WorldWideScience

Sample records for harmful pollution levels

  1. More harmful climate change impacts in polluted forests – a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    E Paoletti; NE Grulke; A Bytnerowicz

    2009-01-01

    Forests are facing significant pressures from climate change and air pollution. Air pollution is the main driver of the ongoing climate change. Current knowledge suggests that climate change may become more harmful to pollution-affected forests, although the magnitude of these feedbacks is still to be determined. At present, the air pollutants of most concern to...

  2. Can harmful tax competition be curbed at the international level?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gjersti, Per O. [Finans- og Tolldepartementet, Oslo (Norway)

    1998-07-01

    This presentation discusses the following issues: (1) Good vs harmful tax competition?, (2) How to identify harmful competition?, (3) What is the economic and social impact of harmful tax competition?, (4) What can be done about harmful tax competition? There are three levels, the EU level, the OECD level and the global level. Existing measures to counteract harmful tax practices are insufficient because action by one country merely shifts activity to another country and puts its tax payers at a competitive disadvantage and because coordination action eases political pressure. The EU code of good conduct and the OECD guidelines for dealing with harmful preferential tax regimes are compared, with respect to general features, with respect to key factors to identify harmful measures, and with respect to general scope.

  3. Chronic oil pollution harms Magellanic penguins in the Southwest Atlantic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Borboroglu, P. [Centro Nacional Patagonico (CONICET), Chubut (Argentina); Wildlife Conservation Society, New York, NY (United States); Boersma, P.D. [Wildlife Conservation Society, New York, NY (United States); University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Ruoppolo, V. [International Fund for Animal Welfare, Emergency Relief Team - Oiled Wildlife Division, Sao Paolo (BR)] (and others)

    2006-02-15

    Petroleum pollution is a problem for seabirds along the Southwest Atlantic coast. Twenty-five groups from Salvador, Brazil (12{sup o}58'S) to San Antonio Oeste, Argentina (40{sup o}43'S) survey or rehabilitate sick or oiled seabirds. Four groups, one each in Brazil and Uruguay, and two in Argentina, kept counts of birds found alive and in need of rehabilitation. An average of 63.7% of the seabirds found were Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus), with 3869 reported since 1987. Mainly adult penguins were found in Argentina (1605 of 2102 penguins of known age class) and Uruguay (158 of 197). Juveniles were most common in Brazil (234 of 325). Oil fouling was the most frequent cause of injury or sickness. The number of oiled penguins reported in their wintering range has greatly increased since the early 1990s and is strongly correlated with petroleum exports from Argentina. Our results show that chronic petroleum pollution is a problem for wildlife from Southern Brazil through Northern Argentina, and regulations and enforcement are failing to protect living resources. (author)

  4. Do current levels of air pollution kill?:The impact of air pollution on population mortality in England

    OpenAIRE

    Janke, KM; Propper, C.; Henderson, J.

    2009-01-01

    The current air quality limit values for airborne pollutants in the UK are low by historical standards and are at levels that are believed not to harm health. We assess whether this view is correct. We examine the relationship between common sources of airborne pollution and population mortality for England. We use data at local authority level for 1998–2005 to examine whether current levels of airborne pollution, as measured by annual mean concentrations of carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide,...

  5. Microbiological tests and measurements in the assessment of harmful substances and pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahtiainen, J. [Finnish Environment Institute, Helsinki (Finland)

    2002-07-01

    New chemicals are produced in increasing numbers. In Finland every year about 28 000 different products are manufactured or imported which can be classified as harmful. These products contain about 5000 different harmful substances. We also receive harmful compounds in airborne emissions. Substances are further transformed in industrial processes, in waste management and in the environment by human activities and natural processes. However, only rather limited monitoring data is available about the environmental concentrations of these compounds (concerning about 20-10 substances). The environmental risks of harmful substances can be recognized, assessed and managed by: (1) measuring concentrations in the environment, (2) testing the effects on biota in toxicity tests and (3) monitoring ecosystem changes in the environment. Microbes have a key role in the environment as degraders in the carbon and nutrient cycles. They also have the capability to transform and degrade many harmful man-made substances. Microbes have a strong effect on the exposure of other biota to chemical substances. Hence they can be regarded as primary targets for harmful effects of chemicals or active transformers of chemicals in the environment. The objective of this study was to evaluate the usefulness and applicability of microbial toxicity tests, biodegradation tests and microbial biomass and activity measurements in the environment for the environmental hazard identification and risk assessment of chemicals, effluents and contaminated soils. The study considers both aquatic and soil environments. The effects of modern pulp mill bleaching effluents on biota were assessed by a set of different biotests and by chemical analysis. The effluents and their long term effects on aquatic microbial processes were also studied in outdoor mesocosms. In one part the biodegradation kinetics of carbon-14-labeled model compounds in standard tests and in environmental conditions were measured and compared

  6. Assessment of potentially harmful elements pollution in the Calore River basin (Southern Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuzolo, Daniela; Cicchella, Domenico; Catani, Vittorio; Giaccio, Lucia; Guagliardi, Ilaria; Esposito, Libera; De Vivo, Benedetto

    2017-06-01

    The geographical distribution of concentration values for harmful elements was determined in the Campania region, Italy. The study area consists of the drainage basin of the River Calore, a tributary of the river Volturno, the largest Southern Italian river. The results provide reliable analytical data allowing a quantitative assessment of the trace element pollution threat to the ecosystem and human health. Altogether 562 stream sediment samples were collected at a sampling density of 1 site per 5 km2. All samples were air-dried, sieved to urban settlements and industrial areas. The enrichment factor of these elements is 3-4 times higher than the background values. The southwestern area of the basin is characterized by a moderate/high degree of contamination, just where the two busiest roads of the area run and the highest concentration of industries occurs.

  7. Lower cortisol level in response to a psychosocial stressor in young females with self-harm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plener, Paul L; Zohsel, Katrin; Hohm, Erika; Buchmann, Arlette F; Banaschewski, T; Zimmermann, Ulrich S; Laucht, Manfred

    2017-02-01

    Self-harm is highly prevalent in adolescence, often serving an emotion regulation function. Social stressors such as bullying are associated with self-harm. The neurobiological background of the relationship between social stressors and self-harm needs to be further understood to inform prevention and therapy. Participants were members of an epidemiological cohort study. 130 female participants underwent the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) at age 19. Of them, 21 reported a history of self-harm as assessed by the Youth Self Report. Psychiatric diagnoses were recorded. Participants with a history of self-harm showed significantly lower blood cortisol levels throughout the TSST. Early psychosocial adversity did not significantly differ between groups with and without self-harm, with self-harming participants reporting more childhood adversities. These results add to the limited field of studies showing an altered HPA axis activity in females with self-harm. Future studies need to address the causal mechanisms behind this association. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Ozone Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Known as tropospheric or ground-level ozone, this gas is harmful to human heath and the environment. Since it forms from emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and nitrogen oxides (NOx), these pollutants are regulated under air quality standards.

  9. Harmful Algal Blooms in Asia: an insidious and escalating water pollution phenomenon with effects on ecological and human health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia M Glibert

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs, those proliferations of algae that causeenvironmental, economic, or human health problems, are increasing in frequency,duration, and geographic extent due to nutrient pollution. The scale of the HABproblem in Asia has escalated in recent decades in parallel with the increase in useof agricultural fertilizer, the development of aquaculture, and a growing population.Three examples, all from China but illustrative of the diversity of events and theirecological, economic, and human health effects throughout Asia, are highlightedhere. These examples include inland (Lake Tai or Taihu as well as offshore (EastChina Sea and Yellow Sea waters. The future outlook for controlling these bloomsis bleak. The effects of advancing industrialized agriculture and a continually growingpopulation will continue to result in more nutrient pollution and more HABs—-and more effects - in the foreseeable future.

  10. Microscopic mechanism analysis on rheology and harmful effects by low level laser irradiation of blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lili; Zhang, Hongwei; Zhang, Canbang; Xu, Lin; Zhou, Lingyun

    2012-03-01

    The microscopic mechanism on rheology and harmful effects of low level laser irradiation of blood were analyzed by Quantum theory. The analyzed results showed that laser may resolve fibrin clot, then the property of rheology of blood is improved; and some bonds of the cholesterol in blood were fractured by low level laser (abbreviate LLL) , hence the ratio of membrane cholesterol/membrane phosp-hatide of red cell were reduced, then blood circulation can be improved. So low level laser irradiated blood possess the action of mending rheology of blood. But our analyses point out that LLL may cut off some bonds of living biomolecule (e.g. Protein molecule) yet, then some normal protein may emerged denaturation, so normal cells in blood may be destroyed, namely low level laser irradiation can produce the harmful effects on blood. This paper criticized the viewpoint intravascular low level laser irradiation (abbreviate ILLLI) have not action.

  11. Do serum BDNF levels vary in self-harm behavior among adolescents and are they correlated with traumatic experiences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavurma, Canem; Varol Tas, Fatma; Serim Demirgoren, Burcu; Demirci, Ferhat; Akan, Pınar; Eyuboglu, Damla; Guvenir, Taner

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to compare serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels between adolescents that harm themselves, those that receive psychiatric treatment but do not harm themselves, healthy adolescents, and childhood traumas and to investigate the relationship between traumatic experiences and serum BDNF levels. The cases were divided into two groups of 40 adolescents exhibiting self-harm behavior (self-harm/diagnosed group) and 30 adolescents receiving psychiatric treatment but not exhibiting self-harm behaviors (non self-harm/diagnosed group). The control group (healthy control group) consisted of 35 healthy adolescents with no psychiatric disorders or self-harm behaviors. The adolescents were asked to fill in the Inventory of Statements About Self Injury (ISAS) and Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). For BDNF measurement, blood samples were taken from the cases and controls. The serum BDNF level of self-harming adolescents who used the self-cutting method was significantly lower than that of other groups, and serum BDNF levels decreased with the increase in the emotional neglect and abuse severity of self-harming adolescents during childhood. In our study, serum BDNF levels decreased with the increase in emotional abuse in self-harming adolescents. This finding may indicate that neuroplasticity can be affected by a negative emotional environment during the early period. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The harm of petroleum-polluted soil and its remediation research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuguang; Xu, Yan; Lin, Zhaofeng; Zhang, Jishi; Norbu, Namkha; Liu, Wei

    2017-08-01

    Land resources are the foundation of human's survival and development, and it's one of the most valuable natural resources of each country. In view of the serious problems of petroleum pollution to soil caused during the exploration and development processes, this article based on a large number of literature researches, firstly discussed the compositions and properties of petroleum contaminants, secondly investigated some restoration methods for the current situation of petroleum polluted soil, compared and analyzed the advantages and disadvantages of three kinds of bioremediation technologies. Finally, according to the deficiencies of previous research and existing problems, made an outlook of the physical and chemical remediation, bioremediation, and microbe-plant remediation, to provide some enlightenments for petroleum-contaminated soil remediation.

  13. Lactic acid bacteria affect serum cholesterol levels, harmful fecal enzyme activity, and fecal water content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung Myung

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lactic acid bacteria (LAB are beneficial probiotic organisms that contribute to improved nutrition, microbial balance, and immuno-enhancement of the intestinal tract, as well as lower cholesterol. Although present in many foods, most trials have been in spreads or dairy products. Here we tested whether Bifidobacteria isolates could lower cholesterol, inhibit harmful enzyme activities, and control fecal water content. Methods In vitro culture experiments were performed to evaluate the ability of Bifidobacterium spp. isolated from healthy Koreans (20~30 years old to reduce cholesterol-levels in MRS broth containing polyoxyethanylcholesterol sebacate. Animal experiments were performed to investigate the effects on lowering cholesterol, inhibiting harmful enzyme activities, and controlling fecal water content. For animal studies, 0.2 ml of the selected strain cultures (108~109 CFU/ml were orally administered to SD rats (fed a high-cholesterol diet every day for 2 weeks. Results B. longum SPM1207 reduced serum total cholesterol and LDL levels significantly (p B. longum SPM1207 also increased fecal LAB levels and fecal water content, and reduced body weight and harmful intestinal enzyme activities. Conclusion Daily consumption of B. longum SPM1207 can help in managing mild to moderate hypercholesterolemia, with potential to improve human health by helping to prevent colon cancer and constipation.

  14. STUDY OF ATMOSPHERIC POLLUTION LEVELS BY TRACE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a

    the measured content of a substance in the environment (e.g., of a heavy metal) and the measured content within the organism which is to serve as the biomonitor. In this case, the specific element content of the plant reflects the concentration relations of the pollutant in the environment. The chemical plant composition thus ...

  15. Socio–economic benefits and pollution levels of water resources ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Communities are dependent on wetlands resources for income generation. However, anthropogenic activities that result into pollution of water are one of the major public health problems. Assessment of socio–economic activities and pollution levels of domestic water sources in Gulu Municipality, Pece wetland was done.

  16. The harm principle as a mid-level principle?: three problems from the context of infectious disease control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krom, André

    2011-10-01

    Effective infectious disease control may require states to restrict the liberty of individuals. Since preventing harm to others is almost universally accepted as a legitimate (prima facie) reason for restricting the liberty of individuals, it seems plausible to employ a mid-level harm principle in infectious disease control. Moral practices like infectious disease control support - or even require - a certain level of theory-modesty. However, employing a mid-level harm principle in infectious disease control faces at least three problems. First, it is unclear what we gain by attaining convergence on a specific formulation of the harm principle. Likely candidates for convergence, a harm principle aimed at preventing harmful conduct, supplemented by considerations of effectiveness and always choosing the least intrusive means still leave ample room for normative disagreement. Second, while mid-level principles are sometimes put forward in response to the problem of normative theories attaching different weight to moral principles, employing a mid-level harm principle completely leaves open how to determine what weight to attach to it in application. Third, there appears to be a trade-off between attaining convergence and finding a formulation of the harm principle that can justify liberty-restrictions in all situations of contagion, including interventions that are commonly allowed. These are not reasons to abandon mid-level theorizing altogether. But there is no reason to be too theory-modest in applied ethics. Morally justifying e.g. if a liberty-restriction in infectious disease control is proportional to the aim of harm-prevention, promptly requires moving beyond the mid-level harm principle. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. The Harm Principle as a Mid-level Principle? Three Problems from the Context of Infectious Disease Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krom, A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304077224

    2011-01-01

    Effective infectious disease control may require states to restrict the liberty of individuals. Since preventing harm to others is almost universally accepted as a legitimate (prima facie) reason for restricting the liberty of individuals, it seems plausible to employ a mid-level harm principle in

  18. PREDICTION OF ATMOSPHERIC AIR POLLUTION BY EMISSIONS OF MOTOR TRANSPORT TAKING INTO ACCOUNT THE CHEMICAL TRANSFORMATION OF HARMFUL SUBSTANCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Biliaiev

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Development of 3D numerical models, which allow us to calculate air pollution process from road transport emissions based on chemical transformation of pollutants. Creating numerical models, which would give the opportunity to predict the level of air pollution in urban areas. Methodology. To address the evaluation of the air pollution problem of emissions of vehicles the equations of aerodynamics and mass transfer were used. In order to solve differential equations of aerodynamics and mass transfer the finite difference methods are used. For the numerical integration of the equation for the velocity potential the method of conditional approximation was applied. The equation for the velocity potential written in difference form, is being split into two equations, and at each step of splitting the unknown value of the potential speed is determined by the explicit scheme of running account and the difference scheme itself is implicit. For the numerical integration of the equation of dispersion of emissions in the atmosphere is used implicit alternating-triangular difference splitting scheme. Emissions from the road are simulated by a series of point sources of a given intensity. The developed numerical models are the basis of established software package.Findings. There were developed 3D numerical models, which belong to the class «diagnostic models». These models take into account the main physical factors affecting the process of dispersion of pollutants in the atmosphere when emissions from road transport taking into account the chemical transformation of pollutants. On the basis of the constructed numerical models a computational experiment to assess the level of air pollution in the street was carried out. Originality. Numerical models that allow you to calculate the 3D aerodynamic of wind flow in urban areas and the process of mass transfer of emissions from the road were developed. The models make it possible to account the

  19. Higher fuel prices are associated with lower air pollution levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Adrian G; Knibbs, Luke D

    2014-05-01

    Air pollution is a persistent problem in urban areas, and traffic emissions are a major cause of poor air quality. Policies to curb pollution levels often involve raising the price of using private vehicles, for example, congestion charges. We were interested in whether higher fuel prices were associated with decreased air pollution levels. We examined an association between diesel and petrol prices and four traffic-related pollutants in Brisbane from 2010 to 2013. We used a regression model and examined pollution levels up to 16 days after the price change. Higher diesel prices were associated with statistically significant short-term reductions in carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides. Changes in petrol prices had no impact on air pollution. Raising diesel taxes in Australia could be justified as a public health measure. As raising taxes is politically unpopular, an alternative political approach would be to remove schemes that put a downward pressure on fuel prices, such as industry subsidies and shopping vouchers that give fuel discounts. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Population-level interventions to reduce alcohol-related harm: an overview of systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martineau, Fred; Tyner, Elizabeth; Lorenc, Theo; Petticrew, Mark; Lock, Karen

    2013-10-01

    To analyse available review-level evidence on the effectiveness of population-level interventions in non-clinical settings to reduce alcohol consumption or related health or social harm. Health, social policy and specialist review databases between 2002 and 2012 were searched for systematic reviews of the effectiveness of population-level alcohol interventions on consumption or alcohol-related health or social outcomes. Data were extracted on review research aim, inclusion criteria, outcome indicators, results, conclusions and limitations. Reviews were quality-assessed using AMSTAR criteria. A narrative synthesis was conducted overall and by policy area. Fifty-two reviews were included from ten policy areas. There is good evidence for policies and interventions to limit alcohol sale availability, to reduce drink-driving, to increase alcohol price or taxation. There is mixed evidence for family- and community-level interventions, school-based interventions, and interventions in the alcohol server setting and the mass media. There is weak evidence for workplace interventions and for interventions targeting illicit alcohol sales. There is evidence of the ineffectiveness of interventions in higher education settings. There is a pattern of support from the evidence base for regulatory or statutory enforcement interventions over local non-regulatory approaches targeting specific population groups. © 2013.

  1. Monitoring of air pollution levels related to Charilaos Trikoupis Bridge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarigiannis, D A; Handakas, E J; Kermenidou, M; Zarkadas, I; Gotti, A; Charisiadis, P; Makris, K; Manousakas, M; Eleftheriadis, K; Karakitsios, S P

    2017-12-31

    Charilaos Trikoupis bridge is the longest cable bridge in Europe that connects Western Greece with the rest of the country. In this study, six air pollution monitoring campaigns (including major regulated air pollutants) were carried out from 2013 to 2015 at both sides of the bridge, located in the urban areas of Rio and Antirrio respectively. Pollution data were statistically analyzed and air quality was characterized using US and European air quality indices. From the overall campaign, it was found that air pollution levels were below the respective regulatory thresholds, but once at the site of Antirrio (26.4 and 52.2μg/m(3) for PM2.5 and ΡΜ10, respectively) during the 2nd winter period. Daily average PM10 and PM2.5 levels from two monitoring sites were well correlated to gaseous pollutant (CO, NO, NO2, NOx and SO2) levels, meteorological parameters and factor scores from Positive Matrix Factorization during the 3-year period. Moreover, the elemental composition of PM10 and PM2.5 was used for source apportionment. That analysis revealed that major emission sources were sulfates, mineral dust, biomass burning, sea salt, traffic and shipping emissions for PM10 and PM2.5, for both Rio and Antirrio. Seasonal variation indicates that sulfates, mineral dust and traffic emissions increased during the warm season of the year, while biomass burning become the dominant during the cold season. Overall, the contribution of the Charilaos Trikoupis bridge to the vicinity air pollution is very low. This is the result of the relatively low daily traffic volume (~10,000 vehicles per day), the respective traffic fleet composition (~81% of the traffic fleet are private vehicles) and the speed limit (80km/h) which does not favor traffic emissions. In addition, the strong and frequent winds further contribute to the rapid dispersion of the emitted pollutants. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Mixing layer height and air pollution levels in urban area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Klaus; Wagner, Patrick; Emeis, Stefan; Jahn, Carsten; Muenkel, Christoph; Suppan, Peter

    2012-10-01

    Ceilometers are applied by KIT/IMK-IFU to detect layering of the lower atmosphere continuously. This is necessary because not only wind speed and direction but also atmospheric layering and especially the mixing layer height (MLH) influence exchange processes of ground level emissions. It will be discussed how the ceilometer monitoring information is used to interpret the air pollution near the ground. The information about atmospheric layering is continuously monitored by uninterrupted remote sensing measurements with the Vaisala ceilometer CL51 which is an eye-safe commercial mini-lidar system. Special software for this ceilometer provides routine retrievals of lower atmosphere layering from vertical profiles of laser backscatter data. An intensive measurement period during the winter 2011/2012 is studied. The meteorological influences upon air pollutant concentrations are investgated and the correlations of air pollutant concentrations with ceilometer MLH are determined. Benzene was detected by department of Applied Climatology and Landscape Ecology, University of Duisburg-Essen (UDE) with a gas chromatograph during the measurement period. The meteorological data are collected by UDE and the monitoring station Essen of the German national meteorological service DWD. The concentrations of the air pollutants NO, NO2 and PM10 are provided by the national air pollution network LANUV.

  3. DETERMINATION OF DIVERSE ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION LEVEL FROM SELECTED AREAS OF RAWALPINDI, PAKISTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pervez

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic contaminants arising from both stationary (power plants, industries and residential heating and mobile sources (road traffic can harm ambient air quality in urban areas. Depending upon their physical state, these pollutants are classified as liquid and vapor phases and are subsequently transported to the Earth’s surface through dry and wet deposition. After the deposition of these pollutants onto the surface of earth various health effects caused by these pollutants occurred like cardiovascular diseases and hypertension. In this study four different locations/sites were selected from the Rawalpindi city depending upon the population, traffic rush and industries to examine the noise level, concentration of carbon dioxide and heavy metals. Air sampler was used for the collection of air sample to analyze the heavy metal concentration, Quest electronic sound meter for measuring sound level and SIBATA for CO2 measurement. The study findings revealed that noise level was higher at all selected locations as described by WHO limit (70 dB being highest at Industrial area due to heavy machinery and lowest at green area. Concentration of all four heavy metals were high as compared with the prescribed limits. CO2 level reaches up to 300 ppm because of coal consumption during the winter season. The threshold values of all these selected parameters well above the prescribed limits defined by the authorities so to combat with this situation we should move towards more energy efficient fuels, proper maintenance of vehicles and machineries, traffic management and installation of noise barriers in industries as well as installation of catalytic convertors in vehicles to stop further air pollution.

  4. Total Liability for Excessive Harm

    OpenAIRE

    Cooter, Robert; Porat, Ariel

    2005-01-01

    The harm that each individual causes others is unverifiable in some circumstances where the total harm caused by everyone is verifiable. For example, the environmental agency can often measure the total harm caused by pollution much easier than it can measure the harm caused by each individual polluter. In these circumstances, implementing the usual liability rules or externality taxes is impossible. We propose a novel solution: Hold each participant in the activity responsible for all of the...

  5. Antialgal effects of five individual allelochemicals and their mixtures in low level pollution conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Shengpeng; Zhou, Shoubiao; Ye, Liangtao; Ding, Ying; Jiang, Xiaofeng

    2016-08-01

    An effective, environmentally friendly, and eco-sustainable approach for removing harmful microalgae is exploiting the allelopathic potential of aquatic macrophytes. In this study, we simulated field pollution conditions in the laboratory to investigate algal inhibition by allelochemicals, thereby providing insights into field practices. We tested five allelochemicals, i.e., coumarin, ρ-hydroxybenzoic acid, protocatechuic acid, stearic acid, and ρ-aminobenzenesulfonic acid, and a typical green alga, Chlorella pyrenoidosa, under two conditions. In the unpolluted treatment, individual allelochemicals had strong algal inhibition effects, where coumarin and ρ-hydroxybenzoic acid had greater potential for algal inhibition than protocatechuic acid, stearic acid, and ρ-aminobenzenesulfonic acid based on the 50 % inhibitory concentration. However, when two or three allelochemicals were mixed in specific proportions, the algal inhibition rate exceeded 80 %, thereby indicating allelopathic synergistic interactions. Mixtures of four or five allelochemicals had weak effects on algal inhibition, which indicated antagonistic interactions. Furthermore, the presence of low lead pollution significantly reduced the antialgal potential of individual allelochemicals, whereas the allelopathic synergistic interactions with mixtures between two or three allelochemicals were changed into antagonistic effects by low pollution. In particular, the allelopathic antagonistic interactions between four or five allelochemicals were increased by pollution. The allelopathic performance of these five allelochemicals may depend on various factors, such as the chemical species, mixture parameters, and algal strain. Thus, we found that low level pollution reduced the allelopathic inhibition of microalgae by allelochemicals. Therefore, the control of algae by the direct addition of allelochemicals should consider various environmental factors.

  6. Impact of the recent recession on self-harm: Longitudinal ecological and patient-level investigation from the Multicentre Study of Self-harm in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawton, Keith; Bergen, Helen; Geulayov, Galit; Waters, Keith; Ness, Jennifer; Cooper, Jayne; Kapur, Navneet

    2016-02-01

    Economic recessions are associated with increases in suicide rates but there is little information for non-fatal self-harm. To investigate the impact of the recent recession on rates of self-harm in England and problems faced by patients who self-harm. Analysis of data from the Multicentre Study of Self-harm in England for 2001-2010 and local employment statistics for Oxford, Manchester and Derby, including interrupted time series analyses to estimate the effect of the recession on rates of self-harm. Rates of self-harm increased in both genders in Derby and in males in Manchester in 2008-2010, but not in either gender in Oxford, results which largely followed changes in general population unemployment. More patients who self-harm were unemployed in 2008-10 compared to before the recession. The proportion in receipt of sickness or disability allowances decreased. More patients of both genders had employment and financial problems in 2008-2010 and more females also had housing problems, changes which were also largely found in employed patients. We have assumed that the recession began in 2008 and information on problems was only available for patients having a psychosocial assessment. Increased rates of self-harm were found in areas where there were greater rises in rates of unemployment. Work, financial and housing problems increased in people who self-harmed. Changes in welfare benefits may have contributed. None. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Study of atmospheric pollution levels by trace elements analysis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The concentrations of Pb, Cu, Zn, Ni, Fe, and Mn in leaf and bark samples of 7 tree species at 22 sampling locations with different pollution levels, in Ogbomoso, Nigeria, were investigated. The metal concentrations (mean ± RSD in mg g-1) in leaf and bark samples, respectively, were: Pb, 203±70, 282±120; Cu, 19.5±4.2, ...

  8. Practice and prospects of proving harm to human health caused by atmospheric air pollution and indoor air in pre-trial and trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.V. Sedusova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of judicial practice on established cases of injuries caused by the negative impact of atmospheric air and indoor air and compensation of damages for the past 10 years has been made. The most common causes of complaints of citizens to the court with a request for compensation for damage to health due to the negative impact of air pollution are revealed. The most common causes are: the presence of odors in the implementation of the production activities of enterprises and organizations; violation of hygienic standards in residential areas; location of residential buildings within the boundaries of the sanitary protection zone; mismatch of construction, decoration materials and furniture requirements of the legislation; implementation of industrial activity in a residential area in violation of the law; and the deterioration of human health caused by the described violations. It has been shown that more than half of the requests for compensation for harm caused by the air pollution are not to be fulfilled. The compensation of damage is denied due to lack of evidence of noncompliance of air quality to hygienic requirements, the causal link between the activities of the entity and violation of the right to a healthy environment, and / or failure to prove the fact of harm to public health or the threat of such damage.

  9. Network for Light Pollution education at secondary level

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Beatriz; Ros, Rosa Maria

    2015-08-01

    Light pollution (LP) is one form of environmental pollution less known than most others. It affects the visibility of the night sky, but also alters the balance of the ecosystem and affects human health, since it breaches the biological clocks that are coordinated with periods of light and darkness. To be alert on this subject, learn to recognize the problem, warn others of the consequences, and find solutions, are objectives of the present work.The LP as subject of study can be also a good point to teach and learn about the uses of light in general, including the problem to rich the starry night from the schoolyard.The Network for Astronomy School Education (NASE), proposes a set of simple, non expensive and funny activities, especially designed no only to understand the three types of light pollution: glow, intrusion and glare, but also to explain the problems associated to the over- consumption, to show why the public light produces strong and bad effects on the astronomical observation, including the radio region of the electromagnetic spectrum, and affects the human health. NASE workshop on this subject is devoted to the Natural Sciences teachers and professors and for this reason the activity cross over all the secondary school level spaces.More details in: http://www.naseprogram.org

  10. A Comparative Land Use-Based Analysis of Noise Pollution Levels in Selected Urban Centers of Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baloye, David O; Palamuleni, Lobina G

    2015-09-29

    Growth in the commercialization, mobility and urbanization of human settlements across the globe has greatly exposed world urban population to potentially harmful noise levels. The situation is more disturbing in developing countries like Nigeria, where there are no sacrosanct noise laws and regulations. This study characterized noise pollution levels in Ibadan and Ile-Ife, two urban areas of Southwestern Nigeria that have experienced significant increases in population and land use activities. Eight hundred noise measurements, taken at 20 different positions in the morning, afternoon, and evening of carefully selected weekdays, in each urban area, were used for this study. Findings put the average noise levels in the urban centers at between 53 dB(A) and 89 dB (A), a far cry from the World Health Organization (WHO) permissible limits in all the land use types, with highest noise pollution levels recorded for transportation, commercial, residential and educational land use types. The result of the one-way ANOVA test carried out on the dependent variable noise and fixed factor land use types reveals a statistically significant mean noise levels across the study area (F(3,34) = 15.13, p = 0.000). The study underscores noise pollution monitoring and the urgent need to control urban noise pollution with appropriate and effective policies.

  11. A Comparative Land Use-Based Analysis of Noise Pollution Levels in Selected Urban Centers of Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baloye, David O.; Palamuleni, Lobina G.

    2015-01-01

    Growth in the commercialization, mobility and urbanization of human settlements across the globe has greatly exposed world urban population to potentially harmful noise levels. The situation is more disturbing in developing countries like Nigeria, where there are no sacrosanct noise laws and regulations. This study characterized noise pollution levels in Ibadan and Ile-Ife, two urban areas of Southwestern Nigeria that have experienced significant increases in population and land use activities. Eight hundred noise measurements, taken at 20 different positions in the morning, afternoon, and evening of carefully selected weekdays, in each urban area, were used for this study. Findings put the average noise levels in the urban centers at between 53 dB(A) and 89 dB (A), a far cry from the World Health Organization (WHO) permissible limits in all the land use types, with highest noise pollution levels recorded for transportation, commercial, residential and educational land use types. The result of the one-way ANOVA test carried out on the dependent variable noise and fixed factor land use types reveals a statistically significant mean noise levels across the study area (F(3,34) = 15.13, p = 0.000). The study underscores noise pollution monitoring and the urgent need to control urban noise pollution with appropriate and effective policies. PMID:26426033

  12. Levels of pollutants and their metabolites: exposures to organic substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, J C

    1995-07-26

    The measurement of levels of organic pollutants and/or their metabolites in body tissues or fluids are specific markers of internal dose and, provided that the pharmacokinetic properties of the compounds in question are known, these levels may also be used as predictors of effects. Although historical data still remain to be very useful in environmental studies, more reliable exposure measures than combination of environmental levels and such estimators as residential history, job titles, life-style habits, individual perceptions, etc., are highly desirable. This has been clearly demonstrated in studies with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorndibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), where more recent measurements of serum concentrations in persons earlier classified as belonging to exposed groups have indicated that severe misclassifications may have occurred in previously epidemiological studies. This also demonstrates that, in retrospective studies, levels of persistent organic compounds are useful as markers of exposure, as their tissue levels mainly reflect previous exposures. However, most organic compounds are readily metabolized and excreted from the human body, and in many instances it will not be possible with current methodology and instrumentation to detect transient organic pollutants at low levels in the blood. In most cases, the use of urine samples offers a better opportunity to provide samples containing detectable levels. Therefore, the measurement of non-persistent organic substances and/or their metabolites may find potential use in prospective environmental health studies, but the predictive value highly depends on proper timing and frequency of sampling according to their toxicokinetic behaviour. A few examples on the use of organic compounds and/or metabolites as biomarkers are given, e.g., polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs), ochratoxin A, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

  13. EPA Reducing Air Pollution from Old Diesel Engines, Grants Provide $1.18 Million to Protect People from Harmful Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    (New York, N.Y.) The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is supporting local efforts to reduce air pollution in the New York City metropolitan area by providing a total of $1.18 million to help two organizations replace old, dirty diesel engines on boats

  14. Purification of magnesite from harmful materials with Mg (NO3)2 application-prevention of the pollution of environment

    OpenAIRE

    , Selver Hoda; , Islam Fejza; , Shefqet Rashani; , Sabri Avdullahi; , Eflorim Hajra

    2016-01-01

    In this article it is researched the issue of possibility of magnesite valorisation with application of thermodynamic and kinetic methods in dissolution process for purification of magnesite from calcium with help of magnesite nitrate influencing in this way evidently in preventing of the pollution of environment (earth and water). For this reason it is realised a wide spectrum of experimental granulometric researches, chemical, difractometric (XRD) and termodifferentiate analyses (DTA) in ma...

  15. Atmospheric pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlesinger, R B

    1992-06-01

    Air pollution has been directly responsible for increases in mortality and morbidity in the general population during periods known as episodes, when pollutant levels were elevated well above those that occur on a regular basis. The major concern today regarding pollution and health is, however, more subtle--namely, whether the lower levels of pollution to which we are exposed daily are harmful to health. It is extremely difficult to relate specific health problems to specific pollutants, because other environmental and lifestyle factors may contribute to decrements in health. Furthermore, people are generally exposed to mixtures of pollutants, making it difficult to extract the effects caused by individual components, or to determine which combinations are the most hazardous. Community air pollution results from various sources: mobile sources, such as vehicles; stationary sources, such as power plants and factories; and indoor sources, such as building material. Complicating the picture is the fact that many chemicals released into the air may react, producing additional secondary pollutants. This article provides an overview of the major air pollutants that may be of concern in terms of public health.

  16. Assessing deleterious ecosystem-level effects of environmental pollutants as a means of avoiding evolutionary consequences.

    OpenAIRE

    LeBlanc, G A

    1994-01-01

    Recent interest has been expressed in the possible need to develop ways to detect and quantify pollutants that affect evolution. Although environmental pollutants clearly can affect evolutionary processes, the evolutionary changes are a response to ecosystem-level toxicity elicited by the pollutant, rather than a direct effect of the pollutant on evolution. Accordingly, emphasis needs to be placed on assessing the adverse effects of environmental pollutants on ecosystem structure and function...

  17. Might carnitine status in animals indicate environmental/toxicological harm at the cellular level?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garst, J.E.

    1995-12-01

    It is well known that R-(L)-carnitine (Cn) is essential for the energy-producing, mitochondrial beta-oxidation of long chain fatty acids. Cn can ameliorate the diverse effects of drugs, a chemicals and pollutants. Moreover, the toxicities of carbon monoxide, several heavy metals, and even the antibiotic cephaloridine seem mediated, in part, by actions affecting the Cn system. Data which could suggest that the Cn system is an integrator/regulator of the cellular response by the organism to it`s environment is described.

  18. Levels of asbestos air pollution in some environmental situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastien, P; Billon, M A; Dufour, G; Gaudichet, A; Bonnaud, G; Bignon, J

    1979-01-01

    Asbestos contamination of the outside aid in Paris and suburbs has been monitored in some environmental situations, namely, "typical" urban sites removed from known sources of asbestos emissions, crossroad locations, the vicinity of a freeway, areas with buildings under construction, and areas around asbestos factories. In the same manner, measurements have been performed inside buildings of various types: those sprayed with asbestos-containing materials, those fitted with asbestos products, and control buildings. Air has been sampled by use of 0.45 micrometer pore size Millipore filters. After low-temperature ashing, ultrasonicated ashes were transferred to carbon film on 200-mesh gold grids examined under an analytic transmission electron microscope. Levels of pollution were expressed in terms of gravimetric concentrations. Inside buildings, when the air was in contact with significant amounts of asbestos-containing materials (spray, sheets), the levels were in the range 0.1--1000 10(-9) g m-3. In the vicinities of asbestos plants, the concentrations were higher: 1000--3000 10(-9) g m-3. Under other circumstances, the levels were of the same order of magnitude: 99% of the values were below 7 X 10(-9) g m-3. The Conseil Supérieur d'Hygiène Publique de France proposed a numerical ambient air quality standard of 50 X 10(-9) g m-3 inside buildings sprayed with asbestos.

  19. Microorganisms -indicators of the level of soil pollution with lead

    OpenAIRE

    Stavreva Veselinovska, Snezana

    2011-01-01

    Environmental pollution with heavy metals present a real threat to wildlife because the metals cannot be naturally decomposed as is the case with organic pollutants, and as such they can survive in the environment while accumulating the heavy metals in different parts. Pollution with metals can affect different organisms in the environment, such as microorganisms, plants and animals, but the degree of toxicity depends on the species. Microorganisms have different mechanisms of coping with...

  20. Ocular surface adverse effects of ambient levels of air pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Augusto Miranda Torricelli

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available It is widely recognized today that outdoor air pollution can affect human health. Various chemical components that are present in ambient pollution may have an irritant effect on the mucous membranes of the body, particularly those of the respiratory tract. Much less attention has been focused on the adverse effect on the ocular surface, despite the fact that this structure is even more exposed to air pollution than the respiratory mucosa since only a very thin tear film separates the corneal and conjunctival epithelia from the air pollutants. So far, clinical data are the more widespread tools used by ophthalmologists for assessing possible aggression to the ocular surface; however, clinical findings alone appears not to correlate properly with the complaints presented by the patients pointing out the need for further clinical and laboratory studies on the subject. The purpose of this study is to review signs and symptoms associated with chronic long-term exposure to environmental air pollutants on the ocular structures currently defined as the ocular surface and to review clinical and laboratory tests used to investigate the adverse effects of air pollutants on such structures. We also review previous studies that investigated the adverse effects of air pollution on the ocular surface and discuss the need for further investigation on the subject.

  1. Low levels of chemical anthropogenic pollution may threaten amphibians by impairing predator recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polo-Cavia, Nuria; Burraco, Pablo; Gomez-Mestre, Ivan

    2016-03-01

    Recent studies suggest that direct mortality and physiological effects caused by pollutants are major contributing factors to global amphibian decline. However, even sublethal concentrations of pollutants could be harmful if they combined with other factors to cause high mortality in amphibians. Here we show that sublethal concentrations of pollutants can disrupt the ability of amphibian larvae to recognize predators, hence increasing their risk of predation. This effect is indeed much more important since very low amounts of pollutants are ubiquitous, and environmental efforts are mostly directed towards preventing lethal spills. We analyzed the effects of two common contaminants (humic acid and ammonium nitrate) on the ability of tadpoles of the western spadefoot toad (Pelobates cultripes) to recognize chemical cues from a common predator, nymphs of the dragonfly Anax imperator. We compared the swimming activity of tadpoles in the presence and absence of water-borne chemical cues from dragonflies at different concentrations of humic acid and ammonium nitrate. Tadpoles reduced swimming activity in response to predator cues in the absence of pollutants, whereas they remained unresponsive to these cues when either humic acid or ammonium nitrate was added to the water, even at low concentrations. Moreover, changes in tadpole activity associated with the pollutants themselves were non-significant, indicating no toxic effect. Alteration of the natural chemical environment of aquatic systems by pollutants may be an important contributing cause for declines in amphibian populations, even at sublethal concentrations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Do points, levels and leaderboards harm intrinsic motivation? An empirical analysis of common gamification elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mekler, Elisa D.; Brühlmann, Florian; Opwis, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    It is heavily debated within the gamification community whether specific game elements may actually undermine users' intrinsic motivation. This online experiment examined the effects of three commonly employed game design elements - points, leaderboard, levels - on users' performance, intrinsic...... motivation, perceived autonomy and competence in an image annotation task. Implementation of these game elements significantly increased performance, but did not affect perceived autonomy, competence or intrinsic motivation. Our findings suggest that points, levels and leaderboards by themselves neither make...

  3. Concentration Levels, Pollution Characteristics and Potential Ecological Risk of Dust Heavy Metals in the Metropolitan Area of Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Qiulin; Zhao, Wenji; Zhao, Jiayin; Zhao, Wenhui; Jiang, Lei

    2017-09-30

    This study aims to investigate the concentration levels, pollution characteristics and the associated potential ecological risks of the heavy metals found in dust in the metropolitan area of Beijing, China during the winter. Dust samples were collected at 49 different spatial locations of Beijing's metropolitan area from November 2013 to January 2014, in which the concentration levels of Cd, Cr, Pb, Cu, Zn, Ni, Co, V, Bi and Mo were measured by Elan DRC II type inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Test results showed that the concentrations of dust heavy metals Pb, Cr, Cu and Zn in the urban areas (147.1 mg·kg-1, 195.9 mg·kg-1, 239.2 mg·kg-1 and 713.2 mg·kg-1) were significantly higher than those in the suburbs (91.6 mg·kg-1, 125.1 mg·kg-1, 131.9 mg·kg-1 and 514.5 mg·kg-1). Enrichment factors and the geo-accumulation index were used to describe the pollution characteristics of dust heavy metals in urban and suburban areas. Results indicated that Zn and Cu were moderately polluting in both urban and suburban areas, Cd was severely polluting in urban areas and heavily polluting in the suburbs. Furthermore, potential ecological risk assessment revealed that the degrees of ecological harm of dust heavy metals were very strong in both urban and suburban areas, but especially in urban areas. The potential ecological risk of heavy metal Cd, whose single factor of ecological damage was extremely strong, accounted for about 90% of the total ecological risk.

  4. Concentration Levels, Pollution Characteristics and Potential Ecological Risk of Dust Heavy Metals in the Metropolitan Area of Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Qiulin; Zhao, Wenji; Zhao, Jiayin; Zhao, Wenhui; Jiang, Lei

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the concentration levels, pollution characteristics and the associated potential ecological risks of the heavy metals found in dust in the metropolitan area of Beijing, China during the winter. Dust samples were collected at 49 different spatial locations of Beijing’s metropolitan area from November 2013 to January 2014, in which the concentration levels of Cd, Cr, Pb, Cu, Zn, Ni, Co, V, Bi and Mo were measured by Elan DRC II type inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Test results showed that the concentrations of dust heavy metals Pb, Cr, Cu and Zn in the urban areas (147.1 mg·kg−1, 195.9 mg·kg−1, 239.2 mg·kg−1 and 713.2 mg·kg−1) were significantly higher than those in the suburbs (91.6 mg·kg−1, 125.1 mg·kg−1, 131.9 mg·kg−1 and 514.5 mg·kg−1). Enrichment factors and the geo-accumulation index were used to describe the pollution characteristics of dust heavy metals in urban and suburban areas. Results indicated that Zn and Cu were moderately polluting in both urban and suburban areas, Cd was severely polluting in urban areas and heavily polluting in the suburbs. Furthermore, potential ecological risk assessment revealed that the degrees of ecological harm of dust heavy metals were very strong in both urban and suburban areas, but especially in urban areas. The potential ecological risk of heavy metal Cd, whose single factor of ecological damage was extremely strong, accounted for about 90% of the total ecological risk. PMID:28973969

  5. Pollution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dürr, E.; Jaffe, R.; Nonini, D.M.

    2014-01-01

    This essay points to the role of pollution in understanding the social construction of hierarchies and urban space. Conceptualizations of pollution and approaches to waste management always reflect the Zeitgeist and tend to be politically charged. We argue that an ethnographic approach to pollution

  6. The grey areas in soil pollution risk mapping : The distinction between cases of soil pollution and increased background levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaast, N. van der; Leenaers, H.; Zegwaard, J.

    1998-01-01

    The progress of soil clean up in the Netherlands is severely hindered by the lack of common agreement on how to describe the grey areas of increased background levels of pollutants. In this study practical methods are proposed in which background levels are described as distribution functions within

  7. Air pollution and daily mortality in a city with low levels of pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedal, Sverre; Brauer, Michael; White, Richard; Petkau, John

    2003-01-01

    The concentration-response relationship between daily ambient inhalable particle (particulate matter less than or equal to 10 micro m; PM(10)) concentrations and daily mortality typically shows no evidence of a threshold concentration below which no relationship is observed. However, the power to assess a relationship at very low concentrations of PM(10) has been limited in studies to date. The concentrations of PM(10) and other air pollutants in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, from January 1994 through December 1996 were very low: the 50th and 90th percentiles of daily average PM(10) concentrations were 13 and 23 micro g/m(3), respectively, and 27 and 39 ppb, respectively, for 1-hr maximum ozone. Analyses of 3 years of daily pollution (PM(10), ozone, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, and carbon monoxide) concentrations and mortality counts showed that the dominant associations were between ozone and total mortality and respiratory and cardiovascular mortality in the summer, and between nitrogen dioxide and total mortality in the winter, although some association with PM(10) may also have been present. We conclude that increases in low concentrations of air pollution are associated with increased daily mortality. These findings may support the notion that no threshold pollutant concentrations are present, but they also raise concern that these effects may not be effects of the measured pollutants themselves, but rather of some other factor(s) present in the air pollution-meteorology mix.

  8. A comparison of individual exposure, perception, and acceptable levels of PM2.5with air pollution policy objectives in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lei; Rao, Chao; van der Kuijp, Tsering Jan; Bi, Jun; Liu, Yang

    2017-08-01

    Atmospheric pollution has emerged as a major public health issue in China. Public perception and acceptable risk levels of air pollution can prompt individual behavioral changes and play a major role in the public's response to health risks. Therefore, to explore these responses and evaluate what constitutes publicly acceptable concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ), questionnaire surveys were conducted in three representative cities of China: Beijing, Nanjing, and Guangzhou. Great differences in public risk perception were revealed. Public perception of the health effects of air pollution (Effect) and familiarity with it (Familiarity) were significantly higher in the winter than in the summer, and also during severe haze days compared with typical days. The public perception of trust in the government (Trust) was consistent across all conditions. Exposure to severe haze pollution and experiencing harms from it were key factors influencing public willingness to respond to haze. These results reflected individual exposure levels correlating closely with risk perception and acceptance of PM 2.5 . However, a crucial gap exists between public acceptable risk levels (PARL) of air pollution and the policy objectives of the State Council's Action Plan. Thus, policymakers can utilize this study to develop more targeted measures to combat air pollution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Impact of Interdecadal Sea Level and Sea Surface Temperature Variability on Primary Productivity and Harmful Algal Blooms in Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, K. L.

    2014-12-01

    Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) are increasing in frequency and intensity on global, regional and local scales. Although climate change has been suggested as one of the key factors, very few interdecadal studies comparing HABs to low frequency physical forcing have been performed. Interannual to interdecadal variability in sea level and sea surface temperature along the Southern California Coast have been shown to have high correlation with the El Nino-La Nina signal. This is important in the study of phytoplankton, because abnormally low sea level corresponds to increased sea surface nutrient concentrations in this region. The California current is stronger during these times, and the higher nutrient water found to the north is advected southward. We have determined that primary productivity is most highly correlated with interdecadal sea level variability derived from tide gage data at a lag of approximately 2 months. This is consistent with previous zooplankton studies. In preparation for a potential El Nino event, we have expanded our analysis to include parameters such as sea surface temperature, salinity and nutrient concentrations from spaceborne and in situ instruments. We have also expanded our research to allow for analysis of several of the most prevalent HAB species. This work is the first step in our effort to create a model to predict and locate Southern California HAB events in the future.

  10. Immune and individual level effects of environmental pollutants in North-Atlantic top predators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Desforges, Jean-Pierre

    2017-01-01

    Marine mammals accumulate alarming amounts of environmental pollutants and are thus the most contaminated group of animals in the world. Elevated pollutant exposure is of concern to marine mammals because of potential adverse effects on reproduction, endocrine disruption and immunity. In vitro...... a unique combination of approaches, namely statistical meta-analyses, in vitro experimentation, analytical chemistry, and ecological modeling, to gain further insight into pollutant accumulation and effects at molecular and organism levels in North-Atlantic top predators....

  11. Air pollution and daily mortality in a city with low levels of pollution.

    OpenAIRE

    Vedal, Sverre; Brauer, Michael; White, Richard; Petkau, John

    2003-01-01

    The concentration-response relationship between daily ambient inhalable particle (particulate matter less than or equal to 10 micro m; PM(10)) concentrations and daily mortality typically shows no evidence of a threshold concentration below which no relationship is observed. However, the power to assess a relationship at very low concentrations of PM(10) has been limited in studies to date. The concentrations of PM(10) and other air pollutants in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, from Janu...

  12. Climate Change Impacts on Harmful Algal Blooms in U.S. Freshwaters: A Screening-Level Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapra, Steven C; Boehlert, Brent; Fant, Charles; Bierman, Victor J; Henderson, Jim; Mills, David; Mas, Diane M L; Rennels, Lisa; Jantarasami, Lesley; Martinich, Jeremy; Strzepek, Kenneth M; Paerl, Hans W

    2017-08-15

    Cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms (CyanoHABs) have serious adverse effects on human and environmental health. Herein, we developed a modeling framework that predicts the effect of climate change on cyanobacteria concentrations in large reservoirs in the contiguous U.S. The framework, which uses climate change projections from five global circulation models, two greenhouse gas emission scenarios, and two cyanobacterial growth scenarios, is unique in coupling climate projections with a hydrologic/water quality network model of the contiguous United States. Thus, it generates both regional and nationwide projections useful as a screening-level assessment of climate impacts on CyanoHAB prevalence as well as potential lost recreation days and associated economic value. Our projections indicate that CyanoHAB concentrations are likely to increase primarily due to water temperature increases tempered by increased nutrient levels resulting from changing demographics and climatic impacts on hydrology that drive nutrient transport. The combination of these factors results in the mean number of days of CyanoHAB occurrence ranging from about 7 days per year per waterbody under current conditions, to 16-23 days in 2050 and 18-39 days in 2090. From a regional perspective, we find the largest increases in CyanoHAB occurrence in the Northeast U.S., while the greatest impacts to recreation, in terms of costs, are in the Southeast.

  13. Harmful Algal Bloom Webinar

    Science.gov (United States)

    The problem is complex. Excessive nitrogen and phosphorous levels can cause harmful algal blooms. Different algal/cyanobacteria strains bloom under different conditions. Different strains produce different toxins at varying amounts.

  14. [APPROACHES TO URBAN AREA RANKING ACCORDINGLY TO THE LEVEL OF HEAVY METAL POLLUTION].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanova, N V; Valeeva, E R; Fomina, S F

    2015-01-01

    Urban area ranking was performed according to the level of the heavy metal pollution based on the data of the snow and soil chemical characteristics. With reference to cumulative rates of the snow cover and soil pollution by heavy metals in the territory of the city of Kazan there were selected four areas: I--Derbyshki; II--Teplocontrol; III--Gorki; IV--Kirovsky district. The pollution level of snow cover in the territory of the city was determined by pollution level indices calculated with the application of Maximum Permissible Concentration (MPC) of chemical substances in ambient waters for household and recreational and service facilities use. The assessment of the pollution level in soils in the city showed the total territory of Kazan to be mildly polluted by manganese, concerning other heavy metals the categories of the soil pollution vary on areas. Results of hair biological monitoring in children are an informative auxiliary tool for the evaluation of the present ecological situation concerning heavy metals in certain territories of the city.

  15. The actions adopted at the universal and European Union level to cope with the sulfur pollution from ships

    OpenAIRE

    Luzón Ventalló, Laia

    2017-01-01

    Marine pollution from ships and, specifically, sulfur pollution from the fuel used by this transport, has been the focus of the current work. Sulfur pollution emitted by about the 60.000 ships there are in the world is responsible for both environmental and health damages, causing harmful effects such as acid rain and even human deaths. This research aims to answer the reason of this dangerous situation. In this way, it has been analyzed the regulation adopted at the universal and European Un...

  16. Noise pollution levels in the pediatric intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Bree; Joshi, Prashant; Heard, Christopher

    2016-12-01

    Patients and staff may experience adverse effects from exposure to noise. This study assessed noise levels in the pediatric intensive care unit and evaluated family and staff opinion of noise. Noise levels were recorded using a NoisePro DLX. The microphone was 1 m from the patient's head. The noise level was averaged each minute and levels above 70 and 80 dBA were recorded. The maximum, minimum, and average decibel levels were calculated and peak noise level great than 100 dBA was also recorded. A parent questionnaire concerning their evaluation of noisiness of the bedside was completed. The bedside nurse also completed a questionnaire. The average maximum dB for all patients was 82.2. The average minimum dB was 50.9. The average daily bedside noise level was 62.9 dBA. The average % time where the noise level was higher than 70 dBA was 2.2%. The average percent of time that the noise level was higher than 80 dBA was 0.1%. Patients experienced an average of 115 min/d where peak noise was greater than 100 dBA. The parents and staff identified the monitors as the major contribution to noise. Patients experienced levels of noise greater than 80 dBA. Patients experience peak noise levels in excess of 100 dB during their pediatric intensive care unit stay. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Individual and school level effects of perceived harm, perceived availability, and community size on marijuana use among 12th-grade students: a random effects model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaim, Randall C

    2003-06-01

    A hierarchical linear model was used to estimate the individual and school level effects for marijuana use among a national sample of 12th-grade students. School effects were small in comparison to individual level effects, accounting for 2.9% of the variance in marijuana use. At the individual level, perceived harm, perceived availability, and their interaction were significant predictors, each of which varied randomly across schools. Among two school-level predictors, the normative environment for perceived harm was not significant, but normative perceived availability predicted level of marijuana use. The effect of perceived availability on marijuana use was stronger in larger, compared to smaller communities. Results are discussed in light of the use of random regression methods for identifying school-specific patterns of risk and protection for prevention planning.

  18. Pollution level predictor using artificial neural networks trained with galactic swarm optimization algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigam, Nilay; Bessie Amali, D. Geraldine

    2017-11-01

    Pollutant Level Predicator is a system which helps in predicting the amount of pollutants in a specific region. The system uses historic data in order to predict the value for the new input. The prediction system uses Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) trained with different optimization algorithms to classify the pollution level into several classes. This research paper assesses and analyses various techniques which can be used to predict the level of pollutant in Delhi. This study uses daily mean air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and concentration of PM2.5 in Anand Vihar area of Delhi for a period of 2 years (2015 to 2016). Experimental results show that a ANN trained with Galactic swarm optimization algorithm produces a more accurate predication compared to other optimization algorithms.

  19. A comparison of self reported air pollution problems and GIS-modeled levels of air pollution in people with and without chronic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nafstad Per

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To explore various contributors to people's reporting of self reported air pollution problems in area of living, including GIS-modeled air pollution, and to investigate whether those with respiratory or other chronic diseases tend to over-report air pollution problems, compared to healthy people. Methods Cross-sectional data from the Oslo Health Study (2000–2001 were linked with GIS-modeled air pollution data from the Norwegian Institute of Air Research. Multivariate regression analyses were performed. 14 294 persons aged 30, 40, 45, 60 or 75 years old with complete information on modeled and self reported air pollution were included. Results People who reported air pollution problems were exposed to significantly higher GIS-modeled air pollution levels than those who did not report such problems. People with chronic disease, reported significantly more air pollution problems after adjustment for modeled levels of nitrogen dioxides, socio-demographic variables, smoking, depression, dwelling conditions and an area deprivation index, even if they had a non-respiratory disease. No diseases, however, were significantly associated with levels of nitrogen dioxides. Conclusion Self reported air pollution problems in area of living are strongly associated with increased levels of GIS-modeled air pollution. Over and above this, those who report to have a chronic disease tend to report more air pollution problems in area of living, despite no significant difference in air pollution exposure compared to healthy people, and no associations between these diseases and NO2. Studies on the association between self reported air pollution problems and health should be aware of the possibility that disease itself may influence the reporting of air pollution.

  20. Climate Change Impacts on Harmful Algal Blooms in U.S. Freshwaters: A Screening-Level Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms have serious adverse effects on human and environmental health. Herein, we develop a modeling framework that predicts the effect of climate change on cyanobacteria concentrations in reservoirs in the contiguous U.S. The framework, which uses cl...

  1. Remote detection of air pollution stress to vegetation - Laboratory-level studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westman, Walter E.; Price, Curtis V.

    1987-01-01

    An experimental investigation of the role of leaf chemistry, anatomy, moisture content, and canopy density on spectral reflectance in healthy and pollution stressed western conifer needles and broad-leafed species of California coastal sage scrub is presented. Acid mist at a level of pH 2.0 is found to more severely effect chlorophyll loss and leaf death than ozone at a level of 0.2 ppm for a four-week period. Both pollutants cause water loss, affecting Bands 4 and 5 in nonlinear ways. The infrared bands initially rise as free water is lost, and subsequently, scattering and reflectance decline. The net effect is shown to be a reduction in TM 4/3 and a rise in TM 5/4 with pollution stress. Under more severe pollution stresses, the decline of leaf area indices due to accelerated leaf drop accentuates the expected TM 4/3 and TM 5/4 changes.

  2. Heavy metals pollution levels and children health risk assessment of Yerevan kindergartens soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tepanosyan, Gevorg; Maghakyan, Nairuhi; Sahakyan, Lilit; Saghatelyan, Armen

    2017-08-01

    Children, the most vulnerable urban population group, are exceptionally sensitive to polluted environments, particularly urban soils, which can lead to adverse health effects upon exposure. In this study, the total concentrations of Ag, As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Ti, V, and Zn were determined in 111 topsoil samples collected from kindergartens in Yerevan. The objectives of this study were to evaluate heavy metal pollution levels of kindergarten's soils in Yerevan, compare with national legal and international requirements on heavy metal contents in kindergarten soil, and assess related child health risk. Multivariate geostatistical analyses suggested that the concentrations of Ag, As, Ba, Cd, Cu, Hg, Mo, Pb, and Zn observed in the kindergarten's topsoil may have originated from anthropogenic sources, while Co, Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni, Ti, and V mostly come from natural sources. According to the Summary pollution index (Zc), 102 kindergartens belong to the low pollution level, 7 to the moderate and only 2 to the high level of pollution. Summary concentration index (SCI) showed that 109 kindergartens were in the allowable level, while 2 featured in the low level of pollution. The health risk assessment showed that in all kindergartens except for seven, non-carcinogenic risk for children was detected (HI>1), while carcinogenic risk from arsenic belongs to the very low (allowable) level. Cr and multi-element carcinogenic risk (RI) exceeded the safety level (1.0E- 06) in all kindergartens and showed that the potential of developing cancer, albeit small, does exist. Therefore, city's kindergartens require necessary remedial actions to eliminate or reduce soil pollution and heavy metal-induced health risks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Increasing alpine transit traffic through Switzerland will considerably enhance high altitude alpine pollutant levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prevot, A.S.H.; Dommen, J.; Furger, M.; Graber, W.K. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1999-08-01

    Within the EU-Project VOTALP (Vertical Ozone Transports in the Alps), we have shown that deep alpine valleys like the Mesolcina Valley very efficiently transport air out of the polluted valley up to altitudes between 2000 and near 4000 m asl (above sea level). Pollutants emitted in these valleys are very efficiently transported up to high altitudes. (author) 2 figs., 1 tab., 2 refs.

  4. 2011 John M. Eisenberg Patient Safety and Quality Awards. The Henry Ford Health System No Harm Campaign: a comprehensive model to reduce harm and save lives. innovation in patient safety and quality at the local level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, William A; Hawkins, Susan; Jordan, Jack; Voutt-Goos, Mary J

    2012-07-01

    In 2008 Henry Ford Health System launched its "No Harm Campaign," designed to integrate harm-reduction interventions into a systemwide initiative and, ultimately, to eliminate harm from the health care experience. The No Harm Campaign aims to decrease harm events through enhancing the system's culture of safety by reporting and studying harm events, researching causality, identifying priorities, and redesigning care to eliminate harm. The campaign uses a comprehensive set of 27 measures for harm reduction, covering infection-, medication-, and procedure-related harm, as well as other types of harm, all of which are combined to comprise a unique global harm score. The campaign's objective is to reduce all-cause harm events systemwide by 50% by 2013. A wide range of communication processes, from systemwide leadership retreats to daily e-mail news sent to all employees and physicians, is used to promote the campaign. In addition, the campaign is on the intranet "Knowledge Wall," where monthly dashboards, meeting minutes, and best practices and the work of our teams and collaboratives are documented and shared. From 2008 through 2011, a 31% reduction in harm events and an 18% reduction in inpatient mortality occurred systemwide. Building infrastructure, creating a culture of safety, providing employee training and education, and improving work process design are critical to systemwide implementation of harm-reduction efforts. Key actions for ongoing success focus on leadership, disseminating performance, putting everyone to work, and stealing ideas through national and local collaborations. A financial model was created to assess cost-savings of reducing harm events; early results total nearly $10 million in four years.

  5. Water quality characteristics and pollution levels of heavy metals in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main aim of this study was to assess the level of water quality of Lake Haiq, Ethiopia with respect to selected physical parameters and heavy metals. Parameters such as temperature, pH, turbidity, electrical conductivity and total dissolved solids were measured in situ. While total alkalinity, chloride, ammonia, nitrate and ...

  6. Gestational exposure to urban air pollution related to a decrease in cord blood vitamin d levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baïz, Nour; Dargent-Molina, Patricia; Wark, John D; Souberbielle, Jean-Claude; Slama, Rémy; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella

    2012-11-01

    Vitamin D deficiency has been implicated in the increased risk of several diseases. Exposure to air pollution has been suggested as a contributor to vitamin D deficiency. However, studies that have examined the effects of air pollution on vitamin D status are few and have never focused on prenatal life as an exposure window. Our aim was to investigate the associations between gestational exposure to urban air pollutants and 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] cord blood serum level in 375 mother-child pairs of the EDEN birth cohort. The Atmospheric Dispersion Modelling System (ADMS-Urban) pollution model, a validated dispersion model combining data on traffic conditions, topography, meteorology, and background pollution, was used to assess the concentrations of two major urban pollutants, particulate matter less than 10 μm in diameter (PM(10)) and nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)), at the mother's home address during pregnancy. Cord blood samples were collected at birth and were analyzed for levels of 25(OH)D. Maternal exposure to ambient urban levels of NO(2) and PM(10) during the whole pregnancy was a strong predictor of low vitamin D status in newborns. After adjustment, log-transformed 25(OH)D decreased by 0.15 U (P = 0.05) and 0.41 U (P = 0.04) for a 10-μg/m(3) increase in NO(2) and PM(10) pregnancy levels, respectively. The association was strongest for third-trimester exposures (P = 0.0003 and P = 0.004 for NO(2) and PM(10), respectively). Gestational exposure to ambient urban air pollution, especially during late pregnancy, may contribute to lower vitamin D levels in offspring. This could affect the child's risk of developing diseases later in life.

  7. The Relationship between Pre-Service Teachers' Awareness Levels of Electromagnetic Pollution and Other Environmental Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koklukaya, Ayse Nesibe; Guven Yildirim, Ezgi; Selvi, Mahmut

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to find out the relationship between the awareness level of preservice science teachers' conscious use of technological devices, which cause electromagnetic pollution, and their awareness level of related environmental problems. Research Methods: In this study, a mixed design method was used. A relational…

  8. Bioaccumulation and metabolomics responses in oysters Crassostrea hongkongensis impacted by different levels of metal pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Chen; Wang, Wen-Xiong

    2016-09-01

    Jiulong River Estuary, located in southern China, was heavily contaminated by metal pollution. In this study, the estuarine oysters Crassostrea hongkongensis were transplanted to two sites with similar hydrological conditions but different levels of metal pollution in Jiulong River Estuary over a six-month period. We characterized the time-series change of metal bioaccumulation and final metabolomics responses of oysters. Following transplantation, all metals (Cd, Cu, Cr, Ni, Pb, and Zn) in the oyster digestive glands had elevated concentrations over time. By the end of six-month exposure, Cu, Zn and Cd were the main metals significantly differentiating the two sites. Using (1)H NMR metabolite approach, we further demonstrated the disturbance in osmotic regulation, energy metabolism, and glycerophospholipid metabolism induced by metal contaminations. Six months later, the oysters transplanted in the two sites showed a similar metabolite variation pattern when compared with the initial oysters regardless of different metal levels in the tissues. Interestingly, by comparing the oysters from two sites, the more severely polluted oysters accumulated significantly higher amounts of osmolytes (betaine and homarine) and lower energy storage compounds (glycogen) than the less polluted oysters; these changes could be the potential biomarkers for different levels of metal pollution. Our study demonstrated the complexity of biological effects under field conditions, and NMR metabolomics provides an important approach to detect sensitive variation of oyster inner status. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Ambient levels of volatile organic compounds and criteria pollutants in the most industrialized area of central Iberian Peninsula: intercomparison with an urban site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva, Florentina; Notario, Alberto; Tapia, Araceli; Albaladejo, José; Cabañas, Beatriz; Martínez, Ernesto

    2016-01-01

    This work presents observations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including carbonyls, particulate matter 2.5 (PM2.5) (included in the most recent ambient air quality standards because of its harmful effect on health), PM10 and other important pollutants, CO, SO2, NOx and ozone, over the most industrialized area in the central Iberian Peninsula. Nearly two years of data obtained through a mobile laboratory are used for this purpose. Different concentration ratios and correlations were calculated to assess the effect of the anthropogenic or biogenic processes on the observed VOC levels. The diurnal profile for SO2 is different in Puertollano and it does not coincide with the maxima of the other primary pollutants such as benzene, toluene and xylenes (BTX), CO and NO. This behaviour could be attributed to the fact that SO2 mainly comes from industrial activities. However, an impact of the industry on air quality was detected not only by the results obtained for SO2, but also by the toluene/benzene, T/B, ratio (7.5). Finally, correlations between meteorological conditions and pollution distribution have been considered; also, the analysis of the back trajectories together with Spearman correlation coefficients have been carried out to understand the origin and pathway in some events with unusual high pollutant values.

  10. Effect of different levels of air pollution on photosynthetic activity of some lichens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Niewiadomska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Four lichen species: Hypogymnia physodes, Pseudevernia furfuracea, Parmelia saxatilis, and Platismatia glauca were collected from two sites (S. Poland with a different air pollution level: "Kamienica valley" (less polluted and "Kopa" (more polluted. The thalli were compared with respect to their: net photosynthetic rate (PN, fluorescence parameters (Fv/Fm, Fm, Fm/Fo, chlorophyll a+b content, and phaeophytinization quotient (O.D.435/O.D.415. PN intensity, chlorophyll a+b and O.D.435/O.D.415 were reduced only in Pa furfuracea collected from Kopa, which is in agreement with the Hawksworth-Rose scale of sensitivity of lichens to air pollution. Fluorescence parameters were significantly lowered in all lichens coming from the more polluted site (except of Fv/Fm and Fm/F0 in P. saxatilis. Parameters based on chlorophyll fluorescence measurements enable to reveal the very early signs of decreased photosynthetical capacity of the thalli, caused by air pollution, before changes in the other photosynthetic parameters become mesurable.

  11. Evaluation of Pollution Level in Zolotoy Rog Bay (Peter the Great Gulf, the Sea of Japan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazachkova, Y.; Lazareva, L.; Petukhov, V.

    2017-11-01

    The results of the hydrochemical research of water and bottom sediments of the Zolotoy Rog Bay in July 2015 are presented below. It is shown that, as a result of a large amount of polluted sewage entering The Zolotoy Rog Bay, the concentrations of organic substances (BOD5) and petroleum hydrocarbons in the water exceed the MPC. The concentrations of heavy metals in soils exceed both the background level and the level of permissible values. As a result of the calculation of the bottom accumulation (CBA) coefficient for oil hydrocarbons, the situation in the Zolotoy Rog Bay can be classified as an ecological disaster. According to the total pollution index (Zc) of heavy metals, the bottom sediments of the Zolotoy Rog Bay are characterized as strongly and very strongly polluted.

  12. Study on particulate matter air pollution in Beijing with MODIS aerosol level 2 products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Jietai; Li, Chengcai; Lau, Alexis K.

    2004-09-01

    In the run-up to the 2008 Olympic Games in Beijing, Chinese government officials at both the central and municipal levels are keenly aware that they must transform Beijing into a world-class city. According to the Beijing Municipal Environmental Protection Bureau (BJEPB) to improve its air quality some actions are adopting, including taking steps to increase the forested area surrounding the city preventing dust storms, reducing the automotive vehicles, moving polluting factories now inside the fourth ring road ringing the inner city to locations outside of the fourth ring road, and switching the fuel of public buses and taxis from diesel to natural gas, etc. Will they eliminate most serious environmental problems in Beijing? MODIS aerosol products are helping us to answer this kind of questions. A long-term validation has been finished by sun-photometer observations, and the results proved the relative error of MODIS level 2 products was slightly larger than the estimation of Chu et al. (2002) from the results in most AERONET sites. However, the comparison between the products and moisture-corrected air pollution index (API) data, which were daily released to public by EPB, showed a high correlation coefficient. An air pollution episode in 2003 was investigated by the usage of satellite products. Our conclusion for the air pollution control strategy in Beijing is that only reducing the pollution sources from inner city can't fully solve the pollution problems in Beijing and the regional transports from the nearby southern provinces are contributing a lot to the pollution situation in Beijing.

  13. Enviormental Pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Kanika Saini; Dr. Sona Malhotra

    2016-01-01

    Environment Pollution is one of the greatest problems today which is increasing with every passing year and causing crucial and severe damage to the earth. It has become a real problem since the beginning of the industrial revolution. It is the contamination of physical and biological components of the Earth / atmosphere system to such an extent that normal environmental processes are harmed. Pollution of the environment consists of five main types of pollution, namely air, water,...

  14. Relationship Between Indoor Air Pollutant Levels and Residential Environment in Children With Atopic Dermatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung Hyun; Lee, Ho Seok; Park, Mi Ran; Lee, Sang Woon; Kim, Eun Hye; Cho, Joong Bum; Kim, Jihyun; Han, Youngshin; Jung, Kweon; Cheong, Hae Kwan; Lee, Sang Il

    2014-01-01

    Purpose This study was aimed to investigate the relationship between indoor air pollutant levels and residential environment in children with atopic dermatitis (AD) living in Seoul. Methods A total of 150 children with AD were included. Residential environment was assessed by questionnaires which were completed by their parents. To evaluate the level of exposure to the indoor air pollutants, concentrations of the indoor air pollutants including particulate matter with diameter less than 10 µm (PM10), formaldehyde, carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), Total Volatile Organic Compound (TVOC), benzene, toluene, ethyl-benzene, xylene, styrene, bacterial aerosols, and airborne fungi were measured. Results A significant difference was exhibited in the levels of PM10 in case of visible fungus on the walls (P=0.047). There was relationship between the construction year of the house, moving to a newly constructed building within 1 year and formaldehyde level. With the use of artificial air freshener, the differences were found in the concentrations of TVOC (P=0.003), benzene (P=0.015), toluene (P=0.012) and ethyl-benzene (P=0.027). The concentration of xylene was significantly high when oil was used as heating fuel (P=0.015). Styrene exhibited differences depending on building type and its concentrations were significantly high in a residential and commercial complex building (P=0.005). The indoor concentration of bacterial aerosols was significantly low with the use of air cleaner (P=0.045). High NO2, benzene concentrations were present in case of almost no ventilation (P=0.028 and P=0.028, respectively). Conclusions Individual residential environments are closely related with the levels of the indoor air pollutants. To alleviate AD symptoms, simple questions about residential environments such as visible fungus on the walls and the use of artificial air freshener are helpful to assess the possibility of increased indoor air pollutant levels

  15. Some insights into the relationship between urban air pollution and noise levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki-Hyun; Ho, Duy Xuan; Brown, Richard J C; Oh, J-M; Park, Chan Goo; Ryu, In Cheol

    2012-05-01

    The relationship between noise and air pollution was investigated in eight different districts across Seoul, Korea, between September and November 2010. The noise levels in each district were measured at both roadside and non-roadside locations. It was found that the maximum levels of noise were generally at frequencies of around 1000 Hz. The equivalent noise levels (L(eq)), over all districts, averaged 61.4 ± 7.36 dB which is slightly lower than the noise guidelines set by the World Health Organization (WHO) of 70 dB for industrial, commercial, traffic, and outdoor areas. Comparison of L(eq) levels in each district consistently indicates that noise levels are higher at roadside sites than non-roadside sites. In addition the relative dominance of noise during daytime as compared to nighttime was also apparent. Moreover, the results of an analysis relating sound levels with air pollutant levels indicate strongly that the correlation between these two parameters is the strongest at roadside sites (relative to non-roadside sites) and during nighttime (relative to daytime). The results of our data analysis point to a positive, but complex, correlation between noise levels and air pollution. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The harmful effects of air pollutants around the Yenikoy thermal power plant on architecture of Calabrian pine (Pinus brutia Ten.) needles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuhoglu, Y. [Ataturk University, Erzurum (Turkey). Faculty of Engineering

    2005-06-01

    The influence of air pollutants on the architecture of Calabrian pine (Pinus brutia Ten.) needles was examined in polluted and control forest sites around the Yenikoy thermal power plant (YTPP) in Mugla, Turkey. The aim of this research was to test the hypothesis that air pollutants emitted from the YTPP cause the dilation of resin canal diameter on the cross-sections of Calabrian pine needles. For this, the anatomical and morphological anomalies on the cross-sections of Calabrian pine needles were examined. It was determined that the air pollutants caused resin canal dilation and epidermis/hypodermis layers slimming on the cross-sections of Calabrian pine needles. It was also observed that the endodermis layer, the transfusion tissue cells had deformed, and the intra-cellular material had disappeared in the inner side of the cells. At the end of the land researches carried out around the YTPP, visible injury was observed and the ends of needles had withered, so the two and three-year old needles fell very early. Leak of resin on the surface of the needles especially in extensive dusty areas appeared. 0.217-0.423 mg/cm{sup 2} fly ash on the needle surfaces in these areas were obtained. By means of the elemental analysis, it was found out that fly ash had some toxic elements on plants.

  17. Critical levels of atmospheric pollution: criteria and concepts for operational modelling of mercury in forest and lake ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meili, Markus; Bishop, Kevin; Bringmark, Lage; Johansson, Kjell; Munthe, John; Sverdrup, Harald; de Vries, Wim

    2003-03-20

    Mercury (Hg) is regarded as a major environmental concern in many regions, traditionally because of high concentrations in freshwater fish, and now also because of potential toxic effects on soil microflora. The predominant source of Hg in most watersheds is atmospheric deposition, which has increased 2- to >20-fold over the past centuries. A promising approach for supporting current European efforts to limit transboundary air pollution is the development of emission-exposure-effect relationships, with the aim of determining the critical level of atmospheric pollution (CLAP, cf. critical load) causing harm or concern in sensitive elements of the environment. This requires a quantification of slow ecosystem dynamics from short-term collections of data. Aiming at an operational tool for assessing the past and future metal contamination of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, we present a simple and flexible modelling concept, including ways of minimizing requirements for computation and data collection, focusing on the exposure of biota in forest soils and lakes to Hg. Issues related to the complexity of Hg biogeochemistry are addressed by (1) a model design that allows independent validation of each model unit with readily available data, (2) a process- and scale-independent model formulation based on concentration ratios and transfer factors without requiring loads and mass balance, and (3) an equilibration concept that accounts for relevant dynamics in ecosystems without long-term data collection or advanced calculations. Based on data accumulated in Sweden over the past decades, we present a model to determine the CLAP-Hg from standardized values of region- or site-specific synoptic concentrations in four key matrices of boreal watersheds: precipitation (atmospheric source), large lacustrine fish (aquatic receptor and vector), organic soil layers (terrestrial receptor proxy and temporary reservoir), as well as new and old lake sediments (archives of response

  18. Low levels of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in New Zealand eels reflect isolation from atmospheric sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmqvist, Niklas [Department of Ecology, Section of Ecotoxicology, Ecology Building, Lund University, SE-223 62 Lund (Sweden)]. E-mail: niklas.holmqvist@ekol.lu.se; Stenroth, Patrik [Department of Ecology, Section of Limnology, Ecology Building, Lund University, SE-223 62 Lund (Sweden); Berglund, Olof [Department of Ecology, Section of Ecotoxicology, Ecology Building, Lund University, SE-223 62 Lund (Sweden); Nystroem, Per [Department of Ecology, Section of Limnology, Ecology Building, Lund University, SE-223 62 Lund (Sweden); Olsson, Karin [Department of Ecology, Section of Limnology, Ecology Building, Lund University, SE-223 62 Lund (Sweden); Jellyman, Don [National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research Ltd., PO Box 8602, Christchurch (New Zealand); McIntosh, Angus R. [School of Biological Sciences, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch (New Zealand); Larsson, Per [Department of Ecology, Section of Ecotoxicology, Ecology Building, Lund University, SE-223 62 Lund (Sweden)

    2006-06-15

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organic pesticides (i.e., DDTs) were measured in long finned eels (Anguilla dieffenbachii) in 17 streams on the west coast of South Island, New Zealand. Very low levels of PCBs and low levels of ppDDE were found. The concentrations of PCBs and ppDDE were not correlated within sites indicating that different processes determined the levels of the two pollutants in New Zealand eels. The PCBs probably originate from atmospheric transport, ppDDE levels are determined by land use and are higher in agriculture areas. The low contamination level of these aquatic systems seems to be a function of a low input from both long and short-range transport as well as few local point sources. No correlation could be found between lipid content and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) concentration (as shown in previous studies) in the eels which could be explained by low and irregular intake of the pollutants. - Low levels of PCBs found in New Zealand eels reflect isolation from atmospheric sources while DDTs levels are determined by land use.

  19. Climate Adaptation and Harmful Algal Blooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA supports local, state and tribal efforts to maintain water quality. A key element of its efforts is to reduce excess nutrient pollution and the resulting adverse impacts, including harmful algal blooms.

  20. SOIL POLLUTION LEVEL OF ECOLOGICALLY VULNERABLE AREAS AROUND KAJARAN TOWN AND WAYS OF THEIR IMPROVEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Ghazaryan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Kajaran town is situated in the south-east of the Republic of Armenia in Syunik Marz. Developed mining and smelting industries can be observed in this area. This economic sphere is one of the main sources of soil pollution with heavy metals causing desertification of soils. Taking into consideration the location of the main sources of pollution six the most risky sites in this area and an unpolluted site as a control were selected for the study of pollution by heavy metals. The content of metals was determined by means of ELAN 9000 ICP-MS System. Study results revealed the increase up to 17 times in contents of following metals: Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cr, Sr, Mo, Cd, Pb, As. Based on Geoaccumulation index (Igeo classification, the soils from all sites may be classified between “practically uncontaminated” and “uncontaminated to moderate”. The pollution level for Cu (Igeo = 0.031-2.468 was higher than for other metals. The sites adjacent to Kajaran ore-dressing and processing enterprise are classified as “moderately to strongly” contaminated by Cu. Experiments have led us to the assumption that pollution of soils with heavy metals in the studied territory is conditioned by human activities, particularly by mining and smelting industry.

  1. Household Air Pollution: Sources and Exposure Levels to Fine Particulate Matter in Nairobi Slums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanyiva Muindi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available With 2.8 billion biomass users globally, household air pollution remains a public health threat in many low- and middle-income countries. However, little evidence on pollution levels and health effects exists in low-income settings, especially slums. This study assesses the levels and sources of household air pollution in the urban slums of Nairobi. This cross-sectional study was embedded in a prospective cohort of pregnant women living in two slum areas—Korogocho and Viwandani—in Nairobi. Data on fuel and stove types and ventilation use come from 1058 households, while air quality data based on the particulate matters (PM2.5 level were collected in a sub-sample of 72 households using the DustTrak™ II Model 8532 monitor. We measured PM2.5 levels mainly during daytime and using sources of indoor air pollutions. The majority of the households used kerosene (69.7% as a cooking fuel. In households where air quality was monitored, the mean PM2.5 levels were high and varied widely, especially during the evenings (124.6 µg/m3 SD: 372.7 in Korogocho and 82.2 µg/m3 SD: 249.9 in Viwandani, and in households using charcoal (126.5 µg/m3 SD: 434.7 in Korogocho and 75.7 µg/m3 SD: 323.0 in Viwandani. Overall, the mean PM2.5 levels measured within homes at both sites (Korogocho = 108.9 µg/m3 SD: 371.2; Viwandani = 59.3 µg/m3 SD: 234.1 were high. Residents of the two slums are exposed to high levels of PM2.5 in their homes. We recommend interventions, especially those focusing on clean cookstoves and lighting fuels to mitigate indoor levels of fine particles.

  2. Influence of climatic changes on pollution levels in the Balkan Peninsula

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zlatev, Z.; Georgiev, K.; Dimov, I.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to study the influence of future climatic changes on some high pollution levels that can cause damages on plants, animals and human beings. The particular area of interest is the Balkan Peninsula. Four important quantities have been selected: (a) annual concentrations, (b......) AOT40C (high AOT40C values can cause damages on plants and, first and foremost, crops), (c) AOT40F (high AOT40F values can cause damages on forest trees), (d) number of "bad days" (large numbers of "bad days" can cause damage to people suffering from asthmatic diseases). Critical levels...... of these scenarios, are carefully studied. The major conclusion is that the increase of the temperature, alone or in combination with some other factors, leads to rather considerable increases of some pollution levels, which might become dangerous for the environment. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  3. Reducing the noise pollution level along main roads in Sibiu, Romania by optimizing the traffic flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deac Cristian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Noise pollution is one of the most important negative effects of road traffic, especially in cities. The current paper presents an attempt to reduce the noise level created by the road traffic along some main roads in the city of Sibiu, Romania by suggesting ways to optimize the traffic flow. The number of cars and the resulting noise levels were recorded in a key area of Sibiu. The noise levels were compared to standards and to measurements taken in areas with less traffic. Then, they were fed, together with road geometry data, into a specialized simulation software that allowed the computer-aided reproduction of the traffic flow, but also the modifying of conditions such as the road geometry to achieve, coupled with a multicriterial analysis, an optimization of the pedestrian and road traffic flow in view of a reduced noise pollution.

  4. Analysis of noise pollution level in a University campus in South India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thattai, D.; Sudarsan, J. S.; Sathyanathan, R.; Ramasamy, Visalatchi

    2017-07-01

    Noise comprises those sounds occurring around us that are not part of the environment under consideration. Noise is also a type of pollution and impacts on our health and wellness. The prevalence of noise is increasing in magnitude and severity because of growing population and urbanization. Noise pollution leads to many chronic and socially significant impacts. This study analyzes the level of noise at different points in SRM University. As the University encompasses a hospital also, it is more important to identify the sources of high noise levels and control them. As per Indian standards the desirable noise pollution for educational institutions and hospitals in daytime is 50 dbA. Noise levels were measured with a sound level meter at 19 points within the campus at three different timings (8-10 am, 12-2 pm, and 3-5 pm) over two cycles of measurements. The preliminary results show higher noise levels during morning and evening. Noise during Cycle 2 (latter half of semester) was 20% more compared to that of Cycle 1 (beginning of semester).

  5. Nitrogen management is essential to prevent tropical oil palm plantations from causing ground-level ozone pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, Nick; Lee, James

    2010-05-01

    More than half the world's rainforest has been lost to agriculture since the Industrial Revolution. Among the most widespread tropical crops is oil palm (Elaeis guineensis): global production now exceeds 35 million tonnes per year. In Malaysia, for example, 13% of land area is now oil palm plantation, compared with 1% in 1974. There are enormous pressures to increase palm oil production for food, domestic products, and, especially, biofuels. Greater use of palm oil for biofuel production is predicated on the assumption that palm oil is an ‘‘environmentally friendly'' fuel feedstock. Here we show, using measurements and models, that oil palm plantations in Malaysia directly emit more oxides of nitrogen and volatile organic compounds than rainforest. These compounds lead to the production of ground-level ozone (O3), an air pollutant that damages human health, plants, and materials, reduces crop productivity, and has effects on the Earth's climate. Our measurements show that, at present, O3 concentrations do not differ significantly over rainforest and adjacent oil palm plantation landscapes. However, our model calculations predict that if concentrations of oxides of nitrogen in Borneo are allowed to reach those currently seen over rural North America and Europe, ground-level O3 concentrations will reach 100 parts per billion (109) volume (ppbv) and exceed levels known to be harmful to human health. Our study provides an early warning of the urgent need to develop policies that manage nitrogen emissions if the detrimental effects of palm oil production on air quality and climate are to be avoided.

  6. Impact of Natural Gas Appliances on Pollutant Levels in California Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mullen, Nasim A.; Li, Jina; Singer, Brett C.

    2012-12-01

    This report presents results from the first year of a 2-year study, investigating associations of five air pollutants (CO, NO2, NOX, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde) with the presence of natural gas appliances in California homes. From November 2011 to March 2012, pollutant concentration and occupant activity data were collected in 155 homes for 6-day periods. The sample population included both single-family (68%) and multi-family (32%) dwellings, with 87% having at least one gas appliance and 77% having an unvented gas cooking appliance. The geometric mean (GM) NO2 levels measured in the kitchen, bedroom and outside of homes were similar at values of 15, 12 and 11 ppb, respectively. In contrast, the GM NOx levels measured in the kitchen and bedroom of homes were much higher than levels measured outdoors, at levels of 42 and 41 ppb, compared to 19 ppb, respectively. Roughly 10% of sampled homes had 6-day average NO2 levels that exceeded the outdoor annual average limit set by the California Ambient Air Quality Standards (CAAQS) (30 ppb). The GMs of the highest 1-h and 8-h CO level measured in homes were 2.5 and 1.1 ppm, respectively. Four homes had a 1-h or 8-h concentration that exceeded the outdoor limits set by the CAAQS. The GM formaldehyde and acetaldehyde concentrations measured in homes were 15 and 7 ppb, respectively. Roughly 95% of homes had average formaldehyde levels indoors that exceeded the Chronic Reference Exposure Level set by the California EPA (7 ppb). Concentrations of NO2 and NOx, and to a lesser extent CO were associated with use of gas appliances, particularly unvented gas cooking appliances. Based on first principles, it is expected that effective venting of cooking pollutant emissions at the source will lead to a reduction of pollutant concentrations. However, no statistical association was detected between kitchen exhaust fan use and pollutant concentrations in homes in this study where gas cooking occurred frequently. The lack of

  7. The Relationship between the Blood Level of Persistent Organic Pollutants and Common Gastrointestinal Symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Hyo-Min; Youn, Chang-Ho; Ko, Hae Jin; Lee, Seon-Hwa; Lee, Yu-Mi

    2017-01-01

    Background Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are toxic materials that cannot be broken down naturally and that easily accumulate in the body. Although several studies have attempted to uncover the effects of POPs on the endocrine and nervous systems and on cancer, few focus on the relationship between low-dose POPs and public health. Here, we attempt to determine the relationship between the level of POPs and common gastrointestinal symptoms, including abdominal discomfort, diarrhea, and c...

  8. The Relationship between the Blood Level of Persistent Organic Pollutants and Common Gastrointestinal Symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Hyo-Min; Youn, Chang-Ho; Ko, Hae Jin; Lee, Seon-Hwa; Lee, Yu-Mi

    2016-01-01

    Background Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are toxic materials that cannot be broken down naturally and that easily accumulate in the body. Although several studies have attempted to reveal the effects of POPs on the endocrine and nervous system and on cancer, few studies focus on the relationship between low-dose POPs and public health. We attempted to find a relationship between the level of POPs and common gastrointestinal symptoms, including abdominal discomfort, diarrhea, and consti...

  9. Epidemiologic studies on short-term effects of low levels of major ambient air pollution components.

    OpenAIRE

    Brunekreef, B; Dockery, D W; Krzyzanowski, M

    1995-01-01

    Since the development of the World Health Organization (WHO) Air Quality Guidelines for Europe, a large number of epidemiologic studies have been published documenting effects of major air pollutants on health at concentrations below existing guidelines and standards. In this review, recent studies are discussed that permit some evaluation of short-term health effects observed at exposure levels lower than the current WHO Guidelines or U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) standards...

  10. Estimating Causal Effects of Local Air Pollution on Daily Deaths: Effect of Low Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Joel; Bind, Marie-Abele; Koutrakis, Petros

    2017-01-01

    , Koutrakis P. 2017. Estimating causal effects of local air pollution on daily deaths: effect of low levels. Environ Health Perspect 125:23-29; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP232.

  11. Assessment of the exposure and loads of acidifying and eutrophying pollutants and ozone, as well as their harmful influence on the vitality of the trees and the Speulder forest ecosystem as a whole

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erisman, J.W.; Draaijers, G.P.J.; Steingröver, E.; Dijk, H. van; Boxman, A.; Vries, W. de

    1998-01-01

    Within the framework of the Dutch Priority Program on Acidification, 10 yr of research was conducted in a Douglas fir stand at Speulder forest. Research was conducted to establish the loads and levels of acidifying and eutrophying pollutants and ozone, to determine forest vitality characteristics

  12. A nonlinear model of stress hormone levels in rats-the interaction between pollution and parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klar, B; Sures, B

    2004-09-01

    The impact of an infection with a parasite and a simultaneous cadmium exposure on the stress hormone levels of rats was studied. To this end, we introduce a nonlinear heteroscedastic model, which is able to describe the temporal evolution of cortisol concentrations in groups of rats treated by cadmium or parasite infection. A thorough analysis gives strong evidence that parasitic infection and cadmium exposure affect the stress hormone level of rats in an additive manner. Therefore, the host's response to environmental pollution should be studied in relation to parasite infections. Copyright 2003 Elsevier Inc.

  13. Increasing levels and biomagnification of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in Antarctic biota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goerke, Helmut; Weber, Kurt; Bornemann, Horst; Ramdohr, Sven; Ploetz, Joachim

    2004-02-01

    Representatives of the Antarctic food web (krill, cephalopod, fish, penguin, seal) of the area around Elephant Island and from the Weddell Sea were analysed for the most recalcitrant organochlorine compounds. Due to sorption of the compounds to sinking particles and accumulation in sediments, two benthic fish species (Gobionotothen gibberifrons, Chaenocephalus aceratus) feeding on benthos invertebrates and fish reflected significantly increasing concentrations within a decade (1987-1996), while a benthopelagic species (Champsocephalus gunnari) feeding on krill did not. In the pelagic food chain, lipid normalised concentrations of all compounds increased from Antarctic krill to fish proving that biomagnification of highly lipophilic pollutants (log octanol-water partition coefficient > 5) occurs in water-breathing animals. As top predators Weddell and southern elephant seals (Leptonychotes weddellii, Mirounga leonina) biomagnified the persistent organic pollutants relative to krill 30-160 fold with the exception of hexachlorobenzene, the levels of which were lower than in fish indicating its intense specific elimination.

  14. Using background air pollutants levels correlation analysis to identify periods of long-range transport of anthropogenic pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konkova, Elizaveta S.; Burtseva, Larisa V.; Gromov, Sergey A.; Gromov, Sergey S.

    2017-04-01

    Increasing trends of airborne lead and cadmium at background station within the central region of European Russia have been identified previously (e.g., Gromov & Konkova, 2016). In order to reveal the possible drivers of these trends, a deeper investigation of correlation among these heavy metals (HM) and other co-measured pollutants is done in this study. Based on the data for the 2001-2012 period, calculations have been carried out for the period from 2006 onwards, when the growth of HM concentrations is observed. Pairwise correlations of individual species abundances were derived for the entire time series and subsets for each calendar year, including warm (April to September) and cold seasons (October to March). The calculated values for the seasons and the whole years vary substantially, suggesting that that variable ratios of atmospheric HM emission sources could affect the final air concentrations at measurement site in these periods. To distinguish the events of predominant influence of natural and anthropogenic sources, we assume that correlation between lead and cadmium levels must be greater in the case of natural sources being in effect. High values of the correlation coefficient are expected in cases when HM air abundances are induced by the long-range transport from the regions of anthropogenic sources (co-emission of these metals results from a number of same sources, and both of them are also present on same matrix aerosols). The results demonstrate a substantial correlation between Pb and Cd, with higher values for individual seasons (70% of 0.5 and higher) than for whole years. Higher mass concentrations of airborne dust (TSP) in remote areas are to large extent promoted by large particles blown away from the surface at local surroundings. Captured better by filters, such events could be a particular indicator of local (mostly natural) sources. Low or insignificant correlation with HM indicates prevalence of long-range transport of them and could

  15. Effect of public transport strikes on air pollution levels in Barcelona (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basagaña, Xavier; Triguero-Mas, Margarita; Agis, David; Pérez, Noemí; Reche, Cristina; Alastuey, Andrés; Querol, Xavier

    2018-01-01

    Public transport strikes can lead to an increase of the number of private vehicle trips, which in turn can increase air pollution levels. We aimed to estimate the change in air pollution concentrations during public transport strikes in the city of Barcelona (Spain). Data on strikes of the metro, train or bus systems were collected from government records (2005-2016). We collected daily concentrations of NOx; particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter smaller than 10μm (PM10), 2.5μm (PM2.5), and 1μm (PM1); particle number concentration (N); black carbon (BC) and CO from research and official monitoring stations. We fitted linear regression models for each pollutant with the strike indicator as an independent variable, and models were adjusted for day of the week, month, year, and holiday periods. During the study period, there were 208days affected by a strike of the metro (28), train (106) or bus (91) systems. Half of the strikes were partial, most of them were single-day strikes, there was little overlap between strikes of the different transport systems, and all strikes had to comply with mandatory minimal services. When pooling all types of strikes, NOx and BC showed higher levels during strike days in comparison with non-strike days (increase between 4.1% and 7.7%, with higher increases for NO). The increases in these concentrations were more evident during full day and multiday metro strikes. In conclusion, alterations in public transport have consequences on air quality. This highlights the importance of public transport in reducing air pollution concentrations in cities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The impact of heavy metal pollution gradients in sediments on benthic macrofauna at population and community levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Jongseong [Office of Policy Research, Korea Ocean Research and Development (KORDI), Ansan, P.O. Box 29, Seoul 425-600 (Korea, Republic of); Khim, Jong Seong, E-mail: jongseongkhim@korea.ac.kr [Division of Environmental Science and Ecological Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Seong-Gil [Maritime and Ocean Engineering Research Institute (MOERI)/Korea Ocean Research and Development Institute (KORDI), Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Daeseok [Department of Ecological Engineering, Pukyong National University, Busan 608-737 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Chang-hee [Department of Environmental Engineering and Biotechnology, Myongji University, Yongin, Gyeonggi-do 449-728 (Korea, Republic of); Koh, Chul-hwan [School of Earth and Environmental Sciences (Oceanography), Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    The effect of sediment pollution on benthos was investigated in the vicinity of a large sewage treatment outflow at Incheon North Harbor, Korea. Animal size, vertical distribution and standard community parameters were analyzed along a 3 km transect line (n = 7). Univariate parameters showed a general trend of increasing species diversity with increasing distance from the pollution source. Multi-dimensional scaling analysis led to the clear separation of 3 locational groups, supporting gradient-dependent faunal composition. The innermost location was dominated by small sub-surface dwellers while the outer locations by large mid to deep burrowers. Looking for the size-frequency distribution, most abundance species (Heteromastus filiformis) showed the presence of larger size animals with increasing proximity to the pollution source. Meanwhile, species-specific vertical distributions, regardless of the pollution gradient, indicated that such shifts were due to species replacement resulting from a higher tolerance to pollutants over some species. - Highlights: > Hypotheses on benthic responses to sediment pollution were tested. > Decrease of species diversity with the proximity to the pollution source. > Shift of vertical distribution along the transect line attributes to species replacement. > Larger-size species occurred distant from the pollution source. > Larger individuals of Heteromastus filiformis occurred closer to the pollution source. - Community and population level response to the polluted environment of the harbor reflected an integration effect, together with biological interactions.

  17. Exploring EKC, trends of growth patterns and air pollutants concentration level in Malaysia: A Nemerow Index Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekhet, Hussain A.; >Tahira Yasmin,

    2013-06-01

    The present study examines an Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis by analyzing annual data of air pollutants concentartion and per capita GDP as economic indicator over the (1996-2010) period in Malaysia. Nemerow Index Approach (I) used to generate a measures of air pollution. The results show that ambient air quality indicators supports the EKC hypothesis which stated that pollution levels increase as a country develops, but begin to decrease as rising incomes pass beyond a turning poin. Also, the I result is justifying that most pollutants are showing value less than 1.

  18. Reducing indoor residential exposures to outdoor pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherman, Max H.; Matson, Nance E.

    2003-07-01

    The basic strategy for providing indoor air quality in residences is to dilute indoor sources with outdoor air. This strategy assumes that the outdoor air does not have pollutants at harmful levels or that the outdoor air is, at least, less polluted than the indoor air. When this is not the case, different strategies need to be employed to ensure adequate air quality in the indoor environment. These strategies include ventilation systems, filtration and other measures. These strategies can be used for several types of outdoor pollution, including smog, particulates and toxic air pollutants. This report reviews the impacts that typical outdoor air pollutants can have on the indoor environment and provides design and operational guidance for mitigating them. Poor quality air cannot be used for diluting indoor contaminants, but more generally it can become an indoor contaminant itself. This paper discusses strategies that use the building as protection against potentially hazardous outdoor pollutants, including widespread pollutants, accidental events, and potential attacks.

  19. Effects of exercise in polluted air on the aerobic power, serum lactate level and cell blood count of active individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Kargarfard

    2011-01-01

    Conclusions: Exercise in high-polluted air resulted in a significant reduction in the performance at submaximal levels of physical exertion. Therefore, the acute exposure to polluted air may cause a significant reduction in the performance of active individuals. The clinical importance of these findings should be assessed in longitudinal studies.

  20. A Causal Inference Analysis of the Effect of Wildland Fire Smoke on Ambient Air Pollution Levels and Health Burden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildfire smoke is a major contributor to ambient air pollution levels. In this talk, we develop a spatio-temporal model to estimate the contribution of fire smoke to overall air pollution in different regions of the country. We combine numerical model output with observational da...

  1. The economic benefits to agriculture of a reduction of low-level ozone pollution in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuik, O.J.; Helming, J.F.M.; Dorland, C.; Spaninks, F.A.

    2000-01-01

    Low-level ozone pollution affects crop yields adversely. Reduction of ozone pollution would therefore increase crop yields and provide economic benefits to producers and consumers of farm products. This paper assesses the potential magnitude of these benefits for the Netherlands. Exposure-response

  2. Association between DNA methylation profiles in leukocytes and serum levels of persistent organic pollutants in Dutch men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dungen, van den Myrthe; Murk, A.J.; Kampman, Ellen; Steegenga, Wilma T.; Gils-Kok, van Dieuwertje

    2017-01-01

    Consumption of polluted fish may lead to high levels of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in humans, potentially causing adverse health effects. Altered DNA methylation has been suggested as a possible contributor to a variety of adverse health effects. The aim of this study was to evaluate the

  3. Self-harm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Self-harm refers to a person's harming their own body on purpose. About 1 in 100 people hurts ... females hurt themselves than males. A person who self-harms usually does not mean to kill himself or ...

  4. Levels and predictors of persistent organic pollutants in an adult population from four Spanish regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernández-Rodríguez, M., E-mail: mafero@ugr.es [Instituto de Investigación Biosanitaria ibs.Granada, University of Granada, San Cecilio University Hospital, Granada (Spain); Arrebola, J.P., E-mail: jparrebola@ugr.es [Instituto de Investigación Biosanitaria ibs.Granada, University of Granada, San Cecilio University Hospital, Granada (Spain); Oncology Unit, Virgen de las Nieves University Hospital, Granada (Spain); Consortium for Biomedical Research in Epidemiology & Public Health (CIBERESP), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid (Spain); Artacho-Cordón, F.; Amaya, E. [Instituto de Investigación Biosanitaria ibs.Granada, University of Granada, San Cecilio University Hospital, Granada (Spain); Aragones, N. [Consortium for Biomedical Research in Epidemiology & Public Health (CIBERESP), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid (Spain); Cancer Epidemiology Unit, National Center for Epidemiology, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid (Spain); Cancer Epidemiology Research Group, Oncology and Hematology Area, IIS Puerta de Hierro (IDIPHIM), Majadahonda, Madrid (Spain); Llorca, J. [Consortium for Biomedical Research in Epidemiology & Public Health (CIBERESP), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid (Spain); Universidad de Cantabria-IDIVAL, Santander (Spain); Perez-Gomez, B. [Consortium for Biomedical Research in Epidemiology & Public Health (CIBERESP), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid (Spain); Cancer Epidemiology Unit, National Center for Epidemiology, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid (Spain); Cancer Epidemiology Research Group, Oncology and Hematology Area, IIS Puerta de Hierro (IDIPHIM), Majadahonda, Madrid (Spain); and others

    2015-12-15

    This research aimed to assess serum concentrations of a group of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in a sample of adults recruited in four different regions from Spain and to assess socio-demographic, dietary, and lifestyle predictors of the exposure. The study population comprised 312 healthy adults selected from among controls recruited in the MCC-Spain multicase-control study. Study variables were collected using standardized questionnaires, and pollutants were analyzed by means of gas chromatography with electron capture detection. Multivariable analyses were performed to identify predictors of log-transformed pollutant concentrations, using combined backward and forward stepwise multiple linear regression models. Detection rates ranged from 89.1% (hexachlorobenzene, HCB) to 93.6% (Polychlorinated biphenyl-153 [PCB-153]); p,p′-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p′-DDE) showed the highest median concentrations (1.04 ng/ml), while HCB showed the lowest (0.24 ng/ml). In the multivariable models, age was positively associated with HCB, p,p′-DDE, and PCB-180. BMI was associated positively with p,p′-DDE but negatively with PCB-138. Total accumulated time residing in an urban area was positively associated with PCB-153 concentrations. The women showed higher HCB and lower p,p′-DDE concentrations versus the men. Notably, POP exposure in our study population was inversely associated with the breastfeeding received by participants and with the number of pregnancies of their mothers but was not related to the participants' history of breastfeeding their children or parity. Smoking was negatively associated with HCB and PCB-153 concentrations. Consumption of fatty foods, including blue fish, was in general positively associated with POP levels. Although POP environmental levels are declining worldwide, there is a need for the continuous monitoring of human exposure in the general population. The results of the present study confirm previous findings and

  5. Assessment of atmospheric pollution level using Asclepias procera leaves as biomonitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daud, M.; Khalid, N.; Ahmad, S. [Pakistan Inst. of Nuclear Science and Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan). Nuclear Chemistry Div.; Iqbal, J. [University of the Punjab, Lahore (Pakistan). Inst. of Chemistry

    2007-07-01

    The potential of Asclepias procera plant leaves as biomonitor for air pollution monitoring has been explored by analyzing 36 elements in the leaf samples employing Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and Atomic Absorption Spectrometric (AAS) techniques. The leaf samples were collected in summer and winter seasons from urban areas of Islamabad with different anthropogenic activities as well as from a rural area as a reference site. The soil samples of the respective sites were also analyzed. The reliability of the methods used was established by analyzing the certified reference materials under identical experimental conditions and comparing the results obtained with the certified values, which are in quite good agreement with each other. Pollution Load Index (PLI) of the determined elements was computed and is discussed accordingly. The uptake of metals from soil to roots, stem and leaves has also been investigated by analyzing these parts of the same plant. The results suggest that the leaves of Asclepias procera plant have a good potential to indicate the air pollution levels both in the vicinity of industrial as well as near roadside areas. (orig.)

  6. Global Gray Water Footprint and Water Pollution Levels Related to Anthropogenic Nitrogen Loads to Fresh Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekonnen, Mesfin M; Hoekstra, Arjen Y

    2015-11-03

    This is the first global assessment of nitrogen-related water pollution in river basins with a specification of the pollution by economic sector, and by crop for the agricultural sector. At a spatial resolution of 5 by 5 arc minute, we estimate anthropogenic nitrogen (N) loads to freshwater, calculate the resultant gray water footprints (GWFs), and relate the GWFs per river basin to runoff to calculate the N-related water pollution level (WPL) per catchment. The accumulated global GWF related to anthropogenic N loads in the period 2002-2010 was 13×10(12) m3/y. China contributed about 45% to the global total. Three quarters of the GWF related to N loads came from diffuse sources (agriculture), 23% from domestic point sources and 2% from industrial point sources. Among the crops, production of cereals had the largest contribution to the N-related GWF (18%), followed by vegetables (15%) and oil crops (11%). The river basins with WPL>1 (where the N load exceeds the basin's assimilation capacity), cover about 17% of the global land area, contribute about 9% of the global river discharge, and provide residence to 48% of the global population.

  7. Benzodiazepine Use, Misuse, and Harm at the Population Level in Canada: A Comprehensive Narrative Review of Data and Developments Since 1995.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Yoko; Wilson, Emily; Goldner, Elliot M; Fischer, Benedikt

    2016-07-01

    Benzodiazepines are commonly prescribed psycho-pharmaceuticals (e.g., for anxiety, tension, and insomnia); they are generally considered safe but have potential adverse effects. Benzodiazepine use in Canada versus internationally is comparably high, yet no recent comprehensive review of use, misuse, or related (e.g., morbidity, mortality) harm at the population level exists; the present review aimed to fill this gap. We searched four key scientific literature databases (Medline, CINAHL, EBM Reviews, and Web of Science) with relevant search terms, and collected relevant "gray literature" (e.g., survey, monitoring, government reports) data published in 1995-2015. Two reviewers conducted data screening and extraction; results were categorized and narratively summarized by key sub-topics. Levels of benzodiazepine use in the general population have been relatively stable in recent years; medical use is generally highest among older adults. Rates of non-medical use are fairly low in general but higher in marginalized (e.g., street drug use) populations; high and/or inappropriate prescribing appears common in older adults. Benzodiazepines are associated with various morbidity outcomes (e.g., accidents/injuries, cognitive decline, sleep disturbances, or psychiatric issues), again commonly observed in older adults; moreover, benzodiazepines are identified as a contributing factor in suicides and poisoning deaths. Overall there is a substantial benzodiazepine-related health problem burden-although lower than that for other psycho-medications (e.g., opioids)-in Canada, mainly as a result of overuse and/or morbidity. National benzodiazepine prescription guidelines are lacking, and few evaluated interventions to reduce benzodiazepine-related problems exist. There is a clear need for reducing inappropriate benzodiazepine use and related harm in Canada through improved evidence-based practice as well as monitoring and control.

  8. Effects of Wood Pollution on Pore-Water Sulfide Levels and Eelgrass Germination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekelem, C.

    2016-02-01

    Historically, sawmills released wood waste onto coastal shorelines throughout the Pacific Northwest of the USA, enriching marine sediments with organic material. The increase in organic carbon boosts the bacterial reduction of sulfate and results in the production of a toxic metabolite, hydrogen sulfide. Hydrogen sulfide is a phytotoxin and can decrease the growth and survival of eelgrass. This is a critical issue since eelgrass, Zostera marina, forms habitat for many species, stabilizes sediment, and plays a role in nutrient cycling and sediment chemistry. The objective of our study was to determine the effects of wood debris on sediment pore-water hydrogen sulfide concentrations and eelgrass germination. To test the impact of wood inputs on sulfide production and seed germination, we conducted a laboratory mesocosm experiment, adding sawdust to marine sediments and measuring the sulfide levels weekly. We subsequently planted seeds in the mesocosms and measured germination rates. Higher concentrations of sawdust led to higher levels of pore-water hydrogen sulfide and drastically slower eelgrass germination rates. Treatments with greater than 10% wood enrichment developed free sulfide concentrations of 0.815 (± 0.427) mM after 118 days, suggesting sediments with greater than 10% wood pollution may have threateningly high pore-water hydrogen sulfide levels. These results can be used to set thresholds for remediation efforts and guide seed distribution in wood polluted areas.

  9. Levels of contamination for various pollutants present in Belgian human plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wouwe, N. Van; Goeyens, L. [Scientific Inst. of Public Health, Brussels (Belgium); Covaci, A. [Toxicological Center, Univ. of Antwerp, Wilrijk (Belgium); Kannan, K. [Wadsworth Center, New York State Dept. of Health, Albany, NY (United States); Gordon, J.; Chu, A. [Xenobiotic Detection System Inc., Durham, NC (United States); Eppe, G.; Pauw, E. De [Center of Analysis of residues in Traces (CART), Univ. of Liege (Belgium)

    2004-09-15

    During the last century, numerous compounds, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) or organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), were banned because of their bioaccumulative and toxic properties, while other compounds, such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), appeared on the market and consequently in the environment. The experiences gained from accidents involving PBBs, PCBs or PCDD/Fs are useful to conduct scientific investigations focused on preventing similar catastrophies with the newly introduced compounds. Several studies have reported potential increase in the concentration of PBDEs in food and wildlife. Monitoring the levels of toxic chemicals is therefore useful to understand the exposure pathways, sources and trends. The aim of the paper is to present actual contamination's levels of various pollutants in human plasma from Belgium. Several classes of pollutants, such PCDD/Fs, PCBs and OCPs were determined in 20 human plasmas. In addition, perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and related fluorochemicals, which are of current concern, were measured. Although anticipated, concentrations of PBDEs in the same samples were not yet determined. Through this study, a good approximation of the contamination level in Belgian human is given, allowing thus comparison with concentrations observed in other countries.

  10. Physical Activity- and Alcohol-dependent Association Between Air Pollution Exposure and Elevated Liver Enzyme Levels: An Elderly Panel Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kim, Kyoung-Nam; Lee, Hyemi; Kim, Jin Hee; Jung, Kweon; Lim, Youn-Hee; Hong, Yun-Chul

    2015-01-01

    .... However, few studies have examined the effects of air pollution on liver enzyme levels. Blood samples were drawn up to three times between 2008 and 2010 from 545 elderly individuals who regularly visited a community welfare center in Seoul, Korea...

  11. The relationship between particulate pollution levels in Australian cities, meteorology, and landscape fire activity detected from MODIS hotspots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Owen F; Williamson, Grant J; Henderson, Sarah B; Johnston, Fay; Bowman, David M J S

    2012-01-01

    Smoke from bushfires is an emerging issue for fire managers because of increasing evidence for its public health effects. Development of forecasting models to predict future pollution levels based on the relationship between bushfire activity and current pollution levels would be a useful management tool. As a first step, we use daily thermal anomalies detected by the MODIS Active Fire Product (referred to as "hotspots"), pollution concentrations, and meteorological data for the years 2002 to 2008, to examine the statistical relationship between fire activity in the landscapes and pollution levels around Perth and Sydney, two large Australian cities. Resultant models were statistically significant, but differed in their goodness of fit and the distance at which the strength of the relationship was strongest. For Sydney, a univariate model for hotspot activity within 100 km explained 24% of variation in pollution levels, and the best model including atmospheric variables explained 56% of variation. For Perth, the best radius was 400 km, explaining only 7% of variation, while the model including atmospheric variables explained 31% of the variation. Pollution was higher when the atmosphere was more stable and in the presence of on-shore winds, whereas there was no effect of wind blowing from the fires toward the pollution monitors. Our analysis shows there is a good prospect for developing region-specific forecasting tools combining hotspot fire activity with meteorological data.

  12. Dealing with Alcohol-related problems in the Night-Time Economy: A Study Protocol for Mapping trends in harm and stakeholder views surrounding local community level interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Peter; Palmer, Darren; Droste, Nicolas; Tindall, Jenny; Gillham, Karen; Sonderlund, Anders; McFarlane, Emma; de Groot, Florentine; Sawyer, Amy; Groombridge, Daniel; Lecathelinais, Christophe; Wiggers, John

    2011-06-18

    This project will provide a comprehensive investigation into the prevalence of alcohol-related harms and community attitudes in the context of community-based interventions being implemented to reduce harm in two regional centres of Australia. While considerable experimentation and innovation to address these harms has occurred in both Geelong and Newcastle, only limited ad-hoc documentation and analysis has been conducted on changes in the prevalence of harm as a consequence, leaving a considerable gap in terms of a systematic, evidence-based analysis of changes in harm over time and the need for further intervention. Similarly, little evidence has been reported regarding the views of key stakeholder groups, industry, government agencies, patrons or community regarding the need for, and the acceptability of, interventions to reduce harms. This project will aim to provide evidence regarding the impact and acceptability of local initiatives aimed at reducing alcohol-related harms. This study will gather existing police data (assault, property damage and drink driving offences), Emergency Department presentations and Ambulance attendance data. Further, the research team will conduct interviews with licensed venue patrons and collect observational data of licensed venues. Key informant interviews will assess expert knowledge from key industry and government stakeholders, and a community survey will assess community experiences and attitudes towards alcohol-related harm and harm-reduction strategies. Overall, the project will assess: the extent of alcohol-related harm in the context of harm-reduction interventions, and the need for and acceptability of further intervention. These findings will be used to improve evidence-based practice both nationally and internationally. This project has been approved by Deakin University HREC.

  13. Dealing with Alcohol-related problems in the Night-Time Economy: A Study Protocol for Mapping trends in harm and stakeholder views surrounding local community level interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Groot Florentine

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This project will provide a comprehensive investigation into the prevalence of alcohol-related harms and community attitudes in the context of community-based interventions being implemented to reduce harm in two regional centres of Australia. While considerable experimentation and innovation to address these harms has occurred in both Geelong and Newcastle, only limited ad-hoc documentation and analysis has been conducted on changes in the prevalence of harm as a consequence, leaving a considerable gap in terms of a systematic, evidence-based analysis of changes in harm over time and the need for further intervention. Similarly, little evidence has been reported regarding the views of key stakeholder groups, industry, government agencies, patrons or community regarding the need for, and the acceptability of, interventions to reduce harms. This project will aim to provide evidence regarding the impact and acceptability of local initiatives aimed at reducing alcohol-related harms. Methods/Design This study will gather existing police data (assault, property damage and drink driving offences, Emergency Department presentations and Ambulance attendance data. Further, the research team will conduct interviews with licensed venue patrons and collect observational data of licensed venues. Key informant interviews will assess expert knowledge from key industry and government stakeholders, and a community survey will assess community experiences and attitudes towards alcohol-related harm and harm-reduction strategies. Overall, the project will assess: the extent of alcohol-related harm in the context of harm-reduction interventions, and the need for and acceptability of further intervention. Discussion These findings will be used to improve evidence-based practice both nationally and internationally. Ethical Approval This project has been approved by Deakin University HREC.

  14. Assessing pollution levels in sediments of a harbour with two opposing entrances: environmental implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra-García, José M; García-Gómez, J Carlos

    2005-10-01

    The harbour of Ceuta, North Africa, differs substantially from conventional harbours with only one entrance since it has two opposing entrances and a channel which increases water renewal and local currents, with implications for sedimentary processes, levels of pollution and oxygen concentration. The distribution of heavy metals, nutrients and total hydrocarbons was investigated in sediment samples from this particular harbour. The grain size effect, a normalization technique using Fe concentrations and different sediment quality guidelines are discussed, and the data from the harbour of Ceuta are compared with other harbours worldwide. In spite of the water renewal, sediments inside the harbour of Ceuta were characterised by moderate levels of pollution, mainly hydrocarbons (496--6972 microg/g), P (282--1350 microg/g), N (100--2600 microg/g) and heavy metals Cu (5--865 microg/g), Pb (10--516 microg/g), Zn (296--695 microg/g), Cr (13--381 microg/g) and Ni (8--671 microg/g). Taking into account that there is no industrial activity around the harbour of Ceuta, the major sources of contamination are the sewage effluents of urban influence, anti-fouling paints and accidental oil spills during loading and dumping involved in shipping operations. The design of Ceuta harbour should be taken into consideration in the design, construction and management of future harbours.

  15. Atmospheric pollution; Pollution atmospherique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambrozo, J.; Guillossou, G. [EDF-Gas de France, Service des Etudes Medicales, 75 - Paris (France)

    2008-10-15

    The atmosphere is the reservoir of numerous pollutants (nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, carbon oxides, particulates, volatile organic compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) from natural origin or anthropogenic origin ( industry, transport, agriculture, district heating). With epidemiologic studies the atmospheric pollution is associated with an increase of respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. At the european level, the technological progress, the legislation have allowed a reduction of pollutant emissions, however these efforts have to be continued because the sanitary impact of atmospheric pollution must not be underestimated, even if the risks appear less important that these ones in relation with tobacco, inside pollution or others factors of cardiovascular risks. Indeed, on these last factors an individual action is possible for the exposure to air pollution people have no control. (N.C.)

  16. Physical Activity- and Alcohol-dependent Association Between Air Pollution Exposure and Elevated Liver Enzyme Levels: An Elderly Panel Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyoung-Nam; Lee, Hyemi; Kim, Jin Hee; Jung, Kweon; Lim, Youn-Hee; Hong, Yun-Chul

    2015-05-01

    The deleterious effects of air pollution on various health outcomes have been demonstrated. However, few studies have examined the effects of air pollution on liver enzyme levels. Blood samples were drawn up to three times between 2008 and 2010 from 545 elderly individuals who regularly visited a community welfare center in Seoul, Korea. Data regarding ambient air pollutants (particulate matter ≤2.5 μm [PM2.5], nitrogen dioxide [NO2], ozone [O3], carbon monoxide, and sulfur dioxide) from monitoring stations were used to estimate air pollution exposure. The effects of the air pollutants on the concentrations of three liver enzymes (aspartate aminotransferase [AST], alanine aminotransferase [ALT], and γ-glutamyltranspeptidase [γ-GTP)]) were evaluated using generalized additive and linear mixed models. Interquartile range increases in the concentrations of the pollutants showed significant associations of PM2.5 with AST (3.0% increase, p=0.0052), ALT (3.2% increase, p=0.0313), and γ-GTP (5.0% increase, p=0.0051) levels; NO2 with AST (3.5% increase, p=0.0060) and ALT (3.8% increase, p=0.0179) levels; and O3 with γ-GTP (5.3% increase, p=0.0324) levels. Significant modification of these effects by exercise and alcohol consumption was found (p for interaction pollutants were greater in non-exercisers and heavy drinkers. Short-term exposure to air pollutants such as PM2.5, NO2, and O3 is associated with increased liver enzyme levels in the elderly. These adverse effects can be reduced by exercising regularly and abstinence from alcohol.

  17. Transportation, Air Pollution, and Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Contact Us Share Transportation, Air Pollution, and Climate Change Accomplishments & Successes View successes from the Clean Air ... and engines that cause harmful health effects and climate change. Overview of air pollution from transportation Carbon Pollution ...

  18. Differential hepatic metal and metallothionein levels in three Feral fish species along a metal pollution gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bervoets, Lieven; Knapen, Dries; De Jonge, Maarten; Van Campenhout, Karen; Blust, Ronny

    2013-01-01

    The accumulation of cadmium, copper and zinc and the induction of metallothioneins (MT) in liver of three freshwater fish species was studied. Gudgeon (Gobio gobio), roach (Rutilus rutilus) and perch (Perca fluviatilis) were captured at 6 sampling sites along a cadmium and zinc gradient and one reference site in a tributary of the Scheldt River in Flanders (Belgium). At each site up to 10 individuals per species were collected and analyzed on their general condition factor (K), hepatosomatic index (HSI) and gonadosomatic index (GSI). From each individual fish the liver was dissected and analyzed on Cd, Cu and Zn and MT-content. Although not all species were present at each site, hepatic Cd and Zn levels generally followed the pollution gradient and highest levels were measured in perch, followed by roach and gudgeon. Nevertheless also an effect of site was observed on this order. MT-levels appeared to be the highest in gudgeon although differences with the other species were not very pronounced and depended on the site. Significant relationships were found between hepatic zinc accumulation and MT levels. For each species the ratio MT(theoretical)/ MT(measured) was calculated, which gives an indication of the relative capacity to induce MTs and thus immobilize the metals. Perch had the lowest capacity in inducing MTs (highest ratio). Relationships between hepatic metal levels and fish condition indices were absent or very weak.

  19. Differential hepatic metal and metallothionein levels in three Feral fish species along a metal pollution gradient.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lieven Bervoets

    Full Text Available The accumulation of cadmium, copper and zinc and the induction of metallothioneins (MT in liver of three freshwater fish species was studied. Gudgeon (Gobio gobio, roach (Rutilus rutilus and perch (Perca fluviatilis were captured at 6 sampling sites along a cadmium and zinc gradient and one reference site in a tributary of the Scheldt River in Flanders (Belgium. At each site up to 10 individuals per species were collected and analyzed on their general condition factor (K, hepatosomatic index (HSI and gonadosomatic index (GSI. From each individual fish the liver was dissected and analyzed on Cd, Cu and Zn and MT-content. Although not all species were present at each site, hepatic Cd and Zn levels generally followed the pollution gradient and highest levels were measured in perch, followed by roach and gudgeon. Nevertheless also an effect of site was observed on this order. MT-levels appeared to be the highest in gudgeon although differences with the other species were not very pronounced and depended on the site. Significant relationships were found between hepatic zinc accumulation and MT levels. For each species the ratio MT(theoretical/ MT(measured was calculated, which gives an indication of the relative capacity to induce MTs and thus immobilize the metals. Perch had the lowest capacity in inducing MTs (highest ratio. Relationships between hepatic metal levels and fish condition indices were absent or very weak.

  20. Levels and Seasonal Variability of Persistent Organic Pollutants in Rural and Urban Atmosphere of Southern Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adu-Kumi, Sam; Klanova, Jana; Holoubek, Ivan

    2010-05-01

    Concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in air are reported from the first full year of the RECETOX-Africa Air Monitoring (MONET_AFRICA) Project. Passive air samplers composed of polyurethane foam disks (PUF-disk samplers) were deployed for sampling background air concentrations from January-December 2008 at two urban sites in Ghana, namely, Ghana Atomic Energy Commission (Biotechnology and Nuclear Agricultural Research Institute, Kwabenya); and Ghana Meteorological Agency (East Legon). Another set of PUF-disk samplers were deployed at a rural/agricultural location (Lake Bosumtwi) from July-November 2008. For the purposes of this study, 28 days was the sampling period for polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs); and 3 months for OCPs (Drins) and dioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs) respectively. MONET_AFRICA constituted part of the activities under the Global Monitoring Plan (GMP) for the effectiveness evaluation (Article 16) of the Stockholm Convention on POPs and the air sampling survey was conducted at 26 sites across the African continent with the aim to establish baseline information on contamination of ambient air with persistent organic pollutants (POPs) as a reference for future monitoring programmes in the region. For the pesticides, endosulfans constituted the highest contaminants measured followed by HCHs and DDTs in that order. The large temporal variability in the pesticide concentrations suggested seasonal application of endosulfans and γ-HCH. Levels of endosulfans were initially found to be below detection limit during the first sampling period (January - March 2008) but recorded the highest concentration than any other pesticide from all 16 sites in the African region during the second sampling period (April - June 2008). Concentrations of DDTs and HCHs were generally low throughout the sampling periods. p,p'-DDE/p,p'-DDT ratio in ambient air showed that the metabolite DDE was the

  1. Influence of synoptic and local atmospheric patterns on PM10 air pollution levels: a model application to Naples (Italy)

    CERN Document Server

    Fortelli, Alberto; Mazzarella, Adriano

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the relationship between synoptic/local meteorological patterns and PM10 air pollution levels in the metropolitan area of Naples, Italy. We found that severe air pollution crises occurred when the 850 and 500 hpa geopotential heights and their relative temperatures present maximum values above the city. The most relevant synoptic parameter was the 850 hPa geopotential height, which is located about 1500 m of altitude. We compared local meteorological conditions (specifically wind stress, rain amount and thermal inversion) against the urban air pollution levels from 2009 to 2013. We found several empirical criteria for forecasting high daily PM10 air pollution levels in Naples. Pollution crises occurred when (a) the wind stress was between 1 and 2 m/s, (b) the thermal inversion between two strategic locations was at least 3{\\deg}C/200m and (c) it did not significantly rain for at least 7 days. Beside these meteorological conditions, severe pollution crises occurred also during festivals when fir...

  2. Exposure to ambient air pollution--does it affect semen quality and the level of reproductive hormones?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radwan, Michał; Jurewicz, Joanna; Polańska, Kinga; Sobala, Wojciech; Radwan, Paweł; Bochenek, Michał; Hanke, Wojciech

    2016-01-01

    Ambient air pollution has been associated with a variety of reproductive disorders. However, a limited amount of research has been conducted to examine the association between air pollution and male reproductive outcomes, specifically semen quality. The present study was designed to address the hypothesis that exposure to fluctuating levels of specific air pollutants adversely affects sperm parameters and the level of reproductive hormones. The study population consisted of 327 men who were attending an infertility clinic in Łodź, Poland for diagnostic purposes and who had normal semen concentration of 15-300 mln/ml. All participants were interviewed and provided a semen sample. Air quality data were obtained from AirBase database. The statistically significant association was observed between abnormalities in sperm morphology and exposure to all examined air pollutants (PM10, PM2.5, SO2, NOX, CO). Exposure to air pollutants (PM10, PM2.5, CO, NOx) was also negatively associated with the level of testosterone. Additional exposure to PM2.5, PM10 increase the percentage of cells with immature chromatin (HDS). The present study provides suggestive evidence of an association between ambient air pollution and sperm quality. Further research is needed to explore this association in more detail. Individual precise exposure assessment would be needed for more detailed risk characterization.

  3. Regulation of the organic pollution level in anaerobic digesters by using off-line COD measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez-Acosta, H O; García-Sandoval, J P; González-Álvarez, V; Alcaraz-González, V; Jáuregui-Jáuregui, J A

    2011-09-01

    A sampled delayed scheme is proposed to regulate the organic pollution level in anaerobic digestion processes by using off-line COD measurements. The proposed scheme is obtained by combining an error feedback control with a steady state estimator to track constant references and attenuate process load disturbances. The controller performance is tested experimentally for the treatment of tequila vinasses over a period of 68days under different set-point values and several uncertain scenarios which include badly known kinetic parameters and load disturbances. Experimental results show that the COD concentration can be effectively regulated under the influence of set-point changes and high load disturbances by using only a daily off-line COD measurement, which makes the industrial application of the proposed control scheme feasible. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Determination of optimal pollution levels through multiple-criteria decision making: an application to the Spanish electricity sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linares, P. [Universidad Pontificia Comillas, Inst. de Investigacion Tecnologica, Madrid (Spain)

    1999-07-01

    An efficient pollution management requires the harmonisation of often conflicting economic and environmental aspects. A compromise has to be found, in which social welfare is maximised. The determination of this social optimum has been attempted with different tools, of which the most correct according to neo-classical economics may be the one based on the economic valuation of the externalities of pollution. However, this approach is still controversial, and few decision makers trust the results obtained enough to apply them. But a very powerful alternative exists, which avoids the problem of monetizing physical impacts. Multiple-criteria decision making provides methodologies for dealing with impacts in different units, and for incorporating the preferences of decision makers or society as a whole, thus allowing for the determination of social optima under heterogeneous criteria, which is usually the case of pollution management decisions. In this paper, a compromise programming model is presented for the determination of the optimal pollution levels for the electricity industry in Spain for carbon dioxide, sulphur dioxide, nitrous oxides, and radioactive waste. The preferences of several sectors of society are incorporated explicitly into the model, so that the solution obtained represents the optimal pollution level from a social point of view. Results show that cost minimisation is still the main objective for society, but the simultaneous consideration of the rest of the criteria achieves large pollution reductions at a low cost increment. (Author)

  5. Persistent organochlorine pollutants with endocrine activity and blood steroid hormone levels in middle-aged men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elise Emeville

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Studies relating long-term exposure to persistent organochlorine pollutants (POPs with endocrine activities (endocrine disrupting chemicals on circulating levels of steroid hormones have been limited to a small number of hormones and reported conflicting results. OBJECTIVE: We examined the relationship between serum concentrations of dehydroepiandrosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate, androstenedione, androstenediol, testosterone, free and bioavailable testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, estrone, estrone sulphate, estradiol, sex-hormone binding globulin, follicle-stimulating hormone, and luteinizing hormone as a function of level of exposure to three POPs known to interfere with hormone-regulated processes in different way: dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethene (DDE, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB congener 153, and chlordecone. METHODS: We collected fasting, morning serum samples from 277 healthy, non obese, middle-aged men from the French West Indies. Steroid hormones were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, except for dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate, which was determined by immunological assay, as were the concentrations of sex-hormone binding globulin, follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone. Associations were assessed by multiple linear regression analysis, controlling for confounding factors, in a backward elimination procedure, in multiple bootstrap samples. RESULTS: DDE exposure was negatively associated to dihydrotestosterone level and positively associated to luteinizing hormone level. PCB 153 was positively associated to androstenedione and estrone levels. No association was found for chlordecone. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggested that the endocrine response pattern, estimated by determining blood levels of steroid hormones, varies depending on the POPs studied, possibly reflecting differences in the modes of action generally attributed to these compounds. It remains to be investigated whether

  6. Self Harm - Cutting

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Wellness Emotional Well-Being Mental Health Self Harm — Cutting Self Harm — Cutting Share Print It’s difficult to watch your child ... their pain, such as in the case of cutting. Cutting (sometimes called self harm) is the act ...

  7. [Indoor air pollution by volatile organic compounds in large buildings: pollution levels and remaining issues after revision of the Act on Maintenance of Sanitation in Buildings in 2002].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Kiyoshi; Kamijima, Michihiro; Shibata, Eiji; Ohno, Hiroyuki; Nakajima, Tamie

    2010-09-01

    This study aimed to clarify indoor air pollution levels of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), especially 2-ethyl-1-hexanol (2E1H) in large buildings after revising of the Act on Maintenance of Sanitation in Buildings in 2002. We measured indoor air VOC concentrations in 57 (97%) out of a total of 61 large buildings completed within one year in half of the area of Nagoya, Japan, from 2003 through 2007. Airborne concentrations of 13 carbonyl compounds were determined with diffusion samplers and high-performance liquid chromatography, and of the other 32 VOCs with diffusion samplers and gas chromatography with a mass spectrometer. Formaldehyde was detected in all samples of indoor air but the concentrations were lower than the indoor air quality standard value set in Japan (100 microg/m3). Geometric mean concentrations of the other major VOCs, namely toluene, xylene, ethylbenzene, styrene, p-dichlorobenzene and acetaldehyde were also low. 2E1H was found to be one of the predominating VOCs in indoor air of large buildings. A few rooms in a small number of buildings surveyed showed high concentrations of 2E1H, while low concentrations were observed in most rooms of those buildings as well as in other buildings. It was estimated that about 310 buildings had high indoor air pollution levels of 2E1H, with increase during the 5 years from 2003 in Japan. Indoor air pollution levels of VOCs in new large buildings are generally good, although a few rooms in a small number of buildings showed high concentrations in 2E1H, a possible causative chemical in sick building symptoms. Therefore, 2E1H needs particular attention as an important indoor air pollutant.

  8. Ground-level ozone pollution and its health impacts in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huan; Liu, Shuai; Xue, Boru; Lv, Zhaofeng; Meng, Zhihang; Yang, Xiaofan; Xue, Tao; Yu, Qiao; He, Kebin

    2018-01-01

    In recent years, ground-level ozone pollution in China has become an increasingly prominent problem. This study simulated and analyzed spatiotemporal distribution of ozone and exposure level by the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF)-Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) models and monitoring data from 1516 national air quality monitoring stations in China during 2015. The simulation results show that the Sichuan Basin, Shandong, Shanxi, Henan, Anhui, Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, Yangtze River Delta (YRD), Pearl River Delta (PRD) and Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region had relatively high average annual concentrations of ozone. The regions with more than 10% nonattainment days of 160 μg/m3 (daily maximum 8-h) are mainly concentrated in BTH, Shandong Peninsula and YRD, where large seasonal variations were also found. Exposure levels were calculated based on population data and simulated ozone concentrations. The cumulative population exposed to daily maximum 8-h concentration greater than or equal to 100 μg/m3 was 816.04 million, 61.17% of the total. Three methods were used to estimate the mortality of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) attributable to ozone. A comparative study using different exposure concentrations and threshold concentrations found large variations among these methods, although they were all peer-reviewed methods. The estimated mortality of COPD caused by ozone in China in 2015 ranged from 55341 to 80280, which mainly distributed in Beijing, Shandong, Henan, Hubei and Sichuan Province, the YRD and PRD region.

  9. Impact of nitrogen deposition at the species level

    OpenAIRE

    Payne, Richard J.; Dise, Nancy B.; Stevens, Carly J.; Gowing, David J.; Duprè, Cecilia; Dorland, Edu; Gaudnik, Cassandre; Bleeker, Albert; Diekmann, Martin; Alard, Didier; Bobbink, Roland; Fowler, David; Corcket, Emmanuel; Mountford, J. Owen; Vandvik, Vigdis

    2012-01-01

    In Europe and, increasingly, the rest of the world, the key policy tool for the control of air pollution is the critical load, a level of pollution below which there are no known significant harmful effects on the environment. Critical loads are used to map sensitive regions and habitats, permit individual polluting activities, and frame international negotiations on transboundary air pollution. Despite their fundamental importance in environmental science and policy, there has been no system...

  10. Deliberate Self Harm Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Gul Helvaci Celik

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The deliberate self-harm behaviour which defined as attempting to own body resulting in tisue damage without conscious desire of peolple to die, is a major public health problem worldwide. The causes of deliberate self- harm, risk factors, the relationship between mental disorders and treatment strategies are not fully known. Deliberate self- harm can be observed together with psychiatric disorders such as borderline personality disorder, histrionic personality disorder, eating disorders and mood disorders. Also, deliberate self-harm must be distinguished from suicidal behavior. Psychologi-cal trauma has been suggested as a risk factor for deliberate self- harm behavior. Trauma and traumatic events have long been associated with deliberate self- harm behavior. The aim of this review article is to investigate the etiology and epidemiology of deliberate self-harm behaviour and relationship between psychiatric disorders. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2017; 9(2.000: 209-226

  11. The Relationship between the Blood Level of Persistent Organic Pollutants and Common Gastrointestinal Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyo-Min; Youn, Chang-Ho; Ko, Hae Jin; Lee, Seon-Hwa; Lee, Yu-Mi

    2017-07-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are toxic materials that cannot be broken down naturally and that easily accumulate in the body. Although several studies have attempted to uncover the effects of POPs on the endocrine and nervous systems and on cancer, few focus on the relationship between low-dose POPs and public health. Here, we attempt to determine the relationship between the level of POPs and common gastrointestinal symptoms, including abdominal discomfort, diarrhea, and constipation. We recruited 121 subjects who visited Kyungpook National University Medical Center for health screening. Plasma concentrations were evaluated for 40 kinds of POPs including 17 types of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and 23 types of organochlorine pesticides (OCP). Furthermore, the Korean version of the Rome III criteria was used to identify gastrointestinal symptoms. Based on our results, abdominal discomfort showed an inverse relationship with several PCBs and an inverted U-shaped relationship with several other OCPs including pp-DDD and pp-DDT. The effects of pp-DDD and pp-DDT on abdominal discomfort were similar to those of OCPs on obesity and metabolic syndrome. Our results suggest that mild and unspecified gastrointestinal symptoms with no clear causes could be related to POP levels.

  12. Levels and Distribution of Pollutants in the Waters of an Aquatic Ecosystem in Northern Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Manuel Ochoa-Rivero

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The availability of good quality water resources is essential to ensure healthy crops and livestock. The objective of this study was to evaluate the level of pollution in Bustillos Lagoon in northern Mexico. Physical-chemical parameters like sodium, chloride, sulfate, electrical conductivity, nitrates, and the pesticide dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT were analyzed to determine the water quality available in the lagoon. Although DDT has been banned in several countries, it is still used for agricultural purposes in Mexico and its presence in this area had not been analyzed previously. Bustillos Lagoon was divided into three zones for the evaluation: (1 industrial; (2 communal lands; and (3 agricultural. The highest concentrations of sodium (2360 mg/L and SAR (41 meq/L reported in the industrial zone are values exceeding the United Nations Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO irrigation water quality guidelines. DDT and its metabolites were detected in all of the 21 sites analyzed, in the agricultural zone ∑DDTs = 2804 ng/mL, this level is much higher than those reported for other water bodies in Mexico and around the world where DDT has been used heavily. The water in the communal zone is the least contaminated, but can only be recommended for irrigation of plants with high stress tolerance and not for crops.

  13. Levels and Distribution of Pollutants in the Waters of an Aquatic Ecosystem in Northern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa-Rivero, Jesús Manuel; Reyes-Fierro, Ana Victoria; Peralta-Pérez, Ma Del Rosario; Zavala-Díaz de la Serna, Francisco Javier; Ballinas-Casarrubias, Lourdes; Salmerón, Ivan; Rubio-Arias, Héctor; Rocha-Gutiérrez, Beatriz A

    2017-04-25

    The availability of good quality water resources is essential to ensure healthy crops and livestock. The objective of this study was to evaluate the level of pollution in Bustillos Lagoon in northern Mexico. Physical-chemical parameters like sodium, chloride, sulfate, electrical conductivity, nitrates, and the pesticide dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) were analyzed to determine the water quality available in the lagoon. Although DDT has been banned in several countries, it is still used for agricultural purposes in Mexico and its presence in this area had not been analyzed previously. Bustillos Lagoon was divided into three zones for the evaluation: (1) industrial; (2) communal lands; and (3) agricultural. The highest concentrations of sodium (2360 mg/L) and SAR (41 meq/L) reported in the industrial zone are values exceeding the United Nations Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) irrigation water quality guidelines. DDT and its metabolites were detected in all of the 21 sites analyzed, in the agricultural zone ∑DDTs = 2804 ng/mL, this level is much higher than those reported for other water bodies in Mexico and around the world where DDT has been used heavily. The water in the communal zone is the least contaminated, but can only be recommended for irrigation of plants with high stress tolerance and not for crops.

  14. An objective definition of air mass types affecting Athens, Greece; the corresponding atmospheric pressure patterns and air pollution levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindosi, O A; Katsoulis, B D; Bartzokas, A

    2003-08-01

    This work aims at defining characteristic air mass types that dominate in the region of Athens, Greece during the cold (November-March) and the warm (May-September) period of the year and also at evaluating the corresponding concentration levels of the main air pollutants. For each air mass type, the mean atmospheric pressure distribution (composite maps) over Europe and the Mediterranean is estimated in order to reveal the association of atmospheric circulation with air pollution levels in Athens. The data basis for this work consists of daily values of thirteen meteorological and six pollutant parameters covering the period 1993-97. The definition of the characteristic air mass types is attempted objectively by using the methods of Factor Analysis and Cluster Analysis. The results show that during the cold period of the year there are six prevailing air mass types (at least 3% of the total number of days) and six infrequent ones. The examination of the corresponding air pollution concentration levels shows that the primary air pollutants appear with increased concentrations when light or southerly winds prevail. This is usually the case when a high pressure system is located over the central Mediterranean or a low pressure system lays over south Italy, respectively. Low levels of the primary pollutants are recorded under northeasterly winds, mainly caused by a high pressure system over Ukraine. During the warm period of the year, the southwestern Asia thermal low and the subtropical anticyclone of the Atlantic Ocean affect Greece. Though these synoptic systems cause almost stagnant conditions, four main air mass types are dominant and ten others, associated with extreme weather, are infrequent. Despite the large amounts of total solar radiation characterizing this period, ozone concentrations remain at low levels in central Athens because of its destruction by nitric oxide.

  15. Global gray water footprint and water pollution levels related to anthropogenic nitrogen loads to fresh water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mekonnen, Mesfin; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert

    2015-01-01

    This is the first global assessment of nitrogen-related water pollution in river basins with a specification of the pollution by economic sector, and by crop for the agricultural sector. At a spatial resolution of 5 by 5 arc minute, we estimate anthropogenic nitrogen (N) loads to freshwater,

  16. DNA damage in buccal mucosa cells of pre-school children exposed to high levels of urban air pollutants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Ceretti

    Full Text Available Air pollution has been recognized as a human carcinogen. Children living in urban areas are a high-risk group, because genetic damage occurring early in life is considered able to increase the risk of carcinogenesis in adulthood. This study aimed to investigate micronuclei (MN frequency, as a biomarker of DNA damage, in exfoliated buccal cells of pre-school children living in a town with high levels of air pollution. A sample of healthy 3-6-year-old children living in Brescia, Northern Italy, was investigated. A sample of the children's buccal mucosa cells was collected during the winter months in 2012 and 2013. DNA damage was investigated using the MN test. Children's exposure to urban air pollution was evaluated by means of a questionnaire filled in by their parents that included items on various possible sources of indoor and outdoor pollution, and the concentration of fine particulate matter (PM10, PM2.5 and NO2 in the 1-3 weeks preceding biological sample collection. 181 children (mean age ± SD: 4.3 ± 0.9 years were investigated. The mean ± SD MN frequency was 0.29 ± 0.13%. A weak, though statistically significant, association of MN with concentration of air pollutants (PM10, PM2.5 and NO2 was found, whereas no association was apparent between MN frequency and the indoor and outdoor exposure variables investigated via the questionnaire. This study showed a high MN frequency in children living in a town with heavy air pollution in winter, higher than usually found among children living in areas with low or medium-high levels of air pollution.

  17. Levels of persistent organic pollutants in breast milk of Maya women in Yucatan, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polanco Rodríguez, Ángel G; Inmaculada Riba López, M; Angel DelValls Casillas, T; León, Jesús Alfredo Araujo; Anjan Kumar Prusty, B; Álvarez Cervera, Fernando J

    2017-02-01

    In this study, 24 breast milk samples, obtained from rural Maya women, from municipalities of Yucatan, Mexico, were analyzed for organochlorine pesticide (OCP) residues by gas chromatography. Recent studies have shown that Maya communities have a poor perception about the proper usage and handling of OCP. The karstic soil in this area has a high vulnerability to groundwater pollution by the use of OCP in agriculture and livestock activities. The impact of the ecosystem on human health is much more critical due to the prevailing poverty and a very low educational level of these communities. About 30% of the Maya population consumes water directly from contaminated wells and sinkholes, resulting in a chronic exposure to OCP. The samples served to identify and quantify high levels of OCP residues (18.43 mg/kg of heptachlor epoxide and 1.92 mg/kg of endrin in the metropolitan zone; 2.10 mg/kg of dieldrin, 0.117 mg/kg of endosulfan II, 0.103 mg/kg of heptachlor, 0.178 mg/kg of endrin, and 0.127 mg/kg of endrin aldehyde in the main agricultural zone and on the west coast). The detected levels of OCP residues are a major concern and represent a potential risk to women and children in the region. This could be associated with the high rates of cervical uterine and breast cancer mortality in Yucatan. Thus, regulations on the usage of OCP and their enforcement are necessary, and it is important to establish a yearly monitoring program for OCP residues in breast milk and groundwater, as well as to implement health promotion programs for women in particular and the general population in general.

  18. Household-level disparities in cancer risks from vehicular air pollution in Miami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Timothy W.; Grineski, Sara E.; Chakraborty, Jayajit

    2015-09-01

    Environmental justice (EJ) research has relied on ecological analyses of socio-demographic data from areal units to determine if particular populations are disproportionately burdened by toxic risks. This article advances quantitative EJ research by (a) examining whether statistical associations found for geographic units translate to relationships at the household level; (b) testing alternative explanations for distributional injustices never before investigated; and (c) applying a novel statistical technique appropriate for geographically-clustered data. Our study makes these advances by using generalized estimating equations to examine distributive environmental inequities in the Miami (Florida) metropolitan area, based on primary household-level survey data and census block-level cancer risk estimates of hazardous air pollutant (HAP) exposure from on-road mobile emission sources. In addition to modeling determinants of on-road HAP cancer risk among all survey participants, two subgroup models are estimated to examine whether determinants of risk differ based on disadvantaged minority (Hispanic and non-Hispanic Black) versus non-Hispanic white racial/ethnic status. Results reveal multiple determinants of risk exposure disparities. In the model including all survey participants, renter-occupancy, Hispanic and non-Hispanic black race/ethnicity, the desire to live close to work/urban services or public transportation, and higher risk perception are associated with greater on-road HAP cancer risk; the desire to live in an amenity-rich environment is associated with less risk. Divergent subgroup model results shed light on the previously unexamined role of racial/ethnic status in shaping determinants of risk exposures. While lower socioeconomic status and higher risk perception predict significantly greater on-road HAP cancer risk among disadvantaged minorities, the desire to live near work/urban services or public transport predict significantly greater risk among

  19. Monitoring Metal Pollution Levels in Mine Wastes around a Coal Mine Site Using GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanliyuksel Yucel, D.; Yucel, M. A.; Ileri, B.

    2017-11-01

    In this case study, metal pollution levels in mine wastes at a coal mine site in Etili coal mine (Can coal basin, NW Turkey) are evaluated using geographical information system (GIS) tools. Etili coal mine was operated since the 1980s as an open pit. Acid mine drainage is the main environmental problem around the coal mine. The main environmental contamination source is mine wastes stored around the mine site. Mine wastes were dumped over an extensive area along the riverbeds, and are now abandoned. Mine waste samples were homogenously taken at 10 locations within the sampling area of 102.33 ha. The paste pH and electrical conductivity values of mine wastes ranged from 2.87 to 4.17 and 432 to 2430 μS/cm, respectively. Maximum Al, Fe, Mn, Pb, Zn and Ni concentrations of wastes were measured as 109300, 70600, 309.86, 115.2, 38 and 5.3 mg/kg, respectively. The Al, Fe and Pb concentrations of mine wastes are higher than world surface rock average values. The geochemical analysis results from the study area were presented in the form of maps. The GIS based environmental database will serve as a reference study for our future work.

  20. Increase in upper tropospheric and lower stratospheric aerosol levels and its potential connection with Asian pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernier, J.-P.; Fairlie, T. D.; Natarajan, M.; Wienhold, F. G.; Bian, J.; Martinsson, B. G.; Crumeyrolle, S.; Thomason, L. W.; Bedka, K. M.

    2015-02-01

    Satellite observations have shown that the Asian Summer Monsoon strongly influences the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS) aerosol morphology through its role in the formation of the Asian Tropopause Aerosol Layer (ATAL). Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II solar occultation and Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) lidar observations show that summertime UTLS Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) between 13 and 18 km over Asia has increased by three times since the late 1990s. Here we present the first in situ balloon measurements of aerosol backscatter in the UTLS from Western China, which confirm high aerosol levels observed by CALIPSO since 2006. Aircraft in situ measurements suggest that aerosols at lower altitudes of the ATAL are largely composed of carbonaceous and sulfate materials (carbon/sulfur elemental ratio ranging from 2 to 10). Back trajectory analysis from Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization observations indicates that deep convection over the Indian subcontinent supplies the ATAL through the transport of pollution into the UTLS. Time series of deep convection occurrence, carbon monoxide, aerosol, temperature, and relative humidity suggest that secondary aerosol formation and growth in a cold, moist convective environment could play an important role in the formation of ATAL. Finally, radiative calculations show that the ATAL layer has exerted a short-term regional forcing at the top of the atmosphere of -0.1 W/m2 in the past 18 years.

  1. Nitrogen dynamics in peat bogs: Comparison of sites with contrasting pollution levels (Central Europe)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Martin; Bohdalkova, Leona; Stepanova, Marketa; Vile, Melanie A.; Wieder, Kelman R.

    2013-04-01

    layers dated at 1950, whereas pollution level increased up to 1980, and dropped thereafter. At the end of an 18-month reciprocal peat transplant experiment between VJ and CB, we found that N isotope ratios N converged to the host site. The magnitude of the isotope change was 3 per mil, the affected depth was 10 cm. Our results are consistent with the concept of Lamers et al. (2000) in that both ^15N and the found shift in N peaks downcore confirmed removal of N from surface moss under high N depositions. On the other hand, the excess of stored N relative to the cumulative N input remains unexplained, and merits further study.

  2. The association between low level exposures to ambient air pollution and term low birth weight: a retrospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stieb David

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies in areas with relatively high levels of air pollution have found some positive associations between exposures to ambient levels of air pollution and several birth outcomes including low birth weight (LBW. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between LBW among term infants and ambient air pollution, by trimester of exposure, in a region of lower level exposures. Methods The relationship between LBW and ambient levels of particulate matter up to 10 um in diameter (PM10, sulfur dioxide (SO2 and ground-level ozone (O3 was evaluated using the Nova Scotia Atlee Perinatal Database and ambient air monitoring data from the Environment Canada National Air Pollution Surveillance Network and the Nova Scotia Department of Environment. The cohort consisted of live singleton births (≥37 weeks of gestation between January1,1988 and December31,2000. Maternal exposures to air pollution were assigned to women living within 25 km of a monitoring station at the time of birth. Air pollution was evaluated as a continuous and categorical variable (using quartile exposures for each trimester and relative risks were estimated from logistic regression, adjusted for confounding variables. Results There were 74,284 women with a term, singleton birth during the study period and with exposure data. In the analyses unadjusted for year of birth, first trimester exposures in the highest quartile for SO2 and PM10suggested an increased risk of delivering a LBW infant (relative risk = 1.36, 95% confidence interval = 1.04 to 1.78 for SO2 exposure and relative risk = 1.33, 95% confidence interval = 1.02 to 1.74 for PM10. After adjustment for birth year, the relative risks were attenuated somewhat and not statistically significant. A dose-response relationship for SO2 was noted with increasing levels of exposure. No statistically significant effects were noted for ozone. Conclusion Our results suggest that exposure during the first

  3. Increase in upper tropospheric and lower stratospheric aerosol levels and its potential connection with Asian pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernier, J-P; Fairlie, T D; Natarajan, M; Wienhold, F G; Bian, J; Martinsson, B G; Crumeyrolle, S; Thomason, L W; Bedka, K M

    2015-01-01

    Satellite observations have shown that the Asian Summer Monsoon strongly influences the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS) aerosol morphology through its role in the formation of the Asian Tropopause Aerosol Layer (ATAL). Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II solar occultation and Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) lidar observations show that summertime UTLS Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) between 13 and 18 km over Asia has increased by three times since the late 1990s. Here we present the first in situ balloon measurements of aerosol backscatter in the UTLS from Western China, which confirm high aerosol levels observed by CALIPSO since 2006. Aircraft in situ measurements suggest that aerosols at lower altitudes of the ATAL are largely composed of carbonaceous and sulfate materials (carbon/sulfur elemental ratio ranging from 2 to 10). Back trajectory analysis from Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization observations indicates that deep convection over the Indian subcontinent supplies the ATAL through the transport of pollution into the UTLS. Time series of deep convection occurrence, carbon monoxide, aerosol, temperature, and relative humidity suggest that secondary aerosol formation and growth in a cold, moist convective environment could play an important role in the formation of ATAL. Finally, radiative calculations show that the ATAL layer has exerted a short-term regional forcing at the top of the atmosphere of −0.1 W/m2 in the past 18 years. Key Points Increase of summertime upper tropospheric aerosol levels over Asia since the 1990s Upper tropospheric enhancement also observed by in situ backscatter measurements Significant regional radiative forcing of −0.1 W/m2 PMID:26691186

  4. Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles for trace level detection of a hazardous pollutant (nitrobenzene) causing Methemoglobinaemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emmanuel, R. [Post Graduate and Research Department of Chemistry, Thiagarajar College, Madurai 625009, Tamil Nadu (India); Karuppiah, Chelladurai [Department of Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, National Taipei University of Technology, Taipei 106, Taiwan, ROC (China); Chen, Shen-Ming, E-mail: smchen78@ms15.hinet.net [Department of Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, National Taipei University of Technology, Taipei 106, Taiwan, ROC (China); Palanisamy, Selvakumar [Department of Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, National Taipei University of Technology, Taipei 106, Taiwan, ROC (China); Padmavathy, S. [Department of Zoology and Microbiology, Thiagarajar College, Madurai 625009, Tamil Nadu (India); Prakash, P., E-mail: kmpprakash@gmail.com [Post Graduate and Research Department of Chemistry, Thiagarajar College, Madurai 625009, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2014-08-30

    Graphical abstract: Schematic representation for green synthesis of Au-NPs and its electroreduction of nitrobenzene. - Highlights: • A green synthesis of size controlled Au-NPs from plant extract. • Trace level detection of nitro benzene, a pollutant causing Methemoglobinaemia, at Au-NPs modified electrode. • Achievement of lower LOD and wider linear response. • The proposed sensor exhibits excellent practicality in various water samples. - Abstract: The present study involves a green synthesis of gold nanoparticles (Au-NPs) using Acacia nilotica twig bark extract at room temperature and trace level detection of one of the hazardous materials, viz. nitrobenzene (NB) that causes Methemoglobinaemia. The synthesis protocol demonstrates that the bioreduction of chloroauric acid leads to the formation of Au-NPs within 10 min, suggesting a higher reaction rate than any other chemical methods involved. The obtained Au-NPs have been characterized by UV–vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, Energy-Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. The electrochemical detection of NB has been investigated at the green synthesized Au-NPs modified glassy carbon electrode by using differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). The Au-NPs modified electrode exhibits excellent reduction ability toward NB compared to unmodified electrode. The developed NB sensor at Au-NPs modified electrode displays a wide linear response from 0.1 to 600 μM with high sensitivity of 1.01 μA μM{sup −1} cm{sup −2} and low limit of detection of 0.016 μM. The modified electrode shows exceptional selectivity in the presence of ions, phenolic and biologically coactive compounds. In addition, the Au-NPs modified electrode exhibits an outstanding recovery results toward NB in various real water samples.

  5. Urban bat communities are affected by wetland size, quality, and pollution levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straka, Tanja Maria; Lentini, Pia Eloise; Lumsden, Linda Faye; Wintle, Brendan Anthony; van der Ree, Rodney

    2016-07-01

    Wetlands support unique biota and provide important ecosystem services. These services are highly threatened due to the rate of loss and relative rarity of wetlands in most landscapes, an issue that is exacerbated in highly modified urban environments. Despite this, critical ecological knowledge is currently lacking for many wetland-dependent taxa, such as insectivorous bats, which can persist in urban areas if their habitats are managed appropriately. Here, we use a novel paired landscape approach to investigate the role of wetlands in urban bat conservation and examine local and landscape factors driving bat species richness and activity. We acoustically monitored bat activity at 58 urban wetlands and 35 nonwetland sites (ecologically similar sites without free-standing water) in the greater Melbourne area, southeastern Australia. We analyzed bat species richness and activity patterns using generalized linear mixed-effects models. We found that the presence of water in urban Melbourne was an important driver of bat species richness and activity at a landscape scale. Increasing distance to bushland and increasing levels of heavy metal pollution within the waterbody also negatively influenced bat richness and individual species activity. Areas with high levels of artificial night light had reduced bat species richness, and reduced activity for all species except those adapted to urban areas, such as the White-striped free-tailed bat (Austronomus australis). Increased surrounding tree cover and wetland size had a positive effect on bat species richness. Our findings indicate that wetlands form critical habitats for insectivorous bats in urban environments. Large, unlit, and unpolluted wetlands flanked by high tree cover in close proximity to bushland contribute most to the richness of the bat community. Our findings clarify the role of wetlands for insectivorous bats in urban areas and will also allow for the preservation, construction, and management of wetlands

  6. Economic Impacts from PM2.5 Pollution-Related Health Effects in China: A Provincial-Level Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yang; Dai, Hancheng; Dong, Huijuan; Hanaoka, Tatsuya; Masui, Toshihiko

    2016-05-03

    This study evaluates the PM2.5 pollution-related health impacts on the national and provincial economy of China using a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model and the latest nonlinear exposure-response functions. Results show that the health and economic impacts may be substantial in provinces with a high PM2.5 concentration. In the WoPol scenario without PM2.5 pollution control policy, we estimate that China experiences a 2.00% GDP loss and 25.2 billion USD in health expenditure from PM2.5 pollution in 2030. In contrast, with control policy in the WPol scenario, a control investment of 101.8 billion USD (0.79% of GDP) and a gain of 1.17% of China's GDP from improving PM2.5 pollution are projected. At the provincial level, GDP loss in 2030 in the WoPol scenario is high in Tianjin (3.08%), Shanghai (2.98%), Henan (2.32%), Beijing (2.75%), and Hebei (2.60%) and the top five provinces with the highest additional health expenditure are Henan, Sichuan, Shandong, Hebei, and Jiangsu. Controlling PM2.5 pollution could bring positive benefits in two-thirds of provinces. Tianjin, Shanghai, Beijing, Henan, Jiangsu, and Hebei experience most benefits from PM2.5 pollution control as a result of a higher PM2.5 pollution and dense population distribution. Conversely, the control investment is higher than GDP gain in some underdeveloped provinces, such as Ningxia, Guizhou, Shanxi, Gansu, and Yunnan.

  7. Is the fact of parenting couples cohabitation affecting the serum levels of persistent organohalogen pollutants?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Góralczyk, Katarzyna; Struciński, Paweł; Wojtyniak, Bogdan; Rabczenko, Daniel; Lindh, Christian H; Jönsson, Bo A G; Toft, Gunnar; Lenters, Virissa; Czaja, Katarzyna; Hernik, Agnieszka; Bonde, Jens Peter; Pedersen, Henning S; Zvyezday, Valentyna; Ludwicki, Jan K

    Organohalogen compounds constitute one of the important groups of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Among them, due to their long-term health effects, one should pay attention on organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and perfluoroalkylated substances (PFASs). This paper is

  8. Evaluation of pollution levels due to the use of consumer fertilizers under Florida conditions : summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Many surface waters in Florida are polluted with excessive nitrogen and phosphorus. Applied as fertilizer to turf and landscape plants, excess nutrients are deposited into rivers, lakes, and other surface waters through stormwater runoff. These nutri...

  9. Monitoring the levels of toxic air pollutants in the ambient air of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Key words: Air pollution, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, suspended particulate matter, carbon monoxide, .... 215 Switzerland), in a water bath at temperature of 55°C and pressure of 180 Torr. ...... Texas, USA, Atmos. Environ., 35: ...

  10. Effects of freshwater pollution on the genetics of zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) at the molecular and population level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Emilia G; Srut, Maja; Stambuk, Anamaria; Klobučar, Göran I V; Seitz, Alfred; Griebeler, Eva Maria

    2014-01-01

    Revealing long-term effects of contaminants on the genetic structure of organisms inhabiting polluted environments should encompass analyses at the population, molecular, and cellular level. Following this concept, we studied the genetic constitution of zebra mussel populations from a polluted (Dp) and reference sites (Cl) at the river Drava, Croatia, and applied microsatellite and DNA damage analyses (Comet assay, micronucleus test (MNT)). Additionally, mussels from both populations were exposed to polluted wastewater in the laboratory for three days, and DNA damage was analyzed to evaluate acclimatization and genetic adaptation of the investigated populations to the polluted environment. The two populations differed in their genetic constitution. Microsatellite analysis suggested that Dp had undergone a genetic bottleneck. Comet assay did not indicate any difference in DNA damage between the two populations, but MNT revealed that Dp had an increased percentage of micronuclei in hemocytes in comparison to Cl. The laboratory experiment revealed that Dp had a lower percentage of tail DNA and a higher percentage of micronuclei than Cl. These differences between populations were possibly caused by an overall decreased fitness of Dp due to genetic drift and by an enhanced DNA repair mechanism due to acclimatization to pollution in the source habitat.

  11. Air pollution and increased levels of fractional exhaled nitric oxide in children with no history of airway damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flamant-Hulin, Marion; Caillaud, Denis; Sacco, Paolo; Penard-Morand, Celine; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella

    2010-01-01

    Air pollution is associated with a wide range of adverse respiratory events. In order to study the mechanism associated with these effects, the relationships between fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO), a potential marker of airway inflammation, and exposure to air pollution were examined in schoolchildren. FeNO was measured in 104 children (34 asthmatics and 70 non-asthmatics) drawn from the general population simultaneously with air pollution assessments (fine particles with an aerodiameter under 2.5 microm, nitrogen dioxide, acetaldehyde, and formaldehyde, with pumps and passive samplers) in schoolyards and classrooms. Asthmatics exhaled more FeNO than non-asthmatics. FeNO levels were significantly elevated in both asthmatic and non-asthmatic children exposed to high concentrations of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and PM(2.5). Differences between high versus low exposure in non-asthmatics resulted in an FeNO increase ranging from 45% for indoor acetaldehyde to 62% for indoor PM(2.5). Stronger associations were found in non-asthmatic children who were atopic, suggesting that atopic children may be more sensitive to air pollution than non-atopic children. Exposure to air pollution may lead to airway inflammation, as measured by FeNO, in schoolchildren. These associations occur even in children with no history of airway damage and seem to be enhanced in atopic subjects.

  12. Assessment of Heavy Metal Pollution in Drinking Water Due to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Akorede

    water sources. The toxicity of these heavy metals from the mining, milling and smelting companies can cause harmful and even lethal effects on the human health. The objective of this study was to investigate the level of As, Cr, Zn,. Mg, Fe, Pb, Cd, Cu, Ag and Mn in well and tap water and assess the degree of pollution in ...

  13. Pollution and Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larr, Allison S.; Neidell, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Childhood is a particularly sensitive time when it comes to pollution exposure. Allison Larr and Matthew Neidell focus on two atmospheric pollutants--ozone and particulate matter--that can harm children's health in many ways. Ozone irritates the lungs, causing various respiratory symptoms; it can also damage the lung lining or aggravate lung…

  14. Assessment of neighbourhood-level socioeconomic status as a modifier of air pollution-asthma associations among children in Atlanta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Lenick, Cassandra R; Winquist, Andrea; Mulholland, James A; Friberg, Mariel D; Chang, Howard H; Kramer, Michael R; Darrow, Lyndsey A; Sarnat, Stefanie Ebelt

    2017-02-01

    A broad literature base provides evidence of association between air pollution and paediatric asthma. Socioeconomic status (SES) may modify these associations; however, previous studies have found inconsistent evidence regarding the role of SES. Effect modification of air pollution-paediatric asthma morbidity by multiple indicators of neighbourhood SES was examined in Atlanta, Georgia. Emergency department (ED) visit data were obtained for 5-18 years old with a diagnosis of asthma in 20-county Atlanta during 2002-2008. Daily ZIP Code Tabulation Area (ZCTA)-level concentrations of ozone, nitrogen dioxide, fine particulate matter and elemental carbon were estimated using ambient monitoring data and emissions-based chemical transport model simulations. Pollutant-asthma associations were estimated using a case-crossover approach, controlling for temporal trends and meteorology. Effect modification by ZCTA-level (neighbourhood) SES was examined via stratification. We observed stronger air pollution-paediatric asthma associations in 'deprivation areas' (eg, ≥20% of the ZCTA population living in poverty) compared with 'non-deprivation areas'. When stratifying analyses by quartiles of neighbourhood SES, ORs indicated stronger associations in the highest and lowest SES quartiles and weaker associations among the middle quartiles. Our results suggest that neighbourhood-level SES is a factor contributing vulnerability to air pollution-related paediatric asthma morbidity in Atlanta. Children living in low SES environments appear to be especially vulnerable given positive ORs and high underlying asthma ED rates. Inconsistent findings of effect modification among previous studies may be partially explained by choice of SES stratification criteria, and the use of multiplicative models combined with differing baseline risk across SES populations. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  15. Microplastic pollution in the Greenland Sea: Background levels and selective contamination of planktivorous diving seabirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amélineau, F; Bonnet, D; Heitz, O; Mortreux, V; Harding, A M A; Karnovsky, N; Walkusz, W; Fort, J; Grémillet, D

    2016-12-01

    Microplastics have been reported everywhere around the globe. With very limited human activities, the Arctic is distant from major sources of microplastics. However, microplastic ingestions have been found in several Arctic marine predators, confirming their presence in this region. Nonetheless, existing information for this area remains scarce, thus there is an urgent need to quantify the contamination of Arctic marine waters. In this context, we studied microplastic abundance and composition within the zooplankton community off East Greenland. For the same area, we concurrently evaluated microplastic contamination of little auks (Alle alle), an Arctic seabird feeding on zooplankton while diving between 0 and 50 m. The study took place off East Greenland in July 2005 and 2014, under strongly contrasted sea-ice conditions. Among all samples, 97.2% of the debris found were filaments. Despite the remoteness of our study area, microplastic abundances were comparable to those of other oceans, with 0.99 ± 0.62 m-3 in the presence of sea-ice (2005), and 2.38 ± 1.11 m-3 in the nearby absence of sea-ice (2014). Microplastic rise between 2005 and 2014 might be linked to an increase in plastic production worldwide or to lower sea-ice extents in 2014, as sea-ice can represent a sink for microplastic particles, which are subsequently released to the water column upon melting. Crucially, all birds had eaten plastic filaments, and they collected high levels of microplastics compared to background levels with 9.99 and 8.99 pieces per chick meal in 2005 and 2014, respectively. Importantly, we also demonstrated that little auks took more often light colored microplastics, rather than darker ones, strongly suggesting an active contamination with birds mistaking microplastics for their natural prey. Overall, our study stresses the great vulnerability of Arctic marine species to microplastic pollution in a warming Arctic, where sea-ice melting is expected to release vast

  16. A Survey of the Relationship Between Noised Pollution, Honey and Vitamin E and Plasma Level of Blood Sexual Hormones in Noise-Exposed Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenani

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background This study was conducted to examine the efficacy of honey and vitamin E on fertilization capacity of noise-exposed rats by assessing whether the plasma sexual hormones levels i.e. follicle stimulating hormone (FSH, luteinizing hormone (LH and testosterone are altered in relation with noise stress. Objectives Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the effects of honey and vitamin E on the levels of sex hormones and male fertilization capacity of noise-exposed rats. Materials and Methods This study targeted 24 male rats that were randomly divided into four equal groups including the control group that were not exposed to noise and experimental groups 1, 2 and 3 that were the untreated, honey treated and vitamin E treated groups, respectively; all of which were exposed to noise for 50 days. Next, in order to measure serum sexual hormones, blood samples of experimental and control groups were taken and analyzed. Also in order to investigate the fertility capacity of rats, the male rats of all groups were coupled with female rats. Results The results showed that in the male rats exposed to the noise stress, the levels of FSH and LH rose and the testosterone secretion fell sharply compared to not exposed rats. Additionally, the continuing effects of noise stress injury could reduce the weight of the fetus and the number of live fetuses and survival rate of the fetus. However, honey and vitamin E improved serum testosterone concentration, while declined plasma FSH and LH secretion in noise-exposed rats and enhanced fertility rate by increasing the rate of healthy alive fetuses. Conclusions It seems that noise pollution has harmful effects on the fertility of males. Also these findings may suggest the use of a natural curative approach rather than pharmaceutical drugs to optimize both neuroendocrine gonadal axis and testicular integrity induced by pathogenesis stress, and enhance fertility capacity in men.

  17. Marine pollution levels and potential threats to the Indian marine environment: State-of-the-Art

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    SenGupta, R.; Kureishy, T.W.

    of pollution indicate that there is no serious threat to Indian marine environment as yet. This is because of feel that the geographical location of India in northern Indian Ocean. Indian coasts are bordering open seas. However, with the increasing populations...

  18. Metals in Pleurozium schreberi and Polytrichum commune from areas with various levels of pollution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zawadzki, K.; Samecka-Cymerman, A.; Kolon, K.; Wojtuń, B.; Mróz, L.; Kempers, A.J.

    2016-01-01

    Metals deposited into ecosystems are non-degradable and become one of the major toxic agents which accumulate in habitats. Thus, their concentration requires precise monitoring. To evaluate pollution around a chlor-alkali plant, a glass smelter, two power plants and a ceramic and porcelain factory,

  19. Monitoring the levels of toxic air pollutants in the ambient air of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    is a toxic non irritating gas with high affinity for oxygen, which has been linked to cardiovascular diseases. .... gravitational determination of particulate matter on the filters were made. A uniform flow rate of 1.5 L/min was ..... absence of hot spots of air pollution such as, major traffic road, open air burning of biomass, solid ...

  20. Current and future levels of mercury atmospheric pollution on a global scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Pacyna

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available An assessment of current and future emissions, air concentrations, and atmospheric deposition of mercury worldwide is presented on the basis of results obtained during the performance of the EU GMOS (Global Mercury Observation System project. Emission estimates for mercury were prepared with the main goal of applying them in models to assess current (2013 and future (2035 air concentrations and atmospheric deposition of this contaminant. The combustion of fossil fuels (mainly coal for energy and heat production in power plants and in industrial and residential boilers, as well as artisanal and small-scale gold mining, is one of the major anthropogenic sources of Hg emissions to the atmosphere at present. These sources account for about 37 and 25 % of the total anthropogenic Hg emissions globally, estimated to be about 2000 t. Emissions in Asian countries, particularly in China and India, dominate the total emissions of Hg. The current estimates of mercury emissions from natural processes (primary mercury emissions and re-emissions, including mercury depletion events, were estimated to be 5207 t year−1, which represents nearly 70 % of the global mercury emission budget. Oceans are the most important sources (36 %, followed by biomass burning (9 %. A comparison of the 2035 anthropogenic emissions estimated for three different scenarios with current anthropogenic emissions indicates a reduction of these emissions in 2035 up to 85 % for the best-case scenario. Two global chemical transport models (GLEMOS and ECHMERIT have been used for the evaluation of future mercury pollution levels considering future emission scenarios. Projections of future changes in mercury deposition on a global scale simulated by these models for three anthropogenic emissions scenarios of 2035 indicate a decrease in up to 50 % deposition in the Northern Hemisphere and up to 35 % in Southern Hemisphere for the best-case scenario. The EU GMOS project has

  1. Current and future levels of mercury atmospheric pollution on a global scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacyna, Jozef M.; Travnikov, Oleg; De Simone, Francesco; Hedgecock, Ian M.; Sundseth, Kyrre; Pacyna, Elisabeth G.; Steenhuisen, Frits; Pirrone, Nicola; Munthe, John; Kindbom, Karin

    2016-10-01

    An assessment of current and future emissions, air concentrations, and atmospheric deposition of mercury worldwide is presented on the basis of results obtained during the performance of the EU GMOS (Global Mercury Observation System) project. Emission estimates for mercury were prepared with the main goal of applying them in models to assess current (2013) and future (2035) air concentrations and atmospheric deposition of this contaminant. The combustion of fossil fuels (mainly coal) for energy and heat production in power plants and in industrial and residential boilers, as well as artisanal and small-scale gold mining, is one of the major anthropogenic sources of Hg emissions to the atmosphere at present. These sources account for about 37 and 25 % of the total anthropogenic Hg emissions globally, estimated to be about 2000 t. Emissions in Asian countries, particularly in China and India, dominate the total emissions of Hg. The current estimates of mercury emissions from natural processes (primary mercury emissions and re-emissions), including mercury depletion events, were estimated to be 5207 t year-1, which represents nearly 70 % of the global mercury emission budget. Oceans are the most important sources (36 %), followed by biomass burning (9 %). A comparison of the 2035 anthropogenic emissions estimated for three different scenarios with current anthropogenic emissions indicates a reduction of these emissions in 2035 up to 85 % for the best-case scenario. Two global chemical transport models (GLEMOS and ECHMERIT) have been used for the evaluation of future mercury pollution levels considering future emission scenarios. Projections of future changes in mercury deposition on a global scale simulated by these models for three anthropogenic emissions scenarios of 2035 indicate a decrease in up to 50 % deposition in the Northern Hemisphere and up to 35 % in Southern Hemisphere for the best-case scenario. The EU GMOS project has proved to be a very important

  2. Impacts of climate change on air pollution levels in the Northern Hemisphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedegaard Brandt, G.

    2007-08-15

    The fate of a selected number of chemical species is inspected with respect to climate change. The coupled Atmosphere-Ocean General Circulation Model ECHAM4-OPYC3 is providing future meteorology for the Chemical long-range Transport Model DEHM-REGINA. Three selected periods (1990s, 2040s and 2090s) are inspected. The 1990s are used as a control and validation period. In this decade the model results are tested against similar model simulations with MM5 meteorology and against observation from the EMEP monitoring sites in Europe. In the validation the emissions are held constant at the 1990 level in all simulations in order to separate out the effects from climate change. The overall performance of the ECHAM4-OPYC3 setup as meteorological input to the DEHM-REGINA model is acceptable according to the ranking method. It is concluded that running a chemical long-range transport model on data from a 'free run' climate model is scientifically sound! The absolute dominating impact from climate change on a large number of chemical species is found to be the predicted temperature increase. The temperature is by the ECHAM4-OPYC3 model predicted to increase 2-3 Kelvin on a global average with local maxima in the Arctic of 11 Kelvin. As a consequence of this temperature increase, the temperature dependent biogenic emission of isoprene is predicted to increase significantly in concentration over land in the DEHM-REGINA chemistry-transport model. This leads to an increase in the ozone production and in the number of free OH radicals. This again leads to a significant change in the typical life times of many species, since the hydroxyl radicals are participating in a large number of chemical reactions. It is e.g. found that more sulphate will be present in the future over the already polluted areas and this increase can be explained by an enhancement in the conversion of sulphur to sulphate. (au)

  3. Methodology for measuring environmental health within Europe. Health Risk from Environmental Pollution Levels in Urban Systems (HEREPLUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Zscheppang

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: The European Commission funds a European research project titled “Health Risk from Environmental Pollution Levels in Urban Systems” (HEREPLUS that focuses on environmental health within Europe. The HEREPLUS project was presented at the 16th EUPHA conference in Lisbon in November 2008 within a workshop named “The assessment of the effect of air pollution on population and environmental health: the integration of epidemiology and geographical information system (GIS”.

    Methods: The HEREPLUS project aims to measure the correlation between air pollution (especially ozone and particulate matter, meteorology, vegetation and human health in four European cities (Rome, Madrid, Athens and Dresden by using a Geoinformation System to develop risk maps and subsequently guidelines to reduce air pollution and number of diseases.

    Results: The project started in September 2008 and a large, structured, relational database has been developed and completed. A literature review including national as well as international scientific literature goes on and will be completed in April 2009. Final results will be presented and published in 2011.

    Conclusions: Detailed scientific knowledge is important and needed to implement environmental programmes with the overall aim to protect human population against environmental related diseases.

  4. Residential heating contribution to level of air pollutants (PAHs, major, trace, and rare earth elements): a moss bag case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuković, Gordana; Aničić Urošević, Mira; Pergal, Miodrag; Janković, Milan; Goryainova, Zoya; Tomašević, Milica; Popović, Aleksandar

    2015-12-01

    In areas with moderate to continental climates, emissions from residential heating system lead to the winter air pollution peaks. The EU legislation requires only the monitoring of airborne concentrations of particulate matter, As, Cd, Hg, Ni, and B[a]P. Transition metals and rare earth elements (REEs) have also arisen questions about their detrimental health effects. In that sense, this study examined the level of extensive set of air pollutants: 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and 41 major elements, trace elements, and REEs using Sphagnum girgensohnii moss bag technique. During the winter of 2013/2014, the moss bags were exposed across Belgrade (Serbia) to study the influence of residential heating system to the overall air quality. The study was set as an extension to our previous survey during the summer, i.e., non-heating season. Markedly higher concentrations of all PAHs, Sb, Cu, V, Ni, and Zn were observed in the exposed moss in comparison to the initial values. The patterns of the moss REE concentrations normalized to North American Shale Composite and Post-Archean Australian Shales were identical across the study area but enhanced by anthropogenic activities. The results clearly demonstrate the seasonal variations in the moss enrichment of the air pollutants. Moreover, the results point out a need for monitoring of air quality during the whole year, and also of various pollutants, not only those regulated by the EU Directive.

  5. Using smartphones to collect time-activity data for long-term personal-level air pollution exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasgow, Mark L; Rudra, Carole B; Yoo, Eun-Hye; Demirbas, Murat; Merriman, Joel; Nayak, Pramod; Crabtree-Ide, Christina; Szpiro, Adam A; Rudra, Atri; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Mu, Lina

    2016-06-01

    Because of the spatiotemporal variability of people and air pollutants within cities, it is important to account for a person's movements over time when estimating personal air pollution exposure. This study aimed to examine the feasibility of using smartphones to collect personal-level time-activity data. Using Skyhook Wireless's hybrid geolocation module, we developed "Apolux" (Air, Pollution, Exposure), an Android(TM) smartphone application designed to track participants' location in 5-min intervals for 3 months. From 42 participants, we compared Apolux data with contemporaneous data from two self-reported, 24-h time-activity diaries. About three-fourths of measurements were collected within 5 min of each other (mean=74.14%), and 79% of participants reporting constantly powered-on smartphones (n=38) had a daily average data collection frequency of data collection occurred. The discrepancy between diary points and corresponding Apolux data was 342.3 m (Euclidian distance) and varied across mobile networks. This study's high compliance and feasibility for data collection demonstrates the potential for integrating smartphone-based time-activity data into long-term and large-scale air pollution exposure studies.

  6. Blood Lead Levels and Risk Factors among Preschool Children in a Lead Polluted Area in Taizhou, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenyan Gao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine the blood lead levels and identify related risk factors among preschool children in a lead polluted area (Taizhou, China and provide theoretical support for prevention of lead pollution. Methods. A stratified-clustered-random sampling method was used to determine the survey sample. Blood lead levels were determined by the tungsten atomizer absorption spectrophotometer. Results. A total of 2,018 subjects (average age of 59 months; 1,087 boys and 931 girls were included. The arithmetic mean, geometric mean, and median blood lead levels of the preschool children were 56.4 μg/L, 48.9 μg/L, and 46 μg/L. A total of 8.8% children had blood lead levels >100 μg/L and 43.9% had blood lead levels >50 μg/L. Mother’s education level, father’s occupation, decorative tableware, exposure to makeup, and the residential floor were all risk factors for elevated blood lead levels (odds ratios of 1.42, 1.21, 1.11, 1.19, and 1.27, resp., while hand washing before eating food was a protective factor (odds ratio of 0.88. Conclusions. The blood lead levels of preschool children in Taizhou were higher than in other areas in China and in developed countries. Therefore, policies ensuring lead-based industries are not placed in close proximity to residential areas are required.

  7. Seabird feathers as monitors of the levels and persistence of heavy metal pollution after the Prestige oil spill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno, Rocio, E-mail: rocio@rociomoreno.com [Dept. Biologia Animal (Vertebrats), Facultat de Biologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Avgda. Diagonal 645, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Jover, Lluis, E-mail: lluis_jover@ub.edu [Dept. Salut Publica, Facultat de Medicina, Universitat de Barcelona, Casanova 143, 08036 Barcelona (Spain); Diez, Carmen, E-mail: karminha13@gmail.com [Dept. Ecoloxia e Bioloxia Animal, Facultade de Ciencias, Universidade de Vigo, 36310 Vigo, Galicia (Spain); Sanpera, Carola, E-mail: csanpera@ub.edu [Dept. Biologia Animal (Vertebrats), Facultat de Biologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Avgda. Diagonal 645, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2011-10-15

    We measured heavy metal concentrations in yellow-legged gulls (n = 196) and European shags (n = 189) in order to assess the temporal pattern of contaminant exposure following the Prestige oil spill in November 2002. We analysed Pb, Cu, Zn, Cr, Ni and V levels in chick feathers sampled at four colonies during seven post-spill years (2003-2009), and compared results with pre-spill levels obtained from feathers of juvenile shag corpses (grown in spring/summer 2002). Following the Prestige wreck, Cu (4.3-10 {mu}g g{sup -1}) and Pb concentrations (1.0-1.4 {mu}g g{sup -1}) were, respectively, between two and five times higher than pre-spill levels (1.5-3.6 and 0.1-0.4 {mu}g g{sup -1}), but returned to previous background concentrations after three years. Our study highlights the suitability of chick feathers of seabirds for assessing the impact of oil spills on heavy metal contamination, and provides the best evidence to date on the persistence of oil pollution after the Prestige incident. - Highlights: > Seabirds as sentinel species of levels and persistence of heavy metal pollution after oil spills. > Pb, Cu, Zn, Cr, Ni, V in chick feathers of Phalacrocorax aristotelis and Larus michahellis. > Chronic oil pollution in the marine food web for at least three years after the Prestige oil spill. - Monitoring heavy metal in seabird feathers indicated chronic oil pollution in the marine food web for at least three years after the Prestige oil spill.

  8. Revealing the relationship between microbial community structure in natural biofilms and the pollution level in urban rivers: a case study in the Qinhuai River basin, Yangtze River Delta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Wei; Li, Yi; Wang, Peifang; Niu, Lihua; Zhang, Wenlong; Wang, Chao

    River pollution is one of the most challenging environmental issues, but the effect of river pollution levels on the biofilm communities has not been well-studied. Spatial and temporal distribution characteristics of environmental parameters and the biofilm communities were investigated in the Qinhuai River basin, Nanjing, China. Water samples were grouped into three clusters reflecting their varying pollution levels of relatively slight pollution, moderated pollution, and high pollution by hierarchical cluster analysis. In different clusters, the biofilm communities mainly differed in the proportion of Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, and Proteobacteria. As the dominant classes of Proteobacteria, Alpha-, Beta- and Gammaproteobacteria seemed to show an upward trend followed by a small fluctuation in the abundance with the escalation of water pollution level. Results of redundancy analysis demonstrated that temperature, total nitrogen to total phosphorus ratios (TN/TP) and concentrations of ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) and TN were mainly responsible for the variation in bacterial community structure. The occurrences of Alpha-, Beta- and Gammaproteobacteria were closely associated with higher temperature, higher concentrations of NH3-N and TN and a lower TN/TP ratio. This study may provide a theoretical basis for the water pollution control and ecological restoration in urban rivers under different pollution levels.

  9. Determination of vehicular pollution in the road tunnel of Vana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Determination of vehicular pollution in the road tunnel of Vana (Haraz Road) in the ... source of pollution in a road tunnel, It has a harmful impact on Human health . ... undoubtedly one of the important sources of environmental and air pollution.

  10. Self-Harm

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... find treatment for the underlying emotions. Treatment and Coping There are effective treatments for self-harm that ... a Member Create an Account Donate Take the stigma free Pledge What Can I Do? Share Your ...

  11. Association of serum levels of typical organic pollutants with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS): a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qiaoyun; Zhao, Yue; Qiu, Xinghua; Zhang, Chunmei; Li, Rong; Qiao, Jie

    2015-08-01

    Is polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) associated with increased serum levels of typical organic pollutants? PCOS in Han females from Northern China was significantly associated with elevated serum levels of pollutants, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). PCOS is arguably the most common endocrinopathy in females of reproductive age. The etiology of PCOS is thought to be multifactorial. This was a preliminary case-control study undertaken at the Division of Reproductive Center, Peking University Third Hospital. Fifty participants affected by PCOS and 30 normal controls were recruited between August and October 2012 from Northern China. All participants were Han women. PCOS participants were diagnosed according to the 2003 Rotterdam criteria. The control participants were non-pregnant females unable to conceive solely due to male azoospermia. Serum levels of a wide range of organic pollutants, including PCBs, organochlorine pesticides, PAHs and more than 20 phenolic pollutants, were analyzed using gas chromatographic mass spectrometry. Serum levels of PCBs, pesticides and PAHs were significantly higher in the PCOS group than the control group. Concentrations of PCBs, p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) and PAHs in serum above median levels were associated with PCOS with odds ratios of 3.81 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.45-10.0], 4.89 (95% CI, 1.81-13.2) and 2.39 (95% CI, 0.94-6.05), respectively. Partial least-squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) confirmed that serum levels of organic pollutants were associated with PCOS, especially for p,p'-DDE and PCBs. Some other possible covariates (e.g. dietary and income) were missed in this study, although education and occupation have been considered as an indicator of personal income. The PLS-DA model allowed a quasi-exposome analysis with over 60 kinds of typical organic pollutants; however, the possibility of other pollutants

  12. High blood levels of persistent organic pollutants are statistically correlated with smoking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deutch, Bente; Hansen, Jens C.

    1999-01-01

    Persistent Organic Pollutants (11 pesticides and 14 PCB-congeners), and heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb, Se, and Zn) were determined in 175 pregnant women and 160 newborn infants (umbilical cord blood) from Disko Bay, Greenland, 1994-96. Among these, 135 women filled out questionnaires about drinking......, smoking and intake of traditional Inuit food. Multiple linear regression analyses showed highly significant positive associations between the mothers' smoking status (never, previous, present) and plasma concentrations of all the studied organic pollutants both in maternal blood and umbilical cord blood....... Traditional food and not the tobacco is known to be the source of the contaminants. But smoking may influence the enzymatic turnover of toxic substances....

  13. Evaluating the Level of Pollutants from Spent Drilling Fluids in an Oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The environmental pollution hazards due to the use of drilling fluids in the oil and gas sector were studied. Grab samples of spent drilling fluids (SDF), water and soil were collected from 7 locations in the oil field when the depth of the well was 3,658m, before the 3,962m pay zone. Samples were analyzed to determine the ...

  14. Cutting and Self-Harm

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your feelings Feeling sad Cutting and self-harm Cutting and self-harm Self-harm, sometimes called self- ... There are many types of self-injury, and cutting is one type that you may have heard ...

  15. High-levels of microplastic pollution in a large, remote, mountain lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Free, Christopher M; Jensen, Olaf P; Mason, Sherri A; Eriksen, Marcus; Williamson, Nicholas J; Boldgiv, Bazartseren

    2014-08-15

    Despite the large and growing literature on microplastics in the ocean, little information exists on microplastics in freshwater systems. This study is the first to evaluate the abundance, distribution, and composition of pelagic microplastic pollution in a large, remote, mountain lake. We quantified pelagic microplastics and shoreline anthropogenic debris in Lake Hovsgol, Mongolia. With an average microplastic density of 20,264 particles km(-2), Lake Hovsgol is more heavily polluted with microplastics than the more developed Lakes Huron and Superior in the Laurentian Great Lakes. Fragments and films were the most abundant microplastic types; no plastic microbeads and few pellets were observed. Household plastics dominated the shoreline debris and were comprised largely of plastic bottles, fishing gear, and bags. Microplastic density decreased with distance from the southwestern shore, the most populated and accessible section of the park, and was distributed by the prevailing winds. These results demonstrate that without proper waste management, low-density populations can heavily pollute freshwater systems with consumer plastics. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Estimation of urban pollution level on the Magurele platform using lidar technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talianu, Camelia; Nicolae, Doina; Ciobanu, Mircea; Babin, Vasile; Ciuciu, Jeni Georgeta; Radu, Cristian

    2005-08-01

    The aim of this project is the measurement of urban pollution in the Magurele platform (near Bucharest city where the pollutant sources are known) using LIDAR system operating at 532 and 1064 nm wavelengths. The application is based on the remote detection of aerosols in the atmosphere using a Smoke Analyzer by sending a short light pulse and receiving the radiation scattered in backward direction that provides backscattering signal as a function of distance. The observable backscattered signal is generated by air density fluctuations (Rayleigh scattering) and by small aerosol particles always present in the atmosphere. The presence of aerosol particles gives rise to an increase of the backscattered signal and thus the aerosol flow can be detected on the background surrounding clean atmosphere. In these applications, it is important the response time to be as shorter as possible, and the sensitivity to be very high, in correlation with an eventual alert when the pollutants exceeds a risk threshold. Therefore processing the lidar data constitutes an important factor in obtaining air quality information. This papers presents first results obtained in Romania by direct lidar measurements in the area of Bucharest and the original software developed by the Environmental group in INOE for lidar data processing and PBL height identification.

  17. Burden of Outdoor Air Pollution in Kerala, India—A First Health Risk Assessment at State Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam Tobollik

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Ambient air pollution causes a considerable disease burden, particularly in South Asia. The objective of the study is to test the feasibility of applying the environmental burden of disease method at state level in India and to quantify a first set of disease burden estimates due to ambient air pollution in Kerala. Particulate Matter (PM was used as an indicator for ambient air pollution. The disease burden was quantified in Years of Life Lost (YLL for the population (30 + years living in urban areas of Kerala. Scenario analyses were performed to account for uncertainties in the input parameters. 6108 (confidence interval (95% CI: 4150–7791 of 81,636 total natural deaths can be attributed to PM, resulting in 96,359 (95% CI: 65,479–122,917 YLLs due to premature mortality (base case scenario, average for 2008–2011. Depending on the underlying assumptions the results vary between 69,582 and 377,195 YLLs. Around half of the total burden is related to cardiovascular deaths. Scenario analyses show that a decrease of 10% in PM concentrations would save 15,904 (95% CI: 11,090–19,806 life years. The results can be used to raise awareness about air quality standards at a local level and to support decision-making processes aiming at cleaner and healthier environments.

  18. A review of heavy metal pollution levels and health risk assessment of urban soils in Chinese cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Libo; Wang, Yue; Ma, Jin; Hu, Yu; Su, Benying; Fang, Guangling; Wang, Lei; Xiang, Bao

    2017-11-13

    This study assessed literature-based data for the period 2006-2016 regarding heavy metal (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Ni, Zn, and Hg) concentrations in soils from 32 Chinese cities and the associated human health risks. The mean concentrations of the eight metals were lower than the soil environmental quality standards in China, but were much higher than the background values for most cities. The enrichment factor (EF) and geoaccumulation index (I geo) values showed moderate pollution levels, possibly influenced by anthropogenic activity for Cd, Hg, Pb, and Zn. The pollution levels in eastern cities were much higher than those in western cities, and heavy metals concentrations in different types of cities followed the order: industrial based cities > more developed cities > metropoles > underdeveloped cities. The human health risk assessment for heavy metals in most cities indicated that non-carcinogenic risks were within threshold values (HI urban areas was in excess of 1 × 10(-5), but was lower than 1 × 10(-4). However, in some cities (e.g., Baoji City, Tiyuan City, and Xuzhou City), Ni and Cr have potential cancer risks for both adults and children. Compared to adults, children could be more seriously threatened by heavy metal contamination in soils. In general, we recommend that Cd, Hg, and Pb are selected as priority heavy metals pollutants that require control in Chinese cities.

  19. Assessment of pollution level using Mytilus galloprovincialis as a bioindicator species: The case of the Gulf of Trieste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristan, Urška; Kanduč, Tjaša; Osterc, Andrej; Šlejkovec, Zdenka; Ramšak, Andreja; Stibilj, Vekoslava

    2014-12-15

    A multidisciplinary approach was used to estimate the pollution level of the marine environment in the North Eastern Adriatic by measurement of the isotopic composition of carbon and nitrogen (δ(13)C, δ(15)N), metal/metalloids analyses (Fe, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Cd and Pb, including As speciation) in the Mytilus galloprovincialis, as well by using metallothioneins (MT) concentrations, micronuclei (MN) in gill cells and biological parameters (condition index and gonadosomatic index). Concentrations of MT were in the range from 44 to 175 μg g(-1) wet matter tissue and were higher at the end of the winter season. The frequency of MN did not indicate an elevated level. Sewage sludge pollution was not confirmed. Elevated As concentrations in mussel are related to salinity and low nutrients concentrations and not to pollution. Elevated concentrations of Cu, Zn and Pb were found in the Bay of Koper in comparison with the Bays of Strunjan and Piran. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Levels of ambient air pollution according to mode of transport: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cepeda, Magda; Schoufour, Josje; Freak-Poli, Rosanne; Koolhaas, Chantal M; Dhana, Klodian; Bramer, Wichor M; Franco, Oscar H

    2017-01-01

    Controversy exists about the differences in air pollution exposure and inhalation dose between mode of transport. We aimed to review air pollution exposure and inhaled dose according to mode of transport and pollutant and their effect in terms of years of life expectancy (YLE). In this systematic review, we searched ten online databases from inception to April 13, 2016, without language or temporal restrictions, for cohort, cross-sectional, and experimental studies that compared exposure to carbon monoxide, black carbon, nitrogen dioxide, and fine and coarse particles in active commuters (pedestrian or cyclist) and commuters using motorised transport (car, motorcycle, bus, or massive motorised transport [MMT-ie, train, subway, or metro]). We excluded studies that measured air pollution exposure exclusively with biomarkers or on the basis of simulated data, reviews, comments, consensuses, editorials, guidelines, in-vitro studies, meta-analyses, ecological studies, and protocols. We extracted average exposure and commuting time per mode of transport and pollutant to calculate inhaled doses. We calculated exposure and inhaled dose ratios using active commuters as the reference and summarised them with medians and IQRs. We also calculated differences in YLE due to fine particle inhaled dose and physical activity. We identified 4037 studies, of which 39 were included in the systematic review. Overall, car commuters had higher exposure to all pollutants than did active commuters in 30 (71%) of 42 comparisons (median ratio 1·22 [IQR 0·90-1·76]), followed by those who commuted by bus in 57 (52%) of 109 (1·0 [0·79-1·41]), by motorcycle in 16 (50%) of 32 (0·99 [0·86-1·38]), by a car with controlled ventilation settings in 39 (45%) of 86 (0·95 [0·66-1·54]), and by MMT in 21 (38%) of 55 (0·67 [0·49-1·13]). Overall, active commuters had higher inhalation doses than did commuters using motorised transport (median ratio car with controlled ventilation settings 0

  1. [Abundance variations of fishes from sites with different levels of pollution in the sublittoral sector of Havana City, Cuba].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Ivet Herández; Betancourt, Consuelo Aguilar; Sansón, Gaspar González

    2009-12-01

    The impact of human activity affects fish populations. We studied the abundance of three selected fish species (Stegastes partitus, Thalassoma bifasciatum and Halichoeres bivittatus) in four sites with different degrees of pollution in Havana City: 30th street and 16th street; Miramar; Red Boy of Havana Bay; and the ending ofAlmendares's River. The sites were divided into five zones depending on their bottom characteristics. The counts were made with the visual census technique with a 5m2 quadrat, from June-July 2003 to January 2004. Each time we made nine counts per zone. S. partitus and T. bifasciatum were more abundant in clean water areas, while Halichoeres bivittatus seems to resist the levels of pollution present in the area.

  2. Response of protozoan and microbial communities in various coniferous forest soils after transfer to forests with different levels of atmospheric pollution.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Couteaux, M.-M.; Raubuch, M.; Berg, M.P.

    1998-01-01

    During recent decades, forest ecosystems have been exposed to high levels of atmospheric pollution, and it has been argued that this affects the composition and activity of decomposer communities and, subsequently, ecosystem functioning. To investigate the effects of atmospheric pollution on

  3. Plant response to heavy metals and organic pollutants in cell culture and at whole plant level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golan-Goldhirsh, A.; Barazani, O. [Ben-Gurion Univ. of The Negev, The Jacob Blaustein Inst. for Desert Research, Albert Katz Dept. of Dryland Biotechnologies, Desert Plant Biotechnology Lab., Sede Boqer Campus (Israel); Nepovim, A.; Soudek, P.; Vanek, T. [Inst. of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry (Czech Republic); Smrcek, S.; Dufkova, L.; Krenkova, S. [Faculty of Natural Sciences, Charles Univ. (Czech Republic); Yrjala, K. [Univ. of Helsinki, Dept. of Biosciences, Div. of General Microbiology, Helsinki (Finland); Schroeder, P. [Inst. for Soil Ecology, GSF National Research Center for Environment and Health, Neuherberg, Oberschleissheim (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    Background. Increasing awareness in the last decade concerning environmental quality had prompted research into 'green solutions' for soil and water remediation, progressing from laboratory in vitro experiments to pot and field trials. In vitro cell culture experiments provide a convenient system to study basic biological processes, by which biochemical pathways, enzymatic activity and metabolites can be specifically studied. However, it is difficult to relate cell cultures, calli or even hydroponic experiments to the whole plant response to pollutant stress. In the field, plants are exposed to additional a-biotic and biotic factors, which complicate further plant response. Hence, we often see that in vitro selected species perform poorly under soil and field conditions. Soil physical and chemical properties, plant-mycorrhizal association and soil-microbial activity affect the process of contaminant degradation by plants and/or microorganisms, pointing to the importance of pot and field experiments. Objective. This paper is a joint effort of a group of scientists in COST action 837. It represents experimental work and an overview on plant response to environmental stress from in vitro tissue culture to whole plant experiments in soil. Results. Results obtained from in vitro plant tissue cultures and whole plant hydroponic experiments indicate the phytoremediation potential of different plant species and the biochemical mechanisms involved in plant tolerance. In pot experiments, several selected desert plant species, which accumulated heavy metal in hydroponic systems, succeeded in accumulating the heavy metal in soil conditions as well. Conclusions and recommendations. In vitro plant tissue cultures provide a useful experimental system for the study of the mechanisms involved in the detoxification of organic and heavy metal pollutants. However, whole plant experimental systems, as well as hydroponics followed by pot and field trials, are essential when

  4. Levels of brominated flame retardants and other pesistent organic pollutants in breast milk samples from Limpopo province, South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darnerud, Per Ola, E-mail: poda@slv.se [Toxicology Division, National Food Administration, P.O. Box 622, SE-751 26 Uppsala (Sweden); Aune, Marie; Larsson, Lotta [Chemistry Division 2, National Food Administration, P.O. Box 622, SE-751 26 Uppsala (Sweden); Lignell, Sanna [Toxicology Division, National Food Administration, P.O. Box 622, SE-751 26 Uppsala (Sweden); Mutshatshi, Tshinanne; Okonkwo, Jonathan; Botha, Ben [Faculty of Science, Tshwane University of Technology, Pretoria (South Africa); Agyei, Nana [Department of Chemistry, Limpopo University, Medunsa (South Africa)

    2011-09-01

    The non-occupational exposure to brominated flame retardants, and other persistent organic pollutants (POPs) was studied by collecting human breast milk samples from mothers residing in Thohoyandou area, a rural district in the Limpopo Province, northern part of South Africa (SA). Of all collected samples to be analysed (n = 28), those with large enough milk volumes, (n = 14) were quantified for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) (9 congeners: BDE-28, 47, 66, 99, 100, 138, 153, 154, and 183) and hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) on a GC equipped with dual capillary columns and dual electron-capture detectors (ECD). The levels of PBDE congeners (median sumBDE 1.3 ng/g of lipids) and of HBCD were not far from levels generally found in European studies, and this study may be the first report on the presence of PBDEs and HBCD in SA breast milk. On a congener basis, the finding of comparably high BDE-183 levels suggests a specific PBDE usage, or contamination situation in SA. Apart from BFRs, the high DDT levels found in the breast milk from this area (median and maximum sumDDT levels of about 4 600 and over 20 000 ng/g of lipids, respectively; n = 28) have earlier been reported. In addition, other POPs (PCBs, HCB and HCHs) were found in SA breast milk, at relatively low levels. To conclude, measurable levels of PBDEs and HBCD, and a specific BDE congener pattern, were found in breast milk from the Limpopo province, SA. A number of other POPs, including DDTs in high levels, were also present. - Highlights: {yields} Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were analysed in South African breast milk. {yields} Focus of interest were brominated flame retardants (BRFs). {yields} Sampling area was the rural Limpopo Province, northern SA. {yields} Probably the first reported African data on BFRs (PBDEs, HBCD) in breast milk. {yields} Reported BFR data similar to European levels.

  5. Pulmonary health effects of air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt, Ozlem Kar; Zhang, Jingjing; Pinkerton, Kent E

    2016-03-01

    Air pollution continues to be a major public health concern affecting nine out of 10 individuals living in urban areas worldwide. Exposure to air pollution is the ninth leading risk factor for cardiopulmonary mortality. The aim of this review is to examine the current literature for the most recent updates on health effects of specific air pollutants and their impact on asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, lung cancer, and respiratory infection. A total of 52 publications were reviewed to establish new insights as to how air pollution is associated with pulmonary morbidity and mortality. Considerable past evidence suggests that air pollution is an important factor that enhances pulmonary disease, while also causing greater harm in susceptible populations, such as children, the elderly, and those of low socio-economic status worldwide. Asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, lung cancer, and respiratory infections all seem to be exacerbated because of exposure to a variety of environmental air pollutants with the greatest effects because of particulate matter, ozone, and nitrogen oxides. New publications reviewed reaffirm these findings. Continued vigilance will be essential to lessen the effects of air pollution on human health and pulmonary disease. Cooperation at a multinational level will be required on the part of governments, industry, energy-based enterprises, and the public working together to solve our air quality issues at the local, national, and global level.

  6. Direct damage to vegetation caused by acid rain and polluted cloud: definition of critical levels for forest trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cape, J N

    1993-01-01

    The concept of critical levels was developed in order to define short-term and long-term average concentrations of gaseous pollutants above which plants may be damaged. Although the usual way in which pollutants in precipitation (wet deposition) influence vegetation is by affecting soil processes, plant foliage exposed to fog and cloud, which often contain much greater concentrations of pollutant ions than rain, may be damaged directly. The idea of a critical level has been extended to define concentrations of pollutants in wet deposition above which direct damage to plants is likely. Concentrations of acidity and sulphate measured in mountain and coastal cloud are summarised. Vegetation at risk of injury is identified as montane forest growing close to the cloud base, where ion concentrations are highest. The direct effects of acidic precipitation on trees are reviewed, based on experimental exposure of plants to simulated acidic rain, fog or mist. Although most experiments have reported results in terms of pH (H(+) concentration), the accompanying anion is important, with sulphate being more damaging than nitrate. Both conifers and broadleaved tree seedlings showing subtle changes in the structural characteristics of leaf surfaces after exposure to mist or rain at or about pH 3.5, or sulphate concentration of 150 micromol litre(-1). Visible lesions on leaf surfaces occur at around pH 3 (500 micromol litre(-1) sulphate), broadleaved species tending to be more sensitive than conifers. Effects on photosynthesis and water relations, and interactions with other stresses (e.g. frost), have usually been observed only for treatments which have also caused visible injury to the leaf surface. Few experiments on the direct effects of polluted cloud have been conducted under field conditions with mature trees, which unlike seedlings in controlled conditions, may suffer a growth reduction in the absence of visible injury. Although leaching of cations (Ca(2+), Mg(2+), K(+)) is

  7. Tissue metal levels in Muskrat (Ondatra zibethica) collected near the Sudbury (Ontario) ore-smelters; prospects for biomonitoring marsh pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, G.H

    2004-05-01

    An examination of tissue metal levels in Sudbury-area muskrat (Ondatra zibethica) revealed that animals collected in the vicinity of the local ore-smelters contained elevated burdens of Cd and Ni in their liver and kidneys. Respective tissue concentrations averaged 2-fold and 3- to 6-fold higher than background values and are believed to reflect accumulations resulting from food chain contamination in regional marshes, including that reportedly characterizing Typha latifolia stands--their primary food source--and adherent sediments which may be consumed inadvertently while feeding. No evidence of site-influence or enhanced tissue metal levels was seen for Cu, Pb or Zn. While Cd : Ni accumulations were positively correlated in both the liver (r=0.78) and the kidneys (r=0.65), between-tissue comparisons indicated that hepatic : renal burdens were significantly correlated (r=0.75) only in the case of Ni. With the exception of 30-35% lower hepatic Zn levels in females relative to males within the Sudbury population, tissue metal levels did not vary according to sex or age class at either site. Our findings substantiate the potential of muskrat to serve as useful bioindicators/monitors of metal pollution in semi-aquatic environments. - Muskrats appear to be useful bioindicators of metal pollution in semi-aquatic environments.

  8. Resonance Raman imaging as a tool to assess the atmospheric pollution level: carotenoids in Lecanoraceae lichens as bioindicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarrondo, I; Prieto-Taboada, N; Martínez-Arkarazo, I; Madariaga, J M

    2016-04-01

    Raman spectroscopy differentiation of carotenoids has traditionally been based on the ν 1 position (C = C stretching vibrations in the polyene chain) in the 1500-1600 cm(-1) range, using a 785 nm excitation laser. However, when the number of conjugated double bonds is similar, as in the cases of zeaxanthin and β-carotene, this distinction is still ambiguous due to the closeness of the Raman bands. This work shows the Raman results, obtained in resonance conditions using a 514 mm laser, on Lecanora campestris and Lecanora atra species, which can be used to differentiate and consequently characterize carotenoids. The presence of the carotenoid found in Lecanoraceae lichens has been demonstrated to depend on the atmospheric pollution level of the environment they inhabit. Astaxanthin, a superb antioxidant, appears as the principal xanthophyll in highly polluted sites, usually together with the UV screening pigment scytonemin; zeaxanthin is the major carotenoid in medium polluted environments, while β-carotene is the major carotenoid in cleaner environments. Based on these observations, an indirect classification of the stress suffered in a given environment can be assessed by simply analysing the carotenoid content in the Lecanoraceae lichens by using resonance Raman imaging.

  9. The effects of deterioration and technological levels on pollutant emission factors for gasoline light-duty trucks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qingyu; Fan, Juwang; Yang, Weidong; Chen, Bixin; Zhang, Lijuan; Liu, Jiaoyu; Wang, Jingling; Zhou, Chunyao; Chen, Xuan

    2017-07-01

    Vehicle deterioration and technological change influence emission factors (EFs). In this study, the impacts of vehicle deterioration and emission standards on EFs of regulated pollutants (carbon monoxide [CO], hydrocarbon [HC], and nitrogen oxides [NOx]) for gasoline light-duty trucks (LDTs) were investigated according to the inspection and maintenance (I/M) data using a chassis dynamometer method. Pollutant EFs for LDTs markedly varied with accumulated mileages and emission standards, and the trends of EFs are associated with accumulated mileages. In addition, the study also found that in most cases, the median EFs of CO, HC, and NOx are higher than those of basic EFs in the International Vehicle Emissions (IVE) model; therefore, the present study provides correction factors for the IVE model relative to the corresponding emission standards and mileages. Currently, vehicle emissions are great contributors to air pollution in cities, especially in developing countries. Emission factors play a key role in creating emission inventory and estimating emissions. Deterioration represented by vehicle age and accumulated mileage and changes of emission standards markedly influence emission factors. In addition, the results provide collection factors for implication in the IVE model in the region levels.

  10. Cross-species toxicogenomic analyses and phenotypic anchoring in response to groundwater low-level pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porreca, Immacolata; D'Angelo, Fulvio; Gentilcore, Daniela; Carchia, Emanuele; Amoresano, Angela; Affuso, Andrea; Ceccarelli, Michele; De Luca, Pasquale; Esposito, Libera; Guadagno, Francesco M; Mallardo, Massimo; Nardone, Antonio; Maccarone, Sergio; Pane, Francesca; Scarfò, Marzia; Sordino, Paolo; De Felice, Mario; Ambrosino, Concetta

    2014-12-05

    Comparison of toxicogenomic data facilitates the identification of deregulated gene patterns and maximizes health risk prediction in human. Here, we performed phenotypic anchoring on the effects of acute exposure to low-grade polluted groundwater using mouse and zebrafish. Also, we evaluated two windows of chronic exposure in mouse, starting in utero and at the end of lactation. Bioinformatic analysis of livers microarray data showed that the number of deregulated biofunctions and pathways is higher after acute exposure, compared to the chronic one. It also revealed specific profiles of altered gene expression in all treatments, pointing to stress response/mitochondrial pathways as major players of environmental toxicity. Of note, dysfunction of steroid hormones was also predicted by bioinformatic analysis and verified in both models by traditional approaches, serum estrogens measurement and vitellogenin mRNA determination in mice and zebrafish, respectively. In our report, phenotypic anchoring in two vertebrate model organisms highlights the toxicity of low-grade pollution, with varying susceptibility based on exposure window. The overlay of zebrafish and mice deregulated pathways, more than single genes, is useful in risk identification from chemicals implicated in the observed effects.

  11. Pollution levels and characteristics of phthalate esters in indoor air of offices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Min; Chi, Chenchen; Guo, Min; Wang, Xueqing; Cheng, Lingxiao; Shen, Xueyou

    2015-02-01

    The pollution status and characteristics of PAEs (phthalate esters) were investigated in indoor air of offices, and PAEs of both gas-phase and particulate-phase were detected in all the samples. The concentration (sum of the gas phase and the particulate phase) was 4748.24 ng/m3, ranging between 3070.09 and 6700.14 ng/m3. Diethyl phthalate, dibutyl phthalate, and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate were the most abundant compounds, together accounting for 70% of the ∑6PAEs. Dividing the particulate-phase PAEs into four size ranges (10 μm), the result indicated that PAEs in PM2.5 were the most abundant, with the proportion of 72.64%. In addition, the PAE concentration in PM2.5 correlated significantly with the total particulate-phase PAEs (R2=0.85). Thus, the amount of PAEs in PM2.5 can be estimated from the total amount of particulate-phase PAEs using this proportion. In a comparison between the offices and a newly decorated study room, it was found that pollution characteristics were similar between these two places. Thus, it is implied that the PAE concentration decreased by 50% 2 yr after decorating. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Harm Reduction Behind Bars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma R. Miller

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to identify how strategies to reduce the risk of hepatitis C virus (HCV in prisons could be implemented in a way that is acceptable to those with the responsibility for implementing them. Prison officer and nurse perceptions of HCV and attitudes toward a range of harm reduction interventions, including clean needle and bleach provision, were explored. In the context of highly prevalent feelings of resentment, most of the proposed strategies were perceived by all staff as a threat for officers and a privilege for prisoners. Addressing the underlying concerns of prison staff is essential in achieving a fully collaborative harm reduction effort. Ongoing resistance to proposed harm reduction strategies underscores the relevance of these findings for prison settings in Australia and elsewhere.

  13. Baseline levels and trophic transfer of persistent organic pollutants in sediments and biota from the Congo River Basin (DR Congo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhaert, Vera; Covaci, Adrian; Bouillon, Steven; Abrantes, Katya; Musibono, Dieudonné; Bervoets, Lieven; Verheyen, Erik; Blust, Ronny

    2013-09-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the occurrence of persistent organic pollutants (POPs: (PCBs, PBDEs, DDTs, HCHs, CHLs and HCB) in sediments and biota from the middle Congo River Basin (CRB) and to investigate their trophic transfer through the aquatic food web using nitrogen stable isotope ratios. To our knowledge, no data on levels of POPs in sediment and biota from the CRB are present in the literature, and studies on trophic transfer and biomagnification profiles of POPs using δ(15)N are scarce in tropical regions. POP levels in the sediment and biota were low, with exception of total PCB levels found in fish from the Itimbiri River (1.4 to 44ng/g ww). Compared to concentrations found in fish from pristine to relatively industrial developed areas, the ∑PCB levels in fish from the Itimbiri were high, indicating the presence of a local PCB contamination source in this catchment. Based on minimum risk level criteria formulated by ATSDR, the consumption of PCB contaminated fish from the Itimbiri river poses a potential risk for humans. The POP levels in biota were not significantly related to the POP levels in sediments, and the BSAF concept (Biota-Sediment Accumulation Factor) was found to be a poor predictor of the bioavailability and bioaccumulation of environmental pollutants in the present study. With increasing trophic levels, a significant increase in PCB 95, 101, 110, 138, 146, 149, 153, 174, 180 & 187 and p,p'-DDT in Itimbiri and BDE 47 & 99 in Itimbiri, Aruwimi & Lomami river basins was observed. Trophic magnification factors were higher than 1, indicating that biomagnification occurs through the tropical food web. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Expression of cord blood cytochrome P450 1A1 gene according to the air pollution level of the maternal residence area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roya Kelishadi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study aimed to compare the cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1 gene expression in the cord blood of infants born from mothers living in low- and high-air polluted areas. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in Spring 2012 in Isfahan, the second large and air-polluted city in Iran. The study comprised 60 neonates, consisting of 30 infants born from mothers residing in areas with high levels of air pollution and an equal number of infants born in areas with a lower air pollution level. The umbilical cord blood sample was taken immediately after birth. The relative gene expression levels of CYP1A1 were examined using real time-polymerase chain reaction method. Results: CYP1A1 gene expression level was 3.3-fold higher in the group living in areas with higher pollution level than in the other group (P = 0.01. No significant difference existed in the mean values of maternal age, gestational age, the newborns′ birth weight, and the gender distribution between the two groups. Conclusion: This study provides confirmatory evidence of prenatal health hazards of ambient air pollution and highlights the need for pollution prevention programs to protect women of childbearing age and their children. The clinical implications of this study finding should be confirmed in future longitudinal studies.

  15. Blood and urine levels of heavy metal pollutants in female and male patients with coronary artery disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sponder M

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Michael Sponder,1 Monika Fritzer-Szekeres,2 Rodrig Marculescu,2 Martina Mittlböck,3 Maria Uhl,4 Birgit Köhler-Vallant,5 Jeanette Strametz-Juranek1 1Department of Cardiology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria; 2Department of Medical-Chemical Laboratory Analysis, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria; 3Department of Medical Statistics, Informatics and Intelligent Systems, Section for Clinical Biometrics, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria; 4Department of Pollutants and Human, Environment Agency Austria, Vienna, Austria; 5Department of Inorganic Analysis, Environment Agency Austria, Vienna, Austria Background: Heavy metal pollutants such as cadmium (Cd, lead (Pb, and mercury (Hg are rarely the subjects of cardiovascular research although they have been suspected for decades to negatively impact the circulatory system. Methods: Apart from detailed anamnestic data, urinary levels of Cd and full blood levels of Pb and Hg were measured in 53 female (mean age: 68.04±7.03 years and 111 male (mean age: 60.68±11.43 years nonsmoking or never-smoking patients with angiographically verified and precisely quantified coronary artery disease (CAD. Results: Although Cd was quantifiable in 68.3% of subjects, only 34.1% of these patients exceeded the critical 1 µg/L Human Biomonitoring (HBM-I level. Median Pb (20 µg/L and Hg (0.55 µg/L levels were lower than the HBM-I, as well as reference levels of Pb. Wine consumption was the main source for Pb, fish and wine consumption for Hg, and previous nicotine abuse for Cd. There was no correlation between Cd, Pb, or Hg and severity of CAD although severity correlated positively with atherosclerosis parameters (uric acid, creatinine, triglycerides, blood urea nitrogen, C-reactive protein and negatively with high density lipoprotein cholesterol. Conclusion: Cd levels detected in CAD patients were high compared to German and European reference levels but it could not be proven that urine

  16. Theoretical and experimental approach to determine pollutant levels in an urban area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solisio, C.; Cecco, I. de; Ferraiolo, G. [Genoa Univ. (Italy). Inst. of Chemical Engineering Science and Technology; Ruaro, R.

    1995-12-31

    Simulative techniques, carried out by means of scale physical models, prove to be particularly useful because they allow to optimize those prevention and protection measures aimed at the undesired effect reduction. Among the various scale models, the wind tunnel is one of the most common physical models used to simulate real environmental conditions, reproduced in suitable reduced scale by dimensional analysis. Physical modeling, mainly wind tunnel, is typically employed to study plants in complex terrain or to determine how building turbulence can affect dispersion from staks. Moreover, simulative techniques set-up is not simple and it needs particular careful regarding to define its capable to simulate real environmental conditions. The present article deals with the scale simulative technique through wind tunnel, applied to the study about dispersion atmospheric phenomenon. Set-up procedures are discussed, then preliminary results about pollutant dispersion in a street of Genoa (Italy) characterized by great traffic vehicular traffic are showed too. (author)

  17. Metals in Pleurozium schreberi and Polytrichum commune from areas with various levels of pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawadzki, Krzysztof; Samecka-Cymerman, Aleksandra; Kolon, Krzysztof; Wojtuń, Bronisław; Mróz, Lucyna; Kempers, Alexander J

    2016-06-01

    Metals deposited into ecosystems are non-degradable and become one of the major toxic agents which accumulate in habitats. Thus, their concentration requires precise monitoring. To evaluate pollution around a chlor-alkali plant, a glass smelter, two power plants and a ceramic and porcelain factory, we selected terrestrial mosses with different life forms: the orthotropic and endohydric Polytrichum commune and plagiotropic and ectohydric Pleurozium schreberi. Metal concentrations were determined in both species growing together at sites situated at various distances approximately 0.75, 1.5, 3 and 6 km from polluters. MARS analysis evaluated different tendencies of both species for Cd, Co and Pb accumulation depending on the distance from the emitter. In P. schreberi, the concentration of these metals diminished relatively rapidly with an increasing distance from the emitter up to 3000 m and then stabilised. For P. commune, a steady decrease could be observed with increasing the distance up to 6000 m. PCCA ordination explained that both species from the vicinity of the chlor-alkali plant were correlated with the highest Co, Cr, Cu, Fe and Pb as well as Mn and Ni concentrations in their tissues. The mosses from sites closest to both power plants were correlated with the highest Cd and Zn concentrations. P. commune contained significantly higher Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb and Zn concentrations compared to P. schreberi. This may be caused by the lamellae found in the leaves of P. commune which increase the surface area of the possible aerial absorption of contaminants. Soil may also be an additional source of metals, and it affects the uptake in endohydric P. commune more than in ectohydric P. schreberi. However, the precise explanation of these relations needs further investigation.

  18. Effectiveness of using pure copper and silver coupon corrosivity monitoring (CCM) metal strips to measure the severity levels of air pollutants in indoor and outdoor atmospheres

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Foax, LJ

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Severity levels of air pollutants rich in oxides, chlorides and sulphides were successfully measured in indoor and outdoor atmospheres using pure copper and silver coupon corrosivity monitoring (CCM) metal strips when the maximum exposure periods...

  19. Tobacco, nicotine and harm reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Houezec, Jacques; McNeill, Ann; Britton, John

    2011-03-01

    Tobacco smoking, sustained by nicotine dependence, is a chronic relapsing disorder, which in many cases results in lifelong cigarette use and consequent death of one out of two lifelong smokers from a disease caused by their smoking. Most toxicity due to cigarette smoking is related to the burning process. Models of harm reduction applied to tobacco suggest that use of non-combustible, less toxic, nicotine-containing products as a substitute for cigarette smoking would reduce the death toll arising from tobacco use. Available options include medicinal nicotine and smokeless tobacco products. The potential role of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) products in a harm reduction strategy is currently severely restricted by strict regulations on dose, safety and potential addictiveness. As a result, NRT products are designed to provide much less nicotine, and deliver it to the brain more slowly, than cigarettes, which are widely accessible and poorly regulated. Smokeless tobacco (snus) has proved to be an acceptable reduced hazard alternative to smoking in Sweden, but supply of snus is illegal elsewhere in the European Union. To increase accessibility and reach more smokers, barriers to the use of NRT use need to be removed and more effective NRTs need urgently to be developed. Smokeless tobacco could also play an important role in harm reduction, but current European Union regulations and concerns over exploitation by tobacco companies currently preclude wider use. To improve public health there is an urgent need for an appropriate regulatory framework and regulatory authority at the European level, controlling both tobacco and nicotine products to ensure that the least harmful products are the most accessible. © 2011 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  20. The influence of electrodialytic remediation on dioxin (PCDD/PCDF) levels in fly ash and air pollution control residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dias-Ferreira, Celia; Kirkelund, Gunvor Marie; Jensen, Pernille Erland

    2016-01-01

    materials dissolve, leaving behind the non-water soluble compounds, such as PCDD/PCDF. According to the Basel Convention, PCDD/PCDF levels in these materials is low (waste......Fly ash and Air Pollution Control (APC) residues collected from three municipal solid waste incinerators in Denmark and Greenland were treated by electrodialytic remediation at pilot scale for 8-10 h. This work presents for the first time the effect of electrodialytic treatment on polychlorinated...... dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF), and how these levels impact on the valorization options for fly ash and APC residue.PCDD/PCDF levels in the original residues ranged between 4.85 and 197 ng g-1, being higher for the electrostatic precipitator fly ash. The toxic equivalent...

  1. Cutting Class Harms Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Lewis A., III

    2012-01-01

    An accessible business school population of undergraduate students was investigated in three independent, but related studies to determine effects on grades due to cutting class and failing to take advantage of optional reviews and study quizzes. It was hypothesized that cutting classes harms exam scores, attending preexam reviews helps exam…

  2. School-based exposure to hazardous air pollutants and grade point average: A multi-level study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grineski, Sara E; Clark-Reyna, Stephanie E; Collins, Timothy W

    2016-05-01

    The problem of environmental health hazards around schools is serious but it has been neglected by researchers and analysts. This is concerning because children are highly susceptible to the effects of chemical hazards. Some ecological studies have demonstrated that higher school-level pollution is associated with lower aggregate school-level standardized test scores likely, related to increased respiratory illnesses and/or impaired cognitive development. However, an important question remains unexamined: How do school-level exposures impact individual children's academic performance? To address this, we obtained socio-demographic and grades data from the parents of 1888 fourth and fifth grade children in the El Paso (Texas, USA) Independent School District in 2012. El Paso is located on the US-side of the Mexican border and has a majority Mexican-origin population. School-based hazardous air pollution (HAP) exposure was calculated using census block-level US Environmental Protection Agency National Air Toxics Assessment risk estimates for respiratory and diesel particulate matter (PM). School-level demographics were obtained from the school district. Multi-level models adjusting for individual-level covariates (e.g., age, sex, race/ethnicity, English proficiency, and economic deprivation) and school-level covariates (e.g., percent of students economically disadvantaged and student-teacher ratio) showed that higher school-level HAPs were associated with lower individual-level grade point averages. An interquartile range increase in school-level HAP exposure was associated with an adjusted 0.11-0.40 point decrease in individual students' grade point averages (GPAs), depending on HAP type and emission source. Respiratory risk from HAPs had a larger effect on GPA than did diesel PM risk. Non-road mobile and total respiratory risk had the largest effects on children's GPA of all HAP variables studied and only mother's level of education had a larger effect than those

  3. Impact of sublethal levels of environmental pollutants found in sewage sludge on a novel Caenorhabditis elegans model biosensor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debbie McLaggan

    Full Text Available A transgenic strain of the model nematode Caenorhabditis elegans in which bioluminescence reports on relative, whole-organism ATP levels was used to test an environmentally-relevant mixture of pollutants extracted from processed sewage sludge. Changes in bioluminescence, following exposure to sewage sludge extract, were used to assess relative ATP levels and overall metabolic health. Reproductive function and longevity were also monitored. A short (up to 8 h sublethal exposure of L4 larval stage worms to sewage sludge extract had a concentration-dependent, detrimental effect on energy status, with bioluminescence decreasing to 50-60% of the solvent control (1% DMSO. Following longer exposure (22-24 h, the energy status of the nematodes showed recovery as assessed by bioluminescence. Continuous exposure to sewage sludge extract from the L4 stage resulted in a shorter median lifespan relative to that of solvent or medium control animals, but only in the presence of 400-600 µM 5-fluoro-2'-deoxyuridine (FUdR, which was incorporated to inhibit reproduction. This indicated that FUdR increased lifespan, and that the effect was counteracted by SSE. Exposure to sewage sludge extract from the L1 stage led to slower growth and a delayed onset of egg laying. When L1 exposed nematodes reached the reproductive stage, no effect on egg laying rate or egg number in the uterus was observed. DMSO itself (1% had a significant inhibitory effect on growth and development of C. elegans exposed from the L1 stage and on reproduction when exposed from the L4 stage. Results demonstrate subtle adverse effects on C. elegans of a complex mixture of environmental pollutants that are present, individually, in very low concentrations and indicate that our biosensor of energy status is a novel, sensitive, rapid, quantitative, whole-organism test system which is suitable for high throughput risk assessment of complex pollutant mixtures.

  4. The relative importance of impacts from climate change vs. emissions change on air pollution levels in the 21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. B. Hedegaard

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available So far several studies have analysed the impacts of climate change on future air pollution levels. Significant changes due to impacts of climate change have been made clear. Nevertheless, these changes are not yet included in national, regional or global air pollution reduction strategies. The changes in future air pollution levels are caused by both impacts from climate change and anthropogenic emission changes, the importance of which needs to be quantified and compared. In this study we use the Danish Eulerian Hemispheric Model (DEHM driven by meteorological input data from the coupled Atmosphere-Ocean General Circulation Model ECHAM5/MPI-OM and forced with the newly developed RCP4.5 emissions. The relative importance of the climate signal and the signal from changes in anthropogenic emissions on the future ozone, black carbon (BC, total particulate matter with a diameter below 2.5 μm (total PM2.5 including BC, primary organic carbon (OC, mineral dust and secondary inorganic aerosols (SIA and total nitrogen (including NHx + NOy has been determined. For ozone, the impacts of anthropogenic emissions dominate, though a climate penalty is found in the Arctic region and northwestern Europe, where the signal from climate change dampens the effect from the projected emission reductions of anthropogenic ozone precursors. The investigated particles are even more dominated by the impacts from emission changes. For black carbon the emission signal dominates slightly at high latitudes, with an increase up to an order of magnitude larger, close to the emission sources in temperate and subtropical areas. Including all particulate matter with a diameter below 2.5 μm (total PM2.5 enhances the dominance from emissions change. In contrast, total nitrogen (NHx + NOy in parts of the Arctic and at low latitudes is dominated by impacts of climate change.

  5. Population-Level Exposure to Particulate Air Pollution during Active Travel: Planning for Low-Exposure, Health-Promoting Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankey, Steve; Lindsey, Greg; Marshall, Julian D.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Providing infrastructure and land uses to encourage active travel (i.e., bicycling and walking) are promising strategies for designing health-promoting cities. Population-level exposure to air pollution during active travel is understudied. Objectives: Our goals were a) to investigate population-level patterns in exposure during active travel, based on spatial estimates of bicycle traffic, pedestrian traffic, and particulate concentrations; and b) to assess how those exposure patterns are associated with the built environment. Methods: We employed facility–demand models (active travel) and land use regression models (particulate concentrations) to estimate block-level (n = 13,604) exposure during rush-hour (1600–1800 hours) in Minneapolis, Minnesota. We used the model-derived estimates to identify land use patterns and characteristics of the street network that are health promoting. We also assessed how exposure is correlated with indicators of health disparities (e.g., household income, proportion of nonwhite residents). Our work uses population-level rates of active travel (i.e., traffic flows) rather than the probability of walking or biking (i.e., “walkability” or “bikeability”) to assess exposure. Results: Active travel often occurs on high-traffic streets or near activity centers where particulate concentrations are highest (i.e., 20–42% of active travel occurs on blocks with high population-level exposure). Only 2–3% of blocks (3–8% of total active travel) are “sweet spots” (i.e., high active travel, low particulate concentrations); sweet spots are located a) near but slightly removed from the city-center or b) on off-street trails. We identified 1,721 blocks (~ 20% of local roads) where shifting active travel from high-traffic roads to adjacent low-traffic roads would reduce exposure by ~ 15%. Active travel is correlated with population density, land use mix, open space, and retail area; particulate concentrations were

  6. The relationship between Australian harm minimisation alcohol education and student uptake, consumption and harm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midford, Richard; Lester, Leanne; Williams, Tahlia; White, Victoria

    2017-12-08

    Alcohol use by young people is a public health concern in Australia because of the disproportionate harm they experience. Accordingly, governments have sought to protect young people, with school identified as an appropriate site for drug, including alcohol, prevention through education. School-based drug education programmes, however, have not been particularly effective, and even when individual programs report prevention benefits they can be criticised for being developed and evaluated by the same group. This study involved secondary analysis of alcohol data from the 2011 and 2014 Australian Secondary Students Alcohol and Drug (ASSAD) surveys, to examine the relationship between the amount of alcohol education students reported receiving and their patterns of use and harm. Associations between the amount of alcohol education remembered and alcohol uptake, consumption, risky consumption and alcohol-related harm were measured using Logistic and Tobit regression techniques. As most alcohol education in Australia reflects harm minimisation aims, this research provides an independent, proxy assessment of the effect of harm minimisation education. In the 12- to 17-year-old student group, as a whole, there was a significant positive association between having tried alcohol and the level of alcohol education recalled. There were significant negative associations between the amount of alcohol consumed and the level of alcohol education recalled for drinkers and risky drinkers. There were no significant associations between alcohol-related harm and the level of alcohol education recalled for drinkers and risky drinkers. Providing more harm minimisation alcohol education did not persuade students to abstain from alcohol, but rather the reverse. Providing more harm minimisation education was influential in reducing consumption by students, particularly those drinking at risky levels. This should be considered indirectly beneficial in terms of minimising harm. However, the

  7. Levels and source apportionment of children's lead exposure: could urinary lead be used to identify the levels and sources of children's lead pollution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Suzhen; Duan, Xiaoli; Zhao, Xiuge; Wang, Beibei; Ma, Jin; Fan, Delong; Sun, Chengye; He, Bin; Wei, Fusheng; Jiang, Guibin

    2015-04-01

    As a highly toxic heavy metal, the pollution and exposure risks of lead are of widespread concern for human health. However, the collection of blood samples for use as an indicator of lead pollution is not always feasible in most cohort or longitudinal studies, especially those involving children health. To evaluate the potential use of urinary lead as an indicator of exposure levels and source apportionment, accompanying with environmental media samples, lead concentrations and isotopic measurements (expressed as (207)Pb/(206)Pb, (208)Pb/(206)Pb and (204)Pb/(206)Pb) were investigated and compared between blood and urine from children living in the vicinities of a typical coking plant and lead-acid battery factory. The results showed urinary lead might not be a preferable proxy for estimating blood lead levels. Fortunately, urinary lead isotopic measurements could be used as an alternative for identifying the sources of children's lead exposure, which coincided well with the blood lead isotope ratio analysis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Oxygen levels versus chemical pollutants: do they have similar influence on macrofaunal assemblages? A case study in a harbour with two opposing entrances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra-García, J M; García-Gómez, J C

    2005-05-01

    Generally, harbours are polluted zones characterised by low values of hydrodynamism and oxygen in the water column and high concentrations of pollutants in sediments. The harbour of Ceuta, North Africa, has an unusual structure; it is located between two bays connected by a channel, which increases the water movement and exchange in the harbour, maintaining moderate oxygen levels in the water-sediment interface. Nevertheless, high concentration of organic matter, nutrients and heavy metals were measured in sediments from this harbour. Under these unusual conditions (high levels of pollution but total saturation of oxygen in the water column) we studied the responses of soft-bottom macrobenthic communities using uni and multivariate analyses. The number of species was similar inside and outside the harbour but the species composition differed between internal and external stations; oxygen levels seem to control the "quantity" of species whereas pollutants control the "quality" of them.

  9. Salmon-Eating Grizzly Bears Exposed to Elevated Levels of Marine Derived Persistent Organic Pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, J. R.; Ross, P. S.; Whiticar, M. J.

    2004-12-01

    The coastal grizzly bears of British Columbia (BC, Canada) rely heavily on salmon returning from the Pacific Ocean, whereas interior bears do not have access to or readily utilize this marine-derived food source. Since salmon have been shown to accumulate persistent organic pollutants (POPs) from the North Pacific Ocean, we hypothesized that salmon consumption by grizzly bears would be reflected by an increase in the POP burden. To test this hypothesis we collected hair and fat tissue from grizzlies at various locations around BC to compare salmon-eating (coastal) grizzlies to non-salmon-eating (interior) grizzlies. We characterized the feeding habits for each bear sampled by measuring the stable carbon and nitrogen isotope signature of their hair. The positive relationship between 13C/12C and 15N/14N isotopic ratios suggests that the majority of the meat portion of the diet of coastal grizzlies is coming from salmon, rather than from terrestrial or freshwater sources. By contrast, stable isotope ratios revealed that interior bears have an almost exclusive vegetarian diet with no marine influence. As hypothesized, the coastal grizzly bears have significantly greater OC pesticide and lower-brominated PBDE congener body burden than the interior grizzlies. We also found a positive relationship between C and N isotope ratios and these same POP contaminants in bear tissue. Overall, these results demonstrate that Pacific salmon represents a significant vector delivering both OC pesticides and PBDEs to BC coastal grizzly bears.

  10. High levels of endocrine pollutants in US streams during low flow due to insufficient wastewater dilution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Jacelyn; Westerhoff, Paul

    2017-08-01

    Wastewater discharges from publicly owned treatment works are a significant source of endocrine disruptors and other contaminants to the aquatic environment in the US. Although remaining pollutants in wastewater pose environmental risks, treated wastewater is also a primary source of stream flow, which in turn is critical in maintaining many aquatic and riparian wildlife habitats. Here we calculate the dilution factor--the ratio of flow in the stream receiving discharge to the flow of wastewater discharge--for over 14,000 receiving streams in the continental US using streamflow observations and a spatially explicit watershed-scale hydraulic model. We found that wastewater discharges make up more than 50% of in-stream flow for over 900 streams. However, in 1,049 streams that experienced exceptional low-flow conditions, the dilution factors in 635 of those streams fell so low during those conditions that the safety threshold for concentrations of one endocrine disrupting compound was exceeded, and in roughly a third of those streams, the threshold was exceeded for two compounds. We suggest that streams are vulnerable to public wastewater discharge of contaminants under low-flow conditions, at a time when wastewater discharges are likely to be most important for maintaining stream flow for smaller sized river systems.

  11. [Level and characteristics of indoor air pollutants in a furniture mall in Beijing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chuan-Jia; Li, Shen-Shen; Zhang, Peng-Yi; Wang, Juan

    2010-12-01

    Concentrations of BTX (benzene, toluene and xylene), total volatile organic compounds (TVOC), formaldehyde and other carbonyl compounds were measured in different sections of a furniture mall in Beijing. The overall indoor concentrations (mean +/- standard deviation) of formaldehyde, benzene, toluene, xylene, and TVOC were (0.37 +/- 0.08), (0.04 +/- 0.03), (0.19 +/- 0.16), (0.47 +/- 0.57), and (2.76 +/- 2.18) mg/m3, respectively. Indoor concentrations of formaldehyde, xylene and TVOC were 22, 46 and 34 times higher than the corresponding outdoor concentrations respectively. Concentrations of formaldehyde, xylene and TVOC were much higher than the standard limits regulated in the national "indoor air quality standard" (GB/T 18883-2002), and the highest concentrations of formaldehyde and TVOC exceeded the standard limit 5.1 and 14.8 times respectively. Total concentration of carbonyl compounds was (689.3 +/- 94.8) microg/m3, which was 5 times higher than that outdoors. Of the carbonyls, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were found to be the most abundant, together accounting for over 75% of the total carbonyl concentrations. Acetone, C4 carbonyls (methacrolein, methyl ethyl ketone, butanal), and hexanal also occurred at relatively high concentrations. In conclusion, indoor air pollution is serious in the furniture mall.

  12. Indoor air quality in energy-efficient dwellings: Levels and sources of pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derbez, M; Wyart, G; Le Ponner, E; Ramalho, O; Ribéron, J; Mandin, C

    2017-09-28

    Worldwide, public policies are promoting energy-efficient buildings and accelerating the thermal renovation of existing buildings. The effects of these changes on the indoor air quality (IAQ) in these buildings remain insufficiently understood. In this context, a field study was conducted in 72 energy-efficient dwellings to describe the pollutants known to be associated with health concerns. Measured parameters included the concentrations of 19 volatile organic compounds and aldehydes, nitrogen dioxide, particulate matter (PM2.5 ), radon, temperature, and relative humidity. The air stuffiness index and night-time air exchange rate were calculated from the monitored carbon dioxide (CO2 ) concentrations. Indoor and outdoor measurements were performed at each dwelling during 1 week in each of the two following seasons: heating and non-heating. Moreover, questionnaires were completed by the occupants to characterize the building, equipment, household, and occupants' habits. Perspective on our results was provided by previous measurements made in low-energy European dwellings. Statistical comparisons with the French housing stock and a pilot study showed higher concentrations of terpenes, that is, alpha-pinene and limonene, and hexaldehyde in our study than in previous studies. Alpha-pinene and hexaldehyde are emitted by wood or wood-based products used for the construction, insulation, decoration, and furnishings of the dwellings, whereas limonene is more associated with discontinuous sources related to human activities. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Link between environmental air pollution and allergic asthma: East meets West

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Qingling; Qiu, Zhiming; Chung, Kian Fan; Huang, Shau-Ku

    2015-01-01

    With the levels of outdoor air pollution from industrial and motor vehicle emissions rising rapidly in the fastly-industrializing countries of South East Asia, the prevalence of asthma and allergic diseases has also been increasing to match those in the West. Epidemiological and experimental exposure studies indicate a harmful impact of outdoor air pollution from vehicles and factories both on the development of allergic diseases and asthma and the increase in asthma symptoms and exacerbation...

  14. [METHODOLOGY FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF THE IMPACT OF THE ATMOSPHERIC AIR POLLUTION ON THE FORMATION OF THE LEVELS OF OVERALL MORBIDITY RATE OF BRONCHIAL ASTHMA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veremchuk, L V; Cherpack, N A; Gvozdenko, T A; Volkova, M V

    2015-01-01

    In large cities with strong air pollution the formation of the levels of morbidity rate of bronchial asthma has a complex causation that requires the search for informative methods for identification of causes and consequences of this dependence. Method for the assessment of the dependence of overall levels of morbidity rate of bronchial asthma on the degree of air pollution allows you to select a "useful information" of the direct impact of air pollution on a background of random processes and latent relationship between human and environment. The use of the method of the information entropy analysis allowed us to estimate the total and the individual contribution of the separate components of air pollution on the formation of levels of total morbidity rate of bronchial asthma in the population of the city of Vladivostok. Levels of total incidence of this pathology were established to differ in various age groups. The adult population is more adapted to air pollution, but retains a high sensitivity to the impact of nitrogen dioxide. Levels of overall l morbidity rate of bronchial asthma in children and adolescents depend on the total air pollution with some dominance of the influence of suspended matter and carbon monoxide.

  15. Global Anthropogenic Phosphorus Loads to Fresh Water, Grey Water Footprint and Water Pollution Levels: A High-Resolution Global Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekonnen, M. M.; Hoekstra, A. Y. Y.

    2014-12-01

    We estimated anthropogenic phosphorus (P) loads to freshwater, globally at a spatial resolution level of 5 by 5 arc minute. The global anthropogenic P load to freshwater systems from both diffuse and point sources in the period 2002-2010 was 1.5 million tonnes per year. China contributed about 30% to this global anthropogenic P load. India was the second largest contributor (8%), followed by the USA (7%), Spain and Brazil each contributing 6% to the total. The domestic sector contributed the largest share (54%) to this total followed by agriculture (38%) and industry (8%). Among the crops, production of cereals had the largest contribution to the P loads (32%), followed by fruits, vegetables, and oil crops, each contributing about 15% to the total. We also calculated the resultant grey water footprints, and relate the grey water footprints per river basin to runoff to calculate the P-related water pollution level (WPL) per catchment.

  16. Estimation of the critical effect level for pollution prevention based on oyster embryonic development toxicity test: the search for reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Cruz, A C S; Couto, B C; Nascimento, I A; Pereira, S A; Leite, M B N L; Bertoletti, E; Zagatto, P

    2007-05-01

    In spite of the consideration that toxicity testing is a reduced approach to measure the effects of pollutants on ecosystems, the early-life-stage (ELS) tests have evident ecological relevance because they reflect the possible reproductive impairment of the natural populations. The procedure and validation of Crassostrea rhizophorae embryonic development test have shown that it meets the same precision as other U.S. EPA tests, where EC(50) is generally used as a toxicological endpoint. However, the recognition that EC(50) is not the best endpoint to assess contaminant effects led U.S. EPA to recently suggest EC(25) as an alternative to estimate xenobiotic effects for pollution prevention. To provide reliability to the toxicological test results on C. rhizophorae embryos, the present work aimed to establish the critical effect level for this test organism, based on its reaction to reference toxicants, by using the statistical method proposed by Norberg-King (Inhibition Concentration, version 2.0). Oyster embryos were exposed to graded series of reference toxicants (ZnSO(4) x 7H(2)O; AgNO(3); KCl; CdCl(2)H(2)O; phenol, 4-chlorophenol and dodecyl sodium sulphate). Based on the obtained results, the critical value for C. rhizophorae embryonic development test was estimated as EC(15). The present research enhances the emerging consensus that ELS tests data would be adequate for estimating the chronic safe concentrations of pollutants in the receiving waters. Based on recommended criteria and on the results of the present research, zinc sulphate and 4-chlorophenol have been pointed out, among the inorganic and organic compounds tested, as the best reference toxicants for C. rhizophorae ELS-test.

  17. Pollution levels and characteristics of phthalate esters in indoor air in hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xueqing; Song, Min; Guo, Min; Chi, Chenchen; Mo, Feifei; Shen, Xueyou

    2015-11-01

    The concentrations of phthalate esters (PAEs) in Chinese hospitals were investigated by simultaneously determining concentrations of gas- and particle-phase PAEs. PAEs were detected in two third-class first-grade hospitals, two second-class first-grade hospitals, and a community health service center. Hospital drugstores had the highest concentration (24.19μg/m(3)), which was 1.54 times that of newly decorated houses. The second highest concentration was found in the transfusion rooms, averaging 21.89μg/m(3); this was followed by the concentrations of PAEs in the nurse's workstations, the wards, and the doctor's offices, with mean concentrations of 20.66, 20.0, and 16.92μg/m(3), respectively. The lowest concentrations were found in the hallways (16.30μg/m(3)). Of the six different kinds of PAEs found, major pollutants included diethyl phthalates, dibutyl phthalates, butylbenzyl phthalates and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalates, comprising more than 80% of all PAEs present. Meanwhile, a comparison between different wards showed that PAE concentrations in the maternity wards were 1.63 times higher than in the main wards. Based on known health hazards, our results suggest that the PAEs seriously influence the health of the pregnant women and babies; therefore, it is of great importance to take the phthalate concentrations in hospitals into consideration. In addition, hospital indoor air was more seriously contaminated than the air of newly decorated houses. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Harm Reduction Behind Bars

    OpenAIRE

    Emma R. Miller; Jan M. Moore; Peng Bi

    2013-01-01

    We aimed to identify how strategies to reduce the risk of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in prisons could be implemented in a way that is acceptable to those with the responsibility for implementing them. Prison officer and nurse perceptions of HCV and attitudes toward a range of harm reduction interventions, including clean needle and bleach provision, were explored. In the context of highly prevalent feelings of resentment,...

  19. Is incest harmful?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, J

    1983-02-01

    Classically, incest has been considered from both a psychological and sociological point of view to have harmful consequences. Genetic research, though by no means lacking controversy of its own, generally supports the notion that inbreeding has untoward genetic consequences. The psychodynamics of all three parties to father-daughter incest seem to indicate that people who become involved in incestuous behaviour are often psychologically damaged before the fact, so that if they show subsequent evidence of psychological impairment the incestuous behaviour can be as plausibly viewed as a dysfunctional attempt at solving problems as it can a cause of subsequent psychopathology. Girls involved in the father-daughter incest present in one of half a dozen frequent clinical syndromes. The presentation is influenced by the degree to which the girl may have participated in ongoing incestuous behaviour as opposed to being the presumed victim of an older adult's coercive actions or her own temporary suspension of a behavioural taboo. Research is inconclusive as to the psychological harmfulness of incestuous behaviour, and evidence is reviewed on both sides of this complicated and controversial question. Quite apart from the general issue of the harmfulness of incest, a number of indicators can be derived from the nature of the incestuous episode and the early response to therapeutic assessment which aid in the clinical forecasting of probable outcome.

  20. Islam and harm reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamarulzaman, A; Saifuddeen, S M

    2010-03-01

    Although drugs are haram and therefore prohibited in Islam, illicit drug use is widespread in many Islamic countries throughout the world. In the last several years increased prevalence of this problem has been observed in many of these countries which has in turn led to increasing injecting drug use driven HIV/AIDS epidemic across the Islamic world. Whilst some countries have recently responded to the threat through the implementation of harm reduction programmes, many others have been slow to respond. In Islam, The Quran and the Prophetic traditions or the Sunnah are the central sources of references for the laws and principles that guide the Muslims' way of life and by which policies and guidelines for responses including that of contemporary social and health problems can be derived. The preservation and protection of the dignity of man, and steering mankind away from harm and destruction are central to the teachings of Islam. When viewed through the Islamic principles of the preservation and protection of the faith, life, intellect, progeny and wealth, harm reduction programmes are permissible and in fact provide a practical solution to a problem that could result in far greater damage to the society at large if left unaddressed. Copyright (c) 2009. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. BAERLIN2014 – the influence of land surface types on and the horizontal heterogeneity of air pollutant levels in Berlin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Bonn

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Urban air quality and human health are among the key aspects of future urban planning. In order to address pollutants such as ozone and particulate matter, efforts need to be made to quantify and reduce their concentrations. One important aspect in understanding urban air quality is the influence of urban vegetation which may act as both emitter and sink for trace gases and aerosol particles. In this context, the "Berlin Air quality and Ecosystem Research: Local and long-range Impact of anthropogenic and Natural hydrocarbons 2014" (BAERLIN2014 campaign was conducted between 2 June and 29 August in the metropolitan area of Berlin and Brandenburg, Germany. The predominant goals of the campaign were (1 the characterization of urban gaseous and particulate pollution and its attribution to anthropogenic and natural sources in the region of interest, especially considering the connection between biogenic volatile organic compounds and particulates and ozone; (2 the quantification of the impact of urban vegetation on organic trace gas levels and the presence of oxidants such as ozone; and (3 to explain the local heterogeneity of pollutants by defining the distribution of sources and sinks relevant for the interpretation of model simulations. In order to do so, the campaign included stationary measurements at urban background station and mobile observations carried out from bicycle, van and airborne platforms. This paper provides an overview of the mobile measurements (Mobile BAERLIN2014 and general conclusions drawn from the analysis. Bicycle measurements showed micro-scale variations of temperature and particulate matter, displaying a substantial reduction of mean temperatures and particulate levels in the proximity of vegetated areas compared to typical urban residential area (background measurements. Van measurements extended the area covered by bicycle observations and included continuous measurements of O3, NOx, CO, CO2 and point

  2. BAERLIN2014 - the influence of land surface types on and the horizontal heterogeneity of air pollutant levels in Berlin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonn, Boris; von Schneidemesser, Erika; Andrich, Dorota; Quedenau, Jörn; Gerwig, Holger; Lüdecke, Anja; Kura, Jürgen; Pietsch, Axel; Ehlers, Christian; Klemp, Dieter; Kofahl, Claudia; Nothard, Rainer; Kerschbaumer, Andreas; Junkermann, Wolfgang; Grote, Rüdiger; Pohl, Tobias; Weber, Konradin; Lode, Birgit; Schönberger, Philipp; Churkina, Galina; Butler, Tim M.; Lawrence, Mark G.

    2016-06-01

    Urban air quality and human health are among the key aspects of future urban planning. In order to address pollutants such as ozone and particulate matter, efforts need to be made to quantify and reduce their concentrations. One important aspect in understanding urban air quality is the influence of urban vegetation which may act as both emitter and sink for trace gases and aerosol particles. In this context, the "Berlin Air quality and Ecosystem Research: Local and long-range Impact of anthropogenic and Natural hydrocarbons 2014" (BAERLIN2014) campaign was conducted between 2 June and 29 August in the metropolitan area of Berlin and Brandenburg, Germany. The predominant goals of the campaign were (1) the characterization of urban gaseous and particulate pollution and its attribution to anthropogenic and natural sources in the region of interest, especially considering the connection between biogenic volatile organic compounds and particulates and ozone; (2) the quantification of the impact of urban vegetation on organic trace gas levels and the presence of oxidants such as ozone; and (3) to explain the local heterogeneity of pollutants by defining the distribution of sources and sinks relevant for the interpretation of model simulations. In order to do so, the campaign included stationary measurements at urban background station and mobile observations carried out from bicycle, van and airborne platforms. This paper provides an overview of the mobile measurements (Mobile BAERLIN2014) and general conclusions drawn from the analysis. Bicycle measurements showed micro-scale variations of temperature and particulate matter, displaying a substantial reduction of mean temperatures and particulate levels in the proximity of vegetated areas compared to typical urban residential area (background) measurements. Van measurements extended the area covered by bicycle observations and included continuous measurements of O3, NOx, CO, CO2 and point-wise measurement of volatile

  3. Arctic smoke record high air pollution levels in the European Arctic due to agricultural fires in Eastern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stohl, A.; Berg, T.; Burkhart, J. F.; Fjæraa, A. M.; Forster, C.; Herber, A.; Hov, Ø.; Lunder, C.; McMillan, W. W.; Oltmans, S.; Shiobara, M.; Simpson, D.; Solberg, S.; Stebel, K.; Ström, J.; Tørseth, K.; Treffeisen, R.; Virkkunen, K.; Yttri, K. E.

    2006-10-01

    In spring 2006, the European Arctic was abnormally warm, setting new historical temperature records. During this warm period, smoke from agricultural fires in Eastern Europe intruded into the European Arctic and caused the most severe air pollution episodes ever recorded there. This paper confirms that biomass burning (BB) was indeed the source of the observed air pollution, studies the transport of the smoke into the Arctic, and presents an overview of the observations taken during the episode. Fire detections from the MODIS instruments aboard the Aqua and Terra satellites were used to estimate the BB emissions. The FLEXPART particle dispersion model was used to show that the smoke was transported to Spitsbergen and Iceland, which was confirmed by MODIS retrievals of the aerosol optical depth (AOD) and AIRS retrievals of carbon monoxide (CO) total columns. Concentrations of halocarbons, carbon dioxide and CO, as well as levoglucosan and potassium, measured at Zeppelin mountain near NyÅlesund, were used to further corroborate the BB source of the smoke at Spitsbergen. The ozone (O3) and CO concentrations were the highest ever observed at the Zeppelin station, and gaseous elemental mercury was also enhanced. A new O3 record was also set at a station on Iceland. The smoke was strongly absorbing - black carbon concentrations were the highest ever recorded at Zeppelin -, and strongly perturbed the radiation transmission in the atmosphere: aerosol optical depths were the highest ever measured at NyÅlesund. We furthermore discuss the aerosol chemical composition, obtained from filter samples, as well as the aerosol size distribution during the smoke event. Photographs show that the snow at a glacier on Spitsbergen became discolored during the episode and, thus, the snow albedo was reduced. Samples of this polluted snow contained strongly enhanced levels of potassium, sulphate, nitrate and ammonium ions, thus relating the discoloration to the deposition of the smoke

  4. Assessment of heavy metal pollution in drinking water due to mining ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mining and smelting activities are the main causes for the increasing pollution of heavy metals from water sources. The toxicity of these heavy metals from the mining, milling and smelting companies can cause harmful and even lethal effects on the human health. The objective of this study was to investigate the level of As, ...

  5. Optical Estimation on Pollution Level of Respirable Dust Based on Infrared Transmitting Behavior in Coalmine Fully Mechanized Working Face

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Zheng Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Respirable coal particle generated during underground mining is the main cause for gas-dust explosions and coal workers’ pneumoconiosis (CWP which needs accurate monitoring especially on its concentration. Focusing on the coal dust pollution in the fully mechanized working face of Huangbaici coalmine, coal particle was sampled for further industrial analysis and FT-IR test to obtain its chemical composition and optical constant. Combined with the simulated spatial distribution of airborne dust, the spectral transmission characteristics of coal dust within wavelengths of 2.5 to 25 μm under different operating conditions were obtained. The simulation results show that the transmittance and aerosol optical depth (AOD of coal dust are closely linked and obviously influenced by the variation of dust generation source (intensity of dust release, position of coal cutting, and the wetting of the coal seam and airflow field (wind speed and direction of ventilation. Furthermore, an optical channel of 1260–1280 cm−1 (7.937–7.813 μm which is almost only sensitive to the variation of dust concentration but dull to the diameter change of coal dust was selected to establish the correlation of dust concentration and infrared transmittance. The fitting curve was then applied to retrieve the equivalent dust concentration based on optical information, and the comparison results demonstrate that the estimated pollution level is consistent with field measurement data in engineering practice.

  6. The significance of vehicle emissions standards for levels of exhaust pollution from light vehicles in an urban area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhys-Tyler, G. A.; Legassick, W.; Bell, M. C.

    2011-06-01

    This paper addresses the research question "Are more stringent exhaust emissions standards, as applied to light vehicle type approval, resulting in reduced vehicle pollution in an urban area?" The exhaust emissions of a sample of over fifty thousand road vehicles operating in London were measured using roadside remote sensing absorption spectroscopy techniques (infrared and ultraviolet), combined with Automatic Number Plate Recognition for vehicle identification. Levels of carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC), nitric oxide (NO), and smoke (particulate) exhaust emissions are reported by vehicle class, fuel type, and Euro emissions standard. Emissions from petrol cars of each pollutant were all observed to display a statistically significant reduction with the introduction of each successive Euro emissions standard from Euro 1 onwards. However, Euro 2 diesel cars were observed to emit statistically higher rates of NO than either Euro 1 or Euro 3 standard diesel cars. The study also confirms the continuing 'dieselisation' of the UK passenger car fleet. Mean NO emissions from Euro 4 diesel cars were found to be 6 times higher than Euro 4 petrol cars, highlighting the need to develop a sound understanding of the current and future 'in-use' emissions characteristics of diesel vehicles, and their influence on local air quality. Smoke emissions from TXII London taxis (black cabs) were found to be statistically higher than either earlier TX1 or later TX4 model variants, with possible implications for local air quality policy interventions such as maximum age limits for taxis.

  7. Validation of the Short Gambling Harm Screen (SGHS): A Tool for Assessment of Harms from Gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Matthew; Goodwin, Belinda C; Rockloff, Matthew J

    2017-06-03

    It is common for jurisdictions tasked with minimising gambling-related harm to conduct problem gambling prevalence studies for the purpose of monitoring the impact of gambling on the community. However, given that both public health theory and empirical findings suggest that harms can occur without individuals satisfying clinical criteria of addiction, there is a recognized conceptual disconnect between the prevalence of clinical problem gamblers, and aggregate harm to the community. Starting with an initial item pool of 72 specific harms caused by problematic gambling, our aim was to develop a short gambling harms scale (SGHS) to screen for the presence and degree of harm caused by gambling. An Internet panel of 1524 individuals who had gambled in the last year completed a 72-item checklist, along with the Personal Wellbeing Index, the PGSI, and other measures. We selected 10 items for the SGHS, with the goals of maximising sensitivity and construct coverage. Psychometric analysis suggests very strong reliability, homogeneity and unidimensionality. Non-zero responses on the SGHS were associated with a large decrease in personal wellbeing, with wellbeing decreasing linearly with the number of harms indicated. We conclude that weighted SGHS scores can be aggregated at the population level to yield a sensitive and valid measure of gambling harm.

  8. Dietary and Socio-Demographic Determinants of Serum Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs Levels in Pregnant Women in Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bita Eslami

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the levels of Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs and Polybrominateddiphenyl ethers (PBDEs as persistent organic pollutants (POPs in serum of primiparous women at the third trimester of pregnancy and identify the main determinants of POPs levels such as socio-demographic, lifestyle, and diet in Tehran.Materials and methods: One- hundred eighty five serum samples from two simultaneous case-control studies were collected from September 2013 until August 2015.Ten most abundant PCB congeners (International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC congeners 28, 52, 74, 99, 101, 118, 138, 153, 180 and 187 as well as eight PBDE congeners (IUPAC congeners 28, 47, 99, 100, 153, 154, 183 and 209were analyzed by Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS. Multiple linear regression analysis was conducted to explain the relationship between total PCBs and total BPDEs and most detected congeners and some determinants, separately.Results: The mean (SD age of the participating women was 27.82 ± 5.24 years. The geometric mean (SD of total PCBs was 2.42 ± 2.26 and total PBDEs was 1.28 ± 1.41 ng/g lipid. Only the PCB 138, PCB 153 and PBDE 153 were detected in 100% of samples. We observed a significant relationship between the time of being indoors and total PBDEs (P = 0.03. Passive smoking was significantly associated with PCB 153 (P = 0.049. The results of the linear regression analysis showed the negative and weak association (P-value < 0.05 between diet (egg and fat and oil consumption and POPs in this population.Conclusion: It seems the most common route of exposure to PBDEs in our population is indoor pollutants. Meanwhile inhalation of smoke from environment is a route of exposure to PCB 153. Further study is needed to evaluate the effects of socio-demographics and especially dietary intake on POPs level.

  9. Types of gambling and levels of harm: A UK study to assess severity of presentation in a treatment-seeking population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronzitti, Silvia; Soldini, Emiliano; Lutri, Vittorio; Smith, Neil; Clerici, Massimo; Bowden-Jones, Henrietta

    2016-09-01

    Background and aim Previous international research emphasized that some forms of gambling are more "addictive" than others. More recently, research has shown that we should shift our attention from the type of gambling activity to the level of involvement in a number of different gambling activities. The aim of our study was to verify whether a higher Problem Gambling Severity Index (PGSI) score was associated with particular gambling activities and evaluate the impact of involvement on gambling behavior. Methods A total of 736 treatment-seeking individuals with gambling disorder were assessed at the National Problem Gambling Clinic in London. First, the independent two-sample t-test and the Mann-Whitney test were used to verify if the PGSI score changed significantly according to the gambling activity at a bivariate level. Second, we conducted a cluster analysis and finally, we fitted a linear regression model in order to verify if some variables are useful to predict gambling addiction severity. Results The PGSI score was significantly higher for lower stakes gaming machine gamblers (1% significance level) and for fixed-odds betting terminal (FOBT) gamblers (5% significance level) at a bivariate level. Moreover, such finding was confirmed by cluster and linear regression analyses. Conclusions The results of this study indicated that gambling addiction severity was related to gambling involvement and, for a given level of gambling involvement, gambling addiction severity may vary according to gambling type, with a particularly significant increase for FOBT and gaming machine gambling.

  10. Pollution management system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    A pollution management system comprises an array of one or more inlets and at least one outlet. The one or more inlets are arranged to collect polluted air and supply said polluted air to a polluted air treatment element. The one or more inlets each comprise a respective inlet sensor for measuring...... a level of pollution at the inlet, and the at least one outlet comprises an outlet sensor for measuring a level of pollution at the outlet. The inlet sensors and the outlet sensor are arranged to provide feedback to the polluted air treatment element....

  11. The effect of paranoia on the judging of harmful events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Daniel; Evans, Nicole; Černis, Emma; Lister, Rachel; Dunn, Graham

    2015-01-01

    Social psychological research has indicated that intentional harm may be perceived as causing greater damage than unintentional harm. It has been proposed that this harm magnification is a consequence of a need to blame, condemn and punish ("blame motivation"). The objective of the current study was to replicate these findings and to test whether such judgements about harmful events are associated with the level of an individual's paranoia. Three hundred adults read a scenario in which a head of a company causes a reduction in employees' pay. Participants were randomly allocated to versions in which the outcome of the executive's action was intended or unintended. Ratings were made of intent, harm caused and blame motivation. Participants also completed assessments of paranoia and anxiety. Intentional harm was judged as causing worse outcomes than unintentional harm, explaining a small amount of variance in harm scores. Paranoia moderated judgements of intent and blame motivation but not the degree of harm caused; high paranoia, relative to low paranoia, was associated with the unintentional scenario generating higher attributions of intent and blame and the intentional scenario generating lower attributions of intent and blame. Anxiety levels did not affect judgements. The study supports the theory that there is a reasoning bias that magnifies the consequences of intentional harm relative to unintentional harm. In the initial judgement about intent, people with paranoia are less accurate in their use of contextual information.

  12. Association between changes in air pollution levels during the Beijing Olympics and biomarkers of inflammation and thrombosis in healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, David Q; Kipen, Howard M; Huang, Wei; Wang, Guangfa; Wang, Yuedan; Zhu, Ping; Ohman-Strickland, Pamela; Hu, Min; Philipp, Claire; Diehl, Scott R; Lu, Shou-En; Tong, Jian; Gong, Jicheng; Thomas, Duncan; Zhu, Tong; Zhang, Junfeng Jim

    2012-05-16

    Air pollution is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVD), but the underlying biological mechanisms are not well understood. To determine whether markers related to CVD pathophysiological pathways (biomarkers for systemic inflammation and thrombosis, heart rate, and blood pressure) are sensitive to changes in air pollution. Using a quasi-experimental opportunity offered by greatly restricted air pollution emissions during the Beijing Olympics, we measured pollutants daily and the outcomes listed below in 125 healthy young adults before, during, and after the 2008 Olympics (June 2-October 30). We used linear mixed-effects models to estimate the improvement in outcome levels during the Olympics and the anticipated reversal of outcome levels after pollution controls ended to determine whether changes in outcome levels were associated with changes in pollutant concentrations. C-reactive protein (CRP), fibrinogen, von Willebrand factor, soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L), soluble P-selectin (sCD62P) concentrations; white blood cell count (WBC); heart rate; and blood pressure. Concentrations of particulate and gaseous pollutants decreased substantially (-13% to -60%) from the pre-Olympic period to the during-Olympic period. Using 2-sided tests conducted at the .003 level, we observed statistically significant improvements in sCD62P levels by -34.0% (95% CI, -38.4% to -29.2%; P Olympic mean of 6.29 ng/mL to a during-Olympic mean of 4.16 ng/mL and von Willebrand factor by -13.1% (95% CI, -18.6% to -7.5%; P Olympic period when pollutant concentrations increased, most outcomes approximated pre-Olympic levels, but only sCD62P and systolic blood pressure were significantly worsened from the during-Olympic period. The fraction of above-detection-limit values for CRP (percentage ≥ 0.3 mg/L) was reduced from 55% in the pre-Olympic period to 46% in the during-Olympic period and reduced further to 36% in the post-Olympic period. Interquartile range increases in pollutant

  13. 10 Year trend of levels of organochlorine pollutants in Antarctic seabirds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brink, van den N.W.

    2003-01-01

    Contaminants like PCBs and DDE have hardly been used Antarctica. Hence, this is an excellent place to monitor global background levels of these organochlorines. In this project concentrations in penguins and petrels will be compared to 10 years ago, which will show time trends of global background

  14. Casting light on harm reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jourdan, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Background: Harm reduction is commonly regarded as complementary to other drug problem responses - as the fourth tier. Yet even core examples of harm reduction such as the provision of injection equipment and methadone treatment has over and over encountered considerable opposition, and harm redu...

  15. Alcohol harm reduction in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herring, Rachel; Betsy, Thom; Beccaria, Franca

    2010-01-01

    The EMCDDA’s 10th scientific monograph, entitled Harm reduction: evidence, impacts and challenges provides a comprehensive overview of the harm reduction field. Part I of the monograph looks back at the emergence of harm reduction approaches and their diffusion, and explores the concept from diff...

  16. Short Lived Climate Pollutants cause a Long Lived Effect on Sea-level Rise: Analyzing climate metrics for sea-level rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterner, E.; Johansson, D. J.

    2013-12-01

    Climate change depends on the increase of several different atmospheric pollutants. While long term global warming will be determined mainly by carbon dioxide, warming in the next few decades will depend to a large extent on short lived climate pollutants (SLCP). Reducing emissions of SLCPs could contribute to lower the global mean surface temperature by 0.5 °C already by 2050 (Shindell et al. 2012). Furthermore, the warming effect of one of the most potent SLCPs, black carbon (BC), may have been underestimated in the past. Bond et al. (2013) presents a new best estimate of the total BC radiative forcing (RF) of 1.1 W/m2 (90 % uncertainty bounds of 0.17 to 2.1 W/m2) since the beginning of the industrial era. BC is however never emitted alone and cooling aerosols from the same sources offset a majority of this RF. In the wake of calls for mitigation of SLCPs it is important to study other aspects of the climate effect of SLCPs. One key impact of climate change is sea-level rise (SLR). In a recent study, the effect of SLCP mitigation scenarios on SLR is examined. Hu et al (2013) find a substantial effect on SLR from mitigating SLCPs sharply, reducing SLR by 22-42% by 2100. We choose a different approach focusing on emission pulses and analyse a metric based on sea level rise so as to further enlighten the SLR consequences of SLCPs. We want in particular to understand the time dynamics of SLR impacts caused by SLCPs compared to other greenhouse gases. The most commonly used physical based metrics are GWP and GTP. We propose and evaluate an additional metric: The global sea-level rise potential (GSP). The GSP is defined as the sea level rise after a time horizon caused by an emissions pulse of a forcer to the sea level rise after a time horizon caused by an emissions pulse of a CO2. GSP is evaluated and compared to GWP and GTP using a set of climate forcers chosen to cover the whole scale of atmospheric perturbation life times (BC, CH4, N2O, CO2 and SF6). The study

  17. Blue sharks (Prionace glauca) as bioindicators of pollution and health in the Atlantic Ocean: Contamination levels and biochemical stress responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Luís M F; Nunes, Margarida; Marchand, Philippe; Le Bizec, Bruno; Mendes, Susana; Correia, João P S; Lemos, Marco F L; Novais, Sara C

    2016-09-01

    Marine ecosystems are constantly being threatened by contaminants produced by human activities. There is an urge to better understand their impacts on marine organisms and develop reliable tools for biomonitoring studies, while also assessing their potential impacts on human health. Given their position on top of food webs, sharks are particularly susceptible to bioaccumulation, making them potential sentinel species of marine contamination. The main objective of this study was to find suitable biomarkers for future marine pollution biomonitoring studies by correlating biochemical responses with tissue contaminant body burden in blue sharks (Prionace glauca), a species heavily caught and consumed by humans, while also addressing their general health. The chemical contaminants analysed comprised different persistent organic pollutants (POPs) families from polychlorinated compounds to brominated flame retardants (BFRs) and perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) and different trace and heavy metals. Concentrations of some contaminants in sharks' tissues were found to be above the legally allowed limits for human consumption. A canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) was performed and some strong associations were found between biochemical responses and contaminants' accumulation levels. DNA damage and lipid peroxidation levels, as well as the inhibition of the antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidase, were the main effects and consequences of contamination. The impact of contamination on these vital macromolecules underlines the suboptimal conditions of the sampled P. glauca, which can ultimately lead to the degradation of core ecological aspects, such as swimming, feeding, and reproduction. It can be concluded that P. glauca demonstrates great potential to be used as environmental sentinel and suitable biomarker candidates were identified in this work. Moreover, this study also highlights the risks that the consumption of blue shark derived products can pose to human

  18. Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal: An Exercise in Dealing with Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krow, Grant R.; Krow, Jessica B.

    1998-12-01

    A problem-based learning exercise based upon the need for society to dispose of low-level radioactive waste is presented. The exercise is structured as a classroom-centered group problem-based learning module, whose exploration will occupy at least two-three weeks of class time. The goals are to increase student understanding of chemistry and its relationship to ethics and political decision-making. The problem exploration uses information cards to facilitate peer-group teaching and learning.

  19. Effects of environmental lead pollution, smoking, and smokeless tobacco (Maras powder) use on blood lead level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Mustafa; Ekerbicer, Hasan Cetin; Ergun, Ufuk Guney; Kilinc, Metin

    2007-01-01

    One hundred sixty-four adult male volunteers (29 controls [Group 1] and 135 combi drivers) enrolled in the study. The combi drivers were divided into three groups as nonusers of either Maras powder or cigarette (Group 2), smokers (Group 3), and users of Maras powder (Group 4). Blood lead levels (BLLs) were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. BLL was detected as 2.8 +/- 2.3 microg/dL in Group 1 (n = 29); however, it was 3.5 +/- 1.6 microg/dL in Group 2 (n = 33), 3.8 +/- 2.4 microg/dL in Group 3 (n = 62), and 3.9 +/- 2.4 microg/dL in Group 4 (n = 40). BLL in Group 1 was found significantly lower than other groups (p powder by the drivers did not give rise to a marked difference on the BLLs (p > 0.05). BLL of (combi) drivers was detected to be significantly higher than nondrivers; however, it was still under the hazardous level of 10 microg/dL announced by WHO. Although there are publications reporting that usage of tobacco increases the level of lead in blood, both smoking and use of Maras powder did not affect BLL markedly in our study.

  20. [Air pollution and cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease: Epidemiologic data].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeller, Marianne; Giroud, Maurice; Royer, Clotilde; Benatru, Isabelle; Besancenot, Jean-Pierre; Rochette, Luc; Cottin, Yves

    2006-10-01

    Recent convergent data suggest that air pollution affects the risk of acute atherothrombotic events including both myocardial infarction and ischemic stroke. The principal epidemiologic studies begun in the 1990s first examined the respiratory effects of atmospheric pollution and then focused on how pollution peaks affected cardiovascular risk. These studies used data from large metropolitan areas in North America and Asia as well as several large European cities to demonstrate the clear existence of a relation between air pollution and cardio- and cerebrovascular mortality. They also observed an increase in hospital admissions for myocardial infarctions and cerebrovascular accidents on days with high air pollution levels. The pollutants involved have not yet been clearly designated, but it appears that fine suspended particulate matter (PM2.5) and gaseous pollutants such as ozone appear to contribute strongly to these harmful effects. A complete analysis of these data shows the need for a thorough evaluation of the cardio- and cerebrovascular risks associated with air pollution, especially in French metropolitan areas. Precise identification of those at high risk from specific pollutants is essential to improve targeting of prevention strategies.

  1. Population-Level Exposure to Particulate Air Pollution during Active Travel: Planning for Low-Exposure, Health-Promoting Cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankey, Steve; Lindsey, Greg; Marshall, Julian D

    2017-04-01

    Providing infrastructure and land uses to encourage active travel (i.e., bicycling and walking) are promising strategies for designing health-promoting cities. Population-level exposure to air pollution during active travel is understudied. Our goals were a ) to investigate population-level patterns in exposure during active travel, based on spatial estimates of bicycle traffic, pedestrian traffic, and particulate concentrations; and b ) to assess how those exposure patterns are associated with the built environment. We employed facility-demand models (active travel) and land use regression models (particulate concentrations) to estimate block-level ( n = 13,604) exposure during rush-hour (1600-1800 hours) in Minneapolis, Minnesota. We used the model-derived estimates to identify land use patterns and characteristics of the street network that are health promoting. We also assessed how exposure is correlated with indicators of health disparities (e.g., household income, proportion of nonwhite residents). Our work uses population-level rates of active travel (i.e., traffic flows) rather than the probability of walking or biking (i.e., "walkability" or "bikeability") to assess exposure. Active travel often occurs on high-traffic streets or near activity centers where particulate concentrations are highest (i.e., 20-42% of active travel occurs on blocks with high population-level exposure). Only 2-3% of blocks (3-8% of total active travel) are "sweet spots" (i.e., high active travel, low particulate concentrations); sweet spots are located a ) near but slightly removed from the city-center or b ) on off-street trails. We identified 1,721 blocks (~ 20% of local roads) where shifting active travel from high-traffic roads to adjacent low-traffic roads would reduce exposure by ~ 15%. Active travel is correlated with population density, land use mix, open space, and retail area; particulate concentrations were mostly unchanged with land use. Public health officials and

  2. Is the fact of parenting couples cohabitation affecting the serum levels of persistent organohalogen pollutants?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Góralczyk, Katarzyna; Struciński, Paweł; Wojtyniak, Bogdan

    2015-01-01

    is an attempt to answer the question about relation between the fact of cohabitation by couples expecting a child and the level of the organohalogen compounds in the blood serum of both parents. The study was done on a population of parent couples from Greenland, Poland and Ukraine, from whom blood samples were...... in the blood serum of men and women in parenting couples. In some cases these correlations were statistically significant, e.g. for concentrations of p,p'-DDE in pairs from Greenland and Ukraine, of CB-153 in pairs from Poland and Ukraine, and of PFOS for parents from Greenland and Poland, while for PFOA...

  3. Evaluation of some pollutant levels in bitter orange trees: implications for human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva, Sabina Rossini; Valdés, Benito; Mingorance, Maria Dolores

    2008-01-01

    Samples of bitter orange (Citrus aurantium L.) fruits (epicarp and mesocarp), leaves and its fruit marmalade from sites in Seville (Andalucia, Spain) with different levels of traffic were analysed for Ba, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn concentrations by ICP/AES. Comparative values are given from a background area. The effect of washing on metal content in epicarp and leaves was investigated. Results revealed that Ba, Fe and Mn accumulated in leaves > epicarp > mesocarp, Cu and Ni in leaves > epicarp congruent withmesocarp and Zn leaves > mesocarp > epicarp. Washing had no significant effect on epicarp metal content while it removes part of Cu, Fe and Zn deposited on leaves. Bitter orange fruits are used mainly to make marmalade; artificial contamination effects on fruit composition were investigated and the dietary intake of the elements was determined. The citrus fruits sprayed with metal solution showed a significant increase in the studied elements compared to untreated fruits. The levels of all elements studied were lower than provisional tolerable daily intake values indicating that bitter orange marmalade consumption is safe for alimentary use. Bitter orange tree exhibit differences in metal content between fruits and leaves and fruits are safe for consumption.

  4. Public budgets for energy RD&D and the effects on energy intensity and pollution levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsalobre, Daniel; Álvarez, Agustín; Cantos, José María

    2015-04-01

    This study, based on the N-shaped cubic model of the environmental Kuznets curve, analyzes the evolution of per capita greenhouse gas emissions (GHGpc) using not just economic growth but also public budgets dedicated to energy-oriented research development and demonstration (RD&D) and energy intensity. The empirical evidence, obtained from an econometric model of fixed effects for 28 OECD countries during 1994-2010, suggests that energy innovations help reduce GHGpc levels and mitigate the negative impact of energy intensity on environmental quality. When countries develop active energy RD&D policies, they can reduce both the rates of energy intensity and the level of GHGpc emissions. This paper incorporates a moderating variable to the econometric model that emphasizes the effect that GDP has on energy intensity. It also adds a variable that reflects the difference between countries that have made a greater economic effort in energy RD&D, which in turn corrects the GHG emissions resulting from the energy intensity of each country.

  5. Investigation of Ground-Level Ozone and High-Pollution Episodes in a Megacity of Eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Heng; Wang, Shanshan; Wang, Wenxin; Liu, Rui; Zhou, Bin

    2015-01-01

    Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) was used for the long-term observation of ground-level ozone (O3) from March 2010 to March 2013 over Shanghai, China. The 1-hour average concentration of O3 was 27.2 ± 17.0 ppbv. O3 level increased during spring, reached the peak in late spring and early summer, and then decreased in autumn and finally dropped to the bottom in winter. The highest monthly average O3 concentration in June (41.1 ppbv) was nearly three times as high as the lowest level recorded in December (15.2 ppbv). In terms of pollution episodes, 56 hourly samples (on 14 separate days) in 2010 exceeded the 1-hour ozone limit of 200 μg/m3 specified by the Grade II of the Chinese Ambient Air Quality Standards (CAAQS, revised GB 3095-2012). Utilizing the Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model, the primary contribution to high ozone days (HODs) was identified as the regional transportation of volatile organic compounds (VOC) and high concentrations of O3 from the chemical industrial zone in the Jinshan district of Shanghai. HODs showed higher concentrations of HONO and NO2 than non-episode conditions, implying that HONO at high concentration during HODs was capable of increasing the O3 concentration. The photolysis rate of HONO was estimated, suggesting that the larger number of OH radicals resulting from high concentrations of HONO have a considerable impact on ozone concentrations.

  6. Association Between Changes in Air Pollution Levels During the Beijing Olympics and Biomarkers of Inflammation and Thrombosis in Healthy Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, David Q.; Kipen, Howard M.; Huang, Wei; Wang, Guangfa; Wang, Yuedan; Zhu, Ping; Ohman-Strickland, Pamela; Hu, Min; Philipp, Claire; Diehl, Scott R.; Lu, Shou-En; Tong, Jian; Gong, Jicheng; Thomas, Duncan; Zhu, Tong; Zhang, Junfeng (Jim)

    2014-01-01

    Context Air pollution is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVD), but the underlying biological mechanisms are not well understood. Objective To determine whether markers related to CVD pathophysiological pathways (biomarkers for systemic inflammation and thrombosis, heart rate, and blood pressure) are sensitive to changes in air pollution. Design, Setting, and Participants Using a quasi-experimental opportunity offered by greatly restricted air pollution emissions during the Beijing Olympics, we measured pollutants daily and the outcomes listed below in 125 healthy young adults before, during, and after the 2008 Olympics (June 2-October 30). We used linear mixed-effects models to estimate the improvement in outcome levels during the Olympics and the anticipated reversal of outcome levels after pollution controls ended to determine whether changes in outcome levels were associated with changes in pollutant concentrations. Main Outcome Measures C-reactive protein (CRP), fibrinogen, von Willebrand factor, soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L), soluble P-selectin (sCD62P) concentrations; white blood cell count (WBC); heart rate; and blood pressure. Results Concentrations of particulate and gaseous pollutants decreased substantially (−13% to −60%) from the pre-Olympic period to the during-Olympic period. Using 2-sided tests conducted at the .003 level, we observed statistically significant improvements in sCD62P levels by −34.0% (95% CI, −38.4% to −29.2%; Ppollutant concentrations increased, most outcomes approximated pre-Olympic levels, but only sCD62P and systolic blood pressure were significantly worsened from the during-Olympic period. The fraction of above-detection-limit values for CRP (percentage ≥0.3 mg/L) was reduced from 55% in the pre-Olympic period to 46% in the during-Olympic period and reduced further to 36% in the post-Olympic period. Interquartile range increases in pollutant concentrations were consistently associated with statistically

  7. Influence of biorhythms on sensitivity of Nerita to pollutants at Sublethal levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battershill, C.N.; Bergquist, P.R.

    1984-01-01

    Intrinsic rhythmic activity of Nerita (Melanerita) atramentosa melanotragus was assessed under constant laboratory conditions. Activity proved to be a sensitive indicator of toxicity, and was affected by low levels of a relatively new oil dispersing agent, Shell SD LTX. How the state of activity influenced animal sensitivity to Shell SD LTX and to an oil, Maui Condensate, was investigated using short-term recovery experiments. Nerita were most sensitive during their active phase, and results during this period differed significantly from tests carried out during the inactive phase of the animal. Dispersant/oil mixture proved to be highly toxic. These findings have ecological implications and permit comment relating to the design of sublethal toxicity tests. These subjects are discussed. 37 references, 3 figures, 2 tables.

  8. Responses to ozone pollution of alfalfa exposed to increasing salinity levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggio, Albino; Chiarandà, Fabrizio Quaglietta; Cefariello, Roberto; Fagnano, Massimo

    2009-05-01

    Stomatal closure and biosynthesis of antioxidant molecules are two fundamental components of the physiological machinery that lead to stress adaptation during plant's exposure to salinity. Since high stomatal resistance may also contribute in counteracting O(3) damages, we hypothesized that soil salinization may increase O(3) tolerance of crops. An experiment was performed with alfalfa grown in filtered (AOT40=0 in both years) and non-filtered (AOT40=9.7 in 2005 and 6.9 ppm h in 2006) open-top chambers. Alfalfa yield was reduced by O(3) (-33%) only in plants irrigated with salt-free water, while the increasing levels of soil salinity until 1.06 dS m(-1) reduced both stomatal conductance and plant O(3) uptake, thus linearly reducing O(3) effects on yield. Therefore a reliable flux-based model for assessing the effects of O(3) on crop yield should take into account soil salinity.

  9. Oxygen levels versus chemical pollutants: do they have similar influence on macrofaunal assemblages? A case study in a harbour with two opposing entrances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerra-Garcia, J.M. [Laboratorio de Biologia Marina, Departamento de Fisiologia y Zoologia, Facultad de Biologia, Universidad de Sevilla, Avda Reina Mercedes 6, 41012 Sevilla (Spain)]. E-mail: jmguerra@us.es; Garcia-Gomez, J.C. [Laboratorio de Biologia Marina, Departamento de Fisiologia y Zoologia, Facultad de Biologia, Universidad de Sevilla, Avda Reina Mercedes 6, 41012 Sevilla (Spain)

    2005-05-01

    Generally, harbours are polluted zones characterised by low values of hydrodynamism and oxygen in the water column and high concentrations of pollutants in sediments. The harbour of Ceuta, North Africa, has an unusual structure; it is located between two bays connected by a channel, which increases the water movement and exchange in the harbour, maintaining moderate oxygen levels in the water-sediment interface. Nevertheless, high concentration of organic matter, nutrients and heavy metals were measured in sediments from this harbour. Under these unusual conditions (high levels of pollution but total saturation of oxygen in the water column) we studied the responses of soft-bottom macrobenthic communities using uni and multivariate analyses. The number of species was similar inside and outside the harbour but the species composition differed between internal and external stations; oxygen levels seem to control the 'quantity' of species whereas pollutants control the 'quality' of them. - A high diversity of benthic animals was found in a polluted harbour where high oxygen levels occurred.

  10. Levels of Selected Persistent Organic Pollutants (PCB, PBDE and Pesticides in Honey Bee Pollen Sampled in Poland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Łukasz Roszko

    Full Text Available Chemical plant protection is a commonly discussed factor potentially responsible for decline in pollinators and other beneficial insect populations. Various groups of chemicals including persistent organic pollutants could impact a bee colony's welfare and are reported to be present in bee tissue and apiary products. The aim of this work was to evaluate the presence of selected persistent organic pollutant and pesticide residues in bee pollen originating from different geographical regions of Poland. Pesticide residues were identified in 60% of tested bee pollen samples. The compounds identified were mainly active ingredients of fungicide preparations. Insecticide active ingredients were up to 30% of the identified residues. The triazole fungicide tebuconazole and the neonicotinoid insecticide thiacloprid were the most frequently found pesticides in pollen. The highest pesticide concentration was determined for prothioconazole (356 μg kg-1. Mean concentrations of chlorinated biphenyls-EC6 and EC12 were 194 pg g-1 and 74 pg g-1, respectively. CB # 28 has the greatest share in the EC6 profile (mean 61 pg g-1, 31% contribution. Relatively high contributions were also observed for CBs # 101 (35 pg g-1, 18%, # 138 (36 pg g-1, 19% and # 153 (33 pg g-1, 17%. CB # 114 and 118 have the highest share in the dioxin-like biphenyls fraction with mean concentrations of 17.6 and 37.6 pg g-1 (respectively 23 and 50%. Mean calculated concentrations of 39 polybrominated diphenyl ether congeners (Σ39 BDE were 20 ± 27.7 pg g-1. High variability was observed between maximal and minimal determined concentration values. Individual BDEs were found at different frequencies and varying concentration levels. BDEs # 47, 75 and 99 dominated the profile with average concentrations of 3 pg g-1, 3.1 pg g-1, and 2.9 pg g-1, respectively.

  11. Investigation of Water Quality and Pollution Level of Lower Melet River, Ordu, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fikret USTAOĞLU

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Some water quality parameters of the Lower Melet River were determined by taking monthly samples, starting in October 2013 and end up in September 2014. The means obtained data were given as (min–max mean as follow; pH;(6.93 – 8.8 7.96, dissolved oxygen (DO;(5.4-15.4 11.4 mgL-1, saturation (%;(59-201 117, temperature;(4.6-27.2 14°C, total dissolved solid (TDS;(106-320 161 mgL-1, conductivity (EC;(124-520 216 µScm-1, salinity;(0-0.4 0.11 ppt, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5;(0.6-4.8 2.3 mgL-1, total alkalinity (TA;(55-100 79 mgL-1 CaCO3, total hardness (TH; (70-125 97 mgL-1 CaCO3, chlorophyll-a;(1.6-10.4 3.78 µgL-1, total ammonia nitrogen (TAN; (0.33-1.27 0.53 mgL-1, total phosphate (TP;(0.08-0.85 0.40 mgL-1 soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP; (0.01-0.12 0.04 mgL-1, chlorine;(0.04-0.75 0.19 mgL-1, silica;(2.37-6.08 4.51 mgL-1, phenol; (0.04-1.77 0.43 mgL-1, nitrite; (0.01-0.12 0.04 mgL-1, nitrate;(0.29-3.39 1.22 mgL-1, sulphite;(1.93-3.65 2.34 mgL-1, sulphate;(1.62-13.29 10.42 mgL-1, surfactant (anionic;(0.33-1.62 0.97 mgL-1, potassium;(2.75-15.4 7.2 mgL-1, total suspended solids (TSS;(8.45-147.7 49.75 mgL-1 , and redox potential ;(-156 / -28 -86.78 mV. Sediment organic matter % and pH were averaged as (2.9-9.1 5.77 and (6.71-8.3 7.53, respectively. Obtained data showed that the water quality of Melet River may suitable for irrigation but may not be a suitable living habitat for the living beings. According to the class of surface water quality regulation getting into the category of mild contaminated according it’s average total phosphate rate of 0.40 mgL-1, TAN level of 0.53 mgL-1, nitrite rate of 0.04 mgL-1 and severely contaminated according it’s average surfactant (anionic level of 0.97 mgL-1 and phenol level of 0.43 mgL-1.

  12. Biological control of Microcystis dominated harmful algal blooms ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Freshwater resources are now threatened by the presence and increase of harmful algal blooms (HAB) all over the world. The HABs are sometimes a direct result of anthropogenic pollution entering water bodies, such as partially treated nutrient-rich effluents and the leaching of fertilisers and animal wastes. The impact of ...

  13. Particle Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your Health Particle Pollution Public Health Issues Particle Pollution Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Particle pollution — ... see them in the air. Where does particle pollution come from? Particle pollution can come from two ...

  14. Pollution Level, Sources, and Lung Cancer Risk of PM10-Bound Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs in Summer in Nanjing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiqi Sun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study concentrated on the pollution level, sources, and lung cancer risk of PM10-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in summer in Nanjing, China. PM10 samples were collected in summer of the year 2015 in Nanjing. 16 USEPA (United States Environmental Protection Agency priority PAHs were extracted and analyzed after sampling. The mean concentrations of PAHs and BaPeq were 7.49±2.60 and 1.21±0.24 ng/m3, respectively, being in a middle level among results from regions worldwide. According to the results of diagnostic ratios, PAHs originated mainly from traffic exhaust, especially diesel vehicle emissions. Owing to the inhalation exposure, the median values of incremental lung cancer risk (ILCR were estimated to be 3.36×10-8, 2.50×10-8, 1.69×10-7, 2.54×10-8, 1.38×10-7, 1.18×10-7, 1.27×10-7, and 1.11×10-7 for boys, male adolescents, male adults, male seniors, girls, female adolescents, female adults, and female seniors, respectively, indicating low potential lung cancer risk.

  15. European rating of drug harms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Amsterdam, Jan; Nutt, David; Phillips, Lawrence; van den Brink, Wim

    2015-06-01

    The present paper describes the results of a rating study performed by a group of European Union (EU) drug experts using the multi-criteria decision analysis model for evaluating drug harms. Forty drug experts from throughout the EU scored 20 drugs on 16 harm criteria. The expert group also assessed criteria weights that would apply, on average, across the EU. Weighted averages of the scores provided a single, overall weighted harm score (range: 0-100) for each drug. Alcohol, heroin and crack emerged as the most harmful drugs (overall weighted harm score 72, 55 and 50, respectively). The remaining drugs had an overall weighted harm score of 38 or less, making them much less harmful than alcohol. The overall weighted harm scores of the EU experts correlated well with those previously given by the UK panel. The outcome of this study shows that the previous national rankings based on the relative harms of different drugs are endorsed throughout the EU. The results indicates that EU and national drug policy measures should focus on drugs with the highest overall harm, including alcohol and tobacco, whereas drugs such as cannabis and ecstasy should be given lower priority including a lower legal classification. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. Assessing heavy metal pollution in the water level fluctuation zone of China's Three Gorges Reservoir using geochemical and soil microbial approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Chen; Li, Siyue; Zhang, Yulong; Tong, Xunzhang; Zhang, Quanfa

    2013-01-01

    The water level fluctuation zone (WLFZ) in the Three Gorges Reservoir is located in the intersection of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, and assessing heavy metal pollution in the drown zone is critical for ecological remediation and water conservation. In this study, soils were collected in June and September 2009 in natural recovery area and revegetation area of the WLFZ, and geochemical approaches including geoaccumulation index (I (geo)) and factor analysis and soil microbial community structure were applied to assess the spatial variability and evaluate the influence of revegetation on metals in the WLFZ. Geochemical approaches demonstrated the moderate pollutant of Cd, the slight pollutant of Hg, and four types of pollutant sources including industrial and domestic wastewater, natural rock weathering, traffic exhaust, and crustal materials in the WLFZ. Our results also demonstrated significantly lower concentrations for elements of As, Cd, Pb, Zn, and Mn in the revegetation area. Moreover, soil microbial community structure failed to monitor the heavy metal pollution in such a relatively clean area. Our results suggest that revegetation plays an important role in controlling heavy metal pollution in the WLFZ of the Three Gorges Reservoir, China.

  17. The influence of economic parameters on the level of light pollution: Causes, consequences and solutions for the improvement of the environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majhenšek Katarina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to raise the awareness of the importance of light pollution as an essential, but neglected factor that impacts the living and the built environment. One of the main causes of light pollution is the continual economic growth of the cities. Two studies have been presented with an aim of clarifying the attempts made so far in establishing the way population growth and living standards affect light pollution. The unique contribution of this paper is that the correlation between the economic parameters that imply a certain living standard of a country to the level of its light pollution is analysed using the Pearson Correlation Coefficient. For the first time a very accurate VIIRS (Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite is used for the measurements of light radiation in order to determine such a correlation. The analysis takes into account the African continent as one of the poorest parts of the world, and Europe, as one of the richest continents. The consequences of light pollution and some ways of reducing and minimizing it have been explained through case studies. The paper highlights the need for change in local authorities' approach to solving the problem of light pollution, raising citizens' awareness of the issue, as well as proposing zoning parameters in lighting design of public spaces.

  18. Air pollution and blood lipid markers levels: Estimating short and long-term effects on elderly hypertension inpatients complicated with or without type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Sanhua; Liu, Ranran; Wei, Youxiu; Feng, Lin; Lv, Xuemin; Tang, Fei

    2016-08-01

    With the development of society and the economy, many Chinese cities are shrouded in pollution haze for much of the year. Scientific studies have identified various adverse effects of air pollutants on human beings. However, the relationships between air pollution and blood lipid levels are still unclear. The objective of this study is to explore the short and long-term effects of air pollution on eight blood lipid markers among elderly hypertension inpatients complicated with or without type 2 diabetes (T2D). Blood lipid markers which met the pre-established inclusion criteria were exported from the medical record system. Air pollution data were acquired from the official environmental protection website. Associations between the air quality index and the blood lipid indexes were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and further Bonferroni correction. In an exposure time of 7 days or longer, blood lipid markers were somewhat affected by poor air quality. However, the results could not predict whether atherosclerosis would be promoted or inhibited by poorer air condition. Changes of blood lipid markers of hypertension inpatients with or without T2D were not completely the same, but no blood lipid markers had an opposite trend between the two populations. The air quality index was associated with changes to blood lipid markers to some extent in a population of hypertension inpatients with or without T2D. Further studies are needed to investigate the potential mechanism by which air pollutants induce blood lipids changes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Derivation of Threshold Values for Groundwater in Romania, in order to distinguish Point & Diffuse pollution from natural background levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schipper, P.N.M.; Radu, E.; Vliegenthart, F.; Balaet, R.

    2010-01-01

    Romania aims to adopt and implement the European Union's legislation, also including that for the field of water management. Like other countries, groundwater in Romania is locally polluted from point sources, such as leaking landfills, as well as from diffuse pollution sources, include fertilizers,

  20. Measurement of Pollution Levels Caused by Heavy Metals of Vanadium, Nickel, Lead and Copper Using Bivalve Shells of Timoclea imbricata Species On Bahrakan Coast in Spring 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moosavian

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Bivalves have been used to study pollution level caused by heavy metals due to their biological characteristics. Bahrakan region includes Bahrakansar, Hendijan, Norouz and Soroush oil fields, and current information regarding sea management, especially from the protective aspect is very little. Objectives This study aimed to assess region pollution with heavy metals. For this purpose, pollution caused by heavy metals in bivalves was assessed and compared with the standard values. Materials and Methods Bivalve sampling was performed using Grab to determine the pollution content with heavy metals of vanadium, nickel, lead and copper in five different stations on 15 samples (3 samples for each station in spring 2013. The digestion process was completed using the Yap method, then the concentrations of mentioned metals were measured using the ICP device in each of digested samples. Results Nickel (13.12 ± 6.07 mg/kg had the highest total average concentration and the lowest for lead (1.15 ± 0.28 mg/kg. Concentrations of nickel, vanadium and lead were higher than the WHO international standards, but much lower for copper regarding the same standards. Concentrations of nickel and vanadium were higher than copper compared to FAO, but lower than lead regarding the presented allowable limit. Conclusions Nickel and vanadium had the highest concentration among other metals. Since these two metals are used as oil pollution parameters and the region is rich in oil, it can be concluded that oil pollution is present in the region. The existing oil pollution threatens all the living organisms in the area. Therefore, it would be of great importance to examine pollution sources of this region. The results can be used to constantly monitor the amount of heavy metals in bivalves of Timoclea imbricate species in this region.

  1. [What is self-harm?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommerfeldt, Bente; Skårderud, Finn

    2009-04-16

    The aim with this article is to provide an introduction to self-harm as a clinical phenomenon, with phenomenological descriptions and definitions, and by presenting risk factors, epidemiological data and functions of self-harm. The basis for the article is a non-systematic literature search of the electronic databases Medline, PsychInfo and EMBASE (1985 - 2008). and our own archive of literature on self-harm. There is some evidence for an increase in the prevalence of self-harm. Among possible risk factors are childhood abuse, abandonment, neglect, trauma and separation, and the affective quality of the attachment bonds in childhood. A common factor is self-harm as a bodily practice for affect regulation, and as such, it can be understood as a dysfunctional competence. To search for understanding of self-harm in individual, familiar and cultural contexts contributes to meet individuals with such tendencies with empathy and beneficial interventions.

  2. Environmental Health: High-level Strategy and Leadership Needed to Continue Progress toward Protecting Children from Environmental Threats. Report to Congressional Requesters. GAO-10-205

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, John B.

    2010-01-01

    Exposure to toxic chemicals or environmental pollutants may harm the health of the nation's 74 million children and contribute to increases in asthma and developmental impairments. In 2007, 66 percent of children lived in counties exceeding allowable levels for at least one of the six principal air pollutants that cause or aggravate asthma,…

  3. A novel approach to produce road-level inventories of on-road greenhouse gas and air pollutant emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, J.; Butenhoff, C. L.

    2015-12-01

    Emissions inventories are an important tool often built by governments tomanage and assess greenhouse gases and other air pollutants. High resolutioninventories, both in space and time, are necessary to capture localcharacteristics of on-road transportation emissions in particular. Emissionsvary widely due to the local nature of the fleet, fuel, and roads and thisheterogeneity must inform effective emissions modeling on the urban level. Inaddition, widespread availability of low-cost computing now makes highresolution climate and air quality modeling feasible, but efforts to improveinventories have not kept pace. There currently is a lack of inventories atcomparable resolutions. This motivated similar work such as the VULCAN projectwhich used county-level data to estimate on-road emissions. We are motivatedto improve upon this by using site-level traffic count data where available.Here we show a new high resolution model of CO2 emissions for the Portland,OR metropolitan region. The backbone is an archive of traffic counterrecordings taken by the Portland Bureau of Transportation intermittently at9,352 sites over 21 years and continuing today (1986-2006 data are summarizedhere) and by The Portland Regional Transportation Archive Listing at 309freeway sites. We constructed a regression model to fill in traffic networkgaps using GIS data such as road class and population density. After stepwisetesting of each of eighteen road classes (from minor streets to freeway), wewere able to select ten variables that are significant (P traffic; particularly freeway, unimproved road, and minor streets. Themodel was tested by holding back one-third of the data. The R2 for the linearmodel (based on road class and land use) is 0.84. The EPA MOVES model was thenused to estimate transportation CO2 emissions using local fleet, traffic, andmeteorology data.

  4. Australians are not equally protected from industrial air pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobbie, B.; Green, D.

    2015-05-01

    Australian air pollution standards are set at national and state levels for a number of chemicals harmful to human health. However, these standards do not need to be met when ad hoc pollution licences are issued by state environment agencies. This situation results in a highly unequal distribution of air pollution between towns and cities, and across the country. This paper examines these pollution regulations through two case studies, specifically considering the ability of the regulatory regime to protect human health from lead and sulphur dioxide pollution in the communities located around smelters. It also considers how the proposed National Clean Air Agreement, once enacted, might serve to reduce this pollution equity problem. Through the case studies we show that there are at least three discrete concerns relating to the current licencing system. They are: non-onerous emission thresholds for polluting industry; temporal averaging thresholds masking emission spikes; and ineffective penalties for breaching licence agreements. In conclusion, we propose a set of new, legally-binding national minimum standards for industrial air pollutants must be developed and enforced, which can only be modified by more (not less) stringent state licence arrangements.

  5. Concentration Levels and Ecological Risks of Persistent Organic Pollutants in the Surface Sediments of Tianjin Coastal Area, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiaoxia; Chen, Chaoqi; Zhang, Shu; Hou, Zhen; Yang, Junjun

    2013-01-01

    Sediments were sampled from different surface water bodies in Tianjin coastal area, China, and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were measured using GC/MS or GC/ECD. The purposes were to investigate the concentration levels of the POPs and to assess their ecological risks. The results showed that all the 16 priority PAHs were detected from the 10 sediments sampled with the total concentrations of the 16 PAHs ranging from 274.06 μg/kg to 2656.65 μg/kg, while the concentrations of the halogenated POPs were generally low except in the Dagu waste discharging river where the total concentrations of 24 OCPs, 35 PCBs, and 14 PBDEs were 3103.36 μg/kg, 87.31 μg/kg, and 13.88 μg/kg, respectively. In the studied sediments, PAHs exhibited risks to benthonic organisms; particularly the concentrations of naphthalene and/or acenaphthene exceeded their probable effect concentrations in several locations. In comparison, only in the Dagu waste discharging river, OCPs exhibited risks with the concentrations of heptachlor epoxide and lindane exceeding their probable effect concentrations. PCBs and PBDEs posed rare risks in the studied area. PMID:23401668

  6. The association of daily sulfur dioxide air pollution levels with hospital admissions for cardiovascular diseases in Europe (The Aphea-II study)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sunyer, J; Ballester, F; Le Tertre, A; Atkinson, R; Ayres, JG; Forastiere, F; Forsberg, B; Vonk, JM; Bisanti, L; Tenias, JM; Medina, S; Schwartz, J; Katsouyvanni, K

    The objective of this study is to assess the short-term effect of sulfur dioxide (SO2) air pollution levels on hospital admissions for cardiovascular diseases. Daily mean hospital admissions for cardiovascular diseases, ischemic heart diseases (IHDs), and stroke in seven European areas (the cities

  7. Levels and profiles of persistent organic pollutants in resident and migratory birds from an urbanized coastal region of South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sang Hee; Shim, Won Joon; Han, Gi Myung; Ha, Sung Yong; Jang, Mi; Rani, Manviri; Hong, Sunwook; Yeo, Gwang Yeong

    2014-02-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) levels in resident and migratory birds collected from an urbanized coastal region of South Korea were investigated. As target species, resident birds that reside in different habitats-such as inland and coastal regions-were selected and their POP contamination status and accumulation features evaluated. Additionally, winter and summer migratory species were analysed for comparison with resident birds. Black-tailed gull and domestic pigeon were selected as the coastal and inland resident birds, respectively, and pacific loon and heron/egret were selected as the winter and summer migratory birds, respectively. The overall POP concentrations (unit: ng/g lipid) in resident birds were 14-131,000 (median: 13,400) for PCBs, 40-284,000 (11,200) for DDTs, resident birds, the overall level of POPs was higher in seagull compared to pigeon. The stable isotope ratio of nitrogen and carbon indicates that seagull occupies a higher trophic position in the environment than pigeon. However, the POP accumulation profiles in these species differed. Pigeon tends to accumulate more recently used POPs such as PBDEs than seagull. The high-brominated BDE congeners, γ-HBCDs and γ-HCH (also called lindane) were enriched in pigeon compared to seagull, implying the widespread use of Deca-BDE, technical HBCDs, and lindane in the terrestrial environment of South Korea. The different accumulation profile of POPs in both resident species would be related to their habitat difference and trophic positions. For urban resident bird such as pigeon, an intentional intake of dust or soils during feeding is likely to be an additional route of exposure to POPs. Resident birds generally accumulated higher POPs concentrations than migratory birds, the exceptions being relatively volatile compounds such as HCB, PeCB and HCHs. © 2013.

  8. Accumulation of background levels of persistent organochlorine and organobromine pollutants through the soil-earthworm-hedgehog food chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, F.; Covaci, A.; Havé, D' H.; Brink, van den N.W.; Blust, R.; Coen, De W.; Bervoets, L.

    2010-01-01

    The bioaccumulation of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and DDT and metabolites, was investigated in the soil–earthworm–hedgehog food chain. Concentrations of selected POPs were measured in soil and earthworms

  9. Organochlorine pesticide levels in Clarias gariepinus from polluted freshwater impoundments in South Africa and associated human health risks

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Barnhoorn, IEJ

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available There are increasing concerns regarding the safe human consumption of fish from polluted, freshwater impoundments. The aim of this study was to analyse the muscle tissue of the sharptooth catfish Clarias gariepinus for selected organo...

  10. Blood and urine levels of heavy metal pollutants in female and male patients with coronary artery disease

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sponder, Michael; Fritzer-Szekeres, Monika; Marculescu, Rodrig; Mittlböck, Martina; Uhl, Maria; Köhler-Vallant, Birgit; Strametz-Juranek, Jeanette

    2014-01-01

    Heavy metal pollutants such as cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and mercury (Hg) are rarely the subjects of cardiovascular research although they have been suspected for decades to negatively impact the circulatory system...

  11. Prenatal exposure to persistent organochlorine pollutants is associated with high insulin levels in 5-year-old girls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang-Péronard, Jeanett L.; Heitmann, Berit L.; Jensen, Tina K.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Several persistent organochlorine pollutants (POPs) possess endocrine disrupting abilities, thereby potentially leading to an increased risk of obesity and metabolic diseases, especially if the exposure occurs during prenatal life. We have previously found associations between prenatal...

  12. Application of Electrical Resistivity Data Sets for the Evaluation of the Pollution Concentration Level within Landfill Subsoil

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Eugeniusz Koda; Andrzej Tkaczyk; Mariusz Lech; Piotr Osiński

    2017-01-01

    The paper presents complex analyses of geophysical site investigation results. The electrical resistivity method was used to investigate the potential pollutant migration pathways within areas of existing and former landfill sites...

  13. An export coefficient based inexact fuzzy bi-level multi-objective programming model for the management of agricultural nonpoint source pollution under uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yanpeng; Rong, Qiangqiang; Yang, Zhifeng; Yue, Wencong; Tan, Qian

    2018-02-01

    In this research, an export coefficient based inexact fuzzy bi-level multi-objective programming (EC-IFBLMOP) model was developed through integrating export coefficient model (ECM), interval parameter programming (IPP) and fuzzy parameter programming (FPP) within a bi-level multi-objective programming framework. The proposed EC-IFBLMOP model can effectively deal with the multiple uncertainties expressed as discrete intervals and fuzzy membership functions. Also, the complexities in agricultural systems, such as the cooperation and gaming relationship between the decision makers at different levels, can be fully considered in the model. The developed model was then applied to identify the optimal land use patterns and BMP implementing levels for agricultural nonpoint source (NPS) pollution management in a subcatchment in the upper stream watershed of the Miyun Reservoir in north China. The results of the model showed that the desired optimal land use patterns and implementing levels of best management of practices (BMPs) would be obtained. It is the gaming result between the upper- and lower-level decision makers, when the allowable discharge amounts of NPS pollutants were limited. Moreover, results corresponding to different decision scenarios could provide a set of decision alternatives for the upper- and lower-level decision makers to identify the most appropriate management strategy. The model has a good applicability and can be effectively utilized for agricultural NPS pollution management.

  14. A Study on the Measurement of the Pollution Level of Bacteria and Disinfection of Table and IP Cassette

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Seok Hwan; Lee, Moo Sik; Lim, Chang Seon; Kim, Gha Jung [Koyang University, Koyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-09-15

    For the number of microbes and the pollution level of bacteriology of IP Cassette and Table by laboratories, after identifying the bacteria before and after using alcohol and tissue including disinfectant and statistically testing, this research was intended to provide the basic data for the prevention and the right disinfection guideline for infection management of hospitals in diagnostic radiology. The subject of this research was the general room of diagnostic radiology of a university hospital in Daejeon City. The research was conducted from Apr 5 to Apr 12, 2007. The number of microbes and the pollution level of bacteriology of IP Cassette and Table by laboratories were tested before and after using alcohol and tissue for disinfection including disinfectant. In order to collect specimens exactly, they were collected with the nurse who specialized in infection management of the hospital, and statistical processing was done with SPSS V13.0. To compare the results before and after using alcohol and tissue, T-test was implemented, and post-hoc test was conducted. Bacteria were detected in 19 cases of 24 subjects(79.2%), however, they were not detected in 5 cases(20.8%). 7 kinds of bacteria were detected as isolated bacteria, of which Methicillin Resistant coagulase-negative Staphylococci(MRCNS) were detected in 15 cases(62.5%), which was most, Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus(MRSA) in 6 cases(16.7%), Enterococcus Faecium(EFM) in 5 cases(20.8%), Acinetobacter baumannii(ABA) in 2 cases(8.3%), and Bacillus sp, Coagulase-negative Staphylococci(CNS), and Enterococcus sp(ENT) in 1 case, respectively(4.2%). In all bacteria except ABA, Gram positive bacillia were detected in 30 cases(97%), and Gram negative bacilli were detected only in 1 case(3%). As for the kinds of bacteria and the number of groups before and after using 70% Alcohol by Groups, when the bacteria were identified after disinfecting IP Cassette and Table with 70% Alcohol, all the bacteria became

  15. Persistent organic pollutant levels in human visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue in obese individuals—Depot differences and dysmetabolism implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pestana, Diogo, E-mail: diogopestana@gmail.com [Department of Biochemistry (U38-FCT), Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto, Centro de Investigação Médica, P-4200-450 Porto (Portugal); CINTESIS—Center for Research in Health Technologies and Information Systems, P-4200-450 Porto (Portugal); Faria, Gil [General Surgery Department, S. João Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto, P-4200-450 Porto (Portugal); Sá, Carla [Department of Biochemistry (U38-FCT), Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto, Centro de Investigação Médica, P-4200-450 Porto (Portugal); Fernandes, Virgínia C. [Chemistry Investigation Centre (CIQ), Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of Porto, P-4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Requimte—Instituto Superior de Engenharia, Instituto Politécnico do Porto, P-4200-072 Porto (Portugal); Teixeira, Diana; Norberto, Sónia [Department of Biochemistry (U38-FCT), Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto, Centro de Investigação Médica, P-4200-450 Porto (Portugal); Faria, Ana [Department of Biochemistry (U38-FCT), Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto, Centro de Investigação Médica, P-4200-450 Porto (Portugal); Chemistry Investigation Centre (CIQ), Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of Porto, P-4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Faculty of Nutrition and Food Sciences, University of Porto, P-4200-465 Porto (Portugal); and others

    2014-08-15

    Background: The role of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) with endocrine disrupting activity in the aetiology of obesity and other metabolic dysfunctions has been recently highlighted. Adipose tissue (AT) is a common site of POPs accumulation where they can induce adverse effects on human health. Objectives: To evaluate the presence of POPs in human visceral (vAT) and subcutaneous (scAT) adipose tissue in a sample of Portuguese obese patients that underwent bariatric surgery, and assess their putative association with metabolic disruption preoperatively, as well as with subsequent body mass index (BMI) reduction. Methods: AT samples (n=189) from obese patients (BMI ≥35) were collected and the levels of 13 POPs were determined by gas chromatography with electron-capture detection (GC-ECD). Anthropometric and biochemical data were collected at the time of surgery. BMI variation was evaluated after 12 months and adipocyte size was measured in AT samples. Results: Our data confirm that POPs are pervasive in this obese population (96.3% of detection on both tissues), their abundance increasing with age (R{sub S}=0.310, p<0.01) and duration of obesity (R{sub S}=0.170, p<0.05). We observed a difference in AT depot POPs storage capability, with higher levels of ΣPOPs in vAT (213.9±204.2 compared to 155.1±147.4 ng/g of fat, p<0.001), extremely relevant when evaluating their metabolic impact. Furthermore, there was a positive correlation between POP levels and the presence of metabolic syndrome components, namely dysglycaemia and hypertension, and more importantly with cardiovascular risk (R{sub S}=0.277, p<0.01), with relevance for vAT (R{sub S}=0.315, p<0.01). Finally, we observed an interesting relation of higher POP levels with lower weight loss in older patients. Conclusion: Our sample of obese subjects allowed us to highlight the importance of POPs stored in AT on the development of metabolic dysfunction in a context of obesity, shifting the focus to their

  16. Modelling exposure of oceanic higher trophic-level consumers to polychlorinated biphenyls: pollution 'hotspots' in relation to mass mortality events of marine mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handoh, Itsuki C; Kawai, Toru

    2014-08-30

    Marine mammals in the past mass mortality events may have been susceptible to infection because their immune systems were suppressed through the bioaccumulation of environmental pollutants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). We compiled mortality event data sets of 33 marine mammal species, and employed a Finely-Advanced Transboundary Environmental model (FATE) to model the exposure of the global fish community to PCB congeners, in order to define critical exposure levels (CELs) of PCBs above which mass mortality events are likely to occur. Our modelling approach enabled us to describe the mass mortality events in the context of exposure of higher-trophic consumers to PCBs and to identify marine pollution 'hotspots' such as the Mediterranean Sea and north-western European coasts. We demonstrated that the CELs can be applied to quantify a chemical pollution Planetary Boundary, under which a safe operating space for marine mammals and humanity can exist. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Experimental exposure to cadmium affects metallothionein-like protein levels but not survival and growth in wolf spiders from polluted and reference populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eraly, Debbie, E-mail: debbie.eraly@ugent.b [Terrestrial Ecology Unit, Department of Biology, Ghent University, K.L. Ledeganckstraat 35, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Hendrickx, Frederik, E-mail: frederik.hendrickx@naturalsciences.b [Terrestrial Ecology Unit, Department of Biology, Ghent University, K.L. Ledeganckstraat 35, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences, Department of Entomology, Vautierstraat 29, 1000 Brussels (Belgium); Bervoets, Lieven, E-mail: lieven.bervoets@ua.ac.b [Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology Group, Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, 2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Lens, Luc, E-mail: luc.lens@ugent.b [Terrestrial Ecology Unit, Department of Biology, Ghent University, K.L. Ledeganckstraat 35, 9000 Ghent (Belgium)

    2010-06-15

    Both local adaptation and acclimation in tolerance mechanisms may allow populations to persist under metal pollution. However, both mechanisms are presumed to incur (energetic) costs and to trade-off with other life-history traits. To test this hypothesis, we exposed Pardosa saltans (Lycosidae) spiderlings originating from metal-polluted and unpolluted sites to a controlled cadmium (Cd) treatment, and compared contents of metal-binding metallothionein-like proteins (MTLPs), internal metal concentrations, and individual survival and growth rates with a reference treatment. While increased MTLP concentrations in offspring originating from both polluted and unpolluted populations upon exposure indicates a plastic tolerance mechanism, survival and growth rates remain largely unaffected, independent of the population of origin. However, MTLP and Cd concentrations were not significantly correlated. We suggest that MTLP production may be an important mechanism enabling P. saltans populations to persist in ecosystems polluted with heavy metals above a certain level. - Spiders from metal-polluted and unpolluted populations show a similar increase in MTLP production when exposed to Cd, with unaffected growth and survival.

  18. Air pollution engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maduna, Karolina; Tomašić, Vesna

    2017-11-01

    Air pollution is an environmental and a social problem which leads to a multitude of adverse effects on human health and standard of human life, state of the ecosystems and global change of climate. Air pollutants are emitted from natural, but mostly from anthropogenic sources and may be transported over long distances. Some air pollutants are extremely stable in the atmosphere and may accumulate in the environment and in the food chain, affecting human beings, animals and natural biodiversity. Obviously, air pollution is a complex problem that poses multiple challenges in terms of management and abatements of the pollutants emission. Effective approach to the problems of air pollution requires a good understanding of the sources that cause it, knowledge of air quality status and future trends as well as its impact on humans and ecosystems. This chapter deals with the complexities of the air pollution and presents an overview of different technical processes and equipment for air pollution control, as well as basic principles of their work. The problems of air protection as well as protection of other ecosystems can be solved only by the coordinated endeavors of various scientific and engineering disciplines, such as chemistry, physics, biology, medicine, chemical engineering and social sciences. The most important engineering contribution is mostly focused on development, design and operation of equipment for the abatement of harmful emissions into environment.

  19. Environmental air pollution and DNA adducts in Copenhagen bus drivers - effect of GSTM1 and NAT2 genotypes on adduct level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Sabro; de Pater, Nettie; Okkels, Henrik

    1996-01-01

    rural controls (0.074 fmol/microg DNA, n = 60, P metabolizing enzymes, GSTM1 and NAT2, on adduct levels was investigated. No statistically significant effects...... to levels of exposure to urban air pollution and indicated that these adducts might be helpful as a means of classifying better different exposure groups for epidemiological studies. Furthermore, it demonstrated the ability of 32P-postlabelling to discern small differences in low exposure to ambient air...

  20. Effect of the pollution level on the functional bacterial groups aiming at degrading bisphenol A and nonylphenol in natural biofilms of an urban river.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Wei; Li, Yi; Wang, Peifang; Niu, Lihua; Zhang, Wenlong; Wang, Chao

    2016-08-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) and 4-nonylphenol (NP) are ubiquitous pollutants with estrogenic activity in aquatic environment and have attracted global concern due to their disruption of endocrine systems. This study investigated the spatial distribution characteristics of the bacterial groups involved in the degradation of BPA and NP within biofilms in an urban river using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism based on 16S rRNA gene sequences. The effects of the pollution level and water parameters on these groups were also assessed. Hierarchical cluster analysis grouped the sampling sites into three clusters reflecting their varying nutrient pollution levels of relatively slight pollution (SP), moderate pollution (MP), and high pollution (HP) based on water quality data and Environmental Quality Standard for Surface Water of China (GB3838-2002). The BPA and NP concentration in river water ranged from 0.8 to 77.5 and 10.2 to 162.9 ng L(-1), respectively. Comamonadaceae, Pseudomonadaceae, Alcaligenaceae, Bacillaceae, Sphingomonadacea, Burkholderiaceae, and Rhizobiaceae were the dominant bacterial taxa involved in BPA and NP degradation, comprising an average of 9.8, 8.1, 7.6, 6.7, 6.2, 4.1, and 2.8 % of total sequences, respectively. The total abundance of these groups showed a slight upward trend and subsequently rapidly decreased with increasing pollution levels. The average proportion of Comamonadaceae in MP river sections was almost 1.5-2 times than that in SP or HP one. The distribution of functional groups was found related to environmental variables, especially pH, conductivity, ammonium nitrogen (NH3-N), and BPA. The abundance of Comamonadaceae and Rhizobiaceae was both closely related to higher values of pH and conductivity as well as lower concentrations of NP and BPA. Alcaligenaceae and Pseudomonadaceae were associated with higher concentrations of TP and CODMn and inversely correlated with DO concentration. This study might provide effective data on

  1. Electrokinetic treatment of polluted soil at pilot level coupled to an advanced oxidation process of its wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa, B.; Ramos, L.; Garibay, A.; Pérez-Corona, M.; Cuevas, M. C.; Cárdenas, J.; Teutli, M.; Bustos, E.

    2016-02-01

    Soil contaminated with hydrocarbons is a current problem of great importance. These contaminants may be toxic, can retain water and block gas exchange with the atmosphere, which produces a poor-quality soil unsuitable for ecological health. Electroremediation is among the treatments for the removal of such contaminants. In this research, a pilot-level electroremediation test was applied using a circular arrangement of electrodes with a Ti cathode at the middle of the cell surrounded by six IrO2-Ta2O5 | Ti anodes. The presence of an NaOH electrolyte helps to develop the electromigration and electro-osmosis of gasoline molecules (at 1126 mg kg-1) surrounded by Na+ ions. The hydrocarbons are directed towards the cathode and subsequently removed in an aqueous Na+ - hydrocarbon solution, and the -OH migrates to the anode. During electrokinetic treatment, the physicochemical characteristics of the soil close to either the cathode or anode and at the half-cell were evaluated during the three weeks of treatment. During that time, more than 80% of hydrocarbons were removed. Hydrocarbons removed by the electrokinetic treatment of gasoline-polluted soil were collected in a central wastewater compartment and subsequently treated with a Fenton-type advanced oxidation process. This achieved more than 70% mineralization of the hydrocarbons to CO2 and H2O within 1.5 h; its low toxicity status was verified using the Deltatox® kit test. With this approach, the residual water complied with the permissible limits of COD, pH, and electrical conductivity for being discharged into water bodies, according to Mexican norm NOM-001-SEMARNAT-1996.

  2. The pollution levels of BTEX and carbonyls under haze and non-haze days in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yujie; Mu, Yujing; Meng, Fan; Li, Hong; Wang, Xuezhong; Zhang, Weiqi; Mellouki, Abdelwahid; Gao, Jian; Zhang, Xinmin; Wang, Shulan; Chai, Fahe

    2014-08-15

    The North China Plain including Beijing is frequently suffering from serious haze days in recent years. To best recognize the influence of haze days on regional air quality, the pollution levels of deleterious gases of BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, m,p-xylene and o-xylene) and carbonyls (formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and acetone) under haze and non-haze days were contrastively investigated during the period of September 2008-August 2010 in Beijing. In comparison with non-haze days, remarkable enhancement of BTEX and the carbonyls under haze days in winter was found, with enhancement factors of 1.9-5.7 for BTEX and of 1.5-4.2 for the carbonyls. Whereas the enhancement factors for both BTEX (1.0-3.0) and the carbonyls (1.2-1.9) under haze days in summer were relatively small. The ratios of each BTEX to CO under both haze days and non-haze days exhibited a minimal value in the afternoon, whereas maximal values for the ratios of the carbonyls to CO were usually found in the afternoon. The ratios of each BTEX to CO were extremely greater under haze days than those under non-haze days in winter, but no evident difference was found in summer. The ratios of each carbonyl under both haze days and non-haze days in summer were at least a factor of 2 greater than those in winter and only enhancement of the ratios under haze days was found in winter. The remarkably higher ratios of ethylbenzene to m,p-xylene under haze days than non-haze days in both winter and summer revealed high reactivity of photochemical reactions initiated by OH radicals under haze days. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Perceived and measured levels of environmental pollution: interdisciplinary research in the subarctic lowlands of northeast European Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Tony R; Habeck, Joachim Otto; Karjalainen, Timo P; Virtanen, Tarmo; Solovieva, Nadia; Jones, Viv; Kuhry, Peter; Ponomarev, Vasily I; Mikkola, Kari; Nikula, Ari; Patova, Elena; Crittenden, Peter D; Young, Scott D; Ingold, Tim

    2006-08-01

    Using interdisciplinary field research in the Usa Basin, northeast European Russia, we compared local inhabitants' perception of environmental problems with chemical and remote-sensing signatures of environmental pollution and their local impacts. Extensive coal mining since the 1930s around Inta and Vorkuta has left a legacy of pollution, detected by measuring snowpack, topsoil, and lichen chemistry, together with remote-sensing techniques and analysis of lake water and sediments. Vorkuta and its environs suffered the worst impacts, with significant metal loading and alkalization in lakes and topsoils, elevated metals and cations in terricolous (reindeer) lichens, and changes in vegetation communities. Although the coal industry has declined recently, the area boasts a booming oil and gas industry, based around Usinsk. Local perceptions and concerns of environmental pollution and protection were higher in Usinsk, as a result of increased awareness after a major oil spill in 1994, compared with Vorkuta's inhabitants, who perceived air pollution as the primary environmental threat. Our studies indicate that the principal sources of atmospheric emissions and local deposition within 25 to 40 km of Vorkuta were coal combustion from power and heating plants, coal mines, and a cement factory. Local people evaluated air pollution from direct observations and personal experiences, such as discoloration of snow and respiratory problems, whereas scientific knowledge played a minor role in shaping these perceptions.

  4. Estimation of exposure to atmospheric pollutants during pregnancy integrating space-time activity and indoor air levels: does it make a difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marion, OUIDIR; Lise, GIORGIS-ALLEMAND; Sarah, LYON-CAEN; Xavier, MORELLI; Claire, CRACOWSKI; Sabrina, PONTET; Isabelle, PIN; Johanna, LEPEULE; Valérie, SIROUX; Rémy, SLAMA

    2016-01-01

    Studies of air pollution effects during pregnancy generally only consider exposure in the outdoor air at the home address. We aimed to compare exposure models differing in their ability to account for the spatial resolution of pollutants, space-time activity and indoor air pollution levels. We recruited 40 pregnant women in the Grenoble urban area, France, who carried a Global Positioning System (GPS) during up to 3 weeks; in a subgroup, indoor measurements of fine particles (PM2.5) were conducted at home (n=9) and personal exposure to nitrogen dioxide (NO2) was assessed using passive air samplers (n=10). Outdoor concentrations of NO2, and PM2.5 were estimated from a dispersion model with a fine spatial resolution. Women spent on average 16 h per day at home. Considering only outdoor levels, for estimates at the home address, the correlation between the estimate using the nearest background air monitoring station and the estimate from the dispersion model was high (r=0.93) for PM2.5 and moderate (r=0.67) for NO2. The model incorporating clean GPS data was less correlated with the estimate relying on raw GPS data (r=0.77) than the model ignoring space-time activity (r=0.93). PM2.5 outdoor levels were not to moderately correlated with estimates from the model incorporating indoor measurements and space-time activity (r=−0.10 to 0.47), while NO2 personal levels were not correlated with outdoor levels (r=−0.42 to 0.03). In this urban area, accounting for space-time activity little influenced exposure estimates; in a subgroup of subjects (n=9), incorporating indoor pollution levels seemed to strongly modify them. PMID:26300245

  5. Linking chemical contamination to biological effects in coastal pollution monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beiras, Ricardo; Durán, Iria; Parra, Santiago; Urrutia, Miren B; Besada, Victoria; Bellas, Juan; Viñas, Lucía; Sánchez-Marín, Paula; González-Quijano, Amelia; Franco, María A; Nieto, Óscar; González, Juan J

    2012-01-01

    To establish the connection between pollutant levels and their harmful effects on living resources, coastal monitoring programmes have incorporated biological tools, such as the scope for growth (SFG) in marine mussels and benthic macrofauna community indices. Although the relation between oxygen-depleting anthropogenic inputs and the alteration of benthic communities is well described, the effects of chemical pollutants are unknown because they are not expected to favour any particular taxa. In this study, the combined efforts of five research teams involved in the investigative monitoring of marine pollution allowed the generation of a multiyear data set for Ría de Vigo (NW Iberian Peninsula). Multivariate analysis of these data allowed the identification of the chemical-matrix combinations responsible for most of the variability among sites and the construction of a chemical pollution index (CPI) that significantly (P chemical pollution increases. The energy balance was more sensitive to pollution than individual physiological rates, but the reduction in the SFG was primarily due to significantly decreased clearance rates. We also found a decrease in benthic macrofauna diversity as chemical pollution increases. This diversity reduction resulted not from altered evenness, as the classic paradigm might suggest, but from a loss of species richness.

  6. The effects of air pollution on the health of children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buka, Irena; Koranteng, Samuel; Osornio-Vargas, Alvaro R

    2006-10-01

    The present article is intended to inform paediatricians about the associations between ambient air pollution and adverse health outcomes in children within the context of current epidemiological evidence.The majority of the current literature pertains to adverse respiratory health outcomes, including asthma, other respiratory symptoms, and deficits in lung function and growth, as well as exposure to ambient levels of criteria air pollutants. In addition to the above, the present article highlights mortality, pregnancy outcomes, vitamin D deficiency and alteration in the immune system of children.Some of the data on the impact of improved air quality on children's health are provided, including the reduction of air pollution in former East Germany following the reunification of Germany, as well as the reduction in the rates of childhood asthma events during the 1996 Summer Olympics in Atlanta, Georgia, due to a reduction in local motor vehicle traffic. However, there are many other toxic air pollutants that are regularly released into the air. These pollutants, which are not regularly monitored and have not been adequately researched, are also potentially harmful to children.Significant morbidity and mortality is attributed to ambient air pollution, resulting in a significant economic cost to society. As Canada's cities grow, air pollution issues need to be a priority in order to protect the health of children and support sustainable development for future generations.

  7. Influence of air pollution on exhaled carbon monoxide levels in smokers and non-smokers. A prospective cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maga, Mikołaj; Janik, Maciej K; Wachsmann, Agnieszka; Chrząstek-Janik, Olga; Koziej, Mateusz; Bajkowski, Mateusz; Maga, Paweł; Tyrak, Katarzyna; Wójcik, Krzysztof; Gregorczyk-Maga, Iwona; Niżankowski, Rafał

    2017-01-01

    The poor air quality and cigarette smoking are the most important reasons for increased carbon monoxide (CO) level in exhaled air. However, the influence of high air pollution concentration in big cities on the exhaled CO level has not been well studied yet. To evaluate the impact of smoking habit and air pollution in the place of living on the level of CO in exhaled air. Citizens from two large cities and one small town in Poland were asked to complete a survey disclosing their place of residence, education level, work status and smoking habits. Subsequently, the CO level in their exhaled air was measured. Air quality data, obtained from the Regional Inspectorates of Environmental Protection, revealed the differences in atmospheric CO concentration between locations. 1226 subjects were divided into 4 groups based on their declared smoking status and place of living. The average CO level in exhaled air was significantly higher in smokers than in non-smokers (p<0.0001) as well as in non-smokers from big cities than non-smokers from small ones (p<0.0001). Created model showed that non-smokers from big cities have odds ratio of 125.3 for exceeding CO cutoff level of 4ppm compared to non-smokers from small towns. The average CO level in exhaled air is significantly higher in smokers than non-smokers. Among non-smokers, the average exhaled CO level is significantly higher in big city than small town citizens. These results suggest that permanent exposure to an increased concentration of air pollution and cigarette smoking affect the level of exhaled CO. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Impact of nitrogen deposition at the species level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Richard J.; Dise, Nancy B.; Stevens, Carly J.; Gowing, David J.; Duprè, Cecilia; Dorland, Edu; Gaudnik, Cassandre; Bleeker, Albert; Diekmann, Martin; Alard, Didier; Bobbink, Roland; Fowler, David; Corcket, Emmanuel; Mountford, J. Owen; Vandvik, Vigdis; Aarrestad, Per Arild; Muller, Serge

    2013-01-01

    In Europe and, increasingly, the rest of the world, the key policy tool for the control of air pollution is the critical load, a level of pollution below which there are no known significant harmful effects on the environment. Critical loads are used to map sensitive regions and habitats, permit individual polluting activities, and frame international negotiations on transboundary air pollution. Despite their fundamental importance in environmental science and policy, there has been no systematic attempt to verify a critical load with field survey data. Here, we use a large dataset of European grasslands along a gradient of nitrogen (N) deposition to show statistically significant declines in the abundance of species from the lowest level of N deposition at which it is possible to identify a change. Approximately 60% of species change points occur at or below the range of the currently established critical load. If this result is found more widely, the underlying principle of no harm in pollution policy may need to be modified to one of informed decisions on how much harm is acceptable. Our results highlight the importance of protecting currently unpolluted areas from new pollution sources, because we cannot rule out ecological impacts from even relatively small increases in reactive N deposition. PMID:23271811

  9. Using Benthic Macroinvertebrate and Fish Communities as Bioindicators of the Tanshui River Basin Around the Greater Taipei Area — Multivariate Analysis of Spatial Variation Related to Levels of Water Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuh-Sen Young

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available After decades of strict pollution control and municipal sewage treatment, the water quality of the Tanshui River increased significantly after pollution mitigation as indicated by the River Pollution Index (RPI. The pollution level of the estuarine region decreased from severe pollution to mostly moderately impaired. The most polluted waters are presently restricted to a flow track length between 15–35 km relative to the river mouth. From July 2011 to September 2012, four surveys of fish and benthic macroinvertebrates were conducted at 45 sampling sites around the Tanshui River basin. The pollution level of all the study area indicated by the RPI could also be explained by the Family Biotic Index (FBI and Biotic Index (BI from the benthic macroinvertebrate community, and the Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI of the fish community. The result of canonical correlation analysis between aquatic environmental factors and community structure indicated that the community structure was closely related to the level of water pollution. Fish species richness in the estuarine area has increased significantly in recent years. Some catadromous fish and crustaceans could cross the moderate polluted water into the upstream freshwater, and have re-colonized their populations. The benthic macroinvertebrate community relying on the benthic substrate of the estuarine region is still very poor, and the water layer was still moderately polluted.

  10. Using Benthic Macroinvertebrate and Fish Communities as Bioindicators of the Tanshui River Basin Around the Greater Taipei Area — Multivariate Analysis of Spatial Variation Related to Levels of Water Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Shuh-Sen; Yang, Hsi-Nan; Huang, Da-Ji; Liu, Su-Miao; Huang, Yueh-Han; Chiang, Chung-Ting; Liu, Jin-Wei

    2014-01-01

    After decades of strict pollution control and municipal sewage treatment, the water quality of the Tanshui River increased significantly after pollution mitigation as indicated by the River Pollution Index (RPI). The pollution level of the estuarine region decreased from severe pollution to mostly moderately impaired. The most polluted waters are presently restricted to a flow track length between 15–35 km relative to the river mouth. From July 2011 to September 2012, four surveys of fish and benthic macroinvertebrates were conducted at 45 sampling sites around the Tanshui River basin. The pollution level of all the study area indicated by the RPI could also be explained by the Family Biotic Index (FBI) and Biotic Index (BI) from the benthic macroinvertebrate community, and the Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI) of the fish community. The result of canonical correlation analysis between aquatic environmental factors and community structure indicated that the community structure was closely related to the level of water pollution. Fish species richness in the estuarine area has increased significantly in recent years. Some catadromous fish and crustaceans could cross the moderate polluted water into the upstream freshwater, and have re-colonized their populations. The benthic macroinvertebrate community relying on the benthic substrate of the estuarine region is still very poor, and the water layer was still moderately polluted. PMID:25026081

  11. Combined use of PAH levels and EROD activities in the determination of PAH pollution in flathead mullet (Mugil cephalus) caught from the West Black Sea coast of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozcaarmutlu, Azra; Sapmaz, Canan; Kaleli, Gizem; Turna, Sema; Yenisoy-Karakaş, Serpil

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the extent of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) pollution by measuring PAH levels and 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activities in flathead mullet (Mugil cephalus) samples caught from the West Black Sea coast of Turkey. The fish samples were caught in August 2008-2011. The levels of 13 PAHs were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in the liver of fish. Most of the measured PAHs had three rings (low molecular weight). The frequencies of detection of PAHs were higher in fish samples caught from Zonguldak Harbour and Gülüç Stream Mouth than those from Sakarya River Mouth, Amasra and Kefken. EROD activities and cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) protein level were also measured in the fish liver microsomes. Highly elevated EROD activities and CYP1A levels were measured in the mullet samples caught from Zonguldak Harbour and Gülüç Stream than those from Amasra and Kefken. The detection of PAHs in the liver of fish samples shows recent exposure to PAHs. The chemical analyses of PAHs and EROD activity results together reflected the extent of PAH pollution in the livers of fish caught from the West Black Sea coast of Turkey. The results indicate that Zonguldak Harbour is the most polluted site in the West Black Sea coast of Turkey.

  12. The impact of urban transportation on air pollution and the role of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Many scholars believe that air pollution can be defined when it is mixed with technical indicators. Therefore,in his legal dictionary, Garner has defined air pollution as any material and harmful energy that directly or indirectly emit in the air in such as a way that harm the environment, welfare, or public health. Air pollution has ...

  13. Harmful Materials and Residential Demolition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Certain harmful or problematic materials present in residential buildings may need to be handled differently from general demolition debris. Here is a list of several specific types of materials that may be present in residential buildings.

  14. Do high levels of diffuse and chronic metal pollution in sediments of Rhine and Meuse floodplains affect structure and functioning of terrestrial ecosystems?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rozema, Jelte [Department of Systems Ecology, Institute of Ecological Science, Vrije Universiteit, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands)], E-mail: jelte.rozema@ecology.falw.vu.nl; Notten, Martje J.M.; Aerts, Rien [Department of Systems Ecology, Institute of Ecological Science, Vrije Universiteit, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Gestel, Cornelis A.M. van; Hobbelen, Peter H.F. [Department of Animal Ecology, Institute of Ecological Science, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Hamers, Timo H.M. [Institute for Environmental Studies (IVM), Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2008-12-01

    This paper (re)considers the question if chronic and diffuse heavy metal pollution (cadmium, copper, lead and zinc) affects the structure and functioning of terrestrial ecosystems of Biesbosch National Park, the floodplain area of rivers Meuse and Rhine. To reach this aim, we integrated the results of three projects on: 1. the origin, transfer and effects of heavy metals in a soil-plant-snail food chain; 2. the impact of bioavailability on effects of heavy metals on the structure and functioning of detritivorous communities; 3. the risk assessment of heavy metals for an herbivorous and a carnivorous small mammal food chain. Metal pollution levels of the Biesbosch floodplain soils are high. The bioavailability of metals in the soils is low, causing low metal levels in plant leaves. Despite this, metal concentrations in soil dwelling detritivores and in land snails at polluted locations are elevated in comparison to animals from 'non-polluted' reference sites. However, no adverse effects on ecosystem structure (species richness, density, biomass) and functioning (litter decomposition, leaf consumption, reproduction) have been found. Sediment metal pollution may pose a risk to the carnivorous small mammal food chain, in which earthworms with elevated metal concentrations are eaten by the common shrew. Additional measurements near an active metal smelter, however, show reduced leaf consumption rates and reduced reproduction by terrestrial snails, reflecting elevated metal bioavailability at this site. Since future management may also comprise reintroduction of tidal action in the Biesbosch area, changes in metal bioavailability, and as a consequence future ecosystem effects, cannot be excluded.

  15. A review of low-level air pollution and adverse effects on human health: implications for epidemiological studies and public policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmo, Neide Regina Simoes; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário do Nascimento; Braga, Alfésio Luís Ferreira; Lin, Chin An; Santos, Ubiratan de Paula; Pereira, Luiz Alberto Amador

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to review original scientific articles describing the relationship between atmospheric pollution and damage to human health. We also aimed to determine which of these studies mentioned public policy issues. Original articles relating to atmospheric pollution and human health published between 1995 and 2009 were retrieved from the PubMed database and analyzed. This study included only articles dealing with atmospheric pollutants resulting primarily from vehicle emissions. Three researchers were involved in the final selection of the studies, and the chosen articles were approved by at least two of the three researchers. Of the 84 non-Brazilian studies analyzed, 80 showed an association between atmospheric pollution and adverse effects on human health. Moreover, 66 showed evidence of adverse effects on human health, even at levels below the permitted emission standards. Three studies mentioned public policies aimed at changing emission standards. Similarly, the 29 selected Brazilian studies reported adverse associations with human health, and 27 showed evidence of adverse effects even at levels below the legally permitted emission standards. Of these studies, 16 mentioned public policies aimed at changing emission standards. Based on the Brazilian and non-Brazilian scientific studies that have been conducted, it can be concluded that, even under conditions that are compliant with Brazilian air quality standards, the concentration of atmospheric pollutants in Brazil can negatively affect human health. However, as little discussion of this topic has been generated, this finding demonstrates the need to incorporate epidemiological evidence into decisions regarding legal regulations and to discuss the public policy implications in epidemiological studies.

  16. A review of low-level air pollution and adverse effects on human health: implications for epidemiological studies and public policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmo, Neide Regina Simões; do Nascimento Saldiva, Paulo Hilário; Braga, Alfésio Luís Ferreira; Lin, Chin An; de Paula Santos, Ubiratan; Pereira, Luiz Alberto Amador

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to review original scientific articles describing the relationship between atmospheric pollution and damage to human health. We also aimed to determine which of these studies mentioned public policy issues. Original articles relating to atmospheric pollution and human health published between 1995 and 2009 were retrieved from the PubMed database and analyzed. This study included only articles dealing with atmospheric pollutants resulting primarily from vehicle emissions. Three researchers were involved in the final selection of the studies, and the chosen articles were approved by at least two of the three researchers. Of the 84 non-Brazilian studies analyzed, 80 showed an association between atmospheric pollution and adverse effects on human health. Moreover, 66 showed evidence of adverse effects on human health, even at levels below the permitted emission standards. Three studies mentioned public policies aimed at changing emission standards. Similarly, the 29 selected Brazilian studies reported adverse associations with human health, and 27 showed evidence of adverse effects even at levels below the legally permitted emission standards. Of these studies, 16 mentioned public policies aimed at changing emission standards. Based on the Brazilian and non-Brazilian scientific studies that have been conducted, it can be concluded that, even under conditions that are compliant with Brazilian air quality standards, the concentration of atmospheric pollutants in Brazil can negatively affect human health. However, as little discussion of this topic has been generated, this finding demonstrates the need to incorporate epidemiological evidence into decisions regarding legal regulations and to discuss the public policy implications in epidemiological studies. PMID:21655765

  17. A review of low-level air pollution and adverse effects on human health: implications for epidemiological studies and public policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neide Regina Simoes Olmo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to review original scientific articles describing the relationship between atmospheric pollution and damage to human health. We also aimed to determine which of these studies mentioned public policy issues. Original articles relating to atmospheric pollution and human health published between 1995 and 2009 were retrieved from the PubMed database and analyzed. This study included only articles dealing with atmospheric pollutants resulting primarily from vehicle emissions. Three researchers were involved in the final selection of the studies, and the chosen articles were approved by at least two of the three researchers. Of the 84 non-Brazilian studies analyzed, 80 showed an association between atmospheric pollution and adverse effects on human health. Moreover, 66 showed evidence of adverse effects on human health, even at levels below the permitted emission standards. Three studies mentioned public policies aimed at changing emission standards. Similarly, the 29 selected Brazilian studies reported adverse associations with human health, and 27 showed evidence of adverse effects even at levels below the legally permitted emission standards. Of these studies, 16 mentioned public policies aimed at changing emission standards. Based on the Brazilian and non-Brazilian scientific studies that have been conducted, it can be concluded that, even under conditions that are compliant with Brazilian air quality standards, the concentration of atmospheric pollutants in Brazil can negatively affect human health. However, as little discussion of this topic has been generated, this finding demonstrates the need to incorporate epidemiological evidence into decisions regarding legal regulations and to discuss the public policy implications in epidemiological studies.

  18. An investigation into the level of metallic pollutants in roadside-sundried food products from selected areas of Ondo and Osun states, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathew Kolawole Bolade

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The extent of atmospheric metallic pollution in roadside-sundried food products from selected areas of Ondo and Osun states, Nigeria, was investigated. Nine different road networks in the selected states were covered while the food products collected along these highways were fermented cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz mash, unripe plantain (Musa AAB slices, white yam (Dioscorea rotundata slices and pepper (Capsicum frutescens. The concentrations of the metallic pollutants (lead, cadmium, zinc, nickel, iron and copper in the food products were found to vary from one product to the other. The minimum and maximum levels of these metallic pollutants generally present were lead (0.0024–0.0083 mg/100 g, Cadmium (0.0014–0.0131 mg/100 g, zinc (0.0078–5.41 mg/100 g, nickel (0.0016–0.0098 mg/100 g, iron (0.104–24.13 mg/100 g and copper (0.0001–3.42 mg/100 g. The level of atmospheric metallic pollutants as found in roadside-sundried food products was generally below the recommended maximum limits by the FAO/WHO, yet their continuous consumption might lead to a potential health risk. The roadside-sundrying practitioners were observed to be ignorant of the potential health challenges the metallic pollutants might cause, via the cumulative consumption of roadside-sundried food products. Therefore, an enlightenment programme is highly desirable such that the roadside-sundrying practice could be discouraged.

  19. Gambling Harm and Crime Careers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May-Chahal, Corinne; Humphreys, Leslie; Clifton, Alison; Francis, Brian; Reith, Gerda

    2017-03-01

    Incarcerated populations across the world have been found to be consistently and significantly more vulnerable to problem gambling than general populations in the same countries. In an effort to gain a more specific understanding of this vulnerability the present study applied latent class analysis and criminal career theory to gambling data collected from a sample of English and Scottish, male and female prisoners (N = 1057). Theoretical links between gambling and crime were tested through three hypotheses: (1) that prisoners in the UK would have higher rates of problem gambling behaviour than the national population; (2) that if the link between gambling and crime is coincidental, gambling behaviour would be highly prevalent in an offending population, and (3) if connections between gambling behaviour and offending are co-symptomatic a mediating factor would show a strong association. The first of these was supported, the second was not supported and the third was partially supported. Latent class analysis found six gambling behaviour clusters measured by responses to the Problem Gambling Severity Index, primarily distinguished by loss chasing behaviour. Longitudinal offending data drawn from the Police National Computer database found four criminal career types, distinguished by frequency and persistence over time. A significant association was found between higher level loss chasing and high rate offending in criminal careers suggesting that impulse control may be a mediating factor for both gambling harm and criminal careers.

  20. The influence of electrodialytic remediation on dioxin (PCDD/PCDF) levels in fly ash and air pollution control residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dias-Ferreira, Celia; Kirkelund, Gunvor Marie; Jensen, Pernille Erland

    2016-01-01

    Fly ash and Air Pollution Control (APC) residues collected from three municipal solid waste incinerators in Denmark and Greenland were treated by electrodialytic remediation at pilot scale for 8-10 h. This work presents for the first time the effect of electrodialytic treatment on polychlorinated...

  1. Reproductive hormone levels in men exposed to persistent organohalogen pollutants: a study of inuit and three European cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giwercman, Aleksander; Rignell-Hydbom, Anna; Toft, Gunnar

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Persistent organohalogen pollutant (POP) exposure may have a negative impact on reproductive function. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of POP exposure on the male hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis. PARTICIPANTS: Participants included 184 Swedish fishermen and spou...

  2. Special Characteristics of Physical Development of Chelyabinsk Adolescents from Regions of the Industrial Megalopolis with Different Levels of Antropogenic Air Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Uzunova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the complex population study of 2083 children aged from 12 to 17 years old it was established that living in Chelyabinsk regions with different cumulative levels of antropogenic air pollution affect physical development of adolescents. It was shown that air pollution increases the risk of disharmonic physical development in girls which is represented by the decrease of the thoracic circumference, which simultaneously with their growth appears as gracilization of body constitution. Changes in adolescents height can be various. From one hand, xenobiotics of the atmosphere can have stimulative effects, which are more marked with low-dosage exposure. From the other hand, there is a tendency to increase in percentage of children with short height in the conditions if the increased level of antropogenic burden.

  3. Land cover and air pollution are associated with asthma hospitalisations: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcock, Ian; White, Mathew; Cherrie, Mark; Wheeler, Benedict; Taylor, Jonathon; McInnes, Rachel; Otte Im Kampe, Eveline; Vardoulakis, Sotiris; Sarran, Christophe; Soyiri, Ireneous; Fleming, Lora

    2017-12-01

    There is increasing policy interest in the potential for vegetation in urban areas to mitigate harmful effects of air pollution on respiratory health. We aimed to quantify relationships between tree and green space density and asthma-related hospitalisations, and explore how these varied with exposure to background air pollution concentrations. Population standardised asthma hospitalisation rates (1997-2012) for 26,455 urban residential areas of England were merged with area-level data on vegetation and background air pollutant concentrations. We fitted negative binomial regression models using maximum likelihood estimation to obtain estimates of asthma-vegetation relationships at different levels of pollutant exposure. Green space and gardens were associated with reductions in asthma hospitalisation when pollutant exposures were lower but had no significant association when pollutant exposures were higher. In contrast, tree density was associated with reduced asthma hospitalisation when pollutant exposures were higher but had no significant association when pollutant exposures were lower. We found differential effects of natural environments at high and low background pollutant concentrations. These findings can provide evidence for urban planning decisions which aim to leverage health co-benefits from environmental improvements. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Modelling pollutant emissions in diesel engines, influence of biofuel on pollutant formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petranović, Zvonimir; Bešenić, Tibor; Vujanović, Milan; Duić, Neven

    2017-12-01

    In order to reduce the harmful effect on the environment, European Union allowed using the biofuel blends as fuel for the internal combustion engines. Experimental studies have been carried on, dealing with the biodiesel influence on the emission concentrations, showing inconclusive results. In this paper numerical model for pollutant prediction in internal combustion engines is presented. It describes the processes leading towards the pollutant emissions, such as spray particles model, fuel disintegration and evaporation model, combustion and the chemical model for pollutant formation. Presented numerical model, implemented in proprietary software FIRE®, is able to capture chemical phenomena and to predict pollutant emission concentration trends. Using the presented model, numerical simulations of the diesel fuelled internal combustion engine have been performed, with the results validated against the experimental data. Additionally, biodiesel has been used as fuel and the levels of pollutant emissions have been compared to the diesel case. Results have shown that the biodiesel blends release lower nitrogen oxide emissions than the engines powered with the regular diesel. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A review of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) pollution in indoor air environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Qizhou; Min, Xia; Weng, Mili

    2016-10-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were widely used in industrial production due to the unique physical and chemical properties. As a kind of persistent organic pollutants, the PCBs would lead to environment pollution and cause serious problems for human health. Thus, they have been banned since the 1980s due to the environment pollution in the past years. Indoor air is the most direct and important environment medium to human beings; thus, the PCBs pollution research in indoor air is important for the protection of human health. This paper introduces the industrial application and potential harm of PCBs, summarizes the sampling, extracting, and analytical methods of environment monitoring, and compares the indoor air levels of urban areas with those of industrial areas in different countries according to various reports. This paper can provide a basic summary for PCBs pollution control in the indoor air environment. The review of PCBs pollution in indoor air in China is still limited. In this paper, we introduce the industrial application and potential harm of PCBs, summarize the sampling, extracting, and analytical methods of environment monitoring, and compare the indoor air levels of urban areas with industrial areas in different countries according to various reports.

  6. Impacts of air pollution on cultural heritage corrosion at European level: What has been achieved and what are the future scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Turo, Francesca; Proietti, Chiara; Screpanti, Augusto; Fornasier, M Francesca; Cionni, Irene; Favero, Gabriele; De Marco, Alessandra

    2016-11-01

    The interaction of pollutants with Cultural Heritage materials leads to artworks and materials degradation and loss, causing an unpriceless damage. This works aims to estimate the impacts of air pollution and meteorological conditions on limestone, copper and bronze and represents the European risk assessment for corrosion of Cultural Heritage materials. The measures and policies for atmospheric pollution reduction have cut off the SO 2 concentration and consequently its impact on materials is drastically reduced. Indeed, in 1980 the number of UNESCO sites in danger was extremely high (94% for limestone, 54% for copper and 1% for bronze) while in 2010 these sites did not exceed the tolerable value of surface recession and corrosion. However, some problem related to air pollution persists. In particular, Random Forest Analysis (RFA), highlights PM 10 as the main responsible for materials corrosion, in 2010. Two scenarios in 2030 have been tested, highlighting that the corrosion levels of limestone, copper and bronze exceed the tolerable limits only in the Balkan area and Turkey. Our results show the importance in the air quality modelling as a powerful tool for the UNESCO sites conservation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Lidar observations revealing transport of O3 in the presence of a nocturnal low-level jet: Regional implications for ;next-day; pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, John T.; Rabenhorst, Scott D.; Dreessen, Joel; McGee, Thomas J.; Delgado, Ruben; Twigg, Laurence; Sumnicht, Grant

    2017-06-01

    Remotely sensed profiles of ozone (O3) and wind are presented continuously for the first time during a nocturnal low-level jet (NLLJ) event occurring after a severe O3 episode in the Baltimore-Washington D.C. (BW) urban corridor throughout 11-12 June 2015. High-resolution O3 lidar observations indicate a well-mixed and polluted daytime O3 reservoir, which decayed into a contaminated nocturnal residual layer (RL) with concentrations between 70 and 100 ppbv near 1 km above the surface. Observations indicate the onset of the NLLJ was responsible for transporting polluted O3 away from the region, while simultaneously affecting the height and location of the nocturnal residual layer. High-resolution modeling analyses and next-day (12 June) lidar, surface, and balloon-borne observations indicate the trajectory of the NLLJ and polluted residual layer corresponds with ;next-day; high O3 at sites throughout the southern New England region (New York, Connecticut, Massachusetts). The novel O3 lidar observations are evidence of both nocturnal advection (via high NLLJ wind fields) and entrainment of the polluted residual layer in the presence of the ;next-day; convectively growing boundary layer. In the greater context, the novel observational suite described in this work has shown that the chemical budget in areas downwind of major urban centers can be altered significantly overnight during transport events such as the NLLJ.

  8. Ambient Levels of Primary and Secondary Pollutants in a Residential Area: Population Risk and Hazard Index Calculation over a Three Years Study Period

    OpenAIRE

    S. Al-Salem; A. Al-Fadhlee

    2007-01-01

    This paper aims at presenting data collected over the period of three years (2004-2006) in a residential area in the state of Kuwait. The data collected include ambient levels of primary and secondary pollutants with a number of metrological parameters. A series of unfiltered and filtered concentration roses were plotted to determine the predominant sources as well as the prevailing winds affecting the area under investigation. Local and international air quality regulations were cross refere...

  9. Vulnerability to self-harm in autism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Paula-Perez, I; Artigas-Pallares, J

    2016-01-01

    ... lead persons with autism to harm themselves. In this article a distinction is drawn, first of all, between self-harm related to neurodevelopmental disorders, such as autism, and self-harm linked to other psychiatric conditions...

  10. A Study of the Combined Effects of Physical Activity and Air Pollution on Mortality in Elderly Urban Residents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic; de Nazelle, Audrey; Mendez, Michelle A

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Physical activity reduces, whereas exposure to air pollution increases the risk of premature mortality. Physical activity amplifies respiratory uptake and deposition of air pollutants in the lung, which may augment acute harmful effects of air pollution during exercise. OBJECTIVES......: To examine whether benefits of physical activity on mortality are moderated by long-term exposure to high air pollution levels in an urban setting. METHODS: 52,061 subjects (50-65 years) from the Danish Diet, Cancer, and Health cohort, living in Aarhus and Copenhagen reported data on physical activity...... exposure (HR = 0.77; 95% CI: 0.54, 1.11 and HR = 0.81; 95% CI: 0.55, 1.18, p-interaction = 0.09 and 0.02, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: In general, exposure to high levels of traffic-related air pollution did not modify associations indicating beneficial effects of physical activity on mortality. These novel...

  11. Air pollution control policy in Switzerland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leutert, G. [Forests and Landscape, Berne (Switzerland). Federal Office of Environment

    1995-12-31

    The legal basis of the Swiss air pollution control policy is set by the Federal Law on the Protection of the Environment, which came into force in 1985. It aims to protect human beings, animals and plants, their biological communities and habitats against harmful effects or nuisances and to maintain the fertility of the soil. The law is source-oriented (by emission standards) as well as effect-oriented (by ambient air quality standards). To link both elements a two-stage approach is applied. In the first stage preventive measures are taken at the emitting sources, irrespective of existing air pollution levels. Emissions have to be limited by early preventive measures as much as technical and operational conditions allow and as far as economically acceptable (prevention principle). By this, air pollution shall be kept as low as possible as a matter of principle, without the environment having to be in danger first. In a second stage the measures are strengthened or backed up by additional measures if ambient air quality standards laid down in the Ordinance on Air Pollution Control are exceeded. At this second stage, protection of man and his environment has priority over economic considerations. (author)

  12. ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION BY MAGNETIC FIELD AROUND POWER LINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Ranković

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available According to the contemporary epidemiological researches, there are some indications that extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields harm human health which has been proved through numerous scientific studies published in recent years. Today, most countries use the ICNIRP guidelines and Council Recommendation as the scientific basis for their recommended levels of exposure. Magnetic fields from high voltage transmission power lines have been discussed in this paper. The field profiles and their contribution to environmental pollution are studied. The obtained results are found to be useful for discussing the comparison of the field densities on the human body at the ground level under or near the lines.

  13. Analysis of lead pollution levels within an urban ecosystem using the cestode Hymenolepis diminuta and its rat hosts as bioindicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripodi, M A; Hancke, D; Suarez, O V

    2017-10-11

    The overall goal of this study was to use the Rattus spp./Hymenolepis diminuta model to assess environmental lead pollution in different landscape units of an urban ecosystem. Rats of the genus Rattus were collected from three shanty towns and three residential neighbourhoods of the city of Buenos Aires. Concentrations of lead in the livers of wild rats and in their parasite H. diminuta were measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The landscape unit and tissue type had a significant effect on lead concentration, being higher in residential neighbourhoods as well as in H. diminuta tissue. Nevertheless, no significant differences were found for the mean lead concentration in livers between uninfected and infected rats. Since the available information describing heavy-metal pollution within the city of Buenos Aires is scarce, the results of this study allow us to update data about the extent of biologically available lead contamination. Considering that rats and H. diminuta are distributed worldwide, this monitoring system for lead pollution might be applied successfully in other urban ecosystems.

  14. Application of Electrical Resistivity Data Sets for the Evaluation of the Pollution Concentration Level within Landfill Subsoil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugeniusz Koda

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents complex analyses of geophysical site investigation results. The electrical resistivity method was used to investigate the potential pollutant migration pathways within areas of existing and former landfill sites. For the purpose of the present study, there were four municipal waste landfills and one industrial landfill chosen for further comprehensive analyses. The landfill bottom was isolated using geomembrane liner. However, ground water monitoring results revealed that the base was not leakage-free. Another two landfills were established in the past, when no containment systems were legally required. The geoelectrical investigation was the final part of an overall analytical assessment of the contaminated sites. The study was aimed at pollution spatial migration analyses and the interpretation of results, for further design of the reclamation and restoration plans. A clear correlation between pollution indicators such as salt compounds and electrical resistivity, allow aerial analyses and the precise determination of contaminated zones. The research results presented in the paper have been recently obtained and concern a period from 2010 to 2015.

  15. Link between environmental air pollution and allergic asthma: East meets West

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qingling; Qiu, Zhiming; Huang, Shau-Ku

    2015-01-01

    With the levels of outdoor air pollution from industrial and motor vehicle emissions rising rapidly in the fastly-industrializing countries of South East Asia, the prevalence of asthma and allergic diseases has also been increasing to match those in the West. Epidemiological and experimental exposure studies indicate a harmful impact of outdoor air pollution from vehicles and factories both on the development of allergic diseases and asthma and the increase in asthma symptoms and exacerbations. The level of outdoor pollution in Asia is much higher and more diverse than those encountered in Western countries. This may increase the impact of outdoor pollution on health, particularly lung health in Asia. This review discusses the constituents of air pollution in Asia with a special focus on studies in mainland China and Taiwan where the levels of pollution have reached high levels and where such high levels particularly in winter can cause a thick haze that reduces visibility. The onus remains on regulatory and public health authorities to curb the sources of pollution so that the health effects on the population particularly those with lung and cardiovascular diseases and with increased susceptibility can be mitigated. PMID:25694814

  16. Link between environmental air pollution and allergic asthma: East meets West.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qingling; Qiu, Zhiming; Chung, Kian Fan; Huang, Shau-Ku

    2015-01-01

    With the levels of outdoor air pollution from industrial and motor vehicle emissions rising rapidly in the fastly-industrializing countries of South East Asia, the prevalence of asthma and allergic diseases has also been increasing to match those in the West. Epidemiological and experimental exposure studies indicate a harmful impact of outdoor air pollution from vehicles and factories both on the development of allergic diseases and asthma and the increase in asthma symptoms and exacerbations. The level of outdoor pollution in Asia is much higher and more diverse than those encountered in Western countries. This may increase the impact of outdoor pollution on health, particularly lung health in Asia. This review discusses the constituents of air pollution in Asia with a special focus on studies in mainland China and Taiwan where the levels of pollution have reached high levels and where such high levels particularly in winter can cause a thick haze that reduces visibility. The onus remains on regulatory and public health authorities to curb the sources of pollution so that the health effects on the population particularly those with lung and cardiovascular diseases and with increased susceptibility can be mitigated.

  17. Comparison of Air Pollution in Metropolises in China (Beijing) and Japan (Osaka and Nagoya) on the Basis of the Levels of Contaminants and Mutagenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulibaly, Souleymane; Minami, Hiroki; Abe, Maho; Furukawa, Nami; Ono, Ryo; Hasei, Tomohiro; Toriba, Akira; Tang, Ning; Hayakawa, Kazuichi; Funasaka, Kunihiro; Asakawa, Daichi; Ikemori, Fumikazu; Watanabe, Masanari; Honda, Naoko; Wakabayashi, Keiji; Watanabe, Tetsushi

    2016-01-01

    Public concern regarding the transport of air pollutants from mainland East Asia to the leeward area by the prevailing westerlies in spring and winter monsoon has been growing in recent years. We collected total suspended particle (TSP) in Beijing, a metropolis of China located windward of Japan, in spring (late February 2011-May 2011) and in winter (November 2012-early February 2013), then analyzed metals, ions, and organic compounds and mutagenicity, and compared the pollution levels with samples collected at two Japanese metropolises (Osaka and Nagoya) during the same periods. The medians of concentration of TSP and other factors in Beijing were much larger than those in the Japanese metropolises. Especially, the concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were remarkably high in Beijing in winter, and the median of total PAHs concentration in Beijing was 62-63 times larger than that in the Japanese sites. The mutagenicity of TSP from Beijing toward Salmonella typhimurium YG1024, with and without a mammalian metabolic system (S9 mix), was 13-25 times higher than that from the Japanese sites in winter. These results suggest that air pollution levels in Beijing are very high compared with those at the two Japanese metropolises we evaluated. The diagnostic ratios of PAHs and nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (NPAHs) suggest that the major sources of PAHs and NPAHs in Beijing are different from those at the two Japanese sites in winter, and that the major source in Beijing is coal/biomass combustion.

  18. Water Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, H. J. M.

    1975-01-01

    Deals with water pollution in the following categories: a global view, self purification, local pollution, difficulties in chemical analysis, and remedies for water pollution. Emphasizes the extent to which man's activities have modified the cycles of certain elements. (GS)

  19. Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, dust, ... a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, it's ...

  20. Application of cascade lasers to detection of trace gaseous atmospheric pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miczuga, Marcin; Kopczyński, Krzysztof

    2016-12-01

    Understanding the impact of gaseous pollutants on the earth's atmosphere, as well as more and more felt by mankind negative effects of its contamination, result in increasing the level of environmental awareness and contribute to the intensification of actions aimed at reducing the emission of harmful gases into the atmosphere. At the same time, the extensive studies are conducted in order to continuously monitor the level of air contamination with harmful gases and the industry compliance with the standards limited the amount of emitted pollutants. Over recent years, there has been increasing use of cascade lasers and multi-pass cells in optical systems detecting the gaseous atmospheric pollutants and measuring the gas concentrations. The paper presents the use of a tunable quantum cascade laser as a source of the IR radiation in an advanced detection system enabling the trace gaseous atmospheric pollutants to be identified. Apart from the laser, the main elements of the system are: a multi-pass cell, an IR detector and a module for control and analysis. Operation of the system is exemplified by measuring the level of the air pollution with ammonia, carbon oxide and nitrous oxide.

  1. Survey the Effect of Oil Pollution on Morphological Characteristics in Faba Vulgaris and Vicia Ervilia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Lorestani

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Pollution results when a change in the environment harmfully affects the quality of human life including effect on animals, microorganisms and plants. Among the broad range of organic pollutants contaminating soil-water environment, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are of great environment concern. Oil contaminated soil will affect germination, plant height, leaf area and biomass production. The aim of this research was to elucidate effects of oil pollution on morphological characteristics in Fabaceae family. For this purpose species of Faba vulgaris and Vicia ervilia were planted in different concentrations of oil in soil. For morphological studies, studied species were removed from polluted and non polluted soils separately and some morphological characters were studied in these species, then these characters were compared in plants, collected from polluted and non polluted soil. Finally, the level of significance of these differences was elucidated by using of SPSS. Obtained results showed that oil pollution can cause some abnormalities in structure of vegetative parts in plants grown on polluted soils. Decreasing of plant length and stem diameter and changing the leaf shape was among the most important effects of oil on morphological characteristics in Faba vulgaris and Vicia ervilia.

  2. Association between unemployment, income, education level, population size and air pollution in Czech cities: evidence for environmental inequality? A pilot national scale analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branis, Martin; Linhartova, Martina

    2012-09-01

    We analyzed differentials in exposure to SO(2), PM(10) and NO(2) among Czech urban populations categorized according to education level, unemployment rate, population size and average annual salary. Altogether 39 cities were included in the analysis. The principal component analysis revealed two factors explaining 72.8% of the data variability. The first factor explaining 44.7% of the data variability included SO(2), PM(10), low education level and high unemployment, documenting that inhabitants with unfavorable socioeconomic status mainly reside in smaller cities with higher concentration levels of combustion-related air pollutants. The second factor explaining 28.1% of the data variability included NO(2), high salary, high education level and large population, suggesting that large cities with residents with higher socioeconomic status are exposed to higher levels of traffic-related air pollution. We conclude that, after more than a decade of free-market economy, the Czech Republic, a former Soviet satellite with a centrally planned economy, displays signs of a certain kind of environmental inequality, since environmental hazards are unevenly distributed among the Czech urban populations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The cost-effectiveness of harm reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, David P; Donald, Braedon; Shattock, Andrew J; Wilson, David; Fraser-Hurt, Nicole

    2015-02-01

    HIV prevalence worldwide among people who inject drugs (PWID) is around 19%. Harm reduction for PWID includes needle-syringe programs (NSPs) and opioid substitution therapy (OST) but often coupled with antiretroviral therapy (ART) for people living with HIV. Numerous studies have examined the effectiveness of each harm reduction strategy. This commentary discusses the evidence of effectiveness of the packages of harm reduction services and their cost-effectiveness with respect to HIV-related outcomes as well as estimate resources required to meet global and regional coverage targets. NSPs have been shown to be safe and very effective in reducing HIV transmission in diverse settings; there are many historical and very recent examples in diverse settings where the absence of, or reduction in, NSPs have resulted in exploding HIV epidemics compared to controlled epidemics with NSP implementation. NSPs are relatively inexpensive to implement and highly cost-effective according to commonly used willingness-to-pay thresholds. There is strong evidence that substitution therapy is effective, reducing the risk of HIV acquisition by 54% on average among PWID. OST is relatively expensive to implement when only HIV outcomes are considered; other societal benefits substantially improve the cost-effectiveness ratios to be highly favourable. Many studies have shown that ART is cost-effective for keeping people alive but there is only weak supportive, but growing evidence, of the additional effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of ART as prevention among PWID. Packages of combined harm reduction approaches are highly likely to be more effective and cost-effective than partial approaches. The coverage of harm reduction programs remains extremely low across the world. The total annual costs of scaling up each of the harm reduction strategies from current coverage levels, by region, to meet WHO guideline coverage targets are high with ART greatest, followed by OST and then NSPs. But

  4. Adaptive capabilities and fitness consequences associated with pollution exposure in fish

    OpenAIRE

    Hamilton, Patrick B.; Rolshausen, Gregor; Uren Webster, Tamsyn M.; Tyler, Charles R.

    2017-01-01

    Many fish populations are exposed to harmful levels of chemical pollution and selection pressures associated with these exposures have led to the evolution of tolerance. Our understanding of the physiological basis for these adaptations is limited, but they are likely to include processes involved with the absorption, distribution, metabolism and/or excretion of the target chemical. Other potential adaptive mechanisms include enhancements in antioxidant responses, an increased capacity for DN...

  5. [Pollution Level and Source Apportionment of Atmospheric Particles PM₂.₅ in Southwest Suburb of Chengdu in Spring].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu; Ye, Zhi-xiang; Yang, Huai-jin; Zhang, Ju; Yin, Wei-wen; Li, Xiao-fen

    2016-05-15

    In order to understand the characteristics of PM₂.₅ pollution in the atmosphere of Chengdu southwest suburb, PM₂.₅ particles in Chengdu southwest suburb were collected and analyzed from March 18 to March 31st, 2015. The results showed that the daily average concentration of PM₂.₅ in the southwest suburb of Chengdu reached 121.21 µg · m⁻³, and the average daily concentration of 24 samples in 31 PM₂.₅ samples was over 75 µg · m⁻³, the daily excessive rate was 77%, indicating the PM₂.₅ pollution in the study area was serious in March. When studying the relationship between atmospheric and meteorological factors, it was found that there was a significant index correlation between PM₂.₅ concentration and atmospheric visibility, and it had a positive correlation with temperature and humidity, but the correlation was not obvious. NH₄⁺ (16.24%), SO₄²- (12.58%) and NO₃⁻ (9.91%) were dominant in PM₂.₅ The ratio of NO₃⁻/SO₄²⁻ was 0.77, which indicated that the pollution of stationary sources in the southwest suburb was more severe than that of mobile sources. Organic carbon (OC)/elemental carbon (EC) ratios were higher than 2, which indicated the existence of second organic carbon (SOC). Using OC/EC ratio method to estimate the concentration of SOC, it was found that the average concentration of SOC in the southwest suburb of Chengdu in March was 3.49 µ · m⁻³, and the contribution rate of OC was 20.6%, which showed that the main source of OC in the southwest suburb of Chengdu was primary discharge. The correlation analysis of OC and EC showed that the correlation coefficient reached 0.95, indicating that the OC and EC sources were similar and relatively stable, and there was a great impact of local source emissions on Chengdu southwest suburb in spring, and primary discharge played a dominant role, while the contribution of SOC to OC was relatively small, which was consistent with the SOC characteristics obtained

  6. Working for the ‘Free’ Market: state complicity in routine corporate harm in the United Kingdom (Trabajando para el mercado “libre”: complicidad estatal en la rutina del daño corporativo en el Reino Unido

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Tombs

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper documents two forms of harms which are not ‘dramatic’, in fact, each is very low level, and each represents an instance of routine, normalized forms of harm which emanate from the business sector, and in the production of which the state is complicit. The focus specifically here is, in the first substantial section of the paper, on the economic harms produced by the retail sector of the UK financial services industry and, in the second, on the level and scale of airborne pollution in the UK from a range of business sources. While they are very different, they in fact have a lot in common, and tell us a lot about business and state practices. The remainder of the paper considers these state practices at length: despite misunderstandings and claims that governments are withdrawing from free markets, what one finds is a torrent of state intervention designed to create conditions of non-interventionism. It is no mere bystander to these harms, but intimately complicit in them through, variously, deregulation, reregulation and non-enforcement of law... Such state practices are documented in the third part of the paper, which focuses on what is termed regulatory re-shaping by central Governments in the UK since 1997. The results of such state activity may render such harms more likely, even more normalized.  In conclusion, the paper considers briefly the relationship between rendering such harms visible and effective resistance to them.

  7. Analysis of pollution removal from wastewater by Ceratophyllum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-04-05

    Apr 5, 2010 ... Water is one of the most stable and abundant complexes on nature that can be polluted with natural and human factors. Polluted water ... Key words: Pollution, Ceratophyllum demersum, nitrogen, phosphorous, COD. INTRODUCTION ... variety of harmful substances including viral, bacterial and protozoan ...

  8. Application of the hybrid approach to the benchmark dose of urinary cadmium as the reference level for renal effects in cadmium polluted and non-polluted areas in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suwazono, Yasushi, E-mail: suwa@faculty.chiba-u.jp [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, 1-8-1 Inohana, Chuoku, Chiba 260-8670 (Japan); Nogawa, Kazuhiro; Uetani, Mirei [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, 1-8-1 Inohana, Chuoku, Chiba 260-8670 (Japan); Nakada, Satoru [Safety and Health Organization, Chiba University, 1-33 Yayoicho, Inageku, Chiba 263-8522 (Japan); Kido, Teruhiko [Department of Community Health Nursing, Kanazawa University School of Health Sciences, 5-11-80 Kodatsuno, Kanazawa, Ishikawa 920-0942 (Japan); Nakagawa, Hideaki [Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Kanazawa Medical University, 1-1 Daigaku, Uchnada, Ishikawa 920-0293 (Japan)

    2011-02-15

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the reference level of urinary cadmium (Cd) that caused renal effects. An updated hybrid approach was used to estimate the benchmark doses (BMDs) and their 95% lower confidence limits (BMDL) in subjects with a wide range of exposure to Cd. Methods: The total number of subjects was 1509 (650 men and 859 women) in non-polluted areas and 3103 (1397 men and 1706 women) in the environmentally exposed Kakehashi river basin. We measured urinary cadmium (U-Cd) as a marker of long-term exposure, and {beta}2-microglobulin ({beta}2-MG) as a marker of renal effects. The BMD and BMDL that corresponded to an additional risk (BMR) of 5% were calculated with background risk at zero exposure set at 5%. Results: The U-Cd BMDL for {beta}2-MG was 3.5 {mu}g/g creatinine in men and 3.7 {mu}g/g creatinine in women. Conclusions: The BMDL values for a wide range of U-Cd were generally within the range of values measured in non-polluted areas in Japan. This indicated that the hybrid approach is a robust method for different ranges of cadmium exposure. The present results may contribute further to recent discussions on health risk assessment of Cd exposure.

  9. Estimation of the PM2.5 Pollution Levels in Beijing Based on Nighttime Light Data from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program-Operational Linescan System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Runya Li

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Nighttime light data record the artificial light on the Earth’s surface and can be used to estimate the degree of pollution associated with particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of less than 2.5 μm (PM2.5 in the ground-level atmosphere. This study proposes a simple method for monitoring PM2.5 concentrations at night by using nighttime light imagery from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program-Operational Linescan System (DMSP-OLS. This research synthesizes remote sensing and geographic information system techniques and establishes a back propagation neural-network (BP network model. The BP network model for nighttime light data performed well in estimating the PM2.5 pollution in Beijing. The correlation coefficient between the BP network model predictions and the corrected PM2.5 concentration was 0.975; the root mean square error was 26.26 μg/m3, with a corresponding average PM2.5 concentration of 155.07 μg/m3; and the average accuracy was 0.796. The accuracy of the results primarily depended on the method of selecting regions in the DMSP nighttime light data. This study provides an opportunity to measure the nighttime environment. Furthermore, these results can assist government agencies in determining particulate matter pollution control areas and developing and implementing environmental conservation planning.

  10. Levels of persistent organic pollutants in larvae of the damselfly Ischnura elegans (Odonata, Coenagrionidae) from different ponds in Flanders, Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Praet, Nander; Covaci, Adrian; Teuchies, Johannes; De Bruyn, Luc; Van Gossum, Hans; Stoks, Robby; Bervoets, Lieven

    2012-04-15

    We investigated the accumulation of persistent organic pollutants in damselfly larvae (Ischnura elegans) in sixteen ponds in Flanders (Belgium), widely differing in the surrounding land use. Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) were measured. From all targeted PBDE-congeners, only three congeners (IUPAC nos. 47, 99, 100) were above the limit of quantification (LOQ). The ∑PBDE concentrations ranged from ponds, ranging from pond at Sijsele. In all investigated Flemish ponds, p,p'-DDE concentrations were >LOQ (0.20 ngg(-1) ww) with values up to 3.30 ngg(-1) ww in the pond at Hamme. In fifteen ponds, the HCB concentrations were >LOQ (0.05 ngg(-1) ww) with values up to 0.24 ngg(-1) ww. For the available data in the literature a comparison with different species was done for some of the sampled ponds. The monitored ponds can be separated in three groups based on their contamination. The first group is characterised by a relative low POP content (∑PBDEs, ∑PCBs, HCB). Group 2 contained more HCB and p,p'-DDE than the overall mean while this was the case for PBDEs and PCBs in group 3. The vectors of both contaminated groups are situated nearly perpendicular which is suggesting a different pollution sources. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The impacts of surface ozone pollution on winter wheat productivity in China--An econometric approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Fujin; Jiang, Fei; Zhong, Funing; Zhou, Xun; Ding, Aijun

    2016-01-01

    The impact of surface ozone pollution on winter wheat yield is empirically estimated by considering socio-economic and weather determinants. This research is the first to use an economic framework to estimate the ozone impact, and a unique county-level panel is employed to examine the impact of the increasing surface ozone concentration on the productivity of winter wheat in China. In general, the increment of surface ozone concentration during the ozone-sensitive period of winter wheat is determined to be harmful to its yield, and a conservative reduction of ozone pollution could significantly increase China's wheat supply. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Intra-urban spatial variability in wintertime street-level concentrations of multiple combustion-related air pollutants: the New York City Community Air Survey (NYCCAS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clougherty, Jane E; Kheirbek, Iyad; Eisl, Holger M; Ross, Zev; Pezeshki, Grant; Gorczynski, John E; Johnson, Sarah; Markowitz, Steven; Kass, Daniel; Matte, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Although intra-urban air pollution differs by season, few monitoring networks provide adequate geographic density and year-round coverage to fully characterize seasonal patterns. Here, we report winter intra-urban monitoring and land-use regression (LUR) results from the New York City Community Air Survey (NYCCAS). Two-week integrated samples of fine particles (PM(2.5)), black carbon (BC), nitrogen oxides (NO(x)) and sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) were collected at 155 city-wide street-level locations during winter 2008-2009. Sites were selected using stratified random sampling, randomized across sampling sessions to minimize spatio-temporal confounding. LUR was used to identify GIS-based source indicators associated with higher concentrations. Prediction surfaces were produced using kriging with external drift. Each pollutant varied twofold or more across sites, with higher concentrations near midtown Manhattan. All pollutants were positively correlated, particularly PM(2.5) and BC (Spearman's r=0.84). Density of oil-burning boilers, total and truck traffic density, and temporality explained 84% of PM(2.5) variation. Densities of total traffic, truck traffic, oil-burning boilers and industrial space, with temporality, explained 65% of BC variation. Temporality, built space, bus route location, and traffic density described 67% of nitrogen dioxide variation. Residual oil-burning units, nighttime population and temporality explained 77% of SO(2) variation. Spatial variation in combustion-related pollutants in New York City was strongly associated with oil-burning and traffic density. Chronic exposure disparities and unique local sources can be identified through year-round saturation monitoring.

  13. Managing Product-Harm Crises

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.J. van Heerde (Harald); K. Helsen; M.G. Dekimpe (Marnik)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractProduct-harm crises are among a firm’s worst nightmares. Since marketing investments may be instrumental to convince consumers to purchase the firm's products again, it is important to provide an adequate measurement of the effectiveness of these investments, especially after the crisis.

  14. Harm minimization among teenage drinkers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Morten Hulvej; Curtis, Tine; Christensen, Pia Haudrup

    2007-01-01

    . In regulating the social context of drinking they relied on their personal experiences more than on formalized knowledge about alcohol and harm, which they had learned from prevention campaigns and educational programmes. CONCLUSIONS: In this study we found that teenagers may help each other to minimize alcohol...

  15. Biomarkers of genotoxicity of urban air pollution. Overview and descriptive data from a molecular epidemiology study on populations exposed to moderate-to-low levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: the AULIS project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyrtopoulos, S.A.; Georgiadis, P.; Autrup, H.

    2001-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies indicate that prolonged exposure to high pollution levels is associated with increased risk of cancer, especially lung cancer. However, under conditions of moderate or low air pollution, epidemiologic evidence does not permit reliable conclusions. Biomarker-based population...... studies may serve as complementary tools providing a better understanding of the relative contribution of ambient atmospheric pollution to the overall genotoxic burden suffered by city dwellers. However, past efforts to apply biomarkers to studies of low levels exposure to urban air pollution have given......-based population studies to aid the assessment of the genotoxic and carcinogenic effects of urban air pollution is reviewed by reference to the achievements and limitations of earlier reported studies. The design and methodology adopted in a recently completed large-scale population study, carried out...

  16. Pollution Probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chant, Donald A.

    This book is written as a statement of concern about pollution by members of Pollution Probe, a citizens' anti-pollution group in Canada. Its purpose is to create public awareness and pressure for the eventual solution to pollution problems. The need for effective government policies to control the population explosion, conserve natural resources,…

  17. Settlement with Continental Carbon Company to Reduce Air Pollution at Manufacturing Facility in Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    WASHINGTON - In a settlement with the United States and the states of Alabama and Oklahoma, Continental Carbon Company has agreed to install pollution control technology that will significantly cut emissions of harmful air pollutants at manufacturin

  18. Settlement with Continental Carbon Company to Reduce Air Pollution at Manufacturing Facilities in Three States

    Science.gov (United States)

    WASHINGTON - In a settlement with the United States and the states of Alabama and Oklahoma, Continental Carbon Company has agreed to install pollution control technology that will significantly cut emissions of harmful air pollutants at manufacturin

  19. Settlement with Continental Carbon Company to Reduce Air Pollution at Manufacturing Facility in Okla. and Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    WASHINGTON - In a settlement with the United States and the states of Alabama and Oklahoma, Continental Carbon Company has agreed to install pollution control technology that will significantly cut emissions of harmful air pollutants at manufacturing facil

  20. National Port Strategy Assessment: Reducing Air Pollution and Greenhouse Gases at U.S. Ports

    Science.gov (United States)

    The assessment finds that air pollution at the Nation's ports can be significantly reduced by implementing currently available strategies and technologies to reduce emissions of harmful pollutants from diesel vehicles and engines.

  1. Halogenated organic pollutants in marine biota from the Xuande Atoll, South China Sea: Levels, biomagnification and dietary exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yu-Xin; Hu, Yong-Xia; Zhang, Zai-Wang; Xu, Xiang-Rong; Li, Heng-Xiang; Zuo, Lin-Zi; Zhong, Yi; Sun, Hong; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2017-05-15

    Six marine biota species were collected from the Xuande Atoll, South China Sea to investigate the bioaccumulation of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE) and dechlorane plus (DP). Pike conger (Muraenesox talabonoides) had the highest concentrations of halogenated organic pollutants (HOPs) among the six marine biota species. DDTs were the predominant HOPs, followed by PCBs and PBDEs, with minor contributions of DBDPE and DP. Twenty-one percent of samples had ratios of (DDE+DDD)/ΣDDTs lower than 0.5, implying the presence of fresh DDT inputs in the environment of the Xuande Atoll. The biomagnification factor values for DDTs, PCBs, PBDEs and DP were higher than 1, suggesting biomagnification of these contaminants in the marine food chains. Consumption of seafood from the Xuande Atoll might not subject local residents in the coastal areas of South China to health risks as far as HOPs are concerned. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Optimization of typical diffuse herbicide pollution control by soil amendment configurations under four levels of rainfall intensities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Wei; Huang, Weijia; Wei, Peng; Hao, Fanghua; Yu, Yongyong

    2016-06-15

    Herbicides are a main source of agricultural diffuse pollution due to their wide application in tillage practices. The aim of this study is to optimize the control efficiency of the herbicide atrazine with the aid of modified soil amendments. The soil amendments were composed of a combination of biochar and gravel. The biochar was created from corn straw with a catalytic pyrolysis of ammonium dihydrogen phosphate. The leaching experiments under four rainfall conditions were measured for the following designs: raw soil, soil amended with gravel, biochar individually and together with gravel. The control efficiency of each design was also identified. With the designed equipment, the atrazine content in the contaminant load layer, gravel substrate layer, biochar amendment layer and soil layer was measured under four types of rainfall intensities (1.25 mm/h, 2.50 mm/h, 5.00 mm/h and 10.00 mm/h). Furthermore, the vertical distribution of atrazine in the soil sections was also monitored. The results showed that the herbicide leaching load increased under the highest rainfall intensity in all designs. The soil with the combination of gravel and biochar provided the highest control efficiency of 87.85% on atrazine when the additional proportion of biochar was 3.0%. The performance assessment under the four kinds of rainfall intensity conditions provided the guideline for the soil amendment configuration. The combination of gravel and biochar is recommended as an efficient method for controlling diffuse herbicide pollution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Soil burdens of persistent organic pollutants--their levels, fate and risk. Part II. Are there any trends in PCDD/F levels in mountain soils?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukucka, Petr; Klánová, Jana; Sánka, Milan; Holoubek, Ivan

    2009-12-01

    Good quality data apt for an assessment of temporal trends of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDDs/Fs) in soils are difficult to obtain since there is a general lack of information on their residues in soils. Variability of soil profiles, non-homogeneity of samples, and often also inconsistency of applied sampling procedures further complicate this problem. To assess spatial and temporal trends of contamination, three soil sampling campaigns have been performed over the period of 12 years at the mountain forest sites in the Czech Republic. Relation between the air, needle and soil contaminations was addressed in addition to time-related variability of soil. It has been confirmed that soil is a good matrix for evaluation of spatial distribution of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) but difficult for establishment of temporal trends. A slow rate of the soil-forming processes and their site-specificity was generally the major source of uncertainties.

  4. The utility of biochemical, physiological and morphological biomarkers of leaf sulfate levels in establishing Brachylaena discolor leaves as a bioindicator of SO2 pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Areington, Candyce Ann; Varghese, Boby; Sershen

    2017-09-01

    The negative impacts of air pollution have made monitoring of air quality increasingly important, especially in heavily industrialized areas such as the South Durban Basin (SDB), in South Africa. Bioindicators such as trees can complement conventional air quality monitoring and be used to prioritise vulnerable areas. This study assessed the utility of Brachylaena discolor DC. tree leaves as a bioindicator of sulfur dioxide pollution. This involved correlating ground level sulfur dioxide concentrations ([SO2]) with B. discolor leaf sulfate concentrations ([sulfate]) at three industrial (treatment) sites within the SBD and control site at which [SO2] was significantly lower for all four seasons. Based on this significant positive correlation between the aforementioned (p = 0.005; ρ = 0.667) leaf sulfate levels were related to various biochemical (intracellular hydrogen peroxide production, total aqueous [TAA] and enzymic antioxidants [superoxide dismutase and catalase], lipid peroxidation [LPO] and electrolyte leakage), physiological (leaf chlorophyll fluorescence [LCF] and relative chlorophyll content) and morphological (leaf area [LA]) biomarkers of stress measured on leaves from trees at the treatment and control sites. Annual [SO2] and leaf [sulfate] at the treatments were significantly (p < 0.05) higher than the control and high by global standards. TAA, LPO, electrolyte leakage, LCF, and LA were significantly (p < 0.05) correlated with seasonal [sulfate]. Except for superoxide dismutase, catalase and relative chlorophyll content all other biomarkers could differentiate between the treatment sites and the control. However, TAA, electrolyte leakage and LA were the only biomarkers sensitive enough to reflect differences in annual [sulfate] across the treatment sites; these should be used to establish B. discolor leaves as a bioindicator of SO2 pollution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Problems of harmful habits and dependences of students.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorobey Nikolaj Petrovich

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of data of modern scientific literature is conducted on issue of harmful habits and dependences of students. It is shown that considerable part of student young people have harmful habits and dependences. Negative influence of harmful habits and dependences of students is exposed on the state of their health. Importance of delivering is well-proven from addiction behavior in practice of healthy way of life of students. It is set that one of foreground jobs of present time there is an increase of level of education of student young people on questions abandonment from harmful habits and dependences. The ways of decision of problem of addiction behavior of students are offered as an effective condition of improvement of the state of their health.

  6. How much detail needs to be elucidated in self-harm research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford, Sarah; Jones, Michael P

    2010-05-01

    Assessing self-harm through brief multiple choice items is simple and less invasive than more detailed methods of assessment. However, there is currently little validation for brief methods of self-harm assessment. This study evaluates the extent to which adolescents' perceptions of self-harm agree with definitions in the literature, and what level of question detail produces optimal concordance rates. Two hundred and thirty-three (69% female) first year university students aged 17-21 completed a self-harm coding task; we created three levels of question detail and randomly allocated participants to three study groups: brief, low detail, and high detail. The present findings suggest that that adolescents' perceptions of self-harm are generally concordant with a consensus definition of self-harm. Low level of detail in the question produced greatest accuracy in responses; adolescents who demonstrated adequate task understanding were able to correctly identify 94% of examples of self-harm behaviour and 86% of examples of behaviour that were not self-harm. We identified lower concordance rates for eating disordered behaviour and recreational petrol sniffing. This indicates that adolescents perceive these behaviours to be self-harm, in contrast to the reference definition we utilised. Overall, this study provides support for using a brief assessment of self-harm where minimal detail regarding self-harm behaviour is required.

  7. Alteration of Water Pollution Level with the Seasonal Changes in Mean Daily Discharge in Three Main Rivers around Dhaka City, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Saiful Islam

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A study based on the physicochemical parameters and dissolved metals levels from three main rivers around Dhaka City, Bangladesh, was conducted in order to determine the present pollution status and their alteration trends with the seasonal change of discharge amount. The water samples were collected from the rivers Buriganga, Turag, and Shitalakkhya during both dry and monsoon seasons. Physicochemical analyses revealed that most of the water quality parameters exceeded the recommended levels set by the Department of Environment (DoE, Bangladesh, during both the dry and monsoon seasons. A very strong positive correlation was found between biochemical oxygen demand (BOD and chemical oxygen demand (COD in all sampling points. Both BOD and COD values had a strong negative correlation with dissolved oxygen (DO in the Shitalakkhya River. Most of the dissolved metals concentrations in the water samples were similar. However, the concentrations of different physicochemical properties varied with the seasons. The dry season had significantly higher contamination loads, which were decreased during the monsoon season. Anthropogenic activities, as well as the variation in river water flow during different seasons were the main reasons for this high degree of water pollution.

  8. Heavy metals pollution in soil profiles from seasonal-flooding riparian wetlands in a Chinese delta: Levels, distributions and toxic risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guangliang; Bai, Junhong; Zhao, Qingqing; Jia, Jia; Wen, Xiaojun

    2017-02-01

    Soil profile samples were collected in seasonal-flooding riparian wetlands in the Yellow River Delta (YRD) of China in autumn and spring to investigate the levels, distributions and toxic risks of heavy metals in soil profiles. Total elemental contents of Al, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn were determined using inductively coupled plasma atomic absorption spectrometry (ICP-AAS). Results indicated that the contents of determined heavy metals showed non-negligible depth variations (coefficient of variation > 10%), and their distribution patterns were irregular. Compared with other heavy metals, both As and Cd presented higher enrichment factors (EF) based on the classification of EF values (moderate enrichment for As while significant enrichment for Cd). Cluster analysis (CA) and principal components analysis (PCA) revealed that Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn might derive from the common source, while As and Cd shared another similar source. The toxic unit (TU) values of these heavy metals did not exceed probable effect levels (PEL) except for Ni. Both As and Ni showed higher contributions to the sum of TU (∑TUs), which indicated they were the primary concerns of heavy metals pollution. Generally, As, Cd and Ni should be paid more attention for wetlands managers and policy makers to avoid potential ecotoxicity in the study area. The findings of this study could contribute to the prevention and control of heavy metals pollution in estuarine wetlands.

  9. Pollution effects on fisheries — potential management activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindermann, C. J.

    1980-03-01

    Management of ocean pollution must be based on the best available scientific information, with adequate consideration of economic, social, and political realities. Unfortunately, the best available scientific information about pollution effects on fisheries is often fragmentary, and often conjectural; therefore a primary concern of management should be a critical review and assessment of available factual information about effects of pollutants on fish and shellfish stocks. A major problem in any such review and assessment is the separation of pollutant effects from the effects of all the other environmental factors that influence survival and well-being of marine animals. Data from long-term monitoring of resource abundance, and from monitoring of all determinant environmental variables, will be required for analyses that lead to resolution of the problem. Information must also be acquired about fluxes of contaminants through resource-related ecosystems, and about contaminant effects on resource species as demonstrated in field and laboratory experiments. Other possible management activities include: (1) encouragement of continued efforts to document clearly the localized and general effects of pollution on living resources; (2) continued pressure to identify and use reliable biological indicators of environmental degradation (indicators of choice at present are: unusually high levels of genetic and other anomalies in the earliest life history stages; presence of pollution-associated disease signs, particularly fin erosion and ulcers, in fish; and biochemical/physiological changes); and (3) major efforts to reduce inputs of pollutants clearly demonstrated to be harmful to living resources, from point sources as well as ocean dumping. Such pollution management activities, based on continuous efforts in stock assessment, environmental assessment, and experimental studies, can help to insure that rational decisions will be made about uses and abuses of coastal

  10. Levels, sources and chemical fate of persistent organic pollutants in the atmosphere and snow along the western Antarctic Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khairy, Mohammed A; Luek, Jenna L; Dickhut, Rebecca; Lohmann, Rainer

    2016-09-01

    The Antarctic continent is among the most pristine regions; yet various organic contaminants have been measured there routinely. Air and snow samples were collected during the austral spring (October-November, 2010) along the western Antarctic Peninsula and analyzed for organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) to assess the relative importance of long-range transport versus local primary or secondary emissions. Highest concentrations of PCBs, PBDEs and DDTs were observed in the glacier's snow sample, highlighting the importance of melting glaciers as a possible secondary source of legacy pollutants to the Antarctic. In the atmosphere, contaminants were mainly found in the vapor phase (>65%). Hexachlorobenzene (33.6 pg/m(3)), PCBs (11.6 pg/m(3)), heptachlor (5.64 pg/m(3)), PBDEs (4.22 pg/m(3)) and cis-chlordane (2.43 pg/m(3)) were the most abundant contaminants. In contrast to other compounds, PBDEs seem to have originated from local sources, possibly the research station itself. Gas-particle partitioning for analytes were better predicted using the adsorption partitioning model than an octanol-based absorption approach. Diffusive flux calculations indicated that net deposition is the dominant pathway for PBDEs and chlordanes, whereas re-volatilization from snow (during melting or metamorphosis) was observed for PCBs and some OCPs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Persistent organic pollutants in marine fish from Yongxing Island, South China Sea: levels, composition profiles and human dietary exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yu-Xin; Hao, Qing; Xu, Xiang-Rong; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Wang, Shuai-Long; Zhang, Zai-Wang; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2014-03-01

    Little data is available on the bioaccumulation of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in marine organisms from South China Sea (SCS). Five marine fish species were collected from Yongxing Island, SCS to investigate the presence of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs). PBDEs, PCBs, and DDTs concentrations ranged from 2.0-117, 6.3-199, and 9.7-5831 ng g(-1) lw, respectively. In general, contaminants measured in this study were at the lower end of the global range. Concentrations of PBDEs and PCBs were significantly correlated in fish samples, implying that PBDEs are as prevalent as PCBs in Yongxing Island. Among the five fish species studied, yellow striped goatfish had the highest concentrations of PBDEs, PCBs, and DDTs, probably attributed to its different living and feeding habits. The contaminant distribution pattern indicated that agrochemical source is more important than industrial source in Yongxing Island, SCS. The average estimated daily intakes of PBDEs, PCBs, and DDTs via fish consumption by local residents in the coastal areas of South China ranged from 1.42-5.91, 3.20-13.3, and 8.08-33.6 ng d(-1), which were lower than those in previous studies, suggesting that consumption of marine fish in Yongxing Island, SCS, might not subject local residents to significant health risk as far as POPs are concerned. This is the first study to report the occurrence of POPs in marine biota from SCS. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. STUDY NOISE POLLUTION TYUMEN USING GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Dobryakova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most harmful factors of environment of the city is the noise, and its weight among the factors adversely affecting the life and health of the population has been increasing steadily [Sheina and etc., 2007; Polovinkina and etc., 2012]. Today, most major cities of the Russian Federation (70% have a high noise pollution problem. The system of support for the monitoring and control of acoustic situation in the city can be considered noise pollution electronic cards made using geographic information systems (GIS. There are two fundamentally different approaches to the selection of software for creation of noise maps. According to the first of them, use universal multifunctional complexes GIS (ArcGIS, MapInfo. According to the distribution of data points on the noise characteristics is created TIN model. A second approach to create noise maps using highly specialized software (MapNoise, SoundPLAN, Mitha, Cadna, ExNOISE et al.. To calculate noise propagation area is divided on the grid with a certain step, the most relevant mapping purposes. Calculation of noise levels is carried out in a grid cell by measurements based on diffraction and reflection of sound barriers and absorbing underlying surface. Noise pollution is also displayed using contour lines.

  13. Self-harm in adolescents: self-report survey in schools in Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Rory C; Rasmussen, Susan; Miles, Jeremy; Hawton, Keith

    2009-01-01

    The suicide rate in Scotland is twice as high as that in England. However, the prevalence of self-harm is unknown. To determine the prevalence of self-harm in adolescents in Scotland and the factors associated with it. A total of 2008 pupils aged 15-16 years completed an anonymous lifestyle and coping survey. Information was obtained on demographic characteristics, lifestyle, life events and problems, social influences, psychological variables and self-harm. Self-harm was reported by 13.8% of the respondents. The majority (71%) of those who had self-harmed had done so in the past 12 months and girls were approximately 3.4 times more likely to report self-harm than boys. In multivariate analyses, smoking, bullying, worries about sexual orientation, self-harm by family and anxiety were associated with self-harm in both genders. In addition, drug use, physical abuse, serious boy/girlfriend problems, self-harm by friends and low levels of optimism were also associated with self-harm in girls. Despite markedly different national suicide rates, the prevalence of self-harm in Scotland is similar to that in England with girls at least three times more likely to report self-harm than boys. The findings suggest a role for emotional literacy programmes in schools and highlight the importance of promoting positive mental health among adolescents.

  14. Soil burdens of persistent organic pollutants--their levels, fate and risk. Part I. Variation of concentration ranges according to different soil uses and locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holoubek, Ivan; Dusek, Ladislav; Sánka, Milan; Hofman, Jakub; Cupr, Pavel; Jarkovský, Jirí; Zbíral, Jirí; Klánová, Jana

    2009-12-01

    Detailed soil screening data from the Czech Republic as a typical Central European country are presented here. Determination of a wide selection of organic and inorganic pollutants as well as an assessment of specific soil parameters allowed us to study the soil contamination in relation to the land use and soil properties. While HCHs and HCB were found at highest levels in arable soils, the higher concentrations of PCDDs/Fs, PCBs, PAHs and DDTs were observed in high altitude forest soils. Concentrations of these compounds strongly correlated with the soil organic carbon content. Several possible reasons have been suggested for the observed higher concentrations in mountain forest soils but the impact of each of these influencing factors remains to be identified. An inventory of the soil contamination is needed as a first step in our effort to estimate an extent to which the secondary sources contribute to the enhanced atmospheric levels of POPs.

  15. [Pollution Level and Health Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Atmospheric PM₂.₅ in Nanjing Before and After the Youth Olympic Games].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Heng; Zhou, Zi-qiang; Zhao, Hai-yan; Xiong, Zheng-qin

    2016-01-15

    The influence of human activities on the atmospheric environment has attracted people's attention. This study reported the dynamic changes in PM₂.₅ concentration, its heavy metal compositions and health risk assessment from April to September, 2014 in Nanjing when the Youth Olympic Games ( YOG) was held. The results showed that the mass levels of PM₂.₅ ranged from 26.39 to 80.31 µg · m⁻³ from April to September. The mass levels of PM₂.₅ met the level II standard of ambient air quality in China (24 h average concentration, 75 µg · m⁻³) in months of April, May and July while met the level I standard (24 h average concentration, 35 µg · m⁻³) in August during the YOG. The average mass concentration of PM₂.₅ reached 76.14 µg · m⁻¹ after the YOG, showing resilience of air pollution. The variations of heavy metals were not consistent with each other throughout the observation period. Principal component analysis indicated that emission sources significantly affected the variations of PM₂.₅ and its heavy metals. PM₂.₅ and all of the heavy metals decreased to their minimum values during the YOG, indicating the effectiveness of those temporary measures for reducing atmospheric pollutant before and during the YOG. The health risks of Cd, Cu, Ni and Pb in PM₂.₅ via breathing and dermal contact exposure were all within the acceptable ranges, but potential carcinogenic risk existed for Cr in PM₂.₅. There was potential non-carcinogenic health risk for adult males via breathing of Mn and greater non-carcinogenic health risk for children via dermal contact exposures to all these 6 heavy metals.

  16. Pre and post-natal exposure to ambient level of air pollution impairs memory of rats: the role of oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanchi, Ana C T; Fagundes, Lucas S; Barbosa, Fernando; Bernardi, Rosane; Rhoden, Claudia Ramos; Saldiva, Paulo H N; do Valle, Angela Cristina

    2010-09-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate whether air pollution during pre-natal and post-natal phases change habituation and short-term discriminative memories and if oxidants are involved in this process. As secondary objectives, it was to evaluate if the change of filtered to nonfiltered environment could protect the cortex of rats against oxidative stress as well as to modify the behavior of these animals. Wistar, male rats were divided into four groups (n = 12/group): pre and post-natal exposure until adulthood to filtered air (FA); pre-natal period to nonfiltered air (NFA-FA); until (21st post-natal day) and post-natal to filtered air until adulthood (PND21); pre-natal to filtered air until PND21 and post-natal to nonfiltered air until adulthood (FA-NFA); pre and post-natal to nonfiltered air (NFA). After 150 days of air pollution exposure, animals were tested in the spontaneous object recognition test to evaluate short-term discriminative and habituation memories. Rats were euthanized; blood was collected for metal determination; cortex dissected for oxidative stress evaluation. There was a significant increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in the NFA group when compared to other groups (FA: 1.730 +/- 0.217; NFA-FA: 1.101 +/- 0.217; FA-NFA: 1.014 +/- 0.300; NFA: 5.978 +/- 1.920 nmol MDA/mg total proteins; p = 0.007). NFA group presented a significant decrease in short-term discriminative (FA: 0.603 +/- 0.106; NFA-FA: 0.669 +/- 0.0666; FA-NFA: 0.374 +/- 0.178; NFA: -0.00631 +/- 0.106 sec; p = 0.006) and an improvement in habituation memories when compared to other groups. Therefore, exposure to air pollution during both those periods impairs short-term discriminative memory and cortical oxidative stress may mediate this process.

  17. The Role of Air Pollutants in Initiating Liver Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jong Won; Park, Surim; Lim, Chae Woong; Lee, Kyuhong; Kim, Bumseok

    2014-01-01

    Recent episodes of severe air pollution in eastern Asia have been reported in the scientific literature and news media. Therefore, there is growing concern about the systemic effects of air pollution on human health. Along with the other well-known harmful effects of air pollution, recently, several animal models have provided strong evidence that air pollutants can induce liver toxicity and act to accelerate liver inflammation and steatosis. This review briefly describes examples where expos...

  18. Water Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NIEHS Doing? Further Reading For Educators Introduction Water pollution is any contamination of water with chemicals or other foreign substances that are detrimental to human, plant, or animal health. These pollutants include fertilizers and pesticides from agricultural ...

  19. Microplastic pollutants

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Crawford, Christopher B; Quinn, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Microplastic Pollutants introduces the reader to the growing problem of microplastic pollution in the aquatic environment and is the first ever book dedicated exclusively to the subject of microplastics...

  20. Water pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Institute, Marine

    2013-01-01

    Students will learn about what causes water pollution and how to be environmentally aware. *Note: Students should understand the concept of the water cycle before moving onto water pollution (see Lesson Plan “Oceans all Around Us”).

  1. Balancing harms in support of recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sykes, Michael J; Brabban, Alison; Reilly, Joe

    2015-06-01

    Harm in mental health has traditionally been viewed as "unambiguous" and measured in terms of suicide, self-harm, self-neglect and violence. In order to develop an organisational patient safety strategy, one Trust engaged with service users, carers and senior clinicians and managers in order to understand how they define harm. To explore the meaning of harm in a mental health and learning disabilities setting. This paper describes the outcome of service improvement work with service users, carers, senior clinicians and managers at one Trust to determine what harm meant to them. Harm is a concept which is broader than elements currently seen within organisational patient safety metrics and clinical risk assessments. Taking into account the diverse feedback received about what constitutes harm, a more inclusive definition emerges which could be incorporated into a new framework for risk management, balancing risk of harms across multiple dimensions. This approach has the potential to bring together consideration of the risk and recovery agendas.

  2. Pregnancy Cravings Can Harm Your Oral Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About | Contact InfoBites Quick Reference Learn more Children's Oral Health How Do I Care for My Child's Baby ... your desktop! more... Pregnancy Cravings Can Harm Your Oral Health Article Chapters Pregnancy Cravings Can Harm Your Oral ...

  3. Controlling Air Pollution from the Oil and Natural Gas Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA regulations for the oil and natural gas industry help combat climate change and reduce air pollution that harms public health. EPA’s regulations apply to oil production, and the production, process, transmission and storage of natural gas.

  4. Air Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, K.; And Others

    Pollution of the general environment, which exposes an entire population group for an indeterminate period of time, certainly constitutes a problem in public health. Serious aid pollution episodes have resulted in increased mortality and a possible relationship between chronic exposure to a polluted atmosphere and certain diseases has been…

  5. Arctic smoke - record high air pollution levels in the European Arctic due to agricultural fires in Eastern Europe in spring 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stohl, A.; Berg, T.; Burkhart, J. F.; Fjæraa, A. M.; Forster, C.; Herber, A.; Hov, Ø.; Lunder, C.; McMillan, W. W.; Oltmans, S.; Shiobara, M.; Simpson, D.; Solberg, S.; Stebel, K.; Ström, J.; Tørseth, K.; Treffeisen, R.; Virkkunen, K.; Yttri, K. E.

    2007-01-01

    In spring 2006, the European Arctic was abnormally warm, setting new historical temperature records. During this warm period, smoke from agricultural fires in Eastern Europe intruded into the European Arctic and caused the most severe air pollution episodes ever recorded there. This paper confirms that biomass burning (BB) was indeed the source of the observed air pollution, studies the transport of the smoke into the Arctic, and presents an overview of the observations taken during the episode. Fire detections from the MODIS instruments aboard the Aqua and Terra satellites were used to estimate the BB emissions. The FLEXPART particle dispersion model was used to show that the smoke was transported to Spitsbergen and Iceland, which was confirmed by MODIS retrievals of the aerosol optical depth (AOD) and AIRS retrievals of carbon monoxide (CO) total columns. Concentrations of halocarbons, carbon dioxide and CO, as well as levoglucosan and potassium, measured at Zeppelin mountain near Ny Ålesund, were used to further corroborate the BB source of the smoke at Spitsbergen. The ozone (O3) and CO concentrations were the highest ever observed at the Zeppelin station, and gaseous elemental mercury was also elevated. A new O3 record was also set at a station on Iceland. The smoke was strongly absorbing - black carbon concentrations were the highest ever recorded at Zeppelin - and strongly perturbed the radiation transmission in the atmosphere: aerosol optical depths were the highest ever measured at Ny Ålesund. We furthermore discuss the aerosol chemical composition, obtained from filter samples, as well as the aerosol size distribution during the smoke event. Photographs show that the snow at a glacier on Spitsbergen became discolored during the episode and, thus, the snow albedo was reduced. Samples of this polluted snow contained strongly elevated levels of potassium, sulphate, nitrate and ammonium ions, thus relating the discoloration to the deposition of the smoke

  6. Arctic smoke – record high air pollution levels in the European Arctic due to agricultural fires in Eastern Europe in spring 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Stohl

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In spring 2006, the European Arctic was abnormally warm, setting new historical temperature records. During this warm period, smoke from agricultural fires in Eastern Europe intruded into the European Arctic and caused the most severe air pollution episodes ever recorded there. This paper confirms that biomass burning (BB was indeed the source of the observed air pollution, studies the transport of the smoke into the Arctic, and presents an overview of the observations taken during the episode. Fire detections from the MODIS instruments aboard the Aqua and Terra satellites were used to estimate the BB emissions. The FLEXPART particle dispersion model was used to show that the smoke was transported to Spitsbergen and Iceland, which was confirmed by MODIS retrievals of the aerosol optical depth (AOD and AIRS retrievals of carbon monoxide (CO total columns. Concentrations of halocarbons, carbon dioxide and CO, as well as levoglucosan and potassium, measured at Zeppelin mountain near Ny Ålesund, were used to further corroborate the BB source of the smoke at Spitsbergen. The ozone (O3 and CO concentrations were the highest ever observed at the Zeppelin station, and gaseous elemental mercury was also elevated. A new O3 record was also set at a station on Iceland. The smoke was strongly absorbing – black carbon concentrations were the highest ever recorded at Zeppelin – and strongly perturbed the radiation transmission in the atmosphere: aerosol optical depths were the highest ever measured at Ny Ålesund. We furthermore discuss the aerosol chemical composition, obtained from filter samples, as well as the aerosol size distribution during the smoke event. Photographs show that the snow at a glacier on Spitsbergen became discolored during the episode and, thus, the snow albedo was reduced. Samples of this polluted snow contained strongly elevated levels of potassium, sulphate, nitrate and ammonium ions, thus relating the discoloration to the

  7. How and where to perform biomonitoring studies: different levels of toxic metal pollution are detected in the Alagados Reservoir in Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doria, Halina Binde; Voigt, Carmen Lúcia; Sandrini-Neto, Leonardo; Campos, Sandro Xavier; de Oliveira-Ribeiro, Ciro Alberto; Randi, Marco Antonio Ferreira

    2017-05-01

    The Alagados Reservoir located in the Brazilian city of Ponta Grossa is used to supply water for human consumption but is impacted by toxic metals. The current study combined chemical, biochemical, and multivariate analyses to determine the bioavailability of toxic metals at three sites (AL-A, AL-B, and AL-C) within the Alagados Reservoir. Metal bioaccumulation was analyzed in the liver, gills, and muscle tissue of a native fish species (Geophagus brasiliensis), and neurotoxicity, xenobiotic metabolism, and oxidative stress were evaluated using biochemical biomarkers. Additionally, histopathological studies were performed on the gills and the liver using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and conventional light microscopy (LM), respectively. Overall, the bioaccumulation of metals, biomarkers of oxidative stress, and melanomacrophage counts indicate that the AL-C and the AL-A sites are the most and least affected by metals, respectively. The AL-B site presented the lowest acetylcholinesterase enzyme activity, a finding which was probably associated with the agricultural activities around this area of the reservoir. The biomarkers clearly revealed that toxic metals negatively affect all three sites studied herein and that human activity is the major source of pollutants. Despite the existence of different pollution levels within the Alagados Reservoir, it is still used as a human water supply.

  8. Soil burdens of persistent organic pollutants: their levels, fate, and risks. Part iv. Quantification of volatilization fluxes of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls from contaminated soil surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koblizková, Martina; Růzicková, Petra; Cupr, Pavel; Komprda, Jirí; Holoubek, Ivan; Klánová, Jana

    2009-05-15

    A volatilization chamber, designed for direct measurements of the soil-air exchange of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) was applied for determination of the volatilization fluxes of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). The volatilization fluxes were determined for 13 model compounds at 3-5 concentration levels, for two soil organic carbon contents, and two wind velocities. The flux values were strongly correlated with physicochemical properties of the compounds. The higher fluxes were measured for soils with lower organic carbon contents, for higher contamination, and higher wind velocities. Experimentally derived values were compared to those predicted by the fugacity model. In general, the fugacity model underestimated the volatilization fluxes, especially for the compounds with higher molecular weights, and soils with higher organic carbon contents. It has been demonstrated that variability of the wind velocities as an important parameter for quantification of the soil-air exchange should be better considered in current models. Presented results draw the attention to often overlooked secondary sources of the atmospheric pollution and point out that their impact can be much greater than indicated by the fugacity models.

  9. Sampling and analytical methods for assessing the levels of organic pollutants in the atmosphere: PAH, phthalates and psychotropic substances: a short review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecinato, Angelo; Balducci, Catia; Mastroianni, Daniele; Perilli, Mattia

    2012-07-01

    This short review presents the procedures used to monitor PAHs, phthalates and psychotropic substances in the air, and the results of some measurements made in Italy and abroad. Organic contaminants are characterized by a variety of physical and chemical properties, including aggregation phase, concentration level, and life time. This variety widens the spectrum of procedures developed to assess their occurrence in the environment and biota, but prevents the complete speciation of the "organic fraction" of air, waters and particulates, and attention is paid to a few substances. The progress in health sciences stimulates the concern on contaminants and the development of new instrumental apparatuses and methods; new chemicals are continuously identified or recognized as capable of injuring the environment and organisms. Persistent organic pollutants and persistent biologically active toxicants are subject to regulation and extensively measured by means of standard procedures. For instance, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorobiphenyls and polychlorodibenzodioxins are recovered from air through phase partition, thermal desorption or solvent extraction, then separated and detected through GC-MS or HPLC-MS procedures. By contrast, dedicated methods must be still optimized to monitor candidates or possible candidates as emerging organic pollutants, e.g. phthalates, flame retardants and perfluoroalkanes. Also, psychotropic substances appear of potential concern. Legal and illicit substances are commonly detected in the urban air besides waste and surface waters. If nicotine, caffeine and cocaine will result to enough persistence in the air, their monitoring will become an important issue of global chemical watching in the next future.

  10. Neighbourhood Characteristics and Long-Term Air Pollution Levels Modify the Association between the Short-Term Nitrogen Dioxide Concentrations and All-Cause Mortality in Paris.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Séverine Deguen

    Full Text Available While a great number of papers have been published on the short-term effects of air pollution on mortality, few have tried to assess whether this association varies according to the neighbourhood socioeconomic level and long-term ambient air concentrations measured at the place of residence. We explored the effect modification of 1 socioeconomic status, 2 long-term NO2 ambient air concentrations, and 3 both combined, on the association between short-term exposure to NO2 and all-cause mortality in Paris (France.A time-stratified case-crossover analysis was performed to evaluate the effect of short-term NO2 variations on mortality, based on 79,107 deaths having occurred among subjects aged over 35 years, from 2004 to 2009, in the city of Paris. Simple and double interactions were statistically tested in order to analyse effect modification by neighbourhood characteristics on the association between mortality and short-term NO2 exposure. The data was estimated at the census block scale (n=866.The mean of the NO2 concentrations during the five days prior to deaths were associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality: overall Excess Risk (ER was 0.94% (95%CI=[0.08;1.80]. A higher risk was revealed for subjects living in the most deprived census blocks in comparison with higher socioeconomic level areas (ER=3.14% (95%CI=[1.41-4.90], p<0.001. Among these deprived census blocks, excess risk was even higher where long-term average NO2 concentrations were above 55.8 μg/m3 (the top tercile of distribution: ER=4.84% (95%CI=[1.56;8.24], p for interaction=0.02.Our results show that people living in census blocks characterized by low socioeconomic status are more vulnerable to air pollution episodes. There is also an indication that people living in these disadvantaged census blocks might experience even higher risk following short-term air pollution episodes, when they are also chronically exposed to higher NO2 levels.

  11. Geographic variation of persistent organic pollutant levels in humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) feeding areas of the North Pacific and North Atlantic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfes, Cristiane T; Vanblaricom, Glenn R; Boyd, Daryle; Calambokidis, John; Clapham, Phillip J; Pearce, Ronald W; Robbins, Jooke; Salinas, Juan Carlos; Straley, Janice M; Wade, Paul R; Krahn, Margaret M

    2010-04-01

    Seasonal feeding behavior and high fidelity to feeding areas allow humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) to be used as biological indicators of regional contamination. Biopsy blubber samples from male individuals (n = 67) were collected through SPLASH, a multinational research project, in eight North Pacific feeding grounds. Additional male samples (n = 20) were collected from one North Atlantic feeding ground. Persistent organic pollutants were measured in the samples and used to assess contaminant distribution in the study areas. North Atlantic (Gulf of Maine) whales were more contaminated than North Pacific whales, showing the highest levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and chlordanes. The highest dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) levels were detected in whales feeding off southern California, USA. High-latitude regions were characterized by elevated levels of hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) but generally nondetectable concentrations of PBDEs. Age was shown to have a positive relationship with SigmaPCBs, SigmaDDTs, Sigmachlordanes, and total percent lipid. Contaminant levels in humpback whales were comparable to other mysticetes and lower than those found in odontocete cetaceans and pinnipeds. Although these concentrations likely do not represent a significant conservation threat, levels in the Gulf of Maine and southern California may warrant further study. (c) 2009 SETAC.

  12. The role of vitamin E or clay in growing Japanese quail fed diets polluted by cadmium at various levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-Kassem, D E; Mahrose, Kh M; Alagawany, M

    2016-03-01

    This study was conducted to verify whether vitamin (Vit) E or natural clay as feed additives has the potential to modulate the deleterious effects resulting from exposure to cadmium (Cd) in growing Japanese quail. 648 Japanese quail chicks (1 week old) were used to evaluate the effects of dietary Cd (0, 40, 80 and 120 mg/kg diet) and two levels of Vit E (0, 250 mg/kg diet) or two levels of natural clay (0 and 100 mg/kg diet) to study the influences of Cd, Vit E, clay or their different combinations on growth performance, carcass traits, some blood biochemical components and Cd residues in muscles and liver. Live BW and weight gain of quails were linearly decreased with increasing dietary Cd levels. Moreover, feed conversion was significantly worsened with increasing Cd level. Mortality percentage was linearly increased as dietary Cd level increased up to 120 mg/kg diet. Carcass percentage was linearly decreased as dietary Cd level increased. While, giblets percentage were linearly and quadratically differed as dietary Cd level increased. Cd caused significant changes in total plasma protein, albumin, globulin, A/G ratio, creatinine, urea-N and uric acid concentrations as well as ALT, AST and ALP activities. Increasing dietary Cd level was associated with its increase in the muscles and liver. Dietary supplementation with 250 mg of Vit E/kg diet or 100 mg clay/kg improved live BW, BW gain and feed conversion when compared with the un-supplemented diet. Quails fed diet contained 250 mg Vit E/kg and those fed 100 mg clay/kg had the highest percentages of carcass and dressing than those fed the un-supplemented diet. Blood plasma biochemical components studied were better when birds received 250 mg of Vit E/kg diet and those received 100 mg clay/kg. Cd residues in the muscles and liver were significantly less in the birds had 250 mg of Vit E/kg or those received 100 mg clay/kg diet than those un-supplemented with Vit E. Growth performance traits and blood plasma

  13. Air Pollution Modelling to Predict Maximum Ground Level Concentration for Dust from a Palm Oil Mill Stack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina A. A.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The study is to model emission from a stack to estimate ground level concentration from a palm oil mill. The case study is a mill located in Kuala Langat, Selangor. Emission source is from boilers stacks. The exercise determines the estimate the ground level concentrations for dust to the surrounding areas through the utilization of modelling software. The surround area is relatively flat, an industrial area surrounded by factories and with palm oil plantations in the outskirts. The model utilized in the study was to gauge the worst-case scenario. Ambient air concentrations were garnered calculate the increase to localized conditions. Keywords: emission, modelling, palm oil mill, particulate, POME

  14. The Kansas City, Missouri, ground-level ozone (GLO) project: a community-based air pollution field experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adegoke, Jimmy O; Steurer, Joan F; Green, Christopher M; Willoughby, M Tyler; Joerke, James

    2010-01-01

    Tropospheric ozone concentrations for Kansas City are well known on a regional scale. The Kansas City, Missouri, ground-level ozone (GLO) project measured outdoor ozone concentrations using passive sensing devices (PSDs) on a neighborhood scale. Highly resolved exposure maps were made based on the detailed air quality observations collected during the seven week sampling study during the summer of 2005. Data analysis demonstated that ozone concentration levels were higher in urban core neighborhoods compared to the surrounding surbuban areas. The results have negative implications for the respiratory health of residents of urban Kansas City.

  15. National legislation, international conventions and exposure to harmful chemicals

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hietkamp, S

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Without legislation pollution is regarded as an “externality” high levels of air and water pollution in Europe resulted increasing industrialisation. Disasters happened e.g. London smog in the 1950 and the first clean air legislation was introduced...

  16. Nurses' attitudes towards self-harm: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karman, P; Kool, N; Poslawsky, I E; van Meijel, B

    2015-02-01

    People who self-harm experience many problems and needs related to management of emotional and practical stress. A positive attitude among nurses is especially important given the close contact they have with people who self-harm. This article is based on a review of the literature. It includes articles that concern both general and mental health nurses who work in various healthcare settings (e.g. acute inpatients wards, community mental health, emergency departments and medical admission units). The literature shows that negative attitudes towards self-harm are common among nurses. It remains unclear how nurses' age, work experience and gender influence their attitudes. The setting in which nurses work appears to influence their attitude, as does their level of qualification. For example, mental health nurses appear to have more positive attitudes than general nurses. Nurses' attitudes can be improved with the help of education comprising reflective and interactive elements. Supervision and support from colleagues appear to be especially important for mental health nurses. Self-harm is a growing health problem. Nurses in a variety of healthcare settings play a central role in the care of people who self-harm. Their professional attitudes towards these people are essential for high-quality care. This review aims to develop insight into nurses' attitudes towards self-harm as they exist in contemporary nursing practice. A literature search was conducted in four databases, and a total of 15 relevant articles were found. This review indicates that negative attitudes towards self-harm are common among nurses. The influence of nurses' age, gender and work experience remains unclear. Healthcare setting and qualification level appear to be influencing factors. Education can have a positive influence on nurses' attitudes towards self-harm, especially when it includes reflective and interactive components. It is demonstrated in this review that a major change is needed

  17. Nonsuicidal Self-Harm among Community Adolescents: Understanding the "Whats" and "Whys" of Self-Harm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laye-Gindhu, Aviva; Schonert-Reichl, Kimberly A.

    2005-01-01

    This study examines self-harm in a community sample of adolescents. More specifically, the study identifies the prevalence and types of self-harm, elucidates the nature and underlying function of self-harm, and evaluates the relation of psychological adjustment, sociodemographic, and health-risk variables to self-harm. Self-report questionnaires…

  18. What's the Harm? Harms in Research with Adults with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Katherine E.; Conroy, Nicole E.; Olick, Robert S.

    2017-01-01

    Scientific advances can improve the lives of adults with intellectual disability, yet concerns that research participation may impose harm impede scientific progress. What counts as harmful can be subjective and perceptions of harm may vary among stakeholders. We studied perspectives on the harmfulness of research events among adults with…

  19. Specific Emissions of Harmful Substances from Small Boilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horák Jiøí

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available Coal is on of the most important energy source and its significance will increase in a future. In Czech republic coal is except else widely used as a fuel for combustion in a small boilers (up to 50 kW. Low efficiency of the small boilers which is often below 50% together with high emissions of the harmful substances into near surroundings cause in average 40 – 70% of total local air pollution. The research was performed in a scope of the Grant no. 101/98/0820 of Grant Agency of Czech Republic was focused on quality of combustion process related to combustion efficiency and creation of harmful substances at combustion of domestic fuels. Experiments were performed to compare combustion of brown coal, clack coal, coke and black coal slurry. Extremely high creation of harmful substances (CO, NOX, solid particles and organic substances was measured when the black coal slurry was used as a fuel, measured in kg of emissions per GJ of burned fuel. Combustion of brown coal produced significant emissions of solid particles which bond harmful substances as metals, polyaromatic hydrocarbons and others together with high emissions of SO2 . Strong dependence between emissions of CO and low quality of combustion given by low combustion temperature, shortage of combustion air, not suitable design of after-combustion chamber and short duration of fuel presence in a combustion area was found out. Emissions of wide range of metals were investigated. The results of the research grant project describe and explain the combustion process and creation of harmful substances in small boilers plus give suggestions and recommendations leading to rational operation of the small boilers and lowering their negative impact to environment.

  20. A second life for old data: global patterns in pollution ecology revealed from published observational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlov, Mikhail V; Zvereva, Elena L

    2011-05-01

    A synthesis of research on the responses of terrestrial biota (1095 effect sizes) to industrial pollution (206 point emission sources) was conducted to reveal regional and global patterns from small-scale observational studies. A meta-analysis, in combination with other statistical methods, showed that the effects of pollution depend on characteristics of the specific polluter (type, amount of emission, duration of impact on biota), the affected organism (trophic group, life history), the level at which the response was measured (organism, population, community), and the environment (biome, climate). In spite of high heterogeneity in responses, we have detected several general patterns. We suggest that the development of evolutionary adaptations to pollution is a common phenomenon and that the harmful effects of pollution on terrestrial ecosystems are likely to increase as the climate warms. We argue that community- and ecosystem-level responses to pollution should be explored directly, rather than deduced from organism-level studies. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Impacts of climate change on air pollution levels in the Northern Hemisphere with special focus on Europe and the Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. B. Hedegaard

    2008-06-01

    the DEHM model. This leads to an increase in the O3 production and together with an increase in water vapor to an increase in the number of free OH radicals. Furthermore this increase in the number of OH radicals contributes to a significant change in the typical life time of many species, since OH are participating in a large number of chemical reactions. It is e.g. found that more SO42− will be present in the future over the already polluted areas and this increase can be explained by an enhanced conversion of SO2 to SO42−.

  2. Organotin pollution at Arraial do Cabo, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil: increasing levels after the TBT ban

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Toste

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Imposex, an endocrine disruption phenomenon, is a biomarker of tributyltin (TBT exposure in marine gastropod populations. The occurrence and intensity of the syndrome in populations of the neogastropod Stramonita haemastoma were ascertained at nine sampling stations in October 2008 at Arraial do Cabo, a very important tourist resort in Rio de Janeiro state (Brazil and part of the Marine Extractive Reserve of Arraial do Cabo. The results obtained made it possible to evaluate the changes which had occurred since the last biomonitoring campaign, undertaken in 2001, at these same stations. Despite the ban on the use of TBT imposed by the Brazilian Navy in 2003, the controls on the use of this agent in Brazil resulting from the establishment of NORMAM 23 by the Navy in 2007 and the complete ban of organotin compounds in antifouling paint formulae by the IMO on a global scale in 2008, imposex was still detected. Instead of the expected reduction, an increase was observed in the areas affected by imposex. Furthermore, populations in the areas seriously affected by imposex in 2001 were absent in the 2008 sampling campaign. These results suggest an increase in TBT pollution in the study area, indicating the inefficacy of legislative measures.O imposex, um fenômeno de desregulação endócrina, é um biomarcador da exposição ao tributilestanho (TBT em populações de gastrópodes marinhos. A ocorrência e intensidade dessa síndrome nas populações do neogastrópode Stramonita haemastoma foram verificadas em nove estações amostrais em outubro de 2008 em Arraial do Cabo, uma área de grande importância turística no Rio de Janeiro (Brasil e integrante da Reserva Extrativista Marinha de Arraial do Cabo. Com os resultados obtidos foi possível avaliar as alterações ocorridas desde o último biomonitoramento realizado em 2001, nessas mesmas estações. Mesmo após o banimento do TBT pela Marinha do Brasil em 2003, a entrada em vigor dos controles ao

  3. Air pollution, neighbourhood and maternal-level factors modify the effect of smoking on birth weight: a multilevel analysis in British Columbia, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders C. Erickson

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal smoking during pregnancy negatively impacts fetal growth, but the effect is not homogenous across the population. We sought to determine how the relationship between cigarette use and fetal growth is modified by the social and physical environment. Methods Birth records with covariates were obtained from the BC Perinatal Database Registry (N = 232,291. Maternal smoking status was self-reported as the number of cigarettes smoked per day usually at the first prenatal care visit. Census dissemination areas (DAs were used as neighbourhood-level units and linked to individual births using residential postal codes to assign exposure to particulate air pollution (PM2.5 and neighbourhood-level attributes such as socioeconomic status (SES, proportion of post-secondary education, immigrant density and living in a rural place. Random coefficient models were used with cigarettes/day modeled with a random slope to estimate its between-DA variability and test cross-level interactions with the neighbourhood-level variables on continuous birth weight. Results A significant negative and non-linear association was found between maternal smoking and birth weight. There was significant between-DA intercept variability in birth weight as well as between-DA slope variability of maternal smoking on birth weight of which 68 and 30 % respectively was explained with the inclusion of DA-level variables and their cross-level interactions. High DA-level SES had a strong positive association with birth weight but the effect was moderated with increased cigarettes/day. Conversely, heavy smokers showed the largest increases in birth weight with rising neighbourhood education levels. Increased levels of PM2.5 and immigrant density were negatively associated with birth weight, but showed positive interactions with increased levels of smoking. Older maternal age and suspected drug or alcohol use both had negative interactions with increased

  4. Air pollution, neighbourhood and maternal-level factors modify the effect of smoking on birth weight: a multilevel analysis in British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Anders C; Ostry, Aleck; Chan, Hing Man; Arbour, Laura

    2016-07-16

    Maternal smoking during pregnancy negatively impacts fetal growth, but the effect is not homogenous across the population. We sought to determine how the relationship between cigarette use and fetal growth is modified by the social and physical environment. Birth records with covariates were obtained from the BC Perinatal Database Registry (N = 232,291). Maternal smoking status was self-reported as the number of cigarettes smoked per day usually at the first prenatal care visit. Census dissemination areas (DAs) were used as neighbourhood-level units and linked to individual births using residential postal codes to assign exposure to particulate air pollution (PM2.5) and neighbourhood-level attributes such as socioeconomic status (SES), proportion of post-secondary education, immigrant density and living in a rural place. Random coefficient models were used with cigarettes/day modeled with a random slope to estimate its between-DA variability and test cross-level interactions with the neighbourhood-level variables on continuous birth weight. A significant negative and non-linear association was found between maternal smoking and birth weight. There was significant between-DA intercept variability in birth weight as well as between-DA slope variability of maternal smoking on birth weight of which 68 and 30 % respectively was explained with the inclusion of DA-level variables and their cross-level interactions. High DA-level SES had a strong positive association with birth weight but the effect was moderated with increased cigarettes/day. Conversely, heavy smokers showed the largest increases in birth weight with rising neighbourhood education levels. Increased levels of PM2.5 and immigrant density were negatively associated with birth weight, but showed positive interactions with increased levels of smoking. Older maternal age and suspected drug or alcohol use both had negative interactions with increased levels of maternal smoking. Maternal smoking had a

  5. Association between Several Persistent Organic Pollutants and Thyroid Hormone Levels in Cord Blood Serum and Bloodspot of the Newborn Infants of Korea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunmi Kim

    Full Text Available Current knowledge on adverse endocrine disruption effects of persistent organic pollutants (POPs among newborn infants is limited and often controversial. To investigate the associations between prenatal exposure to major POPs and thyroid hormone levels among newborn infants, both cord serum or maternal serum concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs, and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs were compared with five thyroid hormones in cord serum of newborn infants as well as TSH in bloodspot collected at 2 day after birth (n=104. Since cord serum thyroid hormones could be affected by those of mothers, thyroid hormone concentrations of the matching mothers at delivery were adjusted. In cord serum, BDE-47, -99, and Σchlordane (CHD showed significant positive associations with cord or bloodspot TSH. At the same time, p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE and hexachlorbenzene (HCB showed negative associations with total T3 and total T4 in cord serum, respectively. Maternal exposure to β-hexachlorhexane (β-HCH, ΣCHD, ΣDDT, or p,p'-DDE were also associated with neonatal thyroid hormones. Although the sample size is small and the thyroid hormone levels of the subjects were within the reference range, our observation supports thyroid disrupting potential of several POPs among newborn infants, at the levels occurring in the general population. Considering the importance of thyroid hormones during gestation and early life stages, health implication of thyroid hormone effects by low level POPs exposure deserves further follow up investigations.

  6. Harmfulness of smoking among high school students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwona Rotter

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of the study was to assess the level of awareness of smoking and non smoking students on harmful impact of nicotine and cigarette smoke on human body. Material and methods: The study was carried out in March 2011 in high schools in Szczecin. Own elaborated questionnaire was used. 288 students from high school, technical college and vocational school were tested. Results: The majority of responders (95,1% claimed that cigarette smoke is harmful both for passive and active smokers. They most often pinpoint the direct cause connected with smoking to pulmonary diseases (264 persons and cancers (240 persons. Almost 90% of students found negative impact of tobacco products on development of fetus of pregnant women. Overwhelming majority of respondents (83,2% feels anxious if it comes to stay in a room filled with smoke. Conclusions: The awareness of high school students on negative influence of smoking on human body is quite satisfactory, but there is still a need for more education in the range of diseases and symptoms connected with smoking.

  7. Reducing harm from alcohol: call to action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casswell, Sally; Thamarangsi, Thaksaphon

    2009-06-27

    Despite clear evidence of the major contribution alcohol makes to the global burden of disease and to substantial economic costs, focus on alcohol control is inadequate internationally and in most countries. Expansion of industrial production and marketing of alcohol is driving alcohol use to rise, both in emerging markets and in young people in mature alcohol markets. Cost-effective and affordable interventions to restrict harm exist, and are in urgent need of scaling up. Most countries do not have adequate policies in place. Factors impeding progress include a failure of political will, unhelpful participation of the alcohol industry in the policy process, and increasing difficulty in free-trade environments to respond adequately at a national level. An effective national and international response will need not only governments, but also non-governmental organisations to support and hold government agencies to account. International health policy, in the form of a Framework Convention on Alcohol Control, is needed to counterbalance the global conditions promoting alcohol-related harm and to support and encourage national action.

  8. The role of air pollutants in initiating liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong Won; Park, Surim; Lim, Chae Woong; Lee, Kyuhong; Kim, Bumseok

    2014-06-01

    Recent episodes of severe air pollution in eastern Asia have been reported in the scientific literature and news media. Therefore, there is growing concern about the systemic effects of air pollution on human health. Along with the other well-known harmful effects of air pollution, recently, several animal models have provided strong evidence that air pollutants can induce liver toxicity and act to accelerate liver inflammation and steatosis. This review briefly describes examples where exposure to air pollutants was involved in liver toxicity, focusing on how particulate matter (PM) or carbon black (CB) may be translocated from lung to liver and what liver diseases are closely associated with these air pollutants.

  9. Imposex levels and tributyltin pollution in Ria de Aveiro (NW Portugal) between 1997 and 2007: evaluation of legislation effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galante-Oliveira, Susana; Oliveira, Isabel; Jonkers, Niels; Langston, William J; Pacheco, Mário; Barroso, Carlos M

    2009-07-01

    Nucella lapillus imposex levels and organotin (OT) concentrations in water and female tissues were measured in samples collected from the Ria de Aveiro (NW Portugal) between 1997 and 2007. Vas deferens sequence index (VDSI), relative penis size index (RPSI), mean female penis length (FPL) and percentage of imposex affected females (%I) were used to determine imposex levels at each site. A significant temporal decline in imposex intensity was observed during the assessed period. Imposex decrease was evident after 2003 although improvements were most notable from 2005 to 2007, probably due to the implementation of the EU Council Regulation no.782/2003 forbidding further application of tributyltin (TBT) antifouling on vessels carrying EU flags. Despite these improvements, OT analysis in N. lapillus female tissues and water indicate there are still recent TBT inputs into the study area.

  10. Multi-Level Contact Oxidation Process Performance When Treating Automobile Painting Wastewater: Pollutant Removal Efficiency and Microbial Community Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Yufang Zhu; Tong Zhu; Michael Groetzbach; Hui Han; Yongguang Ma

    2017-01-01

    This study applied a multi-level contact oxidation process system in a pilot-scale experiment to treat automobile painting wastewater. The experimental wastewater had been pre-treated through a series of physicochemical methods, but the water still contained a high concentration of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and had poor biodegradability. After the biological treatment, the COD concentration of effluent could stay below 300 mg/L. The study analyzed the effects of hydraulic residence time (H...

  11. Harm reduction principles for healthcare settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawk, Mary; Coulter, Robert W S; Egan, James E; Fisk, Stuart; Reuel Friedman, M; Tula, Monique; Kinsky, Suzanne

    2017-10-24

    Harm reduction refers to interventions aimed at reducing the negative effects of health behaviors without necessarily extinguishing the problematic health behaviors completely. The vast majority of the harm reduction literature focuses on the harms of drug use and on specific harm reduction strategies, such as syringe exchange, rather than on the harm reduction philosophy as a whole. Given that a harm reduction approach can address other risk behaviors that often occur alongside drug use and that harm reduction principles have been applied to harms such as sex work, eating disorders, and tobacco use, a natural evolution of the harm reduction philosophy is to extend it to other health risk behaviors and to a broader healthcare audience. Building on the extant literature, we used data from in-depth qualitative interviews with 23 patients and 17 staff members from an HIV clinic in the USA to describe harm reduction principles for use in healthcare settings. We defined six principles of harm reduction and generalized them for use in healthcare settings with patients beyond those who use illicit substances. The principles include humanism, pragmatism, individualism, autonomy, incrementalism, and accountability without termination. For each of these principles, we present a definition, a description of how healthcare providers can deliver interventions informed by the principle, and examples of how each principle may be applied in the healthcare setting. This paper is one of the firsts to provide a comprehensive set of principles for universal harm reduction as a conceptual approach for healthcare provision. Applying harm reduction principles in healthcare settings may improve clinical care outcomes given that the quality of the provider-patient relationship is known to impact health outcomes and treatment adherence. Harm reduction can be a universal precaution applied to all individuals regardless of their disclosure of negative health behaviors, given that health

  12. Initial skill assessment of the California Harmful Algae Risk Mapping (C-HARM) system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Clarissa R; Kudela, Raphael M; Kahru, Mati; Chao, Yi; Rosenfeld, Leslie K; Bahr, Frederick L; Anderson, David M; Norris, Tenaya A

    2016-11-01

    Toxic algal events are an annual burden on aquaculture and coastal ecosystems of California. The threat of domoic acid (DA) toxicity to human and wildlife health is the dominant harmful algal bloom (HAB) concern for the region, leading to a strong focus on prediction and mitigation of these blooms and their toxic effects. This paper describes the initial development of the California Harmful Algae Risk Mapping (C-HARM) system that predicts the spatial likelihood of blooms and dangerous levels of DA using a unique blend of numerical models, ecological forecast models of the target group, Pseudo-nitzschia, and satellite ocean color imagery. Data interpolating empirical orthogonal functions (DINEOF) are applied to ocean color imagery to fill in missing data and then used in a multivariate mode with other modeled variables to forecast biogeochemical parameters. Daily predictions (nowcast and forecast maps) are run routinely at the Central and Northern California Ocean Observing System (CeNCOOS) and posted on its public website. Skill assessment of model output for the nowcast data is restricted to nearshore pixels that overlap with routine pier monitoring of HABs in California from 2014 to 2015. Model lead times are best correlated with DA measured with solid phase adsorption toxin tracking (SPATT) and marine mammal strandings from DA toxicosis, suggesting long-term benefits of the HAB predictions to decision-making. Over the next three years, the C-HARM application system will be incorporated into the NOAA operational HAB forecasting system and HAB Bulletin. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. What is the harm in harmful conception? On threshold harms in non-identity cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Nicola J; Harris, John

    2014-10-01

    Has the time come to put to bed the concept of a harm threshold when discussing the ethics of reproductive decision making and the legal limits that should be placed upon it? In this commentary, we defend the claim that there exist good moral reasons, despite the conclusions of the non-identity problem, based on the interests of those we might create, to refrain from bringing to birth individuals whose lives are often described in the philosophical literature as 'less than worth living'.

  14. Air Pollution and Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kuan Ken; Miller, Mark R; Shah, Anoop S V

    2018-01-01

    The adverse health effects of air pollution have long been recognised; however, there is less awareness that the majority of the morbidity and mortality caused by air pollution is due to its effects on the cardiovascular system. Evidence from epidemiological studies have demonstrated a strong association between air pollution and cardiovascular diseases including stroke. Although the relative risk is small at an individual level, the ubiquitous nature of exposure to air pollution means that the absolute risk at a population level is on a par with "traditional" risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Of particular concern are findings that the strength of this association is stronger in low and middle income countries where air pollution is projected to rise as a result of rapid industrialisation. The underlying biological mechanisms through which air pollutants exert their effect on the vasculature are still an area of intense discussion. A greater understanding of the effect size and mechanisms is necessary to develop effective strategies at individual and policy levels to mitigate the adverse cardiovascular effects of air pollution.

  15. Inhalation of air polluted with gasoline vapours alters the levels of amino acid neurotransmitters in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, and hypothalamus of the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinawy, Amal A; Ezzat, Ahmed R; Al-Suwaigh, Badryah R

    2014-08-01

    This study was designed to investigate the impact of exposure to the vapours of two kinds of gasoline, a widely used fuel for the internal combustion engines on the levels of the amino acid neurotransmitters of the rat brain. Recent studies provide strong evidence for a causative role for traffic-related air pollution on morbidity outcomes as well as premature death (Health Effects Institute, 2009; Levy et al., 2010; von Stackelberg et al., 2013). Exposure to the vapours of gasoline or its constituents may be accidental, occupational by workers at fuel stations and factories, or through abuse as a mean of mood alteration (Fortenberry, 1985; Mc Garvey et al., 1999). Two kinds of gasoline that are common in Egypt have been used in this study. The first contains octane enhancers in the form of lead derivatives (leaded gasoline; G1) and the other contains methyl-tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) as the octane enhancer (unleaded gasoline; G2). The levels of the major excitatory (aspartic acid and glutamic acid) and the inhibitory (GABA and glycine) amino acid neurotransmitters were determined in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, and hypothalamus. The current study revealed that the acute inhalation of air polluted with the two types of gasoline vapours (1/2 LC50 for 30 min) induced elevation in the levels of aspartic and glutamic acids along with a decrease in glycine and GABA in most studied brain areas. Chronic inhalation of both types of gasoline (a single daily 30-min session of 1/5 LC50 for 60 days) caused a significant increase in the aspartic and glutamic acid concentrations of the hippocampus without affecting the levels of GABA or glycine. Acute and chronic inhalation of either one of G1 and G2 vapours induced a disturbance and fluctuation in the levels of the free amino acids that act as excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters in the brain areas under investigation. These neurotransmitters are fundamental for the communicative functioning of the neurons and such

  16. Multi-Level Contact Oxidation Process Performance When Treating Automobile Painting Wastewater: Pollutant Removal Efficiency and Microbial Community Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yufang Zhu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This study applied a multi-level contact oxidation process system in a pilot-scale experiment to treat automobile painting wastewater. The experimental wastewater had been pre-treated through a series of physicochemical methods, but the water still contained a high concentration of chemical oxygen demand (COD and had poor biodegradability. After the biological treatment, the COD concentration of effluent could stay below 300 mg/L. The study analyzed the effects of hydraulic residence time (HRT on COD, ammonia nitrogen (NH4+-N, and total nitrogen (TN. The optimal HRT was 8 h; at that time, removal efficiencies of COD, ammonia nitrogen, and total nitrogen were 83.8%, 86.3%, and 65%, respectively. The system also greatly reduced excess sludge production; the removal efficiency was 82.8% with a HRT of 8 h. The study applied high-throughput pyrosequencing technology to evaluate the microbial diversity and community structures in distinct stages of the biological reactor. The relevance between process performance and microbial community structure was analyzed at the phylum and class level. The abundant Firmicutes made a large contribution to improving the biodegradability of painting wastewater through hydrolysis acidification and reducing sludge production through fermentation in the biological reactor.

  17. Leachate and Pollution Levels of Heavy Metals in the Groundwater near Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Site of Mashhad, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borhan Mansouri

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this study is to investigate the concentration of metals (lead, cadmium, chromium, copper, and nickel in the landfill leachate and heavy metals in wells downstream of municipal solid waste landfill site in the city of Mashhad. Methods: In both winter and summer seasons in 2009 samples were collected from five wells that were in landfill downstream in Mashhad. Results: Among heavy metals, nickel concentration in summer and lead concentration in winter had the highest levels. The results showed that the mean concentration of heavy metals in the studied wells was below the national standards of drinking water of Iran, WHO, and the United States. Pearson correlation coefficients also indicated that there was a significant correlation among the studied metals in the wells. Conclusion: Cd and Cu concentrations in all of the wells (except Pb in winter and Ni in summer did not pose any significant water quality problems since these concentrations were below the standards acceptable levels of drinking water.

  18. Effect of lead pollution control on environmental and childhood blood lead level in Nantong, China: an interventional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kai; Huang, Lei; Yan, Beizhan; Li, Hongbo; Sun, Hong; Bi, Jun

    2014-11-04

    Children's blood lead levels and prevalence of lead poisoning in China are significantly higher than in developed countries, though a substantial decrease has been observed. Since 2011, strict lead control policies in lead-related industries have been implemented in China, but the success of these policies is unknown. In this study, we collected environmental samples, questionnaire data, and blood samples from 106 children from 1 to 14 years old, before and after implementation of lead-usage control policy in wire rope factories by local government in Zhuhang, Nantong in 2012. Results showed that, one year after the lead control, lead concentrations sharply decreased in both environmental and biological samples with a decrease of 0.43 μg/m3 (-84.3%) in ambient air samples, 0.22 mg/kg (-36.1%) in vegetable samples, 441.1 mg/kg (-43.7%) in dust samples, and 6.24 μg/dL (-51.5%) in childhood blood lead levels (BLL). This study demonstrates the success of lead control policies in promoting the prevention and control of childhood lead poisoning in Nantong, China.

  19. Cholinesterases activities and lipid peroxidation levels in muscle from shelf and slope dwelling fish from the NW Mediterranean: its potential use in pollution monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solé, M; Lobera, G; Aljinovic, B; Ríos, J; García de la Parra, L M; Maynou, F; Cartes, J E

    2008-09-01

    We selected muscle tissue from nine commercial fish species, seven teleosts and two elasmobranchs, frequently caught in the NW Mediterranean trawling grounds in two different habitats (the continental shelf at 53 m and the slope at 660 m) for cholinesterases (ChEs) characterisation and activities determination, as well as the measure of lipid peroxidation (LP) levels. Acethyl- (AChE), butyryl- (BChE) and propionyl- (PrChE) cholinesterase were chosen as exposure markers of neurotoxic chemicals/molecules and LP as an effect marker of oxidative damage. The use of diagnose inhibitors: eserine sulphate, iso-OMPA and BW284c51 confirmed the measurement of true ChEs as well as the presence of pseudocholinesterases. The present study has evidenced the existence of interspecies differences, especially between teleosts and elasmobranchs but not in relation to depth. Moreover, the good correlation observed between all ChEs in most of the studied fish, supports the use of AChE as neurotoxic marker in field pollution monitoring. The non-metric multidimensional scaling analysis identified the commercial species hake Merluccius merluccius, among teleosts, and the shark, Galeus melastomus, as more adequate sentinel species in commercial fishing grounds. AChE activity showed a relationship with the fish trophic level, while all ChEs revealed a relationship with the feeding habits (benthic, suprabenthic, pelagic) and the stomach fullness. BChE activity and LP levels were the only markers to show a relationship with their swimming capacity.

  20. The impact of an urban park on air pollution and noise levels in the Mediterranean city of Tel-Aviv, Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Pninit; Potchter, Oded; Schnell, Izhak

    2014-12-01

    This study examines the influence of urban parks on air quality and noise in the city of Tel-Aviv, Israel, by investigation of an urban park, an urban square and a street canyon. Simultaneous monitoring of several air pollutants and noise levels were conducted. The results showed that urban parks can reduce NOx, CO and PM10 and increase O3 concentrations and that park's mitigation effect is greater at higher NOx and PM10 levels. During extreme events, mean values of 413 ppb NOx and 80 μG/m3 PM10 were measured in the street while mean values of 89 ppb NOx and 24 μG/m3 PM10 were measured in the park. Whereas summer highest O3 values of 84 ppb were measured in the street, 94 ppb were measured in the park. The benefit of the urban park in reducing NOx and PM10 concentrations is more significant than the disadvantage of increased O3 levels. Furthermore, urban parks can reduce noise by ∼5 dB(A). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Wavelet transform-based artificial neural networks (WT-ANN) in PM10 pollution level estimation, based on circular variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekarrizfard, Maryam; Karimi-Jashni, A; Hadad, K

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a novel method in the estimation and prediction of PM(10) is introduced using wavelet transform-based artificial neural networks (WT-ANN). First, the application of wavelet transform, selected for its temporal shift properties and multiresolution analysis characteristics enabling it to reduce disturbing perturbations in input training set data, is presented. Afterward, the circular statistical indices which are used in this method are formally introduced in order to investigate the relation between PM(10) levels and circular meteorological variables. Then, the results of the simulation of PM(10) based on WT-ANN by use of MATLAB software are discussed. The results of the above-mentioned simulation show an enhanced accuracy and speed in PM(10) estimation/prediction and a high degree of robustness compared with traditional ANN models.

  2. High-resolution simulation of link-level vehicle emissions and concentrations for air pollutants in a traffic-populated eastern Asian city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shaojun; Wu, Ye; Huang, Ruikun; Wang, Jiandong; Yan, Han; Zheng, Yali; Hao, Jiming

    2016-08-01

    Vehicle emissions containing air pollutants created substantial environmental impacts on air quality for many traffic-populated cities in eastern Asia. A high-resolution emission inventory is a useful tool compared with traditional tools (e.g. registration data-based approach) to accurately evaluate real-world traffic dynamics and their environmental burden. In this study, Macau, one of the most populated cities in the world, is selected to demonstrate a high-resolution simulation of vehicular emissions and their contribution to air pollutant concentrations by coupling multimodels. First, traffic volumes by vehicle category on 47 typical roads were investigated during weekdays in 2010 and further applied in a networking demand simulation with the TransCAD model to establish hourly profiles of link-level vehicle counts. Local vehicle driving speed and vehicle age distribution data were also collected in Macau. Second, based on a localized vehicle emission model (e.g. the emission factor model for the Beijing vehicle fleet - Macau, EMBEV-Macau), this study established a link-based vehicle emission inventory in Macau with high resolution meshed in a temporal and spatial framework. Furthermore, we employed the AERMOD (AMS/EPA Regulatory Model) model to map concentrations of CO and primary PM2.5 contributed by local vehicle emissions during weekdays in November 2010. This study has discerned the strong impact of traffic flow dynamics on the temporal and spatial patterns of vehicle emissions, such as a geographic discrepancy of spatial allocation up to 26 % between THC and PM2.5 emissions owing to spatially heterogeneous vehicle-use intensity between motorcycles and diesel fleets. We also identified that the estimated CO2 emissions from gasoline vehicles agreed well with the statistical fuel consumption in Macau. Therefore, this paper provides a case study and a solid framework for developing high-resolution environment assessment tools for other vehicle-populated cities

  3. High-resolution simulation of link-level vehicle emissions and concentrations for air pollutants in a traffic-populated eastern Asian city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Zhang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Vehicle emissions containing air pollutants created substantial environmental impacts on air quality for many traffic-populated cities in eastern Asia. A high-resolution emission inventory is a useful tool compared with traditional tools (e.g. registration data-based approach to accurately evaluate real-world traffic dynamics and their environmental burden. In this study, Macau, one of the most populated cities in the world, is selected to demonstrate a high-resolution simulation of vehicular emissions and their contribution to air pollutant concentrations by coupling multimodels. First, traffic volumes by vehicle category on 47 typical roads were investigated during weekdays in 2010 and further applied in a networking demand simulation with the TransCAD model to establish hourly profiles of link-level vehicle counts. Local vehicle driving speed and vehicle age distribution data were also collected in Macau. Second, based on a localized vehicle emission model (e.g. the emission factor model for the Beijing vehicle fleet – Macau, EMBEV–Macau, this study established a link-based vehicle emission inventory in Macau with high resolution meshed in a temporal and spatial framework. Furthermore, we employed the AERMOD (AMS/EPA Regulatory Model model to map concentrations of CO and primary PM2.5 contributed by local vehicle emissions during weekdays in November 2010. This study has discerned the strong impact of traffic flow dynamics on the temporal and spatial patterns of vehicle emissions, such as a geographic discrepancy of spatial allocation up to 26 % between THC and PM2.5 emissions owing to spatially heterogeneous vehicle-use intensity between motorcycles and diesel fleets. We also identified that the estimated CO2 emissions from gasoline vehicles agreed well with the statistical fuel consumption in Macau. Therefore, this paper provides a case study and a solid framework for developing high-resolution environment assessment tools for other

  4. Cardiovascular effects of air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdrel, Thomas; Bind, Marie-Abèle; Béjot, Yannick; Morel, Olivier; Argacha, Jean-François

    2017-11-01

    Air pollution is composed of particulate matter (PM) and gaseous pollutants, such as nitrogen dioxide and ozone. PM is classified according to size into coarse particles (PM 10 ), fine particles (PM 2.5 ) and ultrafine particles. We aim to provide an original review of the scientific evidence from epidemiological and experimental studies examining the cardiovascular effects of outdoor air pollution. Pooled epidemiological studies reported that a 10μg/m 3 increase in long-term exposure to PM 2.5 was associated with an 11% increase in cardiovascular mortality. Increased cardiovascular mortality was also related to long-term and short-term exposure to nitrogen dioxide. Exposure to air pollution and road traffic was associated with an increased risk of arteriosclerosis, as shown by premature aortic and coronary calcification. Short-term increases in air pollution were associated with an increased risk of myocardial infarction, stroke and acute heart failure. The risk was increased even when pollutant concentrations were below European standards. Reinforcing the evidence from epidemiological studies, numerous experimental studies demonstrated that air pollution promotes a systemic vascular oxidative stress reaction. Radical oxygen species induce endothelial dysfunction, monocyte activation and some proatherogenic changes in lipoproteins, which initiate plaque formation. Furthermore, air pollution favours thrombus formation, because of an increase in coagulation factors and platelet activation. Experimental studies also indicate that some pollutants have more harmful cardiovascular effects, such as combustion-derived PM 2.5 and ultrafine particles. Air pollution is a major contributor to cardiovascular diseases. Promotion of safer air quality appears to be a new challenge in cardiovascular disease prevention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. The influence of economic parameters on the level of light pollution: Causes, consequences and solutions for the improvement of the environment

    OpenAIRE

    Majhenšek, Katarina; Josimović, Boško; Manić, Božidar

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to raise the awareness of the importance of light pollution as an essential, but neglected factor that impacts the living and the built environment. One of the main causes of light pollution is the continual economic growth of the cities. Two studies have been presented with an aim of clarifying the attempts made so far in establishing the way population growth and living standards affect light pollution. The unique contribution of this paper is that the correlati...

  6. Harmful Algal Blooms and Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grattan, Lynn M; Holobaugh, Sailor; Morris, J Glenn

    2016-07-01

    The five most commonly recognized Harmful Algal Bloom related illnesses include Ciguatera poisoning, Paralytic Shellfish poisoning, Neurotoxin Shellfish poisoning, Diarrheic Shellfish Poisoning and Amnesic Shellfish poisoning. Although they are each the product of different toxins, toxin assemblages or HAB precursors these clinical syndromes have much in common. Exposure occurs through the consumption of fish or shellfish; routine clinical tests are not available for diagnosis; there is no known antidote for exposure; and the risk of these illnesses can negatively impact local fishing and tourism industries. Thus, illness prevention is of paramount importance to minimize human and public health risks. To accomplish this, close communication and collaboration is needed among HAB scientists, public health researchers and local, state and tribal health departments at academic, community outreach, and policy levels.

  7. Risk of harm: inmates who harm themselves while in prison psychiatric treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Myla H; Justice, Jerald V; Erdberg, Philip

    2006-01-01

    In this study, 242 randomly selected male offenders who were receiving psychiatric treatment in prison were administered psychological and neuropsychological evaluations and were followed during their treatment in a prison psychiatric hospital. Offenders who harmed themselves in treatment were compared to those who did not harm themselves. Eighteen percent of offenders harmed themselves, the severity of which required medical intervention. Young age, drug abuse, absence of Axis I mental disorder but presence of Axis II borderline personality disorder identified offenders who harmed themselves. Psychopathy checklist-revised (PCL-R) total rating > or = 30 and PCL-R Factor 2 (antisocial lifestyle) rating also identified offenders who harmed themselves. Additionally, offenders who harmed themselves also were 8.36 times more likely than their cohorts to harm treatment staff. Theoretical understanding of offenders who harm themselves, the importance of considering the environmental context in identifying risk factors for self-harm, and implications for treatment are suggested.

  8. Physical Activity, Air Pollution and the Risk of Asthma and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisher, Jack E; Loft, Steffen; Ulrik, Charlotte S

    2016-01-01

    RATIONALE: Physical activity enhances uptake of air pollutants in the lung, possibly augmenting their harmful effects on chronic lung disease during exercise. OBJECTIVES: To examine whether benefits of physical activity with respect to the risk of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.......03-1.27]) hospitalizations (comparing ≥21.0 μg/m(3) to pollution during exercise does not outweigh beneficial effects of physical activity...... (COPD) are moderated by exposure to high air pollution levels in an urban setting. METHODS: A total of 53,113 subjects (50-65 yr) from the Danish Diet, Cancer, and Health cohort reported physical activity at recruitment (1993-1997) and were followed until 2013 in the National Patient Register...

  9. [Harmful biological agents at museum workposts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skóra, Justyna; Zduniak, Katarzyna; Gutarowska, Beata; Rembisz, Daria

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the studies was to determine the level and kind of microbiological contamination of air and surfaces in museum premises with various collection specificities. In addition, the criteria for selecting indicators of contamination with harmful biological agents at museum workposts are proposed. The analysis of microbial contamination was carried out in 14 museum premises (storehouses, restoration workshops, exhibition hall). Microbiological air purity was measured with a MAS-100 Eco Air Sampler. Surface samples were collected using contact plates RODAC Envirocheck. Biochemical API tests were used to identify bacteria and yeasts. Fungi were diagnosed with taxonomic keys, based on macro- and microscopic mycelia assessment. The levels of microbiological contamination in museums varied and ranged from 2.1 x 10(2) to 7.0 x 10(3) cfu/m3 in the air and from 1.4 x 10(2) to 1.7 x 10(4) cfu/100 cm2 on surfaces. The dominant microorganisms were fungi, which accounted respectively for 18-98% and 23-100% of all isolates from tested sites and surfaces. It was found that the amount of fungi in the indoor air of the Museum of Archeology and Ethnography and the Museum of Independence Traditions equaled respectively 4.2 x 10(2) cfu/m3 and 1.4 x 10(4) cfu/m3, which means that they exceeded the recommended reference value of 2.0 x 10(2) cfu/m3. Having analyzed the frequency of strain isolation, the source of microorganisms and the hazard to human health, 10 fungal species were isolated, which may be regarded as indicators of contamination with harmful biological agents at museum workposts. They are: Aspergillus (A. niger, A. versicolor), Cladosporium (C. herbarum, C. macrocarpum), Penicillium (P. carneum, P. digitatum, P. italicum, P. paneum, P. polonicum), Rhizopus nigricans.

  10. Seuss's Butter Battle Book: Is There Hidden Harm?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Cleaf, David W.; Martin, Rita J.

    1986-01-01

    Examines whether elementary school children relate to the "harmful hidden message" about nuclear war in Dr. Seuss's THE BUTTER BATTLE BOOK. After ascertaining the children's cognitive level, they participated in activities to find hidden meanings in stories, including Seuss's book. Students failed to identify the nuclear war message in…

  11. The OECD's Report on Harmful Tax Competition

    OpenAIRE

    Weiner, JoAnn M.; Hugh J. Ault

    1998-01-01

    In response to pressures created by the increasing globalization of the world economy, the OECD has issued a report titled "Harmful Tax Competition: An Emerging Global Issue" that provides an analysis of the phenomenon known as harmful tax competition. The Report identifies factors that characterize tax havens and harmful preferential tax regimes and recommends numerous measures in the areas of domestic legislation, tax treaties, and international cooperation, that countries may pursue to cou...

  12. Soil burdens of persistent organic pollutants--their levels, fate and risks Part III. Quantification of the soil burdens and related health risks in the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cupr, Pavel; Bartos, Tomás; Sánka, Milan; Klánová, Jana; Mikes, Ondrej; Holoubek, Ivan

    2010-01-01

    A total number of 471 soil samples collected during the period of 1996-2006 from the agricultural and forest areas of the Czech Republic were analyzed for their content of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Spatial variability of the POP concentrations was assessed using an IDW spatial GIS model analysis. For every grid of the network, resulting modeled levels of contamination allowed for estimation of the total burden of POPs in soils. Potential risks associated with contaminated soils were assessed as well. Database of the old ecological burdens counting 3061 sampling sites was used to adjust the model and incorporate the risks of heavily contaminated sites. The high levels of health risks were only found at less than 1% of the area of interest. The IDW modeling proved to be a useful tool for screening of the health risks in the large areas with scarce monitoring data. Presented approach can be applied in the risk management, to support an efficient targeting of the risk reduction measures, or to improve a design of the national monitoring.

  13. Evaluation of ground level concentration of pollutant due to gas flaring by computer simulation: A case study of Niger - Delta area of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. ABDULKAREEM

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The disposal of associated gases through flaring has been a major problem for the Nigerian oil and gas industries and most of theses gases are flared due to the lack of commercial out lets. The resultant effects of gas flaring are the damaging effect of the environment due to acid rain formation, green house effect, global warming and ozone depletion.This writes up is aimed at evaluating ground level concentration of CO2, SO2, NO2 and total hydrocarbon (THC, which are product of gas flared in oil producing areas. Volumes of gas flared at different flow station were collected as well as geometrical parameters. The results of simulation of model developed based on the principles of gaseous dispersion by Gaussian showed a good agreement with dispersion pattern.The results showed that the dispersion pattern of pollutants at ground level depends on the volume of gas flared, wind speed, velocity of discharge and nearness to the source of flaring. The results shows that continuous gas flaring irrespective of the quantity deposited in the immediate environment will in long run lead to change in the physicochemical properties of soil.

  14. Selection of the external insulation distance for electric equipment as function of the environmental pollution level; Seleccion de la distancia de aislamiento externo de equipo electrico en funcion del nivel de contaminacion ambiental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villa Velazquez Santillanes, Francisco [Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos de la Comision Federal de Electricidad, Morelia (Mexico)

    1996-09-01

    Geographic, environmental and meteorological conditions, are considered as decisive factors in the basic engineering and design of electric substations. These conditions are considered through the use of environmental and meteorological parameters, such as: pollution type, creepage distance, pollution level, maximum wind rate, maximum temperature, seismic coefficient and maximum pluvial precipitation. In some cases, the pollution level determines the external insulation distance. The pollution level factor is quantified as the equivalent salt accumulation in milligrams per square centimeter of the insulation surface (DESD), occurring during certain time, that produces an electric effect similar to that of the real pollutant. [Espanol] Los aspectos geograficos, ambientales y meteorologicos son factores que se deben considerar en la ingenieria basica de las subestaciones electricas. En el diseno de estas se utilizan parametros asociados con las condiciones ambientales y meteorologicas, como son: tipo de contaminacion, distancia de fuga, nivel de contaminacion, velocidad maxima del viento, temperatura ambiental maxima, temperatura ambiental minima, coeficiente sismico y maxima precipitacion pluvial. La contaminacion se produce por la depositacion de polvo y otras sustencias quimicas sobre los aisladores. Para cuantificar la contaminacion se recurre al concepto de Densidad Equivalente de Sal Depositada (DESD), que consiste en medir la contaminacion en funcion de la cantidad de sal (NaC1) depositada en cierto tiempo, por centimetro cuadrado del aislador, tal que su comportamiento electrico es equivalente al de los contaminantes reales.

  15. Air ion and pollution index variation for indoor and outdoor ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    00:00–02:00 hours, the indoor pollution index is 1.55, which is very harmful to human health. 1. Introduction. Air ions ... as pollution index. Generally, such measurements are meagre over a rural station and this will envis- age us to understand the distribution of air ions in ... were produced on the highly flooded river Krishna.

  16. Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is air pollution linked to climate change? While climate change is a global process, it has very local impacts that can profoundly affect communities, not the least of which is air pollution. Increasing temperatures are directly linked to poor air quality which, in turn, can affect the ...

  17. Noise Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... primarily to one’s overall health. Top of Page Health Effects Noise pollution adversely affects the lives of millions of people. ... its effect, disseminate information to the public regarding noise pollution and its adverse health effects, respond to inquiries on matters related to noise, ...

  18. Physico-Chemical Characterization and Pollution Index ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICHAEL HORSFALL

    The annual generation of municipal solid wastes (MSW) in Nigeria is 25 million tonnes (Ogwueleka, 2009) and this may increase due to rapid urbanization and population ... specific meaning of a liquid that has dissolved or entrained environmentally harmful substances which may then enter the environment and pollute the.

  19. Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase Promoter Haplotypes and Residential Traffic-Related Air Pollution Jointly Influence Exhaled Nitric Oxide Level in Children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad T Salam

    road lengths within 200m buffer on FeNO were also observed.Higher exposure from residential traffic nullifies the protective effect of one common NOS2 promoter haplotype on FeNO level. Regulation of traffic-related pollution may protect children's respiratory health.

  20. Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase Promoter Haplotypes and Residential Traffic-Related Air Pollution Jointly Influence Exhaled Nitric Oxide Level in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salam, Muhammad T; Lin, Pi-Chu; Eckel, Sandrah P; Gauderman, W James; Gilliland, Frank D

    2015-01-01

    lengths within 200m buffer on FeNO were also observed. Higher exposure from residential traffic nullifies the protective effect of one common NOS2 promoter haplotype on FeNO level. Regulation of traffic-related pollution may protect children's respiratory health.

  1. The effect of air pollution on diurnal variation of performance in anaerobic tests, cardiovascular and hematological parameters, and blood gases on soccer players following the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test Level-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boussetta, Nesrin; Abedelmalek, Salma; Aloui, Khouloud; Souissi, Nizar

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of air pollution on diurnal variation of performance in anaerobic tests, cardiovascular and hematological parameters, and blood gases on soccer players following the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test Level-1 (YYIRT1). In a randomized order, 11 healthy soccer players (mean age: 21.8 [range: 20-24] years; height: 178.00 [range: 1.64-1.83] cm; body mass index [BMI]: 23.57 [range: 20.45-28.03] kg.m-2) performed a YYIRT1 at two different times of day (TOD) (08:00 h and 18:00 h) in two areas (i.e. polluted (PA) and non-polluted (NPA)) with a recovery period of ≥ 72 h in between, to determine the maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max). In each test session: resting oral temperature is measured, anaerobic performances (pre- and post-YYIRT1) were performed, cardiovascular parameters and blood samples were collected at: rest, 3 min and 60 min after the YYIRT1, to assess blood gases and hematological parameters. Our results showed that, agility performance, VO2max, red blood cells (RBC), hemoglobin (Hb), pH, and bicarbonate levels (HCO3-) decrease significantly (p effect was slightly accentuated at 18:00 h for some parameters (i.e. Agility, HCO3-, HR, PvCO2, RBC, SBP). However, performances of sprint and Sargent jump test (SJT), oral temperature, rate of perceived exertion scales (RPE), partial pressure of O2 (PvO2), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and monocytes (MON) were not affected by pollution (p > 0.05). In conclusion, pollution seems to be critical for health stability and performance in response to YYIRT1 especially in the evening and the winter season. Therefore, coaches and athletes should draw attention to the potential importance of land use planning in their training sessions and competitions in the morning in polluted area to minimize the risk of pollution exposure.

  2. The Scientometric Bubble Considered Harmful.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Génova, Gonzalo; Astudillo, Hernán; Fraga, Anabel

    2016-02-01

    This article deals with a modern disease of academic science that consists of an enormous increase in the number of scientific publications without a corresponding advance of knowledge. Findings are sliced as thin as salami and submitted to different journals to produce more papers. If we consider academic papers as a kind of scientific 'currency' that is backed by gold bullion in the central bank of 'true' science, then we are witnessing an article-inflation phenomenon, a scientometric bubble that is most harmful for science and promotes an unethical and antiscientific culture among researchers. The main problem behind the scenes is that the impact factor is used as a proxy for quality. Therefore, not only for convenience, but also based on ethical principles of scientific research, we adhere to the San Francisco Declaration on Research Assessment when it emphasizes "the need to eliminate the use of journal-based metrics in funding, appointment and promotion considerations; and the need to assess research on its own merits rather on the journal in which the research is published". Our message is mainly addressed to the funding agencies and universities that award tenures or grants and manage research programmes, especially in developing countries. The message is also addressed to well-established scientists who have the power to change things when they participate in committees for grants and jobs.

  3. Adolescent self-harm and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jixiang; Song, Jianwei; Wang, Jing

    2016-12-01

    This study aims to define the characteristics of adolescents who have engaged in self-harm behavior and ascertain the risk factors. From January 2013 to January 2014, 4,176 adolescents from senior middle schools in Linyi, China, were administered four questionnaire surveys to ascertain the following: incidence of self-harm behavior regarding the frequency of different self-harm behaviors by group (never/one to five times/greater than five times in the last 6 months) and then comparing the self-harm behavior of the different subgroups; symptom self-check, comparing the differences between the adolescents with self-harm behavior and without in nine subscales (somatization, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, interpersonal sensitivity, depression, anxiety, hostility, fear, paranoid, and psychosis); Adolescent Self-Rating Life Events Check List scores; and Egna Minnenav Barndoms Uppfostran (EMBU) scores. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine the risk factors of self-harm in adolescents. The incidence of adolescent self-harm was 27.60%; the occurrence of adolescent self-harm was closely related to their mental health status, stressful life events, and EMBU. Being female, an urban student, or an only child; having poor school performance or experiences of stressful life events, harsh parenting styles, or excessive interference; and poor mental health were the risk factors for adolescent self-harm. The incidence of adolescent self-harm was high, and their mental health status, stressful life events, and EMBU affected the occurrence of adolescent self-harm, which is an issue that needs greater attention. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  4. Geoengineering, Climate Harm, and Business as Usual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankunis, F. J.; Peacock, K.

    2014-12-01

    We define geoengineering (GE) as the intentional use of technology to change the planet's climate. Many people believe GE is different in kind rather than degree from any other organized activity in human history. In fact, humans caused changes in the planet's climate long before the industrial age, and all organisms engineer their environments directly or indirectly. The relevant difference between this cumulative and generally inadvertent activity and GE is the presence of intention. Now that science has revealed the extent to which humans can change the climate, however, even the continuance of Business as Usual (BAU) is, in effect, a form of intentional GE, albeit one that will cause significant climate harm, defined as effects such as sea level rise that will impact human well-being. But as with all forms of engineering, the devil is in the details: what forms of GE should be tried first? Some methods, such as large-scale afforestation, are low risk but have long-term payoffs; others, such as aerosol injection into the stratosphere, could help buy time in a warming crisis but have unknown side-effects and little long-term future. Climate change is a world-wide, inter-generational tragedy of the commons. Rational choice theory, the spatial and temporal extension of the problem, poorly fitted moral frameworks, and political maneuvering are all factors that inhibit solutions to the climate tragedy of the commons. The longer that such factors are allowed to dominate decision-making (or the lack thereof) the more likely it is that humanity will be forced to resort to riskier and more drastic forms of GE. We argue that this fact brings an additional measure of urgency to the search for ways to engineer the climate differently so as to avoid climate harm in the most lasting and least risky way.

  5. Effect of dietary crude protein levels in a commercial range, on the nitrogen balance, ammonia emission and pollutant characteristics of slurry in fattening pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, F; Martínez, S; López, C; Megías, M D; López, M; Madrid, J

    2011-06-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary levels of crude protein (CP), close to the range used commercially and to the European Commission recommended values, on the nitrogen (N) balance, ammonia (NH(3)) emission and pollutant characteristics of the slurry from growing and finishing pigs. Three feeding programmes with different CP levels were compared during the growing and the finishing periods of fattening. Diets were formulated to be isoenergetic and for the digestible lysine : metabolisable energy ratio to be similar in all the diets for each phase, but differed in CP concentration (160, 150 and 140 g CP/kg for the growing phase and 155, 145 and 135 g CP/kg for the finishing phase). Faeces and urine from barrows (eight replicates per diet) allocated in metabolism cages were collected separately for 5 days to calculate the N balance and for 2 days to measure NH(3) emission in a laboratory system for 240 h. Excreta were analysed for pH, volatile fatty acids (VFA), total N, electrical conductivity (EC), total solids (TS), volatile solids (VS), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD(5)), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and NH(4)-N reduction of dietary CP content led to a linear decrease of urinary (P excretion, and N excretion/feed intake (P 0.05) during the 240 h of study. However, in the growing phase, the NH(3)-N level in slurry was lower (P 0.05) on total VFA, EC, TS, VS, COD or BOD(5) contents of excreta. These parameters were higher (P excretion in the slurry of growing-finishing pigs. The slurry from finishing pigs is more concentrated than that from growing pigs.

  6. Associations between long-term exposure to ambient particulate air pollution and type 2 diabetes prevalence, blood glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin levels in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yaohui; Ma, Zongwei; Bi, Jun; Liu, Yang; Meng, Xia; Wang, Yafeng; Cai, Jing; Chen, Renjie; Kan, Haidong

    2016-01-01

    Background The evidence for an association between particulate air pollution and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in developing countries was very scarce. Objective To investigate the associations of long-term exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) with T2DM prevalence and with fasting glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels in China. Methods This is a cross-sectional study based on a nation-wide baseline survey of 11,847 adults who participated in the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study from June 2011 to March 2012. The average residential exposure to PM2.5 for each participant in the same period was estimated using a satellite-based spatial statistical model. We determined the association between PM2.5 and T2DM prevalence by multivariable logistic regression models. We also evaluated the association between PM2.5 and fasting glucose and HbA1c levels using multivariable linear regression models. Stratification analyses were conducted to explore potential effect modification. Results We identified 1,760 cases of T2DM, corresponding to 14.9% of the study population. The average PM2.5 exposure for all participants was 72.6 μg/m3 during the study period. An interquartile range increase in PM2.5 (41.1μg/m3) was significantly associated with increased T2DM prevalence (prevalence ratio, PR=1.14), and elevated levels of fasting glucose (0.26 mmol/L) and HbA1c (0.08%). The associations of PM2.5 with T2DM prevalence and with fasting glucose and HbA1c were stronger in several subgroups. Conclusions This nationwide cross-sectional study suggested that long-term exposure to PM2.5 might increase the risk of T2DM in China. PMID:27148900

  7. What’s the Harm? Harms in Research with Adults with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Katherine E.; Conroy, Nicole E.; Olick, Robert S.

    2017-01-01

    Scientific advances can improve the lives of adults with intellectual disability, yet concerns that research participation may impose harm impede scientific progress. What counts as harmful can be subjective and perceptions of harm may vary among stakeholders. We studied perspectives on the harmfulness of research events among adults with intellectual disability, family members and friends, disability service providers, researchers, and Institutional Review Board members. We found considerable variance. For example, adults with intellectual disability see exclusion from research as more harmful, but most psychosocial harms as less significant than others. All stakeholders agree that having someone else make the participation decision is harmful. Findings provide insights into the concept of harm and ethical research with adults with intellectual disability. PMID:28095059

  8. What's the Harm? Harms in Research With Adults With Intellectual Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Katherine E; Conroy, Nicole E; Olick, Robert S; Panel, The Project Ethics Expert

    2017-01-01

    Scientific advances can improve the lives of adults with intellectual disability, yet concerns that research participation may impose harm impede scientific progress. What counts as harmful can be subjective and perceptions of harm may vary among stakeholders. We studied perspectives on the harmfulness of research events among adults with intellectual disability, family members and friends, disability service providers, researchers, and Institutional Review Board members. We found considerable variance. For example, adults with intellectual disability see exclusion from research as more harmful, but most psychosocial harms as less significant than others. All stakeholders agree that having someone else make the participation decision is harmful. Findings provide insights into the concept of harm and ethical research with adults with intellectual disability.

  9. Analysis of harmful emissions generated by road traffic in the city of Zagreb and proposals of measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasna GOLUBIĆ

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The total number of registered road motor vehicles in Croatia in 2008 was 2,021,936 out of which 20.5% were registered in the city of Zagreb. Due to improper engine operating conditions, relatively low speeds (below 80km/h, large number of vehicles, high percentage of defective vehicles, poor fuel quality, the highest effect on air pollution in the city of Zagreb is generated by road motor vehicles. If air pollution in the city is analyzed from 2001 to 2009, it may be concluded that the biggest problem lies in the pollution by nitrogen oxides, airborne particles and ground-level ozone, which means that taking these pollution parameters in consideration the air was of Category II, i.e. moderately polluted. The most endangered city areas are the industrial zones and traffic nodes. Numerous European cities have been undertaking activities in order to reduce air pollution, which include also the introduction of new standards for new vehicles, improvement of fuel quality, fuel and vehicle taxing, usage of alternative fuels, etc. The city of Zagreb is no exception and since the current traffic system has not been solved in an optimal manner and since there is a lot of room for improvements in technical, technological and ecological sense, this paper will analyze the impact of road traffic on air pollution and offer proposals of measures to establish a sustainable traffic system of the City of Zagreb. Some of the proposals for reducing the harmful emissions from road traffic in the city of Zagreb include: reconstruction of the road network (emphasis on intersections, introduction of the traffic-dependent control of light signalized intersections, usage of intelligent transport systems for guiding and better organization of traffic, “Park-and-ride” system, etc. The traffic system of the city of Zagreb can be optimized without the construction of new roads by introducing intelligent traffic control with possible organizational changes and

  10. Physical harm due to chronic substance use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Amsterdam, Jan; Pennings, Ed; Brunt, Tibor; van den Brink, Wim

    2013-01-01

    Chronic use at high dose of illicit drugs, alcohol and tobacco is associated with physical disease. The relative physical harm of these substances has not been described before, but will benefit the guiding of policy measures about licit and illicit substances. The physical harm of 19 addictive

  11. Practitioner Review: Self-Harm in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ougrin, Dennis; Tranah, Troy; Leigh, Eleanor; Taylor, Lucy; Asarnow, Joan Rosenbaum

    2012-01-01

    Background: Repeated self-harm in adolescents is common and associated with elevated psychopathology, risk of suicide, and demand for clinical services. Despite recent advances in the understanding and treatment of self-harm there have been few systematic reviews of the topic. Aims: The main aim of this article is to review randomised controlled…

  12. Why Do Adolescents Self-Harm?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Susan; Hawton, Keith; Philpott-Morgan, Sion; O'Connor, Rory C

    2016-05-01

    Given the high rates of self-harm among adolescents, recent research has focused on a better understanding of the motives for the behavior. The present study had three aims: to investigate (a) which motives are most frequently endorsed by adolescents who report self-harm; (b) whether motives reported at baseline predict repetition of self-harm over a 6-month period; and (c) whether self-harm motives differ between boys and girls. In all, 987 school pupils aged 14-16 years completed a lifestyle and coping questionnaire at two time points 6 months apart that recorded self-harm and the associated motives. The motive "to get relief from a terrible state of mind" was the most commonly endorsed reason for self-harm (in boys and girls). Interpersonal reasons (e.g., "to frighten someone") were least commonly endorsed. Regression analyses showed that adolescents who endorsed wanting to get relief from a terrible state of mind at baseline were significantly more likely to repeat self-harm at follow-up than those adolescents who did not cite this motive. The results highlight the complex nature of self-harm. They have implications for mental health provision in educational settings, especially in relation to encouraging regulation of emotions and help-seeking.

  13. Violent Self-Harm in Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symonds, Catherine S.; Taylor, Steve; Tippins, Val; Turkington, Douglas

    2006-01-01

    Patients with schizophrenia have a substantial lifetime suicide risk, especially by violent means. Little published work exists on self-harm (SH) in this population. The goal of this study was to examine whether patients with schizophrenia were also more likely to self-harm in a violent manner. A retrospective analysis performed on method, motive,…

  14. Genderedness of Bar Drinking Culture and Alcohol-Related Harms: A Multi-Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Sarah C. M.; Bond, Jason; Korcha, Rachael; Greenfield, Thomas K.

    2013-01-01

    This study explores whether associations between consuming alcohol in bars and alcohol-related harms are consistent across countries and whether country-level characteristics modify associations. We hypothesized that genderedness of bar drinking modifies associations, such that odds of harms associated with bar drinking increase more rapidly in…

  15. Persistent organic pollutants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dungen, van den M.W.

    2016-01-01

    Wild caught fish, especially marine fish, can contain high levels of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). In the Netherlands, especially eel from the main rivers have high POP levels. This led to a ban in 2011 on eel fishing due to health concerns. Many of the marine POPs have been related to

  16. Alcohol and self-harm in Anuradhapura

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jane Brandt; Jayasena, Chandima; Agampodi, Thilini Chanchala

    the personal network of the drinker and lead to secondary traumatization. This can appear as emotional distress, financial difficulties and lead to domestic violence and in some cases self-harm and suicide. This interplay between alcohol and self-harm was investigated in individuals, families and communities...... in the Anuradhapura area. Objectives: The objective of this study was to explore alcohol’s role in cases of self-harm in individuals, families and communities. Methods: A qualitative, exploratory study, was conducted utilizing: (i) serial, narrative, life-story interviews with 19 individuals (12 men and 7 women...... drinking to social, occasional and even first time drinking. All women had alcohol indirectly involved in their case of self-harm through the negative effects of a relative’s drinking. Findings indicate that two categories of the alcohol-self-harm complex exist, with different characteristics for men...

  17. Deprivation as un-experienced harm?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keerus, Külli; Gjerris, Mickey; Röcklinsberg, Helena

    2017-01-01

    Tom Regan encapsulated his principle of harm as a prima facie direct duty not to harm experiencing subjects of a life. However, his consideration of harm as deprivation, one example of which is loss of freedom, can easily be interpreted as a harm, which may not be experienced by its subject....... This creates a gap between Regan’s criterion for moral status and his account of what our duties are. However, in comparison with three basic paradigms of welfare known in nonhuman animal welfare science, Regan’s understanding coheres with a modified version of a feelings-based paradigm: not only the immediate...... feelings of satisfaction, but also future opportunities to have such feelings, must be taken into account. Such an interpretation is compatible with Regan’s understanding of harm as deprivation. The potential source of confusion, however, lies in Regan’s own possible argumentative mistakes....

  18. Urban air pollution climates throughout the world

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertel, Ole; Goodsite, Michael Evan

    2009-01-01

    The extent of the urban area, the local emission density, and the temporal pattern in the releases govern the local contribution to air pollution levels in urban environments. However, meteorological conditions also heavily affect the actual pollution levels as they govern the dispersion conditions...... as well as the transport in and out of the city area. The building obstacles play a crucial role in causing generally high pollutant levels in the urban environment, especially inside street canyons where the canyon vortex flow governs the pollution distribution. Of the pollutants dominating urban air...... population and provide the right basis for future urban air pollution management....

  19. A safer alternative: Cannabis substitution as harm reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Nicholas; Sales, Paloma; Averill, Sheigla; Murphy, Fiona; Sato, Sye-Ok; Murphy, Sheigla

    2015-11-01

    Substitution is operationalised as a conscious choice made by users to use one drug instead of, or in conjunction with another based on: perceived safety, level of addiction potential, effectiveness in relieving symptoms, access and level of acceptance. Harm reduction is a set of strategies that aim to minimise problems associated with drug use while recognising that for some users, abstinence may be neither a realistic nor a desirable goal. In this paper, we aim for deeper understandings of older adult cannabis users' beliefs and substitution practices as part of the harm reduction framework. We present selected findings from our qualitative study of Baby Boomer (born 1946-1964) marijuana users in the San Francisco Bay Area. Although the sample consisted of primary cannabis users, many had personal experience with other drugs throughout their lifetimes. Data collection consisted of an audio-recorded, semi-structured in-depth life history interview followed by a questionnaire and health survey. Qualitative interviews were analysed to discover users' harm reduction beliefs and cannabis substitution practices. Study participants described using cannabis as a safer alternative for alcohol, illicit drugs and pharmaceuticals based on their perceptions of less adverse side effects, low-risk for addiction and greater effectiveness at relieving symptoms, such as chronic pain. Cannabis substitution can be an effective harm reduction method for those who are unable or unwilling to stop using drugs completely. More research is needed on cannabis as a safer alternative. © 2015 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  20. Light Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riegel, Kurt W.

    1973-01-01

    Outdoor lighting is light pollution which handicaps certain astronomical programs. Protective measures must be adopted by the government to aid observational astronomy without sacrificing legitimate outdoor lighting needs. (PS)

  1. Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress and Heavy Metal Levels as Indicators of Environmental Pollution in African Cat Fish (Clarias gariepinus from Nigeria Ogun River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. R. Ajimoko

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Levels of Zn, Cu, Cd, As, and Pb in the kidney, Liver, Gills and Heart of African cat fish (Clarias gariepinus from the Ogun River in Ogun State located close to six major industries in the South Western part of Nigeria, were determined using Bulk Scientific Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. Fishes were also collected from Government owned fish farm in Agodi, Ibadan which was considered a reference site. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione S-transferase (GST, glutathione (GSH concentration and malondialdehyde (MDA formation were also determined. The trend of accumulation of the metals in the organs is as follows: Heart - Zn > Cu > Pb > As > Cd; Gills - Zn > Cu > Pb > Cd > As; Kidney - Zn > Cu > Pb > As > Cd; Liver -Zn > Cu > Pb > As > Cd. The order of concentration of the metals in the organs is as follows: Arsenite - Kidney > Liver > Gills > Heart; Zinc - Gills > Liver > Kidney > Heart; Lead- Liver > Kidney > Gills > Heart; Copper- Kidney > Liver > Gills > Heart; Cadmium > Liver > Gills > Kidney > Heart. The levels of heavy metals ranged between 0.25-8.96 ppm in the heart, 0.69- 19.05 ppm in the kidneys, 2.10-19.75 ppm in the liver and 1.95-20.35 ppm in the gills. SOD activity increased by 61% in the liver, 50% in the kidney and in the heart by 28 % while a significant decrease (44% was observed in the gill of Clarias gariepinus from Ogun river compared to that Agodi fish farm (P<0.001. On the contrary there was 46%, 41%, 50% and 19% decrease in CAT activity in the liver, kidney, gills and heart respectively. The levels of GST activities in the liver, kidney and heart of Clarias gariepinus from Ogun river increased by 62%, 72% and 37% respectively (P<0.001 whereas there was a significant decrease (41% in the gills (P<0.05 compared to that from the Agodi fish farm. GSH concentration increased by 81%, 83% and 53% in the liver, kidney and heart respectively but decreased by 44% in the gills. MDA levels of

  2. Relative effects of educational level and occupational social class on body concentrations of persistent organic pollutants in a representative sample of the general population of Catalonia, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasull, Magda; Pumarega, José; Rovira, Gemma; López, Tomàs; Alguacil, Juan; Porta, Miquel

    2013-10-01

    Scant evidence is available worldwide on the relative influence of occupational social class and educational level on body concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the general population. The objective was to analyse such influence in a representative sample of the general population of Catalonia, Spain. Participants in the Catalan Health Interview Survey aged 18-74 were interviewed face-to-face, gave blood, and underwent a physical exam. The role of age, body mass index (BMI), and parity was analysed with General Linear Models, and adjusted geometric means (GMs) were obtained. Crude (unadjusted) concentrations were higher in women and men with lower education, and in women, but not men, in the less affluent social class. After adjusting for age, in women there were no associations between POP levels and social class or education. After adjusting for age and BMI, men in the less affluent class had higher p,p'-DDE concentrations than men in class I (p-value=0.016), while men in class IV had lower HCB than men in the upper class (p-value<0.03). Also in contrast with some expectations, positive associations between education and POP levels were observed after adjusting for age and BMI in men; e.g., men with university studies had higher HCB concentrations than men with first stage of primary schooling (adjusted GM 153.9 and 80.5ng/g, respectively) (p-value<0.001). When education and social class were co-adjusted for, some positive associations with education in men remained statistically significant, whereas class remained associated only with p,p'-DDE. Educational level influenced blood concentrations of POPs more than occupational social class, especially in men. In women, POP concentrations were mainly explained by age/birth cohort, parity and BMI. In men, while concentrations were also mainly explained by age/birth cohort and BMI, both social class and education showed positive associations. Important characteristics of socioeconomic groups as age

  3. Secondary harm mitigation: A more humanitarian framework for international drug law enforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaustein, Jarrett; McLay, Miki; McCulloch, Jude

    2017-08-01

    This article introduces the concept of 'secondary harm mitigation' as a framework for improving the humanitarian credentials of international drug law enforcement agencies. The concept is rooted in a critical analysis of the compatibility of the harm reduction philosophy with Australia's international drug law enforcement practices. On a utilitarian level, the net benefits of international drug law enforcement are determined to be, at best inconclusive, arguably counterproductive and in most cases, incalculable. On a humanitarian level, international drug law enforcement is also determined to be problematic from a criminological standpoint because it generates secondary harms and it is indifferent to the vulnerability of individuals who participate in illicit drug trafficking. Accordingly, the article concludes that a philosophy of harm reduction grounded in the public health perspective is inadequate for mitigating secondary harms arising from Australia's efforts to combat international illicit drug trafficking. A tentative list of secondary harm mitigation principles is presented and the article argues that secondary harm mitigation should replace supply reduction as a core tenet of Australia's National Drug Strategy. The article also concludes that secondary harm mitigation may provide a viable framework for stimulating a productive dialogue between those who advocate prohibition and those who call for decriminalisation at the global level. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. International aspects of pollution control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Ploeg, F. (Univ. of Amsterdam (Netherlands)); De Zeeuw, A.J. (Tilburg Univ. (Netherlands))

    1992-01-01

    Pollution is a by-product of production, is only gradually dissolved by the environment, and crosses national borders. The market outcome ignores the adverse effects of pollution and thus yields higher levels of output and pollution than would prevail under a supranational social planner which does care about pollution. In practice, governments often do not cooperate and this leads to outcomes of pollution and production in between the market outcomes under supra-national social planning. Absence of precommitment leads to lower emission charges, less cleaning-up activities and more pollution. Appropriate levels of emission charges under the various outcomes are a result of this analysis. Attention is also paid to investment in clean technology. The debate between optimists, who believe that higher production is compatible with sound environmental policy, and pessimists can be analyzed in this way. 5 figs., 1 app., 27 refs.

  5. Experienced Harm from Other People's Drinking: A Comparison of Northern European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inger Synnøve Moan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective This study addresses how experienced harm from other people's drinking varies between six Northern European countries by comparing 1 the prevalence of experienced harm and 2 the correlates of harm. Method The data comprise 18ȓ69-year olds who participated in general population surveys in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden, and Scotland during the period 2008–2013. Comparative data were available on five types of harm: physical abuse, damage of clothes/belongings, verbal abuse, being afraid, and being kept awake at night. Results This study shows that harms from other's drinking are commonly experienced in all six countries. Being kept awake at night is the most common harm, while being physically harmed is the least common. The proportions that reported at least one of the five problems were highest in Finland and Iceland and lowest in Norway, but also relatively low in Sweden. Across countries, the level of harm was highest among young, single, urban residents, and for some countries among women and those who frequently drank to intoxication themselves. Conclusions The study revealed large differences in the prevalence of harm in countries with fairly similar drinking cultures. However, the correlates of such experiences were similar across countries. Possible explanations of the findings are discussed, including differences in study design.

  6. Pollution charges, community pressure, and abatement cost of industrial pollution in China

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Hua

    2000-01-01

    The author evaluates the strength of the effect that community pressure and pollution charges have on industrial pollution control in China, and estimates the marginal cost of pollution abatement. He examines a well-documented set of plant-level data, combined with community-level data, to assess the impact of pollution charges and community pressure on industrial behavior in China. He constructs and estimates an industrial organic water pollution discharge model for plants that violate stand...

  7. Acute symptoms related to air pollution in urban areas: a study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forouzanfar Mohammad

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The harmful effects of urban air pollution on general population in terms of annoying symptoms are not adequately evaluated. This is in contrast to the hospital admissions and short term mortality. The present study protocol is designed to assess the association between the level of exposure to certain ambient air pollutants and a wide range of relevant symptoms. Awareness of the impact of pollution on the population at large will make our estimates of the pertinent covert burden imposed on the society more accurate. Methods/design A cross sectional study with spatial analysis for the addresses of the participants was conducted. Data were collected via telephone interviews administered to a representative sample of civilians over age four in the city. Households were selected using random digit dialling procedures and randomization within each household was also performed to select the person to be interviewed. Levels of exposure are quantified by extrapolating the addresses of the study population over the air pollution matrix of the city at the time of the interview and also for different lag times. This information system uses the data from multiple air pollution monitoring stations in conjunction with meteorological data. General linear models are applied for statistical analysis. Discussion The important limitations of cross-sectional studies on acute effects of air pollution are personal confounders and measurement error for exposure. A wide range of confounders in this study are controlled for in the statistical analysis. Exposure error may be minimised by employing a validated geographical information system that provides accurate estimates and getting detailed information on locations of individual participants during the day. The widespread operation of open air conditioning systems in the target urban area which brings about excellent mixing of the outdoor and indoor air increases the validity of outdoor pollutants

  8. Alcohol's Harm to Children: Findings from the 2015 United States National Alcohol's Harm to Others Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Lauren M; Nayak, Madhabika B; Greenfield, Thomas K; Karriker-Jaffe, Katherine J

    2017-05-01

    To examine the prevalence and severity of alcohol's harm to children in the US and the relationship of the harmer to the child, and to examine caregivers' sociodemographic characteristics, alcohol use, and exposure to harm due to a drinking spouse/partner or other family member as risk factors for alcohol's harm to children. We report data on 764 caregivers (defined as persons with parental responsibility for at least 1 child aged ≤17 years) from the 2015 National Alcohol's Harm to Others Survey, a dual-frame national sample of US adults. Overall 7.4% of caregivers reported alcohol's harm to children in the past year. Risk factors for alcohol's harm to children included the caregiver's own experience of alcohol's harm from a spouse/partner or other family member. Caregivers with a heavy drinker in the household were significantly more likely to report harm to children. A caregiver's own heavy drinking was not a significant risk factor for children in his or her care. Alcohol places a substantial burden on children in the US. Although a caregiver's own drinking can harm children, other drinkers also increase the risk of alcohol's harm to children. Screening caregivers to determine whether there is a heavy drinker in the household may help reduce alcohol's harm in the family without stigmatizing caregivers, who themselves may not be heavy drinkers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. [Vulnerability to self-harm in autism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paula-Perez, I; Artigas-Pallares, J

    2016-01-01

    The reasons underlying self-harm in persons with autism do not appear to have a single, straightforward and simple explanation. Biological predisposition, certain psychological states involving stress, atypical sensory processing, communication disorders, medical problems, and limited emotional regulation, among others, can lead persons with autism to harm themselves. In this article a distinction is drawn, first of all, between self-harm related to neurodevelopmental disorders, such as autism, and self-harm linked to other psychiatric conditions. Second, a preliminary approach to an integrated model for the understanding of self-harm in autism is proposed. Some of the hypotheses put forward to account for self-harm in autism are focused on atypical sensory processing, on communication disorders and medical problems, and on emotional dysregulation. The limited number of studies conducted in this area and the inconsistency of the data resulting from them have led to great efforts being made to separate the facts from the suppositions in this subject. This modest initial proposal makes it possible to draw up a roadmap to guide and help persons with autism, their families and professionals in the process of reducing or eliminating this behaviour. It is suggested that self-harm should no longer be considered a disruptive behaviour and that it should be interpreted instead as an (inadequate) self-regulatory response to stress.

  10. Digital Self-Harm Among Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patchin, Justin W; Hinduja, Sameer

    2017-12-01

    Despite increased media and scholarly attention to digital forms of aggression directed toward adolescents by their peers (e.g., cyberbullying), very little research has explored digital aggression directed toward oneself. "Digital self-harm" is the anonymous online posting, sending, or otherwise sharing of hurtful content about oneself. The current study examined the extent of digital self-harm among adolescents. Survey data were obtained in 2016 from a nationally representative sample of 5,593 American middle and high school students (12-17 years old). Logistic regression analysis was used to identify correlates of participation in digital self-harm. Qualitative responses were also reviewed to better understand motivations for digital self-harm. About 6% of students have anonymously posted something online about themselves that was mean. Males were significantly more likely to report participation (7.1% compared to 5.3%). Several statistically significant correlates of involvement in digital self-harm were identified, including sexual orientation, experience with school bullying and cyberbullying, drug use, participation in various forms of adolescent deviance, and depressive symptoms. Digital self-harm is a new problem that demands additional scholarly attention. A deeper inquiry as to the motivations behind this behavior, and how it correlates to offline self-harm and suicidal ideation, can help direct mental health professionals toward informed prevention approaches. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. An novel identification method of the environmental risk sources for surface water pollution accidents in chemical industrial parks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jianfeng; Song, Yonghui; Yuan, Peng; Xiao, Shuhu; Han, Lu

    2013-07-01

    The chemical industry is a major source of various pollution accidents. Improving the management level of risk sources for pollution accidents has become an urgent demand for most industrialized countries. In pollution accidents, the released chemicals harm the receptors to some extent depending on their sensitivity or susceptibility. Therefore, identifying the potential risk sources from such a large number of chemical enterprises has become pressingly urgent. Based on the simulation of the whole accident process, a novel and expandable identification method for risk sources causing water pollution accidents is presented. The newly developed approach, by analyzing and stimulating the whole process of a pollution accident between sources and receptors, can be applied to identify risk sources, especially on the nationwide scale. Three major types of losses, such as social, economic and ecological losses, were normalized, analyzed and used for overall consequence modeling. A specific case study area, located in a chemical industry park (CIP) along the Yangtze River in Jiangsu Province, China, was selected to test the potential of the identification method. The results showed that there were four risk sources for pollution accidents in this CIP. Aniline leakage in the HS Chemical Plant would lead to the most serious impact on the surrounding water environment. This potential accident would severely damage the ecosystem up to 3.8 km downstream of Yangtze River, and lead to pollution over a distance stretching to 73.7 km downstream. The proposed method is easily extended to the nationwide identification of potential risk sources.

  12. How Harmful are Adaptation Restrictions

    OpenAIRE

    Bruin, de, H.A.R.; Dellink, R.B.

    2009-01-01

    The dominant assumption in economic models of climate policy remains that adaptation will be implemented in an optimal manner. There are, however, several reasons why optimal levels of adaptation may not be attainable. This paper investigates the effects of suboptimal levels of adaptation, i.e. adaptation restrictions, on the composition and level of climate change costs and on welfare. Several adaptation restrictions are identified and then simulated in a revised DICE model, extended with ad...

  13. Mammography screening. Benefits, harms, and informed choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Karsten Juhl

    2013-01-01

    that would otherwise never have been detected because they grow very slowly or not at all and would not have been detected in the woman's lifetime in the absence of screening. Screening therefore turns women into cancer patients unnecessarily, with life-long physical and psychological harms. The debate about...... exaggerates benefits, participation is directly recommended, and the harms are downplayed or left out, despite agreement that the objective is informed choice. This raises an ethical discussion concerning autonomy versus paternalism, and the difficulty in weighing benefits against harms. Finally, financial......, political, and professional conflicts of interest are discussed, as well as health economics....

  14. [Self-harm in fiction literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skårderud, Finn

    2009-04-16

    European literature contains fictional descriptions of self-harm and self-punishment over a time span of almost 2 500 years. This article presents such descriptions, from Sofocles' tragedy about King Oedipus to contemporary literature. Particular interest is dedicated to the Austrian Nobel prize laureate Elfriede Jelinek and the Norwegian author Karl Ove Knausgård. In Jelinek's fictional universe, self-harm is particularly related to the topic of autonomy in a family context; while Knausgård describes the role of shame in triggering and sustaining self-harming behaviour.

  15. Suicide Following Deliberate Self-Harm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olfson, Mark; Wall, Melanie; Wang, Shuai; Crystal, Stephen; Gerhard, Tobias; Blanco, Carlos

    2017-08-01

    The authors sought to identify risk factors for repeat self-harm and completed suicide over the following year among adults with deliberate self-harm. A national cohort of Medicaid-financed adults clinically diagnosed with deliberate self-harm (N=61,297) was followed for up to 1 year. Repeat self-harm per 1,000 person-years and suicide rates per 100,000 person-years (based on cause of death information from the National Death Index) were determined. Hazard ratios of repeat self-harm and suicide were estimated by Cox proportional hazard models. During the 12 months after nonfatal self-harm, the rate of repeat self-harm was 263.2 per 1,000 person-years and the rate of completed suicide was 439.1 per 100,000 person-years, or 37.2 times higher than in a matched general population cohort. The hazard of suicide was higher after initial self-harm events involving violent as compared with nonviolent methods (hazard ratio=7.5, 95% CI=5.5-10.1), especially firearms (hazard ratio=15.86, 95% CI=10.7-23.4; computed with poisoning as reference), and to a lesser extent after events of patients who had recently received outpatient mental health care (hazard ratio=1.6, 95% CI=1.2-2.0). Compared with self-harm patients using nonviolent methods, those who used violent methods were at significantly increased risk of suicide during the first 30 days after the initial event (hazard ratio=17.5, 95% CI=11.2-27.3), but not during the following 335 days. Adults treated for deliberate self-harm frequently repeat self-harm in the following year. Patients who use a violent method for their initial self-harm, especially firearms, have an exceptionally high risk of suicide, particularly right after the initial event, which highlights the importance of careful assessment and close follow-up of this group.

  16. Measurement of Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) in plastic resin pellets from remote islands : Toward establishment of baseline level for International Pellet Watch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, H.; Heskett, M.; Yamashita, R.; Yuyama, M.; Itoh, M.; Geok, Y. B.; Ogata, Y.

    2011-12-01

    Plastic resin pellets collected from remote islands in open oceans (Canary, St. Helena, Cocos, Hawaii, Maui Islands and Barbados) were sorted and yellowing polyethylene (PE) pellets were measured for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and the degradation products (DDTs), and hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) by gas chromatograph equipped with mass spectrometer (GC-MS) and with electron capture detector (GC-ECD). PCBs were detected from all the pellet samples, confirming the global dispersion of PCBs. Median concentrations of PCBs (sum of 13 congeners : CB-66, CB-101, CB-110, CB-118, CB-105, CB-149, CB-153, CB-138, CB-128, CB-187, CB-180, CB-170, CB-206) in the remote island pellets ranged from 0.1 to 10 ng/g-pellet. These were one to three orders of magnitude lower than those observed for pellets from industrialized coastal zones (hundreds ng/g in Los Angeles, Boston, Tokyo; Ogata et al., 2009). Because these remote islands are far (>100 km) from industrialized zones, these concentrations (i.e., 0.1 to 10 ng/g-pellet) can be regarded as global "baseline" level of PCB pollution. Concentrations of DDTs in the remote island pellets ranged from 0.2 to 5.5 ng/g-pellet. At some locations, DDT was dominant over the degradation products (DDE and DDD), suggesting current usage of the pesticides in the islands. HCHs concentrations were 0.4 - 1.8 ng/g-pellet and lower than PCBs and DDTs, except for St. Helena Island at 18.8 ng/g-pellet where the current usage of the pesticides are of concern. The analyses of pellets from the remote islands provided "baseline" level of POPs (PCBs effects of global distillation, pellet samples from remote islands in higher latitude regions are necessary. From the eco-toxicological point of view, the fact that sporadic high concentrations of POPs were detected in some pellet samples from the remote islands is underscored. Some plastic debris which were contaminated in industrialized coastal zones may have rapidly

  17. How Harmful are Adaptation Restrictions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruin, de K.C.; Dellink, R.B.

    2009-01-01

    The dominant assumption in economic models of climate policy remains that adaptation will be implemented in an optimal manner. There are, however, several reasons why optimal levels of adaptation may not be attainable. This paper investigates the effects of suboptimal levels of adaptation, i.e.

  18. High-sensitivity remote detection of atmospheric pollutants and greenhouse gases at low ppm levels using near-infrared tunable diode lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Anirban; Upadhyay, Abhishek; Chakraborty, Arup Lal

    2016-05-01

    The concentration of atmospheric pollutants and greenhouse gases needs to be precisely monitored for sustainable industrial development and to predict the climate shifts caused by global warming. Such measurements are made on a continuous basis in ecologically sensitive and urban areas in the advanced countries. Tunable diode laser spectroscopy (TDLS) is the most versatile non-destructive technology currently available for remote measurements of multiple gases with very high selectivity (low cross-sensitivity), very high sensitivity (on the order of ppm and ppb) and under hazardous conditions. We demonstrate absolute measurements of acetylene, methane and carbon dioxide using a fielddeployable fully automated TDLS system that uses calibration-free 2f wavelength modulation spectroscopy (2f WMS) techniques with sensitivities of low ppm levels. A 40 mW, 1531.52 nm distributed feedback (DFB) diode laser, a 10 mW, 1650 nm DFB laser and a 1 mW, 2004 nm vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) are used in the experiments to probe the P9 transition of acetylene, R4 transition of methane and R16 transition of carbon dioxide respectively. Data acquisition and on-board analysis comprises a Raspberry Pi-based embedded system that is controllable over a wireless connection. Gas concentration and pressure are simultaneously extracted by fitting the experimental signals to 2f WMS signals simulated using spectroscopic parameters obtained from the HITRAN database. The lowest detected concentration is 11 ppm for acetylene, 275 ppm for methane and 285 ppm for carbon dioxide using a 28 cm long single-pass gas cell.

  19. A Multi-Country Study of Harms to Children Because of Others' Drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laslett, Anne-Marie; Rankin, Georgia; Waleewong, Orratai; Callinan, Sarah; Hoang, Hanh T M; Florenzano, Ramon; Hettige, Siri; Obot, Isidore; Siengsounthone, Latsamy; Ibanga, Akanidomo; Hope, Ann; Landberg, Jonas; Vu, Hanh T M; Thamarangsi, Thaksaphon; Rekve, Dag; Room, Robin

    2017-03-01

    This study aims to ascertain and compare the prevalence and correlates of alcohol-related harms to children cross-nationally. National and regional sample surveys of randomly selected households included 7,848 carers (4,223 women) from eight countries (Australia, Chile, Ireland, Lao People's Democratic Republic [PDR], Nigeria, Sri Lanka, Thailand, and Vietnam). Country response rates ranged from 35% to 99%. Face-to-face or telephone surveys asking about harm from others' drinking to children ages 0-17 years were conducted, including four specific harms: that because of others' drinking in the past year children had been (a) physically hurt, (b) verbally abused, (c) exposed to domestic violence, or (d) left unsupervised. The prevalence of alcohol-related harms to children varied from a low of 4% in Lao PDR to 14% in Vietnam. Alcohol-related harms to children were reported by a substantial minority of families in most countries, with only Lao PDR and Nigeria reporting significantly lower levels of harm. Alcohol-related harms to children were dispersed sociodemographically and were concentrated in families with heavy drinkers. Family-level drinking patterns were consistently identified as correlates of harm to children because of others' drinking, whereas sociodemographic factors showed few obvious correlations.

  20. Heavy metal accumulation and ecosystem engineering by two common mine site-nesting ant species: implications for pollution-level assessment and bioremediation of coal mine soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Shbbir R; Singh, Satish K; Rastogi, Neelkamal

    2017-04-01

    The present study focuses on the abundance, heavy metal content, and the impact of ecosystem engineering activities of two coal mine site-inhabiting ant species, Cataglyphis longipedem and Camponotus compressus. The abundance of Ct. longipedem increased while that of C. compressus decreased, with increasing soil pollution. Correspondence analysis reveals a close association between soil heavy metal concentrations and Ct. longipedem abundance, but this association is lacking in the case of C. compressus. Cataglyphis ants which occupy stress-characterized niches appear to be pre-adapted to tolerate heavy metal pollution. Higher concentrations of Zn and Mn in Ct. longipedem may contribute to the strengthening of the cuticular structures, necessary for nest excavation in the hard, arid soil and for single load carrying. C. compressus ants appear to be pollution sensitive. Their higher Fe content may be related to metal uptake via plant-derived liquids and species-specific regulatory mechanisms. The metal pollution index and biota-to-soil accumulation factors, calculated by using the ant body metal content of the two species, indicate an overall decrease of soil heavy metal concentrations with increase of the site age, which reflects the degree of pollution related to the mine site age. The concentrations of total and available heavy metals (Fe, Zn, Mn, Pb, and Cu) were significantly lower in the ant nest debris soil as compared to the reference soil. The results of the present study highlight the role of ants as bioindicators and in bioremediation of contaminated soil.

  1. Health risk assessment of cadmium pollution emergency for urban populations in Foshan City, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Ming; Zhao, Peipei; Wang, Yanyan; Li, Guiqiu

    2017-03-01

    With rapid socioeconomic development, water pollution emergency has become increasingly common and could potentially harm the environment and human health, especially heavy metal pollution. In this paper, we investigate the Cd pollution emergency that occurred in the Pearl River network, China, in 2005, and we build a migration and transformation model for heavy metals to simulate the spatiotemporal distribution of Cd concentrations under various scenarios of Cd pollution emergency in Foshan City. Moreover, human health hazard and carcinogenic risk for local residents of Foshan City were evaluated. The primary conclusions were as follows: (1) the number of carcinogen-affected people per year under scenario 1 reached 254.41 when the frequency was 0.1 year/time; specifically, the number of people with cancer per year in the area of the Datang, Lubao, and Nanbian waterworks was 189.36 accounting for 74% of the total number per year; (2) at the frequency of 5 years/time, the Lubao waterwork is the only one in extremely high- or high-risk grade, while besides it, the risk grade in the Datang, Nanbian, Xinan, Shitang, and Jianlibao waterworks is in the extremely high or high grade when the frequency is 0.1 year/time; (3) when Cd pollution accidents with the same level occurs again, Cd concentration decreases to a low level in the water only if the migration distance of Cd is at least 40-50 km. Based on the health risk assessment of Cd pollution, this study gives the recommendation that the distance should keep above 50 km in tidal river network of the Pearl River Delta between those factories existing the possibility of heavy metal pollution and the drinking water source. Only then can the public protect themselves from hazardous effects of higher levels of heavy metal.

  2. Thalassiosira mala (Bacillariophyta), a potentially harmful, marine ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Thalassiosira malaitalic> (Bacillariophyta), a potentially harmful, marine diatom from Chilka Lake and other coastal localities of Odisha, India: Nomenclature, ... Department of Biological Science, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306–4370, USA; Department of Biology, Valdosta State University, Valdosta, GA ...

  3. Hurtful Emotions: Understanding Self-Harm

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issues Subscribe September 2017 Print this issue Hurtful Emotions Understanding Self-Harm En español Send us your ... help you learn new ways to cope with emotion. See the Wise Choices box for tips on ...

  4. Harm reduction-the cannabis paradox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melamede Robert

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This article examines harm reduction from a novel perspective. Its central thesis is that harm reduction is not only a social concept, but also a biological one. More specifically, evolution does not make moral distinctions in the selection process, but utilizes a cannabis-based approach to harm reduction in order to promote survival of the fittest. Evidence will be provided from peer-reviewed scientific literature that supports the hypothesis that humans, and all animals, make and use internally produced cannabis-like products (endocannabinoids as part of the evolutionary harm reduction program. More specifically, endocannabinoids homeostatically regulate all body systems (cardiovascular, digestive, endocrine, excretory, immune, nervous, musculo-skeletal, reproductive. Therefore, the health of each individual is dependant on this system working appropriately.

  5. Vision Problems Can Harm Kids' Development, Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_167475.html Vision Problems Can Harm Kids' Development, Grades Eye experts ... toll on children's school performance and well-being, vision experts say. If left untreated, certain eye-related ...

  6. Some Prostate Drugs May Do Harm

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_166950.html Some Prostate Drugs May Do Harm Hormone-based meds linked ... Popular hormone-based drugs for treating an enlarged prostate could increase men's risk of type 2 diabetes, ...

  7. Factsheet: Climate Change and Harmful Algal Blooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climate change is predicted to change many environmental conditions that could affect the properties of fresh and marine waters. These changes could favor the growth of harmful algal blooms and habitat changes.

  8. Quantification of continual anthropogenic pollutant release in swimming pools (poster)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, M.C.F.M.; Keuten, M.G.A.; Daanen, H.; De Kreuk, M.K.; Rietveld, L.C.; Van Loosdrecht, M.C.M.; Dijk, H.

    2013-01-01

    The amount of pollutants brought into the swimming pool water by swimmers is called anthropogenic pollutant release. The continual pollutant release is the amount of pollutants which is released during the submerged swimming period. The actual level of the continual pollutant release has not been

  9. Atmospheric pollution and atopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charpin, D. [Hopital Nord, 13 - Marseille (France)

    1996-04-01

    One possible explanation to account for the current increase in prevalence of respiratory allergic diseases lies in the facilitating influence of air pollutants. Pollen grains collected in polluted areas could enclose a higher allergenic content. In vitro exposure of pollen grains to current levels of air pollutants can induce a change in protein and allergenic content. Animal experiments demonstrate that pre-exposure to high levels of SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x} and diesel-exhaust particulates enhances specific responses to inhaled or intra-peritoneally administered pollutants. In humans, few studies have been performed. They also suggest an increased response to allergenic challenge after pre-exposure to a moderate concentration of SO{sub 2}, NO{sub 2} and Ozone. Epidemiological surveys comparing prevalence of atopy in urban vs settings usually demonstrate a higher prevalence in the former. However no survey can attribute this difference to urban pollutants. It is rather due the overall difference in daily living conditions. Comparative studies performed in groups of school children living in former East and West Germany show a two-fold higher prevalence of atopy and atopic diseases such as hay fever and asthma in former West Germany. It is hypothesized that the western way of life, including a lower rate of recurrent early childhood infections and a higher allergenic exposure could explain those differences. (author). 44 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Brominated and fluorinated organic pollutants in the breast milk of first-time Irish mothers: is there a relationship to levels in food?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Pratt, Iona

    2013-01-01

    Brominated flame retardants - polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs), hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) and others - have been measured in 11 pooled breast milk samples from 109 first-time mothers in Ireland. Additionally, the study has measured levels of polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PBDD\\/Fs), mixed halogenated dioxins (PXCC\\/Fs) and biphenyls (PXBs), polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) and perfluoroalkylated substances (PFAS) in these samples. The mean sum of 19 PBDEs including BDE-209 was 4.85 ng g(-1) fat, which is comparable with that found in other European countries. BDE-47, BDE-153, BDE-209, BDE-99 and BDE-100 were found at the highest concentrations. The only PBBs detected consistently were BB-77, BB-126 and BB-153, with highest concentrations being found for BB-153 (mean = 0.13 ng g(-1) fat). The mean sum of HBCD enantiomers was 3.52 ng g(-1) fat, with α-HBCD representing over 70% of the total. Of the other brominated flame retardants - tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBP-A), hexabromobenzene (HBB), decabromodiphenylethane (DBDPE) and bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxyethane) (BTBPE) - examined, only TBBP-A was detected above the limit of detection (LOD), in two of the 11 pools analysed. All measured PBDF congeners were observed (at 0.02-0.91 pg g(-1) fat), but 2,3,7,8-tetrabromo-dibenzodioxin (TeBDD) was the only PBDD detected, with a mean concentration of 0.09 pg g(-1) fat. The occurrence of the mixed chlorinated\\/brominated dibenzodioxins, dibenzofurans and biphenyls, 2-B-3,7,8-CDD, 2,3-B-7,8-CDF, 4-B-2,3,7,8-CDF, PXB 105, PXB 118, PXB 126 and PCB 156 in breast milk in the current study may indicate that levels of these contaminants are increasing in the environment. Polychlorinated naphthalenes were detected in all samples, but not perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and other PFAS. The pattern of occurrence of these brominated and fluorinated persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in Irish breast milk shows a general

  11. Executive Compensation and Misconduct: Environmental Harm

    OpenAIRE

    Minor, Dylan Blu

    2016-01-01

    We explore the relationship between managerial incentives and misconduct using the setting of environmental harm. We find that high powered executive compensation can increase the odds of environmental law-breaking by 40-60% and the magnitude of environmental harm by over 100%. We document similar results for the setting of executive compensation and illegal financial accounting. Finally, we outline some managerial and policy implications to blunt these adverse incentive effects.

  12. Deliberate self-harm (and attempted suicide)

    OpenAIRE

    Soomro, G Mustafa

    2008-01-01

    Deliberate self-harm involves acts such as self-cutting or self-poisoning, carried out deliberately, with or without the intention of committing suicide. Lifetime prevalence of deliberate self-harm in Europe and the USA is about 3% to 5% of the population, and is increasing.Familial, biological and psychosocial factors may contribute. Risks are higher in women and young adults, in people who are socially isolated or deprived, and those with psychiatric or personality disorders.

  13. Deliberate self-harm (and attempted suicide)

    OpenAIRE

    Soomro, G. Mustafa; Kakhi, Sara

    2015-01-01

    Deliberate self-harm involves acts such as self-cutting or self-poisoning, carried out deliberately, with or without the intention of suicide. Lifetime prevalence of deliberate self-harm in Europe and the US is about 3% to 5% of the population, and has been increasing.Familial, biological, and psychosocial factors may contribute. Risks are higher in women and young adults, in people who are socially isolated or deprived, and in those with psychiatric or personality disorders.

  14. Curbing pollution in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskeland, G S; Jimenez, E

    1991-03-01

    Existing policies to control pollution are inadequate especially those in developing countries. National economic policies do not consider environmental effects. For example, some governments subsidize fossil fuels, water, pesticides, and fertilizers. Those governments in the process of restructuring pollution control policies must seek ways to reduce their conceivable side effects on economic growth, revenue raising, and equity. They need to consider key administrative, technological, and institutional drawbacks and depend on numerous fiscal means to complement more traditional pollution control mechanism. They must intervene to prevent or reduce pollution since markets do not consider the interests of those affected by pollution. They can do so by imposing regulations on polluters, taxing emissions, limiting the amount of pollution, subsidizing cleaner options, and/or assigning and enforcing property rights. Pollution and environmental quality standards im most developing countries parallel those in the US and in Europe, but these standards are not effective because monitoring, enforcement, and regulatory capacities are inclined to be weak. In the early phases of pollution control, governments should tax fixed inputs (e.g., fuels) based on the level of expected emissions. These taxes would advance public budgets. For transnational pollution problems, affected nations should negotiate together and consider international transfers to support environmental solutions. When developing policy, governments must consider the competitive behavior of the marketplace and how people and companies will react to policy tools. These prudent considerations will define the likelihood of reducing costs and strengthen the efficiency of intervention thus determining the ability to afford environmental protection.

  15. Self-harm and suicide in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawton, Keith; Saunders, Kate E A; O'Connor, Rory C

    2012-06-23

    Self-harm and suicide are major public health problems in adolescents, with rates of self-harm being high in the teenage years and suicide being the second most common cause of death in young people worldwide. Important contributors to self-harm and suicide include genetic vulnerability and psychiatric, psychological, familial, social, and cultural factors. The effects of media and contagion are also important, with the internet having an important contemporary role. Prevention of self-harm and suicide needs both universal measures aimed at young people in general and targeted initiatives focused on high-risk groups. There is little evidence of effectiveness of either psychosocial or pharmacological treatment, with particular controversy surrounding the usefulness of antidepressants. Restriction of access to means for suicide is important. Major challenges include the development of greater understanding of the factors that contribute to self-harm and suicide in young people, especially mechanisms underlying contagion and the effect of new media. The identification of successful prevention initiatives aimed at young people and those at especially high risk, and the establishment of effective treatments for those who self-harm, are paramount needs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Authority dependence and judgments of utilitarian harm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piazza, Jared; Sousa, Paulo; Holbrook, Colin

    2013-09-01

    Three studies tested the conditions under which people judge utilitarian harm to be authority dependent (i.e., whether its right or wrongness depends on the ruling of an authority). In Study 1, participants judged the right or wrongness of physical abuse when used as an interrogation method anticipated to yield useful information for preventing future terrorist attacks. The ruling of the military authority towards the harm was manipulated (prohibited vs. prescribed) and found to significantly influence judgments of the right or wrongness of inflicting harm. Study 2 established a boundary condition with regards to the influence of authority, which was eliminated when the utility of the harm was definitely obtained rather than forecasted. Finally, Study 3 replicated the findings of Studies 1-2 in a completely different context-an expert committee's ruling about the harming of chimpanzees for biomedical research. These results are discussed as they inform ongoing debates regarding the role of authority in moderating judgments of complex and simple harm. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. General assessment of estuarine pollution

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Estuaries are generally free from contamination by chlorinated pesticides. India being signatory to Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants, their levels in estuaries is no more a concern. ... Information is largely lacking for several chemical pollutants such as PAHs, phenols, dyes and pigments etc.

  18. Effect of Air Pollution in Frequency of Hospitalizations in Asthmatic Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh, Medhi; Ghasemi Hashtroodi, Leila; Chavoshzadeh, Zahra; Rezaei, Nima

    2016-08-01

    Asthma is one of the most common diseases in childhood, which has been increased during last decade because of epidemiological pattern changes with climate and industrialization of the communities. There are some controversies on the relationship between air pollution and asthma. Tehran, as the capital of Iran, is one of the densest populations and is one of the most polluted cities in the world. This study was performed to search effects of various air pollutants using GIS-based modeling on the rate of hospitalizations due to asthma in children in Tehran. Information of patients who were admitted with a diagnosis of asthma in a referral pediatric hospital was checked and the total number of admissions in the same age range (2 to 14 years) during a 2-year period (March 2009-March 2011) were calculated. Information about air pollutants including carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone, and sulfur dioxide, obtained from the air quality control center. Days of the year divided into GOOD and NONGOOD days according to the guideline for reporting of the daily air quality index (AQI). Two thousand two hundred nineteen cases enrolled in the study and asthma admission to total admission ratio compared with air pollutants data in admission day (725 days), using nonlinear regression method. Analysis of the data revealed that there is a significant relationship between NONGOOD nitrogen dioxide (P=0.01), ozone (P=0.01), and sulfur dioxide (P=0.04), levels and admission due to asthma in children, but There was no significant relationship between carbon monoxide levels and asthma admission in children. A significant relationship between nitrogen dioxide, ozone and sulfur dioxide concentration in air and admission due to asthma at levels other than GOOD, reveals air pollutants levels can be significantly harmful to children before AQI reaches to hazardous levels.

  19. Effect of Air Pollution in Frequency of Hospitalizations in Asthmatic Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medhi Alizadeh

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Asthma is one of the most common diseases in childhood, which has been increased during last decade because of epidemiological pattern changes with climate and industrialization of the communities. There are some controversies on the relationship between air pollution and asthma. Tehran, as the capital of Iran, is one of the densest populations and is one of the most polluted cities in the world. This study was performed to search effects of various air pollutants using GIS-based modeling on the rate of hospitalizations due to asthma in children in Tehran. Information of patients who were admitted with a diagnosis of asthma in a referral pediatric hospital was checked and the total number of admissions in the same age range (2 to 14 years during a 2-year period (March 2009-March 2011 were calculated. Information about air pollutants including carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone, and sulfur dioxide, obtained from the air quality control center. Days of the year divided into GOOD and NONGOOD days according to the guideline for reporting of the daily air quality index (AQI. Two thousand two hundred nineteen cases enrolled in the study and asthma admission to total admission ratio compared with air pollutants data in admission day (725 days, using nonlinear regression method. Analysis of the data revealed that there is a significant relationship between NONGOOD nitrogen dioxide (P=0.01, ozone (P=0.01, and sulfur dioxide (P=0.04, levels and admission due to asthma in children, but There was no significant relationship between carbon monoxide levels and asthma admission in children. A significant relationship between nitrogen dioxide, ozone and sulfur dioxide concentration in air and admission due to asthma at levels other than GOOD, reveals air pollutants levels can be significantly harmful to children before AQI reaches to hazardous levels.

  20. Exploring the Relationship between Experiential Avoidance, Coping Functions and the Recency and Frequency of Self-Harm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayal, Kapil; Townsend, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between experiential avoidance, coping and the recency and frequency of self-harm, in a community sample (N = 1332, aged 16–69 years). Participants completed online, self-report measures assessing self-harm, momentary affect, experiential avoidance and coping in response to a recent stressor. Participants who had self-harmed reported significantly higher levels of experiential avoidance and avoidance coping, as well as lower levels of approach, reappraisal and emotional regulation coping, than those with no self-harm history. Moreover, more recent self-harm was associated with lower endorsement of approach, reappraisal and emotion regulation coping, and also higher levels of both avoidance coping and experiential avoidance. Higher experiential avoidance and avoidance coping also predicted increased lifetime frequency of self-harm. Conversely, increased approach and reappraisal coping were associated with a decreased likelihood of high frequency self-harm. Although some of the effects were small, particularly in relation to lifetime frequency of self-harm, overall our results suggest that experiential avoidance tendency may be an important psychological factor underpinning self-harm, regardless of suicidal intent (e.g. including mixed intent, suicidal intent, ambivalence), which is not accounted for in existing models of self-harm. PMID:27442036

  1. The extent and distribution of gambling harm in Finland as assessed by the Problem Gambling Severity Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raisamo, Susanna U; Mäkelä, Pia; Salonen, Anne H; Lintonen, Tomi P

    2015-08-01

    Preventing gambling harm has become a policy priority in many European countries. Adverse consequences related to problem gambling are well known, but few studies have analyzed gambling-related harm in detail in general population samples. We determined the extent and distribution of gambling harm in Finland, as assessed by the Problem Gambling Severity Index (PGSI), and analyzed gambling involvement, demographics and their association with various types of harm. A nationwide telephone survey was conducted among 4484 Finns aged 15-74 years in 2011-12. Gambling-related harms were based on the nine-item PGSI. Gambling involvement was measured by gambling frequency and weekly average gambling expenditure. Associations among harms, demographics and gambling involvement were examined in logistic regression. During the previous year, 13% of respondents experienced at least one gambling-related harm (males 18.1%, females 7.2%). The four commonest harms were 'chasing losses' (8.6%), 'escalating gambling to maintain excitement' (3.1%), 'betting more than could afford to lose' (2.8%), and 'feeling guilty' (2.6%). The harm profile in descending order was the same for both genders but differed in prevalence. Young age (reporting harms. Both monthly and weekly gambling and spending over €21 per week on gambling were related to the harms. Our results provide support for the public health approach to gambling: harms were reported even at low gambling frequency-expenditure levels. In addition to the high-risk approach, adopting a population-level approach to preventing gambling harm could shift the population distribution of harm in a lower direction. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  2. Harm caused by Marine Litter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werner, S.; Budziak, A.; Franeker, van J.A.; Galgani, F.; Hanke, G.; Maes, T.; Matiddi, M.; Nilsson, P.; Oosterbaan, L.; Priestland, E.; Thompson, R.; Veiga, J.; Vlachogianni, T.

    2016-01-01

    Marine litter is a global concern with a range of problems associated to it, as recognised by the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD). Marine litter can impact organisms at different levels of biological organization and habitats in a number of ways namely: through entanglement in, or

  3. Herbal medications - harmless or harmful?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    QuickSilver

    synthesis of cholesterol. RCTs suggest possible short-term beneficial effects in lowering lipid and cholesterol levels. Adverse effects include nausea (6%), and bleeding as the allicin also inhibits platelet aggrega- tion. Garlic should be avoided in patients on Warfarin, aspirin and NSAIDs due to its antiplatelet effect.

  4. The occurrence of fungi on roots and stem bases of Triticum aestivum ssp. spelta L. Thell. grown under two levels of chemical protection and harmfulness of Fusarium graminearum Schwabe to seedlings of selected genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Cegiełko

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Investigations were carried out in 2007–2009 on the plots of the Felin Experimental Station belonging to the University of Life Sciences in Lublin, Poland. The studies comprised two breeding lines of spelt wheat (Triticum aestivum ssp. spelta L. Thell. – STH 3 and STH 715. Two levels of chemical protection were applied in the cultivation with minimal and complex protection. Infection of winter spelt wheat roots and stem bases was recorded in each growing season at hard dough stage (87 in Zadok’s scale. After 3 years of the study, the mean values of disease indexes for the analyzed spelt wheat lines in the experimental treatment with minimal protection were 28.53 and 40.30 respectively for STH 3 and STH 715. In the experimental combination with complex protection, after 3 years of the study the mean values of disease indexes ranged from 25.96 (STH 3 to 26.90 (STH 715. The mycological analysis showed that Fusarium spp., especially F. culmorum, caused root rot and necrosis of stem bases of spelt wheat in the experimental combination with minimal and complex protection. Moreover, Fusarium avenaceum and Bipolaris sorokiniana caused root rot and necrosis of stem bases of spelt wheat. Investigation carried out in a growth chamber on susceptibility of seedlings of three lines of spelt wheat (LO 2/09/n/2, LO 5/09/13/3, LO 5/09/5/4 to infection with Fusarium graminearum No. 8 and F. graminearum No. 45 showed that the genotypes did not differ in their susceptibility. All of them were susceptible, as indicated by high values of the disease indexes. No interaction was found between genotypes and strains of the fungus. This indicates the differential pathogenicity of Fusarium graminearum species.

  5. Water Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    We all need clean water. People need it to grow crops and to operate factories, and for drinking and recreation. Fish and wildlife depend on ... and phosphorus make algae grow and can turn water green. Bacteria, often from sewage spills, can pollute ...

  6. Impacts of Hazardous Air Pollutants Emitted from Phosphate Fertilizer Production Plants on their Ambient Concentration Levels in the Tampa Bay Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    The concentrations and distribution of Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAPs) metals emitted from four phosphate fertilizer plants in Central Florida, as well as their environmental and health impacts, were assessed. The dominant HAP metals emitted from the stacks of these plants were M...

  7. 47 CFR 68.108 - Incidence of harm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... harm. Should terminal equipment, inside wiring, plugs and jacks, or protective circuitry cause harm to the public switched telephone network, or should the provider of wireline telecommunications...

  8. Decline of ambient air pollution levels due to measures to control automobile emissions and effects on the prevalence of respiratory and allergic disorders among children in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasunuma, Hideki; Ishimaru, Yasushi; Yoda, Yoshiko; Shima, Masayuki

    2014-05-01

    In Japan, air pollution due to nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) has been gradually reduced since control measures based on the Automobile NOx/PM law were enforced beginning in 2001. The effects of decrease in air pollutants due to the control measures during the past decade on the prevalence of respiratory and allergic disorders such as asthma in children were evaluated. Using data of 618,973 children collected in 28 regions of Japan from 1997 to 2009, we evaluated whether reductions in the concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and suspended particulate matter (SPM) contribute to the decrease in the prevalence of asthma, wheezing, bronchitis, allergic rhinitis, and atopic dermatitis by multiple linear regression analysis, including adjustments for related factors. The annual rates of decrease in air pollution in the PM-law-enforced areas were 2.0 and 2.5 times higher for NO2 and SPM, respectively, compared with those in the non-enforced areas. The prevalence of asthma decreased significantly at -0.073% per year in the areas in which measures based on the Automobile NOx/PM law were taken but not in area where such measures were not applied. Multiple linear regression analysis showed a reduction in the ambient air pollution was significantly associated with a reduction in the prevalence of asthma, with a rate of 0.118% [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.012-0.225] per 1 ppb for NO2, and 0.050% [95% CI: 0.020-0.080] per 1 μg/m(3) for SPM. An increase in the ambient air pollution was associated with an increase in the prevalence of atopic dermatitis of 0.390% [95% CI: 0.107-0.673] per 1 ppb for NO2, 0.141% [95% CI: 0.058-0.224] per 1 μg/m(3) for SPM. The changes in the prevalence of wheezing and allergic rhinitis were not significantly correlated with changes in air pollutant concentrations. The enforcement of measures to control automobile emissions based on the Automobile NOx/PM law was shown to have reduced air pollution and contributed to

  9. Will growth in cryptomarket drug buying increase the harms of illicit drugs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldridge, Judith; Stevens, Alex; Barratt, Monica J

    2017-08-02

    Cryptomarkets-on-line, anonymous market-places for illicit goods and services that specialize mainly in drugs-account for a small but rapidly growing share of the illicit drug market in many countries. Policy responses so far are based generally on the assumption that their rise will only increase drug harms. In this contribution for debate, we question this assumption. We provide a narrative review of the emerging literature connected to drug cryptomarkets. We use MacCoun & Reuter's formula to understand the effect of population-level increases in use on total harm as depending on the level of harm associated with each unit of use. We then consider the potential for cryptomarkets to increase or decrease the harms and benefits related to each unit of drug use, with specific attention to the quality of drugs sold and the non-drug-related harms and benefits for customers. It is likely that cryptomarkets will increase both the amount and the range of substances that are sold. However, we argue that the effects on harms will depend upon whether cryptomarkets also increase the quality and safety of products that are sold, provide harm-reducing information to consumers and reduce transactional conflict involved in drug purchasing. There is an emerging and rapidly growing evidence base connected to the macro and micro harms and benefits of cryptomarkets for drug users. Future researchers should use appropriately matched comparative designs to establish more firmly the differential harms and benefits of sourcing drugs both on- and off-line. While it is unlikely that the on-line drug trade can be eradicated completely, cryptomarkets will respond to regulation and enforcement in ways that have complex, and sometimes unanticipated, effects on both harms and benefits. © 2017 The Authors. Addiction published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society for the Study of Addiction.

  10. Levels and temporal trends of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in arctic foxes (Vulpes lagopus) from Svalbard in relation to dietary habits and food availability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, Martin S. [Norwegian Polar Institute, Fram Centre, NO-9296 Tromsø (Norway); Department of Arctic and Marine Biology, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, NO-9037 Tromsø (Norway); Fuglei, Eva; König, Max [Norwegian Polar Institute, Fram Centre, NO-9296 Tromsø (Norway); Lipasti, Inka [Department of Biology, University of Eastern Finland, FI-80101 Joensuu (Finland); Pedersen, Åshild Ø. [Norwegian Polar Institute, Fram Centre, NO-9296 Tromsø (Norway); Polder, Anuschka [Department of Food Safety and Infection Biology, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, P.O. Box 5003, NO-1432 Ås (Norway); Yoccoz, Nigel G. [Department of Arctic and Marine Biology, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, NO-9037 Tromsø (Norway); Routti, Heli, E-mail: heli.routti@npolar.no [Norwegian Polar Institute, Fram Centre, NO-9296 Tromsø (Norway)

    2015-04-01

    Temporal trends of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in arctic foxes (Vulpes lagopus) from Svalbard, Norway, were investigated in relation to feeding habits and seasonal food availability. Arctic foxes from Svalbard forage in both marine and terrestrial ecosystems and the availability of their food items are impacted by climatic variability. Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorinated pesticides (OCPs) and brominated flame retardants (polybrominated diphenyl ethers [PBDEs] and hexabromocyclododecane [HBCDD]) were analyzed in the liver of 141 arctic foxes collected between 1997 and 2013. Stable carbon isotope values (δ{sup 13}C) were used as a proxy for feeding on marine versus terrestrial prey. The annual number of recovered reindeer carcasses and sea ice cover were used as proxies for climate influenced food availability (reindeers, seals). Linear models revealed that concentrations of PCBs, chlordanes, p,p′-DDE, mirex and PBDEs decreased 4–11% per year, while no trends were observed for hexachlorobenzene (HCB) or β-hexachlorocyclohexane (β-HCH). Positive relationships between POP concentrations and δ{sup 13}C indicate that concentrations of all compounds increase with increasing marine dietary input. Increasing reindeer mortality was related to lower HCB concentrations in the foxes based on the linear models. This suggests that concentrations of HCB in arctic foxes may be influenced by high mortality levels of Svalbard reindeer. Further, β-HCH concentrations showed a positive association with sea ice cover. These results in addition to the strong effect of δ{sup 13}C on all POP concentrations suggest that climate-related changes in arctic fox diet are likely to influence contaminant concentrations in arctic foxes from Svalbard. - Highlights: • POPs were analyzed in the arctic foxes' liver (n = 141) from Svalbard collected in 1997–2013. • PCBs, chlordanes, p,p′-DDE, mirex and PBDEs decreased 4–11% per year.

  11. PM2.5 levels, chemical composition and health risk assessment in Xinxiang, a seriously air-polluted city in North China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jinglan; Yu, Hao; Liu, Shuhui; Su, Xianfa; Li, Yi; Pan, Yuepeng; Sun, Jianhui

    2017-10-01

    Seventeen PM2.5 samples were collected at Xinxiang during winter in 2014. Nine water-soluble ions, 19 trace elements and eight fractions of carbonaceous species in PM2.5 were analyzed. PM2.5 concentrations and elements species during different periods with different pollution situations were compared. The threat of heavy metals in PM2.5 was assessed using incremental lifetime cancer risk. During the whole period, serious regional haze pollution persisted, and the averaged concentration of PM2.5 was 168.5 μg m(-3), with 88.2 % of the daily samples exhibiting higher PM2.5 concentrations than the national air quality standard II. The high NO3(-)/SO4(2-) ratio suggested that vehicular exhaust made an important contribution to atmospheric pollution. All of organic carbon and elemental carbon ratios in this study were above 2.0 for PM2.5, which might reflect the combined contributions from coal combustion, motor vehicle exhaust and biomass burning. Mean 96-h backward trajectory clusters indicated that more serious air pollution occurred when air masses transported from the Hebei, Shanxi and Zhengzhou. The concentrations of the water-soluble ions and trace elements on haze days were 2 and 1.8 times of those on clear days. The heavy metals in PM2.5 might not cause non-cancerous health issues by exposure through the human respiratory system. However, lifetime cancer risks of heavy metals obviously exceeded the threshold (10(-6)) and might have a cancer risk for residents in Xinxiang. This study provided detailed composition data and comprehensive analysis of PM2.5 during the serious haze pollution period and their potential impact on human health in Xinxiang.

  12. Role of meteorology in seasonality of air pollution in megacity Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guttikunda, Sarath K; Gurjar, Bhola R

    2012-05-01

    The winters in megacity Delhi are harsh, smoggy, foggy, and highly polluted. The pollution levels are approximately two to three times those monitored in the summer months, and the severity is felt not only in the health department but also in the transportation department, with regular delays at airport operations and series of minor and major accidents across the road corridors. The impacts felt across the city are both manmade (due to the fuel burning) and natural (due to the meteorological setting), and it is hard to distinguish their respective proportions. Over the last decade, the city has gained from timely interventions to control pollution, and yet, the pollution levels are as bad as the previous year, especially for the fine particulates, the most harmful of the criteria pollutants, with a daily 2009 average of 80 to 100 μg/m(3). In this paper, the role of meteorology is studied using a Lagrangian model called Atmospheric Transport Modeling System in tracer mode to better understand the seasonality of pollution in Delhi. A clear conclusion is that irrespective of constant emissions over each month, the estimated tracer concentrations are invariably 40% to 80% higher in the winter months (November, December, and January) and 10% to 60% lower in the summer months (May, June, and July), when compared to annual average for that year. Along with monitoring and source apportionment studies, this paper presents a way to communicate complex physical characteristics of atmospheric modeling in simplistic manner and to further elaborate linkages between local meteorology and pollution.

  13. Income inequality and alcohol attributable harm in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietze, Paul M; Jolley, Damien J; Chikritzhs, Tanya N; Clemens, Susan; Catalano, Paul; Stockwell, Tim

    2009-02-25

    There is little research on the relationship between key socioeconomic variables and alcohol related harms in Australia. The aim of this research was to examine the relationship between income inequality and the rates of alcohol-attributable hospitalisation and death at a local-area level in Australia. We conducted a cross sectional ecological analysis at a Local Government Area (LGA) level of associations between data on alcohol caused harms and income inequality data after adjusting for socioeconomic disadvantage and remoteness of LGAs.The main outcome measures used were matched rate ratios for four measures of alcohol caused harm; acute (primarily related to the short term consequences of drinking) and chronic (primarily related to the long term consequences of drinking) alcohol-attributable hospitalisation and acute and chronic alcohol-attributable death. Matching was undertaken using control conditions (non-alcohol-attributable) at an LGA level. A total of 885 alcohol-attributable deaths and 19467 alcohol-attributable hospitalisations across all LGAs were available for analysis. After weighting by the total number of cases in each LGA, the matched rate ratios of acute and chronic alcohol-attributable hospitalisation and chronic alcohol-attributable death were associated with the squared centred Gini coefficients of LGAs. This relationship was evident after adjusting for socioeconomic disadvantage and remoteness of LGAs. For both measures of hospitalisation the relationship was curvilinear; increases in income inequality were initially associated with declining rates of hospitalisation followed by large increases as the Gini coefficient increased beyond 0.15. The pattern for chronic alcohol-attributable death was similar, but without the initial decrease. There was no association between income inequality and acute alcohol-attributable death, probably due to the relatively small number of these types of death. We found a curvilinear relationship between income

  14. Income inequality and alcohol attributable harm in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chikritzhs Tanya N

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is little research on the relationship between key socioeconomic variables and alcohol related harms in Australia. The aim of this research was to examine the relationship between income inequality and the rates of alcohol-attributable hospitalisation and death at a local-area level in Australia. Method We conducted a cross sectional ecological analysis at a Local Government Area (LGA level of associations between data on alcohol caused harms and income inequality data after adjusting for socioeconomic disadvantage and remoteness of LGAs. The main outcome measures used were matched rate ratios for four measures of alcohol caused harm; acute (primarily related to the short term consequences of drinking and chronic (primarily related to the long term consequences of drinking alcohol-attributable hospitalisation and acute and chronic alcohol-attributable death. Matching was undertaken using control conditions (non-alcohol-attributable at an LGA level. Results A total of 885 alcohol-attributable deaths and 19467 alcohol-attributable hospitalisations across all LGAs were available for analysis. After weighting by the total number of cases in each LGA, the matched rate ratios of acute and chronic alcohol-attributable hospitalisation and chronic alcohol-attributable death were associated with the squared centred Gini coefficients of LGAs. This relationship was evident after adjusting for socioeconomic disadvantage and remoteness of LGAs. For both measures of hospitalisation the relationship was curvilinear; increases in income inequality were initially associated with declining rates of hospitalisation followed by large increases as the Gini coefficient increased beyond 0.15. The pattern for chronic alcohol-attributable death was similar, but without the initial decrease. There was no association between income inequality and acute alcohol-attributable death, probably due to the relatively small number of these types of death

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