to identify the genetic cause in patients with 46,XY gonadal dysgenesis. Based on clinical, cytogenetic, and biochemical screening, 10 patients with 46,XY GD were recruited. Direct sequencing of SRY, NR5A1, SOX9, DAX1, DHH, DMRT1 genes was carried out for molecular analysis. Among 10 patients, 5 were diagnosed with complete gonadal dysgenesis (CGD), 3 with partial gonadal dysgenesis (PGD), and 3 with testicular agenesis. Molecular analysis revealed 12 heterozygous genetic changes, 4 of which were novel. One (c.416T>A) was observed in evolutionary conserved region of DMRT1 gene in a patient with CGD and was found to be probably damaging on in silico analysis. Other 3 were identified in NR5A1 gene (c.990+22 C>A, c.1387+1403T>A and p.131P), but their association with gonadal dysgenesis is not evident from our study. These genetic changes were absent in parents and 50 healthy control samples, which were also studied. With targeted sequencing approach, a molecular diagnosis was made in only one patient with 46,XY GD. The application of new genomic technologies is required for the precise evaluation of these rare genetic defects.
Fisher-Hartwig conjecture and the correlators in XY spin chain
Ovchinnikov, A.A. [Institute for Nuclear Research, RAS, Moscow 117312 (Russian Federation)]. E-mail: ovch@ms2.inr.ac.ru
2007-07-02
We apply the theorems from the theory of Toeplitz determinants to calculate the asymptotics of the correlators in the XY spin chain in the transverse magnetic field. The asymptotics of the correlators for the XX spin chain in the magnetic field are obtained.
Asymptotics of Toeplitz determinants and the emptiness formation probability for the XY spin chain
Franchini, Fabio; Abanov, Alexander G [Physics and Astronomy Department, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York 11794-3800 (United States)
2005-06-10
We study an asymptotic behaviour of a special correlator known as the emptiness formation probability (EFP) for the one-dimensional anisotropic XY spin-1/2 chain in a transverse magnetic field. This correlator is essentially the probability of formation of a ferromagnetic string of length n in the antiferromagnetic ground state of the chain and plays an important role in the theory of integrable models. For the XY spin chain, the correlator can be expressed as the determinant of a Toeplitz matrix and its asymptotical behaviours for n {yields} {infinity} throughout the phase diagram are obtained using known theorems and conjectures on Toeplitz determinants. We find that the decay is exponential everywhere in the phase diagram of the XY model except on the critical lines, i.e. where the spectrum is gapless. In these cases, a power-law prefactor with a universal exponent arises in addition to an exponential or Gaussian decay. The latter Gaussian behaviour holds on the critical line corresponding to the isotropic XY model, while at the critical value of the magnetic field the EFP decays exponentially. At small anisotropy one has a crossover from the Gaussian to the exponential behaviour. We study this crossover using the bosonization approach.
A study of the XY model by the Monte Carlo method
Suranyi, Peter; Harten, Paul
1987-01-01
The massively parallel processor is used to perform Monte Carlo simulations for the two dimensional XY model on lattices of sizes up to 128 x 128. A parallel random number generator was constructed, finite size effects were studied, and run times were compared with those on a CRAY X-MP supercomputer.
Prenatal diagnosis of 45,X/46,XY mosaicism--a review and update.
Hsu, L Y
1989-01-01
A total of 54 cases with prenatal diagnosis of 45,X/46,XY mosaicism was reviewed. Of 47 cases with information on phenotypic outcome, 42 cases (89.4 per cent) were reported to be associated with a grossly normal male phenotype. Three cases (6.4 per cent) were diagnosed as having mixed gonadal dysgenesis with internal asymmetrical gonads. Two other cases were questionably abnormal. In 40 cases with successful cytogenetic confirmatory studies, the overall rate of cytogenetic confirmation of 45,X/46,XY from tissues derived from fetus/liveborn/placenta was 70.0 per cent. This review shows a major difference in the phenotypic outcome between postnatal diagnosis and prenatal diagnosis. Due to the ascertainment bias, almost all known patients with postnatal diagnosis of 45,X/46,XY mosaicism are phenotypically abnormal. Therefore, caution must be used in translating information derived from postnatal diagnosis to prenatal diagnosis. This review calls for collection of more data on 45,X/46,XY mosaicism diagnosed prenatally, more long-term follow-up of liveborn infants, and pathological studies of all abortuses. Emphasis is placed also on the importance of genetic counselling, ultrasound examination, and cytogenetic confirmation.
The Clinical Manifestation and Genetic Evaluation in Patients with 45,X/46,XY Mosaicism.
Wu, Qinghua; Wang, Cong; Shi, Huirong; Kong, Xiangdong; Ren, Shumin; Jiang, Miao
2017-02-18
45,X/46,XY mosaicism is a rare chromosomal abnormality and probably underdiagnosed. Although clinical and genetic analyses have been performed in some disorders of sexual development, there have been few studies focusing on the phenotype and genetic details of 45,X/46,XY mosaicism, especially in the Chinese population. The aim of this study was to describe the experience of our service in relation to 16 cases with 45,X/46,XY mosaicism. The age at the first evaluation of the patients ranged from 43 days to 30 years. Eight patients were reared as female and 8 as male. The main reasons for examination were primary amenorrhea, sterility, or ambiguous genitalia. Short stature was more common in female than in male patients. Two patients accepted gonadectomy due to tumor risk and none presented gonadal malignancy. The SRY gene was amplified positively in all of the patients. AZF gene microdeletions were present in 6 of 8 male patients, and all adult male patients had no sperm. No correlation has been found between clinical manifestations and the proportion of mosaic cells in peripheral blood. Our observations may permit a better management of people with 45,X/46,XY mosaicism.
HLHS with severe aortic insufficiency in a patient with 45,X/46,XY mosaicism.
Mumtaz, Muhammad A; Mee, Roger B B; Qureshi, Athar; Patel, Chandrakant R; Younoszai, Adel K
2004-10-01
Aortic insufficiency is not a part of the hypoplastic left heart syndrome. This report describes a rare case of congenital aortic insufficiency from a detached leaflet in a patient with hypoplastic left heart syndrome and 45,X/46XY mosaicism. The patient was subsequently treated with the modified Norwood procedure along with suture closure of aortic valve.
Front-end XY-slits assembly for the SPring-8 undulator beamlines.
Oura, M; Sakurai, Y; Kitamura, H
1998-05-01
A front-end XY-slits assembly has been designed for the SPring-8 undulator beamlines. This assembly can handle the high heat flux from the undulator, its grazing-incidence L-shaped configuration employing an enhanced heat-transfer technology.
FPGA-Based Architecture for a Generalized Parallel 2-D MRI Filtering Algorithm
Sami Hasan
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Problem statement: Current Neuroimaging developments, in biological research and diagnostics, demand an edge-defined and noise-free MRI scans. Thus, this study presents a generalized parallel 2-D MRI filtering algorithm with their FPGA-based implementation in a single unified architecture. The parallel 2-D MRI filtering algorithms are Edge, Sobel X, Sobel Y, Sobel X-Y, Blur, Smooth, Sharpen, Gaussian and Beta (HYB. Then, the nine MRI image filtering algorithm, has empirically improved to generate enhanced MRI scans filtering results without significantly affecting the developed performance indices of high throughput and low power consumption at maximum operating frequency. Approach: The parallel 2-d MRI filtering algorithms are developed and FPGA implemented using Xilinx System Generator tool within the ISE 12.3 development suite. Two unified architectures are behaviorally developed, depending on the abstraction level of implementation. For performance indices comparison, two Virtex-6 FPGA boards, namely, xc6vlX240Tl-1lff1759 and xc6vlX130Tl-1lff1156 are behaviorally targeted. Results: The improved parallel 2-D filtering algorithms enhanced the filtered MRI scans to be edge-defined and noise free grayscale imaging. The single architecture is efficiently prototyped to achieve: high filtering performance of (11230 frames/second throughput for 64*64 MRI grayscale scan, minimum power consumption of 0.86 Watt with a junction temperature of 52°C and a maximum frequency of up to (230 MHz. Conclusion: The improved parallel MRI filtering algorithms which are developed as a single unified architecture provide visibility enhancement within the filtered MRI scan to aid the physician in detecting brain diseases, e.g., trauma or intracranial haemorrhage. The high filtering throughput is feasibly nominee the nine parallel MRI filtering algorithms for applications such as real-time MRI potential future applications. Future Work: a set of parallel 3-D f
A nodal collocation approximation for the multi-dimensional P{sub L} equations - 2D applications
Capilla, M. [Departamento de Matematica Aplicada, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera 14, E-46022 Valencia (Spain)], E-mail: tcapilla@mat.upv.es; Talavera, C.F. [Departamento de Matematica Aplicada, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera 14, E-46022 Valencia (Spain)], E-mail: talavera@mat.upv.es; Ginestar, D. [Departamento de Matematica Aplicada, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera 14, E-46022 Valencia (Spain)], E-mail: dginesta@mat.upv.es; Verdu, G. [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y Nuclear, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera 14, E-46022 Valencia (Spain)], E-mail: gverdu@iqn.upv.es
2008-10-15
A classical approach to solve the neutron transport equation is to apply the spherical harmonics method obtaining a finite approximation known as the P{sub L} equations. In this work, the derivation of the P{sub L} equations for multi-dimensional geometries is reviewed and a nodal collocation method is developed to discretize these equations on a rectangular mesh based on the expansion of the neutronic fluxes in terms of orthogonal Legendre polynomials. The performance of the method and the dominant transport Lambda Modes are obtained for a homogeneous 2D problem, a heterogeneous 2D anisotropic scattering problem, a heterogeneous 2D problem and a benchmark problem corresponding to a MOX fuel reactor core.
Stability Test for 2-D Continuous-Discrete Systems
无
2002-01-01
Models of 2-D continuous-discrete systems are introduced, which can be used to describe some complex systems. Different from classical 2-D continuous systems or 2-D discrete systems, the asymptotic stability of the continuous-discrete systems is determined by Hurwitz-Schur stability (hybrid one) of 2-D characteristic polynomials of the systems. An algebraic algorithm with simpler test procedure for Hurwitz-Schur stability test of 2-D polynomials is developed. An example to illustrate the applications of the test approach is provided.
Full Text Available el for vortioxetine and CYP2D6 FDA Label for acetaminophen,tramadol and CYP2D6 FDA Label for dextromethorphan... Label for vortioxetine and CYP2D6 European Medicines Agency (EMA) Label for dextromethorphan,quinidine and ...ore of this label. Read more. last updated 10/25/2013 FDA Label for dextromethorphan, quinidine and CYP2D6 O...of NUEDEXTA is a CYP2D6 inhibitor used to increase the plasma availability of dextromethorphan, which is met... 05/02/2014 European Medicines Agency (EMA) Label for dextromethorphan, quinidine
3D/2D Registration of medical images
Tomaževič, D.
2008-01-01
The topic of this doctoral dissertation is registration of 3D medical images to corresponding projective 2D images, referred to as 3D/2D registration. There are numerous possible applications of 3D/2D registration in image-aided diagnosis and treatment. In most of the applications, 3D/2D registration provides the location and orientation of the structures in a preoperative 3D CT or MR image with respect to intraoperative 2D X-ray images. The proposed doctoral dissertation tries to find origin...
Analysis list: Mef2d [Chip-atlas[Archive
Full Text Available Mef2d Muscle + mm9 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Mef2d.1.ts...v http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Mef2d.5.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Mef2d....10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Mef2d.Muscle.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Muscle.gml ...
CYP2D7 sequence variation interferes with TaqMan CYP2D6*15 and *35 genotyping
Amanda K Riffel
2016-01-01
Full Text Available TaqMan™ genotyping assays are widely used to genotype CYP2D6, which encodes a major drug metabolizing enzyme. Assay design for CYP2D6 can be challenging owing to the presence of two pseudogenes, CYP2D7 and CYP2D8, structural and copy number variation and numerous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs some of which reflect the wild-type sequence of the CYP2D7 pseudogene. The aim of this study was to identify the mechanism causing false positive CYP2D6*15 calls and remediate those by redesigning and validating alternative TaqMan genotype assays. Among 13,866 DNA samples genotyped by the CompanionDx® lab on the OpenArray platform, 70 samples were identified as heterozygotes for 137Tins, the key SNP of CYP2D6*15. However, only 15 samples were confirmed when tested with the Luminex xTAG CYP2D6 Kit and sequencing of CYP2D6-specific long range (XL-PCR products. Genotype and gene resequencing of CYP2D6 and CYP2D7-specific XL-PCR products revealed a CC>GT dinucleotide SNP in exon 1 of CYP2D7 that reverts the sequence to CYP2D6 and allows a TaqMan assay PCR primer to bind. Because CYP2D7 also carries a Tins, a false-positive mutation signal is generated. This CYP2D7 SNP was also responsible for generating false-positive signals for rs769258 (CYP2D6*35 which is also located in exon 1. Although alternative CYP2D6*15 and *35 assays resolved the issue, we discovered a novel CYP2D6*15 subvariant in one sample that carries additional SNPs preventing detection with the alternate assay. The frequency of CYP2D6*15 was 0.1% in this ethnically diverse U.S. population sample. In addition, we also discovered linkage between the CYP2D7 CC>GT dinucleotide SNP and the 77G>A (rs28371696 SNP of CYP2D6*43. The frequency of this tentatively functional allele was 0.2%. Taken together, these findings emphasize that regardless of how careful genotyping assays are designed and evaluated before being commercially marketed, rare or unknown SNPs underneath primer and/or probe
A generalized harmonic map equation for micromagnetics (abstract)
Kotiuga, P. R.
1991-04-01
Static micromagnetic configurations are determined by minimizing the sum of anisotropy, demagnetization, exchange, and external interaction energies subject to the constraint that the magnitude of the magnetization vector is constant throughout a sample. If this constraint is not explicitly imposed in a numerical or analytical investigation, a Lagrange multiplier type of term must be appended to the energy functional. In a region R, two candidates are λ∫R(1 - ‖m(r)‖2)2 dV and ∫Rλ(r)(1 - ‖m(r)‖2)dV. The first expression is a Higgs or penalty term in the terminology of physicists and numerical analysts. The penalty parameter λ is given a physical meaning through the Ginsburg-Landau theory.1 The second expression is avoided by physicists and numerical analysts since the scalar Lagrange multiplier λ(r) represents an unwelcomed proliferation of variables. Following the theory of harmonic maps, the scalar Lagrange multiplier field is eliminated in this paper and a generalized harmonic map equation for micromagnetics is obtained. This equation has no extraneous phenomenological constants and enables one to ignore the original constraint in numerical solutions. It also provides a means for tying together results concerning singularities of harmonic maps2 with Block point phenomena believed to exist in VBL memories. This, in turn, enables one to make general inferences about the energetics of Bloch points which are not possible through purely topological investigations or simulations involving specific geometries.
Backscattering in a 2D topological insulator and the conductivity of a 2D strip
Magarill, L. I.; Entin, M. V.
2015-01-01
A strip of the 2D HgTe topological insulator is studied. The same-spin edge states in an ideal system propagate in opposite directions on different sides of the strip and do not mix by tunneling. Impurities, edge irregularities, and phonons produce transitions between the counterpropagating edge states on different edges. This backscattering determines the conductivity of an infinitely long strip. The conductivity at finite temperature is determined in the framework of the kinetic equation. It is found that the conductivity exponentially grows with the strip width. In the same approximation the nonlocal resistance coefficients of a four-terminal strip are found.
Optimal Selective Harmonic Control for Power Harmonics Mitigation
Zhou, Keliang; Yang, Yongheng; Blaabjerg, Frede
2015-01-01
the cost, the complexity and the performance: high accuracy, fast transient response, easy-implementation, cost-effective, and also easy-to-design. The analysis and synthesis of the optimal SHC system are addressed. The proposed SHC offers power convert-ers a tailor-made optimal control solution......This paper proposes an Internal Model Principle (IMP) based optimal Selective Harmonic Controller (SHC) for power converters to mitigate power harmonics. According to the harmonics distribution caused by power converters, a universal recursive SHC module is developed to deal with a featured group...... of power harmonics. The proposed optimal SHC is of hybrid structure: all recursive SHC modules with weighted gains are connected in parallel. It bridges the real “nk+-m order RC” and the complex “parallel structure RC”. Compared to other IMP based control solutions, it offers an optimal trade-off among...
FROM THE HARMONIZATION NEED TO THE SPONTANEOUS ACCOUNTING HARMONIZATION
2009-01-01
The issue of international accounting harmonization has achieved, mainly within the last decade, a significant dimension in the field of international accounting research. The main determinant factor for this state of the art is the process aiming at redu
Power quality issues current harmonics
Mikkili, Suresh
2015-01-01
Power Quality Issues: Current Harmonics provides solutions for the mitigation of power quality problems related to harmonics. Focusing on active power filters (APFs) due to their excellent harmonic and reactive power compensation in two-wire (single phase), three-wire (three-phase without neutral), and four-wire (three-phase with neutral) AC power networks with nonlinear loads, the text:Introduces the APF technology, describing various APF configurations and offering guidelines for the selection of APFs for specific application considerationsCompares shunt active filter (SHAF) control strategi
Residual lens effects in 2D mode of auto-stereoscopic lenticular-based switchable 2D/3D displays
Sluijter, M.; IJzerman, W. L.; de Boer, D. K. G.; de Zwart, S. T.
2006-04-01
We discuss residual lens effects in multi-view switchable auto-stereoscopic lenticular-based 2D/3D displays. With the introduction of a switchable lenticular, it is possible to switch between a 2D mode and a 3D mode. The 2D mode displays conventional content, whereas the 3D mode provides the sensation of depth to the viewer. The uniformity of a display in the 2D mode is quantified by the quality parameter modulation depth. In order to reduce the modulation depth in the 2D mode, birefringent lens plates are investigated analytically and numerically, by ray tracing. We can conclude that the modulation depth in the 2D mode can be substantially decreased by using birefringent lens plates with a perfect index match between lens material and lens plate. Birefringent lens plates do not disturb the 3D performance of a switchable 2D/3D display.
Lattice harmonics expansion revisited
Kontrym-Sznajd, G.; Holas, A.
2017-04-01
The main subject of the work is to provide the most effective way of determining the expansion of some quantities into orthogonal polynomials, when these quantities are known only along some limited number of sampling directions. By comparing the commonly used Houston method with the method based on the orthogonality relation, some relationships, which define the applicability and correctness of these methods, are demonstrated. They are verified for various sets of sampling directions applicable for expanding quantities having the full symmetry of the Brillouin zone of cubic and non-cubic lattices. All results clearly show that the Houston method is always better than the orthogonality-relation one. For the cubic symmetry we present a few sets of special directions (SDs) showing how their construction and, next, a proper application depend on the choice of various sets of lattice harmonics. SDs are important mainly for experimentalists who want to reconstruct anisotropic quantities from their measurements, performed at a limited number of sampling directions.
Crane, Edward; Volkov, Stanislav; Wade, Andrew; Waters, Robert
2009-01-01
We study a generalized Polya urn model with two types of ball. If the drawn ball is red it is replaced together with a black ball, but if the drawn ball is black it is replaced and a red ball is thrown out of the urn. When only black balls remain, the roles of the colours are swapped and the process restarts. We prove that the resulting Markov chain is transient but that if we throw out a ball every time the colours swap, the process is positive-recurrent. We show that the embedded process obtained by observing the number of balls in the urn at the swapping times has a scaling limit that is essentially the square of a Bessel diffusion. We consider an oriented percolation model naturally associated with the urn process, and obtain detailed information about its structure, showing that the open subgraph is an infinite tree with a single end. We also study a natural continuous-time embedding of the urn process that demonstrates the relation to the simple harmonic oscillator; in this setting our transience result...
Functional characterization of a first avian cytochrome P450 of the CYP2D subfamily (CYP2D49.
Hua Cai
Full Text Available The CYP2D family members are instrumental in the metabolism of 20-25% of commonly prescribed drugs. Although many CYP2D isoforms have been well characterized in other animal models, research concerning the chicken CYP2Ds is limited. In this study, a cDNA encoding a novel CYP2D enzyme (CYP2D49 was cloned from the chicken liver for the first time. The CYP2D49 cDNA contained an open reading frame of 502 amino acids that shared 52%-57% identities with other CYP2Ds. The gene structure and neighboring genes of CYP2D49 are conserved and similar to those of human CYP2D6. Additionally, similar to human CYP2D6, CYP2D49 is un-inducible in the liver and expressed predominantly in the liver, kidney and small intestine, with detectable levels in several other tissues. Metabolic assays of the CYP2D49 protein heterologously expressed in E. coli and Hela cells indicated that CYP2D49 metabolized the human CYP2D6 substrate, bufuralol, but not debrisoquine. Moreover, quinidine, a potent inhibitor of human CYP2D6, only inhibited the bufuralol 1'-hydroxylation activity of CYP2D49 to a negligible degree. All these results indicated that CYP2D49 had functional characteristics similar to those of human CYP2D6 but measurably differed in the debrisoquine 4'-hydroxylation and quinidine inhibitory profile. Further structure-function investigations that employed site-directed mutagenesis and circular dichroism spectroscopy identified the importance of Val-126, Glu-222, Asp-306, Phe-486 and Phe-488 in keeping the enzymatic activity of CYP2D49 toward bufuralol as well as the importance of Asp-306, Phe-486 and Phe-488 in maintaining the conformation of CYP2D49 protein. The current study is only the first step in characterizing the metabolic mechanism of CYP2D49; further studies are still required.
Low Noise Second Harmonic Oscillator Using Mutually Synchronized Gunn Diodes
Kawasaki, Kengo; Tanaka, Takayuki; Aikawa, Masayoshi
This paper represents a low noise second harmonic oscillator using mutually synchronized Gunn diodes. A multi-layer MIC technology is adopted to reduce the circuit size of the oscillator. The oscillator consists of Gunn diodes, slot line resonators and strip lines. By embedding Gunn diodes in the slot line resonators, a harmonic RF signal can be generated very easily. The strip lines are used for the power combining output circuit. The shape of slot line resonator is square in order to achieve the low phase noise and the suppression of undesired harmonics. The second harmonic oscillator is designed and fabricated in K band. The output power is +8.89dBm at the design frequency of 18.75GHz (2f0) with the phase noise of -116.2dBc/Hz at the offset frequency of 1MHz. Excellent suppression of the undesired fundamental frequency signal (f0) of -33dBc is achieved. Also, the circuit size is reduced by three-tenths relative to that of the previously proposed circuit.
Explaining the harmonic sequence paradox.
Schmidt, Ulrich; Zimper, Alexander
2012-05-01
According to the harmonic sequence paradox, an expected utility decision maker's willingness to pay for a gamble whose expected payoffs evolve according to the harmonic series is finite if and only if his marginal utility of additional income becomes zero for rather low payoff levels. Since the assumption of zero marginal utility is implausible for finite payoff levels, expected utility theory - as well as its standard generalizations such as cumulative prospect theory - are apparently unable to explain a finite willingness to pay. This paper presents first an experimental study of the harmonic sequence paradox. Additionally, it demonstrates that the theoretical argument of the harmonic sequence paradox only applies to time-patient decision makers, whereas the paradox is easily avoided if time-impatience is introduced.
Introduction to abstract harmonic analysis
Loomis, Lynn H
2011-01-01
Written by a prominent figure in the field of harmonic analysis, this classic monograph is geared toward advanced undergraduates and graduate students and focuses on methods related to Gelfand's theory of Banach algebra. 1953 edition.
Pythagorean Triples from Harmonic Sequences.
DiDomenico, Angelo S.; Tanner, Randy J.
2001-01-01
Shows how all primitive Pythagorean triples can be generated from harmonic sequences. Use inductive and deductive reasoning to explore how Pythagorean triples are connected with another area of mathematics. (KHR)
Morrey spaces in harmonic analysis
David R. Adams; Xiao, Jie
2012-01-01
Through a geometric capacitary analysis based on space dualities, this paper addresses several fundamental aspects of functional analysis and potential theory for the Morrey spaces in harmonic analysis over the Euclidean spaces.
Morrey spaces in harmonic analysis
Adams, David R.; Xiao, Jie
2012-10-01
Through a geometric capacitary analysis based on space dualities, this paper addresses several fundamental aspects of functional analysis and potential theory for the Morrey spaces in harmonic analysis over the Euclidean spaces.
The No-Hair Conjecture in 2D Dilaton Supergravity
Gamboa-Rios, J
1993-01-01
We study two dimensional dilaton gravity and supergravity following hamiltonian methods. Firstly, we consider the structure of constraints of 2D dilaton gravity and then the 2D dilaton supergravity is obtained taking the squere root of the bosonic constraints. We integrate exactly the equations of motion in both cases and we show that the solutions of the equation of motion of 2D dilaton supergravity differs from the solutions of 2D dilaton gravity only by boundary conditions on the fermionic variables, i.e. the black holes of 2D dilaton supergravity theory are exactly the same black holes of 2D bosonic dilaton gravity modulo supersymmetry transformations. This result is the bidimensional analogue of the no-hair theorem for supergravity.
Scalable Fabrication of 2D Semiconducting Crystals for Future Electronics
Jiantong Li
2015-12-01
Full Text Available Two-dimensional (2D layered materials are anticipated to be promising for future electronics. However, their electronic applications are severely restricted by the availability of such materials with high quality and at a large scale. In this review, we introduce systematically versatile scalable synthesis techniques in the literature for high-crystallinity large-area 2D semiconducting materials, especially transition metal dichalcogenides, and 2D material-based advanced structures, such as 2D alloys, 2D heterostructures and 2D material devices engineered at the wafer scale. Systematic comparison among different techniques is conducted with respect to device performance. The present status and the perspective for future electronics are discussed.
Echo-Enabled Harmonic Generation
Stupakov, Gennady; /SLAC
2012-06-28
A recently proposed concept of the Echo-Enabled Harmonic Generation (EEHG) FEL uses two laser modulators in combination with two dispersion sections to generate a high-harmonic density modulation in a relativistic beam. This seeding technique holds promise of a one-stage soft x-ray FEL that radiates not only transversely but also longitudinally coherent pulses. Currently, an experimental verification of the concept is being conducted at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory aimed at the demonstration of the EEHG.
Echo-Enabled Harmonic Generation
Stupakov, Gennady; /SLAC
2012-06-28
A recently proposed concept of the Echo-Enabled Harmonic Generation (EEHG) FEL uses two laser modulators in combination with two dispersion sections to generate a high-harmonic density modulation in a relativistic beam. This seeding technique holds promise of a one-stage soft x-ray FEL that radiates not only transversely but also longitudinally coherent pulses. Currently, an experimental verification of the concept is being conducted at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory aimed at the demonstration of the EEHG.
Foliated stochastic calculus: Harmonic measures
Catuogno, Pedro J; Ruffino, Paulo R
2010-01-01
In this article we present an intrinsec construction of foliated Brownian motion via stochastic calculus adapted to foliation. The stochastic approach together with a proposed foliated vector calculus provide a natural method to work on harmonic measures. Other results include a decomposition of the Laplacian in terms of the foliated and basic Laplacians, a characterization of totally invariant measures and a differential equation for the density of harmonic measures.
Harmonic structures and intrinsic torsion
Conti, Diego; Madsen, Thomas Bruun
We discuss the construction of 8-manifolds with harmonic Sp(2)Sp(1)-structures. In particular, we find 10 new examples of nilmanifolds that admit a closed 4-form Omega whose stabiliser is Sp(2)Sp(1). Our constructions entail the notion of SO(4)-structures on 7-manifolds. We present a thorough inv...... investigation of the intrinsic torsion of such structures; in addition to the construction of harmonic structures, this analysis leads to explicit Lie group examples with invariant intrinsic torsion....
Optimization and practical implementation of ultrafast 2D NMR experiments
Queiroz Júnior,Luiz H. K.; Antonio G. Ferreira; Patrick Giraudeau
2013-01-01
Ultrafast 2D NMR is a powerful methodology that allows recording of a 2D NMR spectrum in a fraction of second. However, due to the numerous non-conventional parameters involved in this methodology its implementation is no trivial task. Here, an optimized experimental protocol is carefully described to ensure efficient implementation of ultrafast NMR. The ultrafast spectra resulting from this implementation are presented based on the example of two widely used 2D NMR experiments, COSY and HSQC...
Harmonic Current Predictors for Wind Turbines
Shun-Yu Chan
2013-03-01
Full Text Available The harmonic impact caused by wind turbines should be carefully investigated before wind turbines are interconnected. However, the harmonic currents of wind turbines are not easily predicted due to the variations of wind speed. If the harmonic current outputs can be predicted accurately, the harmonic impact of wind turbines and wind farms for power grids can be analyzed efficiently. Therefore, this paper analyzes the harmonic current characteristics of wind turbines and investigates the feasibility of developing harmonic current predictors. Field measurement, data sorting, and analysis are conducted for wind turbines. Two harmonic current predictors are proposed based on the measured harmonic data. One is the Auto-Regressive and Moving Average (ARMA-based harmonic current predictor, which can be used for real-time prediction. The other is the stochastic harmonic current predictor considering the probability density distributions of harmonic currents. It uses the measured harmonic data to establish the probability density distributions of harmonic currents at different wind speeds, and then uses them to implement a long-term harmonic current prediction. Test results use the measured data to validate the forecast ability of these two harmonic current predictors. The ARMA-based predictor obtains poor performance on some harmonic orders due to the stochastic characteristics of harmonic current caused by the variations of wind speed. Relatively, the prediction results of stochastic harmonic current predictor show that the harmonic currents of a wind turbine in long-term operation can be effectively analyzed by the established probability density distributions. Therefore, the proposed stochastic harmonic current predictor is helpful in predicting and analyzing the possible harmonic problems during the operation of wind turbines and wind farms.
Spherical harmonics in texture analysis
Schaeben, Helmut; van den Boogaart, K. Gerald
2003-07-01
The objective of this contribution is to emphasize the fundamental role of spherical harmonics in constructive approximation on the sphere in general and in texture analysis in particular. The specific purpose is to present some methods of texture analysis and pole-to-orientation probability density inversion in a unifying approach, i.e. to show that the classic harmonic method, the pole density component fit method initially introduced as a distinct alternative, and the spherical wavelet method for high-resolution texture analysis share a common mathematical basis provided by spherical harmonics. Since pole probability density functions and orientation probability density functions are probability density functions defined on the sphere Ω3⊂ R3 or hypersphere Ω4⊂ R4, respectively, they belong at least to the space of measurable and integrable functions L1( Ωd), d=3, 4, respectively. Therefore, first a basic and simplified method to derive real symmetrized spherical harmonics with the mathematical property of providing a representation of rotations or orientations, respectively, is presented. Then, standard orientation or pole probability density functions, respectively, are introduced by summation processes of harmonic series expansions of L1( Ωd) functions, thus avoiding resorting to intuition and heuristics. Eventually, it is shown how a rearrangement of the harmonics leads quite canonically to spherical wavelets, which provide a method for high-resolution texture analysis. This unified point of view clarifies how these methods, e.g. standard functions, apply to texture analysis of EBSD orientation measurements.
Li, Qing-Zhong; Xu, Wen-Rui; Li, Ran; Liu, Xiao-Feng; Li, Wen-Zuo; Cheng, Jian-Bo
2012-11-01
The DMSO-XY (XY=ClF and BrF) complexes have been investigated with quantum chemical calculations. In general, two minima complexes were found, one with an O···X halogen bond and the other one with a S···X halogen bond. The former is more stable than the latter. Additionally, one first order saddle point complex was also observed. The interaction energies in the S complexes suffer a prominent influence from the calculation methods. At the CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pVDZ level, the interaction energies are calculated to be -9.19 and -12.73 kcal/mol for the Cl and Br global minima, respectively. Both complexes have also been evidenced to be stable at room temperature. The SO stretch vibration exhibits a red shift at the global minimum but a blue shift at the local minimum, whereas the CSC and CH stretch vibrations move to high frequency in both cases. The energy decomposition analyses indicate that the electrostatic interaction plays a dominant role in stabilizing these halogen-bonded complexes.
Paschalidis, N. P.; Mitchell, D. G.; Brandt, P. C.
2006-12-01
A detector that can simultaneously measure time, position, and pulse high analysis (PHA) of single particle/photons with high resolutions and speeds, is a strong enabling technology for many space science instruments such as: energetic neutral atom imagers, low energy neutrals, energetic particle spectrometers, ion/electron plasma analyzers, UV spectrographs, mass spectrometers, laser range finding imagers, X-ray imagers. This presentation describes one such 4-dimentional detector based on micro-channel plates (MCPs), delay line anodes, and precise time of flight, and charge integration electronics for PHA. More specifically the detector includes: a) An MCP in 2-stack or Z-stack configuration for the particle/photon detection. b) Option for a thin foil or photo-cathode in front of the MCP to increase the detection efficiency of particles or photons respectively. c) Novel 1D or 2D delay line anode adaptable to almost any geometry and physical size of common instruments mentioned above. d) Fast time of flight (TOF) electronics for the absolute time of hit and the X-Y position determination. e) Fast charge integration electronics for PHA of the total charge released by the MCP. Under certain circumstances the PHA gives information about the particle mass such as for protons, He and Oxygen, cross calibrated against UV light which typically gives a single electron distribution. f) FPGA electronics for digital data acquisition and handling. e) Standard mat lab SW for data analysis and visualization in a stand alone application. The detector achieves time of hit accuracy UV spectrograph with X-Y position only. Typical front-end power consumption at full 4D and full speed configuration is 100mW. The technology is customizable for a variety of detection area, size and geometry, as well as power -speed/resolution tradeoff.
Prony Analysis for Power System Transient Harmonics
Qi Li
2007-01-01
Full Text Available Proliferation of nonlinear loads in power systems has increased harmonic pollution and deteriorated power quality. Not required to have prior knowledge of existing harmonics, Prony analysis detects frequencies, magnitudes, phases, and especially damping factors of exponential decaying or growing transient harmonics. In this paper, Prony analysis is implemented to supervise power system transient harmonics, or time-varying harmonics. Further, to improve power quality when transient harmonics appear, the dominant harmonics identified from Prony analysis are used as the harmonic reference for harmonic selective active filters. Simulation results of two test systems during transformer energizing and induction motor starting confirm the effectiveness of the Prony analysis in supervising and canceling power system transient harmonics.
Thermodynamics of the two-dimensional XY model from functional renormalization
Jakubczyk, Pawel
2016-01-01
We solve the nonperturbative renormalization-group flow equations for the two-dimensional XY model at the truncation level of the (complete) second-order derivative expansion. We compute the thermodynamic properties in the high-temperature phase and compare the non-universal features specific to the XY model with results from Monte Carlo simulations. In particular, we study the position and magnitude of the specific heat peak as a function of temperature. The obtained results compare well with Monte Carlo simulations. We additionally gauge the accuracy of simplified nonperturbative renormalization-group treatments relying on $\\phi^4$-type truncations. Our computation indicates that such an approximation is insufficient in the high-$T$ phase and a correct analysis of the specific heat profile requires account of an infinite number of interaction vertices.
X/XY/XYY mosaicism as a cause of subfertility in boars: a single case study.
Quilter, C R; Wood, D; Southwood, O I; Griffin, D K
2003-02-01
Sex chromosome abnormalities are common in mammals and humans and are often associated with subfertility. In this study a boar with normal sperm parameters was indicated to have reduced prolificacy from figures obtained for return rate, farrowing rate and total number of piglets born. G-banded cytogenetic analysis of peripheral blood identified an abnormal mosaic sex chromosome constitution 39,XYY[74]/38,XY[23]/37,X[3]. Cytogenetic analysis of fibroblasts confirmed this mosaic karyotype with similar percentages of cell lines observed 39,XYY[76]/38,XY[19]/37,X[5]. External genitalia revealed a poorly developed scrotum with the right testicle being smaller than the left. To the best of our knowledge this is the first time that this chromosome constitution has been reported in the pig. It is of particular interest that this karyotype is associated with reduced boar fertility, which could lead to potential economic losses if such a boar were selected for breeding purposes.
Mulheres XY e a Síndrome de Insensibilidade aos Andrógenos
João Edson Marques Bandeira
2015-06-01
Full Text Available Objective: The aims are to report a case of Androgen-Insensitivity Syndrome (AIS and discuss aspects of opportune diagnosis and treatment of AIS. Case Report: C.F.F., 35, sought medical assistance reporting overweight and hypertension. During the anamnesis did not present menarche; with normal breast development, but late, around 14 years. Physical examination shows normal female external genitalia, with scarce pubic hair (P2 and the absence of axillary hair; breasts with normal development (M5. Conclusions: The result of the G band karyotype was 46, XY for the sisters and the screening in relatives revealed prepubescent girl with XY karyotype. The risk of tumor development is difficult to be predicted recently markers were identified that may be useful in determining individual risk and suggest the time of gonadectomy. The current consensus on the approach related to intersex disorders recommends gonadectomy at diagnosis for patients with AIS, after puberty, due to the ease of hormone replacement.
[Down-Turner syndrome (45,X/47,XY,+21): case report and review].
Ryu, Sook Won; Lee, Goeun; Baik, Cheong Soon; Shim, Sung Han; Kim, Jin Tack; Lee, Jung Soo; Lee, Kyung A
2010-04-01
We report the case of a 3-yr-old boy with Down-Turner mosaicism and review the previous reports of Down-Turner syndrome with documented karyotyping and clinical features. The patient showed clinical features of Down syndrome without significant stigma of Turner syndrome. Cytogenetic analysis of peripheral blood preparations by using G-banding revealed mosaicism with 2 cell lines (45,X[29]/47,XY,+21[4]). FISH analysis revealed that 87.5% of the cells had monosomy X karyotype and 12.5% of the cells had XY karyotype; trisomy 21 was only detected in the Y-positive cells. We suggest that additional cells should be analyzed and molecular genetic studies should be conducted to rule out double aneuploidy when karyotypes with sex chromosome aneuploidies and mosaicism are encountered, as in our case of Down syndrome mosaic with sex chromosome aneuploidy.
Short stature in patients with 45,X/46,XY mosaicism: report of three cases.
Lee, Chih-Fand; Su, Pen-Hua; Chen, Jia-Yuh; Chen, Suh-Jen; Yang, Kai-Chi; Lin, Li-Ling
2006-01-01
Chromosomal analysis is routinely considered in all girls--but not boys-of short stature to screen for Turner syndrome. We report three patients of short stature (body height 45,X/46,XY mosaicism karyotype. They were brought to our outpatient department at the ages of 10, 13, and 18 years, respectively. Two of them had some stigmata of Turner syndrome. Two were treated with growth hormone. In the first patient, body height increased by 20 cm in 3 years 7 months. The second case increased by 6.5 cm in 8 months. We suggest that boys with unexplained short stature should be screened with chromosomal analysis, and growth hormone treatment should be offered to boys of short stature and 45,X/46,XY mosaicism before the epiphyseal plates close.
45,X/46,XY mosaicism. A clinical review and report of ten cases.
Knudtzon, J; Aarskog, D
1987-05-01
The clinical findings in ten patients with 45,X/46,XY mosaicism are described. Three girls presented with short stature, delayed sexual development or Turner-like stigmata without signs of virilization. Bilaterally gonadoblastomas were found in two girls, and the gonads in one of these girls also contained mucinous cystadenomas. The remaining seven patients were raised as boys. Three had scrotal hypospadias and mixed gonadal dysgenesis. Three presented as male pseudohermaphrodites with scrotal or penoscrotal hypospadias and bilateral testes. One male was diagnosed in adulthood because of gynecomastia, but had normal male external genitals. The clinical findings illustrate the wide spectrum of phenotypic manifestations of 45,X/46,XY mosaicism, ranging from females with Turner-like phenotypes, phenotypic males and females with mixed gonadal dysgenesis, male pseudohermaphroditism to almost phenotypic normal males.
Thermodynamics of the two-dimensional XY model from functional renormalization.
Jakubczyk, P; Eberlein, A
2016-06-01
We solve the nonperturbative renormalization-group flow equations for the two-dimensional XY model at the truncation level of the (complete) second-order derivative expansion. We compute the thermodynamic properties in the high-temperature phase and compare the nonuniversal features specific to the XY model with results from Monte Carlo simulations. In particular, we study the position and magnitude of the specific-heat peak as a function of temperature. The obtained results compare well with Monte Carlo simulations. We additionally gauge the accuracy of simplified nonperturbative renormalization-group treatments relying on ϕ^{4}-type truncations. Our computation indicates that such an approximation is insufficient in the high-T phase and a correct analysis of the specific-heat profile requires account of an infinite number of interaction vertices.
Skew information in the XY model with staggered Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction
Qiu, Liang, E-mail: lqiu@cumt.edu.cn [School of Physics, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou, Jiangsu 221116 (China); Quan, Dongxiao [State Key Laboratory of Integrated Services Networks, Xidian University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710071 (China); Pan, Fei; Liu, Zhi [School of Physics, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou, Jiangsu 221116 (China)
2017-06-01
We study the performance of the lower bound of skew information in the vicinity of transition point for the anisotropic spin-1/2 XY chain with staggered Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction by use of quantum renormalization-group method. For a fixed value of the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction, there are two saturated values for the lower bound of skew information corresponding to the spin-fluid and Néel phases, respectively. The scaling exponent of the lower bound of skew information closely relates to the correlation length of the model and the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction shifts the factorization point. Our results show that the lower bound of skew information can be a good candidate to detect the critical point of XY spin chain with staggered Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction.
Production of intense attosecond vector beam pulse trains based on harmonics
韩玉晶; 廖国前; 陈黎明; 李玉同; 王伟民; 张杰
2015-01-01
We provide the first report on the harmonics generated by an intense femtosecond vector beam that is normally incident on a solid target. By using 2D particle-in-cell (PIC) codes, we observe the third and the fifth harmonic signals with the same vector structure as the driving beam, and obtain an attosecond vector beam pulse train. We also show that the conversion efficiencies of the third and the fifth harmonics reach their maxima for a plasma density of four times the critical density due to the plasma resonating with the driving force. This method provides a new means of generating intense extreme ultraviolet (XUV) vector beams via ultra-intense laser-driven harmonics.
Validation of phantom-based harmonization for patient harmonization.
Panetta, Joseph V; Daube-Witherspoon, Margaret E; Karp, Joel S
2017-07-01
To improve the precision of multicenter clinical trials, several efforts are underway to determine scanner-specific parameters for harmonization using standardized phantom measurements. The goal of this study was to test the correspondence between quantification in phantom and patient images and validate the use of phantoms for harmonization of patient images. The National Electrical Manufacturers' Association image quality phantom with hot spheres was scanned on two time-of-flight PET scanners. Whole-body [(18) F]-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-PET scans were acquired of subjects on the same systems. List-mode events from spheres (diam.: 10-28 mm) measured in air on each scanner were embedded into the phantom and subject list-mode data from each scanner to create lesions with known uptake with respect to the local background in the phantom and each subject's liver and lung regions, as a proxy to characterize true lesion quantification. Images were analyzed using the contrast recovery coefficient (CRC) typically used in phantom studies and serving as a surrogate for the standardized uptake value used clinically. Postreconstruction filtering (resolution recovery and Gaussian smoothing) was applied to determine if the effect on the phantom images translates equivalently to subject images. Three postfiltering strategies were selected to harmonize the CRCmean or CRCmax values between the two scanners based on the phantom measurements and then applied to the subject images. Both the average CRCmean and CRCmax values for lesions embedded in the lung and liver in four subjects (BMI range 25-38) agreed to within 5% with the CRC values for lesions embedded in the phantom for all lesion sizes. In addition, the relative changes in CRCmean and CRCmax resulting from the application of the postfilters on the subject and phantom images were consistent within measurement uncertainty. Further, the root mean squared percent difference (RMSpd ) between CRC values on the two scanners
A. Sadeghi
2007-03-01
Full Text Available Using both mean field renormalization group (MFRG and Surface-Bulk MFRG (SBMFRG, we study the critical behavior of the classical Heisenberg and XY models on a simple cubic lattice. Critical temperatures as well as critical exponents, characteristic the universality classes of these two models were calculated, analytically for1, 2, 3 and 4 spin clusters. The results are in good agreement with higher accurate methods such as Monte Carlo and High- temperature series.
Disentanglement of Two Qubits Coupled to an XY Spin Chain at Finite Temperature
NIE Jing; WANG Lin-Cheng; YI Xue-Xi
2009-01-01
The disentanglement evolution of bipartite spin-1/2 system coupled to a common surrounding XY chain in transverse fields at nonzero temperature is studied in this letter. The dynamical process of the entanglement is numerically and anaiytically investigated. We find that thermal effects can enhance disentanglement if the entangled initial state of the central spins does not in the decoherenee free space. The critical phenomenon of quantum phase transitions reflected in the disentanglement can be washed out by the thermal effect eventually.
Monochorionic twins with the same blood karyotype of 46,XY/47,XYY but different phenotypes.
Wuttikonsammakit, Piyawadee; Tanawattanacharoen, Somchai; Uerpairojkit, Boonchai
2010-02-01
We report the case of a 13-year-old woman who was pregnant with phenotypically discordant monochorionic twins: one with cystic hygroma and hydrops, the other one normal. Fetal blood sampling was performed by intrahepatic blood collection for karyotyping of both fetuses, revealing the same genotype of 46,XY/47,XYY in 2:1 proportion. Phenotypic discordance in monozygotic twins can have various causes, such as placental vascular anatomy, differences in allocation of the number of blastomeres or genetic postzygotic events.
Classical XY model with conserved angular momentum is an archetypal non-Newtonian fluid.
Evans, R M L; Hall, Craig A; Simha, R Aditi; Welsh, Tom S
2015-04-03
We find that the classical one-dimensional XY model, with angular-momentum-conserving Langevin dynamics, mimics the non-Newtonian flow regimes characteristic of soft matter when subjected to counterrotating boundaries. An elaborate steady-state phase diagram has continuous and first-order transitions between states of uniform flow, shear-banding, solid-fluid coexistence and slip planes. Results of numerical studies and a concise mean-field constitutive relation offer a paradigm for diverse nonequilibrium complex fluids.
Monte Carlo Study of the Xy-Model on SIERPIŃSKI Carpet
Mitrović, Božidar; Przedborski, Michelle A.
2014-09-01
We have performed a Monte Carlo (MC) study of the classical XY-model on a Sierpiński carpet, which is a planar fractal structure with infinite order of ramification and fractal dimension 1.8928. We employed the Wolff cluster algorithm in our simulations and our results, in particular those for the susceptibility and the helicity modulus, indicate the absence of finite-temperature Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless (BKT) transition in this system.
Absence of phase transition in the XY-model on Menger sponge
Przedborski, M. A.; Mitrović, B.
2014-04-01
We have performed a Monte Carlo study of the classical XY-model on a Menger sponge with the Wolff cluster algorithm (U. Wolff, 1989). The Menger sponge is a fractal object with infinite order of ramification and fractal dimension D=log(20)/log(3)=2.7268. From the dependence of the helicity modulus on system size and on boundary conditions, we conclude that there is no phase transition in the system at any finite temperature.
XY and ZW: Is Meiotic Sex Chromosome Inactivation the Rule in Evolution?
Sam Schoenmakers; Evelyne Wassenaar; Hoogerbrugge, Jos W.; Laven, Joop S E; J Anton Grootegoed; Baarends, Willy M.
2009-01-01
During meiotic prophase in male mammals, the heterologous X and Y chromosomes remain largely unsynapsed, and meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI) leads to formation of the transcriptionally silenced XY body. In birds, the heterogametic sex is female, carrying Z and W chromosomes (ZW), whereas males have the homogametic ZZ constitution. During chicken oogenesis, the heterologous ZW pair reaches a state of complete heterologous synapsis, and this might enable maintenance of transcription ...
Particle parameter analyzing system. [x-y plotter circuits and display
Hansen, D. O.; Roy, N. L. (Inventor)
1969-01-01
An X-Y plotter circuit apparatus is described which displays an input pulse representing particle parameter information, that would ordinarily appear on the screen of an oscilloscope as a rectangular pulse, as a single dot positioned on the screen where the upper right hand corner of the input pulse would have appeared. If another event occurs, and it is desired to display this event, the apparatus is provided to replace the dot with a short horizontal line.
Regions of XY homology in the pig X chromosome and the boundary of the pseudoautosomal region
Skinner Benjamin M
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Sex chromosomes are subject to evolutionary pressures distinct from the remainder of the genome, shaping their structure and sequence content. We are interested in the sex chromosomes of domestic pigs (Sus scrofa, how their structure and gene content compares and contrasts with other mammalian species, and the role of sex-linked genes in fertility. This requires an understanding of the XY-homologous sequence on these chromosomes. To this end, we performed microarray-based comparative genomic hybridisation (array-CGH with male and female Duroc genomic DNA on a pig X-chromosome BAC tiling-path microarray. Putative XY-homologous BACs from regions of interest were subsequently FISH mapped. Results We show that the porcine PAR is approximately 6.5-6.9 Mb at the beginning of the short arm of the X, with gene content reflective of the artiodactyl common ancestor. Our array-CGH data also shows an XY-homologous region close to the end of the X long arm, spanning three X BACs. These BACs were FISH mapped, and paint the entire long arm of SSCY. Further clones of interest revealed X-autosomal homology or regions containing repetitive content. Conclusions This study has identified regions of XY homology in the pig genome, and defined the boundary of the PAR on the X chromosome. This adds to our understanding of the evolution of the sex chromosomes in different mammalian lineages, and will prove valuable for future comparative genomic work in suids and for the construction and annotation of the genome sequence for the sex chromosomes. Our finding that the SSCYq repetitive content has corresponding sequence on the X chromosome gives further insight into structure of SSCY, and suggests further functionally important sequences remain to be discovered on the X and Y.
45,X/46,XY mosaicism: report on 14 patients from a Brazilian hospital. A retrospective study
Rafael Fabiano Machado Rosa; Willy Francisco Bartel D'Ecclesiis; Raquel Papandreus Dibbi; Rosana Cardoso Manique Rosa; Patrícia Trevisan; Carla Graziadio; Giorgio Adriano Paskulin; Paulo Ricardo Gazzola Zen
2014-01-01
CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: 45,X/46,XY mosaicism, or mixed gonadal dysgenesis, is considered to be a rare disorder of sex development. The aim of our study was to investigate the clinical and cytogenetic characteristics of patients with this mosaicism.DESIGN AND SETTING: A retrospective study in a referral hospital in southern Brazil.METHODS: Our sample consisted of patients diagnosed at the clinical genetics service of a referral hospital in southern Brazil, from 1975 to 2012. Clinical and cytoge...
The phenotype of 45,X/46,XY mosaicism: an analysis of 92 prenatally diagnosed cases.
Chang, H.J.; Clark, R. D.; Bachman, H
1990-01-01
We undertook an international survey of prenatally diagnosed 45,X/46,XY mosaicism to ascertain the phenotypic spectrum of this condition. Ninety-two cases were obtained by means of a questionnaire sent to over 730 cytogenetic laboratories. Seventy-six cases (75 males and 1 female) had physical examinations after delivery or termination of pregnancy. Among these, there were four significant genital anomalies: three hypospadias and one female with clitoromegaly. Gonadal histology was abnormal i...
Uniparental Disomy in Somatic Mosaicism 45,X/46,XY/46,XX Associated with Ambiguous Genitalia.
Serra, Alexandre; Denzer, Friederike; Hiort, Olaf; Barth, Thomas F; Henne-Bruns, Doris; Barbi, Gotthold; Rettenberger, Günther; Wabitsch, Martin; Just, Walter; Leriche, Clothilde
2015-01-01
Disorders of sex development (DSD) affect the development of chromosomal, gonadal and/or anatomical sex. We analyzed a patient with ambiguous genitalia aiming to correlate the genetic findings with the phenotype. Blood and tissue samples from a male patient with penoscrotal hypospadias were analyzed by immunohistochemistry, karyotyping and FISH. DNA was sequenced for the AR, SRY and DHH genes, and further 26 loci in different sex chromosomes were analyzed by MLPA. The gonosomal origin was evaluated by simple tandem repeat (STR) analysis and SNP array. Histopathology revealed a streak gonad, a fallopian tube and a rudimentary uterus, positive for placental alkaline phosphatase, cytokeratin-7 and c-kit, and negative for estrogen, androgen and progesterone receptors, alpha-inhibin, alpha-1-fetoprotein, β-hCG, and oct-4. Karyotyping showed a 45,X/46,XY mosaicism, yet FISH showed both 46,XX/46,XY mosaicism (gonad and urethral plate), 46,XX (uterus and tube) and 46,XY karyotypes (rudimentary testicular tissue). DNA sequencing revealed intact sequences in SOX9, WNT4, NR0B1, NR5A1, CYP21A2, SRY, AR, and DHH. STR analysis showed only one maternal allele for all X chromosome markers (uniparental isodisomy, UPD), with a weaker SRY signal and a 4:1 ratio in the X:Y signal. Our findings suggest that the observed complex DSD phenotype is the result of somatic gonosomal mosaicism and UPD despite a normal blood karyotype. The presence of UPD warrants adequate genetic counseling for the family and frequent, lifelong, preventive follow-up controls in the patient.
The size effect of the quantum coherence in the transverse-field XY chain
Wang, Lu; Yang, Cui-hong; Wang, Jun-feng [Department of Physics, Nanjing University of Information Science & Technology, Nanjing 210044 (China); Lei, Shu-guo, E-mail: sglei@njtech.edu.cn [College of Science, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing, 211816 (China)
2016-12-15
Based on the Wigner–Yanase skew information, the size effect of the quantum coherence in the ground state of the finite transverse-field spin-1/2 XY chain is explored. It is found that the first-order derivatives of the single-spin coherence and the two-spin local coherence both have scaling behaviors in the vicinity of the critical point. A simplified version of coherence is also studied and the same characteristics with its counterpart are found.
Influence of Non-Uniform Magnetic Field on Quantum Teleportation in Heisenberg XY Model
SHAO Bin; YANG Tie-jian; ZHAO Yue-hong; ZOU Jian
2007-01-01
By considering the intrinsic decoherence, the validity of quantum teleportation of a two-qubit 1D Heisenberg XY chain in a non-uniform external magnetic field is studied. The fidelity as the measurement of a possible quantum teleportation is calculated and the effects of the non-uniform magnetic field and the intrinsic decoherence are discussed. It is found that anti-parallel magnetic field is more favorable for teleportation and the fidelity is suppressed by the intrinsic decoherence.
Kawamura, E.; Lichtenberg, A. J.; Lieberman, M. A.; Marakhtanov, A. M.
2016-06-01
A fast 2D axisymmetric fluid-analytical multifrequency capacitively coupled plasma (CCP) reactor code is used to study center high nonuniformity in a low pressure electronegative chlorine discharge. In the code, a time-independent Helmholtz wave equation is used to solve for the capacitive fields in the linearized frequency domain. This eliminates the time dependence from the electromagnetic (EM) solve, greatly speeding up the simulations at the cost of neglecting higher harmonics. However, since the code allows up to three driving frequencies, we can add the two most important harmonics to the CCP simulations as the second and third input frequencies. The amplitude and phase of these harmonics are estimated by using a recently developed 1D radial nonlinear transmission line (TL) model of a highly asymmetric cylindrical discharge (Lieberman et al 2015 Plasma Sources Sci. Technol. 24 055011). We find that at higher applied frequencies, the higher harmonics contribute significantly to the center high nonuniformity due to their shorter plasma wavelengths.
Kinematic optimization of 2D plunging airfoil motion using the response surface methodology
Mahmoud MEKADEM; Taha CHETTIBI; Samir HANCHI; Laurent KEIRSBULCK; Larbi LABRAGA
2012-01-01
The propulsive efficiency of a plunging NACA0012 airfoil is maximized by means of a simple numerical optimization method based on the response surface methodology (RSM).The control parameters are the amplitude and the reduced frequency of the harmonic sinusoidal motion.The 2D unsteady laminar flow around the plunging airfoil is computed by solving the Navier-Stokes equations for three Reynolds number values (Re =3.3 × 103,1.1 × 104,and 2.2× 104).The Nelder-Mead algorithm is used to find the best control parameters leading to the optimal propulsive efficiency over the constructed response surfaces.It is found that,for a given efficiency level and regardless of the considered Re value,it is possible either to obtain high thrust by selecting a high oscillation frequency or to reduce the input power by adopting a low plunging amplitude.
Chae, Dongho; Constantin, Peter; Wu, Jiahong
2014-09-01
We give an example of a well posed, finite energy, 2D incompressible active scalar equation with the same scaling as the surface quasi-geostrophic equation and prove that it can produce finite time singularities. In spite of its simplicity, this seems to be the first such example. Further, we construct explicit solutions of the 2D Boussinesq equations whose gradients grow exponentially in time for all time. In addition, we introduce a variant of the 2D Boussinesq equations which is perhaps a more faithful companion of the 3D axisymmetric Euler equations than the usual 2D Boussinesq equations.
A rare case report on ovotesticular disorders of sex development (DSD 46XY variant
Sujata Swain
2014-08-01
Full Text Available Ovotestis refers to the histology of a gonad that contains both ovarian follicles and testicular tubular elements. Ovotesticular DSD is a rare condition characterized by mixed ovarian and testicular tissue. Majority have a 46,XX karyotype, 7% have 46,XY karyotype and 10-40% exhibit chromosomal mosaicism. Here, we report the case of a boy with a 46,XY karyotype diagnosed as ovotesticular DSD by gonadal biopsy. A 14 year-old reared as boy presented with came with ambiguous genitalia with no palpable gonads since birth and developed progressive virilization and gynaecomastia at puberty having curved phallus with glans, redundant prepucial skin, labia majora and hypoplastic labia minora, rudimentary vagina with small introitus was present. External urethral meatus present lower down the vestibular area above the introitus. Testicles not felt. USG - revealed definite uterus behind Urinary bladder with small intraabdominal testes. Karyotyping - 46XY Barr body present. Diagnostic laparoscopy showed Uterus with bilateral fallopian tubes. Bilateral gonadectomy done. Histopathologic examination report revealed bilateral gonadoblastoma in testis and ovotestis. Patient underwent transperitoneal excision of Mullerian remnants. Patient was discharged with an advice of cap testosterone undecanoate and regular follow up. We highlight the importance of histological and cytogenetic investigation in DSD. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2014; 3(4.000: 1163-1166
Restricted expression of Ovol2/MOVO in XY body of mouse spermatocytes at the pachytene stage.
Chizaki, Ryusuke; Yao, Ikuko; Katano, Tayo; Matsuda, Tadashi; Ito, Seiji
2012-01-01
The development of multicellular organisms is controlled by sequential activation of a hierarchy of regulatory genes, which encode transcription factors having DNA-binding motifs. We previously identified a testis-specific zinc finger transcriptional factor, Ovol2/MOVO, as a mouse homologue of Drosophila Ovo. Because mice deficient in Ovol2/Movo die during early embryogenesis, its function in male germ cells has remained unknown. We have recently succeeded in preparing anti-Ovol2/MOVO antiserum for immunohistochemical use. In the present study, we demonstrated that Ovol2/MOVO protein started to be expressed in male germ cells at 2 weeks after birth and that Ovol2/MOVO expression was restricted to the XY body in spermatocytes at the pachytene stage. In a reporter assay, Ovol2/MOVO repressed the histone H1t promoter activity in the spermatogenic cell line GC-2spd. These results suggest that Ovol2/MOVO may play an important role in the XY body during spermatogenesis, possibly in the processes of XY body formation and meiotic sex chromosome inactivation.
Synapsis, recombination, and chromatin remodeling in the XY body of armadillos.
Sciurano, Roberta B; Rahn, Mónica I; Rossi, Luis; Luaces, Juan Pablo; Merani, María Susana; Solari, Alberto J
2012-02-01
Three xenarthrans species Chaetophractus villosus, Chaetophractus vellerosus, and Zaedyus pichiy have been used for the analysis of the structure, behavior, and immunochemical features of the XY body during pachytene. In all these species, the sex chromosomes form an XY body easily identifiable in thin sections by the special and regular packing of the chromatin fibers of the internal region of the XY body ("differential" regions) and those of the peripheral region (synaptic region). Spermatocyte spreads show a complete synapsis between the X- and the Y-axis, which lasts up to the end of pachytene. From the early pachytene substages to the late ones, the X-axis develops prominent branches, which in late pachytene span the synaptic region. Synapsis is regular as shown by SYCP1 labeling. Axial development is followed by SYCP3 labeling and in the asynaptic region of the X-axis by BRCA1. Gamma-H2AX labels exclusively the differential (asynaptic) region of the X chromosome. A single focus is labeled by MLH1 in the synaptic region. The location of this MLH1 focus spans from 0.3 to 1.6 μm from the telomere in the analyzed xenarthrans, covering approximately half of the Y-axis length. It is concluded that xenarthrans, as basal placental mammals, harbor the largest pseudoautosomal regions of presently analyzed mammals, and shows the typical features of meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI).
The phenotype of 45,X/46,XY mosaicism: an analysis of 92 prenatally diagnosed cases.
Chang, H J; Clark, R D; Bachman, H
1990-01-01
We undertook an international survey of prenatally diagnosed 45,X/46,XY mosaicism to ascertain the phenotypic spectrum of this condition. Ninety-two cases were obtained by means of a questionnaire sent to over 730 cytogenetic laboratories. Seventy-six cases (75 males and 1 female) had physical examinations after delivery or termination of pregnancy. Among these, there were four significant genital anomalies: three hypospadias and one female with clitoromegaly. Gonadal histology was abnormal in three (27%) of 11 cases, all of whom had normal male external genitalia. Other anomalies were noted in five cases: one cystic hygroma in a male, two cardiac anomalies, one spina bifida with multiple other defects, and one intrauterine growth retardation. There was no relationship between the percent mosaicism and the presence or degree of abnormalities. We conclude that 95% of 45,X/46,XY fetuses will have normal male genitalia, although there will also be a significant risk (27%) for abnormal gonadal histology. Long-term follow-up studies of prenatally diagnosed cases of 45,X/46,XY mosaicism are needed to study, without ascertainment bias, stature, pubertal development, tumor risk, and fertility.
Cell line segregation in a 45,X/46,XY mosaic child with asymmetric leg growth.
Papenhausen, P R; Mueller, O T; Bercu, B; Salazar, J; Tedesco, T A
1991-09-01
Clinical evaluation of a 13 1/2-year-old male revealed a 4.4-cm leg length discrepancy and a small penis with a normal endocrine evaluation. Cytogenetic analysis of peripheral blood lymphocytes and skin fibroblasts derived from the back showed 45,X/46,XY mosaicism with similar percentages of 45,X cells, 36% and 30% respectively. However, two separate skin fibroblast cultures derived from the thigh and calf of the short (right) leg showed significant lack of Y-bearing cells with 100% and 80% 45,X, respectively. In contrast, skin biopsies of the thigh and calf of the normal (left) leg both showed 100% 46,XY. Similar evidence for differences in the percentages of Y-bearing cells in the left versus right leg fibroblast cultures was obtained using densitometric scanning of dot blots following DNA hybridization with a Y-specific probe at the DYZ4 locus. Asymmetric limb growth in cases of X/XY lymphocyte mosaicism warrants further cytogenetic investigation to substantiate possible genotype-phenotype correlations which may help uncover the fundamental growth deficiency in Turner syndrome.
45,X/46,XY mosaicism: contrast of prenatal and postnatal diagnosis.
Wheeler, M; Peakman, D; Robinson, A; Henry, G
1988-03-01
The process of prenatal diagnosis is unique in that the diagnosis and prognosis are made without seeing the patient. 45,X/46,XY mosaicism presents a special problem in this regard. The phenotype of 45,X/46,XY postnatally diagnosed children (pediatric group) was compared to that of 6 fetuses who were diagnosed from 7,000 amniocenteses (prenatal group). These amniocenteses were performed primarily because of an increased risk of chromosome abnormality. The pediatric group (age birth-18 yr) were all phenotypically abnormal, although none were mentally retarded. Seven patients presented with ambiguous genitalia, while 2 had primary amenorrhea. Sexual assignment was changed in 2. Abnormalities included rudimentary phallus, urogenital sinus, hypospadias, undescended testes, and short stature. All 9 patients required at least one surgical procedure. In contrast, the prenatally diagnosed fetuses (ages 3 months to 3 1/2 yr) were all phenotypically normal males. Four were noted to have male genitalia on ultrasonography. Thus, the phenotype of 45,X/46,XY mosaicism in prenatally diagnosed fetuses can be markedly different from that of individuals diagnosed postnatally. This must be considered when counseling patients.
Critical properties of XY model on two-layer Villain-ferromagnetic lattice
Wang Yi; R. Quartu; Liu Xiao-Yan; Han Ru-Qi; Horiguchi Tsuyoshi
2004-01-01
We investigate phase transitions of the XY model on a two-layer square lattice which consists of a Villain plane(J) and a ferromagnetic plane (I), using Monte Carlo simulations and a histogram method. Depending on the values of interaction parameters (I, J), the system presents three phases: namely, a Kosterlitz-Thouless (KT) phase in which the two planes are critical for I predominant over J, a chiral phase in which the two planes have a chiral order for J predominant over I and a new phase in which only the Villain plane has a chiral order and the ferromagnetic plane is paramagnetic with a small value of chirality. We clarify the nature of phase transitions by using a finite size scaling method. We find three different kinds of transitions according to the values of (I, J): the KT transition, the Ising transition and an XY-Ising transition with v = 0.849(3). It turns out that the Ising or XY-Ising transition is associated with the disappearance of the chiral order in the Villain plane.
A case of Klinefelter syndrome, mosaicism (46,XY/47,XXY), associated with anorexia nervosa.
Gritti, A; Salerno, F; Pisano, S; Formicola, F; Melis, D; Franzese, A
2011-03-01
We report the case of a 12.4-yr-old boy who presented Klinefelter syndrome (KS) mosaicism (46,XY/47,XXY), associated with mental retardation and anorexia nervosa (AN). KS was undiagnosed before hospitalization in a psychiatric unit. The patient was referred to a child psychiatric unit for restrictive eating. The medical history showed long standing feeding difficulties and failure to thrive. The patient was pre-pubertal and other clinical characteristics were: microcephaly, short stature and dysmorphic traits. Cytogenetic analysis revealed a mosaicism, 46,XY[11] and 47,XXY[19] karyotype. The psychiatric assessment demonstrated the presence of AN and low mood. No specific pathophysiological links between the alterations of KS and the development of AN should be hypothesized on the basis of this case report. In pre-pubertal boys with mental disorders, the possibility of KS should be considered, independently of the presence of eating disorders. Nevertheless, the case shows that KS can be first detected during an assessment for eating disorders. Few cases of the association of KS with AN have been previously reported in literature. This is the first description of KS, mosaicism (46,XY/47,XXY), associated with AN and mental retardation. This case report illustrates the need, for clinicians who work with eating disorders, to investigate the possible association between AN and KS, a rare but intriguing one.
Wang, J Y; Samura, O; Zhen, D K; Cowan, J M; Cardone, V; Summers, M; Bianchi, D W
2000-07-01
Sex-chromosome mosaicism in spermatozoa from a mosaic 47,XYY[20%]/46, XY[80%] male with fertility problems was assessed using triple-probe fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) studies. Chromosome-specific probes for X, Y and 18 were used, and the possible outcomes were deduced. In normal haploid spermatozoa of the patient and a normal 46,XY male control, the X:Y ratio was close to 1:1. There was a significant difference in the total incidence of karyotypically abnormal spermatozoa between the patient and the 46, XY male control (2.31% versus 1.46%, P genetic diagnosis may increase the likelihood of a successful pregnancy.
Pan, Li-Hua; Hou, Peng-Fei; Chen, Jia-Yun
2016-08-01
The 2D steady-state solutions regarding the expressions of stress and strain for fluid-saturated, orthotropic, poroelastic plane are derived in this paper. For this object, the general solutions of the corresponding governing equation are first obtained and expressed in harmonic functions. Based on these compact general solutions, the suitable harmonic functions with undetermined constants for line fluid source in the interior of infinite poroelastic body and a line fluid source on the surface of semi-infinite poroelastic body are presented, respectively. The fundamental solutions can be obtained by substituting these functions into the general solution, and the undetermined constants can be obtained by the continuous conditions, equilibrium conditions and boundary conditions.
New Type of 2-D Laser Doppler Vibrometer
无
2001-01-01
The fundamentals and method of 2-D laser Doppler vibrometer are introduced．The factors influencing the measuring accuracy are analyzed. Moreover, the circuit for signal processing is designed. The vibrating amplitude and frequency of 2-D vibration in wider range can be measured simultaneously in non-contact means，the measuring results are accurate.
Animación 2D: curriculum vitae animado
CANTOS BELMONTE, CONSUELO
2015-01-01
Trabajo Fin de Grado de animación 2D donde un personaje (alter ego de la animadora) expone, mediante la interación con una Voz en Off y su sombra, el curriclum vitae de la animadora. Cantos Belmonte, C. (2014). Animación 2D: curriculum vitae animado. http://hdl.handle.net/10251/45910. Archivo delegado
Symmetries and solvable models for evaporating 2D black holes
Cruz, J; Navarro-Salas, J; Talavera, C F
1997-01-01
We study the evaporation process of a 2D black hole in thermal equilibrium when the ingoing radiation is switched off suddenly. We also introduce global symmetries of generic 2D dilaton gravity models which generalize the extra symmetry of the CGHS model.
From 2D Lithography to 3D Patterning
Van Zeijl, H.W.; Wei, J.; Shen, C.; Verhaar, T.M.; Sarro, P.M.
2010-01-01
Lithography as developed for IC device fabrication is a high volume high accuracy patterning technology with strong 2 dimensional (2D) characteristics. This 2D nature makes it a challenge to integrate this technology in a 3 dimensional (3D) manufacturing environment. This article addresses the perfo
Two-Dimensional Gel Electrophoresis and 2D-DIGE.
Meleady, Paula
2018-01-01
Two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE) continues to be one of the most versatile and widely used techniques to study the proteome of a biological system. In particular, a modified version of 2D-PAGE, two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE), which uses differential labeling of protein samples with up to three fluorescent tags, offers greater sensitivity and reproducibility over conventional 2D-PAGE gels for differential quantitative analysis of protein expression between experimental groups. Both these methods have distinct advantages in the separation and identification of thousands of individual proteins species including protein isoforms and post-translational modifications. This review will discuss the principles of 2D-PAGE and 2D-DIGE including limitations to the methods. 2D-PAGE and 2D-DIGE continue to be popular methods in bioprocessing-related research (particularly on recombinant Chinese hamster ovary cells), which will also be discussed in the review chapter.
From 2D Lithography to 3D Patterning
Van Zeijl, H.W.; Wei, J.; Shen, C.; Verhaar, T.M.; Sarro, P.M.
2010-01-01
Lithography as developed for IC device fabrication is a high volume high accuracy patterning technology with strong 2 dimensional (2D) characteristics. This 2D nature makes it a challenge to integrate this technology in a 3 dimensional (3D) manufacturing environment. This article addresses the
Cascading Constrained 2-D Arrays using Periodic Merging Arrays
Forchhammer, Søren; Laursen, Torben Vaarby
2003-01-01
We consider a method for designing 2-D constrained codes by cascading finite width arrays using predefined finite width periodic merging arrays. This provides a constructive lower bound on the capacity of the 2-D constrained code. Examples include symmetric RLL and density constrained codes....... Numerical results for the capacities are presented....
Energy Efficiency of D2D Multi-User Cooperation.
Zhang, Zufan; Wang, Lu; Zhang, Jie
2017-03-28
The Device-to-Device (D2D) communication system is an important part of heterogeneous networks. It has great potential to improve spectrum efficiency, throughput and energy efficiency cooperation of multiple D2D users with the advantage of direct communication. When cooperating, D2D users expend extraordinary energy to relay data to other D2D users. Hence, the remaining energy of D2D users determines the life of the system. This paper proposes a cooperation scheme for multiple D2D users who reuse the orthogonal spectrum and are interested in the same data by aiming to solve the energy problem of D2D users. Considering both energy availability and the Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) of each D2D user, the Kuhn-Munkres algorithm is introduced in the cooperation scheme to solve relay selection problems. Thus, the cooperation issue is transformed into a maximum weighted matching (MWM) problem. In order to enhance energy efficiency without the deterioration of Quality of Service (QoS), the link outage probability is derived according to the Shannon Equation by considering the data rate and delay. The simulation studies the relationships among the number of cooperative users, the length of shared data, the number of data packets and energy efficiency.
The relation between Euclidean and Lorentzian 2D quantum gravity
Ambjørn, J.; Correia, J.; Kristjansen, C.; Loll, R.
2006-01-01
Starting from 2D Euclidean quantum gravity, we show that one recovers 2D Lorentzian quantum gravity by removing all baby universes. Using a peeling procedure to decompose the discrete, triangulated geometries along a one-dimensional path, we explicitly associate with each Euclidean space-time a (gen
Coupled Mode Equation Modeling for Out-of-Plane Gap Solitons in 2D Photonic Crystals
Dohnal, Tomas
2012-01-01
Out-of-plane gap solitons in 2D photonic crystals are optical beams localized in the plane of periodicity of the medium and delocalized in the orthogonal direction, in which they propagate with a nonzero velocity. We study such gap solitons as described by the Kerr nonlinear Maxwell system. Using a model of the nonlinear polarization, which does not generate higher harmonics, we obtain a closed curl-curl problem for the fundamental harmonic of the gap soliton. For gap solitons with frequencies inside spectral gaps and in an asymptotic vicinity of a gap edge we use a slowly varying envelope approximation based on the linear Bloch waves at the edge and slowly varying envelopes. We carry out a systematic derivation of the coupled mode equations (CMEs) which govern the envelopes. This derivation needs to be carried out in Bloch variables. The CMEs are a system of coupled nonlinear stationary Schr\\"odinger equations with an additional cross derivative term. Examples of gap soliton approximations are numerically co...
Synthesis and chemistry of elemental 2D materials
Mannix, Andrew J.; Kiraly, Brian T.; Hersam, Mark C.; Guisinger, Nathan P.
2017-01-25
2D materials have attracted considerable attention in the past decade for their superlative physical properties. These materials consist of atomically thin sheets exhibiting covalent in-plane bonding and weak interlayer and layer-substrate bonding. Following the example of graphene, most emerging 2D materials are derived from structures that can be isolated from bulk phases of layered materials, which form a limited library for new materials discovery. Entirely synthetic 2D materials provide access to a greater range of properties through the choice of constituent elements and substrates. Of particular interest are elemental 2D materials, because they provide the most chemically tractable case for synthetic exploration. In this Review, we explore the progress made in the synthesis and chemistry of synthetic elemental 2D materials, and offer perspectives and challenges for the future of this emerging field.
2D materials and van der Waals heterostructures.
Novoselov, K S; Mishchenko, A; Carvalho, A; Castro Neto, A H
2016-07-29
The physics of two-dimensional (2D) materials and heterostructures based on such crystals has been developing extremely fast. With these new materials, truly 2D physics has begun to appear (for instance, the absence of long-range order, 2D excitons, commensurate-incommensurate transition, etc.). Novel heterostructure devices--such as tunneling transistors, resonant tunneling diodes, and light-emitting diodes--are also starting to emerge. Composed from individual 2D crystals, such devices use the properties of those materials to create functionalities that are not accessible in other heterostructures. Here we review the properties of novel 2D crystals and examine how their properties are used in new heterostructure devices.
Harmonic morphisms and subharmonic functions
Gabjin Yun
2005-03-01
Full Text Available Let M be a complete Riemannian manifold and N a complete noncompact Riemannian manifold. Let ÃÂ•:MÃ¢Â†Â’N be a surjective harmonic morphism. We prove that if N admits a subharmonic function with finite Dirichlet integral which is not harmonic, and ÃÂ• has finite energy, then ÃÂ• is a constant map. Similarly, if f is a subharmonic function on N which is not harmonic and such that |df| is bounded, and if Ã¢ÂˆÂ«M|dÃÂ•|<Ã¢ÂˆÂž, then ÃÂ• is a constant map. We also show that if Nm(mÃ¢Â‰Â¥3 has at least two ends of infinite volume satisfying the Sobolev inequality or positivity of the first eigenvalue of the Laplacian, then there are no nonconstant surjective harmonic morphisms with finite energy. For p-harmonic morphisms, similar results hold.
TAX HARMONIZATION VERSUS FISCAL COMPETITION
Florin Alexandru MACSIM
2016-12-01
Full Text Available Recent years have brought into discussion once again subjects like tax harmonization and fiscal competition. Every time the European Union tends to take a step forward critics enter the scene and give contrary arguments to European integration. Through this article we have offered our readers a compelling view over the “battle” between tax harmonization and fiscal competition. While tax harmonization has key advantages as less costs regarding public revenues, leads to higher degree of integration and allows the usage of fiscal transfers between regions, fiscal competition is no less and presents key advantages as high reductions in tax rates and opens a large path for new investments, especially FDI. Choosing tax harmonization or fiscal competition depends on a multitude of variables, of circumstances, the decision of choosing one path or the other being ultimately influenced by the view of central and local authorities. Our analysis indicates that if we refer to a group of countries that are a part of a monetary union or that form a federation, tax harmonization seems to be the best path to choose. Moving the analysis to a group of regions that aren’t taking any kind of correlated actions or that have not signed any major treaties regarding monetary or fiscal policies, the optimal solution is fiscal competition.
Meiotic behaviour and sperm aneuploidy in an infertile man with a mosaic 45,X/46,XY karyotype.
Ren, He; Chow, Victor; Ma, Sai
2015-12-01
The meiotic behaviour of the germ cells in 45,X/46,XY men has not been extensively studied. This study investigated the meiotic events and sperm aneuploidy in an azoospermic man with a 45,X/46,XY (50/50) mosaic karyotype to better understand the fate of the 45,X cells and the production of chromosomally abnormal spermatozoa. Combining immunofluorescence techniques and fluorescence in-situ hybridization, meiotic recombination, synapsis, meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI) and configuration were analysed, as well as sperm aneuploidy in the patient and 10 normal, fertile men. Despite the 50:50 somatic mosaicism in the patient, 25% of pachytene cells analysed were 45,X. Furthermore, 63% of pachytene cells were 46,XY with paired sex chromosomes, and 12% were 46,XY with unpaired sex chromosomes, which displayed abnormal MCSI patterns. Although the patient's testicular spermatozoa showed increased aneuploidy, the majority were of normal constitution. The X:Y sperm ratio was significantly increased compared with the controls (P < 0.001), which may indicate that some 45,X cells gave rise to X-bearing spermatozoa. The findings provide insight into the fate of 45,X/46,XY cells in meiosis, supporting the hypothesis that stringent checkpoints ensure the favourable production of spermatozoa with normal chromosomal constitution despite an individual's abnormal karyotype.
Modeling of Ionospheric Delay for SBAS Using Spherical Harmonics Functions
Deokhwa Han
2013-06-01
Full Text Available In SBAS (satellite-based augmentation system, it is important to estimate ionospheric delay accurately to guarantee user's accuracy and integrity. Grid based ionospheric models are generally used to estimate ionospheric delay for SBAS. In grid based model, SBAS broadcasts vertical ionospheric delays at the grid point, and users get their ionospheric delay by interpolating those values. Ionospheric model based on spherical harmonics function is another method to estimate ionospheric delay. This is a function based approach and spherical harmonics function is a 2-D fourier series, containing the product of latitude dependent associated Legendre functions and the sum of the longitude dependent sine and cosine terms. Using ionospheric delay measurements, coefficients for each spherical harmonics functions are estimated. If these coefficients are known, user can reconstruct ionospheric delay. In this paper, we consider the spherical harmonics based model and propose a ionospheric delay estimation strategy for SBAS that can be used to mitigate ionospheric delay estimation error, especially in storm condition. First, coefficients are estimated under initial order and degree. Then residual errors for each measurement are modeled by higher order and degree terms, then coefficients for these terms are estimated. Because SBAS message capacity is limited, in normal condition, initial order terms are only used to estimate ionospheric delay. If ionospheric storm is detected and there is need to mitigate the error, higher order terms are also used and error can be decreased. To compare the accuracy of spherical harmonics based model with grid based model, some post-processing test results are presented. Raw observation data is obtained from RINEX format and the root mean square(RMS and max value of residual errors are presented.
Rani, Sunita; Mohan, Devendra; Kishore, Nawal
2014-01-24
Degenerate four-wave mixing (DFWM) experiment is performed to obtain light wavefront inversion (phase conjugation) in semiconducting chalcogenide thin films. Third order nonlinearity of amorphous Zn(x)-S(y)-Se(100-x-y) chalcogenide thin films using DFWM technique is studied at second harmonic of Nd:YAG laser. Influence of total input irradiance on phase conjugate signal is deliberated using log-log plot that has a slope of three and hence implies third order nonlinearity. The dependence of phase conjugate signal on forward beam and backward beam is also studied. The period of the grating formed by interference of forward and probe beam is determined. As the temporal overlapping and sample thickness conditions are satisfied, the third order nonlinear susceptibility, figure of merit and nonlinear refractive index of amorphous films are estimated. The nonlinear behavior is analyzed in terms of decrease in band gap with increasing Zinc and decreasing Sulfur content. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
A. Ghoggal
2005-12-01
Full Text Available This paper deals mainly with the modeling of induction machine inductances by taking into account all the space harmonics, the skewing rotor bars effects and linear rise of MMF across the slot. The model is established initially in the case of symmetric machine, which corresponds to the case of a constant air-gap, then in the other case where the machine presents a static or dynamic, axial or radial eccentricity. This objective would be achieved by exploiting an extension in 2-D of the modified winding function approach (MWFA.
Harmonic structures and intrinsic torsion
Conti, Diego; Madsen, Thomas Bruun
We discuss the construction of 8-manifolds with harmonic Sp(2)Sp(1)-structures. In particular, we find 10 new examples of nilmanifolds that admit a closed 4-form Omega whose stabiliser is Sp(2)Sp(1). Our constructions entail the notion of SO(4)-structures on 7-manifolds. We present a thorough inv...... investigation of the intrinsic torsion of such structures; in addition to the construction of harmonic structures, this analysis leads to explicit Lie group examples with invariant intrinsic torsion.......We discuss the construction of 8-manifolds with harmonic Sp(2)Sp(1)-structures. In particular, we find 10 new examples of nilmanifolds that admit a closed 4-form Omega whose stabiliser is Sp(2)Sp(1). Our constructions entail the notion of SO(4)-structures on 7-manifolds. We present a thorough...
2D vs. 3D mammography observer study
Fernandez, James Reza F.; Hovanessian-Larsen, Linda; Liu, Brent
2011-03-01
Breast cancer is the most common type of non-skin cancer in women. 2D mammography is a screening tool to aid in the early detection of breast cancer, but has diagnostic limitations of overlapping tissues, especially in dense breasts. 3D mammography has the potential to improve detection outcomes by increasing specificity, and a new 3D screening tool with a 3D display for mammography aims to improve performance and efficiency as compared to 2D mammography. An observer study using a mammography phantom was performed to compare traditional 2D mammography with this ne 3D mammography technique. In comparing 3D and 2D mammography there was no difference in calcification detection, and mass detection was better in 2D as compared to 3D. There was a significant decrease in reading time for masses, calcifications, and normals in 3D compared to 2D, however, as well as more favorable confidence levels in reading normal cases. Given the limitations of the mammography phantom used, however, a clearer picture in comparing 3D and 2D mammography may be better acquired with the incorporation of human studies in the future.
An automated pipeline to screen membrane protein 2D crystallization.
Kim, Changki; Vink, Martin; Hu, Minghui; Love, James; Stokes, David L; Ubarretxena-Belandia, Iban
2010-06-01
Electron crystallography relies on electron cryomicroscopy of two-dimensional (2D) crystals and is particularly well suited for studying the structure of membrane proteins in their native lipid bilayer environment. To obtain 2D crystals from purified membrane proteins, the detergent in a protein-lipid-detergent ternary mixture must be removed, generally by dialysis, under conditions favoring reconstitution into proteoliposomes and formation of well-ordered lattices. To identify these conditions a wide range of parameters such as pH, lipid composition, lipid-to-protein ratio, ionic strength and ligands must be screened in a procedure involving four steps: crystallization, specimen preparation for electron microscopy, image acquisition, and evaluation. Traditionally, these steps have been carried out manually and, as a result, the scope of 2D crystallization trials has been limited. We have therefore developed an automated pipeline to screen the formation of 2D crystals. We employed a 96-well dialysis block for reconstitution of the target protein over a wide range of conditions designed to promote crystallization. A 96-position magnetic platform and a liquid handling robot were used to prepare negatively stained specimens in parallel. Robotic grid insertion into the electron microscope and computerized image acquisition ensures rapid evaluation of the crystallization screen. To date, 38 2D crystallization screens have been conducted for 15 different membrane proteins, totaling over 3000 individual crystallization experiments. Three of these proteins have yielded diffracting 2D crystals. Our automated pipeline outperforms traditional 2D crystallization methods in terms of throughput and reproducibility.
2-D Versus 3-D Magnetotelluric Data Interpretation
Ledo, Juanjo
2005-09-01
In recent years, the number of publications dealing with the mathematical and physical 3-D aspects of the magnetotelluric method has increased drastically. However, field experiments on a grid are often impractical and surveys are frequently restricted to single or widely separated profiles. So, in many cases we find ourselves with the following question: is the applicability of the 2-D hypothesis valid to extract geoelectric and geological information from real 3-D environments? The aim of this paper is to explore a few instructive but general situations to understand the basics of a 2-D interpretation of 3-D magnetotelluric data and to determine which data subset (TE-mode or TM-mode) is best for obtaining the electrical conductivity distribution of the subsurface using 2-D techniques. A review of the mathematical and physical fundamentals of the electromagnetic fields generated by a simple 3-D structure allows us to prioritise the choice of modes in a 2-D interpretation of responses influenced by 3-D structures. This analysis is corroborated by numerical results from synthetic models and by real data acquired by other authors. One important result of this analysis is that the mode most unaffected by 3-D effects depends on the position of the 3-D structure with respect to the regional 2-D strike direction. When the 3-D body is normal to the regional strike, the TE-mode is affected mainly by galvanic effects, while the TM-mode is affected by galvanic and inductive effects. In this case, a 2-D interpretation of the TM-mode is prone to error. When the 3-D body is parallel to the regional 2-D strike the TE-mode is affected by galvanic and inductive effects and the TM-mode is affected mainly by galvanic effects, making it more suitable for 2-D interpretation. In general, a wise 2-D interpretation of 3-D magnetotelluric data can be a guide to a reasonable geological interpretation.
Elements of abstract harmonic analysis
Bachman, George
2013-01-01
Elements of Abstract Harmonic Analysis provides an introduction to the fundamental concepts and basic theorems of abstract harmonic analysis. In order to give a reasonably complete and self-contained introduction to the subject, most of the proofs have been presented in great detail thereby making the development understandable to a very wide audience. Exercises have been supplied at the end of each chapter. Some of these are meant to extend the theory slightly while others should serve to test the reader's understanding of the material presented. The first chapter and part of the second give
Harmonic functions with varying coefficients
Jacek Dziok
2016-05-01
Full Text Available Abstract Complex-valued harmonic functions that are univalent and sense preserving in the open unit disk can be written in the form f = h + g ‾ $f=h+\\overline{g}$ , where h and g are analytic. In this paper we investigate some classes of univalent harmonic functions with varying coefficients related to Janowski functions. By using the extreme points theory we obtain necessary and sufficient convolution conditions, coefficients estimates, distortion theorems, and integral mean inequalities for these classes of functions. The radii of starlikeness and convexity for these classes are also determined.
Harmonic morphisms and bicomplex numbers
Baird, Paul
2009-01-01
We use functions of a bicomplex variable to unify the existing constructions of harmonic morphisms from a 3-dimensional Euclidean or pseudo-Euclidean space to a Riemannian or Lorentzian surface. This is done by using the notion of complex-harmonic morphism between complex Riemannian manifolds and showing how these are given by bicomplex-holomorphic functions when the codomain is one-bicomplex dimensional. Interesting compactifications involving bicomplex manifolds are given. By taking real slices, we recover well-known compactifications for the three possible real cases.
Inverse scattering of 2d photonic structures by layer-stripping
Andresen, Marte P Hatlo; Skaar, Johannes
2011-01-01
Design and reconstruction of 2d and 3d photonic structures are usually carried out by forward simulations combined with optimization or intuition. Reconstruction by means of layer-stripping has been applied in seismic processing as well as in design and characterization of 1d photonic structures such as fiber Bragg gratings. Layer-stripping is based on causality, where the earliest scattered light is used to recover the structure layer-by-layer. Our set-up is a 2d layered nonmagnetic structure probed by plane polarized harmonic waves entering normal to the layers. It is assumed that the dielectric permittivity in each layer only varies orthogonal to the polarization. Based on obtained reflectance data covering a suitable frequency interval, time-localized pulse data are synthesized and applied to reconstruct the refractive index profile in the leftmost layer by identifying the local, time-domain Fresnel reflection at each point. Once the first layer is known, its impact on the reflectance data is stripped off...
The Obstacle Problem for the -Harmonic Equation
Bao Gejun
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Firstly, we define an order for differential forms. Secondly, we also define the supersolution and subsolution of the -harmonic equation and the obstacle problems for differential forms which satisfy the -harmonic equation, and we obtain the relations between the solutions to -harmonic equation and the solution to the obstacle problem of the -harmonic equation. Finally, as an application of the obstacle problem, we prove the existence and uniqueness of the solution to the -harmonic equation on a bounded domain with a smooth boundary , where the -harmonic equation satisfies where is any given differential form which belongs to .
Third Harmonic Imaging using a Pulse Inversion
Rasmussen, Joachim; Du, Yigang; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt
2011-01-01
The pulse inversion (PI) technique can be utilized to separate and enhance harmonic components of a waveform for tissue harmonic imaging. While most ultrasound systems can perform pulse inversion, only few image the 3rd harmonic component. PI pulse subtraction can isolate and enhance the 3rd harmonic component for imaging on any ultrasound system capable of PI. PI was used to perform 3rd harmonic Bmode scans of a water-filled wire phantom on an experimental ultrasound system. The 3rd harmonic...
FROM THE HARMONIZATION NEED TO THE SPONTANEOUS ACCOUNTING HARMONIZATION
Matis Dumitru
2009-05-01
Full Text Available The issue of international accounting harmonization has achieved, mainly within the last decade, a significant dimension in the field of international accounting research. The main determinant factor for this state of the art is the process aiming at redu
Introduction to game physics with Box2D
Parberry, Ian
2013-01-01
Written by a pioneer of game development in academia, Introduction to Game Physics with Box2D covers the theory and practice of 2D game physics in a relaxed and entertaining yet instructional style. It offers a cohesive treatment of the topics and code involved in programming the physics for 2D video games. Focusing on writing elementary game physics code, the first half of the book helps you grasp the challenges of programming game physics from scratch, without libraries or outside help. It examines the mathematical foundation of game physics and illustrates how it is applied in practice thro
2D electron cyclotron emission imaging at ASDEX Upgrade (invited)
Classen, I. G. J. [Max Planck Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, 85748 Garching (Germany); FOM-Institute for Plasma Physics, Rijnhuizen, 3430 BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Boom, J. E.; Vries, P. C. de [FOM-Institute for Plasma Physics, Rijnhuizen, 3430 BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Suttrop, W.; Schmid, E.; Garcia-Munoz, M.; Schneider, P. A. [Max Planck Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, 85748 Garching (Germany); Tobias, B.; Domier, C. W.; Luhmann, N. C. Jr. [University of California at Davis, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Donne, A. J. H. [FOM-Institute for Plasma Physics, Rijnhuizen, 3430 BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Eindhoven University of Technology, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Jaspers, R. J. E. [Eindhoven University of Technology, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Park, H. K. [POSTECH, Pohang, Gyeongbuk, 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Munsat, T. [University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States)
2010-10-15
The newly installed electron cyclotron emission imaging diagnostic on ASDEX Upgrade provides measurements of the 2D electron temperature dynamics with high spatial and temporal resolution. An overview of the technical and experimental properties of the system is presented. These properties are illustrated by the measurements of the edge localized mode and the reversed shear Alfven eigenmode, showing both the advantage of having a two-dimensional (2D) measurement, as well as some of the limitations of electron cyclotron emission measurements. Furthermore, the application of singular value decomposition as a powerful tool for analyzing and filtering 2D data is presented.
Optimization and practical implementation of ultrafast 2D NMR experiments
Luiz H. K. Queiroz Júnior
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Ultrafast 2D NMR is a powerful methodology that allows recording of a 2D NMR spectrum in a fraction of second. However, due to the numerous non-conventional parameters involved in this methodology its implementation is no trivial task. Here, an optimized experimental protocol is carefully described to ensure efficient implementation of ultrafast NMR. The ultrafast spectra resulting from this implementation are presented based on the example of two widely used 2D NMR experiments, COSY and HSQC, obtained in 0.2 s and 41 s, respectively.
Spin Waves in 2D ferromagnetic square lattice stripe
Ahmed, Maher Z.
2011-01-01
In this work, the area and edges spin wave calculations were carried out using the Heisenberg Hamiltonian and the tridiagonal method for the 2D ferromagnetic square lattice stripe, where the SW modes are characterized by a 1D in-plane wave vector $q_x$. The results show a general and an unexpected feature that the area and edge spin waves only exist as optic modes. This behavior is also seen in 2D Heisenberg antiferromagnetic square lattice. This absence of the acoustic modes in the 2D square...
Optimization and practical implementation of ultrafast 2D NMR experiments
Queiroz Junior, Luiz H. K., E-mail: professorkeng@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSC), SP (Brazil). Departamento de Quimica; Universidade Federal de Goias (UFGO), Goiania, GO (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica; Ferreira, Antonio G. [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSC), SP (Brazil). Departamento de Quimica; Giraudeau, Patrick [Universite de Nantes (France). CNRS, Chimie et Interdisciplinarite: Synthese, Analyse, Modelisation
2013-09-01
Ultrafast 2D NMR is a powerful methodology that allows recording of a 2D NMR spectrum in a fraction of second. However, due to the numerous non-conventional parameters involved in this methodology its implementation is no trivial task. Here, an optimized experimental protocol is carefully described to ensure efficient implementation of ultrafast NMR. The ultrafast spectra resulting from this implementation are presented based on the example of two widely used 2D NMR experiments, COSY and HSQC, obtained in 0.2 s and 41 s, respectively. (author)
Harvest Survive : Game Mechanics of Unity 2D Game
2014-01-01
The purpose of this project was to learn how to create Games in Unity 2D, to see the work-flow and to test if the new Unity 2D feature of the Unity engine was a good alternative for developing 2D games. A further aspect was to learn the different steps and mechanics of the Unity environment. The goal was to create a survival game, in which the player would have to grow plants in order to get food and money to stay alive in a hostile environment. The player has to survive in six different...
Kalman Filter for Generalized 2-D Roesser Models
SHENG Mei; ZOU Yun
2007-01-01
The design problem of the state filter for the generalized stochastic 2-D Roesser models, which appears when both the state and measurement are simultaneously subjected to the interference from white noise, is discussed. The wellknown Kalman filter design is extended to the generalized 2-D Roesser models. Based on the method of "scanning line by line", the filtering problem of generalized 2-D Roesser models with mode-energy reconstruction is solved. The formula of the optimal filtering, which minimizes the variance of the estimation error of the state vectors, is derived. The validity of the designed filter is verified by the calculation steps and the examples are introduced.
First Principles Calculations of Electronic Excitations in 2D Materials
Rasmussen, Filip Anselm
-thin electronics and high efficiency solar cells. Contrary to many other nano-materials, methods for large scale fabrication and patterning have already been demonstrated and the first real technological applications have already be showcased. Still the technology is very young and the number of well-studied 2D...... materials are few. However as the list of 2D materials is growing it is necessary to investigate their fundamental structural, electronic and optical properties. These are determined by the atomic and electronic structure of the materials that can quite accurately predicted by computational quantum...... as if it is being screened by the electrons in the material. This method has been very successful for calculating quasiparticle energies of bulk materials but results have been more varying for 2D materials. The reason is that the 2D confined electrons are less able to screen the added charge and some...
Illumination Compensation for 2-D Barcode Recognition Basing Morphologic
Jian-Hua Li
2013-04-01
Full Text Available Improvement of image quality has been highly demanded in digital imaging systems. This study presents a novel illumination normalization approach for 2-D barcode recognition under varying lighting conditions. MMs (Morphological transformations are employed to original images using big scale multiple SEs (structuring elements. Then we make use of entropy to fuse images. The performance of proposed methodology is illustrated through the processing of images with different kinds of 2-D barcodes under different backgrounds. The experimental results show that this approach can process different kinds of 2-D barcodes under varying lighting conditions adaptively. Compared with other conventional methods, our proposed approach does a better job in processing 2-D barcode under non-uniform illumination.
Emerging and potential opportunities for 2D flexible nanoelectronics
Zhu, Weinan; Park, Saungeun; Akinwande, Deji
2016-05-01
The last 10 years have seen the emergence of two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials such as graphene, transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), and black phosphorus (BP) among the growing portfolio of layered van der Waals thin films. Graphene, the prototypical 2D material has advanced rapidly in device, circuit and system studies that has resulted in commercial large-area applications. In this work, we provide a perspective of the emerging and potential translational applications of 2D materials including semiconductors, semimetals, and insulators that comprise the basic material set for diverse nanosystems. Applications include RF transceivers, smart systems, the so-called internet of things, and neurotechnology. We will review the DC and RF electronic performance of graphene and BP thin film transistors. 2D materials at sub-um channel length have so far enabled cut-off frequencies from baseband to 100GHz suitable for low-power RF and sub-THz concepts.
CYP2D6 polymorphism in relation to tramadol metabolism
Halling, Jónrit; Weihe, Pál; Brosen, Kim
2008-01-01
Several studies have demonstrated the impact of CYP2D6 polymorphism on the pharmacokinetics of tramadol. However, the relationship between the O-demethylation of tramadol and O-desmethyltramadol (M1) and CYP2D6 activity has not previously been investigated with tramadol in multimedicated...... outpatients under steady-state conditions. Hence, the aim of this study was to determine if the well documented pharmacokinetics of tramadol regarding CYP2D6 could be verified in a study including 88 multimedicated Faroese patients, treated with tramadol at steady-state conditions. Further, the study aimed...... collection over 12 hours. Sparteine and its metabolites were assayed by gas chromatography. Genotype analyses for the CYP2D6 3, 4, 6, and 9 alleles were performed by polymerase chain reaction and Taqman technology. Plasma and urinary concentrations of (+/-)-tramadol and (+/-)-M1 were determined by high...
2D gels still have a niche in proteomics
Rogowska-Wrzesinska, Adelina; Le Bihan, Marie-Catherine; Thaysen-Andersen, Morten;
2013-01-01
) alternative detection methods for modification specific proteomics; 3) identification of protein isoforms and modified proteins. With an example of the glycoprotein TIMP-1 protein we illustrate the unique properties of 2D gels for the separation and characterisation of multiply modified proteins. We also show......With the rapid advance of MS-based proteomics one might think that 2D gel-based proteomics is dead. This is far from the truth. Current research has shown that there are still a number of places in the field of protein and molecular biology where 2D gels still play a leading role. The aim...... of this review is to highlight some of these applications. Examples from our own research as well as from other published works are used to illustrate the 2D gel driven research in the areas of: 1) de novo sequencing and protein identification from organisms with no or incomplete genome sequences available; 2...
Orbifold Reduction and 2d (0,2) Gauge Theories
Franco, Sebastian; Seong, Rak-Kyeong
2016-01-01
We introduce Orbifold Reduction, a new method for generating $2d$ $(0,2)$ gauge theories associated to D1-branes probing singular toric Calabi-Yau 4-folds starting from $4d$ $\\mathcal{N}=1$ gauge theories on D3-branes probing toric Calabi-Yau 3-folds. The new procedure generalizes dimensional reduction and orbifolding. In terms of T-dual configurations, it generates brane brick models starting from brane tilings. Orbifold reduction provides an agile approach for generating $2d$ $(0,2)$ theories with a brane realization. We present three practical applications of the new algorithm: the connection between $4d$ Seiberg duality and $2d$ triality, a combinatorial method for generating theories related by triality and a $2d$ $(0,2)$ generalization of the Klebanov-Witten mass deformation.
Proteome analysis of human colorectal cancer tissue using 2-D ...
Jane
2010-10-11
Oct 11, 2010 ... Laser capture microdissection and two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis were used to establish ... As a technique with high-flux and high resolution, pro- teomics ... in which the protein sample was labeled before 2-D.
2-D electromagnetic simulation of passive microstrip circuits
Dueñas Jiménez, Alejandro
2009-01-01
A reference for circuit design engineers and microwave engineers. It uses a simple 2-D electromagnetic simulation procedure to provide basic knowledge and practical insight into quotidian problems of microstrip passive circuits applied to microwave systems and digital technologies.
Materials science: Screen printing of 2D semiconductors
Kim, Young Duck; Hone, James
2017-04-01
Atomically thin semiconductors have been made by transferring the oxide 'skin' of a liquid metal to substrates. This opens the way to the low-cost mass production of 2D semiconductors at the sizes needed for electronics applications.
Use of spatial information in 2D SEMG array decomposition
Smit, C.T.; Kallenberg, L.A.C.; Hermens, Hermanus J.
2007-01-01
A new feature extraction/classification method for High Density surface ElectroMyoGraphy (HD sEMG) Motor Unit Aciton Potential (MUAP) decomposition using 2D shape and energy distribution features is presented and experimentally tested.
Sparse Non-negative Matrix Factor 2-D Deconvolution
Mørup, Morten; Schmidt, Mikkel N.
2006-01-01
We introduce the non-negative matrix factor 2-D deconvolution (NMF2D) model, which decomposes a matrix into a 2-dimensional convolution of two factor matrices. This model is an extension of the non-negative matrix factor deconvolution (NMFD) recently introduced by Smaragdis (2004). We derive...... and prove the convergence of two algorithms for NMF2D based on minimizing the squared error and the Kullback-Leibler divergence respectively. Next, we introduce a sparse non-negative matrix factor 2-D deconvolution model that gives easy interpretable decompositions and devise two algorithms for computing...... this form of factorization. The developed algorithms have been used for source separation and music transcription....
Collins Model and Phase Diagram of 2D Ternary System
XIE Chuan-Mei; CHEN Li-Rong
2004-01-01
The Collins model is introduced into the two-dimensional (2D) alternative ternary system having the Lennard-Jones (L-J) potential. The Gibbs free energy of this ternary system is calculated, and according to thermodynamic theory, a group of equations that determine the solid-liquid diagram of ternary system are derived, some isothermal sectional diagrams of the 2D ternary system are obtained. The results are quite similar to the behavior of three-dimensional substances.
A simultaneous 2D/3D autostereo workstation
Chau, Dennis; McGinnis, Bradley; Talandis, Jonas; Leigh, Jason; Peterka, Tom; Knoll, Aaron; Sumer, Aslihan; Papka, Michael; Jellinek, Julius
2012-03-01
We present a novel immersive workstation environment that scientists can use for 3D data exploration and as their everyday 2D computer monitor. Our implementation is based on an autostereoscopic dynamic parallax barrier 2D/3D display, interactive input devices, and a software infrastructure that allows client/server software modules to couple the workstation to scientists' visualization applications. This paper describes the hardware construction and calibration, software components, and a demonstration of our system in nanoscale materials science exploration.
Maximizing the Optical Band Gap in 2D Photonic Crystals
Hougaard, Kristian G.; Sigmund, Ole
Topology optimization is used to find the 2D photonic crystal designs with the largest relative photonic band gaps. Starting points for the topology optimization are found with an exhaustive binary search on a low resolution grid.......Topology optimization is used to find the 2D photonic crystal designs with the largest relative photonic band gaps. Starting points for the topology optimization are found with an exhaustive binary search on a low resolution grid....
New design of 2-D photonic crystal waveguide couplers
ZHONG Zhi-rong; ZHANG Li-hua; YANG Hong-qin; JIANG Yun-kun
2006-01-01
@@ Based on couple wave equation and finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) algorithm,the strong couple characteristic of 2-D photonic crystal couplers is calculated.Theoretical analysis and numerical simulated results indicate that the energy in a 2-D photonic crystal coupler can not be totally transferred between two wave-guides.Compared with the result of weak coupling theory,our result is more accurate.
2D IR Correlation Spectroscopy in Wood Science
Carmen Mihaela Popescu
2012-10-01
Full Text Available Generalized 2D correlation spectroscopy is a well-established technique that provides considerable utility and benefit in various spectroscopic studies of polymers. Some of the important features of generalized 2D correlation spectra are simplification of complex spectra consisting of many overlapped peaks, enhancement of spectral resolution by spreading peaks along the second dimension, unambiguous assignments through the correlation of bands selectively coupled by various interaction mechanisms, and determination of the sequence of the spectral peak emergence.
RNA folding pathways and kinetics using 2D energy landscapes.
Senter, Evan; Dotu, Ivan; Clote, Peter
2015-01-01
RNA folding pathways play an important role in various biological processes, such as (i) the hok/sok (host-killing/suppression of killing) system in E. coli to check for sufficient plasmid copy number, (ii) the conformational switch in spliced leader (SL) RNA from Leptomonas collosoma, which controls trans splicing of a portion of the '5 exon, and (iii) riboswitches--portions of the 5' untranslated region of messenger RNA that regulate genes by allostery. Since RNA folding pathways are determined by the energy landscape, we describe a novel algorithm, FFTbor2D, which computes the 2D projection of the energy landscape for a given RNA sequence. Given two metastable secondary structures A, B for a given RNA sequence, FFTbor2D computes the Boltzmann probability p(x, y) = Z(x,y)/Z that a secondary structure has base pair distance x from A and distance y from B. Using polynomial interpolationwith the fast Fourier transform,we compute p(x, y) in O(n(5)) time and O(n(2)) space, which is an improvement over an earlier method, which runs in O(n(7)) time and O(n(4)) space. FFTbor2D has potential applications in synthetic biology, where one might wish to design bistable switches having target metastable structures A, B with favorable pathway kinetics. By inverting the transition probability matrix determined from FFTbor2D output, we show that L. collosoma spliced leader RNA has larger mean first passage time from A to B on the 2D energy landscape, than 97.145% of 20,000 sequences, each having metastable structures A, B. Source code and binaries are freely available for download at http://bioinformatics.bc.edu/clotelab/FFTbor2D. The program FFTbor2D is implemented in C++, with optional OpenMP parallelization primitives.
Generating a 2D Representation of a Complex Data Structure
James, Mark
2006-01-01
A computer program, designed to assist in the development and debugging of other software, generates a two-dimensional (2D) representation of a possibly complex n-dimensional (where n is an integer >2) data structure or abstract rank-n object in that other software. The nature of the 2D representation is such that it can be displayed on a non-graphical output device and distributed by non-graphical means.
QSAR Models for P-450 (2D6) Substrate Activity
Ringsted, Tine; Nikolov, Nikolai Georgiev; Jensen, Gunde Egeskov;
2009-01-01
activity relationship (QSAR) modelling systems. They cross validated (leave-groups-out) with concordances of 71%, 81% and 82%, respectively. Discrete organic European Inventory of Existing Commercial Chemical Substances (EINECS) chemicals were screened to predict an approximate percentage of CYP 2D6...... substrates. These chemicals are potentially present in the environment. The biological importance of the CYP 2D6 and the use of the software mentioned above were discussed....
Image composition with color harmonization
Congde Wang; Rong Zhang; Fan Deng
2009-01-01
Image matting and color transfer are combined to achieve image composition.Firstly,digital matting is used to pull out the region of interest.Secondly,taking color harmonization into account,color transfer techniques are introduced in pasting the region onto the target image.Experimental results show that the proposed approach generates visually plea.sing composite images.
CYP2D6 variability in populations from Venezuela.
Moreno, Nancy; Flores-Angulo, Carlos; Villegas, Cecilia; Mora, Yuselin
2016-12-01
CYP2D6 is an important cytochrome P450 enzyme that plays an important role in the metabolism of about 25% of currently prescribed drugs. The presence of polymorphisms in the CYP2D6 gene may modulate enzyme level and activity, thereby affecting individual responses to pharmacological treatments. The most prevalent diseases in the admixed population from Venezuela are cardiovascular and cancer, whereas viral, bacterial and parasitic diseases, particularly malaria, are prevalent in Amerindian populations; in the treatment of these diseases, several drugs that are metabolized by CYP2D6 are used. In this work, we reviewed the data on CYP2D6 variability and predicted metabolizer phenotypes, in healthy volunteers of two admixed and five Amerindian populations from Venezuela. The Venezuelan population is very heterogeneous as a result of the genetic admixture of three major ethnical components: Europeans, Africans and Amerindians. There are noticeable inter-regional and inter-population differences in the process of mixing of this population. Hitherto, there are few published studies in Venezuela on CYP2D6; therefore, it is necessary to increase research in this regard, in particular to develop studies with a larger sample size. There is a considerable amount of work remaining before CYP2D6 is integrated into clinical practice in Venezuela.
Technique of Embedding Depth Maps into 2D Images
Kazutake Uehira; Hiroshi Unno; Youichi Takashima
2014-01-01
This paper proposes a new technique that is used to embed depth maps into corresponding 2-dimensional (2D) images. Since a 2D image and its depth map are integrated into one type of image format, they can be treated as if they were one 2D image. Thereby, it can reduce the amount of data in 3D images by half and simplify the processes for sending them through networks because the synchronization between images for the left and right eyes becomes unnecessary. We embed depth maps in the quantized discrete cosine transform (DCT) data of 2D images. The key to this technique is whether the depth maps could be embedded into 2D images without perceivably deteriorating their quality. We try to reduce their deterioration by compressing the depth map data by using the differences from the next pixel to the left. We assume that there is only one non-zero pixel at most on one horizontal line in the DCT block because the depth map values change abruptly. We conduct an experiment to evaluate the quality of the 2D images embedded with depth maps and find that satisfactory quality could be achieved.
Tides and tidal harmonics at Umbharat, Gujarat
Suryanarayana, A.; Swamy, G.N.
A part of the data on tides recorded at Machiwada near Umbharat, Gulf of Cambay during April 1978 was subjected to harmonic analysis following the Admiralty procedure. The general tidal characteristics and the value of four major harmonic...
Can the external masculinization score predict the success of genetic testing in 46,XY DSD?
Ruthie Su
2015-05-01
Full Text Available Genetic testing is judiciously applied to individuals with Disorders of Sex Development (DSD and so it is necessary to identify those most likely to benefit from such testing. We hypothesized that the external masculinization score (EMS is inversely associated with the likelihood of finding a pathogenic genetic variant. Patients with 46,XY DSD from a single institution evaluated from 1994-2014 were included. Results of advanced cytogenetic and gene sequencing tests were recorded. An EMS score (range 0-12 was assigned to each patient according to the team's initial external genitalia physical examination. During 1994-2011, 44 (40% patients with 46,XY DSD were evaluated and underwent genetic testing beyond initial karyotype; 23% (10/44 had a genetic diagnosis made by gene sequencing or array. The median EMS score of those with an identified pathogenic variant was significantly different from those in whom no confirmed genetic cause was identified [median 3 (95% CI, 2-6 versus 6 (95% CI, 5-7, respectively (p = 0.02], but limited to diagnoses of complete or partial androgen insensitivity (8/10 or 5-reductase deficiency (2/10. In the modern cohort (2012-2014, the difference in median EMS in whom a genetic cause was or was not identified approached significance (p = 0.05, median 3 (95% CI, 0-7 versus 7 (95% CI, 6-9, respectively. When all patients from 1994-2014 are pooled, the EMS is significantly different amongst those with compared to those without a genetic cause (median EMS 3 vs. 6, p < 0.02. We conclude that an EMS of 3 or less may indicate a higher likelihood of identifying a genetic cause of 46,XY DSD and justify genetic screening, especially when androgen insensitivity is suspected.
Third harmonic measurement in printed electronics
Samano, A; Xu, Y.; Harrison, D.; Hunt, C; Wickham, M; Thomas, O.
2014-01-01
The purpose of this research paper is to investigate the defects detecting technique in printed electronics by the third harmonic measurements. Various types of defects were introduced on the samples and the third harmonic signal was measured using a component linearity tester (Radiometer CLT1). The relationship between the defects in the printed samples and the third harmonic signal and the third harmonic ratio was identified.
A case of the rare variant of Klinefelter syndrome 47,XY,i(X)(q10).
Song, Seung-Hun; Won, Hyung Jae; Yoon, Tae Ki; Cha, Dong Hyun; Shim, Jeong Yun; Shim, Sung Han
2013-12-01
Klinefelter syndrome is the most common genetic form of male hypogonadism, but the phenotype becomes evident only after puberty. It is characterized by infertility, small testes, sparse body and facial hair, increased body weight, gynecomastia, increased LH and FSH, and a low level of testosterone. Early recognition and treatment of Klinefelter syndrome can significantly improve the patient's quality of life and prevent serious consequences. Here, we report an infertile man with a rare variant of Klinefelter syndrome with a 47, XY, i(X)(q10) karyotype.
Critical properties of XY model on two-dimensional layered magnetic films
Wang Yi; Liu Xiao-Yan; Sun Lei; Zhang Xing; Han Ru-Qi
2006-01-01
Using Monte Carlo simulations, we have investigated the classical XY model on triangular lattices of ultra-thin film structures with middle ferromagnetic layers sandwiched between two antiferromagnetic layers. The internal energy,the specific heat, the chirality and the chiral susceptibility are calculated in order to clarify phase transitions and critical phenomena. From the finite-size scaling analyses, the values of critical exponents are determined. In a range of interaction parameters, we find that the chirality steeply goes up as temperature increases in a temperature range;correspondingly the value of a critical exponent for this change is estimated.
Spin transport in the frustrated anisotropic three-dimensional XY model
Lima, L. S.
2016-12-01
We use the SU(3) Schwinger's boson theory to study the spin transport in the frustrated anisotropic three-dimensional XY model at T=0 with single ion anisotropy. We have investigated the behavior of the spin conductivity for this model that presents exchange interactions J1, J2 and J ‧ . We study the spin transport in the Bose-Einstein regime where we have that the tz bosons are condensed i.e. = = t . Our results show a metallic spin transport for ω > 0 and a superconductor spin transport in the limit of DC conductivity.
Fermi Resonances and Vibrational Spectrum of a Polyatomic Molecule XY4: an Algebraic Approach
WAN Ming-Fang; CHEN Jing-Hua; HOU Xi-Wen
2005-01-01
A U(2) algebraic model is introduced for the spectrum of a molecule XY4, where the interactions between the stretch and bend modes are described by Td symmetric Fermi resonance terms. The presented algebraic model in a limit corresponds to another model in recent literature. The vibrational spectrum of methane (CH4) measured recently with modern spectroscopy techniques is employed to test those models. The obtained standard deviation between the observed and the calculated vibrational energy levels in the algebraic model is smaller than that in the corresponding model.
Finite size scaling and first-order phase transition in a modified XY model
Sinha, Suman; Roy, Soumen Kumar
2010-02-01
Monte Carlo simulation has been performed in a two-dimensional modified XY -model first proposed by Domany [Phys. Rev. Lett. 52, 1535 (1984)] The cluster algorithm of Wolff has been used and multiple histogram reweighting is performed. The first-order scaling behavior of the quantities such as specific heat and free-energy barrier are found to be obeyed accurately. While the lowest-order correlation function was found to decay to zero at long distance just above the transition, the next-higher-order correlation function shows a nonzero plateau.
[Hyperspectral acquisition system for tongue inspection based on X-Y scanning galvanometer].
Li, Gang; Zhao, Jing; Lin, Ling; Zhang, Bao-ju
2011-12-01
Hyperspectral was used for tongue inspection in the present work to resolve the problem that information of current research for tongue inspection was inadequate. A hyperspectral acquisition system based on X-Y scanning galvanometer was also proposed due to the high cost of the current hyperspectral apparatus. An experiment was made to test the ability of this system. By collecting the hyperspectral information of color pictures with size similar to the tongue, the results of experiment showed that this system can acquire more information of tongue than other methods, and this method can provide a new way for tongue inspection.
Discontinuity of the Spin-Wave Stiffness in the Two-Dimensional XY Model
Chayes, L.
Using a graphical representation based on the Wolff algorithm, the (classical) d-dimensional XY model and some related spin-systems are studied. It is proved that in d≡2, the predicted discontinuity in the spin-wave stiffness indeed occurs. Further, the critical properties of the spin-system are related to percolation properties of the graphical representation. In particular, a suitably defined notion of percolation in the graphical representation is proved to be the necessary and sufficient condition for positivity of the spontaneous magnetization.
On Polynomial Lieb-Robinson Bounds for the XY Chain in a Decaying Random Field
Gebert, Martin; Lemm, Marius
2016-08-01
We consider the isotropic XY quantum spin chain in a random external field in the z direction, with single site distributions given by i.i.d. random variables times the critical decaying envelope j^{-1/2}. Our motivation is the study of many-body localization. We investigate transport properties in terms of polynomial Lieb-Robinson (PLR) bounds. We prove a zero-velocity PLR bound for large disorder strength λ and for small λ we show a partial converse, which suggests the existence of a transition to non-trivial transport in the model.
Turner Syndrome with 45,X/46,XY mosaicism underwent gonadectomy: Report of 3 cases
Tokmak, Aytekin; Akselim, Burak; Yeşilyurt, Hüseyin
2015-01-01
Turner syndrome (TS) classically is characterized by complete or partial absence of one X chromosome. A Y chromosome can be detected in some of the TS patients called mosaicism. In this study we report three cases of TS with a female phenotype and a 45,X/46,XY karyotype. All of the cases were referred or applied to our hospital for gonadectomy at third decade of their lives. They had many of the stigmata of TS. We performed gonadectomy to our patients. In one of them histopathology was sugges...
Phase transitions and topology in 2+k XY mean-field models.
Angelani, L; Ruocco, G
2007-11-01
The thermodynamics and topology of mean-field models with 2+k body interaction terms (generalizing XY model) are derived. Focusing on two particular cases (2+4 and 2+6 body interaction terms), a comparison between thermodynamic (phase transition energy, thermodynamically forbidden energy regions) and topological (singularity and curvature of saddle entropy) properties is performed. We find that (i) a topological change is present at the phase transition energy; however, (ii) only one topological change occurs, also for those models exhibiting two phase transitions; (iii) the order of a phase transition is not completely signaled by the curvature of topological quantities.
Third Harmonic Imaging using a Pulse Inversion
Rasmussen, Joachim; Du, Yigang; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt
2011-01-01
The pulse inversion (PI) technique can be utilized to separate and enhance harmonic components of a waveform for tissue harmonic imaging. While most ultrasound systems can perform pulse inversion, only few image the 3rd harmonic component. PI pulse subtraction can isolate and enhance the 3rd...
Harmonic functions of superprocesses and conditioned superprocesses’
赵学雷
1996-01-01
The harmonic functions for superprocesses are defined by applying the martingale property. Under a general condition, a classification theorem of harmonic functions for homogeneous superprocesses is obtained in terms of the solutions to a measure functional equation. The conditioned superdiffusions in a regular domain by Doob’s harmonic transform are defined and investigated.
Harmonic oscillator: an analysis via Fourier series
de Castro, A S
2013-01-01
The Fourier series method is used to solve the homogeneous equation governing the motion of the harmonic oscillator. It is shown that the general solution to the problem can be found in a surprisingly simple way for the case of the simple harmonic oscillator. It is also shown that the damped harmonic oscillator is susceptible to the analysis.
Goodenough, D; Levy, J; Kristinsson, S; Fredriksson, J; Olafsdottir, H; Healy, A
2012-06-01
The aim of this work is to develop phantoms that can be used to sample the radial and 3D properties of a CT image, including in-plane (x,y) and z-axis information. The Phantom is amenable to mathematical analysis of the x, y, and z axis resolution properties separately and combined. A periodic pattern of a pair of opposed (30°) angled ramps is configured to produce a waveform profile across the CT image. A perfect CT image (with no loss of resolution) of the test object would produce a consistent geometric pattern of the intersection of a line with the pair of angled ramps. However, due to the finite resolution (x, y and z), the CT waveform profile will not yield the perfect profile; rather it will be influenced by slice thickness, and in-plane resolution (PSF, MTF), as well as noise limitations, and other sources of non-uniformity such as beam hardening etc. Various characteristics of the waveform profile including, amplitude, frequency, and slope (rate of climb) of the peaks, can be studied using mathematical analysis such as the Fourier transform. It will be shown how these performance characteristics are encoded in the wave pattern. The waveform profiles are visually examined and mathematically analyzed, to demonstrate the effect of Slice Thickness (z axis) and changes of In-Plane (x,y) Resolution and non-uniformity across the image field; moreover, the harmonic analysis of the waveform is used to predict, either the in-plane resolution (MTF), or the z-axis MTF when one of the two is already known. The Wave pattern phantom offers a way to consider 3-D imaging characteristics of a CT scanner by scanning a single repetitive test object that encodes both in-plane resolution and z-axis resolution and also offers a way to study non-uniformity effects throughout the CT plane (volume). DJG is a consultant to The Phantom Laboratory and Image OWL, Salem, NY. Funding of other authors is supplied by Image OWL Salem, NY. © 2012 American Association of Physicists in
Input Harmonic Analysis on the Slim DC-Link Drive Using Harmonic State Space Model
Yang, Feng; Kwon, Jun Bum; Wang, Xiongfei
2017-01-01
the shortcomings of the present harmonic analysis methods, such as the time-domain simulation, or the Fourier analysis, this paper proposes a Harmonic State Space model to study the harmonics performance for this type of drive. In this study, this model is utilized to describe the behavior of the harmonic...... variation according to the switching instant, the harmonics at the steady-state condition, as well as the coupling between the multiple harmonic impedances. By using this model, the impaction on the harmonics performance by the film capacitor and the grid inductance is derived. Simulation and experimental...
Second-Harmonic and Third-Harmonic Generations in the Thue-Morse Dielectric Superlattice
蔡祥宝
2002-01-01
Theoretical work on the optical properties of the one-dimensional dielectric superlattice is extended. 3Byv means of a transfer matrix method, the second-harmonic and third-harmonic generations in a one-dimensional tinite Thue Morse dielectric superlattice are analysed. The electric field amplitude variables of the second-harmonic and third-harmonic can be expressed by the formula of matrices. Taking advantage of numerical procedure, we discuss the dependence of the second-harmonic and third-harmonic on the fundamental wavelength and the field amplitude variables of the fundamental wave. High conversion efficiency of the third-harmonic can be obtained at some special fundamental wavelength.
Wei Jian-Wen
2009-01-01
Using the extended Blonder-Tinkham-Klapwijk(BTK)theory, this paper calculates the tunnelling conductance in quantum wire/insulator/d_(x~2-y~2)+id_(xy) mixed wave superconductor(q/I/d_(x~2-y~2)+id_(xy))junctions That is different from the case in d-and p-wave superconductor junctions. When the angle α between a-axis of the d_(x~2-y~2) wave superconductor and the interface normal is π/4, there follows a rather distinctive tunnelling conductance. The zero-bias conductance peak(ZBCP)may or may not appear in the tunnelling conductance. Both the interface potential z and the quasi-particle lifetime factor [F]are smaller, there is no ZBCP. Otherwise, the ZBCP will appear. The position otbias conductance peak(BCP)depends strongly on the amplitude ratio of two components for d_(x~2-y~2)+id_(xy) mixed wave. The low and narrow ZBCP may coexist with the BCP in the tunnelling conductance. Using those features in the tunnelling conductance of q/I/d_(x~2-y~2)+id_(xy) junctions, it can distinguish d_(x~2-y~2)+id_(xy) mixed wave superconductor from d-and p-wave one.
Lorentz Harmonics, Squeeze Harmonics and Their Physical Applications
Marilyn E. Noz
2011-02-01
Full Text Available Among the symmetries in physics, the rotation symmetry is most familiar to us. It is known that the spherical harmonics serve useful purposes when the world is rotated. Squeeze transformations are also becoming more prominent in physics, particularly in optical sciences and in high-energy physics. As can be seen from Dirac’s light-cone coordinate system, Lorentz boosts are squeeze transformations. Thus the squeeze transformation is one of the fundamental transformations in Einstein’s Lorentz-covariant world. It is possible to define a complete set of orthonormal functions defined for one Lorentz frame. It is shown that the same set can be used for other Lorentz frames. Transformation properties are discussed. Physical applications are discussed in both optics and high-energy physics. It is shown that the Lorentz harmonics provide the mathematical basis for squeezed states of light. It is shown also that the same set of harmonics can be used for understanding Lorentz-boosted hadrons in high-energy physics. It is thus possible to transmit physics from one branch of physics to the other branch using the mathematical basis common to them.
Failure Mechanism of True 2D Granular Flows
Nguyen, Cuong T; Fukagawa, R
2015-01-01
Most previous experimental investigations of two-dimensional (2D) granular column collapses have been conducted using three-dimensional (3D) granular materials in narrow horizontal channels (i.e., quasi-2D condition). Our recent research on 2D granular column collapses by using 2D granular materials (i.e., aluminum rods) has revealed results that differ markedly from those reported in the literature. We assume a 2D column with an initial height of h0 and initial width of d0, a defined as their ratio (a =h0/d0), a final height of h , and maximum run-out distance of d . The experimental data suggest that for the low a regime (a 0.65), the ratio of a to (d-d0)/d0, h0/h , or d/d0 is expressed by power-law relations. In particular, the following power-function ratios (h0/h=1.42a^2/3 and d/d0=4.30a^0.72) are proposed for every a >0.65. In contrast, the ratio (d-d0)/d0=3.25a^0.96 only holds for 0.651.5. In addition, the influence of ground contact surfaces (hard or soft beds) on the final run-out distance and destru...
Twin characterisation using 2D and 3D EBSD
M. D. NAVE; J. J. L. MULDERS; A. GHOLINIA
2005-01-01
Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) is a superior technique for twin characterisation due to its ability to provide highly detailed classification (by generation, system and variant) of a significant number of twins in a relatively short time. 2D EBSD is now widely used for twin characterisation and provides quite good estimates of twin volume fractions under many conditions. Nevertheless, its accuracy is limited by assumptions that have to be made due to the 2D nature of the technique. With 3D EBSD, two key assumptions are no longer required, as additional information can be derived from the 3D map. This paper compares the benefits and limitations of 2D and 3D EBSD for twin characterisation. 2D EBSD enables a larger number of twins to be mapped in a given space of time, giving better statistics. 3D EBSD provides more comprehensive twin characterisation and will be a valuable tool for validation of 2D stereological methods and microstructural models of twinning during deformation.
2D nanostructures for water purification: graphene and beyond.
Dervin, Saoirse; Dionysiou, Dionysios D; Pillai, Suresh C
2016-08-18
Owing to their atomically thin structure, large surface area and mechanical strength, 2D nanoporous materials are considered to be suitable alternatives for existing desalination and water purification membrane materials. Recent progress in the development of nanoporous graphene based materials has generated enormous potential for water purification technologies. Progress in the development of nanoporous graphene and graphene oxide (GO) membranes, the mechanism of graphene molecular sieve action, structural design, hydrophilic nature, mechanical strength and antifouling properties and the principal challenges associated with nanopore generation are discussed in detail. Subsequently, the recent applications and performance of newly developed 2D materials such as 2D boron nitride (BN) nanosheets, graphyne, molybdenum disulfide (MoS2), tungsten chalcogenides (WS2) and titanium carbide (Ti3C2Tx) are highlighted. In addition, the challenges affecting 2D nanostructures for water purification are highlighted and their applications in the water purification industry are discussed. Though only a few 2D materials have been explored so far for water treatment applications, this emerging field of research is set to attract a great deal of attention in the near future.
The NH$_2$D hyperfine structure revealed by astrophysical observations
Daniel, F; Punanova, A; Harju, J; Faure, A; Roueff, E; Sipilä, O; Caselli, P; Güsten, R; Pon, A; Pineda, J E
2016-01-01
The 1$_{11}$-1$_{01}$ lines of ortho and para--NH$_2$D (o/p-NH$_2$D), respectively at 86 and 110 GHz, are commonly observed to provide constraints on the deuterium fractionation in the interstellar medium. In cold regions, the hyperfine structure due to the nitrogen ($^{14}$N) nucleus is resolved. To date, this splitting is the only one which is taken into account in the NH$_2$D column density estimates. We investigate how the inclusion of the hyperfine splitting caused by the deuterium (D) nucleus affects the analysis of the rotational lines of NH$_2$D. We present 30m IRAM observations of the above mentioned lines, as well as APEX o/p-NH$_2$D observations of the 1$_{01}$-0$_{00}$ lines at 333 GHz. The hyperfine spectra are first analyzed with a line list that only includes the hyperfine splitting due to the $^{14}$N nucleus. We find inconsistencies between the line widths of the 1$_{01}$-0$_{00}$ and 1$_{11}$-1$_{01}$ lines, the latter being larger by a factor of $\\sim$1.6$\\pm0.3$. Such a large difference is...
New Reductions and Nonlinear Systems for 2D Schrodinger Operators
Mironov, A
2010-01-01
New Completely Integrable (2+1)-System is studied. It is based on the so-called L-A-B-triples $L_t=[H,L]-fL$ where L is a 2D Schrodinger Operator. This approach was invented by S.Manakov and B.Dubrovin, I.Krichever, S.Novikov(DKN) in the works published in 1976. A nonstandard reduction for the 2D Schrodinger Operator (completely different from the one found by S.Novikov and A.Veselov in 1984) compatible with time dynamics of the new Nonlinear System, is studied here. It can be naturally treated as a 2D extension of the famous Burgers System. The Algebro-Geometric (AG) Periodic Solutions here are very specific and unusual (for general and reduced cases). The reduced system is linearizable like Burgers. However, the general one (and probably the reduced one also) certainly lead in the stationary AG case to the nonstandard examples of algebraic curves $\\Gamma\\subset W$ in the full complex 2D manifold of Bloch-Floquet functions W for the periodic elliptic 2D operator H where $H\\psi(x,y,P)=\\lambda(P)\\psi(x,y,P),P\\...
Harmonic Detection at Initialization With Kalman Filter
Hussain, Dil Muhammad Akbar; Imran, Raja Muhammad; Shoro, Ghulam Mustafa
2014-01-01
the affect of harmonics on the supply. For the detection of these harmonics various techniques are available and one of that technique is the Kalman filter. In this paper we investigate that what are the consequences when harmonic detection system based on Kalman Filtering is initialized......Most power electronic equipment these days generate harmonic disturbances, these devices hold nonlinear voltage/current characteristic. The harmonics generated can potentially be harmful to the consumer supply. Typically, filters are integrated at the power source or utility location to filter out...
XX/XY System of Sex Determination in the Geophilomorph Centipede Strigamia maritima.
Jack E Green
Full Text Available We show that the geophilomorph centipede Strigamia maritima possesses an XX/XY system of sex chromosomes, with males being the heterogametic sex. This is, to our knowledge, the first report of sex chromosomes in any geophilomorph centipede. Using the recently assembled Strigamia genome sequence, we identified a set of scaffolds differentially represented in male and female DNA sequence. Using quantitative real-time PCR, we confirmed that three candidate X chromosome-derived scaffolds are present at approximately twice the copy number in females as in males. Furthermore, we confirmed that six candidate Y chromosome-derived scaffolds contain male-specific sequences. Finally, using this molecular information, we designed an X chromosome-specific DNA probe and performed fluorescent in situ hybridization against mitotic and meiotic chromosome spreads to identify the Strigamia XY sex-chromosome pair cytologically. We found that the X and Y chromosomes are recognizably different in size during the early pachytene stage of meiosis, and exhibit incomplete and delayed pairing.
Approximating the XY model on a random graph with a q -state clock model
Lupo, Cosimo; Ricci-Tersenghi, Federico
2017-02-01
Numerical simulations of spin glass models with continuous variables set the problem of a reliable but efficient discretization of such variables. In particular, the main question is how fast physical observables computed in the discretized model converge toward the ones of the continuous model when the number of states of the discretized model increases. We answer this question for the XY model and its discretization, the q -state clock model, in the mean-field setting provided by random graphs. It is found that the convergence of physical observables is exponentially fast in the number q of states of the clock model, so allowing a very reliable approximation of the XY model by using a rather small number of states. Furthermore, such an exponential convergence is found to be independent from the disorder distribution used. Only at T =0 , the convergence is slightly slower (stretched exponential). Thanks to the analytical solution to the q -state clock model, we compute accurate phase diagrams in the temperature versus disorder strength plane. We find that, at zero temperature, spontaneous replica symmetry breaking takes place for any amount of disorder, even an infinitesimal one. We also study the one step of replica symmetry breaking (1RSB) solution in the low-temperature spin glass phase.
Magnetic properties of a classical XY spin dimer in a "planar" magnetic field
Ciftja, Orion; Prenga, Dode
2016-10-01
Single-molecule magnetism originates from the strong intra-molecular magnetic coupling of a small number of interacting spins. Such spins generally interact very weakly with the neighboring spins in the other molecules of the compound, therefore, inter-molecular spin couplings are negligible. In certain cases the number of magnetically coupled spins is as small as a dimer, a system that can be considered the smallest nanomagnet capable of storing non-trivial magnetic information on the molecular level. Additional interesting patterns arise if the spin motion is confined to a two-dimensional space. In such a scenario, clusters consisting of spins with large-spin values are particularly attractive since their magnetic interactions can be described well in terms of classical Heisenberg XY spins. In this work we calculate exactly the magnetic properties of a nanomagnetic dimer of classical XY spins in a "planar" external magnetic field. The problem is solved by employing a mathematical approach whose idea is the introduction of auxiliary spin variables into the starting expression of the partition function. Results for the total internal energy, total magnetic moment, spin-spin correlation function and zero-field magnetic susceptibility can serve as a basis to understand the magnetic properties of large-spin dimer building blocks.
A Global Algebraic Treatment for XY2 Molecules : Application to D2S
Gromova, O V; Leroy, C; Ulenikov, O N; Pashayan-Leroy, Y; Bekhtereva, E S
2008-01-01
We suggest to use for $XY_2$ molecules some results previously established in a series of articles for vibrational modes and electronic states with an $E$ symmetry type. We first summarize the formalism for the standard $u(2)\\supset su(2)\\supset so(2)$ chain which, for its most part, can be kept for the study of both stretching and bending modes of $XY_2$ molecules. Next the also standard chain $u(3)\\supset u(2) \\supset su(2) \\supset so(2)$ which is necessary, within the considered approach, is introduced for the stretching modes. All operators acting within the irreducible representation (\\textit{irrep}) $[N00]\\equiv [N\\dot{0}]$ of $u(3)$ are built and their matrix elements computed within the standard basis. All stretch-bend interaction operators taking into account the polyad structure associated with a resonance $\\omega_1\\approx \\omega_3 \\approx 2 \\omega_2$ are obtained. As an illustration, an application to the $D_2S$ molecular system is considered, especially the symmetrization in $C_{2v}$. It is shown ...
XX/XY System of Sex Determination in the Geophilomorph Centipede Strigamia maritima.
Green, Jack E; Dalíková, Martina; Sahara, Ken; Marec, František; Akam, Michael
2016-01-01
We show that the geophilomorph centipede Strigamia maritima possesses an XX/XY system of sex chromosomes, with males being the heterogametic sex. This is, to our knowledge, the first report of sex chromosomes in any geophilomorph centipede. Using the recently assembled Strigamia genome sequence, we identified a set of scaffolds differentially represented in male and female DNA sequence. Using quantitative real-time PCR, we confirmed that three candidate X chromosome-derived scaffolds are present at approximately twice the copy number in females as in males. Furthermore, we confirmed that six candidate Y chromosome-derived scaffolds contain male-specific sequences. Finally, using this molecular information, we designed an X chromosome-specific DNA probe and performed fluorescent in situ hybridization against mitotic and meiotic chromosome spreads to identify the Strigamia XY sex-chromosome pair cytologically. We found that the X and Y chromosomes are recognizably different in size during the early pachytene stage of meiosis, and exhibit incomplete and delayed pairing.
Rupp, Shawn M.; Webster, Timothy H.; Olney, Kimberly C.; Hutchins, Elizabeth D.; Kusumi, Kenro
2017-01-01
In species with highly heteromorphic sex chromosomes, the degradation of one of the sex chromosomes will result in unequal gene expression between the sexes (e.g. between XX females and XY males) and between the sex chromosomes and the autosomes. Dosage compensation is a process whereby genes on the sex chromosomes achieve equal gene expression. We compared genome-wide levels of transcription between males and females, and between the X chromosome and the autosomes in the green anole, Anolis carolinensis. We present evidence for dosage compensation between the sexes, and between the sex chromosomes and the autosomes. When dividing the X chromosome into regions based on linkage groups, we discovered that genes in the first reported X-linked region, anole linkage group b (LGb), exhibit complete dosage compensation, although the rest of the X-linked genes exhibit incomplete dosage compensation. Our data further suggest that the mechanism of this dosage compensation is upregulation of the X chromosome in males. We report that approximately 10% of coding genes, most of which are on the autosomes, are differentially expressed between males and females. In addition, genes on the X chromosome exhibited higher ratios of nonsynonymous to synonymous substitution than autosomal genes, consistent with the fast-X effect. Our results from the green anole add an additional observation of dosage compensation in a species with XX/XY sex determination. PMID:28206607
Human MAMLD1 Gene Variations Seem Not Sufficient to Explain a 46,XY DSD Phenotype.
Núria Camats
Full Text Available MAMLD1 is thought to cause disordered sex development in 46,XY patients. But its role is controversial because some MAMLD1 variants are also detected in normal individuals, several MAMLD1 mutations have wild-type activity in functional tests, and the male Mamld1-knockout mouse has normal genitalia and reproduction. Our aim was to search for MAMLD1 variations in 108 46,XY patients with disordered sex development, and to test them functionally. We detected MAMDL1 variations and compared SNP frequencies in controls and patients. We tested MAMLD1 transcriptional activity on promoters involved in sex development and assessed the effect of MAMLD1 on androgen production. MAMLD1 expression in normal steroid-producing tissues and mutant MAMLD1 protein expression were also assessed. Nine MAMLD1 mutations (7 novel were characterized. In vitro, most MAMLD1 variants acted similarly to wild type. Only the L210X mutation showed loss of function in all tests. We detected no effect of wild-type or MAMLD1 variants on CYP17A1 enzyme activity in our cell experiments, and Western blots revealed no significant differences for MAMLD1 protein expression. MAMLD1 was expressed in human adult testes and adrenals. In conclusion, our data support the notion that MAMLD1 sequence variations may not suffice to explain the phenotype in carriers and that MAMLD1 may also have a role in adult life.
Human MAMLD1 Gene Variations Seem Not Sufficient to Explain a 46,XY DSD Phenotype
Audí, Laura; Mullis, Primus E.; Moreno, Francisca; González Casado, Isabel; López-Siguero, Juan Pedro; Corripio, Raquel; Bermúdez de la Vega, José Antonio; Blanco, José Antonio; Flück, Christa E.
2015-01-01
MAMLD1 is thought to cause disordered sex development in 46,XY patients. But its role is controversial because some MAMLD1 variants are also detected in normal individuals, several MAMLD1 mutations have wild-type activity in functional tests, and the male Mamld1-knockout mouse has normal genitalia and reproduction. Our aim was to search for MAMLD1 variations in 108 46,XY patients with disordered sex development, and to test them functionally. We detected MAMDL1 variations and compared SNP frequencies in controls and patients. We tested MAMLD1 transcriptional activity on promoters involved in sex development and assessed the effect of MAMLD1 on androgen production. MAMLD1 expression in normal steroid-producing tissues and mutant MAMLD1 protein expression were also assessed. Nine MAMLD1 mutations (7 novel) were characterized. In vitro, most MAMLD1 variants acted similarly to wild type. Only the L210X mutation showed loss of function in all tests. We detected no effect of wild-type or MAMLD1 variants on CYP17A1 enzyme activity in our cell experiments, and Western blots revealed no significant differences for MAMLD1 protein expression. MAMLD1 was expressed in human adult testes and adrenals. In conclusion, our data support the notion that MAMLD1 sequence variations may not suffice to explain the phenotype in carriers and that MAMLD1 may also have a role in adult life. PMID:26580071
Wax, J R; Prabhakar, G; Giraldez, R A; Hutchins, G M; Stetten, G; Blakemore, K J
1994-05-01
The association of urinary anomalies with Turner's syndrome is well established. This report describes an unusual antenatal presentation of this cytogenetic disorder and the first reported case of unilateral renal hypoplasia and contralateral renal agenesis in a 45,X/46,XY fetus. The fetus presented with severe third trimester oligohydramnios and symmetrical intrauterine growth retardation at 29 weeks and 2 days' gestation. Chorionic villus cultures revealed a 45,X karyotype. A phenotypically male infant weighing 1833 g was delivered at 35 weeks and 2 days. Chromosomal analysis of the newborn showed a 45,X/46,XY mosaicism, and surgical exploration revealed absence of the left kidney and a hypoplastic right kidney. The infant died at 11 months of age from renal failure and peritonitis. This case demonstrates that monosomy X may be encountered in fetuses with marked growth delay and oligohydramnios. The etiology of the oligohydramnios in this case was a fetal renal malformation not previously described in Turner's syndrome. Antenatal cytogenetic findings should be confirmed postnatally, with a search for mosaicism, when monosomy X is encountered.
45,X/46,XY mosaicism: report on 14 patients from a Brazilian hospital. A retrospective study
Rafael Fabiano Machado Rosa
Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: 45,X/46,XY mosaicism, or mixed gonadal dysgenesis, is considered to be a rare disorder of sex development. The aim of our study was to investigate the clinical and cytogenetic characteristics of patients with this mosaicism.DESIGN AND SETTING: A retrospective study in a referral hospital in southern Brazil.METHODS: Our sample consisted of patients diagnosed at the clinical genetics service of a referral hospital in southern Brazil, from 1975 to 2012. Clinical and cytogenetic data were collected from the medical records.RESULTS: Fourteen patients were included in the sample, with ages at the first evaluation ranging from 2 days to 38 years. Nine of them had female sex of rearing and five, male. Regarding the external genitalia, most were ambiguous (n = 10. One patient presented male phenotype and was treated for a history of azoospermia, while three patients presented female phenotype, of whom two had findings of Turner syndrome and one presented secondary amenorrhea alone. Some findings of Turner syndrome were observed even among patients with ambiguous genitalia. None presented gonadal malignancy. One patient underwent surgical correction for genital ambiguity and subsequent exchange of sex of rearing. Regarding cytogenetics, we did not observe any direct correlation between percentages of cell lines and phenotype.CONCLUSIONS: 45,X/46,XY mosaicism can present with a wide variety of phenotypes resulting from the involvement of different aspects of the individual. All these observations have important implications for early recognition of these patients and their appropriate management.
Avalanches and hysteresis in frustrated superconductors and XY spin-glasses
Sharma, Auditya; Andreanov, Alexei; Mueller, Markus
2014-03-01
We study avalanches along the hysteresis loop of long-range interacting spin-glasses with continuous XY symmetry - which serves as a toy model of granular superconductors with long-range and frustrated Josephson couplings. We identify sudden jumps in the T = 0 configurations of the XY phases, as an external field is increased. They are initiated by the softest mode of the inverse susceptibility matrix becoming unstable, which induces an avalanche of phase updates (or spin alignments). We analyze the statistics of these events, and study the correlation between the no n-linear avalanches and the soft mode that initiates them. We find that the avalanches follow the directions of a small fraction of the softest modes of the inverse susceptibility matrix, sim ilarly as was found in avalanches in jammed systems. In contrast to the similar Ising spin-glass (Sherrington-Kirkpatrick) studied previously, we find that avalanches are not distributed with a scale-free power law, but rather have a typical size which scales with the system size.
Critical behavior of the XY-rotor model on regular and small-world networks.
De Nigris, Sarah; Leoncini, Xavier
2013-07-01
We study the XY rotors model on small networks whose number of links scales with the system size N(links)~N(γ), where 1≤γ≤2. We first focus on regular one-dimensional rings in the microcanonical ensemble. For γ1.5, the system equilibrium properties are found to be identical to the mean field, which displays a second-order phase transition at a critical energy density ε=E/N,ε(c)=0.75. Moreover, for γ(c)~/=1.5 we find that a nontrivial state emerges, characterized by an infinite susceptibility. We then consider small-world networks, using the Watts-Strogatz mechanism on the regular networks parametrized by γ. We first analyze the topology and find that the small-world regime appears for rewiring probabilities which scale as p(SW)[proportionality]1/N(γ). Then considering the XY-rotors model on these networks, we find that a second-order phase transition occurs at a critical energy ε(c) which logarithmically depends on the topological parameters p and γ. We also define a critical probability p(MF), corresponding to the probability beyond which the mean field is quantitatively recovered, and we analyze its dependence on γ.
侯进; 李萍; 曾菊绒; 胥晓丽; 魏明; 熊晓云; 弥曼
2014-01-01
Objective To investigate the therapeutic effect of xy2004, a kind of benzene and dihydropyran derivatives, on postmenopausal osteoporosis in ovariectomized rats, and to preliminarily explore its mechanism.Methods Fifty female SD rats were divided into 5 groups:sham operation group, ovariectomized group ( OVX) , genistein group, xy2004 high dose group, and xy2004 low dose group.Forty SD rats were ovariectomized except 10 rats in sham operated group.Rats in sham operated group and OVX group were treated with 10 ml/kg distilled water.Rats in xy2004 high and low dose group were treated with 7 mg/kg and 3 mg/kg xy2004, respectively.And rats in genistein group were treated with 6 mg/kg genistein.All the drugs or distilled water were given through gavage administration.The effect of xy2004 on bone mineral density ( BMD) in OVX rats was observed.The serum levels of calcium, phosphorous, and IL-6 were detected.The affinity of xy2004 to estrogenic receptor ( ER) was detected using radio-ligand binding assay.Results BMD in OVX rats decreased.After 3-month gavage, xy2004 could significantly inhibit the decrease of BMD in OVX female rats, reduce serum ALP level, and inhibit the secretion of IL-6.The affinity of xy2004 to ER was detected, and the IC50 to ERαand ERβwas of 4.12 ×10 -7 M and 7.38 ×10 -5 M, respectively.Conclusion By binding with ER in female OVX rats, xy2004 can affect bone metabolism in rats , improve BMD in female OVX rats, and prevent postmenopausal osteoporosis in OVX rats .%目的：研究苯并二氢吡喃衍生物xy2004对去势雌鼠骨质疏松的治疗作用，并初步探讨其机制。方法将50只SD大鼠随机分为5组，假手术组、模型组、genistein组、xy2004高、低剂量组。假手术组、模型组均给予蒸馏水10 mL· kg-1，给药组分别给予小剂量xy20043 mg· kg-1和大剂量xy20047 mg· kg-1，genistein组给genistein 6 mg· kg-1，灌胃给药。观察xy2004对去势雌鼠骨密度的影响；检测大鼠体内血
Exact propagators in harmonic superspace
Kuzenko, Sergei M.
2004-10-01
Within the background field formulation in harmonic superspace for quantum N = 2 super-Yang-Mills theories, the propagators of the matter, gauge and ghost superfields possess a complicated dependence on the SU(2) harmonic variables via the background vector multiplet. This dependence is shown to simplify drastically in the case of an on-shell vector multiplet. For a covariantly constant background vector multiplet, we exactly compute all the propagators. In conjunction with the covariant multi-loop scheme developed in arxiv:hep-th/0302205, these results provide an efficient (manifestly N = 2 supersymmetric) technical setup for computing multi-loop quantum corrections to effective actions in N = 2 supersymmetric gauge theories, including the N = 4 super-Yang-Mills theory.
Exact propagators in harmonic superspace
Kuzenko, S M
2004-01-01
Within the background field formulation in harmonic superspace for quantum N = 2 super Yang-Mills theories, the propagators of the matter, gauge and ghost superfields possess a complicated dependence on the SU(2) harmonic variables via the background vector multiplet. This dependence is shown to simplify drastically in the case of an on-shell vector multiplet. For a covariantly constant background vector multiplet, we exactly compute all the propagators. In conjunction with the covariant multi-loop scheme developed in hep-th/0302205, these results provide an efficient (manifestly N = 2 supersymmetric) technical setup for computing multi-loop quantum corrections to effective actions in N = 2 supersymmetric gauge theories, including the N = 4 super Yang-Mills theory.
UPLAND EROSION MODELING WITH CASC2D-SED
Pierre JULIEN; Rosalía ROJAS
2002-01-01
Developed at Colorado State University, CASC2D-SED is a physically-based model simulating the hydrologic response of a watershed to a distributed rainfall field. The time-dependent processes include:precipitation, interception, infiltration, surface runoff and channel routing, upland erosion, transport and sedimentation. CASC2D-SED is applied to Goodwin Creek, Mississippi. The watershed covers 21 km2and has been extensively monitored both at the outlet and at several internal locations by the ARS-NSL at Oxford, MS. The model has been calibrated and validated using rainfall data from 16 meteorological stations, 6 stream gauging stations and 6 sediment gauging stations. Sediment erosion/deposition rates by size fraction are predicted both in space and time. Geovisualization, a powerful data exploration technique based on GIS technology, is used to analyze and display the dynamic output time series generated by the CASC2D-SED model.
Graphene based 2D-materials for supercapacitors
Palaniselvam, Thangavelu; Baek, Jong-Beom
2015-09-01
Ever-increasing energy demands and the depletion of fossil fuels are compelling humanity toward the development of suitable electrochemical energy conversion and storage devices to attain a more sustainable society with adequate renewable energy and zero environmental pollution. In this regard, supercapacitors are being contemplated as potential energy storage devices to afford cleaner, environmentally friendly energy. Recently, a great deal of attention has been paid to two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials, including 2D graphene and its inorganic analogues (transition metal double layer hydroxides, chalcogenides, etc), as potential electrodes for the development of supercapacitors with high electrochemical performance. This review provides an overview of the recent progress in using these graphene-based 2D materials as potential electrodes for supercapacitors. In addition, future research trends including notable challenges and opportunities are also discussed.
Design and Realization of Dynamic Obstacle on URWPSSim2D
Xiao Chen
2013-07-01
Full Text Available Simulation system is charged with the strategy validation and dual team meets, and as the 2-dimensional simulation platform for underwater robotic fish game, URWPGSim2D is the assigned platform for Chinese underwater robot contest and Robot cup underwater program. By now on URWPGSim2D, there is only static obstacles，thus short of changeableness. In order to improve the changeableness and innovation of robotic fish contest, to extend the space for the programming of contest strategy, and to increase the interest, this paper study the design of dynamic obstacles on URWPGSim2D, and design and implement two kinds of dynamic obstacles, which are the evadible dynamic obstacle and the forcing dribbling obstacle.
Genetics, genomics, and evolutionary biology of NKG2D ligands.
Carapito, Raphael; Bahram, Seiamak
2015-09-01
Human and mouse NKG2D ligands (NKG2DLs) are absent or only poorly expressed by most normal cells but are upregulated by cell stress, hence, alerting the immune system in case of malignancy or infection. Although these ligands are numerous and highly variable (at genetic, genomic, structural, and biochemical levels), they all belong to the major histocompatibility complex class I gene superfamily and bind to a single, invariant, receptor: NKG2D. NKG2D (CD314) is an activating receptor expressed on NK cells and subsets of T cells that have a key role in the recognition and lysis of infected and tumor cells. Here, we review the molecular diversity of NKG2DLs, discuss the increasing appreciation of their roles in a variety of medical conditions, and propose several explanations for the evolutionary force(s) that seem to drive the multiplicity and diversity of NKG2DLs while maintaining their interaction with a single invariant receptor.
Joint 2-D DOA and Noncircularity Phase Estimation Method
Wang Ling
2012-03-01
Full Text Available Classical joint estimation methods need large calculation quantity and multidimensional search. In order to avoid these shortcoming, a novel joint two-Dimension (2-D Direction Of Arrival (DOA and noncircularity phase estimation method based on three orthogonal linear arrays is proposed. The problem of 3-D parameter estimation can be transformed to three parallel 2-D parameter estimation according to the characteristic of three orthogonal linear arrays. Further more, the problem of 2-D parameter estimation can be transformed to 1-D parameter estimation by using the rotational invariance property among signal subspace and orthogonal property of noise subspace at the same time in every subarray. Ultimately, the algorithm can realize joint estimation and pairing parameters by one eigen-decomposition of extended covariance matrix. The proposed algorithm can be applicable for low SNR and small snapshot scenarios, and can estiame 2(M −1 signals. Simulation results verify that the proposed algorithm is effective.
Applications of Doppler Tomography in 2D and 3D
Richards, M.; Budaj, J.; Agafonov, M.; Sharova, O.
2010-12-01
Over the past few years, the applications of Doppler tomography have been extended beyond the usual calculation of 2D velocity images of circumstellar gas flows. This technique has now been used with the new Shellspec spectrum synthesis code to demonstrate the effective modeling of the accretion disk and gas stream in the TT Hya Algol binary. The 2D tomography procedure projects all sources of emission onto a single central (Vx, Vy) velocity plane even though the gas is expected to flow beyond that plane. So, new 3D velocity images were derived with the Radioastronomical Approach method by assuming a grid of Vz values transverse to the central 2D plane. The 3D approach has been applied to the U CrB and RS Vul Algol-type binaries to reveal substantial flow structures beyond the central velocity plane.
Simultaneous 2D Strain Sensing Using Polymer Planar Bragg Gratings
Manuel Rosenberger
2015-02-01
Full Text Available We demonstrate the application of polymer planar Bragg gratings for multi-axial strain sensing and particularly highlight simultaneous 2D strain measurement. A polymer planar Bragg grating (PPBG fabricated with a single writing step in bulk polymethylmethacrylate is used for measuring both tensile and compressive strain at various angles. It is shown that the sensitivity of the PPBG strongly depends on the angle between the optical waveguide into which the grating is inscribed and the direction along which the mechanical load is applied. Additionally, a 2D PPBG fabricated by writing two Bragg gratings angularly displaced from each other into a single polymer platelet is bonded to a stainless steel plate. The two reflected wavelengths exhibit different sensitivities while tested toward tensile and compressive strain. These characteristics make 2D PPBG suitable for measuring multi-axial tensile and compressive strain.
Maximizing entropy of image models for 2-D constrained coding
Forchhammer, Søren; Danieli, Matteo; Burini, Nino
2010-01-01
This paper considers estimating and maximizing the entropy of two-dimensional (2-D) fields with application to 2-D constrained coding. We consider Markov random fields (MRF), which have a non-causal description, and the special case of Pickard random fields (PRF). The PRF are 2-D causal finite...... context models, which define stationary probability distributions on finite rectangles and thus allow for calculation of the entropy. We consider two binary constraints and revisit the hard square constraint given by forbidding neighboring 1s and provide novel results for the constraint that no uniform 2...... £ 2 squares contains all 0s or all 1s. The maximum values of the entropy for the constraints are estimated and binary PRF satisfying the constraint are characterized and optimized w.r.t. the entropy. The maximum binary PRF entropy is 0.839 bits/symbol for the no uniform squares constraint. The entropy...
Cluster algebras in Scattering Amplitudes with special 2D kinematics
Torres, Marcus A C
2013-01-01
We study the cluster algebra of the kinematic configuration space $Conf_n(\\mathbb{P}^3)$ of a n-particle scattering amplitude restricted to the special 2D kinematics. We found that the n-points two loop MHV remainder function found in special 2D kinematics depend on a selection of \\XX-coordinates that are part of a special structure of the cluster algebra related to snake triangulations of polygons. This structure forms a necklace of hypercubes beads in the corresponding Stasheff polytope. Furthermore in $n = 12$, the cluster algebra and the selection of \\XX-coordinates in special 2D kinematics replicates the cluster algebra and the selection of \\XX-coordinates of $n=6$ two loop MHV amplitude in 4D kinematics.
Detection of Harmonic Occurring using Kalman Filtering
Hussain, Dil Muhammad Akbar; Shoro, Ghulam Mustafa; Imran, Raja Muhammed
2014-01-01
As long as the load to a power system is linear which has been the case before 80's, typically no harmonics are produced. However, the modern power electronic equipment for controlled power consumption produces harmonic disturbances, these devices/equipment possess nonlinear voltage/current chara...... using Kalman filter. This may be very useful for example to quickly switching on certain filters based on the harmonic present. We are using a unique technique to detect the occurrence of harmonics......./current characteristic. These harmonics are not to be allowed to grow beyond a certain limit to avoid any grave consequence to the customer’s main supply. Filters can be implemented at the power source or utility location to eliminate these harmonics. In this paper we detect the instance at which these harmonics occur...
Harmonic vibrations of multispan beams
Dyrbye, Claes
1996-01-01
Free and forced harmonic vibrations of multispan beams are determined by a method which implies 1 equation regardless of the configuration. The necessary formulas are given in the paper. For beams with simple supports and the same length of all (n) spans, there is a rather big difference between...... the n´th and the (n+1)´th eigenfrequency. The reason for this phenomenon is explained.Keywords: Vibrations, Eigenfrequencies, Beams....
Harmonic ratcheting for fast acceleration
Cook, N.; Brennan, J. M.; Peggs, S.
2014-04-01
A major challenge in the design of rf cavities for the acceleration of medium-energy charged ions is the need to rapidly sweep the radio frequency over a large range. From low-power medical synchrotrons to high-power accelerator driven subcritical reactor systems, and from fixed focus alternating gradient accelerators to rapid cycling synchrotrons, there is a strong need for more efficient, and faster, acceleration of protons and light ions in the semirelativistic range of hundreds of MeV/u. A conventional way to achieve a large, rapid frequency sweep (perhaps over a range of a factor of 6) is to use custom-designed ferrite-loaded cavities. Ferrite rings enable the precise tuning of the resonant frequency of a cavity, through the control of the incremental permeability that is possible by introducing a pseudoconstant azimuthal magnetic field. However, rapid changes over large permeability ranges incur anomalous behavior such as the "Q-loss" and "f-dot" loss phenomena that limit performance while requiring high bias currents. Notwithstanding the incomplete understanding of these phenomena, they can be ameliorated by introducing a "harmonic ratcheting" acceleration scheme in which two or more rf cavities take turns accelerating the beam—one turns on when the other turns off, at different harmonics—so that the radio frequency can be constrained to remain in a smaller range. Harmonic ratcheting also has straightforward performance advantages, depending on the particular parameter set at hand. In some typical cases it is possible to halve the length of the cavities, or to double the effective gap voltage, or to double the repetition rate. This paper discusses and quantifies the advantages of harmonic ratcheting in general. Simulation results for the particular case of a rapid cycling medical synchrotron ratcheting from harmonic number 9 to 2 show that stability and performance criteria are met even when realistic engineering details are taken into consideration.
Representation Discovery using Harmonic Analysis
Mahadevan, Sridhar
2008-01-01
Representations are at the heart of artificial intelligence (AI). This book is devoted to the problem of representation discovery: how can an intelligent system construct representations from its experience? Representation discovery re-parameterizes the state space - prior to the application of information retrieval, machine learning, or optimization techniques - facilitating later inference processes by constructing new task-specific bases adapted to the state space geometry. This book presents a general approach to representation discovery using the framework of harmonic analysis, in particu
Harmonic Lattice Dynamics of Germanium
Nelin, G.
1974-07-01
The phonon dispersion relations of the DELTA-, LAMBDA-, and SIGMA-directions of germanium at 80 K are analysed in terms of current harmonic lattice dynamical models. On the basis of this experience, a new model is proposed which gives a unified account of the strong points of the previous models. The principal elements of the presented theory are quasiparticle bond charges combined with a valence force field.
Determination of slope failure using 2-D resistivity method
Muztaza, Nordiana Mohd; Saad, Rosli; Ismail, Nur Azwin; Bery, Andy Anderson
2017-07-01
Landslides and slope failure may give negative economic effects including the cost to repair structures, loss of property value and medical costs in the event of injury. To avoid landslide, slope failure and disturbance of the ecosystem, good and detailed planning must be done when developing hilly area. Slope failure classification and various factors contributing to the instability using 2-D resistivity survey conducted in Selangor, Malaysia are described. The study on landslide and slope failure was conducted at Site A and Site B, Selangor using 2-D resistivity method. The implications of the anticipated ground conditions as well as the field observation of the actual conditions are discussed. Nine 2-D resistivity survey lines were conducted in Site A and six 2-D resistivity survey lines with 5 m minimum electrode spacing using Pole-dipole array were performed in Site B. The data were processed using Res2Dinv and Surfer10 software to evaluate the subsurface characteristics. 2-D resistivity results from both locations show that the study areas consist of two main zones. The first zone is alluvium or highly weathered with the resistivity of 100-1000 Ωm at 20-70 m depth. This zone consists of saturated area (1-100 Ωm) and boulders with resistivity value of 1200-3000 Ωm. The second zone with resistivity values of > 3000 Ωm was interpreted as granitic bedrock. The study area was characterized by saturated zones, highly weathered zone, highly contain of sand and boulders that will trigger slope failure in the survey area. Based on the results obtained from the study findings, it can be concluded that 2-D resistivity method is useful method in determination of slope failure.
Properties of Fermion Spherical Harmonics
Hunter, G; Hunter, Geoffrey; Emami-Razavi, Mohsen
2005-01-01
The Fermion Spherical harmonics [$Y_\\ell^{m}(\\theta,\\phi)$ for half-odd-integer $\\ell$ and $m$ - presented in a previous paper] are shown to have the same eigenfunction properties as the well-known Boson Spherical Harmonics [$Y_\\ell^{m}(\\theta,\\phi)$ for integer $\\ell$ and $m$]. The Fermion functions are shown to differ from the Boson functions in so far as the ladder operators $M_+$ ($M_-$) that ascend (descend) the sequence of harmonics over the values of $m$ for a given value of $\\ell$, do not produce the expected result {\\em in just one case}: when the value of $m$ changes from $\\pm{1/2}$ to $\\mp{1/2}$; i.e. when $m$ changes sign; in all other cases the ladder operators produce the usually expected result including anihilation when a ladder operator attempts to take $m$ outside the range: $-\\ell\\le m\\le +\\ell$. The unexpected result in the one case does not invalidate this scalar coordinate representation of spin angular momentum, because the eigenfunction property is essential for a valid quantum mechani...
Molecular Simulations using Spherical Harmonics
CAI, Wen-Sheng; XU, Jia-Wei; SHAO, Xue-Guang; MAIGRET, Bernard
2003-01-01
Computer-aided drug design is to develop a chemical that binds to a target macromolecule known to play a key role in a disease state. In recognition of ligands by their protein receptors,molecular surfaces are often used because they represent the interacting part of molecules and they should reflex the complementarity between ligand and receptor. However, assessing the surface complementarity by searching all relative position of two surfaces is often computationally expensive. The complementarity of lobe-hole is very important in protein-ligand interactions. Spherical harmonic models based on expansions of spherical harmonic functions were used as a fingerprint to approximate the binding cavity and the ligand, respectively. This defines a new way to identify the complementarity between lobes and holes. The advantage of this method is that two spherical harmonic surfaces to be compared can be defined separately. This method can be used as a filter to eliminate candidates among a large number of conformations, and it will speed up the docking procedure. Therefore, it is possible to select complementary ligands or complementary conformations of a ligand and the macromoleeules, by comparing their fingerprints previously stored in a database.
Quantum process tomography by 2D fluorescence spectroscopy
Pachón, Leonardo A. [Grupo de Física Atómica y Molecular, Instituto de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Antioquia UdeA, Calle 70 No. 52-21, Medellín (Colombia); Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States); Marcus, Andrew H. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Oregon Center for Optics, Institute of Molecular Biology, University of Oregon, Eugene, Oregon 97403 (United States); Aspuru-Guzik, Alán [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States)
2015-06-07
Reconstruction of the dynamics (quantum process tomography) of the single-exciton manifold in energy transfer systems is proposed here on the basis of two-dimensional fluorescence spectroscopy (2D-FS) with phase-modulation. The quantum-process-tomography protocol introduced here benefits from, e.g., the sensitivity enhancement ascribed to 2D-FS. Although the isotropically averaged spectroscopic signals depend on the quantum yield parameter Γ of the doubly excited-exciton manifold, it is shown that the reconstruction of the dynamics is insensitive to this parameter. Applications to foundational and applied problems, as well as further extensions, are discussed.
Integrability from 2d N=(2,2) Dualities
Yamazaki, Masahito
2015-01-01
We study integrable models in the context of the recently discovered Gauge/YBE correspondence, where the Yang-Baxter equation is promoted to a duality between two supersymmetric gauge theories. We study flavored elliptic genus of 2d $\\mathcal{N}=(2,2)$ quiver gauge theories, which theories are defined from statistical lattices regarded as quiver diagrams. Our R-matrices are written in terms of theta functions, and simplifies considerably when the gauge groups at the quiver nodes are Abelian. We also discuss the modularity properties of the R-matrix, reduction of 2d index to 1d Witten index, and string theory realizations of our theories.
Isotropic 2D quadrangle meshing with size and orientation control
Pellenard, Bertrand
2011-12-01
We propose an approach for automatically generating isotropic 2D quadrangle meshes from arbitrary domains with a fine control over sizing and orientation of the elements. At the heart of our algorithm is an optimization procedure that, from a coarse initial tiling of the 2D domain, enforces each of the desirable mesh quality criteria (size, shape, orientation, degree, regularity) one at a time, in an order designed not to undo previous enhancements. Our experiments demonstrate how well our resulting quadrangle meshes conform to a wide range of input sizing and orientation fields.
2D-ACAR investigations of PPT aramid fibres
Mijnarends, P.E.; Falub, C.V.; Eijt, S.W.H.; Veen, A. van [Interfaculty Reactor Inst., Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands)
2001-07-01
2D-ACAR spectra of PPT (poly(p-phenylene terephthalamide)) fibres which contain structural elongated open spaces in the crystallographic unit cell show a p-Ps peak with an elliptical cross-section and side lobes. Peak broadening suggests dimensions of {proportional_to}14-17 by 7-9 A for the open spaces and indicates some penetration of Ps into the interlayer spacing. The side lobes can be related to projected reciprocal lattice points and indicate Ps delocalization. 2D-ACAR has also been used to study the evolution of water release from the open spaces. (orig.)
On the Nonrelativistic 2D Purely Magnetic Supersymmetric Pauli Operator
Grinevich, P.; Mironov, A.(Lebedev Physics Institute; ITEP, Moscow, Russia); Novikov, S.
2011-01-01
The Complete Manifold of Ground State Eigenfunctions for the Purely Magnetic 2D Pauli Operator is considered as a by-product of the new reduction found by the present authors few years ago for the Algebrogeometric Inverse Spectral Data (i.e. Riemann Surfaces and Divisors). This reduction is associated with the (2+1) Soliton Hierarhy containing a 2D analog of the famous "Burgers System". This article contains also exposition of the previous works made since 1980 including the first topological...
EEG simulation by 2D interconnected chaotic oscillators
Kubany, Adam, E-mail: adamku@bgu.ac.i [Department of Industrial Engineering and Management, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, P.O. Box 653, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel); Mhabary, Ziv; Gontar, Vladimir [Department of Industrial Engineering and Management, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, P.O. Box 653, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel)
2011-01-15
Research highlights: ANN of 2D interconnected chaotic oscillators is explored for EEG simulation. An inverse problem solution (PRCGA) is proposed. Good matching between the simulated and experimental EEG signals has been achieved. - Abstract: An artificial neuronal network composed by 2D interconnected chaotic oscillators is explored for brain waves (EEG) simulation. For the inverse problem solution a parallel real-coded genetic algorithm (PRCGA) is proposed. In order to conduct thorough comparison between the simulated and target signal characteristics, a spectrum analysis of the signals is undertaken. A good matching between the theoretical and experimental EEG signals has been achieved. Numerical results of calculations are presented and discussed.
Recording 2-D Nutation NQR Spectra by Random Sampling Method.
Glotova, Olga; Sinyavsky, Nikolaj; Jadzyn, Maciej; Ostafin, Michal; Nogaj, Boleslaw
2010-10-01
The method of random sampling was introduced for the first time in the nutation nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) spectroscopy where the nutation spectra show characteristic singularities in the form of shoulders. The analytic formulae for complex two-dimensional (2-D) nutation NQR spectra (I = 3/2) were obtained and the condition for resolving the spectral singularities for small values of an asymmetry parameter η was determined. Our results show that the method of random sampling of a nutation interferogram allows significant reduction of time required to perform a 2-D nutation experiment and does not worsen the spectral resolution.
2D fluid simulations of interchange turbulence with ion dynamics
Nielsen, Anders Henry; Madsen, Jens; Xu, G. S.
2013-01-01
In this paper we present a first principle global two-dimensional fluid model. The HESEL (Hot Edge SOL Electrostatic) model is a 2D numerical fluid code, based on interchange dynamics and includes besides electron also the ion pressure dynamic. In the limit of cold ions the model almost reduces......B vorticity as well as the ion diamagnetic vorticity. The 2D domain includes both open and closed field lines and is located on the out-board midplane of a tokamak. On open field field lines the parallel dynamics are parametrized as sink terms depending on the dynamic quantities; density, electron and ion...
GENERALIZED VARIATIONAL OPTIMAZATION ANALYSIS FOR 2-D FLOW FIELD
HUANG Si-xun; XU Ding-hua; LAN Wei-ren; TENG Jia-jun
2005-01-01
The Variational Optimization Analysis Method (VOAM) for 2-D flow field suggested by Sasaki was reviewed first. It is known that the VOAM can be used efficiently in most cases. However, in the cases where there are high frequency noises in 2-D flow field, it appears to be inefficient. In the present paper, based on Sasaki's VOAM, a Generalized Variational Optimization Analysis Method (GVOAM) was proposed with regularization ideas, which could deal well with flow fields containing high frequency noises. A numerical test shows that observational data can be both variationally optimized and filtered, and therefore the GVOAM is an efficient method.
CH2D+, the Search for the Holy Grail
Roueff, E; Lis, D C; Wootten, A; Marcelino, N; cernicharo, J; Tercero, B
2013-01-01
CH2D+, the singly deuterated counterpart of CH3+, offers an alternative way to mediate formation of deuterated species at temperatures of several tens of K, as compared to the release of deuterated species from grains. We report a longstanding observational search for this molecular ion, whose rotational spectroscopy is not yet completely secure. We summarize the main spectroscopic properties of this molecule and discuss the chemical network leading to the formation of CH2D+, with explicit account of the ortho/para forms of H2, H3+ and CH3+. Astrochemical models support the presence of this molecular ion in moderately warm environments at a marginal level.
Using 2-D arrays for sensing multimodal Lamb waves
Engholm, Marcus; Stepinski, Tadeusz
2010-04-01
Monitoring structural integrity of large planar structures requires normally a relatively dense network of uniformly distributed ultrasonic sensors. A 2-D ultrasonic phased array with all azimuth angle coverage would be extremely useful for the structural health monitoring (SHM) of such structures. Known techniques for estimating direction of arriving (DOA) waves cannot efficiently cope with dispersive and multimodal Lamb waves (LWs). In the paper we propose an adaptive spectral estimation technique capable of handling broadband LWs sensed by 2-D arrays, the modified Capon method. Performance of the technique is evaluated using simulated multiple-mode LWs, and verified using experimental data.
Exact computation of scalar 2D aerial imagery
Gordon, Ronald L.
2002-07-01
An exact formulation of the problem of imaging a 2D object through a Koehler illumination system is presented; the accurate simulation of a real layout is then not time- limited but memory-limited. The main idea behind the algorithm is that the boundary of the region that comprise a typical TCC Is made up of circular arcs, and therefore the area - which determines the value of the TCC - should be exactly computable in terms of elementary analytical functions. A change to integration around the boundary leads to an expression with minimal dependence on expensive functions such as arctangents and square roots. Numerical comparisons are made for a simple 2D structure.
Ramesh Kumar Moona Haji Mohamed; Che Supian Mohamad Nor
2013-01-01
The purpose of this paper is to trace McGregor’s X-Y theory and its relationship with fulfillment of psychological contract. This is a review article relying on literature reviews and synthesizing concepts and ideas from related sources. McGregor’s X-Y theory is a natural rule for managing people. McGregor’s ideas suggest that there are two fundamental approaches to managing people. Theory X management style generally get poor results compare with managers use theory Y, which produces better ...
On the Family of Thue Equation |x3 + mx2y- (m + 3) xy2 + y3 |= k
XIA Jingbo; CHEN Jianhua; ZHANG Silan
2006-01-01
The family of cubic Thue equation which depend on two parameters | x3 + mx2 y- (m+3) xy2 + y3|=k is studied. Using rational approximation, we give a smaller upper bound of the solution of the equation, that is quite better than the present result. Moreover, we study two inequalities |x3 +mx2y- (m+3)xy2 +y3|=k≤2m+3 and |m3 +mm2y- (m+3)my2 + y3 | = k≤(2m+ 3)2 separately. Our result of upper bound make it easy to solve those inequalities by simple method of continuous fraction expansion.
Guang CHEN
2016-03-01
Full Text Available Objective To deepen the understanding of 45,X/46,XY mixed gonadal dysgenesis (45,X/46,XY MGD by summarizing the respective clinical features of patients gathered from China, Brazil, Norway and Denmark suffering from the disease. Methods Comparative analysis was done with the clinical data of 7 patients suffering from 45,X/46,XY MGD diagnosed in the PLA General Hospital of China, and that of other domestic and foreign (Brazil, Norway and Denmark cases summarized by Peking Union Medical College Hospital. Results Most of the patients of 45,X/46,XY MGD presented the Turner's syndrome-like clinical manifestations such as short stature, multiple naevi on face and lower hair line, etc. Cardiovascular and renal malformation could be found in some patients with 45,X/46,XY MGD. Regarding to the external genitalia, 42.9% (n=27 of the patients were considered to be ambiguous, with a variety of gonadal expression. Laboratory tests demonstrated elevation of follicle-stimulating and/or luteinizing hormone levels with decreased sex hormone levels in most of the patients with 45,X/46,XY MGD. Recombinant human growth hormone (RhGH, testosterone, artificial menstrual cycle and prophylactic gonadectomy were used as primary treatment. There were differences between the domestic and foreign patients in the reason to visit the hospital, and in the age for diagnosis. Chinese patients were always hospitalized for growth retardation, while the foreign patients might go to a doctor for consultation due to various reasons, such as abnormal genitalia, infertility, and fetal chromosomal abnormalities, and many of them might also be diagnosed as 45,X/46,XY MGD in prenatal period or at birth. That was why the average diagnostic age was 4.7 years younger in foreign patients than in Chinese patients. Conclusions No significant difference was found in the clinical characteristics of patients with 45,X/46,XY MGD among different countries and races. But the diagnostic
Lina Yang
2014-01-01
Full Text Available To reduce the computation complexity of wavelet transform, this paper presents a novel approach to be implemented. It consists of two key techniques: (1 fast number theoretic transform(FNTT In the FNTT, linear convolution is replaced by the circular one. It can speed up the computation of 2D discrete wavelet transform. (2 In two-dimensional overlap-save method directly calculating the FNTT to the whole input sequence may meet two difficulties; namely, a big modulo obstructs the effective implementation of the FNTT and a long input sequence slows the computation of the FNTT down. To fight with such deficiencies, a new technique which is referred to as 2D overlap-save method is developed. Experiments have been conducted. The fast number theoretic transform and 2D overlap-method have been used to implement the dyadic wavelet transform and applied to contour extraction in pattern recognition.
Ultrasound Harmonic Classification of Microemboli
P.C. Palanchon
2004-01-01
textabstractThe ultrasound community has experienced dramatic technical advances over the last decades, such as blood °ow measurements with elabo rate Doppler techniques or real time three-dimensional imaging with 2-D phased array transducers. This was partly ascribed to the advantages of ultraso
The partition function of 2d string theory
Dijkgraaf, R; Plesser, R
1993-01-01
We derive a compact and explicit expression for the generating functional of all correlation functions of tachyon operators in 2D string theory. This expression makes manifest relations of the $c=1$ system to KP flow and $W_{1+\\infty}$ constraints. Moreover we derive a Kontsevich-Penner integral representation of this generating functional.
The Anglo-Australian Observatory's 2dF Facility
Lewis, I J; Taylor, K; Glazebrook, K; Bailey, J A; Baldry, I K; Barton, J R; Bridges, T J; Dalton, G B; Farrell, T J; Gray, P M; Lankshear, A; McCowage, C; Parry, I R; Sharples, R M; Shortridge, K; Smith, G A; Stevenson, J; Straede, J O; Waller, L G; Whittard, J D; Wilcox, J K; Willis, K C
2002-01-01
The 2dF (Two-degree Field) facility at the prime focus of the Anglo-Australian Telescope provides multiple object spectroscopy over a 2 degree field of view. Up to 400 target fibres can be independently positioned by a complex robot. Two spectrographs provide spectra with resolutions of between 500 and 2000, over wavelength ranges of 440nm and 110nm respectively. The 2dF facility began routine observations in 1997. 2dF was designed primarily for galaxy redshift surveys and has a number of innovative features. The large corrector lens incorporates an atmospheric dispersion compensator, essential for wide wavelength coverage with small diameter fibres. The instrument has two full sets of fibres on separate field plates, so that re-configuring can be done in parallel with observing. The robot positioner places one fibre every 6 seconds, to a precision of 0.3 arcsec (20micron) over the full field. All components of 2dF, including the spectrographs, are mounted on a 5-m diameter telescope top-end ring for ease of ...
Approximate 2D inversion of airborne TEM data
Christensen, N.B.; Wolfgram, Peter
2006-01-01
We propose an approximate two-dimensional inversion procedure for transient electromagnetic data. The method is a two-stage procedure, where data are first inverted with 1D multi-layer models. The 1D model section is then considered as data for the next inversion stage that produces the 2D model...
Nonlinear excursions of particles in ideal 2D flows
Aref, Hassan; Pedersen, Johan Rønby; Stremler, Mark A.;
2010-01-01
A number of problems related to particle trajectories in ideal 2D flows are discussed. Both regular particle paths, corresponding to integrable dynamics, and irregular or chaotic paths may arise. Examples of both types are shown. Sometimes, in the same flow, certain particles will follow regular ...
CFD code comparison for 2D airfoil flows
Sørensen, Niels N.; Méndez, B.; Muñoz, A.;
2016-01-01
The current paper presents the effort, in the EU AVATAR project, to establish the necessary requirements to obtain consistent lift over drag ratios among seven CFD codes. The flow around a 2D airfoil case is studied, for both transitional and fully turbulent conditions at Reynolds numbers of 3 × ...
CANONICAL COMPUTATIONAL FORMS FOR AR 2-D SYSTEMS
ROCHA, P; WILLEMS, JC
1990-01-01
A canonical form for AR 2-D systems representations is introduced. This yields a method for computing the system trajectories by means of a line-by-line recursion, and displays some relevant information about the system structure such as the choice of inputs and initial conditions.
The 2D Boussinesq equations with logarithmically supercritical velocities
Chae, Dongho
2011-01-01
This paper investigates the global (in time) regularity of solutions to a system of equations that generalize the vorticity formulation of the 2D Boussinesq-Navier-Stokes equations. The velocity $u$ in this system is related to the vorticity $\\omega$ through the relations $u=\
2D fluid simulations of interchange turbulence with ion dynamics
Nielsen, Anders Henry; Madsen, Jens; Xu, G. S.
2013-01-01
In this paper we present a first principle global two-dimensional fluid model. The HESEL (Hot Edge SOL Electrostatic) model is a 2D numerical fluid code, based on interchange dynamics and includes besides electron also the ion pressure dynamic. In the limit of cold ions the model almost reduces...
On the sensitivity of the 2D electromagnetic invisibility cloak
Kaproulias, S. [Department of Physics, University of Patras, 26504 Patras (Greece); Sigalas, M.M., E-mail: sigalas@upatras.gr [Department of Materials Science, University of Patras, 26504 Patras (Greece)
2012-10-15
A computational study of the sensitivity of the two dimensional (2D) electromagnetic invisibility cloaks is performed with the finite element method. A circular metallic object is covered with the cloak and the effects of absorption, gain and disorder are examined. Also the effect of covering the cloak with a thin dielectric layer is studied.
Rheological Properties of Quasi-2D Fluids in Microgravity
Stannarius, Ralf; Trittel, Torsten; Eremin, Alexey; Harth, Kirsten; Clark, Noel; Maclennan, Joseph; Glaser, Matthew; Park, Cheol; Hall, Nancy; Tin, Padetha
2015-01-01
In recent years, research on complex fluids and fluids in restricted geometries has attracted much attention in the scientific community. This can be attributed not only to the development of novel materials based on complex fluids but also to a variety of important physical phenomena which have barely been explored. One example is the behavior of membranes and thin fluid films, which can be described by two-dimensional (2D) rheology behavior that is quite different from 3D fluids. In this study, we have investigated the rheological properties of freely suspended films of a thermotropic liquid crystal in microgravity experiments. This model system mimics isotropic and anisotropic quasi 2D fluids [46]. We use inkjet printing technology to dispense small droplets (inclusions) onto the film surface. The motion of these inclusions provides information on the rheological properties of the films and allows the study of a variety of flow instabilities. Flat films have been investigated on a sub-orbital rocket flight and curved films (bubbles) have been studied in the ISS project OASIS. Microgravity is essential when the films are curved in order to avoid sedimentation. The experiments yield the mobility of the droplets in the films as well as the mutual mobility of pairs of particles. Experimental results will be presented for 2D-isotropic (smectic-A) and 2D-nematic (smectic-C) phases.
Research Synthesis and Characterization of 2D Conjugated Polymers
2007-07-13
polythiophene chain on the Scheme should necessarily result in a continuous brick wall 2D structure). Furthermore, the design should eliminate any...Photoelectron Spectroscopy and Ultraviolet Photoelectron Spectroscopy are under way. We have also conducted preliminary experiments on the two other low
2D InP photonic crystal fabrication process development
Rong, B.; Van der Drift, E.; Van der Heijden, R.W.; Salemink, H.W.M.
2006-01-01
We have developed a reliable process to fabricate high quality 2D air-hole and dielectric column InP photonic crystals with a high aspect ratio on a STS production tool using ICP N2+Cl2 plasma. The photonic crystals have a triangular lattice with lattice constant of 400 nm and air-hole and dielectri
Fiber Drawn 2D Polymeric Photonic Crystal THz Filters
Stecher, Matthias; Jansen, Christian; Ahmadi-Boroujeni, Mehdi
2012-01-01
In this paper, we report on different polymeric 2D photonic crystal filters for THz frequencies which are fabricated by a standard fiber drawing technique. The bandstop filters were simulated and designed by the generalized multipole technique (GMT). The frequency and angle dependent transmission...
Vadstrup, Kasper; Bendtsen, Flemming
2017-01-01
production, and target cell killing. Research into the NKG2D mechanism of action has primarily been focused on cancer and viral infections where cytotoxicity evasion is a concern. In human inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) this system is less characterized, but the ligands have been shown to be highly...
Band Alignment of 2D Transition Metal Dichalcogenide Heterojunctions
Chiu, Ming Hui
2016-09-20
It is critically important to characterize the band alignment in semiconductor heterojunctions (HJs) because it controls the electronic and optical properties. However, the well-known Anderson\\'s model usually fails to predict the band alignment in bulk HJ systems due to the presence of charge transfer at the interfacial bonding. Atomically thin 2D transition metal dichalcogenide materials have attracted much attention recently since the ultrathin HJs and devices can be easily built and they are promising for future electronics. The vertical HJs based on 2D materials can be constructed via van der Waals stacking regardless of the lattice mismatch between two materials. Despite the defect-free characteristics of the junction interface, experimental evidence is still lacking on whether the simple Anderson rule can predict the band alignment of HJs. Here, the validity of Anderson\\'s model is verified for the 2D heterojunction systems and the success of Anderson\\'s model is attributed to the absence of dangling bonds (i.e., interface dipoles) at the van der Waal interface. The results from the work set a foundation allowing the use of powerful Anderson\\'s rule to determine the band alignments of 2D HJs, which is beneficial to future electronic, photonic, and optoelectronic devices. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
The toroidal Hausdorff dimension of 2d Euclidean quantum gravity
Ambjorn, Jan; Budd, Timothy George
2013-01-01
The lengths of shortest non-contractible loops are studied numerically in 2d Euclidean quantum gravity on a torus coupled to conformal field theories with central charge less than one. We find that the distribution of these geodesic lengths displays a scaling in agreement with a Hausdorff dimension...
Fast 2D-DCT implementations for VLIW processors
Sohm, OP; Canagarajah, CN; Bull, DR
1999-01-01
This paper analyzes various fast 2D-DCT algorithms regarding their suitability for VLIW processors. Operations for truncation or rounding which are usually neglected in proposals for fast algorithms have also been taken into consideration. Loeffler's algorithm with parallel multiplications was found to be most suitable due to its parallel structure
The Analytical Approximate Solution of the 2D Thermal Displacement
Chu－QuanGuan; Zeng－YuanGuo; 等
1996-01-01
The 2D plane gas flow under heating (with nonentity boundary condition)has been discussed by the analytical approach in this paper.The approximate analytical solutions have been obtained for the flow passing various kinds of heat sources.Solutions demonstrate the thermal displacement phenomena are strongly depend on the heating intensity.
BPS black holes in N=2 D=4 gauged supergravities
Hristov, K.; Looyestijn, H.T.; Vandoren, S.J.G.
2010-01-01
We construct and analyze BPS black hole solutions in gauged N=2, D=4 supergravity with charged hypermultiplets. A class of solutions can be found through spontaneous symmetry breaking in vacua that preserve maximal supersymmetry. The resulting black holes do not carry any hair for the scalars. We de
Design of the LRP airfoil series using 2D CFD
Zahle, Frederik; Bak, Christian; Sørensen, Niels N.;
2014-01-01
This paper describes the design and wind tunnel testing of a high-Reynolds number, high lift airfoil series designed for wind turbines. The airfoils were designed using direct gradient- based numerical multi-point optimization based on a Bezier parameterization of the shape, coupled to the 2D Nav...
2D nanomaterials based electrochemical biosensors for cancer diagnosis.
Wang, Lu; Xiong, Qirong; Xiao, Fei; Duan, Hongwei
2017-03-15
Cancer is a leading cause of death in the world. Increasing evidence has demonstrated that early diagnosis holds the key towards effective treatment outcome. Cancer biomarkers are extensively used in oncology for cancer diagnosis and prognosis. Electrochemical sensors play key roles in current laboratory and clinical analysis of diverse chemical and biological targets. Recent development of functional nanomaterials offers new possibilities of improving the performance of electrochemical sensors. In particular, 2D nanomaterials have stimulated intense research due to their unique array of structural and chemical properties. The 2D materials of interest cover broadly across graphene, graphene derivatives (i.e., graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide), and graphene-like nanomaterials (i.e., 2D layered transition metal dichalcogenides, graphite carbon nitride and boron nitride nanomaterials). In this review, we summarize recent advances in the synthesis of 2D nanomaterials and their applications in electrochemical biosensing of cancer biomarkers (nucleic acids, proteins and some small molecules), and present a personal perspective on the future direction of this area.
Validation of minor species of the MIPAS2D database
Enzo Papandrea
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The MIPAS2D [Dinelli et al., 2010] database has been developed applying the tomographic analysis technique GMTR [Carlotti et al., 2001] to measurements acquired in the nominal observation mode of the complete MIPAS (Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmosphere Sounding [Fischer et al., 2008] mission. […
A VARIATIONAL MODEL FOR 2-D MICROPOLAR BLOOD FLOW
He Ji-huan
2003-01-01
The micropolar fluid model is an essential generalization of the well-established Navier-Stokes model in the sense that it takes into account the microstructure of the fluid.This paper is devolted to establishing a variational principle for 2-D incompressible micropolar blood flow.
Dynamic and approximate pattern matching in 2D
Clifford, Raphaël; Fontaine, Allyx; Starikovskaya, Tatiana
2016-01-01
updates can be performed in O(log2 n) time and queries in O(log2 m) time. - We then consider a model where an update is a new 2D pattern and a query is a location in the text. For this setting we show that Hamming distance queries can be answered in O(log m + H) time, where H is the relevant Hamming...... distance. - Extending this work to allow approximation, we give an efficient algorithm which returns a (1+ε) approximation of the Hamming distance at a given location in O(ε−2 log2 m log log n) time. Finally, we consider a different setting inspired by previous work on locality sensitive hashing (LSH......). Given a threshold k and after building the 2D text index and receiving a 2D query pattern, we must output a location where the Hamming distance is at most (1 + ε)k as long as there exists a location where the Hamming distance is at most k. - For our LSH inspired 2D indexing problem, the text can...
Computational study of interfaces and edges of 2D materials
Farmanbar Gelepordsari, M.
2016-01-01
The discovery of graphene and its intriguing properties has given birth to the field of two-dimensional (2D) materials. These materials are characterized by a strong covalent bonding between the atoms within a plane, but weak, van derWaals, bonding between the planes. Such materials can be isolated
Stabilization of 2D quantum gravity by branching interactions
Diego, O
1995-01-01
In this paper the stabilization of 2D quantum Gravity by branching interactions is considered. The perturbative expansion and the first nonperturbative term of the stabilized model are the same than the unbounded matrix model which define pure Gravity, but it has new nonperturbative effects that survives in the continuum limit.
Discrepant Results in a 2-D Marble Collision
Kalajian, Peter
2013-01-01
Video analysis of 2-D collisions is an excellent way to investigate conservation of linear momentum. The often-desired experimental design goal is to minimize the momentum loss in order to demonstrate the conservation law. An air table with colliding pucks is an ideal medium for this experiment, but such equipment is beyond the budget of many…