WorldWideScience

Sample records for harm effect distances

  1. Assessing harmful effects in systematic Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woolacott Nerys F

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Balanced decisions about health care interventions require reliable evidence on harms as well as benefits. Most systematic reviews focus on efficacy and randomised trials, for which the methodology is well established. Methods to systematically review harmful effects are less well developed and there are few sources of guidance for researchers. We present our own recent experience of conducting systematic reviews of harmful effects and make suggestions for future practice and further research. Methods We described and compared the methods used in three systematic reviews. Our evaluation focused on the review question, study designs and quality assessment. Results One review question focused on providing information on specific harmful effects to furnish an economic model, the other two addressed much broader questions. All three reviews included randomised and observational data, although each defined the inclusion criteria differently. Standard methods were used to assess study quality. Various practical problems were encountered in applying the study design inclusion criteria and assessing quality, mainly because of poor study design, inadequate reporting and the limitations of existing tools. All three reviews generated a large volume of work that did not yield much useful information for health care decision makers. The key areas for improvement we identified were focusing the review question and developing methods for quality assessment of studies of harmful effects. Conclusions Systematic reviews of harmful effects are more likely to yield information pertinent to clinical decision-making if they address a focused question. This will enable clear decisions to be made about the type of research to include in the review. The methodology for assessing the quality of harmful effects data in systematic reviews requires further development.

  2. Is proximity to alcohol outlets associated with alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harm in Denmark?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kedir, Abdu; Berg-Beckhoff, Gabriele; Stock, Christiane

    2018-01-01

    Background: This study examined the associations between distance from residence to the nearest alcohol outlet with alcohol consumption as well as with alcohol-related harm. Methods: Data on alcohol consumption, alcohol-related harm and sociodemographics were obtained from the 2011 Danish Drug...... and Alcohol Survey (n=5133) with respondents aged 15–79 years. The information on distances from residence to the nearest alcohol outlets was obtained from Statistics Denmark. Multiple logistic and linear regressions were used to examine the association between distances to outlets and alcohol consumption...... whereas alcohol-related harm was analysed using negative binomial regression. Results: Among women it was found that those living closer to alcohol outlets were more likely to report alcohol-related harm (p

  3. Is proximity to alcohol outlets associated with alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harm in Denmark?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seid, Abdu K.; Berg-Beckhoff, Gabriele; Stock, Christiane

    2018-01-01

    Background: This study examined the associations between distance from residence to the nearest alcohol outlet with alcohol consumption as well as with alcohol-related harm. Methods: Data on alcohol consumption, alcohol-related harm and sociodemographics were obtained from the 2011 Danish Drug...... and Alcohol Survey (n = 5133) with respondents aged 15–79 years. The information on distances from residence to the nearest alcohol outlets was obtained from Statistics Denmark. Multiple logistic and linear regressions were used to examine the association between distances to outlets and alcohol consumption...... whereas alcohol-related harm was analysed using negative binomial regression. Results: Among women it was found that those living closer to alcohol outlets were more likely to report alcohol-related harm (p

  4. Chang'aa Drinking in Kibera Slum: The Harmful Effects of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chang'aa Drinking in Kibera Slum: The Harmful Effects of Contemporary Changes in the Production and Consumption of Traditional Spirits. ... African Journal of Drug and Alcohol Studies ... This article examines the harmful effects of drinking chang'aa, an illegal spirit produced locally, in Kibera slum in Nairobi, Kenya.

  5. Harmful effects on plants. 2. rev. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hock, B.; Elstner, E.F.

    1988-01-01

    The book deals with accidentally or purposefully induced harmful effects on plants, i.e. eukariyotes and fungi, with emphasis being placed on chemicals as the main pollutants. After discussing the quantification of damage as a prerequisite for detecting, defining, and possibly preventing, damage to plants by toxic substances in the environment, the second part of the book deals with the harmful effects that are purposefully induced, for example in agriculture or horticulture, by employment of pesticides (herbicides or fungicides). In this context, all aspects of uptake, metabolism, and detoxication are discussed, especially referring to the molecular conditions of relevance to a selective elimination of metabolic or developmental processes in the plants, which is explained by the effects of pesticides and antibiotics. Injuries caused by autogenous substances in the plants, upon exceeding a certain amount or dose are also explained, together with effects of physical factors (as e.g. ionizing radiation), or biogenic factors (as e.g. parasites). (ECB) [de

  6. Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of policies and programmes to reduce the harm caused by alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Peter; Chisholm, Dan; Fuhr, Daniela C

    2009-06-27

    This paper reviews the evidence for the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of policies and programmes to reduce the harm caused by alcohol, in the areas of education and information, the health sector, community action, driving while under the influence of alcohol (drink-driving), availability, marketing, pricing, harm reduction, and illegally and informally produced alcohol. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses show that policies regulating the environment in which alcohol is marketed (particularly its price and availability) are effective in reducing alcohol-related harm. Enforced legislative measures to reduce drink-driving and individually directed interventions to already at-risk drinkers are also effective. However, school-based education does not reduce alcohol-related harm, although public information and education-type programmes have a role in providing information and in increasing attention and acceptance of alcohol on political and public agendas. Making alcohol more expensive and less available, and banning alcohol advertising, are highly cost-effective strategies to reduce harm. In settings with high amounts of unrecorded production and consumption, increasing the proportion of alcohol that is taxed could be a more effective pricing policy than a simple increase in tax.

  7. Serotonin selectively influences moral judgment and behavior through effects on harm aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crockett, Molly J; Clark, Luke; Hauser, Marc D; Robbins, Trevor W

    2010-10-05

    Aversive emotional reactions to real or imagined social harms infuse moral judgment and motivate prosocial behavior. Here, we show that the neurotransmitter serotonin directly alters both moral judgment and behavior through increasing subjects' aversion to personally harming others. We enhanced serotonin in healthy volunteers with citalopram (a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor) and contrasted its effects with both a pharmacological control treatment and a placebo on tests of moral judgment and behavior. We measured the drugs' effects on moral judgment in a set of moral 'dilemmas' pitting utilitarian outcomes (e.g., saving five lives) against highly aversive harmful actions (e.g., killing an innocent person). Enhancing serotonin made subjects more likely to judge harmful actions as forbidden, but only in cases where harms were emotionally salient. This harm-avoidant bias after citalopram was also evident in behavior during the ultimatum game, in which subjects decide to accept or reject fair or unfair monetary offers from another player. Rejecting unfair offers enforces a fairness norm but also harms the other player financially. Enhancing serotonin made subjects less likely to reject unfair offers. Furthermore, the prosocial effects of citalopram varied as a function of trait empathy. Individuals high in trait empathy showed stronger effects of citalopram on moral judgment and behavior than individuals low in trait empathy. Together, these findings provide unique evidence that serotonin could promote prosocial behavior by enhancing harm aversion, a prosocial sentiment that directly affects both moral judgment and moral behavior.

  8. A media information analysis for implementing effective countermeasure against harmful rumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagao, Mitsuyoshi; Suto, Kazuhiro; Ohuchi, Azuma

    2010-04-01

    When large scale earthquake occurred, the word of "harmful rumor" came to be frequently heard. The harmful rumor means an economic damage which is caused by the action that people regard actually safe foods or areas as dangerous and then abort consumption or sightseeing. In the case of harmful rumor caused by earthquake, especially, tourism industry receives massive economic damage. Currently, harmful rumor which gives substantial economic damage have become serious social issue which must be solved. In this paper, we propose a countermeasure method for harmful rumor on the basis of media trend in order to implement speedy recovery from harmful rumor. Here, we investigate the amount and content of information which is transmitted to the general public by the media when an earthquake occurred. In addition, the media information in three earthquakes is treated as instance. Finally, we discuss an effective countermeasure method for dispeling harmful rumor through these analysis results.

  9. Self-harm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skegg, Keren

    The term self-harm is commonly used to describe a wide range of behaviours and intentions including attempted hanging, impulsive self-poisoning, and superficial cutting in response to intolerable tension. As with suicide, rates of self-harm vary greatly between countries. 5-9% of adolescents in western countries report having self-harmed within the previous year. Risk factors include socioeconomic disadvantage, and psychiatric illness--particularly depression, substance abuse, and anxiety disorders. Cultural aspects of some societies may protect against suicide and self-harm and explain some of the international variation in rates of these events. Risk of repetition of self-harm and of later suicide is high. More than 5% of people who have been seen at a hospital after self-harm will have committed suicide within 9 years. Assessment after self-harm includes careful consideration of the patient's intent and beliefs about the lethality of the method used. Strong suicidal intent, high lethality, precautions against being discovered, and psychiatric illness are indicators of high suicide risk. Management after self-harm includes forming a trusting relationship with the patient, jointly identifying problems, ensuring support is available in a crisis, and treating psychiatric illness vigorously. Family and friends may also provide support. Large-scale studies of treatments for specific subgroups of people who self-harm might help to identify more effective treatments than are currently available. Although risk factors for self-harm are well established, aspects that protect people from engaging in self-harm need to be further explored.

  10. Exploring the use and effects of deliberate self-harm websites: an Internet-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Isobel Marion; Roberts, Lesley Martine

    2013-12-20

    In the United Kingdom, rates of deliberate self-harm (DSH) are rising. Alongside this, there has been an increase in the number of websites available with DSH content, and the Internet is known as a valuable resource for those who feel isolated by their condition(s). However, there is little and contradictory evidence available on the effects of using such websites. Further research is therefore required to examine the use and effects of DSH websites. Our objectives were to explore (1) the reasons people engage in the use of self-harm forums/websites, (2) the beliefs of users of self-harm forums regarding the role of such websites, (3) how the use of self-harm forums/websites modulates self-harm behaviors, and (4) other ways that self-harm forums affect the lives of individuals who use them. Data were collected by a questionnaire hosted on 20 websites with self-harm content. Participants were self-selected from users of these sites. Results were analyzed using descriptive statistics and simple thematic analysis. In total, 329 responses were received with 91.8% (302/329) from female site users. The majority of participants (65.6%, 187/285) visited these sites at least twice per week, and most participants used the sites to find information (78.2%, 223/285) or participate in the forums (68.4%, 195/285). Positive effects of website use such as gaining help and support, isolation reduction, and a reduction in self-harm behaviors were reported by a large number of participants. However, smaller but important numbers reported negative effects including worsened self-harm, being triggered to self-harm, and additional negative physical and psychological effects. This is the first multisite study to explore DSH website use in depth. There are clear and important benefits to engaging in website use for many individuals; however, these are not experienced by all website users. Negative effects were experienced by moderate numbers following website use, and clinicians should

  11. Mitigating the Harmful Effects of Violent Television

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenkoetter, Lawrence I.; Rosenkoetter, Sharon E.; Ozretich, Rachel A.; Acock, Alan C.

    2004-01-01

    In an effort to minimize the harmful effects of violent TV, a yearlong intervention was undertaken with children in Grades 1 through 3 (N = 177). The classroom-based intervention consisted of 31 brief lessons that emphasized the many ways in which television distorts violence. As hypothesized, the intervention resulted in a reduction in children's…

  12. Multiple-Transportable Carbohydrate Effect on Long-Distance Triathlon Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowlands, David S; Houltham, Stuart D

    2017-08-01

    The ingestion of multiple (2:1 glucose-fructose) transportable carbohydrate in beverages at high rates (>78 g·h) during endurance exercise enhances exogenous carbohydrate oxidation, fluid absorption, gut comfort, and performance relative to glucose alone. However, during long-distance endurance competition, athletes prefer a solid-gel-drink format, and the effect size of multiple-transportable carbohydrate is unknown. This study aimed to determine the effect of multiple-transportable carbohydrate on triathlon competition performance when ingested within bars, gels, and drinks. A double-blind randomized controlled trial was conducted within two national-body sanctioned half-ironman triathlon races held 3 wk apart in 74 well-trained male triathletes (18-60 yr; >2 yr competition experience). Carbohydrate comprising glucose/maltodextrin-fructose (2:1 ratio) or standard isocaloric carbohydrate (glucose/maltodextrin only) was ingested before (94 g) and during the cycle (2.5 g·km) and run (7.8 g·km) sections, averaging 78.6 ± 6.6 g·h, partitioned to bars (25%), gels (35%), and drink (40%). Postrace, 0- to 10-unit Likert-type scales were completed to assess gut comfort and energy. The trial returned low dropout rate (9%), high compliance, and sensitivity (typical error 2.2%). The effect of multiple-transportable carbohydrate on performance time was -0.53% (95% confidence interval = -1.30% to 0.24%; small benefit threshold = -0.54%), with likelihood-based risk analysis supporting adoption (benefit-harm ratio = 48.9%:0.3%; odds ratio = 285:1). Covariate adjustments for preexercise body weight and heat stress had negligible impact performance. Multiple-transportable carbohydrate possibly lowered nausea during the swim and bike; otherwise, effects on gut comfort and perceived energy were negligible. Multiple-transportable (2:1 maltodextrin/glucose-fructose) compared with single-transportable carbohydrate ingested in differing format provided a small benefit to long-distance

  13. A CONCEPTUAL MODEL FOR EFFECTIVE DISTANCE LEARNING IN HIGHER A CONCEPTUAL MODEL FOR EFFECTIVE DISTANCE LEARNING IN HIGHER A CONCEPTUAL MODEL FOR EFFECTIVE DISTANCE LEARNING IN HIGHER EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehran FARAJOLLAHI

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The present research aims at presenting a conceptual model for effective distance learning in higher education. Findings of this research shows that an understanding of the technological capabilities and learning theories especially constructive theory and independent learning theory and communicative and interaction theory in Distance learning is an efficient factor in the planning of effective Distance learning in higher education. Considering the theoretical foundations of the present research, in the effective distance learning model, the learner is situated at the center of learning environment. For this purpose, the learner needs to be ready for successful learning and the teacher has to be ready to design the teaching- learning activities when they initially enter the environment. In the present model, group and individual active teaching-learning approach, timely feedback, using IT and eight types of interactions have been designed with respect to theoretical foundations and current university missions. From among the issues emphasized in this model, one can refer to the Initial, Formative and Summative evaluations. In an effective distance learning environment, evaluation should be part of the learning process and the feedback resulting from it should be used to improve learning. For validating the specified features, the opinions of Distance learning experts in Payame Noor, Shiraz, Science and Technology and Amirkabir Universities have been used which verified a high percentage of the statistical sample of the above mentioned features.

  14. Sexually dimorphic effects of oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR variants on Harm Avoidance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stankova Trayana

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent research has suggested that oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR variants may account for individual differences in social behavior, the effects of stress and parenting styles. Little is known, however, on a putative role of the gene in heritable temperamental traits. Methods We addressed effects of two common OXTR variants, rs237900 and rs237902, on personality dimensions in 99 healthy subjects using the Temperament and Character Inventory. Results When sex was controlled for and an OXTR genotype*sex interaction term was included in the regression model, 11% of the variance in Harm Avoidance could be explained (uncorrected p ≤ 0.01. Female carriers of the minor alleles scored highest, and a novel A217T mutation emerged in the most harm avoidant male participant. Conclusions Findings lend support to a modulatory effect of common OXTR variants on Harm Avoidance in healthy caucasian women and invite resequencing of the gene in anxiety phenotypes to identify more explanatory functional variation.

  15. Factors influencing perceived effectiveness in dealing with self-harming patients in a sample of emergency department staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, Rachel; Sarma, Kiran M; O'Neill, Meena

    2012-12-01

    Past self-harming behavior is one of the most significant predictors of future suicide. Each year in Ireland there are approximately 11,000 presentations of self-harm to emergency departments (EDs) across the country. This study examines predictors of perceived personal effectiveness in dealing with self-harming patients as reported by ED staff. The predictors are derived from past research and are influenced by Bandura's Social Cognitive Theory. One hundred twenty-five ED medical staff (28 doctors and 97 nurses) from five EDs in the West and South of Ireland completed a questionnaire. Predictor variables included in the design, and informed by past research, included knowledge of self-harm and suicidal behavior and confidence in dealing with incidents of self-harm. Standard multiple regression suggested a statistically significant model fit between the two predictors and the criterion variable, accounting for 24% of total variance. Knowledge and Confidence were significant contributors to perceived personal effectiveness in dealing with self-harming patients. Little is known regarding specific factors that influence perceived effectiveness in dealing with self-harming patients in the ED setting. These findings have implications for psycho-education and training content for staff. The findings suggest that increasing knowledge of self-harm and confidence in dealing with self-harming patients can lead to more positive perceived personal effectiveness in responding to clients' needs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Effectiveness of lockouts in reducing alcohol-related harm: Systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepal, Smriti; Kypri, Kypros; Pursey, Kirrilly; Attia, John; Chikritzhs, Tanya; Miller, Peter

    2018-05-01

    Australian jurisdictions have introduced lockouts to prevent alcohol-related violence. Lockouts prohibit patrons from entering licensed premises after a designated time while allowing sale and consumption of alcohol to continue. Their purposes include managing the movement of intoxicated patrons, and preventing violence and disorder by dispersing times that patrons leave premises. We sought to evaluate the effectiveness of lockouts in preventing alcohol-related harm. We systematically searched electronic databases and reference lists and asked authors to identify relevant studies published to 1 June 2017. We deemed studies eligible if they evaluated lockouts, and if outcome measures included: assault, emergency department attendances, alcohol-related disorders or drink-driving offences. Two reviewers independently extracted data. After screening 244 records, we identified five studies from electronic databases, two from reference lists search and one from a Google search (N = 8). Two studies showed a decline in assaults; a third study showed reductions occurred only inside licensed premises; two studies showed an increase in assaults; and three studies showed no association. The studies had significant design and other limitations. Lockouts have been implemented across Australian jurisdictions as a strategy to prevent alcohol-related harm, despite limited evidence. In this systematic review, we synthesised findings from studies that evaluated lockouts as stand-alone interventions, to help clarify debate on their utility as a harm prevention strategy. There is not good evidence that lockouts prevent alcohol-related harm, in contrast to what is known about stopping the sale of alcohol earlier, for which there is evidence of effectiveness. © 2018 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  17. Harmful Effects of Nanoparticles on Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Marie Exbrayat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Since several years nanoparticles (NPs are produced by industries and used in several fields of activities. They are finally found in aquatic and terrestrial environments, where they are ingested by living organisms in which they accumulate, before being eliminated. In organisms, NPs represent foreign elements with their own physicochemical properties due to their small size. So NPs may interfere with the normal physiological mechanisms of the embryos, growing animals, and adults, and it is indispensable to understand their potentially direct or indirect harmful effects on living organisms. It has been already shown that NPs could be toxic to bacteria, algae, invertebrates, and vertebrates. In this review, several examples of recent studies are given. We will examine successively the effects of NPs on terrestrial and semiaquatic and aquatic vertebrate and invertebrate animals.

  18. Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of dialectical behaviour therapy for self-harming patients with personality disorder: a pragmatic randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priebe, Stefan; Bhatti, Nyla; Barnicot, Kirsten; Bremner, Stephen; Gaglia, Amy; Katsakou, Christina; Molosankwe, Iris; McCrone, Paul; Zinkler, Martin

    2012-01-01

    A primary goal of dialectical behaviour therapy (DBT) is to reduce self-harm, but findings from empirical studies are inconclusive. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of DBT in reducing self-harm in patients with personality disorder. Participants with a personality disorder and at least 5 days of self-harm in the previous year were randomised to receive 12 months of either DBT or treatment as usual (TAU). The primary outcome was the frequency of days with self-harm; secondary outcomes included borderline personality disorder symptoms, general psychiatric symptoms, subjective quality of life, and costs of care. Forty patients each were randomised to DBT and TAU. In an intention-to-treat analysis, there was a statistically significant treatment by time interaction for self-harm (incidence rate ratio 0.91, 95% CI 0.89-0.92, p self-harm decreased by 9% relative to TAU. There was no evidence of differences on any secondary outcomes. The economic analysis revealed a total cost of a mean of 5,685 GBP (6,786 EUR) in DBT compared to a mean of 3,754 GBP (4,481 EUR) in TAU, but the difference was not significant (95% CI -603 to 4,599 GBP). Forty-eight per cent of patients completed DBT. They had a greater reduction in self-harm compared to dropouts (incidence rate ratio 0.78, 95% CI 0.76-0.80, p self-harm in patients with personality disorder, possibly incurring higher total treatment costs. The effect is stronger in those who complete treatment. Future research should explore how to improve treatment adherence. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Short-term and long-term effects of psychosocial therapy for people after deliberate self-harm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erlangsen, Annette; Lind, Bertel Dam; Stuart, Elizabeth A

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although deliberate self-harm is a strong predictor of suicide, evidence for effective interventions is missing. The aim of this study was to examine whether psychosocial therapy after self-harm was linked to lower risks of repeated self-harm, suicide, and general mortality. METHODS......: In this matched cohort study all people who, after deliberate self-harm, received a psychosocial therapy intervention at suicide prevention clinics in Denmark during 1992-2010 were compared with people who did not receive the psychosocial therapy intervention after deliberate self-harm. We applied propensity...... score matching with a 1:3 ratio and 31 matching factors, and calculated odds ratios for 1, 5, 10, and 20 years of follow-up. The primary endpoints were repeated self-harm, death by suicide, and death by any cause. FINDINGS: 5678 recipients of psychosocial therapy (followed up for 42·828 person...

  20. Recommendations for international gambling harm-minimisation guidelines: comparison with effective public health policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gainsbury, Sally M; Blankers, Matthijs; Wilkinson, Claire; Schelleman-Offermans, Karen; Cousijn, Janna

    2014-12-01

    Problem gambling represents a significant public health problem, however, research on effective gambling harm-minimisation measures lags behind other fields, including other addictive disorders. In recognition of the need for consistency between international jurisdictions and the importance of basing policy on empirical evidence, international conventions exist for policy on alcohol, tobacco, and illegal substances. This paper examines the evidence of best practice policies to provide recommendations for international guidelines for harm-minimisation policy for gambling, including specific consideration of the specific requirements for policies on Internet gambling. Evidence indicates that many of the public health policies implemented for addictive substances can be adapted to address gambling-related harms. Specifically, a minimum legal age of at least 18 for gambling participation, licensing of gambling venues and activities with responsible gambling and consumer protection strategies mandated, and brief interventions should be available for those at-risk for and experiencing gambling-related problems. However, there is mixed evidence on the effectiveness of limits on opening hours and gambling venue density and increased taxation to minimise harms. Given increases in trade globalisation and particularly the global nature of Internet gambling, it is recommended that jurisdictions take actions to harmonise gambling public health policies.

  1. Why Do the Very Old Self-Harm? A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wand, Anne P F; Peisah, Carmelle; Draper, Brian; Brodaty, Henry

    2018-03-15

    To examine the perspectives of people aged 80 years or older who self-harmed regarding their reasons for self-harm and its consequences, and their perceptions of care. A qualitative study using in-depth interviews. Participants were recruited from two teaching hospitals and associated community services. People aged 80 years or older who had self-harmed within the previous month. Structured psychiatric assessment including cognitive testing, DSM-5 diagnosis, and an in-depth qualitative interview focusing upon the reasons for and consequences of self-harm. Narrative enquiry was used to guide the discussion. All interviews were undertaken by a geriatric psychiatrist, audio recorded, transcribed verbatim, and subjected to thematic analysis using N-VIVO. Themes that emerged for the reasons for self-harm included "enough is enough"; "loneliness"; "disintegration of self"; "being a burden"; "cumulative adversity"; "hopelessness and endless suffering"; "helplessness with rejection"; and "the untenable situation". Themes for the consequences of self-harm were "becoming engaged with or distanced from family"; "the problem was solved"; "gaining control"; "I"m worse off now"; "rejection by health professionals"; and "tension in the role of the inpatient clinical environment". Self-harm may communicate a need that cannot otherwise be expressed. An individualized person-centered approach is required to respond to self-harm, including a combination of practical, medical, and psychological approaches as indicated. Involvement of families in the process of understanding the meaning of and responding to self-harm through education and family therapy, as well as education of healthcare professionals beyond risk factor notation may be indicated. Copyright © 2018 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. All rights reserved.

  2. Effectiveness of policies restricting hours of alcohol sales in preventing excessive alcohol consumption and related harms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Robert A; Kuzara, Jennifer L; Elder, Randy; Brewer, Robert; Chattopadhyay, Sajal; Fielding, Jonathan; Naimi, Timothy S; Toomey, Traci; Middleton, Jennifer Cook; Lawrence, Briana

    2010-12-01

    Local, state, and national policies that limit the hours that alcoholic beverages may be available for sale might be a means of reducing excessive alcohol consumption and related harms. The methods of the Guide to Community Preventive Services were used to synthesize scientific evidence on the effectiveness of such policies. All of the studies included in this review assessed the effects of increasing hours of sale in on-premises settings (in which alcoholic beverages are consumed where purchased) in high-income nations. None of the studies was conducted in the U.S. The review team's initial assessment of this evidence suggested that changes of less than 2 hours were unlikely to significantly affect excessive alcohol consumption and related harms; to explore this hypothesis, studies assessing the effects of changing hours of sale by less than 2 hours and by 2 or more hours were assessed separately. There was sufficient evidence in ten qualifying studies to conclude that increasing hours of sale by 2 or more hours increases alcohol-related harms. Thus, disallowing extensions of hours of alcohol sales by 2 or more should be expected to prevent alcohol-related harms, while policies decreasing hours of sale by 2 hours or more at on-premises alcohol outlets may be an effective strategy for preventing alcohol-related harms. The evidence from six qualifying studies was insufficient to determine whether increasing hours of sale by less than 2 hours increases excessive alcohol consumption and related harms. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Effectiveness of Policies Restricting Hours of Alcohol Sales in Preventing Excessive Alcohol Consumption and Related Harms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Robert A.; Kuzara, Jennifer L.; Elder, Randy; Brewer, Robert; Chattopadhyay, Sajal; Fielding, Jonathan; Naimi, Timothy S.; Toomey, Traci; Middleton, Jennifer Cook; Lawrence, Briana

    2013-01-01

    Local, state, and national policies that limit the hours that alcoholic beverages may be available for sale might be a means of reducing excessive alcohol consumption and related harms. The methods of the Guide to Community Preventive Services were used to synthesize scientific evidence on the effectiveness of such policies. All of the studies included in this review assessed the effects of increasing hours of sale in on-premises settings (in which alcoholic beverages are consumed where purchased) in high-income nations. None of the studies was conducted in the U.S. The review team’s initial assessment of this evidence suggested that changes of less than 2 hours were unlikely to significantly affect excessive alcohol consumption and related harms; to explore this hypothesis, studies assessing the effects of changing hours of sale by less than 2 hours and by 2 or more hours were assessed separately. There was sufficient evidence in ten qualifying studies to conclude that increasing hours of sale by 2 or more hours increases alcohol-related harms. Thus, disallowing extensions of hours of alcohol sales by 2 or more should be expected to prevent alcohol-related harms, while policies decreasing hours of sale by 2 hours or more at on-premises alcohol outlets may be an effective strategy for preventing alcohol-related harms. The evidence from six qualifying studies was insufficient to determine whether increasing hours of sale by less than 2 hours increases excessive alcohol consumption and related harms. PMID:21084080

  4. Students as effective harm reductionists and needle exchange organizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbour, Kyle; McQuade, Miriam; Brown, Brandon

    2017-03-17

    Needle exchange programs are safe, highly effective programs for promoting health among people who inject drugs. However, they remain poorly funded, and often illegal, in many places worldwide due to fear and stigma surrounding drug use. Continued advocacy, education, and implementation of new needle exchanges are thus essential to improve public health and reduce structural inequality. We argue that students, and especially professional and graduate students, have the potential to play an important role in advancing harm reduction. Students benefit from the respect given to the professions they are training to enter, which gives them leverage to navigate the political hurdles often faced by needle exchange organizers, especially in areas that presently lack services. In addition, due to their relative simplicity, needle exchanges do not require much of the licensing, clinical knowledge, and infrastructure associated with more traditional student programs, such as student-run free medical clinics. Students are capable of learning harm reduction cultural approaches and techniques if they remain humble, open-minded, and seek the help of the harm reduction community. Consequently, students can generate tremendous benefits to their community without performing beyond their appropriate clinical limitations. Students benefit from organizing needle exchanges by gaining applied experience in advocacy, organization-building, and political finesse. Working in a needle exchange significantly helps erode stigma against multiple marginalized populations. Students in health-related professions additionally learn clinically-relevant knowledge that is often lacking from their formal training, such as an understanding of structural violence and inequality, root causes of substance use, client-centered approaches to health services, and interacting with clients as peers, rather than through the standard hierarchical medical interaction. We therefore encourage students to learn about

  5. Harmful effects of ultraviolet radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    Tanning for cosmetic purposes by sunbathing or by using artificial tanning devices is widespread. The hazards associated with exposure to ultraviolet radiation are of concern to the medical profession. Depending on the amount and form of the radiation, as well as on the skin type of the individual exposed, ultraviolet radiation causes erythema, sunburn, photodamage (photoaging), photocarcinogenesis, damage to the eyes, alteration of the immune system of the skin, and chemical hypersensitivity. Skin cancers most commonly produced by ultraviolet radiation are basal and squamous cell carcinomas. There also is much circumstantial evidence that the increase in the incidence of cutaneous malignant melanoma during the past half century is related to increased sun exposure, but this has not been proved. Effective and cosmetically acceptable sunscreen preparations have been developed that can do much to prevent or reduce most harmful effects to ultraviolet radiation if they are applied properly and consistently. Other safety measures include (1) minimizing exposure to ultraviolet radiation, (2) being aware of reflective surfaces while in the sun, (3) wearing protective clothing, (4) avoiding use of artificial tanning devices, and (5) protecting infants and children

  6. Harmful Waste Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ki, Mun Bong; Lee, Shi Jin; Park, Jun Seok; Yoon, Seok Pyo; Lee, Jae Hyo; Jo, Byeong Ryeol

    2008-08-01

    This book gives descriptions of processing harmful waste, including concerned law and definition of harmful waste, current conditions and generation of harmful waste in Korea, international condition of harmful waste, minimizing of generation of harmful waste, treatment and storage. It also tells of basic science for harmful waste disposal with physics, chemistry, combustion engineering, microbiology and technique of disposal such as physical, chemical, biological process, stabilizing and solidification, incineration and waste in landfill.

  7. The effect of debris-flow composition on runout distance

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Haas, Tjalling; Braat, Lisanne; Leuven, Jasper; Lokhorst, Ivar; Kleinhans, Maarten

    2015-04-01

    Estimating runout distance is of major importance for the assessment and mitigation of debris-flow hazards. Debris-flow runout distance depends on debris-flow composition and topography, but state-of-the-art runout prediction methods are mainly based on topographical parameters and debris-flow volume, while composition is generally neglected or incorporated in empirical constants. Here we experimentally investigated the effect of debris-flow composition and topography on runout distance. We created the first small-scale experimental debris flows with self-formed levees, distinct lobes and morphology and texture accurately resembling natural debris flows. In general, the effect of debris-flow composition on runout distance was larger than the effect of topography. Enhancing channel slope and width, outflow plain slope, debris-flow size and water fraction leads to an increase in runout distance. However, runout distance shows an optimum relation with coarse-material and clay fraction. An increase in coarse-material fraction leads to larger runout distances by increased grain collisional forces and more effective levee formation, but too much coarse debris causes a large accumulation of coarse debris at the flow front, enhancing friction and decreasing runout. An increase in clay fraction initially enlarges the volume and viscosity of the interstitial fluid, liquefying the flow and enhancing runout, while a further increase leads to very viscous flows with high yield strength, reducing runout. These results highlight the importance and further need of research on the relation between debris-flow composition and runout distance. Our experiments further provide valuable insight on the effects of debris-flow composition on depositional mechanisms and deposit morphology.

  8. Positioning for Effectiveness: Applying Marketing Concepts to Distance Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levenburg, Nancy

    1997-01-01

    Demonstrates how colleges can use distance education to attract and retain a "critical mass" of learners for distance programs. Explores alternative ways to view distance education market opportunities and determine which avenues to pursue. Suggests how to be more effective in all aspects of distance education programs. (13 citations) (YKH)

  9. Harmful effects of DU in the offspring of the military personnel employed in DU contaminated regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atlagic, N.; Lisov, Lj.; Barjaktarovic, V.; Djurovic, B.; Spasic, Jokic V.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: In 1999, during the NATO attacks on Kosovo, from AT-10 aircraft has been shot over 50000 30-mm projectiles which contained approximately 15 tones of DU. Besides DU, projectiles contained products of DU radioactive decay as well as americium, neptunium, plutonium and technetium. Due to DU contamination military personnel employed near hit targets could be contaminated and irradiated. Besides the harmful effects in exposed military personnel, harmful effects were noticed in their offsprings, too. DU can cause genetic and teratogenic harmful effects in the embryos/fetus. It is concentrated in semen of contaminated males and also can contaminate the embryo/fetus through placenta. DU, as a toxic and radioactive element, can cause variety of harmful effects, but the most important are the effects on DNA which are the cause of many diseases. The aim of this paper is to examine is there any change in the incidence in heritable effects, congenital malformations, malignant diseases, endocrine and immune disorders. For that reason we compared the incidence of these diseases in the offspring's of military personnel born from 1995-1999 (1204) with the children born from 2000-2004 (1131) / and 2005-2008. Our results showed higher incidence of congenital malformations and chromosomal abnormalities (12.55 % vs 4.57 %), with highest incidence of foot deformity-52.04 % and hip deformity. These abnormalities were followed with immunological disorders and dysfunction of the urine bladder. Endocrine diseases were increased too(2.16 % :1.63 %). In this period higher incidence of malignant diseases was not noticed, but in the second period (from 5-9 year) after 1999, higher incidence of malignant hematological diseases was noticed, as well as Down Sy. During the conflicts future parents as well as embryo/fetus are exposed to many harmfulness and it is very hard to separate the influence of each. Considering the fact that the effects of DU, could be delayed and synergistic with

  10. Caring for self-harming patients in general practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Joanne; Jaye, Chrystal

    2017-12-01

    INTRODUCTION Intentional self-harm is an international public health issue with high personal, social and financial costs to society. Poor relationship dynamics are known to have a negative influence on the psyche of people who self-harm, and this can increase anxiety and decrease self-esteem, both shown to be significant contributors to self-harm behaviours. Positive and functional social supports have been proposed as a cost-effective and constructive approach in diminishing self-harming behaviours. AIM This qualitative study investigated the aspects of professional, social, familial and romantic relationships that people who have self-harmed identified as having a positive and constructive effect on their self-harm behaviour. METHODS Twelve participants with a history of self-harming behaviours were recruited through free press advertising in primary care and interviewed. The participants ranged in age from 19 to 70 years, and represented New Zealand (NZ) European and Māori from across the Southern region of NZ. RESULTS This study shows that constructive relationships that inhibit self-harm behaviours are characterised by participants' perceptions of authenticity in their relationships, and knowing that other people genuinely care. Feeling cared for within an authentic therapeutic relationship enabled participants to overcome their perception of being damaged selves and gave them the skills and confidence to develop functional relationships within their communities. A relationship-centred care approach may be useful for general practitioners seeking to develop more effective therapeutic relationships with patients who deliberately self-harm.

  11. "Organic," "natural," and "additive-free" cigarettes: Comparing the effects of advertising claims and disclaimers on perceptions of harm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baig, Sabeeh A; Byron, M Justin; Lazard, Allison J; Brewer, Noel T

    2018-02-26

    The U.S. Tobacco Control Act restricts advertising or labeling that suggests one tobacco product is less harmful than another. We sought to examine how "organic," "natural," and "additive-free" advertising claims and corresponding disclaimers affect perceptions of cigarettes' harm. Participants were a national probability sample of adults in the U.S. (n = 1,114, including 344 smokers). We conducted a 5 (claim) × 2 (disclaimer) between-subjects factorial experiment. Participants viewed a Natural American Spirit cigarettes ad claiming they were "organic," "natural," "additive-free," "light," or "regular;" and with or without a corresponding disclaimer. The outcome was perceived harm of the advertised cigarettes. Among smokers, we also assessed interest in switching within their current brand to cigarettes with this characteristic (e.g., "additive-free"). Claims in the ad had a large effect on perceived harm (Cohen's d = 0.87, 95% CI: 0.47-1.29). Claims of cigarettes being "organic," "natural," or "additive-free" reduced perceived harm from the advertised cigarettes, as compared to "regular" and "light" claims. Disclaimers had a small effect, increasing perceived harm (d = 0.25, 95% CI: 0.08-0.41). The problematic claims also increased smokers' interest in switching. Disclaimers had no effect on smokers' interest in switching. "Organic," "natural," and "additive-free" claims may mislead people into thinking that the advertised cigarettes are less harmful than other cigarettes. Disclaimers did not offset misperceptions of harm created by false claims. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration should restrict the use of these misleading claims in tobacco advertising.

  12. Effectiveness of policies maintaining or restricting days of alcohol sales on excessive alcohol consumption and related harms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Jennifer Cook; Hahn, Robert A; Kuzara, Jennifer L; Elder, Randy; Brewer, Robert; Chattopadhyay, Sajal; Fielding, Jonathan; Naimi, Timothy S; Toomey, Traci; Lawrence, Briana

    2010-12-01

    Local, state, and national laws and policies that limit the days of the week on which alcoholic beverages may be sold may be a means of reducing excessive alcohol consumption and related harms. The methods of the Guide to Community Preventive Services were used to synthesize scientific evidence on the effectiveness for preventing excessive alcohol consumption and related harms of laws and policies maintaining or reducing the days when alcoholic beverages may be sold. Outcomes assessed in 14 studies that met qualifying criteria were excessive alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harms, including motor vehicle injuries and deaths, violence-related and other injuries, and health conditions. Qualifying studies assessed the effects of changes in days of sale in both on-premises settings (at which alcoholic beverages are consumed where purchased) and off-premises settings (at which alcoholic beverages may not be consumed where purchased). Eleven studies assessed the effects of adding days of sale, and three studies assessed the effects of imposing a ban on sales on a given weekend day. The evidence from these studies indicated that increasing days of sale leads to increases in excessive alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harms and that reducing the number of days that alcoholic beverages are sold generally decreases alcohol-related harms. Based on these findings, when the expansion of days of sale is being considered, laws and policies maintaining the number of days of the week that alcoholic beverages are sold at on- and off-premises outlets in local, state, and national jurisdictions are effective public health strategies for preventing excessive alcohol consumption and related harms. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Effectiveness of Policies Maintaining or Restricting Days of Alcohol Sales on Excessive Alcohol Consumption and Related Harms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Jennifer Cook; Hahn, Robert A.; Kuzara, Jennifer L.; Elder, Randy; Brewer, Robert; Chattopadhyay, Sajal; Fielding, Jonathan; Naimi, Timothy S.; Toomey, Traci; Lawrence, Briana

    2013-01-01

    Local, state, and national laws and policies that limit the days of the week on which alcoholic beverages may be sold may be a means of reducing excessive alcohol consumption and related harms. The methods of the Guide to Community Preventive Services were used to synthesize scientific evidence on the effectiveness for preventing excessive alcohol consumption and related harms of laws and policies maintaining or reducing the days when alcoholic beverages may be sold. Outcomes assessed in 14 studies that met qualifying criteria were excessive alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harms, including motor vehicle injuries and deaths, violence-related and other injuries, and health conditions. Qualifying studies assessed the effects of changes in days of sale in both on-premises settings (at which alcoholic beverages are consumed where purchased) and off-premises settings (at which alcoholic beverages may not be consumed where purchased). Eleven studies assessed the effects of adding days of sale, and three studies assessed the effects of imposing a ban on sales on a given weekend day. The evidence from these studies indicated that increasing days of sale leads to increases in excessive alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harms and that reducing the number of days that alcoholic beverages are sold generally decreases alcohol-related harms. Based on these findings, when the expansion of days of sale is being considered, laws and policies maintaining the number of days of the week that alcoholic beverages are sold at on- and off-premises outlets in local, state, and national jurisdictions are effective public health strategies for preventing excessive alcohol consumption and related harms. PMID:21084079

  14. Self-harm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Self-harm refers to a person's harming their own body on purpose. About 1 in 100 people hurts himself or herself in this way. More females hurt themselves than males. A person who self-harms usually does not mean to kill himself or herself. But they are at higher risk of attempting suicide if they do ...

  15. Harm reduction principles for healthcare settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Hawk

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Harm reduction refers to interventions aimed at reducing the negative effects of health behaviors without necessarily extinguishing the problematic health behaviors completely. The vast majority of the harm reduction literature focuses on the harms of drug use and on specific harm reduction strategies, such as syringe exchange, rather than on the harm reduction philosophy as a whole. Given that a harm reduction approach can address other risk behaviors that often occur alongside drug use and that harm reduction principles have been applied to harms such as sex work, eating disorders, and tobacco use, a natural evolution of the harm reduction philosophy is to extend it to other health risk behaviors and to a broader healthcare audience. Methods Building on the extant literature, we used data from in-depth qualitative interviews with 23 patients and 17 staff members from an HIV clinic in the USA to describe harm reduction principles for use in healthcare settings. Results We defined six principles of harm reduction and generalized them for use in healthcare settings with patients beyond those who use illicit substances. The principles include humanism, pragmatism, individualism, autonomy, incrementalism, and accountability without termination. For each of these principles, we present a definition, a description of how healthcare providers can deliver interventions informed by the principle, and examples of how each principle may be applied in the healthcare setting. Conclusion This paper is one of the firsts to provide a comprehensive set of principles for universal harm reduction as a conceptual approach for healthcare provision. Applying harm reduction principles in healthcare settings may improve clinical care outcomes given that the quality of the provider-patient relationship is known to impact health outcomes and treatment adherence. Harm reduction can be a universal precaution applied to all individuals regardless of

  16. Harm reduction principles for healthcare settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawk, Mary; Coulter, Robert W S; Egan, James E; Fisk, Stuart; Reuel Friedman, M; Tula, Monique; Kinsky, Suzanne

    2017-10-24

    Harm reduction refers to interventions aimed at reducing the negative effects of health behaviors without necessarily extinguishing the problematic health behaviors completely. The vast majority of the harm reduction literature focuses on the harms of drug use and on specific harm reduction strategies, such as syringe exchange, rather than on the harm reduction philosophy as a whole. Given that a harm reduction approach can address other risk behaviors that often occur alongside drug use and that harm reduction principles have been applied to harms such as sex work, eating disorders, and tobacco use, a natural evolution of the harm reduction philosophy is to extend it to other health risk behaviors and to a broader healthcare audience. Building on the extant literature, we used data from in-depth qualitative interviews with 23 patients and 17 staff members from an HIV clinic in the USA to describe harm reduction principles for use in healthcare settings. We defined six principles of harm reduction and generalized them for use in healthcare settings with patients beyond those who use illicit substances. The principles include humanism, pragmatism, individualism, autonomy, incrementalism, and accountability without termination. For each of these principles, we present a definition, a description of how healthcare providers can deliver interventions informed by the principle, and examples of how each principle may be applied in the healthcare setting. This paper is one of the firsts to provide a comprehensive set of principles for universal harm reduction as a conceptual approach for healthcare provision. Applying harm reduction principles in healthcare settings may improve clinical care outcomes given that the quality of the provider-patient relationship is known to impact health outcomes and treatment adherence. Harm reduction can be a universal precaution applied to all individuals regardless of their disclosure of negative health behaviors, given that health

  17. What’s the Harm? Harms in Research with Adults with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Katherine E.; Conroy, Nicole E.; Olick, Robert S.

    2017-01-01

    Scientific advances can improve the lives of adults with intellectual disability, yet concerns that research participation may impose harm impede scientific progress. What counts as harmful can be subjective and perceptions of harm may vary among stakeholders. We studied perspectives on the harmfulness of research events among adults with intellectual disability, family members and friends, disability service providers, researchers, and Institutional Review Board members. We found considerable variance. For example, adults with intellectual disability see exclusion from research as more harmful, but most psychosocial harms as less significant than others. All stakeholders agree that having someone else make the participation decision is harmful. Findings provide insights into the concept of harm and ethical research with adults with intellectual disability. PMID:28095059

  18. Algae as test organisms of harmful effects of various radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Necas, J.

    1989-01-01

    The report describes a complex biotest in which algae serve as the test organisms and where a variety of algal characteristics are employed as indicators of the effects of harmful radiations on the cultures and single organisms. Rules for a successful choice of a suitable algal organism are discussed and the preparation of the latter for the test as well as the growth and morphogenic tests and some physiological responses of algae to harmful radiation are described. The survival and lethality are related to the interpretation of the test results particularly from the physiological and genetic points of view. The complex biotest concerns not only toxic but also mutagenic effects of the factors tested. Some easily detectable mutations in algae are mentioned and their spectra are recommended. The stability of the mutations and the possibility of their delayed manifestation are considered. The possibility of occurrence of teratogenic effects is also dealt with and the negative role of phenocopies in the correct evaluation of the mutation effects is mentioned. Advice for the breeding and laboratory maintenance of suitable algal strains for the biotest is given. Practical use of the biotest is demonstrated on the results of a test using modified samples of waste water from uranium industries. It is recommended that biotests confined to the evaluation of single characteristics of the test organism be replaced by this complex biotest whose results can be interpreted more extensively and exhibit a higher reliability. (author). 268 refs., 1 tab., 9 figs

  19. Effect of alcohol dose on deliberate self-harm in men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Mitchell E; Fanning, Jennifer R; Guillot, Casey R; Marsic, Angelika; Bullock, Joshua; Nadorff, Michael R; McCloskey, Michael S

    2017-09-01

    Nonexperimental survey and field research support the notion that alcohol use may be associated with deliberate self-harm (DSH) across the spectrum of lethality, from nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) through suicide. Nonexperimental studies, however, provide limited information about potential causal relationships between alcohol consumption and DSH. Two previous experiments showed that a relatively high-dose of alcohol increases the likelihood of engaging in DSH in men, with DSH defined by the self-administration of a "painful" shock (the self-aggression paradigm [SAP]; Berman & Walley, 2003; McCloskey & Berman, 2003). In this study, we examined whether (a) lower doses of alcohol also elicit DSH, (b) this effect occurs for women as well as men, and (c) individual differences in past nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) moderate alcohol's effects on DSH. Nonalcohol dependent men and women (N = 210) were assigned either to .00%, .05%, .075%, or .100% blood alcohol concentration (BAC) drink conditions and completed a self-rating scale of NSSI (the Deliberate Self-Harm Inventory [DSHI]; Gratz, 2001). As in previous SAP studies, DSH was operationalized by shock setting behavior during a competitive reaction time (RT) game. Overall, a greater proportion of participants in the .075% and .100% (but not .050%) alcohol conditions self-selected a "painful" shock to administer compared to participants in the placebo condition. NSSI predicted self-administration of painful shocks, but did not moderate the alcohol effect. Results provide experimental evidence to support the notion that interventions for self-harm should include processes to monitor and limit alcohol intake. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Effects of distances and company resources for enterprise export performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Givanildo Silva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to evaluate the effect of distance on the export performance of companies in Santa Catarina, and to what extent this effect is moderated by organizational resource characteristics. Multiple linear regression and variance analysis were used for a perception survey of export managers with a final sample of 49 exporting producers. The constructs showed internal validity and allowed the data to be analyzed. The results only revealed evidence regarding the effect of psychic distance, showing a positive relationship with export performance. Also, the model estimation showed that the organization's resources moderate the relation between distance and export performance. Finally the study also shows that the export team and the organizational structure moderate the effect of distance on the performance and future performance expectations of the companies.

  1. A Model for Protective Behavior against the Harmful Effects of Radiation based on Medical Institution Classifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Eun Ok; Kwon, Deok Mun; Dong, Kyung Rae; Han, Seung Moo

    2010-01-01

    This study surveyed a total of 1,322 radiation technologist in health care institutions throughout Korea. This is a comparative study conducted on the levels of protective behavior against the harmful effects of radiation in heath care institutions which indicated that university hospitals and general hospitals showed higher level of protective behavior than for medical practitioners. This study found university hospitals have the following 7 characteristics to manage protective behavior against the harmful effects of radiation, protective environment, self-efficacy by distinction of task , self-efficacy, expectation of the protective behavior, the number of patients, level of the education related to the protection of the harmful effects of radiation and protective attitude. While general hospitals have the following 3 characteristics protective environment, expectation of the protective behavior and protective attitude. Hospitals have the following 4 characteristics protective environment, expectation of the protective behavior, protective attitude and self-efficacy and medical clinics have characteristics protective environment

  2. A Model for Protective Behavior against the Harmful Effects of Radiation based on Medical Institution Classifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Eun Ok; Kwon, Deok Mun [Daegu Health College, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Dong, Kyung Rae [Gwangju Health College University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Han, Seung Moo [Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    This study surveyed a total of 1,322 radiation technologist in health care institutions throughout Korea. This is a comparative study conducted on the levels of protective behavior against the harmful effects of radiation in heath care institutions which indicated that university hospitals and general hospitals showed higher level of protective behavior than for medical practitioners. This study found university hospitals have the following 7 characteristics to manage protective behavior against the harmful effects of radiation, protective environment, self-efficacy by distinction of task , self-efficacy, expectation of the protective behavior, the number of patients, level of the education related to the protection of the harmful effects of radiation and protective attitude. While general hospitals have the following 3 characteristics protective environment, expectation of the protective behavior and protective attitude. Hospitals have the following 4 characteristics protective environment, expectation of the protective behavior, protective attitude and self-efficacy and medical clinics have characteristics protective environment.

  3. [Self-harming behaviour].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kool, Nienke; Pollen, Wim; van Meijel, Berno

    2010-01-01

    To gain a better understanding of self-harm, a 28-year-old female patient and a 19-year-old female patient with self-harming behaviour are presented. The first patient refused treatment of cut wounds when the doctor enquired about the reason for self-harm. The second patient was referred for mental health care. These cases illustrate the complexity of this behaviour for the patient and the caregiver. Self-harm is often a symbol of underlying problems and serves multiple psychological functions. It is mostly used by patients to cope with unbearable emotions for which they have no other solution. The self-harm invokes different feelings in caregivers which tend to influence the attitude of the caregiver towards the patient. It is very important that caregivers are aware of their feelings and use them professionally. People who self-harm should not be judged, but treated respectfully and attention should be paid to their suffering.

  4. Recommendations for international gambling harm-minimisation guidelines: comparison with effective public health policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gainsbury, Sally M.; Blankers, Matthijs; Wilkinson, Claire; Schelleman-Offermans, Karen; Cousijn, Janna

    2014-01-01

    Problem gambling represents a significant public health problem, however, research on effective gambling harm-minimisation measures lags behind other fields, including other addictive disorders. In recognition of the need for consistency between international jurisdictions and the importance of

  5. Recommendations for international gambling harm-minimisation guidelines : comparison with effective public health policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gainsbury, Sally M; Blankers, Matthijs; Wilkinson, Claire; Schelleman-Offermans, Karen; Cousijn, Janna

    2014-01-01

    Problem gambling represents a significant public health problem, however, research on effective gambling harm-minimisation measures lags behind other fields, including other addictive disorders. In recognition of the need for consistency between international jurisdictions and the importance of

  6. Managing distance and covariate information with point-based clustering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter A. Whigham

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Geographic perspectives of disease and the human condition often involve point-based observations and questions of clustering or dispersion within a spatial context. These problems involve a finite set of point observations and are constrained by a larger, but finite, set of locations where the observations could occur. Developing a rigorous method for pattern analysis in this context requires handling spatial covariates, a method for constrained finite spatial clustering, and addressing bias in geographic distance measures. An approach, based on Ripley’s K and applied to the problem of clustering with deliberate self-harm (DSH, is presented. Methods Point-based Monte-Carlo simulation of Ripley’s K, accounting for socio-economic deprivation and sources of distance measurement bias, was developed to estimate clustering of DSH at a range of spatial scales. A rotated Minkowski L1 distance metric allowed variation in physical distance and clustering to be assessed. Self-harm data was derived from an audit of 2 years’ emergency hospital presentations (n = 136 in a New Zealand town (population ~50,000. Study area was defined by residential (housing land parcels representing a finite set of possible point addresses. Results Area-based deprivation was spatially correlated. Accounting for deprivation and distance bias showed evidence for clustering of DSH for spatial scales up to 500 m with a one-sided 95 % CI, suggesting that social contagion may be present for this urban cohort. Conclusions Many problems involve finite locations in geographic space that require estimates of distance-based clustering at many scales. A Monte-Carlo approach to Ripley’s K, incorporating covariates and models for distance bias, are crucial when assessing health-related clustering. The case study showed that social network structure defined at the neighbourhood level may account for aspects of neighbourhood clustering of DSH. Accounting for

  7. The effectiveness of tax policy interventions for reducing excessive alcohol consumption and related harms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elder, Randy W; Lawrence, Briana; Ferguson, Aneeqah; Naimi, Timothy S; Brewer, Robert D; Chattopadhyay, Sajal K; Toomey, Traci L; Fielding, Jonathan E

    2010-02-01

    A systematic review of the literature to assess the effectiveness of alcohol tax policy interventions for reducing excessive alcohol consumption and related harms was conducted for the Guide to Community Preventive Services (Community Guide). Seventy-two papers or technical reports, which were published prior to July 2005, met specified quality criteria, and included evaluation outcomes relevant to public health (e.g., binge drinking, alcohol-related crash fatalities), were included in the final review. Nearly all studies, including those with different study designs, found that there was an inverse relationship between the tax or price of alcohol and indices of excessive drinking or alcohol-related health outcomes. Among studies restricted to underage populations, most found that increased taxes were also significantly associated with reduced consumption and alcohol-related harms. According to Community Guide rules of evidence, these results constitute strong evidence that raising alcohol excise taxes is an effective strategy for reducing excessive alcohol consumption and related harms. The impact of a potential tax increase is expected to be proportional to its magnitude and to be modified by such factors as disposable income and the demand elasticity for alcohol among various population groups. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. An Empirical Analysis of Internet Message Boards for Self-Harming Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichenberg, Christiane; Schott, Markus

    2017-01-01

    Much debate surrounds the potential effects of self-harm forum use. Arguments in favor highlight factors such as providing access to a supportive community. However critical voice highlighting potential dangers such as forums serving as a platform to promote self-harm, clearly dominate the debate. Using an online questionnaire, the goal of the current study was to examine sociodemographic characteristics, the psychopathology of forum users, motives for participating, and subjective effects of self-harm forum use. A total of 309 self-harm forum users participated in this study. 3 heterogeneous user types with differing motives for visiting the forum and different usage effects were identified. The results question the assumptions that self-harm forums are a source of harm and point to their predominantly constructive and preventive functions.

  9. Deliberate Self Harm Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Gul Helvaci Celik

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The deliberate self-harm behaviour which defined as attempting to own body resulting in tisue damage without conscious desire of peolple to die, is a major public health problem worldwide. The causes of deliberate self- harm, risk factors, the relationship between mental disorders and treatment strategies are not fully known. Deliberate self- harm can be observed together with psychiatric disorders such as borderline personality disorder, histrionic personality disorder, eating disorders and mood disorders. Also, deliberate self-harm must be distinguished from suicidal behavior. Psychologi-cal trauma has been suggested as a risk factor for deliberate self- harm behavior. Trauma and traumatic events have long been associated with deliberate self- harm behavior. The aim of this review article is to investigate the etiology and epidemiology of deliberate self-harm behaviour and relationship between psychiatric disorders. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2017; 9(2.000: 209-226

  10. Effects of Harmful Algae on the Physiology of Fishes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Morten Bo Søndergaard

    Blooms of harmful planktonic algae causing adverse effects in aquatic environments are a global problem, causing both human morbidity and killing aquatic lifeforms worldwide. Focusing on fish kills, it is largely unknown what mechanisms of the fish’s physiology are affected during exposure...... is deemed unlikely on basis of rainbow trout (Onchorhyncus mykiss) not recovering. The specific toxicity of Pseudochattonella spp. is unknown, but by studying the effects of Pseudochattonella spp. on fish during a natural bloom occurring at a trout farm an adverse outcome could be created. The adverse...... Alexandrium monilatum has been studied intensively the effects of Alexandrium monilatum on fish is largely unknown. In the Chesapeake Bay, Eastern U.S.A., fishes are further challenged in late summer by an oxygen squeeze from deep part of the water column, limiting their utilizable habitat to mid...

  11. [Self-harm vs. harming others: the lived experiences of a dysfunctional family].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hsiu-Chin; Lin, Mei-Feng; Yu, Shu-Hua

    2007-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the lived experiences of self-harm and harm to others from the perspective of two adult offspring and a father, the latter of whom was prone to alcohol abuse and domestic violence and had attempted suicide. Written informed consents were obtained from the subjects after a detailed explanation of the research aims and procedures. A qualitative, phenomenological method was applied for the study. Three subjects were interviewed using a semi-structured interview guide designed by the researchers and based on the aims of the study over a six-month period of home care. A qualitative content analysis based on a phenomenological method was used to identify themes in the data. Two main categories emerged: (1) the mutual harm to the couple subsystem, (2) the misplaced parental-child subsystem. Subsequently, two to four themes were identified from each category. These results provide a better analysis and understanding of the perceived experiences of the harm to the spouse, parental, and sibling subsystems. They should also help health professionals to improve awareness of the lived experiences associated with the issues of self-harm and threats of harm to others. This study could serve as a valuable reference in promoting possible prevention strategies aiming at the reduction of self-harm and harm to others in dysfunctional families within the community.

  12. Cutting and Self-Harm

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your feelings Feeling sad Cutting and self-harm Cutting and self-harm Self-harm, sometimes called self- ... There are many types of self-injury, and cutting is one type that you may have heard ...

  13. Effect of Weight Transfer on a Vehicle's Stopping Distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmire, Daniel P.; Alleman, Timothy J.

    1979-01-01

    An analysis of the minimum stopping distance problem is presented taking into account the effect of weight transfer on nonskidding vehicles and front- or rear-wheels-skidding vehicles. Expressions for the minimum stopping distances are given in terms of vehicle geometry and the coefficients of friction. (Author/BB)

  14. Interactive Distance Learning Effectively Provides Winning Sports Nutrition Workshops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricketts, Jennifer; Hoelscher-Day, Sharon; Begeman, Gale; Houtkooper, Linda

    2001-01-01

    Interactive distance-education (n=226) and face-to-face (n=129) continuing education workshops for health care and education professionals on sports nutrition were evaluated immediately and after 6 months. The well-designed distance-education format was as effective and acceptable as face to face and increased sports nutrition knowledge. (SK)

  15. Nonsuicidal Self-Harm among Community Adolescents: Understanding the "Whats" and "Whys" of Self-Harm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laye-Gindhu, Aviva; Schonert-Reichl, Kimberly A.

    2005-01-01

    This study examines self-harm in a community sample of adolescents. More specifically, the study identifies the prevalence and types of self-harm, elucidates the nature and underlying function of self-harm, and evaluates the relation of psychological adjustment, sociodemographic, and health-risk variables to self-harm. Self-report questionnaires…

  16. Ionizing radiation biological effects and the proper protective measures against it's harmful effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hhalel, A.M.

    1990-01-01

    This book intrduces a good knowledge in specifications of ionizing radiation biological effects and the proper protective measures againest harmful effectes. The book is devided in to five main sections, the first one introduces the hostorical bachground of the contributions of a number of scietists in the basic knolwledge of radiation and its biological effects. The second section deals with the physical and chemical principles of radiation the third one talks about radiation detection. While the fourth section talks (via seven chapter) about the effectes of ionizing radiation on living organisms molecules cells, tissues organs systems and the living organism the fifth section talks about the uses of radiation sources, the probability of radiation accidents, protective measures, international recommendations related to doses and safe use of ionizing radiation. (Abed Al-wali Al-ajlouni). 53 refs., 107 figs., 13 tabs

  17. Weathering product-harm crises

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cleeren, K.; Dekimpe, M.G.; Helsen, K.

    2008-01-01

    To counter the negative effects of a product-harm crisis, brands hope to capitalize on their equity, and often use advertising as a communication device to regain customers’ lost trust. We study how consumer characteristics and advertising influence consumers’ first-purchase decisions for two

  18. Managing Product-Harm Crises

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.J. van Heerde (Harald); K. Helsen; M.G. Dekimpe (Marnik)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractProduct-harm crises are among a firm’s worst nightmares. Since marketing investments may be instrumental to convince consumers to purchase the firm's products again, it is important to provide an adequate measurement of the effectiveness of these investments, especially after the crisis.

  19. Alleviation of harmful effect in stillage reflux in food waste ethanol fermentation based on metabolic and side-product accumulation regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hongzhi; Yang, Jian; Jia, Yan; Wang, Qunhui; Ma, Xiaoyu; Sonomoto, Kenji

    2016-10-01

    Stillage reflux fermentation in food waste ethanol fermentation could reduce sewage discharge but exert a harmful effect because of side-product accumulation. In this study, regulation methods based on metabolic regulation and side-product alleviation were conducted. Result demonstrated that controlling the proper oxidation-reduction potential value (-150mV to -250mV) could reduce the harmful effect, improve ethanol yield by 21%, and reduce fermentation time by 20%. The methods of adding calcium carbonate to adjust the accumulated lactic acid showed that ethanol yield increased by 17.3%, and fermentation time decreased by 20%. The accumulated glyceal also shows that these two methods can reduce the harmful effect. Fermentation time lasted for seven times without effect, and metabolic regulation had a better effect than side-product regulation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of Image Linearization on Normalized Compression Distance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortensen, Jonathan; Wu, Jia Jie; Furst, Jacob; Rogers, John; Raicu, Daniela

    Normalized Information Distance, based on Kolmogorov complexity, is an emerging metric for image similarity. It is approximated by the Normalized Compression Distance (NCD) which generates the relative distance between two strings by using standard compression algorithms to compare linear strings of information. This relative distance quantifies the degree of similarity between the two objects. NCD has been shown to measure similarity effectively on information which is already a string: genomic string comparisons have created accurate phylogeny trees and NCD has also been used to classify music. Currently, to find a similarity measure using NCD for images, the images must first be linearized into a string, and then compared. To understand how linearization of a 2D image affects the similarity measure, we perform four types of linearization on a subset of the Corel image database and compare each for a variety of image transformations. Our experiment shows that different linearization techniques produce statistically significant differences in NCD for identical spatial transformations.

  1. Harm avoidance and disability in old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Robert S; Buchman, Aron S; Arnold, Steven E; Shah, Raj C; Tang, Yuxiao; Bennett, David A

    2006-01-01

    The relation of personality to disability in old age is not well understood. The authors examined the relation of harm avoidance, a trait indicating a tendency to worry, fear uncertainty, be shy, and tire easily, to disability in a group of 474 older persons without dementia. Participants completed the 35-item Harm Avoidance scale. Disability was assessed with the Rosow-Breslau scale, a self-report measure of physical mobility. Performance-based tests of lower limb functions were also administered from which composite measures of gait, balance, and strength were derived. In a logistic regression model controlled for age, sex, education, and lower limb function, persons with high levels of harm avoidance were nearly three times as likely to report mobility limitations as persons with low levels, and these effects largely reflected fatigability and fear of uncertainty. The association of harm avoidance with disability was not explained or modified by frailty, physical activity, depressive symptoms, neuroticism, extraversion, or cognition. The results suggest that harm avoidance is associated with disability in old age.

  2. Marine Fouling Assemblages on Offshore Gas Platforms in the Southern North Sea: Effects of Depth and Distance from Shore on Biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Stap, Tim; Coolen, Joop W P; Lindeboom, Han J

    2016-01-01

    Offshore platforms are known to act as artificial reefs, though there is on-going debate on whether this effect is beneficial or harmful for the life in the surrounding marine environment. Knowing what species exist on and around the offshore platforms and what environmental variables influence this species assemblage is crucial for a better understanding of the impact of offshore platforms on marine life. Information on this is limited for offshore platforms in the southern North Sea. This study aims to fill this gap in our knowledge and to determine how the composition and the abundance of species assemblages changes with depth and along a distance-from-shore gradient. The species assemblages on five offshore gas platforms in the southern North Sea have been inventoried using Remotely Operated Vehicles inspection footage. A total of 30 taxa were identified. A Generalised Additive Model of the species richness showed a significant non-linear relation with water depth (p = 0.001): from a low richness in shallow waters it increases with depth until 15-20 m, after which richness decreases again. Using PERMANOVA, water depth (p≤0.001), community age (p≤0.001) and the interaction between distance from shore and community age (p≤0.001) showed a significant effect on the species assemblages. Future research should focus on the effect additional environmental variables have on the species assemblages.

  3. Marine Fouling Assemblages on Offshore Gas Platforms in the Southern North Sea: Effects of Depth and Distance from Shore on Biodiversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim van der Stap

    Full Text Available Offshore platforms are known to act as artificial reefs, though there is on-going debate on whether this effect is beneficial or harmful for the life in the surrounding marine environment. Knowing what species exist on and around the offshore platforms and what environmental variables influence this species assemblage is crucial for a better understanding of the impact of offshore platforms on marine life. Information on this is limited for offshore platforms in the southern North Sea. This study aims to fill this gap in our knowledge and to determine how the composition and the abundance of species assemblages changes with depth and along a distance-from-shore gradient. The species assemblages on five offshore gas platforms in the southern North Sea have been inventoried using Remotely Operated Vehicles inspection footage. A total of 30 taxa were identified. A Generalised Additive Model of the species richness showed a significant non-linear relation with water depth (p = 0.001: from a low richness in shallow waters it increases with depth until 15-20 m, after which richness decreases again. Using PERMANOVA, water depth (p≤0.001, community age (p≤0.001 and the interaction between distance from shore and community age (p≤0.001 showed a significant effect on the species assemblages. Future research should focus on the effect additional environmental variables have on the species assemblages.

  4. Marine Fouling Assemblages on Offshore Gas Platforms in the Southern North Sea: Effects of Depth and Distance from Shore on Biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Stap, Tim; Coolen, Joop W. P.; Lindeboom, Han J.

    2016-01-01

    Offshore platforms are known to act as artificial reefs, though there is on-going debate on whether this effect is beneficial or harmful for the life in the surrounding marine environment. Knowing what species exist on and around the offshore platforms and what environmental variables influence this species assemblage is crucial for a better understanding of the impact of offshore platforms on marine life. Information on this is limited for offshore platforms in the southern North Sea. This study aims to fill this gap in our knowledge and to determine how the composition and the abundance of species assemblages changes with depth and along a distance-from-shore gradient. The species assemblages on five offshore gas platforms in the southern North Sea have been inventoried using Remotely Operated Vehicles inspection footage. A total of 30 taxa were identified. A Generalised Additive Model of the species richness showed a significant non-linear relation with water depth (p = 0.001): from a low richness in shallow waters it increases with depth until 15–20 m, after which richness decreases again. Using PERMANOVA, water depth (p≤0.001), community age (p≤0.001) and the interaction between distance from shore and community age (p≤0.001) showed a significant effect on the species assemblages. Future research should focus on the effect additional environmental variables have on the species assemblages. PMID:26745870

  5. How institutions matter for international business : Institutional distance effects vs institutional profile effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hoorn, Andre; Maseland, Robbert

    Extant institutional research has failed to make a distinction between the effects of institutional profile and institutional distance on MNEs. The problem stems from the fact that, due to the use of a single reference country, variation in institutional distance between the reference country and

  6. Survival, Signaling, and Security: Foster Carers' and Residential Carers' Accounts of Self-Harming Practices Among Children and Young People in Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Rhiannon E

    2018-05-01

    Research on clinicians' interpretations of self-harming practices has shown that they can often be negative. To date there has been limited consideration of other professionals' narratives, notably those working in social care. This article presents focus group and interview data generated with foster carers ( n = 15) and residential carers ( n = 15) to explore the symbolic meanings ascribed to self-harm among the children and young people they care for. Three repertoires of interpretation are presented: survival, which conceives self-harm as a mechanism for redefining the identity of "looked-after"; signaling, which understands self-harm as a communicative tool for the expression of emotion; and security, which sees self-harming practices as testing the authenticity and safety of the caring relationship. Through their focus on sociocultural narratives, carers position themselves as experts on self-harm due to their intimacy with young people's social worlds. This construction potentially creates distance from health professionals, which is problematic given the current privileging of interprofessional working.

  7. Potential harmful effects on agricultural environments of sewage sludge utilization as a fertilizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suess, A.

    1997-01-01

    There can be harmful effects of sewage-sludge utilization in agriculture. However, these can be overcome by treatment of the sludge and by appropriate farm-management practices. Sewage sludge is of increasing potential importance to farmers because of its value as a fertilizer. But some compounds in sludge can be harmful for plants, animals and man. Heavy metals may be taken up by plants, and the higher the content in the soil, the greater the uptake. There are substantial differences in heavy-metal accumulation and tolerance among plant species. With respect to pathogens (for example Salmonella) in sludge, recent developments in decontamination processes can provide greater guarantee of preservation of the environment. Gamma-radiation treatment at a dose of 3 kGy has been proven effective. The use of sewage sludge in agriculture is attractive from the economical and environmental points of view. It is therefore important that farmers are provided not only with more information about the nutrient effects, but also about risks, if any, of leaching of heavy metals and microbial condition to groundwater. To achieve this, there must be close co-operation between farmers and the authorities responsible for disposal of sewage sludge. (author)

  8. Effects of 20 Selected Fruits on Ethanol Metabolism: Potential Health Benefits and Harmful Impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu-Jie; Wang, Fang; Zhou, Yue; Li, Ya; Zhou, Tong; Zheng, Jie; Zhang, Jiao-Jiao; Li, Sha; Xu, Dong-Ping; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-04-01

    The consumption of alcohol is often accompanied by other foods, such as fruits and vegetables. This study is aimed to investigate the effects of 20 selected fruits on ethanol metabolism to find out their potential health benefits and harmful impacts. The effects of the fruits on ethanol metabolism were characterized by the concentrations of ethanol and acetaldehyde in blood, as well as activities of alcohol dehydrogenase and acetaldehyde dehydrogenase in liver of mice. Furthermore, potential health benefits and harmful impacts of the fruits were evaluated by biochemical parameters including aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transferase (ALT), malondialdehyde, and superoxide dismutase. Generally, effects of these fruits on ethanol metabolism were very different. Some fruits (such as Citrus limon (yellow), Averrhoa carambola, Pyrus spp., and Syzygium samarangense) could decrease the concentration of ethanol in blood. In addition, several fruits (such as Cucumis melo) showed hepatoprotective effects by significantly decreasing AST or ALT level in blood, while some fruits (such as Averrhoa carambola) showed adverse effects. The results suggested that the consumption of alcohol should not be accompanied by some fruits, and several fruits could be developed as functional foods for the prevention and treatment of hangover and alcohol use disorder.

  9. Effect of ergonomics training on agreement between expert and nonexpert ratings of the potential for musculoskeletal harm in manufacturing tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fethke, Nathan B; Merlino, Linda; Gerr, Fred

    2013-12-01

    To evaluate the effect of ergonomics training on non-ergonomists' ability to recognize and characterize the potential for musculoskeletal harm in manufacturing tasks. Ergonomics training was delivered to members of a participatory ergonomics team in a manufacturing facility. Before and after training, participatory ergonomics team members and the research team rated the potential for musculoskeletal harm for each of 30 tasks. Measures of agreement included Pearson, concordance, and intraclass correlation coefficients. Measures of agreement generally improved after training. The greatest agreement was observed for ratings of the potential for musculoskeletal harm to the low back. The greatest improvement in agreement was observed for ratings of the potential for musculoskeletal harm to the neck/shoulder. The training seemed to improve non-experts' ability to identify the potential for musculoskeletal harm.

  10. Harm reduction measures in prison (Methadone treatment and its effects on quality of life promotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iraj Esmaili

    2009-02-01

    Conclusion: In a look, it is obvious that the harm reduction measures which have been taken for prisoners under the coverage of Methadone treatment will be effective in improving their quality of life conditions.

  11. Cost-effectiveness and harm-benefit analyses of risk-based screening strategies for breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ester Vilaprinyo

    Full Text Available The one-size-fits-all paradigm in organized screening of breast cancer is shifting towards a personalized approach. The present study has two objectives: 1 To perform an economic evaluation and to assess the harm-benefit ratios of screening strategies that vary in their intensity and interval ages based on breast cancer risk; and 2 To estimate the gain in terms of cost and harm reductions using risk-based screening with respect to the usual practice. We used a probabilistic model and input data from Spanish population registries and screening programs, as well as from clinical studies, to estimate the benefit, harm, and costs over time of 2,624 screening strategies, uniform or risk-based. We defined four risk groups, low, moderate-low, moderate-high and high, based on breast density, family history of breast cancer and personal history of breast biopsy. The risk-based strategies were obtained combining the exam periodicity (annual, biennial, triennial and quinquennial, the starting ages (40, 45 and 50 years and the ending ages (69 and 74 years in the four risk groups. Incremental cost-effectiveness and harm-benefit ratios were used to select the optimal strategies. Compared to risk-based strategies, the uniform ones result in a much lower benefit for a specific cost. Reductions close to 10% in costs and higher than 20% in false-positive results and overdiagnosed cases were obtained for risk-based strategies. Optimal screening is characterized by quinquennial or triennial periodicities for the low or moderate risk-groups and annual periodicity for the high-risk group. Risk-based strategies can reduce harm and costs. It is necessary to develop accurate measures of individual risk and to work on how to implement risk-based screening strategies.

  12. Suicide Following Deliberate Self-Harm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olfson, Mark; Wall, Melanie; Wang, Shuai; Crystal, Stephen; Gerhard, Tobias; Blanco, Carlos

    2017-08-01

    The authors sought to identify risk factors for repeat self-harm and completed suicide over the following year among adults with deliberate self-harm. A national cohort of Medicaid-financed adults clinically diagnosed with deliberate self-harm (N=61,297) was followed for up to 1 year. Repeat self-harm per 1,000 person-years and suicide rates per 100,000 person-years (based on cause of death information from the National Death Index) were determined. Hazard ratios of repeat self-harm and suicide were estimated by Cox proportional hazard models. During the 12 months after nonfatal self-harm, the rate of repeat self-harm was 263.2 per 1,000 person-years and the rate of completed suicide was 439.1 per 100,000 person-years, or 37.2 times higher than in a matched general population cohort. The hazard of suicide was higher after initial self-harm events involving violent as compared with nonviolent methods (hazard ratio=7.5, 95% CI=5.5-10.1), especially firearms (hazard ratio=15.86, 95% CI=10.7-23.4; computed with poisoning as reference), and to a lesser extent after events of patients who had recently received outpatient mental health care (hazard ratio=1.6, 95% CI=1.2-2.0). Compared with self-harm patients using nonviolent methods, those who used violent methods were at significantly increased risk of suicide during the first 30 days after the initial event (hazard ratio=17.5, 95% CI=11.2-27.3), but not during the following 335 days. Adults treated for deliberate self-harm frequently repeat self-harm in the following year. Patients who use a violent method for their initial self-harm, especially firearms, have an exceptionally high risk of suicide, particularly right after the initial event, which highlights the importance of careful assessment and close follow-up of this group.

  13. Does clinical management improve outcomes following self-harm? Results from the multicentre study of self-harm in England.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nav Kapur

    Full Text Available Evidence to guide clinical management of self-harm is sparse, trials have recruited selected samples, and psychological treatments that are suggested in guidelines may not be available in routine practice.To examine how the management that patients receive in hospital relates to subsequent outcome.We identified episodes of self-harm presenting to three UK centres (Derby, Manchester, Oxford over a 10 year period (2000 to 2009. We used established data collection systems to investigate the relationship between four aspects of management (psychosocial assessment, medical admission, psychiatric admission, referral for specialist mental health follow up and repetition of self-harm within 12 months, adjusted for differences in baseline demographic and clinical characteristics.35,938 individuals presented with self-harm during the study period. In two of the three centres, receiving a psychosocial assessment was associated with a 40% lower risk of repetition, Hazard Ratios (95% CIs: Centre A 0.99 (0.90-1.09; Centre B 0.59 (0.48-0.74; Centre C 0.59 (0.52-0.68. There was little indication that the apparent protective effects were mediated through referral and follow up arrangements. The association between psychosocial assessment and a reduced risk of repetition appeared to be least evident in those from the most deprived areas.These findings add to the growing body of evidence that thorough assessment is central to the management of self-harm, but further work is needed to elucidate the possible mechanisms and explore the effects in different clinical subgroups.

  14. Methylphenidate for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adolescents - assessment of harmful effects in non-randomised studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakob, Storebø Ole; Nadia, Pedersen; Erica, Ramstad

    2016-01-01

    This is the protocol for a review and there is no abstract. The objectives are as follows:To assess the harmful effects of methylphenidate treatment for children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in non-randomised studies.......This is the protocol for a review and there is no abstract. The objectives are as follows:To assess the harmful effects of methylphenidate treatment for children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in non-randomised studies....

  15. Cutting Class Harms Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Lewis A., III

    2012-01-01

    An accessible business school population of undergraduate students was investigated in three independent, but related studies to determine effects on grades due to cutting class and failing to take advantage of optional reviews and study quizzes. It was hypothesized that cutting classes harms exam scores, attending preexam reviews helps exam…

  16. Social acceptance of technologies in relation to their benefit and harm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobajima, Makoto

    2001-03-01

    The progress and popularization of scientific techniques have brought large effects on peoples' life. In those effects, the realization of benefit (advantage) that scientific techniques for bringing abundance and convenience are aiming at and the appearance of unintentional harm spreading on the back coexist in many cases. So it can not be overlooked that the harm side is affecting people as large damages as technologies develop to higher level and more complicated. The common cause of them is thought to be lack of preliminary assessment and regulation before introducing those new technologies with the background of pursuit of mass production and mass consumption. In this research, many of examples of various effects are surveyed in literatures and analyzed to first contrast benefit and harm brought by scientific techniques. As for the harm, damage actually suffered and the possibility of hazard are classified from the view point of risks and methodologies of social risk management are discussed. In addition, externalities in environment as a kind of harm are evaluated. On this basis, policy requirements on social system for minimizing the harm brought by technologies and promoting people's acceptance of technologies in the future society are proposed as political attainment. (author)

  17. Problems of harmful habits and dependences of students.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorobey Nikolaj Petrovich

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of data of modern scientific literature is conducted on issue of harmful habits and dependences of students. It is shown that considerable part of student young people have harmful habits and dependences. Negative influence of harmful habits and dependences of students is exposed on the state of their health. Importance of delivering is well-proven from addiction behavior in practice of healthy way of life of students. It is set that one of foreground jobs of present time there is an increase of level of education of student young people on questions abandonment from harmful habits and dependences. The ways of decision of problem of addiction behavior of students are offered as an effective condition of improvement of the state of their health.

  18. Sex-work harm reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rekart, Michael L

    2005-12-17

    Sex work is an extremely dangerous profession. The use of harm-reduction principles can help to safeguard sex workers' lives in the same way that drug users have benefited from drug-use harm reduction. Sex workers are exposed to serious harms: drug use, disease, violence, discrimination, debt, criminalisation, and exploitation (child prostitution, trafficking for sex work, and exploitation of migrants). Successful and promising harm-reduction strategies are available: education, empowerment, prevention, care, occupational health and safety, decriminalisation of sex workers, and human-rights-based approaches. Successful interventions include peer education, training in condom-negotiating skills, safety tips for street-based sex workers, male and female condoms, the prevention-care synergy, occupational health and safety guidelines for brothels, self-help organisations, and community-based child protection networks. Straightforward and achievable steps are available to improve the day-to-day lives of sex workers while they continue to work. Conceptualising and debating sex-work harm reduction as a new paradigm can hasten this process.

  19. Development of the table of initial isolation distances and protective action distances for the 2004 emergency response guidebook.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, D. F.; Freeman, W. A.; Carhart, R. A.; Krumpolc, M.; Decision and Information Sciences; Univ. of Illinois at Chicago

    2005-09-23

    This report provides technical documentation for values in the Table of Initial Isolation and Protective Action Distances (PADs) in the 2004 Emergency Response Guidebook (ERG2004). The objective for choosing the PADs specified in the ERG2004 is to balance the need to adequately protect the public from exposure to potentially harmful substances against the risks and expenses that could result from overreacting to a spill. To quantify this balance, a statistical approach is adopted, whereby the best available information is used to conduct an accident scenario analysis and develop a set of up to 1,000,000 hypothetical incidents. The set accounts for differences in containers types, incident types, accident severity (i.e., amounts released), locations, times of day, times of year, and meteorological conditions. Each scenario is analyzed using detailed emission rate and atmospheric dispersion models to calculate the downwind chemical concentrations from which a 'safe distance' is determined. The safe distance is defined as the distance downwind from the source at which the chemical concentration falls below health protection criteria. The American Industrial Hygiene Association's Emergency Response Planning Guideline Level 2 (ERPG-2) or equivalent is the health criteria used. The statistical sample of safe distance values for all incidents considered in the analysis are separated into four categories: small spill/daytime release, small spill/nighttime release, large spill/daytime release, and large spill/nighttime release. The 90th-percentile safe distance values for each of these groups became the PADs that appear in the ERG2004.

  20. Repetition of self-harm and suicide following self-harm in children and adolescents: findings from the Multicentre Study of Self-harm in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawton, Keith; Bergen, Helen; Kapur, Navneet; Cooper, Jayne; Steeg, Sarah; Ness, Jennifer; Waters, Keith

    2012-12-01

    Self-harm (intentional self-poisoning and self-injury) in children and adolescents is often repeated and is associated with increased risk of future suicide. We have investigated factors associated with these outcomes. We used data collected in the Multicentre Study of Self-harm in England on all self-harm hospital presentations by individuals aged 10-18 years between 2000 and 2007, and national death information on these individuals to the end of 2010. Cox hazard proportional models were used to identify independent and multivariable predictors of repetition of self-harm and of suicide. Repetition of self-harm occurred in 27.3% of individuals (N = 3920) who presented between 2000 and 2005 and were followed up until 2007. Multivariate analysis showed that repetition was associated with age, self-cutting, and previous self-harm and psychiatric treatment. Of 51 deaths in individuals who presented between 2000 and 2007 and were followed up to 2010 (N = 5133) half (49.0%) were suicides. The method used was usually different to that used for self-harm. Multivariate analysis showed that suicide was associated with male gender [Hazard ratio (HR) = 2.4, 95% CI 1.2-4.8], self-cutting (HR = 2.1, 95% CI 1.1-3.7) and prior psychiatric treatment at initial presentation (HR = 4.2, 95% CI 1.7-10.5). It was also associated with self-cutting and history of psychiatric treatment at the last episode before death, and history of previous self harm. Self-cutting as a method of self-harm in children and adolescents conveys greater risk of suicide (and repetition) than self-poisoning although different methods are usually used for suicide. The findings underline the need for psychosocial assessment in all cases. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry © 2012 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  1. Party drugs - use and harm reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frei, Matthew

    2010-08-01

    Party drug use, the intermittent use of stimulants, ecstasy and so-called 'designer drugs' at dance parties or 'raves', is now part of the culture of many young Australians. This article discusses the risks associated with the use of 'party drugs' and describes an useful approach to general practitioner assessment and management of patients who may be using party drugs. Party drug use is associated with a range of harms, including risks associated with behaviour while drug affected, toxicity and overdose, mental health complications and physical morbidity. Multiple substance use, particularly combining sedatives, further amplifies risk. If GPs have some understanding of these drugs and their effects, they are well placed to provide an effective intervention in party drug users by supporting the reduction of harm.

  2. Exposing therapists to trauma-focused treatment in psychosis: effects on credibility, expected burden, and harm expectancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David P. G. van den Berg

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite robust empirical support for the efficacy of trauma-focused treatments, the dissemination proves difficult, especially in relation to patients with comorbid psychosis. Many therapists endorse negative beliefs about the credibility, burden, and harm of such treatment. Objective: This feasibility study explores the impact of specialized training on therapists’ beliefs about trauma-focused treatment within a randomized controlled trial. Method: Therapist-rated (n=16 credibility, expected burden, and harm expectancies of trauma-focused treatment were assessed at baseline, post-theoretical training, post-technical training, post-supervised practical training, and at 2-year follow-up. Credibility and burden beliefs of therapists concerning the treatment of every specific patient in the trial were also assessed. Results: Over time, therapist-rated credibility of trauma-focused treatment showed a significant increase, whereas therapists’ expected burden and harm expectancies decreased significantly. In treating posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD in patients with psychotic disorders (n=79, pre-treatment symptom severity was not associated with therapist-rated credibility or expected burden of that specific treatment. Treatment outcome had no influence on patient-specific credibility or burden expectancies of therapists. Conclusions: These findings support the notion that specialized training, including practical training with supervision, has long-term positive effects on therapists’ credibility, burden, and harm beliefs concerning trauma-focused treatment.

  3. Social acceptance of technologies in relation to their benefit and harm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobajima, Makoto [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2001-03-01

    The progress and popularization of scientific techniques have brought large effects on peoples' life. In those effects, the realization of benefit (advantage) that scientific techniques for bringing abundance and convenience are aiming at and the appearance of unintentional harm spreading on the back coexist in many cases. So it can not be overlooked that the harm side is affecting people as large damages as technologies develop to higher level and more complicated. The common cause of them is thought to be lack of preliminary assessment and regulation before introducing those new technologies with the background of pursuit of mass production and mass consumption. In this research, many of examples of various effects are surveyed in literatures and analyzed to first contrast benefit and harm brought by scientific techniques. As for the harm, damage actually suffered and the possibility of hazard are classified from the view point of risks and methodologies of social risk management are discussed. In addition, externalities in environment as a kind of harm are evaluated. On this basis, policy requirements on social system for minimizing the harm brought by technologies and promoting people's acceptance of technologies in the future society are proposed as political attainment. (author)

  4. Measuring emergency department nurses' attitudes towards deliberate self-harm using the Self-Harm Antipathy Scale.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Conlon, Mary

    2012-01-31

    The emergency department is an important gateway for the treatment of self-harm patients. Nurses\\' attitudes towards patients who self-harm can be negative and often nurses experience frustration, helplessness, ambivalence and antipathy. Patients are often dissatisfied with the care provided, and meeting with positive or negative attitudes greatly influences whether they seek additional help. A quantitative design was utilised to measure emergency department nurses\\' attitudes towards deliberate self-harm. The \\'Self-Harm Antipathy Scale\\

  5. Impact of the recent recession on self-harm: Longitudinal ecological and patient-level investigation from the Multicentre Study of Self-harm in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawton, Keith; Bergen, Helen; Geulayov, Galit; Waters, Keith; Ness, Jennifer; Cooper, Jayne; Kapur, Navneet

    2016-02-01

    Economic recessions are associated with increases in suicide rates but there is little information for non-fatal self-harm. To investigate the impact of the recent recession on rates of self-harm in England and problems faced by patients who self-harm. Analysis of data from the Multicentre Study of Self-harm in England for 2001-2010 and local employment statistics for Oxford, Manchester and Derby, including interrupted time series analyses to estimate the effect of the recession on rates of self-harm. Rates of self-harm increased in both genders in Derby and in males in Manchester in 2008-2010, but not in either gender in Oxford, results which largely followed changes in general population unemployment. More patients who self-harm were unemployed in 2008-10 compared to before the recession. The proportion in receipt of sickness or disability allowances decreased. More patients of both genders had employment and financial problems in 2008-2010 and more females also had housing problems, changes which were also largely found in employed patients. We have assumed that the recession began in 2008 and information on problems was only available for patients having a psychosocial assessment. Increased rates of self-harm were found in areas where there were greater rises in rates of unemployment. Work, financial and housing problems increased in people who self-harmed. Changes in welfare benefits may have contributed. None. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Towards a more effective model for distance education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koper, Rob

    2014-01-01

    Reference: Koper, E.J.R. (2014). Towards a more effective model for distance education. e-Learning and Education. e-Learning and Education, 10. urn:nbn:de:0009-5-40105 http://eleed.campussource.de/archive/10/4010

  7. Casting light on harm reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jourdan, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Background: Harm reduction is commonly regarded as complementary to other drug problem responses - as the fourth tier. Yet even core examples of harm reduction such as the provision of injection equipment and methadone treatment has over and over encountered considerable opposition, and harm redu...

  8. HARMFUL ALGAL BLOOMS IN THE MEDITERRANEAN SEA: EFFECTS ON HUMAN HEALTH.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margherita Ferrante

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A harmful algal bloom (HAB is defined as a bloom that has deleterious effects on plants, animals or humans. Marine algal toxins are responsible for an array of human illnesses associated with consumption of seafood or exposure to aerosolized toxins. The effects of algal toxins are generally observed as acute intoxications, whereas the environmental health effects of chronic exposure to low levels of algal toxins are, to date, only poorly documented and an emerging issue. Consumption of seafood contaminated with algal toxins can result in five types of seafood poisoning syndromes: paralytic shellfish poisoning, neurotoxic shellfish poisoning, amnesic shellfish poisoning, diarrhetic shellfish poisoning and ciguatera fish poisoning. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview on HAB-related issues in the Mediterranean Sea.

  9. The effect of wind on jumping distance in ski jumping--fairness assessed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virmavirta, Mikko; Kivekäs, Juha

    2012-09-01

    The special wind compensation system recently adopted by Fédération Internationale de Ski (FIS; International Ski Federation) to consider the effects of changing wind conditions has caused some controversy. Here, the effect of wind on jumping distance in ski jumping was studied by means of computer simulation and compared with the wind compensation factors used by FIS during the World Cup season 2009/2010. The results showed clearly that the effect of increasing head/tail wind on jumping distance is not linear: +17.4 m/-29.1 m, respectively, for a wind speed of 3 m/s. The linear formula used in the trial period of the wind compensation system was found to be appropriate only for a limited range of jumping distances as the gradient of the landing slope slows down the rate of distance change in long jumps.

  10. Alcohol harm reduction in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herring, Rachel; Betsy, Thom; Beccaria, Franca

    2010-01-01

    The EMCDDA’s 10th scientific monograph, entitled Harm reduction: evidence, impacts and challenges provides a comprehensive overview of the harm reduction field. Part I of the monograph looks back at the emergence of harm reduction approaches and their diffusion, and explores the concept from diff...

  11. Harm and the Boundaries of Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGivern, Patrick; Sorial, Sarah

    2017-08-01

    What is the relationship between harm and disease? Discussions of the relationship between harm and disease typically suffer from two shortcomings. First, they offer relatively little analysis of the concept of harm itself, focusing instead on examples of clear cases of harm such as death and dismemberment. This makes it difficult to evaluate such accounts in borderline cases, where the putative harms are less severe. Second, they assume that harm-based accounts of disease must be understood normatively rather than naturalistically, in the sense that they are inherently value based. This makes such accounts vulnerable to more general objections of normative accounts of disease. Here we draw on an influential account of harm from the philosophy of law to develop a harm-based account of disease that overcomes both of these shortcomings. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press, on behalf of the Journal of Medicine and Philosophy Inc. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. The Long-Term Effectiveness of a Selective, Personality-Targeted Prevention Program in Reducing Alcohol Use and Related Harms: A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Nicola C.; Conrod, Patricia J.; Slade, Tim; Carragher, Natacha; Champion, Katrina E.; Barrett, Emma L.; Kelly, Erin V.; Nair, Natasha K.; Stapinski, Lexine; Teesson, Maree

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study investigated the long-term effectiveness of Preventure, a selective personality-targeted prevention program, in reducing the uptake of alcohol, harmful use of alcohol, and alcohol-related harms over a 3-year period. Methods: A cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted to assess the effectiveness of Preventure.…

  13. Will growth in cryptomarket drug buying increase the harms of illicit drugs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldridge, Judith; Stevens, Alex; Barratt, Monica J

    2018-05-01

    Cryptomarkets-on-line, anonymous market-places for illicit goods and services that specialize mainly in drugs-account for a small but rapidly growing share of the illicit drug market in many countries. Policy responses so far are based generally on the assumption that their rise will only increase drug harms. In this contribution for debate, we question this assumption. We provide a narrative review of the emerging literature connected to drug cryptomarkets. We use MacCoun & Reuter's formula to understand the effect of population-level increases in use on total harm as depending on the level of harm associated with each unit of use. We then consider the potential for cryptomarkets to increase or decrease the harms and benefits related to each unit of drug use, with specific attention to the quality of drugs sold and the non-drug-related harms and benefits for customers. It is likely that cryptomarkets will increase both the amount and the range of substances that are sold. However, we argue that the effects on harms will depend upon whether cryptomarkets also increase the quality and safety of products that are sold, provide harm-reducing information to consumers and reduce transactional conflict involved in drug purchasing. There is an emerging and rapidly growing evidence base connected to the macro and micro harms and benefits of cryptomarkets for drug users. Future researchers should use appropriately matched comparative designs to establish more firmly the differential harms and benefits of sourcing drugs both on- and off-line. While it is unlikely that the on-line drug trade can be eradicated completely, cryptomarkets will respond to regulation and enforcement in ways that have complex, and sometimes unanticipated, effects on both harms and benefits. © 2017 The Authors. Addiction published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society for the Study of Addiction.

  14. Socioeconomic status as an effect modifier of alcohol consumption and harm: analysis of linked cohort data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katikireddi, Srinivasa Vittal; Whitley, Elise; Lewsey, Jim; Gray, Linsay; Leyland, Alastair H

    2017-06-01

    Alcohol-related mortality and morbidity are high in socioeconomically disadvantaged populations compared with individuals from advantaged areas. It is unclear if this increased harm reflects differences in alcohol consumption between these socioeconomic groups, reverse causation (ie, downward social selection for high-risk drinkers), or a greater risk of harm in individuals of low socioeconomic status compared with those of higher status after similar consumption. We aimed to investigate whether the harmful effects of alcohol differ by socioeconomic status, accounting for alcohol consumption and other health-related factors. The Scottish Health Surveys are record-linked cross-sectional surveys representative of the adult population of Scotland. We obtained baseline demographics and data for alcohol consumption (units per week and binge drinking) from Scottish Health Surveys done in 1995, 1998, 2003, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011, and 2012. We matched these data to records for deaths, admissions, and prescriptions. The primary outcome was alcohol-attributable admission or death. The relation between alcohol-attributable harm and socioeconomic status was investigated for four measures (education level, social class, household income, and area-based deprivation) using Cox proportional hazards models. The potential for alcohol consumption and other risk factors (including smoking and body-mass index [BMI]) mediating social patterning was explored in separate regression models. Reverse causation was tested by comparing change in area deprivation over time. 50 236 participants (21 777 men and 28 459 women) were included in the analytical sample, with 429 986 person-years of follow-up. Low socioeconomic status was associated consistently with strikingly raised alcohol-attributable harms, including after adjustment for weekly consumption, binge drinking, BMI, and smoking. Evidence was noted of effect modification; for example, relative to light drinkers living in

  15. Radiation sterilization of harmful algae in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byung Chull An; Jae-Sung Kim; Seung Sik Lee; Shyamkumar Barampuram; Eun Mi Lee; Byung Yeoup Chung

    2007-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Objective: Drinking water, water used in food production and for irrigation, water for fish farming, waste water, surface water, and recreational water have been recently recognized as a vector for the transmission of harmful micro-organisms. The human and animal harmful algae is a waterborne risk to public health and economy because the algae are ubiquitous and persistent in water and wastewater, not completely removed by physical-chemical treatment processes, and relatively resistant to chemical disinfection. Gamma and electron beam radiation technology is of growing in the water industry since it was demonstrated that gamma and electron beam radiation is very effective against harmful algae. Materials and Methods: Harmful algae (Scenedesmus quadricauda(Turpin) Brebisson 1835 (AG10003), Chlorella vulgaris Beijerinck 1896 (AG30007) and Chlamydomonas sp. (AG10061)) were distributed from Korean collection for type cultures (KCTC). Strains were cultured aerobically in Allen's medium at 25□ and 300 umol/m2s for 1 week using bioreactor. We investigated the disinfection efficiency of harmful algae irradiated with gamma (0.05 to 10 kGy for 30 min) and electron beam (1 to 19 kGy for 5 sec) rays. Results and Conclusion: We investigated the disinfection efficiency of harmful algae irradiated with gamma and electron beam rays of 50 to 19000 Gy. We established the optimum sterilization condition which use the gamma and electron beam radiation. Gamma ray disinfected harmful algae at 400 Gy for 30 min. Also, electron beam disinfected at 1000 Gy for 5 sec. This alternative disinfection practice had powerful disinfection efficiency. Hence, the multi-barrier approach for drinking water treatment in which a combination of various disinfectants and filtration technologies are applied for removal and inactivation of different microbial pathogens will guarantee a lower risk of microbial contamination.

  16. Is power-space a continuum? Distance effect during power judgments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Tianjiao; Zhu, Lei

    2015-12-01

    Despite the increasing evidence suggesting that power processing can activate vertical space schema, it still remains unclear whether this power-space is dichotomic or continuous. Here we tested the nature of the power-space by the distance effect, a continuous property of space cognition. In two experiments, participants were required to judge the power of one single word (Experiment 1) or compare the power of two words presented in pairs (Experiment 2). The power distance was indexed by the absolute difference of power ratings. Results demonstrated that reaction time decreased with the power distance, whereas accuracy increased with the power distance. The findings indicated that different levels of power were presented as different vertical heights, implying that there was a common mechanism underlying space and power cognition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... toxins that may harm or kill fish and marine animals. Humans who eat shellfish contaminated with HAB toxins ... toxins that may harm or kill fish and marine animals. Humans who eat shellfish containing toxins produced by ...

  18. Adolescent self-harm and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jixiang; Song, Jianwei; Wang, Jing

    2016-12-01

    This study aims to define the characteristics of adolescents who have engaged in self-harm behavior and ascertain the risk factors. From January 2013 to January 2014, 4,176 adolescents from senior middle schools in Linyi, China, were administered four questionnaire surveys to ascertain the following: incidence of self-harm behavior regarding the frequency of different self-harm behaviors by group (never/one to five times/greater than five times in the last 6 months) and then comparing the self-harm behavior of the different subgroups; symptom self-check, comparing the differences between the adolescents with self-harm behavior and without in nine subscales (somatization, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, interpersonal sensitivity, depression, anxiety, hostility, fear, paranoid, and psychosis); Adolescent Self-Rating Life Events Check List scores; and Egna Minnenav Barndoms Uppfostran (EMBU) scores. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine the risk factors of self-harm in adolescents. The incidence of adolescent self-harm was 27.60%; the occurrence of adolescent self-harm was closely related to their mental health status, stressful life events, and EMBU. Being female, an urban student, or an only child; having poor school performance or experiences of stressful life events, harsh parenting styles, or excessive interference; and poor mental health were the risk factors for adolescent self-harm. The incidence of adolescent self-harm was high, and their mental health status, stressful life events, and EMBU affected the occurrence of adolescent self-harm, which is an issue that needs greater attention. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  19. Analytic processing of distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dopkins, Stephen; Galyer, Darin

    2018-01-01

    How does a human observer extract from the distance between two frontal points the component corresponding to an axis of a rectangular reference frame? To find out we had participants classify pairs of small circles, varying on the horizontal and vertical axes of a computer screen, in terms of the horizontal distance between them. A response signal controlled response time. The error rate depended on the irrelevant vertical as well as the relevant horizontal distance between the test circles with the relevant distance effect being larger than the irrelevant distance effect. The results implied that the horizontal distance between the test circles was imperfectly extracted from the overall distance between them. The results supported an account, derived from the Exemplar Based Random Walk model (Nosofsky & Palmieri, 1997), under which distance classification is based on the overall distance between the test circles, with relevant distance being extracted from overall distance to the extent that the relevant and irrelevant axes are differentially weighted so as to reduce the contribution of irrelevant distance to overall distance. The results did not support an account, derived from the General Recognition Theory (Ashby & Maddox, 1994), under which distance classification is based on the relevant distance between the test circles, with the irrelevant distance effect arising because a test circle's perceived location on the relevant axis depends on its location on the irrelevant axis, and with relevant distance being extracted from overall distance to the extent that this dependency is absent. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Group problem-solving skills training for self-harm: randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAuliffe, Carmel; McLeavey, Breda C; Fitzgerald, Tony; Corcoran, Paul; Carroll, Bernie; Ryan, Louise; O'Keeffe, Brian; Fitzgerald, Eva; Hickey, Portia; O'Regan, Mary; Mulqueen, Jillian; Arensman, Ella

    2014-01-01

    Rates of self-harm are high and have recently increased. This trend and the repetitive nature of self-harm pose a significant challenge to mental health services. To determine the efficacy of a structured group problem-solving skills training (PST) programme as an intervention approach for self-harm in addition to treatment as usual (TAU) as offered by mental health services. A total of 433 participants (aged 18-64 years) were randomly assigned to TAU plus PST or TAU alone. Assessments were carried out at baseline and at 6-week and 6-month follow-up and repeated hospital-treated self-harm was ascertained at 12-month follow-up. The treatment groups did not differ in rates of repeated self-harm at 6-week, 6-month and 12-month follow-up. Both treatment groups showed significant improvements in psychological and social functioning at follow-up. Only one measure (needing and receiving practical help from those closest to them) showed a positive treatment effect at 6-week (P = 0.004) and 6-month (P = 0.01) follow-up. Repetition was not associated with waiting time in the PST group. This brief intervention for self-harm is no more effective than treatment as usual. Further work is required to establish whether a modified, more intensive programme delivered sooner after the index episode would be effective.

  1. Pollutants in drinking water - sources, harmful effects and removal procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qadeer, R.

    2005-01-01

    The underground water resources available for human consumption are being continuously contaminated by the natural sources and anthropogenic activities. The pollutants include toxic microorganism, inorganic and organic chemicals and radionuclide etc. This is an acute problem in our country, where free style way of disposal of industrial effluents into the natural water bodies contaminates the surface and ground water. These contaminants make their way into human body through contaminated drinking water, which leads to the malfunctioning of the body organs. Details of some pollutants present in drinking water, their source and harmful effects on human beings are reviewed in this communication Merits and demerits of methods used to remove the pollutants from drinking water are also discussed. (author)

  2. Recent self-harm and psychological measures in the emergency department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason R. Randall

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of self-harm risk is a common, difficult, and perplexing task for many physicians, especially those working in emergency departments (ED. Attempts have been made to determine objective methods for assessing patients with suicidal ideation or self-harm though there is still a lack of knowledge about objective assessments of these patients. A study was conducted where 181 suicidal patients were enrolled in two EDs within the city of Edmonton, Canada. Initial interviews were conducted in the ED which collected basic demographics and medical history as well as psychometric measures including the Beck Hopelessness Scale, Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, Brief Symptom Inventory, Drug Abuse Screening Test 10, and CAGE questionnaire. The results of these measures were compared between those who presented to the ED with self-harm and those who presented only with ideation. Those with recent self-harm scored lower on many of the scales and subscales of distress and impulsivity measured compared to those with no recent self-harm. Possible explanations for this difference include differences in psychological traits between the two groups and possible cathartic effects of self-harm. The lower scores obtained by those that present with self-harm may complicate attempts to use psychometric tools to determine future self-harm risk.

  3. Impacts of licensed premises trading hour policies on alcohol-related harms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Jo-An; Prodan, Ante; Livingston, Michael; Knowles, Dylan; O'Donnell, Eloise; Room, Robin; Indig, Devon; Page, Andrew; McDonnell, Geoff; Wiggers, John

    2018-07-01

    Evaluations of alcohol policy changes demonstrate that restriction of trading hours of both 'on'- and 'off'-licence venues can be an effective means of reducing rates of alcohol-related harm. Despite this, the effects of different trading hour policy options over time, accounting for different contexts and demographic characteristics, and the common co-occurrence of other harm reduction strategies in trading hour policy initiatives, are difficult to estimate. The aim of this study was to use dynamic simulation modelling to compare estimated impacts over time of a range of trading hour policy options on various indicators of acute alcohol-related harm. An agent-based model of alcohol consumption in New South Wales, Australia was developed using existing research evidence, analysis of available data and a structured approach to incorporating expert opinion. Five policy scenarios were simulated, including restrictions to trading hours of on-licence venues and extensions to trading hours of bottle shops. The impact of the scenarios on four measures of alcohol-related harm were considered: total acute harms, alcohol-related violence, emergency department (ED) presentations and hospitalizations. Simulation of a 3 a.m. (rather than 5 a.m.) closing time resulted in an estimated 12.3 ± 2.4% reduction in total acute alcohol-related harms, a 7.9 ± 0.8% reduction in violence, an 11.9 ± 2.1% reduction in ED presentations and a 9.5 ± 1.8% reduction in hospitalizations. Further reductions were achieved simulating a 1 a.m. closing time, including a 17.5 ± 1.1% reduction in alcohol-related violence. Simulated extensions to bottle shop trading hours resulted in increases in rates of all four measures of harm, although most of the effects came from increasing operating hours from 10 p.m. to 11 p.m. An agent-based simulation model suggests that restricting trading hours of licensed venues reduces rates of alcohol-related harm and extending trading hours of bottle

  4. Effects of alcohol retail privatization on excessive alcohol consumption and related harms: a community guide systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Robert A; Middleton, Jennifer Cook; Elder, Randy; Brewer, Robert; Fielding, Jonathan; Naimi, Timothy S; Toomey, Traci L; Chattopadhyay, Sajal; Lawrence, Briana; Campbell, Carla Alexia

    2012-04-01

    Excessive alcohol consumption is the third-leading cause of preventable death in the U.S. This systematic review is one in a series exploring effectiveness of interventions to reduce alcohol-related harms. The focus of this review was on studies evaluating the effects of the privatization of alcohol retail sales on excessive alcohol consumption and related harms. Using Community Guide methods for conducting systematic reviews, a systematic search was conducted in multiple databases up to December 2010. Reference lists of acquired articles and review papers were also scanned for additional studies. A total of 17 studies assessed the impact of privatizing retail alcohol sales on the per capita alcohol consumption, a well-established proxy for excessive alcohol consumption; 9 of these studies also examined the effects of privatization on the per capita consumption of alcoholic beverages that were not privatized. One cohort study in Finland assessed the impact of privatizing the sales of medium-strength beer (MSB) on self-reported alcohol consumption. One study in Sweden assessed the impact of re-monopolizing the sale of MSB on alcohol-related harms. Across the 17 studies, there was a 44.4% median increase in the per capita sales of privatized beverages in locations that privatized retail alcohol sales (interquartile interval: 4.5% to 122.5%). During the same time period, sales of nonprivatized alcoholic beverages decreased by a median of 2.2% (interquartile interval: -6.6% to -0.1%). Privatizing the sale of MSB in Finland was associated with a mean increase in alcohol consumption of 1.7 liters of pure alcohol per person per year. Re-monopolization of the sale of MSB in Sweden was associated with a general reduction in alcohol-related harms. According to Community Guide rules of evidence, there is strong evidence that privatization of retail alcohol sales leads to increases in excessive alcohol consumption. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. A safer alternative: Cannabis substitution as harm reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Nicholas; Sales, Paloma; Averill, Sheigla; Murphy, Fiona; Sato, Sye-Ok; Murphy, Sheigla

    2015-11-01

    Substitution is operationalised as a conscious choice made by users to use one drug instead of, or in conjunction with another based on: perceived safety, level of addiction potential, effectiveness in relieving symptoms, access and level of acceptance. Harm reduction is a set of strategies that aim to minimise problems associated with drug use while recognising that for some users, abstinence may be neither a realistic nor a desirable goal. In this paper, we aim for deeper understandings of older adult cannabis users' beliefs and substitution practices as part of the harm reduction framework. We present selected findings from our qualitative study of Baby Boomer (born 1946-1964) marijuana users in the San Francisco Bay Area. Although the sample consisted of primary cannabis users, many had personal experience with other drugs throughout their lifetimes. Data collection consisted of an audio-recorded, semi-structured in-depth life history interview followed by a questionnaire and health survey. Qualitative interviews were analysed to discover users' harm reduction beliefs and cannabis substitution practices. Study participants described using cannabis as a safer alternative for alcohol, illicit drugs and pharmaceuticals based on their perceptions of less adverse side effects, low-risk for addiction and greater effectiveness at relieving symptoms, such as chronic pain. Cannabis substitution can be an effective harm reduction method for those who are unable or unwilling to stop using drugs completely. More research is needed on cannabis as a safer alternative. © 2015 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  6. Cross-Border Electronic Commerce : Distance Effects and Express Delivery in European Union Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.Y. Kim (Thai Young); R. Dekker (Rommert); C. Heij (Christiaan)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThis empirical study examines distance effects on cross-border electronic commerce and in particular the importance of express delivery in reducing the time dimension of distance. E-commerce provides suppliers with a range of opportunities to reduce distance as perceived by online

  7. Potential Harmful Effects of PM2.5 on Occurrence and Progression of Acute Coronary Syndrome: Epidemiology, Mechanisms, and Prevention Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Meng

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The harmful effects of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of <2.5 µm (PM2.5 and its association with acute coronary syndrome (ACS has gained increased attention in recent years. Significant associations between PM2.5 and ACS have been found in most studies, although sometimes only observed in specific subgroups. PM2.5-induced detrimental effects and ACS arise through multiple mechanisms, including endothelial injury, an enhanced inflammatory response, oxidative stress, autonomic dysfunction, and mitochondria damage as well as genotoxic effects. These effects can lead to a series of physiopathological changes including coronary artery atherosclerosis, hypertension, an imbalance between energy supply and demand to heart tissue, and a systemic hypercoagulable state. Effective strategies to prevent the harmful effects of PM2.5 include reducing pollution sources of PM2.5 and population exposure to PM2.5, and governments and organizations publicizing the harmful effects of PM2.5 and establishing air quality standards for PM2.5. PM2.5 exposure is a significant risk factor for ACS, and effective strategies with which to prevent both susceptible and healthy populations from an increased risk for ACS have important clinical significance in the prevention and treatment of ACS.

  8. Stock Market Fluctuations and Self-Harm among Children and Adolescents in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Wilfred Hing-Sang; Lee, James Chun-Yin; Ho, Frederick Ka-Wing; Li, Tim Man-Ho; Ip, Patrick; Chow, Chun-Bong

    2017-06-09

    Although a few studies investigated the impact of stock market fluctuations on population health, the question of whether stock market fluctuations have an impact on self-harm in children and adolescents remain unanswered. This study therefore investigated the association between stock market fluctuations and self-harm among children and adolescents in Hong Kong. Daily self-harm attendance records were retrieved from all 18 local Accident and Emergency Departments (AED) from 2001 to 2012. 4931 children and adolescents who committed self-harm were included. The results indicated positive correlation between daily change in stock market index, Hang Seng Index (∇HSI, per 300 points), and daily self-harm incident risk of children and adolescents, without time lag between the two. The incident risk ratio for ∇HSI was 1.09 ( p = 0.0339) in children and 1.06 ( p = 0.0246) in adolescents. Importantly, non-trading days were found to impose significant protective effect in both groups against self-harm risk. Our results showed that stock market fluctuations were related to self-harm behaviors in children and adolescents. Parents and professionals should be educated about the potential harm of stock market fluctuations and the importance of effective parenting in reducing self-harm among children and adolescents.

  9. Digital Self-Harm Among Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patchin, Justin W; Hinduja, Sameer

    2017-12-01

    Despite increased media and scholarly attention to digital forms of aggression directed toward adolescents by their peers (e.g., cyberbullying), very little research has explored digital aggression directed toward oneself. "Digital self-harm" is the anonymous online posting, sending, or otherwise sharing of hurtful content about oneself. The current study examined the extent of digital self-harm among adolescents. Survey data were obtained in 2016 from a nationally representative sample of 5,593 American middle and high school students (12-17 years old). Logistic regression analysis was used to identify correlates of participation in digital self-harm. Qualitative responses were also reviewed to better understand motivations for digital self-harm. About 6% of students have anonymously posted something online about themselves that was mean. Males were significantly more likely to report participation (7.1% compared to 5.3%). Several statistically significant correlates of involvement in digital self-harm were identified, including sexual orientation, experience with school bullying and cyberbullying, drug use, participation in various forms of adolescent deviance, and depressive symptoms. Digital self-harm is a new problem that demands additional scholarly attention. A deeper inquiry as to the motivations behind this behavior, and how it correlates to offline self-harm and suicidal ideation, can help direct mental health professionals toward informed prevention approaches. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The Effect of Professor's Attractiveness on Distance Learning Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jeanny; Tomasi, Stella D.

    2015-01-01

    Technology enabled learning is becoming more popular and pervasive in education. While the effectiveness of distance learning versus traditional classroom education is strongly debated, human factors such as students' perception of their professors can influence their desire to learn. This research examines the perceptual effect of attractive…

  11. How Teacher Turnover Harms Student Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronfeldt, Matthew; Loeb, Susanna; Wyckoff, James

    2013-01-01

    Researchers and policymakers often assume that teacher turnover harms student achievement, though recent studies suggest this may not be the case. Using a unique identification strategy that employs school-by-grade level turnover and two classes of fixed-effects models, this study estimates the effects of teacher turnover on over 850,000 New York…

  12. Deprivation as un-experienced harm?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keerus, Külli; Gjerris, Mickey; Röcklinsberg, Helena

    2017-01-01

    Tom Regan encapsulated his principle of harm as a prima facie direct duty not to harm experiencing subjects of a life. However, his consideration of harm as deprivation, one example of which is loss of freedom, can easily be interpreted as a harm, which may not be experienced by its subject....... This creates a gap between Regan’s criterion for moral status and his account of what our duties are. However, in comparison with three basic paradigms of welfare known in nonhuman animal welfare science, Regan’s understanding coheres with a modified version of a feelings-based paradigm: not only the immediate...... feelings of satisfaction, but also future opportunities to have such feelings, must be taken into account. Such an interpretation is compatible with Regan’s understanding of harm as deprivation. The potential source of confusion, however, lies in Regan’s own possible argumentative mistakes....

  13. Predictors for repeat self-harm and suicide among older people within 12 months of a self-harm presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Gary; Foster, Gisele; de Beer, Wayne; Gee, Susan; Hawkes, Tracey; Rimkeit, Sally; Tan, Yu Mwee; Merry, Sally; Sundram, Frederick

    2017-08-01

    A past history of self-harm is a significant risk factor for suicide in older people. The aims of this study are to (i) characterize older people who present with self-harm to emergency departments (EDs); and (ii) determine the predictors for repeat self-harm and suicide. Demographic and clinical data were retrospectively collected on older people (age 65+ years), who presented to seven EDs in New Zealand following an episode of self-harm between 1st July 2010 and 30th June 2013. In addition, 12-month follow-up information on repeat self-harm and suicide was collected. The sample included 339 older people (55.2% female) with an age range of 65-96 years (mean age = 75.0; SD = 7.6). Overdose (68.7%) was the most common method of self-harm. 76.4% of the self-harm cases were classified as suicide attempts. Perceived physical illness (47.8%) and family discord (34.5%) were the most common stressors. 12.7% of older people repeated self-harm and 2.1% died by suicide within 12 months. Older people who had a positive blood alcohol reading (OR = 3.87, 95% Cl = 1.35-11.12, p = 0.012) and were already with mental health services at the index self-harm (OR = 2.73, 95% Cl = 1.20-6.25, p = 0.047) were more likely to repeat self-harm/suicide within 12 months. Older people who self-harm are at very high risk of repeat self-harm and suicide. Screening and assessment for alcohol use disorders should be routinely performed following a self-harm presentation, along with providing structured psychological treatment as an adjunct to pharmacological treatment for depression and interventions to improve the person's resilience resources.

  14. Characteristics of Self-Harm Behaviour among Identified Self-Harming Youth in Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenville, Jeffrey; Goodman, Deborah; Macpherson, Alison K.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe deliberate self-harming (DSH) characteristics in a child-welfare population identified as having threatened or completed self-harm. Secondary data from 621 serious occurrence reports (SOR) that documented 2004-2007 DSH incidents and DSH threats with 252 Canadian youth in care (Y-INC) of the Children's…

  15. Neural correlates of the numerical distance effect in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe eMussolin

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In number comparison tasks, the performance is better when the distance between the two numbers to compare increases. During development this so-called numerical distance effect decreases with age and the neuroanatomical correlates of these age-related changes are poorly known. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we recorded the brain activity changes in children aged from 8 to 14 years while they performed a number comparison task on pairs of Arabic digits and a control colour comparison task on non-numerical symbols. On the one hand, we observed developmental changes in the recruitment of frontal regions and the left intraparietal sulcus, with lower activation as the age increased. On the other hand, we found that a behavioural index of selective sensitivity to the numerical distance effect was positively correlated with higher brain activity in a right lateralized occipito-temporo-parietal network including the intraparietal sulcus. This leads us to propose that the left intraparietal sulcus would be engaged in the refinement of cognitive processes involved in number comparison during development, while the right intraparietal sulcus would underlie the semantic representation of numbers and its activation would be mainly affected by the numerical proximity between them.

  16. Electronic cigarette, effective or harmful for quitting smoking and respiratory health: A quantitative review papers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Heydari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In recent years, electronic cigarettes (ECs have been heavily advertised as an alternative smoking device as well as a possible cessation method. We aimed to review all published scientific literature pertaining to ECs and to present a simple conclusion about their effects for quitting smoking and respiratory health. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study with a search of PubMed, limited to English publications upto September 2014. The total number of papers which had ECs in its title and their conclusions positive or negative regarding ECs effects were computed. The number of negative papers was subtracted from the number of positive ones to make a score. Results: Of the 149 articles, 137 (91.9% were accessible, of which 68 did not have inclusion criteria. In the 69 remaining articles, 24 studies supported ECs and 45 considered these to be harmful. Finally, based on this evidence, the score of ECs (computed result with positive minus negative was −21. Conclusion: Evidence to suggest that ECs may be effective and advisable for quitting smoking or a safe alternative for smoking is lacking and may instead harm the respiratory system. However, further studies are needed.

  17. The Effect of Psychological Distance on Children's Reasoning about Future Preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wendy S C; Atance, Cristina M

    2016-01-01

    Young preschool-aged children often have difficulty thinking about the future, but tend to reason better about another person's future than their own. This benefit may reflect psychological distance from one's own emotions, beliefs, and states that may bias thinking. In adults, reasoning for others who are more socially distant (i.e., dissimilar, unfamiliar other) is associated with wiser and more adaptive reasoning. The current studies examined whether this effect of social distance could be demonstrated in young children's future thinking. In a future preferences task, 3- and 4-year-olds were shown 5 pairs of child and adult items and selected which ones they would prefer when grown-up. Children answered for themselves, a socially close peer, or a socially distant peer. Social distance was manipulated by varying similarity in Study 1 and familiarity in Study 2. In Study 1, reasoning for similar and dissimilar peers was significantly more accurate than reasoning for the self, but reasoning for similar and dissimilar peers did not differ. In Study 2, scores showed a step-wise increase from self, familiar peer, to unfamiliar peer, but only reasoning for an unfamiliar peer was significantly better more accurate than reasoning for the self. Reasoning for a familiar peer did not differ from reasoning for the self or for an unfamiliar peer. These results suggest that, like adults, children benefit from psychological distance when reasoning for others, but are less sensitive to degrees of social distance, showing no graded effects on performance in Study 1 and weak effects in Study 2. Stronger adult-like effects may only emerge with increasing age and development of other socio-cognitive skills.

  18. Non-suicidal reasons for self-harm: A systematic review of self-reported accounts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmondson, Amanda J; Brennan, Cathy A; House, Allan O

    2016-02-01

    Self-harm is a major public health problem yet current healthcare provision is widely regarded as inadequate. One of the barriers to effective healthcare is the lack of a clear understanding of the functions self-harm may serve for the individual. The aim of this review is to identify first-hand accounts of the reasons for self-harm from the individual's perspective. A systematic review of the literature reporting first-hand accounts of the reasons for self-harm other than intent to die. A thematic analysis and 'best fit' framework synthesis was undertaken to classify the responses. The most widely researched non-suicidal reasons for self-harm were dealing with distress and exerting interpersonal influence. However, many first-hand accounts included reasons such as self-validation, and self-harm to achieve a personal sense of mastery, which suggests individuals thought there were positive or adaptive functions of the act not based only on its social effects. Associations with different sub-population characteristics or with the method of harm were not available from most studies included in the analysis. Our review identified a number of themes that are relatively neglected in discussions about self-harm, which we summarised as self-harm as a positiveexperience and defining the self. These self-reported "positive" reasons may be important in understanding and responding especially to repeated acts of self-harm. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of rising CO₂ on the harmful cyanobacterium Microcystis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sandrini, G.

    2016-01-01

    The waters of our planet are full with cyanobacteria that use CO₂, water and light for photosynthesis. Cyanobacteria form the base of the food web and have a strong impact on all life on Earth. Yet, not all cyanobacteria are beneficial. Harmful cyanobacteria (also known as ‘blue-green algae’) can

  20. Parental restriction reduces the harmful effects of in-bedroom electronic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, King-Wa; Ho, Frederick Ka Wing; Rao, Nirmala; Jiang, Fan; Li, Sophia Ling; Lee, Tatia Mei-Chun; Chan, Sophelia Hoi-Shan; Yung, Ada Wing-Yan; Young, Mary Eming; Ip, Patrick

    2017-12-01

    To investigate whether school readiness could be affected by placing electronic devices (EDs) in children's bedroom and whether the relationship was moderated by parental restriction and family socioeconomic status (SES). This is a cross-sectional study with bedroom ED placement and parental restriction reported by parents. Multiple linear regressions were used to test the relationship between school readiness and ED placement. Multiple regression with interaction terms were used to test whether the effect was consistent with and without parental restriction. Kindergartens randomly selected from two districts of different socioeconomic backgrounds in Hong Kong, China. 556 young children attending the third year of kindergarten. Children's school readiness was rated by teachers using the Chinese Early Development Instrument. 556 preschoolers (mean age 5.46; 51.8% girls) from 20 kindergartens participated in this study. About 30% of parents placed at least one ED in their children's bedroom. After controlling for sex and SES, the placement of television in the bedroom was associated with lower overall school readiness (β -1.11, 95% CI -1.80 to -0.42) and the placement of game console was associated with lower social competence (β-0.94, 95% CI -1.74 to -0.15). Such harmful effect was more prominent among lower SES families and could be partially alleviated with parental restriction. ED placement in children's bedroom was associated with lower school readiness, particularly among lower SES families. Parental restriction might help to alleviate the harm. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  1. Electrolytic corrosion of water pipeline system in the remote distance from stray currents—Case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Zakowski​

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Case study of corrosion failure of urban water supply system caused by the harmful effects of stray currents was presented. The failure occurred at a site distant from the sources of these currents namely the tramway and railway traction systems. Diagnosis revealed the stray currents flow to pipeline over a remote distance of 800/1000 m from the point of failure. At the point of failure stray currents flowed from the pipeline to the ground through external insulation defects, causing the process of electrolytic corrosion of the metal. Long distance between the affected section of the pipeline and the sources of stray currents excludes the typical protection against stray currents in the form of electrical polarized drainage. Corrosion protection at this point can be achieved by using the earthing electrodes made of magnesium, which will also provide cathodic current protection as galvanic anode.

  2. Psychological distance modulates the performance of the embodiment effect: Evidence from behavioral and ERP studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hanlin; Mo, Lei; Luo, Qiuling; Xiang, Yanhui; Hu, Yunyang

    2016-04-01

    Research on embodied cognition suggests the ubiquity of embodiment effects during interaction with the environment. However, construal level theory (CLT) holds that these effects could be moderated by the psychological distance between self and objects and are attenuated by higher-level mental construal. The current research explored the "action-evaluation" embodiment effect in the evaluation of words located at different spatial distances. Results showed that for "short-distance" words, the response model conflicted with this embodiment effect slower reaction time and induced a larger P2 component than the opposite response model. However, evaluation of "long-distance" words was not significantly influenced by the response model. The results are consistent with CLT and suggest that the action-evaluation embodiment effect influences the coding and execution of evaluating actions, but only for stimuli at close psychological distance locations. © 2015 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  3. Distancing, not embracing, the Distancing-Embracing model of art reception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    Despite denials in the target article, the Distancing-Embracing model appeals to compensatory ideas in explaining the appeal of artworks that elicit negative affect. The model also appeals to the deflationary effects of psychological distancing. Having pointed to the famous rejection in the 1960s of the view that aesthetic experience involves psychological distancing, I suggest that "distance" functions here as a weak metaphor that cannot sustain the explanatory burden the theory demands of it.

  4. Effect of marital distance on birth weight and length of offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozieł Sławomir

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Marital distance (MD, the geographical distance between birthplaces of spouses, is considered an agent favouring occurrence of heterosis and can be used as a measure of its level. Heterosis itself is a phenomenon of hybrid vigour and seems to be an important factor regulating human growth and development. The main aim of the study is to examine potential effects of MD on birth weight and length of offspring, controlling for socioeconomic status (SES, mother’s age and birth order. Birth weight (2562 boys and 2572 girls and length (2526 boys, 2542 girls of children born in Ostrowiec Swietokrzyski (Poland in 1980, 1983, 1985 and 1988 were recorded during cross-sectional surveys carried out between 1994-1999. Data regarding the socio-demographic variables of families were provided by the parents. Analysis of covariance showed that MD significantly affected both birth weight and length, allowing for sex, birth order, mother’s age and SES of family. For both sexes, a greater marital distance was associated with a higher birth weight and a longer birth length. Our results support the hypothesis that a greater geographical distance between the birth places of parents may contribute to the heterosis effects in offspring. Better birth outcomes may be one of the manifestations of these effects.

  5. Research on the Ordered Mesoporous Silica for Tobacco Harm Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Y Li, Z.; Ding, J. X.; Hu, Z. J.; Liu, Z.; Zhou, G.; Huang, T. H.

    2017-12-01

    For reducting tobacco harm, this paper prepared an ordered mesoporous silica by using triblock copolymer Pluronic P123 as template. The property of this material was characterized by the X-ray scattering spectrum(XRD), Transmission electron microscopy(TEM), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Nitrogen adsorption/desorption. Then this ordered mesoporous silica was added into the cigarette filter in order to researching its effect of cigarette harm index. The result shows that the feature of SBA-15 was grain morphology, ordered arrangement, tubular porous 2-D hexagonal structure. The application of SBA-15 in cigarette filter can selectively reduce harmful components in cigarette smoke such as crotonaldehyde, hydrogen cyanide, benzo pyrene and tar. The synthesized SBA-15 could properly reduce cigarette harm index.

  6. The Effects of Computer-assisted and Distance Learning of Geometric Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omer Faruk Sozcu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of computer-assisted and distance learning of geometric modeling and computer aided geometric design are studied. It was shown that computer algebra systems and dynamic geometric environments can be considered as excellent tools for teaching mathematical concepts of mentioned areas, and distance education technologies would be indispensable for consolidation of successfully passed topics

  7. Helping Self-Harming Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selekman, Matthew D.

    2009-01-01

    Approximately 14 to 17 percent of adolescents today self-harm, deliberately cutting, burning, or bruising themselves. Most self-harming adolescents use the behavior as a coping strategy to get immediate relief from emotional distress or other stressors in their lives. Stressors include fitting in with peers, activity and homework overload, fears…

  8. Evaluation of strategies to communicate harmful and potentially harmful constituent (HPHC) information through cigarette package inserts: a discrete choice experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salloum, Ramzi G; Louviere, Jordan J; Getz, Kayla R; Islam, Farahnaz; Anshari, Dien; Cho, Yoojin; O'Connor, Richard J; Hammond, David; Thrasher, James F

    2017-07-13

    The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has regulatory authority to use inserts to communicate with consumers about harmful and potentially harmful constituents (HPHCs) in tobacco products; however, little is known about the most effective manner for presenting HPHC information. In a discrete choice experiment, participants evaluated eight choice sets, each of which showed two cigarette packages from four different brands and tar levels (high vs low), accompanied by an insert that included between-subject manipulations (ie, listing of HPHCs vs grouping by disease outcome and numeric values ascribed to HPHCs vs no numbers) and within-subject manipulations (ie, 1 of 4 warning topics; statement linking an HPHC with disease vs statement with no HPHC link). For each choice set, participants were asked: (1) which package is more harmful and (2) which motivates them to not smoke; each with a 'no difference' option. Alternative-specific logit models regressed choice on attribute levels. 1212 participants were recruited from an online consumer panel (725 18-29-year-old smokers and susceptible non-smokers and 487 30-64-year-old smokers). Participants were more likely to endorse high-tar products as more harmful than low-tar products, with a greater effect when numeric HPHC information was present. Compared with a simple warning statement, the statement linking HPHCs with disease encouraged quit motivation. Numeric HPHC information on inserts appears to produce misunderstandings that some cigarettes are less harmful than others. Furthermore, brief narratives that link HPHCs to smoking-related disease may promote cessation versus communications that do not explicitly link HPHCs to disease. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  9. Quantifying the effects of promoting smokeless tobacco as a harm reduction strategy in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejia, Adrienne B; Ling, Pamela M; Glantz, Stanton A

    2010-08-01

    Snus (a form of smokeless tobacco) is less dangerous than cigarettes. Some health professionals argue that snus should be promoted as a component of a harm reduction strategy, while others oppose this approach. Major US tobacco companies (RJ Reynolds and Philip Morris) are marketing snus products as cigarette brand line extensions. The population effects of smokeless tobacco promotion will depend on the combined effects of changes in individual risk with population changes in tobacco use patterns. To quantitatively evaluate the health impact of smokeless tobacco promotion as part of a harm reduction strategy in the US. A Monte Carlo simulation of a decision tree model of tobacco initiation and use was used to estimate the health effects associated with five different patterns of increased smokeless tobacco use. With cigarette smoking having a health effect of 100, the base case scenario (based on current US prevalence rates) yields a total health effect of 24.2 (5% to 95% interval 21.7 to 26.5) and the aggressive smokeless promotion (less cigarette use and increased smokeless, health-concerned smokers switching to snus, smokers in smokefree environments switching to snus) was associated with a health effect of 30.4 (5% to 95% interval 25.9 to 35.2). The anticipated health effects for additional scenarios with lower rates of smokeless uptake also overlapped with the base case. Promoting smokeless tobacco as a safer alternative to cigarettes is unlikely to result in substantial health benefits at a population level.

  10. The effectiveness of community action in reducing risky alcohol consumption and harm: a cluster randomised controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Shakeshaft

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The World Health Organization, governments, and communities agree that community action is likely to reduce risky alcohol consumption and harm. Despite this agreement, there is little rigorous evidence that community action is effective: of the six randomised trials of community action published to date, all were US-based and focused on young people (rather than the whole community, and their outcomes were limited to self-report or alcohol purchase attempts. The objective of this study was to conduct the first non-US randomised controlled trial (RCT of community action to quantify the effectiveness of this approach in reducing risky alcohol consumption and harms measured using both self-report and routinely collected data.We conducted a cluster RCT comprising 20 communities in Australia that had populations of 5,000-20,000, were at least 100 km from an urban centre (population ≥ 100,000, and were not involved in another community alcohol project. Communities were pair-matched, and one member of each pair was randomly allocated to the experimental group. Thirteen interventions were implemented in the experimental communities from 2005 to 2009: community engagement; general practitioner training in alcohol screening and brief intervention (SBI; feedback to key stakeholders; media campaign; workplace policies/practices training; school-based intervention; general practitioner feedback on their prescribing of alcohol medications; community pharmacy-based SBI; web-based SBI; Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Services support for SBI; Good Sports program for sports clubs; identifying and targeting high-risk weekends; and hospital emergency department-based SBI. Primary outcomes based on routinely collected data were alcohol-related crime, traffic crashes, and hospital inpatient admissions. Routinely collected data for the entire study period (2001-2009 were obtained in 2010. Secondary outcomes based on pre- and post-intervention surveys (n

  11. The effectiveness of community action in reducing risky alcohol consumption and harm: a cluster randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakeshaft, Anthony; Doran, Christopher; Petrie, Dennis; Breen, Courtney; Havard, Alys; Abudeen, Ansari; Harwood, Elissa; Clifford, Anton; D'Este, Catherine; Gilmour, Stuart; Sanson-Fisher, Rob

    2014-03-01

    The World Health Organization, governments, and communities agree that community action is likely to reduce risky alcohol consumption and harm. Despite this agreement, there is little rigorous evidence that community action is effective: of the six randomised trials of community action published to date, all were US-based and focused on young people (rather than the whole community), and their outcomes were limited to self-report or alcohol purchase attempts. The objective of this study was to conduct the first non-US randomised controlled trial (RCT) of community action to quantify the effectiveness of this approach in reducing risky alcohol consumption and harms measured using both self-report and routinely collected data. We conducted a cluster RCT comprising 20 communities in Australia that had populations of 5,000-20,000, were at least 100 km from an urban centre (population ≥ 100,000), and were not involved in another community alcohol project. Communities were pair-matched, and one member of each pair was randomly allocated to the experimental group. Thirteen interventions were implemented in the experimental communities from 2005 to 2009: community engagement; general practitioner training in alcohol screening and brief intervention (SBI); feedback to key stakeholders; media campaign; workplace policies/practices training; school-based intervention; general practitioner feedback on their prescribing of alcohol medications; community pharmacy-based SBI; web-based SBI; Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Services support for SBI; Good Sports program for sports clubs; identifying and targeting high-risk weekends; and hospital emergency department-based SBI. Primary outcomes based on routinely collected data were alcohol-related crime, traffic crashes, and hospital inpatient admissions. Routinely collected data for the entire study period (2001-2009) were obtained in 2010. Secondary outcomes based on pre- and post-intervention surveys (n = 2,977 and 2

  12. Determining Threshold Distance Providing Less Interference for Wireless Medical Implant Communication Systems in Coexisting Environments under Shadow Fading Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selman KULAÇ

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Important interference problems will be able to be encountered especially close areas to the hospitals where wireless implantable medical systems' communication traffic occurs heavily in near future. It is possible that these interferences could cause wireless implant devices to malfunction and harmful effects on patients. In this study, it is proposed to determine threshold distance in order to get less interference for wireless implantable medical systems under shadow fading conditions where MICS band and MetAids band users coexist intensely simultaneously. In this method, threshold power according to the \\cite{FCC} is pulled down by adding extra distance margin in order to minimize the interference effects to the MICS systems using confidence interval calculations. Because received signal strength just below the monitoring threshold power according to the \\cite{FCC} brings about much more interferences for the MICS systems even if listen-before-talk technique is applied.

  13. Effect of direct and indirect contact with mental illness on dangerousness and social distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Minhwa; Seo, Mikyung

    2018-03-01

    This study is based on the contact hypothesis that contact with mental illness is the most effective anti-stigma strategy. This study aims to analyze which form of contact can most effectively decrease the dangerousness and social distance associated with schizophrenia, depression and alcoholism. In total, 573 Korean adults ( M age  = 43.71 years, standard deviation ( SD) = 13.41; 54.1% male, 45.9% female) were surveyed about randomly assigned vignettes of schizophrenia, depression and alcoholism. The participants were questioned on the dangerousness and social distance associated with the assigned vignette, as well as direct and indirect contact experience with the mental illness. Two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to determine the main effect and interaction effect that the type of mental illness and contact experience have on the two dependent variables (dangerousness and social distance). The findings show that the type of mental illness has a significant main effect on dangerousness and social distance, but contact type only has a significant main effect on social distance. Moreover, the two independent variables (mental illness subtype and contact experience) have an interaction effect on two dependent variables (dangerousness and social distance). Therefore, the anti-stigma effect of contact varies according to the type of mental illness. Our findings suggest that appropriate anti-stigma strategies are required for each type of mental illness. Considering that opportunities for direct contact with persons with mental illness are highly limited, it is necessary to actively utilize indirect contact.

  14. Public health implications of smokeless tobacco use as a harm reduction strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savitz, David A; Meyer, Roger E; Tanzer, Jason M; Mirvish, Sidney S; Lewin, Freddi

    2006-11-01

    Harm reduction strategies involve promoting a product that has adverse health consequences as a substitute for one that has more severe adverse health consequences. Smokeless tobacco low in nitrosamine content offers potential benefits in reducing smoking prevalence rates. Possible harm arises from the potential for such products to serve as a gateway to more harmful tobacco products, public misinterpretation of "less harmful" as "safe," distraction from the public health goal of tobacco elimination, and ethical issues involved in advising those marketing these harmful products. We offer a research agenda to provide a stronger basis for evaluating the risks and benefits of smokeless tobacco as a means of reducing the adverse health effects of tobacco.

  15. Harmed patients gaining voice: challenging dominant perspectives in the construction of medical harm and patient safety reforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocloo, Josephine Enyonam

    2010-08-01

    Patient safety is a central issue in healthcare. In the United Kingdom, where there is more accurate information on National Health Service (NHS) hospitals than on primary care or the private sector, the evidence on adverse incidents shows that avoidable medical harm is a major concern. This paper looks at the occurrence of medical harm and argues that in the construction of patient safety reforms, it is important to be aware of alternative narratives about issues of power and accountability from harmed patients and self-help groups, that challenge dominant perspectives on the issues. The paper draws upon evidence from two sources. First, the paper draws on experiences of self-help groups set up as a result of medical harm and part of a campaigning network, where evidence was gathered from 14 groups over more than 2 years. In addition, data were obtained from 21 individuals affected by harm that attended a residential workshop called the Break Through Programme; 18 questionnaires were completed from participants and a written narrative account of their experiences and observational data were gathered from a range of workshop sessions. Looking at the issues from harmed patients' perspectives, the research illustrates that a model of medical harm focussing predominantly upon the clinical markers and individual agency associated with a medical model operates to obscure a range of social processes. These social processes, connected to the power and dominance of the medical profession and the activities of a wider state, are seen to be a major part of the construction of harm that impacts upon patients, which is further compounded by its concealment. Understanding the experiences of harmed patients is therefore seen as an important way of generating knowledge about the medical and social processes involved in harm, that can lead to a broader framework for addressing patient safety. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Harm reduction-the cannabis paradox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melamede Robert

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This article examines harm reduction from a novel perspective. Its central thesis is that harm reduction is not only a social concept, but also a biological one. More specifically, evolution does not make moral distinctions in the selection process, but utilizes a cannabis-based approach to harm reduction in order to promote survival of the fittest. Evidence will be provided from peer-reviewed scientific literature that supports the hypothesis that humans, and all animals, make and use internally produced cannabis-like products (endocannabinoids as part of the evolutionary harm reduction program. More specifically, endocannabinoids homeostatically regulate all body systems (cardiovascular, digestive, endocrine, excretory, immune, nervous, musculo-skeletal, reproductive. Therefore, the health of each individual is dependant on this system working appropriately.

  17. Individual and school level effects of perceived harm, perceived availability, and community size on marijuana use among 12th-grade students: a random effects model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaim, Randall C

    2003-06-01

    A hierarchical linear model was used to estimate the individual and school level effects for marijuana use among a national sample of 12th-grade students. School effects were small in comparison to individual level effects, accounting for 2.9% of the variance in marijuana use. At the individual level, perceived harm, perceived availability, and their interaction were significant predictors, each of which varied randomly across schools. Among two school-level predictors, the normative environment for perceived harm was not significant, but normative perceived availability predicted level of marijuana use. The effect of perceived availability on marijuana use was stronger in larger, compared to smaller communities. Results are discussed in light of the use of random regression methods for identifying school-specific patterns of risk and protection for prevention planning.

  18. The Effect of Focal Distance, Age, and Brightness on Near-Field Augmented Reality Depth Matching

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Gujot; Ellis, Stephen R.; Swan II, J. Edward

    2017-01-01

    Many augmented reality (AR) applications operate within near-field reaching distances, and require matching the depth of a virtual object with a real object. The accuracy of this matching was measured in three experiments, which examined the effect of focal distance, age, and brightness, within distances of 33.3 to 50 cm, using a custom-built AR haploscope. Experiment I examined the effect of focal demand, at the levels of collimated (infinite focal distance), consistent with other depth cues...

  19. Immediate effects on adult drinkers of exposure to alcohol harm reduction advertisements with and without drinking guideline messages: experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakefield, Melanie A; Brennan, Emily; Dunstone, Kimberley; Durkin, Sarah J; Dixon, Helen G; Pettigrew, Simone; Slater, Michael D

    2018-06-01

    To compare the immediate effects on drinkers of television advertisements focusing upon short- versus long-term harms with and without low-risk drinking guidelines. Between-participants on-line experiment, with random assignment to view: (a) alcohol product advertisements (ALC control); (b) advertisements unrelated to alcohol (NON-ALC control); (c) advertisements featuring short-term harms (STH) of alcohol; (d) advertisements featuring STH plus a STH guideline (STH+G); (e) advertisements featuring long-term harms (LTH); or (f) advertisements featuring LTH plus a LTH guideline (LTH+G). Australia, 2016. A total of 3718 drinkers aged 18-64 years (48.5% male). Post-exposure likelihood that participants provided a correct estimate of drinking levels associated with short- and long-term harms; post-exposure intentions to avoid alcohol or reduce consumption. After exposure to STH+G or LTH+G advertisements, participants were more likely to estimate correctly rather than overestimate drinking levels associated with harm, compared with those exposed to STH (P < 0.001) and LTH advertisements without guidelines, respectively (P = 0.019) and ALC control (STH+G, P < 0.001; LTH+G, P < 0.001) and NON-ALC control conditions (STH+G, P < 0.001; LTH+G, P = 0.011). Drinkers exposed to STH conditions were more likely to intend to reduce next-week alcohol consumption than those exposed to ALC control (both P < 0.001) and NON-ALC control conditions (STH, P = 0.001; STH+G, P < 0.001); a similar pattern was observed for intentions to avoid alcohol. Drinkers exposed to LTH conditions were also more likely than drinkers exposed to ALC or NON-ALC controls to intend to avoid and reduce alcohol in the next week. Additionally, drinkers exposed to LTH+G were more likely to intend to reduce drinking than those exposed to LTH advertisements without guidelines (P = 0.022). Response patterns for low- and high-risk drinkers by condition were similar. Alcohol harm television

  20. Differentiating drugs by harm potential: the rational versus the feasible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalant, H

    1999-01-01

    In an ideal harm reduction model, drugs would be ranked according to their potential to cause harm, with varying implications for control policies and interventions. In such a public health oriented approach, the maximum protection of the public from harm would be balanced with the least possible restriction of freedom. In reality, however, the accuracy and completeness of the necessary information for such a ranking is highly limited. Many other factors not readily incorporated in a rational model, such as values, beliefs, and traditions, also affect drug policy decisions. Thus, rather than relying on acquisition of the necessary knowledge, it may be preferable to focus efforts on developing effective nonlegal measures to reduce drug use and harm. [Translations are provided in the International Abstracts Section of this issue.

  1. Detecting the Killer Toxin (Harmful Algal Blooms)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quevenco, Rodolfo

    2011-01-01

    IAEA is stepping up efforts to help countries understand the phenomenon and use more reliable methods for early detection and monitoring so as to limit harmful algal blooms (HABs) adverse effects on coastal communities everywhere.

  2. Diverse effects of distance cutoff and residue interval on the performance of distance-dependent atom-pair potential in protein structure prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yuangen; Gui, Rong; Liu, Quan; Yi, Ming; Deng, Haiyou

    2017-12-08

    As one of the most successful knowledge-based energy functions, the distance-dependent atom-pair potential is widely used in all aspects of protein structure prediction, including conformational search, model refinement, and model assessment. During the last two decades, great efforts have been made to improve the reference state of the potential, while other factors that also strongly affect the performance of the potential have been relatively less investigated. Based on different distance cutoffs (from 5 to 22 Å) and residue intervals (from 0 to 15) as well as six different reference states, we constructed a series of distance-dependent atom-pair potentials and tested them on several groups of structural decoy sets collected from diverse sources. A comprehensive investigation has been performed to clarify the effects of distance cutoff and residue interval on the potential's performance. Our results provide a new perspective as well as a practical guidance for optimizing distance-dependent statistical potentials. The optimal distance cutoff and residue interval are highly related with the reference state that the potential is based on, the measurements of the potential's performance, and the decoy sets that the potential is applied to. The performance of distance-dependent statistical potential can be significantly improved when the best statistical parameters for the specific application environment are adopted.

  3. Investigating the Effect of Situational Awareness on Persistence of Doctoral Distance Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harleman, Thomas G.

    2013-01-01

    This quantitative study sought to identify the effect of heightened situational awareness (SA) on persistence of doctoral distance learners. Factors in the distance learners' micro-environment, vis-à-vis Urie Bronfenbrenner's (1979) ecology theory of human development, were the focus. Study participants included new doctoral candidates continuing…

  4. The Positive Effect of Authoritarian Leadership on Employee Performance: The Moderating Role of Power Distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Honglei; Guan, Bichen

    2018-01-01

    Based on goal setting theory, this study explores the positive effect and influencing process of authoritarian leadership on employee performance, as well as the moderating role of individual power distance in this process. Data from 211 supervisor-subordinate dyads in Chinese organizations indicates that authoritarian leadership is positively associated with employee performance, and learning goal orientation mediates this relationship. Furthermore, power distance moderates the effect of authoritarian leadership on learning goal orientation, such that the effect was stronger when individual power distance was higher. The indirect effect of authoritarian leadership on employee performance via learning goal orientation is also moderated by power distance. Theoretical and managerial implications and future directions are also discussed.

  5. The Positive Effect of Authoritarian Leadership on Employee Performance: The Moderating Role of Power Distance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Honglei; Guan, Bichen

    2018-01-01

    Based on goal setting theory, this study explores the positive effect and influencing process of authoritarian leadership on employee performance, as well as the moderating role of individual power distance in this process. Data from 211 supervisor-subordinate dyads in Chinese organizations indicates that authoritarian leadership is positively associated with employee performance, and learning goal orientation mediates this relationship. Furthermore, power distance moderates the effect of authoritarian leadership on learning goal orientation, such that the effect was stronger when individual power distance was higher. The indirect effect of authoritarian leadership on employee performance via learning goal orientation is also moderated by power distance. Theoretical and managerial implications and future directions are also discussed. PMID:29628902

  6. Sunscreens: topical and systemic approaches for protection of human skin against harmful effects of solar radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pathak, M.A.

    1982-01-01

    This review deals with topical and systemic approaches for protection of human skin against the harmful effects of solar radiation. Two concerns about the deleterious effects of sun exposure involve: (1) acute effects (e.g., sunburn and drug-induced phototoxicity) and (2) potential long-term risks of repeated sun exposures leading to development of solar elastosis, keratoses, induction of both nonmelanoma and melanoma skin cancer, and alteration of immune responses and functions. Action spectra of normal and abnormal reactions of human skin to acute and chronic effects of solar radiation are presented with a view to helping the physician prescribe the appropriate sunscreens. Factors that influence acute effects of sunburn are reviewed. Various artificial methods effective in minimizing or preventing harmful effects of solar radiation, both in normal individuals and in patients with photosensitivity-related problems, are discussed. Emphasis is placed on the commercially available chemical sunscreens and their properties. Sun protection factor (SPF) values of several brand-name formulations determined with a solar simulator under indoor conditions (laboratory) and with solar radiation under natural, field conditions are presented. Factors responsible for variations of SPF values observed under indoor and outdoor conditions are reviewed. Systemic photoprotective agents and their limitations are outlined. The photobiology of melanin pigmentation (the tanning reaction) is briefly discussed, with emphasis on the dangers of using quick-tanning lotions for stimulation of the tanning reaction

  7. Learning-Based Detection of Harmful Data in Mobile Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seok-Woo Jang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Internet has supported diverse types of multimedia content flowing freely on smart phones and tablet PCs based on its easy accessibility. However, multimedia content that can be emotionally harmful for children is also easily spread, causing many social problems. This paper proposes a method to assess the harmfulness of input images automatically based on an artificial neural network. The proposed method first detects human face areas based on the MCT features from the input images. Next, based on color characteristics, this study identifies human skin color areas along with the candidate areas of nipples, one of the human body parts representing harmfulness. Finally, the method removes nonnipple areas among the detected candidate areas using the artificial neural network. The experimental results show that the suggested neural network learning-based method can determine the harmfulness of various types of images more effectively by detecting nipple regions from input images robustly.

  8. The impact of the distance-dependent promotional effect on the promotion cost sharing decision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheen, Gwo-Ji; Wang, Shih-Yen; Yeh, Yingchieh

    2016-02-01

    This paper considers the promotion cost sharing decision between a supplier and a retailer. The customer demand is affected by both national and local promotional effects while the local promotional effect on a customer is dependent on the distance between the retailer and this customer. We propose a continuous approximation approach to modelling the sum of the customer demand in the whole market area served by the retailer. A model is provided to help managers decide on the retail price, the local advertising expenditure, the national advertising expenditure, and the supplier participation rate, with consideration of the influence of distance on the promotional effect. We also find that the supplier's promotion cost sharing rate increases as the market size increases or the influence of distance on the promotional effect decreases. A numerical example is given to show that the nature of distance-dependent promotional effect has a significant impact on the decisions and profits.

  9. [Harm reduction interventions in drug users: current situation and recommendations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosque-Prous, Marina; Brugal, María Teresa

    2016-11-01

    Harm reduction encompasses interventions, programmes and policies that seek to reduce the negative consequences of the consumption of both legal and illegal drugs on the individual and public health. Harm reduction looks to mitigate the harm suffered by drug users through drug use monitoring and prevention, and promotes initiatives that respect and protect the human rights of this population. The harm reduction policies that have proven effective and efficient are: opioid substitution maintenance therapy (methadone); needle and syringe exchange programmes; supervised drug consumption rooms; and overdose prevention through peer-based naloxone distribution. In order to be effective, these policies must have comprehensive coverage and be implemented in areas where the target population is prevalent. Resident-based opposition to the implementation of these policies is known as the NIMBY (Not In My Back Yard) phenomenon, which is characterised by being against the implementation of new measures in a particular place, but does not question their usefulness. Given that any NIMBY phenomenon is a complex social, cultural and political phenomenon, it is important to conduct a thorough analysis of the situation prior to implementing any of these measures. Harm reduction policies must be extended to other substances such as alcohol and tobacco, as well as to other conditions beyond infectious/contagious diseases and overdose. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Ethical considerations of e-cigarette use for tobacco harm reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franck, Caroline; Filion, Kristian B; Kimmelman, Jonathan; Grad, Roland; Eisenberg, Mark J

    2016-05-17

    Due to their similarity to tobacco cigarettes, electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) could play an important role in tobacco harm reduction. However, the public health community remains divided concerning the appropriateness of endorsing a device whose safety and efficacy for smoking cessation remain unclear. We identified the major ethical considerations surrounding the use of e-cigarettes for tobacco harm reduction, including product safety, efficacy for smoking cessation and reduction, use among non-smokers, use among youth, marketing and advertisement, use in public places, renormalization of a smoking culture, and market ownership. Overall, the safety profile of e-cigarettes is unlikely to warrant serious public health concerns, particularly given the known adverse health effects associated with tobacco cigarettes. As a result, it is unlikely that the population-level harms resulting from e-cigarette uptake among non-smokers would overshadow the public health gains obtained from tobacco harm reduction among current smokers. While the existence of a gateway effect for youth remains uncertain, e-cigarette use in this population should be discouraged. Similarly, marketing and advertisement should remain aligned with the degree of known product risk and should be targeted to current smokers. Overall, the available evidence supports the cautionary implementation of harm reduction interventions aimed at promoting e-cigarettes as attractive and competitive alternatives to cigarette smoking, while taking measures to protect vulnerable groups and individuals.

  11. Effectiveness of an anti-algal compound in eliminating an aquatic unicellular harmful algal Phaeocystis globosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huajun eZhang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Phaeocystis globosa blooms can have negative effects on higher trophic levels in the marine ecosystem and consequently influence human activities. Strain KA22, identified as the bacterium Hahella, was isolated from coastal surface water and used to control P. globosa growth. A methanol extract from the bacteral cells showed strong algicidal activity. After purification, the compound showed a similar structure to prodigiosin when identified with Q-Exactive Orbitrap MS and nuclear magnetic resonance spectra. The compound showed algicidal activity against P. globosa with a 50% Lethal Dose (LD50 of 2.24 μg/mL. The prodigiosin was stable under heat and acid environment, and it could be degraded under alkaline environment and natural light condition. The growth rates of strain KA22 was fast in 2216E medium and the content of prodigiosin in this medium was more than 70 μg/mL after 16 h incubation. The compound showed particularly strong algicidal activity against Prorocentrum donghaiense, P. globosa and Heterosigma akashiwo, but having little effect on three other phytoplankton species tested. The results of our research could increase our knowledge on harmful algal bloom control compound and lead to further study on the mechanisms of the lysis effect on harmful algae.

  12. Early marriage in Africa--trends, harmful effects and interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Judith-Ann

    2012-06-01

    This article explores the pattern of early marriage in Africa. It focuses on the sub-Saharan region as an area with the highest rates of early marriage in the world. The harmful effects of early marriage are explored in terms of impact on the health, education and economic well-being of young girls. The paper outlines a framework for analyzing global, regional and local initiatives to curb early marriage and examines the application of these interventions in sub-Saharan countries. Regional patterns are then examined and countries which have made progress in reducing age of marriage are compared to countries in which age of marriage amongst girls has reminded low. The paper concludes on the note that countries with the highest rates of early marriage are also the countries with the highest rates of poverty and highest population growth rates. The paper argues for a sub-regional strategy to address the problem of early marriage in the zone with the highest incidence.

  13. Pollutants in drinking water: their sources, harmful effects and removal procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qadeer, R.

    2004-01-01

    The underground water resources available for human consumption are being continuously contaminated by the natural sources and anthropogenic activities. The pollutants include toxic microorganism, inorganic and organic chemical and radionuclide etc. this is an acute problem in our country, where free style way of disposal of industrial effluents into the natural water bodies contaminates the surface and ground water. These contaminants make their way into human body through contaminated drinking water, which leads to the malfunctioning of the body organs. Details of some pollutants present in drinking water, their source and harmful effects on human beings are reviewed in this communication. Merits and demerits of methods used to remove the pollutants from drinking water are also discussed. (author)

  14. Minimising the harm from nicotine use: finding the right regulatory framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borland, Ron

    2013-05-01

    The tobacco problem can be usefully conceptualised as two problems: eliminating the most harmful forms of nicotine use (certainly cigarettes, and probably all smoked tobacco), and minimising the use and/or harms from use of lower-harm, but addictive forms of nicotine. A possible target would be to effectively eliminate use of the most harmful forms of nicotine within the next decade and then turn our focus to a long-term strategy for the low-harm forms. This paper focuses on the administrative framework(s) needed to accomplish these twin tasks. For a phase-out taking a long time and/or for dealing with residually net harmful and addictive products, there are severe limitations to allowing for-profit marketing of tobacco because such an arrangement (the current one in most countries) can markedly slow down progress and because of the difficulty of constraining marketing in ways that minimise undesirable use. A harm reduction model where the marketing is under the control of a non-profit entity (a regulated market) is required to curtail the incredible power of for-profit marketing and to allow tobacco marketing to be done in ways that further the goal of minimising tobacco-related harm. Countries with a nationalised industry can move their industry onto a harm minimisation framework if they have the political will. Countries with a for-profit industry should consider whether the time and effort required to reconstruct the market may, in the longer term, facilitate achieving their policy goals.

  15. Effect of race distance on muscle oxygenation in short-track speed skating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesford, Catherine M; Laing, Stewart; Cardinale, Marco; Cooper, Chris E

    2013-01-01

    Previous work identified an asymmetry in tissue desaturation changes in the left and right quadriceps muscles during on-ice skating at maximal speed in males. The effect of changing race distance on the magnitude of desaturation or leg asymmetry is unknown. Six elite male skaters (age = 23 ± 1.8 yr, height = 1.8 ± 0.1 m, mass = 80.1 ± 5.7 kg, midthigh skinfold thickness = 7 ± 2 mm) and four elite female skaters (age = 21 ± 4 yr, height = 1.6 ± 0.1 m, mass = 65.2 ± 4.3 kg, midthigh skinfold thickness = 10 ± 1 mm) were studied. Subjects completed time trials over three race distances. Blood lactate concentration and O2 uptake measurements were combined with near-infrared spectroscopy measures of muscle oxygenation (TSI) and blood volume (tHb) in the right and left vastus lateralis. Neither race distance nor gender had a significant effect on the magnitude of maximal muscle desaturation (ΔTSI(max)). Pattern of local changes in tHb during individual laps was dependent upon subtle differences in skating technique used for the different race distances. Linear regression analysis revealed asymmetry between the right and left leg desaturation in males during the final stages of each race distance, but not in females. At all race distances, local muscle desaturation reached maximal values much more quickly than global VO(2peak). The use of wearable near-infrared spectroscopy devices enabled measurement of muscle oxygenation during competitive race simulation, thus providing unique insight into the effects of velocity and technique changes on local muscle oxygenation. This may have implications for training and race pacing in speed skating.

  16. Is Personality Associated with Secondhand Harm from Drinking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis MacNevin, Parnell; Thompson, Kara; Teehan, Michael; Stuart, Heather; Stewart, Sherry

    2017-09-01

    Prior research suggests more than 70% of undergraduates have experienced harm from other students' drinking. This study built on the literature by, first, investigating whether secondhand harm cluster into latent factors that reflect distinct but related types of harm. Second, given the paucity of research examining factors that increase students' vulnerability to secondhand harm, we examined dimensions from Castellanos-Ryan and Conrod's 4-factor personality model for alcohol disorders (impulsivity [IMP], sensation seeking [SS], hopelessness [HOP], anxiety sensitivity [AS]) as predictors of secondhand harm exposure. We also investigated the possible mediating role of students' own problematic alcohol use in explaining personality-secondhand harm relationships. An online survey was administered to 1,537 first-year Canadian undergraduates (68% women). Problematic alcohol use was measured by the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, and personality was measured by the Substance Use Risk Profile Scale. Eleven secondhand harm items were included. The secondhand harm clustered into 3 distinct but related factors: "strains" (e.g., interruption of sleep or study), "threats" (e.g., harassment or assault), and "interpersonal harm" (e.g., arguments with peers). Sixty-eight percent of respondents reported strains, 44% threats, and 64% interpersonal harm, and 35% reported experiencing all 3 types of harm, in the last term. All 4 personality dimensions were independently associated with greater secondhand harm exposure. HOP was directly associated with threats and interpersonal harm, and AS was directly associated with all 3 types of harm. SS and IMP were both indirectly associated with all 3 types of harm through students' own problematic alcohol use. In addition, IMP was directly related to threats. The prevalence of secondhand harm from alcohol is high among undergraduates. Findings suggest that distinct personality risks may predispose students to experience secondhand

  17. TEMPORALLY VARIABLE GEOGRAPHICAL DISTANCE EFFECTS CONTRIBUTE TO THE ASSEMBLY OF ROOT-ASSOCIATED FUNGAL COMMUNITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher James Barnes

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Root-associated fungi are key contributors to ecosystem functioning, however the factors which determine community assembly are still relatively poorly understood. This study simultaneously quantified the roles of geographical distance, environmental heterogeneity and time in determining root-associated fungal community composition at the local scale within a short rotation coppice (SRC willow plantation. Culture independent molecular analyses of the root-associated fungal community suggested a strong but temporally variable effect of geographical distance between fungal communities on composition at the local geographical level. Whilst these distance effects were most prevalent on October communities, soil pH had an effect on structuring of the communities throughout the sampling period. Given the temporal variation in the effects of geographical distance and the environment for shaping root-associated fungal communities, there is clearly need for a temporal component to sampling strategies in future investigations of fungal biogeography.

  18. Harm mediates the disgust-immorality link.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schein, Chelsea; Ritter, Ryan S; Gray, Kurt

    2016-09-01

    Many acts are disgusting, but only some of these acts are immoral. Dyadic morality predicts that disgusting acts should be judged as immoral to the extent that they seem harmful. Consistent with this prediction, 3 studies reveal that perceived harm mediates the link between feelings of disgust and moral condemnation-even for ostensibly harmless "purity" violations. In many cases, accounting for perceived harm completely eliminates the link between disgust and moral condemnation. Analyses also reveal the predictive power of anger and typicality/weirdness in moral judgments of disgusting acts. The mediation of disgust by harm holds across diverse acts including gay marriage, sex acts, and religious blasphemy. Revealing the endogenous presence and moral relevance of harm within disgusting-but-ostensibly harmless acts argues against modular accounts of moral cognition such as moral foundations theory. Instead, these data support pluralistic conceptions of harm and constructionist accounts of morality and emotion. Implications for moral cognition and the concept of "purity" are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. How and Why Young People Use Social Media in Relation to Self Harm and to What Effect?

    OpenAIRE

    Brett-Taylor, Lucy

    2015-01-01

    Social media use and self-harm prevalence are both highest among young people. Many explanatory models of self-harm have been proposed which are helpful in understanding the functions self-harm serve. Social media is a relatively new phenomenon requiring further research to increase understanding of the psychological processes associated with its use. The connection between self-harm and social media has received increased media attention in recent years and is of clinical and social importan...

  20. Harm reduction as a strategy for supporting people who self-harm on mental health wards: the views and experiences of practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Karen; Samuels, Isaac; Moran, Paul; Stewart, Duncan

    2017-05-01

    Harm reduction has had positive outcomes for people using sexual health and substance misuse services. Clinical guidance recommends these approaches may be appropriately adopted by mental health practitioners when managing some people who self-harm. There has, however, been very little research in this area. We explored practitioners' views of harm reduction as a strategy for supporting people who self-harm. The Self Harm Antipathy Scale (SHAS) was administered to a random sample of 395 mental health practitioners working on 31 wards in England, semi-structured interviews were then conducted with 18 survey respondents. Practitioners who had implemented the approach reported positive outcomes including a reduction in incidence and severity of self-harm and a perceived increase in empowerment of service users. Practitioners with no experience of using harm reduction were concerned that self-harm would increase in severity, and were unsure how to assess and manage risk in people under a harm reduction care plan. Some fundamentally disagreed with the principle of harm reduction for self-harm because it challenged their core beliefs about the morality of self-harm, or the ethical and potential legal ramifications of allowing individuals to harm themselves. This study was conducted solely with practitioners working on inpatient units. The majority of staff interviewed had no experience of harm reduction and so their concerns may not reflect challenges encountered by practitioners in clinical practice. Harm reduction is being used to support people who self-harm within inpatient psychiatry and some practitioners report potential benefits of this approach. However, this raises particularly complex practical, ethical and legal issues and further research is needed to assess the safety, acceptability and efficacy of the approach. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Risk estimates of stochastic effects due to exposure to radiation - a stochastic harm index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonen, Y.G.

    1980-01-01

    The effects of exposure to low level radiation on the survival probability and life expectancy were investigated. The 1977 vital statistics of Jewish males in Israel were used as a baseline, mainly the data on normalized survival probability and life expectation as functions of age. Assumed effects of exposure were superposed on these data and the net differences calculated. It was found that the realistic rate effects of exposure to radiation are generally less than calculated by multiplying the collective dose by the risk factor. The effects are strongly age-dependent, decreasing sharply with age at exposure. The assumed harm due to exposure can be more than offset by improvements in medical care and safety. (H.K.)

  2. Representing distance, consuming distance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Gunvor Riber

    Title: Representing Distance, Consuming Distance Abstract: Distance is a condition for corporeal and virtual mobilities, for desired and actual travel, but yet it has received relatively little attention as a theoretical entity in its own right. Understandings of and assumptions about distance...... are being consumed in the contemporary society, in the same way as places, media, cultures and status are being consumed (Urry 1995, Featherstone 2007). An exploration of distance and its representations through contemporary consumption theory could expose what role distance plays in forming...

  3. The running pattern and its importance in running long-distance gears

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarosław Hoffman

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The running pattern is individual for each runner, regardless of distance. We can characterize it as the sum of the data of the runner (age, height, training time, etc. and the parameters of his run. Building the proper technique should focus first and foremost on the work of movement coordination and the power of the runner. In training the correct running steps we can use similar tools as working on deep feeling. The aim of this paper was to define what we can call a running pattern, what is its influence in long-distance running, and the relationship between the training technique and the running pattern. The importance of a running pattern in long-distance racing is immense, as the more distracted and departed from the norm, the greater the harm to the body will cause it to repetition in long run. Putting on training exercises that shape the technique is very important and affects the running pattern significantly.

  4. Self-harm and ethnicity: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sharifi, Ali; Krynicki, Carl R; Upthegrove, Rachel

    2015-09-01

    This review will focus on the rates, clinical characteristics, risk factors and methods of self-harm and suicide in different ethnic groups in the United Kingdom, providing an update synthesis of recent literature. Studies that met the inclusion criteria between 2003 and 2013 were reviewed using the following databases: MEDLINE, PsycINFO, EMBASE and CINAHL. The methodological quality of each study was then assessed using a structured scoring system. A total of 2,362 articles were retrieved, 10 of which matched the inclusion criteria were reviewed. Significant differences were found in the rates of self-harm between ethnic groups with Asian males being least likely to self-harm and Black females being most likely to self-harm. Also, Black and South Asian people were less likely to repeat self-harm. Factors that may help protect or predispose individuals to self-harm or attempt suicide (such as religion, mental health and coping styles) also differ between ethnic groups. There are clear ethnic differences in self-harm and suicide, which may be affected by factors such as cultural pressures and prevalence of mental illness. An awareness of these differences is vital to help prevent further attempts of self-harm and suicide. Further research into differences between ethnic and cultural groups and self-harm continues to be important. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. Short-term and long-term effects of psychosocial therapy for people after deliberate self-harm: a register-based, nationwide multicentre study using propensity score matching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Bertel; Erlangsen, Anette; Stuart, Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    Background Although deliberate self-harm is a strong predictor of suicide, evidence for effective interventions is missing. The aim of this study was to examine whether psychosocial therapy after self-harm was linked to lower risks of repeated self-harm, suicide, and general mortality. Methods...... In this matched cohort study all people who, after deliberate self-harm, received a psychosocial therapy intervention at suicide prevention clinics in Denmark during 1992—2010 were compared with people who did not receive the psychosocial therapy intervention after deliberate self-harm. We applied propensity...... score matching with a 1:3 ratio and 31 matching factors, and calculated odds ratios for 1, 5, 10, and 20 years of follow-up. The primary endpoints were repeated self-harm, death by suicide, and death by any cause. Findings 5678 recipients of psychosocial therapy (followed up for 42·828 person...

  6. Assessment of the Effectiveness of Internet-Based Distance Learning through the VClass e-Education Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chadchadaporn Pukkaew

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study assesses the effectiveness of internet-based distance learning (IBDL through the VClass live e-education platform. The research examines (1 the effectiveness of IBDL for regular and distance students and (2 the distance students’ experience of VClass in the IBDL course entitled Computer Programming 1. The study employed the common definitions of evaluation to attain useful statistical results. The measurement instruments used were test scores and questionnaires. The sample consisted of 59 first-year undergraduate students, most of whom were studying computer information systems at Rajamangala University of Technology Lanna Chiang Mai in Thailand. The results revealed that distance students engaged in learning behavior only occasionally but that the effectiveness of learning was the same for distance and regular students. Moreover, the provided computer-mediated communications (CMC (e.g., live chat, email, and discussion board were sparingly used, primarily by male distance students. Distance students, regular students, the instructor, and the tutor agreed to use a social networking site, Facebook, rather than the provided CMC during the course. The evaluation results produce useful information that is applicable for developing and improving IBDL practices.

  7. Effects of dram shop liability and enhanced overservice law enforcement initiatives on excessive alcohol consumption and related harms: Two community guide systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rammohan, Veda; Hahn, Robert A; Elder, Randy; Brewer, Robert; Fielding, Jonathan; Naimi, Timothy S; Toomey, Traci L; Chattopadhyay, Sajal K; Zometa, Carlos

    2011-09-01

    Dram shop liability holds the owner or server(s) at a bar, restaurant, or other location where a patron, adult or underage, consumed his or her last alcoholic beverage responsible for harms subsequently inflicted by the patron on others. Liability in a state can be established by case law or statute. Overservice laws prohibit the sale of alcoholic beverages to intoxicated patrons drinking in on-premises retail alcohol outlets (i.e., premises where the alcohol is consumed where purchased); enhanced enforcement of these laws is intended to ensure compliance by premises personnel. Both of these interventions are ultimately designed to promote responsible beverage service by reducing sales to intoxicated patrons, underage youth, or both. This review assesses the effectiveness of dram shop liability and the enhanced enforcement of overservice laws for preventing excessive alcohol consumption and related harms. Studies assessing alcohol-related harms in states adopting dram shop laws were evaluated, as were studies assessing alcohol-related harms in regions with enhanced overservice enforcement. Methods previously developed for systematic reviews for the Guide to Community Preventive Services were used. Eleven studies assessed the association of state dram shop liability with various outcomes, including all-cause motor vehicle crash deaths, alcohol-related motor vehicle crash deaths (the most common outcome assessed in the studies reviewed), alcohol consumption, and other alcohol-related harms. There was a median reduction of 6.4% (range of values 3.7% to 11.3% reduction) in alcohol-related motor vehicle fatalities associated with the presence of dram shop liability in jurisdictions where premises are licensed. Other alcohol-related outcomes also showed a reduction. Only two studies assessed the effects of enhanced enforcement initiatives on alcohol-related outcomes; findings were inconsistent, some indicating benefit and others none. According to Community Guide rules

  8. The Effects of Faulty or Potentially Harmful Products on Brand Reputation and Social Responsibility of Business

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudiu-Cătălin Munteanu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Building a strong brand requires a good management of brand reputation over time. Social responsibility of business is a key factor in evoking a positive brand reputation. Both the product itself and brand related actions and communications define brand reputation in the eyes of consumers, thus influencing perceived corporate social responsibility. As a consequence, it can be easily hindered or endangered by many product related issues such as faulty products or potentially harmful products. The purpose of this article is to provide an insight on the link between brand reputation and social responsibility in order to help organizations provide better services and protection for consumers. We examined how brand reputation is influenced by the negative bias generated by brand related communications regarding potentially harmful products. This study also analyzes how under normal consumption circumstances, consumers' experiences related to faulty products can influence brand reputation. To investigate this, we propose a model based on perceptual brand constructs and possible outcomes of brand reputation. In both circumstances, negative spillover effects are highlighted using structural equation modeling. The findings reveal that both faulty products and potentially harmful products have a negative bias on brand reputation, but affected perceptual brand constructs are different.

  9. The role of fear and disgust in predicting the effectiveness of television advertisements that graphically depict the health harms of smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jónsdóttir, Harpa Lind; Holm, Jeffrey E; Poltavski, Dmitri; Vogeltanz-Holm, Nancy

    2014-12-11

    Antismoking television advertisements that depict the graphic health harms of smoking are increasingly considered best practices, as exemplified by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's current national campaign. Evaluation of responses to these widely used advertisements is important to determine advertisements that are most effective and their mechanisms of action. Our study tested the hypothesis that advertisements rated highest in fear- and disgust-eliciting imagery would be rated as the most effective. Our laboratory study included 144 women and men aged 18 to 33; 84% were current nonsmokers. All participants viewed 6 antismoking television advertisements that depicted the health harms of smoking; they rated their responses of fear and disgust and the effectiveness of the advertisements. We used multilevel modeling to test the effects of the following in predicting effectiveness: fear, disgust, the fear-disgust interaction, the advertisement, and the participant's sex and smoking status. Follow-up analyses examined differences in ratings of fear, disgust, and effectiveness. Advertisement, fear, disgust, and the fear-disgust interaction were each significant predictors of effectiveness. Smoking status and sex were not significant predictors. The 3 advertisements that elicited the highest ratings of fear and disgust were rated the most effective. Our findings support the hypothesis that antismoking advertisements of health harms that elicit the greatest responses of fear or disgust are the most effective. When advertisements elicit high ratings of both fear and disgust, advertisements with graphic imagery are effective, whereas advertisements without graphic imagery are not.

  10. The index of harm: a useful measure for comparing occupational risk across industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solomon, K.A.; Abraham, S.C.

    1980-01-01

    This paper presents an index of harm methodology which compares occupational risk among workers exposed to radiological and nonradiological harms. It extends the work of the International Commission on Radiological Protection by considering American rather than European and Japanese industry groups, by treating the relative importance of various occupational harms as a parameter rather than an arbitrary constant, and by identifying several ways in which both the methodology and the data base could be improved. In the analysis, the risk affects are examined of six occupational harms-three nonradiological (death, accidental injury and disease or illness) and three radiological (somatic effects, genetic effects, and somatic effects to the fetus or embryo of pregnant women). The analysis was performed under five different assumptions about the relative importance of degree of aversion of the six harms in question. The results of this analysis show that radiological workers exposed to the current industry average of 0.35 rem/yr are among the safest of all industry groupings, and the riskiest industries appear to be mining; agriculture, fishing and farming; construction; transportation; and manufacturing, roughly in that order. (author)

  11. Youth Justice staff attitudes towards screening for self-harm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, Sarah E; Townsend, Ellen; Anderson, Martin P

    2012-09-01

    Young offenders are recognised as a high-risk group for suicidal behaviour. It is essential that the screening used to identify those at risk and refer them to mental health services is effective, especially in community settings where service utilisation is low. Staff attitudes towards screening for suicide and self-harm are likely to influence how a young offender engages with the screening process. Our study is the first to explore community youth justice staff attitudes towards, and perceptions of, screening for self-harmful behaviour. Eight semi-structured interviews were conducted at an English Youth Offending Team in June 2006 with staff who had used the suicide screening tool with young offenders. Data were analysed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. Staff attitudes towards working within the screening system varied along two dimensions. The first 'active/passive' dimension related to perceived confidence in dealing with self-harm. The second 'positive/negative' dimension related to perceptions of the benefits of screening and the effectiveness of mental health provision for young offenders. Results indicate that barriers to effective screening must be tackled at both individual and organisational levels. The model of attitudes presented here could be used to increase understanding of how staff can be supported to engage effectively with the screening system. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Psychological characteristics, stressful life events and deliberate self-harm: findings from the Child & Adolescent Self-harm in Europe (CASE) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madge, Nicola; Hawton, Keith; McMahon, Elaine M; Corcoran, Paul; De Leo, Diego; de Wilde, Erik Jan; Fekete, Sandor; van Heeringen, Kees; Ystgaard, Mette; Arensman, Ella

    2011-10-01

    There is evidence to suggest that both psychological characteristics and stressful life events are contributory factors in deliberate self-harm among young people. These links, and the possibility of a dose-response relationship between self-harm and both psychological health and life events, were investigated in the context of a seven-country school-based study. Over 30,000, mainly 15 and 16 year olds, completed anonymous questionnaires at secondary schools in Belgium, England, Hungary, Ireland, the Netherlands, Norway and Australia. Pupils were asked to report on thoughts and episodes of self-harm, complete scales on depression and anxiety symptoms, impulsivity and self-esteem and indicate stressful events in their lives. Level and frequency of self-harm was judged according to whether they had thought about harming themselves or reported single or multiple self-harm episodes. Multinomial logistic regression assessed the extent to which psychological characteristics and stressful life events distinguished between adolescents with different self-harm histories. Increased severity of self-harm history was associated with greater depression, anxiety and impulsivity and lower self-esteem and an increased prevalence of all ten life event categories. Female gender, higher impulsivity and experiencing the suicide or self-harm of others, physical or sexual abuse and worries about sexual orientation independently differentiated single-episode self-harmers from adolescents with self-harm thoughts only. Female gender, higher depression, lower self-esteem, experiencing the suicide or self-harm of others, and trouble with the police independently distinguished multiple- from single-episode self-harmers. The findings reinforce the importance of psychological characteristics and stressful life events in adolescent self-harm but nonetheless suggest that some factors are more likely than others to be implicated.

  13. Do Coping Strategies Mediate the Relationship Between Parental Attachment and Self-Harm in Young People?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glazebrook, Katie; Townsend, Ellen; Sayal, Kapil

    2016-01-01

    Insecure attachment is associated with self-harm in young people, but little research has explored the pathways through which this relationship develops. We investigated whether attachment impacts on self-harm via its effect on coping strategies and appraisal of problem-solving abilities. A total of 314 students aged 18-20 years completed an online survey with measures of parental attachment, emotion-focused and problem-focused coping strategies, and psychological distress and self-harm. A mediational model was not supported as there were no direct effects between parental attachment and self-harm. However, analysis of specific indirect pathways revealed that perceived parental attachment impacts on self-harm through problem-focused coping. Higher quality of attachment was associated with greater reliance on problem-focused (adaptive) coping, which in turn was associated with a decreased risk of having self-harmed. Furthermore, poorer paternal attachment was associated with lower appraisal of problem-solving skills, which in turn was associated with an increased risk of having self-harmed. Individuals with insecure attachment may be more vulnerable to self-harm because they lack other more constructive coping strategies for relieving stress.

  14. The Effect of Cognitive Behavior Therapy on Decision Making in Adolescents Who Self-Harm: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldershaw, Anna; Simic, Mima; Grima, Emanuela; Jollant, Fabrice; Richards, Clair; Taylor, Lucy; Schmidt, Ulrike

    2012-01-01

    Research shows poor decision making in adolescents who self-harm and a positive correlation between decision-making abilities and duration since last self-harm episode. This exploratory study investigated whether decision making in self-harming adolescents could be improved through treatment with a novel cognitive behavior therapy (CBT). It also…

  15. Distancing from experienced self: how global-versus-local perception affects estimation of psychological distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberman, Nira; Förster, Jens

    2009-08-01

    In 4 studies, the authors examined the prediction derived from construal level theory (CLT) that higher level of perceptual construal would enhance estimated egocentric psychological distance. The authors primed participants with global perception, local perception, or both (the control condition). Relative to the control condition, global processing made participants estimate larger psychological distances in time (Study 1), space (Study 2), social distance (Study 3), and hypotheticality (Study 4). Local processing had the opposite effect. Consistent with CLT, all studies show that the effect of global-versus-local processing did emerge when participants estimated egocentric distances, which are distances from the experienced self in the here and now, but did not emerge with temporal distances not from now (Study 1), spatial distances not from here (Study 2), social distances not from the self (Study 3), or hypothetical events that did not involve altering an experienced reality (Study 4).

  16. Harm reduction through a social justice lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauly, Bernadette

    2008-02-01

    People who are street involved such as those experiencing homelessness and drug use face multiple inequities in health and access to health care. Morbidity and mortality are significantly increased among those who are street involved. Incorporation of a harm reduction philosophy in health care has the potential to shift the moral context of health care delivery and enhance access to health care services. However, harm reduction with a primary focus on reducing the harms of drug use fails focus on the harms associated with the context of drug use such as homelessness, violence and poverty. Ethical analysis of the underlying values of harm reduction and examination of different conceptions of justice are discussed as a basis for action that addresses a broad range of harms associated with drug use. Theories of distributive justice that focus primarily on the distribution of material goods are limited as theoretical frameworks for addressing the root causes of harm associated with drug use. Social justice, reconceptualised and interpreted through a critical lens as described by Iris Marion Young, is presented as a promising alternative ethical framework. A critical reinterpretation of social justice leads to insights that can illuminate structural inequities that contribute to the harms associated with the context of drug use. Such an approach provides promise as means of informing policy that aims to reduce a broad range of harms associated with drug use such as homelessness and poverty.

  17. Environments, risk and health harms: a qualitative investigation into the illicit use of anabolic steroids among people using harm reduction services in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimergård, Andreas; McVeigh, Jim

    2014-06-04

    The illicit use of anabolic steroids among the gym population continues to rise, along with the number of steroid using clients attending harm reduction services in the UK. This presents serious challenges to public health. Study objectives were to account for the experiences of anabolic steroid users and investigate how 'risk environments' produce harm. Qualitative face-to-face interviews with 24 users of anabolic steroids engaged with harm reduction services in the UK. Body satisfaction was an important factor when deciding to start the use of anabolic steroids. Many users were unaware of the potential dangers of using drugs from the illicit market, whereas some had adopted a range of strategies to negotiate the hazards relating to the use of adulterated products, including self-experimentation to gauge the perceived efficacy and unwanted effects of these drugs. Viewpoints, first-hand anecdotes, norms and practices among groups of steroid users created boundaries of 'sensible' drug use, but also promoted practices that may increase the chance of harms occurring. Established users encouraged young users to go to harm reduction services but, at the same time, promoted risky injecting practices in the belief that this would enhance the efficacy of anabolic steroids. Current steroid-related viewpoints and practices contribute to the risk environment surrounding the use of these drugs and may undermine the goal of current public health strategies including harm reduction interventions. The level of harms among anabolic steroid users are determined by multiple and intertwining factors, in addition to the harms caused by the pharmacological action or injury and illness associated with incorrect injecting techniques. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  18. Improving communication and practical skills in working with inpatients who self-harm : A pre-test/post-test study of the effect of a training programme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ad Kerkhof; Bauke Koekkoek; prof Berno van Meijel; Jaap van der Bijl; Nienke Kool

    2014-01-01

    Background Differing perspectives of self-harm may result in a struggle between patients and treatment staff. As a consequence, both sides have difficulty communicating effectively about the underlying problems and feelings surrounding self-harm. Between 2009 and 2011, a programme was developed and

  19. Improving communication and practical skills in working with inpatients who self-harm: a pre-test/post-test study of the effects of a training programme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kool, N.; van Meijel, B.; Koekkoek, B.; van der Bijl, J.; Kerkhof, A.J.F.M.

    2014-01-01

    Background:Differing perspectives of self-harm may result in a struggle between patients and treatment staff. As a consequence, both sides have difficulty communicating effectively about the underlying problems and feelings surrounding self-harm. Between 2009 and 2011, a programme was developed and

  20. Mental health nurses' attitudes toward self-harm: Curricular implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David G. Shaw

    2016-10-01

    Methods: The study aimed to explore the attitudes of mental health nurses toward service users who self-harm in secure environments, and to inform mental health curriculum development. It was conducted in a large forensic mental health unit, containing medium and low secure facilities, to the west of London, UK. A qualitative multi-method approach was adopted, underpinned by interpretative phenomenological analysis. Data were obtained from mental health nurses using individual interviews and focus groups, and analysis followed a step-by-step thematic approach using interpretative phenomenological analysis. Results: Nurses' attitudes toward self-harm varied but were mainly negative, and this was usually related to limited knowledge and skills. The results of the study, framed by the Theory of Planned Behaviour, led to the development of a proposed educational model entitled ‘Factors Affecting Self-Harming Behaviours’ (FASH. Conclusion: The FASH Model may inform future curriculum innovation. Adopting a holistic approach to education of nurses about self-harm may assist in developing attitudes and skills to make care provision more effective in secure mental health settings.

  1. Cross-Border Electronic Commerce: Distance Effects and Express Delivery in European Union Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Thai Young; Dekker, Rommert; Heij, Christiaan

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThis empirical study examines distance effects on cross-border electronic commerce and in particular the importance of express delivery in reducing the time dimension of distance. E-commerce provides suppliers with a range of opportunities to reduce distance as perceived by online buyers. They can reduce psychological barriers to cross-border demand by designing websites that simplify the search for and comparison of products and suppliers across countries. They can reduce cost ba...

  2. Benefits and harms of perioperative beta-blockade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wetterslev, Jørn; Juul, Anne Benedicte

    2006-01-01

    randomized trials. However, confidence intervals of the intervention effects in the meta-analyses are wide, leaving room for both benefits and harms. The largest observational study performed suggests that perioperative beta-blockade is associated with higher mortality in patients with low cardiac risk...

  3. When Do Distance Effects Become Empirically Observable?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beugelsdijk, Sjoerd; Nell, Phillip C.; Ambos, Björn

    2017-01-01

    Integrating distance research with the behavioral strategy literature on MNC headquarters-subsidiary relations, this paper explores how the distance between headquarters and subsidiaries relates to value added by the headquarters. We show for 124 manufacturing subsidiaries in Europe that...

  4. Dialectical behavior therapy for adolescents with repeated suicidal and self-harming behavior: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehlum, Lars; Tørmoen, Anita J; Ramberg, Maria; Haga, Egil; Diep, Lien M; Laberg, Stine; Larsson, Bo S; Stanley, Barbara H; Miller, Alec L; Sund, Anne M; Grøholt, Berit

    2014-10-01

    We examined whether a shortened form of dialectical behavior therapy, dialectical behavior therapy for adolescents (DBT-A) is more effective than enhanced usual care (EUC) to reduce self-harm in adolescents. This was a randomized study of 77 adolescents with recent and repetitive self-harm treated at community child and adolescent psychiatric outpatient clinics who were randomly allocated to either DBT-A or EUC. Assessments of self-harm, suicidal ideation, depression, hopelessness, and symptoms of borderline personality disorder were made at baseline and after 9, 15, and 19 weeks (end of trial period), and frequency of hospitalizations and emergency department visits over the trial period were recorded. Treatment retention was generally good in both treatment conditions, and the use of emergency services was low. DBT-A was superior to EUC in reducing self-harm, suicidal ideation, and depressive symptoms. Effect sizes were large for treatment outcomes in patients who received DBT-A, whereas effect sizes were small for outcomes in patients receiving EUC. Total number of treatment contacts was found to be a partial mediator of the association between treatment and changes in the severity of suicidal ideation, whereas no mediation effects were found on the other outcomes or for total treatment time. DBT-A may be an effective intervention to reduce self-harm, suicidal ideation, and depression in adolescents with repetitive self-harming behavior. Clinical trial registration information-Treatment for Adolescents With Deliberate Self Harm; http://ClinicalTrials.gov/; NCT00675129. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Toxic Effects of Prodigiosin Secreted by Hahella sp. KA22 on Harmful Alga Phaeocystis globosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huajun Zhang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Application of algicidal compounds secreted by bacteria is a promising and environmentally friendly strategy to control harmful algal blooms (HABs. Years ago prodigiosin was described as an efficient algicidal compound, but the details about the effect of prodigiosin on algal cells are still elusive. Prodigiosin shows high algicidal activity on Phaeocystis globosa, making it a potential algicide in HAB control. When P. globosa were treated with prodigiosin at 5 μg/mL, algae cells showed cytoplasmic hypervacuolization, chloroplast and nucleus rupture, flagella missing, and cell fracture, when observed by scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscopy. Prodigiosin induced a reactive oxygen species (ROS burst in P. globosa at 2 h, which could result in severe oxidative damage to algal cells. Chlorophyll a (Chl a fluorescence decreased significantly after prodigiosin treatment; about 45.3 and 90.0% of algal cells lost Chl a fluorescence at 24 and 48 h. The Fv/Fm value, reflecting the status of the photosystem II electron flow also decreased after prodigiosin treatment. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR analysis psbA and rbcS expression indicated that photosynthesis process was remarkably inhibited by prodigiosin. The results indicated that the inhibition of photosynthesis may produce excessive ROS causing cell necrosis. This study is the first report about algal lysis mechanism of prodigiosin on harmful algae. Our results could increase our knowledge on the interaction between algicidal compounds and harmful algae, which could lead to further studies in the microcosm.

  6. Self-harm and attempted suicide within inpatient psychiatric services: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Karen; Stewart, Duncan; Bowers, Len

    2012-08-01

    Self harm is a major public health concern, yet there are considerable challenges in providing support for those who self harm within psychiatric inpatient services. This paper presents the first review of research into self harm within inpatient settings. Searches of the main electronic databases were conducted using key words for self harm and inpatient care. There was substantial variation in the rates of self-harm and attempted suicide between studies, but rates were highest on forensic wards. There was no evidence of differences in prevalence of self-harm between men and women; women, however, were at increased risk of attempting suicide. People were more likely to self-harm in private areas of the ward and in the evening hours, and often self-harmed in response to psychological distress, or elements of nursing care that restricted their freedom. Wards used a variety of strategies to prevent self-harm; however, there is little research into their effectiveness. © 2012 The Authors. International Journal of Mental Health Nursing © 2012 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  7. The concept of "harm" in Internet gaming disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Daniel L; Delfabbro, Paul H

    2018-05-23

    Internet gaming disorder (IGD) is a proposed condition that refers to persistent gaming leading to clinically significant impairment. However, there have been few attempts to study the different types and degrees of harm caused by IGD. This commentary describes some of the negative intrapersonal and interpersonal effects of an extreme time investment in gaming activities in the context of IGD. Future research should examine the way in which IGD harms may occur at different levels and degrees. This may enhance the screening of individuals whose behavior is suspected to meet the definition of the proposed IGD criteria.

  8. Evaluation of knowledge, attitude, and behavior about harmful effects of the sun and sun protection among patients attending an outpatient clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevim Terzi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: The aim of the study was to evaluate harmful effects of sun exposure and knowledge, attitude and behaviors related to sun protection among patients attending our outpatient clinic. Materials and Methods: A total of 400 patients (171 male and 229 female aged between 16 and 89 years were included in this study. Subjects were requested to fill out a questionnaire composed of 52 questions. In the first part of the questionnaire, patients’ socio-demographic characteristics, history of sunburn, first-degree relatives with a history of skin cancer; in the second part, knowledge about harmful effects of sun and sun protection were inquired. In the third part, patient attitude and behaviors related to sun protection was evaluated. Results: Our results revealed that 69.25% of patients had satisfactory level of knowledge. While the level of knowledge was not affected by economic status, place of residence, skin type and presence of skin cancer in participants or their first-degree relatives, it was found to be increased with increasing educational level. The patients were found to prefer avoiding mid-day sun (75.5% and staying in the shade (64.8% chiefly as sun protection methods and 45.3% of patients were found to use sunscreens. Most frequently preferred sources of information about harmful effects of the sun and sun protection methods were found to be television, magazines and newspapers (76.3%, doctor’s advice and internet, respectively. Conclusion: Although a satisfactory level of knowledge about harmful effects of the sun and protection methods was found, it was observed that individuals could not convert their knowledge into the sun protection behavior

  9. Self-harm and overcrowding among prisoners in Geneva, Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Hans; Casillas, Alejandra; Perneger, Thomas; Heller, Patrick; Golay, Diane; Mouton, Elisabeth; Bodenmann, Patrick; Getaz, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    must be looked into further as contributors. Additionally, qualitative methods such as semi-structured interviews and focus groups could delineate the impact of overcrowding on prisoner well-being and self-harm potential. The authors observed a significant increase in self-harm and self-strangulation/hangings over time, and overcrowding was significantly associated with self-strangulation/hangings (but not with all self-harm events). Overcrowding can impose destructive effects on the psychological and behavioral well being of inmates in prison, influencing a myriad of emotional and livelihood factors that predispose to harmful behavior. This report should alert public health and prison authorities to this issue, and garner resources to address such an alarming rise. The findings from this short report demonstrate the need for a further examination of the mechanisms affecting self-harm among prisoners in this population, particularly the relationship between self-strangulations/hangings and overcrowding.

  10. The cost of harmful alcohol use in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matzopoulos, R G; Truen, S; Bowman, B; Corrigall, J

    2014-02-01

    The economic, social and health costs associated with alcohol-related harms are important measures with which to inform alcohol management policies and laws. This analysis builds on previous cost estimates for South Africa. We reviewed existing international best-practice costing frameworks to provide the costing definitions and dimensions. We sourced data from South African costing literature or, if unavailable, estimated costs using socio-economic and health data from secondary sources. Care was taken to avoid possible causes of cost overestimation, in particular double counting and, as far as possible, second-round effects of alcohol abuse. The combined total tangible and intangible costs of alcohol harm to the economy were estimated at 10 - 12% of the 2009 gross domestic product (GDP). The tangible financial cost of harmful alcohol use alone was estimated at R37.9 billion, or 1.6% of the 2009 GDP. The costs of alcohol-related harms provide a substantial counterbalance to the economic benefits highlighted by the alcohol industry to counter stricter regulation. Curtailing these costs by regulatory and policy interventions contributes directly and indirectly to social well-being and the economy. CONCLUSIONS; Existing frameworks that guide the regulation and distribution of alcohol frequently focus on maximising the contribution of the alcohol sector to the economy, but should also take into account the associated economic, social and health costs. Current interventions do not systematically address the most important causes of harm from alcohol, and need to be informed by reliable evidence of the ongoing costs of alcohol-related harms.

  11. Soil contamination in south Backa region of Serbia with dangerous and harmful substances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maksimović Livija

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil samples in disturbed state were taken in order to control fertility and monitor contents of harmful and hazardous substances in Vojvodina soils and possibilities of soil degradation in general. Moderately contaminated soils were selected for examination. Microbial activity in contaminated soil and the impact of harmful and hazardous substances (pesticides on soil microorganisms were observed and most resistant microorganisms were isolated. Vegetation experiments were organized to study the effect of chelating agents EDTA and EDDS on copper adoption and translocation in rapeseed and sunflower. Importance of some ions in the complexation of copper chelators and their undesirable effects on copper uptake were established. Field trials were organized to study the effect of hydrogel on water uptakes by plants, increase in rate and the increase in rate of removal of hazardous and harmful substances from soil solution. At all phases of the project, we monitored the effectiveness of soil bioremediation soils by means of the application of chelating agents, stimulative preparations such as hydrogel and certain microorganisms. It effectiveness was measured in terms of plant growth rate and intensity in removal of hazardous and harmful substances from contaminated soil.

  12. Effects of Coupling Distance on Synchronization and Coherence in Chaotic Neural Networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Maosheng

    2009-01-01

    Effects of coupling distance on synchronization and coherence of chaotic neurons in complex networks are numerically investigated. We find that it is not beneficial to neurons synchronization if confining the coupling distance of random edges to a limit d max , but help to improve their coherence. Moreover, there is an optimal value of d max at which the coherence is maximum.

  13. The effect of distance to provider on employee response to changes in mental health benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindrooth, Richard C; Lo Sasso, Anthony T; Lurie, Ithai Z

    2006-10-01

    We assess whether distance to provider moderates the effect of a change in mental health benefits on treatment initiation of employees of a large US-based company for psychiatric disorders. Mental health treatment administrative claims data plus eligibility information provided by a Fortune 50 company for the years 1995-1998 are used for the analysis. The effect of distance is measured using the relative effect of the initiative on residents living far from providers compared to those living close to providers. We model the probability of treatment initiation using a random effects logit specification. We find that the effect of distance to provider has the potential to over-shadow other incentives to initiate treatment, especially at distances greater than 4 miles. These results lend further support to the notion that geographic dispersion of providers should be an important consideration when forming a selective contracting network. Copyright (c) 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Harm reduction as a strategy for supporting people who self-harm on mental health wards : the views and experiences of practitioners

    OpenAIRE

    James, Karen; Samuels, Isaac; Moran, Paul; Stewart, Duncan

    2017-01-01

    Background: Harm reduction has had positive outcomes for people using sexual health and substance misuse services. Clinical guidance recommends these approaches may be appropriately adopted by mental health practitioners when managing some people who self-harm. There has, however, been very little research in this area. Methods: We explored practitioners’ views of harm reduction as a strategy for supporting people who self-harm. The Self Harm Antipathy Scale (SHAS) was administered to a rando...

  15. European rating of drug harms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Amsterdam, Jan; Nutt, David; Phillips, Lawrence; van den Brink, Wim

    2015-01-01

    The present paper describes the results of a rating study performed by a group of European Union (EU) drug experts using the multi-criteria decision analysis model for evaluating drug harms. Forty drug experts from throughout the EU scored 20 drugs on 16 harm criteria. The expert group also assessed

  16. Brief Report: The Self Harm Questionnaire--A New Tool Designed to Improve Identification of Self Harm in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ougrin, Dennis; Boege, Isabel

    2013-01-01

    The Self Harm Questionnaire (SHQ) aiming at identification of self-harm in adolescents has been developed and piloted in a sample of 12-17 year olds (n = 100). The adolescents were recruited from both in- and outpatient psychiatric services. Concurrent validity of the SHQ was evaluated by comparing the SHQ results with recorded self harm in the…

  17. The insured victim effect: When and why compensating harm decreases punishment recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe P. F. M. van de Calseyde

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available An insurance policy may not only affect the consequences for victims but also for perpetrators. In six experiments we find that people recommend milder punishments for perpetrators when the victim was insured, although people believe that a sentence should not depend on the victim's insurance status. The robustness of this effect is demonstrated by showing that recommendations can even be more lenient for crimes that are in fact more serious but in which the victim was insured. Moreover, even when harm was possible but did not materialize, people still prefer to punish crimes less severely when the (potential victim was insured. The final two experiments suggest that the effect is associated with a change in (1 compassion for the victim and (2 perceived severity of the transgression. Implications of this phenomenon are briefly discussed.

  18. Perceived harmfulness of substance use: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddharth Sarkar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Harm ratings of substances help in understanding the perception toward substance use and formulating policies. Evidence of such harm ratings by substance users and their caregivers provides a clearer perspective of those who experience and observe such harm closely. Materials and Methods: Substance users and their caregivers were recruited from the Drug De-addiction and Treatment Centre of PGIMER, Chandigarh. Sociodemographic details of the subjects were noted. The subjects were then asked to rate a list of psychoactive preparations according to the harms they thought the preparation caused. The list of substances was developed taking into consideration substance commonly encountered in the geographical area. The harm ratings were transformed on a scale of 0-100. Results: All subjects were males and majority of them were educated above 10 th standard, were not employed and belonged to urban background. Most of them had taken psychoactive substances in their lifetimes but were currently abstinent. Most of the subjects endorsed intravenous drugs as the most harmful, followed by heroin. Beer and chewable tobacco considered the least harmful substances. Greater degree of education was associated with lower harm rankings for heroin, cannabis, dextropropoxyphene, and raw opium; while urban residence was associated with greater harm ratings for cannabis and raw opium. Differences in the harms were perceived for different preparations of the same active compound for alcohol and nicotine. Conclusion: Harm ratings of substances can be a useful guide while formulating policies and allocating resources. Need for further research extending this pilot study is emphasized.

  19. Effect of soil moisture on sulphur accumulation in overground plant organs and their harm in emmission conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navara, J; Horvath, I; Hauskrecht, I

    1972-01-01

    The effect of different soil moisture on sulphur accumulation in the overground organs of Fagopyrum esculentum, moench in immission conditions is dealt with in this paper. The results obtained have shown that even under equal soil conditions, equal nutrient supply and age evenness of the analyzed material the total sulphur content of leaves grown in immission conditions (sulphur oxides, hydrogen sulphide, carbon disulphide, etc.) at equal soil moisture was essentially higher when compared with unirrigated plants and corresponded also to the degree of harm and crop reduction of the experimental plants. Therefore it is necessary when utilizing sulphur content of indicating plants, which serves for a large-area diagnosis of vegetation harm with immissions, to take into consideration, in addition to other factors (soil, nutrition, age of plants), the soil moisture as well.

  20. Harm reduction with pharmacotherapy for homeless people with alcohol dependence: protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Susan E; Saxon, Andrew J; Duncan, Mark H; Smart, Brian F; Merrill, Joseph O; Malone, Daniel K; Jackson, T Ron; Clifasefi, Seema L; Joesch, Jutta; Ries, Richard K

    2014-07-01

    Interventions requiring abstinence from alcohol are neither preferred by nor shown to be highly effective with many homeless individuals with alcohol dependence. It is therefore important to develop lower-threshold, patient-centered interventions for this multimorbid and high-utilizing population. Harm-reduction counseling requires neither abstinence nor use reduction and pairs a compassionate style with patient-driven goal-setting. Extended-release naltrexone (XR-NTX), a monthly injectable formulation of an opioid receptor antagonist, reduces craving and may support achievement of harm-reduction goals. Together, harm-reduction counseling and XR-NTX may support alcohol harm reduction and quality-of-life improvement. Study aims include testing: a) the relative efficacy of XR-NTX and harm-reduction counseling compared to a community-based, supportive-services-as-usual control, b) theory-based mediators of treatment effects, and c) treatment effects on publicly funded service costs. This RCT involves four arms: a) XR-NTX+harm-reduction counseling, b) placebo+harm-reduction counseling, c) harm-reduction counseling only, and d) community-based, supportive-services-as-usual control conditions. Participants are currently/formerly homeless, alcohol dependent individuals (N=300). Outcomes include alcohol variables (i.e., craving, quantity/frequency, problems and biomarkers), health-related quality of life, and publicly funded service utilization and associated costs. Mediators include 10-point motivation rulers and the Penn Alcohol Craving Scale. XR-NTX and harm-reduction counseling are administered every 4weeks over the 12-week treatment course. Follow-up assessments are conducted at weeks 24 and 36. If found efficacious, XR-NTX and harm-reduction counseling will be well-positioned to support reductions in alcohol-related harm, decreases in costs associated with publicly funded service utilization, and increases in quality of life among homeless, alcohol

  1. Effectiveness of policy changes to reduce harm from unrecorded alcohol in Russia between 2005 and now.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neufeld, Maria; Rehm, Jürgen

    2018-01-01

    Consumption of unrecorded alcohol (alcohol that is not taxed and reflected in official statistics, but consumed as a beverage) has been identified as one of the main contributors to alcohol-attributable premature mortality in Russia. The problem was highlighted by a recent a mass poisoning with surrogate alcohol occurred in the Siberian city of Irkutsk. Based on key publications and legislative documents, a narrative review was undertaken about alcohol-related harm reduction policies in Russia for the period between 2005 and 2017, as well as the impact of these policies on the recorded and unrecorded alcohol consumption and alcohol market. Various policy measures mainly targeting availability and price of recorded and unrecorded alcohol have been introduced since 2005, which generally coincided with the decreases in alcohol-related mortality observed at that time. However, regulations on medicinal and cosmetic products have remained inconsistent providing the foundations for the continued existence of a legal industry of surrogates with broad availability and misuse. The Russian experiences of introducing alcohol policies demonstrate that there are effective measures to reduce unrecorded alcohol consumption and attributable harm. The government's multi-level strategy of alcohol consumption and harm reduction should be pursued stringently and all the possible loop-holes for producers, sellers and distributors of illegal and/or unrecorded alcohol should be eliminated or at least critically reduced. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Harm reduction and law enforcement in Vietnam: influences on street policing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    or training strategies to support or operationalise legalised harm reduction interventions. The practices of street police challenge harm reduction policies, entirely understandably given the competing pressures on them. For harm reduction to be effective in Vietnam, it is essential that the ambiguities and contradictions between laws to control HIV and to control drugs be resolved for the street-level police. PMID:22769590

  3. Harm reduction and law enforcement in Vietnam: influences on street policing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jardine Melissa

    2012-07-01

    in harm reduction advocacy or training strategies to support or operationalise legalised harm reduction interventions. The practices of street police challenge harm reduction policies, entirely understandably given the competing pressures on them. For harm reduction to be effective in Vietnam, it is essential that the ambiguities and contradictions between laws to control HIV and to control drugs be resolved for the street-level police.

  4. Perceived Risk of Harm from Marijuana Use among Youth in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danseco, Evangeline R.; Kingery, Paul M.; Coggeshall, Mark

    1999-01-01

    Reviews studies that examined perceived risk or beliefs about harmful effects associated with marijuana use. Perceived risk was construed as consisting of at least four areas (physical harm; parental disapproval; peer disapproval; fear of arrest). Perception of risk varied with several factors including age and gender. Secondary data analysis was…

  5. DISTANCES TO DARK CLOUDS: COMPARING EXTINCTION DISTANCES TO MASER PARALLAX DISTANCES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, Jonathan B.; Jackson, James M.; Stead, Joseph J.; Hoare, Melvin G.; Benjamin, Robert A.

    2012-01-01

    We test two different methods of using near-infrared extinction to estimate distances to dark clouds in the first quadrant of the Galaxy using large near-infrared (Two Micron All Sky Survey and UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Survey) surveys. Very long baseline interferometry parallax measurements of masers around massive young stars provide the most direct and bias-free measurement of the distance to these dark clouds. We compare the extinction distance estimates to these maser parallax distances. We also compare these distances to kinematic distances, including recent re-calibrations of the Galactic rotation curve. The extinction distance methods agree with the maser parallax distances (within the errors) between 66% and 100% of the time (depending on method and input survey) and between 85% and 100% of the time outside of the crowded Galactic center. Although the sample size is small, extinction distance methods reproduce maser parallax distances better than kinematic distances; furthermore, extinction distance methods do not suffer from the kinematic distance ambiguity. This validation gives us confidence that these extinction methods may be extended to additional dark clouds where maser parallaxes are not available.

  6. Boundaries between Fair and Harmful Tax Competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Szwajdler

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to show boundaries between fair and harmful tax competition. The author analyses OECD’s reports and literature related to the tax competition. In the beginning, the author presents the notion of tax competition and its division into fair and unfair tax competition. Differences between tax heaven and preferential tax regime are also discussed. In the summary, the author highlights that boundaries between fair and harmful tax competition are not obvious, but there are well-known guidelines, which let distinguish above-mentioned issues. The author considers that there are real tax burden, effective exchange of tax information and transparency in the fair tax regime. The author states that taxpayer can do justified tax planning in such tax system.

  7. Long-distance signalling in plant defence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heil, Martin; Ton, Jurriaan

    2008-06-01

    Plants use inducible defence mechanisms to fend off harmful organisms. Resistance that is induced in response to local attack is often expressed systemically, that is, in organs that are not yet damaged. In the search for translocated defence signals, biochemical studies follow the physical movement of putative signals, and grafting experiments use mutants that are impaired in the production or perception of these signals. Long-distance signals can directly activate defence or can prime for the stronger and faster induction of defence. Historically, research has focused on the vascular transport of signalling metabolites, but volatiles can play a crucial role as well. We compare the advantages and constraints of vascular and airborne signals for the plant, and discuss how they can act in synergy to achieve optimised resistance in distal plant parts.

  8. Effects of Strength Training on Postpubertal Adolescent Distance Runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blagrove, Richard C; Howe, Louis P; Cushion, Emily J; Spence, Adam; Howatson, Glyn; Pedlar, Charles R; Hayes, Philip R

    2018-06-01

    Strength training activities have consistently been shown to improve running economy (RE) and neuromuscular characteristics, such as force-producing ability and maximal speed, in adult distance runners. However, the effects on adolescent (training on several important physiological and neuromuscular qualities associated with distance running performance. Participants (n = 25, 13 female, 17.2 ± 1.2 yr) were paired according to their sex and RE and randomly assigned to a 10-wk strength training group (STG) or a control group who continued their regular training. The STG performed twice weekly sessions of plyometric, sprint, and resistance training in addition to their normal running. Outcome measures included body mass, maximal oxygen uptake (V˙O2max), speed at V˙O2max, RE (quantified as energy cost), speed at fixed blood lactate concentrations, 20-m sprint, and maximal voluntary contraction during an isometric quarter-squat. Eighteen participants (STG: n = 9, 16.1 ± 1.1 yr; control group: n = 9, 17.6 ± 1.2 yr) completed the study. The STG displayed small improvements (3.2%-3.7%; effect size (ES), 0.31-0.51) in RE that were inferred as "possibly beneficial" for an average of three submaximal speeds. Trivial or small changes were observed for body composition variables, V˙O2max and speed at V˙O2max; however, the training period provided likely benefits to speed at fixed blood lactate concentrations in both groups. Strength training elicited a very likely benefit and a possible benefit to sprint time (ES, 0.32) and maximal voluntary contraction (ES, 0.86), respectively. Ten weeks of strength training added to the program of a postpubertal distance runner was highly likely to improve maximal speed and enhances RE by a small extent, without deleterious effects on body composition or other aerobic parameters.

  9. First Episode of Self-Harm in Older Age : A Report From the 10-Year Prospective Manchester Self-Harm Project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voshaar, Richard C. Oude; Cooper, Jayne; Murphy, Elizabeth; Steeg, Sarah; Kapur, Nay; Purandare, Nitin B.

    Objective: Self-harm is closely related to completed suicide, especially in older age. As empirical research of self-harm in older age is scarce, with no studies confined to first-ever episodes in older age, we examined the clinical characteristics and the risk of repetition in first-ever self-harm

  10. First episode of self-harm in older age: a report from the 10-year prospective Manchester Self-Harm project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Voshaar, R.C.; Cooper, J.; Murphy, E.; Steeg, S.; Kapur, N.; Purandare, N.B.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Self-harm is closely related to completed suicide, especially in older age. As empirical research of self-harm in older age is scarce, with no studies confined to first-ever episodes in older age, we examined the clinical characteristics and the risk of repetition in first-ever self-harm

  11. Responsible and controlled use: Older cannabis users and harm reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Nicholas; Sales, Paloma; Averill, Sheigla; Murphy, Fiona; Sato, Sye-Ok; Murphy, Sheigla

    2015-01-01

    Background Cannabis use is becoming more accepted in mainstream society. In this paper, we use Zinberg’s classic theoretical framework of drug, set, and setting to elucidate how older adult cannabis users managed health, social and legal risks in a context of normalized cannabis use. Methods We present selected findings from our qualitative study of Baby Boomer (born 1946–1964) cannabis users in the San Francisco Bay Area. Data collection consisted of a recorded, in-depth life history interview followed by a questionnaire and health survey. Qualitative interviews were analyzed to discover the factors of cannabis harm reduction from the users’ perspectives. Results Interviewees made harm reduction choices based on preferred cannabis derivatives and routes of administration, as well as why, when, where, and with whom to use. Most interviewees minimized cannabis-related harms so they could maintain social functioning in their everyday lives. Responsible and controlled use was described as moderation of quantity and frequency of cannabis used, using in appropriate settings, and respect for non-users. Users contributed to the normalization of cannabis use through normification. Conclusion Participants followed rituals or cultural practices, characterized by sanctions that helped define “normal” or “acceptable” cannabis use. Users contributed to cannabis normalization through their harm reduction methods. These cultural practices may prove to be more effective than formal legal prohibitions in reducing cannabis-related harms. Findings also suggest that users with access to a regulated market (medical cannabis dispensaries) were better equipped to practice harm reduction. More research is needed on both cannabis culture and alternative routes of administration as harm reduction methods. PMID:25911027

  12. Responsible and controlled use: Older cannabis users and harm reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Nicholas; Sales, Paloma; Averill, Sheigla; Murphy, Fiona; Sato, Sye-Ok; Murphy, Sheigla

    2015-08-01

    Cannabis use is becoming more accepted in mainstream society. In this paper, we use Zinberg's classic theoretical framework of drug, set, and setting to elucidate how older adult cannabis users managed health, social and legal risks in a context of normalized cannabis use. We present selected findings from our qualitative study of Baby Boomer (born 1946-1964) cannabis users in the San Francisco Bay Area. Data collection consisted of a recorded, in-depth life history interview followed by a questionnaire and health survey. Qualitative interviews were analyzed to discover the factors of cannabis harm reduction from the users' perspectives. Interviewees made harm reduction choices based on preferred cannabis derivatives and routes of administration, as well as why, when, where, and with whom to use. Most interviewees minimized cannabis-related harms so they could maintain social functioning in their everyday lives. Responsible and controlled use was described as moderation of quantity and frequency of cannabis used, using in appropriate settings, and respect for non-users. Users contributed to the normalization of cannabis use through normification. Participants followed rituals or cultural practices, characterized by sanctions that helped define "normal" or "acceptable" cannabis use. Users contributed to cannabis normalization through their harm reduction methods. These cultural practices may prove to be more effective than formal legal prohibitions in reducing cannabis-related harms. Findings also suggest that users with access to a regulated market (medical cannabis dispensaries) were better equipped to practice harm reduction. More research is needed on both cannabis culture and alternative routes of administration as harm reduction methods. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The impact of self-harm by young people on parents and families: a qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrey, Anne E; Hughes, Nicholas D; Simkin, Sue; Locock, Louise; Stewart, Anne; Kapur, Navneet; Gunnell, David; Hawton, Keith

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Little research has explored the full extent of the impact of self-harm on the family. This study aimed to explore the emotional, physical and practical effects of a young person’s self-harm on parents and family. Design and Participants: We used qualitative methods to explore the emotional, physical and practical effects of a young person’s self-harm on their parents and family. We conducted a thematic analysis of thirty-seven semi-structured narrative interviews with parents...

  14. Authority dependence and judgments of utilitarian harm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piazza, Jared; Sousa, Paulo; Holbrook, Colin

    2013-09-01

    Three studies tested the conditions under which people judge utilitarian harm to be authority dependent (i.e., whether its right or wrongness depends on the ruling of an authority). In Study 1, participants judged the right or wrongness of physical abuse when used as an interrogation method anticipated to yield useful information for preventing future terrorist attacks. The ruling of the military authority towards the harm was manipulated (prohibited vs. prescribed) and found to significantly influence judgments of the right or wrongness of inflicting harm. Study 2 established a boundary condition with regards to the influence of authority, which was eliminated when the utility of the harm was definitely obtained rather than forecasted. Finally, Study 3 replicated the findings of Studies 1-2 in a completely different context-an expert committee's ruling about the harming of chimpanzees for biomedical research. These results are discussed as they inform ongoing debates regarding the role of authority in moderating judgments of complex and simple harm. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Do breeding phase and detection distance influence the effective area surveyed for northern goshawks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberson, A.M.; Andersen, D.E.; Kennedy, P.L.

    2005-01-01

    Broadcast surveys using conspecific calls are currently the most effective method for detecting northern goshawks (Accipiter gentilis) during the breeding season. These surveys typically use alarm calls during the nestling phase and juvenile food-begging calls during the fledgling-dependency phase. Because goshawks are most vocal during the courtship phase, we hypothesized that this phase would be an effective time to detect goshawks. Our objective was to improve current survey methodology by evaluating the probability of detecting goshawks at active nests in northern Minnesota in 3 breeding phases and at 4 broadcast distances and to determine the effective area surveyed per broadcast station. Unlike previous studies, we broadcast calls at only 1 distance per trial. This approach better quantifies (1) the relationship between distance and probability of detection, and (2) the effective area surveyed (EAS) per broadcast station. We conducted 99 broadcast trials at 14 active breeding areas. When pooled over all distances, detection rates were highest during the courtship (70%) and fledgling-dependency phases (68%). Detection rates were lowest during the nestling phase (28%), when there appeared to be higher variation in likelihood of detecting individuals. EAS per broadcast station was 39.8 ha during courtship and 24.8 ha during fledgling-dependency. Consequently, in northern Minnesota, broadcast stations may be spaced 712m and 562 m apart when conducting systematic surveys during courtship and fledgling-dependency, respectively. We could not calculate EAS for the nestling phase because probability of detection was not a simple function of distance from nest. Calculation of EAS could be applied to other areas where the probability of detection is a known function of distance.

  16. Learner characteristics involved in distance learning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cernicek, A.T.; Hahn, H.A.

    1991-01-01

    Distance learning represents a strategy for leveraging resources to solve educational and training needs. Although many distance learning programs have been developed, lessons learned regarding differences between distance learning and traditional education with respect to learner characteristics have not been well documented. Therefore, we conducted a survey of 20 distance learning professionals. The questionnaire was distributed to experts attending the second Distance Learning Conference sponsored by Los Alamos National Laboratory. This survey not only acquired demographic information from each of the respondents but also identified important distance learning student characteristics. Significant distance learner characteristics, which were revealed statistically and which influence the effectiveness of distance learning, include the following: reading level, student autonomy, and self-motivation. Distance learning cannot become a more useful and effective method of instruction without identifying and recognizing learner characteristics. It will be important to consider these characteristics when designing all distance learning courses. This paper will report specific survey findings and their implications for developing distance learning courses. 9 refs., 6 tabs.

  17. The paradox of public holidays: Hospital-treated self-harm and associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Eve; Dillon, Christina B; O'Regan, Grace; Corcoran, Paul; Perry, Ivan J; Arensman, Ella

    2017-08-15

    Recent research on the patterns of self-harm around public holidays is lacking. This study used national data to examine the patterns of hospital-treated self-harm during public holidays, and to examine associated factors. Data on self-harm presentations to all emergency departments were obtained from the National Self-Harm Registry Ireland. The association between self-harm presentations and public holidays was examined using univariate and multivariate Poisson regression analyses. A total of 104,371 presentations of self-harm were recorded between 2007 and 2015. The mean number of self-harm presentations was 32 on public holidays. St. Patrick's Day had the highest number of presentations compared to all other public holidays, with a daily mean of 44 presentations. Across all years, self-harm presentations during public holidays had a 24% increased risk of involving alcohol consumption compared to all other days and this effect was most pronounced during the Christmas period. The association with alcohol remained significant at a multivariate level. Presentations on public holidays were more likely to attend out of normal working hours. An increase in male presentations involving self-cutting was observed on public holidays and there was an over-representation of males presenting for the first time. It is likely that extent of alcohol involvement in self-harm presentations reported here is an underestimate, as it was dependent on the information being recorded by the attending clinician. Public holidays are associated with an elevated number of self-harm presentations to hospital, with presentations to hospital involving alcohol significantly increased on these days. Hospital resources should be targeted to address increases during public holidays, including during out-of-hours. Involvement of alcohol may delay delivery of care to these patients in emergency settings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Harming ourselves and defiling others: what determines a moral domain?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alek Chakroff

    Full Text Available Recent work has distinguished "harm" from "purity" violations, but how does an act get classified as belonging to a domain in the first place? We demonstrate the impact of not only the kind of action (e.g., harmful versus impure but also its target (e.g., oneself versus another. Across two experiments, common signatures of harm and purity tracked with other-directed and self-directed actions, respectively. First, participants judged self-directed acts as primarily impure and other-directed acts as primarily harmful. Second, conservatism predicted harsher judgments of self-directed but not other-directed acts. Third, while participants delivered harsher judgments of intentional versus accidental acts, this effect was smaller for self-directed than other-directed acts. Finally, participants judged self-directed acts more harshly when focusing on the actor's character versus the action itself; other-directed acts elicited the opposite pattern. These findings suggest that moral domains are defined not only by the kind of action but also by the target of the action.

  19. Self-harm in patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mork, Erlend; Mehlum, Lars; Barrett, Elizabeth A; Agartz, Ingrid; Harkavy-Friedman, Jill M; Lorentzen, Steinar; Melle, Ingrid; Andreassen, Ole A; Walby, Fredrik A

    2012-01-01

    This study describes the prevalence, clinical characteristics, and gender profile of self-harm in a cross-sectional sample of 388 patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders. All patients were interviewed and assessed with respect to lifetime self-harm and relevant clinical variables. An overall of 49% of the patients reported self-harm which was associated with female gender, having had a depressive episode, younger age at psychosis onset, alcohol abuse or dependence, current suicidality, awareness of illness, and low adherence to prescribed medication. Higher awareness of having a mental disorder was associated with self-harm in men only, while emotional dysregulation was associated with self-harm in women only. We conclude that while self-harm in patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders is highly prevalent in both genders, risk factors in men and women differ in several important ways.

  20. Harmful Tax Competition in the EU with Reference to Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saša Drezgić

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available The process of globalisation has led, among other things, to harmful tax competition. This paper considers the efforts within the EU in combating harmful tax competition (Code of Conduct on Business Taxation and their effects when taking into account the EU regulations in relation to state aids. Considering a number of problems in the implementation of the Code, and the numerous criticisms with regard to the validity of the combat against harmful tax competition – it is difficult to give a final answer about its success. Croatian tax system, and the corporation tax in particular, are analysed in the light of the aforementioned problems. The advantages of the equal treatment of domestic and foreign investors, as well as the certain elements of state aids in tax benefits, are pointed out.

  1. What's the Harm? The Coverage of Ethics and Harm Avoidance in Research Methods Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Shane; Quirke, Linda

    2018-01-01

    Methods textbooks play a role in socializing a new generation of researchers about ethical research. How do undergraduate social research methods textbooks portray harm, its prevalence, and ways to mitigate harm to participants? We conducted a content analysis of ethics chapters in the 18 highest-selling undergraduate textbooks used in sociology…

  2. Embodied harms: gender, shame, and technology-facilitated sexual violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Nicola; Powell, Anastasia

    2015-06-01

    Criminality in cyberspace has been the subject of much debate since the 1990s, yet comparatively little attention has been paid to technology-facilitated sexual violence and harassment (TFSV). The aim of this article is to explore the ways in which retraditionalized gender hierarchies and inequalities are manifested in online contexts, and to conceptualize the cause and effects of TFSV as "embodied harms." We argue that problematic mind/body and online/off-line dualisms result in a failure to grasp the unique nature of embodied harms, precluding an adequate understanding and theorization of TFSV. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. Harm reduction and “Clean” community: can Viet Nam have both?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khuat Thu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The findings of our research show that while police play multiple roles in the fight against drug-related crime, they often perceived their tasks – especially preventing and controlling drug use on the one hand, and supporting harm reduction on the other – as contradictory, and this creates tensions in their work and relations with their communities. Although they are leaders and implementers of harm reduction, not all police know about it, and some remain skeptical or perceive it as contradictory to their main task of fighting drugs. Methadone treatment is seen by some as in competition with their main task of coordinating conventional drug treatment in the rehabilitation center. The history of drug use and the evolution of discourses on drug use in Viet Nam have created these conflicting pressures on police, and thus created contradictory expectations and led to different views and attitudes of police regarding various harm reduction measures. This might aid understanding why, despite the comprehensive and progressive policies on HIV/AIDS and harm reduction in Viet Nam, it is not easy for police to actively and effectively support and be involved in harm reduction at the ground level. To promote the wider acceptance of harm reduction the concept of community safety must be expanded to include community health; harm reduction must be integrated into the “new society” movement; and laws and policies need further revision to reduce contradiction between current drug laws and HIV laws. Harm reduction guidelines for police and other actors need to be disseminated and supported, embodying better ways of working between sectors, and all sectors in the partnership require support for building capacity to contribute to the overall goal.

  4. Mammography screening. Benefits, harms, and informed choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, Karsten Juhl

    2013-04-01

    The rationale for breast cancer screening with mammography is deceptively simple: catch it early and reduce mortality from the disease and the need for mastectomies. But breast cancer is a complex problem, and complex problems rarely have simple solutions. Breast screening brings forward the time of diagnosis only slightly compared to the lifetime of a tumour, and screen-detected tumours have a size where metastases are possible. A key question is if screening can prevent metastases, and if the screen-detected tumours are small enough to allow breast conserving surgery rather than mastectomy. A mortality reduction can never justify a medical intervention in its own right, but must be weighed against the harms. Overdiagnosis is the most important harm of breast screening, but has gained wider recognition only in recent years. Screening leads to the detection and treatment of breast cancers that would otherwise never have been detected because they grow very slowly or not at all and would not have been detected in the woman's lifetime in the absence of screening. Screening therefore turns women into cancer patients unnecessarily, with life-long physical and psychological harms. The debate about the justification of breast screening is therefore not a simple question of whether screening reduces breast cancer mortality. This dissertation quantifies the primary benefits and harms of screening mammography. Denmark has an unscreened "control group" because only two geographical regions offered screening over a long time-period, which is unique in an international context. This was used to study breast cancer mortality, overdiagnosis, and the use of mastectomies. Also, a systematic review of overdiagnosis in five other countries allowed us to show that about half of the screen-detected breast cancers are overdiagnosed. An effect on breast cancer mortality is doubtful in today's setting, and overdiagnosis causes an increase in the use of mastectomies. These findings are

  5. Impulsivity and self-harm in adolescence: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, Joanna; Daley, David; Townsend, Ellen; Sayal, Kapil

    2017-04-01

    Research supports an association between impulsivity and self-harm, yet inconsistencies in methodology across studies have complicated understanding of this relationship. This systematic review examines the association between impulsivity and self-harm in community-based adolescents aged 11-25 years and aims to integrate findings according to differing concepts and methods. Electronic searches of EMBASE, MEDLINE, PsychINFO, CINAHL, PubMed and The Cochrane Library, and manual searches of reference lists of relevant reviews identified 4496 articles published up to July 2015, of which 28 met inclusion criteria. Twenty-four of the studies reported an association between broadly specified impulsivity and self-harm. However, findings varied according to the conception and measurement of impulsivity and the precision with which self-harm behaviours were specified. Specifically, lifetime non-suicidal self-injury was most consistently associated with mood-based impulsivity-related traits. However, cognitive facets of impulsivity (relating to difficulties maintaining focus or acting without forethought) differentiated current self-harm from past self-harm. These facets also distinguished those with thoughts of self-harm (ideation) from those who acted on thoughts (enaction). The findings suggested that mood-based impulsivity is related to the initiation of self-harm, while cognitive facets of impulsivity are associated with the maintenance of self-harm. In addition, behavioural impulsivity is most relevant to self-harm under conditions of negative affect. Collectively, the findings indicate that distinct impulsivity facets confer unique risks across the life-course of self-harm. From a clinical perspective, the review suggests that interventions focusing on reducing rash reactivity to emotions or improving self-regulation and decision making may offer most benefit in supporting those who self-harm.

  6. Adolescents' Deliberate Self-Harm, Interpersonal Stress, and the Moderating Effects of Self-Regulation: A Two-Wave Longitudinal Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jutengren, Goran; Kerr, Margaret; Stattin, Hakan

    2011-01-01

    The predictive effects of peer victimization and harsh parenting on deliberate self-harm were examined. As derived from the experiential avoidance model, the study also tested whether these links were moderated by individual self-regulation approaches. Data were collected at two points in time from 880 junior high school students (mean age =…

  7. Fasting: Benefits and probable health harmfulness from the Islamic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Ebrahimi

    2015-06-01

    Medical science can determine the effects and consequences of thirst and hunger during the month of Ramadan. In the religious perspective, it has been emphasized that fasting is for achieving the divine virtue, and this shouldn’t be in conflict with maintaining man’s health. Therefore, the conditions in which there is the probability of harmfulness to man’s health due to fasting, man shouldn’t fast. As a result, medical science could recognize the conditions in which there is probable harmfulness to man’s health.

  8. The effect of humus on biological cleaning of soils - association of harmful organic substances from mineral oil contaminators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richnow, H.H.; Seifert, R.; Michaelis, W.

    1993-01-01

    The association of organic harmful substances and particularly their metabolites with the humin fraction is a process which has great ecological importance. The knowledge of the type and extent of such associations of harmful substances with the humin fraction of the soil plays a central part in the assessment of loading by harmful substances or the success of biological cleaning up measures. (orig.) [de

  9. Effect of Distance on Open Innovation: Differences among Institutions According to Patent Citation and Reference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JinHyo Joseph Yun

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The main topic of this paper is the effects of distance between technology and the market, on open innovation. For this, we set up two research questions, as follows: Is there any relation between the distance between technology and the market, and open innovation? If there is, what differences are there in the relation among Fortune 500 companies, non-Fortune 500 companies, laboratories, universities, and start-ups? First, this study measured the distance between technology and the market of a patent by the size of its list of references and citations. Second, the OI network among patent application subjects was described based on patent similarity. Third and most importantly, regression analyses were used to answer the research questions. The first result was that there were differences in the distance and OI among Fortune 500 firms, Fortune non-500 firms, laboratories, universities, and start-ups. Thus, there are relations between the distance between technology and the market, and open innovation. The second result was that the distance between technology and the market was found to moderate the open innovation effect in Fortune 500 companies and laboratories.

  10. PREP advertisement features affect smokers’ beliefs regarding potential harm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasser, Andrew A; Tang, Kathy Z; Tuller, Michael D; Cappella, Joseph N

    2014-01-01

    Background The Institute of Medicine report on potential reduced exposure products (PREPs) recommends that advertising and labelling be regulated to prevent explicitly or implicitly false or misleading claims. Belief that a product is less harmful may increase use or prevent smoking cessation. Objective To determine the effect of altering advertisement features on smokers’ beliefs of the harm exposure from a PREP. Methods A Quest advertisement was digitally altered using computer software and presented to participants using web-based television recruitment contracted through a survey company. 500 current smokers completed demographic and smoking history questions, were randomised to view one of three advertisement conditions, then completed eight items assessing their beliefs of the harmfulness of the product. Advertisement conditions included the original, unaltered advertisement; a “red” condition where the cigarette packages were digitally altered to the colour red, implying increased harm potential; and a “no text” condition where all text was removed to reduce explicit product information. Polytomous logistic regression, using “incorrect,” “unsure” and “correct” as outcomes, and advertisement type and covariates as predictors, was used for analyses. Results Participants randomised to the “no text” advertisement were less likely to be incorrect in their beliefs that Quest cigarettes are lower in tar, less addictive, less likely to cause cancer, have fewer chemicals, healthier and make smoking safer. Conclusions Smokers can form false beliefs about the harmfulness of PREP products based on how the PREPs are marketed. Careful examination must be undertaken to provide empirical evidence to better formulate regulatory principles of PREP advertising. PMID:18768457

  11. PREP advertisement features affect smokers' beliefs regarding potential harm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasser, A A; Tang, K Z; Tuller, M D; Cappella, J N

    2008-09-01

    The Institute of Medicine report on potential reduced exposure products (PREPs) recommends that advertising and labelling be regulated to prevent explicitly or implicitly false or misleading claims. Belief that a product is less harmful may increase use or prevent smoking cessation. To determine the effect of altering advertisement features on smokers' beliefs of the harm exposure from a PREP. A Quest advertisement was digitally altered using computer software and presented to participants using web-based television recruitment contracted through a survey company. 500 current smokers completed demographic and smoking history questions, were randomised to view one of three advertisement conditions, then completed eight items assessing their beliefs of the harmfulness of the product. Advertisement conditions included the original, unaltered advertisement; a "red" condition where the cigarette packages were digitally altered to the colour red, implying increased harm potential; and a "no text" condition where all text was removed to reduce explicit product information. Polytomous logistic regression, using "incorrect," "unsure" and "correct" as outcomes, and advertisement type and covariates as predictors, was used for analyses. Participants randomised to the "no text" advertisement were less likely to be incorrect in their beliefs that Quest cigarettes are lower in tar, less addictive, less likely to cause cancer, have fewer chemicals, are healthier and make smoking safer. Smokers can form false beliefs about the harmfulness of PREP products based on how the PREPs are marketed. Careful examination must be undertaken to provide empirical evidence to better formulate regulatory principles of PREP advertising.

  12. Alcohol and self-harm in Anuradhapura

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jane Brandt; Jayasena, Chandima; Agampodi, Thilini Chanchala

    the personal network of the drinker and lead to secondary traumatization. This can appear as emotional distress, financial difficulties and lead to domestic violence and in some cases self-harm and suicide. This interplay between alcohol and self-harm was investigated in individuals, families and communities...

  13. Effectiveness of Culturally Appropriate Initiative on Drug-Related Harm Reduction for Sex Workers on the Thai/Malaysian Border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunun, Worapol; Kanato, Manop

    2015-07-01

    Drug use can harm to sex workers. Abstinence intervention, however, may not be appropriate since drug use fosters their career performance. The objective was to develop the culturally appropriate model for sex workers participation on drug demand reduction at the Thailand/Malaysian border This study was a pre-post quasi-experimental design. Tripartite participation was used to develop the model aiming to reduce harm regarding drug use. The study carried out during June 2010-May 2011. Data were collected from 150 key informant interviews, 56 focus group discussions, 22 participant observations in various situations, and numerous related materials. Descriptive statistics, survival analysis and 95% confidence interval were utilizedfor quantitative data. Qualitative data were analyzed by content analysis. Drug related harm reduction was evaluated at two-week time along implementation period of 12 months. 89.5% of all sessions introduced could decrease drug related harm. Of all sex workers participated in the study, intended to treat analysis showed 86.9% success rate (95% CI; 77.1, 96.7). Of these, 32.6% became abstinence, 39.1% reduced most of drug related harm. 13.0% reduced partial drug related harm either lessfrequency, less quantity, less concentration, decrease types of drugs/switch to safe drugs or safer method of administration. 2.2% was infancy stage, which needed further support. Key success ofthe model was tripartite participation. With active leaders and strong support, sex workers were continually motivated to reduce harm regarding drug use.

  14. Prevention of deaths from harmful drinking in the United States: the potential effects of tax increases and advertising bans on young drinkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollingworth, William; Ebel, Beth E; McCarty, Carolyn A; Garrison, Michelle M; Christakis, Dimitri A; Rivara, Frederick P

    2006-03-01

    Harmful alcohol consumption is a leading cause of death in the United States. The majority of people who die from alcohol use begin drinking in their youth. In this study, we estimate the impact of interventions to reduce the prevalence of drinking among youth on subsequent drinking patterns and alcohol-attributable mortality. We first estimated the effect of public health interventions to decrease harmful drinking among youth from literature reviews and used life table methods to estimate alcohol-attributable years of life lost by age 80 years among the cohort of approximately 4 million U.S. residents aged 20 in the year 2000. Then, from national survey data on transitions in drinking habits by age, we modeled the impact of interventions on alcohol-attributable mortality. A tax increase and an advertising ban were the most effective interventions identified. In the absence of intervention, there would be 55,259 alcohol-attributable deaths over the lifetime of the cohort. A tax-based 17% increase in the price of alcohol of dollar 1 per six pack of beer could reduce deaths from harmful drinking by 1,490, equivalent to 31,130 discounted years of potential life saved or 3.3% of current alcohol-attributable mortality. A complete ban on alcohol advertising would reduce deaths from harmful drinking by 7,609 and result in a 16.4% decrease in alcohol-related life-years lost. A partial advertising ban would result in a 4% reduction in alcohol-related life-years lost. Interventions to prevent harmful drinking by youth can result in reductions in adult mortality. Among interventions shown to be successful in reducing youthful drinking prevalence, advertising bans appear to have the greatest potential for premature mortality reduction.

  15. Getting out of (self-) harm's way: A study of factors associated with self-harm among asylum seekers in Australian immigration detention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedrick, Kyli

    2017-07-01

    The monitoring of self-harm among asylum seekers in Australian immigration detention has not occurred routinely or transparently. Thus whilst concerns regarding rates of self-harm among asylum seekers have been frequently raised, a paucity of systematic information regarding key factors associated with self-harm among asylum seekers exists. The present study was designed therefore to fill a number of gaps in government monitoring by examining the government's own archived self-harm data. Via a descriptive analysis of self-harm incident reports from all operational Australian immigration detention facilities over a 20-month period to May 2011, obtained under Freedom of Information, the present study identified that 959 incidents of self-harm occurred during this period. A gender bias towards men was also found. In addition to this, 10 different methods of self-harm were identified, the four most common being: cutting (47%), attempted hanging (19%), head hitting (12%) and self-poisoning by medication (6%). Seven different precipitating factors for self-harm were also identified, the four most common were: detention conditions (39%), processing arrangements (27%), negative decisions (24%) and family separation (3%). These findings point strongly to the health benefits of considering alternatives to held immigration detention, such as community based processing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  16. How people who self-harm negotiate the inpatient environment: the mental healthcare workers perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, J B; Haslam, C O

    2017-09-01

    WHAT IS KNOWN ABOUT THE SUBJECT?: Self-harm plays a function, commonly in the form of distress management. There has been little focussed exploration of how individuals who use self-harm to manage distress cope when prevented from self-harm in an inpatient environment and how staff respond to this issue. This paper uses the experiences of mental health staff to add to the existing knowledge that self-harm has a functional role and supports the notion that interventions for self-harm should focus on the origins of distress. It describes the potential consequences that focussing on prevention of self-harm as opposed to actually managing distress may have on service-users, how staff attempt to manage these consequences and factors that may impact on staff interventions to prevent further distress/harm. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE?: The findings suggest that mental healthcare staff should aim to understand the function of self-harm, use this understanding to develop an individualized care plan with the aim of managing distress and identify barriers to the effectiveness of the interventions so they can be worked around. Introduction Literature describes self-harm as functional and meaningful. This creates difficulties for service-users detained in an inpatient environment where self-harm is prevented. Aim Mental healthcare staff were interviewed to build on existing evidence of issues with the prevention approach and explore, from a staff perspective, how self-harm prevention impacts on service-users, how they manage distress and how this impacts on staff and their approach to care. Methods Qualitative methods were used to allow unexpected themes to arise. Ten semi-structured interviews were carried out with mental healthcare staff and thematically analysed. Findings and discussion The findings provide new evidence on the benefits and limitations of the inpatient environment for individuals who self-harm. Findings indicate that being unable to self-harm can

  17. Still "at risk": An examination of how street-involved young people understand, experience, and engage with "harm reduction" in Vancouver's inner city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozinoff, Nikki; Small, Will; Long, Cathy; DeBeck, Kora; Fast, Danya

    2017-07-01

    Vancouver is an international leader in implementing interventions to reduce harms related to drug use. However, street-involved young people who use drugs continue to be vulnerable to overdose death, hepatitis C (HCV) infection, and high rates of syringe sharing. To better understand this in the context of the intensive public health response, we examined how young people, who are involved in the 'street drug scene', understood, experienced and engaged with harm reduction. Twelve semi-structured interviews were conducted in 2013 with 13 young people (ages 17-28) recruited from the At-Risk Youth Study, a prospective cohort of street-involved and drug-using young people. These interviews were embedded within a larger, eight-year program of ethnographic research and explored participants' understandings of harm reduction, their use of specific services, and their ideas about improving their day-to-day lives. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and a thematic analysis was performed. Young peoples' ideas about harm reduction were diverse and expansive. They articulated the limitations of existing programs, indicating that while they are positioned to reduce the risk of HIV and HCV transmission, they offer little meaningful support to improve young peoples' broader life chances. Young people described strategies to mitigate risk and harm in their own lives, including transitioning to drugs deemed less harmful and attempting to gain access to drug treatment. Finally, young people indicated that spatial considerations (e.g., distance from Vancouver's Downtown Eastside) strongly determined access to services. In Vancouver, a large, well established harm reduction infrastructure seeks to reduce HIV and HCV transmission among street-involved young people. However, young peoples' multiple understandings, experiences and engagements with harm reduction in this setting illustrate the limitations of the existing infrastructure in improving their broader life chances. Copyright

  18. A pragmatic randomised controlled trial and economic evaluation of family therapy versus treatment as usual for young people seen after second or subsequent episodes of self-harm: the Self-Harm Intervention - Family Therapy (SHIFT) trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottrell, David J; Wright-Hughes, Alex; Collinson, Michelle; Boston, Paula; Eisler, Ivan; Fortune, Sarah; Graham, Elizabeth H; Green, Jonathan; House, Allan O; Kerfoot, Michael; Owens, David W; Saloniki, Eirini-Christina; Simic, Mima; Tubeuf, Sandy; Farrin, Amanda J

    2018-03-01

    Self-harm in adolescents is common and repetition rates high. There is limited evidence of the effectiveness of interventions to reduce self-harm. To assess the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of family therapy (FT) compared with treatment as usual (TAU). A pragmatic, multicentre, individually randomised controlled trial of FT compared with TAU. Participants and therapists were aware of treatment allocation; researchers were blind to allocation. Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS) across three English regions. Young people aged 11-17 years who had self-harmed at least twice presenting to CAMHS following self-harm. Eight hundred and thirty-two participants were randomised to manualised FT delivered by trained and supervised family therapists ( n  = 415) or to usual care offered by local CAMHS following self-harm ( n  = 417). Rates of repetition of self-harm leading to hospital attendance 18 months after randomisation. Out of 832 young people, 212 (26.6%) experienced a primary outcome event: 118 out of 415 (28.4%) randomised to FT and 103 out of 417 (24.7%) randomised to TAU. There was no evidence of a statistically significant difference in repetition rates between groups (the hazard ratio for FT compared with TAU was 1.14, 95% confidence interval 0.87 to 1.49; p  = 0.3349). FT was not found to be cost-effective when compared with TAU in the base case and most sensitivity analyses. FT was dominated (less effective and more expensive) in the complete case. However, when young people's and caregivers' quality-adjusted life-year gains were combined, FT incurred higher costs and resulted in better health outcomes than TAU within the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence cost-effectiveness range. Significant interactions with treatment, indicating moderation, were detected for the unemotional subscale on the young person-reported Inventory of Callous-Unemotional Traits ( p  = 0.0104) and the affective involvement

  19. Protective and harmful effects of physical activity for low back pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinheiro, Marina B.; Ferreira, Manuela L; Refshauge, Kathryn M

    2016-01-01

    Low back pain (LBP) is a major health problem globally, but approaches to prevention are not yet clearly identified because modifiable risk factors are not well established. Although physical activity is one promising modifiable risk factor, it is still not known what types and doses of physical...... activity are protective or harmful for LBP. The aim of this study is to establish the feasibility of a definitive cohort study that will investigate the effects of different types and doses of physical activity on the risk of developing recurrent LBP while accounting for genetic factors....... This will be a pilot longitudinal twin study and twins will be recruited from the Australian Twin Registry, and will be followed over 1 year. Thirty adult complete twin pairs with a history of LBP, but symptom free at recruitment, will be included. Data on physical activity (predictor) will be collected using four...

  20. Effects of Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC) on Distance Relay ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper investigates the effects of UPFC on Distance Relay tripping characteristics in Nigerian 330kV (North-Central) Network. Its operation is based on impedance measurement at the relaying point. However, the system performance is often impeded by certain operational or structural factors such as load angle, the ...

  1. 76 FR 5387 - Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; “`Harmful and Potentially Harmful...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-31

    ... of Dockets Management (HFA-305), Food and Drug Administration, 5630 Fishers Lane, Rm. 1061, Rockville... harmful constituents, including smoke constituents, to health in each tobacco product by brand and by quantity in each brand and subbrand.'' The guidance discusses the meaning of the term ``harmful and...

  2. Landscape Distance and Connectivity Effects on Pollination of Passiflora incarnata L.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunningham, A.F.

    2000-05-05

    To test the effect of landscape distance and habitat corridors on pollen-mediated gene flow between fragmentary plant populations, principle investigator used fluorescent dye as a pollen analog, unique tags on pollinators and known allozyme markers using experimental and wildtype Passiflora incarnata at Savannah River Site. Results indicate no significant effect of a corridor on pollen-mediated gene flow.

  3. The Effects of Distance to Dentists and Dentist Supply on Children's Use of Dental Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehby, George L; Shane, Dan M; Joshi, Adweta; Momany, Elizabeth; Chi, Donald L; Kuthy, Raymond A; Damiano, Peter C

    2017-10-01

    To examine the effects of distance to dentists and dentist supply on dental services use among children with Medicaid coverage in Iowa. Iowa Medicaid claims for enrolled children between 2000 and 2009. The study sample included 41,554 children (providing 158,942 child-year observations) who were born in Iowa between 2000 and 2006 and enrolled from birth in the Iowa Medicaid program. Children were followed through 2009. We used logistic regression to simultaneously examine the effects of distance (miles to nearest dentist) and county-level dentist supply on a broad range of dental services controlling for key confounders. Additional models only used within-child variation over time to remove unobservable time-invariant confounders. Distance was related to lower utilization of comprehensive dental exams (2 percent lower odds per 1 mile increase in distance), an effect that also held in models using within-child variation only. Dentist supply was positively related to comprehensive exams and other preventive services and negatively related to major dental treatments; however, these associations became smaller and insignificant when examining within-child changes except for other preventive services. Longer distance to dentists is a barrier for use of comprehensive dental exams, conditional on dentist supply. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  4. The flaws and human harms of animal experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Aysha

    2015-10-01

    Nonhuman animal ("animal") experimentation is typically defended by arguments that it is reliable, that animals provide sufficiently good models of human biology and diseases to yield relevant information, and that, consequently, its use provides major human health benefits. I demonstrate that a growing body of scientific literature critically assessing the validity of animal experimentation generally (and animal modeling specifically) raises important concerns about its reliability and predictive value for human outcomes and for understanding human physiology. The unreliability of animal experimentation across a wide range of areas undermines scientific arguments in favor of the practice. Additionally, I show how animal experimentation often significantly harms humans through misleading safety studies, potential abandonment of effective therapeutics, and direction of resources away from more effective testing methods. The resulting evidence suggests that the collective harms and costs to humans from animal experimentation outweigh potential benefits and that resources would be better invested in developing human-based testing methods.

  5. Distance and protective barrier effects on the composite resin degree of conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutinho, Margareth; Trevizam, Natália Carvalho; Takayassu, Renata Nakase; Leme, Ariene Arcas; Soares, Giulliana Panfiglio

    2013-01-01

    Context: The food wrap films are used to cover the tip of curing light units in order to avoid contamination and prevent damage to the light guide. However, their effects on resin polymerization are not fully known. Aims: We investigated the effects on restoration efficiency of a food wrap protective barrier used on the tip of curing light units. Materials and Methods: For each treatment, five replications were performed, a total of 60 bovine incisor. The degree of conversion (%DC) of restorations with the composite resin Opallis EA2 was evaluated using 3 curing light devices (Optilux 501, Optilight and Ultra LED) and 2 curing distances (0 and 5 mm). The composite resin was tested for restoration of cavities in bovine crowns. %DC values were measured by the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy-attenuated total reflectance technique. Statistical Analysis Used: The data were analyzed using 3-way ANOVA and Tukey's test. Results: Use of the protective film lowered %DC (F = 4.13; P = 0.05), and the effects of curing distance were associated to the curing light device (F = 3.61; P = 0.03). Conclusions: The distance from the light curing tip and use of a translucent protective barrier on the light-cure device can both impair composite resin %DC. PMID:24015001

  6. Intrapersonal factors of adolescents self-harming behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Volodko, Liubov

    2014-01-01

    Researches often differentiate two groups of self-harming adolescents: those who attempters a suicide, and those who are harming themselves in a non-suicidal way, and they don‘t seek the death. However just a few community-based research, which would directly compare these groups, were done so far, and therefore information about the differences of the psychological peculiarity and self-harming behavior‘s internal factors between the groups is ambivalent. Lifestyle and Coping Skills Questionn...

  7. Defining and redefining harm reduction in the Lao context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sychareun Vanphanom

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The response to drug use in Laos has focused on reducing opium supply (supply reduction and rates of drug use (demand reduction. However, recently there is increased interest among government counterparts to discuss and develop broader responses to injecting drug use (IDU including the introduction of harm reduction programs. The concept of harm reduction has just been introduced to Lao PDR and as yet there is no agreement on a definition of the concept. We highlight here a range of issues that remain controversial in Lao PDR in the HIV, drug use and harm reduction discourse, the definition of 'harm reduction' and related terms; and the scope of harm reduction. This was a qualitative study, consisting of in-depth interviews with 27 law enforcement and 8 health officers who work in the fields of HIV and/or drug control about their understanding of HIV related to drug use, and concepts of harm reduction. Content analysis was performed to identify the coding, categories and themes. We found that law enforcement officers in particular had limited understanding about harm reduction and the feasibility and appropriateness of harm reduction services in the Lao context. Harm reduction should be a core element of a public health response to HIV where drug use and IDU exists. Recommendations include the necessity of increasing the awareness of harm reduction among law enforcement officers and providing appropriate evidence to support the needs of harm reduction policy and programs. HIV prevention and treatment strategies should be integrated within existing social and cultural frameworks, working with the task force for HIV/IDU and other government counterparts.

  8. Auditory distance perception in humans: a review of cues, development, neuronal bases, and effects of sensory loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolarik, Andrew J; Moore, Brian C J; Zahorik, Pavel; Cirstea, Silvia; Pardhan, Shahina

    2016-02-01

    Auditory distance perception plays a major role in spatial awareness, enabling location of objects and avoidance of obstacles in the environment. However, it remains under-researched relative to studies of the directional aspect of sound localization. This review focuses on the following four aspects of auditory distance perception: cue processing, development, consequences of visual and auditory loss, and neurological bases. The several auditory distance cues vary in their effective ranges in peripersonal and extrapersonal space. The primary cues are sound level, reverberation, and frequency. Nonperceptual factors, including the importance of the auditory event to the listener, also can affect perceived distance. Basic internal representations of auditory distance emerge at approximately 6 months of age in humans. Although visual information plays an important role in calibrating auditory space, sensorimotor contingencies can be used for calibration when vision is unavailable. Blind individuals often manifest supranormal abilities to judge relative distance but show a deficit in absolute distance judgments. Following hearing loss, the use of auditory level as a distance cue remains robust, while the reverberation cue becomes less effective. Previous studies have not found evidence that hearing-aid processing affects perceived auditory distance. Studies investigating the brain areas involved in processing different acoustic distance cues are described. Finally, suggestions are given for further research on auditory distance perception, including broader investigation of how background noise and multiple sound sources affect perceived auditory distance for those with sensory loss.

  9. Leader-team congruence in power distance values and team effectiveness: the mediating role of procedural justice climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Michael S; Carter, Min Z; Zhang, Zhen

    2013-11-01

    We examine the effect of (in)congruence between leaders' and teams' power distance values on team effectiveness. We hypothesize that the (in)congruence between these values would differentially predict team effectiveness, with procedural justice climate serving as a mediator. Using multisource data and polynomial regression, we found that similarities (and differences) between leaders' and their teams' power distance values can have consequential effects on teams' justice climate and, ultimately, their effectiveness (viz., team performance and team organizational citizenship behavior). We conclude that to fully understand the implications of power distance, one should consider the multiple perspectives of both leaders and team members. (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  10. Harmful Algal Blooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Jennifer L.

    2007-01-01

    What are Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs)? Freshwater and marine harmful algal blooms (HABs) can occur anytime water use is impaired due to excessive accumulations of algae. HAB occurrence is affected by a complex set of physical, chemical, biological, hydrological, and meteorological conditions making it difficult to isolate specific causative environmental factors. Potential impairments include reduction in water quality, accumulation of malodorous scums in beach areas, algal production of toxins potent enough to poison both aquatic and terrestrial organisms, and algal production of taste-and-odor compounds that cause unpalatable drinking water and fish. HABs are a global problem, and toxic freshwater and (or) marine algae have been implicated in human and animal illness and death in over 45 countries worldwide and in at least 27 U.S. States (Yoo and others, 1995; Chorus and Bartram, 1999; Huisman and others, 2005).

  11. The effect of information about the benefits and harms of mammography on women’s decision-making: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Misericòrdia, Carles; Martínez Alonso, Montserrat; Pons Rodríguez, Anna; Pérez Lacasta, María José; Perestelo Pérez, Lilisbeth; Sala, Maria; Vidal, Carmen; Garcia, Montse; Toledo Chávarri, Ana; Codern, Núria; Feijoo Cid, Maria; Romero, Anabel; Pla, Roger; Soler González, Jorge; Castells, Xavier

    2017-01-01

    Background The decision to participate or not in breast cancer screening is complex due to the trade-off between the expected benefit of breast cancer mortality reduction and the major harm of overdiagnosis. It seems ethically necessary to inform women so that they can actively participate in decision-making and make an informed choice based on their values and preferences. The objective of this study is to assess the effects of receiving information about the benefits and harms of screening ...

  12. Mental health nurses' attitudes toward self-harm: Curricular implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David G. Shaw

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: The FASH Model may inform future curriculum innovation. Adopting a holistic approach to education of nurses about self-harm may assist in developing attitudes and skills to make care provision more effective in secure mental health settings.

  13. Water quality assessment with hierarchical cluster analysis based on Mahalanobis distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xiangjun; Shao, Fengjing; Wu, Shunyao; Zhang, Hanlin; Xu, Si

    2017-07-01

    Water quality assessment is crucial for assessment of marine eutrophication, prediction of harmful algal blooms, and environment protection. Previous studies have developed many numeric modeling methods and data driven approaches for water quality assessment. The cluster analysis, an approach widely used for grouping data, has also been employed. However, there are complex correlations between water quality variables, which play important roles in water quality assessment but have always been overlooked. In this paper, we analyze correlations between water quality variables and propose an alternative method for water quality assessment with hierarchical cluster analysis based on Mahalanobis distance. Further, we cluster water quality data collected form coastal water of Bohai Sea and North Yellow Sea of China, and apply clustering results to evaluate its water quality. To evaluate the validity, we also cluster the water quality data with cluster analysis based on Euclidean distance, which are widely adopted by previous studies. The results show that our method is more suitable for water quality assessment with many correlated water quality variables. To our knowledge, it is the first attempt to apply Mahalanobis distance for coastal water quality assessment.

  14. Reducing Alcohol Harm. International Benchmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    last 10 years.12 Apart from the cost of medical care, the cost of alcohol use can also be associated with absenteeism and property damage. Alcohol...related harms cost British industry approximately £2 billion a year13 and the NHS about £1.7 billion a year14. Alcohol affects labour and productivity...Harmful drinking, Factsheet, June (2007). 15 “ Absenteeism due to drink”, Healthcare Today Magazine, September 19th, 2007. (Accessed on 19/09/07, at

  15. Harmful algal blooms

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhat, S.R.; PrabhaDevi; DeSouza, L.; Verlecar, X.N.; Naik, C.G.

    as harmful algal bloom. Bloom formation is a natural process and it enhances biological productivity, but turns worrisome when caused by toxic species, leading to massive fish mortalities and hazards to human health. Incidences of'red tide' are increasing...

  16. Do you see what we see? The complex effects of perceptual distance between leaders and teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Cristina B; Cooper, Cecily D; Conger, Jay A

    2009-01-01

    Previous distance-related theories and concepts (e.g., social distance) have failed to address the sometimes wide disparity in perceptions between leaders and the teams they lead. Drawing from the extensive literature on teams, leadership, and cognitive models of social information processing, the authors develop the concept of leader-team perceptual distance, defined as differences between a leader and a team in perceptions of the same social stimulus. The authors investigate the effects of perceptual distance on team performance, operationalizing the construct with 3 distinct foci: goal accomplishment, constructive conflict, and decision-making autonomy. Analyzing leader, member, and customer survey responses for a large sample of teams, the authors demonstrate that perceptual distance between a leader and a team regarding goal accomplishment and constructive conflict have a nonlinear relationship with team performance. Greater perceptual differences are associated with decreases in team performance. Moreover, this effect is strongest when a team's perceptions are more positive than the leader's are (as opposed to the reverse). This pattern illustrates the pervasive effects that perceptions can have on team performance, highlighting the importance of developing awareness of perceptions in order to increase effectiveness. Implications for theory and practice are delineated. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Self-Harm Intervention: Family Therapy (SHIFT), a study protocol for a randomised controlled trial of family therapy versus treatment as usual for young people seen after a second or subsequent episode of self-harm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright-Hughes, Alexandra; Graham, Elizabeth; Farrin, Amanda; Collinson, Michelle; Boston, Paula; Eisler, Ivan; Fortune, Sarah; Green, Jonathan; House, Allan; Owens, David; Simic, Mima; Tubeuf, Sandy; Nixon, Jane; McCabe, Christopher; Kerfoot, Michael; Cottrell, David

    2015-11-04

    Self-harm is common in the community with a lifetime prevalence of 13 %. It is associated with an elevated risk of overall mortality and suicide. People who harm themselves are high users of public services. Estimates of the 1-year risk of repetition vary between 5 and 15 % per year. Currently, limited evidence exists on the effectiveness of clinical interventions for young people who engage in self-harm. Recent reviews have failed to demonstrate any effect on reducing repetition of self-harm among adolescents receiving a range of treatment approaches. Family factors are particularly important risk factors associated with fatal and non-fatal self-harm among children and adolescents. Family therapy focuses on the relationships, roles and communication patterns between family members, but there have been relatively few studies of specifically family-focused interventions with this population. The Self-Harm Intervention: Family Therapy (SHIFT) Trial was funded by the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Health Technology Assessment programme (grant no. 07/33/01) following a commissioned call for this research. SHIFT is a pragmatic, phase III, multicentre, individually randomised, controlled trial comparing Family Therapy (FT) with treatment as usual (TAU) for adolescents aged 11 to 17 who have engaged in at least two episodes of self-harm. Both therapeutic interventions were delivered within the National Health Service (NHS) Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS) in England. Participants and therapists were, of necessity, aware of treatment allocation, but the researchers were blind to the allocations to allow unbiased collection of follow-up data. Primary outcome data (repetition of self-harm leading to hospital attendance 18 months post-randomisation) were collected from the Health and Social Care Information Centre (HSCIC), augmented by directed searches of medical records at Acute Trusts. Secondary outcome data (including suicidal intent

  18. Effect of Maximal Versus Supra-Maximal Exhausting Race on Lipid Peroxidation, Antioxidant Activity and Muscle-Damage Biomarkers in Long-Distance and Middle-Distance Runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Said; Lamya, Ncir; Hamda, Mansour

    2016-03-01

    Exhausting physical exercise increases lipid peroxidation and causes important muscle damages. The human body tries to mitigate these adverse effects by mobilizing its antioxidant defenses. This study aims to investigate the effect of a maximal versus supra-maximal race sustained until exhaustion on lipid peroxidation, antioxidant activity and muscle-damage biomarkers in trained (i.e. long-distance and middle-distance runners) and sedentary subjects. The study has been carried out on 8 middle-distance runners (MDR), 9 long-distance runners (LDR), and 8 sedentary subjects (SS). Each subject has undergone two exhaustive running tests, the first one is an incremental event (VAMEVAL test), the second one is a constant supra-maximal intensity test (limited-time test). Blood samples were collected at rest and immediately after each test. A significant increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations was observed in SS and MDR after the VAMEVAL test and in LDR after the Limited-Time test. A significant difference was also observed between LDR and the other two groups after the VAMEVAL test, and between LDR and MDR after the Limited-Time test. Significant modifications, notably, in myoglobin, CK, LDH, IL-6, TNF-α, and TAS were likewise noted but depending on the race-type and the sportive specialty. Maximal and supra-maximal races induce a significant increase in lipid peroxidation and cause non-negligible inflammation and muscle damage. These effects were relatively related to the physical exercise type and the sportive specialty.

  19. Household Factors Associated with Self-Harm in Johannesburg, South African Urban-Poor Households.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisha Naicker

    Full Text Available Low and middle income countries bear the majority burden of self-harm, yet there is a paucity of evidence detailing risk-factors for self-harm in these populations. This study aims to identify environmental, socio-economic and demographic household-level risk factors for self-harm in five impoverished urban communities in Johannesburg, South Africa.Annual serial cross-sectional surveys were undertaken in five impoverished urban communities in Johannesburg for the Health, Environment and Development (HEAD study. Logistic regression analysis using the HEAD study data (2006-2011 was conducted to identify household-level risk factors associated with self-harm (defined as a self-reported case of a fatal or non-fatal suicide attempt within the household during the preceding year. Stepwise multivariate logistic regression analysis was employed to identify factors associated with self-harm.A total of 2 795 household interviews were conducted from 2006 to 2011. There was no significant trend in self-harm over time. Results from the final model showed that self-harm was significantly associated with households exposed to a violent crime during the past year (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR 5.72; 95% CI 1.64-19.97; that have a member suffering from a chronic medical condition (AOR 8.95; 95% 2.39-33.56 and households exposed to indoor smoking (AOR 4.39; CI 95% 1.14-16.47.This study provides evidence on household risk factors of self-harm in settings of urban poverty and has highlighted the potential for a more cost-effective approach to identifying those at risk of self-harm based on household level factors.

  20. The effect of information about the benefits and harms of mammography on women's decision-making: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carles, Misericòrdia; Martínez-Alonso, Montserrat; Pons, Anna; Pérez-Lacasta, Maria José; Perestelo-Pérez, Lilisbeth; Sala, Maria; Vidal, Carmen; Garcia, Montse; Toledo-Chávarri, Ana; Codern, Núria; Feijoo-Cid, Maria; Romero, Anabel; Pla, Roger; Soler-González, Jorge; Castells, Xavier; Rué, Montserrat

    2017-09-12

    The decision to participate or not in breast cancer screening is complex due to the trade-off between the expected benefit of breast cancer mortality reduction and the major harm of overdiagnosis. It seems ethically necessary to inform women so that they can actively participate in decision-making and make an informed choice based on their values and preferences. The objective of this study is to assess the effects of receiving information about the benefits and harms of screening on decision-making, in women approaching the age of invitation to mammography screening. A two-stage, randomized controlled trial (RCT). In the first stage, 40 Basic Health Areas (BHAs) will be selected and randomized to intervention or control. In the second stage, women within each BHA will be randomly selected (n = 400). Four breast cancer screening programs (BCSPs) of the Spanish public health system, three in Catalonia and one in the Canary Islands will participate in the study. Women in the intervention arm will receive a leaflet with detailed information on the benefits and harms of screening using mammography. Women in the control arm will receive a standard leaflet that does not mention harms and recommends accepting the invitation to participate in the biennial examinations of the BCSP. The primary outcome is informed choice, a dichotomous variable that combines knowledge, attitudes, and intentions. Secondary outcomes include decisional conflict; confidence in the decision made; anxiety about screening participation; worry about breast cancer; anticipated regret; time perspective; perceived importance of benefits/harms of screening; perceived risk of breast cancer; and leaflet acceptability. Primary and secondary outcomes are assessed 2-3 weeks after the intervention. This is the first RCT that assesses the effect of informing about the benefits and harms of breast cancer screening in Spain in women facing the decision to be screened using mammography. It aims to assess the

  1. Benefits, harms and evidence - reflections from UK primary healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCartney, Margaret

    2018-01-01

    In this paper I examine the relationship between benefits, harms and evidence-based medicine in the context of British primary healthcare. First, I will examine: 'What is a benefit and what is a harm?' Second, what should we know about where the balance of risk and benefit appear to lie? Third, what should we do with this knowledge, particularly in the context of the biopsychosocial gaze of primary care? I conclude that even perfect knowledge about benefits and harms requires to be translated in the context of the individual patient: it also requires to be interpreted according to what that persons' wishes are. By reiterating again and again how biases are stacked in favour of recommending treatments and interventions well beyond their rational evidence, my hope is that more honest medicine will result in less but higher value medicine. Stopping doing things that don't work, or work rarely, or come with an unacceptable burden of side effects or appointments should make room for the pleasure of practicing medicine. •Even perfect knowledge about benefits and harms requires to be translated in the context of the individual patient: it also requires to be interpreted according to what that persons' wishes are.•In the real, messy frontline world of general practice, we will always have uncertainty about where the balance of risk and benefit might lie.

  2. Does Power Distance Exacerbate or Mitigate the Effects of Abusive Supervision? It Depends on the Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Huiwen; Ferris, D. Lance; Brown, Douglas J.

    2012-01-01

    We predicted that the effects of abusive supervision are likely to be moderated by subordinate power distance orientation and that the nature of the moderating effect will depend on the outcome. Drawing upon work suggesting that high power distance orientation subordinates are more tolerant of supervisory mistreatment, we posited that high power…

  3. "No Harm Done"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloomfield, Kim

    2016-01-01

    It has been difficult to secure funding in Denmark to conduct research on third party harm from alcohol. The author relates her experiences in this area and challenges Danish society to examine how other societies have begun to examine this problem....

  4. Handoffs causing patient harm: a survey of medical and surgical house staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitch, Barrett T; Cooper, Jeffrey B; Zapol, Warren M; Marder, Jessica E; Karson, Andrew; Hutter, Matt; Campbell, Eric G

    2008-10-01

    Communication lapses at the time of patient handoffs are believed to be common, and yet the frequency with which patients are harmed as a result of problematic handoffs is unknown. Resident physicians were surveyed about their handoffpractices and the frequency with which they perceive problems with handoffs lead to patient harm. A survey was conducted in 2006 of all resident physicians in internal medicine and general surgery at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) concerning the quality and effects of handoffs during their most recent inpatient rotations. Surveys were sent to 238 eligible residents; 161 responses were obtained (response rate, 67.6%). Fifty-nine percent of residents reported that one or more patients had been harmed during their most recent clinical rotation because of problematic handoffs, and 12% reported that this harm had been major. Overall quality of handoffs was reported to be fair or poor by 31% of residents. A minority of residents (26%) reported that handoffs usually or always took place in a quiet setting, and 37% reported that one or more interruptions during the receipt of handoffs occurred either most of the time or always. Although handoffs have long been recognized as potentially hazardous, further scrutiny of handoffs has followed recent reports that handoffs are often marked by missing, incomplete, or inaccurate information and are associated with adverse events. In this study, reports of harm to patients from problematic handoffs were common among residents in internal medicine and general surgery. Many best-practice recommendations for handoffs are not observed, although the extent to which improvement of these practices could reduce patient harm is not known. MGH has recently launched a handoff-safety educational program, along with other interventions designed to improve the safety and effectiveness of handoffs, for its house staff and clinical leadership.

  5. Trends in self-harm in Kuala Lumpur, 2005–2011

    OpenAIRE

    Armitage, Christopher J.; Abdul Rahim, Wirda; Rowe, Richard; O'Connor, Rory C.

    2016-01-01

    Acts of self-harm are not routinely tracked in Malaysia. The present study investigates the prevalence of self-harm in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, over a 7-year period. The aims were to: (a) assess the prevalence of self-harm; (b) examine any changes over a period of 7 years, and (c) identify correlates of methods of self-harm. Data were extracted from the hospital records of Kuala Lumpur Hospital to review trends in self-harm between 2005 and 2011. There were 918 episodes of self-harm across the...

  6. A Horse of a Different Color: Distance Education; Making it Effective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakupcak, Jo; Fishbaugh, Mary Susan

    This paper discusses techniques and strategies to improve the effectiveness of distance education delivered via interactive video telecommunication. Advantages and disadvantages of three types of interactive video--telephone linkage, end-to-end fiber optic digital transmission, and satellite broadcasts--are briefly discussed. Prebroadcast…

  7. Mull it over: cannabis vaporizers and harm reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartner, Coral E

    2015-11-01

    Legalization of cannabis is likely to lead to greater use. Balanced regulation of potentially less harmful modes of administration, such as vaporizers, is needed. Further research is warranted not only on the direct health effects of vaping cannabis, but also on its potential to decrease co-administration of tobacco with cannabis.

  8. Pregnancy Cravings Can Harm Your Oral Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2018 About | Contact InfoBites Quick Reference Learn more Oral Health and Overal Health Gum Disease and Cardiovascular Health ... your desktop! more... Pregnancy Cravings Can Harm Your Oral Health Article Chapters Pregnancy Cravings Can Harm Your Oral ...

  9. Internet Addiction among Adolescents May Predict Self-Harm/Suicidal Behavior: A Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Pei-Yin; Yeh, Chin-Bin

    2018-06-01

    To explore the role of Internet addiction in the development of self-harm/suicidal behavior among adolescents after 1-year of follow-up. We conducted this 1-year, prospective cohort study of 1861 adolescents (mean age 15.93 years) attending a senior high school in Taiwan; 1735 respondents (93.2%) were classified as having no history of self-harm/suicidal attempts in the initial assessment and were referred to as the "noncase" cohort. The Chen Internet Addiction Scale was used to identify individuals with Internet addiction. The participants were evaluated for self-harm/suicidal behavior again 1 year later and the "noncase" cohort was selected for statistical analysis. To examine the relationship between Internet addiction and self-harm/suicidal behavior, multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed using Internet addiction at baseline as the predictor for newly developed self-harm/suicidal behavior in the next year, after adjustment for potential confounding variables. The prevalence rate of Internet addiction at baseline was 23.0%. There were 59 students (3.9%) who were identified as having developed new self-harm/suicidal behaviors on follow-up assessments. After controlling for the effects of potential confounders, the relative risk of newly emerging self-harm/suicidal behavior for participants who were classified as Internet addicted was 2.41 (95% CI 1.16-4.99, P = .018) when compared with those without Internet addiction. Our findings indicate that Internet addiction is prospectively associated with the incidence of self-harm/suicidal behavior in adolescents. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of Beverages on Alcohol Metabolism: Potential Health Benefits and Harmful Impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Wang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Nonalcoholic beverages are usually consumed accompanying alcoholic drinks, and their effects on alcohol metabolism are unclear in vivo. In this study, the effects of 20 nonalcoholic beverages on alcohol metabolism and liver injury caused by alcohol were evaluated in mice. Kunming mice were orally fed with alcohol (52%, v/v and beverages. The concentrations of ethanol and acetaldehyde in blood as well as the activities of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH in liver were assessed to indicate alcohol metabolism. The levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST and alanine transaminase (ALT in serum as well as the levels of malonaldehyde (MDA and superoxide dismutase (SOD in liver were measured to reflect the alcohol-induced liver injury. The results showed that the treatment of soda water, green tea and honey chrysanthemum tea could accelerate ethanol metabolism and prevent liver injuries caused by alcohol when companied with excessive alcohol drinking. They might be potential dietary supplements for the alleviation of harmful effects from excessive alcohol consumption. On the contrary, some beverages such as fresh orange juice and red bull are not advised to drink when companied with alcohol consumption due to their adverse effects on ethanol induced liver injury.

  11. Reducing the harms associated with risk assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montague, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Risk assessments are the intellectual products of dedicated public health and environmental professionals. Like many other products, risk assessments carry with them the potential for both good and harm. This paper briefly examines some of the harms to which risk assessments have contributed, and then suggests that the legal 'duty to warn' doctrine offers a logical and practical way to reduce some of these harms. The paper suggests concepts that could be incorporated into warnings accompanying every formal risk assessment as routine 'boiler plate' addenda, just as other potentially harmful products, such as lawn mowers and cook stoves, are accompanied by warnings. Finally, the paper briefly examines the 'Code of Ethics and Standards of Practice for Environmental Professionals' (promulgated by the National Association of Environmental Professionals) and shows that the suggested warnings are consistent with recommended practices for environmental professionals

  12. Deconfounding Distance Effects in Judgments of Moral Obligation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, Jonas; Waldmann, Michael R.

    2013-01-01

    A heavily disputed question of moral philosophy is whether spatial distance between agent and victim is normatively relevant for the degree of obligation to help strangers in need. In this research, we focus on the associated descriptive question whether increased distance does in fact reduce individuals' sense of helping obligation. One problem…

  13. The Association Between Secondhand Harms From Alcohol and Mental Health Outcomes Among Postsecondary Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Kara; Davis-MacNevin, Parnell; Teehan, Michael; Stewart, Sherry

    2017-01-01

    There is a paucity of research on the prevalence and consequences of secondhand harms from alcohol. The current study (a) investigated whether secondhand harms can be clustered into latent factors that reflect distinct but related types of harms and (b) examined the associations between experiencing secondhand harms and mental health outcomes, including anxiety, depression, and subjective mental well-being, among first-year Canadian postsecondary students. The moderating effect of living arrangement (i.e., living on campus or not) on the associations was also tested. The sample included 1,885 first-year undergraduate students (49.8% female; mean age = 18.31 years) from three Canadian universities. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were used to determine the factor structure of the harms measure. Path analysis was used to assess the association between harms and mental health outcomes. Models accounted for age, sex, and frequency of heavy drinking. Seventy-one percent of the sample reported experiencing at least one type of secondhand harm. The harms examined clustered into two distinct but related factors: strains (e.g., interrupted sleep) and threats (e.g., being harassed or insulted). Both threats and strains were associated with higher levels of anxiety and depression and poorer subjective well-being. Associations were stronger for threats and did not differ by living arrangement. Experiencing secondhand harms from alcohol, particularly threats, may have negative implications for student mental health over and above students' own drinking. Programs and policies on university campuses targeting both alcohol use and mental health should consider how to reduce both the prevalence and impact of secondhand harms from alcohol on students.

  14. Laughter and MIRTH (Methodical Investigation of Risibility, Therapeutic and Harmful): narrative synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferner, R E; Aronson, J K

    2013-12-12

    To review the beneficial and harmful effects of laughter. Narrative synthesis. We searched Medline (1946 to June 2013) and Embase (1974 to June 2013) for reports of benefits or harms from laughter in humans, and counted the number of papers in each category. Benefits of laughter include reduced anger, anxiety, depression, and stress; reduced tension (psychological and cardiovascular); increased pain threshold; reduced risk of myocardial infarction (presumably requiring hearty laughter); improved lung function; increased energy expenditure; and reduced blood glucose concentration. However, laughter is no joke-dangers include syncope, cardiac and oesophageal rupture, and protrusion of abdominal hernias (from side splitting laughter or laughing fit to burst), asthma attacks, interlobular emphysema, cataplexy, headaches, jaw dislocation, and stress incontinence (from laughing like a drain). Infectious laughter can disseminate real infection, which is potentially preventable by laughing up your sleeve. As a side effect of our search for side effects, we also list pathological causes of laughter, among them epilepsy (gelastic seizures), cerebral tumours, Angelman's syndrome, strokes, multiple sclerosis, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis or motor neuron disease. Laughter is not purely beneficial. The harms it can cause are immediate and dose related, the risks being highest for Homeric (uncontrollable) laughter. The benefit-harm balance is probably favourable. It remains to be seen whether sick jokes make you ill or jokes in bad taste cause dysgeusia, and whether our views on comedians stand up to further scrutiny.

  15. Mammography screening. Benefits, harms, and informed choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Karsten Juhl

    2013-01-01

    exaggerates benefits, participation is directly recommended, and the harms are downplayed or left out, despite agreement that the objective is informed choice. This raises an ethical discussion concerning autonomy versus paternalism, and the difficulty in weighing benefits against harms. Finally, financial...

  16. The harm principle as a mid-level principle?: three problems from the context of infectious disease control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krom, André

    2011-10-01

    Effective infectious disease control may require states to restrict the liberty of individuals. Since preventing harm to others is almost universally accepted as a legitimate (prima facie) reason for restricting the liberty of individuals, it seems plausible to employ a mid-level harm principle in infectious disease control. Moral practices like infectious disease control support - or even require - a certain level of theory-modesty. However, employing a mid-level harm principle in infectious disease control faces at least three problems. First, it is unclear what we gain by attaining convergence on a specific formulation of the harm principle. Likely candidates for convergence, a harm principle aimed at preventing harmful conduct, supplemented by considerations of effectiveness and always choosing the least intrusive means still leave ample room for normative disagreement. Second, while mid-level principles are sometimes put forward in response to the problem of normative theories attaching different weight to moral principles, employing a mid-level harm principle completely leaves open how to determine what weight to attach to it in application. Third, there appears to be a trade-off between attaining convergence and finding a formulation of the harm principle that can justify liberty-restrictions in all situations of contagion, including interventions that are commonly allowed. These are not reasons to abandon mid-level theorizing altogether. But there is no reason to be too theory-modest in applied ethics. Morally justifying e.g. if a liberty-restriction in infectious disease control is proportional to the aim of harm-prevention, promptly requires moving beyond the mid-level harm principle. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. The Effects of Pop-up Harm Minimisation Messages on Electronic Gaming Machine Gambling Behaviour in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer du Preez, Katie; Landon, Jason; Bellringer, Maria; Garrett, Nick; Abbott, Max

    2016-12-01

    In New Zealand a simple pop-up message feature that provides gambling session information and forces a break in play is mandatory on all electronic gaming machines in all venues (EGMs). Previous research has demonstrated small effects of more sophisticated pop-up messages tested predominantly in laboratory environments. The present research examined gambler engagement with and views on the New Zealand pop-up messages and on the relationship between pop-up messages and EGM expenditure. A sample of gamblers was recruited at casino and non-casino (pub) EGM venues. Most participants were aware of pop-up messages (57 %) and many saw them often (38 %). Among gamblers who reported seeing pop-up messages, half read the message content, and a quarter believed that pop-up messages helped them control the amount of money they spend on gambling. Participants who reported being likely to stop gambling in response to pop-up messages spent significantly less money on gambling when variables that were independently associated with EGM expenditure were controlled for. A modest harm minimisation effect of the pop-up message feature that has been operating in New Zealand for 5 years was evident. Suggestions for improvement of the harm minimisation potential of the current pop-up message feature are discussed.

  18. Can harmful tax competition be curbed at the international level?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gjersti, Per O. [Finans- og Tolldepartementet, Oslo (Norway)

    1998-07-01

    This presentation discusses the following issues: (1) Good vs harmful tax competition?, (2) How to identify harmful competition?, (3) What is the economic and social impact of harmful tax competition?, (4) What can be done about harmful tax competition? There are three levels, the EU level, the OECD level and the global level. Existing measures to counteract harmful tax practices are insufficient because action by one country merely shifts activity to another country and puts its tax payers at a competitive disadvantage and because coordination action eases political pressure. The EU code of good conduct and the OECD guidelines for dealing with harmful preferential tax regimes are compared, with respect to general features, with respect to key factors to identify harmful measures, and with respect to general scope.

  19. Islam and harm reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamarulzaman, A; Saifuddeen, S M

    2010-03-01

    Although drugs are haram and therefore prohibited in Islam, illicit drug use is widespread in many Islamic countries throughout the world. In the last several years increased prevalence of this problem has been observed in many of these countries which has in turn led to increasing injecting drug use driven HIV/AIDS epidemic across the Islamic world. Whilst some countries have recently responded to the threat through the implementation of harm reduction programmes, many others have been slow to respond. In Islam, The Quran and the Prophetic traditions or the Sunnah are the central sources of references for the laws and principles that guide the Muslims' way of life and by which policies and guidelines for responses including that of contemporary social and health problems can be derived. The preservation and protection of the dignity of man, and steering mankind away from harm and destruction are central to the teachings of Islam. When viewed through the Islamic principles of the preservation and protection of the faith, life, intellect, progeny and wealth, harm reduction programmes are permissible and in fact provide a practical solution to a problem that could result in far greater damage to the society at large if left unaddressed. Copyright (c) 2009. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Understanding the joint effects of Cognitive Distance and Competition on Pioneering Innovations through the Dynamics between Suppliers and Competitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Ying; Salomo, Søren

    2010-01-01

    the individual effects of cognitive distance and competition on innovation but also try to understand their joint effects in a coherent way based on a resource-based view and through the product life cycle as a link of cognitive distance and competition. Competition is multidimensional and innovation has many......The relationships between cognitive distance, competition and innovation have drawn great attention from economists and management researchers. First, with regard to cognitive distance and innovation, it is suggested that a moderate level of cognitive distance between firms is associated...... with an optimal innovation performance, because a too small cognitive distance provides the focal innovating firm with too little novelty value, while a too large cognitive distance makes it difficult for firms to learn and collaborate with each other. Second, the empirical evidence for the relationship between...

  1. What is the evidence for harm minimisation measures in gambling venues?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Rintoul

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of electronic gambling machines (EGMs in Australia and New Zealand constitutes the largest sector of the gambling industry. The costs arising from the harms of gambling detract significantly from its benefits, and in all Australian jurisdictions various policy measures have been implemented to reduce these harms. If successful, these would maximise the net benefits associated with EGM gambling. This article reviews the available evidence for a range of these practices, particularly those implemented within EGM venues via ‘codes of practice’. These codes of practice are intended to give effect to the principles of ‘responsible gambling’ within EGM venues. These measures are: self-exclusion, signage, messages, interaction with gamblers, the removal of ATMs from gambling venues, and ‘responsible gambling’ assessed overall in a venue context. In addition, we review the evidence in support of two major recommendations of the Productivity Commission’s 2010 report into gambling, pre-commitment and one-dollar maximum wagers. We conclude that there is a modest level of evidence supporting some measures, notably self-exclusion and, to a greater extent, the removal of ATMs. There is also some evidence that ‘responsible gambling’ measures have, collectively, reduced the harms associated with gambling. However, there is limited evidence to confirm the effectiveness of most individual ‘responsible gambling’ measures actually implemented in venues. Further, policy measures implemented outside the control of venues (such as ATM removal, reduction in bet limits, and the prohibition of smoking appear to be associated with more significant effects, based on analysis of EGM revenue data in Victoria. The evidence for prospective measures is necessarily limited since the ultimate test is post-implementation efficacy, but there is growing evidence to suggest that pre-commitment, one-dollar maximum bets or other machine design changes may

  2. Deliberate self harm in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnakumar, P; Geeta, M G; Riyaz, A

    2011-05-01

    To study the nature of deliberate self-harm (DSH) in children and to identify the associated factors. Child Guidance Clinic attached to the Department of Pediatrics of a teaching hospital in South India. Children with history of deliberate self harm who were referred to the CGC for psychological evaluation during a 10 year period. Children and parents were interviewed together and separately and details regarding age, sex, family and school environment, stresses and nature of self harm were documented. Psychiatric diagnosis was made based on DSM IV diagnostic criteria. Among the 30 children included in the study, 21 were boys and 9 were girls. Majority of children were between the ages of 11 and 13 years, the youngest being 6 years old. 76%of children had history of acute stressful life events and 62%of them had chronic ongoing stress. 62%of children had stress in the family and 41%had stress at school. Stress in the family included death of a parent, conflicts with parents or siblings, mental illness in the family, parental alcoholism and parental disharmony. Stress at school included conflicts with classmates, punishment or negative comments by teachers and learning problems. Psychiatric disorders were present in 52%of children, the commonest being depressive disorder. The commonest mode of DSH was self poisoning, and rat poison (zinc phosphide) was the commonest substance used. Deliberate self harm occurs in young children and the risk factors are comparable to those in adolescents.

  3. Corrosion in marine atmospheres. Effect of distance from the coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chico, B.; Otero, E.; Morcillos, M.; Mariaca, L.

    1998-01-01

    In marine atmospheres the deposition of saline particles on the surface of metals intensifies the metallic corrosion process. However, quantitative information about the effect of atmospheric salinity on metallic corrosion is very scarce. This paper reports the relationship between salinity and metallic corrosion, where a clear linear relation (r=0.97) has been found for a broad interval of salinities (4-500 mg Cl''-/m''2.d), as well as the relationship between salinity (or metallic corrosion) and distance from the coast. A hyperbolic function seems to be established both variables; there is an exponential drop in salinity (or corrosion) as shoreline distance increases tending towards and asymptotic value. The study has been based on information obtained from field research conducted at a marine atmosphere in Tarragona (Spain) and data compiled from the literature. (Author) 14 refs

  4. Smoking and Alcohol Drinking Related to Experience of Harmful Shops among Korean Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinyoung; Sohn, Aeree

    2014-06-01

    This study was conducted in order to determine any correlation between experience of harmful shops and adolescent smoking and alcohol drinking in middle and high school students. The survey was conducted using a self-administered questionnaire online via the homepage of the Ministry of Education student Health Information Center; 1888 and 1563 questionnaires were used for middle and high school students, respectively, for a total of 3451 questionnaires in the final analysis. The collected data were processed using SPSS version 21.0 and examined using frequency analysis and hierarchical linear regression. In this research, 8.3% of all participants were found to have experienced smoking and 17.0% alcohol drinking. Regarding the types of harmful shops, 81.8% said they had been to a gaming place; 21.2% to a lodging place; 16.0% to a sex and entertainment place; and 6.8% to a harmful sex industry location. Sociodemographic variables had a significant effect on adolescent smoking and alcohol drinking. Regarding environmental variables, a significant difference was observed for living with parents and school location. Among adolescent experience of harmful shops, both smoking and alcohol drinking showed a significant association with harmful sex industry locations. National government-level management and supervision on this issue will be necessary to prevent adolescent access to harmful shops, along with more studies exploring methods for implementation of policies with more systematic control of harmful shops.

  5. FACEBOOK AND WHATSAPP: BENEFICIAL OR HARMFUL?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sankalp Raj

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available New innovations and advances in science and technology in the present day have made considerable and significant changes in the lifestyle of people all around the globe. Communication from one part of the world to another is possible at the hit of a button . Social networking is being rampantly used everywhere and by everybody, be it youngsters or the older generation. Facebook and Whatsapp are the most commonly used means of communication in social networking at present. Smart phones functioning as minicomp uters with fast internet connectivity in the pockets of today’s technosavy generation have made them create and spend most of their time interacting with people in a virtual world. There is an urgent need to understand the dynamics of social media and its effects on the lifestyle of people. Studies documenting the same have been very few. This study was conducted to understand the benefits and harms towards health and academics of MBBS students. This cross - sectional study on 147 MBBS students revealed inter esting findings and opinions of the students. Effects of Facebook and What Sapp on productivity and sleep disturbances due to it were the significant findings of the study. Facebook and Whatsapp can be considered both beneficial and harmful and it solely d epends on how it is being put to use

  6. Investigating the "self" in deliberate self-harm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Joanna; Rodham, Karen; Gavin, Jeff

    2005-12-01

    In this study, the authors explored how a group of young people aged 16 to 26 years (who identified themselves as having engaged in deliberate self-harm) made sense of the self by conducting two online focus groups and four e-mail interviews. They analyzed data using interpretive phenomenological analysis. The concept of validation was the primary means of making sense of the self and concerned the desire to be considered legitimate and of worth. This desire was clearly evident across three realms of conflict: (a) the intrinsic or extrinsic self, which marked the distinction between objective fact and subjective opinion; (b) the accepted or denied self; and (c) the notion of normality. It is possible that having one's denied self validated online might lead to an exacerbation of an individual's self-harming behavior. Further work is needed to explore the effects of online discussion forums on such taboo forms of behavior.

  7. Harm minimization among teenage drinkers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Morten Hulvej; Curtis, Tine; Christensen, Pia Haudrup

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To examine strategies of harm minimization employed by teenage drinkers. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Two periods of ethnographic fieldwork were conducted in a rural Danish community of approximately 2000 inhabitants. The fieldwork included 50 days of participant observation among 13....... In regulating the social context of drinking they relied on their personal experiences more than on formalized knowledge about alcohol and harm, which they had learned from prevention campaigns and educational programmes. CONCLUSIONS: In this study we found that teenagers may help each other to minimize alcohol...

  8. The impact of self-harm by young people on parents and families: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrey, Anne E; Hughes, Nicholas D; Simkin, Sue; Locock, Louise; Stewart, Anne; Kapur, Navneet; Gunnell, David; Hawton, Keith

    2016-01-06

    Little research has explored the full extent of the impact of self-harm on the family. This study aimed to explore the emotional, physical and practical effects of a young person's self-harm on parents and family. We used qualitative methods to explore the emotional, physical and practical effects of a young person's self-harm on their parents and family. We conducted a thematic analysis of thirty-seven semistructured narrative interviews with parents of young people who had self-harmed. After the discovery of self-harm, parents described initial feelings of shock, anger and disbelief. Later reactions included stress, anxiety, feelings of guilt and in some cases the onset or worsening of clinical depression. Social isolation was reported, as parents withdrew from social contact due to the perceived stigma associated with self-harm. Parents also described significant impacts on siblings, ranging from upset and stress to feelings of responsibility and worries about stigma at school. Siblings had mixed responses, but were often supportive. Practically speaking, parents found the necessity of being available to their child often conflicted with the demands of full-time work. This, along with costs of, for example, travel and private care, affected family finances. However, parents generally viewed the future as positive and hoped that with help, their child would develop better coping mechanisms. Self-harm by young people has major impacts on parents and other family members. Clinicians and staff who work with young people who self-harm should be sensitive to these issues and offer appropriate support and guidance for families. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  9. Haptic Discrimination of Distance

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Beek, Femke E.; Bergmann Tiest, Wouter M.; Kappers, Astrid M. L.

    2014-01-01

    While quite some research has focussed on the accuracy of haptic perception of distance, information on the precision of haptic perception of distance is still scarce, particularly regarding distances perceived by making arm movements. In this study, eight conditions were measured to answer four main questions, which are: what is the influence of reference distance, movement axis, perceptual mode (active or passive) and stimulus type on the precision of this kind of distance perception? A discrimination experiment was performed with twelve participants. The participants were presented with two distances, using either a haptic device or a real stimulus. Participants compared the distances by moving their hand from a start to an end position. They were then asked to judge which of the distances was the longer, from which the discrimination threshold was determined for each participant and condition. The precision was influenced by reference distance. No effect of movement axis was found. The precision was higher for active than for passive movements and it was a bit lower for real stimuli than for rendered stimuli, but it was not affected by adding cutaneous information. Overall, the Weber fraction for the active perception of a distance of 25 or 35 cm was about 11% for all cardinal axes. The recorded position data suggest that participants, in order to be able to judge which distance was the longer, tried to produce similar speed profiles in both movements. This knowledge could be useful in the design of haptic devices. PMID:25116638

  10. Haptic discrimination of distance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Femke E van Beek

    Full Text Available While quite some research has focussed on the accuracy of haptic perception of distance, information on the precision of haptic perception of distance is still scarce, particularly regarding distances perceived by making arm movements. In this study, eight conditions were measured to answer four main questions, which are: what is the influence of reference distance, movement axis, perceptual mode (active or passive and stimulus type on the precision of this kind of distance perception? A discrimination experiment was performed with twelve participants. The participants were presented with two distances, using either a haptic device or a real stimulus. Participants compared the distances by moving their hand from a start to an end position. They were then asked to judge which of the distances was the longer, from which the discrimination threshold was determined for each participant and condition. The precision was influenced by reference distance. No effect of movement axis was found. The precision was higher for active than for passive movements and it was a bit lower for real stimuli than for rendered stimuli, but it was not affected by adding cutaneous information. Overall, the Weber fraction for the active perception of a distance of 25 or 35 cm was about 11% for all cardinal axes. The recorded position data suggest that participants, in order to be able to judge which distance was the longer, tried to produce similar speed profiles in both movements. This knowledge could be useful in the design of haptic devices.

  11. 47 CFR 76.1203 - Incidence of harm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Incidence of harm. 76.1203 Section 76.1203 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Competitive Availability of Navigation Devices § 76.1203 Incidence of harm. A...

  12. EFFECTIVENESS OF LEARNING PROCESS USING “WEB TECHNOLOGY” IN THE DISTANCE LEARNING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj KILLEDAR

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Web is a globally distributed, still highly personalized media for cost-effective delivery of multimedia information and services. Web is expected to have a strong impact on almost every aspect of how we learn. ‘Total Quality’ is the totality of features, as perceived by the customers of the product or service. Totality of features includes stated as well as implied needs and expectations of all types of customers. No quality improvement is possible without its unambiguous measurement. But, ‘Total Quality’ of the learning experience in ‘Open and Distance Education System’ cannot be measured unless it is expressed in measurable clear terms which include complete spectrum of student support and educational services. A model for ‘Total Quality’ of an open and distance education system was used to measure impact of the “Web Technology” on the ‘Total Quality’ of the learning experience in ‘Open and Distance Education System’. Evidence indicates that application of the proposed model for ‘Total Quality’ and ‘Web Technology’ can simultaneously optimize quality, access and cost. Thus, a better learning experience can be provided even in open and distance education system, which can be comparable with the best. This study found that it was difficult for the subjects to decide the clear cut superiority regarding the effectiveness of ‘Traditional Classroom’ or ‘Virtual Classroom’.

  13. Public attitudes towards gambling product harm and harm reduction strategies: an online study of 16-88 year olds in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Samantha L; Randle, Melanie; Bestman, Amy; Pitt, Hannah; Bowe, Steven J; Cowlishaw, Sean; Daube, Mike

    2017-07-25

    Gambling has quickly emerged as an important global public health issue. With new technologies used to develop high intensity gambling products and promotions aimed at driving consumption, public health organisations and researchers, community groups, and politicians have argued for a range of regulatory and education measures aimed at reducing gambling harm. However, there has been limited research seeking to understand community perceptions of the harms associated with gambling products and environments, and the level of community support for strategies designed to prevent and reduce gambling harm. An online study of 500 adolescents and adults (aged 16 and over) was conducted with a representative sample (by age and gender) of individuals who were current residents in the state of Victoria, Australia. Participants were asked a range of questions about their own gambling behaviours, with the Problem Gambling Severity Index (PGSI) used as a measure of problem gambling. Participants were asked about their perceptions of harms associated with electronic gambling machines (EGMs), sports betting, horse betting, and casino gambling. They were also asked about the extent to which they agreed or disagreed with gambling harm reduction strategies related to marketing and promotions, restrictions on gambling products and venues, and public education campaigns. Quantitative data were analysed using descriptive statistics and paired t tests, with thematic analysis used to interpret qualitative responses to open-ended questionnaire items. More than one third (n = 201, 40.2%) of participants were at risk of experiencing some level of harm from gambling (PGSI ≥ 1), with 83 participants (16.6%) recording scores that indicated problem gambling (PGSI ≥ 8). One in five participants gambled on EGMs at least monthly (n = 100, 20.0%). Those who gambled on sports did so frequently, with nearly 1 in 5 gambling on sport at least once a month (n = 87, 17.4%). Over

  14. The role of interpersonal harm in distinguishing regret from guilt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeelenberg, Marcel; Breugelmans, Seger M

    2008-10-01

    Regret and guilt are emotions that are produced by negative outcomes for which one is responsible. Both emotions have received ample attention in the psychological literature; however, it is still unclear to what extent regret and guilt represent distinct psychological processes. We examined the extent to which the distinction between interpersonal harm (negative outcomes for others) and intrapersonal harm (negative outcomes for self) is crucial in differentiating these two emotions. In a series of 3 studies we found that guilt is predominantly felt in situations of interpersonal harm, whereas regret is felt in both situations of interpersonal harm and intrapersonal harm. Moreover, the results show that in situations of interpersonal harm the phenomenology of regret shares many, but not all features with the phenomenology of guilt. We conclude that the emotion processes resulting from interpersonal and intrapersonal harm are clearly distinct, but that regret as an emotion label is applied to both types of processes whereas the emotion label guilt is primarily used to refer to experiences of interpersonal harm. Implications for emotion research are discussed. (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved

  15. Identity Centrality and In-Group Superiority Differentially Predict Reactions to Historical Victimization and Harm Doing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezarta Bilali

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Two U.S. studies report a differential effect of identity centrality and in-group superiority on reactions to in-group victimization and in-group harm-doing. Study 1 (N = 80 found that higher identity centrality predicted less justification for freely-recalled in-group victim events, whereas higher in-group superiority predicted more justification for freely-recalled in-group harm-doing events. Study 2 (N = 105 reexamined these findings in specific contexts of historical victimization (Pearl Harbor and harm-doing (Hiroshima and Nagasaki, finding that in-group superiority was a predictor of reactions to historical in-group harm-doing (justification, emotional reactions, importance of events, whereas centrality was a predictor of reactions to historical in-group victimization.

  16. Benefits and harms in clinical trials of duloxetine for treatment of major depressive disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maund, Emma; Tendal, Britta; Hróbjartsson, Asbjørn

    2014-01-01

    , with respect to benefits and major harms. DESIGN: Data on primary efficacy analysis and major harms extracted from each data source and compared. SETTING: Nine randomised placebo controlled trials of duloxetine (total 2878 patients) submitted to the European Medicines Agency (EMA) for marketing approval.......gov and the manufacturer's online clinical trial registry were searched for trial results. RESULTS: Clinical study reports fully described the primary efficacy analysis and major harms (deaths (including suicides), suicide attempts, serious adverse events, and discontinuations because of adverse events). There were minor......, respectively. We also found publication bias in relation to beneficial effects. CONCLUSION: Clinical study reports contained extensive data on major harms that were unavailable in journal articles and in trial registry reports. There were inconsistencies between protocols and clinical study reports and within...

  17. Physical harm due to chronic substance use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Amsterdam, Jan; Pennings, Ed; Brunt, Tibor; van den Brink, Wim

    2013-01-01

    Chronic use at high dose of illicit drugs, alcohol and tobacco is associated with physical disease. The relative physical harm of these substances has not been described before, but will benefit the guiding of policy measures about licit and illicit substances. The physical harm of 19 addictive

  18. The effect of plyometric training on power and kicking distance in female adolescent soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubley, Mack D; Haase, Amaris C; Holcomb, William R; Girouard, Tedd J; Tandy, Richard D

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure the effects of low-frequency, low-impact plyometric training on vertical jump (VJ) and kicking distance in female adolescent soccer players. Sixteen adolescent soccer players were studied (age 13.4 ± 0.5 years) across 14 weeks. The control group (general soccer training only) had 6 subjects, and the plyometric training (general soccer training plus plyometric exercise) group had 10 subjects. All subjects were tested for VJ and kicking distance on 3 occasions: pre-test, 7 weeks, and 14 weeks. Data were analyzed using a 2 (Training) × 3 (Test) analysis of variance (ANOVA) with repeated measures on the factor test. No significant difference in kicking distance was found between groups at pre-test (p = 0.688) or 7 weeks (p = 0.117). The plyometric group had significantly greater kicking distance after 14 weeks (p plyometric group had a significantly higher VJ after 14 weeks (p = 0.014). These results provide strength coaches with a safe and effective alternative to high-intensity plyometric training. Based on these findings, to increase lower-body power resulting in increased VJ and kicking distance, strength coaches should implement once-weekly, low-impact plyometric training programs with their adolescent athletes.

  19. The harm argument against surrogacy revisited: two versions not to forget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnafors, Marcus

    2014-08-01

    It has been a common claim that surrogacy is morally problematic since it involves harm to the child or the surrogate-the harm argument. Due to a growing body of empirical research, the harm argument has seen a decrease in popularity, as there seems to be little evidence of harmful consequences of surrogacy. In this article, two revised versions of the harm argument are developed. It is argued that the two suggested versions of the harm argument survive the current criticism against the standard harm argument. The first version argues that the child is harmed by being separated from the gestational mother. The second version directs attention to the fact that surrogacy involves great incentives to keep the gestational mother's level of maternal-fetal attachment low, which tend to increase the risk of harm to the child. While neither of the two arguments is conclusive regarding the moral status of surrogacy, both constitute important considerations that are often ignored.

  20. Are long physician working hours harmful to patient safety?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehara, Akira

    2008-04-01

    Pediatricians of Japanese hospitals including not only residents but also attending physicians work long hours, and 8% work for >79 h per week. Most of them work consecutively for >or=32 h when they are on call. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of long work hours on patient safety. The electronic databases MEDLINE and EMBASE to searched identify the English- and Japanese-language literature for studies on work hours, medical errors, patient safety, and malpractice for years 1966-2005. Studies that analyzed the relationship between physician work hours and outcomes directly related to patient safety were selected. Seven studies met the criteria. Four studies suggest that reduction of work hours has a favorable effect on patient safety indicators. In the other three studies no significant changes of the indicators were observed, but no report found that shorter work hours were harmful to patient safety. Decrease of physician work hours is not harmful but favorable to patient safety.

  1. Guilt and shame: experiences of parents of self-harming adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Glenda; O'Brien, Louise; Jackson, Debra

    2007-12-01

    This paper reports the findings of a qualitative study that used a hermeneutic phenomenological methodology to develop insights into the experience of parents of young people who engage in self-harming behaviour. Six mothers (and one father who accompanied his wife) participated in the study. Findings reveal that mothers experienced guilt and shame, and that these feelings shaped their reactions and responses. These mothers described experiencing emotional dilemmas, such as the degree to which they could be responsible, uncertainty about how to understand self harm, and the best course of action to take with their child. They also encountered difficulties in combating the negative emotional effects for themselves and other family members. Findings provide insights that can help nurses and family health workers to understand and assist parents with greater effectiveness; by maintaining a non-judgemental stance, acknowledging the difficulties of their experiences, encouraging confidence in their parenting abilities, and promoting effective stress management strategies.

  2. Reported Theory Use by Digital Interventions for Hazardous and Harmful Alcohol Consumption, and Association With Effectiveness: Meta-Regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, David; Brown, Jamie; Kaner, Eileen; Beyer, Fiona; Muirhead, Colin; Hickman, Matthew; Redmore, James; de Vocht, Frank; Beard, Emma; Michie, Susan

    2018-01-01

    Background Applying theory to the design and evaluation of interventions is likely to increase effectiveness and improve the evidence base from which future interventions are developed, though few interventions report this. Objective The aim of this paper was to assess how digital interventions to reduce hazardous and harmful alcohol consumption report the use of theory in their development and evaluation, and whether reporting of theory use is associated with intervention effectiveness. Methods Randomized controlled trials were extracted from a Cochrane review on digital interventions for reducing hazardous and harmful alcohol consumption. Reporting of theory use within these digital interventions was investigated using the theory coding scheme (TCS). Reported theory use was analyzed by frequency counts and descriptive statistics. Associations were analyzed with meta-regression models. Results Of 41 trials involving 42 comparisons, half did not mention theory (50% [21/42]), and only 38% (16/42) used theory to select or develop the intervention techniques. Significant heterogeneity existed between studies in the effect of interventions on alcohol reduction (I2=77.6%, Ptheory use and intervention effectiveness in unadjusted models, though the meta-regression was underpowered to detect modest associations. Conclusions Digital interventions offer a unique opportunity to refine and develop new dynamic, temporally sensitive theories, yet none of the studies reported refining or developing theory. Clearer selection, application, and reporting of theory use is needed to accurately assess how useful theory is in this field and to advance the field of behavior change theories. PMID:29490895

  3. Travel distance to prenatal care and high blood pressure during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lu; MacLeod, Kara E; Zhang, Donglan; Wang, Fan; Chao, Margaret Shin

    2017-02-01

    To assess whether poor geographic accessibility to prenatal care, as indicated by long distance trips to prenatal care, produced high blood pressure (HPB) during pregnancy. Using the 2007 Los Angeles Mommy and Baby Study for women without hypertension prior to pregnancy (n = 3405), we compared self-reported HBP by travel distance to prenatal care controlling for age, race/ethnicity, marital status, education, household income, weight status, and physical activity. Results of the multilevel logistic regression shows traveling more than 50 mi to prenatal care is associated with an increased odds for having HPB during pregnancy (odds ratio [OR] = 2.867, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.079,7.613), as compared with a travel distance shorter than 5 mi. Traveling 5-14 mi (OR = 0.917, 95% CI = 0.715-1.176), 15-29 mi (OR = 0.955, 95% CI = 0.634-1.438), or 30-50 mi (OR = 1.101, 95% CI = 0.485-2.499) were not significantly associated with more risk of HBP during pregnancy. To our knowledge, no previous studies have examined the association between poor geographic accessibility to care and the possible harms of travel burdens for pregnant women. Future research that replicates these findings can assist in developing recommendations for pregnant women and health-care accessibility.

  4. Effects of Viewing Displays from Different Distances on Human Visual System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Z. Ramadan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The current stereoscopic 3D displays have several human-factor issues including visual-fatigue symptoms such as eyestrain, headache, fatigue, nausea, and malaise. The viewing time and viewing distance are factors that considerably affect the visual fatigue associated with 3D displays. Hence, this study analyzes the effects of display type (2D vs. 3D and viewing distance on visual fatigue during a 60-min viewing session based on electroencephalogram (EEG relative beta power, and alpha/beta power ratio. In this study, twenty male participants watched four videos. The EEGs were recorded at two occipital lobes (O1 and O2 of each participant in the pre-session (3 min, post-session (3 min, and during a 60-min viewing session. The results showed that the decrease in relative beta power of the EEG and the increase in the alpha/beta ratio from the start until the end of the viewing session were significantly higher when watching the 3D display. When the viewing distance was increased from 1.95 m to 3.90 m, the visual fatigue was decreased in the case of the 3D-display, whereas the fatigue was increased in the case of the 2D-display. Moreover, there was approximately the same level of visual fatigue when watching videos in 2D or 3D from a long viewing distance (3.90 m.

  5. EFFECTS OF DISTANCE SPECIALIZATION ON THE BACKSTROKE SWIMMING KINEMATICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cortesi Matteo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to investigate different biomechanical variables of backstroke technique in swimmers specialized in different distance events, in order to investigate the capacity to modify the timing of the arm stroke when changing the swimming velocity from sub-maximal to maximal. Two 25-m backstroke trials respectively at 70% of maximum velocity (V70 and at 100% of maximum velocity (Vmax were performed by 9 200-m distance swimmers and 9 50-m distance swimmers. Swimming velocity, stroke length, stroke rate, duration of different phases of the arm stroke and selected kinematic variables were assessed in both cases. In the 50-m distance swimmers, the duration of the propulsive phase at Vmax, expressed as a percentage of the duration of the total underwater arm stroke, increased significantly (p = 0.001 with increasing swimming velocity. Specifically, both the pull and push phases were fundamental in the increase of duration of the propulsive phase. When compared to 200-m specialists, 50-m distance swimmers seem to be more able to modify their arm stroke phases duration when increasing the swimming velocity in backstroke

  6. Effect of travel distance on household demand for typhoid vaccines: implications for planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dohyeong; Lauria, Donald T; Poulos, Christine; Dong, Baiqing; Whittington, Dale

    2014-01-01

    Typhoid fever causes millions of illnesses and hundreds of thousands of deaths yearly. Vaccinations would mitigate this problem, but the users would probably have to pay some or most of the cost. Several willingness-to-pay studies have assessed the effect of price on private demand to provide a basis for financial planning of campaigns, but the effect of travel distance, which is a potentially important determinant of demand, has not been studied. This paper thus has two objectives: (i) conduct a willingness-to-pay survey to assess the effects of distance, price and other variables on the private demand for typhoid vaccinations in a rural township of China where a campaign is under consideration; and (ii) embed the demand function in a mathematical model to address three planning questions; should each village have its own clinic, would one clinic be best or should the number of clinics be something in-between? Private vaccine demand was found to depend on and be inelastic with respect to both price and travel distance. A 1-km increase in distance caused the number of vaccinations demanded to decrease the same as a $0.5 increase in price. Thus, the marginal rate of substitution was $0.5 per km. A single clinic would be best for the township only if diseconomies of scale in supplying vaccinations exceeded the marginal rate of substitution. Otherwise, multiple clinics close to users would be optimal. Thus, deciding the number, location and capacities of clinics for vaccination planning is as important as deciding what price(s) to charge. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Using Experiential Learning to Increase the Recognition of Everyday Sexism as Harmful: The WAGES Intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Cundiff, JL; Zawadzki, MJ; Danube, CL; Shields, SA

    2014-01-01

    © 2014 The Society for the Psychological Study of Social Issues. The harms of subtle sexism tend to be minimized despite negative cumulative effects, thus people may be less motivated to address subtle sexism. We tested the effectiveness of an experiential learning intervention, WAGES-Academic (Workshop Activity for Gender Equity Simulation-Academic), to educate about the harms of subtle sexism in the academic workplace. Across two studies, WAGES increased the recognition of everyday sexism a...

  8. The development of peer educator-based harm reduction programmes in Northern Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Nick; Gibbie, Tania M; Higgs, Peter

    2008-03-01

    Injecting drug use remains an important risk factor for transmission in Vietnam, with an estimated 50% of the 290 000 people living with HIV/AIDS reporting injecting drug use as a risk factor. Despite this, effective harm reduction interventions are generally lacking. This paper describes the implementation of peer-based harm reduction programmes in two rural provinces of Vietnam. Peer educators were trained in basic HIV prevention, including harm reduction. After significant preparation work with the Provincial AIDS Committees of Bac Giang and Thanh Hoa and other relevant national, provincial and local authorities, the interventions were commenced. Harm reduction interventions were delivered through outreach as well as on-site. This included needle and syringe distribution and collection. Community advocacy occurred throughout the life of the project. Local authorities and peers believed that while there was a general reduction in stigma and discrimination, legal barriers associated particularly with the carrying of injecting equipment remained. This impacted upon the ability of peer educators to work with their clients. Peer-based delivery of harm reduction intervention is acceptable. Harm reduction interventions, including needle and syringe programmes, are feasible and acceptable in these two rural Vietnamese provinces. Community acceptance and uptake of these interventions is key to successful expansion across the region. Active participation by families of drug users seems crucial. This initiative demonstrates that despite a difficult policy environment, peer-delivered needle and syringe programmes are feasible within a rural Asian environment as long as there is adequate local political and community support.

  9. Harm reduction in the USA: the research perspective and an archive to David Purchase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Des Jarlais, Don C

    2017-07-26

    The history of harm reduction in the USA has led to the development of some of the most important methods for treating persons for drug use disorders, such as methadone and buprenorphine for opiate use disorder. However, there has been fierce political resistance to implementation and scale-up of harm reduction in the USA. This resistance is rooted in historical demonization of particular psychoactive drugs that were associated with stigmatized racial/ethnic groups.With the discovery of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in 1981, harm reduction became important not only for treating substance use disorders, but for reducing transmission of blood-borne infection. However, within the context of the crack cocaine epidemic in the 1980s, it was very difficult to implement any programs that appeared to "condone" drug use.It was not until the late 1980s that syringe exchange programs began at the state and local level in the USA. With funding primarily from state and local governments and the support of the North American Syringe Exchange Network (NASEN), there are now approximately 200 programs for syringe exchange in the USA. Research has shown that these programs have been extremely effective in reducing human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission among persons who inject drugs (PWID). The programs in the USA also offer many additional services for drug users, including condom distribution, referrals to substance abuse treatment, HIV, hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatitis B virus (HBV) counseling and testing, overdose education and naloxone distribution to reverse for overdose.Currently, the USA is experiencing an opioid/heroin epidemic, with significant increases in overdose deaths among drug users. Much of this epidemic is occurring in suburban and rural of the country without harm reduction services. The current challenges for harm reduction and harm reduction research involve expansion of services to suburban and rural areas and implementation science on

  10. Fish attraction to artificial reefs not always harmful: a simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, James A; Lowry, Michael B; Suthers, Iain M

    2015-10-01

    The debate on whether artificial reefs produce new fish or simply attract existing fish biomass continues due to the difficulty in distinguishing these processes, and there remains considerable doubt as to whether artificial reefs are a harmful form of habitat modification. The harm typically associated with attraction is that fish will be easier to harvest due to the existing biomass aggregating at a newly deployed reef. This outcome of fish attraction has not progressed past an anecdotal form, however, and is always perceived as a harmful process. We present a numerical model that simulates the effect that a redistributed fish biomass, due to an artificial reef, has on fishing catch per unit effort (CPUE). This model can be used to identify the scenarios (in terms of reef, fish, and harvest characteristics) that pose the most risk of exploitation due to fish attraction. The properties of this model were compared to the long-standing predictions by Bohnsack (1989) on the factors that increase the risk or the harm of attraction. Simulations revealed that attraction is not always harmful because it does not always increase maximum fish density. Rather, attraction sometimes disperses existing fish biomass making them harder to catch. Some attraction can be ideal, with CPUE lowest when attraction leads to an equal distribution of biomass between natural and artificial reefs. Simulations also showed that the outcomes from attraction depend on the characteristics of the target fish species, such that transient or pelagic species are often at more risk of harmful attraction than resident species. Our findings generally agree with Bohnsack's predictions, although we recommend distinguishing "mobility" and "fidelity" when identifying species most at risk from attraction, as these traits had great influence on patterns of harvest of attracted fish biomass.

  11. Psychological characteristics of self-harming behavior in Korean adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Woo Kyeong

    2016-10-01

    Recently, self-injury is drawing the attention of researchers and clinicians. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence and psychological characteristics of adolescents who engage in self-harm and to examine the risk factors for engaging in this harmful behavior among Korean mid-adolescents. Participants were 784 adolescents aged 13-15 years. They completed self-report questionnaires that assessed (1) Non-Suicidal Self-Injury: the Self-Harm Questionnaire, Toronto Alexithymia Scale; (2) depression: Children's Depression Inventory; (3) adolescent-parent relationship: Parental Bonding Instrument; (4) peer attachment: Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment; and (5) academic stress. Overall, 12.4% (n=97) of participants reported engaging in self-destructive behavior at least once in their lives. The primary reason for engaging in self-harm was to regulate negative emotions such as anger and sadness. As expected, the self-harm group showed statistically significant higher levels of academic stress, alexithymia, depression, and poor relationships with their parents and peers. Stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that alexithymia, depression, and peer relations were significant predictors of self-harming behavior. Given that the primary reason for engaging in self-harm is to cope with negative emotions, mental health professionals in school settings should regularly evaluate self-injurious behavior and provide prevention programs for adolescents at risk. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Adolescent self-harm: a school-based study in Northern Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Rory C; Rasmussen, Susan; Hawton, Keith

    2014-04-01

    The prevalence of adolescent self-harm in Northern Ireland (NI) and its associated factors are unknown. Given the established relationship between conflict and mental health, and NI׳s recent history of conflict, it is important to investigate the factors associated with self-harm in NI. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of self-harm in NI adolescents and the factors associated with it, including exposure to the NI conflict. Observational study of 3596 school pupils employing an anonymous self-report survey. Information was obtained on demographic characteristics, lifestyle, life events and problems, exposure to the NI conflict, social and internet influences, and psychological variables. Self-harm was reported by 10% of respondents. In univariate analyses, exposure to the NI conflict was associated with self-harm alongside established risk factors. In multivariate analyses, bullying and exposure to self-harm were associated with lifetime self-harm in both girls and boys. Alcohol use, drug use, physical and sexual abuse, and self-esteem were also associated with self-harm in girls. In boys, absence of exercise, sexual orientation concerns, anxiety and impulsivity were additional risk factors. The internet/social media and the self-harm of others were also key influences. This is a cross-sectional study. The rate of self-harm was lower than elsewhere in the UK/Ireland. The study highlights the factors which should be considered in terms of risk assessment. In addition to established risk factors, the findings suggest that more research on the legacy of the NI conflict as well as the influence of new technologies warrant urgent attention. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Liberal egalitarianism and the harm principle

    OpenAIRE

    Lombardi, Michele; Veneziani, Roberto

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyses Rawls's celebrated difference principle, and its lexicographic extension, in societies with a finite and an infinite number of agents. A unified framework of analysis is set up, which allows one to characterise Rawlsian egalitarian principles by means of a weaker version of a new axiom - the Harm Principle - recently proposed by marven09. This is quite surprising, because the Harm principle is meant to capture a liberal requirement of noninterference and it incorporates no...

  14. Finite Element Analysis of the Effect on Edge Distance of the Tensile Bearing Capacity of Embedded Hanging Parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Xian Hong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to explore the trend of tensile bearing capacity of embedded hanging parts when change the edge distance. Based on the finite element analysis software ABAQUS, the four simulation model was established. The buried depth and strength of concrete remain unchanged, but the edge distance was gradient change. By the load - displacement curve of every model known, the greater the edge distance, the greater the bearing capacity. When the edge distance reaches 1.5 times buried depth, the effect of increasing edge distance for improving the bearing capacity will be impaired.

  15. Potentially Harmful Therapy and Multicultural Counseling: Bridging Two Disciplinary Discourses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendt, Dennis C.; Gone, Joseph P.; Nagata, Donna K.

    2015-01-01

    In recent years psychologists have been increasingly concerned about potentially harmful therapy, yet this recent discourse has not addressed issues that have long been voiced by the multicultural counseling and psychotherapy movement. We aim to begin to bring these seemingly disparate discourses of harm into greater conversation with one another, in the service of placing the discipline on a firmer foothold in its considerations of potentially harmful therapy. After reviewing the two discourses and exploring reasons for their divergence, we argue that they operate according to differing assumptions pertaining to the sources, objects, and scope of harm. We then argue that these differences reveal the discipline’s need to better appreciate that harm is a social construct, that psychotherapy may be inherently ethnocentric, and that strategies for collecting evidence of harm should be integrated with a social justice agenda. PMID:26339075

  16. Characteristics and trends of self-harming behaviour in young people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleaver, Karen

    Deliberate self-harm is recognized as a serious public health issue in young people. There is evidence that young people who self-harm are more likely to repeat self-harm, and this in turn increases their risk of completed suicide. Prevalence studies have identified that the rate of self-harm among young people is on the increase, information largely based on data arising from review and analysis of hospital attendances. However, community-based studies indicate that the prevalence is much higher, with those seen in emergency departments representing the 'tip of the iceberg' (Hawton and Rodham, 2006). Young people's motives for self-harm are discussed, as are research findings which indicate that nurses can have negative attitudes towards patients who self-harm. The article considers the implications of this for young people and identifies areas for future research.

  17. The effect of residential choice on the travel distance and the implications for sustainable development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eka Putra, Kaspan

    2018-03-01

    For Medan citizens, the choice of residence location depends on the ability to buy a house. House price is determined by the price of land where the housing is located. The more to the edge of the city the location of a house, then the price will be lower. So that the suburbs of Medan become the residential choice for the citizens of low-income. The residential choice will affect the distance of the journey to the workplace. This study analyzed the effect of residential choice on the travel distance and the implications for the implementation of sustainable development. The data used in this study is the primary data obtained through the survey held in Medan. The research approach is quantitative with the data analysis technique of Structural Equation Model (SEM). The results show that low-income citizens tend to choose the location of suburbs, while they work in the urban area. The location of the residence affects the daily travel distance is very high. The travel distance that is the very high effect the use of private vehicle mode. The use of private vehicles for long travel distance requires a huge energy. The use of very high fuel oils is a waste of energy and can increase air pollution. This is not in accordance with the concept of sustainable development.

  18. Sharply Reduced but Still Heavy Self-Harm Burdens in Hubei Province, China, 1990–2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingju Pan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to describe fatal and non-fatal self-harm burdens, as well as burdens from the main preventable risk factors, and to investigate the different suicide methods in Hubei province in central China utilizing data from both Global Burden of Disease Study 2015 and Hubei Disease Surveillance Points system. All self-harm burdens including mortality, years of life lost (YLLs, prevalence, years lived with disability (YLDs, and disability adjusted life-years (DALYs consistently demonstrated downward trends in Hubei from 1990 to 2015, with a bigger decline gap observed among females and narrower decreasing amplitudes among the elderly. Hubei experienced much higher age-standardized rates for self-harm mortality (22.0 per 100,000, YLLs (560.1 per 100,000 and DALYs (563.9 per 100,000 than the national (9.0, 292.3 and 295.0 per 100,000 respectively and global levels (11.5, 453.3 and 457.9 per 100,000 respectively in 2015. Self-harm burdens have begun shifting from females to males and the elderly suffered more self-harm burdens than other age groups. Alcohol use accounted for 20.9% of all self-harm DALYs for males, whereas intimate partner violence accounted for 24.4% of all self-harm DALYs for females. Poisoning, mainly pesticide self-poisoning, was still the most common method of suicide. Effective interventions by multi-sectoral collaboration are urgently needed to reduce the alarmingly heavy self-harm burdens in Hubei.

  19. Induction-heating MOCVD reactor with significantly improved heating efficiency and reduced harmful magnetic coupling

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Kuang-Hui; Alotaibi, Hamad S.; Sun, Haiding; Lin, Ronghui; Guo, Wenzhe; Torres-Castanedo, Carlos G.; Liu, Kaikai; Galan, Sergio V.; Li, Xiaohang

    2018-01-01

    In a conventional induction-heating III-nitride metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) reactor, the induction coil is outside the chamber. Therefore, the magnetic field does not couple with the susceptor well, leading to compromised heating efficiency and harmful coupling with the gas inlet and thus possible overheating. Hence, the gas inlet has to be at a minimum distance away from the susceptor. Because of the elongated flow path, premature reactions can be more severe, particularly between Al- and B-containing precursors and NH3. Here, we propose a structure that can significantly improve the heating efficiency and allow the gas inlet to be closer to the susceptor. Specifically, the induction coil is designed to surround the vertical cylinder of a T-shaped susceptor comprising the cylinder and a top horizontal plate holding the wafer substrate within the reactor. Therefore, the cylinder coupled most magnetic field to serve as the thermal source for the plate. Furthermore, the plate can block and thus significantly reduce the uncoupled magnetic field above the susceptor, thereby allowing the gas inlet to be closer. The results show approximately 140% and 2.6 times increase in the heating and susceptor coupling efficiencies, respectively, as well as a 90% reduction in the harmful magnetic flux on the gas inlet.

  20. Induction-heating MOCVD reactor with significantly improved heating efficiency and reduced harmful magnetic coupling

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Kuang-Hui

    2018-02-23

    In a conventional induction-heating III-nitride metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) reactor, the induction coil is outside the chamber. Therefore, the magnetic field does not couple with the susceptor well, leading to compromised heating efficiency and harmful coupling with the gas inlet and thus possible overheating. Hence, the gas inlet has to be at a minimum distance away from the susceptor. Because of the elongated flow path, premature reactions can be more severe, particularly between Al- and B-containing precursors and NH3. Here, we propose a structure that can significantly improve the heating efficiency and allow the gas inlet to be closer to the susceptor. Specifically, the induction coil is designed to surround the vertical cylinder of a T-shaped susceptor comprising the cylinder and a top horizontal plate holding the wafer substrate within the reactor. Therefore, the cylinder coupled most magnetic field to serve as the thermal source for the plate. Furthermore, the plate can block and thus significantly reduce the uncoupled magnetic field above the susceptor, thereby allowing the gas inlet to be closer. The results show approximately 140% and 2.6 times increase in the heating and susceptor coupling efficiencies, respectively, as well as a 90% reduction in the harmful magnetic flux on the gas inlet.

  1. A tentative theory of large distance physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedan, Daniel

    2003-01-01

    A theoretical mechanism is devised to determine the large distance physics of spacetime. It is a two dimensional nonlinear model, the lambda model, set to govern the string world surface in an attempt to remedy the failure of string theory, as it stands. The lambda model is formulated to cancel the infrared divergent effects of handles at short distance on the world surface. The target manifold is the manifold of background spacetimes. The coupling strength is the spacetime coupling constant. The lambda model operates at 2d distance Δ -1 , very much shorter than the 2d distance μ -1 where the world surface is seen. A large characteristic spacetime distance L is given by L 2 ln(Δ/μ). Spacetime fields of wave number up to 1=L are the local coordinates for the manifold of spacetimes. The distribution of fluctuations at 2d distances shorter than Δ -1 gives the a priori measure on the target manifold, the manifold of spacetimes. If this measure concentrates at a macroscopic spacetime, then, nearby, it is a measure on the spacetime fields. The lambda model thereby constructs a spacetime quantum field theory, cutoff at ultraviolet distance L, describing physics at distances larger than L. The lambda model also constructs an effective string theory with infrared cutoff L, describing physics at distances smaller than L. The lambda model evolves outward from zero 2d distance, Δ -1 = 0, building spacetime physics starting from L ∞ and proceeding downward in L. L can be taken smaller than any distance practical for experiments, so the lambda model, if right, gives all actually observable physics. The harmonic surfaces in the manifold of spacetimes are expected to have novel nonperturbative effects at large distances. (author)

  2. The effect of the dispersal kernel on isolation-by-distance in a continuous population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara N. Furstenau

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Under models of isolation-by-distance, population structure is determined by the probability of identity-by-descent between pairs of genes according to the geographic distance between them. Well established analytical results indicate that the relationship between geographical and genetic distance depends mostly on the neighborhood size of the population which represents a standardized measure of gene flow. To test this prediction, we model local dispersal of haploid individuals on a two-dimensional landscape using seven dispersal kernels: Rayleigh, exponential, half-normal, triangular, gamma, Lomax and Pareto. When neighborhood size is held constant, the distributions produce similar patterns of isolation-by-distance, confirming predictions. Considering this, we propose that the triangular distribution is the appropriate null distribution for isolation-by-distance studies. Under the triangular distribution, dispersal is uniform over the neighborhood area which suggests that the common description of neighborhood size as a measure of an effective, local panmictic population is valid for popular families of dispersal distributions. We further show how to draw random variables from the triangular distribution efficiently and argue that it should be utilized in other studies in which computational efficiency is important.

  3. Association Between Deliberate Self-harm and Violent Criminality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahlin, Hanna; Kuja-Halkola, Ralf; Bjureberg, Johan; Lichtenstein, Paul; Molero, Yasmina; Rydell, Mina; Hedman, Erik; Runeson, Bo; Jokinen, Jussi; Ljótsson, Brjánn; Hellner, Clara

    2017-06-01

    Individuals who self-harm may have an increased risk of aggression toward others, but this association has been insufficiently investigated. More conclusive evidence may affect assessment, treatment interventions, and clinical guidelines. To investigate the association between nonfatal self-harm and violent crime. This population-based longitudinal cohort study, conducted from January 1, 1997, through December 31, 2013, studied all Swedish citizens born between 1982 and 1998 who were 15 years and older (N = 1 850 252). Individuals who emigrated from Sweden before the age of 15 years (n = 104 051) or immigrated to Sweden after the age of 13 years (ie, crime according to the Swedish penal code. The study cohort consisted of 1 850 525 individuals (950 382 males and 900 143 females), and the mean (SD) follow-up time was 8.1 (4.7) years (range, 0-17.0 years; minimum age, 15 years; maximum age, 32 years). During a mean follow-up period of 8.1 years, 55 185 individuals (3.0%) received clinical care for self-harm. The crude hazard ratio was 4.9 (95% CI, 4.8-5.0) for violent crime conviction in exposed individuals compared with the unexposed group. Women who self-harm were at particularly high risk for expressing violent behaviors. After adjustment for relevant psychiatric comorbidities and socioeconomic status, an almost doubled hazard of violent offense remained (hazard ratio, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.8-1.9). Self-harm is associated with an increased risk of conviction for a violent offense in both sexes. The risk of violence, as well as the risk of suicide and self-harm, should be assessed among offending and self-harming individuals.

  4. Harm reduction - a historical view from the left.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, S R.; Southwell, M; Bueno, R; Paone, D; Byrne, J; Crofts, N

    2001-04-01

    The harm reduction movement formed during a period in which social movements of the working class and the excluded were weak, neo-liberalism ideologically triumphant, and potential opposition movements were viewed as offering "tinkering" with the system rather than a total social alternative. This climate shaped and limited the perspectives, strategies, and tactics of harm reductionists almost everywhere. In many countries, this period was also marked by a "political economy of scapegoating" that often targeted drug users as the cause of social woes. This scapegoating took the form of "divide and rule" political initiatives by business and political leaderships to prevent social unrest in a long period of worldwide economic trends toward lowered profit rates and toward increasing income inequality. However, times have changed. Mass strikes and other labor struggles, opposition to the World Trade Organisation and other agencies of neo-liberalism, community-based protests against belt-tightening, and other forms of social unrest have been increasing in many countries. This opens up the possibility of new allies for the harm reduction movement, but also poses difficult problems for which we need to develop answers. On-the-ground experience in alliance formation needs to be combined with careful discussion of and research about what approaches work to convince other movements to work for and with harm reduction, and which approaches do not. Class differences within the harm reduction movement are likely to become more salient in terms of (a) creating internal tensions, (b) increasingly, opening up new ways in which working class harm reductionists can organize within their own communities and workplaces, and (c) producing different strategic orientations that will need to be discussed and debated. As a movement, we will need to find ways to accommodate and discuss differing perspectives, needs, and assessments of opportunities and threats without paralyzing harm

  5. The Effects of the Daily Driven Distance and Age Factor on the Traffic Accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Figen Ş. KALYONCUOĞLU

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Based on Turkish traffic survey data (n=5,520, driver accident rates per million kilometre-driver were compared according to the daily driven distances (DDD for each age group as very old (65+, n=39, old (56-65, n=183, above middle-aged (36-55, n=1,875, middle-aged (26-35, n=2,204, and young (25-, n=1,219. When the accidents-per-km comparison was made in groups matched for daily exposure, there was no evidence of higher risk with increasing age. In all age groups, risk per km decreased with increasing daily driving distance. With this study the accident involvement prediction models have been obtained related to the daily driven distance with and without considering age. These models have been applied to some earlier studies. The results are quite satisfactory. The set of data of this study and the analysis controlling the daily (yearly driving distance might make the “age” effect disappear.

  6. The distance effect in numerical memory-updating tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lendínez, Cristina; Pelegrina, Santiago; Lechuga, Teresa

    2011-05-01

    Two experiments examined the role of numerical distance in updating numerical information in working memory. In the first experiment, participants had to memorize a new number only when it was smaller than a previously memorized number. In the second experiment, updating was based on an external signal, which removed the need to perform any numerical comparison. In both experiments, distance between the memorized number and the new one was manipulated. The results showed that smaller distances between the new and the old information led to shorter updating times. This graded facilitation suggests that the process by which information is substituted in the focus of attention involves maintaining the shared features between the new and the old number activated and selecting other new features to be activated. Thus, the updating cost may be related to amount of new features to be activated in the focus of attention.

  7. Emergency Department Staff Beliefs About Self-Harm: A Thematic Framework Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koning, Kate Louise; McNaught, Angela; Tuffin, Keith

    2017-11-03

    To explore the beliefs and attitudes of emergency department staff about self-harm behaviour. Existing studies looking at views regarding self-harm rely solely on the information provided by medical and nursing staff using a questionnaire format. No studies currently consider ancillary staff members' beliefs about self-harm, even though they also work with these patients. A thematic framework analysis of interview transcripts was carried out. Individual semi-structured interviews were conducted from December 2015 to February 2016. Fifteen medical, nursing, and ancillary staff members from a large, tertiary emergency department participated. There were 5 major themes identified-causes of self-harm are multifactorial; beliefs about self-harm can change over time; emergency departments should only focus on the physical; self-harm occurs on a spectrum; and the system has failed. The results suggest participants felt ill-prepared and lacking in appropriate training to help patients that self-harm, and furthermore they have little faith in the mental health system. Staff beliefs and attitudes may change over time with exposure to patients who self-harm, possibly becoming more positive in response to a greater understanding of why the self-harm behaviour is occurring.

  8. The association between social relationships and self-harm: a case–control study in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Although suicide has been postulated as a result of social breakdown, relatively little attention has been paid to the association between social relationships and non-fatal self-harm. We sought to investigate the extent to which social factors correlate with self-harm in this case–control study. Methods The primary outcome was self-harm with hospital presentation. Cases of self-harm from the Emergency Department in a general hospital in Northern Taiwan were recruited, and individually age-and-gender-matched control participants were recruited from non-psychiatric outpatient clinics at the same hospital. The Close Persons Questionnaire was administered and its social support and social network subscales were used to measure social relationships in the 12 months prior to the interview. Other covariates, comprising sociodemographic factors, major life events, physical and mental health, were adjusted in conditional logistic regression models. Results A total of 124 case–control pairs were recruited. The mean (standard deviation) age of the case group was 34.7 (12.8) years and 80.6% were female. Higher social isolation score remained significantly associated with self-harm after adjustment (adjusted odds ratio per standard deviation increase 2.92, 95% confidence interval 1.44-5.95) and household size was negatively associated with the outcome (adjusted odds ratio per unit increase 0.54, 95% CI 0.32-0.94). Conclusions More limited social networks were associated with self-harm after adjustment for potential confounders. Enhancing social structure and effective networking of people with self-harm to community resources may be important for self-harm management in Asian societies and elsewhere. PMID:23531045

  9. Surveying the range and magnitude of alcohol's harm to others in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laslett, Anne-Marie; Room, Robin; Ferris, Jason; Wilkinson, Claire; Livingston, Michael; Mugavin, Janette

    2011-09-01

    This study aims to document the adverse effects of drinkers in Australia on people other than the drinker. Cross-sectional survey. In a national survey of Australia, respondents described the harmful effects they experienced from drinkers in their households, family and friendship networks, as well as work-place and community settings. A randomly selected sample of 2,649 adult Australians. Problems experienced because of others' drinking were ascertained via computer-assisted telephone interviews. Respondent and drinker socio-demographic and drinking pattern data were recorded. A total of 70% of respondents were affected by strangers' drinking and experienced nuisance, fear or abuse, and 30% reported that the drinking of someone close to them had negative effects, although only 11% were affected by such a person 'a lot'. Women were more affected by someone they knew in the household or family, while men were more affected by strangers, friends and co-workers. Young adults were consistently the most negatively affected across the majority of types of harm. Substantial proportions of Australians are affected by other people's drinking, including that of their families, friends, co-workers and strangers. These harms range in magnitude from noise and fear to physical abuse, sexual coercion and social isolation. © 2011 The Authors, Addiction © 2011 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  10. Effectiveness of assertive case management on repeat self-harm in patients admitted for suicide attempt: Findings from ACTION-J study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuno, Taku; Nakagawa, Makiko; Hino, Kosuke; Yamada, Tomoki; Kawashima, Yoshitaka; Matsuoka, Yutaka; Shirakawa, Osamu; Ishizuka, Naoki; Yonemoto, Naohiro; Kawanishi, Chiaki; Hirayasu, Yoshio

    2018-01-01

    Self-harm is an important risk factor for subsequent suicide and repetition of self-harm, and a common cause of emergency department presentations. However, there still remains limited evidence on intervention in emergency department settings for individuals who self-harm. This multicentre, randomised controlled trial was conducted at 17 general hospitals in Japan. In total, 914 adult patients admitted to emergency departments for a suicide attempt and had a DSM-IV-TR axis I disorder were randomly assigned to two groups, to receive either assertive case management (intervention) or enhanced usual care (control). Assertive case management was introduced by the case manager during emergency department admissions for suicide attempts, and continued after discharge. Interventions were provided until the end of the study period (for at least 18 months and up to 5 years). The number of overall self-harm episodes per person-year was significantly lower in the intervention group (adjusted incidence risk ratio (IRR) 0.88, 95%CI 0.80-0.96, p=0.0031). Subgroup analysis showed a greater reduction of overall self-harm episodes among patients with no previous suicide attempt at baseline (adjusted IRR 0.73, 95% CI 0.53-0.98, p=0.037). Patients younger than 20 years and patients who self-harmed but were not admitted to an emergency department were excluded. The present study showed that assertive case management following emergency admission for a suicide attempt reduced the incident rate of repeat overall self-harm. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of distance to radiation treatment facility on use of radiation therapy after mastectomy in elderly women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Punglia, Rinaa S.; Weeks, Jane C.; Neville, Bridget A.; Earle, Craig C.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: We sought to study the effect of distance to the nearest radiation treatment facility on the use of postmastectomy radiation therapy (PMRT) in elderly women. Methods and Materials: Using data from the linked Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results-Medicare (SEER-Medicare) database, we analyzed 19,787 women with Stage I or II breast cancer who received mastectomy as definitive surgery during 1991 to 1999. Multivariable logistic regression was used to investigate the association of distance with receipt of PMRT after adjusting for clinical and sociodemographic factors. Results: Overall 2,075 patients (10.5%) treated with mastectomy received PMRT. In addition to cancer and patient characteristics, in our primary analysis, increasing distance to the nearest radiation treatment facility was independently associated with a decreased likelihood of receiving PMRT (OR 0.996 per additional mile, p = 0.01). Secondary analyses revealed that the decline in PMRT use appeared at distances of more than 25 miles and was statistically significant for those patients living more than 75 miles from the nearest radiation facility (odds of receiving PMRT of 0.58 [95% CI 0.34-0.99] vs. living within 25 miles of such a facility). The effect of distance on PMRT appeared to be more pronounced with increasing patient age (>75 years). Variation in the effect of distance on radiation use between regions of the country and nodal status was also identified. Conclusions: Oncologists must be cognizant of the potential barrier to quality care that is posed by travel distance, especially for elderly patients; and policy makers should consider this fact in resource allocation decisions about radiation treatment centers

  12. Effects of detector–source distance and detector bias voltage variations on time resolution of general purpose plastic scintillation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ermis, E.E.; Celiktas, C.

    2012-01-01

    Effects of source-detector distance and the detector bias voltage variations on time resolution of a general purpose plastic scintillation detector such as BC400 were investigated. 133 Ba and 207 Bi calibration sources with and without collimator were used in the present work. Optimum source-detector distance and bias voltage values were determined for the best time resolution by using leading edge timing method. Effect of the collimator usage on time resolution was also investigated. - Highlights: ► Effect of the source-detector distance on time spectra was investigated. ► Effect of the detector bias voltage variations on time spectra was examined. ► Optimum detector–source distance was determined for the best time resolution. ► Optimum detector bias voltage was determined for the best time resolution. ► 133 Ba and 207 Bi radioisotopes were used.

  13. Révision du genre Eurypetalum Harms (Fabaceae, Caesalpinioideae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Obiang-Mbomio, D.; Breteler, F.J.

    2007-01-01

    Revision of the genus Eurypetalum Harms (Fabaceae, Caesalpinioideae). Th e African genus Eurypetalum Harms (Fabaceae, Caesalpinioideae) of Lower Guinea is revised. Two species, E. tessmannii and E. unijugum, are recognized. Th ey are illustrated and their distributions are mapped. Eurypetalum

  14. Species at risk setback distances : the effects of shallow gas activity on the distribution of grassland birds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linnen, C.

    2006-01-01

    The effects of shallow gas activity on the distribution of grassland birds was discussed in this presentation. The overall purpose of the study was to examine the effects of minimal disturbance gas wells and associated activity on species richness; effects on species abundance; and effects on the occurrence of species. The presentation provided several hypotheses, including that species richness would increase with increasing distance from gas wells and trails; that abundance and occurrence of sensitive species would increase with distance from gas wells and trails; and that abundance and occurrence of brood parasites and predators would decrease with increasing distance from gas wells and trails. The presentation illustrated the study area and study design. Several graphs representing the study results were also presented. Bird species that were examined included the abundance and occurrence of western meadowlark; horned lark; chestnut-collared longspur; clay-coloured sparrow; vesper sparrow; sprague pipit; savannah sparrow; grasshopper sparrow; baird sparrow; and brown-headed cowbird. A summary slide was also presented that concluded that species richness did not vary with distance from gas development and that brown-headed cowbirds tended to favour areas with gas development and interior habitats. tabs., figs

  15. Trends in E-Cigarette Awareness and Perceived Harmfulness in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerta, Timothy R; Walker, Daniel M; Mullen, Deborah; Johnson, Tyler J; Ford, Eric W

    2017-03-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are gaining in popularity as an alternative to regular cigarettes, as they are viewed as potentially less harmful. However, it remains unclear how awareness about e-cigarettes is permeating through the general U.S. This study seeks to extend previous research and examine trends in e-cigarette awareness and perceived harmfulness, and their association with smoking-cessation efforts. Data from three cycles (2012, 2013, and 2014) of the Health Information National Trends Survey were combined into a single data set. Controlling for survey year, multivariate logit models were used to determine the association between demographic characteristics and e-cigarette awareness, perceived harmfulness, quit attempts, and quit intentions. Data were analyzed in 2015. Awareness of e-cigarettes increased from 77.1% in 2012 to 94.3% in 2014. Controlling for demographic characteristics, e-cigarette awareness significantly increased in both 2013 and 2014, relative to 2012. Perception that e-cigarettes were less harmful than regular cigarettes declined from 50.7% in 2012 to 43.1% in 2014. Among smokers, no relationship was observed between e-cigarette awareness and past-year quit attempts or quit intentions, but those that viewed e-cigarettes as less harmful were less likely to have a past-year quit attempt. These analyses reveal a continued increase in overall public awareness of e-cigarettes and shifting harm perceptions relative to regular cigarettes. New regulatory oversight by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration may have major effects on both dimensions, which are worth continued monitoring. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Variability and dilemmas in harm reduction for anabolic steroid users in the UK: a multi-area interview study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The UK continues to experience a rise in the number of anabolic steroid-using clients attending harm reduction services such as needle and syringe programmes. Methods The present study uses interviews conducted with harm reduction service providers as well as illicit users of anabolic steroids from different areas of England and Wales to explore harm reduction for this group of drug users, focussing on needle distribution policies and harm reduction interventions developed specifically for this population of drug users. Results The article addresses the complexity of harm reduction service delivery, highlighting different models of needle distribution, such as peer-led distribution networks, as well as interventions available in steroid clinics, including liver function testing of anabolic steroid users. Aside from providing insights into the function of interventions available to steroid users, along with principles adopted by service providers, the study found significant tensions and dilemmas in policy implementation due to differing perspectives between service providers and service users relating to practices, risks and effective interventions. Conclusion The overarching finding of the study was the tremendous variability across harm reduction delivery sites in terms of available measures and mode of operation. Further research into the effectiveness of different policies directed towards people who use anabolic steroids is critical to the development of harm reduction. PMID:24986546

  17. Epinephrine in Out-of-hospital Cardiac Arrest: Helpful or Harmful?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan Shao

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: The administration of adrenaline was associated with improved short-term survival (ROSC. However, it appears that the use of adrenaline is associated with no benefit on survival to hospital discharge or survival with favorable neurological outcome after OHCA, and it may have a harmful effect. Larger placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized control trials are required to definitively establish the effect of epinephrine.

  18. Overview of harm reduction in prisons in seven European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, Gen; Scandurra, Alessio; Kamenska, Anhelita; MacNamara, Catherine; Kalpaki, Christina; Bessa, Cristina Fernandez; Laso, Gemma Nicolás; Parisi, Grazia; Varley, Lorraine; Wolny, Marcin; Moudatsou, Maria; Pontes, Nuno Henrique; Mannix-McNamara, Patricia; Libianchi, Sandro; Antypas, Tzanetos

    2016-10-07

    While the last decade has seen a growth of support for harm reduction around the world, the availability and accessibility of quality harm reduction services in prison settings is uneven and continues to be inadequate compared to the progress achieved in the broader community. This article provides a brief overview of harm reduction in prisons in Catalonia (Spain), Greece, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Poland, and Portugal. While each country provides a wide range of harm reduction services in the broader community, the majority fail to provide these same services or the same quality of these services, in prison settings, in clear violation of international human rights law and minimum standards on the treatment of prisoners. Where harm reduction services have been available and easily accessible in prison settings for some time, better health outcomes have been observed, including significantly reduced rates of HIV and HCV incidence. While the provision of harm reduction in each of these countries' prisons varies considerably, certain key themes and lessons can be distilled, including around features of an enabling environment for harm reduction, resource allocation, collection of disaggregated data, and accessibility of services.

  19. Examination history and abnormal thyroid and breast lesions according to residential distance from nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Young Khi [Dept. of Radiological Science, Gachon University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    Ascertainment bias are common in epidemiologic studies to assess the association between thyroid cancer risk and living near nuclear power plants because many thyroid cancers are diagnosed by chance through health examination. We surveyed the ultra sonography (USG) examination history and conducted thyroid and breast USG in residents living near nuclear power plants. The study population comprised 2,421 residents living near nuclear power plants in Korea. Information on demographic characteristics, including diagnostic examination history, was collected by interview using questionnaires. USG examination was conducted to evaluate the presence of thyroid nodules and breast lesion. Study participants were divided into 3 groups according to the distance of their respective villages from a nuclear power plant. The proportions of USG examination history and prevalence of thyroid nodules and breast lesions were compared between groups. Examination histories of thyroid USG were 23.1%, 13.7%, and 10.5% in men and 31.3%, 26.7%, 18.3% in women in the short, intermediate, and long distance groups, respectively. There were significant inverse associations between thyroid USG history and the distance from nuclear power plants (P for trend=0.001 for men and 0.017 for women). However, there was no association between the distance of villages from nuclear power plants and prevalence of thyroid nodules. Our results suggest that there may be an ascertainment bias in population-based studies examining the harmful effects of NPPs examination and researchers should pay attention to ascertainment bias resulted from differential health examination. Correction for ascertainment bias, active follow-up and examination for all study population to remove differential health examination is needed.

  20. Examination history and abnormal thyroid and breast lesions according to residential distance from nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Young Khi

    2016-01-01

    Ascertainment bias are common in epidemiologic studies to assess the association between thyroid cancer risk and living near nuclear power plants because many thyroid cancers are diagnosed by chance through health examination. We surveyed the ultra sonography (USG) examination history and conducted thyroid and breast USG in residents living near nuclear power plants. The study population comprised 2,421 residents living near nuclear power plants in Korea. Information on demographic characteristics, including diagnostic examination history, was collected by interview using questionnaires. USG examination was conducted to evaluate the presence of thyroid nodules and breast lesion. Study participants were divided into 3 groups according to the distance of their respective villages from a nuclear power plant. The proportions of USG examination history and prevalence of thyroid nodules and breast lesions were compared between groups. Examination histories of thyroid USG were 23.1%, 13.7%, and 10.5% in men and 31.3%, 26.7%, 18.3% in women in the short, intermediate, and long distance groups, respectively. There were significant inverse associations between thyroid USG history and the distance from nuclear power plants (P for trend=0.001 for men and 0.017 for women). However, there was no association between the distance of villages from nuclear power plants and prevalence of thyroid nodules. Our results suggest that there may be an ascertainment bias in population-based studies examining the harmful effects of NPPs examination and researchers should pay attention to ascertainment bias resulted from differential health examination. Correction for ascertainment bias, active follow-up and examination for all study population to remove differential health examination is needed

  1. Emission characteristics of harmful air pollutants from cremators in Beijing, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yifeng Xue

    Full Text Available The process of corpse cremation generates numerous harmful air pollutants, including particulate matter (PM, sulfur dioxide (SO2, nitrogen oxides (NOx, volatile organic compounds (VOCs, and heavy metals. These pollutants could have severe effects on the surrounding environment and human health. Currently, the awareness of the emission levels of harmful air pollutants from cremators and their emission characteristics is insufficient. In this study, we obtained the emission characteristics of flue gas from cremators in Beijing and determined the localized emission factors and emission levels of harmful air pollutants based on actual monitoring data from nine typical cremators. The results show that the emissions of air pollutants from the cremators that directly discharge flue gas exceed the emission standards of China and Beijing. The installation of a flue gas post-treatment system could effectively reduce gaseous pollutants and the emission levels of PM. After being equipped with a flue gas post-treatment system, the emission concentrations of PM10, PM2.5, CO, SO2 and VOCs from the cremators are reduced by 97.6, 99.2, 19.6, 85.2 and 70.7%, respectively. Moreover, the emission factors of TSP, PM10, PM2.5, CO, SO2 and VOCs are also reduced to 12.5, 9.3, 3.0, 164.1, 8.8 and 19.8 g/body. Although the emission concentration of VOCs from the cremators is not high, they are one of major sources of "odor" in the crematories and demand more attention. Benzene, a chemical that can seriously harm human health, constitutes the largest proportion (~50% of the chemical components of VOCs in the flue gas from the cremators.

  2. Gender roles, suicidal ideation, and self-harming in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straiton, Melanie L; Roen, Katrina; Hjelmeland, Heidi

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates whether positive and negative conventional gender roles relate to suicidal ideation and self-harming in different ways among young adults. Participants completed an online survey about previous self-harm, recent suicidal ideation, and positive and negative aspects of conventional masculinity and femininity. Logistic regression analyses showed that negative femininity positively predicted self-harm and recent suicidal ideation status. Positive femininity was unrelated. Positive masculinity was negatively related to suicidal ideation and self-harming while negative masculinity was negatively related to self-harming only. The findings suggest that it is not the conventional feminine gender role per se that is associated with suicidality but specific negatively evaluated aspects. Conceptualizing gender as a multivariate construct may be useful in the gender socialization theory of suicidal behavior.

  3. How Teacher Turnover Harms Student Achievement. NBER Working Paper No. 17176

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronfeldt, Matthew; Lankford, Hamilton; Loeb, Susanna; Wyckoff, James

    2011-01-01

    Researchers and policymakers often assume that teacher turnover harms student achievement, but recent evidence calls into question this assumption. Using a unique identification strategy that employs grade-level turnover and two classes of fixed-effects models, this study estimates the effects of teacher turnover on over 600,000 New York City 4th…

  4. The Harm Principle as a Mid-level Principle? Three Problems from the Context of Infectious Disease Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krom, A.

    2011-01-01

    Effective infectious disease control may require states to restrict the liberty of individuals. Since preventing harm to others is almost universally accepted as a legitimate (prima facie) reason for restricting the liberty of individuals, it seems plausible to employ a mid-level harm principle in

  5. Effects of habitat composition and landscape structure on worker foraging distances of five bumble bee species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redhead, John W; Dreier, Stephanie; Bourke, Andrew F G; Heard, Matthew S; Jordan, William C; Sumner, Seirian; Wang, Jinliang; Carvell, Claire

    2016-04-01

    Bumble bees (Bombus spp.) are important pollinators of both crops and wildflowers. Their contribution to this essential ecosystem service has been threatened over recent decades by changes in land use, which have led to declines in their populations. In order to design effective conservation measures, it is important to understand the effects of variation in landscape composition and structure on the foraging activities of worker bumble bees. This is because the viability of individual colonies is likely to be affected by the trade-off between the energetic costs of foraging over greater distances and the potential gains from access to additional resources. We used field surveys, molecular genetics, and fine resolution remote sensing to estimate the locations of wild bumble bee nests and to infer foraging distances across a 20-km² agricultural landscape in southern England, UK. We investigated five species, including the rare B. ruderatus and ecologically similar but widespread B. hortorum. We compared worker foraging distances between species and examined how variation in landscape composition and structure affected foraging distances at the colony level. Mean worker foraging distances differed significantly between species. Bombus terrestris, B. lapidarius, and B. ruderatus exhibited significantly greater mean foraging distances (551, 536, and 501 m, respectively) than B. hortorum and B. pascuorum (336 and 272 m, respectively). There was wide variation in worker foraging distances between colonies of the same species, which was in turn strongly influenced by the amount and spatial configuration of available foraging habitats. Shorter foraging distances were found for colonies where the local landscape had high coverage and low fragmentation of semi-natural vegetation, including managed agri-environmental field margins. The strength of relationships between different landscape variables and foraging distance varied between species, for example the strongest

  6. Quality Assessment of Economic Evaluations of Suicide and Self-Harm Interventions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Lizell Bustamante; Eddleston, Michael; Hansen, Kristian Schultz

    2018-01-01

    Background: Death following self-harm constitutes a major global public health challenge and there is an urgent need for governments to implement cost-effective, national suicide prevention strategies. Aim: To conduct a systematic review and quality appraisal of the economic evaluations...... of interventions aimed at preventing suicidal behavior. Method: A systematic literature search was performed in several literature databases to identify relevant articles published from 2003 to 2016. Drummond's 10-item appraisal tool was used to assess the methodological quality of the included studies. Results....... The discussion of suicide and self-harm prevention should be as nuanced as possible, including health economics along with cultural, social, and political aspects....

  7. Explaining Self-Harm: Youth Cybertalk and Marginalized Sexualities and Genders

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Elizabeth; Roen, Katrina; Piela, Anna

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates self-harm among young lesbian, gay, bisexual, and trans (LGBT) people. Using qualitative virtual methods, we examined online forums to explore young LGBT people's cybertalk about emotional distress and self-harming. We investigated how youth explained the relationship between self-harm and sexuality and gender. We found…

  8. Terminology report respect distance. The Use of the term respect distance in Posiva and SKB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lampinen, H.

    2007-09-01

    The term respect distance is used in some key publications of the Finnish Nuclear Waste Management Company, Posiva, and the Swedish Nuclear Waste Management Company, SKB (Svensk Kaernbrenslehantering). Posiva and SKB researchers use the same terms in their reports, and it is acknowledged that the terms used by both companies are not used in the same way, though the differences are often subtle. This report is a literature study of the term 'respect distance' and the terms immediately associated to it. Vital terms related to the respect distance and issues concerning the use of scale concepts in Posiva and SKB are gathered in the end of report. Posiva's respect distances consider the seismic, hydrological and mechanical properties of the deterministic deformation zones as important issues that constitute a risk for longterm safety. These requirements for respect distances are an interpretation of STUK's YVL 8.4 Guide. At present, Posiva's criteria regarding respect distances follow the instructions given in the Host Rock Classification system (HRC), whereas the size of a deformation zone to which respect distances are applied vary from the regional to local major and minor. This and other criteria that are given for respect distances may, however, change in the near future as Posiva's Rock Suitability Criteria (RSC) programme proceeds. SKB's considerations of respect distances acknowledge that the hydraulic and mechanical aspects of a deformation zone have an effect on the respect distance. However, the seismic risk is considered to overshadow the other effects on a regional scale. The respect distance defined for a deformation zone is coupled with the size of a fracture where secondary slip could occur. In the safety assessment it is assumed that this fracture cuts a deposition hole location. In SKB the respect distance is determined for regional and local major deformation zones. The trace length of such a zone is defined as being ≥ 3 km. For deformation zones

  9. ‘Abstract Endangerment’, Two Harm Principles, and Two Routes to Criminalisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A. Duff

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We need to distinguish, as theorists too often fail to distinguish, two distinct harm principles. One, the Harmful Conduct Principle, concerns the criminalisation of conduct that is itself harmful or dangerous: that principle cannot explain how we can have good reason to create offences of so-called ‘abstract endangerment’, of which many road traffic offences are good examples. We can explain such offences as those by appeal to a different harm principle, the Harm Prevention Principle. That principle, however, is a principle not of criminalisation, but of regulation: it gives us reason to regulate conduct if doing so will efficiently prevent harm, without imposing undue burdens on those whose conduct is regulated. We then have reason to criminalise violations of such regulations, not because such violations are always harmful, but if and because they are wrongful. This distinction, between two kinds of principle and two possible routes towards criminalisation, can be drawn whatever goals or values we posit as our starting points.

  10. Deontological Dilemma Response Tendencies and Sensorimotor Representations of Harm to Others

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Christov-Moore

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The dual process model of moral decision-making suggests that decisions to reject causing harm on moral dilemmas (where causing harm saves lives reflect concern for others. Recently, some theorists have suggested such decisions actually reflect self-focused concern about causing harm, rather than witnessing others suffering. We examined brain activity while participants witnessed needles pierce another person’s hand, versus similar non-painful stimuli. More than a month later, participants completed moral dilemmas where causing harm either did or did not maximize outcomes. We employed process dissociation to independently assess harm-rejection (deontological and outcome-maximization (utilitarian response tendencies. Activity in the posterior inferior frontal cortex (pIFC while participants witnessed others in pain predicted deontological, but not utilitarian, response tendencies. Previous brain stimulation studies have shown that the pIFC seems crucial for sensorimotor representations of observed harm. Hence, these findings suggest that deontological response tendencies reflect genuine other-oriented concern grounded in sensorimotor representations of harm.

  11. Deontological Dilemma Response Tendencies and Sensorimotor Representations of Harm to Others.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christov-Moore, Leonardo; Conway, Paul; Iacoboni, Marco

    2017-01-01

    The dual process model of moral decision-making suggests that decisions to reject causing harm on moral dilemmas (where causing harm saves lives) reflect concern for others. Recently, some theorists have suggested such decisions actually reflect self-focused concern about causing harm, rather than witnessing others suffering. We examined brain activity while participants witnessed needles pierce another person's hand, versus similar non-painful stimuli. More than a month later, participants completed moral dilemmas where causing harm either did or did not maximize outcomes. We employed process dissociation to independently assess harm-rejection (deontological) and outcome-maximization (utilitarian) response tendencies. Activity in the posterior inferior frontal cortex (pIFC) while participants witnessed others in pain predicted deontological, but not utilitarian, response tendencies. Previous brain stimulation studies have shown that the pIFC seems crucial for sensorimotor representations of observed harm. Hence, these findings suggest that deontological response tendencies reflect genuine other-oriented concern grounded in sensorimotor representations of harm.

  12. The Theory of Dyadic Morality: Reinventing Moral Judgment by Redefining Harm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schein, Chelsea; Gray, Kurt

    2018-02-01

    The nature of harm-and therefore moral judgment-may be misunderstood. Rather than an objective matter of reason, we argue that harm should be redefined as an intuitively perceived continuum. This redefinition provides a new understanding of moral content and mechanism-the constructionist Theory of Dyadic Morality (TDM). TDM suggests that acts are condemned proportional to three elements: norm violations, negative affect, and-importantly-perceived harm. This harm is dyadic, involving an intentional agent causing damage to a vulnerable patient (A→P). TDM predicts causal links both from harm to immorality (dyadic comparison) and from immorality to harm (dyadic completion). Together, these two processes make the "dyadic loop," explaining moral acquisition and polarization. TDM argues against intuitive harmless wrongs and modular "foundations," but embraces moral pluralism through varieties of values and the flexibility of perceived harm. Dyadic morality impacts understandings of moral character, moral emotion, and political/cultural differences, and provides research guidelines for moral psychology.

  13. Nurses' attitudes towards self-harm: a literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karman, P.; Kool, N.; Poslawsky, I.E.; van Meijel, B.

    2015-01-01

    Accessible summary: People who self-harm experience many problems and needs related to management of emotional and practical stress. A positive attitude among nurses is especially important given the close contact they have with people who self-harm. This article is based on a review of the

  14. Feasibility of dialectical behavior therapy with suicidal and self-harming adolescents with multi-problems: training, adherence, and retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tørmoen, A J; Grøholt, B; Haga, E; Brager-Larsen, A; Miller, A; Walby, F; Stanley, B; Mehlum, L

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the feasibility of DBT training, adherence, and retention preparing for a randomized controlled trial of Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) adapted for Norwegian adolescents engaging in self-harming behavior and diagnosed with features of borderline personality disorder. Therapists were intensively trained and evaluated for adherence. Adherence scores, treatment retention, and present and previous self-harm were assessed. Twenty-seven patients were included (mean age 15.7 years), all of them with recent self-harming behaviors and at least 3 features of Borderline Personality Disorder. Therapists were adherent and 21 (78%) patients completed the whole treatment. Three subjects reported self-harm at the end of treatment, and urges to self-harm decreased. At follow up, 7 of 10 subjects reported no self-harm. DBT was found to be well accepted and feasible. Randomized controlled trials are required to test the effectiveness of DBT for adolescents.

  15. 46 CFR 4.03-65 - Significant harm to the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Significant harm to the environment. 4.03-65 Section 4... MARINE CASUALTIES AND INVESTIGATIONS Definitions § 4.03-65 Significant harm to the environment. Significant harm to the environment means— (a) In the navigable waters of the United States, a discharge of...

  16. Simultaneous minimization of leaf travel distance and tongue-and-groove effect for segmental intensity-modulated radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai Jianrong; Que, William

    2004-01-01

    This paper introduces a method to simultaneously minimize the leaf travel distance and the tongue-and-groove effect for IMRT leaf sequences to be delivered in segmental mode. The basic idea is to add a large enough number of openings through cutting or splitting existing openings for those leaf pairs with openings fewer than the number of segments so that all leaf pairs have the same number of openings. The cutting positions are optimally determined with a simulated annealing technique called adaptive simulated annealing. The optimization goal is set to minimize the weighted summation of the leaf travel distance and tongue-and-groove effect. Its performance was evaluated with 19 beams from three clinical cases; one brain, one head-and-neck and one prostate case. The results show that it can reduce the leaf travel distance and (or) tongue-and-groove effect; the reduction of the leaf travel distance reaches its maximum of about 50% when minimized alone; the reduction of the tongue-and-groove reaches its maximum of about 70% when minimized alone. The maximum reduction in the leaf travel distance translates to a 1 to 2 min reduction in treatment delivery time per fraction, depending on leaf speed. If the method is implemented clinically, it could result in significant savings in treatment delivery time, and also result in significant reduction in the wear-and-tear of MLC mechanics

  17. Distance Learning: Effectiveness of an Interdisciplinary Course in Speech Pathology and Dentistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Janine Santos; da Silva, Letícia Korb; Pinzan, Arnaldo; de Castro Rodrigues, Antonio; Berretin-Felix, Giédre

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Evaluate the effectiveness of distance learning courses for the purpose of interdisciplinary continuing education in Speech Pathology and Dentistry. Methods: The online course was made available on the Moodle platform. A total of 30 undergraduates participated in the study (15 from the Dentistry course and 15 from the Speech Pathology…

  18. How Social Care Beneficiaries in Poland Rate Relative Harmfulness of Various Tobacco and Nicotine-Containing Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milcarz, Marek; Polańska, Kinga; Bak-Romaniszyn, Leokadia; Kaleta, Dorota

    2017-09-07

    The aim of the study was to examine how social care beneficiaries rate the relative harmfulness of tobacco/nicotine-containing products compared to traditional cigarettes. This information is crucial for the development of effective tobacco control strategies targeting disadvantaged populations. The cross-sectional study covered 1817 respondents who were taking advantage of social aid services offered by the local social care institutions in the Piotrkowski district, via face-to-face interviews. The linear regression analysis indicated that relative to women, men consider slim cigarettes, smokeless tobacco and e-cigarettes to be more harmful than traditional cigarettes ( p traditional cigarettes reported menthol cigarettes to be less harmful than traditional cigarettes, relative to the non-smokers ( p = 0.05). The current results demonstrate that social care beneficiaries are not aware of the fact that some products are less harmful than others. Education concerning tobacco/nicotine products should include advice on how to reduce the adverse health effects of smoking (e.g., avoiding inhalation of combusted products), while driving the awareness that no nicotine-containing products are safe.

  19. ADULT LEARNERS IN DISTANCE HIGHER EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NORICA-FELICIA BUCUR

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts at identifying the main features that characterize distance higher education and adult education, respectively, in order to be able to establish to what extent adult learners can fit in distance higher education programs. The historical background of distance learning education, the factors that influence adult learners, and distance learning’s key objectives, effects, issues, advantages, and disadvantages are to be briefly investigated in order to reach the purpose of this paper. Recent developments in Information Technology have led to a new approach to teaching and learning, especially as far as adult learning and distance learning are concerned. Thus, this study will also focus on the consequences of using technology for course design, delivery, and the perception of adult learners participating in distance learning.

  20. Nurses’ attitudes towards self-harm: a literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Karman; prof Berno van Meijel; I.E. Poslawsky; Nienke Kool

    2014-01-01

    Self-harm is a growing health problem. Nurses in a variety of healthcare settings play a central role in the care of people who self-harm. Their professional attitudes towards these people are essential for high-quality care. This review aims to develop insight into nurses’ attitudes towards

  1. Faculty and Administrative Strategies for the Effective Implementation of Distance Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milheim, William

    2001-01-01

    Discussion of distance education focuses on strategies for administrators and faculty to use to support the appropriate use of this educational format. Considers some of the advantages and disadvantages of distance education, financial support for the development and delivery of distance education courses, and needed faculty training. (Author/LRW)

  2. Primary School Children and Self Harm: The Emotional Impact upon Education Professionals, and Their Understandings of Why Children Self Harm and How This Is Managed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simm, Rebecca; Roen, Katrina; Daiches, Anna

    2010-01-01

    There is evidence suggesting that self harm among young people is beginning earlier, in childhood and adolescent years. This paper reports on a qualitative study of primary school staff responses to self harm among children. Some studies with adolescents show self harm presents challenges to education professionals who may lack training or…

  3. Measuring distance “as the horse runs”: Cross-scale comparison of terrain-based metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttenfield, Barbara P.; Ghandehari, M; Leyk, S; Stanislawski, Larry V.; Brantley, M E; Qiang, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Distance metrics play significant roles in spatial modeling tasks, such as flood inundation (Tucker and Hancock 2010), stream extraction (Stanislawski et al. 2015), power line routing (Kiessling et al. 2003) and analysis of surface pollutants such as nitrogen (Harms et al. 2009). Avalanche risk is based on slope, aspect, and curvature, all directly computed from distance metrics (Gutiérrez 2012). Distance metrics anchor variogram analysis, kernel estimation, and spatial interpolation (Cressie 1993). Several approaches are employed to measure distance. Planar metrics measure straight line distance between two points (“as the crow flies”) and are simple and intuitive, but suffer from uncertainties. Planar metrics assume that Digital Elevation Model (DEM) pixels are rigid and flat, as tiny facets of ceramic tile approximating a continuous terrain surface. In truth, terrain can bend, twist and undulate within each pixel.Work with Light Detection and Ranging (lidar) data or High Resolution Topography to achieve precise measurements present challenges, as filtering can eliminate or distort significant features (Passalacqua et al. 2015). The current availability of lidar data is far from comprehensive in developed nations, and non-existent in many rural and undeveloped regions. Notwithstanding computational advances, distance estimation on DEMs has never been systematically assessed, due to assumptions that improvements are so small that surface adjustment is unwarranted. For individual pixels inaccuracies may be small, but additive effects can propagate dramatically, especially in regional models (e.g., disaster evacuation) or global models (e.g., sea level rise) where pixels span dozens to hundreds of kilometers (Usery et al 2003). Such models are increasingly common, lending compelling reasons to understand shortcomings in the use of planar distance metrics. Researchers have studied curvature-based terrain modeling. Jenny et al. (2011) use curvature to generate

  4. On cutoff effects in lattice QCD from short to long distances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Della Morte, Michele; Sommer, Rainer; Takeda, Shinji

    2009-01-01

    We discuss kinematical enhancements of cutoff effects at short and intermediate distances. Starting from a pedagogical example with periodic boundary conditions, we switch to the case of the Schroedinger functional, where the theoretical analysis is checked by precise numerical data with N f =2 dynamical O(a)-improved Wilson quarks. Finally we present an improved determination of the renormalization of the axial current in that theory

  5. On cutoff effects in lattice QCD from short to long distances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Della Morte, Michele; Sommer, Rainer; Takeda, Shinji

    2008-07-01

    We discuss kinematical enhancements of cutoff effects at short and intermediate distances. Starting from a pedagogical example with periodic boundary conditions, we switch to the case of the Schroedinger functional, where the theoretical analysis is checked by precise numerical data with N f =2 dynamical O(a)-improved Wilson quarks. Finally we present an improved determination of the renormalization of the axial current in that theory. (orig.)

  6. Effects of Long Distance Transportation on Honey Bee Physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiheung Ahn

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the requirement of long distance transportation of honey bees used for pollination, we understand little how transportation affects honey bees. Three trials in three different states (CA, GA, and MI were conducted to study the effects of long distance transportation on honey bee physiology. Newly emerged bees from one colony were split into two groups and introduced into a transported (T colony or a stationary (S colony in each trial. Volumes of hypopharyngeal gland acini in T colonies were significantly smaller than S colonies in all three trials. There were no significant differences between S and T colonies in juvenile hormone titers. Protein content in head showed no significant differences between S and T either in 7-day-old or 17-day-old bees of MI trial, but GA trial showed a significant reduction in bees experiencing transportation. Protein content in thorax was only measured in GA trial and was not significantly different between the two groups. Lipid content in abdomen was not significantly different between the S and T colonies in all three trials. This study suggests that bees experiencing transportation have trouble fully developing their food glands and this might affect their ability to nurse the next generation of workers.

  7. Disentangling Distance and Country Effects on the Value of Conservation across National Borders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakhtiari, Fatemeh; Jacobsen, Jette Bredahl; Thorsen, Bo Jellesmark

    2018-01-01

    Highlights: We study trans-national valuation of conservation outcomes in two neighbouring countries Sweden and Denmark. The experimental design allow us to separate country and distance effects on values. Respondents prefer conservation in their own country over neighbouring countries. Value...

  8. Transactional Distance and Second Life: The Effects of Video Game Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Mark

    2013-01-01

    As a subset of distance education, online learning takes place primarily in learning management systems through asynchronous interaction, that can cause transactional distance between instructor and learners. This study investigated how transactional distance may be affected by the use of Second Life, a 3-D virtual world, as a learning environment…

  9. Alcohol harm reduction advertisements: a content analysis of topic, objective, emotional tone, execution and target audience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunstone, Kimberley; Brennan, Emily; Slater, Michael D; Dixon, Helen G; Durkin, Sarah J; Pettigrew, Simone; Wakefield, Melanie A

    2017-04-11

    Public health mass media campaigns may contribute to reducing the health and social burden attributed to alcohol consumption, but little is known about which advertising characteristics have been used, or have been effective, in alcohol harm reduction campaigns to date. As a first step towards encouraging further research to identify the impact of various advertising characteristics, this study aimed to systematically identify and examine the content of alcohol harm reduction advertisements (ads). Ads were identified through an exhaustive internet search of Google, YouTube, Vimeo, and relevant government and health agency websites. Eligible ads were: English language, produced between 2006 and 2014, not primarily focused on drink-driving or alcohol in pregnancy, and not alcohol industry funded. Systematic content analysis of all ads was performed; each ad was double-coded. In total, 110 individual ads from 72 different alcohol harm reduction campaigns were identified, with the main source countries being Australia (40%) and the United Kingdom (26%). The dominant topic for 52% of ads was short-term harms, while 10% addressed long-term harms, 18% addressed underage drinking, 17% communicated a how-to-change message, and 3% advocated for policy change. The behavioural objective of most ads was to motivate audiences to reduce their alcohol consumption (38%) or to behave responsibly and/or not get drunk when drinking (33%). Only 10% of all ads mentioned low-risk drinking guidelines. Eighty-seven percent of ads used a dramatisation execution style and 74% had a negative emotional tone. Ninety percent of ads contained messages or content that appeared to target adults, and 36% specifically targeted young adults. Some message attributes have been employed more frequently than others, suggesting several promising avenues for future audience or population-based research to compare the relative effectiveness of different characteristics of alcohol harm reduction ads. Given

  10. Alcohol harm reduction advertisements: a content analysis of topic, objective, emotional tone, execution and target audience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberley Dunstone

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Public health mass media campaigns may contribute to reducing the health and social burden attributed to alcohol consumption, but little is known about which advertising characteristics have been used, or have been effective, in alcohol harm reduction campaigns to date. As a first step towards encouraging further research to identify the impact of various advertising characteristics, this study aimed to systematically identify and examine the content of alcohol harm reduction advertisements (ads. Method Ads were identified through an exhaustive internet search of Google, YouTube, Vimeo, and relevant government and health agency websites. Eligible ads were: English language, produced between 2006 and 2014, not primarily focused on drink-driving or alcohol in pregnancy, and not alcohol industry funded. Systematic content analysis of all ads was performed; each ad was double-coded. Results In total, 110 individual ads from 72 different alcohol harm reduction campaigns were identified, with the main source countries being Australia (40% and the United Kingdom (26%. The dominant topic for 52% of ads was short-term harms, while 10% addressed long-term harms, 18% addressed underage drinking, 17% communicated a how-to-change message, and 3% advocated for policy change. The behavioural objective of most ads was to motivate audiences to reduce their alcohol consumption (38% or to behave responsibly and/or not get drunk when drinking (33%. Only 10% of all ads mentioned low-risk drinking guidelines. Eighty-seven percent of ads used a dramatisation execution style and 74% had a negative emotional tone. Ninety percent of ads contained messages or content that appeared to target adults, and 36% specifically targeted young adults. Conclusions Some message attributes have been employed more frequently than others, suggesting several promising avenues for future audience or population-based research to compare the relative effectiveness of

  11. Why Suicide? The Analysis of Motives for Self-Harm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Mohammed J; Mohanna, Mostafa A; Diab, Tarig A; Chikoore, Millicent; Wang, Michael

    2018-03-01

    There is a gap in understanding the meaning and motives behind suicidal behaviour. Using the Ideal Type methodology, Jean Baechler systematically examined the internal logic of suicidal and self-harming behaviours. He developed a typology of eleven typical meanings/motives: Flight, Grief, Self-punishment, Vengeance, Crime, Blackmail, Appeal, Sacrifice, Transfiguration, Ordeal and Game. To develop and validate a standardized instrument to measure the motives/meanings of suicidal and self-harming behaviours, using Baechler's typology. We developed a self-fill Likert questionnaire (Ideal Typical Meaning Questionnaire, ITMQ) covering ten of Baechler's eleven types. The questionnaire was completed by 147 patients within four weeks of attempting suicide or self-harm. The Death Attitude Profile-Revised (DAP-R) questionnaire was used to examine the concurrent validity of the Flight and the Transfiguration types and to explore the association between suicidal/self-harming motives and views about death. The final 25-item ITMQ has an eight-factor structure (Appeal/Blackmail, Ordeal/Game, Vengeance, Self-punishment, Sacrifice, Flight, Grief and Transfiguration) supporting Baechler's theory. The types have adequate reliability. Correlations with the DAP-R gave some support for the concurrent validity of the Flight and Transfiguration types. The ITMQ is a measure of suicidal and self-harming motives/meanings based on a sound conceptual framework and could significantly contribute to the understanding of suicidal and self-harming behaviour in research and clinical settings.

  12. Electroless deposition of metal nanoparticle clusters: Effect of pattern distance

    KAUST Repository

    Gentile, Francesco

    2014-04-03

    Electroless plating is a deposition technique in which metal ions are reduced as atoms on specific patterned sites of a silicon surface to form metal nanoparticles (NPs) aggregates with the desired characteristics. Those NPs, in turn, can be used as constituents of surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy substrates, which are devices where the electromagnetic field and effects thereof are giantly amplified. Here, the electroless formation of nanostructures was studied as a function of the geometry of the substrate. High resolution, electron beam lithography techniques were used to obtain nonperiodic arrays of circular patterns, in which the spacing of patterns was varied over a significant range. In depositing silver atoms in those circuits, the authors found that the characteristics of the aggregates vary with the pattern distance. When the patterns are in close proximity, the interference of different groups of adjacent aggregates cannot be disregarded and the overall growth is reduced. Differently from this, when the patterns are sufficiently distant, the formation of metal clusters of NPs is independent on the spacing of the patterns. For the particular subset of parameters used here, this critical correlation distance is about three times the pattern diameter. These findings were explained within the framework of a diffusion limited aggregation model, which is a simulation method that can decipher the formation of nanoaggregates at an atomic level. In the discussion, the authors showed how this concept can be used to fabricate ordered arrays of silver nanospheres, where the size of those spheres may be regulated on varying the pattern distance, for applications in biosensing and single molecule detection.

  13. Electroless deposition of metal nanoparticle clusters: Effect of pattern distance

    KAUST Repository

    Gentile, Francesco; Laura Coluccio, Maria; Candeloro, Patrizio; Barberio, Marianna; Perozziello, Gerardo; Francardi, Marco; Di Fabrizio, Enzo M.

    2014-01-01

    Electroless plating is a deposition technique in which metal ions are reduced as atoms on specific patterned sites of a silicon surface to form metal nanoparticles (NPs) aggregates with the desired characteristics. Those NPs, in turn, can be used as constituents of surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy substrates, which are devices where the electromagnetic field and effects thereof are giantly amplified. Here, the electroless formation of nanostructures was studied as a function of the geometry of the substrate. High resolution, electron beam lithography techniques were used to obtain nonperiodic arrays of circular patterns, in which the spacing of patterns was varied over a significant range. In depositing silver atoms in those circuits, the authors found that the characteristics of the aggregates vary with the pattern distance. When the patterns are in close proximity, the interference of different groups of adjacent aggregates cannot be disregarded and the overall growth is reduced. Differently from this, when the patterns are sufficiently distant, the formation of metal clusters of NPs is independent on the spacing of the patterns. For the particular subset of parameters used here, this critical correlation distance is about three times the pattern diameter. These findings were explained within the framework of a diffusion limited aggregation model, which is a simulation method that can decipher the formation of nanoaggregates at an atomic level. In the discussion, the authors showed how this concept can be used to fabricate ordered arrays of silver nanospheres, where the size of those spheres may be regulated on varying the pattern distance, for applications in biosensing and single molecule detection.

  14. Reported Theory Use by Digital Interventions for Hazardous and Harmful Alcohol Consumption, and Association With Effectiveness: Meta-Regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnett, Claire; Crane, David; Brown, Jamie; Kaner, Eileen; Beyer, Fiona; Muirhead, Colin; Hickman, Matthew; Redmore, James; de Vocht, Frank; Beard, Emma; Michie, Susan

    2018-02-28

    Applying theory to the design and evaluation of interventions is likely to increase effectiveness and improve the evidence base from which future interventions are developed, though few interventions report this. The aim of this paper was to assess how digital interventions to reduce hazardous and harmful alcohol consumption report the use of theory in their development and evaluation, and whether reporting of theory use is associated with intervention effectiveness. Randomized controlled trials were extracted from a Cochrane review on digital interventions for reducing hazardous and harmful alcohol consumption. Reporting of theory use within these digital interventions was investigated using the theory coding scheme (TCS). Reported theory use was analyzed by frequency counts and descriptive statistics. Associations were analyzed with meta-regression models. Of 41 trials involving 42 comparisons, half did not mention theory (50% [21/42]), and only 38% (16/42) used theory to select or develop the intervention techniques. Significant heterogeneity existed between studies in the effect of interventions on alcohol reduction (I 2 =77.6%, Ptheory use and intervention effectiveness in unadjusted models, though the meta-regression was underpowered to detect modest associations. Digital interventions offer a unique opportunity to refine and develop new dynamic, temporally sensitive theories, yet none of the studies reported refining or developing theory. Clearer selection, application, and reporting of theory use is needed to accurately assess how useful theory is in this field and to advance the field of behavior change theories. ©Claire Garnett, David Crane, Jamie Brown, Eileen Kaner, Fiona Beyer, Colin Muirhead, Matthew Hickman, James Redmore, Frank de Vocht, Emma Beard, Susan Michie. Originally published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research (http://www.jmir.org), 28.02.2018.

  15. Intoxication with alcohol at the time of self-harm and pre-existing involvement with mental health services are associated with a pre-disposition to repetition of self-harming behavior in a large cohort of older New Zealanders presenting with an index episode of self-harm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ames, David

    2017-08-01

    The paper on predictors of repeat self-harm and suicide by Cheung et al. (2017), which has been chosen by the editorial team as paper of the month for this issue of International Psychogeriatrics, makes a very useful contribution to the study of self-harm and suicide in late life. Of 339 individuals presenting with an index episode of self-harm to one of seven Emergency Departments (EDs) in New Zealand, close to 15% harmed themselves again within one year and for nearly one in six of these 50 people, the repeat episode was fatal. Having alcohol in the blood and already being engaged with mental health services at the time of the index episode both had some utility in predicting the occurrence of a further self-harm episode. While it is encouraging that mental health services look to have been focusing on those who turned out to be at highest risk, clinicians may need to be particularly vigilant when following up individuals who had been drinking alcohol at the time of an initial self-harm presentation. This study also emphasizes the high risk of recurrent self-harm and completed suicide in those older adults who harm themselves and survive the initial episode. It deserves to be widely cited and gives some direction for future research on interventions designed to diminish the recurrence of self-harm in those of our patients who have presented to an ED with an initial self-harm episode.

  16. Harm reduction psychotherapy: extending the reach of traditional substance use treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatarsky, Andrew

    2003-12-01

    Harm reduction is a paradigm-shifting idea that has the potential to significantly improve the treatment of problem substance users. The essence of harm reduction is the recognition that treatment must start from the client's needs and personal goals and that all change that reduces the harms associated with substance use can be regarded as valuable. The paper presents harm reduction's rationale, principles, treatment implications, and application to psychotherapy. The author describes his model of Integrative Harm Reduction Psychotherapy, an approach that integrates a strategic skills-building focus with an exploration of the multiple meanings of substance use and the importance of the therapeutic alliance.

  17. Connecting long distance: semantic distance in analogical reasoning modulates frontopolar cortex activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Adam E; Kraemer, David J M; Fugelsang, Jonathan A; Gray, Jeremy R; Dunbar, Kevin N

    2010-01-01

    Solving problems often requires seeing new connections between concepts or events that seemed unrelated at first. Innovative solutions of this kind depend on analogical reasoning, a relational reasoning process that involves mapping similarities between concepts. Brain-based evidence has implicated the frontal pole of the brain as important for analogical mapping. Separately, cognitive research has identified semantic distance as a key characteristic of the kind of analogical mapping that can support innovation (i.e., identifying similarities across greater semantic distance reveals connections that support more innovative solutions and models). However, the neural substrates of semantically distant analogical mapping are not well understood. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to measure brain activity during an analogical reasoning task, in which we parametrically varied the semantic distance between the items in the analogies. Semantic distance was derived quantitatively from latent semantic analysis. Across 23 participants, activity in an a priori region of interest (ROI) in left frontopolar cortex covaried parametrically with increasing semantic distance, even after removing effects of task difficulty. This ROI was centered on a functional peak that we previously associated with analogical mapping. To our knowledge, these data represent a first empirical characterization of how the brain mediates semantically distant analogical mapping.

  18. Self-Harm and Conventional Gender Roles in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straiton, Melanie L.; Hjelmeland, Heidi; Grimholt, Tine K.; Dieserud, Gudrun

    2013-01-01

    A total of thirty-two women admitted to a general hospital for medical treatment after self-harming completed measures of conventional positive and negative masculinity and femininity. Comparisons were made with two control groups with no self-harm history; 33 women receiving psychiatric outpatient treatment and a nonclinical sample of 206 women.…

  19. PERBANDINGAN EUCLIDEAN DISTANCE DENGAN CANBERRA DISTANCE PADA FACE RECOGNITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sendhy Rachmat Wurdianarto

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Perkembangan ilmu pada dunia komputer sangatlah pesat. Salah satu yang menandai hal ini adalah ilmu komputer telah merambah pada dunia biometrik. Arti biometrik sendiri adalah karakter-karakter manusia yang dapat digunakan untuk membedakan antara orang yang satu dengan yang lainnya. Salah satu pemanfaatan karakter / organ tubuh pada setiap manusia yang digunakan untuk identifikasi (pengenalan adalah dengan memanfaatkan wajah. Dari permasalahan diatas dalam pengenalan lebih tentang aplikasi Matlab pada Face Recognation menggunakan metode Euclidean Distance dan Canberra Distance. Model pengembangan aplikasi yang digunakan adalah model waterfall. Model waterfall beriisi rangkaian aktivitas proses yang disajikan dalam proses analisa kebutuhan, desain menggunakan UML (Unified Modeling Language, inputan objek gambar diproses menggunakan Euclidean Distance dan Canberra Distance. Kesimpulan yang dapat ditarik adalah aplikasi face Recognation menggunakan metode euclidean Distance dan Canverra Distance terdapat kelebihan dan kekurangan masing-masing. Untuk kedepannya aplikasi tersebut dapat dikembangkan dengan menggunakan objek berupa video ataupun objek lainnya.   Kata kunci : Euclidean Distance, Face Recognition, Biometrik, Canberra Distance

  20. Harming High Performers : A Social Comparison Perspective on Interpersonal Harming in Work Teams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lam, Catherine K.; Van der Vegt, Gerben S.; Walter, Frank; Huang, Xu; Huang, Xin

    This study developed a multilevel model of the interpersonal harming behavior associated with social comparison processes in work teams. We tested this model using temporally lagged data from a sample of student teams (Study 1) and cross-sectional data from a sample of work teams in a

  1. The Social Norms of Suicidal and Self-Harming Behaviours in Scottish Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quigley, Jody; Rasmussen, Susan; McAlaney, John

    2017-03-15

    Although the suicidal and self-harming behaviour of individuals is often associated with similar behaviours in people they know, little is known about the impact of perceived social norms on those behaviours. In a range of other behavioural domains (e.g., alcohol consumption, smoking, eating behaviours) perceived social norms have been found to strongly predict individuals' engagement in those behaviours, although discrepancies often exist between perceived and reported norms. Interventions which align perceived norms more closely with reported norms have been effective in reducing damaging behaviours. The current study aimed to explore whether the Social Norms Approach is applicable to suicidal and self-harming behaviours in adolescents. Participants were 456 pupils from five Scottish high-schools (53% female, mean age = 14.98 years), who completed anonymous, cross-sectional surveys examining reported and perceived norms around suicidal and self-harming behaviour. Friedman's ANOVA with post-hoc Wilcoxen signed-ranks tests indicated that proximal groups were perceived as less likely to engage in or be permissive of suicidal and self-harming behaviours than participants' reported themselves, whilst distal groups tended towards being perceived as more likely to do so. Binary logistic regression analyses identified a number of perceived norms associated with reported norms, with close friends' norms positively associated with all outcome variables. The Social Norms Approach may be applicable to suicidal and self-harming behaviour, but associations between perceived and reported norms and predictors of reported norms differ to those found in other behavioural domains. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings are considered.

  2. The Social Norms of Suicidal and Self-Harming Behaviours in Scottish Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jody Quigley

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Although the suicidal and self-harming behaviour of individuals is often associated with similar behaviours in people they know, little is known about the impact of perceived social norms on those behaviours. In a range of other behavioural domains (e.g., alcohol consumption, smoking, eating behaviours perceived social norms have been found to strongly predict individuals’ engagement in those behaviours, although discrepancies often exist between perceived and reported norms. Interventions which align perceived norms more closely with reported norms have been effective in reducing damaging behaviours. The current study aimed to explore whether the Social Norms Approach is applicable to suicidal and self-harming behaviours in adolescents. Participants were 456 pupils from five Scottish high-schools (53% female, mean age = 14.98 years, who completed anonymous, cross-sectional surveys examining reported and perceived norms around suicidal and self-harming behaviour. Friedman’s ANOVA with post-hoc Wilcoxen signed-ranks tests indicated that proximal groups were perceived as less likely to engage in or be permissive of suicidal and self-harming behaviours than participants’ reported themselves, whilst distal groups tended towards being perceived as more likely to do so. Binary logistic regression analyses identified a number of perceived norms associated with reported norms, with close friends’ norms positively associated with all outcome variables. The Social Norms Approach may be applicable to suicidal and self-harming behaviour, but associations between perceived and reported norms and predictors of reported norms differ to those found in other behavioural domains. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings are considered.

  3. Protein solution structure determination using distances from two-dimensional nuclear Overhauser effect experiments: Effect of approximations on the accuracy of derived structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, P.D.; Basus, V.J.; James, T.L.

    1991-01-01

    Solution structures for many proteins have been determined to date utilizing interproton distance constraints estimated from two-dimensional nuclear Overhauser effect (2D NOE) spectra. Although the simple isolated spin pair approximation (ISPA) generally used can result in systematic errors in distances, the large number of constraints enables proteins structure to be defined with reasonably high resolution. Effects of these systematic errors on the resulting protein structure are examined. Iterative relaxation matrix calculations, which account for dipolar interactions between all protons in a molecule, can accurately determine internuclear distances with little or no a priori knowledge of the molecular structure. The value of this additional complexity is also addressed. To assess these distance determination methods, hypothetical experimental data, including random noise and peak overlap, are calculated for an arbitrary true protein structure. Three methods of obtaining distance constraints from 2D NOE peak intensities are examined: one entails a conservative use of ISPA, one assumes the ISPA to be fairly accurate, and on utilizes an iterative relaxation matrix method called MARDIGRAS (matrix analysis of relaxation for discerning the geometry of an aqueous structure), developed in this laboratory. An R factor for evaluating fit between experimental and calculated 2D NOE intensities is proposed

  4. Curcumin attenuates harmful effects of arsenic on neural stem/progenitor cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Jahanbazi Jahan-Abad

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Arsenic, an environmental pollutant, decreases neuronal migration as well as cellular maturation and inhibits the proliferation of neural progenitor cells. Curcumin has been described as an antioxidant and neuroprotective agent with strong therapeutic potential in some neurological disorders. Human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs, a source of multipotent stem cells, can self-renew and differentiate into neural cells. The aim of the present study was to investigate the preventive effect of curcumin against arsenic toxic effects on the viability, telomerase activity, and apoptosis of neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs derived from hADSCs. Materials and Methods: The characteristics of human adipose tissue were identified by immunocytochemistry for surface markers namely, CD105, CD73, and CD90. Using neurosphere assay, hADSCs were differentiated into neuronal cells. To characterize neural cells, expression of nestin, SOX2, MAP2, and GFAP were assessed by immunocytochemistry. Cytotoxicity and viability of NSPCs were evaluated by MTT assay. Reactive oxygen species (ROS generated by arsenic exposure, were measured and caspase 3/7 activity and caspase-3 processing as well as the telomerase activity were determined. Results: The isolated hADSCs positively expressed CD105, CD73, and CD90. Nestin, Sox2, GFAP, and MAP2 were expressed in the neurospheres derived from hADSCs. Curcumin/arsenic co-treatment significantly increased telomerase activity of NSPCs compared to arsenic group. Furthermore, curcumin significantly reduced arsenic-induced apoptosis (via inactivation of caspases as well as arsenic-associated ROS generation. Conclusion: Our findings revealed that curcumin has the potential to prevent harmful effects of arsenic on neurogenesis.

  5. Temporal and spatial PM10 concentration distribution using an inverse distance weighted method in Klang Valley, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarmizi, S. N. M.; Asmat, A.; Sumari, S. M.

    2014-02-01

    PM10 is one of the air contaminants that can be harmful to human health. Meteorological factors and changes of monsoon season may affect the distribution of these particles. The objective of this study is to determine the temporal and spatial particulate matter (PM10) concentration distribution in Klang Valley, Malaysia by using the Inverse Distance Weighted (IDW) method at different monsoon season and meteorological conditions. PM10 and meteorological data were obtained from the Malaysian Department of Environment (DOE). Particles distribution data were added to the geographic database on a seasonal basis. Temporal and spatial patterns of PM10 concentration distribution were determined by using ArcGIS 9.3. The higher PM10 concentrations are observed during Southwest monsoon season. The values are lower during the Northeast monsoon season. Different monsoon seasons show different meteorological conditions that effect PM10 distribution.

  6. Temporal and spatial PM10 concentration distribution using an inverse distance weighted method in Klang Valley, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarmizi, S N M; Asmat, A; Sumari, S M

    2014-01-01

    PM 10 is one of the air contaminants that can be harmful to human health. Meteorological factors and changes of monsoon season may affect the distribution of these particles. The objective of this study is to determine the temporal and spatial particulate matter (PM 10 ) concentration distribution in Klang Valley, Malaysia by using the Inverse Distance Weighted (IDW) method at different monsoon season and meteorological conditions. PM 10 and meteorological data were obtained from the Malaysian Department of Environment (DOE). Particles distribution data were added to the geographic database on a seasonal basis. Temporal and spatial patterns of PM 10 concentration distribution were determined by using ArcGIS 9.3. The higher PM 10 concentrations are observed during Southwest monsoon season. The values are lower during the Northeast monsoon season. Different monsoon seasons show different meteorological conditions that effect PM 10 distribution

  7. Harmful effects of the azathioprine metabolite 6-mercaptopurine in vascular cells: induction of mineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prüfer, Jasmin; Schuchardt, Mirjam; Tölle, Markus; Prüfer, Nicole; Höhne, Matthias; Zidek, Walter; van der Giet, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Vascular mineralization contributes to the high cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in patients who suffer from chronic kidney disease and in individuals who have undergone solid organ transplantation. The immunosuppressive regimen used to treat these patients appears to have an impact on vascular alterations. The effect of 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP) on vascular calcification has not yet been determined. This study investigates the effect of 6-MP on vascular mineralization by the induction of trans-differentiation of rat vascular smooth muscle cells in vitro. 6-MP not only induces the expression of osteo-chondrocyte-like transcription factors and proteins but also activates alkaline phosphatase enzyme activity and produces calcium deposition in in vitro and ex vivo models. These processes are dependent on 6-MP-induced production of reactive oxygen species, intracellular activation of mitogen-activated kinases and phosphorylation of the transcription factor Cbfa1. Furthermore, the metabolic products of 6-MP, 6-thioguanine nucleotides and 6-methyl-thio-inosine monophosphate have major impacts on cellular calcification. These data provide evidence for a possible harmful effect of the immunosuppressive drug 6-MP in vascular diseases, such as arteriosclerosis.

  8. Harmful effects of the azathioprine metabolite 6-mercaptopurine in vascular cells: induction of mineralization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmin Prüfer

    Full Text Available Vascular mineralization contributes to the high cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in patients who suffer from chronic kidney disease and in individuals who have undergone solid organ transplantation. The immunosuppressive regimen used to treat these patients appears to have an impact on vascular alterations. The effect of 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP on vascular calcification has not yet been determined. This study investigates the effect of 6-MP on vascular mineralization by the induction of trans-differentiation of rat vascular smooth muscle cells in vitro. 6-MP not only induces the expression of osteo-chondrocyte-like transcription factors and proteins but also activates alkaline phosphatase enzyme activity and produces calcium deposition in in vitro and ex vivo models. These processes are dependent on 6-MP-induced production of reactive oxygen species, intracellular activation of mitogen-activated kinases and phosphorylation of the transcription factor Cbfa1. Furthermore, the metabolic products of 6-MP, 6-thioguanine nucleotides and 6-methyl-thio-inosine monophosphate have major impacts on cellular calcification. These data provide evidence for a possible harmful effect of the immunosuppressive drug 6-MP in vascular diseases, such as arteriosclerosis.

  9. On cutoff effects in lattice QCD from short to long distances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Della Morte, Michele [CERN, Physics Department, TH Division, Geneva (Switzerland); Sommer, Rainer [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Takeda, Shinji [Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik

    2008-07-15

    We discuss kinematical enhancements of cutoff effects at short and intermediate distances. Starting from a pedagogical example with periodic boundary conditions, we switch to the case of the Schroedinger functional, where the theoretical analysis is checked by precise numerical data with N{sub f}=2 dynamical O(a)-improved Wilson quarks. Finally we present an improved determination of the renormalization of the axial current in that theory. (orig.)

  10. An electrophysiological investigation of non-symbolic magnitude processing: numerical distance effects in children with and without mathematical learning disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heine, Angela; Wissmann, Jacqueline; Tamm, Sascha; De Smedt, Bert; Schneider, Michael; Stern, Elsbeth; Verschaffel, Lieven; Jacobs, Arthur M

    2013-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to probe electrophysiological effects of non-symbolic numerical processing in 20 children with mathematical learning disabilities (mean age = 99.2 months) compared to a group of 20 typically developing matched controls (mean age = 98.4 months). EEG data were obtained while children were tested with a standard non-symbolic numerical comparison paradigm that allowed us to investigate the effects of numerical distance manipulations for different set sizes, i.e., the classical subitizing, counting and estimation ranges. Effects of numerical distance manipulations on event-related potential (ERP) amplitudes as well as activation patterns of underlying current sources were analyzed. In typically developing children, the amplitudes of a late parietal positive-going ERP component showed systematic numerical distance effects that did not depend on set size. For the group of children with mathematical learning disabilities, ERP distance effects were found only for stimuli within the subitizing range. Current source density analysis of distance-related group effects suggested that areas in right inferior parietal regions are involved in the generation of the parietal ERP amplitude differences. Our results suggest that right inferior parietal regions are recruited differentially by controls compared to children with mathematical learning disabilities in response to non-symbolic numerical magnitude processing tasks, but only for stimuli with set sizes that exceed the subitizing range. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Suicidal behavior and self-harm in girls with eating disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koutek J

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Jiri Koutek, Jana Kocourkova, Iva Dudova Department of Child Psychiatry, Charles University Second Faculty of Medicine, University Hospital Motol, Prague, Czech Republic Abstract: Comorbid psychopathology, including self-harm and suicidal behavior, is often found in patients with eating disorders. To better understand the reasons for high comorbid psychopathology among eating disorders, self-harm, and suicidal behavior, we examined this comorbidity in female patients hospitalized with eating disorders. In a sample of 47 girls admitted for anorexia nervosa, atypical anorexia nervosa, and bulimia nervosa, 72% had depressive symptoms, 11% had obsessive-compulsive symptoms, 9% had anxiety disorder, 23% had substance abuse, and 57% had disharmonious personality development. Suicidal behavior was present in 60% of patients and self-harm in 49%. Association was found between self-harm and suicidality. In all, 68% of girls with eating disorders had a positive score in the Children’s Depression Inventory questionnaire and 62% of them in the Child Adolescent Suicidal Potential Index questionnaire. Clinical examination of girls with eating disorders should focus on identifying the risk of suicidal behavior and self-harm. Keywords: eating disorders, child, adolescent, self-harm, suicidal behavior

  12. Self-harm in adolescence: protective health assets in the family, school and community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemera, Ellen; Brooks, Fiona M; Chester, Kayleigh L; Magnusson, Josefine; Spencer, Neil

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this paper was to examine if the multiple environments of the adolescent including family, peers, school and neighbourhood might function as protective health assets against self-harming behaviour during adolescence. The present study utilised data collected from 1608 respondents aged 15 years as part of the England WHO Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) Study. Multilevel modelling was undertaken using the package MLwiN (version 2.33) to investigate the potential domains and dimensions of family life, school culture and environment, and neighbourhood factors that may operate as protective health assets. The results indicated that while peer support did not appear to operate as a protective health asset in the context of self-harm, key dimensions of adolescent/parent interaction and adolescent experience of the school culture and their neighbourhood were associated with reduced likelihood of self-harming behaviours during adolescence. The Findings highlight the significance of belonging and connectedness as important constituent elements of protective health assets for young people. Interventions that address the multiple environments of the young person, may offer an effective means to reduce the levels of self-harm.

  13. Suicidal ideation and self-harm following K2 use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Shannon; Bliss, Sarah; Malik, Mohammed

    2012-11-01

    There is emerging evidence of adverse effects associated with K2 and similar synthetic cannabinoid compounds marketed as herbal alternatives to marijuana. Few studies were identified regarding the psychiatric effects of K2, including suicidal ideation, and to our knowledge none have been written related to self-harm following use of K2. A healthy 20-year-old single Caucasian male with no previous psychiatric diagnoses or treatment was brought by police to the ED with acute agitation, confusion, suicidal ideation, and self-inflicted trauma after smoking K2. Evaluation in the ED was notable for agitation, significant abrasions, respiratory rate of 30, negative UDS, and sinus tachycardia on EKG. Once medically stabilized, he was transferred to the inpatient psychiatric unit for continued monitoring. Upon evaluation on the psychiatric unit the following day, his symptoms had completely resolved, he continued to deny any previous psychiatric history, and was discharged home. K2 and other synthetic cannabinoids have been shown to have significant medical and psychiatric adverse effects and they are still readily available for purchase. Evidence is limited regarding the psychiatric effects; however, synthetic cannabinoid products may potentially lead to suicidal ideation and self-harm behaviors amongst many other psychiatric symptoms.The long-term risks are still unclear, but some studies suggest the possibility of inducing chronic psychotic symptoms and worsening underlying psychiatric illness. Continued research is needed regarding the effects of these substances as well as an increase in public awareness of the risks.

  14. Drug policy, harm and human rights: a rationalist approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Alex

    2011-05-01

    It has recently been argued that drug-related harms cannot be compared, so making it impossible to choose rationally between various drug policy options. Attempts to apply international human rights law to this area are valid, but have found it difficult to overcome the problems in applying codified human rights to issues of drug policy. This article applies the rationalist ethical argument of Gewirth (1978) to this issue. It outlines his argument to the 'principle of generic consistency' and the hierarchy of basic, nonsubtractive and additive rights that it entails. It then applies these ideas to drug policy issues, such as whether there is a right to use drugs, whether the rights of drug 'addicts' can be limited, and how different harms can be compared in choosing between policies. There is an additive right to use drugs, but only insofar as this right does not conflict with the basic and nonsubtractive rights of others. People whose freedom to choose whether to use drugs is compromised by compulsion have a right to receive treatment. They retain enforceable duties not to inflict harms on others. Policies which reduce harms to basic and nonsubtractive rights should be pursued, even if they lead to harms to additive rights. There exists a sound, rational, extra-legal basis for the discussion of drug policy and related harms which enables commensurable discussion of drug policy options. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Do no harm: a defense of markets in healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, William

    2010-09-01

    This paper argues that the rules that constitute a market protect autonomy and increase welfare in healthcare. Markets do the former through protecting rights to self-ownership and a cluster of rights that protect its exercise. Markets protect welfare by organizing and protecting trades. In contrast, prohibition destroys legitimate markets, giving rise to so-called black markets that harm both the autonomy and well-being of agents. For example, a fee-for-service medical system is a highly developed and specialized market. It is individuals working together, through the division of labor, to provide mutual insurance. This coordination, and the benefits it makes possible, is not possible without injunctions against harm. Prohibitions on harm are not mere ethical niceties, they are practice rules for both healthcare and markets. Placing the doctor within a healthcare market actually reinforces the doctor's moral obligation, and the legal enforcement of that obligation, not to harm. Similarly, markets reinforce patient rights to self-determination through legal and institutional enforcement of the harm principle in the form of the protection of certain basic welfare rights to life, bodily integrity, property, trade, and contract. Since the establishment of markets protects agent autonomy and welfare, and prohibition directly harms the same, there are strong reasons for establishing markets to protect trade in precisely those areas where autonomy and well-being are most vulnerable to exploitation, for example, the trade in human kidneys.

  16. Separation of source and propagation effects at regional distances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldstein, P.; Jarpe, S.; Mayeda, K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others

    1994-12-31

    Improved estimates of the contributions of source and propagation effects to regional seismic signals are needed to explain the performance of existing discriminants and to help develop more robust methods for identifying underground explosions. In this paper, we use close-in, local, and regional estimates of explosion source time functions to remove source effects from regional recordings of the Non-Proliferation Experiment (NPE), a one kiloton chemical explosion in N-tunnel at Rainier Mesa on the Nevada Test Site, and nearby nuclear explosions and earthquakes. Using source corrected regional waveforms, we find that regional Pg and Lg spectra of shallow explosions have significant low frequency ({approximately}1Hz) enhancements when compared to normal depth earthquakes. Data and simulations suggest that such enhancements are most sensitive to source depth, but may also be a function of mechanism, source receiver distance, and regional structure.

  17. A Systematic Review of Social Media Use to Discuss and View Deliberate Self-Harm Acts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyson, Michele P; Hartling, Lisa; Shulhan, Jocelyn; Chisholm, Annabritt; Milne, Andrea; Sundar, Purnima; Scott, Shannon D; Newton, Amanda S

    2016-01-01

    To conduct a systematic review of studies of social media platforms used by young people to discuss and view deliberate self-harm. 11 electronic databases were searched from January 2000 to January 2012 for primary research; in June 2014 an updated search of Medline was conducted. Grey literature sources were also searched. Search results were screened by two reviewers. Data were extracted by one reviewer and verified by another. Methodological quality was assessed using the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool. Due to heterogeneity in study objectives and outcomes, results were not pooled; a narrative analysis is presented. 26 studies were included. Most were conducted in Canada or the UK (30.8% each), used qualitative designs (42.3%), and evaluated discussion forums (73.1%). Participants were most often aged 19-21 years (69.2%), female (mean 68.6%), and 19.2% had a documented history of depression. The social media platforms evaluated were commonly supportive and provided a sense of community among users. Support included suggestions for formal treatment, advice on stopping self-harming behavior, and encouragement. Harms included normalizing and accepting self-harming behavior; discussion of motivation or triggers, concealment, suicidal ideation or plans; and live depictions of self-harm acts. Although this evidence is limited by its descriptive nature, studies identify beneficial and detrimental effects for young people using social media to discuss and view deliberate self-harm. The connections users make online may be valuable to explore for therapeutic benefit. Prospective, longitudinal investigations are needed to identify short- and long-term potential harms associated with use.

  18. A Systematic Review of Social Media Use to Discuss and View Deliberate Self-Harm Acts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele P Dyson

    Full Text Available To conduct a systematic review of studies of social media platforms used by young people to discuss and view deliberate self-harm.11 electronic databases were searched from January 2000 to January 2012 for primary research; in June 2014 an updated search of Medline was conducted. Grey literature sources were also searched. Search results were screened by two reviewers. Data were extracted by one reviewer and verified by another. Methodological quality was assessed using the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool.Due to heterogeneity in study objectives and outcomes, results were not pooled; a narrative analysis is presented. 26 studies were included. Most were conducted in Canada or the UK (30.8% each, used qualitative designs (42.3%, and evaluated discussion forums (73.1%. Participants were most often aged 19-21 years (69.2%, female (mean 68.6%, and 19.2% had a documented history of depression. The social media platforms evaluated were commonly supportive and provided a sense of community among users. Support included suggestions for formal treatment, advice on stopping self-harming behavior, and encouragement. Harms included normalizing and accepting self-harming behavior; discussion of motivation or triggers, concealment, suicidal ideation or plans; and live depictions of self-harm acts.Although this evidence is limited by its descriptive nature, studies identify beneficial and detrimental effects for young people using social media to discuss and view deliberate self-harm. The connections users make online may be valuable to explore for therapeutic benefit. Prospective, longitudinal investigations are needed to identify short- and long-term potential harms associated with use.

  19. Scale-up of a comprehensive harm reduction programme for people injecting opioids: lessons from north-eastern India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalmuanpuii, Melody; Biangtung, Langkham; Mishra, Ritu Kumar; Reeve, Matthew J; Tzudier, Sentimoa; Singh, Angom L; Sinate, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Problem Harm reduction packages for people who inject illicit drugs, including those infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), are cost-effective but have not been scaled up globally. In the north-eastern Indian states of Manipur and Nagaland, the epidemic of HIV infection is driven by the injection of illicit drugs, especially opioids. These states needed to scale up harm reduction programmes but faced difficulty doing so. Approach In 2004, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation funded Project ORCHID to scale up a harm reduction programme in Manipur and Nagaland. Local setting In 2003, an estimated 10 000 and 16 000 people were injecting drugs in Manipur and Nagaland, respectively. The prevalence of HIV infection among people injecting drugs was 24.5% in Manipur and 8.4% in Nagaland. Relevant changes By 2012, the harm reduction programme had been scaled up to an average of 9011 monthly contacts outside clinics (80% of target); an average of 1709 monthly clinic visits (15% of target, well above the 5% monthly goal) and an average monthly distribution of needles and syringes of 16 each per programme participant. Opioid agonist maintenance treatment coverage was 13.7% and retention 6 months after enrolment was 63%. Antiretroviral treatment coverage for HIV-positive participants was 81%. Lessons learnt A harm reduction model consisting of community-owned, locally relevant innovations and business approaches can result in good harm reduction programme scale-up and influence harm reduction policy. Project ORCHID has influenced national harm reduction policy in India and contributed to the development of harm reduction guidelines. PMID:23599555

  20. Scale-up of a comprehensive harm reduction programme for people injecting opioids: lessons from north-eastern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalmuanpuii, Melody; Biangtung, Langkham; Mishra, Ritu Kumar; Reeve, Matthew J; Tzudier, Sentimoa; Singh, Angom L; Sinate, Rebecca; Sgaier, Sema K

    2013-04-01

    Harm reduction packages for people who inject illicit drugs, including those infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), are cost-effective but have not been scaled up globally. In the north-eastern Indian states of Manipur and Nagaland, the epidemic of HIV infection is driven by the injection of illicit drugs, especially opioids. These states needed to scale up harm reduction programmes but faced difficulty doing so. In 2004, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation funded Project ORCHID to scale up a harm reduction programme in Manipur and Nagaland. In 2003, an estimated 10 000 and 16 000 people were injecting drugs in Manipur and Nagaland, respectively. The prevalence of HIV infection among people injecting drugs was 24.5% in Manipur and 8.4% in Nagaland. By 2012, the harm reduction programme had been scaled up to an average of 9011 monthly contacts outside clinics (80% of target); an average of 1709 monthly clinic visits (15% of target, well above the 5% monthly goal) and an average monthly distribution of needles and syringes of 16 each per programme participant. Opioid agonist maintenance treatment coverage was 13.7% and retention 6 months after enrolment was 63%. Antiretroviral treatment coverage for HIV-positive participants was 81%. A harm reduction model consisting of community-owned, locally relevant innovations and business approaches can result in good harm reduction programme scale-up and influence harm reduction policy. Project ORCHID has influenced national harm reduction policy in India and contributed to the development of harm reduction guidelines.

  1. The Physical Effects of Contact and Close-Distance Gunfire on Sweatshirt Fleece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusluski, Michael A

    2018-05-01

    Powder stippling caused by the impact of propellant particles during close-distance gunfire has been previously described on skin and solid objects only. Additionally, radial tearing has been described as clear evidence of a contact-distance shot, requiring no further testing. Patterns of discrete perforating holes (referred to here as "stippling perforations") and other physical damage on sweatshirt fleece fabrics were prepared. Using the firearm and ammunition in this study, stippling perforations were observed to a maximum muzzle-to-target distance of 35 cm (10 inches). In addition, radial tearing and disintegration were present (and often more extensive) at greater than contact distance. The presence of stippling perforations could augment muzzle-to-target distance estimates generated using the Griess test, or allow distance estimates when the Griess test is not feasible. Unlike what has been previously reported, testing on the original evidence (or similar substitute) is warranted when physical damage is used to estimate shooting distance. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  2. Duty to warn of genetic harm in breach of patient confidentiality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeling, Sharon L

    2004-11-01

    Harm caused by the failure of health professionals to warn an at-risk genetic relative of her or his risk is genetic harm. Genetic harm should be approached using the usual principles of negligence. When these principles are applied, it is shown that (a) genetic harm is foreseeable; (b) the salient features of vulnerability, the health professional's knowledge of the risk to the genetic relative and the determinancy of the affected class and individual result in a duty of care being owed to the genetic relative; (c) the standard of care required to fulfil the duty to warn should be the expectations of a reasonable person in the position of the relative; and (d) causation is satisfied as the harm is caused by the failure of intervention of the health professional. Legislation enacted subsequent to the Report of the Commonwealth of Australia, Panel of Eminent Persons (Chair D Ipp), Review of the Law of Negligence Report (2002) and relevant to a duty to warn of genetic harm is considered. The modes of regulation and penalties for breach of any future duty to warn of genetic harm are considered.

  3. When Do Distance Effects Become Empirically Observable? An Investigation in the Context of Headquarters Value Creation for Subsidiaries

    OpenAIRE

    Beugelsdijk, Sjoerd; Nell, Phillip C.; Ambos, Björn

    2017-01-01

    Integrating distance research with the behavioral strategy literature on MNC headquarters-subsidiary relations, this paper explores how the distance between headquarters and subsidiaries relates to value added by the headquarters. We show for 124 manufacturing subsidiaries in Europe that, on average, distance is unrelated to value added by headquarters but that this effect is contingent upon the extent to which the subsidiary is locally embedded. Only after a certain threshold level of subsid...

  4. Harmful effects of atmospheric nitrous acid on the physiological status of Scots pine trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakugawa, Hiroshi; Cape, J. Neil

    2007-01-01

    An open top chamber experiment was carried out in the summer of 2003 to examine the effect of nitrous acid (HONO) gas on the physiological status of Scots pine saplings (Pinus sylvestris). Four-year-old pine trees were exposed to two different levels of HONO gas (at ca. 2.5 ppb and 5.0 ppb) and a control (filtered air) from early evening to early morning (18:00-6:00), in duplicate open top chambers. Significant decreases in the ratios of chlorophylls a to b, an increase in the carbon to nitrogen (C/N) ratio, and a reduction of maximum yield of PS II (F v /F m ) in pine needles were also observed after the 2 months' fumigation. Cation contents of pine needles were also decreased by the fumigation with HONO gas. The results could be explained by the harmful effects of OH radicals, generated from photolysis of HONO gas, and/or aqueous phase HONO (NO 2 - /HONO), on the photosynthetic capacity of pine needles. - Exposure to HONO affects photosynthesis and nutrient status of pine trees

  5. Effect of smokeless tobacco product marketing and use on population harm from tobacco use policy perspective for tobacco-risk reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlowski, Lynn T

    2007-12-01

    This article presents policy perspectives on the marketing of smokeless tobacco products to reduce population harm from tobacco use. Despite consensus that smokeless tobacco products as sold in the United States are less dangerous than cigarettes, there is no consensus on how to proceed. Diverse factions have different policy concerns. While the tobacco industry is exempted from U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) oversight, the pharmaceutical industry whose nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) medicines compete with smokeless tobacco as noncombustible nicotine-delivery systems are regulated by the FDA. Some public health experts support smokeless tobacco use to reduce population harm from tobacco; other public health experts oppose promoting smokeless tobacco for harm reduction. Adult consumers can freely purchase currently-marketed smokeless tobacco products and even more-deadly cigarettes. Concerns with and advantages of smokeless tobacco products are discussed. In that noncombustible medicinal nicotine-delivery systems have been proven to be effective smoking-cessation aids, smokeless tobacco, as another source of psychoactive doses of nicotine, could be used similarly, in a dose-response fashion as a smoking-cessation aid (consistent with FDA principles for evaluating generic versions of drugs). Price measures should be used on tobacco products to make costs to consumers proportional to product health risks (which would make smokeless tobacco much cheaper than cigarettes), and smokeless tobacco should be encouraged as an option for smoking cessation in adult smokers, particularly for those who have failed to stop smoking using NRT or other methods.

  6. Encyclopedia of distances

    CERN Document Server

    Deza, Michel Marie

    2016-01-01

    This 4th edition of the leading reference volume on distance metrics is characterized by updated and rewritten sections on some items suggested by experts and readers, as well a general streamlining of content and the addition of essential new topics. Though the structure remains unchanged, the new edition also explores recent advances in the use of distances and metrics for e.g. generalized distances, probability theory, graph theory, coding theory, data analysis. New topics in the purely mathematical sections include e.g. the Vitanyi multiset-metric, algebraic point-conic distance, triangular ratio metric, Rossi-Hamming metric, Taneja distance, spectral semimetric between graphs, channel metrization, and Maryland bridge distance. The multidisciplinary sections have also been supplemented with new topics, including: dynamic time wrapping distance, memory distance, allometry, atmospheric depth, elliptic orbit distance, VLBI distance measurements, the astronomical system of units, and walkability distance. Lea...

  7. Distance Learning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Braddock, Joseph

    1997-01-01

    A study reviewing the existing Army Distance Learning Plan (ADLP) and current Distance Learning practices, with a focus on the Army's training and educational challenges and the benefits of applying Distance Learning techniques...

  8. Gender and Relational-Distance Effects in Arrests for Domestic Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lally, William; DeMaris, Alfred

    2012-01-01

    This study tests two hypotheses regarding factors affecting arrest of the perpetrator in domestic violence incidents. Black's relational-distance thesis is that the probability of arrest increases with increasing relational distance between perpetrator and victim. Klinger's leniency principle suggests that the probability of arrest is lower for…

  9. Effective Use of Distance Education Materials for On-Campus Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, David Woollcombe

    1998-01-01

    This study explores the use of distance study materials for resource-based learning in on-campus education. Describes use of the Jevons/Northcott typology for investigating the pedagogical use of distance learning materials, and discusses results of classroom observation, student diaries, lecturer interviews, and student questionnaires.…

  10. Suicide and Self-Harm Related Internet Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padmanathan, Prianka; Biddle, Lucy; Carroll, Robert; Derges, Jane; Potokar, John; Gunnell, David

    2018-05-31

    The rise in Internet use adds a new dimension to suicide prevention. We investigated suicide/self-harm (S/Sh)-related Internet use among patients presenting to hospital with self-harm. We asked 1,198 adult and 315 child and adolescent patients presenting to hospital following self-harm in a city in South West England about Internet use associated with their hospital presentation. Associations between Internet use and sociodemographic and clinical characteristics were investigated using multivariable logistic regression models. Focus groups with clinicians explored the acceptability and utility of asking about Internet use. The prevalence of S/Sh-related Internet use was 8.4% (95% CI: 6.8-10.1%) among adult hospital presentations and 26.0% (95% CI = 21.3-31.2%) among children's hospital presentations. In both samples, S/Sh-related Internet use was associated with higher levels of suicidal intent. Mostly, clinicians found it acceptable to ask about Internet use during psychosocial assessments and believed this could inform perceptions of risk and decision-making. It is unclear whether the findings in this study are applicable to the general self-harm patient population because only those who had psychosocial assessments were included. S/Sh-related Internet use is likely to become increasingly relevant as the Internet-native generation matures. Furthermore, Internet use may be a proxy marker for intent.

  11. Effects of matrix characteristics and interpatch distance on functional connectivity in fragmented temperate rainforests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magrach, Ainhoa; Larrinaga, Asier R; Santamaría, Luis

    2012-04-01

    The connectivity of remnant patches of habitat may affect the persistence of species in fragmented landscapes. We evaluated the effects of the structural connectivity of forest patches (i.e., distance between patches) and matrix class (land-cover type) on the functional connectivity of 3 bird species (the White-crested Elaenia [Elaenia albiceps], the Green-backed Firecrown Hummingbird [Sephanoides sephaniodes], and the Austral Thrush [Turdus falklandii]). We measured functional connectivity as the rate at which each species crossed from one patch to another. We also evaluated whether greater functional connectivity translated into greater ecological connectivity (dispersal of fruit and pollen) by comparing among forest patches fruit set of a plant pollinated by hummingbirds and abundance of seedlings and adults of 2 plants with bird- and wind-dispersed seeds. Interpatch distance was strongly associated with functional connectivity, but its effect was not independent of matrix class. For one of the bird-dispersed plants, greater functional connectivity for White-crested Elaenias and Austral Thrushes (both frugivores) was associated with higher densities of this plant. The lack of a similar association for the wind-dispersed species suggests this effect is linked to the dispersal vector. The abundance of the hummingbird-pollinated species was not related to the presence of hummingbirds. Interpatch distance and matrix class affect animal movement in fragmented landscapes and may have a cascading effect on the distribution of some animal-dispersed species. On the basis of our results, we believe effort should be invested in optimizing patch configuration and modifying the matrix so as to mitigate the effects of patch isolation in fragmented landscapes. ©2012 Society for Conservation Biology.

  12. Environments, risk and health harms: a qualitative investigation into the illicit use of anabolic steroids among people using harm reduction services in the UK

    OpenAIRE

    Kimergård, Andreas; McVeigh, Jim

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The illicit use of anabolic steroids among the gym population continues to rise, along with the number of steroid using clients attending harm reduction services in the UK. This presents serious challenges to public health. Study objectives were to account for the experiences of anabolic steroid users and investigate how ‘risk environments’ produce harm. Methods Qualitative face-to-face interviews with 24 users of anabolic steroids engaged with harm reduction services in the UK. Re...

  13. Hurtful Emotions: Understanding Self-Harm

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issues Subscribe September 2017 Print this issue Hurtful Emotions Understanding Self-Harm En español Send us your ... help you learn new ways to cope with emotion. See the Wise Choices box for tips on ...

  14. The effect of long-distance interconnection on wind power variability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fertig, Emily; Apt, Jay; Jaramillo, Paulina; Katzenstein, Warren

    2012-01-01

    We use time- and frequency-domain techniques to quantify the extent to which long-distance interconnection of wind plants in the United States would reduce the variability of wind power output. Previous work has shown that interconnection of just a few wind plants across moderate distances could greatly reduce the ratio of fast- to slow-ramping generators in the balancing portfolio. We find that interconnection of aggregate regional wind plants would not reduce this ratio further but would reduce variability at all frequencies examined. Further, interconnection of just a few wind plants reduces the average hourly change in power output, but interconnection across regions provides little further reduction. Interconnection also reduces the magnitude of low-probability step changes and doubles firm power output (capacity available at least 92% of the time) compared with a single region. First-order analysis indicates that balancing wind and providing firm power with local natural gas turbines would be more cost-effective than with transmission interconnection. For net load, increased wind capacity would require more balancing resources but in the same proportions by frequency as currently, justifying the practice of treating wind as negative load. (letter)

  15. Select barriers to harm-reduction services for IDUs in eastern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Curth, Nadja Kehler; Hansson, Liv Nanna; Storm, Frederikke

    2009-01-01

    In eastern Europe, the high prevalence rates of HIV and the hepatitis C virus (HCV) are concentrated among injecting drug users (IDUs). Harm reduction programmes such as needle and syringe programmes and opioid substitution therapy (OST) have been shown to be effective in preventing these infecti...

  16. A multi-faceted intervention to reduce alcohol misuse and harm amongst sports people in Ireland: A controlled trial.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Farrell, Anne

    2017-08-07

    Alcohol misuse and harm are more prevalent amongst sports people than non-sports people. Few studies have trialled interventions to address alcohol misuse for this group. The study aimed to test the effectiveness of an intervention to reduce alcohol misuse and related harms amongst amateur sports people in Ireland.

  17. HARMFUL ENTOMOPHAUNA IMPACTS ON QUALITY OF MERCANTILE WHEAT AND FLOUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav Milošević

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Presence of harmful insects and mites is almost inevitable in mercantile wheat stored in warehouses. They cause significant damages and therefore it is necessary to perform pest control and chemical treatment. Study of harmful and destructive entomophauna impacts on quality of mercantile wheat and flour has been presented. Mercantile wheat stored in silos has been used in the study. Testing of quality of rheological properties and presence of harmful entomophauna were done in the labs within the silos «Žitoprerada d.o.o. Valpovo « and Department of Plant Protection on Faculty of Agriculture in Osijek. Presence of harmful entomophauna, quality of mercantile wheat stored in a warehouse and rheological flour properties were determined. The following harmful entomophauna were found: mites (Acarinae, primary pests of order Coleoptera and Lepidoptera, secondary pests of order Coleoptera and other insects found belong to Coleoptera, Psocoptera and useful insects of Hymenoptera orders. Influence of harmful entomophauna on quality of mercantile wheat is manifested by reduced quality of stored wheat due to decrease of water content and hectoliter mass. Lower quality of flour obtained by milling of infected wheat is manifested by change in rheological properties: dough stability, water absorption, growth, resistance, energy, extensibility, maximum resistance, start of puffing up, and viscosity.

  18. Neural correlates of conventional and harm/welfare-based moral decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Stuart F; Zhao, Hui; Leong, Kelly Kimiko; Smetana, Judith G; Nucci, Larry P; Blair, R James R

    2017-12-01

    The degree to which social norms are processed by a unitary system or dissociable systems remains debated. Much research on children's social-cognitive judgments has supported the distinction between "moral" (harm/welfare-based) and "conventional" norms. However, the extent to which these norms are processed by dissociable neural systems remains unclear. To address this issue, 23 healthy participants were scanned with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while they rated the wrongness of harm/welfare-based and conventional transgressions and neutral vignettes. Activation significantly greater than the neutral vignette baseline was observed in regions implicated in decision-making regions including rostral/ventral medial frontal, anterior insula and dorsomedial frontal cortices when evaluating both harm/welfare-based and social-conventional transgressions. Greater activation when rating harm/welfare-based relative to social-conventional transgressions was seen through much of ACC and bilateral inferior frontal gyrus. Greater activation was observed in superior temporal gyrus, bilateral middle temporal gyrus, left PCC, and temporal-parietal junction when rating social-conventional transgressions relative to harm/welfare-based transgressions. These data suggest that decisions regarding the wrongness of actions, irrespective of whether they involve care/harm-based or conventional transgressions, recruit regions generally implicated in affect-based decision-making. However, there is neural differentiation between harm/welfare-based and conventional transgressions. This may reflect the particular importance of processing the intent of transgressors of conventional norms and perhaps the greater emotional content or salience of harm/welfare-based transgressions.

  19. Site-to-Source Finite Fault Distance Probability Distribution in Probabilistic Seismic Hazard and the Relationship Between Minimum Distances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, R.; Gutierrez, E.; Carciumaru, D. D.; Huesca-Perez, E.

    2017-12-01

    We present a method to compute the conditional and no-conditional probability density function (PDF) of the finite fault distance distribution (FFDD). Two cases are described: lines and areas. The case of lines has a simple analytical solution while, in the case of areas, the geometrical probability of a fault based on the strike, dip, and fault segment vertices is obtained using the projection of spheres in a piecewise rectangular surface. The cumulative distribution is computed by measuring the projection of a sphere of radius r in an effective area using an algorithm that estimates the area of a circle within a rectangle. In addition, we introduce the finite fault distance metrics. This distance is the distance where the maximum stress release occurs within the fault plane and generates a peak ground motion. Later, we can apply the appropriate ground motion prediction equations (GMPE) for PSHA. The conditional probability of distance given magnitude is also presented using different scaling laws. A simple model of constant distribution of the centroid at the geometrical mean is discussed, in this model hazard is reduced at the edges because the effective size is reduced. Nowadays there is a trend of using extended source distances in PSHA, however it is not possible to separate the fault geometry from the GMPE. With this new approach, it is possible to add fault rupture models separating geometrical and propagation effects.

  20. Effects of pollination timing and distance on seed production in a dioecious weed Silene latifolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Jay F.; Duddu, Hema S. N.; Shirtliffe, Steven J.; Benaragama, Dilshan; Syrovy, Lena D.; Stanley, Katherine A.; Haile, Teketel A.

    2015-11-01

    Silene latifolia Poir. (white cockle or white campion) is an important invasive weed in North American agriculture. It exhibits dioecy, therefore, both male and female plants are required in order for seed production to occur. However, dioecious species being invasive is not common because of their limitations in pollination and subsequent seed production. The objective of this study is to determine the effect of pollination timing and distance on seed production of Silene latifolia. A series of experiments including pollination exclusion, timing and pollination distance were conducted in 2009 and 2010 at or around Saskatoon, Saskatchewan. For pollination exclusion, exclosures were built around the natural female plants for exclosure, sham-exclosure, and male and female combined treatments. Pollination timing was studied by applying exclosure, non-exclosure, night-exclosure, and day-exclosure treatments to individual female plants. Female plants were transplanted along a linear interval at six different distances from the pollen source to study the effect of pollination distance. S. latifolia was exclusively insect-pollinated and pollination occurred both day and night; however, in one year, pollination occurred mainly at night. Female plants that were in the range of 0-4 m from a compatible pollen source experienced no limitation to pollination. However, when the distance was increased further up to 128 m, pollination levels and subsequent seed production were declined. Moreover, there were differences in seed production between years suggesting that pollination was affected by the environmental conditions during pollination and the crop that white cockle was grown in. These experiments indicate that seed production in S. latifolia is limited by insect-pollination. Although there was pollination limitation for seed production at greater distances from a pollen source, the high fecundity rate (3000-18000 seeds per plant) resulted in a large seed output. Thus, we

  1. REPRESENTATIONS OF DISTANCE: DIFFERENCES IN UNDERSTANDING DISTANCE ACCORDING TO TRAVEL METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunvor Riber Larsen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores how Danish tourists represent distance in relation to their holiday mobility and how these representations of distance are a result of being aero-mobile as opposed to being land-mobile. Based on interviews with Danish tourists, whose holiday mobility ranges from the European continent to global destinations, the first part of this qualitative study identifies three categories of representations of distance that show how distance is being ‘translated’ by the tourists into non-geometric forms: distance as resources, distance as accessibility, and distance as knowledge. The representations of distance articulated by the Danish tourists show that distance is often not viewed in ‘just’ kilometres. Rather, it is understood in forms that express how transcending the physical distance through holiday mobility is dependent on individual social and economic contexts, and on whether the journey was undertaken by air or land. The analysis also shows that being aeromobile is the holiday transportation mode that removes the tourists the furthest away from physical distance, resulting in the distance travelled by air being represented in ways that have the least correlation, in the tourists’ minds, with physical distance measured in kilometres.

  2. Experienced Harm from Other People's Drinking: A Comparison of Northern European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inger Synnøve Moan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective This study addresses how experienced harm from other people's drinking varies between six Northern European countries by comparing 1 the prevalence of experienced harm and 2 the correlates of harm. Method The data comprise 18ȓ69-year olds who participated in general population surveys in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden, and Scotland during the period 2008–2013. Comparative data were available on five types of harm: physical abuse, damage of clothes/belongings, verbal abuse, being afraid, and being kept awake at night. Results This study shows that harms from other's drinking are commonly experienced in all six countries. Being kept awake at night is the most common harm, while being physically harmed is the least common. The proportions that reported at least one of the five problems were highest in Finland and Iceland and lowest in Norway, but also relatively low in Sweden. Across countries, the level of harm was highest among young, single, urban residents, and for some countries among women and those who frequently drank to intoxication themselves. Conclusions The study revealed large differences in the prevalence of harm in countries with fairly similar drinking cultures. However, the correlates of such experiences were similar across countries. Possible explanations of the findings are discussed, including differences in study design.

  3. No harm done? Assessing risk of harm under the federal breach notification rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimick, Chris

    2010-08-01

    Provisions within the HITECH Act require that covered entities notify individuals if their protected health information is breached. However, the current regulation allows an exemption if the risk of harm is slight. Assessing risk can be subjective, and privacy officers have been working to create methods to conduct and document their analyses.

  4. E-cigarette Regulation and Harm Reduction: The Case of Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churk, Shue Sing

    Harm reduction is an internationally recognized tobacco control strategy. E-cigarettes, being a less harmful alternative to smoking, have the potential to achieve harm reduction. Within this context, this article critiques Hong Kong’s legal regime governing e-cigarettes and the proposed prohibition of the product. It is argued that the current law is uncertain and inadequate. Although a reform of laws relating to e-cigarettes is needed, it is argued that banning the product altogether as a means to reducing the harm of tobacco use is unsupported by evidence.

  5. Negative Intrusive Thoughts and Dissociation as Risk Factors for Self-Harm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batey, Helen; May, Jon; Andrade, Jackie

    2010-01-01

    Relationships between self-harm and vulnerability factors were studied in a general population of 432 participants, of whom 30% reported some experience of self-harm. This group scored higher on dissociation and childhood trauma, had lower self-worth, and reported more negative intrusive thoughts. Among the non-harming group, 10% scored similarly…

  6. Dealing with difficult days: Functional coping dynamics in self-harm ideation and enactment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Emma; Sayal, Kapil; Townsend, Ellen

    2017-01-15

    Self-harm affords people a means of coping. However, little is known about how functional coping dynamics differ between stressful situations in which people self-harm (enactment), think about harming (ideation), or experience no self-harmful thoughts or behaviours. Participants (N = 1,157) aged 16-49 years (M = 18.21, SD = 3.24) with a recent history of self-harm (past 3 months) reported how they coped in response to their most significant recent stressor (3 months). Almost 40% of participants, all of whom had self-harmed in the last 3 months, had no self-harm experience (thoughts or behaviours) in response to their most significant stressor in that time frame. In multivariate analysis, adjusting for symptoms of depression and anxiety, reappraisal coping was predictive of self-harm thoughts. Approach, emotion regulation and reappraisal coping were predictive of self-harm behaviour. Emotion regulation coping differentiated self-harm ideation and enactment groups. The cross-sectional design of the study precludes the ability to make inferences regarding causality. Further, there is no agreed definition of 'recent' self-harm. Taken together, the findings suggest that functional coping dynamics may be differentially associated with self-harm ideation and enactment. This is important, given that understanding the transitions between ideation and enactment has been identified as a critical frontier in suicide prevention. Further, results indicate that seemingly innocuous events may have a profound impact as tipping points for enaction; this has implications for clinical practice, including the co-production of safety plans. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Is harm reduction profitable? An analytical framework for corporate social responsibility based on an epidemic model of addictive consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massin, Sophie

    2012-06-01

    This article aims to help resolve the apparent paradox of producers of addictive goods who claim to be socially responsible while marketing a product clearly identified as harmful. It advances that reputation effects are crucial in this issue and that determining whether harm reduction practices are costly or profitable for the producers can help to assess the sincerity of their discourse. An analytical framework based on an epidemic model of addictive consumption that includes a deterrent effect of heavy use on initiation is developed. This framework enables us to establish a clear distinction between a simple responsible discourse and genuine harm reduction practices and, among harm reduction practices, between use reduction practices and micro harm reduction practices. Using simulations based on tobacco sales in France from 1950 to 2008, we explore the impact of three corresponding types of actions: communication on damage, restraining selling practices and development of safer products on total sales and on the social cost. We notably find that restraining selling practices toward light users, that is, preventing light users from escalating to heavy use, can be profitable for the producer, especially at early stages of the epidemic, but that such practices also contribute to increase the social cost. These results suggest that the existence of a deterrent effect of heavy use on the initiation of the consumption of an addictive good can shed new light on important issues, such as the motivations for corporate social responsibility and the definition of responsible actions in the particular case of harm reduction. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A Systematic Review of Social Media Use to Discuss and View Deliberate Self-Harm Acts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyson, Michele P.; Hartling, Lisa; Shulhan, Jocelyn; Chisholm, Annabritt; Milne, Andrea; Sundar, Purnima; Scott, Shannon D.; Newton, Amanda S.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To conduct a systematic review of studies of social media platforms used by young people to discuss and view deliberate self-harm. Study Design 11 electronic databases were searched from January 2000 to January 2012 for primary research; in June 2014 an updated search of Medline was conducted. Grey literature sources were also searched. Search results were screened by two reviewers. Data were extracted by one reviewer and verified by another. Methodological quality was assessed using the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool. Results Due to heterogeneity in study objectives and outcomes, results were not pooled; a narrative analysis is presented. 26 studies were included. Most were conducted in Canada or the UK (30.8% each), used qualitative designs (42.3%), and evaluated discussion forums (73.1%). Participants were most often aged 19–21 years (69.2%), female (mean 68.6%), and 19.2% had a documented history of depression. The social media platforms evaluated were commonly supportive and provided a sense of community among users. Support included suggestions for formal treatment, advice on stopping self-harming behavior, and encouragement. Harms included normalizing and accepting self-harming behavior; discussion of motivation or triggers, concealment, suicidal ideation or plans; and live depictions of self-harm acts. Conclusions Although this evidence is limited by its descriptive nature, studies identify beneficial and detrimental effects for young people using social media to discuss and view deliberate self-harm. The connections users make online may be valuable to explore for therapeutic benefit. Prospective, longitudinal investigations are needed to identify short- and long-term potential harms associated with use. PMID:27191728

  9. Correlates of self-harm behaviour in acutely ill patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simms, Jane; McCormack, Vinny; Anderson, Richard; Mulholland, Ciaran

    2007-03-01

    This study compared acutely ill patients with schizophrenia with a history of self-harm (N=17) to those without a history of self-harm (N=16) on measures of depression, hopelessness, suicidal ideation, and demographic and psychiatric variables. A subgroup of these patients who experience auditory hallucinations, with and without a history of self-harm, were selected and compared on measures of depression, hopelessness, suicidal ideation and beliefs about voices. Employing a cross-sectional design, in-patients of two local psychiatric hospital, who met DSM-IV-TR criteria for schizophrenia and who were in an acute phase of the illness, were selected. Each patient was assessed using the Beck Depressions Inventory (BDI), Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS) and the Beck Suicide Scale (BSS). Patients who experienced auditory verbal hallucinations completed the Beliefs About Voices Questionnaire Revised (BAVQ-R). Patients with a history of self-harm completed the Beck Suicide Intent Scale (BSI). Patients with a history of self-harm (N=17) had significantly greater symptoms of depression, greater suicidal thoughts, increased number of hospital admissions, greater duration of illness and were more likely to be married, compared to patients without a history of self-harm (N=16). Among the subgroup of patients who experience auditory hallucinations, those with a history of self-harm (N=9), believed their voice to be more malevolent, had a tendency to resist their voice and experienced significantly greater symptoms of depression and hopelessness compared to those without a history of self-harm (N=6). These findings highlight the importance for screening by clinicians during inpatient hospital stays and for monitoring to be ongoing following discharge. For the subgroup of patients who experience auditory hallucinations, future research should seek to explore the relationship between self-harm and beliefs about voices.

  10. Adolescents Who Self-Harm: Professional Staff Knowledge, Attitudes and Training Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timson, Debbie; Priest, Helena; Clark-Carter, David

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate professional staff attitudes and knowledge about adolescents who engage in self-harming behaviour and to identify training needs. Previous research has suggested that medical and health care staff perceptions may reinforce the stigma associated with such behaviour and therefore jeopardise the effectiveness of…

  11. Experiences with Lean Six Sigma as improvement strategy to reduce parenteral medication administration errors and associated potential risk of harm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Plas, Afke; Slikkerveer, Mariëlle; Hoen, Saskia; Schrijnemakers, Rick; Driessen, Johanna; de Vries, Frank; van den Bemt, Patricia

    2017-01-01

    In this controlled before-after study the effect of improvements, derived from Lean Six Sigma strategy, on parenteral medication administration errors and the potential risk of harm was determined. During baseline measurement, on control versus intervention ward, at least one administration error occurred in 14 (74%) and 6 (46%) administrations with potential risk of harm in 6 (32%) and 1 (8%) administrations. Most administration errors with high potential risk of harm occurred in bolus injections: 8 (57%) versus 2 (67%) bolus injections were injected too fast with a potential risk of harm in 6 (43%) and 1 (33%) bolus injections on control and intervention ward. Implemented improvement strategies, based on major causes of too fast administration of bolus injections, were: Substitution of bolus injections by infusions, education, availability of administration information and drug round tabards. Post intervention, on the control ward in 76 (76%) administrations at least one error was made (RR 1.03; CI95:0.77-1.38), with a potential risk of harm in 14 (14%) administrations (RR 0.45; CI95:0.20-1.02). In 40 (68%) administrations on the intervention ward at least one error occurred (RR 1.47; CI95:0.80-2.71) but no administrations were associated with a potential risk of harm. A shift in wrong duration administration errors from bolus injections to infusions, with a reduction of potential risk of harm, seems to have occurred on the intervention ward. Although data are insufficient to prove an effect, Lean Six Sigma was experienced as a suitable strategy to select tailored improvements. Further studies are required to prove the effect of the strategy on parenteral medication administration errors.

  12. The energy rebound effects across China’s industrial sectors: An output distance function approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Ke; Zhang, Ning; Liu, Yanchu

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Output distance function for the energy rebound effect is developed. • The aggregate energy rebound effect of China is 88.42%. • Investment-driven economic growth is not conducive to energy-saving. - Abstract: Improving energy efficiency sustainability is a target of the Chinese government. However, the effectiveness of energy conservation policy is affected by the energy rebound effect under which energy efficiency improvement reduces the effective price of energy services, thereby completely or partially offsetting the energy saved by efficiency improvement. Based on the output distance function, this paper develops an improved estimation model of the energy rebound effect, which is logically consistent with the quantities of energy savings and energy rebounds induced by technological progress. Results show that the aggregate energy rebound effect of 36 industrial sectors in China over 1998–2011 is 88.42%, which implies that most of the expected energy savings are mitigated. Investment-driven economic growth is not conducive to energy-saving and results in a strong energy rebound effect in the following year. The equipment and high-end manufacturing sectors have low levels of rebound effect, indicating that increasing the proportion of such firms in the total manufacturing sector can improve the performance of energy conservation. The high level and heterogeneity in rebound effects strongly suggest that varies strategies are necessary for energy conservation among China’s industrial sectors.

  13. Decision-making in adolescent females who deliberately self-harm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rigler Tristan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Self-harming behaviour most commonly begins in adolescence and is more frequent among adolescent females. We explored the hypothesis that adolescent females who deliberately selfharm were more likely to perform worse on a decision-making task. Previous research in adolescents who self-harm reported impaired decision-making. However, research put little emphasis on older adolescents and the emotional learning. In our research, we presented the Iowa Gambling Task to 35 adolescent females who self-harmed and were treated at a psychiatric clinic, and to 35 healthy female controls. Our results show that in comparison to the control group the adolescents who self-harm took more risky decisions and were less concerned about the outcome. In addition, the clinical group also focused more on immediate gains and showed a reduced ability to learn from poor decisions in the past. Further research is suggested to explore the potential neurological correlates of decision-making and selfharming behaviour.

  14. Understanding Laterally Varying Path Effects on P/S Ratios and their Effectiveness for Event Discrimination at Local Distances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyle, M. L.; Walter, W. R.

    2017-12-01

    Discrimination between underground explosions and naturally occurring earthquakes is an important endeavor for global security and test-ban treaty monitoring, and ratios of seismic P to S-wave amplitudes at regional distances have proven to be an effective discriminant. The use of the P/S ratio is rooted in the idea that explosive sources should theoretically only generate compressional energy. While, in practice, shear energy is observed from explosions, generally when corrections are made for magnitude and distance, P/S ratios from explosions are higher than those from surrounding earthquakes. At local distances (chemical explosions at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) designed to improve our understanding and modeling capabilities of shear waves generated by explosions. Phase I consisted of 5 explosions in granite and Phase II will move to a contrasting dry alluvium geology. We apply a high-resolution 2D attenuation model to events near the NNSS to examine what effect path plays in local P/S ratios, and how well an earthquake-derived model can account for shallower explosion paths. The model incorporates both intrinsic attenuation and scattering effects and extends to 16 Hz, allowing us to make lateral path corrections and consider high-frequency ratios. Preliminary work suggests that while 2D path corrections modestly improve earthquake amplitude predictions, explosion amplitudes are not well matched, and so P/S ratios do not necessarily improve. Further work is needed to better understand the uses and limitation of 2D path corrections for local P/S ratios.

  15. Cosmological perturbation effects on gravitational-wave luminosity distance estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertacca, Daniele; Raccanelli, Alvise; Bartolo, Nicola; Matarrese, Sabino

    2018-06-01

    Waveforms of gravitational waves provide information about a variety of parameters for the binary system merging. However, standard calculations have been performed assuming a FLRW universe with no perturbations. In reality this assumption should be dropped: we show that the inclusion of cosmological perturbations translates into corrections to the estimate of astrophysical parameters derived for the merging binary systems. We compute corrections to the estimate of the luminosity distance due to velocity, volume, lensing and gravitational potential effects. Our results show that the amplitude of the corrections will be negligible for current instruments, mildly important for experiments like the planned DECIGO, and very important for future ones such as the Big Bang Observer.

  16. Effect of interelectrode distance on dc magnetron current-pressure characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankelevich, Yu A.; Pal, A. F.; Ryabinkin, A. N.; Serov, A. O.

    2018-01-01

    The current-pressure (I-P) non-monotonic characteristic in the magnetron discharge dc in argon at different interelectrode distances was investigated. The ion spatial distribution was obtained with optical emission spectroscopy and the characteristic dimensions of the discharge structure in near cathode region were determined. It is shown that decreasing the distance between electrodes does not affect the shape and position of the nonmonotonic part of I-P characteristic until this distance become comparable with the dimensions of the ionization region near cathode. The existence of non-monotonic part of I-P characteristic is determined by the processes in the near cathode region and is probably unrelated with the cold electron transfer in the rest of the plasma.

  17. The role of similarity in updating numerical information in working memory: decomposing the numerical distance effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lendínez, Cristina; Pelegrina, Santiago; Lechuga, M Teresa

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigates the process of updating representations in working memory (WM) and how similarity between the information involved influences this process. In WM updating tasks, the similarity in terms of numerical distance between the number to be substituted and the new one facilitates the updating process. We aimed to disentangle the possible effect of two dimensions of similarity that may contribute to this numerical effect: numerical distance itself and common digits shared between the numbers involved. Three experiments were conducted in which different ranges of distances and the coincidence between the digits of the two numbers involved in updating were manipulated. Results showed that the two dimensions of similarity had an effect on updating times. The greater the similarity between the information maintained in memory and the new information that substituted it, the faster the updating. This is consistent both with the idea of distributed representations based on features, and with a selective updating process based on a feature overwriting mechanism. Thus, updating in WM can be understood as a selective substitution process influenced by similarity in which only certain parts of the representation stored in memory are changed.

  18. Moral Distress, Workplace Health, and Intrinsic Harm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Elijah

    2016-05-01

    Moral distress is now being recognized as a frequent experience for many health care providers, and there's good evidence that it has a negative impact on the health care work environment. However, contemporary discussions of moral distress have several problems. First, they tend to rely on inadequate characterizations of moral distress. As a result, subsequent investigations regarding the frequency and consequences of moral distress often proceed without a clear understanding of the phenomenon being discussed, and thereby risk substantially misrepresenting the nature, frequency, and possible consequences of moral distress. These discussions also minimize the intrinsically harmful aspects of moral distress. This is a serious omission. Moral distress doesn't just have a negative impact on the health care work environment; it also directly harms the one who experiences it. In this paper, I claim that these problems can be addressed by first clarifying our understanding of moral distress, and then identifying what makes moral distress intrinsically harmful. I begin by identifying three common mistakes that characterizations of moral distress tend to make, and explaining why these mistakes are problematic. Next, I offer an account of moral distress that avoids these mistakes. Then, I defend the claim that moral distress is intrinsically harmful to the subject who experiences it. I conclude by explaining how acknowledging this aspect of moral distress should reshape our discussions about how best to deal with this phenomenon. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. The relationship between alcohol consumption and related harm among young university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Ellen; Burns, Sharyn

    2016-04-01

    Issue addressed Research has shown that Australian university students consume alcohol at a higher level than their peers from the general population and are therefore more likely to witness and experience alcohol-related harm. This study measured the prevalence of alcohol consumption among 18-24-year-old university students and the association between alcohol consumption and witnessed and experienced harms. Methods A random cross-sectional sample of university students aged 18-24 years (n=2466) was recruited via the University Survey Office and through random intercept at campus market day. All participants completed an online survey that included the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, Alcohol Problems Scale and an additional scale measuring witnessed harm. Results Principal Components Analysis revealed three factors within the Alcohol Problems Scale; i.e. Criminal and Aggressive Behaviour, Health and Emotional Harms and Sexual Harms. Students who consume alcohol at high-risk levels were significantly more likely to score highly on each factor, 1.6 times more likely to experience harm and 1.1 times more likely to witness harm than students who consume alcohol at low-risk levels. Conclusions The positive association between alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harm supports previous findings. This study adds previous research through the categorisation of harm into factors. So what? Integrated and comprehensive interventions addressing alcohol consumption among young university students that are informed by evidence-based research can be tailored to ensure that they meet the needs of the target group.

  20. The Concept of Distance in International Business Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hutzschenreuter, Thomas; Kleindienst, Ingo; Lange, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    are affected by distance? and What aggravates or alleviates the effects of distance? Based on the review of the literature, a set of future research suggestions are developed, intended to direct attention to research questions that the authors believe are among the most pressing questions in distance research...

  1. Optimal Advertising When Envisioning a Product-Harm Crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Olivier Rubel; Prasad A. Naik; Shuba Srinivasan

    2011-01-01

    How should forward-looking managers plan advertising if they envision a product-harm crisis in the future? To address this question, we propose a dynamic model of brand advertising in which, at each instant, a nonzero probability exists for the occurrence of a crisis event that damages the brand's baseline sales and may enhance or erode marketing effectiveness when the crisis occurs. Because managers do not know when the crisis will occur, its random time of occurrence induces a stochastic co...

  2. Euclidean distance can identify the mannitol level that produces the most remarkable integral effect on sugarcane micropropagation in temporary immersion bioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Daviel; Hernández, L Ázaro; Yabor, Lourdes; Beemster, Gerrit T S; Tebbe, Christoph C; Papenbrock, Jutta; Lorenzo, José Carlos

    2018-03-15

    Plant scientists usually record several indicators in their abiotic factor experiments. The common statistical management involves univariate analyses. Such analyses generally create a split picture of the effects of experimental treatments since each indicator is addressed independently. The Euclidean distance combined with the information of the control treatment could have potential as an integrating indicator. The Euclidean distance has demonstrated its usefulness in many scientific fields but, as far as we know, it has not yet been employed for plant experimental analyses. To exemplify the use of the Euclidean distance in this field, we performed an experiment focused on the effects of mannitol on sugarcane micropropagation in temporary immersion bioreactors. Five mannitol concentrations were compared: 0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 mM. As dependent variables we recorded shoot multiplication rate, fresh weight, and levels of aldehydes, chlorophylls, carotenoids and phenolics. The statistical protocol which we then carried out integrated all dependent variables to easily identify the mannitol concentration that produced the most remarkable integral effect. Results provided by the Euclidean distance demonstrate a gradually increasing distance from the control in function of increasing mannitol concentrations. 200 mM mannitol caused the most significant alteration of sugarcane biochemistry and physiology under the experimental conditions described here. This treatment showed the longest statistically significant Euclidean distance to the control treatment (2.38). In contrast, 50 and 100 mM mannitol showed the lowest Euclidean distances (0.61 and 0.84, respectively) and thus poor integrated effects of mannitol. The analysis shown here indicates that the use of the Euclidean distance can contribute to establishing a more integrated evaluation of the contrasting mannitol treatments.

  3. Secondary harm mitigation: A more humanitarian framework for international drug law enforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaustein, Jarrett; McLay, Miki; McCulloch, Jude

    2017-08-01

    This article introduces the concept of 'secondary harm mitigation' as a framework for improving the humanitarian credentials of international drug law enforcement agencies. The concept is rooted in a critical analysis of the compatibility of the harm reduction philosophy with Australia's international drug law enforcement practices. On a utilitarian level, the net benefits of international drug law enforcement are determined to be, at best inconclusive, arguably counterproductive and in most cases, incalculable. On a humanitarian level, international drug law enforcement is also determined to be problematic from a criminological standpoint because it generates secondary harms and it is indifferent to the vulnerability of individuals who participate in illicit drug trafficking. Accordingly, the article concludes that a philosophy of harm reduction grounded in the public health perspective is inadequate for mitigating secondary harms arising from Australia's efforts to combat international illicit drug trafficking. A tentative list of secondary harm mitigation principles is presented and the article argues that secondary harm mitigation should replace supply reduction as a core tenet of Australia's National Drug Strategy. The article also concludes that secondary harm mitigation may provide a viable framework for stimulating a productive dialogue between those who advocate prohibition and those who call for decriminalisation at the global level. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Intensification of sewage treatment processes from harmful substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asadov, S.M.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Intensive development of power, chemical, oil, machine-building and other industries results in increase of industrial toxic emissions. Local pollutions as a result of emissions of the industrial enterprises in many cases surpass the maximum permissible sanitary norms. E.g. works connected to an oil recovery, have led to pollution of huge territories of the Azerbaijan Republic, including Caspian Sea. Development of scientific bases of optimization of operating practices of industrial sewage treatment will allow to liquidate the harmful impurities. It is necessary for preservation of the environment to increase the clearing and sewage quality degree. During modeling a real process of sewage treatment from polluting impurities we need to build more and more complex models. It demands in return the application of applied mathematics methods for process of clearing of liquids. General theory and technology of sewage treatment, in particular, from heavy metals, radioactive nuclides now are absent. Achievement of an object provides for solution of the following problems: a) Research of laws of influence of various technological and physical and chemical parameters on efficiency of waste treatment from heavy metals and radioactive nuclides; b) Development of the effective reagents, allowing to remove from sewage cations of toxic heavy metals and radioactive nuclides; c) Construction of statistical models of an experimental material on clearing concrete sewage; d) Modeling of searches of optimum modes of sewage treatment processes from heavy metals ions; e) Development of optimum processes of sewage treatment from toxic heavy metals ions. The mentioned above problems are scantily studied both in experimental, and in the theoretical point of view. Expected scientific novelty of the offered project can be made in the following: Technological modes of carrying out of deep clearing processes of real sewage from toxic impurities, in particular from heavy metals ions

  5. Encyclopedia of distances

    CERN Document Server

    Deza, Michel Marie

    2014-01-01

    This updated and revised third edition of the leading reference volume on distance metrics includes new items from very active research areas in the use of distances and metrics such as geometry, graph theory, probability theory and analysis. Among the new topics included are, for example, polyhedral metric space, nearness matrix problems, distances between belief assignments, distance-related animal settings, diamond-cutting distances, natural units of length, Heidegger’s de-severance distance, and brain distances. The publication of this volume coincides with intensifying research efforts into metric spaces and especially distance design for applications. Accurate metrics have become a crucial goal in computational biology, image analysis, speech recognition and information retrieval. Leaving aside the practical questions that arise during the selection of a ‘good’ distance function, this work focuses on providing the research community with an invaluable comprehensive listing of the main available di...

  6. Imagining wrong: Fictitious contexts mitigate condemnation of harm more than impurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabo, John S; Giner-Sorolla, Roger

    2017-01-01

    Over 5 experiments, we test the fictive pass asymmetry hypothesis. Following observations of ethics and public reactions to media, we propose that fictional contexts, such as reality, imagination, and virtual environments, will mitigate people's moral condemnation of harm violations, more so than purity violations. That is, imagining a purely harmful act is given a "fictive pass," in moral judgment, whereas imagining an abnormal act involving the body is evaluated more negatively because it is seen as more diagnostic of bad character. For Experiment 1, an undergraduate sample (N = 250) evaluated 9 vignettes depicting an agent committing either violations of harm or purity in real life, watching them in films, or imagining them. For Experiments 2 and 3, online participants (N = 375 and N = 321, respectively) evaluated a single vignette depicting an agent committing a violation of harm or purity that either occurred in real life, was imagined, watched in a film, or performed in a video game. Experiment 4 (N = 348) used an analysis of moderated mediation to demonstrate that the perceived wrongness of fictional purity violations is explained both by the extent to which they are seen as a cue to, and a cause of, a poor moral character. Lastly, Experiment 5 (N = 484) validated our manipulations and included the presumption of desire as an additional mediator of the fictive pass asymmetry effects. We discuss implications for moral theories of act and character, anger and disgust, and for media use and regulation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. A MORE EFFECTIVE WAY TO ADVERTISE THE DISTANCE EDUCATION PROGRAMMES: Mobile Marketing Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayda SABUNCUOGLU AYBAR

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays organizations strive to find the ways to communicate with their target audiences by using varied advertising mediums because of the developments on the information communication technologies and the globalization. In this context, like the other institutions, the distance education institutions has to execute communication activities by using different advertising mediums to create a positive position in their consumers minds. In this sense, the increase on the ownership of mobile phones and the new specialties of mobile phone technologies like accessing to the internet made mobile marketing efforts important on the advertising investments of distance education institutions. Especially with the mobile marketing, distance education institutions can create personalized informative and promotion messages for their target audiences. Mobile marketing approach has lots of advantages for the institutions and the most important advantages that helps the institutions are; the formats of the approach are forming according to the newest technological developments and it gives chance to create messages for specific target audiences. But mobile marketing has also disadvantages like; the target audience’s mobile phones can be incompatible with the messages and the target audience can ignore these messages. However much the approach has some disadvantages, the distance education institutions- which are based on the technological developments also like the mobile marketing approach- has to invest on mobile marketing according to send personalized and effective advertising messages about their programs’ contents, benefits etc.

  8. Harm expectancy violation during exposure therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Kleine, Rianne A; Hendriks, Lotte; Becker, Eni S; Broekman, Theo G; van Minnen, Agnes

    2017-06-01

    Exposure therapy has proven efficacy in the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Emotional processing theory proposes that fear habituation is a central mechanism in symptom reduction, but the empirical evidence supporting this is mixed. Recently it has been proposed that violation of harm expectancies is a crucial mechanism of action in exposure therapy. But to date, changes in harm expectancies have not been examined during exposure therapy in PTSD. The goal of the current study was to examine harm expectancy violation as mechanism of change in exposure therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Patients (N=50, 44 female) with a primary diagnosis of chronic PTSD received intensive exposure therapy. Harm expectancies, harm experiences and subjective units of distress (SUDs) were assessed at each imaginal exposure session, and PTSD symptoms were assessed pre- and posttreatment with the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS). Results showed that harm expectancies were violated within and strongly declined in-between exposure therapy sessions. However, expectancy violation was not related to PTSD symptom change. Fear habituation measures were moderately related to PTSD symptom reductions. In line with theory, exposure therapy promotes expectancy violation in PTSD patients, but this is not related to exposure therapy outcome. More work is warranted to investigate mechanisms of change during exposure therapy in PTSD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Monitoring quality and coverage of harm reduction services for people who use drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiessing, Lucas; Ferri, Marica; Běláčková, Vendula

    2017-01-01

    indicators and to present a framework for extending them with additional indicators of coverage and quality of harm reduction services, for monitoring and evaluation at international, national or subnational levels. The ultimate aim is to improve these services in order to reduce health and social problems......BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Despite advances in our knowledge of effective services for people who use drugs over the last decades globally, coverage remains poor in most countries, while quality is often unknown. This paper aims to discuss the historical development of successful epidemiological...... before their scaling up and routine implementation, to evaluate their effectiveness in comparing service coverage and quality across countries. CONCLUSIONS: The establishment of an improved set of validated and internationally agreed upon best practice indicators for monitoring harm reduction service...

  10. Self-Harm among Young People Detained in the Youth Justice System in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lushan V. Hettiarachchi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Self-harm is prevalent in incarcerated adults, yet comparatively few studies of self-harm in detained youth (and even fewer in low- and middle-income countries have been published. We examined the prevalence and correlates of self-harm in a sample of 181 young people (mean age 15.0 years, SD = 2.3 detained in the youth justice system in Sri Lanka. Structured face-to-face questionnaires assessed demographic characteristics, family and social background, substance use, self-harm history (including frequency, method, and intention, bullying victimization, physical and sexual abuse (victimization and perpetration, and exposure to self-harm/suicide by others. Seventy-seven participants (43% reported a lifetime history of self-harm, 19 of whom (25% who reported doing so with suicidal intent. Fifty participants (65% of those with a history of self-harm reported engaging in self-harm impulsively, with no prior planning. A history of self-harm was associated with being female, prior sexual abuse victimization, prior exposure to self-harm by friends, and a lifetime history of self-harm ideation. High rates of substance use, bullying victimization, parental incarceration, and exposure to suicide were reported across the sample. Young people detained in the youth justice system in Sri Lanka are a vulnerable group with high rates of self-harm, substance use, and psychosocial risk factors. Strategies for identifying and preventing self-harm, and targeted psychological interventions designed specifically to address impulsivity, may contribute to more positive outcomes in this marginalised population.

  11. Does Distance to Subsidiaries affect Headquarters Value Added?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nell, Phillip C.; Beugelsdijk, Sjoerd; Ambos, Björn

    2014-01-01

    How does distance between MNC headquarters and their subsidiaries affect the value added generated by headquarters? Integrating theories on spatial transaction costs with the headquarter view of the MNC, we link two types of distances, geographic distance and contextual distance, with headquarters...... value added. We test our hypotheses on an original dataset of 124 manufacturing subsidiaries in Europe. We find that the relation between distance and headquarters value added is conditional on the degree of subsidiaries’ external embeddedness. We find no direct effect of distance. The value added...... of headquarters is highest for subsidiaries that are not externally embedded in the host country and that operate at a large distance. It is lowest for locally responsive subsidiaries with high external embeddedness operating at a large distance. We discuss implications for the literature on headquarters-subsidiaries...

  12. Histological and histochemical study of the protective role of rosemary extract against harmful effect of cell phone electromagnetic radiation on the parotid glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoneim, Fatma M; Arafat, Eetmad A

    2016-06-01

    Electromagnetic fields (EMFs) are a class of non-ionizing radiation (NIR) that is emitted from mobile phone. It may have hazardous effects on parotid glands. So, we aimed to investigate the histological and histochemical changes of the parotid glands of rats exposed to mobile phone and study the possible protective role of rosemary against its harmful effect. Forty adult male albino rats were used in this study. They were classified into 4 equal groups. Group I (control), group II (control receiving rosemary), group III (mobile phone exposed group) and group IV (mobile exposed, rosemary treated group). Parotid glands were dissected out for histological and histochemical study. Moreover, measurement of oxidative stress markers; malondialdehyde (MDA) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) was done. The results of this study revealed that rosemary has protective effect through improving the histological and histochemical picture of the parotid gland in addition of its antioxidant effect. It could be concluded from the current study, that exposure of parotid gland of rat models to electromagnetic radiation of mobile phone resulted in structural changes at the level of light and electron microscopic examination which could be explained by oxidative stress effect of mobile phone. Rosemary could play a protective role against this harmful effect through its antioxidant activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Managing Sexually Harmful Behaviour in a Residential Special School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, Duncan; Graham, Nicola; Ikin, Annette; Penney, Heather; Kovacs, Lisa; Mercer, Dawn; Edwards, Richard; Jones, Dylan; Mace, Floyd Charles

    2012-01-01

    Children and young people with learning disabilities who present sexually harmful behaviour are marginalised and do not always participate in community activities. This case study describes a multi-component intervention that successfully reduced the sexually harmful behaviour of a 16-year-old boy with a mild learning disability. The intervention…

  14. [Osteoarthritis from long-distance running?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohmann, E; Wörtler, K; Imhoff, A

    2005-06-01

    Long distance running has become a fashionable recreational activity. This study investigated the effects of external impact loading on bone and cartilage introduced by performing a marathon race. Seven beginners were compared to six experienced recreational long distance runners and two professional athletes. All participants underwent magnetic resonance imaging of the hip and knee before and after a marathon run. Coronal T1 weighted and STIR sequences were used. The pre MRI served as a baseline investigation and monitored the training effect. All athletes demonstrated normal findings in the pre run scan. All but one athlete in the beginner group demonstrated joint effusions after the race. The experienced and professional runners failed to demonstrate pathology in the post run scans. Recreational and professional long distance runners tolerate high impact forces well. Beginners demonstrate significant changes on the post run scans. Whether those findings are a result of inadequate training (miles and duration) warrant further studies. We conclude that adequate endurance training results in adaptation mechanisms that allow the athlete to compensate for the stresses introduced by long distance running and do not predispose to the onset of osteoarthritis. Significant malalignment of the lower extremity may cause increased focal loading of joint and cartilage.

  15. Harm reduction-a systematic review on effects of alcohol reduction on physical and mental symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlet, Katrin; Heinz, Andreas

    2017-09-01

    Based on the knowledge that alcohol misuse causes a multitude of diseases and increased mortality, this systematic review examines whether a reduction of the individual alcohol consumption can contribute to a minimization of health risks within a harm reduction approach. In fact, the reviewed 63 studies indicate that interventions aiming at alcohol reduction (including total abstinence as one possible therapeutic aim) indeed resulted in or were associated with positive effects in harmful, hazardous or alcohol-dependent drinkers. Major benefits were observed for reducing alcohol-associated injuries, recovery of ventricular heart function in alcoholic cardiomyopathy, blood pressure lowering, normalization of biochemical parameter, body weight reduction, histological improvement in pre-cirrhotic alcohol-related liver disease and slowed progression of an already existing alcohol-attributable liver fibrosis. Furthermore, reduced withdrawal symptoms, prevalence of psychiatric episodes and duration of in-patient hospital days, improvement of anxiety and depression symptoms, self-confidence, physical and mental quality of life, fewer alcohol-related adverse consequences as well as lower psychosocial stress levels and better social functioning can result from reduced alcohol intake. The reviewed literature demonstrated remarkable socioeconomic cost benefits in areas such as the medical health-care system or workforce productivity. Individuals with heightened vulnerability further benefit significantly from alcohol reduction (e.g. hypertension, hepatitis C, psychiatric co-morbidities, pregnancy, but also among adolescents and young adults). Concluding, the reviewed studies strongly support and emphasize the importance and benefits of early initial screening for problematic alcohol use followed by brief and other interventions in first contact medical health-care facilities to reduce alcohol intake. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  16. Kinetic Effects Of Increased Proton Transfer Distance On Proton-Coupled Oxidations Of Phenol-Amines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhile, Ian J.

    2011-01-01

    To test the effect of varying the proton donor-acceptor distance in proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) reactions, the oxidation of a bicyclic amino-indanol (2) is compared with that of a closely related phenol with an ortho CPh2NH2 substituent (1). Spectroscopic, structural, thermochemical and computational studies show that the two amino-phenols are very similar, except that the O⋯N distance (dON) is >0.1 Å longer in 2 than in 1. The difference in dON is 0.13 ± 0.03 Å from X-ray crystallography and 0.165 Å from DFT calculations. Oxidations of these phenols by outer-sphere oxidants yield distonic radical cations •OAr–NH3+ by concerted proton-electron transfer (CPET). Simple tunneling and classical kinetic models both predict that the longer donor-acceptor distance in 2 should lead to slower reactions, by ca. two orders of magnitude, as well as larger H/D kinetic isotope effects (KIEs). However, kinetic studies show that the compound with the longer proton-transfer distance, 2, exhibits smaller KIEs and has rate constants that are quite close to those of 1. For example, the oxidation of 2 by the triarylamminium radical cation N(C6H4OMe)3•+ (3a+) occurs at (1.4 ± 0.1) × 104 M-1 s-1, only a factor of two slower than the closely related reaction of 1 with N(C6H4OMe)2(C6H4Br)•+ (3b+). This difference in rate constants is well accounted for by the slightly different free energies of reaction: ΔG°(2 + 3a+) = +0.078 V vs. ΔG°(1 + 3b+) = +0.04 V. The two phenol-amines do display some subtle kinetic differences: for instance, compound 2 has a shallower dependence of CPET rate constants on driving force (Brønsted α, Δln(k)/Δln(Keq)). These results show that the simple tunneling model is not a good predictor of the effect of proton donor-acceptor distance on concerted-electron transfer reactions involving strongly hydrogen-bonded systems. Computational analysis of the observed similarity of the two phenols emphasizes the importance of the highly

  17. Geoengineering, Climate Harm, and Business as Usual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankunis, F. J.; Peacock, K.

    2014-12-01

    We define geoengineering (GE) as the intentional use of technology to change the planet's climate. Many people believe GE is different in kind rather than degree from any other organized activity in human history. In fact, humans caused changes in the planet's climate long before the industrial age, and all organisms engineer their environments directly or indirectly. The relevant difference between this cumulative and generally inadvertent activity and GE is the presence of intention. Now that science has revealed the extent to which humans can change the climate, however, even the continuance of Business as Usual (BAU) is, in effect, a form of intentional GE, albeit one that will cause significant climate harm, defined as effects such as sea level rise that will impact human well-being. But as with all forms of engineering, the devil is in the details: what forms of GE should be tried first? Some methods, such as large-scale afforestation, are low risk but have long-term payoffs; others, such as aerosol injection into the stratosphere, could help buy time in a warming crisis but have unknown side-effects and little long-term future. Climate change is a world-wide, inter-generational tragedy of the commons. Rational choice theory, the spatial and temporal extension of the problem, poorly fitted moral frameworks, and political maneuvering are all factors that inhibit solutions to the climate tragedy of the commons. The longer that such factors are allowed to dominate decision-making (or the lack thereof) the more likely it is that humanity will be forced to resort to riskier and more drastic forms of GE. We argue that this fact brings an additional measure of urgency to the search for ways to engineer the climate differently so as to avoid climate harm in the most lasting and least risky way.

  18. Habitual Cognitive Reappraisal Was Negatively Related to Perceived Immorality in the Harm and Fairness Domains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongquan Li

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Emotion plays an important role in moral judgment, and people always use emotion regulation strategies to modulate emotion, consciously or unconsciously. Previous studies had investigated only the relationship between emotion regulation strategies and moral judgment in the Harm domain, and revealed divergent results. Based on Moral Foundations Theory, the present study extended the investigation into moral judgment in all five moral domains and used a set of standardized moral vignettes. Two hundred and six college students filled in the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire and completed emotional ratings and moral judgment on moral vignettes from Moral Foundations Vignettes. Correlation analysis indicated that habitual cognitive reappraisal was negatively related to immorality rating in Harm, Fairness, and Loyalty domains. Regression analysis revealed that after controlling the effect of other variables, cognitive reappraisal negatively predicted immorality ratings in the Harm and Fairness domains. Further mediation analysis showed that emotional valence only partially explained the association between cognitive reappraisal and moral judgment in Harm area. Some other factors beyond emotional valence were suggested for future studies.

  19. Habitual Cognitive Reappraisal Was Negatively Related to Perceived Immorality in the Harm and Fairness Domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhongquan; Wu, Xiaoyuan; Zhang, Lisong; Zhang, Ziyuan

    2017-01-01

    Emotion plays an important role in moral judgment, and people always use emotion regulation strategies to modulate emotion, consciously or unconsciously. Previous studies had investigated only the relationship between emotion regulation strategies and moral judgment in the Harm domain, and revealed divergent results. Based on Moral Foundations Theory, the present study extended the investigation into moral judgment in all five moral domains and used a set of standardized moral vignettes. Two hundred and six college students filled in the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire and completed emotional ratings and moral judgment on moral vignettes from Moral Foundations Vignettes. Correlation analysis indicated that habitual cognitive reappraisal was negatively related to immorality rating in Harm, Fairness, and Loyalty domains. Regression analysis revealed that after controlling the effect of other variables, cognitive reappraisal negatively predicted immorality ratings in the Harm and Fairness domains. Further mediation analysis showed that emotional valence only partially explained the association between cognitive reappraisal and moral judgment in Harm area. Some other factors beyond emotional valence were suggested for future studies.

  20. Tracking frequency laser distance gauge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, J.D.; Reasenberg, R.D.

    2005-01-01

    Advanced astronomical missions with greatly enhanced resolution and physics missions of unprecedented accuracy will require laser distance gauges of substantially improved performance. We describe a laser gauge, based on Pound-Drever-Hall locking, in which the optical frequency is adjusted to maintain an interferometer's null condition. This technique has been demonstrated with pm performance. Automatic fringe hopping allows it to track arbitrary distance changes. The instrument is intrinsically free of the nm-scale cyclic bias present in traditional (heterodyne) high-precision laser gauges. The output is a radio frequency, readily measured to sufficient accuracy. The laser gauge has operated in a resonant cavity, which improves precision, can suppress the effects of misalignments, and makes possible precise automatic alignment. The measurement of absolute distance requires little or no additional hardware, and has also been demonstrated. The proof-of-concept version, based on a stabilized HeNe laser and operating on a 0.5 m path, has achieved 10 pm precision with 0.1 s integration time, and 0.1 mm absolute distance accuracy. This version has also followed substantial distance changes as fast as 16 mm/s. We show that, if the precision in optical frequency is a fixed fraction of the linewidth, both incremental and absolute distance precision are independent of the distance measured. We discuss systematic error sources, and present plans for a new version of the gauge based on semiconductor lasers and fiber-coupled components

  1. Harm reduction in U.S. tobacco control: Constructions in textual news media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eversman, Michael H

    2015-06-01

    U.S. tobacco control has long emphasized abstinence, yet quitting smoking is hard and cessation rates low. Tobacco harm reduction alternatives espouse substituting cigarettes with safer nicotine and tobacco products. Policy shifts embracing tobacco harm reduction have increased media attention, yet it remains controversial. Discourse theory posits language as fluid, and socially constructed meaning as neither absolute nor neutral, elevating certain views over others while depicting "discursive struggle" between them. While an abstinence-based framework dominates tobacco policy, discourse theory suggests constructions of nicotine and tobacco use can change, for example by positioning tobacco harm reduction more favorably. Textual discourse analysis was used to explore constructions of tobacco harm reduction in 478 (308 original) U.S. textual news media articles spanning 1996-2014. Using keyword database sampling, retrieved articles were analyzed first as discrete recording units and then to identify emergent thematic content. Constructions of tobacco harm reduction shifted over this time, revealing tension among industry and policy interests through competing definitions of tobacco harm reduction, depictions of its underlying science, and accounts of regulatory matters including tobacco industry support for harm reduction and desired marketing and taxation legislation. Heightened salience surrounding tobacco harm reduction and electronic cigarettes suggests their greater acceptance in U.S. tobacco control. Various media depictions construct harm reduction as a temporary means to cessation, and conflict with other constructions of it that place no subjective value on continued "safer" tobacco/nicotine use. Constructions of science largely obscure claims of the veracity of tobacco harm reduction, with conflict surrounding appropriate public health benchmarks for tobacco policy and health risks of nicotine use. Taxation policies and e-cigarette pricing relative to

  2. The Adverse Drug Event Collaborative: a joint venture to measure medication-related patient harm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seddon, Mary E; Jackson, Aaron; Cameron, Chris; Young, Mary L; Escott, Linda; Maharaj, Ashika; Miller, Nigel

    2012-01-25

    To measure the extent of patient harm caused by medications (rate of Adverse Drug Events) in three DHBs, using a standardised trigger tool method. Counties Manukau, Capital and Coast and Canterbury DHBs decided to work collaboratively to implement the ADE Trigger Tool (TT). Definitions of ADE were agreed on and triggers refined. A random sample of closed charts (from March 2010 to February 2011) was obtained excluding patients who were admitted for <48 hours, children under the age of 18 and psychiatric admissions. In each DHB trained reviewers scanned these in a structured way to identify any of the 19 triggers. If triggers were identified, a more detailed, though time-limited review of the chart was done to determine whether an ADE had occurred. The severity of patient harm was categorised using the National Coordinating Council for Medication Error Reporting and Prevention Index. No attempt was made to determine preventability of harm and ADEs from acts of omission were excluded. The ADE TT was applied to 1210 charts and 353 ADE were identified, with an average rate of 28.9/100 admissions and 38/1,000 bed days. 94.5% of the ADE identified were in the lower severity scales with temporary harm, however in 5 patients it was considered that the ADE contributed to their death, 9 required an intervention to sustain life and 4 suffered permanent harm. The most commonly implicated drugs were morphine and other opioids, anticoagulants, antibiotics, Non Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs) and diuretics. Patients who suffered an ADE were more likely to be female, older with more complex medical illnesses, and have a longer length of stay. The rate of medication-related harm identified by the ADE TT is considerably higher than that identified through traditional voluntary reporting mechanisms. The ADE TT provides a standardised measure of harm over time that can be used to determine trends and the effect of medication safety improvement programmes. This study not

  3. Can Google Searches Predict the Popularity and Harm of Psychoactive Agents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowski, Wojciech; Hoffmann, Marcin

    2016-02-25

    Predicting the popularity of and harm caused by psychoactive agents is a serious problem that would be difficult to do by a single simple method. However, because of the growing number of drugs it is very important to provide a simple and fast tool for predicting some characteristics of these substances. We were inspired by the Google Flu Trends study on the activity of the influenza virus, which showed that influenza virus activity worldwide can be monitored based on queries entered into the Google search engine. Our aim was to propose a fast method for ranking the most popular and most harmful drugs based on easily available data gathered from the Internet. We used the Google search engine to acquire data for the ranking lists. Subsequently, using the resulting list and the frequency of hits for the respective psychoactive drugs combined with the word "harm" or "harmful", we estimated quickly how much harm is associated with each drug. We ranked the most popular and harmful psychoactive drugs. As we conducted the research over a period of several months, we noted that the relative popularity indexes tended to change depending on when we obtained them. This suggests that the data may be useful in monitoring changes over time in the use of each of these psychoactive agents. Our data correlate well with the results from a multicriteria decision analysis of drug harms in the United Kingdom. We showed that Google search data can be a valuable source of information to assess the popularity of and harm caused by psychoactive agents and may help in monitoring drug use trends.

  4. Conceptual and methodological issues in studying alcohol’s harm to others

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Room Robin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available While there is a longer history of concern about alcohol’s harm to others, researchers’ interest has intensified in the last few years. The background of variation in concern over time in different societies is outlined. Three main traditions of research have emerged: population survey studies of such harm from the perspective of the ‘other’; analysis of register or case-record data which includes information on the involvement of another’s drinking in the case; and qualitative studies of interactions and experiences involved in particular harms from others’ drinking. In the course of the new spate of studies, many conceptual and methodological issues have arisen, some of which are considered in the paper. The diverse types of harms which have been studied are discussed. The social and personal nature of many of the harms means they do not fit easily into a disability or costing model, raising questions about how they might best be counted and aggregated. Harm from others’ drinking is inherently interactional, and subject to varying definitions of what counts as harm. The attribution to drinking, in the usual situation of conditional causation, is also subject to variation, with moral politics potentially coming into play. For measurement and comparison, account needs to be taken of cultural and individual variations in perceptions and thresholds of what counts as a harm, and attribution to alcohol. The view from the windows of a population survey and of a response agency case register are often starkly different, and research is needed, as an input and spur to policy initiatives, on what influences this difference and whether and how the views might be reconciled.

  5. Developing, implementing and evaluating a model for an outpatient self-harm service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Fiona; Lascelles, Karen

    2017-05-10

    Aim To reduce the incidence of self-harming behaviour and improve well-being and experience of care for individuals who present regularly to the emergency department in one hospital following self-harm, by providing outpatient care. Method This was a 12-month nurse-led practice development project to develop, implement and evaluate a brief-intervention outpatient service for individuals who presented to the emergency department following self-harm and who were identified as being at risk of further self-harm. The service improvement was informed by an action research process and the principles of appreciative inquiry. Findings The project provided a short-term outpatient follow-up service, known as Brief Interventions in Repeat Self Harm (BIRSH), to patients who presented to the emergency department following self-harm, and who were considered at risk of further self-harm. The intervention enabled the clinician to validate the patient's distress and offer them short-term outpatient follow-up care. The BIRSH sessions were offered to 38 patients. A total of 26 patients attended one or more BIRSH session, and all of these individuals showed a reduction in the number of presentations to the emergency department following self-harm in the six months following the intervention, compared to the six months before the intervention. Conclusion The BIRSH outpatient service appears to have been a contributory factor in reducing self-harm for patients who engaged with the service. The service improvement was informed by an action research process and the principles of appreciative inquiry, which provided a positive, focused approach to the practice development project.

  6. Understanding vulnerability to self-harm in times of economic hardship and austerity: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, M C; Gunnell, D; Davies, R; Hawton, K; Kapur, N; Potokar, J; Donovan, J L

    2016-02-17

    Self-harm and suicide increase in times of economic recession, but little is known about why people self-harm when in financial difficulty, and in what circumstances self-harm occurs. This study aimed to understand events and experiences leading to the episode of self-harm and to identify opportunities for prevention or mitigation of distress. Participants' homes or university rooms. 19 people who had attended hospital following self-harm in two UK cities and who specifically cited job loss, economic hardship or the impact of austerity measures as a causal or contributory factor. Semistructured, in-depth interviews. Interviews were audio recorded, transcribed and analysed cross-sectionally and as case studies. Study participants described experiences of severe economic hardship; being unable to find employment or losing jobs, debt, housing problems and benefit sanctions. In many cases problems accumulated and felt unresolvable. For others an event, such as a call from a debt collector or benefit change triggered the self-harm. Participants also reported other current or past difficulties, including abuse, neglect, bullying, domestic violence, mental health problems, relationship difficulties, bereavements and low self-esteem. These contributed to their sense of despair and worthlessness and increased their vulnerability to self-harm. Participants struggled to gain the practical help they felt they needed for their economic difficulties or therapeutic support that might have helped with their other co-existing or historically damaging experiences. Economic hardships resulting from the recession and austerity measures accumulated or acted as a 'final straw' to trigger self-harm, often in the context of co-existing or historically damaging life-experiences. Interventions to mitigate these effects should include providing practical advice about economic issues before difficulties become insurmountable and providing appropriate psychosocial support for vulnerable

  7. Evolution of helping and harming in heterogeneous groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, António M M; Gardner, Andy

    2013-08-01

    Social groups are often composed of individuals who differ in many respects. Theoretical studies on the evolution of helping and harming behaviors have largely focused upon genetic differences between individuals. However, nongenetic variation between group members is widespread in natural populations, and may mediate differences in individuals' social behavior. Here, we develop a framework to study how variation in individual quality mediates the evolution of unconditional and conditional social traits. We investigate the scope for the evolution of social traits that are conditional on the quality of the actor and/or recipients. We find that asymmetries in individual quality can lead to the evolution of plastic traits with different individuals expressing helping and harming traits within the same group. In this context, population viscosity can mediate the evolution of social traits, and local competition can promote both helping and harming behaviors. Furthermore, asymmetries in individual quality can lead to the evolution of competition-like traits between clonal individuals. Overall, we highlight the importance of asymmetries in individual quality, including differences in reproductive value and the ability to engage in successful social interactions, in mediating the evolution of helping and harming behaviors. © 2013 The Author(s). Evolution © 2013 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  8. Self-harm in British South Asian women: psychosocial correlates and strategies for prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Waheed W; Husain MI; Husain Nusrat

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Objective To review the rates of self-harm in British South Asian women, look into the factors that contribute to these high rates of self-harm and discuss possible strategies for prevention and provision of culturally sensitive service for South Asian women who harm themselves. Method Review. Results South Asian women are significantly more likely to self harm between ages 16–24 years than white women. Across all age groups the rates of self harm are lower in South Asian men as comp...

  9. Interface Simulation Distances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavol Černý

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The classical (boolean notion of refinement for behavioral interfaces of system components is the alternating refinement preorder. In this paper, we define a distance for interfaces, called interface simulation distance. It makes the alternating refinement preorder quantitative by, intuitively, tolerating errors (while counting them in the alternating simulation game. We show that the interface simulation distance satisfies the triangle inequality, that the distance between two interfaces does not increase under parallel composition with a third interface, and that the distance between two interfaces can be bounded from above and below by distances between abstractions of the two interfaces. We illustrate the framework, and the properties of the distances under composition of interfaces, with two case studies.

  10. Out of the blue: Untangling the association between impulsivity and planning in self-harm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawlings, Jodie; Shevlin, Mark; Corcoran, Rhiannon; Morriss, Richard; Taylor, Peter James

    2015-09-15

    Planned and unplanned acts of self-harm may have distinct clinical and psychological correlates. Trait impulsivity is one factor that might be expected to determine whether self-harm is planned. Research so far has focussed on suicide attempts and little is known about how individuals engaging in planned and unplanned acts of self-harm differ. The aim of the current study was to examine how individuals who report planned self-harm, unplanned self-harm, and no self-harm differ in terms of impulsivity and affective symptoms (depression, anxiety, and activated mood). An online survey of University students (n = 1350) was undertaken including measures of impulsivity, affective symptoms and self-harm. Analyses made use of a multinomial logistic regression model with affective and cognitive forms of impulsivity estimated as latent variables. Trait affective impulsivity, but not cognitive, was a general risk factor for whether self-harm occurred. There was no evidence of differences between planned and unplanned self-harm. Affective symptoms of depression and anxiety mediated the relationship between affective impulsivity and self-harm. The study was cross-sectional, relied on a student sample which may not generalise to other populations. Trait affective impulsivity is associated with self-harm but it appears to be mediated by depression and anxiety symptoms. The exact relationships between trait affective impulsivity, depression, anxiety and self-harm require further longitudinal research in clinical populations but might lead to improved risk assessment and new therapeutic approaches to self-harm. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Deliberate Self-Harm within an International Community Sample of Young People: Comparative Findings from the Child & Adolescent Self-Harm in Europe (CASE) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madge, Nicola; Hewitt, Anthea; Hawton, Keith; de Wilde, Erik Jan; Corcoran, Paul; Fekete, Sandor; van Heeringen, Kees; De Leo, Diego; Ystgaard, Mette

    2008-01-01

    Background: Deliberate self-harm among young people is an important focus of policy and practice internationally. Nonetheless, there is little reliable comparative international information on its extent or characteristics. We have conducted a seven-country comparative community study of deliberate self-harm among young people. Method: Over 30,000…

  12. Online Communication in Organizations Does Not Kill Distance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hage, Eveline; Tan, Chee-Wee

    Debates on the effects of online communication on distance within organizational networks have persisted within extant literature. Early contributions, which focus primarily on geographical distance, have highlighted the negative impact of distance on network evolution and sustenance, alluding...... to the importance of online communication as a means of nullifying these effects (Caimcross, 2001; Wellman, 2001). These studies have led to optimistic, but also premature, declarations of the ‘death of distance’ (Caimcross, 2001). More recent works however, have demonstrated that online networks are “to...

  13. Satellite monitoring of cyanobacterial harmful algal bloom ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms (cyanoHABs) cause extensive problems in lakes worldwide, including human and ecological health risks, anoxia and fish kills, and taste and odor problems. CyanoHABs are a particular concern because of their dense biomass and the risk of exposure to toxins in both recreational waters and drinking source waters. Successful cyanoHAB assessment by satellites may provide a first-line of defense indicator for human and ecological health protection. In this study, assessment methods were developed to determine the utility of satellite technology for detecting cyanoHAB occurrence frequency at locations of potential management interest. The European Space Agency's MEdium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) was evaluated to prepare for the equivalent Sentinel-3 Ocean and Land Colour Imager (OLCI) launched in 2016. Based on the 2012 National Lakes Assessment site evaluation guidelines and National Hydrography Dataset, there were 275,897 lakes and reservoirs greater than 1 hectare in the 48 U.S. states. Results from this evaluation show that 5.6 % of waterbodies were resolvable by satellites with 300 m single pixel resolution and 0.7 % of waterbodies were resolvable when a 3x3 pixel array was applied based on minimum Euclidian distance from shore. Satellite data was also spatially joined to US public water surface intake (PWSI) locations, where single pixel resolution resolved 57% of PWSI and a 3x3 pixel array resolved 33% of

  14. A process evaluation of the 'Aware' and 'Supportive Communities' gambling harm-minimisation programmes in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolandai-Matchett, Komathi; Bellringer, Maria; Landon, Jason; Abbott, Max

    2018-04-01

    The Gambling Act 2003 mandated a public health strategy for preventing and minimising gambling harm in New Zealand. Aware Communities and Supportive Communities are two public health programmes subsequently implemented nationwide. These programmes differed from common health promotion initiatives such as media or education campaigns as they were community-action based (requiring community involvement in programme planning and delivery). We carried out a process evaluation to determine their implementation effectiveness and inform improvement and future programme planning. Our qualitative dominant mixed methods design comprised analysis of over a hundred implementer progress reports (submitted July 2010 - June 2013), a staff survey and a staff focus group interview. The programmes demonstrated capacity to not only achieve expected outcomes (e.g. enhanced community awareness about harmful gambling), but also to enhance social sustainability at the community level (e.g. established trustful relationships) and achieve some programme sustainability (e.g. community ownership over ongoing programme delivery). The evaluation noted the potential for a sustainable gambling harm-minimisation model. Community-action based harm-minimisation programmes offer programme sustainability potential which in turn offers funding cost-effectiveness when there are continual public health outcomes beyond initial funding. Although resource intensive, the community-action based approach enables culturally appropriate public health programmes suitable for societies where specific ethnic groups have higher gambling risk. Recognition of such harm-minimisation programmes' contribution to social sustainability is important considering the potential for broader public health outcomes (e.g. better life quality, lesser social problems) within socially sustainable societies.

  15. Acceptability of dating violence and expectations of relationship harm among adolescent girls exposed to intimate partner violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Michelle Seulki; Begun, Stephanie; DePrince, Anne P; Chu, Ann T

    2016-07-01

    Little is known about the factors that contribute to adolescents' perceptions of the acceptability of dating violence, particularly among girls who have witnessed intimate partner violence (IPV). Drawing on relevant theory, the current study tests a path model linking frequency of witnessing IPV in childhood, sexist beliefs, and automatic relationship-to-harm associations to acceptability of dating violence. Participants were 79 female adolescents with a mean age of 16.08 years (SD = 1.52) involved in the child welfare system. Participants self-reported frequency of witnessing IPV in childhood, ambivalent sexism, and acceptability of dating violence. A lexical-decision task assessed implicit relationship-to-harm priming, which reflects the degree to which people automatically assume that relationships include harm. Consistent with hypotheses, frequency of witnessing IPV was significantly associated with strength of implicit relationship-to-harm associations. Implicit relationship-to-harm associations and hostile sexism were significantly associated with girls' attitudes that dating violence is acceptable. There was a significant indirect effect of witnessing IPV and acceptability of dating violence through relationship-to-harm associations. The current study provides information that is relevant to dating violence intervention among adolescent girls. Interventions that target girls' schema about relationships-making explicit that healthy relationships do not involve harm-and include education about sexism in society are likely to decrease dating violence risk over time. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. The physical environment mediates male harm and its effect on selection in females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Li; Chen, Patrick J; Singh, Amardeep; Agrawal, Aneil F; Rundle, Howard D

    2017-07-12

    Recent experiments indicate that male preferential harassment of high-quality females reduces the variance in female fitness, thereby weakening natural selection through females and hampering adaptation and purging. We propose that this phenomenon, which results from a combination of male choice and male-induced harm, should be mediated by the physical environment in which intersexual interactions occur. Using Drosophila melanogaster , we examined intersexual interactions in small and simple (standard fly vials) versus slightly more realistic (small cages with spatial structure) environments. We show that in these more realistic environments, sexual interactions are less frequent, are no longer biased towards high-quality females, and that overall male harm is reduced. Next, we examine the selective advantage of high- over low-quality females while manipulating the opportunity for male choice. Male choice weakens the viability advantage of high-quality females in the simple environment, consistent with previous work, but strengthens selection on females in the more realistic environment. Laboratory studies in simple environments have strongly shaped our understanding of sexual conflict but may provide biased insight. Our results suggest that the physical environment plays a key role in the evolutionary consequences of sexual interactions and ultimately the alignment of natural and sexual selection. © 2017 The Author(s).

  17. Analysis and control of harmful emissions from combustion processes

    OpenAIRE

    Jafari, Ahmad

    2000-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and awarded by Brunel University. The harmful effects of air pollutants on human beings and environment have been the major reason for efforts in sampling, analysis and control of their sources. The major pollutants emitted to atmosphere from stationary combustion processes are nitrogen oxides, inorganic acids, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon and soot. In the current work two methods are developed for sampl...

  18. Prevalence and Correlates of Self-Harm in the German General Population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid Müller

    Full Text Available The study aimed at evaluating the psychometric properties of the German version of the Self- Harm Inventory (SHI and examining the lifetime prevalence and correlates of self-harm in a representative German population sample (N = 2,507; age mean = 48.79, SD = 18.11; range 14 to 94 years; 55.5% women using the SHI. All participants answered the German SHI, the short form of the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-15, the ultra-brief Patient Health Questionnaire for Depression and Anxiety (PHQ-4, and provided sociodemographic information. The one-factorial structure of the SHI was replicated using a confirmatory factor analysis. Internal consistency coefficients were sufficient and in line with previous studies. Almost half of the sample (49% acknowledged at least one self-harming behavior over the life-span, most frequently indirect forms of self-harm. The rate of participants who engaged in at least one SHI behavior was higher among men than women (51.6% vs. 46.9%, respectively, χ2 = 5.38, p = 0.020. Higher SHI scores were related to younger age, male gender, living alone, more symptoms of anxiety and depression (PHQ-4, higher impulsivity scores (BIS-15, and suffering from obesity grade 2. Women engaged more often in discreet forms of self-harm than men, e.g., preventing wounds from healing, exercising an injury, starving, and abusing laxatives. In terms of other indirect self-harming behaviors, men admitted more often driving recklessly, being promiscuous and losing a job on purpose, while women reported more frequently engaging in emotionally abusive relationships. With respect to direct self-harm, women were more likely to endorse suicide attempts and cutting, while men admitted more often head-banging. The findings suggest that self-harm constitutes a common problem. Future longitudinal studies are required to examine the natural course, sociodemographic and psychopathological risk factors, as well as possible time-trends of self-harming

  19. What is preventable harm in healthcare? A systematic review of definitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabhan Mohammed

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mitigating or reducing the risk of harm associated with the delivery of healthcare is a policy priority. While the risk of harm can be reduced in some instances (i.e. preventable, what constitutes preventable harm remains unclear. A standardized and clear definition of preventable harm is the first step towards safer and more efficient healthcare delivery system. We aimed to summarize the definitions of preventable harm and its conceptualization in healthcare. Methods We conducted a comprehensive electronic search of relevant databases from January 2001 to June 2011 for publications that reported a definition of preventable harm. Only English language publications were included. Definitions were coded for common concepts and themes. We included any study type, both original studies and reviews. Two reviewers screened the references for eligibility and 28% (127/460 were finally included. Data collected from studies included study type, description of the study population and setting, and data corresponding to the outcome of interest. Three reviewers extracted the data. The level of agreement between the reviewers was calculated. Results One hundred and twenty seven studies were eligible. The three most prevalent preventable harms in the included studies were: medication adverse events (33/127 studies, 26%, central line infections (7/127, 6% and venous thromboembolism (5/127, 4%. Seven themes or definitions for preventable harm were encountered. The top three were: presence of an identifiable modifiable cause (58/132 definitions, 44%, reasonable adaptation to a process will prevent future recurrence (30/132, 23%, adherence to guidelines (22/132, 16%. Data on the validity or operational characteristic (e.g., accuracy, reproducibility of definitions were limited. Conclusions There is limited empirical evidence of the validity and reliability of the available definitions of preventable harm, such that no single one is supported by

  20. Prevalence and Correlates of Self-Harm in the German General Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Astrid; Claes, Laurence; Smits, Dirk; Brähler, Elmar; de Zwaan, Martina

    2016-01-01

    The study aimed at evaluating the psychometric properties of the German version of the Self- Harm Inventory (SHI) and examining the lifetime prevalence and correlates of self-harm in a representative German population sample (N = 2,507; age mean = 48.79, SD = 18.11; range 14 to 94 years; 55.5% women) using the SHI. All participants answered the German SHI, the short form of the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-15), the ultra-brief Patient Health Questionnaire for Depression and Anxiety (PHQ-4), and provided sociodemographic information. The one-factorial structure of the SHI was replicated using a confirmatory factor analysis. Internal consistency coefficients were sufficient and in line with previous studies. Almost half of the sample (49%) acknowledged at least one self-harming behavior over the life-span, most frequently indirect forms of self-harm. The rate of participants who engaged in at least one SHI behavior was higher among men than women (51.6% vs. 46.9%, respectively, χ2 = 5.38, p = 0.020). Higher SHI scores were related to younger age, male gender, living alone, more symptoms of anxiety and depression (PHQ-4), higher impulsivity scores (BIS-15), and suffering from obesity grade 2. Women engaged more often in discreet forms of self-harm than men, e.g., preventing wounds from healing, exercising an injury, starving, and abusing laxatives. In terms of other indirect self-harming behaviors, men admitted more often driving recklessly, being promiscuous and losing a job on purpose, while women reported more frequently engaging in emotionally abusive relationships. With respect to direct self-harm, women were more likely to endorse suicide attempts and cutting, while men admitted more often head-banging. The findings suggest that self-harm constitutes a common problem. Future longitudinal studies are required to examine the natural course, sociodemographic and psychopathological risk factors, as well as possible time-trends of self-harming behaviors in more

  1. Effects of successive critical distances in heavy ion fusion reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.M.; Nakagawa, T.; Matsuse, T.

    1984-01-01

    The concept of Successive Critical Distances is presented. It appears that whether the fusion cross section is limited by compound nucleus or entrance channel properties depends on the degree of asymmetry of the fusing nuclei. Only in the near to symmetry case does the Statistical Yrast Line emerge as a limiting factor. Otherwise, the critical angular momentum for fusion is restricted by a critical distance

  2. The Viability of Distance Education Science Laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forinash, Kyle; Wisman, Raymond

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the effectiveness of offering science laboratories via distance education. Explains current delivery technologies, including computer simulations, videos, and laboratory kits sent to students; pros and cons of distance labs; the use of spreadsheets; and possibilities for new science education models. (LRW)

  3. Harmful situations, impure people: an attribution asymmetry across moral domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakroff, Alek; Young, Liane

    2015-03-01

    People make inferences about the actions of others, assessing whether an act is best explained by person-based versus situation-based accounts. Here we examine people's explanations for norm violations in different domains: harmful acts (e.g., assault) and impure acts (e.g., incest). Across four studies, we find evidence for an attribution asymmetry: people endorse more person-based attributions for impure versus harmful acts. This attribution asymmetry is partly explained by the abnormality of impure versus harmful acts, but not by differences in the moral wrongness or the statistical frequency of these acts. Finally, this asymmetry persists even when the situational factors that lead an agent to act impurely are stipulated. These results suggest that, relative to harmful acts, impure acts are linked to person-based attributions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Protecting air basins from harmful discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yankovskiy, S S

    1983-01-01

    The work is a brief description of the content of the reports delivered at the seminar entitled Protecting the Air Basin from Harmful Discharges of the Machine Building Enterprises, which took place at the All Union Exhibit of the Achievements of the National Economy of the USSR (VDNKh) in 1982. Representatives of different ministries and agencies, scientific research institutes (NII), planning and design and other specialized organizations, institutes of higher learning (vuz) and enterprises from different branches of industry took part in the work of the seminar. The seminar noted measures to eliminate deficiencies which occur in individual enterprises of the branch and measures to improve the work to improve protection of the air basin from harmful discharges of machine building enterprises.

  5. Auditory backup alarms: distance-at-first-detection via in-situ experimentation on alarm design and hearing protection effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alali, Khaled; Casali, John G

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess normal hearing listeners' performance in detecting a stationary backup alarm signal and to quantify the linear distance at detection point. Detection distances for 12 participants with normal hearing were measured while they were fitted with 7 hearing protectors and while they were unoccluded (open ear). A standard (narrowband) backup alarm signal and a broadband (pulsed white noise) backup alarm signal from Brigade[1] were used. The method of limits, with distance as the physical measurement variable and threshold detection as the task, was employed to find at which distance the participant could first detect the backup alarms. A within-subject Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) revealed a significant main effect of the listening conditions on the detection distance in feet. Post hoc analyses indicated that the Bilsom L3HV conventional passive earmuff (at 1132.2 ft detection distance) was significantly poorer compared to all other HPDs and the open ear in detection distance achieved, and that there were no statistically-significant differences between the unoccluded ear (1652.3 ft), EB-15-Lo BlastPLGTM (1546.2 ft), EB-15-Hi BlastPLGTM (1543.4 ft), E-A-R/3M Combat ArmsTM earplug-nonlinear, level-dependent state (1507.8 ft), E-A-R/3M HiFiTM earplug (1497.7 ft), and Bilsom ImpactTM dichotic electronic earmuff (1567.2 ft). In addition, the E-A-R/3M Combat ArmsTM earplug-passive steady state resulted in significantly longer detection distances than only the open ear condition, at 1474.1 ft versus 1652.3 ft for the open ear. ANOVA also revealed a significant main effect of the backup alarm type on detection distance. The means were 1600.9 ft for the standard (narrowband) backup alarm signal, and a significantly closer 1379.4 ft was required for the Brigade broadband backup alarm signal. For on-ground workers, it is crucial to detect backup alarm signals as far away as possible rather than at close distances since this will provide them

  6. Ranking the harm of non-medically used prescription opioids in the UK

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Amsterdam, Jan; Phillips, Lawrence; Henderson, Graeme; Bell, James; Bowden-Jones, Owen; Hammersley, Richard; Ramsey, John; Taylor, Polly; Dale-Perera, Annette; Melichar, Jan; van den Brink, Wim; Nutt, David

    2015-01-01

    A panel of nine experts applied multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) to determine the relative overall harm to users and harms to others of street heroin (injected and smoked) and eleven non-medically used prescription opioids. The experts assessed harm scores for each of the 13 opioids on each

  7. The prevalence of previous self-harm amongst self-poisoning patients in Sri Lanka

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohamed, Fahim; Perera, Aravinda; Wijayaweera, Kusal

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: One of the most important components of suicide prevention strategies is to target people who repeat self-harm as they are a high risk group. However, there is some evidence that the incidence of repeat self-harm is lower in Asia than in the West. The objective of this study...... was to investigate the prevalence of previous self-harm among a consecutive series of self-harm patients presenting to hospitals in rural Sri Lanka. METHOD: Six hundred and ninety-eight self-poisoning patients presenting to medical wards at two hospitals in Sri Lanka were interviewed about their previous episodes...... of self-harm. RESULTS: Sixty-one (8.7%, 95% CI 6.7-11%) patients reported at least one previous episode of self-harm [37 (10.7%) male, 24 (6.8%) female]; only 19 (2.7%, 95% CI 1.6-4.2%) patients had made more than one previous attempt. CONCLUSION: The low prevalence of previous self-harm is consistent...

  8. IQ and adolescent self-harm behaviours in the ALSPAC birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shu-Sen; Chen, Ying-Yeh; Heron, Jon; Kidger, Judi; Lewis, Glyn; Gunnell, David

    2014-01-01

    Low IQ is associated with an increased risk of suicide and suicide attempt in adults, but less is known about the relationship between IQ and aspects of suicidal/self-harm behaviours in adolescence. We used data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), a population-based prospective UK cohort. Binomial and multinomial logistic regression models were used to examine the association of IQ measured at age 8 with suicide-related outcomes amongst 4810 adolescents aged 16-17 years. There was some evidence that associations differed in boys and girls (p values for interaction ranged between 0.06 and 0.25). In boys higher IQ was associated with increased risk of suicidal thoughts (adjusted odds ratio per 10 point increase in IQ score=1.14, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] 1.01-1.28) and suicidal plans (1.15, 95% CI 0.93-1.43), although statistical evidence for the latter association was limited. There was also evidence for an association with non-suicidal self-harm (1.24, 95% CI 1.08-1.45) but not suicidal self-harm (1.04, 95% CI 0.86-1.25). In girls higher IQ was associated with increased risk of non-suicidal self-harm (1.11, 95% CI 1.02-1.22) but not suicidal thoughts, suicidal plans or suicidal self-harm. Loss to follow up and questionnaire non-response may have led to selection bias. In contrast to previous studies of IQ-suicide associations in adults, we found that higher IQ was associated with an increased risk of non-suicidal self-harm in male and female adolescents and suicidal thoughts in males. Associations of IQ with self-harm differed for self-harm with and without suicidal intent, suggesting that the aetiology of these behaviours may differ. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Impulse noise: can hitting a softball harm your hearing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Korrine; Atcherson, Samuel R

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify whether or not different materials of softball bats (wooden, aluminum, and composite) are a potential risk harm to hearing when batting players strike a 12'' core .40 softball during slow, underhand pitch typical of recreational games. Peak sound pressure level measurements and spectral analyses were conducted for three controlled softball pitches to a batting participant using each of the different bat materials in an unused outdoor playing field with regulation distances between the pitcher's mound and batter's box. The results revealed that highest recorded peak sound pressure level was recorded from the aluminum (124.6 dBC) bat followed by the composite (121.2 dBC) and wooden (120.0 dBC) bats. Spectral analysis revealed composite and wooden bats with similar broadly distributed amplitude-frequency response. The aluminum bat also produced a broadly distributed amplitude-frequency response, but there were also two very distinct peaks at around 1700 Hz and 2260 Hz above the noise floor that produced its ringing (or ping) sound after being struck. Impulse (transient) sounds less than 140 dBC may permit multiple exposures, and softball bats used in a recreational slow pitch may pose little to no risk to hearing.

  10. Cepheids Geometrical Distances Using Space Interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marengo, M.; Karovska, M.; Sasselov, D. D.; Sanchez, M.

    2004-05-01

    A space based interferometer with a sub-milliarcsecond resolution in the UV-optical will provide a new avenue for the calibration of primary distance indicators with unprecedented accuracy, by allowing very accurate and stable measurements of Cepheids pulsation amplitudes at wavelengths not accessible from the ground. Sasselov & Karovska (1994) have shown that interferometers allow very accurate measurements of Cepheids distances by using a ``geometric'' variant of the Baade-Wesselink method. This method has been succesfully applied to derive distances and radii of nearby Cepheids using ground-based near-IR and optical interferometers, within a 15% accuracy level. Our study shows that the main source of error in these measurements is due to the perturbing effects of the Earth atmosphere, which is the limiting factor in the interferometer stability. A space interferometer will not suffer from this intrinsic limitations, and can potentially lead to improve astronomical distance measurements by an order of magnitude in precision. We discuss here the technical requirements that a space based facility will need to carry out this project, allowing distance measurements within a few percent accuracy level. We will finally discuss how a sub-milliarcsecond resolution will allow the direct distance determination for hundreds of galactic sources, and provide a substantial improvement in the zero-point of the Cepheid distance scale.

  11. Engaging in Distancing Tactics among Sport Fans: Effects on Self-Esteem and Emotional Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizman, Aharon; Yinon, Yoel

    2002-01-01

    Examines the effects of distancing tactics on self-esteem and emotions following a win or loss of one's favorite basketball team. Measures the self-esteem and emotional responses of basketball fans as they exited the sport arena after their team won or lost an official game. (CMK)

  12. Climate Adaptation and Harmful Algal Blooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA supports local, state and tribal efforts to maintain water quality. A key element of its efforts is to reduce excess nutrient pollution and the resulting adverse impacts, including harmful algal blooms.

  13. Online Patient-Provider E-cigarette Consultations: Perceptions of Safety and Harm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown-Johnson, Cati G; Burbank, Andrea; Daza, Eric J; Wassmann, Arianna; Chieng, Amy; Rutledge, Geoffrey W; Prochaska, Judith J

    2016-12-01

    E-cigarettes are popular and unregulated. Patient-provider communications concerning e-cigarettes were characterized to identify patient concerns, provider advice and attitudes, and research needs. An observational study of online patient-provider communications was conducted January 2011-June 2015 from a network providing free medical advice, and analyzed July 2014-May 2016. Patient and provider themes, and provider attitudes toward e-cigarettes (positive, negative, or neutral) were coded qualitatively. Provider attitudes were analyzed with cumulative logit modeling to account for clustering. Patient satisfaction with provider responses was expressed via a Thank function. An increase in e-cigarette-related questions was observed over time. Patient questions (N=512) primarily concerned specific side effects and harms (34%); general safety (27%); e-cigarettes as quit aids (19%); comparison of e-cigarette harms relative to combusted tobacco (18%); use with pre-existing medical conditions (18%); and nicotine-free e-cigarettes (14%). Half of provider responses discussed e-cigarettes as a harm reduction option (48%); 26% discussed them as quit aids. Overall, 47% of providers' responses represented a negative attitude toward e-cigarettes; 33% were neutral (contradictory or non-committal); and 20% were positive. Attitudes did not differ statistically by medical specialty; provider responses positive toward e-cigarettes received significantly more Thanks. Examination of online patient-provider communications provides insight into consumer health experience with emerging alternative tobacco products. Patient concerns largely related to harms and safety, and patients preferred provider responses positively inclined toward e-cigarettes. Lacking conclusive evidence of e-cigarette safety or efficacy, healthcare providers encouraged smoking cessation and recommended first-line cessation treatment approaches. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by

  14. Specific Emissions of Harmful Substances from Small Boilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horák Jiøí

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available Coal is on of the most important energy source and its significance will increase in a future. In Czech republic coal is except else widely used as a fuel for combustion in a small boilers (up to 50 kW. Low efficiency of the small boilers which is often below 50% together with high emissions of the harmful substances into near surroundings cause in average 40 – 70% of total local air pollution. The research was performed in a scope of the Grant no. 101/98/0820 of Grant Agency of Czech Republic was focused on quality of combustion process related to combustion efficiency and creation of harmful substances at combustion of domestic fuels. Experiments were performed to compare combustion of brown coal, clack coal, coke and black coal slurry. Extremely high creation of harmful substances (CO, NOX, solid particles and organic substances was measured when the black coal slurry was used as a fuel, measured in kg of emissions per GJ of burned fuel. Combustion of brown coal produced significant emissions of solid particles which bond harmful substances as metals, polyaromatic hydrocarbons and others together with high emissions of SO2 . Strong dependence between emissions of CO and low quality of combustion given by low combustion temperature, shortage of combustion air, not suitable design of after-combustion chamber and short duration of fuel presence in a combustion area was found out. Emissions of wide range of metals were investigated. The results of the research grant project describe and explain the combustion process and creation of harmful substances in small boilers plus give suggestions and recommendations leading to rational operation of the small boilers and lowering their negative impact to environment.

  15. Reducing the distance in distance-caregiving by technology innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazelle E Benefield

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Lazelle E Benefield1, Cornelia Beck21College of Nursing, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, USA; 2Pat & Willard Walker Family Memory Research Center, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas, USAAbstract: Family caregivers are responsible for the home care of over 34 million older adults in the United States. For many, the elder family member lives more than an hour’s distance away. Distance caregiving is a growing alternative to more familiar models where: 1 the elder and the family caregiver(s may reside in the same household; or 2 the family caregiver may live nearby but not in the same household as the elder. The distance caregiving model involves elders and their family caregivers who live at some distance, defined as more than a 60-minute commute, from one another. Evidence suggests that distance caregiving is a distinct phenomenon, differs substantially from on-site family caregiving, and requires additional assistance to support the physical, social, and contextual dimensions of the caregiving process. Technology-based assists could virtually connect the caregiver and elder and provide strong support that addresses the elder’s physical, social, cognitive, and/or sensory impairments. Therefore, in today’s era of high technology, it is surprising that so few affordable innovations are being marketed for distance caregiving. This article addresses distance caregiving, proposes the use of technology innovation to support caregiving, and suggests a research agenda to better inform policy decisions related to the unique needs of this situation.Keywords: caregiving, family, distance, technology, elders

  16. Effect of long-distance transportation on serum metabolic profiles of steer calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemoto, Satoshi; Tomonaga, Shozo; Funaba, Masayuki; Matsui, Tohru

    2017-12-01

    Long-distance transportation is sometimes inevitable in the beef industry because of the geographic separation of major breeding and fattening areas. Long-distance transportation negatively impacts production and health of cattle, which may, at least partly, result from the disturbance of metabolism during and after transportation. However, alteration of metabolism remains elusive in transported cattle. We investigated the effects of transportation on the metabolomic profiles of Holstein steer calves. Non-targeted analysis of serum concentrations of low molecular weight metabolites was performed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. Transportation affected 38 metabolites in the serum. A pathway analysis suggested that 26, 10, and 10 pathways were affected immediately after transportation, and 3 and 7 days after transportation, respectively. Some pathways were disturbed only immediately after transportation, likely because of feed and water withdrawal during transit. Nicotinate and nicotinamide metabolism, and ci