WorldWideScience

Sample records for hare syndrome virus

  1. European brown hare syndrome virus in free-ranging European brown hares from Argentina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frolich, K.; Kujawski, G.E.J.G.; Rudolph, M.

    2003-01-01

    From 1998 to 2000, serum samples of 80 shot European brown hares (Lepus europaeus) from Argentina were examined for antibodies against European brown hare syndrome virus (EBHSV) and 80 spleen samples were tested for EBHSV-antigen by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Nine hares were...

  2. Hepatitis E virus in wild rabbits and European brown hares in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerschmidt, F; Schwaiger, K; Dähnert, L; Vina-Rodriguez, A; Höper, D; Gareis, M; Groschup, M H; Eiden, M

    2017-12-01

    Recently, a change of hepatitis E from being a typical travel-associated disease to an autochthonous zoonosis in Germany was observed. An increasing number of autochthonous infections with the hepatitis E Virus (HEV) have been recognized in developed countries. Venison from wild boar is already known to be a potential source of infection, if not prepared properly by the consumer. In Germany, certain wild animals are known to be a reservoir for HEV. However, current information is missing about European brown hares (Lepus europaeus) and wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus). Thus, a total of 833 hunting-harvested animals (European brown hares n = 669; wild rabbits n = 164) were tested for the occurrence of HEV RNA and HEV antibodies. For this, liver and blood specimens were taken after hunts in six German federal states. HEV antibodies were found by ELISA in 2.2% (624/14) of European brown hares, but no HEV RNA was detectable by nested real-time RT-PCR. In contrast, a seroprevalence of 37.3% (126/47) was observed for wild rabbits, and 17.1% (164/28) of the samples were HEV RNA positive. Genomic analysis revealed that these partial sequences clustered within the rabbit clade of HEV-3 genotype. In addition, one rabbit sequence segregated into subtype 3g of HEV-3. Highest seroprevalences for hares and rabbits were detected in the federal states of Bavaria and of Schleswig-Holstein, respectively. Comparing urban, rural and insular areas, the highest seroprevalence was shown for wild rabbits in rural areas and for European brown hares on the northern island Fehmarn. This study provides evidence that European brown hares and wild rabbits from Germany can be infected with HEV. The different prevalences indicate that wild rabbits are a potential reservoir for HEV in Germany, whereas European brown hares seem to be only of minor importance for the epidemiology of HEV. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. Endogenous hepatitis C virus homolog fragments in European rabbit and hare genomes replicate in cell culture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Silva

    Full Text Available Endogenous retroviruses, non-retroviral RNA viruses and DNA viruses have been found in the mammalian genomes. The origin of Hepatitis C virus (HCV, the major cause of chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma in humans, remains unclear since its discovery. Here we show that fragments homologous to HCV structural and non-structural (NS proteins present in the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus and hare (Lepus europaeus genomes replicate in bovine cell cultures. The HCV genomic homolog fragments were demonstrated by RT-PCR, PCR, mass spectrometry, and replication in bovine cell cultures by immunofluorescence assay (IFA and immunogold electron microscopy (IEM using specific MAbs for HCV NS3, NS4A, and NS5 proteins. These findings may lead to novel research approaches on the HCV origin, genesis, evolution and diversity.

  4. Roles of Host Species, Geographic Separation, and Isolation in the Seroprevalence of Jamestown Canyon and Snowshoe Hare Viruses in Newfoundland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, Hugh

    2012-01-01

    California serogroup viruses, including Jamestown Canyon virus (JCV) and snowshoe hare virus (SSHV), are mosquito-borne members of the Bunyaviridae family and are endemic across North America. These arboviruses are potential pathogens which occasionally cause neuroinvasive disease in humans and livestock. A neutralization assay was used to document JCV and SSHV seroprevalence using blood collected from a variety of domestic and wildlife host species. These species were sampled in an island setting, Newfoundland, which contains diverse ecoregions, ecological landscapes, and habitats. Seroprevalence rates for each virus differed significantly among host species and within certain species across different geographic areas. JCV was significantly associated with large mammals, and SSHV was significantly associated with snowshoe hares. Seroprevalence rates in the 5 species of animals tested for prior exposure to JCV ranged from 0% in snowshoe hares to 64% in horses. Seroprevalence rates for SSHV ranged from less than 1% in bovines to 55% in all snowshoe hares. The seroprevalence of SSHV differed significantly (P Newfoundland was associated with significantly lower JCV seroprevalence (P < 0.01) than that for cattle which had lived off-island. PMID:22798366

  5. Haring's Heroes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirker, Sara Schickle

    2007-01-01

    One American artist that students enjoy is Keith Haring. They love the symbolic figures, movement, energy, vitality, spirit, and excitement that characterizes his art. Haring was driven by a strong desire to communicate and developed his own language with his bold lines, objects, figures, colors and patterns. In this article, the author presents…

  6. Haring-Inspired Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corfield, Marie

    2007-01-01

    While exploring Keith Haring's Web site one day, the author discovered two untitled pieces from 1982 that became inspiration pieces for a lesson on symmetry and complementary colors for her second graders. Haring's simple shapes and colors and playful images are very similar to those found in the margins or on the cover of any typical child's…

  7. Keith Haring/Journal

    OpenAIRE

    Gustavino, Berenice

    2012-01-01

    Cet ouvrage est la traduction française du Journal de l'artiste américain Keith Haring, publié initialement en langue originale en 1996. Au fur et mesure des quatre-cents pages, le lecteur est invité à suivre les réflexions de l'artiste, déposées entre 1977 et 1989 dans des dizaines de cahiers manuscrits. De ses années de formation au succès international qu’on lui connaît, K. Haring y tient le registre des questionnements au cœur de  sa recherche plastique : les possibilités d’une fusion ent...

  8. HARE: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mckie, Jim

    2012-01-09

    This report documents the results of work done over a 6 year period under the FAST-OS programs. The first effort was called Right-Weight Kernels, (RWK) and was concerned with improving measurements of OS noise so it could be treated quantitatively; and evaluating the use of two operating systems, Linux and Plan 9, on HPC systems and determining how these operating systems needed to be extended or changed for HPC, while still retaining their general-purpose nature. The second program, HARE, explored the creation of alternative runtime models, building on RWK. All of the HARE work was done on Plan 9. The HARE researchers were mindful of the very good Linux and LWK work being done at other labs and saw no need to recreate it. Even given this limited funding, the two efforts had outsized impact: _ Helped Cray decide to use Linux, instead of a custom kernel, and provided the tools needed to make Linux perform well _ Created a successor operating system to Plan 9, NIX, which has been taken in by Bell Labs for further development _ Created a standard system measurement tool, Fixed Time Quantum or FTQ, which is widely used for measuring operating systems impact on applications _ Spurred the use of the 9p protocol in several organizations, including IBM _ Built software in use at many companies, including IBM, Cray, and Google _ Spurred the creation of alternative runtimes for use on HPC systems _ Demonstrated that, with proper modifications, a general purpose operating systems can provide communications up to 3 times as effective as user-level libraries Open source was a key part of this work. The code developed for this project is in wide use and available at many places. The core Blue Gene code is available at https://bitbucket.org/ericvh/hare. We describe details of these impacts in the following sections. The rest of this report is organized as follows: First, we describe commercial impact; next, we describe the FTQ benchmark and its impact in more detail; operating

  9. Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvisgaard, Lise Kirstine

    This PhD thesis presents the diversity of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome viruses (PRRSV) circulating in the Danish pig population. PRRS is a disease in pigs caused by the PRRS virus resulting in reproductive failures in sows and gilts and respiratory diseases in pigs . Due to genetic...

  10. Introgression of mountain hare (Lepus timidus mitochondrial DNA into wild brown hares (Lepus europaeus in Denmark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villesen Palle

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Europe the mountain hare (Lepus timidus exists in Great Britain, Norway, Sweden, Finland, parts of the Alps and in Eastern Europe, but not in Denmark. Interspecific hybridization has been demonstrated between native Swedish mountain hares and introduced brown hares (Lepus europaeus. During the data collection in a study concerning Danish brown hares we identified 16 hares with a single very divergent haplotype. Results Phylogenetic analysis shows that the divergent Danish haplotype is most closely related to the Swedish mountain hare. The frequency of Lepus timidus mtDNA haplotype in the Eastern Danish hare populations is estimated to 6%. Conclusion In contrast to what is known, the Danish hare populations are not pure L. europaeus populations but include introgressed brown hares with Swedish L. timidus mtDNA. The most probable explanation of this is natural migration or translocation of introgressed brown hares from Sweden. The impurity of hare populations has implications for conservation and population genetics.

  11. Quantification of virus syndrome in chili peppers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-06-15

    Jun 15, 2011 ... One of the most important problems to produce chili crops is the presence of diseases caused by pathogen agents, such as viruses, therefore, there is a substantial necessity to better predict the behavior of the diseases of these crops, determining a more precise quantification of the disease's syndrome that ...

  12. Introgression of mountain hare (Lepus timidus) mitochondrial DNA into wild brown hares (Lepus europaeus) in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fredsted, Tina; Wincentz, Trine; Villesen, Palle

    2006-01-01

    ). During the data collection in a study concerning Danish brown hares we identified 16 hares with a single very divergent haplotype. Results Phylogenetic analysis shows that the divergent Danish haplotype is most closely related to the Swedish mountain hare. The frequency of Lepus timidus mtDNA haplotype...... in the Eastern Danish hare populations is estimated to 6%. Conclusion In contrast to what is known, the Danish hare populations are not pure L. europaeus populations but include introgressed brown hares with Swedish L. timidus mtDNA. The most probable explanation of this is natural migration or translocation...

  13. Characterization of a tailless white spot syndrome virus from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-10-17

    , Yangzhou, China. Accepted 15 July, 2011. In this study, a virus similar to the causative agent of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) but without tail-like extension was identified and characterized from diseased Penaeus ...

  14. Keith Haring: The Political Line

    OpenAIRE

    Drugeon, Fanny

    2014-01-01

    Au sein des nombreuses publications sur l’artiste new-yorkais mort du sida en 1990 à l’âge de 31 ans, ce catalogue de l’exposition qui s’est tenue au musée d’art moderne de la Ville de Paris d’avril à août 2013 se singularise par son angle d’approche. « Haring se consacra à la justice et à l’évolution sociale » (p. 16), précise l’historien de l’art Dieter Buchhart dans son essai, « La Ligne politique infinie ». Et c’est à travers ce prisme qu’est analysée l’œuvre de Keith Haring, tout en rebe...

  15. Widespread introgression of mountain hare genes into Fennoscandian brown hare populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levänen, Riikka; Thulin, Carl-Gustaf; Spong, Göran; Pohjoismäki, Jaakko L O

    2018-01-01

    In Fennoscandia, mountain hare (Lepus timidus) and brown hare (Lepus europaeus) hybridize and produce fertile offspring, resulting in gene flow across the species barrier. Analyses of maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) show that introgression occur frequently, but unavailability of appropriate nuclear DNA markers has made it difficult to evaluate the scale- and significance for the species. The extent of introgression has become important as the brown hare is continuously expanding its range northward, at the apparent expense of the mountain hare, raising concerns about possible competition. We report here, based on analysis of 6833 SNP markers, that the introgression is highly asymmetrical in the direction of gene flow from mountain hare to brown hare, and that the levels of nuclear gene introgression are independent of mtDNA introgression. While it is possible that brown hares obtain locally adapted alleles from the resident mountain hares, the low levels of mountain hare alleles among allopatric brown hares suggest that hybridization is driven by stochastic processes. Interspecific geneflow with the brown hare is unlikely to have major impacts on mountain hare in Fennoscandia, but direct competition may.

  16. Performance and mortality of farmed hares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigo, N; Trocino, A; Poppi, L; Giacomelli, M; Grilli, G; Piccirillo, A

    2015-06-01

    Performance and mortality of hares were evaluated for 2 consecutive years in a large farm in Veneto Region (Northern Italy). On average, fertile reproductive pairs (n=318) gave birth 4.8 times and produced 11.4 live leverets, weaned 8.4 leverets and produced 7.0 growing hares (60 days) every year. Mean mortality was 3.6%, 22.9%, 9.7% and 2.5% in newborn (0 to 2 days of age), suckling (3 to 25 days), growing (26 to 60 days) and sub-adult (61 days until sale) hares, respectively. The main causes of mortality were enteric diseases (75.5%, 75.9% and 12.1% in suckling, growing and sub-adult hares, respectively), followed by respiratory diseases (3.4%, 8.0% and 36.2% in suckling, growing and sub-adult hares, respectively), starvation (11.3% and 8.8% in suckling and growing hares, respectively) and trauma (7.1%, 2.3% and 30.2% in suckling, growing and sub-adult hares, respectively). In reproducing hares, mortality was 24.7% and 15.4% in 2010 and 2011, respectively. Respiratory diseases (34.8%) and ulcerative pododermatitis (18.9%) were the most common pathological changes detected in reproducing hares. Farmed hares seem to be affected by diseases resembling those of rabbits reared under intensive conditions. It seems necessary to improve the husbandry of hares to reach satisfactory technical standards and to preserve their health.

  17. Parasitic infections of wild rabbits and hares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilić Tamara

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the most important parasitic infections of wild rabbits and hares, which harmful effect in this animal population is manifested as a gradual weakening of the immune system, reduction in fertility, weight loss and constant exhaustion. Order of Lagomorpha (hares or lagomorphs belongs to superorder of higher mammals which includes the family of rabbits (Leporidae which are represented in Europe as well as the family of whistleblowers (Ochotonidae which live only in North America and Northern regions of Asia. The most important representatives of Leporidae family are European hare (Lepus europeus and wild rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus. The most important endoparasitosis of hares and wild rabbits are: coccidiosis, encephalitozoonosis (nosemosis, toxoplasmosis, sarcocystosis, giardiasis, cryptosporidiosis, protostrongylosis, trichostrngylodosis, passalurosis, anoplocephalidosis, cysticercosis and fasciolosis. The most frequent ectoparasites of rabbits and wild hares are fleas, lice and ticks. Reduction in hare population, which is noticed in whole Europe including Serbia, is caused by changed living conditions, quantitatively and qualitatively insufficient nutrition, increased use of herbicides as well as various infectious diseases and the diseases of parasitic etiology. Since wild rabbits and hares pose a threat to health of domestic rabbits and people, knowledge of parasitic fauna of these wild animals is of extreme epizootiological and epidemiological importance.

  18. Can snowshoe hares control treeline expansions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olnes, Justin; Kielland, Knut; Juday, Glenn P; Mann, Daniel H; Genet, Hélène; Ruess, Roger W

    2017-10-01

    Treelines in Alaska are advancing in elevation and latitude because of climate warming, which is expanding the habitat available for boreal wildlife species, including snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus). Snowshoe hares are already present in tall shrub communities beyond treeline and are the main browser of white spruce (Picea glauca), the dominant tree species at treeline in Alaska. We investigated the processes involved in a "snowshoe hare filter" to white spruce establishment near treeline in Denali National Park, Alaska, USA. We modeled the pattern of spruce establishment from 1970 to 2009 and found that fewer spruce established during periods of high hare abundance. Multiple factors interact to influence browsing of spruce, including the hare cycle, snow depth and the characteristics of surrounding vegetation. Hares are abundant at treeline and may exclude spruce from otherwise optimal establishment sites, particularly floodplain locations with closed shrub canopies. The expansion of white spruce treeline in response to warming climate will be strongly modified by the spatial and temporal dynamics of the snowshoe hare filter. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  19. Hare e o Problema da Ladeira Escorregadia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Feldhaus

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with Richard Hare's Kantian Utilitarianism aplied to bioethics and discusses his attempt to solve the problem of the slippery-slope. The distinction between two levels of moral thinking, the intuitive and the critical, is appointed by the philosopher as a possible solution. The question, then, is the following: can Hare really avoid the slippery-slope problem? The answer seems to be "no".

  20. Genetic variation among isolates of White Spot Syndrome Virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marks, H.; Goldbach, R.W.; Vlak, J.M.; Hulten, van M.C.W.

    2004-01-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV), member of a. new virus family called Nimaviridae, is a major scourge in worldwide shrimp, cultivation. Geographical isolates of WSSV identified so far are very similar in morphology and proteome, and show little difference in restriction fragment length polymorphism

  1. Multiple proteins of White spot syndrome virus involved in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The recognition and attachment of virus to its host cell surface is a critical step for viral infection. Recent research revealed that -integrin was involved in White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection. In this study, the interaction of -integrin with structure proteins of WSSV and motifs involved in WSSV infection was ...

  2. Multiple proteins of White spot syndrome virus involved in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-03-20

    Mar 20, 2014 ... The recognition and attachment of virus to its host cell surface is a critical step for viral infection. Recent research revealed that β-integrin was involved in White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection. In this study, the interaction of β-integrin with structure proteins of WSSV and motifs involved in WSSV ...

  3. Genomics and transcriptomics of White spot syndrome virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marks, H.

    2005-01-01

    White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) is a large enveloped DNA virus that infects shrimp and other crustaceans. The virions are approximately 275 x 120 nm in size and have an ovoid to bacilliform shape and a tail-like appendage at one end. Sequencing revealed that the circular, double stranded (ds) DNA

  4. Brown hares on the edge: Genetic population structure of the Danish brown hare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Liselotte W.; Fredsted, Tina; Wincentz, Trine

    2009-01-01

    Andersen L. W., Fredsted T., Wincentz T. and Pertoldi C. 2009. Brown hares on the edge: Genetic population structure of the Danish brown hare. Acta Theriologica 54: 97-110. Denmark lies on the edge of the distributional range of the brown hare Lepus europaeus Pallas, 1778, where population......-69.8 respectively). There was no correlation between the geographic and the genetic distance. Population structure was influenced by genetic drift, anthropogenic effects (eg translocation and escapes from hare-farms) and by post-glacial recolonization from southern refuges or refuges north east of the Black Sea...... glaciations or by stocking effects. Colonization from southern refuges was supported by the observation that haplotype 2 in the Danish brown hare was identical to the central European ancestral haplotype c07....

  5. Stress evaluation in hares (Lepus europaeus Pallas captured for traslocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Lavazza

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available With the aim to evaluate the capturing techniques some haematic and physiological parameters were studied to discrim- inate stressed hares from non stressed hares. A total of 66 wild hares (experimental group were sampled in 14 different non-hunting areas, where hares are usually captured for later release in low-density areas. In the same season a total of 30 hares (about 1 year old, reared in cages and thus showing a reduced fear of man, were sampled (control group. In each area the hares were captured by cours- ing with 3-4 dogs (greyhounds or lurches. The dogs were released by the different hunter teams to find and drive into trammel nets any hare that was seen running. After capture, the hares remained inside darkened, wooden capture-boxes for a variable period of time before blood drawing. For blood sample collection all the hares were physically restrained and their eyes immediately covered. Blood, always collected within 1-2 minutes, was drawn from the auricular vein. Blood samples (plasma were analysed for glucose, AST, ALT, CPK and cortisol concentrations. Body temperature, heart and respiratory rate, sex, and age were evaluated in each hare. The effect of origin, sex and age on haematic and physiolog- ical parameters was analysed by ANOVA. Every measured parameter of the hares bearing to the capture group or the control group (reared was then subjected to stepwise and to discriminant analysis, in order to select the groups of stressed (discriminated by the controls and non-stressed hares. CPK, AST and glucose were found to be the best parameters for distinguishing stressed from non-stressed hares. The intensive exercise suffered by the wild hares induced a depletion of energetic reserves, so that most of the captured hares showed lower glucose and higher CPK activity in the plasma, probably due to muscle damage (P< 0.05. After reclassi- fying the hares in the two groups of stressed and non stressed hares, the reference values (means

  6. On Lepus salae, a new African Hare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jentink, F.A.

    1880-01-01

    Hitherto only a small number of well defined species of Hares are known from Africa, viz: one or two species from Algiers and Tunis; eleven have been described as inhabiting the N. E. parts of Africa as far as Somáliland, while Waterhouse ¹) has pointed out that in South Africa there exist three

  7. Evidence of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evidence of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus antibodies in commercial pig husbandry in Nigeria: a preliminary study. ... main economic resources of developing countries. In Nigeria, pig farming contributes significantly to the livestock sub-sector and accounts for about 30% of total pig production in Africa.

  8. Clipboard: Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS): an old virus ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 28; Issue 4. Clipboard: Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS): an old virus jumping into a new host or a new creation? M S Shaila. Volume 28 Issue 4 June 2003 pp 359-360. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  9. On the vaccination of shrimp against white spot syndrome virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witteveldt, J.

    2006-01-01

    More than a decade after its discovery inSouth-East Asia, White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) is still the most important (viral) pathogen in the shrimp culture industry. Despite the shift from culturingPenaeusmonodon

  10. Challenges for porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) vaccinology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kimman, T.G.; Cornelissen, A.H.M.; Moormann, R.J.M.; Rebel, J.M.J.; Stockhofe, N.

    2009-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) continues to be a threat for the pig industry. Vaccines have been developed, but these failed to provide sustainable disease control, in particular against genetically unrelated strains. Here we give an overview of current knowledge and

  11. White Spot Syndrome Virus infection in Penaeus monodon is ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 38; Issue 5. White Spot Syndrome Virus infection in ... Molecular Biology Research Laboratory, Department of Zoology, Centre for Advance Studies, University of Pune, Pune 411 007, India; These authors contributed equally to this work. National Institute of Virology, Microbial ...

  12. Can white spot syndrome virus be transmitted through the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The transmission of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in the aquatic environment by the pathway of phytoplankton through rotifer to artemia and shrimp was investigated. The phytoplankton Alexandrium tamarense and Alexandrium minutum were co-cultured with adult Fenneropenaeus chinensis infected with WSSV and ...

  13. Hare TRIM5α Restricts Divergent Retroviruses and Exhibits Significant Sequence Variation from Closely Related Lagomorpha TRIM5 Genes▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Adam J.; Hué, Stéphane; Schaller, Torsten; Pillay, Deenan; Towers, Greg J.

    2010-01-01

    TRIM5α proteins recruit and restrict incoming cytoplasmic retroviruses. Primate TRIM5α sequence diversity underlies species-specific restriction and is likely caused by selective pressure from ancient pathogenic infections. Here we show that TRIM5α from the European brown hare restricts diverse retroviruses. Furthermore, it differs significantly in sequence from TRIM5α from the closely related rabbit, suggesting evolutionary changes in the last 12 million years since these species diverged. We propose that, like primates, lagomorphs have been subject to selective pressure from TRIM5-sensitive viruses, possibly related to the endogenous lentivirus RELIK found in both rabbits and hares. PMID:20861252

  14. Hare TRIM5α restricts divergent retroviruses and exhibits significant sequence variation from closely related lagomorpha TRIM5 genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Adam J; Hué, Stéphane; Schaller, Torsten; Pillay, Deenan; Towers, Greg J

    2010-12-01

    TRIM5α proteins recruit and restrict incoming cytoplasmic retroviruses. Primate TRIM5α sequence diversity underlies species-specific restriction and is likely caused by selective pressure from ancient pathogenic infections. Here we show that TRIM5α from the European brown hare restricts diverse retroviruses. Furthermore, it differs significantly in sequence from TRIM5α from the closely related rabbit, suggesting evolutionary changes in the last 12 million years since these species diverged. We propose that, like primates, lagomorphs have been subject to selective pressure from TRIM5-sensitive viruses, possibly related to the endogenous lentivirus RELIK found in both rabbits and hares.

  15. White spot syndrome virus: an overview on an emergent concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Paz, Arturo

    2010-01-01

    Viruses are ubiquitous and extremely abundant in the marine environment. One of such marine viruses, the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), has emerged globally as one of the most prevalent, widespread and lethal for shrimp populations. However, at present there is no treatment available to interfere with the unrestrained occurrence and spread of the disease. The recent progress in molecular biology techniques has made it possible to obtain information on the factors, mechanisms and strategies used by this virus to infect and replicate in susceptible host cells. Yet, further research is still required to fully understand the basic nature of WSSV, its exact life cycle and mode of infection. This information will expand our knowledge and may contribute to developing effective prophylactic or therapeutic measures. This review provides a state-of-the-art overview of the topic, and emphasizes the current progress and future direction for the development of WSSV control strategies. © INRA, EDP Sciences, 2010.

  16. Prevalence of thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. in farmed hares (Lepus europaeus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santaniello, Antonio; Dipineto, Ludovico; Veneziano, Vincenzo; Mariani, Ugo; Fioretti, Alessandro; Menna, Lucia Francesca

    2014-10-01

    Thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. were isolated from 118/240 (49.2%) rectal swabs from commercially farmed hares (Lepus europaeus) in southern Italy. Using multiplex PCR, Campylobacter coli was identified in 118/118 (100%) positive samples, while 17/118 (14.4%) positive samples were also positive for Campylobacter jejuni. Adult hares had a higher prevalence of infection with Campylobacter spp. than juvenile hares. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Reye's syndrome associated with respiratory syncytial virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, N; Keeling, J W; Tomlinson, A H

    1979-01-01

    An upper respiratory tract infection in a 22-month-old boy was followed by rapid loss of consciousness, hypoglycaemia, uraemia, and death. Necropsy examination showed fatty change of liver and kidneys, severe cerebral oedema, bronchiolitis, and endocardial fibroelastosis affecting the left ventricle. Immunofluorescence staining showed infection with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). The clinical and pathological findings were those of Reye's syndrome, not previously reported accompanying RSV infection. Images Figure PMID:420528

  18. Instability of the snowshoe hare and woody plant interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, John F; Bryant, John P

    1984-07-01

    We show that Alaskan woody plants respond to browsing in two ways that might destabilize a plantherbivore interaction and account for snowshoe hare population 'cycles'. (1) Browse production of preferred, earliersuccessional woody plants increases in response to moderate levels of browsing. Such yield increases are potentially destabilizing. Later successional woody plants show decreases in yield after moderate browsing, which is consistent with the persistence of snowshoe hares in late successional 'refuge' habitats (Keith 1966, Wolff 1980). (2) Many woody plants are destructively overbrowsed or girdled at the peak of the snowshoe hare cycle. The more palatable and plastic, early to mid successional plants respond by sprouting accompanied by juvenile reversion. Sprouts are markedly less palatable than mature shoots. We show here that sprout palatability and twig biomass are restored in 2-3 years for earlier successional plants, but palatability may not recover for 4-10 years in sprouts of some mid to late successional plants. The decrease in palatability helps to account for the snowshoe hare 'crash' (assuming that damage to more palatable plants is widespread during the 'peak'), and the 2-3 year time lag for recovery of more palatable species could account for (May 1974) the observed 8-11 year period of the hare cycles. Browse yield increases acting during the snowshoe hare population nadir and increase, and sprouting with juvenile reversion acting during the hare peak and decline can in principle account for the oscillatory nature and the observed 8-11 year periodicity of the snowshoe hare cycle.

  19. Absence of xenotropic murine leukaemia virus-related virus in UK patients with chronic fatigue syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breuer Judith

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Detection of a retrovirus, xenotropic murine leukaemia virus-related virus (XMRV, has recently been reported in 67% of patients with chronic fatigue syndrome. We have studied a total of 170 samples from chronic fatigue syndrome patients from two UK cohorts and 395 controls for evidence of XMRV infection by looking either for the presence of viral nucleic acids using quantitative PCR (limit of detection Results We have not identified XMRV DNA in any samples by PCR (0/299. Some serum samples showed XMRV neutralising activity (26/565 but only one of these positive sera came from a CFS patient. Most of the positive sera were also able to neutralise MLV particles pseudotyped with envelope proteins from other viruses, including vesicular stomatitis virus, indicating significant cross-reactivity in serological responses. Four positive samples were specific for XMRV. Conclusions No association between XMRV infection and CFS was observed in the samples tested, either by PCR or serological methodologies. The non-specific neutralisation observed in multiple serum samples suggests that it is unlikely that these responses were elicited by XMRV and highlights the danger of over-estimating XMRV frequency based on serological assays. In spite of this, we believe that the detection of neutralising activity that did not inhibit VSV-G pseudotyped MLV in at least four human serum samples indicates that XMRV infection may occur in the general population, although with currently uncertain outcomes.

  20. Guillain-Barré Syndrome outbreak associated with Zika virus infection in French Polynesia: a case-control study.

    OpenAIRE

    Cao-Lormeau, Van-Mai; Blake, Alexandre; Mons, Sandrine; Lastère, Stéphane; Roche, Claudine; Vanhomwegen, Jessica; Dub, Timothée; Baudouin, Laure; Teissier, Anita; Larre, Philippe; Vial, Anne-Laure; Decam, Christophe; Choumet, Valérie; Halstead, Susan K.; Willison, Hugh J

    2016-01-01

    International audience; Between October, 2013, and April, 2014, French Polynesia experienced the largest Zika virus outbreak ever described at that time. During the same period, an increase in Guillain-Barré syndrome was reported, suggesting a possible association between Zika virus and Guillain-Barré syndrome. We aimed to assess the role of Zika virus and dengue virus infection in developing Guillain-Barré syndrome.; In this case-control study, cases were patients with Guillain-Barré syndrom...

  1. Deep insight into white spot syndrome virus vaccines: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MA Badhul Haq

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available White spot syndrome virus (WSSV, the causative virus of the disease, is found in most shrimp farming areas of the world, where it causes large economic losses to the shrimp farming industry. The potentially fatal virus has been found to be a threat not only to all shrimp species, but also to other marine and freshwater crustaceans, such as crab and crayfish. To date, no effective prophylactic treatment measures are available for viral infections in shrimp and other crustaceans. Due to current aquaculture practices and the broad host range of WSSV, intervention strategies including vaccination against this virus would be pivotal to save and protect shrimp farming. Several achievements have been attained in the search of novel vaccines for WSSV. DNA vaccination, recombinant vaccines, oral vaccination techniques and gene therapy are some of the thrust areas of focus for scientists and researchers. This review article highlights the recent trends in the development of WSSV vaccines either as DNA vaccines or recombinant vaccines and their functioning strategies as suggested by the researchers worldwide.

  2. Promoting Cardiovascular Health in Patients Living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Robin

    2018-03-01

    Patients living with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (PLWHA) are at increased risk of cardiovascular disease because of advances in human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome treatment and increased life expectancy. Cardiovascular health promotion in PLWHA includes strategies for risk factor reduction, disease prevention, early detection, and treatment of cardiovascular disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Guillain-Barre syndrome presenting with sensory disturbance following a herpes virus infection: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ntziora Fotinie

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction We present a case of an unusual clinical manifestation of Guillain-Barre syndrome following a pre-existing herpes virus infection. Although there have been several reports describing the co-existence of herpes virus infection and Guillain-Barre syndrome, we undertook a more in-depth study of the cross-reactivity between herpes viruses and recommend a follow-up study based on serology tests. Case presentation A 39-year-old healthy Caucasian man with Guillain-Barre syndrome presented to our facility initially with sensory disturbance, followed by an atypical descending pattern of clinical progression. On physical examination, our patient showed hot and cold temperature sensory disturbance under the T4 vertebrae level, symmetrically diminished muscle power mainly to his lower limbs, blurred vision, a loss of taste and paresis and diminished reflexes of his lower limbs. Serology test results for common viruses on hospital admission were positive for cytomegalovirus immunoglobulin M, cytomegalovirus immunoglobulin G, herpes simplex virus immunoglobulin M, herpes simplex virus immunoglobulin G, Epstein-Barr virus immunoglobulin M, and varicella zoster virus immunoglobulin G, borderline for Epstein-Barr virus immunoglobulin G and negative for varicella zoster virus immunoglobulin M. At one month after hospital admission his test results were positive for cytomegalovirus immunoglobulin M, cytomegalovirus immunoglobulin G, herpes simplex virus immunoglobulin G, Epstein-Barr virus immunoglobulin G, varicella zoster virus immunoglobulin G, borderline for herpes simplex virus immunoglobulin M and negative for Epstein-Barr virus immunoglobulin M and varicella zoster virus immunoglobulin M. At his six month follow-up, tests were positive for cytomegalovirus immunoglobulin G, herpes simplex virus immunoglobulin M, herpes simplex virus immunoglobulin G, Epstein-Barr virus immunoglobulin G and varicella zoster virus immunoglobulin G and

  4. Orbital apex syndrome secondary to herpes zoster virus infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merino-Iglesias, Alexia; Montero, Javier Antonio; Calabuig-Goena, Maria; Giraldo-Agudelo, Luisa Fernanda

    2014-01-01

    A male patient with herpes zoster ophthalmicus (HZO) presented with left exophthalmos, external and internal ophthalmoplegia and decreased visual acuity. A CT scan revealed myositis without significant compression of the optic nerve. Intravenous acyclovir and oral steroids were started with improvement of the symptoms and eventual complete recovery.Orbital apex syndrome is a rare complication of HZO. Multiple pathogenic mechanisms are involved, including a direct cytopathic effect of the virus as in the present case. Early diagnosis and therapy may lead to complete recovery of visual function. PMID:24614776

  5. A plant toxin mediated mechanism for the lag in snowshoe hare population recovery following cyclic declines

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeAngelis, Donald L.; Bryant, John P.; Liu, Rongsong; Gourley, Stephen A.; Krebs, Charles J; Reichardt, Paul B

    2015-01-01

    A necessary condition for a snowshoe hare population to cycle is reduced reproduction after the population declines. But the cause of a cyclic snowshoe hare population's reduced reproduction during the low phase of the cycle, when predator density collapses, is not completely understood. We propose that moderate-severe browsing by snowshoe hares upon preferred winter-foods could increase the toxicity of some of the hare's best winter-foods during the following hare low, with the result being a decline in hare nutrition that could reduce hare reproduction. We used a combination of modeling and experiments to explore this hypothesis. Using the shrub birch Betula glandulosa as the plant of interest, the model predicted that browsing by hares during a hare cycle peak, by increasing the toxicity B. glandulosa twigs during the following hare low, could cause a hare population to cycle. The model's assumptions were verified with assays of dammarane triterpenes in segments of B. glandulosa twigs and captive hare feeding experiments conducted in Alaska during February and March 1986. The model's predictions were tested with estimates of hare density and measurements of B. glandulosa twig growth made at Kluane, Yukon from 1988–2008. The empirical tests supported the model's predictions. Thus, we have concluded that a browsing-caused increase in twig toxicity that occurs during the hare cycle's low phase could reduce hare reproduction during the low phase of the hare cycle.

  6. DNA markers for identifying individual snowshoe hares using field-collected pellets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael K. Schwartz; Kristine L. Pilgrim; Kevin S. McKelvey; Pilar T. Rivera; Leonard F. Ruggiero

    2007-01-01

    Snowshoe hare (Lepus americanus) abundance has been of interest to wildlife biologists, as hares are essential prey items for many rare and endangered predators. Snowshoe hare abundance has most commonly been estimated through indices such as pellet counts. While pellet counts may be useful in the areas they are developed and when hares are dense,...

  7. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus nonstructural protein 2 (nsp2) topology and selective isoform integration in artificial membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Membrane modification of host subcellular compartments is critical to the replication of many RNA viruses. Enveloped viruses additionally require the ability to requisition cellular membranes during egress for the development of infectious progeny. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus...

  8. Geographic variation in winter adaptations of snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gigliotti, Laura C.; Diefenbach, Duane R.; Sheriff, M.J.

    2017-01-01

    Understanding adaptations of nonhibernating northern endotherms to cope with extreme cold is important because climate-induced changes in winter temperatures and snow cover are predicted to impact these species the most. We compared winter pelage characteristics and heat production of snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus Erxleben, 1777) on the southern edge of their range, in Pennsylvania (USA), to a northern population, in the Yukon (Canada), to investigate how hares might respond to changing environmental conditions. We also investigated how hares in Pennsylvania altered movement rates and resting spot selection to cope with variable winter temperatures. Hares from Pennsylvania had shorter, less dense, and less white winter coats than their northern counterparts, suggesting lower coat insulation. Hares in the southern population had lower pelage temperatures, indicating that they produced less heat than those in the northern population. In addition, hares in Pennsylvania did not select for resting spots that offered thermal advantages, but selected locations offering visual obstruction from predators. Movement rates were associated with ambient temperature, with the smallest movements occurring at the lower and upper range of observed ambient temperatures. Our results indicate that snowshoe hares may be able to adapt to future climate conditions via changes in pelage characteristics, metabolism, and behavior.

  9. In silico identification of putative promoter motifs of White Spot syndrome virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marks, H.; Ren, X.Y.; Sandbrink, H.; Hulten, van M.C.W.; Vlak, J.M.

    2006-01-01

    Background: White Spot Syndrome Virus, a member of the virus family Nimaviridae, is a large dsDNA virus infecting shrimp and other crustacean species. Although limited information is available on the mode of transcription, previous data suggest that WSSV gene expression occurs in a coordinated and

  10. Immune reconstitution syndrome in a human immunodeficiency virus infected child due to giardiasis leading to shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sneha Nandy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome has been reported in association with tuberculosis, herpes zoster (shingles, Cryptococcus neoformans, Kaposi′s sarcoma, Pneumocystis pneumonia, hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, herpes simplex virus, Histoplasma capsulatum, human papillomavirus, and Cytomegalovirus. However, it has never been documented with giardiasis. We present a 7-year-old HIV infected girl who developed diarrhea and shock following the initiation of antiretroviral therapy, and her stool showed the presence of giardiasis.

  11. The history and epidemiology of Middle East respiratory syndrome corona virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Osail, Aisha M; Al-Wazzah, Marwan J

    2017-01-01

    Corona viruses cause common cold, and infections caused by corona viruses are generally self-resolving. During the last 4 years, corona viruses have become the most important viruses worldwide because of the occurrence of several recent deaths caused by corona viruses in Saudi Arabia. Spread of the infection occurred worldwide; however, most cases of mortality have occurred in the Middle East. Owing to the predominance of outbreaks in the Middle Eastern countries, the virus was renamed a Middle East respiratory syndrome corona virus (MERS-CoV) by the Corona virus Study Group. The Center for Diseases Control and Prevention and World Health Organization maintain a website that is updated frequently with new cases of MERS-CoV infection. In this review, we describe the history and epidemiology of this novel virus. Studies of the genetics and molecular mechanisms of this virus are expected to facilitate the development of vaccines in the future.

  12. Pediatric Miller Fisher Syndrome Complicating an Epstein-Barr Virus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Communal, Céline; Filleron, Anne; Baron-Joly, Sandrine; Salet, Randa; Tran, Tu-Anh

    2016-10-01

    Miller Fisher syndrome, a variant of Guillain-Barré syndrome, is an acute inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy that may occur weeks after a bacterial or viral infection. Campylobacter jejuni and Haemophilus influenzae are frequently reported etiological agents. We describe a boy with Miller Fisher syndrome following Epstein-002DBarr virus primary infectious mononucleosis. He presented with bilateral dysfunction of several cranial nerves and hyporeflexia of the limbs but without ataxia. Miller Fisher syndrome was confirmed by the presence of anti-GQ1b antibodies in a blood sample. Epstein-Barr virus was identified by polymerase chain reaction and serology. Epstein-Barr virus should be considered as a Miller Fisher syndrome's causative agent. The physiopathology of this condition may involve cross-reactive T-cells against Epstein-Barr virus antigens and gangliosides. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. West Nile virus encephalitis induced opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chad J. Cooper

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available West Nile virus (WNV is an arthropod borne neurotropic single stranded RNA flavivirus with <1% developing presenting with neurological disease. Immunocompromised and elderly patients are more prone to developing WNV meningitis or encephalitis. Definitive diagnosis of WNV meningoencephalitis is a combination of clinical suspicion and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF serology. Forty-eight year old Caucasian female presented with a sudden onset of altered mental status after being found unresponsive. She was confused with intermittent bouts of alertness/lethargy and unintelligible responses to questioning. Her medical problems included endometrial cancer that was in remission after undergoing a total abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral salpingectomy and postoperative chemotherapy with paclitaxel and carboplatin. Pertinent physical examination revealed muscle strength that was significantly decreased, nuchal rigidity and +2 pitting edema of both lower extremities. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging of the brain were negative for any intracranial pathology. CSF analysis was consistent with aseptic meningitis with all CSF serology being negative except for positive WNV antibody. A few days after being admitted she developed involuntary random movements of her eyes and generalized jerking movements (myoclonus. This was determined to be opsoclonus myoclonus syndrome (OMS induced by the WNV meningoencephalitis. She then received five consecutive days of plasmapheresis with a significant improvement in her neurological status. Opsoclonusmyoclonus syndrome (OMS is a rare neurological disorder associated with chaotic multidirectional eye movements, myoclonus and less frequently cerebellar ataxia. OMS affects as few as 1 in 10,000,000 people per year. The pathogenesis is not fully understood with the majority of cases of opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome being idiopathic. According to current medical literature there have only been two previous case

  14. Parasitism in a declining population of snowshoe hares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, I M; Keith, L B; Cary, J R

    1986-07-01

    Prevalence and intensity of six endoparasites were determined in 346 snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus) obtained at Rochester, Alberta, during December-April 1981-1982, the second winter of a cyclic population decline. The data were analyzed for (1) differences among host sex and age classes, and among months and sample sources, and (2) evidence that parasitism was of demographic significance to the hare population. Prevalence and intensity of Obeliscoides cuniculi were consistently highest among adult hares, but rose most sharply from February to March among juveniles. In contrast, prevalence and intensity of Nematodirus triangularis were highest among juveniles; prevalence reached 90-100% by January, whereas intensity continued to rise through April. Prevalence and intensity of both Trichuris leporis and Protostrongylus boughtoni were highest also among juvenile hares; neither parameter exhibited a definite trend over time. Prevalences of Taenia pisiformis (cysticerci) and Eimeria spp. were unrelated to sex, age or month; but Taenia intensity was highest among juveniles, and Eimeria intensity tended to decrease from December to April. Intensities of Nematodirus, Protostrongylus and Eimeria were higher in male hares than in females. Prevalence and intensity were correlated directly in Obeliscoides, Nematodirus, Trichuris and Eimeria. Hares that died during trapping and handling, or from natural predation, had greater intensities of Obeliscoides than did animals killed on purpose. There was no indication, however, that risk of death was increased by the other parasitic infections. Age-related immune responses to parasitism (except Obeliscoides) were evidenced by reduced or stabilized prevalence and/or intensity among older hares. A multiple-regression model predicted depressed body weight with increasing intensities of Nematodirus, Trichuris or Protostrongylus. Other body-condition and reproductive indices were unassociated with parasite intensities. Within the hare

  15. Monkey Viperin Restricts Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Replication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianyu Fang

    Full Text Available Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV is an important pathogen which causes huge economic damage globally in the swine industry. Current vaccination strategies provide only limited protection against PRRSV infection. Viperin is an interferon (IFN stimulated protein that inhibits some virus infections via IFN-dependent or IFN-independent pathways. However, the role of viperin in PRRSV infection is not well understood. In this study, we cloned the full-length monkey viperin (mViperin complementary DNA (cDNA from IFN-α-treated African green monkey Marc-145 cells. It was found that the mViperin is up-regulated following PRRSV infection in Marc-145 cells along with elevated IRF-1 gene levels. IFN-α induced mViperin expression in a dose- and time-dependent manner and strongly inhibits PRRSV replication in Marc-145 cells. Overexpression of mViperin suppresses PRRSV replication by blocking the early steps of PRRSV entry and genome replication and translation but not inhibiting assembly and release. And mViperin co-localized with PRRSV GP5 and N protein, but only interacted with N protein in distinct cytoplasmic loci. Furthermore, it was found that the 13-16 amino acids of mViperin were essential for inhibiting PRRSV replication, by disrupting the distribution of mViperin protein from the granular distribution to a homogeneous distribution in the cytoplasm. These results could be helpful in the future development of novel antiviral therapies against PRRSV infection.

  16. Guillain-Barre syndrome complicating chikungunya virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Ayush; Vibha, Deepti; Srivastava, Achal Kumar; Shukla, Garima; Prasad, Kameshwar

    2017-06-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-borne alphavirus which presents with symptoms of fever, rash, arthralgia, and occasional neurologic disease. While outbreaks have been earlier reported from India and other parts of the world, the recent outbreak in India witnessed more than 1000 cases. Various systemic and rarely neurological complications have been reported with CHIKV. We report two cases of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) with CHIKV. GBS is a rare neurological complication which may occur after subsidence of fever and constitutional symptoms by several neurotropic viruses. We describe two cases of severe GBS which presented with rapidly progressive flaccid quadriparesis progressing to difficulty in swallowing and breathing. Both required mechanical ventilation and improved partly with plasmapharesis. The cases emphasize on (1) description of the rare complication in a setting of outbreak with CHIKV, (2) acute axonal as well as demyelinating neuropathy may occur with CHIKV, (3) accurate identification of this entity during outbreaks with dengue, both of which are vector borne and may present with similar complications.

  17. The sensitive hare: sublethal effects of predator stress on reproduction in snowshoe hares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheriff, Michael J; Krebs, Charles J; Boonstra, Rudy

    2009-11-01

    1. Prey responses to high predation risk can be morphological or behavioural and ultimately come at the cost of survival, growth, body condition, or reproduction. These sub-lethal predator effects have been shown to be mediated by physiological stress. We tested the hypothesis that elevated glucocorticoid concentrations directly cause a decline in reproduction in individual free-ranging female snowshoe hares, Lepus americanus. We measured the cortisol concentration from each dam (using a faecal analysis enzyme immunoassay) and her reproductive output (litter size, offspring birth mass, offspring right hind foot (RHF) length) 30 h after birth. 2. In a natural monitoring study, we monitored hares during the first and second litter from the population peak (2006) to the second year of the decline (2008). We found that faecal cortisol metabolite (FCM) concentration in dams decreased 52% from the first to the second litter. From the first to the second litter, litter size increased 122%, offspring body mass increased 130%, and offspring RHF length increased 112%. Dam FCM concentrations were inversely related to litter size (r(2) = 0.19), to offspring birth mass (r(2) = 0.32), and to offspring RHF length (r(2) = 0.64). 3. In an experimental manipulation, we assigned wild-caught, pregnant hares to a control and a stressed group and held them in pens. Hares in the stressed group were exposed to a dog 1-2 min every other day before parturition to simulate high predation risk. At parturition, unsuccessful-stressed dams (those that failed to give birth to live young) and stressed dams had 837% and 214%, respectively, higher FCM concentrations than control dams. Of those females that gave birth, litter size was similar between control and stressed dams. However, offspring from stressed dams were 37% lighter and 16% smaller than offspring from control dams. Increasing FCM concentration in dams caused the decline of offspring body mass (r(2) = 0.57) and RHF (r(2) = 0.52). 4

  18. Bioinformatics prediction of swine MHC class I epitopes from Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Welner, Simon; Nielsen, Morten; Lund, Ole

    Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV) causes one of the most important diseases in all swine producing countries. The infection has a high impact on animal welfare, food safety and production economics. PRRSV possesses multiple immunoevasive strategies, from suppression...

  19. Acute human immunodeficiency virus syndrome in an adolescent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Mridula; Rein, Jeffrey

    2003-10-01

    suspicion of acute HIV illness should prompt virologic and serologic analysis. Initial serology is usually negative. Diagnosis therefore depends on direct detection of the virus, by assay of viral load (HIV RNA), DNA polymerase chain reaction, or p24 antigen. Both false-positive and false-negative results for these tests have been reported, further complicating early diagnosis. Pediatricians should play an active role in identifying HIV-infected patients. Our case, the first report of acute HIV illness in an adolescent, emphasizes that clinicians should consider acute HIV seroconversion in the appropriate setting. Recognition of acute HIV syndrome is especially important for improving prognosis and limiting transmission. It is imperative that we maintain a high index of suspicion as primary care physicians for adolescents who present with a viral syndrome and appropriate risk factors.

  20. Thermal inactivation of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome virus, human T lymphotropic virus-III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus, with special reference to antihemophilic factor.

    OpenAIRE

    McDougal, J S; Martin, L S; Cort, S P; Mozen, M; Heldebrant, C M; Evatt, B L

    1985-01-01

    The virus that causes the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), human T lymphotropic virus/lymphadenopathy-associated virus (HTLV-III/LAV), was incubated at temperatures from 37 degrees to 60 degrees C and virus titer (ID-50) was determined over time by a microculture infectivity assay. The rate of thermal decay was consistent with first-order kinetics, and these data were used to construct a linear Arrhenius plot (r = 0.99), which was used to determine inactivation time as a function of...

  1. Virion composition and genomics of white spot syndrome virus of shrimp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulten, van M.C.W.

    2001-01-01


    Since its first discovery in Taiwan in 1992, White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) has caused major economic damage to shrimp culture. The virus has spread rapidly through Asia and reached the Western Hemisphere in 1995 (Texas), where it continued its devastating effect

  2. Identification and phylogeny of a protein kinase gene of white spot syndrome virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulten, van M.C.W.; Vlak, J.M.

    2001-01-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a virus infecting shrimp and other crustaceans, which is unclassified taxonomically. A 2193 bp long open reading frame, encoding a putative protein kinase (PK), was found on a 8.4 kb EcoRI fragment of WSSV proximal to the gene for the major envelope protein

  3. Identification of two major virion protein genes of white spot syndrome virus of shrimp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulten, van M.C.W.; Westenberg, M.; Goodall, S.D.; Vlak, J.M.

    2000-01-01

    White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) is an invertebrate virus, causing considerable mortality in shrimp. Two structural proteins of WSSV were identified. WSSV virions are enveloped nucleocapsids with a bacilliform morphology with an approximate size of 275 x 120 nm, and a tail-like extension at one end.

  4. Three functionally diverged major White Spot Syndrome Virus structural proteins evolved by gene duplication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulten, van M.C.W.; Goldbach, R.W.; Vlak, J.M.

    2000-01-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is an invertebrate virus causing considerable mortality in penaeid shrimp. The oval-to-bacilliform shaped virions, isolated from infected Penaeus monodon, contain four major proteins: VP28, VP26, VP24 and VP19 (28, 26, 24 and 19 kDa, respectively). VP26 and VP24 are

  5. Field-Usable Lateral Flow Immunoassay for the Rapid Detection of White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV)

    OpenAIRE

    Kulabhusan, Prabir Kumar; Rajwade, Jyutika M.; Sugumar, Vimal; Taju, Gani; Sahul Hameed, A. S.; Paknikar, Kishore M.

    2017-01-01

    Background White spot disease (WSD), a major threat to sustainable aquaculture worldwide, is caused by White spot syndrome virus (WSSV). The diagnosis of WSD relies heavily on molecular detection of the virus by one-step PCR. These procedures are neither field-usable nor rapid enough considering the speed at which the virus spreads. Thus, development of a rapid, reliable and field-usable diagnostic method for the detection of WSSV infection is imperative to prevent huge economic losses. Metho...

  6. Birth weight, intrauterine growth retardation and fetal susceptibility to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    The severity of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome was compared in pregnant gilts originating from high and low birth weight litters. One-hundred and eleven pregnant gilts experimentally infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus on gestation day 85 (±1) were necrop...

  7. Gammadelta lymphocyte response to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olin, Michael R; Batista, Laura; Xiao, Zhengguo; Dee, Scott A; Murtaugh, Michael P; Pijoan, Carlos C; Molitor, Thomas W

    2005-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) continues to be one of the most important diseases facing swine industry today. Following PRRSV infection pigs develop both humoral and cell-mediated responses following PRRSV exposure; however, the relative importance in protection and clearance of the virus is not yet completely understood. Swine contain a large percentage of gammadelta T-lymphocytes in peripheral circulation capable of responding to various pathogens in both an innate and specific immune response. The objectives of this study were to determine whether gammadelta lymphocytes functionally respond to PRRSV upon initial exposure and re-exposure. Four month old PRRSV free gilts were intranasally inoculated with a field isolate MN-30100 then assessed at various time points post infection. On day 120, pigs were re-exposed with MN-30100 PRRSV strain and subsequently were bled on days 0, 7, and 14 post re-exposure. Lymphocyte subpopulations, antigen specific proliferation, and IFN-gamma production were evaluated throughout the study. Circulating gammadelta lymphocytes in PRRSV exposed animals expanded between days 14 to 70 (d14-d70, p = 0.016); following antigen stimulation, gammadelta lymphocyte proliferated by day 14 (d0-d14, p = 0.001) continuing through day 60. gammadelta lymphocytes produced IFN-gamma by day 14 pi continuing through day 50 (d0-d50, p = 0.004). Following re-exposure both gammadelta+ and CD4+ lymphocytes increased in IFN-gamma production. These results are not fully conclusive on the role of gammadelta lymphocytes against PRRSV; the data indicate that gammadelta lymphocytes specifically respond to PRRSV.

  8. Hare and Others on the Proposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Corcoran

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available History witnesses alternative approaches to “the proposition”. The proposition has been referred to as the object of belief, disbelief, and doubt: generally as the object of propositional attitudes, that which can be said to be believed, disbelieved, understood, etc. It has also been taken to be the object of grasping, judging, assuming, affirming, denying, and inquiring: generally as the object of propositional actions, that which can be said to be grasped, judged true or false, assumed for reasoning purposes, etc. The proposition has also been taken to be the subject of truth and falsity: generally as the subject of propositional properties, that which can be said to be true, false, tautological, informative, inconsistent, etc. It has also been taken as the subject and object of logical relations, e.g. that which can be said to imply, be implied, contradict, be contradicted, etc. Prima facie, such properties and relations are non-mental and objective. It has also been taken to be the resultants or products of propositional operations, usually mental or linguistic; e.g. judging, affirming, and denying have been held to produce propositions called judgments, affirmations, and negations, respectively. Propositions have also been taken to be certain declarative sentences. Finally, propositions have been taken to be meanings of certain declarative sentences. This essay is an informal, selective, and incomplete survey of alternative approaches to “the proposition” with special attention to the views of the late American philosopher Peter Hare (1935–2008 and of those who influenced him.

  9. Perancangan Media Promosi Menu Afternoon Tea Cafe Hare and Hatter Surabaya

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes, Ervina; Kurniawan, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Perancangan media promosi menu afternoon tea di Café Hare and Hatter merupakan sebuah USAha untuk meningkatkan penjualan dan minat pasar terhadap menu afternoon tea di café Hare and Hatter, juga bagaimana merancang suatu media promosi menu afternoon tea di Café Hare and Hatter dengan pendekatan tradisi dan nilai – nilai dalam afternoon tea time, sehingga Hare and Hatter semakin dikenal dengan menu unggulan afternoon tea. Tujuan utama dari perancangan ini adalah menciptakan suatu media promosi...

  10. Naturalismo e existencialismo na teoria moral de Richard Hare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antônio Oliveira de Azevedo

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1677-2954.2009v8n2p247Em um artigo de 1966, Amartya Sen procurou mostrar que mesmo Richard Hare, um devoto explícitodo antinaturalismo em ética, ainda que inadvertidamente, incorreu num tipo de naturalismo que Senintitulou de existencial. Neste breve artigo, traço um resumo dessa crítica à teoria de Hare, em especial,da chamada “Lei de Hume”, a qual Sen preferiu apropriadamente intitular “Regra de Hare”. Pretendomostrar como esse tipo peculiar de “existencialismo” nos conduz, ainda que sob o possível protesto deHare e seus seguidores, a conclusões subjetivistas e relativistas sobre a moralidade.

  11. Parainfluenza virus infection associated with posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogunneye Owolabi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome is a clinical and radiological entity. The most accepted theory of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome is a loss of autoregulation in cerebral blood flow with a subsequent increase in vascular permeability and leakage of blood plasma and erythrocytes, producing vasogenic edema. In infection-associated posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome, a clinical pattern consistent with systemic inflammatory response syndrome develops. Parainfluenza virus has not been reported in the medical literature to be associated with posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome. Case presentation We report herein the case of a 54-year-old Caucasian woman with posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome associated with parainfluenza virus infection who presented with generalized headache, blurring of vision, new-onset seizure and flu-like symptoms. Conclusion Infection-associated posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome as well as hypertension-associated posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome favor the contribution of endothelial dysfunction to the pathophysiology of this clinicoradiological syndrome. In view of the reversible nature of this clinical entity, it is important that all physicians are well aware of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome in patients presenting with headache and seizure activity. A detailed clinical assessment leading to the recognition of precipitant factors in posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome is paramount.

  12. Syndromic surveillance for West Nile virus using raptors in rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ana, Alba; Perez Andrés, M; Julia, Ponder; Pedro, Puig; Arno, Wünschmann; Kimberly, Vander Waal; Julio, Alvarez; Michelle, Willette

    2017-11-29

    Wildlife rehabilitation centers routinely gather health-related data from diverse species. Their capability to signal the occurrence of emerging pathogens and improve traditional surveillance remains largely unexplored. This paper assessed the utility for syndromic surveillance of raptors admitted to The Raptor Center (TRC) to signal circulation of West Nile Virus (WNV) in Minnesota between 1990 and 2014. An exhaustive descriptive analysis using grouping time series structures and models of interrupted times series was conducted for indicator subsets. A total of 13,080 raptors were monitored. The most representative species were red-tailed hawks, great horned owls, Cooper's hawks, American kestrels and bald eagles. Results indicated that temporal patterns of accessions at the TRC changed distinctively after the incursion of WNV in 2002. The frequency of hawks showing WNV-like signs increased almost 3 times during July and August, suggesting that monitoring of hawks admitted to TRC with WNV-like signs could serve as an indicator of WNV circulation. These findings were also supported by the results of laboratory diagnosis. This study demonstrates that monitoring of data routinely collected by wildlife rehabilitation centers has the potential to signal the spread of pathogens that may affect wild, domestic animals and humans, thus supporting the early detection of disease incursions in a region and monitoring of disease trends. Ultimately, data collected in rehabilitation centers may provide insights to efficiently allocate financial and human resources on disease prevention and surveillance.

  13. Health screening of free-ranging European brown hares (Lepus europaeus) on the German North-Sea island Pellworm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posautz, Annika; Loncaric, Igor; Lundin, Marie; Hoffmann, Daniel; Lavazza, Antonio; Kelemen, Zsofia; Beiglböck, Christoph; Walzer, Christian; Kübber-Heiss, Anna

    2015-08-04

    A sudden decline of the European brown hare (Lepus europaeus) population in one of the best hunting districts for small game species in northern Germany, the German North-Sea island Pellworm, in the years 2007/08 following marked habitat changes led to the implementation of a thorough health assessment program of the population. 110 animals were collected during the normal hunting season in the years 2010 and 2011. A post-mortem examination and histopathological investigation was performed on all animals. Additionally, routine bacteriology of the small intestine and parasitology were carried out. Sera of hares were tested for European Brown Hare Syndrome (EBHS) by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, and for Treponema sp. by indirect immunofluorescent test. Additional testing was performed when deemed necessary. The most striking result was a shift in the intestinal bacterial flora towards Gram-negative Enterobacteriaceae with a predominance of either Escherichia coli, or Aeromonas sp., or a high-grade double-infection with these two pathogens with subsequent catarrhal enteritis. Additionally, a marked coccidiosis, and varying infestations with the nematode Trichostrongylus retortaeformis were found. The sero-prevalence for EBHS was 78.1%, and for Treponema 43.9%. The shift and decrease in diversity of the intestinal flora was the main and most consistent result found. In the authors' opinion the change of the habitat combined with other stressors increased the animals' sensitivity to ubiquitous bacterial species and parasites which usually would not have such fatal effects.

  14. Separate worlds set to collide: smallpox, vaccinia virus vaccination, and human immunodeficiency virus and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorosa, Valerianna K; Isaacs, Stuart N

    2003-08-01

    Concerns about the possible release of smallpox by bioterrorists has led to policies that recommend smallpox vaccination of some health care providers, and, in the near future, the vaccine may become available to the general population on a voluntary basis. Both smallpox virus (variola virus) and the smallpox vaccine (vaccinia virus) will have a significant impact on people infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Given that populations with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and populations with immunosuppressed conditions due to solid organ and bone marrow transplantation were not present in the days when smallpox was prevalent, we will speculate on how smallpox might present in immunodeficient patients, and we will review the adverse events expected from the smallpox vaccine in hosts with HIV infection.

  15. Systematic review of vestibular disorders related to human immunodeficiency virus and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinze, B; Swanepoel, D W; Hofmeyr, L M

    2011-09-01

    Disorders of the auditory and vestibular system are often associated with human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. However, the extent and nature of these vestibular manifestations are unclear. To systematically review the current peer-reviewed literature on vestibular manifestations and pathology related to human immunodeficiency virus and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Systematic review of peer-reviewed articles related to vestibular findings in individuals with human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Several electronic databases were searched. We identified 442 records, reduced to 210 after excluding duplicates and reviews. These were reviewed for relevance to the scope of the study. We identified only 13 reports investigating vestibular functioning and pathology in individuals affected by human immunodeficiency virus and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. This condition can affect both the peripheral and central vestibular system, irrespective of age and viral disease stage. Peripheral vestibular involvement may affect up to 50 per cent of patients, and central vestibular involvement may be even more prevalent. Post-mortem studies suggest direct involvement of the entire vestibular system, while opportunistic infections such as oto- and neurosyphilis and encephalitis cause secondary vestibular dysfunction resulting in vertigo, dizziness and imbalance. Patients with human immunodeficiency virus and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome should routinely be monitored for vestibular involvement, to minimise functional limitations of quality of life.

  16. Estimating Cape hare occupancy and abundance in southern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study outlines the importance of integrating spotlighting data and occupancy modelling to estimate the spatial occupancy, abundance and habitat preferences of Cape hares Lepus capensis in southern Tunisia. Exploring the spatial distribution pattern of this species is problematic because of its nocturnal and secretive ...

  17. Duck egg-drop syndrome caused by BYD virus, a new Tembusu-related flavivirus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingliang Su

    Full Text Available Since April 2010, a severe outbreak of duck viral infection, with egg drop, feed uptake decline and ovary-oviduct disease, has spread around the major duck-producing regions in China. A new virus, named BYD virus, was isolated in different areas, and a similar disease was reproduced in healthy egg-producing ducks, infecting with the isolated virus. The virus was re-isolated from the affected ducks and replicated well in primary duck embryo fibroblasts and Vero cells, causing the cytopathic effect. The virus was identified as an enveloped positive-stranded RNA virus with a size of approximately 55 nm in diameter. Genomic sequencing of the isolated virus revealed that it is closely related to Tembusu virus (a mosquito-borne Ntaya group flavivirus, with 87-91% nucleotide identity of the partial E (envelope proteins to that of Tembusu virus and 72% of the entire genome coding sequence with Bagaza virus, the most closely related flavivirus with an entirely sequenced genome. Collectively our systematic studies fulfill Koch's postulates, and therefore, the causative agent of the duck egg drop syndrome occurring in China is a new flavivirus. Flavivirus is an emerging and re-emerging zoonotic pathogen and BYD virus that causes severe egg-drop, could be disastrous for the duck industry. More importantly its public health concerns should also be evaluated, and its epidemiology should be closely watched due to the zoonotic nature of flaviviruses.

  18. Prevalence of helminths in a cyclic snowshoe hare population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, L B; Cary, J R; Yuill, T M; Keith, I M

    1985-07-01

    Five species of helminths were monitored in a population of snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus) near Rochester, Alberta, during 1961-1977. Prevalence of both Obeliscoides cuniculi and Protostrongylus boughtoni among young hares averaged about 50% by age 2 mo, then tended to level off. Prevalence of Taenia pisiformis (cysticerci) and Dirofilaria scapiceps rose more slowly, but continued to increase steadily beyond their mean levels of 8% and 1% at age 2 mo. There were well defined seasonal (within-year) cycles in prevalence of O. cuniculi and P. boughtoni that were generated evidently to a major degree by arrested development of larvae in fall and renewed development in late winter. It was hypothesized that renewed larval development was triggered (in February) in O. cuniculi by the seasonal rise of circulating pituitary gonadotrophins, and (in April) in P. boughtoni by the seasonal rise of gonadal androgens and estrogens. Indices to gonadal hormone levels in hares indicated that these increased most rapidly among males, and may have accounted for the higher prevalences of P. boughtoni in males during April-May. Neither T. pisiformis nor D. scapiceps exhibited conspicuous seasonal changes in prevalence. Maximum prevalence of T. pisiformis was attained at about 1 yr of age, whereas D. scapiceps increased among adult snowshoes through age 2 yr before stabilizing. Long-term (between-year) changes in prevalence of O. cuniculi, T. pisiformis, and D. scapiceps were correlated significantly with the cyclic hare population which declined from a peak in fall 1961 to a low in 1965-1966, rose to another peak by fall 1970, and declined again to a low in 1975. There was no detectable time lage between this "10-yr" cycle in hare density and the cycles of parasite prevalence among juveniles (less than 1 yr of age). Among adult hares, the cycle of O. cuniculi prevalence was likewise synchronous with that of the hare population, but the cycles of D. scapiceps and T. pisiformis lagged

  19. Metabolic syndrome in human immunodeficiency virus positive patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarita Bajaj

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims and Objectives : To assess the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV positive patients. Prevalence of MetS was compared in patients who were not on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART to patients who were on HAART. Materials and Methods: Seventy HIV positive cases were studied. Pregnant and lactating women, patients on drugs other than HAART known to cause metabolic abnormalities and those having diabetes or hypertension were excluded. Cases were evaluated for MetS by using National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel-III. Results: 47 cases were on HAART and 23 cases were not on HAART. Fasting Blood Glucose ≥100 mg/dl was present in 28.6% cases, out of whom 27.7% were on HAART and 30.4% were not on HAART (P = 0.8089. 12.9% cases had BP ≥130/≥85 mm Hg, out of whom 14.9% were on HAART and 8.7% were not on HAART (P = 0.4666. 42.9% cases had TG ≥150 mg/dl, out of whom 44.7% were on HAART and 39.1% were not on HAART (P = 0.6894. HDL cholesterol was low (males <40 mg/dl, females <50 mg/dl in 50% cases, out of whom 55.3% were on HAART and 39.1% were not on HAART (P = 0.2035. Conclusions: Prevalence of MetS was 20%. Majority of patients had only one component of MetS (32.9%. Low HDL was present in 50%, followed by raised triglycerides in 42.9%. Waist circumference was not increased in any of the patients. There was no statistically significant difference between those on HAART and those not on HAART in distribution of risk factors and individual components of MetS.

  20. Of lemmings and snowshoe hares: the ecology of northern Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebs, Charles J.

    2011-01-01

    Two population oscillations dominate terrestrial community dynamics in northern Canada. In the boreal forest, the snowshoe hare (Lepus americanus) fluctuates in cycles with an 8–10 year periodicity and in tundra regions lemmings typically fluctuate in cycles with a 3–4 year periodicity. I review 60 years of research that has uncovered many of the causes of these population cycles, outline areas of controversy that remain and suggest key questions to address. Lemmings are keystone herbivores in tundra ecosystems because they are a key food resource for many avian and mammalian predators and are a major consumer of plant production. There remains much controversy over the role of predation, food shortage and social interactions in causing lemming cycles. Predation is well documented as a significant mortality factor limiting numbers. Food shortage is less likely to be a major limiting factor on population growth in lemmings. Social interactions might play a critical role in reducing the rate of population growth as lemming density rises. Snowshoe hares across the boreal forest are a key food for many predators and their cycles have been the subject of large-scale field experiments that have pinpointed predation as the key limiting factor causing these fluctuations. Predators kill hares directly and indirectly stress them by unsuccessful pursuits. Stress reduces the reproductive rate of female hares and is transmitted to their offspring who also suffer reduced reproductive rates. The maternal effects produced by predation risk induce a time lag in the response of hare reproductive rate to density, aiding the cyclic dynamics. PMID:20980307

  1. Linking climate change to population cycles of hares and lynx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Chuan; Stenseth, Nils Chr; Krebs, Charles J; Zhang, Zhibin

    2013-11-01

    The classic 10-year population cycle of snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus, Erxleben 1777) and Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis, Kerr 1792) in the boreal forests of North America has drawn much attention from both population and community ecologists worldwide; however, the ecological mechanisms driving the 10-year cyclic dynamic pattern are not fully revealed yet. In this study, by the use of historic fur harvest data, we constructed a series of generalized additive models to study the effects of density dependence, predation, and climate (both global climate indices of North Atlantic Oscillation index (NAO), Southern Oscillation index (SOI) and northern hemispheric temperature (NHT) and local weather data including temperature, rainfall, and snow). We identified several key pathways from global and local climate to lynx with various time lags: rainfall shows a negative, and snow shows a positive effect on lynx; NHT and NAO negatively affect lynx through their positive effect on rainfall and negative effect on snow; SOI positively affects lynx through its negative effect on rainfall. Direct or delayed density dependency effects, the prey effect of hare on lynx and a 2-year delayed negative effect of lynx on hare (defined as asymmetric predation) were found. The simulated population dynamics is well fitted to the observed long-term fluctuations of hare and lynx populations. Through simulation, we find density dependency and asymmetric predation, only producing damped oscillation, are necessary but not sufficient factors in causing the observed 10-year cycles; while extrinsic climate factors are important in producing and modifying the sustained cycles. Two recent population declines of lynx (1940-1955 and after 1980) were likely caused by ongoing climate warming indirectly. Our results provide an alternative explanation to the mechanism of the 10-year cycles, and there is a need for further investigation on links between disappearance of population cycles and global

  2. Influenza A virus and Reye's syndrome in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, L E; Kornfeld, M

    1980-01-01

    We report fatal Reye's syndrome in two adults following proven influenza A viral infections. Reye's syndrome is, therefore, not confined to children but may also occur in adults. Many reported cases of postinfluenza A encephalopathy have clinical and pathological features of Reye's syndrome suggesting that they are not due to postinfectious perivenous demyelination. Images PMID:7205293

  3. Zika virus infection complicated by Guillain-Barre syndrome--case report, French Polynesia, December 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oehler, E; Watrin, L; Larre, P; Leparc-Goffart, I; Lastere, S; Valour, F; Baudouin, L; Mallet, Hp; Musso, D; Ghawche, F

    2014-03-06

    Zika fever, considered as an emerging disease of arboviral origin, because of its expanding geographic area, is known as a benign infection usually presenting as an influenza-like illness with cutaneous rash. So far, Zika virus infection has never led to hospitalisation. We describe the first case of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) occurring immediately after a Zika virus infection, during the current Zika and type 1 and 3 dengue fever co-epidemics in French Polynesia.

  4. Chikungunya virus infection amongst the acute encephalitis syndrome cases in West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Taraphdar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chikungunya virus (CHIKV infection from the acute encephalitis syndrome cases is an uncommon form and has been observed in the year 2010-11 from West Bengal, India. The case-1 and case-2 had the acute encephalitis syndrome; case-3 was of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis whereas the case-4 had the symptoms of meningo-encephalopathy with bulbar involvement. We are reporting four cases with neurological complications involving central nervous system (CNS due to CHIKV infection from this state for the first time. The virus has spread almost every districts of this state rapidly. At this stage, these cases are public health threat.

  5. Xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus-associated chronic fatigue syndrome reveals a distinct inflammatory signature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardi, Vincent C; Hagen, Kathryn S; Hunter, Kenneth W; Diamond, John W; Smith-Gagen, Julie; Yang, Wei; Mikovits, Judy A

    2011-01-01

    The recent identification of xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV) in the blood of patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) establishes that a retrovirus may play a role in the pathology in this disease. Knowledge of the immune response might lead to a better understanding of the role XMRV plays in this syndrome. Our objective was to investigate the cytokine and chemokine response in XMRV-associated CFS. Using Luminex multi-analyte profiling technology, we measured cytokine and chemokine values in the plasma of XMRV-infected CFS patients and compared these data to those of healthy controls. Analysis was performed using the Gene Expression Pattern Analysis Suite and the Random Forest tree classification algorithm. This study identifies a signature of 10 cytokines and chemokines which correctly identifies XMRV/CFS patients with 93% specificity and 96% sensitivity. These data show, for the first time, an immunological pattern associated with XMRV/CFS.

  6. Sequence analysis of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus of the American type collected from Danish swine herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, K.G.; Hansen, C.M.; Madsen, E.S.

    1998-01-01

    Vaccine-like viruses of American type of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) were detected in serum samples by RT-PCR. The viruses were analysed by nucleotide sequencing of the genomic region encoding open reading frames 2 to 7. During the ongoing study of Danish isolates...

  7. Horizontal transmission dynamics of White spot syndrome virus by cohabitation trials in juvenile Penaeus monodon and P. vannamei

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ngo Xuan, T.; Verreth, J.A.J.; Vlak, J.M.; Jong, de M.C.M.

    2014-01-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV), a rod-shaped double-stranded DNA virus, is an infectious agent causing fatal disease in shrimp farming around the globe. Within shrimp populations WSSV is transmitted very fast, however, the modes and dynamics of transmission of this virus are not well understood.

  8. Zika Virus: New Clinical Syndromes and Its Emergence in the Western Hemisphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) had remained a relatively obscure flavivirus until a recent series of outbreaks accompanied by unexpectedly severe clinical complications brought this virus into the spotlight as causing an infection of global public health concern. In this review, we discuss the history and epidemiology of ZIKV infection, recent outbreaks in Oceania and the emergence of ZIKV in the Western Hemisphere, newly ascribed complications of ZIKV infection, including Guillain-Barré syndrome and microcephaly, potential interactions between ZIKV and dengue virus, and the prospects for the development of antiviral agents and vaccines. PMID:26962217

  9. Reducing visual stimulations in european hares (Lepus europaeus Pallas captured for translocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Ferretti

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Stress may be an important variable affecting the survival of the captured hares, for this reason the Authors studied the effect of the use of a blindfolding hood applied to the hares immediately after net trapping. A total of 119 hares were captured by coursing with 3-4 dogs (greyhounds or lurchers in no hunting areas of Tuscany. Immediately after net trapping 38 hares were blindfolded with a hood and 81 were normally handled to the wooden darkened capture- boxes without blinding their eyes (control. From all the hares a sample of blood was collected within 1-2 min by the auricular vein. Blood samples were analyzed for haemocromocytometry and metabolic profile determination. Data were analyzed by ANOVA. Sub-clinically stressed hares were discriminated from nonstressed hares by the use of the discriminant function based on CK, AST and glucose and the differences were tested by chi2c Results showed that body temperature, heart and respiratory rates, glucose, cholesterol, CK, AST, ALT, BUN, total protein and some haemocromo-cytometric parameters were significantly higher in captured hares without blindfold. The incidence of subclinically stressed hares was 26% in the hares equipped with the blindfold and 81% in the hares without blindfold (chi2c=32.98, P<0.0001 (presence of subclinical stress discriminated by the use of a discriminant function based on CPK, AST and glucose. For this reason the procedures designed for the translocation of the hares could take advantage by the use of a blindfold which should be applied to the hares immediately after their trapping.

  10. Survival of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in fresh pork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarino, Helena; Moura, Junior; Cox, Ryan B; Goyal, Sagar M; Patnayak, Devi P

    2014-06-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) remains one of the most economically important diseases of pigs. Transmission of PRRS virus has been reported through many routes, with aerosol route being the most predominant. There may also be a potential risk of transmission through contami-nated pork, but this has never been investigated. The purpose of this study was to experimentally contaminate fresh pork with three different concentrations of PRRSV and to study virus survival at ambient (25 °C), refrigerated (4 °C), and frozen (-20 °C) temperatures. Concentrations of virus representing natural infectivity level and 'worst case scenario' were studied. The virus was detected in fresh pork at all three virus concentrations for up to 48 h at ambient temperature. At 4 °C, the virus survived for 6 days in pork inoculated with the higher virus concentration and for 3 days in pork inoculated at the lower concentration. At frozen temperature, PRRSV was detected for up to 60 days in pork inoculated at the higher concentration and for 7 days in pork inoculated at the lower concentration. These results suggest that fresh pork has the potential to be a vehicle for virus dissemination depending upon temperature and time of storage.

  11. Treatment of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in penaeid shrimp aquaculture using plant extract

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Achuthankutty, C.T.; Desai, U.M.

    The white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is causing a serious concern and threat to the shrimp aquaculture production in India since 1994. In this paper, the result of a successful attempt made in formulating a plant extract for treating the WSSV...

  12. Quantification of virus syndrome in chili peppers | González-Pérez ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One of the most important problems to produce chili crops is the presence of diseases caused by pathogen agents, such as viruses, therefore, there is a substantial necessity to better predict the behavior of the diseases of these crops, determining a more precise quantification of the disease's syndrome that allows the ...

  13. Envelope protein requirements for the assembly of infectious virions of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wissink, E.H.J.; Kroese, M.V.; Wijk, van H.A.; Rijsewijk, F.A.M.; Meulenberg, J.J.; Rottier, P.J.M.

    2005-01-01

    Virions of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) contain six membrane proteins: the major proteins GP5 and M and the minor proteins GP2a, E, GP3, and GP4. Here, we studied the envelope protein requirements for PRRSV particle formation and infectivity using full-length cDNA

  14. Optic neuritis heralding varicella zoster virus retinitis in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meenken, C.; van den Horn, G. J.; de Smet, M. D.; van der Meer, J. T.

    1998-01-01

    We report on a 29-year-old severely compromised acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patient who developed retrobulbar optic neuritis 5 weeks after an episode of cutaneous herpes zoster infection. During the optic neuritis, varicella zoster virus could be demonstrated in the cerebrospinal fluid. The

  15. Transmission of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) from Dendronereis spp. (Peters) (Nereididae) to penaeid shrimp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haryadi, D.; Verreth, J.A.J.; Verdegem, M.C.J.; Vlak, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Dendronereis spp. (Peters) (Nereididae) is a common polychaete in shrimp ponds built on intertidal land and is natural food for shrimp in traditionally managed ponds in Indonesia. White spot syndrome virus (WSSV), an important viral pathogen of the shrimp, can replicate in this polychaete (Desrina

  16. Evolutionary trajectory of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) genome shrinkage during spread in Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwart, M.P.; Bui Thi Minh Dieu,; Hemerik, L.; Vlak, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Background - White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is the sole member of the novel Nimaviridae family, and the source of major economic problems in shrimp aquaculture. WSSV appears to have rapidly spread worldwide after the first reported outbreak in the early 1990s. Genomic deletions of various sizes

  17. Porcine Respiratory and Reproductive Syndrome Virus Variants, Vietnam and China, 2007

    OpenAIRE

    Feng, Youjun; Zhao, Tiezhu; Nguyen, Tung; Inui, Ken; Ma, Ying; Nguyen, Thi Hoa; Nguyen, Cam; Liu, Di; Bui, Quang Anh; To, Long Thanh; Wang, Chuanbin; Tian, Kegong; Gao, George F.

    2008-01-01

    We characterized isolates from porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus epidemics in Vietnam and China in 2007. These isolates showed ?99% identity at the genomic level. Genetic analysis indicated that they share a discontinuous deletion of 30 aa in nonstructural protein 2, which indicates that identical variants emerged in Vietnam and China.

  18. Porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus variants, Vietnam and China, 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Youjun; Zhao, Tiezhu; Nguyen, Tung; Inui, Ken; Ma, Ying; Nguyen, Thi Hoa; Nguyen, Van Cam; Liu, Di; Bui, Quang Anh; To, Long Thanh; Wang, Chuanbin; Tian, Kegong; Gao, George F

    2008-11-01

    We characterized isolates from porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus epidemics in Vietnam and China in 2007. These isolates showed approximately 99% identity at the genomic level. Genetic analysis indicated that they share a discontinuous deletion of 30 aa in nonstructural protein 2, which indicates that identical variants emerged in Vietnam and China.

  19. Zika virus infection and Guillain-Barré syndrome in three patients from Suriname

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Langerak (Thomas); Yang, H. (Harvey); Baptista, M. (Mark); Doornekamp, L. (Laura); Kerkman, T. (Tessa); Codrington, J. (John); Roosblad, J. (Jimmy); Vreden, S.G.S. (Stephen G.S.); E.I. de Bruin (Esther); R. Mögling (Ramona); B.C. Jacobs (Bart); S.D. Pas (Suzan); C.H. Geurts van Kessel (Corine); C.B.E.M. Reusken (Chantal); M.P.G. Koopmans D.V.M. (Marion); E.C.M. van Gorp (Eric); Alberga, H. (Henk)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractWe present three patients from Suriname who were diagnosed with Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) during the Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak in this country. One patient had a positive ZIKV urine real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) result. The other two patients had a negative ZIKV urine qRT-PCR but a

  20. Genetic control of host resistance to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    This manuscript focuses on the advances made using genomic approaches to identify biomarkers that define genes and pathways that are correlated with swine resistance to infection with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), the most economically important swine viral pathogen wo...

  1. Generating 3D Scenes in the style of Keith Haring

    OpenAIRE

    Ronfard, Rémi; Doussot, Quentin

    2012-01-01

    http://www.generativeart.com; International audience; Recently, interest in shape grammar models of pictorial style has been revived by the success of generative modelers for buildings and cities. Stochastic methods have been introduced for learning the parameters of shape grammars to adapt to different architectural or visual styles, including Mondrian. We extend those recent approaches for generating 3D graphics in the style of Keith Haring paintings, whose visual vocabulary is significantl...

  2. Taxonomy Icon Data: Kuroda's sea hare [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Kuroda's sea hare Aplysia kurodai Mollusca Aplysia_kurodai_L.png Aplysia_kurodai_NL.png Aplysia_ku...rodai_S.png Aplysia_kurodai_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Aplysia+ku...rodai&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Aplysia+kurodai&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/tax...onomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Aplysia+kurodai&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Aplysia+ku

  3. Spatial behaviour and survival of translocated wild brown hares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fischer, C.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The fragility of many populations of brown hares in Western Europe is a concern for managers, hunters and naturalists. We took advantage of a locally high density population to use wild individuals to restock areas where the species had disappeared or was close to disappearing. The aim of the project was to assess the evolution of the spatial behaviour after release using radio–tracking. Over 150 wild brown hares were translocated, one third of which were fitted with radio collars. In addition, fifteen individuals were radio–tagged and released back into the source population as a control. Most individuals settled in less than two months and their seasonal home range, once settled, was similar to that observed in the source population. Mean duration of tracking was not significantly different between the two groups. Moreover, two years after the last translocation, tagged individuals can still be observed, but most hares present are not tagged, which indicates natural reproduction of the released individuals. The translocation of wild individuals thus appears to give encouraging results.

  4. Prevalence of xenotropic murine leukaemia virus-related virus in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome in the Netherlands: retrospective analysis of samples from an established cohort.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuppeveld, F.J.M. van; Jong, A.S. de; Lanke, K.H.W.; Verhaegh, G.W.C.T.; Melchers, W.J.G.; Swanink, C.M.A.; Bleijenberg, G.; Netea, M.G.; Galama, J.M.D.; Meer, J.W.M. van der

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The presence of the retrovirus xenotropic murine leukaemia virus-related virus (XMRV) has been reported in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of patients with chronic fatigue syndrome. Considering the potentially great medical and social relevance of such a discovery, we investigated

  5. Selection of shrimp breeders free of white spot syndrome and infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Cesar de Mello Junior

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to select surviving breeders of Litopenaeus vannamei from white spot syndrome virus (WSSV outbreak, adapted to local climatic conditions and negatively diagnosed for WSSV and infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV, and to evaluate if this strategy is a viable alternative for production in Santa Catarina, Brazil. A total of 800 males and 800 females were phenotypically selected in a farm pond. Nested-PCR analyses of 487 sexually mature females and 231 sexually mature males showed that 63% of the females and 55% of the males were infected with IHHNV. Animals free of IHHNV were tested for WSSV, and those considered double negative were used for breeding. The post-larvae produced were stocked in nine nursery tanks for analysis. From the 45 samples, with 50 post-larvae each, only two were positive for IHHNV and none for WSSV. Batches of larvae diagnosed free of virus by nested-PCR were sent to six farms. A comparative analysis was carried out in growth ponds, between local post-larvae and post-larvae from Northeast Brazil. Crabs (Chasmagnathus granulata, blue crabs (Callinectes sapidus, and sea hares (Aplysia brasiliana, which are possible vectors of these viruses, were also evaluated. The mean survival was 55% for local post-larvae against 23.4% for post-larvae from the Northeast. Sea hares showed prevalence of 50% and crabs of 67% of WSSV.

  6. Risk factors for infection of sow herds with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Sten; Stryhn, Henrik; Søgaard, Rikke

    2002-01-01

    In 1992, the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) of European type (PRRSV-EU) was introduced in Denmark. By 1996, the virus had spread to approximately 25% of the Danish herds. In January 1996, a modified-live vaccine based on the American type of the virus (PRRSV-US) was u......In 1992, the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) of European type (PRRSV-EU) was introduced in Denmark. By 1996, the virus had spread to approximately 25% of the Danish herds. In January 1996, a modified-live vaccine based on the American type of the virus (PRRSV......-US) was used in replacement boars for Danish artificial insemination (AI) centres and from July 1996, the vaccine was used in PRRSV-EU infected herds for prevention of disease. Soon after vaccine introduction, PRRSV non-infected herds experienced outbreaks of disease due to infection with PRRSV......-US. In this study, we investigated the risk factors (biosecurity level, animals, exposure from PRRSV-US-infected neighbour herds, semen, herd size, pig density and herd density) for infection with PRRSV-US in a cohort of 1071 sow herds; we used a nested case-control study. The retrospective observation period...

  7. Thermal inactivation of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome virus, human T lymphotropic virus-III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus, with special reference to antihemophilic factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougal, J S; Martin, L S; Cort, S P; Mozen, M; Heldebrant, C M; Evatt, B L

    1985-08-01

    The virus that causes the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), human T lymphotropic virus/lymphadenopathy-associated virus (HTLV-III/LAV), was incubated at temperatures from 37 degrees to 60 degrees C and virus titer (ID-50) was determined over time by a microculture infectivity assay. The rate of thermal decay was consistent with first-order kinetics, and these data were used to construct a linear Arrhenius plot (r = 0.99), which was used to determine inactivation time as a function of temperature. In the liquid state, thermal decay was little affected by matrix (culture media, serum, or liquid Factor VIII). In the lyophilized state, the time required to reduce virus titer 10-fold (1 log) at 60 degrees C was 32 min compared with 24 s in the liquid state. HTLV-III/LAV in liquid antihemophilic Factor VIII or IX was lyophilized and heated according to commercial manufacturers' specifications. Infectious virus was undetectable with these regimens. Heat treatment should reduce or stop transmission of HTLV-III/LAV by commercial antihemophilic Factor VIII or IX.

  8. Incidence of respiratory viruses among travelers with a febrile syndrome returning from tropical and subtropical areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camps, M; Vilella, A; Marcos, M A; Letang, E; Muñoz, J; Salvadó, E; González, A; Gascón, J; Jiménez de Anta, M T; Pumarola, T

    2008-04-01

    Fifty million people are estimated to travel from industrial countries to the tropics annually. In spite of exhaustive studies and widely different diagnosis among returned patients, some cases of febrile illnesses remain without an etiological diagnosis, suggesting that these cases could be due to viral respiratory tract infections. From August 2005 to October 2006, 118 febrile patients without a specific diagnosis in their first visit at the Center for International Health of the Hospital Clínic of Barcelona were included. In all of them, in order to study respiratory viruses, a nasopharyngeal swab was collected. Clinical and radiological features and epidemiological data, as well as other samples for microbiologic studies, were also collected during consultation. Based on the physician's judgment at the time of consultation, patients were classified into four groups: respiratory symptoms (62%), febrile syndrome with nonspecific symptoms (24%), digestive symptoms (10%), and patients presenting both respiratory and digestive symptoms (4%). A pathogen microorganism was detected in 61 patients (52%). Respiratory viruses were detected in 44 out of 118 (37%) travelers included in the study, representing 56% of the patients with respiratory symptoms. The most frequently viruses detected were influenza virus (38%), rhinovirus (23%), adenovirus (9%), and respiratory syncytial virus (9%). Respiratory viruses have been shown to play an important role in imported fever. In light of the fact that international tourism is an increasing phenomenon, new strategies to prevent the spread of respiratory viruses should be considered, specially for influenza when a vaccine is available.

  9. Zika Virus Infection and Guillain-Barré Syndrome in Three Patients from Suriname.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langerak, Thomas; Yang, Harvey; Baptista, Mark; Doornekamp, Laura; Kerkman, Tessa; Codrington, John; Roosblad, Jimmy; Vreden, Stephen G S; De Bruin, Erwin; Mögling, Ramona; Jacobs, Bart C; Pas, Suzan D; GeurtsvanKessel, Corine H; Reusken, Chantal B E M; Koopmans, Marion P; Van Gorp, Eric C M; Alberga, Henk

    2016-01-01

    We present three patients from Suriname who were diagnosed with Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) during the Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak in this country. One patient had a positive ZIKV urine real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) result. The other two patients had a negative ZIKV urine qRT-PCR but a positive virus neutralization test and presence of IgG antibodies against ZIKV in the serum. Considering the evidence of a past ZIKV infection and absence of evidence for recent infections with the most common preceding infections of GBS, it is very likely that these GBS cases were triggered by ZIKV.

  10. Liver and spleen MRI findings in virus-associated hemophagocytic syndrome in a patient with acute lymphocytic leukemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zilkha, A.; Madan, V.; Leonidas, J.C. [Division of Pediatric Radiology, Island Jewish Medical Center, New Hyde Park, NY (United States); Valderrama, E. [Department of Pathology, Long Island Jewish Medical Center, New Hyde Park, NY (United States)

    1998-12-01

    Virus-associated hemophagocytic syndrome is characterized by the phagocytosis of erthythrocytes and other blood elements in multiple organ systems, especially the liver and spleen. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can suggest this diagnosis in the proper clinical setting by demonstrating multiple, rounded signal voids in the spleen corresponding to hemosiderin deposition. We report a patient with virus-associated hemophagocytic syndrome during the course of acute lymphocytic leukemia and MRI findings that suggested the preoperative diagnosis. (orig.) With 1 fig., 4 refs.

  11. About features clinical acute Epstein-Barr virus infection in children syndrome undifferentiated Connective tissue dysplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Orlova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the clinical course of acute Epstein-Barr virus infection in children with the syndrome undifferentiated connective tissue dysplasia. We examined 127 patients aged 6 months to 15 years acute Epstein-Barr virus infection. The study was an open-controlled, parallel-group. Syndrome undifferentiated connective tissue dysplasia verified in 69% of children: mild dysplasia of the connective tissue is installed in 46 patients (36.2%, moderate – in 41 children (32.3%, severe degree is not diagnosed. A total of 40 (31.5% of children surveyed had no phenotypic features of connective tissue dysplasia. The peculiarities of the clinical course of acute Epstein-Barr virus infection in patients with undifferentiated connective tissue dysplasia include an increase severity of infection by increasing the duration of fever, severity and persistence polylimphoadenopathii, frequent development of parenchymal Epstein-Barr virus associated hepatitis. Active proliferation of virus-infected Epstein-Barr virus lymphocytes occurs in all organs, with lymphoid tissue and is accompanied by infiltration and histologic changes in lymph nodes, liver, spleen, etc. In combination with the weakness of connective tissue structures that causes the symptoms of acute polymorphic Epstein-Barr virus infection and nature of the complications. We examined patients revealed changes in the indicators of collagen metabolism, indicating their partial degradation. The severity of these changes varies depending on the severity of the syndrome of connective tissue dysplasia and paired with the severity of virus-infected Epstein-Barr. When verification of the second degree of connective tissue dysplasia in patients with acute Epstein-Barr virus infection with high probability we can predict the development of severe infection that occurs in liver in the form of the Epstein-Barr virusassociated hepatitis. 

  12. Synchrony in the snowshoe hare cycle in Northwestern North America, 1970-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    C.J. Krebs; K. Kielland; J.P Bryant; M. O' Donoghue; F. Doyle; C. McIntyre; D. DiFolco; N. Berg; S. Carriere; R. Boonstra; S. Boutin; A. J. Kenney; D. G. Reid; K. Bodony; J. Putera; H. K. Timm; T. Burke.

    2013-01-01

    Snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus Erxleben, 1777) fluctuate in 9–10 year cycles throughout much of their North American range. Regional synchrony has been assumed to be the rule for these cycles, so that hare populations in virtually all of northwestern North America have been assumed to be in phase. We gathered qualitative and quantitative data on...

  13. Factor Structure of the Hare Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version (PCL: YV) in Incarcerated Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Craig S.; Kosson, David S.; Forth, Adelle E.; Hare, Robert D.

    2006-01-01

    Two studies are reported on the underlying dimensions of the psychopathy construct in adolescents as measured by the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Youth Version (PCL: YV; Forth, Kosson, & Hare, 2003). In Study 1, the PCL: YV item ratings for 505 male adolescents incarcerated in 5 different settings in North America were used to test the fit of 3…

  14. Ecology of snowshoe hares in southern boreal and montane forests [Chapter 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karen E. Hodges

    2000-01-01

    Snowshoe hares occur in many of the montane and sub-boreal forests of the continental United States, as well as throughout the boreal forests of Canada and Alaska. Population dynamics in their southern range were previously thought to be noncyclic, in contrast to the strong 10-year fluctuation that typifies boreal populations of snowshoe hares. Time series data and...

  15. Influence of forest structure on the abundance of snowshoe hares in western Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan D. Berg; Eric M. Gese; John R. Squires; Lise M. Aubry

    2012-01-01

    Snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus) are a primary prey species for Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) in western North America. Lynx management plans require knowledge of potential prey distribution and abundance in the western United States. Whether even-aged regenerating forests or multi-storied forests contain more snowshoe hares is currently unknown. During 2006-...

  16. Environmental surveillance during an outbreak of tularaemia in hares, the Netherlands, 2015.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janse, Ingmar; Maas, Miriam; Rijks, Jolianne M; Koene, Miriam; van der Plaats, Rozemarijn Qj; Engelsma, Marc; van der Tas, Peter; Braks, Marieta; Stroo, Arjan; Notermans, Daan W; de Vries, Maaike C; Reubsaet, Frans; Fanoy, Ewout; Swaan, Corien; Kik, Marja Jl; IJzer, Jooske; Jaarsma, Ryanne I; van Wieren, Sip; de Roda-Husman, Ana Maria; van Passel, Mark; Roest, Hendrik-Jan; van der Giessen, Joke

    2017-01-01

    Tularaemia, a disease caused by the bacterium Francisella tularensis, is a re-emerging zoonosis in the Netherlands. After sporadic human and hare cases occurred in the period 2011 to 2014, a cluster of F. tularensis-infected hares was recognised in a region in the north of the Netherlands from

  17. Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Caused by Influenza B Virus Infection in a Patient with Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio A. Ñamendys-Silva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Influenza B virus infections are less common than infections caused by influenza A virus in critically ill patients, but similar mortality rates have been observed for both influenza types. Pneumonia caused by influenza B virus is uncommon and has been reported in pediatric patients and previously healthy adults. Critically ill patients with pneumonia caused by influenza virus may develop acute respiratory distress syndrome. We describe the clinical course of a critically ill patient with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma nongerminal center B-cell phenotype who developed acute respiratory distress syndrome caused by influenza B virus infection. This paper emphasizes the need to suspect influenza B virus infection in critically ill immunocompromised patients with progressive deterioration of cardiopulmonary function despite treatment with antibiotics. Early initiation of neuraminidase inhibitor and the implementation of guidelines for management of severe sepsis and septic shock should be considered.

  18. Down syndrome : A novel risk factor for respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis - A prospective birth-cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloemers, Beatrijs L. P.; van Furth, Marceline; Weijerman, Michel E.; Gemke, Reinoud J. B. J.; Broers, Chantal J. M.; van den Ende, Kimberly; Kimpen, Jan L. L.; Strengers, Jan L. M.; Bont, Louis J.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. Respiratory syncytial virus is the single-most important cause of lower respiratory tract infections in children. Preterm birth and congenital heart disease are known risk factors for severe respiratory syncytial virus infections. Although Down syndrome is associated with a high risk of

  19. Protein profiling in the gut of Penaeus monodon gavaged with oral WSSV-vaccines and live white spot syndrom virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kulkarni, A.D.; Kiron, V.; Rombout, J.H.W.M.; Brinchmann, M.; Fernandes, J.M.O.; Sudheer, N.S.; Singh, B.I.S.

    2014-01-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a pathogen that causes considerable mortality of the farmed shrimp, Penaeus monodon. Candidate ‘vaccines’, WSSV envelope protein VP28 and formalin-inactivated WSSV, can provide short-lived protection against the virus. In this study, P. monodon was orally

  20. siRNA injection induces sequence-independent protection in Penaeus monodon against white spot syndrome virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westenberg, M.; Heinhuis, B.; Zuidema, D.; Vlak, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a major disease in crustaceans, particularly shrimp, due to the current intensity of aquaculture practices. Novel strategies including vaccination to control this virus would be highly desirable. However, invertebrates lack a true adaptive immune response system

  1. Demography of snowshoe hares in relation to regional climate variabilty during a 10-year population cycle in interior Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    K. Kielland; K. Olson; E. Euskirchen

    2009-01-01

    We monitored populations of snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus, Erxleben) in interior Alaska for 10 years from 1999 to 2008. During this period, fall densities of hares fluctuated approximately 14-fold. High population growth rates over summer were followed by large population declines over winter. Young-of-the-year hares tended to gain mass over...

  2. Low prevalence of hepatitis B virus, hepatitis D virus and hepatitis C virus among patients with human immunodeficiency virus or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in the Brazilian Amazon basin

    OpenAIRE

    Braga,Wornei Silva Miranda; Castilho,Márcia da Costa; Santos,Isabelle Cristina Vale dos; Moura,Marco Antônio Sabóia; Segurado,Aluisio Cotrim

    2006-01-01

    Comorbidities in human immunodeficiency virus infection are of great interest due to their association with unfavorable outcomes and failure of antiretroviral therapy. This study evaluated the prevalence of coinfection by human immunodeficiency virus and viral hepatitis in an endemic area for hepatitis B in the Western Amazon basin. Serological markers for hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus and hepatitis D virus were tested in a consecutive sample of all patients referred for treatment of h...

  3. Avian hepatitis E virus, vaccines and methods of protecting against avian hepatitis-splenomegaly syndrome and mammalian hepatitis E

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    The present invention relates to a novel isolated avian hepatitis E virus having a nucleotide sequence set forth in SEQ ID NO:1 or its complementary strand. The invention further concerns immunogenic compositions comprising this new virus or recombinant products such as the nucleic acid and vaccines that protect an avian or mammalian species from viral infection or hepatitis-splenomegaly syndrome caused by the hepatitis E virus. Also included in the scope of the invention is a method for prop...

  4. GB virus-C – a virus without a disease: We cannot give it chronic fatigue syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reeves William C

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS is an illness in search of an infectious etiology. GB virus-C (GBV-C virus is a flavivirus with cell tropism and host defense induction qualities compatible with a role in producing the syndrome. The GBV-C genome is detectable in 4% of the population and 12% of the population is seropositive. The present study evaluated the association between infection with GBV and CFS. Methods We used a commercial EIA to detect antibodies against the GBV-C E2 protein and a quantitative real-time RT-PCR assay to detect active GBV-C infection. Sera were from a case control study of CFS in Atlanta, Georgia. The Fisher's exact two-tailed test was used for statistical analysis. Results Two of 12 CFS patients and one of 21 controls were seropositive for prior GBV-C infection and one control had viral RNA detected, indicating active infection. The results are not statistically different. Conclusion We found no evidence that active or past infection with GBV is associated with CFS.

  5. White spot syndrome virus infection: Threat to crustacean biodiversity in Vembanad Lake, India

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph, Toms C.; James, Roswin; Rajan, L. Anbu; Surendran, P.K.; Lalitha, K. V.

    2015-01-01

    The Vembanad Lake located on the south-west coast of India, an ecological hotspot is the nursing ground of many economically important crustaceans. The prevalence of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) among crustaceans from farmed, estuarine and marine environments surrounding the Vembanad Lake, India was detected using PCR. A total of 308 samples from aquaculture ponds consisting of six species of crustaceans collected from five different farms were tested for the presence of WSSV. Of these, 6...

  6. Evaluation of systems for reducing the transmission of Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus by aerosol

    OpenAIRE

    Dee, Scott A.; Batista, Laura; Deen, John; Pijoan, Carlos

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare 3 methods for the reduction of aerosol transmission of Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV): high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filtration, low-cost filtration, and ultraviolet light (UV) irradiation. The HEPA-filtration system involved a pre-filter screen, a bag filter (EU8 rating), and a HEPA filter (EU13 rating). The low-cost-filtration system contained mosquito netting (pre-filter), a fiberglass furnace filter, and an ele...

  7. Zika Virus and Guillain?Barre Syndrome: Is There Sufficient Evidence for Causality?

    OpenAIRE

    Leis, A. Arturo; Stokic, Dobrivoje S.

    2016-01-01

    Worldwide concern over Zika virus causing Guillain–Barre syndrome (GBS) soared after recent reports that Zika-related weakness was due to GBS. A global strategic response plan was initiated with recommendations for at-risk countries to prepare for GBS. This plan has major economic implications, as nations with limited resources struggle to implement costly immunotherapy. Since confirmation of causality is prerequisite to providing specific management recommendations, it is prudent to review d...

  8. Epstein-Barr virus-associated adult respiratory distress syndrome in a patient with AIDS: a case report and review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stopyra, G A; Multhaupt, H A; Alexa, L

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection has been associated with fatal pneumonitis in immunocompetent patients. We present a case of fatal adult respiratory distress syndrome caused by EBV infection in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), to our knowledge the first...

  9. Angiographic Features and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Patients With First-Time Acute Coronary Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Andreas; Mathiasen, Anders B; Worck, R.H.

    2013-01-01

    A matched cohort study was conducted comparing patients with first-time acute coronary syndromes infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) to non-HIV-infected patients with and without diabetes matched for smoking, gender, and type of acute coronary syndrome who underwent first-time corona...

  10. Infectious mononucleosis-like syndrome probably attributable to Coxsackie A virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Burke A; Mickail, Nardeen; Petelin, Andrew P

    2012-01-01

    Infectious mononucleosis (IM) is a clinical syndrome most often attributable to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). Characteristic clinical features of EBV IM include bilateral upper lid edema, exudative or nonexudative pharyngitis, bilateral posterior cervical adenopathy, and splenomegaly ± maculopapular rash. Laboratory features of EBV IM include atypical lymphocytes and elevated levels of serum transaminases. Leukopenia and thrombocytopenia are not uncommon. The syndrome of IM may also be attributable to other infectious diseases, eg, cytomegalovirus (CMV), human herpes virus-6 (HHV-6), or Toxoplasma gondii. Less commonly, viral hepatitis, leptospirosis, brucellosis, or parvovirus B(19) may present as an IM-like infection. To the best of our knowledge, only 2 cases of IM-like infections attributable to Coxsackie B viruses (B(3) and B(4)) have been reported. We present the first reported case of an IM-like syndrome with sore throat, fatigue, atypical lymphocytes, and elevated levels of serum transaminases likely due to Coxsackie A in an immunocompetent adult. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Varicella-zoster virus-specific cell-mediated immunity in Ramsay Hunt syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haginomori, Shin-ichi; Ichihara, Takahiro; Mori, Atsuko; Kanazawa, Atsuko; Kawata, Ryo; Tang, Huamin; Mori, Yasuko

    2016-01-01

    The etiology of Ramsay Hunt syndrome (Hunt syndrome) is reactivation of latent varicella-zoster virus (VZV) in the geniculate ganglion of the facial nerve, leading to neuritis. Although the mechanism of the VZV reactivation is unclear, one possibility is that the reactivation involves a low level of VZV-specific cell-mediated immunity (CMI). The aim of this study was to clarify the characteristics of the VZV-specific CMI in Hunt syndrome compared to that in Bell's palsy, and to obtain clues to its role in the development of Hunt syndrome. Prospective study. We determined the median spot numbers and examined VZV-specific CMI in patients with Hunt syndrome and with Bell's palsy using interferon-γ enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assays. We analyzed the relationship between the value of VZV-specific CMI and days from disease onset. The median spot number in Hunt syndrome (87.3 spot-forming cells [SFCs]/4 × 10(5) peripheral blood mononuclear cells [PBMCs]) was higher than that in Bell's palsy (62.3 SFCs/4 × 10(5) PBMCs). Hunt syndrome showed a strong relationship between the ELISPOT count and days from onset (r = 0.65). Within the first 5 days from onset, no ELISPOT counts higher than 80 SFCs/4 × 10(5) PBMCs were observed. On the other hand, no correlation was observed between the ELISPOT count and days from onset in patients with Bell's palsy (r = -0.19). These results suggest that VZV-specific CMI in Hunt syndrome is low at disease onset and increases rapidly thereafter. Consequently, reduced VZV-specific CMI may play an important role in the reactivation of VZV in the facial nerve, leading to Hunt syndrome. © 2015 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  12. Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Jake; Goetz, Matthew Bidwell

    2016-08-01

    Improved survival with combination antiretroviral therapy has led to a dramatic increase in the number of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals 50 years of age or older such that by 2020 more than 50% of HIV-infected persons in the United States will be above this age. Recent studies confirm that antiretroviral therapy should be offered to all HIV-infected patients regardless of age, symptoms, CD4+ cell count, or HIV viral load. However, when compared with HIV-uninfected populations, even with suppression of measurable HIV replication, older individuals are at greater risk for cardiovascular disease, malignancies, liver disease, and other comorbidities. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Pharyngeal-cervical-brachial variant of pediatric Guillain-Barré syndrome with antecedent acute hepatitis A virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapa, Rajoo; Biswas, Biawajit; Mallick, Debkrishna; Mukherjee, Swapan

    2009-07-01

    Pharyngeal-cervical-brachial weakness is considered a variant of Guillain-Barré syndrome with limited oropharyngeal, neck, and upper limb muscle involvement. The authors report on a 7-year-old boy, who developed pharyngeal-cervical-brachial type of Guillain-Barré syndrome following an antecedent episode of acute hepatitis A virus infection, 2 weeks prior to admission. The presentation was characterized by acute onset dysphagia, loss of head control, and bilateral arm weakness. The diagnosis was confirmed by acute motor axonal changes in the arm and albuminocytologic dissociation of the cerebrospinal fluid. The child was treated with intravenous immunoglobulin, which resulted in gradual improvement over 3 weeks. Documented instances of this form of Guillain-Barré syndrome remain rare in the pediatric age group, with none existing following antecedent hepatitis A virus infection. The authors emphasize that acute hepatitis A virus infection be included in the triggers responsible for Guillain-Barré syndrome in children.

  14. Heterologous challenge with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) vaccine virus: no evidence of reactivation of previous European-type PRRS virus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøtner, Anette; Nielsen, Jens; Oleksiewicz, M.B.

    1999-01-01

    In Denmark, a porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) control programme, comprising vaccination of seropositive herds with a live American type PRRSV vaccine, was started in 1996. In several of these herds, spread of vaccine virus from vaccinated 3-18 week old pigs to non...... in previously European PRRSV infected pigs after challenge with the vaccine strain seems to be the result of a boosting effect on the immune system, induced by the heterologous vaccine PRRSV strain....

  15. Lipodystrophy syndrome in human immunodeficiency virus-infected children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaya, Rene A; Kozinetz, Claudia A; McMeans, Ann; Schwarzwald, Heidi; Kline, Mark W

    2002-05-01

    Lipodystrophy syndrome in HIV-infected adults is characterized by a variety of physical and/or metabolic abnormalities, including fat redistribution, hyperlipidemia (hypercholesterolemia and/or hypertriglyceridemia) and peripheral insulin resistance. Many studies suggest that antiretroviral therapy is the underlying cause of the condition. Few data exist for HIV-infected children. This is a cross-sectional study evaluating HIV-infected children age 2 to 16 years. Fat redistribution was identified by physical examination and parental questionnaire. Fasting blood analysis included cholesterol, triglycerides, high density lipoprotein, low density lipoprotein, glucose, insulin and C-peptide. Forty HIV-infected children were recruited. Seven children (18%) exhibited physical signs of fat redistribution. Twenty-seven (68%), 11 (28%) and 3 (8%) children exhibited evidence for hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia and insulin resistance, respectively. Eleven children (28%) had no physical signs or laboratory evidence of lipodystrophy. Statistical analysis did not reveal any significant association between the presence of lipodystrophic features and patient age, HIV-1 viral load, exposure to specific antiretroviral medications or duration of protease inhibitor or nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor therapy. Drug dosing was significantly associated with the development of lipodystrophy features. Children receiving pediatric dosing regimens vs. adult dosing regimens were less likely to develop lipodystrophy (P = 0.003). Features associated with lipodystrophy syndrome arise in some HIV-infected children. Subjects receiving pediatric dosing regimens were less likely than those receiving adult regimens to develop lipodystrophy.

  16. Detection and molecular characterization of enteric viruses from poult enteritis syndrome in turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jindal, N; Patnayak, D P; Chander, Y; Ziegler, A F; Goyal, S M

    2010-02-01

    This study was conducted to detect and characterize enteric viruses [rotavirus, turkey astrovirus-2 (TAstV-2), reovirus, and turkey coronavirus] from cases of poult enteritis syndrome (PES) in Minnesota turkeys. Of the intestinal contents collected from 43 PES cases, 25 were positive for rotavirus and 13 for small round viruses by electron microscopy (EM). Of the enteric virus-positive cases by EM (n=27), 16 cases had rotavirus or small round viruses alone and the remaining 11 cases had both viruses. None of the cases were positive for reovirus or coronavirus by EM. However, with reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR), 40 cases (93%) were positive for rotavirus, 36 (84%) for TAstV-2, and 17 (40%) for reovirus. None of the cases were positive for turkey coronavirus by RT-PCR. The viruses from all cases were detected either alone or in combination of 2 or 3 by RT-PCR. Thus, 8 (19%) cases were positive for a single virus, whereas a combination of viruses was detected in the remaining 35 (81%) cases. The rota-TAstV-2 combination was the most predominant (n=18 cases). Fifteen cases were positive for all 3 viruses. The rotaviruses had sequence homology of 89.8 to 100% with previously published sequences of turkey rotaviruses at the nucleotide level. The TAstV-2 had sequence homology of 84.6 to 98.7% with previously published TAstV-2, whereas reoviruses had sequence homology of 91.6 to 99.3% with previously published sequences of turkey reoviruses. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that rota- and reoviruses clustered in a single group, whereas TAstV-2 clustered in 2 different groups. In conclusion, a larger number of PES cases was positive for rotavirus, TAstV-2, and reovirus by RT-PCR than with EM. The presence of more than one virus and changes at the genetic level in a virus may affect the severity of PES in turkey flocks.

  17. Primary EBV infection induces an expression profile distinct from other viruses but similar to hemophagocytic syndromes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha K Dunmire

    Full Text Available Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV causes infectious mononucleosis and establishes lifelong infection associated with cancer and autoimmune disease. To better understand immunity to EBV, we performed a prospective study of natural infection in healthy humans. Transcriptome analysis defined a striking and reproducible expression profile during acute infection but no lasting gene changes were apparent during latent infection. Comparing the EBV response profile to multiple other acute viral infections, including influenza A (influenza, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV, human rhinovirus (HRV, attenuated yellow fever virus (YFV, and Dengue fever virus (DENV, revealed similarity only to DENV. The signature shared by EBV and DENV was also present in patients with hemophagocytic syndromes, suggesting these two viruses cause uncontrolled inflammatory responses. Interestingly, while EBV induced a strong type I interferon response, a subset of interferon induced genes, including MX1, HERC5, and OAS1, were not upregulated, suggesting a mechanism by which viral antagonism of immunity results in a profound inflammatory response. These data provide an important first description of the response to a natural herpesvirus infection in humans.

  18. Comparative Pathogenicity of Liver Homogenate and Cell Culture Propagated Hydropericardium Syndrome Virus in Broiler Birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. D. Ahmad, S. Zaman1, M. H. Mushtaq*, A. A. Anjum1 and M. Akram1

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Comparative pathogenicity of liver homogenate and cell culture propagated agents of hydropericardium syndrome was studied in broiler birds. In Experiment I, 25-day-old while in experiment II, broiler birds at different ages were inoculated through different routes. In Experiment I, liver homogenate caused 64% mortality through intramuscular route and 33.33% mortality through oral route. The cell culture propagated HPS virus caused 60 and 13.33% mortality in broiler birds through intramuscular and oral routes, respectively. In Experiment II, none of the day-old-chicks died when challenged with liver homogenate and cell culture propagated HPS virus through S/C and oral route. The liver homogenate and cell culture propagated HPS virus caused higher mortality in different age groups of broiler birds through s/c route compared to oral route. The values of hemoglobin (Hb and packed cell volume (PCV showed highly significant (P<0.05 reduction indicating anemia. The values of Hb and PCV of the broiler birds inoculated with infectious liver homogenate were significantly lower as compared to birds inoculated with cell culture propagated HPS virus. The results indicated that the liver homogenate is more pathogenic than cell culture propagated HPS virus. These changes may be due to adoptability of the original FAdVs (fowl adenovirus after continued passages in the culture of chicken embryo liver cells. Importance of this study in vaccine production is also discussed.

  19. The Role of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS)-Coronavirus Accessory Proteins in Virus Pathogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Ruth; Fielding, Burtram C.

    2012-01-01

    A respiratory disease caused by a novel coronavirus, termed the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), was first reported in China in late 2002. The subsequent efficient human-to-human transmission of this virus eventually affected more than 30 countries worldwide, resulting in a mortality rate of ~10% of infected individuals. The spread of the virus was ultimately controlled by isolation of infected individuals and there has been no infections reported since April 2004. However, the natural reservoir of the virus was never identified and it is not known if this virus will re-emerge and, therefore, research on this virus continues. The SARS-CoV genome is about 30 kb in length and is predicted to contain 14 functional open reading frames (ORFs). The genome encodes for proteins that are homologous to known coronavirus proteins, such as the replicase proteins (ORFs 1a and 1b) and the four major structural proteins: nucleocapsid (N), spike (S), membrane (M) and envelope (E). SARS-CoV also encodes for eight unique proteins, called accessory proteins, with no known homologues. This review will summarize the current knowledge on SARS-CoV accessory proteins and will include: (i) expression and processing; (ii) the effects on cellular processes; and (iii) functional studies. PMID:23202509

  20. Hepatitis C, human immunodeficiency virus and metabolic syndrome: interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotler, Donald P

    2009-03-01

    Significant concerns have been raised about the metabolic effects of antiretroviral medication, including the classic triad of dyslipidaemia, insulin resistance (IR) and characteristic alterations in fat distribution (lipoatrophy and lipohypertrophy). Co-infection with hepatitis C appears to exacerbate IR, reduce serum lipids and induce prothrombotic changes in the treated human immunodeficiency virus patient. The effects of co-infection are complex. While combination antiretroviral therapy has been shown to be associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events through promotion of dyslipidaemia, IR and fat redistribution, co-infection exacerbates IR while reducing serum lipids. Co-infection also promotes a prothrombotic state characterized by endothelial dysfunction and platelet activation, which may enhance risk for cardiovascular disease. Consideration must be given to selection of appropriate treatment regimens and timing of therapy in co-infected patients to minimize metabolic derangements and, ultimately, reduce cardiovascular risk.

  1. Predators choose prey over prey habitats: evidence from a lynx-hare system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keim, Jonah L; DeWitt, Philip D; Lele, Subhash R

    2011-06-01

    Resource selection is grounded in the understanding that animals select resources based on fitness requirements. Despite uncertainty in how mechanisms relate to the landscape, resource selection studies often assume, but rarely demonstrate, a relationship between modeled variables and fitness mechanisms. Using Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) and snowshoe hare (Lepus americanus) as a model system, we assess whether prey habitat is a viable surrogate for encounters between predators and prey. We simultaneously collected winter track data for lynx and hare in two study areas. We used information criteria to determine whether selection by lynx is best characterized by a hare resource selection probability function (RSPF) or by the amount of hare resource use. Results show that lynx selection is better explained by the amount of hare use (SIC = -21.9; Schwarz's Information Criterion) than by hare RSPF (SIC = -16.71), and that hare RSPF cannot be assumed to reveal the amount of resource use, a primary mechanism of predator selection. Our study reveals an obvious but important distinction between selection and use that is applicable to all resource selection studies. We recommend that resource selection studies be coupled with mechanistic data (e.g., metrics of diet, forage, fitness, or abundance) when investigating mechanisms of resource selection.

  2. Modeling the Influence of Forest Structure on Microsite Habitat Use by Snowshoe Hares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela K. Fuller

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Snowshoe hare (Lepus americanus is an important prey species for many Carnivora and has strong influences on community structure and function in northern forests. An understanding of within-stand (microsite forest structural characteristics that promote high use by hares is important to provide forest management guidelines. We measured forest structural characteristics at the microsite-scale in north-central Maine and used an information-theoretic modeling approach to infer which characteristics were most strongly associated with use by hares during winter. We measured overwinter hare pellet density to model relationships among microsite-scale vegetation structure and hare use. Overwinter pellet density was positively associated with live stem cover (3 × coniferous saplings + deciduous saplings and negatively associated with overstory canopy closure; the two variables explained 71% of the variation in microsite use by hares. The highest pellet densities were in grids with canopy closure 22,000 stems/ha. Silvicultural practices that create dense areas of conifer and deciduous saplings should receive high within-stand use by hares in winter. These conditions can be achieved by promoting the release of advanced regeneration and reducing overstory cover to encourage establishment of shade-intolerant species; clearcutting is one such silvicultural prescription to achieve these conditions.

  3. Duration of homologous porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus immunity in pregnant swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lager, K M; Mengeling, W L; Brockmeier, S L

    1997-11-01

    The duration of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) homologous immunity was tested in this study and found to last for at least 604 days post experimental exposure to field PRRSV. Eleven gilts (group A) received a primary exposure to field PRRSV by either an oronasal (n = 6) or an intrauterine (n = 5) route. The gilts were naturally bred at selected times (143 to 514 days) after primary virus exposure. They were oronasally exposed a second time to the same strain of virus on or about gestation day 90. Ten age-matched control sows free of PRRSV-specific antibody from the same source farm (group B) were naturally bred and were oronasally exposed to aliquots of the homologous challenge virus on or about gestation day 90. Nine of the 11 gilts in group A and all animals in group B became pregnant following one breeding cycle. The two nonpregnant gilts in group A were each naturally bred during four additional estrus cycles and neither became pregnant. They were exposed to homologous challenge virus 562 and 604 days post primary exposure, respectively. All animals were necropsied 21 days post homologous challenge. Sera and alveolar macrophages from each dam, and sera from each fetus were tested for virus. Transplacental infection was detected in 0/9 and 8/10 litters in groups A and B, respectively. Virus was detected in 0/11 and 10/10 of the alveolar macrophage samples collected in groups A and B, respectively. Serum was harvested at selected times throughout the experiment and tested for PRRSV-specific antibody by indirect immunofluorescence microscopy. All gilts in group A were seropositive for the duration of the experiment, and all animals in group B seroconverted following exposure to field PRRSV. This study shows that adult swine can produce a homologous protective immunity after PRRSV exposure that may persist for the production life of the animal.

  4. Genomic characterization of a persistent rubella virus from a case of Fuch' uveitis syndrome in a 73 year old man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abernathy, Emily; Peairs, Randall R; Chen, Min-hsin; Icenogle, Joseph; Namdari, Hassan

    2015-08-01

    Many cases of Fuchs' uveitis have been associated with persistent rubella virus infection. A 73-year-old male patient with typical Fuchs' Uveitis Syndrome (FUS) first experienced heterochromia of the left eye at the age fourteen, when rubella was endemic in the US. The purposes of this report are to describe the patient's FUS clinical presentations and to characterize the virus detected in the vitreous fluid. The patient underwent a therapeutic pars plana vitrectomy in May 2013. A real-time RT-PCR assay for rubella virus was performed on the vitreous fluid by Focus Diagnostics. Additional real-time RT-PCR assays for rubella virus detection and RT-PCR assays for generation of templates for sequencing were performed at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The results from Focus Diagnostics were positive for rubella virus RNA. Real-time RT-PCR assays at CDC were also positive for rubella virus. A rubella virus sequence of 739 nucleotides was determined and phylogenetic analysis showed that the virus was the sole member of a new phylogenetic group when compared to reference virus sequences. While FUS remains a clinical diagnosis, findings in this case support the association between rubella virus and the disease. Phylogenetic analysis provided evidence that this rubella virus was likely a previously undetected genotype which is no longer circulating. Since the patient had rubella prior to 1955, this sequence is from the earliest rubella virus yet characterized. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Examination of virus shedding in semen from vaccinated and from previously infected boars after experimental challenge with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Thomas L.; Nielsen, Jens; Have, Per

    1997-01-01

    Danish artificial insemination (AI) centres house several boars antibody positive to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus as well as PRRSV-naive boars which may become acutely infected, The risk of transmission of PRRSV by semen may therefore constitute a serious problem...... vaccine compared to the non-vaccinated control animals. In contrast, no changes in onset, level and duration of viremia and shedding of virus in semen were observed using the inactivated vaccine, Neither viremia nor seminal shedding of virus was detected in previously PRRSV-infected, PRRSV...

  6. Coincidence of Varicella-Zoster Virus Anterior Uveitis in a Patient with Chandler's Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Joko

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: We report a patient who, based on the clinical manifestations, was originally diagnosed as having Chandler's syndrome and later developed varicella-zoster virus (VZV DNA-positive anterior uveitis. Methods: The patient with Chandler's syndrome who manifested anterior uveitis underwent a complete ophthalmologic examination. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR was used to amplify the viral DNA in the aqueous humor to determine the cause of the intraocular inflammation. Results: Slit-lamp biomicroscopy showed focal iris atrophy and peripheral anterior synechiae (PAS; specular microscopy of the corneal endothelium disclosed the hammered-silver appearance. Based on these clinical findings, we diagnosed this patient as having Chandler's syndrome. During the follow-up period, however, the inflammatory cells suddenly appeared in the anterior chamber with formation of keratic precipitates and an increased intraocular pressure (IOP. VZV DNA was displayed in the aqueous humor by PCR. Based upon the diagnosis of VZV anterior uveitis, corticosteroids and acyclovir were given topically and systemically. The inflammation subsided with these medications; however, trabeculectomy was finally needed to control the IOP due to PAS progression. Conclusion: The coincidence of VZV anterior uveitis with Chandler's syndrome may constitute an implication for the possible viral etiology of iridocorneal endothelial syndrome.

  7. Seasonal Effects of Habitat on Sources and Rates of Snowshoe Hare Predation in Alaskan Boreal Forests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dashiell Feierabend

    Full Text Available Survival and predation of snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus has been widely studied, yet there has been little quantification of the changes in vulnerability of hares to specific predators that may result from seasonal changes in vegetation and cover. We investigated survival and causes of mortalities of snowshoe hares during the late increase, peak, and decline of a population in interior Alaska. From June 2008 to May 2012, we radio-tagged 288 adult and older juvenile hares in early successional and black spruce (Picea mariana forests and, using known-fate methods in program MARK, evaluated 85 survival models that included variables for sex, age, and body condition of hares, as well as trapping site, month, season, year, snowfall, snow depth, and air temperature. We compared the models using Akaike's information criterion with correction for small sample size. Model results indicated that month, capture site, and body condition were the most important variables in explaining survival rates. Survival was highest in July, and more generally during summer, when alternative prey was available to predators of hares. Low survival rates coincided with molting periods, breeding activity in the spring, and the introduction of juveniles to the sample population in the fall. We identified predation as the cause of mortality in 86% of hare deaths. When the source of predation could be determined, hares were killed more often by goshawks (Accipiter gentilis than other predators in early successional forest (30%, and more often by lynx (Lynx canadensis than other predators in black spruce forest (31%. Great horned owls (Bubo virginianus and coyotes (Canis latrans represented smaller proportions of hare predation, and non-predatory causes were a minor source (3% of mortality. Because hares rely on vegetative cover for concealment from predators, we measured cover in predation sites and habitats that the hares occupied and concluded that habitat type had a

  8. Seasonal Effects of Habitat on Sources and Rates of Snowshoe Hare Predation in Alaskan Boreal Forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feierabend, Dashiell; Kielland, Knut

    2015-01-01

    Survival and predation of snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus) has been widely studied, yet there has been little quantification of the changes in vulnerability of hares to specific predators that may result from seasonal changes in vegetation and cover. We investigated survival and causes of mortalities of snowshoe hares during the late increase, peak, and decline of a population in interior Alaska. From June 2008 to May 2012, we radio-tagged 288 adult and older juvenile hares in early successional and black spruce (Picea mariana) forests and, using known-fate methods in program MARK, evaluated 85 survival models that included variables for sex, age, and body condition of hares, as well as trapping site, month, season, year, snowfall, snow depth, and air temperature. We compared the models using Akaike's information criterion with correction for small sample size. Model results indicated that month, capture site, and body condition were the most important variables in explaining survival rates. Survival was highest in July, and more generally during summer, when alternative prey was available to predators of hares. Low survival rates coincided with molting periods, breeding activity in the spring, and the introduction of juveniles to the sample population in the fall. We identified predation as the cause of mortality in 86% of hare deaths. When the source of predation could be determined, hares were killed more often by goshawks (Accipiter gentilis) than other predators in early successional forest (30%), and more often by lynx (Lynx canadensis) than other predators in black spruce forest (31%). Great horned owls (Bubo virginianus) and coyotes (Canis latrans) represented smaller proportions of hare predation, and non-predatory causes were a minor source (3%) of mortality. Because hares rely on vegetative cover for concealment from predators, we measured cover in predation sites and habitats that the hares occupied and concluded that habitat type had a greater

  9. The influenza B virus mouse model of Reye's syndrome: pathogenesis of the hypoglycaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, L. E.; Woodfin, B. M.; Tran, T. Q.; Caskey, L. S.; Wallace, J. M.; Scremin, O. U.; Blisard, K. S.

    1993-01-01

    Up to 40% of children with Reye's syndrome have hypoglycaemia that could contribute to the patient's encephalopathy. We developed a mouse model in which intravenous inoculation of influenza B/Lee virus produced a non-permissive infection of hepatocytes and cerebral endothelial cells and caused many clinical, biochemical and pathologic features of Reye's syndrome. We used this model to study the pathogenesis of the hypoglycaemia. Beginning 6 hours after virus inoculation and persisting to death 18-30 hours later, blood glucose levels fell by 40% and glycogen disappeared from the liver. Gluconeogenesis in liver slices from a pyruvate substrate was significantly impaired. Pyruvate carboxylase, normally present in hepatocyte mitochondria, was largely displaced into the cytosol, rendering that enzyme fraction relatively useless in the gluconeogenesis pathway. Brain glucose levels fell proportionately to the depressed blood glucose level to a mean of 44 mg/100 g compared to 108 mg/100 g in control brains. We conclude that hypoglycaemia in the mouse model developed largely as a result of a non-permissive influenza viral infection of hepatocytes which impaired the mitochondrial phase of gluconeogenesis. The hypoglycaemia may have contributed to, but did not solely account for, the encephalopathy. A similar non-permissive influenza B infection may cause hypoglycaemia in Reye's syndrome. Images Figure 1 PMID:8392860

  10. Vasculitic syndromes in hepatitis C virus: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaafar Ragab

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Vasculitis is a remarkable presentation of the extrahepatic manifestations of HCV. According to the presence or absence of cryoglobulins it is subdivided into two main types: cryoglobulinemic vasculitis and non cryoglobulinemic vasculitis based on the attribution of vasculitis to serum cryoglobulins as a pathogenic factor. The attribution of cryoglobulinemia to HCV represents a success story in the history of immunology, microbiology, and clinical medicine. HCV can bind to and invade lymphocytes, consequently triggering an immune response through different mechanisms. The epidemiology of the disease is well described and the clinical picture describes cutaneous, pulmonary, musculoskeletal, neurological, renal, endocrine, gastrointestinal, hepatic and cardiovascular manifestations. It may also be associated with sicca symptoms, an increased risk of lymphoma and serious catastrophic events. The pathology is well characterized. A classification criteria of the syndrome that was validated in 2014 is discussed. Management of CV is decided according to the presence and severity of its clinical presentation. It is divided into asymptomatic, mild, moderate, severe and life threatening disease. Recently introduced direct antiviral agents are proving safe and effective in the management of cryoglobulinemic vasculitis, and it is advocated that the two types of vasculitis be given prioritization in the Egyptian mass campaign to eradicate HCV.

  11. A highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus candidate vaccine based on Japanese encephalitis virus replicon system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Pingsheng; Chen, Xiaoming; Huang, Lihong; Liu, Shukai; Zang, Fuyu; Xing, Jinchao; Zhang, Youyue; Liang, Jiaqi; Zhang, Guihong; Liao, Ming; Qi, Wenbao

    2017-01-01

    In the swine industry, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is a highly contagious disease which causes heavy economic losses worldwide. Effective prevention and disease control is an important issue. In this study, we described the construction of a Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) DNA-based replicon with a cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter based on the genome of Japanese encephalitis live vaccine virus SA14-14-2, which is capable of offering a potentially novel way to develop and produce vaccines against a major pathogen of global health. This JEV DNA-based replicon contains a large deletion in the structural genes (C-prM-E). A PRRSV GP5/M was inserted into the deletion position of JEV DNA-based replicons to develop a chimeric replicon vaccine candidate for PRRSV. The results showed that BALB/c mice models with the replicon vaccines pJEV-REP-G-2A-M-IRES and pJEV-REP-G-2A-M stimulated antibody responses and induced a cellular immune response. Analysis of ELSA data showed that vaccination with the replicon vaccine expressing GP5/M induced a better antibodies response than traditional DNA vaccines. Therefore, the results suggested that this ectopic expression system based on JEV DNA-based replicons may represent a useful molecular platform for various biological applications, and the JEV DNA-based replicons expressing GP5/M can be further developed into a novel, safe vaccine candidate for PRRS.

  12. Identification of radically different variants of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in Eastern Europe: towards a common ancestor for European and American viruses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stadejek, T.; Stankevicius, A.; Storgaard, Torben

    2002-01-01

    We determined 22 partial porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) ORF5 sequences, representing pathogenic field strains mainly from Poland and Lithuania, and two currently available European-type live PRRSV vaccines. Also, the complete ORF7 of two Lithuanian and two Polish...

  13. Significance of the oligosaccharides of the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus glycoproteins GP2a and GP5 for infectious virus production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wissink, E.H.J.; Kroese, M.V.; Maneschijn-Bonsing, J.G.; Meulenberg, J.J.; Rijn, van P.A.; Rijsewijk, F.A.M.; Rottier, P.J.M.

    2004-01-01

    The arterivirus porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) contains four glycoproteins, GP2a, GP3, GP4 and GP5, the functions of which are still largely unresolved. In this study, the significance of the N-glycosylation of the GP2a and GP5 proteins of PRRSV strain LV was

  14. Field-Usable Lateral Flow Immunoassay for the Rapid Detection of White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulabhusan, Prabir Kumar; Rajwade, Jyutika M; Sugumar, Vimal; Taju, Gani; Sahul Hameed, A S; Paknikar, Kishore M

    2017-01-01

    White spot disease (WSD), a major threat to sustainable aquaculture worldwide, is caused by White spot syndrome virus (WSSV). The diagnosis of WSD relies heavily on molecular detection of the virus by one-step PCR. These procedures are neither field-usable nor rapid enough considering the speed at which the virus spreads. Thus, development of a rapid, reliable and field-usable diagnostic method for the detection of WSSV infection is imperative to prevent huge economic losses. Here, we report on the development of a lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) employing gold nanoparticles conjugated to a polyclonal antibody against VP28 (envelope protein of WSSV). The LFIA detected WSSV in ~20 min and showed no cross-reactivity with other shrimp viruses, viz. Monodon Baculovirus (MBV), Hepatopancreatic parvovirus (HPV) and Infectious Hypodermal and Hematopoietic Necrosis virus (IHHNV). The limit of detection (LOD) of the assay, as determined by real-time PCR, was 103 copies of WSSV. In a time course infectivity experiment, ~104 WSSV particles were injected in Litopenaeus vannamei. The LFIA could rapidly (~ 20 min) detect the virus in different tissues after 3 h (hemolymph), 6 h (gill tissue) and 12 h (head soft tissue, eye stalk, and pleopod) of infection. Based on these findings, a validation study was performed using 75 field samples collected from different geographical locations in India. The LFIA results obtained were compared with the conventional "gold standard test", viz. one-step PCR. The analysis of results in 2x2 matrix indicated very high sensitivity (100%) and specificity (96.77%) of LFIA. Similarly, Cohen's kappa coefficient of 0.983 suggested "very good agreement" between the developed LFIA and the conventional one-step PCR. The LFIA developed for the rapid detection of WSSV has an excellent potential for use in the field and could prove to be a boon to the aquaculture industry.

  15. Homologous challenge of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus immunity in pregnant swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lager, K M; Mengeling, W L; Brockmeier, S L

    1997-11-01

    The clinical consequences of single or multiple exposure of pregnant gilts to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) at various stages of gestation were determined. Thirty-three pregnant gilts were allotted to 6 experimental groups (5 to 7 gilts/group). Gilts of groups 1 to 5 were exposed to strain NADC-8 of PRRSV at the following times: group 1, gestation day (GD) 1; group 2, GDs 1 and 90; group 3, GD 30; group 4, GDs 30 and 90; group 5, GD 90. Virus exposure was by either intrauterine (GD 1) or oronasal (GDs 30 and 90) inoculation. Gilts of group 6 were kept as nonexposed controls. Gilts were either necropsied on or about GD 111 (groups 1 to 5) or were allowed to farrow (group 6). The detection of PRRSV in serum of fetuses and piglets (within 12 hof birth) was considered evidence of transplacental infection. Transplacental infection and virus-induced death were and were not confirmed for groups 3, 4, and 5 and for groups 1, 2, and 6, respectively. Collectively, the results indicated that intrauterine exposure to PRRSV at GD 1 was without clinical effect (groups 1 and 2) and provided protection against subsequent exposure to the same strain of virus at GD 90 (group 2). The highest incidence of transplacental infection and fetal death followed a single exposure to PRRSV at GD 90 (group 5).

  16. Spinal cord toxoplasmosis in human immunodeficiency virus infection/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-García, Concepción; Castillo-Álvarez, Federico; Azcona-Gutiérrez, José M; Herraiz, María J; Ibarra, Valvanera; Oteo, José A

    2015-05-01

    Neurological complications in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) are still common, even in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy. Opportunistic infections, immune reconstitution, the virus itself, antiretroviral drugs and neurocognitive disorders have to be considered when establishing the differential diagnosis. Toxoplasmic encephalitis remains the major cause of space-occupying lesions in the brain of patients with HIV/AIDS; however, spinal cord involvement has been reported infrequently. Here, we review spinal cord toxoplasmosis in HIV infection and illustrate the condition with a recent case from our hospital. We suggest that most patients with HIV/AIDS and myelitis with enhanced spine lesions, multiple brain lesions and positive serology for Toxoplasma gondii should receive immediate empirical treatment for toxoplasmosis, and a biopsy should be performed in those cases without clinical improvement or with deterioration.

  17. Effector mechanisms of humoral immunity to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahe, Michael C; Murtaugh, Michael P

    2017-04-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) continues to afflict swine nearly 30 years after it was first discovered as the causative agent of "mystery swine disease". Immunological tools of vaccination and exposure to virulent viruses have not succeeded in achieving control and prevention of PRRSV. Humoral immunity, mediated by antibodies, is a hallmark of anti-viral immunity, but little is known about the effector mechanisms of humoral immunity against PRRSV. It is essential to understand the immunological significance of antibody functions, including recently described broadly neutralizing antibodies and potential non-neutralizing activities, in the immune response to PRRSV. Here, we review recent research from PRRSV and other host-pathogen interactions to inform novel routes of exploration into PRRSV humoral immunity which may be important for identifying the immunological correlates of protection against PRRSV infection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The Link between Hypersensitivity Syndrome Reaction Development and Human Herpes Virus-6 Reactivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua C. Pritchett

    2012-01-01

    Data Sources and Extraction. Drugs identified as causes of (i idiosyncratic reactions, (ii drug-induced hypersensitivity, drug-induced hepatotoxicity, acute liver failure, and Stevens-Johnson syndrome, and (iii human herpes virus reactivation in PubMed since 1997 have been collected and discussed. Results. Data presented in this paper show that HHV-6 reactivation is associated with more severe organ involvement and a prolonged course of disease. Conclusion. This analysis of HHV-6 reactivation associated with drug-induced severe cutaneous reactions and hepatotoxicity will aid in causality assessment and clinical diagnosis of possible life-threatening events and will provide a basis for further patient characterization and therapy.

  19. Canada Lynx Dispersal, Space and Habitat Use Patterns During a Snowshoe Hare Population Cycle products

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Products resulting from the Tetlin NWR project "Canada Lynx Dispersal, Space and Habitat Use Patterns During a Snowshoe Hare Population Cycle" (PRIMR survey...

  20. Snowshoe hare multi-level habitat use in a fire-adapted ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gigliotti, Laura C.; Jones, Benjamin C.; Lovallo, Matthew J.; Diefenbach, Duane R.

    2018-01-01

    Prescribed burning has the potential to improve habitat for species that depend on pyric ecosystems or other early successional vegetation types. For species that occupy diverse plant communities over the extent of their range, response to disturbances such as fire might vary based on post-disturbance vegetation dynamics among plant communities. Although responses of snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus) to fire have been studied in conifer-dominated forests in northern parts of the species’ range, there is a lack of information on snowshoe hare habitat use in fire-dependent communities in southern parts of their range. We used global positioning system (GPS) and very high frequency (VHF) radio-collars to monitor the habitat use of 32 snowshoe hares in a scrub-oak (Quercus ilicifolia)-pitch pine (Pinus rigida) barrens complex in northeastern Pennsylvania where prescribed fire has been used for habitat restoration. The area contained stands that underwent prescribed burning 1–6 years prior to our study. Also, we investigated fine-scale determinants of habitat use within stands. We found that regardless of season, hares did not select for areas that had been burned within 6 years prior. Hares primarily used stands of older scrub oak, conifer, or hardwoods, which contained dense understory vegetation and canopy cover. Hare habitat use also was positively associated with stand edges. Our results suggest that hares do not respond to prescribed burning of scrub oak in the short-term. In addition, by focusing on structural determinants of habitat use, rather than broad-scale characteristics such as stand type, management strategies for snowshoe hares can be adapted over the extent of their range despite the multitude of different land cover types across which the species occurs. 

  1. Variation of partial transferrin sequences and phylogenetic relationships among hares (Lepus capensis, Lagomorpha) from Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awadi, Asma; Suchentrunk, Franz; Makni, Mohamed; Ben Slimen, Hichem

    2016-10-01

    North African hares are currently included in cape hares, Lepus capensis sensu lato, a taxon that may be considered a superspecies or a complex of closely related species. The existing molecular data, however, are not unequivocal, with mtDNA control region sequences suggesting a separate species status and nuclear loci (allozymes, microsatellites) revealing conspecificity of L. capensis and L. europaeus. Here, we study sequence variation in the intron 6 (468 bp) of the transferrin nuclear gene, of 105 hares with different coat colour from different regions in Tunisia with respect to genetic diversity and differentiation, as well as their phylogenetic status. Forty-six haplotypes (alleles) were revealed and compared phylogenetically to all available TF haplotypes of various Lepus species retrieved from GenBank. Maximum Likelihood, neighbor joining and median joining network analyses concordantly grouped all currently obtained haplotypes together with haplotypes belonging to six different Chinese hare species and the African scrub hare L. saxatilis. Moreover, two Tunisian haploypes were shared with L. capensis, L timidus, L. sinensis, L. yarkandensis, and L. hainanus from China. These results indicated the evolutionary complexity of the genus Lepus with the mixing of nuclear gene haplotypes resulting from introgressive hybridization or/and shared ancestral polymorphism. We report the presence of shared ancestral polymorphism between North African and Chinese hares. This has not been detected earlier in the mtDNA sequences of the same individuals. Genetic diversity of the TF sequences from the Tunisian populations was relatively high compared to other hare populations. However, genetic differentiation and gene flow analyses (AMOVA, FST, Nm) indicated little divergence with the absence of geographically meaningful phylogroups and lack of clustering with coat colour types. These results confirm the presence of a single hare species in Tunisia, but a sound inference on

  2. Virological and immunological responses to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in a large population of gilts

    OpenAIRE

    Batista, Laura; Pijoan, Carlos; Dee, Scott; Olin, Michael; Molitor, Thomas; Joo, Han Soo; Xiao, Zhenguo; Murtaugh, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) causes a prolonged active infection followed by a persistent infection in lymphoid tissues lasting for several months. Pigs develop both an antibody and cell-mediated immune response following PRRSV infection, but the specific role of each type in the development of protective immunity and clearance of the virus is not yet known. The aims of this study were to characterize the dynamics of PRRSV persistence from 0 to 135 d post infect...

  3. Acute Kidney Injury Following Plastic Bronchitis Associated with Influenza B Virus in a Child with Nephrotic Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujinaga, Shuichiro; Hara, Taichi

    2015-06-01

    Plastic bronchitis is a rare but life-threatening disorder and is usually associated with congenital heart disease or pulmonary disease. A 5-year-old boy with minimal change nephrotic syndrome who developed a relapse along with cough, fever and dyspnea. Chest X-ray showed atelectasis of right upper lobe of lung, and nasal swab was positive for influenza B virus. His respiratory condition worsened, and required ventilation; bronchoscopy revealed bronchial casts. This was followed by acute kidney injury which was successfully managed with hemodialysis. Children with nephrotic syndrome on immunosuppressive agents can develop plastic bronchitis and acute kidney injury, following influenza virus infection.

  4. A Synthetic Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Strain Confers Unprecedented Levels of Heterologous Protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Hiep L X; Ma, Fangrui; Laegreid, William W; Pattnaik, Asit K; Steffen, David; Doster, Alan R; Osorio, Fernando A

    2015-12-01

    Current vaccines do not provide sufficient levels of protection against divergent porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) strains circulating in the field, mainly due to the substantial variation of the viral genome. We describe here a novel approach to generate a PRRSV vaccine candidate that could confer unprecedented levels of heterologous protection against divergent PRRSV isolates. By using a set of 59 nonredundant, full-genome sequences of type 2 PRRSVs, a consensus genome (designated PRRSV-CON) was generated by aligning these 59 PRRSV full-genome sequences, followed by selecting the most common nucleotide found at each position of the alignment. Next, the synthetic PRRSV-CON strain was generated through the use of reverse genetics. PRRSV-CON replicates as efficiently as our prototype PRRSV strain FL12, both in vitro and in vivo. Importantly, when inoculated into pigs, PRRSV-CON confers significantly broader levels of heterologous protection than does wild-type PRRSV. Collectively, our data demonstrate that PRRSV-CON can serve as an excellent candidate for the development of a broadly protective PRRSV vaccine. The extraordinary genetic variation of RNA viruses poses a monumental challenge for the development of broadly protective vaccines against these viruses. To minimize the genetic dissimilarity between vaccine immunogens and contemporary circulating viruses, computational strategies have been developed for the generation of artificial immunogen sequences (so-called "centralized" sequences) that have equal genetic distances to the circulating viruses. Thus far, the generation of centralized vaccine immunogens has been carried out at the level of individual viral proteins. We expand this concept to PRRSV, a highly variable RNA virus, by creating a synthetic PRRSV strain based on a centralized PRRSV genome sequence. This study provides the first example of centralizing the whole genome of an RNA virus to improve vaccine coverage. This

  5. Clinical characteristics of abnormal savda syndrome type in human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome patients: A cross-sectional investigation in Xinjiang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peierdun, Mi-ji-ti; Liu, Wen-xian; Renaguli, Ai-ze-zi; Nurmuhammat, Amat; Li, Xiao-chun; Gulibaier, Ka-ha-er; Ainivaer, Wu-la-mu; Halmurat, Upur

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the distribution of abnormal hilit syndromes in traditional Uighur medicine (TUM) among human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) patients, and to find out the clinical characteristics of abnormal savda syndrome type HIV/AIDS patients. Between June and July in 2012, 307 eligible HIV/AIDS patients from in-patient department and out-patient clinics of Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region the Sixth People's Hospital in Urumqi were investigated. TUM syndrome differentiation was performed by a senior TUM physician. Each participant completed a Sign and Symptom Check-List for Persons Living with HIV/AIDS (SSC-HIV) questionnaire. Depression was evaluated by using Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression Questionnaire. Blood specimen was collected from each participant to test the levels of blood chemicals. Of 307 HIV/AIDS patients, 189 (61.6%) were abnormal savda syndrome type, 118 (38.4%) were non-abnormal-savda syndrome type. Mean CD4 counts of abnormal savda syndrome type patients was (227.61±192.93) cells/µL, and the prevalence of anemia, thrombocytopenia, and elevated cystatin C were 49.7%, 28.6%, and 44.7%, which were significantly higher than those in the non-abnormal-savda syndrome type patients (26.3%, 16.0% and 25.0%,Psyndrome patients (Psyndrome is the dominant syndrome among HIV/AIDS patients, and they present a more sever clinical manifestation.

  6. Fresh Pork and Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus: Factors Related to the Risk of Disease Transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, W; Neumann, E

    2015-08-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRS) is a highly infectious virus. Experimentally, the disease can be induced in naïve pigs by the oral, intranasal and intramuscular routes. Depending on the virulence of the strain of the virus and the age of the pig, peak viremia can occur within 7 days of infection, and live virus can be isolated from blood or lymph nodes for several months post-infection. Young pigs tend to develop higher titres of viremia than older pigs infected by the same route and dose with the same strain of virus. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus survives in pork harvested from infected pigs for extended periods at temperatures of -20 or -70°C. In experimentally infected pigs, survival of PRRS virus in muscle held at 4°C has been demonstrated for at least 7 days, and infectivity of the virus in these samples was confirmed by bioassay. The optimal pH range for the survival of PRRS virus is thought to be 6.0 to 7.5. The elevated pH of non-meat tissues (generally one pH unit higher) is likely to favour extended survival of PRRS virus in pig carcasses from which all superficial and deep lymph nodes have not been removed. It is likely that exsanguinated carcasses held at 4°C retain sufficient blood or lymph tissue to contain infective doses of PRRS virus. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus is rapidly inactivated by heat, providing a predictable method to ensure that pork tissues are free of viable virus and feeding of cooked swill or garbage should not constitute a risk to pigs. While the probability of viable PRRS virus being present in a pig carcass may be low, the risk is not zero. The importation of raw pork into countries where PRRS is not endemic represents a hazard with potentially severe economic consequences. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  7. Zika Virus and Guillain–Barre Syndrome: Is There Sufficient Evidence for Causality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leis, A. Arturo; Stokic, Dobrivoje S.

    2016-01-01

    Worldwide concern over Zika virus causing Guillain–Barre syndrome (GBS) soared after recent reports that Zika-related weakness was due to GBS. A global strategic response plan was initiated with recommendations for at-risk countries to prepare for GBS. This plan has major economic implications, as nations with limited resources struggle to implement costly immunotherapy. Since confirmation of causality is prerequisite to providing specific management recommendations, it is prudent to review data endorsing a GBS diagnosis. We searched PubMed for manuscripts reporting original clinical, laboratory, and electrodiagnostic data on Zika virus and GBS. Five papers met criteria; four case reports and one large case–control study (French Polynesia) that attributed 42 paralysis cases to a motor variant of GBS. Brighton criteria were reportedly used to diagnose GBS, but no differential diagnosis was presented, which violates criteria. GBS was characterized by early onset (median 6 days post-viral syndrome), rapid progression (median 6 days from onset to nadir), and atypical clinical features (52% lacked areflexia, 48% of facial palsies were unilateral). Electrodiagnostic evaluations fell short of guidelines endorsed by American Academy of Neurology. Typical anti-ganglioside antibodies in GBS motor variants were rarely present. We conclude that there is no causal relationship between Zika virus and GBS because data failed to confirm GBS and exclude other causes of paralysis. Focus should be redirected at differential diagnosis, proper use of diagnostic criteria, and electrodiagnosis that follows recommended guidelines. We also call for a moratorium on recommendations for at-risk countries to prepare costly immunotherapies directed at GBS. PMID:27746763

  8. Pathogenicity and molecular characterization of emerging porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in Vietnam in 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metwally, S; Mohamed, F; Faaberg, K; Burrage, T; Prarat, M; Moran, K; Bracht, A; Mayr, G; Berninger, M; Koster, L; To, T L; Nguyen, V L; Reising, M; Landgraf, J; Cox, L; Lubroth, J; Carrillo, C

    2010-10-01

    In 2007, Vietnam experienced swine disease outbreaks causing clinical signs similar to the 'porcine high fever disease' that occurred in China during 2006. Analysis of diagnostic samples from the disease outbreaks in Vietnam identified porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV-2). Additionally, Escherichia coli and Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus were cultured from lung and spleen, and Streptococcus suis from one spleen sample. Genetic characterization of the Vietnamese PRRSV isolates revealed that this virus belongs to the North American genotype (type 2) with a high nucleotide identity to the recently reported Chinese strains. Amino acid sequence in the nsp2 region revealed 95.7-99.4% identity to Chinese strain HUN4, 68-69% identity to strain VR-2332 and 58-59% identity to strain MN184. A partial deletion in the nsp2 gene was detected; however, this deletion did not appear to enhance the virus pathogenicity in the inoculated pigs. Animal inoculation studies were conducted to determine the pathogenicity of PRRSV and to identify other possible agents present in the original specimens. Pigs inoculated with PRRSV alone and their contacts showed persistent fever, and two of five pigs developed cough, neurological signs and swollen joints. Necropsy examination showed mild to moderate bronchopneumonia, enlarged lymph nodes, fibrinous pericarditis and polyarthritis. PRRSV was re-isolated from blood and tissues of the inoculated and contact pigs. Pigs inoculated with lung and spleen tissue homogenates from sick pigs from Vietnam developed high fever, septicaemia, and died acutely within 72 h, while their contact pigs showed no clinical signs throughout the experiment. Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus was cultured, and PRRSV was re-isolated only from the inoculated pigs. Results suggest that the cause of the swine deaths in Vietnam is a multifactorial syndrome with PRRSV as a major factor. © 2010

  9. Zika Virus and Guillain-Barre Syndrome: Is There Sufficient Evidence for Causality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Arturo Leis

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide concern over Zika virus causing Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS soared after recent reports that Zika-related weakness was due to GBS. A global strategic response plan was initiated with recommendations for at risk countries to prepare for GBS. This plan has major economic implications, as nations with limited resources struggle to implement costly immunotherapy. Since confirmation of causality is prerequisite to providing specific management recommendations, it is prudent to review data endorsing a GBS diagnosis. We searched PubMed for manuscripts reporting original clinical, laboratory, and electrodiagnostic data on Zika virus and GBS. Five papers met criteria; four case reports and one large case-control study (French Polynesia that attributed 42 paralysis cases to a motor variant of GBS. Brighton criteria were reportedly used to diagnose GBS, but no differential diagnosis was presented, which violates criteria. GBS was characterized by early onset (median 6 days post-viral syndrome, rapid progression (median 6 days from onset to nadir, and atypical clinical features (52% lacked areflexia, 48% of facial palsies were unilateral. Electrodiagnostic evaluations fell short of guidelines endorsed by American Academy of Neurology. Typical anti-ganglioside antibodies in GBS motor variants were rarely present. We conclude that there is no causal relationship between Zika virus and GBS because data failed to confirm GBS and exclude other causes of paralysis. Focus should be redirected at differential diagnosis, proper use of diagnostic criteria, and electrodiagnosis that follows recommended guidelines. We also call for a moratorium on recommendations for at risk countries to prepare costly immunotherapies directed at GBS.

  10. Establishment of an antiviral assay system and identification of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Masanori; Toyama, Masaaki; Sakakibara, Norikazu; Okamoto, Mika; Arima, Naomichi; Saijo, Masayuki

    2017-12-01

    Aims Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging tick-borne infectious disease. SFTS is epidemic in Asia, and its fatality rate is around 30% in Japan. The causative virus severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV) is a phlebovirus of the family Phenuiviridae (the order Bunyavirales). Although effective treatments are required, there are no antiviral agents currently approved for clinical use. Ribavirin and favipiravir were examined for their anti-SFTSV activity and found to be selective inhibitors of SFTSV replication in vitro. However, their activity was not sufficient. Therefore, it is mandatory to identify novel compounds active against SFTSV. To this end, we have established a safe and rapid assay system for screening selective inhibitors of SFTSV. Methods The virus was isolated from SFTS patients treated in Kagoshima University Hospital. Vero cells were infected with SFTSV and incubated in the presence of various concentrations of test compounds. After three days, the cells were examined for their intracellular viral RNA levels by real-time reverse transcription-PCR without extracting viral RNA. The cytotoxicity of test compounds was determined by a tetrazolium dye method. Results Among the test compounds, the antimalarial agent amodiaquine was identified as a selective inhibitor of SFTSV replication. Its 50% effective concentration (EC50) and cytotoxic concentration (CC50) were 19.1 ± 5.1 and >100 µM, respectively. The EC50 value of amodiaquine was comparable to those of ribavirin and favipiravir. Conclusion Amodiaquine is considered to be a promising lead of novel anti-SFTSV agents, and evaluating the anti-SFTSV activity of its derivatives is in progress.

  11. Molecular Mechanisms of White Spot Syndrome Virus Infection and Perspectives on Treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbruggen, Bas; Bickley, Lisa K; van Aerle, Ronny; Bateman, Kelly S; Stentiford, Grant D; Santos, Eduarda M; Tyler, Charles R

    2016-01-18

    Since its emergence in the 1990s, White Spot Disease (WSD) has had major economic and societal impact in the crustacean aquaculture sector. Over the years shrimp farming alone has experienced billion dollar losses through WSD. The disease is caused by the White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV), a large dsDNA virus and the only member of the Nimaviridae family. Susceptibility to WSSV in a wide range of crustacean hosts makes it a major risk factor in the translocation of live animals and in commodity products. Currently there are no effective treatments for this disease. Understanding the molecular basis of disease processes has contributed significantly to the treatment of many human and animal pathogens, and with a similar aim considerable efforts have been directed towards understanding host-pathogen molecular interactions for WSD. Work on the molecular mechanisms of pathogenesis in aquatic crustaceans has been restricted by a lack of sequenced and annotated genomes for host species. Nevertheless, some of the key host-pathogen interactions have been established: between viral envelope proteins and host cell receptors at initiation of infection, involvement of various immune system pathways in response to WSSV, and the roles of various host and virus miRNAs in mitigation or progression of disease. Despite these advances, many fundamental knowledge gaps remain; for example, the roles of the majority of WSSV proteins are still unknown. In this review we assess current knowledge of how WSSV infects and replicates in its host, and critique strategies for WSD treatment.

  12. Immune responses in piglets infected with highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gang; Song, Tengfei; Yu, Ying; Liu, Yonggang; Shi, Wenda; Wang, Shujie; Rong, Fulong; Dong, Jianguo; Liu, He; Cai, Xuehui; Zhou, En-Min

    2011-08-15

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection compromises the host's innate and adaptive immunity. The aim of this study was to investigate the immune responses of piglets infected with highly pathogenic (HP) PRRSV (HuN4 strain) with or without the immunization with CH-1R attenuated PRRSV vaccine. The response was evaluated for the clinical signs, pathological changes and virus load in immune organs, antibody responses and levels of serum IFN-γ, IL-4 and IL-10. The result showed that in comparison with the piglets received the immunization, the piglets infected with HP-PRRSV alone had the thymus atrophy, decreased serum levels of IL-4 and increased serum levels of IL-10 and INF-γ. These results suggest that elevated IL-10 levels at the early stage of the infection may enhance virus survival and delay the induction of protective immunity, while increased levels of IL-4 induce the effective immune responses and increase the animals' health status. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Molecular Mechanisms of White Spot Syndrome Virus Infection and Perspectives on Treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bas Verbruggen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Since its emergence in the 1990s, White Spot Disease (WSD has had major economic and societal impact in the crustacean aquaculture sector. Over the years shrimp farming alone has experienced billion dollar losses through WSD. The disease is caused by the White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV, a large dsDNA virus and the only member of the Nimaviridae family. Susceptibility to WSSV in a wide range of crustacean hosts makes it a major risk factor in the translocation of live animals and in commodity products. Currently there are no effective treatments for this disease. Understanding the molecular basis of disease processes has contributed significantly to the treatment of many human and animal pathogens, and with a similar aim considerable efforts have been directed towards understanding host–pathogen molecular interactions for WSD. Work on the molecular mechanisms of pathogenesis in aquatic crustaceans has been restricted by a lack of sequenced and annotated genomes for host species. Nevertheless, some of the key host–pathogen interactions have been established: between viral envelope proteins and host cell receptors at initiation of infection, involvement of various immune system pathways in response to WSSV, and the roles of various host and virus miRNAs in mitigation or progression of disease. Despite these advances, many fundamental knowledge gaps remain; for example, the roles of the majority of WSSV proteins are still unknown. In this review we assess current knowledge of how WSSV infects and replicates in its host, and critique strategies for WSD treatment.

  14. Transcriptome Analysis of Litopenaeus vannamei in Response to White Spot Syndrome Virus Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiuli; Xie, Daxiang; Zhao, Yongzhen; Yang, Chunling; Li, Yongmei; Ma, Ning; Li, Ming; Yang, Qiong; Liao, Zhenping; Wang, Hui

    2013-01-01

    Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) is the most extensively farmed crustacean species in the world. White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is one of the major pathogens in the cultured shrimp. However, the molecular mechanisms of the host-virus interaction remain largely unknown. In this study, the impact of WSSV infection on host gene expression in the hepatopancreas of L. vannamei was investigated through the use of 454 pyrosequencing-based RNA-Seq of cDNA libraries developed from WSSV-challenged shrimp or normal controls. By comparing the two cDNA libraries, we show that 767 host genes are significantly up-regulated and 729 genes are significantly down-regulated by WSSV infection. KEGG analysis of the differentially expressed genes indicated that the distribution of gene pathways between the up- and down-regulated genes is quite different. Among the differentially expressed genes, several are found to be involved in various processes of animal defense against pathogens such as apoptosis, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling, toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling, Wnt signaling and antigen processing and presentation pathways. The present study provides valuable information on differential expression of L. vannamei genes following WSSV infection and improves our current understanding of this host-virus interaction. In addition, the large number of transcripts obtained in this study provides a strong basis for future genomic research on shrimp. PMID:23991181

  15. Immunological Features of the Non-Structural Proteins of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Rascón-Castelo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV is currently one of the most important viruses affecting the swine industry worldwide. Despite the large number of papers published each year, the participation of non-structural proteins (nsps in the immune response is not completely clear. nsps have been involved in the host innate immune response, specifically, nsp1α/β, nsp2, nsp4 and nsp11 have been associated with the immunomodulation capability of the virus. To date, only participation by nsp1, nsp2, nsp4 and nsp7 in the humoral immune response has been reported, with the role of other nsps being overlooked. Furthermore, nsp1, nsp2, nsp5, nsp7 nsp9, nsp10, nsp11 have been implicated in the induction of IFN-γ and probably in the development of the cell-mediated immune response. This review discusses recent reports involving the participation of nsps in the modulation of the innate immune response and their role in the induction of both the humoral and cellular immune responses.

  16. Borderline tuberculoid leprosy: A manifestation of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome in a human immunodeficiency virus infected person

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukhopadhyay Partha

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome describes a collection of inflammatory disorders associated with paradoxical deterioration of various pre-existing processes following start of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-infected patients. Leprosy as an opportunistic infection in immune reconstitution syndrome has been rarely reported in literature. A case of a 30-year-old HIV positive man with extrapulmonary tuberculosis of left foot on HAART having developed borderline tuberculoid leprosy as opportunistic infection in immune reconstitution syndrome has been reported.

  17. Pathogenicity of three type 2 Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome virus strains in experimentally inoculated pregnant gilts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mechanisms of reproductive failure resulting from infection with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSv) are still poorly understood. The present study, a side-by-side evaluation of the pathogenicity of three type 2 PRRSv strains in a reproductive model, was used as a pilot study...

  18. Identification of Stressors that Affect White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) Infection and Outbreak in Pond Cultured Penaeus monodon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tendencia Alapide, E.; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2011-01-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) has been a big problem to the worldwide shrimp industry. Exposure to stressors related to physicochemical water parameters affect WSSV infection but not all WSSV infections result in outbreaks. This paper describes a detailed monitoring of important physicochemical

  19. Role of CD151, A tetraspanin, in porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapil Sanjay

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV is a RNA virus causing respiratory and reproductive diseases in swine. The susceptibility for PRRSV varies between the different breeds of swine. In cell culture, PRRSV virus can be propagated in primary porcine alveolar macrophages and some African green monkey kidney cell lines, such as MARC-145 cells. Previous studies have shown that 3' untranslated region (UTR RNAs of the arteriviruses play an important role in the replication of the virus through interactions with cellular proteins. To better understand the differences in the replication capability of PRRSV in different cell lines, we sought to identify the host cellular proteins interacting with PRRSV 3' UTR RNA. We constructed a cDNA library of MARC-145 cell line in lambda ZAP Express vector and screened the library with the positive sense 3' UTR RNA of PRRSV. Results We found that CD151, a host cellular protein, interacting with PRRSV 3' UTR RNA. The specificity of the interaction between CD151 and PRRSV 3' UTR RNA was examined by gel shift assay as well as North-Western hybridization. The transfection of CD151 expression clone into BHK-21 rendered these cells susceptible to PRRSV infection, and the transfection of siRNA against CD151 into MARC-145 significantly reduced the level of PRRSV infection. Also, anti-CD151 antibody treatment to MARC-145 completely blocked PRRSV infection. Conclusion Based on our results, we suggest that CD151 should cooperate in PRRSV infection in vitro in MARC-145 and BHK-21 cells.

  20. Experimental transmission of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) from crabs to shrimp Penaeus monodon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanchanaphum, P; Wongteerasupaya, C; Sitidilokratana, N; Boonsaeng, V; Panyim, S; Tassanakajon, A; Withyachumnarnkul, B; Flegel, T W

    1998-09-11

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) of the black tiger prawn Penaeus monodon is a recently discovered baculo-like virus disease which is currently the cause of very serious and widespread losses in the shrimp industry in Thailand and elsewhere in Asia. Three suspected crab carriers of this virus commonly found in shrimp-rearing areas were investigated. These were Sesarma sp., Scylla serrata and Uca pugilator. All these crabs could be infected with WSSV by injection and they sustained heavy viral infections for up to 45 d (confirmed by normal histology, specific in situ DNA hybridization and PCR amplification) without visible signs of disease or mortality. All of them also transferred the disease to P. monodon via water while physically separated in aquarium cohabitation tests. Transfer of the virus to the shrimp was monitored using in situ DNA hybridization and PCR assay at 12 h intervals after cohabitation began. With U. pugilator, WSSV could be detected in the shrimp cohabitants after 24 h using PCR amplification and after 60 h using in situ hybridization. With S. serrata, the shrimp were positive for WSSV after 36 h using PCR and after 60 h using DNA in situ hybridization. With Sesarma sp. they were positive after 48 h using PCR and 72 h using in situ hybridization. These laboratory studies demonstrated that crab carriers of WSSV may pose a real threat to cultivated shrimp. However, the studies were carried out in containers with a small volume and with relatively clean sea water as compared to shrimp cultivation ponds. Pond-based studies are now needed to determine whether factors such as pond volume, pond water quality and shrimp and crab behavior can influence the rate and success of transfer.

  1. Antigenic structure of the nucleocapsid protein of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wootton, S K; Nelson, E A; Yoo, D

    1998-11-01

    A collection of 12 monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) raised against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus was used to study the antigenic structure of the virus nucleocapsid protein (N). The full-length N gene, encoded by open reading frame 7, was cloned from the Canadian PRRS virus, PA-8. Deletions were introduced into the N gene to produce a series of nine overlapping protein fragments ranging in length from 25 to 112 amino acids. The individual truncated genes were cloned as glutathione S-transferase fusions into a eukaryotic expression vector downstream of the T7 RNA polymerase promoter. HeLa cells infected with recombinant vaccinia virus expressing T7 RNA polymerase were transfected with plasmid DNA encoding the N protein fragments, and the antigenicity of the synthesized proteins was analyzed by immunoprecipitation. Based on the immunoreactivities of the N protein deletion mutants with the panel of N-specific MAbs, five domains of antigenic importance were identified. MAbs SDOW17, SR30, and 5H2.3B12.1C9 each identified independent domains defined by amino acids 30 to 52, 69 to 123, and 37 to 52, respectively. Seven of the MAbs tested specifically recognized the local protein conformation formed in part by the amino acid residues 52 to 69. Furthermore, deletion of 11 amino acids from the carboxy terminus of the nucleocapsid protein disrupted the epitope configuration recognized by all of the conformation-dependent MAbs, suggesting that the carboxy-terminal region plays an important role in maintaining local protein conformation.

  2. [Epstein-Barr virus infection with severe consequences. EBV, haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis and Hodgkin lymphoma with Down syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuitert, Pieter C J; Abbink, Floor C H; Broers, Chantal J M; van der Valk, Paul; van Furth, A Marceline; van der Kuip, Martijn

    2014-01-01

    Over 90% of the population is infected with the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). Following primary infection, the virus remains latent in B-lymphocytes. In isolated cases, especially in immunocompromised patients, the Epstein-Barr virus can result in a chronic active infection (CAEBV). We describe an 11-year-old boy with Down syndrome who was admitted because of fever of unknown origin during several periods. Serological findings (high VCA-IgG and absent EBNA-IgG) were suggestive of CAEBV, which was confirmed by the high circulating EBV viral load. During admission the clinical picture worsened and our patient developed pancytopenia, which led us to diagnose concurrent haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis and Hodgkin lymphoma. CAEBV is the result of deficiency in cellular immunity, which in this patient could possibly be attributed to deficiencies in the immune system associated with Down syndrome. CAEBV is difficult to treat, and it can come with life-threatening complications such as haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis.

  3. Activation of c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase is required for porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus-induced apoptosis but not for virus replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Shutao; Huo, Yazhen; Dong, Yinhui; Fan, Lihong; Yang, Hanchun; Wang, Leyuan; Ning, Yibao; Hu, Hongbo

    2012-06-01

    Apoptosis of host cells plays a critical role in pathogenesis of virus infection. MAPK kinases especially stress-activated protein kinases c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (SAPK/JNK) and p38 are often involved in virus-mediated apoptosis. It has been shown that porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection resulted in apoptosis of the host cells both in vitro and in vivo. The current investigation was initiated to determine whether stress-activated protein kinases JNK and p38 play a role in apoptosis induction by PRRSV infection. We examined phosphorylation of JNK and p38, and found that JNK but not p38 was activated in response to PRRSV infection. We then examined effects of this kinase on apoptosis induction and virus replication by using specific inhibitor. We found that JNK inhibition by its inhibitor SP600125 led to the abolishment of PRRSV-mediated apoptosis, but did not suppress virus replication. Further studies demonstrated that ROS generation was involved in JNK activation, and Bcl-2 family anti-apoptotic proteins Mcl-1 and Bcl-xl were downstream targets of JNK to mediate apoptosis. We conclude that activation of JNK signaling pathway is essential for PRRSV-mediated apoptosis but not for virus replication. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Interaction of the tick (Haemaphysalis leporispalustris) with a cyclic snowshoe hare (Lepus americanus) population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, L B; Cary, J R

    1990-10-01

    Prevalence and intensity of the tick, Haemaphysalis leporispalustris, were monitored during 1963 to 1976 in a cyclic snowshoe hare (Lepus americanus) population near Rochester, Alberta, Canada. Prevalence was near zero from December through March, and near 100% among adult hares from May through September. Prevalence among juvenile hares approached 100% by age 2 mo. Intensity peaked for both adults and juveniles during May-June and again in August. Mean intensities were significantly higher among adult males than adult females in 5 of 13 yr, and almost significant in two others. Tick intensities were lowest during 3 yr, 1969 to 1971, when hare densities were highest. Tick intensities in spring were correlated with intensities the previous fall. Survival of marked adult and juvenile hares was unrelated to intensities of infestation. Mean numbers of corpora lutea and embryos tended to be lower among adult females with heavy tick infestations, and intra-uterine losses rose steadily from about 3 to 13% as tick intensities increased from none to heavy. Comparison of average tick intensities on adults 1-, 2-, and greater than or equal to 3-yr-old yielded no evidence of increased immunity with age.

  5. Appendicitis Caused by Primary Varicella Zoster Virus Infection in a Child with DiGeorge Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smedegaard, Lotte Møller; Christiansen, Claus Bohn; Melchior, Linea Cecilie

    2017-01-01

    of appendicitis is largely unknown but is thought to be multifactorial. Appendicitis is a suspected, but not well documented, complication from varicella zoster virus infection. CASE PRESENTATION: A five-year-old girl diagnosed with DiGeorge syndrome and a prolonged primary VZV infection was admitted due...... to abdominal pain, increasing diarrhoea, vomiting, and poor general condition. She developed perforated appendicitis and an intraperitoneal abscess. VZV DNA was detected by PCR in two samples from the appendix and pus from the abdomen, respectively. The child was treated with acyclovir and antibiotics...... and the abscess was drained twice. She was discharged two weeks after referral with no sequela. CONCLUSION: Abdominal pain in children with viral infections can be a challenge, and appendicitis has to be considered as a complication to acute viral diseases, especially if the child is immunocompromised....

  6. Landscape elements and Hantaan virus-related hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome, People's Republic of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Lei; Fang, Li-Qun; Huang, Hua-Guo; Zhang, Long-Qi; Feng, Dan; Zhao, Wen-Juan; Zhang, Wen-Yi; Li, Xiao-Wen; Cao, Wu-Chun

    2007-09-01

    Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) is an important public health problem in the People's Republic of China, accounting for 90% of human cases reported globally. In this study, a landscape epidemiologic approach, combined with geographic information system and remote sensing techniques, was applied to increase our understanding of HFRS due to Hantaan virus and its relationship with landscape elements in China. The landscape elements considered were elevation, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), precipitation, annual cumulative air temperature, land surface temperature, soil type, and land use. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that HFRS incidence was remarkably associated with elevation, NDVI, precipitation, annual cumulative air temperature, semihydromorphic soils, timber forests, and orchards. These findings have important applications for targeting HFRS interventions in mainland China.

  7. Low-dose growth hormone and human immunodeficiency virus-associated lipodystrophy syndrome: a pilot study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, O; Haugaard, S B; Flyvbjerg, A

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Treatment with high doses (2-6 mg day(-1)) of human growth hormone (hGH) in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated lipodystrophy syndrome (HALS) has been shown to increase concentrations of total insulin-like growth-factor-I (IGF-I) more than twofold greater than...... the normal upper range and is accompanied by adverse effects such as joint pain and glucose intolerance. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a 16-week open-labelled prospective pilot study in six male HALS patients using a s.c. low-dose hGH, 0.7 mg day(-1), aiming to examine the impact on total and free IGF...

  8. Kualitas Lingkungan Tambak Insentif Litapenaeus Vannamei Dalam Kaitannya Dengan Prevalensi Penyakit White Spot Syndrome Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunita Maimunah

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Increasing number of vannamei shrimp (Litapenaeus vannamei ponds are switching from traditional to intensive farming systems, the more impact resulting among other potential environmental pollution. Pollution of the environment can directly degrade water quality cultivation and facilitate access of pathogens to infect the host. In this study examines how the quality of the environment, population and genetic characteristics of shrimp that live in some intensive pond associated with a disease that often affects farmed shrimp is White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV. Acquisition and primary data collection is done by conducting interviews and direct observation in the measurement of water quality parameters of both physics and chemistry and morphology observation of shrimp as well as the ICP11 gene expression detection of WSSV disease in vannamei shrimp DNA in the laboratory.

  9. Binding of white spot syndrome virus to Artemia sp. cell membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Shuying; Li, Guangda; Feng, Wenpo; Huang, Jie

    2013-10-01

    Using differential velocity centrifugation, cell membranes of Artemia sp. were prepared, and their binding to white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) was analyzed in vitro. The results indicated that WSSV can specifically bind to Artemia cell membranes, and that WSSV receptor very likely existed in this membrane, which suggested that Artemia sp. may be a reservoir of WSSV. This study investigated the specific WSSV binding site by performing competitive inhibition experiments using shrimp gill cell membranes to bind WSSV to Artemia cell membranes. The results showed that shrimp gill cell membranes had a distinct inhibition effect on the specific binding of Artemia cell membranes to WSSV. Thus, potentially similar WSSV receptors or binding sites existed on Artemia sp. cell membranes and shrimp gill cell membranes. Taken together, these findings may provide experimental basis for the development of an effective approach to controlling WSSV, and theoretical basis for the study of WSSV receptors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Blue crabs Callinectes sapidus as potential biological reservoirs for white spot syndrome virus (WSSV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, James W B; Browdy, Craig L; Burge, Erin J

    2015-03-09

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a virulent pathogen of cultured shrimp and was first detected in farms in South Carolina (USA) in 1997 and subsequently in wild shrimp in 1999. We screened groups of 1808 wild Atlantic white shrimp Litopenaeus setiferus and 300 blue crabs Callinectes sapidus collected from South Carolina, Georgia, and Florida for the presence of WSSV using the Shrimple® immunoassay-strip test, with all positives and random subsets of negatives tested by TaqMan real-time PCR and in infectivity bioassays. Of 87 shrimp and 11 crabs that tested positive using the Shrimple® test, only a single C. sapidus was confirmed to be infected with WSSV by PCR and the infectivity bioassay. The data indicate that the prevalence of WSSV in these species is low in these southeastern US regions, but that C. sapidus may serve as a biological reservoir.

  11. Effect of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) on alveolar lung macrophage survival and function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oleksiewicz, Martin B.; Nielsen, Jens

    1999-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) recently emerged as an important cause of reproductive disorders and pneumonia in domestic pigs throughout the world. Acute cytocidal replication of PRRSV in alveolar lung macrophages causes the acute pneumonia; however, it remains largely....... Monitored by flow cytometric detection of intracellular PRRSV nucleocapsid protein, acute (24 h post infection) PRRSV replication did not impede the ability of alveolar macrophages to ingest fluorescently labelled Escherichia coli. At 48 h post infection, PRRSV-induced cytotoxicity (quantitated by flow...... analysis of cell size and membrane integrity) led to 40% reduction in the total number of phagocytozing cells. However, viable/uninfected macrophages in PRRSV-infected cultures exhibited normal phagocytic ability at 48 h, indicating that no soluble phagocytosis-suppressive mediators were induced by PRRSV...

  12. Attempts to enhance cross-protection against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome viruses using chimeric viruses containing structural genes from two antigenically distinct strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Dong; Khatun, Amina; Kim, Won-Il; Cooper, Vickie; Cho, Yong-Il; Wang, Chong; Choi, Eun-Jin; Yoon, Kyoung-Jin

    2016-08-05

    Due to significant antigenic variations between field isolates of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), suboptimal cross-protection between different viruses impedes the effective control of PRRS via vaccination. Our previous study showed that chimeric viruses containing mixed structural genes from two distinct strains (VR2332 and JA142) of PRRSV were highly susceptible to the viral neutralizing activity of antisera generated against both parental strains. In this study, three chimeric viruses (JAP5, JAP56 and JAP2-6) were constructed by replacing ORF5, ORFs 5 and 6, and ORFs 2-6 of VR2332 with the corresponding genes of JA142, respectively, and their ability to confer cross-protection against challenge with the VR2332 and JA142 strains was evaluated in vivo. A total of 114 pigs were divided into 6 groups, and each group was intramuscularly injected with one of the 3 chimeric viruses (n=16 pigs per group), VR2332 (n=24), JA142 (n=24), or sham inoculum (n=18). At 44days post-inoculation (dpi), these pigs were further divided into 15 groups (n=6 or 8 pigs per group) and intranasally challenged with VR2332, JA142, or sham inoculum. All pigs inoculated with one of the chimeric viruses prior to challenge had lower viremia levels than the challenge control pigs. Prior inoculation with JAP56 markedly decreased viremia to nearly undetectable levels in pigs challenged with either VR2332 or JA142. These results suggest that chimeric viruses harboring mixed structural genes from two distinct PRRSV strains can provide protection against both donor viruses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Dietary metal toxicity to the marine sea hare, Aplysia californica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, Tayler A; Capo, Thomas R; Bielmyer-Fraser, Gretchen K

    2015-01-01

    Metal pollution from anthropogenic inputs is a concern in many marine environments. Metals accumulate in tissue and in excess cause toxicity in marine organisms. This study investigated the accumulation and effects of dietary metals in a macroinvertebrate. The green seaweed, Ulva lactuca and the red seaweed, Agardhiella subulata were each concurrently exposed to two concentrations (100 or 1000 μg/L) of five metals (Cu, Ni, Pb, Cd, and Zn). Additionally, U. lactuca was exposed to 10 μg/L of the metal mixture as well as 10 or 100 μg/L of each metal individually for 48 h. The seaweeds were then used as food for the sea hare, Aplysia californica for two to three weeks depending on the exposure concentration. Body mass of A. californica was measured weekly, and at the end of the exposure duration, metal concentrations were quantified in dissected organs (mouth, esophagus, crop, gizzard, ovotestis, heart, hepatopancreas, gill, and the carcass). Metal distribution and accumulation in the organs of A. californica varied with the metal. A. californica fed the metal-exposed diets had significantly reduced body weight by the end of the exposure periods, as compared to controls; however, differences were observed in the extent of growth reductions, dependent on exposure concentration, duration, and exposure regime (metal mixture versus individual metal-exposed diet). Metal mixture diets decreased A. californica growth more so than comparable individual metal diets, despite more metal accumulating in the individual metal diets. Additionally, Zn- and Cu-contaminated algal diets decreased control-normalized growth of A. californica significantly more than comparable Cd-, Pb-, or Ni-contaminated diets. The seaweed diets in this study contained environmentally relevant tissue metal burdens. Therefore, these results have implications for metals in marine systems. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus infection triggers HMGB1 release to promote inflammatory cytokine production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Erzhen; Wang, Dang; Luo, Rui; Luo, Jingyi; Gao, Li; Chen, Huanchun; Fang, Liurong; Xiao, Shaobo

    2014-11-01

    The high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) protein is an endogenous damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) molecule involved in the pathogenesis of various infectious agents. Based on meta-analysis of all publicly available microarray datasets, HMGB1 has recently been proposed as the most significant immune modulator during the porcine response to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection. However, the function of HMGB1 in PRRSV pathogenesis is unclear. In this study, we found that PRRSV infection triggers the translocation of HMGB1 from the nucleus to the extracellular milieu in MARC-145 cells and porcine alveolar macrophages. Although HMGB1 has no effect on PRRSV replication, HMGB1 promotes PRRSV-induced NF-κB activation and subsequent expression of inflammatory cytokines through receptors RAGE, TLR2 and TLR4. Our findings show that HMGB1 release, triggered by PRRSV infection, enhances the efficiency of virus-induced inflammatory responses, thereby providing new insights into the pathogenesis of PRRSV infection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. An update on mechanism of entry of white spot syndrome virus into shrimps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Arunima Kumar; Gupta, Shipra; Singh, Shivesh Pratap; Nagpure, Naresh Sahebrao

    2017-08-01

    Host-parasite relationships can be best understood at the level of protein-protein interaction between host and pathogen. Such interactions are instrumental in understanding the important stages of life cycle of pathogen such as adsorption of the pathogen on host surface followed by effective entry of pathogen into the host body, movement of the pathogen across the host cytoplasm to reach the host nucleus and replication of the pathogen within the host. White Spot Disease (WSD) is a havoc for shrimps and till date no effective treatment is available against the disease. Moreover information regarding the mechanism of entry of White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) into shrimps, as well as knowledge about the protein interactions occurring between WSSV and shrimp during viral entry are still at very meagre stage. A cumulative and critically assessed information on various viral-shrimp interactions occurring during viral entry can help to understand the exact pathway of entry of WSSV into the shrimp which in turn can be used to device drugs that can stop the entry of virus into the host. In this context, we highlight various WSSV and shrimp proteins that play role in the entry mechanism along with the description of the interaction between host and pathogen proteins. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. White spot syndrome virus infection: Threat to crustacean biodiversity in Vembanad Lake, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toms C. Joseph

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Vembanad Lake located on the south-west coast of India, an ecological hotspot is the nursing ground of many economically important crustaceans. The prevalence of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV among crustaceans from farmed, estuarine and marine environments surrounding the Vembanad Lake, India was detected using PCR. A total of 308 samples from aquaculture ponds consisting of six species of crustaceans collected from five different farms were tested for the presence of WSSV. Of these, 67% were found to carry the virus. A total of 258 samples of crustaceans from the Cochin backwater system that forms a part of the Vembanad lake viz., Metapenaeus dobsoni, Metapenaeus monoceros, Penaeus monodon and Penaeus indicus were found to contain WSSV in 62% of the samples. Fifteen species of crustaceans caught from the seas off Cochin were also screened for the presence of WSSV. Out of these, twelve species had WSSV incidence levels ranging from 6–23%. WSSV was not detected from three species of deep sea crustaceans tested. The black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon had the highest incidence of WSSV among the species screened in farmed, estuarine and marine environments.

  17. Down syndrome as risk factor for respiratory syncytial virus hospitalization: A prospective multicenter epidemiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Luna, Manuel; Medrano, Constancio; Lirio, Julián

    2017-03-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection in childhood, particularly in premature infants, is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. To compare the hospitalization rates due to RSV infection and severity of disease between infants with and without Down syndrome (DS) born at term and without other associated risk factors for severe RSV infection. In a prospective multicentre epidemiological study, 93 infants were included in the DS cohort and 68 matched by sex and data of birth (±1 week) and were followed up to 1 year of age and during a complete RSV season. The hospitalization rate for all acute respiratory infection was significantly higher in the DS cohort than in the non-DS cohort (44.1% vs 7.7%, P<.0001). Hospitalizations due to RSV were significantly more frequent in the DH cohort than in the non-DS cohort (9.7% vs 1.5%, P=.03). RSV prophylaxis was recorded in 33 (35.5%) infants with DS. The rate of hospitalization according to presence or absence of RSV immunoprophylaxis was 3.0% vs 15%, respectively. Infants with DS showed a higher rate of hospitalization due to acute lower respiratory tract infection and RSV infection compared to non-DS infants. Including DS infants in recommendations for immunoprophylaxis of RSV disease should be considered. © 2016 The Authors. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. OIE white spot syndrome virus PCR gives false-positive results in Cherax quadricarinatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claydon, Kerry; Cullen, Bradford; Owens, Leigh

    2004-12-13

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is an intranuclear bacilliform virus (IBV) that is a serious, notifiable crustacean pathogen. The Office International des Epizooties (OIE) PCR protocol for WSSV uses primer sets initially developed by Lo et al. (1996). It yields a first-step PCR amplicon of 1441 bp and a nested PCR amplicon of 941 bp. An amplicon (941 bp) purported to specifically detect WSSV was obtained when using template DNA extracted from Cherax quadricarinatus in a WSSV PCR detection protocol recommended by the OIE. Sequencing and analysis of the 941 bp amplicon and an occasional 550 bp amplicon from C. quadricarinatus revealed no phylogenetic relationship with WSSV, and suggested a possible lack of sufficient primer specificity for WSSV in the OIE test. This suggestion was supported by the fact that the OIE outer primer sequence (146F1) was present in both the forward and reverse position of the 941 bp and the forward position of the 550 bp nested amplicons from C. quadricarinatus. As WSSV is a notifiable pathogen, the consequences of false-positive results are harsh in WSSV-free zones and can lead to incorrect quarantine and unnecessary destruction of animals. Therefore, urgent attention and revision is necessary for the current OIE PCR protocol for WSSV detection.

  19. Characterization of polyclonal antibodies against nonstructural protein 9 from the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengmeng ZHAO,Juanjuan QIAN,Jiexiong XIE,Tiantian CUI,Songling FENG,Guoqiang WANG,Ruining WANG,Guihong ZHANG

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS is considered to be one of the most important infectious diseases impacting the swine industry and is characterized by reproductive failure in late term gestation in sows and respiratory disease in pigs of all ages. The nonstructural protein 9 gene, Nsp9, encoding the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, is generally regarded as fairly conserved when compared to other viral proteins. Antibodies against Nsp9 will be of great importance for the diagnosis and treatment of the causal agent, PRRS virus. A study was undertaken to generate polyclonal antibodies against the immunodominant Nsp9. For this purpose, the Nsp9 was expressed in Escherichia coli and subsequently used as an antigen to immunize New Zealand rabbits. Antiserum was identified via an indirect ELISA, and then verified based on the ability to react with both naturally and artificially expressed Nsp9. Results of virus neutralization test showed that this antiserum could not neutralize the PRRSV. Nevertheless, this antiserum as a diagnostic core reagent should prove invaluable for further investigations into the mechanism of PRRS pathogenesis.

  20. Prevalence of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus in Haemaphysalis longicornis ticks in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sun-Whan; Song, Bong Gu; Shin, E-Hyun; Yun, Seok-Min; Han, Myung-Guk; Park, Mi Yeoun; Park, Chan; Ryou, Jungsang

    2014-10-01

    Haemaphysalis longicornis a vector that harbors severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV) is a major species of tick in South Korea. To investigate the existence and prevalence of SFTSV in Korea, we collected ticks from nine provinces in South Korea for detecting SFTSV. In all, we collected 13,053 ticks, and H. longicornis (90.8%, 11,856/13,053) was the most abundant among them. The minimum infection rate (MIR) of SFTSV in H. longicornis was 0.46% (55 pools). SFTSV was detected in ticks during all the developmental stages, showing MIR in larvae (2/350, 0.57%), nymphs (38/10,436, 0.36%), males (2/221, 0.90%), and females (13/849, 1.53%), respectively. Viruses were detected in ticks collected between April and September. A higher MIR was detected in ticks from the southern part of the country. We amplified the M and S segment partial genes from a sample and analyzed the nucleotide sequence. The results showed a 93-98% homology to Chinese and Japanese strains registered in Genbank. In this study, we confirmed the existence of SFTSV for the first time in South Korea. The SFTSV prevalence data from the studies are essential for raising the awareness of SFTS in South Korea. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus induces apoptosis through a mitochondria-mediated pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Myeong; Kleiboeker, Steven B

    2007-09-01

    As with a number of other viruses, Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) has been shown to induce apoptosis, although the mechanism(s) involved remain unknown. In this study we have characterized the apoptotic pathways activated by PRRSV infection. PRRSV-infected cells showed evidence of apoptosis including phosphatidylserine exposure, chromatin condensation, DNA fragmentation, caspase activation (including caspase-8, 9, 3), and PARP cleavage. DNA fragmentation was dependent on caspase activation but blocking apoptosis by a caspase inhibitor did not affect PRRSV replication. Upregulation of Bax expression by PRRSV infection was followed by disruption of the mitochondria transmembrane potential, resulting in cytochrome c redistridution to the cytoplasm and subsequent caspase-9 activation. A crosstalk between the extrinsic and intrinsic pathways was demonstrated by dependency of caspase-9 activation on active caspase-8 and by Bid cleavage. Furthermore, in this study we provide evidence of the possible involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated oxidative stress in apoptosis induced by PRRSV. Our data indicated that cell death caused by PRRSV infection involves necrosis as well as apoptosis. In summary, these findings demonstrate mechanisms by which PRRSV induces apoptosis and will contribute to an enhanced understanding of PRRSV pathogenesis.

  2. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus infection triggers HMGB1 release to promote inflammatory cytokine production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duan, Erzhen; Wang, Dang; Luo, Rui; Luo, Jingyi; Gao, Li; Chen, Huanchun; Fang, Liurong, E-mail: fanglr@mail.hzau.edu.cn; Xiao, Shaobo, E-mail: vet@mail.hzau.edu.cn

    2014-11-15

    The high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) protein is an endogenous damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) molecule involved in the pathogenesis of various infectious agents. Based on meta-analysis of all publicly available microarray datasets, HMGB1 has recently been proposed as the most significant immune modulator during the porcine response to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection. However, the function of HMGB1 in PRRSV pathogenesis is unclear. In this study, we found that PRRSV infection triggers the translocation of HMGB1 from the nucleus to the extracellular milieu in MARC-145 cells and porcine alveolar macrophages. Although HMGB1 has no effect on PRRSV replication, HMGB1 promotes PRRSV-induced NF-κB activation and subsequent expression of inflammatory cytokines through receptors RAGE, TLR2 and TLR4. Our findings show that HMGB1 release, triggered by PRRSV infection, enhances the efficiency of virus-induced inflammatory responses, thereby providing new insights into the pathogenesis of PRRSV infection. - Highlights: • PRRSV infection triggers HMGB1 release from MARC-145 cells and PAMs. • HMGB1 does not significantly affect PRRSV proliferation. • HMGB1 is involved in PRRSV-induced NF-κB activation and inflammatory responses. • HMGB1 promotes PRRSV-induced inflammatory responses through TLR2/4 and RAGE.

  3. Respiratory disease due to current egg drop syndrome virus in Pekin ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Se-Yeoun; Kang, Min; Moon, Oun-Kyoung; Park, Choi-Kyu; Jang, Hyung-Kwan

    2013-08-30

    Severe acute respiratory symptoms with coughing, dyspnea, and gasping were reported in two flocks of 9-day-old Pekin ducklings from different provinces. Gross lesions, white exudate and mucous membrane congestion in the trachea as well as blue to purple color changes and sclerosis in lungs were observed. Histological lesions revealed that the trachea and bronchial epithelium were hyperplastic and infiltrated by neutrophil granulocytes. Egg drop syndrome virus (EDSV) was differentially diagnosed using polymerase chain reaction, and the strains were isolated from tracheas and lungs by inoculation of 10-day-old embryonated duck eggs. The virus isolates were designated strain D11-JW-012 and D11-JW-017. The clinical and pathological signs were reproduced by intra-tracheal inoculation of the isolates in 3-day-old ducklings. Although the two isolates produced similar clinical signs, pathological lesions and ciliostasis, the D11-JW-017 strain resulted in more severe clinical signs with progressive symptoms compared to those of D11-JW-012 strain-infected ducklings. We suggest that different EDSV strains with mild or severe to moderate pathogenicity coexist and have potential risks in poultry. Hereby, we report an EDSV infection in ducklings. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. One Measure Does Not a Construct Make: Directions toward Reinvigorating Psychopathy Research--Reply to Hare and Neumann (2010)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skeem, Jennifer L.; Cooke, David J.

    2010-01-01

    In our article (J. L. Skeem & D. J. Cooke, 2010), we outlined the dangers inherent in conflating the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R; R. Hare, 1991) with psychopathy itself. In their response, R. Hare and C. Neumann (2010) seemed to agree with key points that the PCL-R should not be confused with psychopathy and that criminal behavior is not…

  5. Innate and adaptive immunity against Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loving, Crystal L; Osorio, Fernando A; Murtaugh, Michael P; Zuckermann, Federico A

    2015-09-15

    Many highly effective vaccines have been produced against viruses whose virulent infection elicits strong and durable protective immunity. In these cases, characterization of immune effector mechanisms and identification of protective epitopes/immunogens has been informative for the development of successful vaccine programs. Diseases in which the immune system does not rapidly clear the acute infection and/or convalescent immunity does not provide highly effective protection against secondary challenge pose a major hurdle for clinicians and scientists. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) falls primarily into this category, though not entirely. PRRSV causes a prolonged infection, though the host eventually clears the virus. Neutralizing antibodies can provide passive protection when present prior to challenge, though infection can be controlled in the absence of detectable neutralizing antibodies. In addition, primed pigs (through natural exposure or vaccination with a modified-live vaccine) show some protection against secondary challenge. While peripheral PRRSV-specific T cell responses have been examined, their direct contribution to antibody-mediated immunity and viral clearance have not been fully elucidated. The innate immune response following PRRSV infection, particularly the antiviral type I interferon response, is meager, but when provided exogenously, IFN-α enhances PRRSV immunity and viral control. Overall, the quality of immunity induced by natural PRRSV infection is not ideal for informing vaccine development programs. The epitopes necessary for protection may be identified through natural exposure or modified-live vaccines and subsequently applied to vaccine delivery platforms to accelerate induction of protective immunity following vaccination. Collectively, further work to identify protective B and T cell epitopes and mechanisms by which PRRSV eludes innate immunity will enhance our ability to develop more effective methods

  6. Associated Factors for Metabolic Syndrome in the Older Adults with Chronic Virus Hepatitis in the Community.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-Hung Kuo

    Full Text Available This study was to evaluate the association between metabolic syndrome (MetS and chronic virus hepatitis elders in the community. Those subjects with positive hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg and/or anti-hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV screened in the community before were invited to this study and 451 responded. All participants underwent anthropometric measurements, blood tests, ultrasound and fibroscan examinations. The cut-off of liver stiffness measurement-liver cirrhosis (LSM-LC was 10 kPa for chronic hepatitis B (CHB patients and 12 kPa for chronic hepatitis C (CHC patients, respectively. Among 451 responders, 56 were excluded due to negative HBsAg or anti-HCV. Three hundreds and ninety-five subjects included 228 CHB patients, 156 CHC patients and 11 dual hepatitis patients, had a mean age of 62±12.6 years. Fifty-four (23.7% CHB patients coexisted with MetS whereas 40 (25.6% CHC patients also had MetS. Those patients with MetS had more LSM-LC cases than those without (20.4% vs 9.8%, p = 0.04 in CHB patients; 28.2% vs 13.5%, p = 0.037 in CHC patients, respectively. In multivariate logistic analysis, detectable viremia was reversely associated with MetS in CHB patients after adjustment for age, gender and body mass index (odds ratio (OR: 0.42; 95% confidence interval (CI: 0.18-0.99; p = 0.047. Regarding CHC patients, higher LSM level was the only factor contributed to MetS (OR: 1.1; 95% CI: 1.02-1.19; p = 0.012. In conclusion, elder CHB patients coexisted with MetS might experience an inactive virus replication but have an advanced liver fibrosis. In elder CHC patients, only higher LSM level was associated with MetS.

  7. Lipodystrophic syndrome in children and adolescents infected with the human immunodeficiency virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crésio Alves

    Full Text Available The introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART for the treatment of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS has resulted in greater survival of patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. However, the use of these drugs has been associated with lipodystrophic syndrome (LS, which is characterized by metabolic alterations (dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, diabetes, and lactic acidosis and abnormal corporal fat distribution. Clinically, LS may manifest as three different forms: lipohipertrophy (accumulation of fat in the central part of the body, lipoatrophy (loss of fat in the extremities, face and buttocks and mixed (lipohipertrophy + lipoatrophy. Although its physiopathology has not been elucidated, some mechanisms have been described, including leptin and adiponectin deficiency, mitochondrial dysfunction and use of antiretroviral drugs. The type, dose and duration of the antiretroviral treatment, as well as age and puberty are the main risk factors. LS is also associated with increased incidence of cardiovascular illnesses, atherosclerosis and diabetes mellitus. Treatment includes physical activity, cautious restriction of caloric intake, changes in antiretroviral therapy, and use of insulin-sensitizing and lipid-lowering agents. Follow up must be periodic, consisting of measurement of body fat distribution, evaluation of the lipid profile and insulin resistance.

  8. Lipodystrophic syndrome in children and adolescents infected with the human immunodeficiency virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Crésio; Oliveira, Ana Cláudia; Brites, Carlos

    2008-08-01

    The introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for the treatment of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) has resulted in greater survival of patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). However, the use of these drugs has been associated with lipodystrophic syndrome (LS), which is characterized by metabolic alterations (dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, diabetes, and lactic acidosis) and abnormal corporal fat distribution. Clinically, LS may manifest as three different forms: lipohipertrophy (accumulation of fat in the central part of the body), lipoatrophy (loss of fat in the extremities, face and buttocks) and mixed (lipohipertrophy + lipoatrophy). Although its physiopathology has not been elucidated, some mechanisms have been described, including leptin and adiponectin deficiency, mitochondrial dysfunction and use of antiretroviral drugs. The type, dose and duration of the antiretroviral treatment, as well as age and puberty are the main risk factors. LS is also associated with increased incidence of cardiovascular illnesses, atherosclerosis and diabetes mellitus. Treatment includes physical activity, cautious restriction of caloric intake, changes in antiretroviral therapy, and use of insulin-sensitizing and lipid-lowering agents. Follow up must be periodic, consisting of measurement of body fat distribution, evaluation of the lipid profile and insulin resistance.

  9. Maternal biochemical serum screening for Down syndrome in pregnancy with human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Meaux, Jean-Patrick; Tsatsaris, Vassilis; Schmitz, Thomas; Fulla, Yvonne; Launay, Odile; Goffinet, François; Azria, Elie

    2008-08-01

    To estimate the influence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and antiretroviral therapy on maternal serum markers levels and the false-positive rate with biochemical maternal serum screening for Down syndrome. We performed a 1:1 matched case-control study comparing 132 HIV-infected women with single pregnancy to controls selected among non-HIV-infected women matched on geographical origin and fetal sex. Of HIV-infected women, 47.7% were receiving antiretroviral therapy. Groups did not differ in multiples of the median (MoM) levels of total human chorionic gonadotrophin. The MoM alpha fetoprotein level did not differ between total HIV-infected women and control women but was significantly lower for untreated HIV-positive women compared with control women (0.91 compared with 1.03 MoM, PHIV-positive women (0.91 compared with 1.18 MoM, Pfalse-positive rate of biochemical screening did not differ between groups. Untreated HIV infection is associated with lower maternal serum alpha fetoprotein levels. Nevertheless, the false-positive rate of double-marker second-trimester Down syndrome serum screening did not appear to be affected in our sample of HIV-infected women, whether women were receiving antiretroviral therapy at the time of the test or not.

  10. Synergism between porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and Salmonella choleraesuis in swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wills, R W; Gray, J T; Fedorka-Cray, P J; Yoon, K J; Ladely, S; Zimmerman, J J

    2000-02-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and Salmonella choleraesuis are two leading causes of economic loss in the swine industry. While respiratory disease is common in both S. choleraesuis and PRRSV infections, the factors that contribute to its development remain largely undefined. We investigated the interaction of PRRSV, S. choleraesuis, and stress in 5-week-old swine. All combinations of three factors (inoculation with S. choleraesuis on Day 0, PRRSV on Day 3, and treatment with dexamethasone on Days 3-7) were used to produce eight treatment groups in two independent trials. Fecal samples, tonsil and nasal swabs, serum samples and postmortem tissues were collected for bacteriologic and virologic examinations. No clinical signs were observed in pigs inoculated with only PRRSV or only S. choleraesuis. In contrast, pigs which were dually infected with S. choleraesuis and PRRSV exhibited unthriftiness, rough hair coats, dyspnea, and diarrhea. The pigs which received all three treatment factors were the most severely affected and 43% (three of seven) of the animals in this group died. Individuals in this group shed significantly higher quantities of S. choleraesuis in feces and had significantly higher serum PRRSV titers compared to other treatments (p syndrome similar to that observed in the field.

  11. Genetic relatedness of Brucella suis biovar 2 isolates from hares, wild boars and domestic pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreizinger, Zsuzsa; Foster, Jeffrey T; Rónai, Zsuzsanna; Sulyok, Kinga M; Wehmann, Enikő; Jánosi, Szilárd; Gyuranecz, Miklós

    2014-08-27

    Porcine brucellosis generally manifests as disorders in reproductive organs potentially leading to serious losses in the swine industry. Brucella suis biovar 2 is endemic in European wild boar (Sus scrofa) and hare (Lepus europeus, Lepus capensis) populations, thus these species may play a significant role in disease spread and serve as potential sources of infection for domestic pigs. The aim of this study was an epidemiologic analysis of porcine brucellosis in Hungary and a comparative analysis of B. suis bv. 2 strains from Europe using multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA). MLVA-16 and its MLVA-11 subset were used to determine the genotypes of 68 B. suis bv. 2 isolates from Hungary and results were then compared to European MLVA genotypes. The analyses indicated relatively high genetic diversity of B. suis bv. 2 in Hungary. Strains isolated from hares and wild boars from Hungary showed substantial genetic divergence, suggesting separate lineages in each host and no instances of cross species infections. The closest relatives of strains from Hungarian wild boars and domestic pigs were mainly in the isolates from German and Croatian boars and pigs. The assessment of the European MLVA genotypes of wild boar isolates generally showed clustering based on geographic origin. The hare strains were relatively closely related to one another and did not cluster based on geographic origin. The limited relationships between geographic origin and genotype in isolates from hares might be the result of cross-border live animal translocation. The results could also suggest that certain B. suis strains are more adapted to hares. Across Europe, isolates from domestic pigs were closely related to isolates originating from both hares and wild boars, supporting the idea that wild animals are a source of brucellosis in domestic pigs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Exploration forays in juvenile European hares (Lepus europaeus): dispersal preludes or hunting-induced troubles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avril, Alexis; Letty, Jérôme; Léonard, Yves; Pontier, Dominique

    2014-02-26

    Movements of animals have important consequences, at both the individual and population levels. Due to its important implications in the evolutionary dynamics of populations, dispersal is one of the most studied types of movement. In contrast, non-permanent extra home-range movements are often paid less attention. However, these movements may occur in response to important biological processes such as mating or predation avoidance. In addition, these forays are often preludes to permanent dispersal, because they may help individuals gain cues about their surroundings prior to settlement in a new place.In the European hare, exploration forays occur predominantly in juveniles, the time at which most hares disperse. In France, the timing of dispersal also overlaps with the hare hunting period. However, the determinants of such behaviour have not yet been studied. Herein, we investigate whether these non-permanent explorations are dispersal attempts/preludes or, in contrast, whether they are triggered by other factors such as disturbances related to hunting. Contrary to natal dispersal, we did not find strong male-bias in the propensity to engage in explorations. Exploration forays occurred less in juveniles than in adults and later in the season than natal dispersal. This was the case both for philopatric movements and for movements occurring after dispersal and settlement. These movements were also more likely to occur during the hare hunting period and the mating season. We suggest that explorations in hares are triggered by factors other than dispersal and that hares may respond to hunting disturbances. Overall, we emphasize the need to account for human-related predation risk as a factor driving space-use in harvested species.

  13. Cytokine profiles in pregnant gilts experimentally infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus and relationships with viral load and fetal outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    In spite of extensive research, immunologic control mechanisms against Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome virus (PRRSv) remain poorly understood. Cytokine responses have been exhaustively studied in nursery pigs and show contradictory results. Since no detailed reports on cytokine respons...

  14. Progressive lesions of central nervous system in microcephalic fetuses with suspected congenital Zika virus syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarno, M; Aquino, M; Pimentel, K; Cabral, R; Costa, G; Bastos, F; Brites, C

    2017-12-01

    To describe the pattern and progression of central nervous system (CNS) lesions in microcephalic fetuses with suspected Zika virus (ZIKV) infection. In this prospective study in Salvador, Brazil, we analyzed fetuses diagnosed with microcephaly and suspected ZIKV infection after a routine primary care ultrasound scan between July 2015 and February 2016 raised suspicion of fetal microcephaly. The pregnancies were followed with serial ultrasound scans until delivery at one of the three main referral centers for fetal abnormalities in Salvador, Brazil. Microcephaly was diagnosed when the head circumference was two or more SDs below the mean for gestational age and its relationship with ZIKV infection was defined according to the World Health Organization's criteria. All women were interviewed, to assess potential factors associated with fetal microcephaly. Serology test results for toxoplasmosis, cytomegalovirus, rubella, syphilis and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) were recorded, as were previous routine ultrasound results. Signs/symptoms of infection during the pregnancy were noted. Of 60 cases of suspected ZIKV-related fetal microcephaly seen during the study period, eight were excluded due to serological evidence of other congenital infections or major ultrasound chromosomal markers. In the remaining 52 fetuses, microcephaly was diagnosed between 19 and 40 (median, 27.7; interquartile range, 23.4-32.0) weeks of gestation. The main ultrasound findings were: ventriculomegaly (65.4% of cases), cerebral calcifications (44.2%) and posterior fossa abnormalities (32.7%). 9.6% presented with arthrogryposis as an associated finding. Microcephaly was an isolated finding in four cases (7.7%). While ventriculomegaly was progressive in 41.2% of cases with this finding, the velocity of head circumference increase decreased progressively in almost all cases. Exanthematic disease was present in the majority (86.5%) of the women, 67.3% presenting in the first trimester of

  15. Mengenal Hanta Virus

    OpenAIRE

    Wijayanti, Tri

    2009-01-01

    Virus Hanta kurang infeksius, kecuali di dalam lingkungan tertentu. Lamanya waktu virus ini dapat bertahan di lingkungan, setelah keluar dari tubuh tikus tidaklah diketahui secara pasti. Tetapi percobaan laboratorium menunjukkan bahwa, daya infektifitasnya tidak dijumpai setelah dua hari pengeringan. Genus hanta virus terdiri dari 22 spesies virus, dapat menyebabkan hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) dan hanta virus pulmonary syndrome (HPS).

  16. Mitochondrial and nuclear DNA reveals reticulate evolution in hares (Lepus spp., Lagomorpha, Mammalia) from Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolesa, Zelalem; Bekele, Endashaw; Tesfaye, Kassahun; Ben Slimen, Hichem; Valqui, Juan; Getahun, Abebe; Hartl, Günther B; Suchentrunk, Franz

    2017-01-01

    For hares (Lepus spp., Leporidae, Lagomorpha, Mammalia) from Ethiopia no conclusive molecular phylogenetic data are available. To provide a first molecular phylogenetic model for the Abyssinian Hare (Lepus habessinicus), the Ethiopian Hare (L. fagani), and the Ethiopian Highland Hare (L. starcki) and their evolutionary relationships to hares from Africa, Eurasia, and North America, we phylogenetically analysed mitochondrial ATPase subunit 6 (ATP6; n = 153 / 416bp) and nuclear transferrin (TF; n = 155 / 434bp) sequences of phenotypically determined individuals. For the hares from Ethiopia, genotype composition at twelve microsatellite loci (n = 107) was used to explore both interspecific gene pool separation and levels of current hybridization, as has been observed in some other Lepus species. For phylogenetic analyses ATP6 and TF sequences of Lepus species from South and North Africa (L. capensis, L. saxatilis), the Anatolian peninsula and Europe (L. europaeus, L. timidus) were also produced and additional TF sequences of 18 Lepus species retrieved from GenBank were included as well. Median joining networks, neighbour joining, maximum likelihood analyses, as well as Bayesian inference resulted in similar models of evolution of the three species from Ethiopia for the ATP6 and TF sequences, respectively. The Ethiopian species are, however, not monophyletic, with signatures of contemporary uni- and bidirectional mitochondrial introgression and/ or shared ancestral polymorphism. Lepus habessinicus carries mtDNA distinct from South African L. capensis and North African L. capensis sensu lato; that finding is not in line with earlier suggestions of its conspecificity with L. capensis. Lepus starcki has mtDNA distinct from L. capensis and L. europaeus, which is not in line with earlier suggestions to include it either in L. capensis or L. europaeus. Lepus fagani shares mitochondrial haplotypes with the other two species from Ethiopia, despite its distinct phenotypic and

  17. Defense of winter-dormant Alaska paper birch against snowshoe hares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichardt, Paul B; Bryant, John P; Clausen, Thomas P; Wieland, Gregory D

    1984-12-01

    Mature growth-phase internodes of Alaska paper birch (Betula resinifera) are preferred by the snowshoe hare (Lepus americanus) over juvenile growth-phase internodes due to the low food value of the latter. While the mature over juvenile preferencec cannot be explained by the levels of inorganic nutrients or gross chemical fractions (resins or phenols), it can be explained by the striking differences in secondary metabolites of the two growth phases. The principle compound which renders the juvenile phase internodes unpalatable is papyriferic acid, a triterpene which is a demonstrated feeding deterrent to snowshoe hares and which is present in juvenile internodes at concentrations 25 times greater than those in mature internodes.

  18. Relationship between habitat, densities and metabolic profile in brown hares (Lepus europaeus Pallas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Bagliacca

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Some habitat traits and haematic parameters were studied to understand the relationships between the hare densities, habitat characteristics and physiological and nutritional condition of the animals. A total of 33 protected areas, reserved for wild game reproduction, located in the Province of Florence (Central Italy, were monitored during a 2-year period. In each protected area the hares were submitted to census. The habitat features of the protected areas were studied and the following parameters were categorised: altitude; cleared-land/total-land ratio; main exposure; main ground composition; water availability; main slope; anthropogenic presence; predator presence; wooded borders; presence of trees and shrubs; surveillance against hunting; demographic predator control; kind of cultivation; unharvested crops for game. After the census the hares were captured for translocation outside in “free” hunting areas. During capture the hares were put in darkened, wooden capture-boxes and remained inside for a variable period of time (10min to 3h. A sample of 3 to 7 hares, captured per year and per each protected area, were removed from the boxes (physically restrained, with covered eyes for blood sample collection, sex, age and live weight determination. The following analyses were performed on frozen plasma samples: ALanine aminoTransferase (ALT, ASpartate aminoTransferase (AST, glucose, cholesterol, Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN, Ca, P, Mg, Na, K, and Cl concentrations. The relationship between hare density and habitat characteristics was analysed by single regressions analysis. Then the habitat characteristics were subjected to multivariate analysis in relationship to hare body condition. The haematic parameters were analysed by least square means considering habitat traits, animal density, age and sex, as main categorical factors, interaction sex*age, and “pregnant and non-reproducing” nested within sex. Results showed that the highest density

  19. Range and status of the Italian hare Lepus corsicanus in Corsica

    OpenAIRE

    Pietri, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Though the Italian hare may have been introduced to Corsica, the knowledge on the state of its insular population are today of interest, given the fragile status of the species in mainland Italia. In order to draw the first distribution maps of L. corsicanus in Corsica, we have collected all observations of the species between 2002 and 2012 based on molecular or phenotypic criteria. The distribution of Italian hare covers three regions of the island, for a total surface area of close to 2900 ...

  20. Repair of minor true hare lip using V-Y plasty: How i do it

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelrahman EM Ezzat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Minor true hare lip is rare central midline deficiency of the upper lip. There are multiple techniques but little consensus on the preferred surgical technique. Materials And Methods: A transoral approach for repair using mucosal V-Y plasty is described by employing a vertical inverted V incision. Result: The contour of the free labial border immediately improves with avoidance of skin scar. Conclusions: The midline cleft lip notch or minor true (hare lip midline clefts can be effectively treated by mucosal lengthening using a V-Y plasty. Moreover, the ability to augment the tubercle with mucosa through a VY plasty is simple and easy.

  1. A fatal case of middle east respiratory syndrome corona virus infection in South Korea: Cheat radiography and CT findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Eun; Kim, Hyo Lim; Choi, Su Mi [Dept. of Internal Medicine, Yeouido St. Mary' s Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    The outbreak of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Corona Virus (MERS-CoV) infection in South Korea originated from Saudi Arabia. This virus shows high infectivity, and causes outbreaks of severe febrile respiratory infections in health care-associated settings. Herein, we reported a fatal case of MERS-CoV infection with a focus on the pulmonary radiologic findings. The initial chest computed tomography and radiographs of our patient showed ground-glass opacity in patchy distribution, followed by rapid progression of consolidation and pleural effusion in serial studies.

  2. Epstein-Barr Virus-Associated Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis and Guillain-Barre Syndrome in a 16-Month-Old Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Motohiro; Shimizu, Mariko; Ioi, Aya; Mayumi, Azusa; Higuchi, Kohei; Sawada, Akihisa; Sato, Maho; Yasui, Masahiro; Yanagihara, Keiko; Inoue, Masami

    2016-01-01

    A 16-month-old girl was diagnosed with Epstein-Barr virus hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis and transferred to our hospital on the 58th day of the hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis after treatment failure according to the Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis-2004 protocol. On admission to our hospital, she had a flaccid paralysis of her lower limbs. Nerve conduction studies showed a acute motor axonal neuropathy, and a diagnosis of Guillain-Barre syndrome was established. Intravenous immunoglobulin G was started on the 57th day of the Guillain-Barre syndrome. To date, her neurological recovery is incomplete. For hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, after treatment failure of THP-COP regimen (pirarubicin, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and prednisone) and 2 courses of ESCAP regimen (etoposide, prednisone, cytarabine, L-asparaginase), we are now in the process of coordinating unrelated umbilical cord blood transplantation. To the best of our knowledge, we report the youngest case of Guillain-Barre syndrome accompanied by Epstein-Barr virus hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. Rapid progression of Guillain-Barre syndrome, the electrophysiological subtype of Guillain-Barre syndrome, and treatment delay possibly led to poor neurological outcome.

  3. Epstein-Barr Virus-Associated Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis and Guillain-Barre Syndrome in a 16-Month-Old Child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motohiro Matsui MD

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A 16-month-old girl was diagnosed with Epstein-Barr virus hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis and transferred to our hospital on the 58th day of the hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis after treatment failure according to the Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis-2004 protocol. On admission to our hospital, she had a flaccid paralysis of her lower limbs. Nerve conduction studies showed a acute motor axonal neuropathy, and a diagnosis of Guillain-Barre syndrome was established. Intravenous immunoglobulin G was started on the 57th day of the Guillain-Barre syndrome. To date, her neurological recovery is incomplete. For hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, after treatment failure of THP-COP regimen (pirarubicin, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and prednisone and 2 courses of ESCAP regimen (etoposide, prednisone, cytarabine, L-asparaginase, we are now in the process of coordinating unrelated umbilical cord blood transplantation. To the best of our knowledge, we report the youngest case of Guillain-Barre syndrome accompanied by Epstein-Barr virus hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. Rapid progression of Guillain-Barre syndrome, the electrophysiological subtype of Guillain-Barre syndrome, and treatment delay possibly led to poor neurological outcome.

  4. Diagnostic Challenges and Clinical Characteristics of Hepatitis E Virus-Associated Guillain-Barré Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Olivier; Claeys, Kristl G; Poesen, Koen; Saegeman, Veroniek; Van Damme, Philip

    2017-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) recently has been shown to be an antecedent infection in Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), but the clinical spectrum of HEV-associated GBS is not yet documented, and diagnosing acute HEV infection can be a challenge. To determine the prevalence of HEV-associated GBS in a Belgian cohort, study the clinical spectrum of HEV-associated GBS, and discuss difficulties in diagnosing acute HEV infection. This single-center, retrospective cohort study was conducted between January 1, 2007, and November 1, 2015. All patients with GBS or a GBS variant who presented to the adult neurology department of the University Hospital Leuven were identified via a search of the electronic medical records. Hepatitis E virus IgM and IgG reactivity was determined. In a subgroup, polymerase chain reaction for HEV was performed. Hepatitis E virus IgM and IgG reactivity. Of 73 eligible patients (mean [SD] age, 52 [18] years; 29 females and 44 males), 6 (8%) showed positive reactivity on IgM assays for HEV, indicating a possible acute HEV infection. Four of the 6 patients (67%) had increased alanine aminotransferase levels of more than 1.5 times the upper limit of normal, while 4 of 22 patients (18%) with increased alanine aminotransferase levels showed positive reactivity on HEV IgM assays. Serum samples of 2 of 6 patients with positive reactivity on HEV IgM assays also revealed positive test results for cytomegalovirus or Epstein-Barr virus, indicating possible cross-reactivity. Thus, 4 patients (6%) in our cohort had probable acute HEV infection. Two of these patients presented with an infrequent GBS variant. Acute HEV infection was frequently associated with GBS in our cohort. Abnormal alanine aminotransferase levels at admission can indicate the presence of an associated HEV infection. When HEV testing is considered, it is important to test for other infectious agents in parallel, as cross-reactivity can occur. Further studies are required to guide neurologists in

  5. Phenotypic modulation and cytokine profiles of antigen presenting cells by European subtype 1 and 3 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus strains in vitro and in vivo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weesendorp, E.; Stockhofe-Zurwieden, N.; Popma-de Graaf, D.J.; Fijten, H.P.D.; Rebel, J.M.J.

    2013-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) causes continuous problems in the pig industry, due to high costs of outbreaks and reduced welfare of diseased pigs. The severity of infection is, partly, dependent on the virus strain. Recently isolated Eastern-European subtype 3 strains

  6. The Non-structural Protein 5 and Matrix Protein Are Antigenic Targets of T Cell Immunity to Genotype 1 Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Viruses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mokhtar, Helen; Pedrera, Miriam; Frossard, Jean-Pierre

    2016-01-01

    The porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is the cause of one of the most economically important diseases affecting swine worldwide. Efforts to develop a next-generation vaccine have largely focused on envelope glycoproteins to target virus-neutralizing antibody responses. H...

  7. Genetic and antigenic characterization of complete genomes of Type 1 Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome viruses (PRRSV) isolated in Denmark over a period of 10 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvisgaard, Lise Kirstine; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; Kristensen, Charlotte

    2013-01-01

    Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS) caused by the PRRS virus (PRRSV) is considered one of the most devastating swine diseases worldwide. PRRS viruses are divided into two major genotypes, Type 1 and Type 2, with pronounced diversity between and within the genotypes. In Denmark more...

  8. The major envelope protein, GP(5), of a European porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus contains a neutralization epitope in its N-terminal ectodomain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wissink, E.H.J.; Wijk, van H.A.R.; Kroese, M.V.; Weiland, E.; Meulenberg, J.J.M.; Rottier, P.J.M.; Rijn, van P.A.

    2003-01-01

    A set of neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) directed against the GP5 protein of European type porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) has been produced previously (Weiland et al., 1999). This set reacted with a plaque-purified virus (PPV) subpopulation of Dutch isolate

  9. Strain predominance following exposure of vaccinated and naive pregnant gilts to multiple strains of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus

    OpenAIRE

    Lager, Kelly M.; Mengeling, William L.; Wesley, Ronald D.

    2003-01-01

    Two studies were performed in order to test the relative ability of different strains of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) to replicate and cross the placental barrier in pregnant gilts. Study 1 comprised 6 nonvaccinated gilts. Study 2 comprised 8 nonvaccinated gilts and 12 gilts that were vaccinated twice before conception. On, or about, gestation day 90 all gilts were simultaneously exposed to 20 field strains of PRRSV (all strains were distinguishable by restricti...

  10. Snowshoe hares display limited phenotypic plasticity to mismatch in seasonal camouflage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimova, Marketa; Mills, L. Scott; Lukacs, Paul M.; Mitchell, Michael S.

    2014-01-01

    As duration of snow cover decreases owing to climate change, species undergoing seasonal colour moults can become colour mismatched with their background. The immediate adaptive solution to this mismatch is phenotypic plasticity, either in phenology of seasonal colour moults or in behaviours that reduce mismatch or its consequences. We observed nearly 200 snowshoe hares across a wide range of snow conditions and two study sites in Montana, USA, and found minimal plasticity in response to mismatch between coat colour and background. We found that moult phenology varied between study sites, likely due to differences in photoperiod and climate, but was largely fixed within study sites with only minimal plasticity to snow conditions during the spring white-to-brown moult. We also found no evidence that hares modify their behaviour in response to colour mismatch. Hiding and fleeing behaviours and resting spot preference of hares were more affected by variables related to season, site and concealment by vegetation, than by colour mismatch. We conclude that plasticity in moult phenology and behaviours in snowshoe hares is insufficient for adaptation to camouflage mismatch, suggesting that any future adaptation to climate change will require natural selection on moult phenology or behaviour.

  11. 78 FR 19356 - Notice of Schedule Information Submission Deadline for O'Hare International Airport, San...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-29

    ... International Airport, San Francisco International Airport, John F. Kennedy International Airport, and Newark Liberty International Airport for the Winter 2013-2014 Scheduling Season AGENCY: Federal Aviation... at Chicago's O'Hare International Airport (ORD), San Francisco International Airport (SFO), New York...

  12. 77 FR 19410 - Notice of Schedule Information Submission Deadline for O'Hare International Airport, San...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-30

    ... International Airport, San Francisco International Airport, John F. Kennedy International Airport, and Newark Liberty International Airport for the Winter 2012-2013 Scheduling Season AGENCY: Department of... at Chicago's O'Hare International Airport (ORD), San Francisco International Airport (SFO), New York...

  13. The ecology of snowshoe hares in northern boreal forests [Chapter 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karen E. Hodges

    2000-01-01

    Snowshoe hares exhibit eight to 11 year population fluctuations across boreal North America, typically with an amplitude of 10 to 25 fold. These fluctuations are synchronous across the continent, with the most recent peak densities occurring in 1990 and 1991. The numeric cycle is driven by changes in survival and reproduction, with annual survival of adults...

  14. INTER-RELIGIOUS DIALOGUE WITHIN THE HARE KRISHNA MANDIR COMMUNITY YOGYAKARTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanny Suitela

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to know how inter-religious dialogue was grasped by Hare Krishna Mandir community in Jogjakarta. Hare Krishna Mandir is one of Hindus community boarding schools (Asram which being in Indonesia beneath of the umbrella of International Society for Krishna Consciousness (ISKCON. Results show that core of tenet of Hare Krishna Mandir community emphasizes on the development of individual knowledge and spirituality of student as a Hindus. Somehow, the community is being aware on pluralism context of Indonesia, therefore it also gives special attention on its community relationship to the others who live surround them. The community claims the necessity to develop interreligious dialogue as basic daily approach of communication with the others. Sunday Face comprises of the embodiment of that understanding. It is a program heading on Sunday, every week, involving many participants from different backgrounds. They gather together, they talk and share some relevant issues, and they learn from one and another point of views on solution as well as contribution to those. The program obviously contributes to sustaining religious harmony in Jogjakarta, and of course it gives better understanding for Indonesian people on the importance of inter-religious dialogue in a plural society of Indonesia. In addition to, it also contributes to shape open minded, necessity to hear, to learn, and to respect one and others among not only religious people, also society at all. Key words: Hare Krishna Mandir, interreligious dialogue, Sunday Face

  15. Chinese highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus exhibits more extensive tissue tropism for pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Limin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV emerging in China exhibits high fatality to pigs. However, the mechanism related to the increased pathogenicity of the virus remains unclear. In the present study, the differences in tissue tropism between the highly pathogenic PRRSV strain (JXwn06 and the low pathogenic PRRSV strain (HB-1/3.9 were investigated using PRRSV-specific immunohistochemistry (IHC staining to provide evidence for elucidating possible mechanism of the pathogenicity of Chinese highly pathogenic PRRSV. Findings IHC examination showed that PRRSV antigen in the tissues including spleen, tonsil, thymus, kidney, cerebellum, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, turbinal bone and laryngeal cartilage was positive in more pigs inoculated with JXwn06 than HB-1/3.9, and the tissues including trachea, esophagus, liver, mandibular gland and thyroid gland were positive for viral antigen in the pigs inoculated with JXwn06, but not in the pigs inoculated with HB-1/3.9. Meanwhile, we observed that epithelium in tissues including interlobular bile duct in liver, distal renal tubule of kidney, esophageal gland and tracheal gland were positive for viral antigen only in JXwn06-inoculated pigs, and epithelium of gastric mucosa and fundic gland, and intestinal gland were positive for viral antigen in both JXwn06- and HB-1/3.9-inoculated pigs, using monoclonal antibodies to N and Nsp2 proteins. Conclusions Taken together, these findings indicate that the highly pathogenic PRRSV JXwn06 displays an expanded tissue tropism in vivo, suggesting this may contribute to its high pathogenicity to pigs.

  16. The Role of Cytomegalovirus, Haemophilus Influenzae and Epstein Barr Virus in Guillain Barre Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahriar Nafissi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Guillain Barre Syndrome (GBS is an inflammatory, usually demyelinating, polyneuropathy; clinically characterized by acute onset of symmetric progressive muscle weakness with loss of myotatic reflexes. Thirty five patients with GBS, defined clinically according to the criteria of Asbury and Cornblath, were recruited from three hospital affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Controls: As a control group 35 age and sex matched patients with other neurological diseases admitted to the same hospital at the same time, were included in our study. Serum samples were collected before treatment from each patient (within 4 weeks after the disease onset and controls, and stored frozen at -80ºC until serologic assays were done. Serologic testing of pretreatment serum was performed in all patients. Positive titer of virus specific IgM antibody against cytomegalovirus (CMV was found in 6 cases and 2 controls. 34 patients and 31 controls had high titer of anti Haemophilus influenzae IgG and one patient had serologic evidence of a recent Epstein Barr virus (EBV infection. The mean titer of IgG antibody against Haemophilus influenzae in cases and controls was 5.21 and 2.97 respectively. Although serologic evidence of all these infections were more frequent in cases than in controls, only Haemophilus influenzae infection appeared to be significantly related to GBS (P=0.002. Eleven cases and 3 controls had high titers of IgG antibody against Haemophilus influenzae type B (titer >8. There is significant association between high titer of IgG antibody against Haemophilus influenzae and GBS (P=0.017. Our results provide further evidence that Haemophilus influenzae and probably CMV, can be associated with GBS

  17. Toll receptor response to white spot syndrome virus challenge in giant freshwater prawns (Macrobrachium rosenbergii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jinling; Zhao, Lingling; Jin, Min; Li, Tingting; Wu, Lei; Chen, Yihong; Ren, Qian

    2016-10-01

    Toll receptors are evolutionary ancient families of pattern recognition receptors with crucial roles in invertebrate innate immune response. In this study, we identified a Toll receptor (MrToll) from giant freshwater prawns (Macrobrachium rosenbergii). The full-length cDNA of MrToll is 4257 bp, which encodes a putative protein of 1367 amino acids. MrToll contains 17 LRR domains, a transmembrane domain, and a TIR domain. Phylogenetic analysis showed that MrToll was grouped with Drosophila Toll7 and other arthropod Tolls. The transcripts of MrToll are mainly distributed in the heart, hepatopancreas, gills, stomach, and intestine. A low level of MrToll expression can be detected in hemocytes and the lymphoid organ. MrToll expression in gills was gradually upregulated to the highest level from 24 h to 48 h during the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) challenge. The expression levels of the crustin (Cru) genes Cru3 and Cru7 in gills were relatively lower than those of Cru2 and Cru4. The expression levels of Cru3 and Cru7 were inhibited after the RNA interference of MrToll in gills during the WSSV challenge. The anti-lipopolysaccharide factor (ALF) genes ALF2, ALF3, ALF4, and ALF5 were also regulated by MrToll in gills during the virus challenge. These findings suggest that MrToll may contribute to the innate immune defense of M. rosenbergii against WSSV. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A transcriptome study on Macrobrachium rosenbergii hepatopancreas experimentally challenged with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Rama; Bhassu, Subha; Bing, Robin Zhu Ya; Alinejad, Tahereh; Hassan, Sharifah Syed; Wang, Jun

    2016-05-01

    The world production of shrimp such as the Malaysian giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii is seriously affected by the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). There is an urgent need to understand the host pathogen interaction between M. rosenbergii and WSSV which will be able to provide a solution in controlling the spread of this infectious disease and lastly save the aquaculture industry. Now, using Next Generation Sequencing (NGS), we will be able to capture the response of the M. rosenbergii to the pathogen and have a better understanding of the host defence mechanism. Two cDNA libraries, one of WSSV-challenged M. rosenbergii and a normal control one, were sequenced using the Illumina HiSeq™ 2000 platform. After de novo assembly and clustering of the unigenes from both libraries, 63,584 standard unigenes were generated with a mean size of 698bp and an N50 of 1137bp. We successfully annotated 35.31% of all unigenes by using BLASTX program (E-value <10-5) against NCBI non-redundant (Nr), Swiss-Prot, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genome pathway (KEGG) and Orthologous Groups of proteins (COG) databases. Gene Ontology (GO) assessment was conducted using BLAST2GO software. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) by using the FPKM method showed 8443 host genes were significantly up-regulated whereas 5973 genes were significantly down-regulated. The differentially expressed immune related genes were grouped into 15 animal immune functions. The present study showed that WSSV infection has a significant impact on the transcriptome profile of M. rosenbergii's hepatopancreas, and further enhanced the knowledge of this host-virus interaction. Furthermore, the high number of transcripts generated in this study will provide a platform for future genomic research on freshwater prawns. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The role of cytomegalovirus, Haemophilus influenzae and Epstein Barr virus in Guillain Barre syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahriar Nafissi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Guillain Barre Syndrome (GBS is an inflammatory, usually demyelinating, polyneuropathy; clinically characterized by acute onset of symmetric progressive muscle weakness with loss of myotatic reflexes. Thirty five patients with GBS, defined clinically according to the criteria of Asbury and Cornblath, were recruited from three hospital affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences.As a control group 35 age and sex matched patients with other neurological diseases admitted to the same hospital at the same time, were included in our study. Serum samples were collected before treatment from each patient (within 4 weeks after the disease onset and controls, and stored frozen at -80ºC until serologic assays were done. Serologic testing of pretreatment serum was performed in all patients. Positive titer of virus specific IgM antibody against cytomegalovirus (CMV was found in 6 cases and 2 controls. 34 patients and 31 controls had high titer of anti Haemophilus influenzae IgG and one patient had serologic evidence of a recent Epstein Barr virus (EBV infection. The mean titer of IgG antibody against Haemophilus influenzae in cases and controls was 5.21 and 2.97 respectively. Although serologic evidence of all these infections were more frequent in cases than in controls, only Haemophilus influenzae infection appeared to be significantly related to GBS (P=0.002. Eleven cases and 3 controls had high titers of IgG antibody against Haemophilus influenzae type B (titer >8. There is significant association between high titer of IgG antibody against Haemophilus influenzae and GBS (P=0.017. Our results provide further evidence that Haemophilus influenzae and probably CMV, can be associated with GBS.

  20. The role of cytomegalovirus, Haemophilus influenzae and Epstein Barr virus in Guillain Barre syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nafissi, Shahriar; Vahabi, Zahra; Sadeghi Ghahar, Maryam; Amirzargar, Ali Akbar; Naderi, Soheil

    2013-07-13

    Guillain Barre Syndrome (GBS) is an inflammatory, usually demyelinating, polyneuropathy; clinically characterized by acute onset of symmetric progressive muscle weakness with loss of myotatic reflexes. Thirty five patients with GBS, defined clinically according to the criteria of Asbury and Cornblath, were recruited from three hospital affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences. As a control group 35 age and sex matched patients with other neurological diseases admitted to the same hospital at the same time, were included in our study. Serum samples were collected before treatment from each patient (within 4 weeks after the disease onset) and controls, and stored frozen at -80ºC until serologic assays were done. Serologic testing of pretreatment serum was performed in all patients. Positive titer of virus specific IgM antibody against cytomegalovirus (CMV) was found in 6 cases and 2 controls. 34 patients and 31 controls had high titer of anti Haemophilus influenzae IgG and one patient had serologic evidence of a recent Epstein Barr virus (EBV) infection. The mean titer of IgG antibody against Haemophilus influenzae in cases and controls was 5.21 and 2.97 respectively. Although serologic evidence of all these infections were more frequent in cases than in controls, only Haemophilus influenzae infection appeared to be significantly related to GBS (P=0.002). Eleven cases and 3 controls had high titers of IgG antibody against Haemophilus influenzae type B (titer >8). There is significant association between high titer of IgG antibody against Haemophilus influenzae and GBS (P=0.017). Our results provide further evidence that Haemophilus influenzae and probably CMV, can be associated with GBS.

  1. A lethal disease model for hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in immunosuppressed Syrian hamsters infected with Sin Nombre virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brocato, Rebecca L; Hammerbeck, Christopher D; Bell, Todd M; Wells, Jay B; Queen, Laurie A; Hooper, Jay W

    2014-01-01

    Sin Nombre virus (SNV) is a rodent-borne hantavirus that causes hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) predominantly in North America. SNV infection of immunocompetent hamsters results in an asymptomatic infection; the only lethal disease model for a pathogenic hantavirus is Andes virus (ANDV) infection of Syrian hamsters. Efforts to create a lethal SNV disease model in hamsters by repeatedly passaging virus through the hamster have demonstrated increased dissemination of the virus but no signs of disease. In this study, we demonstrate that immunosuppression of hamsters through the administration of a combination of dexamethasone and cyclophosphamide, followed by infection with SNV, results in a vascular leak syndrome that accurately mimics both HPS disease in humans and ANDV infection of hamsters. Immunosuppressed hamsters infected with SNV have a mean number of days to death of 13 and display clinical signs associated with HPS, including pulmonary edema. Viral antigen was widely detectable throughout the pulmonary endothelium. Histologic analysis of lung sections showed marked inflammation and edema within the alveolar septa of SNV-infected hamsters, results which are similar to what is exhibited by hamsters infected with ANDV. Importantly, SNV-specific neutralizing polyclonal antibody administered 5 days after SNV infection conferred significant protection against disease. This experiment not only demonstrated that the disease was caused by SNV, it also demonstrated the utility of this animal model for testing candidate medical countermeasures. This is the first report of lethal disease caused by SNV in an adult small-animal model.

  2. Passive transfer of virus-specific antibodies confers protection against reproductive failure induced by a virulent strain of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus and establishes sterilizing immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osorio, F A; Galeota, J A; Nelson, E; Brodersen, B; Doster, A; Wills, R; Zuckermann, F; Laegreid, W W

    2002-10-10

    Immune mechanisms mediating protective immunity against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) are not well understood. The PRRSV-specific humoral immune response has been dismissed as being ineffective and perhaps deleterious for the host. The function of PRRSV antibodies in protective immunity against infection with a highly abortifacient strain of this virus was examined by passive transfer experiments in pregnant swine. All of a group of pregnant gilts (n = 6) that received PRRSV immunoglobulin (Ig) from PRRSV-convalescent, hyperimmune animals were fully protected from reproductive failure as judged by 95% viability of offspring at weaning (15 days of age). On the other hand, the totality of animals in a matched control group (n = 6) receiving anti-pseudorabies virus (PRV) Ig exhibited marked reproductive failure with 4% survival at weaning. Besides protecting the pregnant females from clinical reproductive disease, the passive transfer of PRRSV Ig prevented the challenge virus from infecting the dams and precluded its vertical transmission, as evidenced by the complete absence of infectious PRRSV from the tissues of the dams and lack of infection in their offspring. In summary, these results indicate that PRRSV-Igs are capable of conferring protective immunity against PRRSV and furthermore that these Igs can provide sterilizing immunity in vivo.

  3. Infección de neovagina en Síndrome de Rokitansky por virus del papiloma humano Neovaginal infection for human papiloma virus in Rokitansky Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Núñez Serrano

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Presentamos el caso de una paciente con Síndrome de Rokitansky que, seis años después de la reconstrucción de una neovagina mediante un injerto de piel parcial, presentó una infección vaginal por el virus del papiloma humano. Tras el tratamiento adecuado, la paciente curó, desapareciendo las lesiones locales hasta el momento actual.We are presenting the case of a patient with Rokitansky Syndrome who had a vaginal infection six years after the reconstruction of a neovagina with splint-thickness skin graft. The infection was caused by the human papilloma virus. After the appropriate treatment, the patient healed and the lesions disappeared completely.

  4. Simulating Brown hare (Lepus europaeus Pallas dispersion: a tool for wildlife management of wide areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Amici

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The second half of the 20th century was characterised by intense processes of urbanisation, industrialisation and agricultural mechanisation, leading to a fragmentation of the agricultural and forest landscape. This, in turn, reduced the bio-permeability of the territory and affected the dispersion of many wild species. Brown hare (Lepus europeus dispersion is dramatically affected by habitat fragmentation, presence of predators, intense tillage and elevated hunting pressure. Consequently, the only stable populations of hare are often in no-hunting areas where wildlife management is efficient. It is necessary, therefore, to identify not only additional areas suitable for reproduction, but also the most suitable dispersion pathways for hares, in order to optimise management. In the present study, by means of a Geographic Information System (GIS, a deterministic hare suitability model was developed on the basis of a multicriterial approach and fuzzy logic. Subsequently, a friction surface was derived from the suitability map in order to describe the land bio-permeability. Finally, on the basis of species potential, the spread of hares from stable population areas (source areas to the remaining territory was simulated. The area of study was the province of Viterbo (central Italy. The suitability map showed good discrimination ability (ROC=0.705. The hare dispersion simulation map allowed the potential spreading of this species throughout the provincial territory to be analysed. Isolated or less connected zones were highlighted, allowing the distribution of habitat enhancements, and/or the institution of new no-hunting areas devoted to the reproduction and consequent spread of hares throughout the territory, to be localised. The presented flexible and reiterable methodology could prove useful for wildlife management and hunting planning over a wide area. It would thus provide an important contribution to reducing the importance of animal

  5. Characterization of the microRNAome in porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus infected macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie A Hicks

    Full Text Available Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV, a member of the arterivirus family, is the causative agent of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS. PRRS is characterized by late term abortions and respiratory disease, particularly in young pigs. Small regulatory RNAs termed microRNA (miRNA are associated with gene regulation at the post-transcriptional level. MiRNAs are known to play many diverse and complex roles in viral infections. To discover the impact of PRRSV infections on the cellular miRNAome, Illumina deep sequencing was used to construct small RNA expression profiles from in vitro cultured PRRSV-infected porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs. A total of forty cellular miRNAs were significantly differentially expressed within the first 48 hours post infection (hpi. The expression of six miRNAs, miR-30a-3p, miR-132, miR-27b*, miR-29b, miR-146a and miR-9-2, were altered at more than one time point. Target gene identification suggests that these miRNAs are involved in regulating immune signaling pathways, cytokine, and transcription factor production. The most highly repressed miRNA at 24 hpi was miR-147. A miR-147 mimic was utilized to maintain miR-147 levels in PRRSV-infected PAMs. PRRSV replication was negatively impacted by high levels of miR-147. Whether down-regulation of miR-147 is directly induced by PRRSV or if it is part of the cellular response and PRRSV indirectly benefits remains to be determined. No evidence could be found of PRRSV-encoded miRNAs. Overall, the present study has revealed that a large and diverse group of miRNAs are expressed in swine alveolar macrophages and that the expression of a subset of these miRNAs is altered in PRRSV infected macrophages.

  6. Evaluation of contact exposure as a method for acclimatizing growing pigs to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vashisht, Kapil; Erlandson, Keith R; Firkins, Lawrence D; Zuckermann, Federico A; Goldberg, Tony L

    2008-05-15

    To determine whether 6.5-week-old gilts that have not previously been exposed to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus can be acclimatized to an endemic strain of the virus by commingling with age-matched gilts inoculated with the endemic PRRS virus strain and whether 10.5-week-old gilts can be acclimatized by commingling with age-matched inoculated or contact-exposed animals. Randomized controlled longitudinal study. 80 gilts seronegative for PRRS on a farm in the Midwestern United States with a history of PRRS. 20 gilts were inoculated with the endemic PRRS virus strain at 6.5 weeks of age (group 1) and were commingled with 20 gilts that were not inoculated (group 2). Four weeks later, the remaining 40 gilts (group 3) were commingled with gilts in groups 1 and 2. Presence of viral RNA in the tonsils, seroconversion rate, serum neutralizing antibody titers, interferon-gamma-mediated cellular immunity, and reproductive outcomes were analyzed. Acclimatization of PRRS virus-naïve pigs was achieved by means of contact exposure at both 6.5 and 10.5 weeks of age. No differences were observed among the 3 groups with respect to development of anti-PRRS virus-specific immune responses or reproductive outcomes. Results suggested that contact exposure of 6.5- to 10.5-week-old pigs that had not previously been exposed to PRRS virus to pigs inoculated with endemic PRRS virus may be an efficient acclimatization strategy for controlling outbreaks on commercial farms on which PRRS is endemic.

  7. Detection of MLV-related virus gene sequences in blood of patients with chronic fatigue syndrome and healthy blood donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Shyh-Ching; Pripuzova, Natalia; Li, Bingjie; Komaroff, Anthony L; Hung, Guo-Chiuan; Wang, Richard; Alter, Harvey J

    2010-09-07

    Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is a serious systemic illness of unknown cause. A recent study identified DNA from a xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from 68 of 101 patients (67%) by nested PCR, as compared with 8 of 218 (3.7%) healthy controls. However, four subsequent reports failed to detect any murine leukemia virus (MLV)-related virus gene sequences in blood of CFS patients. We examined 41 PBMC-derived DNA samples from 37 patients meeting accepted diagnostic criteria for CFS and found MLV-like virus gag gene sequences in 32 of 37 (86.5%) compared with only 3 of 44 (6.8%) healthy volunteer blood donors. No evidence of mouse DNA contamination was detected in the PCR assay system or the clinical samples. Seven of 8 gag-positive patients tested again positive in a sample obtained nearly 15 y later. In contrast to the reported findings of near-genetic identity of all XMRVs, we identified a genetically diverse group of MLV-related viruses. The gag and env sequences from CFS patients were more closely related to those of polytropic mouse endogenous retroviruses than to those of XMRVs and were even less closely related to those of ecotropic MLVs. Further studies are needed to determine whether the same strong association with MLV-related viruses is found in other groups of patients with CFS, whether these viruses play a causative role in the development of CFS, and whether they represent a threat to the blood supply.

  8. [Hemophagocytic syndrome associated with Epstein-Barr virus. Presentation of a case and treatment in the Resuscitation Unit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo González, O; Iglesias Fernández, M; Río Gómez, A; Ulibarrena Redondo, C; Casas García, M L

    2014-12-01

    We report the case of a 17 year old male patient, who was admitted to the Resuscitation Unit with the diagnosis of hemophagocytic syndrome, associated with infection by Epstein-Barr virus with unfavorable outcome. Hemophagocytic syndrome is a pathological immune activation syndrome due to the production/uncontrolled modulation of some cytokines. Its clinical signs and symptoms, defined by consensus criteria HLH-2004, are not pathognomonic, and often appear sequentially, thus suspicion should be followed by aggressive supportive therapy combined with early specific treatment of the triggering factor, as it is the only way to improve survival in patients with multiple organic failure as a result. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Prevalence of xenotropic murine leukaemia virus-related virus in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome in the Netherlands: retrospective analysis of samples from an established cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kuppeveld, Frank J M; de Jong, Arjan S; Lanke, Kjerstin H; Verhaegh, Gerald W; Melchers, Willem J G; Swanink, Caroline M A; Bleijenberg, Gijs; Netea, Mihai G; Galama, Jochem M D; van der Meer, Jos W M

    2010-02-25

    The presence of the retrovirus xenotropic murine leukaemia virus-related virus (XMRV) has been reported in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of patients with chronic fatigue syndrome. Considering the potentially great medical and social relevance of such a discovery, we investigated whether this finding could be confirmed in an independent European cohort of patients with chronic fatigue syndrome. Analysis of a well defined cohort of patients and matched neighbourhood controls by polymerase chain reaction. Certified (ISO 15189) laboratory of clinical virology in a university hospital in the Netherlands. Population Between December 1991 and April 1992, peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated from 76 patients and 69 matched neighbourhood controls. In this study we tested cells from 32 patients and 43 controls from whom original cryopreserved phials were still available. Detection of XMRV in peripheral blood mononuclear cells by real time polymerase chain reaction assay targeting the XMRV integrase gene and/or a nested polymerase chain reaction assay targeting the XMRV gag gene. We detected no XMRV sequences in any of the patients or controls in either of the assays, in which relevant positive and negative isolation controls and polymerase chain reaction controls were included. Spiking experiments showed that we were able to detect at least 10 copies of XMRV sequences per 10(5) peripheral blood mononuclear cells by real time as well as by nested polymerase chain reaction, demonstrating high sensitivity of both assays. This study failed to show the presence of XMRV in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of patients with chronic fatigue syndrome from a Dutch cohort. These data cast doubt on the claim that XMRV is associated with chronic fatigue syndrome in the majority of patients.

  10. Monitoring of Francisella tularensis and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis in Danish hares (Lepus europaeus) by fluorescent in-situ hybridization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mette Sif; Chriél, Mariann; Larsen, Gitte

    of 59 hares (Lepus Europaeus) have been screened for presence of the zoonotic bacteria Francisella tularensis and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis by fluorescent in-situ hybridization (FISH). Ten hares were positive for Y. pseudotuberculosis and one was positive for F. tularensis. F. tularensis and Y....... pseudotuberculosis has a wide host range and causes high mortality in hares. When it comes to zoonotic potential F. tularensis poses the major risk for humans, where it causes tularemia - a potentially deadly disease. FISH is an easy, cheap and not at least safe method for monitoring F. tularensis and Y...

  11. Genetic and antigenic drift of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV) in a closed population evaluated by full genome sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvisgaard, Lise Kirstine; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; Larsen, Lars Erik

    of circulating PRRS viruses in Danish pigs and to investigate the genetic drift of the virus in a closed population with very limited introductions of new animals. The study included phylogenetic analysis of full genome sequences of eight Type 1 and nine Type 2 PRRS viruses, including the very first Danish......Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS) viruses are divided into two major genotypes (Type 1 and Type 2) based on their genetic diversity. Type 1 PRRSV is further divided into at least 3 subtypes, but until now only subtype 1 has been detected in Western Europe and North America. Both...... isolated Type 1 virus and the very first Danish Type 2 PRRS virus isolated from a non-vaccinated pig herd. Furthermore, by sequencing ORF5 and ORF7 of 43 Type 1 and 57 Type 2 viruses isolated between 2003 and 2013, the level of genetic diversity was assessed. The results showed a very high genetic...

  12. Histoplasmosis in Patients With Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Albert M.; Sanchez, Alejandro; Farabi, Alireza; Hage, Chadi; Baddley, John W.; Jhaveri, Malhar; Greenberg, Richard N.; Bamberger, David M.; Rodgers, Mark; Crawford, Timothy N.; Wheat, L. Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Although discontinuation of suppressive antifungal therapy for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-associated histoplasmosis is accepted for patients with immunologic recovery, there have been no published studies of this approach in clinical practice, and minimal characterization of individuals who relapse with this disease. We performed a multicenter retrospective cohort study to determine the outcome in AIDS patients following discontinuation of suppressive antifungal therapy for histoplasmosis. Ninety-seven patients were divided into a physician-discontinued suppressive therapy group (PD) (38 patients) and a physician-continued suppressive therapy group (PC) (59 patients). The 2 groups were not statistically different at baseline, but at discontinuation of therapy and at the most recent follow-up there were significant differences in adherence to therapy, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) RNA, and urinary Histoplasma antigen concentration. There was no relapse or death attributed to histoplasmosis in the PD group compared with 36% relapse (p 150 cells/mL, HIV RNA <400 c/mL, Histoplasma antigenuria <2 ng/mL (equivalent to <4.0 units in second-generation method), and no CNS histoplasmosis. PMID:24378739

  13. White spot syndrome virus strains of different virulence induce distinct immune response in Cherax quadricarinatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Meiling; Li, Fang; Xu, Limei; Zhu, Xiaoming

    2014-07-01

    In this study, we identified three white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) strains (WSSV-CN01, WSSV-CN02 and WSSV-CN03) with significant differences in virulence. Among them, WSSV-CN01 caused significant higher and earlier mortality in redclaw crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus, thus was determined as high-virulent, while WSSV-CN02 and WSSV-CN03 were moderate-virulent and low-virulent. By investigating the total number of the circulating haemocytes and the activity of immune relative enzymes, we demonstrated that the different virulent WSSV strains induced distinct immune response in the host. Notably, a dramatic reduction of circulating haemocytes was observed in the crayfish infected with WSSV-CN01 and WSSV-CN02 but not WSSV-CN03. Further analysis revealed that cell death induced by WSSV-CN01 and WSSV-CN02 might be responsible for the decrease of circulating haemocytes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Metabolic product response profiles of Cherax quadricarinatus towards white spot syndrome virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Weiwei; Ye, Yangfang; Chen, Zhen; Shao, Yina; Xie, Xiaolu; Zhang, Weiwei; Liu, Hai-Peng; Li, Chenghua

    2016-08-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is one of the most devastating viral pathogens in both shrimp and crayfish farms, which often causes disease outbreak and leads to massive moralities with significant economic losses of aquaculture. However, limited research has been carried out on the intrinsic mechanisms toward WSSV challenge at the metabolic level. To gain comprehensive insight into metabolic responses induced by WSSV, we applied an NMR approach to investigate metabolic changes of crayfish gill and hepatopancreas infected by WSSV for 1, 6 and 12 h. In gill, an enhanced energy metabolism was observed in WSSV-challenged crayfish samples at 1 h, as marked by increased glucose, alanine, methionine, glutamate and uracil. Afterwards, energy metabolism, lipid metabolism as well as osmoregulation were markedly increased at 6 hpi, as shown by elevated glucose, alanine, methionine, fumarate, tyrosine, tryptophan, histidine, phosphorylcholine, betaine and uracil, whereas no obvious metabolites change was detected at 12 hpi. As for hepatopancreas, disturbed lipid metabolism and induced osmotic regulation was found at 6 hpi based on the metabolic biomarkers such as branched chain amino acids, threonine, alanine, methionine, glutamate, glutamine, tyrosine, phenylalanine, lactate and lipid. However, no obvious metabolic change was shown in hepatopancreas at both 1 hpi and 12 hpi. Taken together, our present results provided essential metabolic information about host-pathogen interactions in crayfish, which shed new light on our understanding of WSSV infection at metabolic level. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Low-dose growth hormone and human immunodeficiency virus-associated lipodystrophy syndrome: a pilot study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ove; Haugaard, Steen B; Flyvbjerg, A

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Treatment with high doses (2-6 mg day(-1)) of human growth hormone (hGH) in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated lipodystrophy syndrome (HALS) has been shown to increase concentrations of total insulin-like growth-factor-I (IGF-I) more than twofold greater than.......01). Patients reported improvements of lipodystrophy, which was supported by a decreased waist-to-thigh ratio (P = 0.01), and waist-to-hip ratio (P = 0.06). Ratio of peripheral to trunk soft tissue mass increased (P = 0.01, measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans) and a trend towards reduction......' treatment of lipodystrophic HIV-infected patients with hGH, 0.7 mg day(-1), increased total and free IGF-I twofold and appeared safe and tolerable. The potential of low-dose hGH in the treatment of HIV-lipodystrophy awaits examination by placebo-controlled, randomized trials....

  16. Increased nucleoside diphosphate kinase activity induces white spot syndrome virus infection in Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng-Fei Liu

    Full Text Available Nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDK, which has the same sequence as oncoprotein (OP in humans, can induce nucleoside triphosphates in DNA replication by maintenance of the deoxynucleotide triphosphate (dNTP's and is known to be regulated by viral infection in the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. This paper describes the relationship between NDK and white spot syndrome virus (WSSV infection. The recombinant NDK was produced by a prokaryotic expression system. WSSV copy numbers and mRNA levels of IE1 and VP28 were significantly increased in shrimp injected with recombinant NDK at 72 h after WSSV infection. After synthesizing dsRNA-NDK and confirming the efficacy of NDK silencing, we recorded the cumulative mortality of WSSV-infected shrimp injected with NDK and dsRNA-NDK. A comparison between the results demonstrated that silencing NDK delayed the death of shrimps. These findings indicate that NDK has an important role influencing the replication of WSSV replication in shrimp. Furthermore, NDK may have potential target as a new therapeutic strategy against WSSV infection in shrimp.

  17. Economic analysis of outbreaks of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in nine sow herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwenhuis, N; Duinhof, T F; van Nes, A

    2012-03-03

    The economic losses due to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSv) outbreaks are reported in the literature to be substantially high, but recent figures are not available. The aim of this study was to quantify the economic effects of epidemic PRRSv outbreaks in Dutch sow herds. Nine sow herds were selected based on a confirmed PRRSv outbreak within those populations. The economic impact during the first 18 weeks after the outbreak was estimated by comparing the overall costs between pre- and postoutbreak periods, using different factors (production data, medication, diagnostics, labour, etc.). An outbreak of PRRSv resulted in a reduced number of sold pigs per sow of 1.7. The economic loss varied between €59 and €379 for one sow per 18-week period outbreak. The mean loss per sow per outbreak was €126. The costs after the outbreak varied significantly from €3 to 160 per sow, due to the different methods used by farmers to tackle PRRSv outbreaks. The calculated costs in this study correlate with the costs of the initial outbreak in The Netherlands of 98 per sow.

  18. Oral immunogenicity of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus antigen expressed in transgenic banana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Hui-Ting; Chia, Min-Yuan; Pang, Victor Fei; Jeng, Chian-Ren; Do, Yi-Yin; Huang, Pung-Ling

    2013-04-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a persistent threat of economically significant influence to the swine industry worldwide. Recombinant DNA technology coupled with tissue culture technology is a viable alternative for the inexpensive production of heterologous proteins in planta. Embryogenic cells of banana cv. 'Pei chiao' (AAA) have been transformed with the ORF5 gene of PRRSV envelope glycoprotein (GP5) using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and have been confirmed. Recombinant GP5 protein levels in the transgenic banana leaves were detected and ranged from 0.021%-0.037% of total soluble protein. Pigs were immunized with recombinant GP5 protein by orally feeding transgenic banana leaves for three consecutive doses at a 2-week interval and challenged with PRRSV at 7 weeks postinitial immunization. A vaccination-dependent gradational increase in the elicitation of serum and saliva anti-PRRSV IgG and IgA was observed. Furthermore, significantly lower viraemia and tissue viral load were recorded when compared with the pigs fed with untransformed banana leaves. The results suggest that transgenic banana leaves expressing recombinant GP5 protein can be an effective strategy for oral delivery of recombinant subunit vaccines in pigs and can open new avenues for the production of vaccines against PRRSV. © 2012 The Authors Plant Biotechnology Journal © 2012 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Anterior segment manifestations of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biswas Jyotirmay

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Ocular complications are known to occur as a result of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV disease. They can be severe leading to ocular morbidity and visual handicap. Cytomegalovirus (CMV retinitis is the commonest ocular opportunistic infection seen in acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS. Though posterior segment lesions can be more vision-threatening, there are varied anterior segment manifestations which can also lead to ocular morbidity and more so can affect the quality of life of a HIV-positive person. Effective antiretroviral therapy and improved prophylaxis and treatment of opportunistic infections have led to an increase in the survival of an individual afflicted with AIDS. This in turn has led to an increase in the prevalence of anterior segment and adnexal disorders. Common lesions include relatively benign conditions such as blepharitis and dry eye, to infections such as herpes zoster ophthalmicus and molluscum contagiosum and malignancies such as squamous cell carcinoma and Kaposi′s sarcoma. With the advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy, a new phenomenon known as immune recovery uveitis which presents with increased inflammation, has been noted to be on the rise. Several drugs used in the management of AIDS such as nevirapine or indinavir can themselves lead to severe inflammation in the anterior segment and adnexa of the eye. This article is a comprehensive update of the important anterior segment and adnexal manifestations in HIV-positive patients with special reference to their prevalence in the Indian population.

  20. Human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and tropical diseases: a Brazilian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgado Mariza G

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper summarizes recent findings on the epidemiology and pathogenesis of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/Aids, highlighting the role of co-infections with major tropical diseases. Such co-infections have been studied in the Brazilian context since the beginning of the Aids epidemic and are expected to be more frequent and relevant as the Aids epidemic in Brazil proceeds towards smaller municipalities and the countryside, where tropical diseases are endemic. Unlike opportunistic diseases that affect basically the immunocompromised host, most tropical diseases, as well as tuberculosis, are pathogenic on their own, and can affect subjects with mild or no immunossuppression. In the era of highly active anti-retroviral therapies (HAART, opportunistic diseases seem to be on decrease in Brazil, where such medicines are fully available. Benefiting from HAART in terms of restoration of the immune function, putative milder clinical courses are expected in the future for most co-infections, including tropical diseases. On the other hand, from an ecological perspective, the progressive geographic diffusion of Aids makes tropical diseases and tuberculosis a renewed challenge for Brazilian researchers and practitioners dealing with HIV/Aids in the coming years.

  1. Hypoxia increases susceptibility of Pacific white shrimp to whitespot syndrome virus (WSSV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Lehmann

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to evaluate the mortality, reactive oxygen species production (ROS and total hemocyte counts (THC of the marine shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei infected with the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV at three levels of oxygen saturation. For this, 360 shrimp (20±2g were distributed in 24 tanks (60L, divided in two groups (infected and non-infected, which were subjected to 30, 60 and 100% of dissolved oxygen saturation (in quadruplicate. During 96 hours after infection, daily hemolymph samples were collected for hemato-immunological parameter evaluation (THC and ROS and dead animals were removed and computed to assess cumulative mortality rates. In the infected group, animals subjected to 100% saturation showed higher ROS production (P<0.05 after 48 hours, while THC was significantly reduced (P<0.05, regardless of oxygen saturation. The hypoxia resulted in high mortality when compared to 100% saturation condition. In the uninfected group, no significant differences were observed in all evaluated parameters. Thus, the hypoxia condition increased the susceptibility of shrimp to the infection of WSSV, which may be partly related to the low ROS production showed by the animals subjected to 30% oxygen saturation.

  2. The Human Immunodeficiency Virus and the Cardiometabolic Syndrome in the Developing World: An African Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutimura, Eugene; Crowther, Nigel J.; Stewart, Aimee; Cade, W. Todd

    2015-01-01

    The advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has transformed human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS into a manageable chronic disorder. Clinical care, however, needs to address the metabolic, anthropometric, and cardiovascular changes associated with HIV infection and HAART. Studies in developing countries suggest an increasing incidence of HIV-associated cardiometabolic syndrome (CMS), especially in urban settings. Predictions indicate that the greatest increase in the prevalence of diabetes will occur in Africa over the next 2 decades due to lifestyle changes. This, coupled with increased access to HAART, may exponentially increase the prevalence of CMS in developing countries, where HIV infection is prevalent. Appropriate evaluation and intervention programs need to be implemented in the developing world, especially sub-Saharan Africa, to curtail HIV-related CMS. This should include routine cardiovascular risk assessments, management of HIV infection with more “metabolically friendly” HAART, and encouragment of lifestyle modifications, particularly smoking cessation, weight management, regular exercise, and adherence to a healthy diet. PMID:18453811

  3. Mapping codon usage of the translation initiation region in porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dou Yong-xi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Porcine reproductive and respitatory syndrome virus (PRRSV is a recently emerged pathogen and severely affects swine populations worldwide. The replication of PRRSV is tightly controlled by viral gene expression and the codon usage of translation initiation region within each gene could potentially regulate the translation rate. Therefore, a better understanding of the codon usage pattern of the initiation translation region would shed light on the regulation of PRRSV gene expression. Results In this study, the codon usage in the translation initiation region and in the whole coding sequence was compared in PRRSV ORF1a and ORFs2-7. To investigate the potential role of codon usage in affecting the translation initiation rate, we established a codon usage model for PRRSV translation initiation region. We observed that some non-preferential codons are preferentially used in the translation initiation region in particular ORFs. Although some positions vary with codons, they intend to use codons with negative CUB. Furthermore, our model of codon usage showed that the conserved pattern of CUB is not directly consensus with the conserved sequence, but shaped under the translation selection. Conclusions The non-variation pattern with negative CUB in the PRRSV translation initiation region scanned by ribosomes is considered the rate-limiting step in the translation process.

  4. Respiratory syncytial virus prophylaxis in Down syndrome: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Hao; Lanctôt, Krista L; Bont, Louis; Bloemers, Beatrijs L P; Weijerman, Michel; Broers, Chantal; Li, Abby; Kiss, Alexander; Mitchell, Ian; Paes, Bosco

    2014-06-01

    Children with Down syndrome (DS) are at significant risk for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection and related hospitalization. We compared hospitalization rates due to respiratory tract infection in children with DS aged Evaluation Study of Palivizumab registry between 2005 and 2012. The untreated group included 233 children with DS derived from a nationwide Dutch birth cohort from 2003 to 2005. Events during the RSV seasons were counted. Poisson regression analysis was performed to compare incidence rate ratios (95% confidence intervals [CIs]) between groups while controlling for observation length and known risk factors for severe RSV infection. In total, 31 (23 untreated, 8 treated) RSV-related hospitalizations were documented. The adjusted risk of RSV-related hospitalizations was higher in untreated subjects than in palivizumab recipients (incidence rate ratio 3.63; 95% CI, 1.52-8.67). The adjusted risk of hospitalization for all respiratory tract infection (147 events; 73 untreated, 74 treated) was similar (incidence rate ratio untreated versus palivizumab 1.11; 95% CI, 0.80-1.55). These results suggest that palivizumab is associated with a 3.6-fold reduction in the incidence rate ratio for RSV-related hospitalization in children with DS during the first 2 years of life. A randomized trial is needed to determine the efficacy of RSV immunoprophylaxis in this specific high-risk patient population. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  5. Chimeric porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus containing shuffled multiple envelope genes confers cross-protection in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Debin; Ni, Yan-Yan; Zhou, Lei; Opriessnig, Tanja; Cao, Dianjun; Piñeyro, Pablo; Yugo, Danielle M; Overend, Christopher; Cao, Qian; Lynn Heffron, C; Halbur, Patrick G; Pearce, Douglas S; Calvert, Jay G; Meng, Xiang-Jin

    2015-11-01

    The extensive genetic diversity of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) strains is a major obstacle for vaccine development. We previously demonstrated that chimeric PRRSVs in which a single envelope gene (ORF3, ORF4, ORF5 or ORF6) was shuffled via DNA shuffling had an improved heterologous cross-neutralizing ability. In this study, we incorporate all of the individually-shuffled envelope genes together in different combinations into an infectious clone backbone of PRRSV MLV Fostera(®) PRRS. Five viable progeny chimeric viruses were rescued, and their growth characteristics were characterized in vitro. In a pilot pig study, two chimeric viruses (FV-SPDS-VR2,FV-SPDS-VR5) were found to induce cross-neutralizing antibodies against heterologous strains. A subsequent vaccination/challenge study in 72 pigs revealed that chimeric virus FV-SPDS-VR2 and parental virus conferred partial cross-protection when challenged with heterologous strains NADC20 or MN184B. The results have important implications for future development of an effective PRRSV vaccine that confers heterologous protection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Successful vaccination strategies that protect aged mice from lethal challenge from influenza virus and heterologous severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheahan, Timothy; Whitmore, Alan; Long, Kristin; Ferris, Martin; Rockx, Barry; Funkhouser, William; Donaldson, Eric; Gralinski, Lisa; Collier, Martha; Heise, Mark; Davis, Nancy; Johnston, Robert; Baric, Ralph S

    2011-01-01

    Newly emerging viruses often circulate as a heterogeneous swarm in wild animal reservoirs prior to their emergence in humans, and their antigenic identities are often unknown until an outbreak situation. The newly emerging severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and reemerging influenza virus cause disproportionate disease in the aged, who are also notoriously difficult to successfully vaccinate, likely due to immunosenescence. To protect against future emerging strains, vaccine platforms should induce broad cross-reactive immunity that is sufficient to protect from homologous and heterologous challenge in all ages. From initial studies, we hypothesized that attenuated Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEE) replicon particle (VRP) vaccine glycoproteins mediated vaccine failure in the aged. We then compared the efficacies of vaccines bearing attenuated (VRP(3014)) or wild-type VEE glycoproteins (VRP(3000)) in young and aged mice within novel models of severe SARS-CoV pathogenesis. Aged animals receiving VRP(3000)-based vaccines were protected from SARS-CoV disease, while animals receiving the VRP(3014)-based vaccines were not. The superior protection for the aged observed with VRP(3000)-based vaccines was confirmed in a lethal influenza virus challenge model. While the VRP(3000) vaccine's immune responses in the aged were sufficient to protect against lethal homologous and heterologous challenge, our data suggest that innate defects within the VRP(3014) platform mediate vaccine failure. Exploration into the mechanism(s) of successful vaccination in the immunosenescent should aid in the development of successful vaccine strategies for other viral diseases disproportionately affecting the elderly, like West Nile virus, influenza virus, norovirus, or other emerging viruses of the future.

  7. Guillain-Barré Syndrome, Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis and Encephalitis Associated with Zika Virus Infection in Brazil: Detection of Viral RNA and Isolation of Virus during Late Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito Ferreira, Maria Lucia; Antunes de Brito, Carlos Alexandre; Moreira, Álvaro José Porto; de Morais Machado, Maria Íris; Henriques-Souza, Adélia; Cordeiro, Marli Tenório; de Azevedo Marques, Ernesto Torres; Pena, Lindomar José

    2017-11-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) emerged in Brazil in 2015, which was followed by an increase of Guillain-Barre Syndrome (GBS) cases. We report the epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory findings of the first six neurological cases associated with ZIKV in Brazil seen in a reference neurology hospital in Pernambuco, Brazil. In all cases, ZIKV was detected in serum and/or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples. In this case series, four cases were defined as GBS, one as acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) and the other as encephalitis. ZIKV was detected in all cases by RT-PCR and virus isolation was successful in two patients. The time between ZIKV acute symptoms and the development of neurological manifestations varied from 3 to 13 days and ZIKV was detected between 15 and 34 days after the initial symptoms. Our results highlight the need to include ZIKV as a differential diagnosis for neurological syndromes in countries with circulation of this arbovirus. Because the viremia in these patients appears to persist longer, direct diagnostic techniques such as RT-PCR and viral isolation should be considered even if it is after the acute phase of viral infection.

  8. 78 FR 57677 - Notice of Submission Deadline for Schedule Information for O'Hare International Airport, San...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-19

    ... International Airport, San Francisco International Airport, John F. Kennedy International Airport, and Newark Liberty International Airport for the Summer 2014 Scheduling Season AGENCY: Federal Aviation... at Chicago's O'Hare International Airport (ORD), San Francisco International Airport (SFO), New York...

  9. Influenza A virus in the mouse: hepatic and cerebral lesions in a Reye's syndrome-like illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Lanier, M.; Davis, L. E.; Blisard, K. S.; Woodfin, B. M.; Wallace, J. M.; Caskey, L. S.

    1991-01-01

    To develop an animal model of Reye's syndrome using a virus associated with the human disease, mice were intravenously inoculated with influenza A/PR8 virus (LD50 4000 haemagglutinin units). One to 3 days later the mice developed lethargy, seizures, coma and death. The cerebrospinal fluid cell count was normal. Serum aspartate aminotransferase levels increased 24-fold. Diffuse microvesicular fatty metamorphosis along with multiple small foci of necrosis developed in the liver. Influenza virus-like particles were seen by electron microscopy in the liver, primarily in areas of liver necrosis, but were not seen in the brain. Cerebral oedema without inflammation developed in the brain. Limited viral replication occurred within the liver. Influenza viral antigens were seen in 5-20% of hepatocytes from both necrotic and non-necrotic areas as well as in brain endothelial cells. Many of the clinical, biochemical and pathologic features of the mouse illness resemble those seen in Reye's syndrome. However, this model differs from the human disease in that focal areas of liver necrosis occurred along with limited complete viral replication in liver. Images p493-a p494-a Fig. 2 PMID:1660299

  10. Glycopeptide Antibiotics Potently Inhibit Cathepsin L in the Late Endosome/Lysosome and Block the Entry of Ebola Virus, Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV), and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Nan; Pan, Ting; Zhang, Junsong; Li, Qianwen; Zhang, Xue; Bai, Chuan; Huang, Feng; Peng, Tao; Zhang, Jianhua; Liu, Chao; Tao, Liang; Zhang, Hui

    2016-04-22

    Ebola virus infection can cause severe hemorrhagic fever with a high mortality in humans. The outbreaks of Ebola viruses in 2014 represented the most serious Ebola epidemics in history and greatly threatened public health worldwide. The development of additional effective anti-Ebola therapeutic agents is therefore quite urgent. In this study, via high throughput screening of Food and Drug Administration-approved drugs, we identified that teicoplanin, a glycopeptide antibiotic, potently prevents the entry of Ebola envelope pseudotyped viruses into the cytoplasm. Furthermore, teicoplanin also has an inhibitory effect on transcription- and replication-competent virus-like particles, with an IC50 as low as 330 nm Comparative analysis further demonstrated that teicoplanin is able to block the entry of Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) envelope pseudotyped viruses as well. Teicoplanin derivatives such as dalbavancin, oritavancin, and telavancin can also inhibit the entry of Ebola, MERS, and SARS viruses. Mechanistic studies showed that teicoplanin blocks Ebola virus entry by specifically inhibiting the activity of cathepsin L, opening a novel avenue for the development of additional glycopeptides as potential inhibitors of cathepsin L-dependent viruses. Notably, given that teicoplanin has routinely been used in the clinic with low toxicity, our work provides a promising prospect for the prophylaxis and treatment of Ebola, MERS, and SARS virus infection. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  11. Glycopeptide Antibiotics Potently Inhibit Cathepsin L in the Late Endosome/Lysosome and Block the Entry of Ebola Virus, Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV), and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV)*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Nan; Pan, Ting; Zhang, Junsong; Li, Qianwen; Zhang, Xue; Bai, Chuan; Huang, Feng; Peng, Tao; Zhang, Jianhua; Liu, Chao; Tao, Liang; Zhang, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Ebola virus infection can cause severe hemorrhagic fever with a high mortality in humans. The outbreaks of Ebola viruses in 2014 represented the most serious Ebola epidemics in history and greatly threatened public health worldwide. The development of additional effective anti-Ebola therapeutic agents is therefore quite urgent. In this study, via high throughput screening of Food and Drug Administration-approved drugs, we identified that teicoplanin, a glycopeptide antibiotic, potently prevents the entry of Ebola envelope pseudotyped viruses into the cytoplasm. Furthermore, teicoplanin also has an inhibitory effect on transcription- and replication-competent virus-like particles, with an IC50 as low as 330 nm. Comparative analysis further demonstrated that teicoplanin is able to block the entry of Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) envelope pseudotyped viruses as well. Teicoplanin derivatives such as dalbavancin, oritavancin, and telavancin can also inhibit the entry of Ebola, MERS, and SARS viruses. Mechanistic studies showed that teicoplanin blocks Ebola virus entry by specifically inhibiting the activity of cathepsin L, opening a novel avenue for the development of additional glycopeptides as potential inhibitors of cathepsin L-dependent viruses. Notably, given that teicoplanin has routinely been used in the clinic with low toxicity, our work provides a promising prospect for the prophylaxis and treatment of Ebola, MERS, and SARS virus infection. PMID:26953343

  12. Genetic analysis of ORF5 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus isolated in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuy, Nguyen Thi Dieu; Thu, Nguyen Thi Dieu; Son, Nguyen Giang; Ha, Le Thi Thu; Hung, Vo Khanh; Nguyen, Nguyen Thao; Khoa, Do Vo Anh

    2013-07-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is one of the most economically important swine pathogens because it is highly infectious and causes economic losses due to decreased pig productivity. In this study, the 603 bp complete major envelope protein encoding gene (ORF5) of 32 field PRRSV isolates from Vietnam collected during 2008-2012 were sequenced and analyzed. Multiple nucleotide (nt) and deduced amino acid (aa) alignments of ORF5 were performed on the 32 isolates: the representative strains (European and North American genotypes), Chinese strains available in GenBank and vaccine strains licensed for use in Vietnam. The results showed 94.8-100.0% nt identity and 94.0-100% aa similarity among the 32 isolates. These isolates shared similarities with the prototype of the North American PRRSV strain (VR-2332; nt 87.8-89.3%, aa 87.5-90.0%), and Lelystat virus, the prototype of the European PRRSV strain (LV; nt 61.1-61.9%, aa 55.1-57.0%). There was greater similarity with QN07 (nt 96.5-98.5%, aa 96.0-99.0%) from the 2007 PRRS outbreak in QuangNam Province, CH-1a (nt 93.2-95.1%, 91.5-93.5%) isolated in China in 1995 and JXA1 (nt 96.5-98.6%, aa 95.0-98.0%), the highly pathogenic strain from China isolated in 2006. The Vietnamese isolates were more similar to JXA1-R (nt 96.5-98.6%, aa 95.0-98.0%), the strain used in Chinese vaccines, than to Ingelvac MLV/BSL-PS (nt 87.2-89.0%, aa 86.0-89.0%). Phylogenetic analysis showed that the 32 isolates were of the North American genotype and classified into sub-lineage 8.7. This sub-lineage contains highly pathogenic Chinese PRRSV strains. This study documents genetic variation in circulating PRRSV strains and could assist more effective use of PRRS vaccines in Vietnam. © 2013 The Societies and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  13. VIRUSES

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    and-mouth disease in livestock was an infectious particle smaller than any bacteria. This was the first clue to the nature of viruses, genetic entities that lie somewhere in the gray area between living and non-living states.

  14. Project Roadkill: Linking European Hare vehicle collisions with landscape-structure using datasets from citizen scientists and professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stretz, Carina; Heigl, Florian; Steiner, Wolfgang; Bauer, Thomas; Suppan, Franz; Zaller, Johann G.

    2015-04-01

    Road networks can implicate lots of negative effects for wildlife. One of the most important indication for strong landscape fragmentation are roadkills, i.e. collisions between motorised vehicles and wild animals. A species that is often involved in roadkills is the European hare (Lepus europaeus). European hare populations are in decline throughout Europe since the 1960s and classified as "potentially endangered" in the Red Data Book of Austria. Therefore, it is striking that in the hunting year 2013/14, 19,343 hares were killed on Austrian roads translating to 53 hare roadkills each day, or rather about two per hour. We hypothesized, that (I) hare-vehicle-collisions occur as an aggregation of events (hotspot), (II) the surrounding landscape influences the number of roadkilled hares and (III) roadkill data from citizen science projects and data from professionals (e.g. hunters, police) are convergent. Investigations on the surrounding landscape of the scenes of accidents will be carried out using land cover data derived from Landsat satellite images. Information on road kills are based on datasets from two different sources. One dataset stems from the citizen science project "Roadkill" (www.citizen-science.at/roadkill) where participants report roadkill findings via a web application. The second dataset is from a project where roadkill data were collected by the police and by hunters. Besides answering our research questions, findings of this project also allow the location of dangerous roadkill hotspots for animals and could be implemented in nature conservation actions.

  15. An ecological assessment of Hispid Hare Caprolagus hispidus (Mammalia: Lagomorpha: Leporidae in Manas National Park, Assam, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naba K. Nath

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study of the Hispid Hare Caprolagus hispidus in the tall grassland habitat of Manas National Park, Assam during 2009–2010 is the first detailed assessment in northeastern India.  We assessed the status, distribution, habitat use and key threats to this rare and little studied lagomorph species.  After interviewing local forest staff, 20 grassland patches within a survey area of 2.65ha were selected and transects (50x2 m laid randomly to determine the presence/absence of Hispid Hare by recording pellets and other indirect evidence.  Hare presence was recorded in 17 grassland patches within transects dominated by Imperata cylindrica and Saccharum narenga.  Hispid Hare preferred dry savannah grasslands to wet alluvial grasslands during winter and avoided recently burned patches due to lack of cover and food.  The distribution pattern observed was clumped (s2/a = 6.2, with more evidence of Hispid Hare presence in areas where ground cover was dense, dry and away from water sources. Population density was estimated at 381.55 individuals/km2, which in comparison with other studies indicates that Manas National Park currently holds the highest density of Hispid Hare.  Habitat loss due to overgrazing, unsustainable thatch harvesting, burning of grassland, weed invasion, encroachment and hunting were identified as key threats which must be addressed to ensure survival of this threatened species in the Park.  

  16. Science and ethics of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome controversies in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewster, David

    2011-09-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) epidemic in Africa has raised important ethical issues for both researchers and clinicians. The most notorious controversy has been related to the zidovudine (AZT) trials in Africa in the late 1990s, in which the control groups were given a placebo rather than an effective drug to prevent vertical transmission. This raised concerns in the sponsoring country about exploitation of subjects, injustice and an ethical double standard between donor countries and resource-poor settings. However, the real double standard is between clinical practice standards in Western versus African countries, which must be addressed as part of the increasing global inequity of wealth both between countries and also within countries. There are important limitations to ethical declarations, principles and guidelines on their own without contextual ethical reasoning. The focus on research ethics with the HIV epidemic has led to a relative neglect of ethical issues in clinical practice. Although the scientific advances in HIV/AIDS have changed the ethical issues since the 1990s, there has also been progress in the bioethics of HIV/AIDS in terms of ethical review capability by local committees as well as in exposure to ethical issues by clinicians and researchers in Africa. However, serious concerns remain about the overregulation of research by bureaucratic agencies which could discourage African research on specifically African health issues. There is also a need for African academic institutions and researchers to progressively improve their research capacity with the assistance of research funders and donor agencies. © 2011 The Author. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2011 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  17. Reactomes of porcine alveolar macrophages infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhihua Jiang

    Full Text Available Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS has devastated pig industries worldwide for many years. It is caused by a small RNA virus (PRRSV, which targets almost exclusively pig monocytes or macrophages. In the present study, five SAGE (serial analysis of gene expression libraries derived from 0 hour mock-infected and 6, 12, 16 and 24 hours PRRSV-infected porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs produced a total 643,255 sequenced tags with 91,807 unique tags. Differentially expressed (DE tags were then detected using the Bayesian framework followed by gene/mRNA assignment, arbitrary selection and manual annotation, which determined 699 DE genes for reactome analysis. The DAVID, KEGG and REACTOME databases assigned 573 of the DE genes into six biological systems, 60 functional categories and 504 pathways. The six systems are: cellular processes, genetic information processing, environmental information processing, metabolism, organismal systems and human diseases as defined by KEGG with modification. Self-organizing map (SOM analysis further grouped these 699 DE genes into ten clusters, reflecting their expression trends along these five time points. Based on the number one functional category in each system, cell growth and death, transcription processes, signal transductions, energy metabolism, immune system and infectious diseases formed the major reactomes of PAMs responding to PRRSV infection. Our investigation also focused on dominant pathways that had at least 20 DE genes identified, multi-pathway genes that were involved in 10 or more pathways and exclusively-expressed genes that were included in one system. Overall, our present study reported a large set of DE genes, compiled a comprehensive coverage of pathways, and revealed system-based reactomes of PAMs infected with PRRSV. We believe that our reactome data provides new insight into molecular mechanisms involved in host genetic complexity of antiviral activities against PRRSV and

  18. Sofosbuvir induced steven Johnson Syndrome in a patient with hepatitis C virus-related cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Nipun; Singh, Shreya; Sawatkar, Gitesh; Singh, Virendra

    2018-01-01

    Sofosbuvir is an imperative drug used in treatment regimens for hepatitis C virus (HCV). It is considered relatively safe with fewer adverse effects than other treatments. Here, we report a rare and potentially serious, dermatologic, adverse effect following the use of sofosbuvir. A 35-year-old man with genotype 3-related HCV cirrhosis presented with decompensated ascites and jaundice following 7 weeks of therapy with peginterferon alpha-2a and oral ribavirin. After peginterferon withdrawal and stabilization, oral sofosbuvir and ribavirin were started; 10 days later, he developed itching over the trunk and legs, followed by multiple papules and vesicles over an erythematous base. Over the next 15 days, the rash progressed with the formation of blisters and peeling skin. Simultaneously, the oral mucosa and lips developed crusting and painful erosions. Considering drug-induced Steven John Syndrome (SJS), sofosbuvir and ribavirin were withdrawn and the patient was treated with topical emollients, steroids, and supportive care. The lesions improved over the next 4 weeks, with some residual hyperpigmentation. Rechallenge with sofosbuvir alone at one eighth the dose resulted in similar skin and mucosal lesions after 2 months; these lesions also improved after sofosbuvir withdrawal. The Algorithm of Drug Causality for Epidermal Necrolysis score was 7, which suggested sofosbuvir as the very probable drug resulting in SJS in our patient. Conclusion: The appearance of SJS following sofosbuvir use is an important and potentially fatal complication from a drug that serves as the backbone of several HCV treatment regimens. Treating physicians must use sofosbuvir with caution and consider withholding or discontinuing this drug in patients with such severe dermatologic manifestations. ( Hepatology Communications 2018;2:16-20).

  19. Guillain-Barré syndrome following varicella-zoster virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Badrul; Islam, Zhahirul; GeurtsvanKessel, Corine H; Jahan, Israt; Endtz, Hubert P; Mohammad, Quazi D; Jacobs, Bart C

    2018-03-01

    We describe the frequency, clinical features, and electrophysiological and immunological phenotypes of Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS) patients treated at a single institution in Bangladesh who had preceding chicken pox (primary Varicella-zoster virus [VZV] infection) within 4 weeks of GBS onset. A literature review of GBS cases preceding VZV infection is also provided. Diagnosis of GBS was based on the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke criteria for GBS. Serum anti-VZV IgM and IgG antibodies were quantified by indirect chemiluminescence immunoassay (CLIA); anti-Campylobacter jejuni IgG, IgM, and IgA antibodies and anti-ganglioside GM1 IgM and IgG antibodies, by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Neurophysiologic subtypes were categorized following the Hadden criteria. Of 536 patients with GBS, 7 (1.3%) had chicken pox within 4 weeks before GBS onset. Four of the seven cases were male (age range, 23 to 40 years old). All seven patients were bed-bound, six had sensory symptoms, and three required mechanical ventilation for respiratory failure. All seven patients had CSF albuminocytologic dissociation and evidence of demyelination in nerve conduction studies. Anti-VZV IgM antibodies were present and anti-GM1 and anti-Campylobacter jejuni lipo-oligosaccharides (LOS) were negative in all cases. All patients had excellent outcome at 1 year (able to run). A systematic literature review of GBS cases related to VZV revealed 39 previously reported patients with comparable clinical presentations and outcomes, of which 36 had neurophysiologic evidence of demyelination. VZV infection is associated with the demyelinating subtype of GBS, clearly distinct from the axonal form of GBS that predominate in countries like Bangladesh.

  20. Molecular immune response of the American lobster (Homarus americanus) to the White Spot Syndrome Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, K Fraser; Greenwood, Spencer J; Acorn, Adam R; Byrne, Philip J

    2013-11-01

    The adult American lobster (Homarus americanus) is susceptible to few naturally occurring pathogens, and no viral pathogen is known to exist. Despite this, relatively little is known about the H. americanus immune system and nothing is known about its potential viral immune response. Hundreds of rural communities in Atlantic Canada rely on the lobster fishery for their economic sustainability and could be devastated by large-scale pathogen-mediated mortality events. The White Spot Syndrome Virus is the most economically devastating viral pathogen to global shrimp aquaculture production and has been proposed to be capable of infecting all decapod crustaceans including the European Lobster. An in vivo WSSV injection challenge was conducted in H. americanus and WSSV was found to be capable of infecting and replicating within lobsters held at 20°C. The in vivo WSSV challenge also generated the first viral disease model of H. americanus and allowed for the high-throughput examination of transcriptomic changes that occur during viral infection. Microarray analysis found 136 differentially expressed genes and the expression of a subset of these genes was verified using RT-qPCR. Anti-lipopolysaccharide isoforms and acute phase serum amyloid protein A expression did not change during WSSV infection, contrary to previous findings during bacterial and parasitic infection of H. americanus. This, along with the differential gene expression of thioredoxin and trypsin isoforms, provides compelling evidence that H. americanus is capable of mounting an immune response specific to infection by different pathogen classes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Virus replicon particles expressing porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus proteins elicit immune priming but do not confer protection from viremia in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eck, Melanie; Durán, Margarita García; Ricklin, Meret E; Locher, Samira; Sarraseca, Javier; Rodríguez, María José; McCullough, Kenneth C; Summerfield, Artur; Zimmer, Gert; Ruggli, Nicolas

    2016-02-19

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is the causative agent of one of the most devastating and economically significant viral disease of pigs worldwide. The vaccines currently available on the market elicit only limited protection. Recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) replicon particles (VRP) have been used successfully to induce protection against influenza A virus (IAV) in chickens and bluetongue virus in sheep. In this study, VSV VRP expressing the PRRSV envelope proteins GP5, M, GP4, GP3, GP2 and the nucleocapsid protein N, individually or in combination, were generated and evaluated as a potential vector vaccine against PRRSV infection. High level expression of the recombinant PRRSV proteins was demonstrated in cell culture. However, none of the PRRSV antigens expressed from VRP, with the exception of the N protein, did induce any detectable antibody response in pigs before challenge infection with PRRSV. After challenge however, the antibody responses against GP5, GP4 and GP3 appeared in average 2 weeks earlier than in pigs vaccinated with the empty control VRP. No reduction of viremia was observed in the vaccinated group compared with the control group. When pigs were co-vaccinated with VRP expressing IAV antigens and VRP expressing PRRSV glycoproteins, only antibody responses to the IAV antigens were detectable. These data show that the VSV replicon vector can induce immune responses to heterologous proteins in pigs, but that the PRRSV envelope proteins expressed from VSV VRP are poorly immunogenic. Nevertheless, they prime the immune system for significantly earlier B-cell responses following PRRSV challenge infection.

  2. Phylogeny of the sea hares in the aplysia clade based on mitochondrial DNA sequence data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medina, Monica; Collins, Timothy; Walsh, Patrick J.

    2004-02-20

    Sea hare species within the Aplysia clade are distributed worldwide. Their phylogenetic and biogeographic relationships are, however, still poorly known. New molecular evidence is presented from a portion of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase c subunit 1 gene (cox1) that improves our understanding of the phylogeny of the group. Based on these data a preliminary discussion of the present distribution of sea hares in a biogeographic context is put forward. Our findings are consistent with only some aspects of the current taxonomy and nomenclatural changes are proposed. The first, is the use of a rank free classification for the different Aplysia clades and subclades as opposed to previously used genus and subgenus affiliations. The second, is the suggestion that Aplysia brasiliana (Rang, 1828) is a junior synonym of Aplysia fasciata (Poiret, 1789). The third, is the elimination of Neaplysia since its only member is confirmed to be part of the large Varria clade.

  3. Le MAC de Lyon s’ouvre à l’univers de Keith Haring

    OpenAIRE

    Vernier, Angélique; Crémieux, Anne

    2008-01-01

    L’exposition Keith Haring au Musée d’Art Contemporain de Lyon se tient du 22 février au 29 juin 2008. Le 4 mai prochain, l’artiste américain aurait eu 50 ans. C’est à cette occasion que l’exposition a été montée. Très riche, elle se veut des plus accessibles, pédagogiques et ludiques, à l’image de l’artiste qu’elle célèbre. Tout musée d’art moderne, aussi moderne soit-il, reste un musée, c’est-à-dire un espace somme toute antithétique de l’œuvre de Keith Haring. Artiste de rue, de souterrains...

  4. Le MAC de Lyon s’ouvre à l’univers de Keith Haring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Crémieux

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available L’exposition Keith Haring au Musée d’Art Contemporain de Lyon se tient du 22 février au 29 juin 2008. Le 4 mai prochain, l’artiste américain aurait eu 50 ans. C’est à cette occasion que l’exposition a été montée. Très riche, elle se veut des plus accessibles, pédagogiques et ludiques, à l’image de l’artiste qu’elle célèbre. Tout musée d’art moderne, aussi moderne soit-il, reste un musée, c’est-à-dire un espace somme toute antithétique de l’œuvre de Keith Haring. Artiste de rue, de souterrains...

  5. Variation of corneal glycosaminoglycan values of hares in relation to environmental pollution by industrial emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miková, M; Nováková, E

    1979-09-01

    In localities contaminated by industrial emissions a significant decrease in keratan sulfate and chondroitin 4-sulfate occurs in the cornea of the hare. The changes also occur in hares living near small emission sources with a local emission zone; therefore they should not be neglected, especially if the area is used for recreation, as in the case reported here. The decrease in glycosaminoglycan values is more pronounced in adults than in juveniles, because of the length of exposure. Relatively large amounts of keratan sulfate in the glycosaminoglycan fraction correspond to changes expected in a prematurely senescent tissue. Because of the painstaking laboratory work required, assessment of glycosaminoglycans could be used for special bioindication purposes but would not be suitable for routine monitoring.

  6. Phylogenetic and Geographic Relationships of Severe Fever With Thrombocytopenia Syndrome Virus in China, South Korea, and Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Tomoki; Shimojima, Masayuki; Fukushi, Shuetsu; Tani, Hideki; Fukuma, Aiko; Taniguchi, Satoshi; Singh, Harpal; Suda, Yuto; Shirabe, Komei; Toda, Shoichi; Shimazu, Yukie; Nomachi, Taro; Gokuden, Mutsuyo; Morimitsu, Toshiharu; Ando, Katsuyuki; Yoshikawa, Akira; Kan, Miki; Uramoto, Marina; Osako, Hideo; Kida, Kouji; Takimoto, Hirokazu; Kitamoto, Hiroaki; Terasoma, Fumio; Honda, Akiko; Maeda, Ken; Takahashi, Toru; Yamagishi, Takuya; Oishi, Kazunori; Morikawa, Shigeru; Saijo, Masayuki

    2015-09-15

    Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is a tick-borne acute infectious disease caused by the SFTS virus (SFTSV). SFTS has been reported in China, South Korea, and Japan as a novel Bunyavirus. Although several molecular epidemiology and phylogenetic studies have been performed, the information obtained was limited, because the analyses included no or only a small number of SFTSV strains from Japan. The nucleotide sequences of 75 SFTSV samples in Japan were newly determined directly from the patients' serum samples. In addition, the sequences of 7 strains isolated in vitro were determined and compared with those in the patients' serum samples. More than 90 strains that were identified in China, 1 strain in South Korea, and 50 strains in Japan were phylogenetically analyzed. The viruses were clustered into 2 clades, which were consistent with the geographic distribution. Three strains identified in Japan were clustered in the Chinese clade, and 4 strains identified in China and 26 in South Korea were clustered in the Japanese clade. Two clades of SFTSV may have evolved separately over time. On rare occasions, the viruses were transmitted overseas to the region in which viruses of the other clade were prevalent. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Preliminary study on haemocyte response to white spot syndrome virus infection in black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Braak, C B T; Botterblom, M H A; Huisman, E A; Rombout, J H W M; van der Knaap, W P W

    2002-08-29

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) has been a major cause of shrimp mortality in aquaculture in the past decade. In contrast to extensive studies on the morphology and genome structure of the virus, little work has been done on the defence reaction of the host after WSSV infection. Therefore, we examined the haemocyte response to experimental WSSV infection in the black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon. Haemolymph sampling and histology showed a significant decline in free, circulating haemocytes after WSSV infection. A combination of in situ hybridisation with a specific DNA probe for WSSV and immuno-histochemistry with a specific antibody against haemocyte granules in tissue sections indicated that haemocytes left the circulation and migrated to tissues where many virus-infected cells were present. However, no subsequent haemocyte response to the virus-infected cells was detected. The number of granular cells decreased in the haematopoietic tissue of infected shrimp. In addition, a fibrous-like immuno-reactive layer appears in the outer stromal matrix of tubule walls in the lymphoid organ of infected shrimp. The role of haemocytes in shrimp defence after viral infection is discussed.

  8. ISOLATION OF EGG DROP SYNDROME VIRUS AND ITS MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION USING SODIUM DODECYL SULPHATE POLYACRYLAMIDE GEL ELECTROPHORESIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. Rasool, S. U. Rahman and M. K. Mansoor

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Six isolates of egg drop syndrome (EDS virus were recovered from five different outbreaks of EDS in commercial laying hens in and around Faisalabad. The aberrant eggs were fed to the susceptible laying hens for experimental induction of infection. The samples from infected birds (egg washing, cloacal swabs, oviducts and spleens were collected, processed and inoculated into 11-day old duck embryos. The presence of virus in harvested allanto-amniotic fluid was monitored by spot and microhaemagglutination tests and confirmed by haemagglutination inhibition and agar gel precipitation tests. The EDS virus grew well in duck embryos and agglutinated only avian but not mammalian red blood cells. These isolates were purified through velocity density gradient centrifugation. Protein concentration was determined through Lowry method and sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE was conducted by loading 300 µg protein concentration on 12.5% gel using discontinuous buffer system. All the six isolates showed 13 polypeptides, which were identical to those described in the referral EDS-76 virus (strain-127. The molecular weights of the polypeptides ranged from 6.5 KDa to 126 KDa.

  9. Virus-Associated Hemophagocytic Syndrome in Renal Transplant Recipients: Report of 2 Cases from a Single Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koji Nanmoku

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Virus-associated hemophagocytic syndrome (HPS is a potentially fatal complication of immunosuppression for transplantation. However, it presents with heterogeneous clinical symptoms (fever, disturbed consciousness, and hepatosplenomegaly and laboratory findings (pancytopenia, elevated hepatic enzyme levels, abnormal coagulation, and hyperferritinemia, impeding diagnosis. Case 1: A 39-year-old female developed fever 4 years after ABO-incompatible living-related renal transplantation. Laboratory findings revealed thrombocytopenia, elevated hepatic enzymes, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV DNA seropositivity, and hyperferritinemia. EBV-associated HPS was confirmed by bone marrow aspiration. Steroid pulse therapy and etoposide were ineffective. Disseminated intravascular coagulation resulted in multiple organ failure, and the patient died 32 days after disease onset. Case 2: A 67-year-old male was admitted with rotavirus enteritis a month after living-unrelated renal transplantation. He developed sudden-onset high fever, disturbance of consciousness, and tachypnea 8 days after admission. Laboratory findings revealed elevated hepatic enzyme levels, hyperkalemia, and hyperferritinemia. Emergency continuous hemodiafiltration ameliorated the fever, and steroid pulse therapy improved abnormal laboratory values. Varicella-zoster virus meningitis was confirmed by spinal tap. Acyclovir improved consciousness, and he was discharged 87 days after admission. Fatal virus-associated HPS may develop in organ transplant patients receiving immunosuppressive therapy. Pathognomonic hyperferritinemia is useful for differential diagnosis.

  10. The evidence of bacilliform virus a causative agent of white spot syndrome of white shrimp Penaeus merguiensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hari Suprapto

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The rod-shape virus particles were found in the hyperthrophied nucleus and cytoplasm of diseased white shrimpPenaeus merguiensis naturally infected by White spot syndrome (WSBV. In natural infection cumulative mortality of shrimp werevery high, 95% of population were dead in 3-7 days, and 5% of shrimp population survived. The disease was outbreak in intensiveculture farms used the closed circulation sea water system. Others crustacean such as crabs and bentatos were not infected by WSBVat time of sampling. The virus particle were rod-shape ranging from 78 ± 10 nm in diameter and 280 ± 10 nm in length. The pathogenicbacteria mainly dominated by genus Vibrio sp were isolated from shrimp.

  11. Prevalence of antibodies against severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus in shelter dogs in the Republic of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung-Hun; Kim, Hyun-Joo; Lee, Min-Jung; Byun, Jae-Won; Kim, Da-Young; Kim, Neung-Hee; Kim, Doo-Hwan; Kwak, Dongmi; Kang, Hae-Eun; Nam, Hyang-Mi

    2017-09-05

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the seroprevalence of antibodies against severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV) in shelter dogs in the Republic of Korea (ROK) using an indirect immunofluorescence assay and virus neutralization test. Sera were collected from 426 dogs in 12 animal shelters throughout the ROK from March 2016 to November 2016. Overall, 59 of 426 (13.9%) samples were seropositive for antibodies against SFTSV. A significant difference was observed in accordance with the sampling region (pdogs. The seroprevalence of SFTSV showed an inversely proportional trend to the latitude of the sampling regions: the highest rate was observed in the southern region followed by the Jeju-do region. This is the first report on the nationwide prevalence of antibodies against SFTSV in companion dogs in animal shelters throughout the ROK. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Blood antioxidant enzymes (SOD, GPX), biochemical and haematological parameters in pigs naturally infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stukelj, M; Toplak, I; Svete, A Nemec

    2013-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) has become one of the most economically important diseases for the swine industry worldwide. The objective of the study was to determine selected blood antioxidant enzymes (glutathione peroxidase (GPX), superoxide dismutase (SOD)), biochemical and haematological parameters in PRRS positive and negative pigs of three different categories, mainly to test oxidative stress hypothesis in pigs naturally infected with PRRS virus. Ninety PRRS positive and 90 PRRS negative pigs were included in the study. The presence of PRRS was confirmed by serological detection of antibodies against PRRS virus (PRRSV) and detection of PRRS viral RNA by RT-PCR. Pigs were further divided into three groups of 30: piglets just before weaning (weaners), fatteners and finishers. Blood samples for determining selected blood parameters were collected from the vena cava cranialis. Significantly (P stress might be increased in PRRSV naturally infected pigs, especially in weaners.

  13. Climate change induced molting mismatch? Mountain hare abundance reduced by duration of snowcover and predator abundance

    OpenAIRE

    Pedersen, Simen; Odden, Morten; Pedersen, Hans-Christian

    2017-01-01

    In northern latitudes, species that have adapted to snow cover by molting and changing pelage color will be particularly vulnerable to climate change, as predation levels may increase due to a mismatch with background coloration. Here, we investigated the synergistic effect of mammalian generalist predators (red fox Vulpes vulpes and pine marten Martes martes) and the duration of snow cover on the abundance of a winter-adapted species, the mountain hare (Lepus timidus). We analyzed 12 yr of d...

  14. Information aspects of interspecific relations of fox and brown hare in snow season in steppe forests

    OpenAIRE

    А. V. Mikheyev

    2005-01-01

    On the basis of materials of field research the characteristic of trail activity of fox and brown hare in steppe forests of the South-East of Ukraine in a gradient of a snow cover conditions is presented. The estimation of qualitative and quantitative parameters of traces groups of both species as elements of an information field, and also analysis of the aspects of their interrelation subject to various factors in the specified period of year are carried out.

  15. Kuu kultuurikulgur : Noaga tehtud plaadikaaned. Chungini jõulupidu : Hare Christmas! 6 miljonit digitaalaaret

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Pastaca uue heliplaadikogumiku "Remiksid" esitlusest 19. dets. Tallinnas klubis Juuksur ja 20. dets. Tartus klubis Maailm (kaasa mängivad Galaktlan ja Hannes Praks). 16. dets. avab Tartus Lastekunstikooli galeriis uksed muusiku ja usuteaduslase Chungini kuraatoriprojekt "Hare Christmas/Guten Weichnachten". 20. nov. avati sait www. europeana.eu, mille eesmärgiks anda allalaadimiseks Euroopa kultuuriväärtusi (sümfooniad, poeemid ja maalid digitaliseeritud kujul)

  16. Experimental and Natural Infections of Goats with Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome Virus: Evidence for Ticks as Viral Vector.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongjun Jiao

    Full Text Available Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV, the causative agent for the fatal life-threatening infectious disease, severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS, was first identified in the central and eastern regions of China. Although the viral RNA was detected in free-living and parasitic ticks, the vector for SFTSV remains unsettled.Firstly, an experimental infection study in goats was conducted in a bio-safety level-2 (BSL-2 facility to investigate virus transmission between animals. The results showed that infected animals did not shed virus to the outside through respiratory or digestive tract route, and the control animals did not get infected. Then, a natural infection study was carried out in the SFTSV endemic region. A cohort of naïve goats was used as sentinel animals in the study site. A variety of daily samples including goat sera, ticks and mosquitoes were collected for viral RNA and antibody (from serum only detection, and virus isolation. We detected viral RNA from free-living and parasitic ticks rather than mosquitoes, and from goats after ticks' infestation. We also observed sero-conversion in all members of the animal cohort subsequently. The S segment sequences of the two recovered viral isolates from one infected goat and its parasitic ticks showed a 100% homology at the nucleic acid level.In our natural infection study, close contact between goats does not appear to transmit SFTSV, however, the naïve animals were infected after ticks' infestation and two viral isolates derived from an infected goat and its parasitic ticks shared 100% of sequence identity. These data demonstrate that the etiologic agent for goat cohort's natural infection comes from environmental factors. Of these, ticks, especially the predominant species Haemaphysalis longicornis, probably act as vector for this pathogen. The findings in this study may help local health authorities formulate and focus preventive measures to contain

  17. RNA recombination in Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus is restricted to parental sequences with high similarity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vugt, J.J.F.A. van; Storgaard, T.; Oleksiewicz, M. B.

    2001-01-01

    Two types of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) exist, a North American type and a European type. The co-existence of both types in some countries, such as Denmark, Slovakia and Canada, creates a risk of inter-type recombination. To evaluate this risk, cell cultures were co......, but no recombination was detected between the European and North American types. Calculation of the maximum theoretical risk of European–American recombination, based on the sensitivity of the RT–PCR system, revealed that RNA recombination between the European and North American types of PRRSV is at least 10000 times...

  18. High frequency RNA recombination in porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus occurs preferentially between parental sequences with high similarity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Vugt, Joke .J.F.A.; Storgaard, Torben; Oleksiewicz, Martin B.

    2001-01-01

    Two types of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) exist, a North American type and a European type. The co-existence of both types in some countries, such as Denmark, Slovakia and Canada, creates a risk of inter-type recombination. To evaluate this risk, cell cultures were co......, but no recombination was detected between the European and North American types. Calculation of the maximum theoretical risk of European-American recombination, based on the sensitivity of the RT-PCR system, revealed that RNA recombination between the European and North American types of PRRSV is at least 10000 times...

  19. Biogenic amines in the meat of hunted pheasant and hare during the course of storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdeňka Hutařová

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Venison is becoming more and more interesting for consumers. Although treatment procedures of hunted game differ from slaughtered livestock, the hygienic quality of game meat must still be ensured. Potential indicators of meat hygienic quality include the content of biogenic amines. The aim of the present study was to assess the content and changes of biogenic amines in the muscles of selected kinds of small game (common pheasant and brown hare during storage, and based on the obtained results, to assess the hygienic quality of the meat. Biogenic amines (putrescine, cadaverine, histamine, tyramine, phenylethylamine, and tryptamine in the breast and thigh muscles separated by reverse phase liquid chromatography and consequently were detected using tandem mass spectrometry. Based on the determined content of biogenic amines, both pheasant and hare meats complied with values of high quality meat. The sum of biogenic amines did not exceed the value of 5 mg/kg after 7 days at 0 °C or 7 °C in pheasant meat, and after 21 days at 0 °C or after 14 days at 7 °C in brown hare meat. The biogenic amine content and the speed of their formation in venison can be very helpful for the evaluation of both meat hygienic quality and safety of these foods during storage.

  20. Laem-Singh Virus: A Probable Etiological Agent Associated with Monodon Slow Growth Syndrome in Farmed Black Tiger Shrimp (Penaeus monodon)

    OpenAIRE

    Poornima, M.; Seetang-Nun, Y.; Alavandi, S. V.; Dayal, J. Syama

    2012-01-01

    Among the emerging diseases in shrimp aquaculture, monodon slow growth syndrome (MSGS) is a major concern in South and Southeast Asia. Shrimp farming in Thailand was severely affected during 2000–2002 due to MSGS, which caused an economic loss, of about US$ 300 million. MSGS is characterized by abnormally slow growth with coefficients of size variation of >35 %, that has impacted P. monodon production in Thailand. A new shrimp virus, Laem-Singh virus (LSNV) was identified to be associated in ...

  1. First evidence of Leishmania infection in European brown hare (Lepus europaeus) in Greece: GIS analysis and phylogenetic position within the Leishmania spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsokana, C N; Sokos, C; Giannakopoulos, A; Mamuris, Z; Birtsas, P; Papaspyropoulos, K; Valiakos, G; Spyrou, V; Lefkaditis, M; Chatzopoulos, D C; Kantere, M; Manolakou, K; Touloudi, A; Burriel, A Rodi; Ferroglio, E; Hadjichristodoulou, C; Billinis, C

    2016-01-01

    Although the existence of a sylvatic transmission cycle of Leishmania spp., independent from the domestic cycle, has been proposed, data are scarce on Leishmania infection in wild mammals in Greece. In this study, we aimed to investigate the presence of Leishmania infection in the European brown hare in Greece, to infer the phylogenetic position of the Leishmania parasites detected in hares in Greece, and to identify any possible correlation between Leishmania infection in hares with environmental parameters, using the geographical information system (GIS). Spleen samples from 166 hares were tested by internal transcribed spacer-1 (ITS-1)-nested PCR for the detection of Leishmania DNA. Phylogenetic analysis was performed on Leishmania sequences from hares in Greece in conjunction with Leishmania sequences from dogs in Greece and 46 Leishmania sequences retrieved from GenBank. The Leishmania DNA prevalence in hares was found to be 23.49 % (95 % confidence interval (CI) 17.27-30.69). The phylogenetic analysis confirmed that the Leishmania sequences from hares in Greece belong in the Leishmania donovani complex. The widespread Leishmania infection in hares should be taken into consideration because under specific circumstances, this species can act as a reservoir host. This study suggests that the role of wild animals, including hares, in the epidemiology of Leishmania spp. in Greece deserves further elucidation.

  2. Ramsay Hunt syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt syndrome; Herpes zoster oticus; Geniculate ganglion zoster; Geniculate herpes; Herpetic geniculate ganglionitis ... The varicella-zoster virus that causes Ramsay Hunt syndrome is the same virus that causes chickenpox and ...

  3. Do Soils affect Brown Hare (Lepus europaeus abundance in agricultural habitats?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Santilli

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In recent years, much research on brown hare (Lepus europaeus, Pallas 1778 ecology has been conducted in Europe to identify habitat-species relationships and the reasons for the decline in hare populations that have occurred since the 1960s. However, very few studies have considered the influence of soil texture on the abundance of this species in agricultural habitats. In this paper we examine the relationship between winter brown hare density in protected areas (game refuges in four provinces of the Tuscany region (central Italy and soil texture. Results show that hares reach higher densities in areas characterized by "loam" soils compared to areas where soils are richer in clay. Although this relationship is probably complex, soil texture may indirectly affect brown hare populations by influencing the temperature and moisture of the ground and influencing the timing of farming operations (tillage. Riassunto Il suolo influenza l’abbondanza della lepre Lepus europaeus negli ambienti agricoli? Negli ultimi anni sono state effettuate numerose ricerche sull’ecologia della lepre europea Lepus europaeus, al fine di evidenziare le relazioni fra questa specie ed il tipo di habitat e di comprendere i motivi del declino avvenuto a partire dagli anni ’60. Ciononostante pochi studi hanno preso in considerazione l’influenza del tipo di suolo sulla consistenza di questo lagomorfo negli ambienti agricoli. Nel presente lavoro viene esaminata la relazione fra la densità invernale della lepre all’interno delle zone di ripopolamento e cattura di quattro province toscane e la tessitura del suolo di queste aree. E’ stato riscontrato che le lepri raggiungono densità più elevate in aree dove predominano i suoli franchi rispetto ad aree dove risultano più argillosi. Sebbene questa relazione sia probabilmente complessa, la tessitura del suolo potrebbe influenzare

  4. Virological and immunological responses to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in a large population of gilts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, Laura; Pijoan, Carlos; Dee, Scott; Olin, Michael; Molitor, Thomas; Joo, Han Soo; Xiao, Zhenguo; Murtaugh, Michael

    2004-10-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) causes a prolonged active infection followed by a persistent infection in lymphoid tissues lasting for several months. Pigs develop both an antibody and cell-mediated immune response following PRRSV infection, but the specific role of each type in the development of protective immunity and clearance of the virus is not yet known. The aims of this study were to characterize the dynamics of PRRSV persistence from 0 to 135 d post infection (pi), characterize the kinetics of the antibody mediated immune response following PRRSV infection, and characterize the cell mediated immune responses to PRRSV infection. Eighty, 4-month-old PRRSV-free gilts were obtained from a source known to be negative for PRRSV. On day 0, gilts were infected intranasally with 10(2.4) TCID/50 MN 30-100 PRRSV. Following infection, animals were bled between days 0 to 135 pi. Viremia was detected up to day 30. Serum antibody response (by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [ELISA] and virus neutralization antibody) was detected from day 14 to 120 pi. Cell-mediated immune response represented by interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) was detected from day 14 to 120 pi. Persistence of PRRSV in tissues was confirmed by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) between days 30 to 135. These results indicate that serum neutralizing antibodies and IFN-gamma play an important role in the clearance of PRRSV. Nevertheless none of the parameters measured (virus neutralizing antibodies), either alone or in combination, are solely responsible for the clearance of the virus from the host and the development of sterilizing immunity.

  5. Virological and immunological responses to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in a large population of gilts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) causes a prolonged active infection followed by a persistent infection in lymphoid tissues lasting for several months. Pigs develop both an antibody and cell-mediated immune response following PRRSV infection, but the specific role of each type in the development of protective immunity and clearance of the virus is not yet known. The aims of this study were to characterize the dynamics of PRRSV persistence from 0 to 135 d post infection (pi), characterize the kinetics of the antibody mediated immune response following PRRSV infection, and characterize the cell mediated immune responses to PRRSV infection. Eighty, 4-month-old PRRSV-free gilts were obtained from a source known to be negative for PRRSV. On day 0, gilts were infected intranasally with 102.4 TCID/ 50 MN 30–100 PRRSV. Following infection, animals were bled between days 0 to 135 pi. Viremia was detected up to day 30. Serum antibody response (by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [ELISA] and virus neutralization antibody) was detected from day 14 to 120 pi. Cell-mediated immune response represented by interferon gamma (IFN-γ) was detected from day 14 to 120 pi. Persistence of PRRSV in tissues was confirmed by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) between days 30 to 135. These results indicate that serum neutralizing antibodies and IFN-γ play an important role in the clearance of PRRSV. Nevertheless none of the parameters measured (virus neutralizing antibodies), either alone or in combination, are solely responsible for the clearance of the virus from the host and the development of sterilizing immunity. PMID:15581221

  6. Targeting Membrane-Bound Viral RNA Synthesis Reveals Potent Inhibition of Diverse Coronaviruses Including the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergström, Tomas; Kann, Nina; Adamiak, Beata; Hannoun, Charles; Kindler, Eveline; Jónsdóttir, Hulda R.; Muth, Doreen; Kint, Joeri; Forlenza, Maria; Müller, Marcel A.; Drosten, Christian; Thiel, Volker; Trybala, Edward

    2014-01-01

    Coronaviruses raise serious concerns as emerging zoonotic viruses without specific antiviral drugs available. Here we screened a collection of 16671 diverse compounds for anti-human coronavirus 229E activity and identified an inhibitor, designated K22, that specifically targets membrane-bound coronaviral RNA synthesis. K22 exerts most potent antiviral activity after virus entry during an early step of the viral life cycle. Specifically, the formation of double membrane vesicles (DMVs), a hallmark of coronavirus replication, was greatly impaired upon K22 treatment accompanied by near-complete inhibition of viral RNA synthesis. K22-resistant viruses contained substitutions in non-structural protein 6 (nsp6), a membrane-spanning integral component of the viral replication complex implicated in DMV formation, corroborating that K22 targets membrane bound viral RNA synthesis. Besides K22 resistance, the nsp6 mutants induced a reduced number of DMVs, displayed decreased specific infectivity, while RNA synthesis was not affected. Importantly, K22 inhibits a broad range of coronaviruses, including Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS–CoV), and efficient inhibition was achieved in primary human epithelia cultures representing the entry port of human coronavirus infection. Collectively, this study proposes an evolutionary conserved step in the life cycle of positive-stranded RNA viruses, the recruitment of cellular membranes for viral replication, as vulnerable and, most importantly, druggable target for antiviral intervention. We expect this mode of action to serve as a paradigm for the development of potent antiviral drugs to combat many animal and human virus infections. PMID:24874215

  7. Zika Virus Infection as a Cause of Congenital Brain Abnormalities and Guillain-Barré Syndrome: Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauer, Fabienne; Riesen, Maurane; Reveiz, Ludovic; Oladapo, Olufemi T; Martínez-Vega, Ruth; Porgo, Teegwendé V; Haefliger, Anina; Broutet, Nathalie J; Low, Nicola

    2017-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) stated in March 2016 that there was scientific consensus that the mosquito-borne Zika virus was a cause of the neurological disorder Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) and of microcephaly and other congenital brain abnormalities based on rapid evidence assessments. Decisions about causality require systematic assessment to guide public health actions. The objectives of this study were to update and reassess the evidence for causality through a rapid and systematic review about links between Zika virus infection and (a) congenital brain abnormalities, including microcephaly, in the foetuses and offspring of pregnant women and (b) GBS in any population, and to describe the process and outcomes of an expert assessment of the evidence about causality. The study had three linked components. First, in February 2016, we developed a causality framework that defined questions about the relationship between Zika virus infection and each of the two clinical outcomes in ten dimensions: temporality, biological plausibility, strength of association, alternative explanations, cessation, dose-response relationship, animal experiments, analogy, specificity, and consistency. Second, we did a systematic review (protocol number CRD42016036693). We searched multiple online sources up to May 30, 2016 to find studies that directly addressed either outcome and any causality dimension, used methods to expedite study selection, data extraction, and quality assessment, and summarised evidence descriptively. Third, WHO convened a multidisciplinary panel of experts who assessed the review findings and reached consensus statements to update the WHO position on causality. We found 1,091 unique items up to May 30, 2016. For congenital brain abnormalities, including microcephaly, we included 72 items; for eight of ten causality dimensions (all except dose-response relationship and specificity), we found that more than half the relevant studies supported a causal

  8. Zika Virus Infection as a Cause of Congenital Brain Abnormalities and Guillain–Barré Syndrome: Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reveiz, Ludovic; Oladapo, Olufemi T.; Martínez-Vega, Ruth; Haefliger, Anina

    2017-01-01

    Background The World Health Organization (WHO) stated in March 2016 that there was scientific consensus that the mosquito-borne Zika virus was a cause of the neurological disorder Guillain–Barré syndrome (GBS) and of microcephaly and other congenital brain abnormalities based on rapid evidence assessments. Decisions about causality require systematic assessment to guide public health actions. The objectives of this study were to update and reassess the evidence for causality through a rapid and systematic review about links between Zika virus infection and (a) congenital brain abnormalities, including microcephaly, in the foetuses and offspring of pregnant women and (b) GBS in any population, and to describe the process and outcomes of an expert assessment of the evidence about causality. Methods and Findings The study had three linked components. First, in February 2016, we developed a causality framework that defined questions about the relationship between Zika virus infection and each of the two clinical outcomes in ten dimensions: temporality, biological plausibility, strength of association, alternative explanations, cessation, dose–response relationship, animal experiments, analogy, specificity, and consistency. Second, we did a systematic review (protocol number CRD42016036693). We searched multiple online sources up to May 30, 2016 to find studies that directly addressed either outcome and any causality dimension, used methods to expedite study selection, data extraction, and quality assessment, and summarised evidence descriptively. Third, WHO convened a multidisciplinary panel of experts who assessed the review findings and reached consensus statements to update the WHO position on causality. We found 1,091 unique items up to May 30, 2016. For congenital brain abnormalities, including microcephaly, we included 72 items; for eight of ten causality dimensions (all except dose–response relationship and specificity), we found that more than half the

  9. Follow-up after acute respiratory distress syndrome caused by influenza a (H1N1 virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Toufen Jr.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There are no reports on the long-term follow-up of patients with swine-origin influenza A virus infection that progressed to acute respiratory distress syndrome. METHODS: Four patients were prospectively followed up with pulmonary function tests and high-resolution computed tomography for six months after admission to an intensive care unit. RESULTS: Pulmonary function test results assessed two months after admission to the intensive care unit showed reduced forced vital capacity in all patients and low diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide in two patients. At six months, pulmonary function test results were available for three patients. Two patients continued to have a restrictive pattern, and none of the patients presented with abnormal diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide. All of them had a diffuse ground-glass pattern on high-resolution computed tomography that improved after six months. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the marked severity of lung disease at admission, patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome caused by swine-origin influenza A virus infection presented a late but substantial recovery over six months of follow-up.

  10. Efficacy of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor agonist in the treatment of virus-associated haemophagocytic syndrome in a rabbit model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Wen-Chuan; Lan, Bau-Shin; Chen, Yi-Ling; Chang, Yao; Chuang, Huai-Chia; Su, Ih-Jen

    2010-01-01

    Virus-associated haemophagocytic syndrome (VAHS) is a fatal complication of viral infections, such as Epstein-Barr virus and H5N1 influenza, that results from macrophage activation and pro inflammatory cytokine injuries. The high comorbidity and mortality of current therapy urgently demands an ideal agent based on VAHS pathogenesis. Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR) agonists, regulators of metabolic syndrome, can exhibit immunomodulatory effects on macrophage activation and cytokine secretion. In this study, we adopted rosiglitazone, a PPAR-gamma agonist, for VAHS control in a Herpesvirus papio (HVP)-infected rabbit model. Various doses of rosiglitazone were orally administered to rabbits on day 7 or day 20 after intravenous challenge with 5 x 10(7) copies of HVP. The rabbits that received 4 mg/day rosiglitazone had significantly increased survival when treated at an early stage of infection (P<0.01), whereas a higher dose (8 mg/day) was required at the advanced stage of the disease (P<0.05). All rosiglitazone-treated rabbits had significantly improved laboratory parameters and plasma tumour necrosis factor-alpha levels. Importantly, rosiglitazone could also inhibit viral replication in vitro and in vivo. PPAR agonists could represent a potentially new agent for the therapy of VAHS.

  11. Superior Orbital Fissure Syndrome and Ophthalmoplegia Caused by Varicella Zoster Virus with No Skin Eruption in a Patient Treated with Tumor Necrosis Alpha Inhibitor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Helene; Thomsen, Sidsel Thorup; Hansen, Stine Scott

    2015-01-01

    Varicella zoster virus lies dormant in the dorsal root ganglia after symptomatic chicken pox infection, usually in childhood. If the virus reactivates in the trigeminal ganglia, it can cause varicella zoster ophthalmicus, which can have severe ocular complications. We report a case of a 73-year......-old woman in severe immunosuppression due to treatment with mycophenolate mofetil, glucocorticosteroids and a tumor necrosis factor alpha inhibitor. The reactivation caused superior orbital fissure syndrome, which has only rarely been described in relation to varicella zoster virus reactivation. In our case...

  12. Inactivated porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus vaccine adjuvanted with Montanide™ Gel 01 ST elicits virus-specific cross-protective inter-genotypic response in piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabynov, Kairat; Sansyzbay, Abylay; Tulemissova, Zhanara; Tabynov, Kaissar; Dhakal, Santosh; Samoltyrova, Aigul; Renukaradhya, Gourapura J; Mambetaliyev, Muratbay

    2016-08-30

    The efficacy of a novel BEI-inactivated porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) candidate vaccine in pigs, developed at RIBSP Republic of Kazakhstan and delivered with an adjuvant Montanide™ Gel 01 ST (D/KV/ADJ) was compared with a commercial killed PRRSV vaccine (NVDC-JXA1, C/KV/ADJ) used widely in swine herds of the Republic of Kazakhstan. Clinical parameters (body temperature and respiratory disease scores), virological and immunological profiles [ELISA and virus neutralizing (VN) antibody titers], macroscopic lung lesions and viral load in the lungs (quantitative real-time PCR and cell culture assay) were assessed in vaccinated and both genotype 1 and 2 PRRSV challenged pigs. Our results showed that the commercial vaccine failed to protect pigs adequately against the clinical disease, viremia and lung lesions caused by the challenged field isolates, Kazakh strains of PRRSV type 1 and type 2 genotypes. In contrast, clinical protection, absence of viremia and lung lesions in D/KV/ADJ vaccinated pigs was associated with generation of VN antibodies in both homologous vaccine strain LKZ/2010 (PRRSV type 2) and a heterogeneous type 1 PRRSV strain (CM/08) challenged pigs. Thus, our data indicated the induction of cross-protective VN antibodies by D/KV/ADJ vaccine, and importantly demonstrated that an inactivated PRRSV vaccine could also induce cross-protective response across the viral genotype. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparison of self-processing of foot-and-mouth disease virus leader proteinase and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus leader proteinase nsp1α.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberger, Jutta; Kontaxis, Georg; Rancan, Chiara; Skern, Tim

    2013-09-01

    The foot-and-mouth disease virus leader proteinase (Lb(pro)) cleaves itself off the nascent viral polyprotein. NMR studies on the monomeric variant Lb(pro) L200F provide structural evidence for intramolecular self-processing. (15)N-HSQC measurements of Lb(pro) L200F showed specifically shifted backbone signals in the active and substrate binding sites compared to the monomeric variant sLb(pro), lacking six C-terminal residues. This indicates transient intramolecular interactions between the C-terminal extension (CTE) of one molecule and its own active site. Contrastingly, the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) leader proteinase nsp1α, with a papain-like fold like Lb(pro), stably binds its own CTE. Parts of the β-sheet domains but none of the α-helical domains of Lb(pro) and nsp1α superimpose; consequently, the α-helical domain of nsp1α is oriented differently relative to its β-sheet domain. This provides a large interaction surface for the CTE with the globular domain, stabilising the intramolecular complex. Consequently, self-processing inactivates nsp1α but not Lb(pro). Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Comparison of self-processing of foot-and-mouth disease virus leader proteinase and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus leader proteinase nsp1α

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinberger, Jutta [Max F. Perutz Laboratories, Medical University of Vienna, Department of Medical Biochemistry, Dr. Bohr-Gasse 9/3, A-1030 Vienna (Austria); Kontaxis, Georg [Max F. Perutz Laboratories, University of Vienna, Department of Structural and Computational Biology, Campus Vienna Biocenter 5, A-1030 Vienna (Austria); Rancan, Chiara [Helmholtz Zentrum München, Department of Gene Vectors, Haematologikum, Marchioninistrasse 25, D-81377 Munich (Germany); Skern, Tim, E-mail: timothy.skern@meduniwien.ac.at [Max F. Perutz Laboratories, Medical University of Vienna, Department of Medical Biochemistry, Dr. Bohr-Gasse 9/3, A-1030 Vienna (Austria)

    2013-09-01

    The foot-and-mouth disease virus leader proteinase (Lb{sup pro}) cleaves itself off the nascent viral polyprotein. NMR studies on the monomeric variant Lb{sup pro} L200F provide structural evidence for intramolecular self-processing. {sup 15}N-HSQC measurements of Lb{sup pro} L200F showed specifically shifted backbone signals in the active and substrate binding sites compared to the monomeric variant sLb{sup pro}, lacking six C-terminal residues. This indicates transient intramolecular interactions between the C-terminal extension (CTE) of one molecule and its own active site. Contrastingly, the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) leader proteinase nsp1α, with a papain-like fold like Lb{sup pro}, stably binds its own CTE. Parts of the β-sheet domains but none of the α-helical domains of Lb{sup pro} and nsp1α superimpose; consequently, the α-helical domain of nsp1α is oriented differently relative to its β-sheet domain. This provides a large interaction surface for the CTE with the globular domain, stabilising the intramolecular complex. Consequently, self-processing inactivates nsp1α but not Lb{sup pro}. - Highlights: • We examine self-processing of the leader protease of foot-and-mouth disease virus. • NMR analysis strongly supports intramolecular self-processing. • Self-processing is a dynamic process with no stable complex. • Structural comparison with nsp1α of PRRSV which forms stable intramolecular complex. • Subdomain orientation explains differences in stability of intramolecular complexes.

  15. Experimental inoculation of late term pregnant sows with a field isolate of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome vaccine-derived virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens; Bøtner, Anette; Bille-Hansen, Vivi

    2002-01-01

    The use of a live attenuated porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) vaccine in piglets has been associated with reproductive disorders in non-vaccinated sows. Vaccine-derived virus (VDV) has been isolated from foctuses, stillborn pigs, and dead: piglets, indicating...... that the live vaccine spread from vaccinated piglets to non-vaccinated sows, and that the virus might be implicated in the severe reproductive problems observed. In the present study, one such VDV isolate was used to experimentally infect pregnant sows in the last trimester. The chosen isolate, which had more...... than 99.6% identity to the attenuated vaccine virus, originated from the lungs of a stillborn pig from a swine herd with a sudden high level of stillborn pigs and increased piglet mortality in the nursing period. Intranasal inoculation of sows with the virus isolate resulted in congenital infection...

  16. Computer-aided codon-pairs deoptimization of the major envelope GP5 gene attenuates porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Yan-Yan; Zhao, Zhao; Opriessnig, Tanja; Subramaniam, Sakthivel; Zhou, Lei; Cao, Dianjun; Cao, Qian; Yang, Hanchun; Meng, Xiang-Jin

    2014-02-01

    Synthetic attenuated virus engineering (SAVE) is an emerging technology that enables rapid attenuation of viruses. In this study, by using SAVE we demonstrated rapid attenuation of an arterivirus, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). The major envelope GP5 gene of PRRSV was codon-pair deoptimized aided by a computer algorithm. The codon-pair deoptimized virus, designated as SAVE5 with a deoptimized GP5 gene, was successfully rescued in vitro. The SAVE5 virus replicated at a lower level in vitro with a significant decrease of GP5 protein expression compared to the wild-type PRRSV VR2385 virus. Pigs experimentally infected with the SAVE5 virus had significantly lower viremia level up to 14 days post-infection as well as significantly reduced gross and histological lung lesions when compared to wild-type PRRSV VR2385 virus-infected pigs, indicating the attenuation of the SAVE5 virus. This study proved the feasibility of rapidly attenuating PRRSV by SAVE. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Assessing Virulence and Transmission Rates of White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) in Two Ecologically Important Palaemonid Shrimp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, C.; Keesee, B.; Philippoff, C.; Curran, S.; Lotz, J.; Powell, E.

    2016-02-01

    Investigators, including three REU interns, conducted an experiment to quantify parameters for an epidemiological model designed to estimate disease transmission in marine invertebrates. White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a highly pathogenic disease affecting commercially important penaeid shrimp fisheries worldwide. The virus devastates penaeid shrimp but other varieties of decapods may serve as reservoirs for disease by being less susceptible to WSSV or refractory to disease. Non-penaeid crustaceans are less susceptible to WSSV, and different species have variable resistance to the disease leading to different potential to serve as reservoirs for transmission of the disease to coastal penaeid fisheries. This study investigates virulence and transmission rates of WSSV in two palaemonid shrimp which are keystone members of coastal food webs, and effects of species interactions on transmission rates of WSSV are estimated in a laboratory setting as a proxy for natural habitats. Two species of grass shrimp were exposed to a Chinese strain of WSSV through feeding the test individuals with previously prepared, inoculated penaeid shrimp. Replicated tanks containing 30 animals were exposed to the virus in arenas containing one or both species for 24 hours, then isolated in 1 liter tanks and monitored. During the isolation period moribund individuals were preserved for later analysis. After 7 days all test individuals were analyzed using qPCR to determine WSSV presence and load in DNA. From these data transmission rates, mortality, and viral concentration were quantified and used as parameters in a simple epidemiological model.

  18. The assessment of efficacy of porcine reproductive respiratory syndrome virus inactivated vaccine based on the viral quantity and inactivation methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Byeongchun

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There have been many efforts to develop efficient vaccines for the control of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV. Although inactivated PRRSV vaccines are preferred for their safety, they are weak at inducing humoral immune responses and controlling field PRRSV infection, especially when heterologous viruses are involved. Results In all groups, the sample to positive (S/P ratio of IDEXX ELISA and the virus neutralization (VN titer remained negative until challenge. While viremia did not reduce in the vaccinated groups, the IDEXX-ELISA-specific immunoglobulin G increased more rapidly and to significantly greater levels 7 days after the challenge in all the vaccinated groups compared to the non-vaccinated groups (p 6 PFU/mL PRRSV vaccine-inoculated and binary ethylenimine (BEI-inactivated groups 22 days after challenge (p Conclusions The inactivated vaccine failed to show the humoral immunity, but it showed different immune response after the challenge compared to mock group. Although the 106 PFU/mL-vaccinated and BEI-inactivated groups showed significantly greater VN titers 22 days after challenge, all the groups were already negative for viremia.

  19. ICAM-1-dependent and ICAM-1-independent neutrophil lung infiltration by porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Hou, Make; Yan, Meiping; Lü, Xinhui; Gu, Wei; Zhang, Songlin; Gao, Jianfeng; Liu, Bang; Wu, Xiaoxiong; Liu, Guoquan

    2015-08-01

    Neutrophils are innate immune cells that play a crucial role in the first line of host defense. It is also known that neutrophil lung recruitment and infiltration may cause lung injury. The roles of neutrophils in virus infection-induced lung injury are not clear. We explore the mechanisms of neutrophil lung infiltration and the potential biomarkers for lung injury in a swine model of lung injury caused by natural or experimental porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection. Neutrophil lung infiltration was determined by measurement of myeloperoxidase expression and enzyme activity of lung tissues. Myeloperoxidase expression and enzyme activity were dramatically increased in the naturally and experimentally infected lung tissues. Chemokine analysis by quantitative PCR and ELISA showed that IL-8 expression was increased in both infections, while monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 expression was increased only in experimentally infected lung tissues. Expression of the cell adhesion molecules VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 was measured by quantitative PCR and Western blotting. VCAM-1 expression was increased in experimentally and naturally infected lungs, whereas ICAM-1 expression was increased only in the naturally infected lung samples. Our results suggest that neutrophil lung infiltrations in the infected animals are both ICAM-1- and -independent and that combined expression of VCAM-1 and IL-8 may serve as the biomarker for lung injury induced by virus infection. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  20. Zika virus infection and Guillain-Barré syndrome: a review focused on clinical and electrophysiological subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uncini, Antonino; Shahrizaila, Nortina; Kuwabara, Satoshi

    2017-03-01

    In 2016, we have seen a rapid emergence of Zika virus-associated Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) since its first description in a French-Polynesian patient in 2014. Current evidence estimates the incidence of GBS at 24 cases per 100 000 persons infected by Zika virus. This will result in a sharp rise in the number of GBS cases worldwide with the anticipated global spread of Zika virus. A better understanding of the pathogenesis of Zika-associated GBS is crucial to prepare us for the current epidemic. In this review, we evaluate the existing literature on GBS in association with Zika and other flavivirus to better define its clinical subtypes and electrophysiological characteristics, demonstrating a demyelinating subtype of GBS in most cases. We also recommend measures that will help reduce the gaps in knowledge that currently exist. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  1. Development of a Colloidal Gold Kit for the Diagnosis of Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianguo Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It is critical to develop a cost-effective detection kit for rapid diagnosis and on-site detection of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV infection. Here, an immunochromatographic assay (ICA to detect SFTSV infection is described. The ICA uses gold nanoparticles coated with recombinant SFTSV for the simultaneous detection of IgG and IgM antibodies to SFTSV. The ICA was developed and evaluated by using positive sera samples of SFTSV infection (n=245 collected from the CDC of China. The reference laboratory diagnosis of SFTSV infection was based on the “gold standard”. The results demonstrated that the positive coincidence rate and negative coincidence rate were determined to be 98.4% and 100% for IgM and 96.7% and 98.6% for IgG, respectively. The kit showed good selectivity for detection of SFTSV-specific IgG and IgM with no interference from positive sera samples of Japanese encephalitis virus infection, Dengue virus infection, Hantavirus infection, HIV infection, HBV surface antigen, HCV antibody, Mycobacterium tuberculosis antibody, or RF. Based on these results, the ICS test developed may be a suitable tool for rapid on-site testing for SFTSV infections.

  2. Occurrence of swine salmonellosis in postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) affected pigs concurrently infected with porcine reproduction and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Satoshi; Ogawa, Akihiro; Kinoshita, Tomohide; Matsumoto, Atsuko; Ito, Noriko; Nakane, Takashi

    2006-04-01

    Fourteen diseased pigs from four farms in which there had been an outbreak of salmonellosis were investigated. Granulomatous inflammation with depletion of lymphocytes was observed in the swollen lymph nodes in these pigs. Antigens to porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) were immunolabeled in the lesions along with detection of viral DNA as PCV2 by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In addition, antigens to porcine reproductive respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) were immunodetected in the lungs and Salmonella Choleraesuis was isolated from the affected pigs. The nine salmonellosis affected pigs, five (55.6%) with salmonellosis and PMWS concurrently infected with PRRSV were much higher than those infected with salmonellosis and PMWS (22.2%) or with salmonellosis and PPPRV (22.2%).

  3. MENGENAL HANTA VIRUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Wijayanti

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Virus Hanta kurang infeksius, kecuali di dalam lingkungan tertentu. Lamanya waktu virus ini dapat bertahan di lingkungan, setelah keluar dari tubuh tikus tidaklah diketahui secara pasti. Tetapi percobaan laboratorium menunjukkan bahwa, daya infektifitasnya tidak dijumpai setelah dua hari pengeringan. Genus hanta virus terdiri dari 22 spesies virus, dapat menyebabkan hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS dan hanta virus pulmonary syndrome (HPS.

  4. Inhibition of snowshoe hare succinate dehydrogenase activity as a mechanism of deterrence for papyriferic acid in birch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbey, Jennifer Sorensen; Pu, Xinzhu; Xu, Dong; Kielland, Knut; Bryant, John

    2011-12-01

    The plant secondary metabolite papyriferic acid (PA) deters browsing by snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus) on the juvenile developmental stage of the Alaska paper birch (Betula neoalaskana). However, the physiological mechanism that reduces browsing remains unknown. We used pharmacological assays and molecular modeling to test the hypothesis that inhibition of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) is a mode of action (MOA) of toxicity of PA in snowshoe hares. We tested this hypothesis by measuring the effect of PA on the activity of SDH in liver mitochondria isolated from wild hares. In addition, we used molecular modeling to determine the specific binding site of PA on SDH. We found that PA inhibits SDH from hares by an uncompetitive mechanism in a dose-dependent manner. Molecular modeling suggests that inhibition of SDH is a result of binding of PA at the ubiquinone binding sites in complex II. Our results provide a MOA for toxicity that may be responsible for the concentration-dependent anti-feedant effects of PA. We propose that snowshoe hares reduce the dose-dependent toxic consequences of PA by relying on efflux transporters and metabolizing enzymes that lower systemic exposure to dietary PA.

  5. Delayed Diagnosis of Tuberculous Meningitis Misdiagnosed as Herpes Simplex Virus-1 Encephalitis With the FilmArray Syndromic Polymerase Chain Reaction Panel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Carlos A; Pinsky, Benjamin A; Liu, Anne; Banaei, Niaz

    2017-01-01

    The FilmArray meningitis/encephalitis (ME) panel is a novel syndromic, nucleic acid amplification test for diagnosis of acute meningitis and encephalitis. Emerging data on its performance are concerning for false-positive results. We present a case of tuberculous meningitis misdiagnosed as herpes simplex virus-1 encephalitis with the FilmArray ME panel. Strategies to mitigate erroneous results are discussed.

  6. Indel-II region deletion sizes in the white spot syndrome virus genome correlate with shrimp disease outbreaks in southern Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tran Thi Tuyet, H.; Zwart, M.P.; Phuong, N.T.; Oanh, D.T.H.; Jong, de M.C.M.; Vlak, J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Sequence comparisons of the genomes of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) strains have identified regions containing variable-length insertions/deletions (i.e. indels). Indel-I and Indel-II, positioned between open reading frames (ORFs) 14/15 and 23/24, respectively, are the largest and the most

  7. Effect of three innovative culture systems on water quality and whitespot syndrome virus (WSSV) viral load in WSSV-fed Penaeus monodon cultured in indoor tanks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alapide-Tendencia, E.V.; Bosma, R.H.; Rose Sorio, L.

    2012-01-01

    White spot syndrome virus is the most important among the shrimp diseases. It has been devastating the shrimp industry for more than 3 decades. Previous studies reported that greater percentage of yellow colonies on thiosulfate citrate bile salt sucrose agar (yellow vibrios) in the rearing water,

  8. The nsp1 alpha and nsp1 beta papain-like autoproteinases are essential for porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus RNA synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroese, M.V.; Zevenhoven-Dobbe, J.C.; Ruijter, J.N.A.B.D.; Peeters, B.P.H.; Meulenberg, J.J.M.; Cornelissen, A.H.M.; Snijder, E.J.

    2008-01-01

    The two N-terminal cleavage products, nsp1 alpha and nsp1 beta, of the replicase polyproteins of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) each contain a papain-like autoproteinase domain, which have been named PCP alpha and PCP beta, respectively. To assess their role in the PRRSV

  9. Changes in leukocyte subsets of pregnant gilts experimentally infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus and relationships with viral load and fetal outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    In spite of more than two decades of extensive research, the understanding of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSv) immunity is still incomplete. A PRRSv infection of the late term pregnant female can result in abortions, early farrowings, fetal death, and the birth of weak, co...

  10. Hashimoto's Thyroiditis Presenting as Acute Painful Thyroiditis and as a Manifestation of an Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome in a Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Seropositive Patient.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, R.; Mast, Q. de; Netea-Maier, R.T.; Ven, A.J.A.M. van der

    2012-01-01

    Background: An immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) may complicate immune restoration following start of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. The occurrence of Graves' disease in the setting of an IRIS is well recognized. We hereby

  11. Possible therapeutic effect of orally administered ribavirin for respiratory syncytial virus-induced acute respiratory distress syndrome in an immunocompetent patient: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Byung Woo; Lee, Seung Hyeun

    2017-12-20

    Human respiratory syncytial virus usually causes self-limiting upper respiratory infection and occasionally causes pneumonia in immunocompromised hosts. Respiratory syncytial virus-induced severe pneumonia or acute respiratory distress syndrome in immunocompetent adults has been rarely described. Unfortunately, optimal treatment has not been established for this potentially fatal condition. We report a case of respiratory syncytial virus-induced acute respiratory distress syndrome occurring in a previously healthy man successfully treated with orally administered ribavirin. An 81-year-old previously healthy Korean man presented with cough, dyspnea, and febrile sensation. He had hypoxemia with diffuse ground glass opacity evident on chest radiography, which progressed and required mechanical ventilation. All microbiological tests were negative except multiplex real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction using respiratory specimen, which was positive for human adenovirus. Under the diagnosis of respiratory syncytial virus-induced acute respiratory distress syndrome, orally administered ribavirin was administered and he recuperated completely without complications. This case demonstrates the potential usefulness of orally administered ribavirin as a therapeutic option for severe respiratory syncytial virus infection, at least in an immunocompetent host.

  12. Sequencing and de novo analysis of the hemocytes transcriptome in Litopenaeus vannamei response to white spot syndrome virus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuxia Xue

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: White spot syndrome virus (WSSV is a causative pathogen found in most shrimp farming areas of the world and causes large economic losses to the shrimp aquaculture. The mechanism underlying the molecular pathogenesis of the highly virulent WSSV remains unknown. To better understand the virus-host interactions at the molecular level, the transcriptome profiles in hemocytes of unchallenged and WSSV-challenged shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei were compared using a short-read deep sequencing method (Illumina. RESULTS: RNA-seq analysis generated more than 25.81 million clean pair end (PE reads, which were assembled into 52,073 unigenes (mean size = 520 bp. Based on sequence similarity searches, 23,568 (45.3% genes were identified, among which 6,562 and 7,822 unigenes were assigned to gene ontology (GO categories and clusters of orthologous groups (COG, respectively. Searches in the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes Pathway database (KEGG mapped 14,941 (63.4% unigenes to 240 KEGG pathways. Among all the annotated unigenes, 1,179 were associated with immune-related genes. Digital gene expression (DGE analysis revealed that the host transcriptome profile was slightly changed in the early infection (5 hours post injection of the virus, while large transcriptional differences were identified in the late infection (48 hpi of WSSV. The differentially expressed genes mainly involved in pattern recognition genes and some immune response factors. The results indicated that antiviral immune mechanisms were probably involved in the recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns. CONCLUSIONS: This study provided a global survey of host gene activities against virus infection in a non-model organism, pacific white shrimp. Results can contribute to the in-depth study of candidate genes in white shrimp, and help to improve the current understanding of host-pathogen interactions.

  13. Horizontal transmission dynamics of White spot syndrome virus by cohabitation trials in juvenile Penaeus monodon and P. vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuyen, N X; Verreth, J; Vlak, J M; de Jong, M C M

    2014-11-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV), a rod-shaped double-stranded DNA virus, is an infectious agent causing fatal disease in shrimp farming around the globe. Within shrimp populations WSSV is transmitted very fast, however, the modes and dynamics of transmission of this virus are not well understood. In the current study the dynamics of disease transmission of WSSV were investigated in small, closed populations of Penaeus monodon and Penaeus vannamei. Pair cohabitation experiments using PCR as a readout for virus infection were used to estimate transmission parameters for WSSV in these two species. The mortality rate of contact-infected shrimp in P. monodon was higher than the rate in P. vannamei. The transmission rate parameters for WSSV were not different between the two species. The relative contribution of direct and indirect transmission rates of WSSV differed between the two species. For P. vannamei the direct contact transmission rate of WSSV was significantly lower than the indirect environmental transmission rate, but for P. monodon, the opposite was found. The reproduction ratio R0 for WSSV for these two species of shrimp was estimated to be above one: 2.07 (95%CI 1.53, 2.79) for P. monodon and 1.51 (95%CI 1.12, 2.03) for P. vannamei. The difference in R0 between the two species is due to a lower host mortality and hence a longer infectious period of WSSV in P. monodon. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. A comprehensive analysis and immunobiology of autoimmune neurological syndromes during the Zika virus outbreak in Cúcuta, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaya, Juan-Manuel; Rodríguez, Yhojan; Monsalve, Diana M; Vega, Daniel; Ojeda, Ernesto; González-Bravo, Diana; Rodríguez-Jiménez, Mónica; Pinto-Díaz, Carlos A; Chaparro, Pablo; Gunturiz, María L; Ansari, Aftab A; Gershwin, M Eric; Molano-González, Nicolás; Ramírez-Santana, Carolina; Acosta-Ampudia, Yeny

    2017-02-01

    We have focused on the epidemiology and immunobiology of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection and factors associated with the development of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) and other neurological syndromes in Cúcuta, the capital of North Santander department, Colombia. Data of patients with ZIKV disease reported to the national population-based surveillance system were used to calculate the basic reproduction number (R0) and the attack rates (ARs) as well as to develop epidemiological maps. Patients with neurological syndromes were contacted and their diagnoses were confirmed. A case-control study in which 29 patients with GBS associated with ZIKV compared with 74-matched control patients with ZIKV infection alone was undertaken. Antibodies against arboviruses and other infections that may trigger GBS were evaluated. The estimated value of R0 ranged between 2.68 (95% CI 2.54-2.67) to 4.57 (95% CI 4.18-5.01). The sex-specific ARs were 1306 per 100,000 females, and 552 per 100,000 males. A non-linear interaction between age and gender on the ARs was observed. The incidence of GBS in Cúcuta increased 4.41 times secondary to ZIKV infection. The lag time between ZIKV infection and neurological symptoms was 7 days (interquartile range 2-14.5). Patients with GBS appeared to represent a lower socioeconomic status and were living near to environmentally contaminated areas. All GBS patients were positive for IgG antibodies against both ZIKV and Dengue virus, and 69% were positive for Chikungunya virus. Noteworthy, GBS was associated with a previous infection with M. pneumoniae (OR: 3.95; 95% CI 1.44-13.01; p = 0.006). No differences in antibody levels against C. jejuni, Epstein-Barr virus and cytomegalovirus were observed. High rates of cranial nerves involvement and dysautonomia were present in 82% and 75.9%, respectively. Intensive care unit (ICU) admission was necessary in 69% of the GBS patients. Most of the patients disclosed a high disability condition (Hughes grade 4

  15. Virus-specific memory CD8 T cells provide substantial protection from lethal severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Channappanavar, Rudragouda; Fett, Craig; Zhao, Jincun; Meyerholz, David K; Perlman, Stanley

    2014-10-01

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) caused an acute human respiratory illness with high morbidity and mortality in 2002-2003. Several studies have demonstrated the role of neutralizing antibodies induced by the spike (S) glycoprotein in protecting susceptible hosts from lethal infection. However, the anti-SARS-CoV antibody response is short-lived in patients who have recovered from SARS, making it critical to develop additional vaccine strategies. SARS-CoV-specific memory CD8 T cells persisted for up to 6 years after SARS-CoV infection, a time at which memory B cells and antivirus antibodies were undetectable in individuals who had recovered from SARS. In this study, we assessed the ability of virus-specific memory CD8 T cells to mediate protection against infection in the absence of SARS-CoV-specific memory CD4 T or B cells. We demonstrate that memory CD8 T cells specific for a single immunodominant epitope (S436 or S525) substantially protected 8- to 10-month-old mice from lethal SARS-CoV infection. Intravenous immunization with peptide-loaded dendritic cells (DCs) followed by intranasal boosting with recombinant vaccinia virus (rVV) encoding S436 or S525 resulted in accumulation of virus-specific memory CD8 T cells in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL), lungs, and spleen. Upon challenge with a lethal dose of SARS-CoV, virus-specific memory CD8 T cells efficiently produced multiple effector cytokines (gamma interferon [IFN-γ], tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNF-α], and interleukin 2 [IL-2]) and cytolytic molecules (granzyme B) and reduced lung viral loads. Overall, our results show that SARS-CoV-specific memory CD8 T cells protect susceptible hosts from lethal SARS-CoV infection, but they also suggest that SARS-CoV-specific CD4 T cell and antibody responses are necessary for complete protection. Virus-specific CD8 T cells are required for pathogen clearance following primary SARS-CoV infection. However, the role of SARS-CoV-specific memory CD

  16. Generation of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus-like-particles (VLPs) with different protein composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Durán, Marga; Costa, Sofia; Sarraseca, Javier; de la Roja, Nuria; García, Julia; García, Isabel; Rodríguez, Maria José

    2016-10-01

    The causative agent of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS) is an enveloped ssRNA (+) virus belonging to the Arteriviridae family. Gp5 and M proteins form disulfide-linked heterodimers that constitute the major components of PRRSV envelope. Gp2, Gp3, Gp4 and E are the minor structural proteins, being the first three incorporated as multimeric complexes in the virus surface. The disease has become one of the most important causes of economic losses in the swine industry. Despite efforts to design an effective vaccine, the available ones allow only partial protection. In the last years, VLPs have become good vaccine alternatives because of safety issues and their potential to activate both branches of the immunological response. The characteristics of recombinant baculoviruses as heterologous expression system have been exploited for the production of VLPs of a wide variety of viruses. In this work, two multiple baculovirus expression vectors (BEVs) with PRRS virus envelope proteins were engineered in order to generate PRRS VLPs: on the one hand, Gp5 and M cDNAs were cloned to generate the pBAC-Gp5M vector; on the other hand, Gp2, Gp3, Gp4 and E cDNAs have been cloned to generate the pBAC-Gp234E vector. The corresponding recombinant baculoviruses BAC-Gp5M and BAC-Gp234E were employed to produce two types of VLPs: basic Gp5M VLPs, by the simultaneous expression of Gp5 and M proteins; and complete VLPs, by the co-expression of the six PRRS proteins after co-infection. The characterization of VLPs by Western blot confirmed the presence of the recombinant proteins using the available specific antibodies (Abs). The analysis by Electron microscopy showed that the two types of VLPs were indistinguishable between them, being similar in shape and size to the native PRRS virus. This system represents a potential alternative for vaccine development and a useful tool to study the implication of specific PRRS proteins in the response against the virus. Copyright

  17. The diversity of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Type 1 and 2 in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvisgaard, Lise Kirstine; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; Kristensen, Charlotte Sonne

    Both Type 1 and Type 2 PRRS viruses are circulating among Danish pigs. The first appearance of Type 1 PRRSV in Denmark was in 1992 whereas the Type 2 PRRSV was introduced in 1996 after the use of a live attenuated vaccine that reverted to virulence. Since then, vaccination to control the disease...... strains were sequenced. Denmark exports more than 50.000 living pigs each month. A portion of these pigs inevitably harbor PRRSV. Thus, the diversity of PRRSV in Denmark is of interest to other countries besides Denmark. The main objective of the present study was to close the gap in knowledge...... of the results showed that the Type 1 strains all belonged to subtype 1. Based on the ORF5 sequences, the Danish Type 1 viruses clustered into two groups. These two groups shared 84 % to 92 % and 94 % to 99% nucleotide identity to the Lelystad virus, respectively. The sequenced Type 2 viruses showed...

  18. The first human infection with severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus in Shaanxi Province, China

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    Jing Wei

    2015-06-01

    Conclusions: SFTSV readily infects humans with outdoor exposure. The results of the serological study indicate that the virus circulates widely in Shaanxi Province. SFTSV represents a public health threat in China.

  19. Novel approach for detection of enteric viruses to enable syndrome surveillance of acute viral gastroenteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svraka, Sanela; van der Veer, Bas; Duizer, Erwin; Dekkers, Jojanneke; Koopmans, Marion; Vennema, Harry

    2009-06-01

    Acute gastroenteritis is one of the most common diseases worldwide, with viruses, particularly noroviruses, being the leading cause in developed countries. In The Netherlands, systematic surveillance of gastroenteritis outbreaks of suspected viral etiology was established by the National Institute for Public Health and the Environment in 1994. Since 2002, the total number of outbreaks reported has been increasing, and with that comes the need for sensitive assays that can be performed quickly. In addition, the diagnostic demand changed so that now the proportion of samples from hospitals is higher and there is a need for patient-based test results. In order to target the diagnosis of acute gastroenteritis, we reviewed our data on outbreaks of gastroenteritis and the prevalence of individual viruses to provide a priority list of viruses for which samples should be evaluated. Random primers were used to replace the separate specific primers for each virus used in the reverse transcription steps. The individual PCR assays were replaced by multiplex PCR assays. We employed a two-step method in which in the first step we screened for the most common causes of viral gastroenteritis, noroviruses of genogroup II and rotaviruses of group A, with equine arteritis virus used as the internal control. Subsequently, in the second step, two parallel PCR assays were developed for the detection of noroviruses of genogroup I and equine arteritis virus in one run and adenoviruses, sapoviruses, and astroviruses in the other run. The specificities of the assays were calculated to be 92.5% for the assay for noroviruses of genogroup I and 100% for the assays for all other viruses, the detection limits were equal for all viruses, and the turnaround time was reduced to 1 day compared to the at least 3 days required for the methods used previously. This approach allows the targeted, rapid, and cost-effective elucidation of the causes of acute gastroenteritis outbreaks.

  20. Respiratory viruses in transplant recipients: more than just a cold. Clinical syndromes and infection prevention principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Salma; Raybould, Jillian E; Sastry, Sangeeta; de la Cruz, Oveimar

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this review is to provide updated information on the clinical spectrum, treatment options, and infection prevention strategies for respiratory viral infections (RVIs) in both solid organ (SOT) and hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) patients. The MEDLINE and PubMed databases were searched for literature regarding the aforementioned aspects of RVIs, with focus on respiratory syncytial virus, adenovirus, influenza virus, parainfluenza virus, human metapneumovirus, and rhinovirus. Compared to immunocompetent hosts, SOT and HSCT patients are much more likely to experience a prolonged duration of illness, prolonged shedding, and progression of upper respiratory tract disease to pneumonia when infected with respiratory viruses. Adenovirus and respiratory syncytial virus tend to have the highest mortality and risk for disseminated disease, but all the RVIs are associated with higher morbidity and mortality in these patients than in the general population. These viruses are spread via direct contact and aerosolized droplets, and nosocomial spread has been reported. RVIs are associated with high morbidity and mortality among SOT and HSCT recipients. Management options are currently limited or lack strong clinical evidence. As community and nosocomial spread has been reported for all reviewed RVIs, strict adherence to infection control measures is key to preventing outbreaks. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Density and habitat requirements of sympatric hares and cottontails in northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Vidus Rosin

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract From 2005 to 2009, densities and habitat selection by the European hare (Lepus europaeus and Eastern cottontail (Sylvilagus floridanus were assessed during feeding activity in an intensively cultivated area in northern Italy. Hare average density (74 ind./km2 was comparable to the highest values reported for European farming areas. Preand post-breeding density fluctuated widely across the study years, probably as a consequence of changes in the carrying capacity of the study area. Cottontail population size progressively increased, as expected for a recently introduced species supported by high reproductive performances. Hares used both crops and spontaneous vegetation during their feeding activity. Conversely, cottontails avoided winter cereals and preferred to feed on alfalfa. Our results suggest that simplified agro-ecosystems cannot maintain high density hare populations even at a short time scale. Landscape heterogeneity could enhance the chances of coexistence between the two lagomorphs.
    Riassunto Densità ed esigenze ecologiche della lepre e del silvilago in condizioni di simpatria in Italia settentrionale Tra il 2005 e il 2009, la densità e l’uso del habitat durante l’attività di alimentazione da parte della Lepre europea (Lepus europaeus e del Silvilago (Sylvilagus floridanus sono stati indagati in un’area intensamente coltivata nell’Italia settentrionale. La densità media della lepre nell’area di studio (74 ind./km2 corrisponde ai valori maggiori riportati per le aree agricole europee. Le densità pre- e post riproduttive della lepre hanno mostrato sensibili fluttuazioni durante il periodo di studio, probabilmente dovute ai cambiamenti stagionali della capacità portante dell’area di studio. L’abbondanza del silvilago è aumentata durante gli ultimi tre anni di studio, come prevedibile per una

  2. European hare Lepus europaeus(Lagomorpha: Leporidae an invasive species in Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horacio Zeballos

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We describe the current distribution of the European hare, Lepus europaeus, in Peru which currently covers the highlands, Andean valleys, surrounding areas of the Titicaca Lake and coastal irrigations; in Arequipa, Cusco, Moquegua, Puno and Tacna departments. Based on its current distribution we developed models of potential distribution of this species, which would forecast this species in northern Peru. We make recommendations on the main issues that should be studied in Peru, and the possible consequences of their invasive process of in Peru.

  3. Ossian & the Hare: An Experiment in Poetry and the Alchemy of Film

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    Wilson, Naomi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Ossian & the Hare is an experimental film-essay combination intended to work like two sides of the one coin. The 20-minute long film is designed to be more experiential than narrative driven, moving us through various spaces and atmospheres as if in a kind of dreamscape. In pointing up some of the thinking and ideas that are embedded in the film, the text provides a framework situating the film within a film-as-artwork context. It outlines many of the influences that contribute both to visual style and content, offering more depth to the overall experience of viewing the film.

  4. Mud crab susceptibility to disease from white spot syndrome virus is species-dependent

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    Sritunyalucksana Kallaya

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Based on a report for one species (Scylla serrata, it is widely believed that mud crabs are relatively resistant to disease caused by white spot syndrome virus (WSSV. We tested this hypothesis by determining the degree of susceptibility in two species of mud crabs, Scylla olivacea and Scylla paramamosain, both of which were identified by mitochondrial 16 S ribosomal gene analysis. We compared single-dose and serial-dose WSSV challenges on S. olivacea and S. paramamosain. Findings In a preliminary test using S. olivacea alone, a dose of 1 × 106 WSSV copies/g gave 100% mortality within 7 days. In a subsequent test, 17 S. olivacea and 13 S. paramamosain were divided into test and control groups for challenge with WSSV at 5 incremental, biweekly doses starting from 1 × 104 and ending at 5 × 106 copies/g. For 11 S. olivacea challenged, 3 specimens died at doses between 1 × 105 and 5 × 105 copies/g and none died for 2 weeks after the subsequent dose (1 × 106 copies/g that was lethal within 7 days in the preliminary test. However, after the final challenge on day 56 (5 × 106 copies/g, the remaining 7 of 11 S. olivacea (63.64% died within 2 weeks. There was no mortality in the buffer-injected control crabs. For 9 S. paramamosain challenged in the same way, 5 (55.56% died after challenge doses between 1 × 104 and 5 × 105 copies/g, and none died for 2 weeks after the challenge dose of 1 × 106 copies/g. After the final challenge (5 × 106 copies/g on day 56, no S. paramamosain died during 2 weeks after the challenge, and 2 of 9 WSSV-infected S. paramamosain (22.22% remained alive together with the control crabs until the end of the test on day 106. Viral loads in these survivors were low when compared to those in the moribund crabs. Conclusions S. olivacea and S. paramamosain show wide variation in response to challenge with WSSV. S. olivacea and S. paramamosain are susceptible to white spot disease, and S. olivacea is more

  5. Mud crab susceptibility to disease from white spot syndrome virus is species-dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somboonna, Naraporn; Mangkalanan, Seksan; Udompetcharaporn, Attasit; Krittanai, Chartchai; Sritunyalucksana, Kallaya; Flegel, Tw

    2010-11-20

    Based on a report for one species (Scylla serrata), it is widely believed that mud crabs are relatively resistant to disease caused by white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). We tested this hypothesis by determining the degree of susceptibility in two species of mud crabs, Scylla olivacea and Scylla paramamosain, both of which were identified by mitochondrial 16 S ribosomal gene analysis. We compared single-dose and serial-dose WSSV challenges on S. olivacea and S. paramamosain. In a preliminary test using S. olivacea alone, a dose of 1 × 106 WSSV copies/g gave 100% mortality within 7 days. In a subsequent test, 17 S. olivacea and 13 S. paramamosain were divided into test and control groups for challenge with WSSV at 5 incremental, biweekly doses starting from 1 × 104 and ending at 5 × 106 copies/g. For 11 S. olivacea challenged, 3 specimens died at doses between 1 × 105 and 5 × 105 copies/g and none died for 2 weeks after the subsequent dose (1 × 106 copies/g) that was lethal within 7 days in the preliminary test. However, after the final challenge on day 56 (5 × 106 copies/g), the remaining 7 of 11 S. olivacea (63.64%) died within 2 weeks. There was no mortality in the buffer-injected control crabs. For 9 S. paramamosain challenged in the same way, 5 (55.56%) died after challenge doses between 1 × 104 and 5 × 105 copies/g, and none died for 2 weeks after the challenge dose of 1 × 106 copies/g. After the final challenge (5 × 106 copies/g) on day 56, no S. paramamosain died during 2 weeks after the challenge, and 2 of 9 WSSV-infected S. paramamosain (22.22%) remained alive together with the control crabs until the end of the test on day 106. Viral loads in these survivors were low when compared to those in the moribund crabs. S. olivacea and S. paramamosain show wide variation in response to challenge with WSSV. S. olivacea and S. paramamosain are susceptible to white spot disease, and S. olivacea is more susceptible than S. paramamosain. Based on our single

  6. In situ hybridization to detect porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novosel, Dinko; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; Larsen, Lars Erik

    2012-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) has for nearly 3 decades been economically one of the most important swine diseases. Despite intensive research focus, many unanswered questions remain regarding the pathogenesis of PRRSV. In situ hybridization (ISH) is generally considered...

  7. Generation and immunogenicity of porcine circovirus type 2 chimeric virus-like particles displaying porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus GP5 epitope B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Gaowei; Wang, Naidong; Yu, Wanting; Wang, Zhanfeng; Zou, Yawen; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Aibing; Deng, Zhibang; Yang, Yi

    2016-04-07

    Virus-like particles (VLPs) can be used as transfer vehicles carrying foreign proteins or antigen epitopes to produce chimeric VLPs for bivalent or multivalent vaccines. Based on the crystal structure of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) capsid protein (Cap), in addition to alignment of the Cap sequences collected from various isolates of PCV2 and PCV1, we predicted that Loop CD of the PCV2 Cap should tolerate insertion of foreign epitopes, and furthermore that such an insertion could be presented on the surface of PCV2 VLPs. To validate this, the GP5 epitope B of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) was inserted into Loop CD of the PCV2 Cap. The 3D structure of the recombinant PCV2 Cap (rCap) was simulated by homology modeling; it appeared that the GP5 epitope B was folded as a relatively independent unit, separated from the PCV2 Cap backbone. Furthermore, based on transmission electron microscopy, the purified PCV2 rCap self-assembled into chimeric VLPs which entered PK-15 cells. In addition, PCV2 chimeric VLPs induced strong humoral (neutralizing antibodies against PCV2 and PRRSV) and cellular immune responses in mice. We concluded that the identified insertion site in the PCV2 Cap had great potential to develop PCV2 VLPs-based bivalent or multivalent vaccines; furthermore, it would also facilitate development of a nano-device to present a functional peptide on the surface of the VLPs that could be used for therapeutic purposes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A fulminant case of JC virus encephalopathy supporting a novel syndrome associated with JC virus infection of cortical neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Ciocca

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The JC virus ( JCV is well known for causing progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML, a potentially fatal, demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS. PML almost exclusively affects immunosuppressed patients, whereas it is rare in immunocompetent subjects. Recently, a new clinical entity, named JCV encephalopathy ( JCVE, has been observed. We present the case of a 62-year-old male, with no identifiable immunosuppression, who developed aphasia and progressive reduction in consciousness. He had a six months insidious history of psychiatric symptoms. He passed away 3 weeks after onset of symptoms. On admission, brain MRI demonstrated a prominent grey matter involvement. Serological tests and cerebrospinal fluid analysis were all negative for infectious diseases. A whole-body CT scan was negative for cancer. Several EEGs showed a diffuse anterior theta activity with bilateral parietal epileptic periodic discharges. A second MRI imaging showed a more prominent non-enhancing grey and white matter involvement, compatible with PML. Finally, CSF- PCR for JCV was performed and resulted positive. To the best of our knowledge, our report is the second case of JCVE described so far. Similarly to our patient, the previous case developed symptoms consistent with a CNS disease with progressive clinical course. MRI abnormalities were initially restricted to the hemispheric grey matter and only later extended to the subcortical regions. Our case suggests that JCV infection should be considered even in immunocompetent patients presenting with unexplained cortical lesions and rapidly progressive encephalopathy.

  9. A modelling approach to evaluating the effectiveness of Ecological Focus Areas: the case of the European brown hare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langhammer, Maria; Grimm, Volker; Putz, Sandro

    2016-01-01

    Payment program, and voluntary agri-environment measures. However, empirically evaluating the effectiveness of these measures is challenging. We therefore demonstrate here that mechanistic simulation models are a valuable tool for performing these evaluations. As an example, we use the Animal, Landscape...... of each type was increased separately up to 5% of the area in three Danish landscapes, which are characterised by low hare densities. The effects on female and yearling abundance were observed over a period of 30 years. All greening scenarios had significant positive effects on hare populations...

  10. Molecular characterization of porcine circovirus 2 isolated from diseased pigs co-infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Chengqian

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this study, we isolated a porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2 strain from piglets co-infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV. The complete genome of this strain was sequenced, phylogenetic and polymorphic analyses were carried out. BLAST searches revealed the highest sequence identity (99.5% nt and 99.3% aa to Guangxi strain EF675230. The phylogenetic tree showed that clustering of the isolates didn't strongly correlate to geographical distribution. Polymorphic analyses demonstrated that the amino acids at most of the polymorphic sites in Open Reading Frame 1(ORF1 and 2 (ORF2belong to the same amino acid group according to chemical or structural properties, and revealed that highly polymorphic regions overlapped with the known immunoreactive epitopes of ORF2.

  11. Changes in the cellular proteins of pulmonary alveolar macrophage infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus by proteomics analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haiming; Guo, Xin; Ge, Xinna; Chen, Yanhong; Sun, Qixin; Yang, Hanchun

    2009-06-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is known to infect and replicate preferentially in pulmonary alveolar macrophages (PAMs). We applied proteomic approaches to investigate the change in cellular proteins of PAMs infected with PRRSV in vitro. A total of 23 cellular proteins with significant alteration in different courses postinfection were identified. These proteins could be classified into the functions associated with morphogenesis, protein synthesis, metabolism, and stress response and ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Of the altered proteins, two proteins, heat shock 27 kDa protein (HSP27) and superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2), involved in stress response or ubiquitin-proteasome pathway were observed to be up-regulated. Our study is the first attempt to analyze the cellular protein profile of PRRSV-infected PAMs by proteomics and provide valuable information for better understanding the function alterations of PAMs induced by PRRSV infection.

  12. Role of transcription regulatory sequence in regulation of gene expression and replication of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chengbao; Meng, Han; Gao, Yujin; Gao, Hui; Guo, Kangkang; Almazan, Fernando; Sola, Isabel; Enjuanes, Luis; Zhang, Yanming; Abrahamyan, Levon

    2017-08-10

    In order to gain insight into the role of the transcription regulatory sequences (TRSs) in the regulation of gene expression and replication of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) gene, under the control of the different structural gene TRSs, was inserted between the N gene and 3'-UTR of the PRRSV genome and EGFP expression was analyzed for each TRS. TRSs of all the studied structural genes of PRRSV positively modulated EGFP expression at different levels. Among the TRSs analyzed, those of GP2, GP5, M, and N genes highly enhanced EGFP expression without altering replication of PRRSV. These data indicated that structural gene TRSs could be an extremely useful tool for foreign gene expression using PRRSV as a vector.

  13. [Reye's syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, I

    2000-11-01

    A nationwide survey on Reye's syndrome(RS) was described. And problems between RS and influenza virus such as etiology, pathophysiology, differential diagnosis and epidemiology were reviewed. So-called aspirin issue on RS was re-evaluated according to recent advance of RS research. Finally future aspect of Reye's syndrome was also discussed.

  14. Effects of antipyretics on mortality due to influenza B virus in a mouse model of Reye's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocker, J F; Digout, S C; Lee, S H; Rozee, K R; Renton, K; Field, C A; Acott, P; Murphy, M G

    1998-01-01

    To determine the effects of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) and acetaminophen on mortality due to influenza B infection in neonatal and weanling mice, as well as any synergistic, antagonistic or indifferent effects of the combined antipyretic and virus on mortality in mice pretreated with low doses of an industrial surfactant, Toximul MP8, which has been shown to reproduce many of the features of Reye's syndrome. In vitro studies were done to determine whether ASA or acetaminophen altered the normal, interferon-mediated antiviral responses of mammalian cells. The involvement of ASA or other commonly used xenobiotics in the induction of Reye's syndrome following virus illness has not been resolved; to do so, and to elucidate the underlying metabolic mechanism, requires these studies in an animal model. Prospective animal study. Newborn (945) and weanling (840) Swiss white mice, divided into 12 subgroups. Some groups received Toximul MP8 before inoculation with a dose of mouse-adapted human influenza B that produces 30% mortality (LD30); after infection, each subgroup received either placebo, ASA or acetaminophen. Mortality counts were taken daily. The in vitro effects of the antipyretics on interferon response were determined using standard virology techniques. Mortality, analyzed by survival curves (log rank test) or cumulative daily mortality (chi 2 analysis). Plaque-reducing dose (PRD50) was used to determine the outcome of the in vitro analyses. In neonatal mice, only subgroups given combined treatment with acetaminophen and Toximul MP8 had a statistically significant higher mortality rate than with the mice given influenza B alone. In weanling mice, it appeared that ASA shortened the time until death; however, this difference was not statistically significant. In vitro studies demonstrated that both ASA and acetaminophen decreased the interferon-induced antiviral responses of cultured mammalian cells. Antipyretics have the potential to exacerbate the consequences of

  15. Reversion of a live porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus vaccine investigated by parallel mutations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henriette S.; Oleksiewicz, M.B.; Forsberg, R.

    2001-01-01

    was sequenced and compared with the parental strain of the vaccine virus (VR2332). This revealed five mutations that had occurred independently in all three vaccine-derived field isolates, indicating strong parallel selective pressure on these positions in the vaccine virus when used in swine herds. Two...... of these parallel mutations were direct reversions to the parental VR2332 sequence and were situated in a papain-like cysteine protease domain and in the helicase domain. The remaining parallel mutations mig ht be seen as second-site compensatory mutations for one or more of the mutations that accumulated...... in the vaccine virus sequence during cell-culture adaptation. Evaluation of the remaining mutations in the ORF1 sequence revealed stronger selective pressure for amino acid conservation during spread in pigs than during vaccine production. Furthermore, it was found that the selective pressure did not change...

  16. Molecular evolution of type 2 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome viruses circulating in Vietnam from 2007 to 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Hai Quynh; Trinh, Dinh Thau; Nguyen, Thi Lan; Vu, Thi Thu Hang; Than, Duc Duong; Van Lo, Thi; Yeom, Minjoo; Song, Daesub; Choe, SeEun; An, Dong-Jun; Le, Van Phan

    2016-11-17

    Porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome (PRRS) virus is one of the most economically significant pathogens in the Vietnamese swine industry. ORF5, which participates in many functional processes, including virion assembly, entry of the virus into the host cell, and viral adaptation to the host immune response, has been widely used in molecular evolution and phylogeny studies. Knowing of molecular evolution of PRRSV fields strains might contribute to PRRS control in Vietnam. The results showed that phylogenetic analysis indicated that all strains belonged to sub-lineages 8.7 and 5.1. The nucleotide and amino acid identities between strains were 84.5-100% and 82-100%, respectively. Furthermore, the results revealed differences in nucleotide and amino acid identities between the 2 sub-lineage groups. N-glycosylation prediction identified 7 potential N-glycosylation sites and 11 glycotypes. Analyses of the GP5 sequences, revealed 7 sites under positive selective pressure and 25 under negative selective pressure. Phylogenetic analysis based on ORF5 sequence indicated the diversity of PRRSV in Vietnam. Furthermore, the variance of N-glycosylation sites and position under selective pressure were demonstrated. This study expands existing knowledge on the genetic diversity and evolution of PRRSV in Vietnam and assists the effective strategies for PRRS vaccine development in Vietnam.

  17. Shrimp miR-12 Suppresses White Spot Syndrome Virus Infection by Synchronously Triggering Antiviral Phagocytosis and Apoptosis Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Shu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Growing evidence has indicated that the innate immune system can be regulated by microRNAs (miRNAs. However, the mechanism underlying miRNA-mediated simultaneous activation of multiple immune pathways remains unknown. To address this issue, the role of host miR-12 in shrimp (Marsupenaeus japonicus antiviral immune responses was characterized in the present study. The results indicated that miR-12 participated in virus infection, host phagocytosis, and apoptosis in defense against white spot syndrome virus invasion. miR-12 could simultaneously trigger phagocytosis, apoptosis, and antiviral immunity through the synchronous downregulation of the expression of shrimp genes [PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog and BI-1(transmembrane BAX inhibitor motif containing 6] and the viral gene (wsv024. Further analysis showed that miR-12 could synchronously mediate the 5′–3′ exonucleolytic degradation of its target mRNAs, and this degradation terminated in the vicinity of the 3′ untranslated region sequence complementary to the seed sequence of miR-12. Therefore, the present study showed novel aspects of the miRNA-mediated simultaneous regulation of multiple immune pathways.

  18. The potential adjuvanticity of quaternized chitosan hydrogel based microparticles for porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus inactivated vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yue-Qi; Liu, Yan; Wang, Yu-Xia; Wu, Ya-Jun; Jia, Pei-Yuan; Shan, Jun-Jie; Wu, Jie; Ma, Guang-Hui; Su, Zhi-Guo

    2016-10-01

    Infectious diseases possess a big threat to the livestock industry worldwide. Currently, inactivated veterinary vaccines have attracted much attention to prevent infection due to their safer profile compared to live attenuated vaccine. However, its intrinsic poor immunogenicity demands the incorporation of an adjuvant. Mineral oil based adjuvant (Montanide™ ISA206) was usually used to potentiate the efficacy of veterinary vaccines. However, ISA206 could not induce robust cellular immune responses, which was very important in controlling virus replication and clearing the infected cells. Moreover, mineral oil would result in severe side effects. To improve both the humoral and cellular immune responses of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) inactivated vaccine, we developed pH-sensitive and size-controllable quaternized chitosan hydrogel microparticles (Gel MPs) without using chemical cross linking agent. Gel MPs, ionic cross-linked with glycerophosphate (GP), were biocompatible and could efficiently adsorb the inactivated PRRSV vaccine with a loading capacity of 579.05μg/mg. After intramuscular immunization in mice, results suggested that Gel MPs elicited significantly higher cell-mediated immune responses and comparable humoral immune responses compared to ISA 206. Regarding the biocompatibility, safety and effectiveness, Gel MPs would be a promising candidate to enhance the efficacy of veterinary vaccine. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Dampak Stres Salinitas Terhadap Prevalensi White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV dan Survival Rate Udang Vannamei (Litopenaeus vannamei Pada Kondisi Terkontrol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attabik Mukhammad Amrillah

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available White spot syndrome (WSS adalah penyakit yang secara signifikan menyebabkan tingginya mortalitas dan kerusakan parah pada budidaya udang. Penelitian ini bertujuan mengetahui dampak stres salinitas terhadap prevalensi WSSV dan survival rate udang vannamei (Litopenaeus vannamei. Penelitian ini menggunakan udang vannamei ukuran PL 40 yang diinfeksi WSSV dengan konsentrasi virus 20 μg/ml pada tiga rentang salinitas yang berbeda 0-10 ppt, 11-20 ppt, 21–30 ppt dan di rendam selama 4 jam kemudian dilakukan pengamatan selama 7 hari pasca infeksi dan diukur survival rate dan kuaitas airnya. Hasil pengamatan menunjukkan bahwa seluruh sampel terinfeksi oleh WSSV, ditunjukkan hasil analisa PCR dan gejala klinis yang timbul. Salinitas 0-10 ppt memberikan hasil persentase survival rate terendah jika dibandingkan dengan rentang salinitas yang lainnya yaitu sebesar 7 ekor atau 33% dari jumlah total sampel yang digunakan. Persentase survival rate udang tertinggi pasca infeksi virus WSSV terdapat pada perlakuan salinitas 21-30 ppt yaitu sebesar 13 ekor atau 63% dari jumlah total individu, dan salinitas 11-20 ppt memiliki persentase survival rate medium yaitu sebesar 10 ekor atau 49% dari jumlah total sampel. Stres salinitas mempengaruhi prevalensi WSSV dengan semakin tingginya tingkat infeksi seiring menurunnya rentang salinitas, akan tetapi survival rate semakin tinggi seiring dengan bertambahnya rentang salinitas.

  20. Incidence and clinical characteristics of Guillain-Barré syndrome before the introduction of Zika virus in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, Jorge L; Major, Chelsea G; Pastula, Daniel M; Dirlikov, Emilio; Styczynski, Ashley; Luciano, Carlos A; Wojna, Valerie; Sharp, Tyler M; Sejvar, James J; Rivera-Garcia, Brenda

    2017-06-15

    Zika virus has been associated with increases in Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) incidence. A GBS incidence estimation and clinical description was performed to assess baseline GBS epidemiology before the introduction of Zika virus in Puerto Rico. Hospitalization administrative data from an island-wide insurance claims database and U.S. Census Bureau population estimates provided a crude GBS incidence for 2013. This estimate was adjusted using the proportion of GBS cases meeting Brighton criteria for confirmed GBS from nine reference hospitals. Characteristics of confirmed GBS cases in the same nine hospitals during 2012-2015 are described. A total of 136 GBS hospitalization claims were filed in 2013 (crude GBS incidence was 3.8 per 100,000 population). The adjusted GBS incidence was 1.7 per 100,000 population. Of 67 confirmed GBS cases during 2012-2015, 66% had an antecedent illness. Median time from antecedent illness to GBS onset was 7days. Most cases (67%) occurred during July-September. Puerto Rico's GBS incidence for 2013 was estimated using a combination of administrative data and medical records review; this method could be employed in other regions to monitor GBS incidence before and after the introduction of GBS infectious triggers. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. An Elegant Analysis of White Spot Syndrome Virus Using a Graphene Oxide/Methylene Blue based Electrochemical Immunosensor Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natarajan, Anusha; Devi, K. S. Shalini; Raja, Sudhakaran; Senthil Kumar, Annamalai

    2017-04-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a major devastating virus in aquaculture industry. A sensitive and selective diagnostic method for WSSV is a pressing need for the early detection and protection of the aquaculture farms. Herein, we first report, a simple electrochemical immunosensor based on methylene blue dye (MB) immobilized graphene oxide modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE/GO@MB) for selective, quick (35 ± 5 mins) and raw sample analysis of WSSV. The immunosensor was prepared by sequential modification of primary antibody, blocking agent (bovine serum album), antigen (as vp28 protein), secondary antibody coupled with horseradish peroxidase (Ab2-HRP) on the GCE/GO@MB. The modified electrode showed a well-defined redox peak at an equilibrium potential (E1/2), -0.4 V vs Ag/AgCl and mediated H2O2 reduction reaction without any false positive result and dissolved oxygen interferences in pH 7 phosphate buffer solution. Under an optimal condition, constructed calibration plot was linear in a range of 1.36 × 10-3 to 1.36 × 107 copies μL-1 of vp28. It is about four orders higher sensitive than that of the values observed with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and western blot based WSSV detection techniques. Direct electrochemical immunosensing of WSSV in raw tissue samples were successfully demonstrated as a real sample system.

  2. The human immunodeficiency virus preventive vaccine research at the French National Agency for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Fischer

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available The human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS epidemic is of unprecedented gravity and is spreading rapidly, notably in the most disadvantaged regions of the world. The search for a preventive vaccine is thus an absolute priority. For over 10 years the French National Agency for AIDS research (ANRS has been committed to an original program combining basic science and clinical research. The HIV preventive vaccine research program run by the ANRS covers upstream research for the definition of immunogens, animal models, and clinical research to evaluate candidate vaccines. Most researchers in 2004 believe that it should be possible to obtain partial vaccine protection through the induction of a strong and multiepitopic cellular response. Since 1992, the ANRS has set up 15 phases I and II clinical trials in order to evaluate the safety and the capacity of the candidate vaccines for inducing cellular immune responses. The tested candidate vaccines were increasingly complex recombinant canarypox viruses (Alvac containing sequences coding for certain viral proteins, utilized alone or combined with other immunogens (whole or truncated envelope proteins. ANRS has also been developing an original strategy based on the utilization of lipopeptides. These comprise synthetic fragments of viral proteins associated with lipids that facilitate the induction of a cellular immune response. These approaches promptly allowed the assessment of a prime-boost strategy combining a viral vector and lipopeptides.

  3. Epidemiological investigations of the introduction of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in Chile, 2013-2015.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Neira

    Full Text Available Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS is endemic in most pork producing countries. In Chile, eradication of PRRS virus (PRRSV was successfully achieved in 2009 as a result of the combined efforts of producers and the animal health authorities. In October 2013, after several years without detecting PRRSV under surveillance activities, suspected cases were confirmed on a commercial swine farm. Here, we describe the PRRS epidemic in Chile between October 2013 and April 2015, and we studied the origins and spread of PRRSV throughout the country using official surveillance data and Bayesian phylogenetic analysis. Our results indicate that the outbreaks were caused by a PRRSV closely related to viruses present in swine farms in North America, and different from the strain that circulated in the country before 2009. Using divergence time estimation analysis, we found that the 2013-2015 PRRSV may have been circulating in Chile for at least one month before the first detection. A single strain of PRRSV spread into a limited number of commercial and backyard swine farms. New infections in commercial systems have not been reported since October 2014, and eradication is underway by clearing the disease from the few commercial and backyard farms that remain positive. This is one of the few documented experiences of PRRSV introduction into a disease-free country.

  4. Chemical Diversity and Biological Properties of Secondary Metabolites from Sea Hares of Aplysia Genus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato B. Pereira

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The marine environment is an important source of structurally-diverse and biologically-active secondary metabolites. During the last two decades, thousands of compounds were discovered in marine organisms, several of them having inspired the development of new classes of therapeutic agents. Marine mollusks constitute a successful phyla in the discovery of new marine natural products (MNPs. Over a 50-year period from 1963, 116 genera of mollusks contributed innumerous compounds, Aplysia being the most studied genus by MNP chemists. This genus includes 36 valid species and should be distinguished from all mollusks as it yielded numerous new natural products. Aplysia sea hares are herbivorous mollusks, which have been proven to be a rich source of secondary metabolites, mostly of dietary origin. The majority of secondary metabolites isolated from sea hares of the genus Aplysia are halogenated terpenes; however, these animals are also a source of compounds from other chemical classes, such as macrolides, sterols and alkaloids, often exhibiting cytotoxic, antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral and/or antifeedant activities. This review focuses on the diverse structural classes of secondary metabolites found in Aplysia spp., including several compounds with pronounced biological properties.

  5. [Pollock, Warhol, Basquiat, Haring 20th century American painters from a psychological perspective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petôvári, Csaba

    2010-01-01

    Pollock, Warhol, Basquiat and Haring made an international reputation for themselves with their art foremost of the American artists of the 20th century, and became pop cultural icons for the man in the street and for the media as well. Accordingly to the habits of the consumer society their art and even themselves become product and consumer's goods. Their not mistaken, individual style - which also became their trademark - makes that possible. The connection between the four artists is that each of them had a dependent personality, their fine art activity was arguable in their period, and after all themselves and his artworks get into the increased attention of the media. These four artists embody the brand-new artist type, who steps into a star status. Besides the artworks the artist also get into the focus of interest. Through psychological aspect their artworks tell a lot about their way of life, their personality, and the social estate around them. Four of them were catalysts, they set new art trends. The influence of Basquiat and Haring stretched over to the 21st century, and keeps going in the graffiti street-art which gets into the "high art" at last, and captivates the art galleries and critics as well.

  6. Chemical Diversity and Biological Properties of Secondary Metabolites from Sea Hares of Aplysia Genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Renato B; Andrade, Paula B; Valentão, Patrícia

    2016-02-19

    The marine environment is an important source of structurally-diverse and biologically-active secondary metabolites. During the last two decades, thousands of compounds were discovered in marine organisms, several of them having inspired the development of new classes of therapeutic agents. Marine mollusks constitute a successful phyla in the discovery of new marine natural products (MNPs). Over a 50-year period from 1963, 116 genera of mollusks contributed innumerous compounds, Aplysia being the most studied genus by MNP chemists. This genus includes 36 valid species and should be distinguished from all mollusks as it yielded numerous new natural products. Aplysia sea hares are herbivorous mollusks, which have been proven to be a rich source of secondary metabolites, mostly of dietary origin. The majority of secondary metabolites isolated from sea hares of the genus Aplysia are halogenated terpenes; however, these animals are also a source of compounds from other chemical classes, such as macrolides, sterols and alkaloids, often exhibiting cytotoxic, antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral and/or antifeedant activities. This review focuses on the diverse structural classes of secondary metabolites found in Aplysia spp., including several compounds with pronounced biological properties.

  7. Isolation and Identification of Egg Drop Syndrome Virus with Hemagglutination and Hemagglutination Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fidyah Fitrawati

    2015-11-01

    of 0,8. The HA test in uterine sample of both SR/WNO/2011 and FF/Sleman/2011 showed the titer 23 HA units and egg washed water sample of FF/Sleman/2011 showed titer 22 HA units. The HI test for comparison with ND and AI anti serum was negative, while the test with EDS anti serum showed positive results. Based on the HA and HI test results, it was concluded that the virus grown in the allantoic fluid is EDS virus.

  8. A 3D model of the membrane protein complex formed by the white spot syndrome virus structural proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Shiang Chang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Outbreaks of white spot disease have had a large negative economic impact on cultured shrimp worldwide. However, the pathogenesis of the causative virus, WSSV (whit spot syndrome virus, is not yet well understood. WSSV is a large enveloped virus. The WSSV virion has three structural layers surrounding its core DNA: an outer envelope, a tegument and a nucleocapsid. In this study, we investigated the protein-protein interactions of the major WSSV structural proteins, including several envelope and tegument proteins that are known to be involved in the infection process. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the present report, we used coimmunoprecipitation and yeast two-hybrid assays to elucidate and/or confirm all the interactions that occur among the WSSV structural (envelope and tegument proteins VP51A, VP19, VP24, VP26 and VP28. We found that VP51A interacted directly not only with VP26 but also with VP19 and VP24. VP51A, VP19 and VP24 were also shown to have an affinity for self-interaction. Chemical cross-linking assays showed that these three self-interacting proteins could occur as dimers. CONCLUSIONS: From our present results in conjunction with other previously established interactions we construct a 3D model in which VP24 acts as a core protein that directly associates with VP26, VP28, VP38A, VP51A and WSV010 to form a membrane-associated protein complex. VP19 and VP37 are attached to this complex via association with VP51A and VP28, respectively. Through the VP26-VP51C interaction this envelope complex is anchored to the nucleocapsid, which is made of layers of rings formed by VP664. A 3D model of the nucleocapsid and the surrounding outer membrane is presented.

  9. Roles of viroplasm-like structures formed by nonstructural protein NSs in infection with severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaodong; Qi, Xian; Liang, Mifang; Li, Chuan; Cardona, Carol J; Li, Dexin; Xing, Zheng

    2014-06-01

    Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) virus is an emerging bunyavirus that causes a hemorrhagic fever with a high mortality rate. The virus is likely tick-borne and replicates primarily in hemopoietic cells, which may lead to disregulation of proinflammatory cytokine induction and loss of leukocytes and platelets. The viral genome contains L, M, and S segments encoding a viral RNA polymerase, glycoproteins G(n) and G(c), nucleoprotein (NP), and a nonstructural S segment (NSs) protein. NSs protein is involved in the regulation of host innate immune responses and suppression of IFNβ-promoter activities. In this article, we demonstrate that NSs protein can form viroplasm-like structures (VLSs) in infected and transfected cells. NSs protein molecules interact with one another, interact with NP, and were associated with viral RNA in infected cells, suggesting that NSs protein may be involved in viral replication. Furthermore, we observed that NSs-formed VLS colocalized with lipid droplets and that inhibitors of fatty acid biosynthesis decreased VLS formation or viral replication in transfected and infected cells. Finally, we have demonstrated that viral dsRNAs were also localized in VLS in infected cells, suggesting that NSs-formed VLS may be implicated in the replication of SFTS bunyavirus. These findings identify a novel function of nonstructural NSs in SFTSV-infected cells where it is a scaffolding component in a VLS functioning as a virus replication factory. This function is in addition to the role of NSs protein in modulating host responses that will broaden our understanding of viral pathogenesis of phleboviruses. © FASEB.

  10. A Novel Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor Participates in White Spot Syndrome Virus Infection in Litopenaeus vannamei

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    Shihao Li

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF signaling pathway is known to play key roles in endothelial cell proliferation, migration, angiogenesis, vascular permeability, inhibition of apoptosis, and virus infection. In the present study, a novel VEGFR gene (LvVEGFR2 was identified and characterized from Litopenaeus vannamei. The deduced amino acid sequence of LvVEGFR2 possessed typical features of VEGFRs reported in other species, including six IG-like domains, a transmembrane motif, a protein kinase (PK domain, and one tyrosine-PK active site. The transcripts of LvVEGFR2 were mainly detected in hemocytes and lymphoid organ (Oka. Subcellular localization analysis showed that LvVEGFR2 was a membrane protein. Its expression level was obviously upregulated in hemocytes and Oka of the shrimp after white spot syndrome virus (WSSV infection. Knockdown of LvVEGFR2 gene expression by double-strand RNA mediated interference could lead to a decrease of virus copy number in WSSV-infected shrimp. The interaction between LvVEGFR2 and different LvVEGFs (LvVEGF1, LvVEGF2, and LvVEGF3 in shrimp was analyzed at the transcription level and protein level, respectively. Knockdown of LvVEGF2 or LvVEGF3 could downregulate the expression level of LvVEGFR2, and injection of the recombinant LvVEGF2 or LvVEGF3 could upregulate the expression level of LvVEGFR2. Yeast two-hybrid analysis showed that LvVEGFR2 could interact with LvVEGF2 and LvVEGF3 directly. The study improved our understanding on the VEGF signaling pathway of shrimp and its role during WSSV infection.

  11. Applications of Bayesian Phylodynamic Methods in a Recent U.S. Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Outbreak

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    Mohammad A. Alkhamis

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Classical phylogenetic methods such as neighbor-joining or maximum likelihood trees, provide limited inferences about the evolution of important pathogens and ignore important evolutionary parameters and uncertainties, which in turn limits decision making related to surveillance, control and prevention resources. Bayesian phylodynamic models have recently been used to test research hypothesis related to evolution of infectious agents. However, few studies have attempted to model the evolutionary dynamics of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV and, to the authors’ knowledge, no attempt has been made to use large volumes of routinely collected data, sometimes referred to as big data, in the context of animal disease surveillance. The objective of this study was to explore and discuss the applications of Bayesian phylodynamic methods for modeling the evolution and spread of a notable 1-7-4 RFLP-type PRRSV between 2014 and 2015. A convenience sample of 288 ORF5 sequences was collected from 5 swine production systems in the United States between September 2003 and March 2015. Using coalescence and discrete trait phylodynamic models, we were able to infer population growth and demographic history of the virus, identified the most likely ancestral system (root state posterior probability = 0.95 and revealed significant dispersal routes (Bayes factor > 6 of viral exchange among systems. Results indicate that currently circulating viruses are evolving rapidly, and show a higher level of relative genetic diversity over time, when compared to earlier relatives. Biological soundness of model results is supported by the finding that sow farms were responsible for PRRSV spread within the systems. Such results can’t be obtained by traditional phylogenetic methods, and therefore, our results provide a methodological framework for molecular epidemiological modeling of new PRRSV outbreaks and demonstrate the prospects of phylodynamic

  12. CHARACTERISTICS OF VIRAL PROTEIN, VP-15, OF WHITESPOT SYNDROME VIRUS ISOLATED FROM INFECTED TIGER SHRIMP Penaeus monodon (Fabricius, 1798

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    Andi Parenrengi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available White spot syndrome virus (WSSV has caused mass mortality on tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon culture and adversely affects prawn industry worldwide including Indonesia. It is well known that the protein structure of WSSV plays an important role in the virus infection and morphogenesis process. A viral protein structure called VP-15 is located in the nucleocapsid of virion virus. The protein structure involves in the life cycle of WSSV in host cells. A gene encoding VP-15 could be involved in constructing the RNA interference (RNAi, so it is needed to isolate and characterize for RNAi technology purpose. The study was aimed to isolate and characterize the VP-15 from the infected WSSV tiger shrimp. The characterization of VP-15 was undertaken through assessment of nucleotide sequence, amino acid deduction, alignment nucleotide/protein searches using Genetyx and BLAST program, and dendrogram construction analysis. The results showed that VP-15 was successfully isolated in form of ORFDNA with a fragment size of 243 bp. The phylogenetic tree analysis revealed three clusters corresponding to the time (year of isolates collection. The VP-15 consisted of 80 amino acids, two start codons (ATG, one stop codon (TAA, and one Kozak context (AAAATGG. Hydrophilic amino acid was the highest composition (44.2%, followed by neutral (31.2% and hydrophobic (24.6% amino acid groups. The VP-15 was rich in amino acid of lysine (21.3%, arginine (22.9% and serine (24.6%. The successful isolation of VP-15 is a very important step in providing a basic yet suitable material in constructing the dsRNA vaccine to control shrimp diseases in aquaculture.

  13. Acute Interstitial Nephritis Proteinuria and Herpes Simplex Virus Hepatitis in Pregnancy Mimic HELLP Syndrome (Hemolysis, Elevated Liver Enzymes, Low Platelets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy M. White

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Elevated transaminases, hemolysis, and thrombocytopenia in pregnancy are most often caused by a preeclampsia variant—HELLP syndrome (hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, low platelets. In atypical cases, it is important to consider other causes, such as herpes simplex virus (HSV hepatitis. Acute interstitial nephritis (AIN-induced proteinuria can make distinguishing HELLP from its mimics more difficult. A 43-year-old G4P3 gestational carrier at 28 weeks had abnormal laboratory findings consistent with HELLP, including proteinuria. However, she was normotensive and febrile, prompting an investigation into other possible causes of her signs and symptoms. She ultimately was diagnosed with disseminated HSV infection, started on definitive therapy, and allowed to continue her pregnancy to term. The proteinuria was attributed to AIN. AIN can cause proteinuria in the critically ill pregnant patient. When mimics of HELLP syndrome, such as disseminated HSV infection, are the cause of critical illness, the presence of AIN-induced proteinuria may falsely implicate a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy, resulting in iatrogenic premature delivery of the fetus and failure to initiate definitive potential lifesaving treatment.

  14. Spatial Analysis of Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome Virus in China Using a Geographically Weighted Logistic Regression Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Wu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS is caused by severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV, which has had a serious impact on public health in parts of Asia. There is no specific antiviral drug or vaccine for SFTSV and, therefore, it is important to determine the factors that influence the occurrence of SFTSV infections. This study aimed to explore the spatial associations between SFTSV infections and several potential determinants, and to predict the high-risk areas in mainland China. The analysis was carried out at the level of provinces in mainland China. The potential explanatory variables that were investigated consisted of meteorological factors (average temperature, average monthly precipitation and average relative humidity, the average proportion of rural population and the average proportion of primary industries over three years (2010–2012. We constructed a geographically weighted logistic regression (GWLR model in order to explore the associations between the selected variables and confirmed cases of SFTSV. The study showed that: (1 meteorological factors have a strong influence on the SFTSV cover; (2 a GWLR model is suitable for exploring SFTSV cover in mainland China; (3 our findings can be used for predicting high-risk areas and highlighting when meteorological factors pose a risk in order to aid in the implementation of public health strategies.

  15. Enhancing heterologous protection in pigs vaccinated with chimeric porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus containing the full-length sequences of shuffled structural genes of multiple heterologous strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Debin; Cao, Dianjun; Lynn Heffron, C; Yugo, Danielle M; Rogers, Adam J; Overend, Christopher; Matzinger, Shannon R; Subramaniam, Sakthivel; Opriessnig, Tanja; LeRoith, Tanya; Meng, Xiang-Jin

    2017-04-25

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is the causative agent of arguably the most economically important global swine disease. The extensive genetic variation of PRRSV strains is a major obstacle for heterologous protection of current vaccines. Previously, we constructed a panel of chimeric viruses containing only the ectodomain sequences of DNA-shuffled structural genes of different PRRSV strains in the backbone of a commercial vaccine, and found that one chimeric virus had an improved cross-protection efficacy. In this present study, to further enhance the cross-protective efficacy against heterologous strains, we constructed a novel chimeric virus VR2385-S3456 containing the full-length sequences of shuffled structural genes (ORFs 3-6) from 6 heterologous PRRSV strains in the backbone of PRRSV strain VR2385. We showed that the chimeric virus VR2385-S3456 induced a high level of neutralizing antibodies in pigs against two heterologous strains. A subsequent vaccination and challenge study in 48 pigs revealed that the chimeric virus VR2385-S3456 conferred an enhanced cross-protection when challenged with heterologous virus strain NADC20 or a contemporary heterologous strain RFLP 1-7-4. The results suggest that the chimera VR2385-S3456 may be a good PRRSV vaccine candidate for further development to confer heterologous protection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. CLUSTER MODEL FOR EXTENSIVE GIANT TIGER SHRIMP (Penaeus monodon Fab. TO PREVENT TRANSMISSION OF WHITE SPOT SYNDROME VIRUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arief Taslihan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available White spot syndrome virus (WSSV has become epidemic in Indonesia and affecting shrimp aquaculture interm of its production. White spot syndrome virus is transmitted from one to other ponds, through crustacean, included planktonic copepode as carrier for WSSV and through water from affected shrimp pond. A cluster model, consist of shrimp grow out ponds surrounded by non-shrimp pond as a role of biosecurity has been developed. The model aimed to prevent white spot virus transmission in extensive giant tiger shrimp pond. The study was conducted in two sites at Demak District, Central Java Province. As the treatment, a cluster consist of three shrimp ponds in site I, and two shrimp ponds in site II, each was surrounded by buffer ponds rearing only finfish. As the control, five extensive shrimp grow out ponds in site I and three shrimp grow out ponds in site II, with shrimp pond has neither applied biosecurity nor surrounded by non-shrimp pond as biosecurity as well considered as control ponds. The results found that treatment of cluster shrimp ponds surrounded by non-shrimp ponds could hold shrimp at duration of culture in the grow out pond (DOC 105.6±4.5 days significantly much longer than that of control that harvested at 60.9±16.0 days due to WSSV outbreak. Survival rate in trial ponds was 77.6±3.6%, significantly higher than that of control at 22.6±15.8%. Shrimp production in treatment ponds has total production of 425.1±146.6 kg/ha significantly higher than that of control that could only produced 54.5±47.6 kg/ha. Implementation of Better Management Practices (BMP by arranging shrimp ponds in cluster and surrounding by non-shrimp ponds proven effectively prevent WSSV transmission from traditional shrimp ponds in surrounding area.

  17. [Cerebellar syndrome and peripheral neuropathy as manifestations of infection by HTLV-1 human T-cell lymphotropic virus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carod-Artal, F J; del Negro, M C; Vargas, A P; Rizzo, I

    Type I human T-cell lymphotropic virus (HTLV-I) is a retrovirus with affinity for CD4 cells. This infection may give rise to a broad spectrum of disorders including T-cell leucemia/lymphoma, the myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis complex (M/TSP), and to a lesser extent, uveitis, arthritis, polymyositis and peripheral neuropathy. M/TSP is a progressive, chronic myelopathy characterized by spasticity, hypereflexia, muscle weakness and sphincter disorders. Much less frequently it may precede, or give rise to, a cerebellar syndrome with ataxia and intention tremor. We describe the case of a 13 year old adolescent girl who presented with a neurological syndrome which had started with tremor of the head and limbs, ataxia, dysmetria, frequent falls and sphincter disorders. During the two and a half years that she had had this illness she had developed spastic paraparesis of the legs and had repeated urinary infections. Serology of blood and CSF was positive for HTLV-I using the ELISA technique and confirmed by Western-blot. EMG showed predominantly axonal sensomotor neuropathy. A neurogenic bladder was detected on functional urodynamic studies. On MR there was moderate atrophy of the thoracic spinal cord and slight alterations of the subcortical white matter. The presence of a cerebellar syndrome or neuropathy of uncertain origin, in endemic areas, should lead to the inclusion of HTLV-I infection in the differential diagnosis, even in the absence of pyramidal symptoms or defined M/TSP. Maternal seropositivity supports the hypothesis of mother-daughter transmission during lactation.

  18. A molecular clock dates the common ancestor of European-type porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus at more than 10 years before the emergence of disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forsberg, Roald; Oleksiewicz, Martin B.; Krabbe Petersen, Anne Mette

    2001-01-01

    The disease caused by porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) emerged independently and almost simultaneously in Europe (1990) and North America (1987). The original reservoir of the virus and the date it entered the pig populations is not known. In this study, we demonstrate...... an accurate molecular clock for the European PRRSV ORF 3 gene, place the root in the genealogy, estimate the rate of nucleotide substitution, and date the most recent common viral ancestor of the data set to 1979; more than 10 years before the onset of the European epidemic. Based on these findings, we...

  19. Rooting the phylogenetic tree of middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus by characterization of a conspecific virus from an African bat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corman, Victor Max; Ithete, Ndapewa Laudika; Richards, Leigh Rosanne; Schoeman, M Corrie; Preiser, Wolfgang; Drosten, Christian; Drexler, Jan Felix

    2014-10-01

    The emerging Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) causes lethal respiratory infections mainly on the Arabian Peninsula. The evolutionary origins of MERS-CoV are unknown. We determined the full genome sequence of a CoV directly from fecal material obtained from a South African Neoromicia capensis bat (NeoCoV). NeoCoV shared essential details of genome architecture with MERS-CoV. Eighty-five percent of the NeoCoV genome was identical to MERS-CoV at the nucleotide level. Based on taxonomic criteria, NeoCoV and MERS-CoV belonged to one viral species. The presence of a genetically divergent S1 subunit within the NeoCoV spike gene indicated that intraspike recombination events may have been involved in the emergence of MERS-CoV. NeoCoV constitutes a sister taxon of MERS-CoV, placing the MERS-CoV root between a recently described virus from African camels and all other viruses. This suggests a higher level of viral diversity in camels than in humans. Together with serologic evidence for widespread MERS-CoV infection in camelids sampled up to 20 years ago in Africa and the Arabian Peninsula, the genetic data indicate that camels act as sources of virus for humans rather than vice versa. The majority of camels on the Arabian Peninsula is imported from the Greater Horn of Africa, where several Neoromicia species occur. The acquisition of MERS-CoV by camels from bats might have taken place in sub-Saharan Africa. Camelids may represent mixing vessels for MERS-CoV and other mammalian CoVs. It is unclear how, when, and where the highly pathogenic MERS-CoV emerged. We characterized the full genome of an African bat virus closely related to MERS-CoV and show that human, camel, and bat viruses belong to the same viral species. The bat virus roots the phylogenetic tree of MERS-CoV, providing evidence for an evolution of MERS-CoV in camels that preceded that in humans. The revised tree suggests that humans are infected by camels rather than vice versa. Although

  20. 14 CFR Special Federal Aviation... - Operating Limitations for Unscheduled Operations at Chicago's O'Hare International Airport

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... same information when making a Reservation. Table 1—Codes for Call Sign/Tail Number Input Codes for... through a touch-tone telephone interface, an Internet Web interface, or directly through the ARO. “Public..., security or other regulatory requirements to operate at O'Hare. Section 5. Reservation Procedures. a. The...

  1. Toxoplasma gondii infection in the mountain hare (Lepus timidus) and domestic rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus). II. Early immune reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustafsson, K.; Wattrang, E.; Fossum, C.

    1997-01-01

    As already reported, the mountain hare is much more susceptible than the domestic rabbit to oral inoculation with Toxoplasma gondii, as judged by pathological changes and dissemination of parasites within the body. In the present paper, further interspecies variations are reported. Concentrations...

  2. Inhibition of snowshoe hare succinate dehydrogenase activity as a mechanism of deterrence for papyriferic acid in birch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer Sorensen Forbey; Xinzhu Pu; Dong Xu; Knut Kielland; John. Bryant

    2011-01-01

    The plant secondary metabolite papyriferic acid (PA) deters browsing by snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus) on the juvenile developmental stage of the Alaska paper birch (Betula neoalaskana). However, the physiological mechanism that reduces browsing remains unknown. We used pharmacological assays and molecular modeling to test the...

  3. Fatal case of Reye's syndrome associated with H3N2 influenza virus infection and salicylate intake in a 12-year-old patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ninove, L; Daniel, L; Gallou, J; Cougard, P-A; Charpentier, A; Viard, L; Roquelaure, B; Paquis-Flucklinger, V; de Lamballerie, X; Zandotti, C; Charrel, R N

    2011-01-01

    We describe a fatal case of Reye's syndrome in a 12-year-old male patient during an influenza A (H3N2) infection for which he received salicylates. In the current situation of the novel A/H1N1 virus pandemic, we believe that it is of high importance to emphasize the risks associated with salicylate intake to avoid the reappearance of Reye's syndrome. © 2010 The Authors. Journal Compilation © 2010 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

  4. Induction of Apoptosis by the Nonstructural Protein 4 and 10 of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuaizhen Yuan

    Full Text Available Infection by most viruses triggers apoptosis in host cells, and viruses manipulate this cell response to promote viral replication, virus spread, and cell killing. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV has been shown to induce apoptosis both in vitro and in vivo, while the regulatory roles of PRRSV-encoded products in apoptosis are not fully understood. In the present study, we first showed a biphasic apoptosis regulation by a highly pathogenic PRRSV strain JXwn06. It was indicated that PRRSV infection delays apoptosis at early infection but activates apoptosis at late infection in MARC-145 cells. In PRRSV-infected MARC-145 cells, procaspase-8, -9 and -12 were activated at late infection, demonstrating the involvements of death receptor pathway, mitochondrial pathway and endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress pathway in inducing apoptosis. PRRSV was also shown to induce a similar apoptosis process in pulmonary alveolar macrophages (PAMs with an early initiation. Next, the PRRSV-encoded apoptosis inducers were screened, indicating that the nonstructural protein (Nsp 4 and Nsp10 of PRRSV are pro-apoptotic. In the presence of Nsp4, it was confirmed that procaspase-8, -9 and -12 were cleaved, and Nsp4 facilitates the cleavage of procaspase-9 by activating B-cell lymphoma 2 interacting mediator of cell death (Bim, a pro-apoptotic protein. In addition, Nsp4 was shown to induce the degradation of an anti-apoptotic protein, B-cell lymphoma-extra large (Bcl-xL. Nsp10 was shown to activate procaspase-8 and -9 but procaspase-12 and to upregulate the expression of BH3-only pro-apoptotic protein BH3 interacting-domain death agonist (Bid and its active form, truncated Bid (tBid. Clearly, the participation of both activated caspase-8 and Bid is required for Nsp10-induced apoptosis, indicating a crosstalk between extrinsic- and mitochondria-dependent pathways. Together, our findings suggest that PRRSV infection regulates apoptosis in a two

  5. Induction of Apoptosis by the Nonstructural Protein 4 and 10 of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Shuaizhen; Zhang, Ning; Xu, Lei; Zhou, Lei; Ge, Xinna; Guo, Xin; Yang, Hanchun

    2016-01-01

    Infection by most viruses triggers apoptosis in host cells, and viruses manipulate this cell response to promote viral replication, virus spread, and cell killing. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) has been shown to induce apoptosis both in vitro and in vivo, while the regulatory roles of PRRSV-encoded products in apoptosis are not fully understood. In the present study, we first showed a biphasic apoptosis regulation by a highly pathogenic PRRSV strain JXwn06. It was indicated that PRRSV infection delays apoptosis at early infection but activates apoptosis at late infection in MARC-145 cells. In PRRSV-infected MARC-145 cells, procaspase-8, -9 and -12 were activated at late infection, demonstrating the involvements of death receptor pathway, mitochondrial pathway and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress pathway in inducing apoptosis. PRRSV was also shown to induce a similar apoptosis process in pulmonary alveolar macrophages (PAMs) with an early initiation. Next, the PRRSV-encoded apoptosis inducers were screened, indicating that the nonstructural protein (Nsp) 4 and Nsp10 of PRRSV are pro-apoptotic. In the presence of Nsp4, it was confirmed that procaspase-8, -9 and -12 were cleaved, and Nsp4 facilitates the cleavage of procaspase-9 by activating B-cell lymphoma 2 interacting mediator of cell death (Bim), a pro-apoptotic protein. In addition, Nsp4 was shown to induce the degradation of an anti-apoptotic protein, B-cell lymphoma-extra large (Bcl-xL). Nsp10 was shown to activate procaspase-8 and -9 but procaspase-12 and to upregulate the expression of BH3-only pro-apoptotic protein BH3 interacting-domain death agonist (Bid) and its active form, truncated Bid (tBid). Clearly, the participation of both activated caspase-8 and Bid is required for Nsp10-induced apoptosis, indicating a crosstalk between extrinsic- and mitochondria-dependent pathways. Together, our findings suggest that PRRSV infection regulates apoptosis in a two-phase manner and

  6. Factors affecting Brown Hare (Lepus europaeus hunting bags in Tuscany region (central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Santilli

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We carried out an exploratory analysis of hare Lepus europaeus hunting bags (number of brown hares shot in the nineteen Hunting Districts of Tuscany (central Italy from 2001 to 2004, in order to identify which variables (land use and characteristics, climate and management could affect hare harvest. Vineyards and grass in rotation with winter cereals were positively associated with the number of hares shot, whereas industrial crops (mainly sunflowers seemed to have a negative effect,as did the density of grazing sheep. Mean annual rainfall was negatively related to the harvest but with a borderline significance. We found a positive relationship between the number of hares harvested and the percentage of protected areas managed to conserve and produce small game species, whereas private hunting estates showed a negative association. Restocking both with wild hares captured in protected areas and with farm-reared animals did not show any effect on hunting bags of hares. Riassunto Fattori influenzanti il carniere di lepri (Lepus europaeus in Toscana (Italia centrale E’ stata condotta una ricerca preliminare sui carnieri di lepre (dal 2001 al 2004 dei diciannove Ambiti Territoriali di Caccia della Toscana, al fine di identificare quali variabili (di tipo ambientale, climatico e gestionale possano influire sulla resa venatoria di questa specie. Il numero di lepri abbattute dai cacciatori è risultato influenzato positivamente dalla percentuale di vigneti e di foraggiere in avvicendamento, mentre le colture industriali (principalmente rappresentate dal girasole e la densità del bestiame ovicaprino hanno evidenziato un effetto negativo. Anche le precipitazioni medie annuali sono risultate associate negativamente al numero di lepri abbattute, tuttavia in questo caso la variabile non ha raggiunto il livello di significatività statistica. L’abbondanza del carniere di

  7. Home range dynamics of mountain hare (Lepus timidus in the Swiss Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Sophie Genini-Gamboni

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Little is known on the ecology and behaviour of alpine mountain hare (Lepus timidus. Between 1996 and 1997 we analysed by radiotracking the pattern of space use of 8 mountain hares from the Swiss Alps. We estimated home range size using both the kernel density estimator and the minimum convex polygon. We found smaller ranges (38 ha compared to those reported for the species in boreal or arctic habitats, but similar to ranges in Scotland. Hares did not use a centre of major activity (core area and showed high home range overlap, confirming their non-territorial behaviour. Smaller ranges were used during winter compared to the other seasons, whilst no difference in size was found between sexes. Riassunto Dinamica dell'uso dello spazio della lepre bianca (Lepus timidus nelle Alpi Svizzere Le informazioni relative all'ecologia e al comportamento della lepre alpina (Lepus timidus sono ad oggi scarse. In questo studio abbiamo analizzato l'utilizzo dello spazio di una popolazione di lepre bianca sulle Alpi Svizzere. Tra il 1996 e il 1997 sono stati marcati con redio collare 8 individui di lepre alpina. L'home range è stato calcolato utilizzando lo stimatore di densità kernel (KDE ed il metodo del minimo poligono convesso (MCP. L'ampiezza degli home range (38 ha è risultata inferiore a quella riportata per la specie in habitat boreali ed artici. ma simile a quella riscontrata in Scozia. All'interno dell home range non è stato rilevato alcun centro di maggiore attività (core area ed è stata evidenziata una notevole sovrapposizione tra gli stessi, confermando la non territorialità della specie. Le aree frequentate in inverno sono risultate più piccole rispetto alle altre stagioni e non sono state riscontrate differenze tra i sessi.

  8. Molecular detection and phylogenetic analysis of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus in shelter dogs and cats in the Republic of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung-Hun; Kim, Hyun-Joo; Byun, Jae-Won; Lee, Min-Jung; Kim, Neung-Hee; Kim, Doo-Hwan; Kang, Hae-Eun; Nam, Hyang-Mi

    2017-06-01

    Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome is a tick-borne infectious disease. The present study investigated the prevalence of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV) in shelter dogs and cats in the Republic of Korea (ROK). Blood samples were collected from 426 dogs and 215 cats in animal shelters throughout the ROK in 2016. Of the tested samples, one (0.2%) dog and one (0.5%) cat were positive for SFTSV. Phylogenetic analysis of the sequences obtained in the present study showed that the viruses belonged to the J3 clade, which is considered the dominant clade in the ROK. This study reports the first molecular detection of SFTSV in shelter dogs and cats in the ROK. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Absence of evidence of Xenotropic Murine Leukemia Virus-related virus infection in persons with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and healthy controls in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Switzer William M

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background XMRV, a xenotropic murine leukemia virus (MuLV-related virus, was recently identified by PCR testing in 67% of persons with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS and in 3.7% of healthy persons from the United States. To investigate the association of XMRV with CFS we tested blood specimens from 51 persons with CFS and 56 healthy persons from the US for evidence of XMRV infection by using serologic and molecular assays. Blinded PCR and serologic testing were performed at the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC and at two additional laboratories. Results Archived blood specimens were tested from persons with CFS defined by the 1994 international research case definition and matched healthy controls from Wichita, Kansas and metropolitan, urban, and rural Georgia populations. Serologic testing at CDC utilized a Western blot (WB assay that showed excellent sensitivity to MuLV and XMRV polyclonal or monoclonal antibodies, and no reactivity on sera from 121 US blood donors or 26 HTLV-and HIV-infected sera. Plasma from 51 CFS cases and plasma from 53 controls were all WB negative. Additional blinded screening of the 51 cases and 53 controls at the Robert Koch Institute using an ELISA employing recombinant Gag and Env XMRV proteins identified weak seroreactivity in one CFS case and a healthy control, which was not confirmed by immunofluorescence. PCR testing at CDC employed a gag and a pol nested PCR assay with a detection threshold of 10 copies in 1 ug of human DNA. DNA specimens from 50 CFS patients and 56 controls and 41 US blood donors were all PCR-negative. Blinded testing by a second nested gag PCR assay at the Blood Systems Research Institute was also negative for DNA specimens from the 50 CFS cases and 56 controls. Conclusions We did not find any evidence of infection with XMRV in our U.S. study population of CFS patients or healthy controls by using multiple molecular and serologic assays. These data do not support an

  10. Metabolic syndrome in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus genotype 1 infection who do not have obesity or type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucivalda Pereira Magalhães Oliveira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The individual components of metabolic syndrome may be independent predictors of mortality in patients with liver disease. We aimed to evaluate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its related components in hepatitis C virus-infected patients who are not obese and do not have type 2 diabetes. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 125 patients infected with hepatitis C virus genotype 1. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the International Diabetes Federation. Anthropometric data were measured according to standardized procedures. Bioimpedance analysis was performed on all patients. RESULTS: Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed in 21.6% of patients. Of the subjects with metabolic syndrome, 59.3% had hypertension, 77.8% had insulin resistance, 85.2% were overweight, 48.1% had a high waist circumference, 85.2% had an increased body fat percentage, and 92.3% had an elevated waist:hip ratio. In the bivariate analysis, female sex (OR 2.58; 95% CI: 1.09-6.25, elevated gamma-glutamyl transferase (γGT (OR 2.63; 95% CI: 1.04-7.29, elevated fasting glucose (OR 8.05; 95% CI: 3.17-21.32, low HDL cholesterol (OR 2.80; 95% CI: 1.07-7.16, hypertriglyceridemia (OR 7.91; 95% CI: 2.88-22.71, elevated waist circumference (OR 10.33; 95% CI: 3.72-30.67, overweight (OR 11.33; 95% CI: 3.97-41.07, and increased body fat percentage (OR 8.34; 95% CI: 2.94-30.08 were independent determinants of metabolic syndrome. Using the final multivariate regression model, similar results were observed for abdominal fat (OR 9.98; 95% CI: 2.63-44.41 and total body fat percentage (OR 8.73; 95% CI: 2.33-42.34. However, metabolic syndrome risk was also high for those with blood glucose >5.55 mmol/L or HDL cholesterol <0.9 mmol/L (OR 16.69; 95% CI: 4.64-76.35; OR 7.23; 95% CI: 1.86-32.63, respectively. CONCLUSION: Metabolic syndrome is highly prevalent among hepatitis C virus-infected patients without type 2 diabetes or obesity. Metabolic syndrome was

  11. Delayed Diagnosis of Tuberculous Meningitis Misdiagnosed as Herpes Simplex Virus-1 Encephalitis With the FilmArray Syndromic Polymerase Chain Reaction Panel

    OpenAIRE

    Gomez, Carlos A.; Pinsky, Benjamin A.; Liu, Anne; Banaei, Niaz

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The FilmArray meningitis/encephalitis (ME) panel is a novel syndromic, nucleic acid amplification test for diagnosis of acute meningitis and encephalitis. Emerging data on its performance are concerning for false-positive results. We present a case of tuberculous meningitis misdiagnosed as herpes simplex virus-1 encephalitis with the FilmArray ME panel. Strategies to mitigate erroneous results are discussed.

  12. Changes in leukocyte subsets of pregnant gilts experimentally infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus and relationships with viral load and fetal outcome

    OpenAIRE

    Ladinig, Andrea; Gerner, Wilhelm; Saalmüller, Armin; Lunney, Joan K; Ashley, Carolyn; Harding, John CS

    2014-01-01

    International audience; In spite of more than two decades of extensive research, the understanding of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSv) immunity is still incomplete. A PRRSv infection of the late term pregnant female can result in abortions, early farrowings, fetal death, and the birth of weak, congenitally infected piglets. The objectives of the present study were to investigate changes in peripheral blood mononuclear cell populations in third trimester pregnant fem...

  13. Further evaluation of alternative air-filtration systems for reducing the transmission of Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus by aerosol

    OpenAIRE

    Dee, Scott A.; Deen, John; Cano, Jean Paul; Batista, Laura; Pijoan, Carlos

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare 4 methods for the reduction of aerosol transmission of Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV): high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filtration, 2×-low-cost filtration, bag filtration, and use of a filter tested against particles derived from dioctylphthalate (DOP). The HEPA-filtration system used a prefilter screen, a bag filter (Eurovent [EU] 8 rating), and a HEPA filter (EU13 rating). The low-cost-filtration system contained mo...

  14. Experimental inoculation of swine at various stages of gestation with a Danish isolate of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kranker, Søren; Nielsen, Jens; Bille-Hansen, Vivi

    1998-01-01

    Following intranasal inoculation of three groups of pregnant swine (in total 11 dams) with a Danish isolate of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) on or about day 85, 70 and 45 of gestation, respectively, reproductive disturbances were observed in the first two groups...... inflammatory conditions, especially in the lung and heart. In conclusion, the present results support the hypothesis, that PRRSV infection of dams late in pregnancy has the greatest likelihood of transplacental infection of fetuses....

  15. An unusual case of primary human immunodeficiency virus infection presenting as mononucleosis-like syndrome and acute aseptic meningoencephalitis. Report of a case and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Corti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinical presentation of primary human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection includes a wide spectrum of manifestations from asymptomatic infection to a symptomatic and severe illness. Central nervous system involvement should be always considered as a severe clinical form of primary HIV infection. Physicians should be aware to the broad clinical spectrum of primary HIV infection. We report a case of a female with diagnosis of mononucleosis-like syndrome and acute aseptic meningoencephalitis during primary HIV infection.

  16. Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Infection Induces Stress Granule Formation Depending on Protein Kinase R-like Endoplasmic Reticulum Kinase (PERK) in MARC-145 Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Yanrong; Fang, Liurong; Wang, Dang; Cai, Kaimei; Chen, Huanchun; Xiao, Shaobo

    2017-01-01

    Stress granules (SGs) are sites of mRNA storage that are formed in response to various conditions of stress, including viral infections. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is an Arterivirus that has been devastating the swine industry worldwide since the late 1980s. In this study, we found that infection of PRRSV strain WUH3 (genotype 2 PRRSV) induced stable formation of robust SGs in MARC-145 cells, as demonstrated by the recruitment of marker proteins of SGs, includ...

  17. Virulence of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) isolates may be correlated with the degree of replication in gills of Penaeus vannamei juveniles

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, M.M; Corteel, M.; Escobedo-Bonilla, C.M.; Wille, M.; Alday-Sanz, V.; Pensaert, M. B.; Sorgeloos, P.; Nauwynck, H J

    2008-01-01

    A standardized inoculation model was used in 2 separate experiments to gauge the virulence of 3 white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) isolates from Thailand and Vietnam (WSSV Thai-1, WSSV Thai-2, and WSSV Viet) in Penaeus vannamei juveniles. Mortality patterns (Expt 1) were compared and WSSV-positive cells quantified (Expt 2) in tissues following intramuscular inoculation of shrimp with the most (WSSV Thai-1) and least (WSSV Viet) virulent isolates as determined by Expt 1. The results of Expt 1 de...

  18. A Phase 1 clinical trial of Hantaan virus and Puumala virus M-segment DNA vaccines for haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome delivered by intramuscular electroporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, J W; Moon, J E; Paolino, K M; Newcomer, R; McLain, D E; Josleyn, M; Hannaman, D; Schmaljohn, C

    2014-05-01

    Haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) is endemic in Asia, Europe and Scandinavia, and is caused by infection with the hantaviruses Hantaan (HTNV), Seoul (SEOV), Puumala (PUUV), or Dobrava (DOBV) viruses. We developed candidate DNA vaccines for HFRS expressing the Gn and Gc genes of HTNV or PUUV and evaluated them in an open-label, single-centre Phase 1 study. Three groups of nine participants each were vaccinated on days 0, 28 and 56 with the DNA vaccines for HTNV, PUUV, or a mixture of both vaccines using the Ichor Medical Systems TriGrid Intramuscular Delivery System. All vaccinations consisted of a total dose of 2.0 mg DNA in an injected volume of 1 mL saline. For the combined vaccine, the mixture contained equal amounts (1.0 mg) of each DNA vaccine. There were no study-related serious adverse events. Neutralizing antibody responses were measured by a plaque reduction neutralization test. Neutralizing antibody responses were detected in five of nine and seven of nine individuals who completed all three vaccinations with the HTNV or PUUV DNA vaccines, respectively. In the combined vaccine group, seven of the nine volunteers receiving all three vaccinations developed neutralizing antibodies to PUUV. The three strongest responders to the PUUV vaccine also had strong neutralizing antibody responses to HTNV. These results demonstrate that the HTNV and PUUV DNA vaccines delivered by electroporation separately or as a mixture are safe. In addition, both vaccines were immunogenic, although when mixed together, more participants responded to the PUUV than to the HTNV DNA vaccine. © 2014 The Authors Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2014 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

  19. Molecular Markers for Genetic Diversity Studies of European Hare (Lepus europaeus Pallas, 1778 Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noémi Soós

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to give an overview of different molecular techniques which have been used in studies concerning population genetic issues of Lepus species and specifically of L. europaeus. The importance of these researches is ever-growing as the European populations of the brown hare have suffered several falloffs as a consequent upon both natural and anthropogenic effects. With developing tools and techniques molecular genetics have become the centrepiece of population genetics and conservation biology. Nucleic acid methods based on both bi- and uniparentally inherited DNA (allozymes, microsatellites, Y chromosome, mtDNA are often used to study genetic structure, diversity and phylogeography of different species’ populations due to their effectiveness in identifying genetic variability

  20. Psychopathy in Bulgaria: The cross-cultural generalizability of the Hare Psychopathy Checklist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Michael J.; Abramowitz, Carolyn; Vasilev, Georgi; Bozgunov, Kiril; Vassileva, Jasmin

    2014-01-01

    The generalizability of the psychopathy construct to Eastern European cultures has not been well-studied, and no prior studies have evaluated psychopathy in non-offender samples from this population. The current validation study examines the factor structure, internal consistency, and external validity of the Bulgarian translation of the Hare Psychopathy Checklist: Screening Version. Two hundred sixty-two Bulgarian adults from the general community were assessed, of which 185 had a history of substance dependence. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated good fit for the two-, three-, and four-factor models of psychopathy. Zero-order and partial correlation analyses were conducted between the two factors of psychopathy and criterion measures of antisocial behavior, internalizing and externalizing psychopathology, personality traits, addictive disorders and demographic characteristics. Relationships to external variables provided evidence for the convergent and discriminant validity of the psychopathy construct in a Bulgarian community sample. PMID:25313268

  1. Paleomagnetism of Eocene Talerua Member Lavas on Hareøen Island, West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, N.; Schmidt, Anne G.; Riisager, P.

    2005-01-01

    in the West Greenland flood volcanic province. Rock magnetic experiments and microprobe analysis show that the dominant magnetic mineral in all studied lavas is titanomagnetite that has experienced variable amounts of high temperature deuteric oxidation as well as low temperature hydro-thermal oxidation....... Based on detailed demagnetisation experiments, well-defined paleomagnetic site-mean directions were isolated from all 19 lavas. The composite profile contains two magnetic polarity zones suggesting a maximum duration of Talerua Member volcanism of ~1.4 Myr. After grouping flows indicating the same......The results of a palaeomagnetic sampling carried out along two vertical profiles (altogether 19 lavaflows, 126 samples) covering the entire stratigraphy of the Talerua Member lavas (~39 Myr old) that outcrop on the island Hareøen are presented and represent some of the youngest volcanism...

  2. Genetic and biological characterization of a Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus 2 (PRRSV-2)causing significant clinical disease in the field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvisgaard, Lise Kirstine; Larsen, Lars Erik; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane

    2017-01-01

    Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV) is the cause of severe reproductive and respiratory disease in swine worldwide. In Denmark, both PRRSV-1 and PRRSV-2 are circulating and approximately 35% of pig herds are seropositive for PRRSV. In November 2010, a pig herd...... in the Northern part of Denmark experienced an infection with PRRSV-2 with clinical signs that were much more severe than normally reported from current Danish PRRSV-2 affected herds. Due to the clinical observations of reproductive failure in sows and high mortality in piglets, it was speculated that a new, more....... Virus shedding, acute phase protein responses and serological responses were comparable to those seen after experimental challenge with a Danish PRRSV-2 reference strain isolated in 1997. Vaccination with a commercial modified live PRRSV-2 vaccine had a clear reducing effect on virus shedding, magnitude...

  3. The Mechanism of Synchronous Precise Regulation of Two Shrimp White Spot Syndrome Virus Targets by a Viral MicroRNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaodong He

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs, important factors in animal innate immunity, suppress the expressions of their target genes by binding to target mRNA’s 3′ untranslated regions (3′UTRs. However, the mechanism of synchronous regulation of multiple targets by a single miRNA remains unclear. In this study, the interaction between a white spot syndrome virus (WSSV miRNA (WSSV-miR-N32 and its two viral targets (wsv459 and wsv322 was characterized in WSSV-infected shrimp. The outcomes indicated that WSSV-encoded miRNA (WSSV-miR-N32 significantly inhibited virus infection by simultaneously targeting wsv459 and wsv322. The silencing of wsv459 or wsv322 by siRNA led to significant decrease of WSSV copies in shrimp, showing that the two viral genes were required for WSSV infection. WSSV-miR-N32 could mediate 5′–3′ exonucleolytic digestion of its target mRNAs, which stopped at the sites of target mRNA 3′UTRs close to the sequence complementary to the miRNA seed sequence. The complementary bases (to the target mRNA sequence of a miRNA 9th–18th non-seed sequence were essential for the miRNA targeting. Therefore, our findings presented novel insights into the mechanism of miRNA-mediated suppression of target gene expressions, which would be helpful for understanding the roles of miRNAs in innate immunity of invertebrate.

  4. Genetic diversity of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in Thailand and Southeast Asia from 2008 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jantafong, Tippawan; Sangtong, Pradit; Saenglub, Wimontiane; Mungkundar, Chatthapon; Romlamduan, Narin; Lekchareonsuk, Chalermpol; Lekcharoensuk, Porntippa

    2015-04-17

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) affects the swine industry worldwide. Annual surveillances taken from 2008 to 2013 revealed a 13.86% prevalence of PRRSVs in swine populations in Thailand. The selected positive samples were genetically characterized based on global systems and phylogenetic trees that were constructed using 967 ORF5 samples from this study, the collective sequences from Thailand and Southeast Asia and reference sequences. The results showed that both types I and II have been circulating in Thai swine and that genotype II was more prevalent than genotype I. Only type II was found in other countries in Southeast Asia. Type I PRRSVs from Thailand are clustered in subtype 1, clades A, D and H. Type II PRRSVs are topologically classified in lineage 1 and sublineages 5.1, 5.2 and 8.7, of which sublineage 8.7 was predominant, especially after 2010. PRRSVs in sublineage 8.7 are divided into two groups: classical NA and HP-PRRSV. An analysis of all HP-PRRSVs in Southeast Asia revealed four separate clades--A (SX2009-like), B (09HEN1-like), JXA1-like and GXFCH08-like--reflecting four different introductions of these viruses into Thailand, Lao PDR, Cambodia and Vietnam. HP-PRRSV first appeared in Thailand and Cambodia in 2008, 2 years before the first epidemic outbreaks. Recently, the genetics of PRRSVs in Southeast Asia have become more diverse. Thus, PRRSV genetics must be continually characterized and phylogenetically analyzed using global systematic classifications to provide annual genetic information for PRRS control and vaccine selection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. A Dimerization-Dependent Mechanism Drives the Endoribonuclease Function of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus nsp11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yuejun; Li, Youwen; Lei, Yingying; Ye, Gang; Shen, Zhou; Sun, Limeng; Luo, Rui; Wang, Dang; Fu, Zhen F; Xiao, Shaobo; Peng, Guiqing

    2016-05-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) RNA endoribonuclease nsp11 belongs to the XendoU superfamily and plays a crucial role in arterivirus replication. Here, we report the first crystal structure of the arterivirus nsp11 protein from PRRSV, which exhibits a unique structure and assembles into an asymmetric dimer whose structure is completely different from the hexameric structure of coronavirus nsp15. However, the structures of the PRRSV nsp11 and coronavirus nsp15 catalytic domains were perfectly superimposed, especially in the "active site loop" (His129 to His144) and "supporting loop" (Val162 to Thr179) regions. Importantly, our biochemical data demonstrated that PRRSV nsp11 exists mainly as a dimer in solution. Mutations of the major dimerization site determinants (Ser74 and Phe76) in the dimerization interface destabilized the dimer in solution and severely diminished endoribonuclease activity, indicating that the dimer is the biologically functional unit. In the dimeric structure, the active site loop and supporting loop are packed against one another and stabilized by monomer-monomer interactions. These findings may help elucidate the mechanism underlying arterivirus replication and may represent great potential for the development of antiviral drugs. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a member of the family Arteriviridae, order Nidovirales PRRSV is a major agent of respiratory diseases in pigs, causing tremendous economic losses to the swine industry worldwide. The PRRSV nsp11 endoribonuclease plays a vital role in arterivirus replication, but its precise roles and mechanisms of action are poorly understood. Here, we report the first dimeric structure of the arterivirus nsp11 from PRRSV at 2.75-Å resolution. Structural and biochemical experiments demonstrated that nsp11 exists mainly as a dimer in solution and that nsp11 may be fully active as a dimer. Mutagenesis and structural analysis revealed Nendo

  6. Pediatric Kawasaki Disease and Adult Human Immunodeficiency Virus Kawasaki-Like Syndrome Are Likely the Same Malady.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Raymond M; Bergmann, Kelly R; Manaloor, John J; Yu, Xiaoqing; Slaven, James E; Kharbanda, Anupam B

    2016-09-01

    Background.  Pediatric Kawasaki disease (KD) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) + adult Kawasaki-like syndrome (KLS) are dramatic vasculitides with similar physical findings. Both syndromes include unusual arterial histopathology with immunoglobulin (Ig)A + plasma cells, and both impressively respond to pooled Ig therapy. Their distinctive presentations, histopathology, and therapeutic response suggest a common etiology. Because blood is in immediate contact with inflamed arteries, we investigated whether KD and KLS share an inflammatory signature in serum. Methods.  A custom multiplex enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) defined the serum cytokine milieu in 2 adults with KLS during acute and convalescent phases, with asymptomatic HIV + subjects not taking antiretroviral therapy serving as controls. We then prospectively collected serum and plasma samples from children hospitalized with KD, unrelated febrile illnesses, and noninfectious conditions, analyzing them with a custom multiplex ELISA based on the KLS data. Results.  Patients with KLS and KD subjects shared an inflammatory signature including acute-phase reactants reflecting tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α biologic activity (soluble TNF receptor I/II) and endothelial/smooth muscle chemokines Ccl1 (Th2), Ccl2 (vascular inflammation), and Cxcl11 (plasma cell recruitment). Ccl1 was specifically elevated in KD versus febrile controls, suggesting a unique relationship between Ccl1 and KD/KLS pathogenesis. Conclusions.  This study defines a KD/KLS inflammatory signature mirroring a dysfunctional response likely to a common etiologic agent. The KD/KLS inflammatory signature based on elevated acute-phase reactants and specific endothelial/smooth muscle chemokines was able to identify KD subjects versus febrile controls, and it may serve as a practicable diagnostic test for KD.

  7. Iatrogenic Cushing's syndrome due to coadministration of ritonavir and inhaled budesonide in an asthmatic human immunodeficiency virus infected patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kedem, Eynat; Shahar, Eduardo; Hassoun, Gamal; Pollack, Shimon

    2010-09-01

    Iatrogenic Cushing's syndrome (CS) is caused by exposure to glucocorticoids and may be promoted by interaction with additional drugs. It is well known in asthmatic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients treated with inhaled fluticasone with ritonavir-containing antiretroviral regimen (cART). The authors present an asthmatic HIV-infected Ethiopian woman, treated with fluticasone/salmeterol, commencing cART with tenofovir, emtricitabine, and lopinavir/ritonavir. During 7 months she gained 9 kg and hyperpigmentation, mild edema, marked abdominal striae, and increase in blood pressure were noted. Plasma am and urine free cortisol levels confirmed CS diagnosis and fluticasone was discontinued. Complete resolution of CS occurred within 2 months. However, frequent asthma symptoms required resumption of inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) treatment, and budesonide/formeterol was prescribed. Soon reemergence of symptomatic CS was noted. Ritonavir dose was halved, but CS symptoms continued to develop. Budesonide was stopped and montelukast initiated. Resolution of cushingoid symptoms was observed within weeks. Corticosteroids are metabolized by cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4). Fluticasone has the longest glucocorticoid receptor-binding half-life and is 300 times more lipophilic than budesonide. Inhaled fluticasone possesses a high suppression rate of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Ritonavir, a potent CYP3A4 inhibitor, may inhibit corticosteroid degradation and increase its accumulation. Inhaled budesonide is less likely to cause adrenal suppression. Diagnosing Cushing's syndrome presents a clinical challenge due to similarities with clinical manifestations and side effects related to cART. In patients treated with inhaled or intranasal corticosteroids together with cART there may be a higher incidence of iatrogenic CS. CS should be looked for, and management considered carefully.

  8. Infection of rabbits with human immunodeficiency virus 1. A small animal model for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    1989-01-01

    Injection of rabbits with a human T cell line infected with HIV-1 caused seroconversion within 6 wk, and HIV-1 could be isolated from PBL cultures of infected rabbits. Identity of the isolated virus with HIV-1 was shown by analysis of products amplified by the polymerase chain reaction. HIV-1 infection was seen in rabbits injected with HIV-1- infected cells alone as well as in those that were first infected with HTLV-1 and subsequently with HIV-1. There were no consistent signs of disease in ...

  9. The association of metabolic syndrome and Chlamydia pneumoniae, Helicobacter pylori, cytomegalovirus, and herpes simplex virus type 1: The Persian Gulf Healthy Heart Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pazoki Raha

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The metabolic syndrome together with insulin resistance and their consequences are basic factors in pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Chronic infections with herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1, cytomegalovirus (CMV, and Chlamydia pneumoniae are associated with the development of atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease. The infectious aspects of metabolic syndrome have not been investigated. Methods In a cross-sectional, population-based study, we used National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP-Adult Treatment Panel (ATP-III criteria in 1791 subjects, aged 25 years and over, selected by cluster random sampling in three Iranian ports in the northern Persian Gulf. Sera were analyzed for IgG antibodies to Chlamydia pneumoniae, HSV-1, Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori and CMV using ELISA. Results In multiple logistic regression analysis, of the infectious agents, CMV [OR = 1.81 (1.05–3.10; p = 0.03], H. pylori [OR = 1.50 (1.12–2.00; p = 0.007] and Chlamydia pneumoniae [OR = 1.69 (1.27–2.25; p Conclusion The metabolic syndrome, which occurs very frequently in the general population, has a significant association with prior infection with Chlamydia pneumoniae, Helicobacter pylori, cytomegalovirus and herpes simplex virus type 1. Hypothesis about participation of infection in pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome should be investigated.

  10. Genotype 2 strains of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus dysregulate alveolar macrophage cytokine production via the unfolded protein response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Yu; Schniztlein, William M; Calzada-Nova, Gabriela; Zuckermann, Federico A

    2017-10-25

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infects alveolar macrophages (AMΦ) causing dysregulated interferon (IFN)-α and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α production through a mechanism(s) yet to be resolved. Here, we show that AMΦ infected with PRRSV secreted a reduced quantity of IFN-α following the cell exposure to synthetic dsRNA. This reduction did not correlate with reduced IFNA1 gene transcription. Rather, it coincided with two events that occurred late during infection and were indicative of translational attenuation, specifically, the activation of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α (eIF2α), and the appearance of stress granules. Notably, the typical rapid production of TNF-α by AMΦ exposed to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was suppressed or enhanced by PRRSV depending on when the LPS exposure occurred after virus infection. If exposure was delayed until 6 h post-infection (hpi) so that the development of the cytokine response coincided with the time in which phosphorylation of eIF2α by the stress sensor PERK (protein kinase RNA (PKR)-like ER kinase) occurred, inhibition of TNF-α production was observed. However, if LPS exposure occurred at 2 hpi, prior to a detectable onset of eIF2α phosphorylation, a synergistic response was observed due to the earlier NF-κB activation via the stress sensor IRE1α (inositol-requiring kinase 1α). These results suggest that the asynchronous actions of two branches of the unfolded protein response (UPR), namely IRE1α, and PERK, activated by ER stress resulting from the virus infection, are associated with enhancement or suppression of TNF-α production, respectively.IMPORTANCE The activation of AMΦ is controlled by its microenvironment to deter excessive pro-inflammatory cytokine responses to microbes that could impair lung function. However, viral pneumonias frequently become complicated by secondary bacterial infections triggering severe inflammation, lung dysfunction, and death. Although

  11. Cyclophosphamide therapy for corticoresistant drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) syndrome in a patient with severe kidney and eye involvement and Epstein-Barr virus reactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laban, Emilie; Hainaut-Wierzbicka, Eva; Pourreau, François; Yacoub, Mokrane; Sztermer, Emilie; Guillet, Gérard; Touchard, Guy; Bridoux, Frank

    2010-03-01

    DRESS (drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms) syndrome is a severe adverse drug reaction with significant mortality, characterized by erythroderma, fever, lymphadenopathy, and visceral involvement. We report a case of multivisceral DRESS syndrome with posterior multifocal placoid pigment epitheliopathy and acute tubulointerstitial nephritis responsible for dialysis-dependent acute kidney failure in the context of reactivation of Epstein-Barr virus infection. Because of resistance of the skin and kidney manifestations to prolonged corticosteroid therapy, a 6-month course of oral cyclophosphamide resulted in complete recovery of all symptoms. To our knowledge, this is the first case showing the efficacy of cyclophosphamide in severe DRESS syndrome. Copyright 2010 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. CONFIABILIDAD Y VALIDEZ DE LA VERSIÓN CHILENA DE LA HARE PCL-R Chilean version of Hare PCL-R: a study of reliability and validity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth León-Mayer

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Antecedentes. En Chile, al igual que en otros países latinoamericanos, diversas modificaciones judiciales y el interés de los profesionales en sistematizar sus métodos de evaluación en psicopatía promovieron la traducción, adaptación y revisión de las propiedades psicométricas de la Hare Psychopathy Checklist Revised (PCL-R. Objetivo. Evaluar aspectos de la confiabilidad y validez de la versión chilena del PCL-R en población forense masculina chilena. Material y métodos. Se realizó traducción y retrotraducción de la escala con la autorización del autor y editorial; se constituyó una muestra de 293 sujetos varones penados que aceptaron participar en la investigación. Entre otros análisis, se contrastó el diagnóstico obtenido a ciegas con la PCL-R con el aportado por el equipo técnico de Gendarmería de Chile. Resultados. La congruencia interna medida con Alfa de Cronbach fue la siguiente: total =0,91; F1= 0,86; F2 = 0,87; F3 = 0,67; F4= 0,77. Valor Kappa ambos tipos de evaluaciones = 0,804; p Background. In Chile as in other Latin American countries the introduction of the Adversarial Model in the Judicial System increased the need for the systematization of the evaluation of psychopathy, thus making necessary the translation, adaptation and revision of the psychometric properties of the Hare Psychopathy Checklist Revised. Objective. To evaluate aspects of the reliability and validity of the Chilean version of the PCL-R in Chilean male inmate population. Materials and methods. The PCL-R was translated and backtranslated with the authorization of the author and of the Editorial House. A sample of 293 inmates was constituted and the respective informed consent obtained. Several analyses were made including a blind comparison of the diagnosis made with the PCL-R and the one made by the Technical Area of Gendarmería of Chile. Results. The internal congruence measured with Crombach Alfa was: total =0,91; F1= 0,86; F2 = 0,87; F3

  13. Book review: Ham radio's technical culture. By K. Haring. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press. 2007. xvii + 220 pp. #18.95. cloth. ISBN: 0262083558

    OpenAIRE

    Geoghegan, Hilary

    2008-01-01

    Book review: Ham radio's technical culture. By K. Haring. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press. 2007. xvii + 220 pp. #18.95. cloth. ISBN: 0262083558 Department of Geography Royal Holloway, University of London - (Geoghegan, Hilary)

  14. Expansión Hare Krishna en contextos de crisis: resignificando la movilización social desde una perspectiva religiosa en Chile

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bahamondes González, Luis Andrés; Marín Alarcón, Nelson

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on the expansion of the Hare Krishna movement in Santiago, Chile, analysing mobilization discourse and mechanisms adopted in the face of the social upheavals of the new millennium...

  15. Multiscale habitat relationships of snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus) in the mixed conifer landscape of the Northern Rockies, USA: Cross-scale effects of horizontal cover with implications for forest management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbrook, Joseph D; Squires, John R; Olson, Lucretia E; Lawrence, Rick L; Savage, Shannon L

    2017-01-01

    Snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus) are an ecologically important herbivore because they modify vegetation through browsing and serve as a prey resource for multiple predators. We implemented a multiscale approach to characterize habitat relationships for snowshoe hares across the mixed conifer landscape of the northern Rocky Mountains, USA. Our objectives were to (1) assess the relationship between horizontal cover and snowshoe hares, (2) estimate how forest metrics vary across the gradient of snowshoe hare use and horizontal cover, and (3) model and map snowshoe hare occupancy and intensity of use. Results indicated that both occupancy and intensity of use by snowshoe hares increased with horizontal cover and that the effect became stronger as intensity of use increased. This underscores the importance of dense horizontal cover to achieve high use, and likely density, of snowshoe hares. Forest structure in areas with high snowshoe hare use and horizontal cover was characterized as multistoried with dense canopy cover and medium-sized trees (e.g., 12.7-24.4 cm). The abundance of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) was associated with snowshoe hare use within a mixed conifer context, and the only species to increase in abundance with horizontal cover was Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii) and subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa). Our landscape-level modeling produced similar patterns in that we observed a positive effect of lodgepole pine and horizontal cover on both occupancy and use by snowshoe hares, but we also observed a positive yet parabolic effect of snow depth on snowshoe hare occupancy. This work is among the first to characterize the multiscale habitat relationships of snowshoe hares across a mixed conifer landscape as well as to map their occupancy and intensity of use. Moreover, our results provide stand- and landscape-level insights that directly relate to management agencies, which aids in conservation efforts of snowshoe hares and their associated

  16. Behavioral surveillance survey regarding human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome among high school and junior college students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhosale S

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: It is necessary to know the baseline knowledge, attitude, and practices about human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome among young people and the changes in these with intervention to guide prevention efforts. Methods: A cross-sectional pre- and post-survey with health education as a method of intervention was carried out in four different randomly selected schools and junior colleges among the Class IX-XII students of both sex. Instrument developed by the World Health Organization (WHO/UNAIDS in their best practice recommendations was used for data collection. Results: Knowledge about all correct methods was present in 61.23% of the respondents. Knowledge of at least two methods of prevention was present in 70.31% of the respondents. Misconceptions about prevention were that good diet (33.42%, avoiding mosquito bite (49.71% and avoiding public toilets (65.14% could help in the prevention. With intervention, there was an improvement in the knowledge. However, the proportion of students with misconceptions did not come down. Correct knowledge about two methods of prevention also did not reach the WHO recommendation of 90%. Conclusion: It is very difficult to change the attitude and practices by a single health educational intervention and an ongoing behavior change communication is recommended.

  17. Targeted interventions in Rajasthan, India: How informed are the beneficiaries about transmission of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh L

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Research Questions: What is the present level of knowledge among the high-risk groups regarding human immunodeficiency virus (HIV transmission and what is the source of such knowledge? What role do the stakeholders play in enhancing their level of knowledge? Objectives: To assess the efficacy of interventions focused on high-risk groups, and to find out indications on the needs to work with the general population. Study Design : Community-based cross-sectional survey about transmission of HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS; Study Period: December 2002. Participants: 1792 respondents, which included 1001 truckers, 389 migrants, 206 street children, and 196 commercial sex workers (CSWs. Setting: In intervention sites under SACS in Rajasthan Analysis: Frequency distribution and Chi-square tests. Results: Knowledge about all the four methods of transmission of HIV/AIDS was found to be relatively poor among the targeted intervention subjects. Of those who knew about HIV/AIDS about 67 per cent of the spouses of out migrants (55% over one-third of the in migrants (35%, 45 per cent of the female commercial sex workers and 0.8 per cent truckers knew about all the correct modes of transmission of HIV/AIDS. TV/Radio emerged as the main source of knowledge about the correct modes of transmission for most of the respondents. The state health services and NGO workers, though primarily responsible for imparting knowledge to the subjects were found to be playing marginal role in the same.

  18. Addiction and sexually transmitted disease (STD), human immunodeficiency virus, (HIV), and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS): their mutual interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrian, Manuella

    2006-01-01

    We explore the links between substance use, misuse, addiction, and dependency1 and sexuality, sexually transmitted diseases (STD), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) to increase our awareness of their interdependence and to identify new ways to perceive, judge, and intervene (or not to) with associated problems. We consider the sociocultural and economic context in which these behaviors occur; the impact these behaviors have on one another; the personal opinions and attitudes; the religious, moral, or political beliefs and agendas; the physiological and fiscal constraints; and theories of rational decision-making and psychological motivation that act to increase or reduce the incidence of these behaviors and their sequellae, while hindering or facilitating prevention, harm reduction, and treatment interventions. Mechanisms of epidemic spread of STDS/HIV/AIDS are presented in the Appendix. Each of these terms are loaded "container concepts" that are culture-bound and stakeholder-driven and whose dimensions are less than consensus-based. They represent a range of meanings, uses, and misuses in an ongoing politicalized area of human and systemic functioning and adaptations.

  19. An Investigation into Occasional White Spot Syndrome Virus Outbreak in Traditional Paddy Cum Prawn Fields in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Gnana Selvam

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A yearlong (September 2009–August 2010 study was undertaken to find out possible reasons for occasional occurrence of White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV outbreak in the traditional prawn farms adjoining Cochin backwaters. Physicochemical and bacteriological parameters of water and sediment from feeder canal and four shrimp farms were monitored on a fortnightly basis. The physicochemical parameters showed variation during the two production cycles and between the farms studied. Dissolved oxygen (DO content of water from feeder canal showed low oxygen levels (as low as 0.8 mg/L throughout the study period. There was no disease outbreak in the perennial ponds. Poor water exchange coupled with nutrient loading from adjacent houses resulted in phytoplankton bloom in shallow seasonal ponds which led to hypoxic conditions in early morning and supersaturation of DO in the afternoon besides considerably high alkaline pH. Ammonia levels were found to be very high in these ponds. WSSV outbreak was encountered twice during the study leading to mass mortalities in the seasonal ponds. The hypoxia and high ammonia content in water and abrupt fluctuations in temperature, salinity and pH might lead to considerable stress in the shrimps triggering WSSV infection in these traditional ponds.

  20. Detection of Bovine Leukemia Virus in Brains of Cattle with a Neurological Syndrome: Pathological and Molecular Studies

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    Rubens Henrique Ramos D’Angelino

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bovine leukemia virus (BLV was investigated in the central nervous system (CNS of cattle with neurological syndrome. A total of 269 CNS samples were submitted to nested-PCR (BLV env gene gp51, and the viral genotypes were identified. The nested-PCR was positive in 4.8% (13/269 CNS samples, with 2.7% (2/74 presenting at histological examination lesions of nonpurulent meningoencephalitis (NPME, whereas 5.6% (11/195 not presenting NPME (P>0.05. No samples presented lymphosarcoma. The PCR products (437 bp were sequenced and submitted to phylogenetic analysis by neighbor-joining and maximum composite likelihood methods, and genotypes 1, 5, and 6 were detected, corroborating other South American studies. The genotype 6 barely described in Brazil and Argentina was more frequently detected in this study. The identity matrices showed maximum similarity (100% among some samples of this study and one from Argentina (FJ808582, recovered from GenBank. There was no association among the genotypes and NPME lesions.

  1. Detection of Bovine Leukemia Virus in Brains of Cattle with a Neurological Syndrome: Pathological and Molecular Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angelino, Rubens Henrique Ramos; Pituco, Edviges Maristela; Villalobos, Eliana Monteforte Cassaro; Harakava, Ricardo; Gregori, Fábio

    2013-01-01

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) was investigated in the central nervous system (CNS) of cattle with neurological syndrome. A total of 269 CNS samples were submitted to nested-PCR (BLV env gene gp51), and the viral genotypes were identified. The nested-PCR was positive in 4.8% (13/269) CNS samples, with 2.7% (2/74) presenting at histological examination lesions of nonpurulent meningoencephalitis (NPME), whereas 5.6% (11/195) not presenting NPME (P > 0.05). No samples presented lymphosarcoma. The PCR products (437 bp) were sequenced and submitted to phylogenetic analysis by neighbor-joining and maximum composite likelihood methods, and genotypes 1, 5, and 6 were detected, corroborating other South American studies. The genotype 6 barely described in Brazil and Argentina was more frequently detected in this study. The identity matrices showed maximum similarity (100%) among some samples of this study and one from Argentina (FJ808582), recovered from GenBank. There was no association among the genotypes and NPME lesions. PMID:23710448

  2. Chemical constituents from Chirita longgangensis var. hongyao with inhibitory activity against porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Yao; Wang, Yue-Hu; Tan, Ying; Yang, Jun; Liu, Hong-Xin; Gu, Wei; Long, Chun-Lin, E-mail: long@mail.kib.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Economic Plants and Biotechnology, Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences (China); Bi, Jun-Long; Yin, Ge-Fen, E-mail: yingefen383@sohu.com [College of Animal Science and Technology, Yunnan Agricultural University (China)

    2012-10-15

    Two new quinonoids chiritalone A and B, and a new neolignan 7'E-4,9-dihydroxy- 3,3',5'-trimethoxy-8,4'-oxyneolign-7'-en-9'-al, along with known (-)-8-hydroxy-{alpha}-dunnione, digiferruginol, 2,5-dimethoxy-1,4-benzoquinone and hederagenin, were isolated from the stems of Chirita longgangensis var. hongyao. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by detailed analysis from NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) and MS (mass spectrometry) data, and the absolute configuration of chiritalone A was determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis using the Flack parameter. The inhibitory activity of compounds against porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus (PRRSV) was measured by the cytopathic effect (CPE) method. Digiferruginol and hederagenin showed weak effect on PRRSV with an IC{sub 50} value of 80.5 {+-} 16.9 {mu}mol L{sup -1} (SI = 19.9) and 43.2 {+-} 7.4 {mu}mol L{sup -1} (SI = 13.1), respectively. (author)

  3. Dobrava virus carried by the yellow-necked field mouse Apodemus flavicollis, causing hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panculescu-Gatej, Raluca Ioana; Sirbu, Anca; Dinu, Sorin; Waldstrom, Maria; Heyman, Paul; Murariu, Dimitru; Petrescu, Angela; Szmal, Camelia; Oprisan, Gabriela; Lundkvist, Ake; Ceianu, Cornelia S

    2014-05-01

    Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) has been confirmed by serological methods during recent years in Romania. In the present study, focus-reduction neutralization tests (FRNT) confirmed Dobrava hantavirus (DOBV) as the causative agent in some HFRS cases, but could not distinguish between DOBV and Saaremaa virus (SAAV) infections in other cases. DOBV was detected by a DOBV-specific TaqMan assay in sera of nine patients out of 22 tested. Partial sequences of the M genomic segment of DOBV were obtained from sera of three patients and revealed the circulation of two DOBV lineages in Romania. Investigation of rodents trapped in Romania found three DOBV-positive Apodemus flavicollis out of 83 rodents tested. Two different DOBV lineages were also detected in A. flavicollis as determined from partial sequences of the M and S genomic segments. Sequences of DOBV in A. flavicollis were either identical or closely related to the sequences obtained from the HFRS patients. The DOBV strains circulating in Romania clustered in two monophyletic groups, together with strains from Slovenia and the north of Greece. This is the first evidence for the circulation of DOBV in wild rodents and for a DOBV etiology of HFRS in Romania.

  4. Interactome profile of the host cellular proteins and the nonstructural protein 2 of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Zhou, Lei; Zhang, Han; Li, Yan; Ge, Xinna; Guo, Xin; Yu, Kangzhen; Yang, Hanchun

    2014-01-01

    The nonstructural protein 2 (NSP2) is considered to be one of crucial viral proteins in the replication and pathogenesis of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). In the present study, the host cellular proteins that interact with the NSP2 of PRRSV were immunoprecipitated with anti-Myc antibody from the MARC-145 cells infected by a recombinant PRRSV with 3xMyc tag insertion in its NSP2-coding region, and then 285 cellular proteins interacting with NSP2 were identified by LC-MS/MS. The Gene Ontology and enriched KEGG Pathway bioinformatics analyses indicated that the identified proteins could be assigned to different subcellular locations and functional classes. Functional analysis of the interactome profile highlighted cellular pathways associated with infectious disease, translation, immune system, nervous system and signal transduction. Two interested cellular proteins-BCL2-associated athanogene 6 (BAG6) and apoptosis-inducing factor 1 (AIF1) which may involve in transporting of NSP2 to Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) or PRRSV-driven apoptosis were validated by Western blot. The interactome data between PRRSV NSP2 and cellular proteins contribute to the understanding of the roles of NSP2 in the replication and pathogenesis of PRRSV, and also provide novel cellular target proteins for elucidating the associated molecular mechanisms of the interaction of host cellular proteins with viral proteins in regulating the viral replication.

  5. Interactome profile of the host cellular proteins and the nonstructural protein 2 of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Wang

    Full Text Available The nonstructural protein 2 (NSP2 is considered to be one of crucial viral proteins in the replication and pathogenesis of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV. In the present study, the host cellular proteins that interact with the NSP2 of PRRSV were immunoprecipitated with anti-Myc antibody from the MARC-145 cells infected by a recombinant PRRSV with 3xMyc tag insertion in its NSP2-coding region, and then 285 cellular proteins interacting with NSP2 were identified by LC-MS/MS. The Gene Ontology and enriched KEGG Pathway bioinformatics analyses indicated that the identified proteins could be assigned to different subcellular locations and functional classes. Functional analysis of the interactome profile highlighted cellular pathways associated with infectious disease, translation, immune system, nervous system and signal transduction. Two interested cellular proteins-BCL2-associated athanogene 6 (BAG6 and apoptosis-inducing factor 1 (AIF1 which may involve in transporting of NSP2 to Endoplasmic reticulum (ER or PRRSV-driven apoptosis were validated by Western blot. The interactome data between PRRSV NSP2 and cellular proteins contribute to the understanding of the roles of NSP2 in the replication and pathogenesis of PRRSV, and also provide novel cellular target proteins for elucidating the associated molecular mechanisms of the interaction of host cellular proteins with viral proteins in regulating the viral replication.

  6. Highly Sensitive Detection of Low-Abundance White Spot Syndrome Virus by a Pre-Amplification PCR Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xiaoming; Zhang, Yanfang; Sha, Xuejiao; Wang, Jing; Li, Jing; Dong, Ping; Liang, Xingguo

    2017-03-28

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a major threat to the shrimp farming industry and so far there is no effective therapy for it, and thus early diagnostic of WSSV is of great importance. However, at the early stage of infection, the extremely low-abundance of WSSV DNA challenges the detection sensitivity and accuracy of PCR. To effectively detect low-abundance WSSV, here we developed a pre-amplification PCR (pre-amp PCR) method to amplify trace amounts of WSSV DNA from massive background genomic DNA. Combining with normal specific PCR, 10 copies of target WSSV genes were detected from ~1010 magnitude of backgrounds. In particular, multiple target genes were able to be balanced amplified with similar efficiency due to the usage of the universal primer. The efficiency of the pre-amp PCR was validated by nested-PCR and quantitative PCR, and pre-amp PCR showed higher efficiency than nested-PCR when multiple targets were detected. The developed method is particularly suitable for the super early diagnosis of WSSV, and has potential to be applied in other low-abundance sample detection cases.

  7. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus and porcine circovirus type 2 infections in wild boar (Sus scrofa) in southwestern Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Ralf; Ritzmann, Mathias; Palzer, Andreas; Lang, Christiane; Hammer, Birgit; Pesch, Stefan; Ladinig, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    Samples were collected from 203 wild boars (Sus scrofa) hunted in Baden-Wurtemburg, Germany from November-January 2008 and 2009. Samples from the lung and tonsil were analyzed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) for porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) type 1 (European type) and type 2 (American type). A qPCR to detect porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2)-specific genome was performed on tissue homogenates including lung, tonsils, and inguinal lymph nodes. Serum samples were tested for antibodies against PRRSV and PCV2 by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). No PRRSV was detected in any of the 203 samples and one sample had detectable antibodies against PRRSV. We detected PCV2 in organ materials from 103 wild boars with a prevalence of 50.7%. The number of wild boars positive for PCV2 by PCR varied according to the population density of wild boars among woodlands. More positive samples were detected in woodlands with a high density of wild boars. We found no correlation between the number of PCV2-positive wild boars and the density of domestic pigs in the surrounding area. The number of wild boars positive for antibodies against PCV2 by the INGEZIM Circovirus IgG/IgM test kit was low (53 sera positive for IgG- and three sera positive for IgM-antibodies) in comparison to the higher positive results from the INGEZIM CIRCO IgG test kit (102 positive and 12 inconclusive results).

  8. Novel Insights into Antiviral Gene Regulation of Red Swamp Crayfish, Procambarus clarkii, Infected with White Spot Syndrome Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaokui Yi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available White spot syndrome virus (WSSV, one of the major pathogens of Procambarus clarkii, has caused severe disruption to the aquaculture industry of P. clarkii in China. To reveal the gene regulatory mechanisms underlying WSSV infection, a comparative transcriptome analysis was performed among WSSV-infected susceptible individuals (GS, viral resistant individuals (GR, and a non-infected control group (GC. A total of 61,349 unigenes were assembled from nine libraries. Subsequently, 515 and 1033 unigenes exhibited significant differential expression in sensitive and resistant crayfish individuals compared to the control group (GC. Many differentially expressed genes (e.g., C-type lectin 4, Peroxinectin, Prophenoloxidase, and Serine/threonine-protein kinase observed in GR and GS play critical roles in pathogen recognition and viral defense reactions after WSSV infection. Importantly, the glycosaminoglycan biosynthesis-chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate pathway was identified to play critical roles in defense to WSSV infection for resistant crayfish individuals by upregulating the chondroitin sulfate related genes for the synthesis of WSSV-sensitive, functional chondroitin sulfate chains containing E units. Numerous genes and the key pathways identified between resistant and susceptible P. clarkii individuals provide valuable insights regarding antiviral response mechanisms of decapoda species and may help to improve the selective breeding of P. clarkii WSSV-resistance.

  9. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV in GB pig herds: farm characteristics associated with heterogeneity in seroprevalence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medley Graham F

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The between- and within-herd variability of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV antibodies were investigated in a cross-sectional study of 103 British pig herds conducted 2003–2004. Fifty pigs from each farm were tested for anti-PRRSV antibodies using ELISA. A binomial logistic model was used to investigate management risks for farms with and without pigs with PRRSV antibodies and multilevel statistical models were used to investigate variability in pigs' log ELISA IRPC (relative index × 100 in positive herds. Results Thirty-five herds (34.0% were seronegative, 41 (39.8% were seropositive and 27 (26.2% were vaccinated. Herds were more likely to be seronegative if they had Conclusion These patterns are consistent with PRRSV failing to persist indefinitely on some infected farms, with fadeout more likely in smaller herds with little/no reintroduction of infectious stock. Persistence of infection may be associated with large herds in pig-dense regions with repeated reintroduction.

  10. Five Years Seroprevalence Study of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus in Lithuanian Pig and Wild Boar Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stankevičius Arunas

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Serological study of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV infection in pigs and wild boars was conducted in Lithuania between 2009 and 2013. Antibody level was measured using a commercial ELISA. The 4.32% (95% CI 3.92-4.72 out of 9856 examined porcine sera were positive for the PRRSV antibodies. The antibodies were detected in 11.82% (95% CI 10.28-13.36 of all investigated serum samples of sows and gilts. As much as 8.2% of serologically positive samples (95% CI 6.83-9.57 were determined in the piglets under three months of age. Considerably smaller (P < 0.05 seroprevalence was detected in boars (0.62% and fattening pigs (1.84%. From 1357 examined sera of wild boar, collected between 2009 and 2013 hunting seasons, 5.38% (95% CI 4.52-8.2 of samples were positive for PRRSV antibodies in 23 locations out of 50 investigated. The analysis of seroprevalence in different age groups of wild boars showed that PRRSV antibodies were detected in all age groups; however, it was significantly higher in adults than in juveniles or subadults and reached up to 10.02% (95% CI 7.39-12.65.

  11. Strain predominance following exposure of vaccinated and naive pregnant gilts to multiple strains of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lager, Kelly M; Mengeling, William L; Wesley, Ronald D

    2003-05-01

    Two studies were performed in order to test the relative ability of different strains of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) to replicate and cross the placental barrier in pregnant gilts. Study 1 comprised 6 nonvaccinated gilts. Study 2 comprised 8 nonvaccinated gilts and 12 gilts that were vaccinated twice before conception. On, or about, gestation day 90 all gilts were simultaneously exposed to 20 field strains of PRRSV (all strains were distinguishable by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) patterns). Gilts of study 1 were euthanized on day 7 postpartum. Gilts of study 2 were euthanized on, or about, gestation day 111. All gilts, pigs, and fetuses were tested for the presence and type of strain of PRRSV. Of 128 samples shown to contain PRRSV, 118 contained a single strain, 4 contained 2 strains, and 2 contained a strain or strains for which the RFLP pattern was undecipherable. Only 8 of the 20 strains were isolated from nonvaccinated gilts and their litters. And only 2 of the 20 strains (notably 2 of the same strains isolated from nonvaccinated gilts and their litters), were isolated from vaccinated gilts and their litters. Moreover, 1 of the 2 strains accounted for most (31 of 37; 84%) of the isolates from the vaccinated group. Collectively these results indicate that strains differ in their ability to replicate in pregnant gilts and cross the placental barrier. And they suggest that maternal immunity, although sometimes insufficient to prevent transplacental infection, can exert additional selective pressure.

  12. Detection and typing of highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus by multiplex real-time rt-PCR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerstin Wernike

    Full Text Available Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS causes economic losses in the pig industry worldwide, and PRRS viruses (PRRSV are classified into the two distinct genotypes "North American (NA, type 2" and "European (EU, type 1". In 2006, a highly pathogenic NA strain of PRRSV (HP-PRRSV, characterized by high fever as well as high morbidity and mortality, emerged in swine farms in China. Therefore, a real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR assay specific for HP-PRRSV was developed and combined with type 1- and type 2-specific RT-qPCR systems. Furthermore, an internal control, based on a heterologous RNA, was successfully introduced. This final multiplex PRRSV RT-qPCR, detecting and typing PRRSV, had an analytical sensitivity of less than 200 copies per µl for the type 1-assay and 20 copies per µl for the type 2- and HP assays and a high diagnostic sensitivity. A panel of reference strains and field isolates was reliably detected and samples from an animal trial with a Chinese HP-PRRS strain were used for test validation. The new multiplex PRRSV RT-qPCR system allows for the first time the highly sensitive detection and rapid differentiation of PRRSV of both genotypes as well as the direct detection of HP-PRRSV.

  13. Behavioral surveillance survey regarding human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome among high school and junior college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhosale, S B; Jadhav, S L; Singru, Samir A; Banerjee, Amitav

    2010-01-01

    It is necessary to know the baseline knowledge, attitude, and practices about human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome among young people and the changes in these with intervention to guide prevention efforts. A cross-sectional pre- and post-survey with health education as a method of intervention was carried out in four different randomly selected schools and junior colleges among the Class IX-XII students of both sex. Instrument developed by the World Health Organization (WHO)/UNAIDS in their best practice recommendations was used for data collection. Knowledge about all correct methods was present in 61.23% of the respondents. Knowledge of at least two methods of prevention was present in 70.31% of the respondents. Misconceptions about prevention were that good diet (33.42%), avoiding mosquito bite (49.71%) and avoiding public toilets (65.14%) could help in the prevention. With intervention, there was an improvement in the knowledge. However, the proportion of students with misconceptions did not come down. Correct knowledge about two methods of prevention also did not reach the WHO recommendation of 90%. It is very difficult to change the attitude and practices by a single health educational intervention and an ongoing behavior change communication is recommended.

  14. Determinants of risk behavior for human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in people with severe mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, S D; Trumbetta, S L; Mueser, K T; Goodman, L A; Osher, F C; Vidaver, R M; Metzger, D S

    2001-01-01

    We examined the prevalence and correlates of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) risk behaviors in a large sample of severely mentally ill (SMI) patients. Risk levels were correlated with demographic factors, diagnosis, symptom severity, trauma history, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), substance use disorder (SUD), and sexual orientation. SMI clients from urban and rural settings (N = 275) were assessed regarding HIV/AIDS risk behaviors, and hypothesized risk factors. Patients exhibited substantial levels of risky behavior, particularly sexual risk. Correlates of increased risk included SUD, trauma, male homosexual orientation, younger age, and symptom severity. Structural equation modeling identified SUD and sexual orientation as the primary determinants of both drug and sexual risk behavior. We conclude that specific illness related variables appear to have less impact on risk behavior among people with SMI than previously hypothesized. Substance abuse prevention and treatment may be the most effective means of reducing HIV risk in this population. Copyright 2001 by W.B. Saunders Company

  15. Zika Virus-Associated Neurological Disease in the Adult: Guillain-Barré Syndrome, Encephalitis, and Myelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Laura S; Barreras, Paula; Pardo, Carlos A

    2016-09-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) has caused a major infection outbreak in the Americas since 2015. In parallel with the ZIKV epidemic, an increase in cases of neurological disorders which include Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), encephalitis, and myelitis have been linked to the infection. We reviewed the evidence suggesting a relationship between ZIKV and neurological disorders in adults. A search of the literature supporting such link included databases such as PubMed and the World Health Organization (WHO) surveillance system. Through June 1, 2016, 761 publications were available on PubMed using the search word "Zika." Among those publications as well as surveillance reports released by the WHO and other health organizations, 20 articles linked ZIKV with neurological complications other than microcephaly. They corresponded to population and surveillance studies (n = 7), case reports (n = 9), case series (n = 3), and case-control studies (n = 1). Articles were also included if they provided information related to possible mechanisms of ZIKV neuropathogenesis. Evidence based on epidemiological and virological information supports the hypothesis that ZIKV infection is associated with GBS. Although cases of encephalopathy and myelitis have also been linked to ZIKV infection, the evidence is scarce and there is a need for virological, epidemiological, and controlled studies to better characterize such relationship. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  16. Zika virus-induced neurological critical illness in Latin America: Severe Guillain-Barre Syndrome and encephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastián, Ugarte Ubiergo; Ricardo, Arenas Villamizar Angel; Alvarez, Bruno C; Cubides, Angela; Luna, Angélica F; Arroyo-Parejo, Max; Acuña, Cayri E; Quintero, Agamenón V; Villareal, Orlando Ch; Pinillos, Oscar S; Vieda, Elías; Bello, Manuel; Peña, Susana; Dueñas-Castell, Carmelo; Rodriguez, Gloria M V; Ranero, Jorge L M; López, Rosa L M; Olaya, Sandra G; Vergara, José C; Tandazo, Ana; Ospina, Juan P S; Leyton Soto, Igor M; Fowler, R A; Marshall, John C

    2017-08-09

    Zika virus (ZIKAV) is classically described as causing minor symptoms in adult patients, however neurologic complications have been recognized. The recent outbreak in Central and South America has resulted in serious illness in some adult patients. We report adult patients in Latin America diagnosed with ZIKAV infection admitted to Intensive Care Units (ICUs). Multicenter, prospective case series of adult patients with laboratory diagnosis of ZIKAV in 16 ICUs in 8 countries. Between December 1st 2015 and April 2nd 2016, 16 ICUs in 8 countries enrolled 49 critically ill patients with diagnosis of ZIKAV infection. We included 10 critically ill patients with ZIKAV infection, as diagnosed with RT-PCR, admitted to the ICU. Neurologic manifestations concordant with Guillain-Barre Syndrome (GBS) were present in all patients, although 2 evolved into an encephalitis-like picture. 2 cases died, one due to encephalitis, the other septic shock. Differing from what was usually reported, ZIKAV infection can result in life-threatening neurologic illness in adults, including GBS and encephalitis. Collaborative reporting to identify severe illness from an emerging pathogen can provide valuable insights into disease epidemiology and clinical presentation, and inform public health authorities about acute care priorities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Molecular modeling and expression of the Litopenaeus vannamei proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) after white spot syndrome virus shrimp infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de-la-Re-Vega, Enrique; Muhlia-Almazan, Adriana; Arvizu-Flores, Aldo A; Islas-Osuna, Maria A; Yepiz-Plascencia, Gloria; Brieba, Luis G; Sotelo-Mundo, Rogerio R

    2011-01-01

    Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) is the eukaryotic sliding clamp that tethers DNA polymerase to DNA during replication. The full-length cDNA of the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei PCNA (LvPCNA) was cloned and encoded a protein of 260 amino acids that is highly similar to other Crustacean PCNAs. The theoretical shrimp PCNA structure has all the domains that are necessary for its interaction with template DNA and DNA polymerase. RT-PCR analysis showed that LvPCNA is expressed mainly in muscle and hemocytes and much less in hepatopancreas and gills. LvPCNA mRNA levels are not statistically different in muscle from healthy and challenged shrimp with the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). In contrast, the mRNA levels of the viral DNA polymerase show a biphasic pattern with expression at 6 h post-infection and later at 24 and 48 h. These results suggest that in shrimp muscle LvPCNA levels are steadily kept to allow viral replication and that WSSV DNA polymerase (WSSV-DNApol) is more responsive towards later stages of infection. More knowledge of the DNA replication machinery would result in a better understanding of the mechanism and components of viral replication, since the WSSV genome does not have all the components required for assembly of a fully functional replisome.

  18. Book review: Ham radio's technical culture. By K. Haring. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press. 2007. xvii + 220 pp. £18.95. cloth. ISBN: 0262083558

    OpenAIRE

    Geoghegan, Hilary

    2008-01-01

    284 Book reviewHam radio's technical culture. By K. Haring. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press. 2007. xvii + 220 pp. £18.95. cloth. ISBN: 0262083558 SAGE Publications, Inc.2008DOI: 10.1177/14744740080150020805 HilaryGeoghegan Department of Geography Royal Holloway, University of London `G4PDH, G4PDH, this is 2M1QQQ calling you. How do you copy?' Music to the amateur radio enthusiast's ears. Radio hams are the subject of Kristen Haring's enjoyab...

  19. Detection of genotype 1 Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome virus in swine, using one-step Real-Time PCR for the ORF7 gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Zaulet

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS is the most devastating and economically challenging disease to the swine industry worldwide due to reproductive failure. The main objective of the current study was to evaluate the sensitivity and accuracy of Real-Time RT-PCR method in the detection of PRRS virus and also estimation of the pathogen load in samples with clinical signs. The primers used for the detection of PRRS virus were represented by primers with a specific sequence for the ORF7 gene of the PRRS virus. More important, the primers attachment process was influenced by punctual mutations of the viral strand belonging to the ORF7 gene. 114 samples were tested to identify the presence of PRRS virus, genotype I and 14 of them were found to be positive, using OneStep PCR. Those samples were used to test the specificity of the TaqMan probe and robustness of Real-Time RT-PCR reaction. According to the results, only the samples which presented some specific punctual mutations (4 in total, all from one particular region of Romania at the genome level of ORF7, were positive, due to primer sequence specificity and complementarity. The Real-Time RT-PCR method has been increasingly adopted by swine producers and veterinarian laboratories as one of the most trustful techniques, combining rapidity, specificity and efficiency for detecting and monitoring the spread of PRRS virus.

  20. Infectivity of Immature Neurons to Zika Virus: A Link to Congenital Zika Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Brandon W; Addanki, Krishna C; Sriskanda, Ahila N; McLean, Ewen; Bagasra, Omar

    2016-08-01

    Epidemiological data strongly suggest that microcephaly cases in Brazil are associated with the ongoing epidemic of Zika virus (ZIKV). In order to further solidify the possible link, we investigated the infectivity of ZIKV using various neuroblastoma (NB) cell lines. Six undifferentiated, two terminally differentiated and two retinoic acid (RA) -induced, partially differentiated cell lines were exposed to ZIKV strain PRVABC59, which is genetically similar to the French Polynesia strain, with 97-100% genetic homology to the current ZIKV strain found in Brazil. All infections were confirmed by real-time PCR (RT-qPCR), immunofluorescence assay (IFA) probing with anti-flavivirus E antibody, and evaluation of cytopathic effects. ZIKV infected all six undifferentiated NB cell lines. In five out of six NB cell lines, between 90 and 70% cells were positive by IFA whereas for one cell line, CCL-127, ~80% of cells were positive for ZIKV as determined by IFA but showed persistent infection. Two differentiated cell lines, JFEN and T-268, were highly resistant to ZIKV with ZIKV infection in newborns in Brazil. Our results suggest that the undifferentiated neurons are highly permissive to ZIKV infection, as one would expect during the early stages of neurogenesis in fetal brains; whereas differentiated neurons, representative of adult brain neurons, are relatively resistant to the virus, which explains the rare occurrence of neurological complications in adults infected with ZIKV. Our studies confirm the neurotropism of the ZIKV strain closely related to the current epidemic in Latin America. Copyright © 2016 The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. High prevalence of common respiratory viruses and no evidence of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus in Hajj pilgrims returning to Ghana, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annan, Augustina; Owusu, Michael; Marfo, Kwadwo Sarfo; Larbi, Richard; Sarpong, Francisca Naana; Adu-Sarkodie, Yaw; Amankwa, Joseph; Fiafemetsi, Samuel; Drosten, Christian; Owusu-Dabo, Ellis; Eckerle, Isabella

    2015-06-01

    The Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) emerged in 2012 on the Arabian Peninsula and has caused severe respiratory disease with more than 800 laboratory-confirmed cases. The return of infected pilgrims to their home countries with a putative spread of MERS-CoV necessitates further surveillance. A cross sectional study of 839 adult African Hajj pilgrims returning to Accra in Ghana, West Africa, was conducted in 2013 to assess the prevalence of respiratory symptoms as well as of MERS-CoV, human rhinovirus (HRV), respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and influenza A virus (FLU A) infection. Six hundred and fifty-one (77.6%) pilgrims had respiratory symptoms. Tests were positive for at least one of the viruses other than MERS-CoV in 179 (21.3%) of all pilgrims, with 22.4% detection in symptomatic vs. 17.6% detection in asymptomatic pilgrims. No MERS-CoV was detected, although common respiratory viruses were prevalent, with positive findings for HRV in 141 individuals (16.8%), RSV in 43 individuals (5.1%) and FLU A in 11 individuals (1.3%). Results were positive for more than one virus in 16 (1.9%) individuals, including 14 (1.7%) RSV/HRV co-infections and 2 (0.2%) FLU A/HRV co-infections. A total 146 (22.4%) of the symptomatic returnees tested positive for at least one respiratory virus compared with 33 (17.6%) of the asymptomatic pilgrims who had at least one detectable virus in their sample. The prevalence of viral respiratory infections among Hajj pilgrims in both symptomatic and asymptomatic subjects was high. Although it is reassuring that MERS-CoV was not detected in the tested population, there is a need for active surveillance of Hajj pilgrims. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Ebola virus and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus display late cell entry kinetics: evidence that transport to NPC1+ endolysosomes is a rate-defining step.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mingo, Rebecca M; Simmons, James A; Shoemaker, Charles J; Nelson, Elizabeth A; Schornberg, Kathryn L; D'Souza, Ryan S; Casanova, James E; White, Judith M

    2015-03-01

    Ebola virus (EBOV) causes hemorrhagic fevers with high mortality rates. During cellular entry, the virus is internalized by macropinocytosis and trafficked through endosomes until fusion between the viral and an endosomal membrane is triggered, releasing the RNA genome into the cytoplasm. We found that while macropinocytotic uptake of filamentous EBOV viruslike particles (VLPs) expressing the EBOV glycoprotein (GP) occurs relatively quickly, VLPs only begin to enter the cytoplasm after a 30-min lag, considerably later than particles bearing the influenza hemagglutinin or GP from lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, which enter through late endosomes (LE). For EBOV, the long lag is not due to the large size or unusual shape of EBOV filaments, the need to prime EBOV GP to the 19-kDa receptor-binding species, or a need for unusually low endosomal pH. In contrast, since we observed that EBOV entry occurs upon arrival in Niemann-Pick C1 (NPC1)-positive endolysosomes (LE/Lys), we propose that trafficking to LE/Lys is a key rate-defining step. Additional experiments revealed, unexpectedly, that severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) S-mediated entry also begins only after a 30-min lag. Furthermore, although SARS does not require NPC1 for entry, SARS entry also begins after colocalization with NPC1. Since the only endosomal requirement for SARS entry is cathepsin L activity, we tested and provide evidence that NPC1(+) LE/Lys have higher cathepsin L activity than LE, with no detectable activity in earlier endosomes. Our findings suggest that both EBOV and SARS traffic deep into the endocytic pathway for entry and that they do so to access higher cathepsin activity. Ebola virus is a hemorrhagic fever virus that causes high fatality rates when it spreads from zoonotic vectors into the human population. Infection by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) causes severe respiratory distress in infected patients. A devastating outbreak of EBOV occurred in West

  3. White-spot syndrome virus (WSSV) introduction into the Gulf of Mexico and Texas freshwater systems through imported, frozen bait-shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasson, K W; Fan, Y; Reisinger, T; Venuti, J; Varner, P W

    2006-07-25

    We analysed 20 boxes of, frozen imported bait-shrimp (China: Parapenaeopsis sp. and Metapenaeopsis sp.) and 8 boxes of native, frozen bait-shrimp (Gulf of Mexico: Litopenaeus setiferus and Farfantepenaeus duorarum) by RT-PCR or PCR for Taura syndrome virus (TSV), yellowhead virus/gill-associated virus (YHV/GAV), white-spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV). All 28 boxes of shrimp were negative for TSV, YHV/GAV and IHHNV; 2 boxes of imported bait-shrimp were WSSV-positive by 3 different PCR assays. Intramuscular injection of replicate groups of SPF (specific pathogen-free) L. vannamei juveniles with 2 different tissue homogenates prepared from the 2 WSSV-positive bait boxes resulted in 100% mortality of the test shrimp within 48 to 72 h post-injection. No mortality occurred among injected negative control groups. Histological and in situ hybridization analyses of 20 moribund treatment-shrimp demonstrated severe WSSV infections in each sample. Oral exposure of SPF L. vannamei postlarvae, PL (PL 25 to 30 stage; approximately 0.02 g) to minced tissue prepared from the 2 WSSV-positive bait-lots did not induce infection, possibly because of an insufficient infectious dose and/or viral inactivation resulting from multiple freeze-thaw cycles of the bait-shrimp during PCR testing. Use of an electric drill and collection of drill-tailings (tissue from approximately 20 to 30 shrimp) from frozen blocks of shrimp was successfully employed as an alternate tissue-sampling method without thawing. Our findings indicate that imported WSSV-infected bait shrimp, originating from China, are being sold in Texas for the purpose of sport fishing and represent a potential threat to freshwater and marine crustacean fisheries, as well as to coastal US shrimp farms.

  4. Colonization history of Mallorca Island by the European rabbit, Oryctolagus cuniculus, and the Iberian hare, Lepus granatensis (Lagomorpha: Leporidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seixas, Fernando A.; Juste, Javier; Campos, Paula

    2014-01-01

    The Mediterranean islands have a long history of human-mediated introductions resulting in frequent replacements of their fauna and flora. Although these histories are sometimes well documented or may be inferred from paleontological studies, the use of phylogenetic and population genetic...... reconstruction methods provides a complementary perspective for answering questions related to the history of insular species. In the present study, we infer the colonization history of Mallorca (Balearic Islands) by the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) and the Iberian hare (Lepus granatensis) using...... sequence variation of the mitochondrial DNA control region from continental and insular specimens (total of 489 sequences). Additionally, the taxonomic identity of Mallorcan L. granatensis was confirmed using a diagnostic nuclear marker. For both Mallorcan rabbits and hares, genetic diversity...

  5. Zika virus disease, microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome in Colombia: epidemiological situation during 21 months of the Zika virus outbreak, 2015-2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez, Nelson; Oviedo-Pastrana, Misael; Mattar, Salim; Caicedo-Castro, Isaac; Arrieta, German

    2017-01-01

    The Zika virus disease (ZVD) has had a huge impact on public health in Colombia for the numbers of people affected and the presentation of Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) and microcephaly cases associated to ZVD. A retrospective descriptive study was carried out, we analyze the epidemiological situation of ZVD and its association with microcephaly and GBS during a 21-month period, from October 2015 to June 2017. The variables studied were: (i) ZVD cases, (ii) ZVD cases in pregnant women, (iii) laboratory-confirmed ZVD in pregnant women, (iv) ZVD cases associated with microcephaly, (v) laboratory-confirmed ZVD associated with microcephaly, and (vi) ZVD associated to GBS cases. Average number of cases, attack rates (AR) and proportions were also calculated. The studied variables were plotted by epidemiological weeks and months. The distribution of ZVD cases in Colombia was mapped across the time using Kernel density estimator and QGIS software; we adopted Kernel Ridge Regression (KRR) and the Gaussian Kernel to estimate the number of Guillain Barre cases given the number of ZVD cases. One hundred eight thousand eighty-seven ZVD cases had been reported in Colombia, including 19,963 (18.5%) in pregnant women, 710 (0.66%) associated with microcephaly (AR, 4.87 cases per 10,000 live births) and 453 (0.42%) ZVD associated to GBS cases (AR, 41.9 GBS cases per 10,000 ZVD cases). It appears the cases of GBS increased in parallel with the cases of ZVD, cases of microcephaly appeared 5 months after recognition of the outbreak. The kernel density map shows that throughout the study period, the states most affected by the Zika outbreak in Colombia were mainly San Andrés and Providencia islands, Casanare, Norte de Santander, Arauca and Huila. The KRR shows that there is no proportional relationship between the number of GBS and ZVD cases. During the cross validation, the RMSE achieved for the second order polynomial kernel, the linear kernel, the sigmoid kernel, and the Gaussian

  6. Hinduísmos ocidentalizados e suas percepções acerca do sexo: Movimento Hare Krishna e Movimento Rajneesh

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    Airton Luiz Jungblut

    Full Text Available Resumo Tematizando o Movimento Hare Krishna e o Movimento Rajneesh, o texto analisa, comparativamente, o tratamento dado por essas duas modalidades religiosas indianas ao tema “sexo” em seu processo de difusão pelo Ocidente. Busca-se avaliar de que forma cada um desses movimentos apresentam alternativas discursivas ao campo religioso ocidental que, como se sabe, opera com uma forte antinomia entre sexo e religião.

  7. [Association between the viruses of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and the hepatitis C virus among young blood donors in Kinshasa: Retrospective analysis of 10 years].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumbu, B M M; Longo-Mbenza, B; Ahuka-Mundeke, S; Muwonga, J M; Mvumbi-Lelo, G; Maphana, H M; Kayembe Nzongola-Nkasu, D; Kalumbu, F M

    2018-02-01

    The screening of anti-Human Immunodeficiency Virus antibodies is mandatory in every blood donor admitted to the Blood Bank of Kinshasa University Clinics since 1984. However, no compiled data are available to date. The objective of this study was to establish the trend, prevalence, viral co-infections, and determinants of Human Immunodeficiency anti-Virus serology in blood donors admitted between 2003-2006 and 2008-2013. A retrospective analysis was carried out at University Kinshasa Clinics, using blood donors' records during 2003-2006 and 2008-2013. The prevalence of the human immunodeficiency virus per year, age, sex and type of blood donors were estimated. Independent predictors of human immunodeficiency virus seropositivity were also identified. Out of 26,341 blood donors, 2.2% (n=576/26,341) were seropositive for Human Immunodeficiency Virus. Age<25 years (OR=1.7; 95% CI: 1.4-2; P<0.0001) and Hepatitis C virus seropositivity (OR=3; 95% CI; 1.8-4.9; P<0.001) emerged as independent predictors of Human Immunodeficiency Virus seropositivity. This study shows a strong association between the Human Immunodeficiency Virus and hepatitis C and younger age respectively. Further studies are needed to ensure safety of Blood donation in Democratic Republic of Congo. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Study of opportunistic intestinal parasitic infections in human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Kumar Mathur

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Intestinal parasites predominantly coccidian parasites are a common cause for diarrhea in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-positive patients. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted during January 2009-December 2010. A total of 1,088 stool samples from 544 seropositive HIV positive cases were examined microscopically for ova and cyst using wet mount preparations and stained smears. Out of 544 patients, 343 had prolonged diarrhea for more than 4 weeks, 57 had acute diarrhea of lesser than 7 days and 144 were asymptomatic cases who attended out-patient department; included in this study after taking consent from patients. Enteric pathogens were detected in 274 (50.36% of the 544 patients. Results and Conclusions: The parasites identified were Cryptosporidium (135, Isospora belli (42, Cyclospora (12, Microsporidia (02, Entamoeba histolytica (49, Hookworm (34. Intestinal parasites in chronic diarrhea were significantly higher than the acute diarrhea (63.05% vs. 7.35%; P < 0.05. Parasitic pathogens were frequently associated with HIV-positive patients with diarrhea in Western India. Stools of all HIV-positive patients with diarrhea should thoroughly be investigated to identify etiologic agents for proper management.

  9. Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome mimicking chronic active Epstein-Barr virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Keiko; Kanegane, Hirokazu; Otsubo, Keisuke; Wakiguchi, Hiroshi; Noda, Yukihiro; Kasahara, Yoshihito; Miyawaki, Toshio

    2011-06-01

    Chronic active Epstein-Barr virus infection (CAEBV) is defined as a systemic EBV-associated lymphoproliferative disease characterized by fever, lymphadenopathy, and splenomegaly in apparently immunocompetent persons. Recent studies have revealed that EBV infects T or natural killer cells in most patients with CAEBV; the etiology of CAEBV, however, remains unknown. Autoimmune lymphoproliferative disorder (ALPS) is an inherited disorder associated with defects in apoptosis, and clinically characterized by lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly, hypergammaglobulinemia, and autoimmune disease. ALPS is most often associated with mutations in the FAS gene, which is an apoptosis-signaling receptor important for homeostasis of the immune system. Based on the clinical similarity between ALPS and CAEBV with respect to lymphoproliferation, we have examined the possibility of the co-occurrence of ALPS in patients with a diagnosis of CAEBV. In this study, we have identified FAS gene mutations in three Japanese patients with lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, and unusual EBV infection, who were diagnosed with CAEBV. These observations, which indicate that the clinical development of ALPS may be associated with EBV infection, alert us to a potential diagnostic pitfall of CAEBV.

  10. Systemic Epstein-Barr virus positive T-cell lymphoproliferative disease of childhood with hemophagocytic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guoshu; Chen, Li; Qin, Xiaohua; Huang, Zhuoya; Xie, Xiaoling; Li, Guowei; Xu, Bing

    2014-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) associated lymphoproliferative disease (LPD) are commonly derived from B-cells, however, it is becoming more and more apparently that EBV can also infect T-lymphocytes. Systemic EBV positive T-cell LPD of childhood is rare and characterized by an extremely aggressive course and poor prognosis. Here, we report a 22-year-old female of systemic EBV positive TLPD with acute EBV infection and review the clinical features of this disorder. A 22-year-old previously healthy female without immunocompromised status presented with persisting coach and fever resistant to conventional therapies. Physical examination showed hemorrhage and hepatosplenomegaly. Laboratory examinations revealed severe pancytopenia, disseminated intra-vascular coagulopathy (DIC), and anti-EBV-IgM positivity. Peripheral blood smears and bone marrow investigation identified a number of atypical lymphocytes. Flow cytometry (FCM) did not show any significant evidence of leukemia or lymphoma. The lymph node biopsy showed apparent infiltration of lymphocytes, which expressed CD2+, CD3+, CD7+ and TIA1+. There was no CD20+ or CD56+ cells. EBV early RNA (EBER) was positive. Cytogenetic analysis showed a normal karyotype. T-cell receptor (TCR) gene rearrangement revealed a polyclonal pattern. The patient received prednisolone and IVIG therapy with a transient good condition, and then died of multiorgan failure one week after diagnosis.

  11. Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome Virus Infection Associated with Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis as Poor Prognostic Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sunmin; Kim, Juwon; Kim, Hyo Youl; Uh, Young; Kim, Young Keun

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background Severe fever with thrombocytopenia (SFTS) is an emerging infectious disease caused by a novel bunyavirus designated SFTS virus (SFTSV) with a high fatality rate. Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is an immune-mediated life-threatening disease triggered by infections, neoplasms and noninfectious inflammatory diseases. A few HLH associated with SFTSV were reported. According to the diagnostic criteria of HLH, 11 patients with SFTS were reviewed. Methods During last 2 years (2015–2016), 11 SFTS patients were diagnosed at the Wonju Severance Christian Hospital, Yonsei University Wonju College of Medicine, Wonju, South Korea. Clinical features were analyzed using diagnostic criteria of 2004-HLH trial. We described if the prognosis of SFTSV-infected patients was associated with clinical features of HLH. Results Of 11 patients, four patients were fulfillled the diagnostic criteria of 2004-HLH trial (five of eight criteria). Two patients were fulfilled the four criteria. Five patients were fulfilled three or less criteria. Three of six patients who fulfilled four or more criteria were died. There was no mortality in five patients who fulfilled three or less criteria. Hemophagocytosis in bone marrow (BM) was observed in all six patients who were taken BM study. Conclusion In SFTS, HLH was severe clinical feature and it might be associated with poor prognosis. Disclosures All authors: No reported disclosures.

  12. Sequestration of Dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) and Acrylate from the Green Alga Ulva Spp. by the Sea Hare Aplysia juliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamio, Michiya; Koyama, Mao; Hayashihara, Nobuko; Hiei, Kaori; Uchida, Hajime; Watanabe, Ryuichi; Suzuki, Toshiyuki; Nagai, Hiroshi

    2016-05-01

    Many animals sequester secondary metabolites from their food. In this study, we hypothesized that the sea hare Aplysia juliana sequesters secondary metabolites from green algae. To test this, we performed NMR-based metabolomic analysis on methanol extracts of Ulva spp. and A. juliana. Another sea hare, Bursatella leachii, which mainly feeds on another type of alga, was added to this analysis as an outgroup. Two body parts of the sea hares, skin and digestive glands, were used in the analysis. Principal component analysis (PCA) on the NMR data of these samples detected biomarkers common to Ulva spp. and A. juliana. This result indicates sequestration of secondary metabolites by the herbivore from the plants. The biomarker metabolites were identified as dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) and acrylate, which were concentrated in skin of A. juliana and were released from the skin of live animals when physically stressed. Thus, our NMR-based metabolomic study revealed sequestration of algae-derived secondary metabolites in skin of A. Juliana, and in the discharge of the metabolites under conditions that mimic attack by predators.

  13. Adefovir dipivoxil-induced development of osteomalacia and Fanconi syndrome during the treatment of hepatitis B virus (HBV-related cirrhosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orietta Staltari

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Adefovir dipivoxil is a nucleotide analog reverse transcriptase inhibitor used to treat adult patients affected by HBeAg-positive and HBeAg-negative chronic hepatitis B and with clinical evidence of lamivudine-resistant hepatitis B virus (HBV. Adefovir administered at a dosage of 10 mg/day is generally well tolerated, even if renal toxicity, type Fanconi syndrome, was reported during long-term treatments.We report a case of osteomalacia with Fanconi syndrome and pathologic fracture of the femur related to long-time (67 months adefovir treatment (10 mg/day in a patient with compensated hepatitis B virus (HBV cirrhosis (Child 5A and with a previous normal renal function (estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate before adefovir = 78.26 ml/min/1.73 m2; during adefovir treatment = 57.38 ml/min/1.73 m2. The patient was switched to entecavir at a dose of 1 mg/day, with both suppression of viremia and improvement of osteomalacia and Fanconi syndrome; the patient’s follow-up is still ongoing after 22 months.http://dx.doi.org/10.7175/cmi.v8i4.969 

  14. Hepatitis B virus vaccination in children with steroid sensitive nephrotic syndrome: immunogenicity and safety?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yıldız, N; Sever, Lale; Kasapçopur, Ö; Çullu, F; Arısoy, Nil; Çalışkan, S

    2013-07-18

    We investigated the efficacy and safety of Hepatitis B vaccine (HBVac) in steroid sensitive nephrotic syndrome (SSNS) children. 41 patients with SSNS and 30 controls were vaccinated with HBVac(Engerix B(®)). Patients were divided into 3 subgroups:full dose steroid users, alternate-day steroid users and steroid non-users. Seroconversion rate was lower in steroid users than non-users at the 6th(p=0.015) and 12th(p=0.036) months. Antibody to Hepatitis B surface antigen(HBsAb) titers were significantly different between subgroups and controls at the 15th month. However, HBsAb and response rates were not different between subgroups at the 12th and 15th months (p>0.05). Five patients were unresponsive to HBVac. Relapse rates after the vaccination were higher than those in the prevaccination period (p=0.002). HBVac is less effective in producing immune response in SSNS children with steroid therapy. HBVac may trigger relapse in some patients. We recommend HBVac to SSNS children with low dose steroid therapy or after steroids are discontinued. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Transcriptome profile of lung dendritic cells after in vitro porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pröll, Maren Julia; Neuhoff, Christiane; Schellander, Karl; Uddin, Muhammad Jasim; Cinar, Mehmet Ulas; Sahadevan, Sudeep; Qu, Xueqi; Islam, Md Aminul; Poirier, Mikhael; Müller, Marcel A; Drosten, Christian; Tesfaye, Dawit; Tholen, Ernst; Große-Brinkhaus, Christine

    2017-01-01

    The porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is an infectious disease that leads to high financial and production losses in the global swine industry. The pathogenesis of this disease is dependent on a multitude of factors, and its control remains problematic. The immune system generally defends against infectious diseases, especially dendritic cells (DCs), which play a crucial role in the activation of the immune response after viral infections. However, the understanding of the immune response and the genetic impact on the immune response to PRRS virus (PRRSV) remains incomplete. In light of this, we investigated the regulation of the host immune response to PRRSV in porcine lung DCs using RNA-sequencing (RNA-Seq). Lung DCs from two different pig breeds (Pietrain and Duroc) were collected before (0 hours) and during various periods of infection (3, 6, 9, 12, and 24 hours post infection (hpi)). RNA-Seq analysis revealed a total of 20,396 predicted porcine genes, which included breed-specific differentially expressed immune genes. Pietrain and Duroc infected lung DCs showed opposite gene expression courses during the first time points post infection. Duroc lung DCs reacted more strongly and distinctly than Pietrain lung DCs during these periods (3, 6, 9, 12 hpi). Additionally, cluster analysis revealed time-dependent co-expressed groups of genes that were involved in immune-relevant pathways. Key clusters and pathways were identified, which help to explain the biological and functional background of lung DCs post PRRSV infection and suggest IL-1β1 as an important candidate gene. RNA-Seq was also used to characterize the viral replication of PRRSV for each breed. PRRSV was able to infect and to replicate differently in lung DCs between the two mentioned breeds. These results could be useful in investigations on immunity traits in pig breeding and enhancing the health of pigs.

  16. Genomic prediction of piglet response to infection with one of two porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waide, Emily H; Tuggle, Christopher K; Serão, Nick V L; Schroyen, Martine; Hess, Andrew; Rowland, Raymond R R; Lunney, Joan K; Plastow, Graham; Dekkers, Jack C M

    2018-02-01

    Genomic prediction of the pig's response to the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus (PRRSV) would be a useful tool in the swine industry. This study investigated the accuracy of genomic prediction based on porcine SNP60 Beadchip data using training and validation datasets from populations with different genetic backgrounds that were challenged with different PRRSV isolates. Genomic prediction accuracy averaged 0.34 for viral load (VL) and 0.23 for weight gain (WG) following experimental PRRSV challenge, which demonstrates that genomic selection could be used to improve response to PRRSV infection. Training on WG data during infection with a less virulent PRRSV, KS06, resulted in poor accuracy of prediction for WG during infection with a more virulent PRRSV, NVSL. Inclusion of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are in linkage disequilibrium with a major quantitative trait locus (QTL) on chromosome 4 was vital for accurate prediction of VL. Overall, SNPs that were significantly associated with either trait in single SNP genome-wide association analysis were unable to predict the phenotypes with an accuracy as high as that obtained by using all genotyped SNPs across the genome. Inclusion of data from close relatives into the training population increased whole genome prediction accuracy by 33% for VL and by 37% for WG but did not affect the accuracy of prediction when using only SNPs in the major QTL region. Results show that genomic prediction of response to PRRSV infection is moderately accurate and, when using all SNPs on the porcine SNP60 Beadchip, is not very sensitive to differences in virulence of the PRRSV in training and validation populations. Including close relatives in the training population increased prediction accuracy when using the whole genome or SNPs other than those near a major QTL.

  17. Effects of white spot syndrome virus infection on immuno-enzyme activities and ultrastructure in gills of Cherax quadricarinatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dan-Li; Zuo, Di; Wang, Lan-Mei; Sun, Ting; Wang, Qun; Zhao, Yun-Long

    2012-05-01

    In this study, we explored the pathogenic mechanism of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in crayfish, Cherax quadricarinatus, by investigating activities of enzymes related to innate immune function during infection. After 6-12 h of exposure to WSSV, the activities of four enzymes, phenoloxidase (PO), peroxidase (POD), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and lysozyme (LSZ), increased in the gills of C. quadricarinatus but then sharply decreased during longer infection times. Except for PO, the activities of other enzymes in the WSSV-infected crayfish (Group II) were significantly lower than those of the controls at 72 h post-exposure (P < 0.01). Interestingly, the enzyme activities in the group treated with polysaccharides before challenge with WSSV (Group III) were higher than those in Group II. This phenomenon demonstrated that the polysaccharides could improve the immuno-enzyme activities and enhance the organism's antiviral defenses. Morphological examination by transmission electron microscopy revealed abundant WSSV particles and significant damage in the gills of infected crayfish. WSSV infection caused parts of the gill epithelium and microvilli to be reduced in number and size or damaged; meanwhile, the mitochondria morphology changed, with parts of the cristae diminished leaving large vacuoles. Moreover, electron dense deposits appeared and heterochromatinized nuclei could be seen in blood cells with ruptured nuclear membranes and outflow of nucleoplasm. The findings of this study furthers our understanding of the biochemical alterations induced by viral infections, including changes in the antioxidant status, oxidative stress and lysozyme activity, which could help to advance strategies for control of WSSV in crayfish. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Regional brain structural dysmorphology in human immunodeficiency virus infection: effects of acquired immune deficiency syndrome, alcoholism, and age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfefferbaum, Adolf; Rosenbloom, Margaret J; Sassoon, Stephanie A; Kemper, Carol A; Deresinski, Stanley; Rohlfing, Torsten; Sullivan, Edith V

    2012-09-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and alcoholism each carries liability for disruption of brain structure and function integrity. Despite considerable prevalence of HIV-alcoholism comorbidity, few studies examined the potentially heightened burden of disease comorbidity. Participants were 342 men and women: 110 alcoholics, 59 with HIV infection, 65 with HIV infection and alcoholism, and 108 healthy control subjects. This design enabled examination of independent and combined effects of HIV infection and alcoholism along with other factors (acquired immune deficiency syndrome [AIDS]-defining events, hepatitis C infection, age) on regional brain volumes derived from T1-weighted magnetic resonance images. Brain volumes, expressed as Z scores corrected for intracranial volume and age, were measured in 20 tissue and 5 ventricular and sulcal regions. The most profound and consistent volume deficits occurred with alcohol use disorders, notable in the cortical mantle, insular and anterior cingulate cortices, thalamus, corpus callosum, and frontal sulci. The HIV-only group had smaller thalamic and larger frontal sulcal volumes than control subjects. HIV disease-related factors associated with greater volume abnormalities included CD4 cell count nadir, clinical staging, history of AIDS-defining events, infection age, and current age. Longer sobriety and less lifetime alcohol consumption were predictive of attenuated brain volume abnormalities in both alcohol groups. Having HIV infection with alcoholism and AIDS had an especially poor outcome on brain structures. That longer periods of sobriety and less lifetime alcohol consumption were predictive of attenuated brain volume abnormalities encourages the inclusion of alcohol recovery efforts in HIV/AIDS therapeutic settings. Copyright © 2012 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Matrix Degradation in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1-Associated Tuberculosis and Tuberculosis Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome: A Prospective Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Naomi F; Wilkinson, Katalin A; Meintjes, Graeme; Tezera, Liku B; Goliath, Rene; Peyper, Janique M; Tadokera, Rebecca; Opondo, Charles; Coussens, Anna K; Wilkinson, Robert J; Friedland, Jon S; Elkington, Paul T

    2017-07-01

    Extensive immunopathology occurs in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/tuberculosis (TB) coinfection, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are not well-defined. Excessive matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity is emerging as a key process but has not been systematically studied in HIV-associated TB. We performed a cross-sectional study of matrix turnover in HIV type 1 (HIV-1)-infected and -uninfected TB patients and controls, and a prospective cohort study of HIV-1-infected TB patients at risk of TB immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (TB-IRIS), in Cape Town, South Africa. Sputum and plasma MMP concentrations were quantified by Luminex, plasma procollagen III N-terminal propeptide (PIIINP) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and urinary lipoarabinomannan (LAM) by Alere Determine TB LAM assay. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from healthy donors were cultured with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and extracellular matrix in a 3D model of TB granuloma formation. MMP activity differed between HIV-1-infected and -uninfected TB patients and corresponded with specific TB clinical phenotypes. HIV-1-infected TB patients had reduced pulmonary MMP concentrations, associated with reduced cavitation, but increased plasma PIIINP, compared to HIV-1-uninfected TB patients. Elevated extrapulmonary extracellular matrix turnover was associated with TB-IRIS, both before and during TB-IRIS onset. The predominant collagenase was MMP-8, which was likely neutrophil derived and M. tuberculosis-antigen driven. Mycobacterium tuberculosis-induced matrix degradation was suppressed by the MMP inhibitor doxycycline in vitro. MMP activity in TB differs by HIV-1 status and compartment, and releases matrix degradation products. Matrix turnover in HIV-1-infected patients is increased before and during TB-IRIS, informing novel diagnostic strategies. MMP inhibition is a potential host-directed therapy strategy for prevention and treatment of TB-IRIS.

  20. Adeno-associated virus-mediated rescue of the cognitive defects in a mouse model for Angelman syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L Daily

    Full Text Available Angelman syndrome (AS, a genetic disorder occurring in approximately one in every 15,000 births, is characterized by severe mental retardation, seizures, difficulty speaking and ataxia. The gene responsible for AS was discovered to be UBE3A and encodes for E6-AP, an ubiquitin ligase. A unique feature of this gene is that it undergoes maternal imprinting in a neuron-specific manner. In the majority of AS cases, there is a mutation or deletion in the maternally inherited UBE3A gene, although other cases are the result of uniparental disomy or mismethylation of the maternal gene. While most human disorders characterized by severe mental retardation involve abnormalities in brain structure, no gross anatomical changes are associated with AS. However, we have determined that abnormal calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII regulation is seen in the maternal UBE3A deletion AS mouse model and is responsible for the major phenotypes. Specifically, there is an increased αCaMKII phosphorylation at the autophosphorylation sites Thr(286 and Thr(305/306, resulting in an overall decrease in CaMKII activity. CaMKII is not produced until after birth, indicating that the deficits associated with AS are not the result of developmental abnormalities. The present studies are focused on exploring the potential to rescue the learning and memory deficits in the adult AS mouse model through the use of an adeno-associated virus (AAV vector to increase neuronal UBE3A expression. These studies show that increasing the levels of E6-AP in the brain using an exogenous vector can improve the cognitive deficits associated with AS. Specifically, the associative learning deficit was ameliorated in the treated AS mice compared to the control AS mice, indicating that therapeutic intervention may be possible in older AS patients.

  1. [Expression of single chain fragment variable P1D3 antibody against shrimp white spot syndrome virus in Pichia pastoris].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi; Zhang, Min; Yuan, Li; Zhang, Xiao-Hua; Dai, He-Ping

    2006-11-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a major pathogen in aquaculture penaeid shrimp, which caused catastrophic economic losses in the worldwide. No adequate treatments against WSSV are available. In order to study infection mechanism of WSSV, a phage display scFv cDNA library against WSSV was constructed and a neutralizing antibody of scFv P1D3 was selected in our lab previously. In this study, scFv P1D3 was expressed successfully in yeast. Firstly, the original expression vector of P1D3, M13 phagmid, was used as a template to design primers with restriction sites of SnaB I and EcoR I . Then the gene of P1D3 was amplified by PCR. After digested by SnaB I and EcoR I , the fragment of scFv P1D3 with E-tag was inserted into yeast and E. coli shuttle plasmid pPIC9k. The recombinant plasmid pPIC9k-scFv P1D3-Etag was linearized with Bgl II and then transformed into Pichia pastoris GS115 by electroporation. Positive clones were selected and verified by PCR and DNA sequencing. The scFv PID3 was induced to express in yeast by methanol. The results of ELISA demonstrate that scFv P1D3 expressed in yeast still has high specificity to bind on WSSV and the binding activity is higher than that expressed in E. coli TG1. After several optimizing experiments, the results show that the expression amount of scFv P1D3 can reach to 302 mg/L in yeast culture supernatant. This experiment has offered a new source of antibody for the researches on passive immunology for shrimp.

  2. Impact of Vibrio parahaemolyticus and white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) co-infection on survival of penaeid shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaojing; Song, Xiaoling; Huang, Jie

    2016-11-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is an important viral pathogen that infects farmed penaeid shrimp, and the threat of Vibrio parahaemolyticus infection to shrimp farming has become increasingly severe. Viral and bacterial cross or superimposed infections may induce higher shrimp mortality. We used a feeding method to infect Litopenaeus vannamei with WSSV and then injected a low dose of V. parahaemolyticus (WSSV+Vp), or we first infected L. vannamei with a low-dose injection of V. parahaemolyticus and then fed the shrimp WSSV to achieve viral infection (Vp+WSSV). The eff ect of V. parahaemolyticus and WSSV co-infection on survival of L. vannamei was evaluated by comparing cumulative mortality rates between experimental and control groups. We also spread L. vannamei hemolymph on thiosulfate citrate bile salt sucrose agar plates to determine the number of Vibrio, and the WSSV copy number in L. vannamei gills was determined using an absolute quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. LvMyD88 and Lvakt gene expression levels were detected in gills of L. vannamei by real-time PCR to determine the cause of the diff erent mortality rates. Our results show that (1) the cumulative mortality rate of L. vannamei in the WSSV+Vp group reached 100% on day 10 after WSSV infection, whereas the cumulative mortality rate of L. vannamei in the Vp+WSSV group and the WSSV-alone control group approached 100% on days 11 and 13 of infection; (2) the number of Vibrio in the L. vannamei group infected with V. parahaemolyticus alone declined gradually, whereas the other groups showed significant increases in the numbers of Vibrio ( Pvannamei and vice versa. The combined accelerated proliferation of both V. parahaemolyticus and WSSV led to massive death of L. vannamei.

  3. Influence of white spot syndrome virus infection on hepatopancreas gene expression of `Huanghai No. 2' shrimp ( Fenneropenaeus chinensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xianhong; Shi, Xiaoli; Kong, Jie; Luan, Sheng; Luo, Kun; Cao, Baoxiang; Liu, Ning; Lu, Xia; Li, Xupeng; Deng, Kangyu; Cao, Jiawang; Zhang, Yingxue; Zhang, Hengheng

    2017-10-01

    To elucidate the molecular response of shrimp hepatopancreas to white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection, microarray was applied to investigate the differentially expressed genes in the hepatopancreas of `Huanghai No. 2' ( Fenneropenaeus chinensis). A total of 59137 unigenes were designed onto a custom-made 60K Agilent chip. After infection, the gene expression profiles in the hepatopancreas of the shrimp with a lower viral load at early (48-96 h), peak (168-192 h) and late (264-288 h) infection phases were analyzed. Of 18704 differentially expressed genes, 6412 were annotated. In total, 5453 differentially expressed genes (1916 annotated) expressed at all three phases, and most of the annotated were either up- or down-regulated continuously. These genes function diversely in, for example, immune response, cytoskeletal system, signal transduction, stress resistance, protein synthesis and processing, metabolism among others. Some of the immune-related genes, including antilipopolysaccharide factor, Kazal-type proteinase inhibitor, C-type lectin and serine protease encoding genes, were up-regulated after WSSV infection. These genes have been reported to be involved in the anti-WSSV responses. The expression of genes related to the cytoskeletal system, including β-actin and myosin but without tubulin genes, were down-regulated after WSSV infection. Astakine was found for the first time in the WSSV-infected F. chinensis. To further confirm the expression of differentially expressed genes, quantitative real-time PCR was performed to test the expression of eight randomly selected genes and verified the reliability and accuracy of the microarray expression analysis. The data will provide valuable information to understanding the immune mechanism of shrimp's response to WSSV.

  4. Comparison of white spot syndrome virus infection resistance between Exopalaemon carinicauda and Litopenaeus vannamei under different salinity stresses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Qianqian; Yu, Ge; Sun, Ming; Li, Jitao; Li, Jian

    2017-12-01

    Exopalaemon carinicauda is one of the important economic shrimp species in China, and can tolerate a wide range of salinities. However, its disease resistance remains to be unclear in comparison with other shrimp species under salinity stress. In this study, the resistance to white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) of E. carinicauda and Litopenaeus vannamei was determined by comparing their hemocyanin (Hc) and phenoloxidase (PO) activities under different salinity stresses. In E. carinicauda, the PO activity and Hc gene transcript abundance showed a coherent pattern of increase and decrease while Hc content showed a slightly decrease with Vibrio anguillarum and WSSV infections. For both E. carinicauda and L. vannamei under salinity stress, the PO activity showed a positive correlation with the salinity while the Hc content and expression level of its gene increased significantly in salinities of 5, 15 and 25 g L-1. The survival rate of E. carinicauda with WSSV infection was higher than that of L. vannamei in the first 24 h under different salinity stresses. Drastic mortality of E.carinicauda and L. vannamei appeared at 48 h and 3 h post-injection, respectively. Furthermore, compared with L. vannamei, E. carinicauda displayed higher PO activity, Hc content and abundance of Hc gene mRNA. The results collectively indicated that Hc and PO have obviously functional connection in resisting pathogens and tolerating salinity stress, and PO activity and Hc gene mRNA abundance may reflect the resistance of shrimp to disease. E. carinicauda has higher level of immune potential than L. vannamei, suggesting its greater capacity in resisting pathogens under salinity stresses.

  5. Differential cellular protein expression in continuous porcine alveolar macrophages regulated by the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus nucleocapsid protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagong, Mingeun; Lee, Changhee

    2010-07-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a leading cause of significant economic losses in the pig industry worldwide. PRRSV infects preferentially porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs) and subsequently utilizes the host cell biosynthetic machinery for its own replication. To date, a number of studies have been conducted to investigate compensatory changes of cellular gene expression of PAMs upon PRRSV infection. However, very little information exists about differential cellular protein expression of the natural target cells regulated by each viral protein. This study was therefore designed to examine the dynamics of host protein expression of continuous PAM cells by the PRRSV nucleocapsid (N) protein that is the most abundant and multifunctional viral component. We first established sublines of PAM cells to stably express the PRRSV N protein and assessed alterations in cellular protein productions of N-expressing PAM (PAM-pCD163-N) cells at different time courses by the use of proteomic analysis. A total of 23 protein spots were initially found to be differentially expressed in PAM-pCD163-N cells compared with normal PAM cells by high-resolution two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE). Of these spots, 15 protein spots with statistically significant alteration, including 4 up-regulated and 11 down-regulated protein spots, were picked out for subsequent protein identification by peptide mass fingerprinting after matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS). The altered cellular proteins identified in this study were classified into the functions involved in a variety of cellular processes such as cell division, metabolism, inflammation response, stress response, ubiquitin-proteasome pathway, protein folding and synthesis, and transportation. Notably, heat shock 27kDa protein (HSP27) was found to be up-regulated in PAM-pCD163-N cells. The proteomics data will provide insights into the specific

  6. Using experimentation to understand the 10-year snowshoe hare cycle in the boreal forest of North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebs, Charles J; Boonstra, Rudy; Boutin, Stan

    2018-01-01

    Population cycles have long fascinated ecologists from the time of Charles Elton in the 1920s. The discovery of large population fluctuations in undisturbed ecosystems challenged the idea that pristine nature was in a state of balance. The 10-year cycle of snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus Erxleben) across the boreal forests of Canada and Alaska is a classic cycle, recognized by fur traders for more than 300 years. Since the 1930s, ecologists have investigated the mechanisms that might cause these cycles. Proposed causal mechanisms have varied from sunspots to food supplies, parasites, diseases, predation and social behaviour. Both the birth rate and the death rate change dramatically over the cycle. Social behaviour was eliminated as a possible cause because snowshoe hares are not territorial and do not commit infanticide. Since the 1960s, large-scale manipulative experiments have been used to discover the major limiting factors. Food supply and predation quickly became recognized as potential key factors causing the cycle. Experiments adding food and restricting predator access to field populations have been decisive in pinpointing predation as the key mechanism causing these fluctuations. The immediate cause of death of most snowshoe hares is predation by a variety of predators, including the Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis Kerr). The collapse in the reproductive rate is not due to food shortage as was originally thought, but is a result of chronic stress from predator chases. Five major issues remain unresolved. First, what is the nature of the predator-induced memory that results in the prolonged low phase of the cycle? Second, why do hare cycles form a travelling wave, starting in the centre of the boreal forest in Saskatchewan and travelling across western Canada and Alaska? Third, why does the amplitude of the cycle vary greatly from one cycle to the next in the same area? Fourth, do the same mechanisms of population limitation apply to snowshoe hares in

  7. The development of a rapid SYBR one step real-time RT-PCR for detection of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Prompt detection of PRRSV in the field samples is important for effective PRRS control, thereby reducing the potentially serious economic damage which can result from an outbreak. In this study, a rapid SYBR-based, one step real-time RT-PCR quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) has been developed for the detection of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). Primers were designed based on the sequence of highly conservative region of PRRSV N gene. Results The sensitivity of the real-time qRT-PCR assay was achieved through PRRSV ch-1a RNA for the generation of a standard curve. The detection limit of the assay was found to be 9.6 RNA copies per reaction mixture. This assay had excellent intra- and inter-assay reproducibility as in total 65 field samples were screened for the presence of PRRSV by conventional RT-PCR in parallel with qRT-PCR, and the detection rate increased from 60.0% to 76.9%. Moreover, the specificity result indicated that this assay could reliably differentiate PRRSV from the other swine viral diseases, such as classical swine fever virus (CSFV), swine vesicular disease virus (SVDV) and vesicular exanthema of swine virus (VESV). Conclusion The real-time qRT-PCR assay described in this report allows the rapid, specific and sensitive laboratory detection of PRRSV in field samples. PMID:20459705

  8. The development of a rapid SYBR one step real-time RT-PCR for detection of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu XiangTao

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prompt detection of PRRSV in the field samples is important for effective PRRS control, thereby reducing the potentially serious economic damage which can result from an outbreak. In this study, a rapid SYBR-based, one step real-time RT-PCR quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR has been developed for the detection of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV. Primers were designed based on the sequence of highly conservative region of PRRSV N gene. Results The sensitivity of the real-time qRT-PCR assay was achieved through PRRSV ch-1a RNA for the generation of a standard curve. The detection limit of the assay was found to be 9.6 RNA copies per reaction mixture. This assay had excellent intra- and inter-assay reproducibility as in total 65 field samples were screened for the presence of PRRSV by conventional RT-PCR in parallel with qRT-PCR, and the detection rate increased from 60.0% to 76.9%. Moreover, the specificity result indicated that this assay could reliably differentiate PRRSV from the other swine viral diseases, such as classical swine fever virus (CSFV, swine vesicular disease virus (SVDV and vesicular exanthema of swine virus (VESV. Conclusion The real-time qRT-PCR assay described in this report allows the rapid, specific and sensitive laboratory detection of PRRSV in field samples.

  9. Full-length genome sequence analysis of a Hungarian porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus isolated from a pig with severe respiratory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bálint, Ádám; Balka, Gyula; Horváth, Péter; Kecskeméti, Sándor; Dán, Ádám; Farsang, Attila; Szeredi, Levente; Bányai, Krisztián; Bartha, Dániel; Olasz, Ferenc; Belák, Sándor; Zádori, Zoltán

    2015-02-01

    Here, we report the isolation of a type 1 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) strain from a clinical outbreak of severe respiratory problems and high fever. Next-generation sequencing was used to determine the complete genome sequence of the isolate (9625/2012). The virus belongs to a new branch within subtype 1, clade D, and shows the highest similarity to PRRSV Olot/1991 and to the Amervac vaccine strain. Mutation analysis of 9625/2012 revealed no evidence of recombination but did show a high proportion of amino acid substitutions in the putative neutralizing epitopes, suggesting an important role of selective immune pressure in the evolution of PRRSV 9625/2012.

  10. Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis in a Child Suffering from Human Immunodeficiency Virus on "Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy" - Can This be Another Instance of Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ashutosh; Kushwaha, Suman; Manzoor, Mushbiq; Tarfarosh, Shah Faisal Ahmad

    2017-06-13

    We report a 12-year-old boy with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) who presented with rapidly progressive difficulty in ambulation. The symptoms started to worsen when he was put on antiretroviral therapy (ART). Our findings show that the dynamics of HIV-related immune suppression and highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) have an impact on the clinical course of Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE). Slow progression is expected in children on HAART but in our case, we observe a complex interaction of the virus with the immune system and modification of disease course of SSPE with ART. The child we discuss in this case report developed rapidly progressive SSPE on HAART regime; so the possibility of SSPE to be labeled as immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) should be considered.

  11. Analysis of ORF 1 in European porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus by long RT-PCR and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, H. S.; Storgaard, Torben; Oleksiewicz, M.B.

    2000-01-01

    A rapid method was developed for partial characterization of the replicase-encoding open reading frame 1 (ORF 1) of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). It comprised long RT-PCR amplification of 11.1 kb (94%) of ORF 1, followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism...... analysis. The method was used to compare ORF 1 sequences of two divergent European-type PRRSV strains. Our results indicated that the structural and replicase parts of these two strains had evolved at overall similar rates....

  12. Determination of 5 '-leader sequences from radically disparate strains of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus reveals the presence of highly conserved sequence motifs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oleksiewicz, M.B.; Bøtner, Anette; Nielsen, Jens

    1999-01-01

    We determined the untranslated 5'-leader sequence for three different isolates of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV): pathogenic European- and American-types, as well as an American-type vaccine strain. 5'-leader from European- and American-type PRRSV differed in length...... (220 and 190 nt, respectively), and exhibited only approximately 50% nucleotide homology. Nevertheless, highly conserved areas were identified in the leader of all 3 PRRSV isolates, which constitute candidate motifs for binding of protein(s) involved in viral replication. These comparative data provide...

  13. Monitoring porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus infection status in swine herds based on analysis of antibodies in meat juice samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Sten; Strandbygaard, Bertel; Bøtner, Anette

    2001-01-01

    An indirect ELISA test was developed as a novel tool aimed at monitoring the herd infection status of swine herds. Meat juice samples from pig carcasses were analysed for the presence of antibodies against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). A study of samples from herds...... was validated in 47 herds by collection of blood samples from the herds. Eighteen herds were classified as PRRS negative by both test systems. Twenty-nine herds were classified as PRRS seropositive by both test systems. Acceptable herd classification was achieved using this test....

  14. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus: Interlaboratory ring trial to evaluate real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction detection methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wernike, Kerstin; Bonilauri, Paolo; Dauber, Malte

    2012-01-01

    To compare the real-time reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) assays used for the diagnosis of Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), a Europe-wide interlaboratory ring trial was conducted. A variety of PRRSV strains including North American...... (NA) and European (EU) genotype isolates were analyzed by the participants. Great differences regarding qualitative diagnostics as well as analytical sensitivity were observed between the individual RT-qPCR systems, especially when investigating strains from the EU genotype. None of the assays...

  15. Cerebrospinal fluid anti-Epstein-Barr virus specific oligoclonal IgM and IgG bands in patients with clinically isolated and Guillain-Barré syndrome.

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    Ferraro, Diana; Galli, Veronica; Simone, Anna Maria; Bedin, Roberta; Vitetta, Francesca; Merelli, Elisa; Nichelli, Paolo Frigio; Sola, Patrizia

    2017-04-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) has been implicated in multiple sclerosis (MS) pathogenesis. We aimed to assess the frequency of EBV-specific IgG and IgM oligoclonal bands (OCB) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of 50 patients with clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) and in 27 controls with Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). Furthermore, we assessed correlations between the presence of OCB and CIS patients' CSF, MRI, and clinical variables. There was no difference in the proportion of CIS and GB patients with positivity for anti-EBV-specific IgG/IgM OCB. There were no correlations between OCB and analyzed variables, nor were they predictive of a higher disability at 3 years.

  16. Molecular characterization of Lelystad virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulenberg, J.J.M.; Petersen-den Besten, A.; Kluyver, de E.; Nieuwstadt, van A.; Wensvoort, G.; Moormann, R.J.M.

    1997-01-01

    Lelystad virus (LV), the prototype of porcine reproductive respiratory syndrome virus, is a small enveloped virus, containing a positive strand RNA genome of 15 kb. LV is tentatively classified in the family Arteriviridae, which consists of lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus (LDV), equine

  17. Prevention of White Spot Syndrome Virus Infection on Penaeus monodon by Immersion in CEPM Extract of Avicennia sp. and Sonneratia sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Wahjuningrum

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The quality and survival rate are still being the problem that hampers the productivity of black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon culture.  Impaired quality of larval shrimp and environmental conditions can confer shrimp be infected by diseases, including viruses such as white spot syndrome virus (WSSV.  Prevention of disease infection using chemicals can offer negative impacts on water, pathogen resistance and consumers.  This study was conducted to examine the efficacy of an alternative prevention compound as liquid mangrove extract (CEPM from Avicennia sp. and Sonneratia sp. By immersion in different dose of CEPM, i.e. 250, 500, 750 and 1000 ppm, the patogenicity of WSSV was found to be different.  Patogenicity of WSSV decreased after treatment by CEPM, hence this could be used to induce shrimp immunity.  Optimum dose of CEPM was 250 ppm, which could increased survival rate of shrimp after challenging by WSSV, up to 98.4% shrimp survived. Keywrods: WSSV, black tiger shrimp, extract, Avicennia sp., Sonneratia sp.   ABSTRAK Kualitas dan kelangsungan hidup merupakan masalah yang masih membatasi produktivitas budidaya udang windu Penaeus monodon. Kondisi udang dan kualitas lingkungan yang kurang baik dapat menyebabkan udang terserang penyakit, termasuk yang disebabkan oleh virus termasuk white spot syndrome virus (WSSV. Upaya pengendaliannya menggunakan bahan kimia secara berlebih dapat menimbulkan dampak negatif bagi lingkungan perairan, kesehatan konsumen dan menimbulkan resistensi patogen. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui efektivitas bahan alternatif berupa cairan ekstrak pohon mangrove (CEPM dari jenis Avicennia sp. dan Sonneratia sp. sebagai upaya pencegahan. Dengan perendaman beberapa konsentrasi yang berbeda (250, 500, 750 dan 1000 ppm penggunaan cairan ekstrak pohon mangrove (CEPM Avicennia sp. dan Sonneratia sp., memberikan pengaruh yang berbeda terhadap patogenitas WSSV dan udang uji pada setiap perlakuan. Tingkat

  18. Evaluation of the Cross-Protective Efficacy of a Chimeric Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Constructed Based on Two Field Strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabir, Nadeem; Khatun, Amina; Nazki, Salik; Kim, Bumseok; Choi, Eun-Jin; Sun, Dong; Yoon, Kyoung-Jin; Kim, Won-Il

    2016-08-22

    One of the major hurdles to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) vaccinology is the limited or no cross-protection conferred by current vaccines. To overcome this challenge, a PRRS chimeric virus (CV) was constructed using an FL12-based cDNA infectious clone in which open reading frames (ORFs) 3-4 and ORFs 5-6 were replaced with the two Korean field isolates K08-1054 and K07-2273,respectively. This virus was evaluated as a vaccine candidate to provide simultaneous protection against two genetically distinct PRRS virus (PRRSV) strains. Thirty PRRS-negative three-week-old pigs were divided into five groups and vaccinated with CV, K08-1054, K07-2273, VR-2332, or a mock inoculum. At 25 days post-vaccination (dpv), the pigs in each group were divided further into two groups and challenged with either K08-1054 or K07-2273. All of the pigs were observed until 42 dpv and were euthanized for pathological evaluation. Overall, the CV-vaccinated group exhibited higher levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), and interleukin-12 (IL-12) expression and of serum virus-neutralizing antibodies compared with the other groups after vaccination and also demonstrated better protection levels against both viruses compared with the challenge control group. Based on these results, it was concluded that CV might be an effective vaccine model that can confer a broader range of cross-protection to various PRRSV strains.

  19. SUMO-conjugating enzyme E2 UBC9 mediates viral immediate-early protein SUMOylation in crayfish to facilitate reproduction of white spot syndrome virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, An-Jing; Gao, Lu; Wang, Xian-Wei; Zhao, Xiao-Fan; Wang, Jin-Xing

    2013-01-01

    Successful viruses have evolved superior strategies to escape host defenses or exploit host biological pathways. Most of the viral immediate-early (ie) genes are essential for viral infection and depend solely on host proteins; however, the molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. In this study, we focused on the modification of viral IE proteins by the crayfish small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO) and investigated the role of SUMOylation during the viral life cycle. SUMO and SUMO ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme 9 (UBC9) involved in SUMOylation were identified in red swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkii). Both SUMO and UBC9 were upregulated in crayfish challenged with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). Replication of WSSV genes increased in crayfish injected with recombinant SUMO or UBC9, but injection of mutant SUMO or UBC9 protein had no effect. Subsequently, we analyzed the mechanism by which crayfish SUMOylation facilitates WSSV replication. Crayfish UBC9 bound to all three WSSV IE proteins tested, and one of these IE proteins (WSV051) was covalently modified by SUMO in vitro. The expression of viral ie genes was affected and that of late genes was significantly inhibited in UBC9-silenced or SUMO-silenced crayfish, and the inhibition effect was rescued by injection of recombinant SUMO or UBC9. The results of this study demonstrate that viral IE proteins can be modified by crayfish SUMOylation, prompt the expression of viral genes, and ultimately benefit WSSV replication. Understanding of the mechanisms by which viruses exploit host components will greatly improve our knowledge of the virus-host "arms race" and contribute to the development of novel methods against virulent viruses.

  20. Laem-Singh Virus: A Probable Etiological Agent Associated with Monodon Slow Growth Syndrome in Farmed Black Tiger Shrimp (Penaeus monodon).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poornima, M; Seetang-Nun, Y; Alavandi, S V; Dayal, J Syama

    2012-09-01

    Among the emerging diseases in shrimp aquaculture, monodon slow growth syndrome (MSGS) is a major concern in South and Southeast Asia. Shrimp farming in Thailand was severely affected during 2000-2002 due to MSGS, which caused an economic loss, of about US$ 300 million. MSGS is characterized by abnormally slow growth with coefficients of size variation of >35 %, that has impacted P. monodon production in Thailand. A new shrimp virus, Laem-Singh virus (LSNV) was identified to be associated in MSGS affected shrimp. LSNV a RNA virus of about 25 nm diameter is phylogenetically related to the insect-borne viruses in the families Barnaviridae, Tymoviridae and Sobemoviridae an important histopathological observation is exclusively noticed in growth-retarded shrimp. The LSNV infections have been confirmed in various organs of infected shrimp such as lymphoid organ, gills and nervous tissues by various diagnostic techniques such as reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), in situ hybridization, quantitative real-time RT-PCR and reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification combined with a lateral flow dipstick (RT-LAMP-LFD) and these tools are available for the diagnosis of LSNV. Recently, an integrase containing element has been identified in absolute association with LSNV in stunted growth shrimp. The transmission of LSNV through horizontal and vertical routes has been experimentally demonstrated. The known natural host-range of LSNV includes P. monodon and other penaeid shrimp. The putative RdRp gene involved in replication of LSNV was targeted for dsRNA-mediated gene silencing and appeared to be effective in a dose-dependent manner. Since the discovery of LSNV in 2006 in Thailand, it has been added to the list of viruses to be excluded from domesticated specific pathogen-free stocks of P. monodon and it has been recommended that shrimp farmers avoid stocking post larvae positive for LSNV to prevent MSGS in their farms.

  1. Influence of the amino acid residues at 70 in M protein of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus on viral neutralization susceptibility to the serum antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Baochao; Liu, Xing; Bai, Juan; Zhang, Tingjie; Zhang, Qiaoya; Jiang, Ping

    2016-03-22

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is mainly responsible for the significant economic losses in pig industry in the world. The adaptive immune responses of the host act as an important source of selective pressure in the evolutionary process of the virus. In the previous study, we confirmed that the amino acid (aa) residues at 102 and 104 sites in GP5 played an important role in escaping from the neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) against highly pathogenic PRRSV (HP-PRRSV). In this study, we further analyzed the aa mutants affecting neutralization susceptibility of NAbs in other structure proteins in NAbs resistant variants. Based on the different aa residues of the structural proteins between the resistant virus BB20s and the parent virus BB, 12 recombinant PRRSV strains containing these aa residue substitutions were constructed using reverse genetic techniques. The neutralizing antibody (NA) titers of the recombinant strains were tested on MARC-145 and porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs). And the NAbs binding abilities of parent and rescued viruses were tested by using ELISA method. By using the neutralization assay, it was revealed that the NA titer of N4 serum with rBB/Ms was significantly lower than that with rBB. Meanwhile, NA titer of the serum with rBB20s/M was significantly higher than that with rBB20s. The ELISA binding results showed that rBB/Ms had higher binding inability to N4 than did rBB. And alignment of M protein revealed that the variant aa residue lysine (K) at 70 was also existed in field type 2 and vaccine PRRSV strains. The aa residue at 70 in M protein of PRRSV played an important role in regulating neutralization susceptibility to the porcine serum NAbs. It may be helpful for monitoring the antigen variant strains in the field and developing new vaccine against PRRSV in the future.

  2. Citrus psorosis virus coat protein-derived hairpin construct confers stable transgenic resistance in citrus against psorosis A and B syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Francesco, A; Costa, N; García, M L

    2017-04-01

    Citrus psorosis virus (CPsV) is the causal agent of psorosis, a serious and widespread citrus disease. Two syndromes of psorosis, PsA and PsB, have been described. PsB is the most aggressive and rampant form. Previously, we obtained Pineapple sweet orange plants transformed with a hairpin construct derived from the CPsV coat protein gene (ihpCP). Some of these plants were resistant to CPsV 90-1-1, a PsA isolate homologous to the transgene. In this study, we found that expression of the ihpCP transgene and siRNA production in lines ihpCP-10 and -15 were stable with time and propagation. In particular, line ihpCP-15 has been resistant for more than 2 years, even after re-inoculation. The ihpCP plants were also resistant against a heterologous CPsV isolate that causes severe PsB syndrome. Line ihpCP-15 manifested complete resistance while line ihpCP-10 was tolerant to the virus, although with variable behaviour, showing delay and attenuation in PsB symptoms. These lines are promising for a biotech product aimed at eradicating psorosis.

  3. [The incidence of oral candidiasis in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome from Yunnan, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Yan; Li, Chengwen; Pei, Junhaoxiang; Bai, Jinsong; Yang, Xianghong; Duan, Kaiwen

    2014-08-01

    To assess the incidence of oral candidiasis and its influencing factors in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS). An oral examination was conducted in the 1 566 HIV/AIDS patients in the Third Hospital of Kunming from March 2008 to September 2012 (M/F: 1 062/504, age range: 0.2 to 84.0 years old). The HIV viral load (HIV- RNA) and peripheral blood CD4 count were respectively analyzed by Bayer Q340 fluorescence signal surveying instrument (bDNA method) and flow cytometry analysis. The information on usage of highly active anti-retroviral (HAART) drugs and transmission of HIV were obtained through questionnaires. The incidence of oral candidiasis in patients with different HIV-RNA levels and CD4 count and the use of HAART was analyzed and compared. The total incidence of oral candidosis was 31.0% (486/1 566) and there was no difference in sex. The oral lesions were presented by three types, psudomembranous candidosis (PC), erythematous candidosis (EC) and angular cheilitis (AC), and the morbidity was 13.9% (217/1 566), 17.0% (267/1 566) and 4.9% (77/1 566), respectively. The average level of CD4 count in psudomembranous candidosis, erythematous candidosis and angular cheilitis [81.0 (146.0), 74.0 (152.0) and 69.0 (121.5) cell/µl] showed no significant difference (P > 0.05). The incidence of oral candidiasis in non-HAART and HAART subjects were 36.3% (402/1 107) and 18.3% (84/459), respectively (P = 0.000). The CD4 count and absolute counts of HIV viral load in oral candidiasis patients and non-oral candidiasis patients had significant difference (Z = -10.261, P = 0.000 and Z = -4.762, P = 0.000). The morbidity of oral candidiasis in HIV/AIDS patients in Yunnan Province was high, including PC, EC and AC and hyperplastic candidosis was not detected. The incidence was related to the degree of immune suppression and HIV viral load.

  4. Yeast Surface Display of Two Proteins Previously Shown to Be Protective Against White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV in Shrimp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vorawit Ananphongmanee

    Full Text Available Cell surface display using the yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pichia pastoris has been extensively developed for application in bioindustrial processes. Due to the rigid structure of their cell walls, a number of proteins have been successfully displayed on their cell surfaces. It was previously reported that the viral binding protein Rab7 from the giant tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon (PmRab7 and its binding partner envelope protein VP28 of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV could independently protect shrimp against WSSV infection. Thus, we aimed to display these two proteins independently on the cell surfaces of 2 yeast clones with the ultimate goal of using a mixture of the two clones as an orally deliverable, antiviral agent to protect shrimp against WSSV infection. PmRab7 and VP28 were modified by N-terminal tagging to the C-terminal half of S. cerevisiae α-agglutinin. DNA fragments, harboring fused-gene expression cassettes under control of an alcohol oxidase I (AOX1 promoter were constructed and used to transform the yeast cells. Immunofluorescence microscopy with antibodies specific to both proteins demonstrated that mutated PmRab7 (mPmRab7 and partial VP28 (pVP28 were localized on the cell surfaces of the respective clones, and fluorescence intensity for each was significantly higher than that of control cells by flow cytometry. Enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA using cells displaying mPmRab7 or pVP28 revealed that the binding of specific antibodies for each was dose-dependent, and could be saturated. In addition, the binding of mPmRab7-expressing cells with free VP28, and vice versa was dose dependent. Binding between the two surface-expressed proteins was confirmed by an assay showing agglutination between cells expressing complementary mPmRab7 and pVP28. In summary, our genetically engineered P. pastoris can display biologically active mPmRab7 and pVP28 and is now ready for evaluation of efficacy in protecting shrimp against

  5. Isolation of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus in a Danish swine herd and experimental infection of pregnant gilts with the virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøtner, Anette; Nielsen, Jens; Bille-Hansen, Vivi

    1994-01-01

    , the virus particle was found to be spherical and enveloped, measuring 45–55 nm in diameter and containing a 30–35 nm nucleocapsid. Only minor antigenic differences were found between the Danish and a Dutch isolate. Following intranasal inoculation of 3 pregnant gilts with the Danish isolate transplacental...... infection was demonstrated by the re-isolation of PRRS virus from approximately 45% of the piglets from the experimentally infected gilts. However, the experimental infection produced no significant reproductive disorders or other clinical signs. At autopsy, histopathological examination revealed slight...

  6. Sea Hare Aplysia punctata (Mollusca: Gastropoda) Can Maintain Shell Calcification under Extreme Ocean Acidification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Nicholas; Dupont, Sam; Sigwart, Julia D

    2016-10-01

    Ocean acidification is expected to cause energetic constraints upon marine calcifying organisms such as molluscs and echinoderms, because of the increased costs of building or maintaining shell material in lower pH. We examined metabolic rate, shell morphometry, and calcification in the sea hare Aplysia punctata under short-term exposure (19 days) to an extreme ocean acidification scenario (pH 7.3, ∼2800 μatm pCO 2 ), along with a group held in control conditions (pH 8.1, ∼344 μatm pCO 2 ). This gastropod and its congeners are broadly distributed and locally abundant grazers, and have an internal shell that protects the internal organs. Specimens were examined for metabolic rate via closed-chamber respirometry, followed by removal and examination of the shell under confocal microscopy. Staining using calcein determined the amount of new calcification that occurred over 6 days at the end of the acclimation period. The width of new, pre-calcified shell on the distal shell margin was also quantified as a proxy for overall shell growth. Aplysia punctata showed a 30% reduction in metabolic rate under low pH, but calcification was not affected. This species is apparently able to maintain calcification rate even under extreme low pH, and even when under the energetic constraints of lower metabolism. This finding adds to the evidence that calcification is a largely autonomous process of crystallization that occurs as long as suitable haeomocoel conditions are preserved. There was, however, evidence that the accretion of new, noncalcified shell material may have been reduced, which would lead to overall reduced shell growth under longer-term exposures to low pH independent of calcification. Our findings highlight that the chief impact of ocean acidification upon the ability of marine invertebrates to maintain their shell under low pH may be energetic constraints that hinder growth of supporting structure, rather than maintenance of calcification.

  7. Deviance partitioning of host factors affecting parasitization in the European brown hare ( Lepus europaeus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzaga, Vanesa; Tizzani, Paolo; Acevedo, Pelayo; Ruiz-Fons, Francisco; Vicente, Joaquín; Gortázar, Christian

    2009-10-01

    Deviance partitioning can provide new insights into the ecology of host-parasite interactions. We studied the host-related factors influencing parasite prevalence, abundance, and species richness in European brown hares ( Lepus europaeus) from northern Spain. We defined three groups of explanatory variables: host environment, host population, and individual factors. We hypothesised that parasite infection rates and species richness were determined by different host-related factors depending on the nature of the parasite (endo- or ectoparasite, direct or indirect life cycle). To assess the relative importance of these components, we used deviance partitioning, an innovative approach. The explained deviance (ED) was higher for parasite abundance models, followed by those of prevalence and then by species richness, suggesting that parasite abundance models may best describe the host factors influencing parasitization. Models for parasites with a direct life cycle yielded higher ED values than those for indirect life cycle ones. As a general trend, host individual factors explained the largest proportion of the ED, followed by host environmental factors and, finally, the interaction between host environmental and individual factors. Similar hierarchies were found for parasite prevalence, abundance, and species richness. Individual factors comprised the most relevant group of explanatory variables for both types of parasites. However, host environmental factors were also relevant in models for indirect life-cycle parasites. These findings are consistent with the idea of the host as the main habitat of the parasite; whereas, for indirect life-cycle parasites, transmission would be also modulated by environmental conditions. We suggest that parasitization can be used not only as an indicator of individual fitness but also as an indicator of environmental quality for the host. This research underlines the importance of monitoring parasite rates together with environmental

  8. Long-term patterns in Iberian hare population dynamics in a protected area (Doñana National Park) in the southwestern Iberian Peninsula: Effects of weather conditions and plant cover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carro, Francisco; Soriguer, Ramón C

    2017-01-01

    The Iberian hare (Lepus granatensis) is a widely distributed endemic species in the Iberian Peninsula. To improve our knowledge of its population dynamics, the relative abundance and population trends of the Iberian hare were studied in the autumns of 1995-2012 in a protected area (Doñana National Park) by spotlighting in 2 different habitats: marshland and ecotones. The average relative abundance was 0.38 hare/km (SD = 0.63) in the marshland and 3.6 hares/km (SD = 4.09) in ecotones. The Iberian hare population exhibited local interannual fluctuations and a negative population trend during the study period (1995-2012). The results suggest that its populations are in decline. The flooding of parts of the marshland in June, July and October favor hare abundance in the ecotone. Hare abundance in the marshland increases as the flooded surface area increases in October. These effects are more pronounced if the rains are early (October) and partially flood the marsh. By contrast, when marsh grasses and graminoids are very high and thick (as measured using the aerial herbaceous biomass [biomass marshland] as a proxy), the abundance of hares decreases dramatically as does the area of the marsh that is flooded (in November). © 2016 International Society of Zoological Sciences, Institute of Zoology/Chinese Academy of Sciences and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  9. Multi-scale habitat relationships of snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus) in the mixed conifer landscape of the Northern Rockies, USA: Cross-scale effects of horizontal cover with implications for forest management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph D. Holbrook; John R. Squires; Lucretia E. Olson; Rick L. Lawrence; Shannon L. Savage

    2016-01-01

    Snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus) are an ecologically important herbivore because they modify vegetation through browsing and serve as a prey resource for multiple predators. We implemented a multiscale approach to characterize habitat relationships for snowshoe hares across the mixed conifer landscape of the northern Rocky Mountains, USA. Our objectives were to (1)...

  10. Phylogeny-Directed Search for Murine Leukemia Virus-Like Retroviruses in Vertebrate Genomes and in Patients Suffering from Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Blomberg

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Gammaretrovirus-like sequences occur in most vertebrate genomes. Murine Leukemia Virus (MLV like retroviruses (MLLVs are a subset, which may be pathogenic and spread cross-species. Retroviruses highly similar to MLLVs (xenotropic murine retrovirus related virus (XMRV and Human Mouse retrovirus-like RetroViruses (HMRVs reported from patients suffering from prostate cancer (PC and myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS raise the possibility that also humans have been infected. Structurally intact, potentially infectious MLLVs occur in the genomes of some mammals, especially mouse. Mouse MLLVs contain three major groups. One, MERV G3, contained MLVs and XMRV/HMRV. Its presence in mouse DNA, and the abundance of xenotropic MLVs in biologicals, is a source of false positivity. Theoretically, XMRV/HMRV could be one of several MLLV transspecies infections. MLLV pathobiology and diversity indicate optimal strategies for investigating XMRV/HMRV in humans and raise ethical concerns. The alternatives that XMRV/HMRV may give a hard-to-detect “stealth” infection, or that XMRV/HMRV never reached humans, have to be considered.

  11. Host MicroRNA-217 Promotes White Spot Syndrome Virus Infection by Targeting Tube in the Chinese Mitten Crab (Eriocheir sinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Huang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs, a group of small molecule non-encoding RNAs, are key post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression that are implicated in many biological processes. In the current study, miR-217 from Eriocheir sinensis was selected for studying its roles during host–virus interaction. Overexpression or silencing of miR-217 led to considerable effects on white spot syndrome virus (WSSV replication, implying that miR-217 played a positive role in WSSV infection. In insect High Five cells, miR-217 significantly inhibited Tube gene expression by binding to the 3′-untranslated region of the Tube. Overexpression of miR-217 in crab led to downregulation of tube expression. Knockdown of Tube in vivo led to significant enhancement of WSSV infection and inhibited the expression of five antimicrobial peptide (AMP genes (Anti-lipopolysaccharide factor ALF1, ALF2, ALF3; Crustin Crus1, Crus2 in WSSV-challenged crabs. Overexpression of miR-217 also led to downregulation of these AMP genes in WSSV-challenged crabs. Our results showed that host miRNA played positive roles in virus infection by regulation of host tube gene, which is the key component of Toll signaling pathway.

  12. Influence of pig age on virus titer and bactericidal activity of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV)-infected pulmonary intravascular macrophages (PIMs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanawongnuwech, R; Thacker, E L; Halbur, P G

    1998-10-01

    Twelve pigs (six 4-week-old and six 4-month-old cross-bred, specific pathogen free pigs) were used as donors for both pulmonary intravascular macrophages (PIMs) and pulmonary alveolar macrophages (PAMs). The PIMs and PAMs were infected in vitro with low (ISU-55) or high (VR-2385) virulence strains of PRRSV at 1 multiplicity of infection (m.o.i.) for comparisons of virus titers at 48 h post infection (PI). PIMs were as permissive as PAMs to infection with both PRRSV isolates yielding similar progeny titers (10(4.81) vs. 10(5.22) TCID50/ml, respectively). Both ISU-55 and VR-2385 were able to infect PIMs and no significant difference in virus replication as measured by virus titers between isolates was found (10(5.33) vs. 10(4.69) TCID50/ml, respectively). PIMs from 4-weak-old pigs yielded a higher virus titer following PRRSV infection than PIMs from 4-month-old pigs (10(5.43) vs. 10(4.59) TCID50/ml, respectively; p PIMs had significantly decreased bactericidal (Staphylococcus aureus) activity compared with uninfected PIMS at 48 h PI (p PIMs and VR-2385 (high virulence)-infected PIMs. Both ISU-55 and VR-2385 infection significantly decreased the production of superoxide anion (SOA) at 24 and 48 h PI (p PIMs, (2) PIMs from younger pigs were more permissive to PRRSV infection, and (3) the selected PRRSV strains, which differ in their abilities to induce pneumonia in vivo were not different when tested in vitro by measuring virus titer and bactericidal functions.

  13. Pseudogenization of the MCP-2/CCL8 chemokine gene in European rabbit (genus Oryctolagus, but not in species of Cottontail rabbit (Sylvilagus and Hare (Lepus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van der Loo Wessel

    2012-08-01

    revealed in situations of dysfunction or gene loss. Infections with Myxoma virus (MYXV tend to be fatal in European rabbit (genus Oryctolagus, while being harmless in Hares (genus Lepus and benign in Cottontail rabbit (genus Sylvilagus, the natural hosts of the virus. This communication should stimulate research on a possible role of MCP-2/CCL8 in poxvirus related pathogenicity.

  14. Development of a swine specific 9-plex Luminex cytokine assay and assessment of immunity after porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) vaccination: Elevated serum IL-12 levels are not predictive of protect

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Luminex multiplex swine cytokine assay was developed to measure 9 cytokines simultaneously in pig serum and tested in a porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) vaccine/challenge study. This assay detects innate (IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-8, IFNa, TNFa); regulatory (IL-10), Th1 (IL-12, I...

  15. The effect of severe drought on the abundance of ticks on vegetation and on scrub hares in the Kruger National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Spickett

    1995-09-01

    Full Text Available Free-living ixodid ticks were collected monthly from August 1988 to July 1993 from the vegetation of landscape zones 17 (Sclerocarya caffra/Acacia nigrescens Savanna and 4 (Thickets of the Sabie and Crocodile Rivers in the south-east and south-west of the Kruger National Park respectively, and parasitic ticks from scrub hares in the latter landscape zone. Total tick collections from the vegetation of both landscape zones were lowest in the year following the drought year of August 1991 to July 1992, while the tick burdens of the scrub hares were lowest during the drought year itself.

  16. [Alice in Wonderland syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asensio-Sánchez, V M

    2014-02-01

    A case of Alice in Wonderland syndrome is described as the only sign of Epstein-Barr virus infection. Epstein-Barr virus infection may include visual symptoms as the first or only signs of disease. All patients presenting with a clinical picture consistent with the Alice in Wonderland syndrome should undergo serological testing for Epstein-Barr virus infection. Copyright © 2011 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  17. Complete protection against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-mediated lethal respiratory disease in aged mice by immunization with a mouse-adapted virus lacking E protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fett, Craig; DeDiego, Marta L; Regla-Nava, Jose A; Enjuanes, Luis; Perlman, Stanley

    2013-06-01

    Zoonotic coronaviruses, including the one that caused severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), cause significant morbidity and mortality in humans. No specific therapy for any human coronavirus is available, making vaccine development critical for protection against these viruses. We previously showed that recombinant SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV) (Urbani strain based) lacking envelope (E) protein expression (rU-ΔE) provided good but not perfect protection in young mice against challenge with virulent mouse-adapted SARS-CoV (MA15). To improve vaccine efficacy, we developed a second set of E-deleted vaccine candidates on an MA15 background (rMA15-ΔE). rMA15-ΔE is safe, causing no disease in 6-week-, 12-month-, or 18-month-old BALB/c mice. Immunization with this virus completely protected mice of three ages from lethal disease and effected more-rapid virus clearance. Compared to rU-ΔE, rMA15-ΔE immunization resulted in significantly greater neutralizing antibody and SARS-CoV-specific CD4 and CD8 T cell responses. After challenge, inflammatory cell infiltration, edema, and lung destruction were decreased in the lungs of rMA15-ΔE-immunized mice compared to those in rU-ΔE-immunized 12-month-old mice. Collectively, these results show that immunization with a species-adapted attenuated coronavirus lacking E protein expression is safe and provides optimal immunogenicity and long-term protection against challenge with lethal virus. This approach will be generally useful for development of vaccines protective against human coronaviruses as well as against coronaviruses that cause disease in domestic and companion animals.

  18. Primary mediastinal large B cell lymphoma in a woman who is human immunodeficiency virus positive presenting with superior vena cava syndrome: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallangyo, Pedro; Nicholaus, Paulina; Lyimo, Frederick; Urio, Elikaanany; Kisenge, Peter; Janabi, Mohamed

    2017-02-11

    The risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma is increased 200-fold in individuals seropositive for human immunodeficiency virus compared to those free from human immunodeficiency virus. Human immunodeficiency virus-associated non-Hodgkin lymphoma is known for its atypical presentation, aggressive ability, widespread involvement, poor response to chemotherapy, and high relapse potential which makes both the diagnosis and management a difficult undertaking especially in resource-poor settings. We report a case of primary mediastinal large B cell lymphoma in a 46-year-old woman of African descent who is human immunodeficiency virus positive who presented with symptoms of superior vena cava syndrome. Her past medical history was remarkable for a 23-year history of systemic hypertension and a 10-year history of human immunodeficiency virus infection. A physical examination revealed an underweight woman with right-sided facial, neck, upper limb, and trunk swelling together with distended veins on her chest and abdomen draining downwards. A respiratory examination revealed a reduced chest expansion, stony dull percussion note, and absent breath sounds on her entire right side with a left-sided tracheal deviation. She had a CD4 count of 146 cells/μL. A chest X-ray revealed a homogenous opacification on her right side with a left-sided tracheal deviation while a computed tomography scan of her chest revealed a solid mass on her right side. An echocardiogram showed a huge well-circumscribed mass (4.6×3.3 cm) with spontaneous echocardiographic contrast compressing her heart inferiorly. She had severe pulmonary hypertension (right ventricular systolic pressure 58 mmHg) but preserved left ventricular systolic function, no thrombus was seen, and her pericardium was normal. A computed tomography angiography of her aorta ruled out an aortic aneurysm. Finally, she underwent mediastinoscopy and a direct biopsy of the mass was taken for histopathology. Hematoxylin and eosin staining

  19. Pelacakan Virus Bercak Putih pada Udang Vaname (Litopenaeus vannamei di Lombok dengan Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (DETECTION OF WHITE SPOT SYNDROME VIRUS IN LITOPENAEUS VANNAMEI IN LOMBOK ISLAND USING REAL-TIME POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lulu Arafani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available White spot syndrome virus (WSSV is one of the most threatening diseases in shrimp and othercrustaceans affecting global shrimp farming. Since firstly detected in Taiwan in 1992, the disease hasspread globally and followed with considerable socio-economic consequences. This research was performedto detect the WSSV infection in shrimp farming in Lombok Island’s (West Nusa Tenggara using real-timepolymerase chain reaction. Samples of vaname (Litopenaeus vannamei were collected from several shrimpfarming in Lombok. Results indicated that the spread of WSSV has reached shrimp farms in Lombok,especially in Lendang Jae, West Lombok. Therefore, a biosurveillance program is strongly recommendedto government to avoid and halt the spread of the disease in East Indonesia region .

  20. Psychometric properties of the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) in a representative sample of Canadian federal offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storey, Jennifer E; Hart, Stephen D; Cooke, David J; Michie, Christine

    2016-04-01

    The Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R; Hare, 2003) is a commonly used psychological test for assessing traits of psychopathic personality disorder. Despite the abundance of research using the PCL-R, the vast majority of research used samples of convenience rather than systematic methods to minimize sampling bias and maximize the generalizability of findings. This potentially complicates the interpretation of test scores and research findings, including the "norms" for offenders from the United States and Canada included in the PCL-R manual. In the current study, we evaluated the psychometric properties of PCL-R scores for all male offenders admitted to a regional reception center of the Correctional Service of Canada during a 1-year period (n = 375). Because offenders were admitted for assessment prior to institutional classification, they comprise a sample that was heterogeneous with respect to correctional risks and needs yet representative of all offenders in that region of the service. We examined the distribution of PCL-R scores, classical test theory indices of its structural reliability, the factor structure of test items, and the external correlates of test scores. The findings were highly consistent with those typically reported in previous studies. We interpret these results as indicating it is unlikely any sampling limitations of past research using the PCL-R resulted in findings that were, overall, strongly biased or unrepresentative. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).