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Sample records for hare lepus brachyurus

  1. Introgression of mountain hare (Lepus timidus mitochondrial DNA into wild brown hares (Lepus europaeus in Denmark

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    Villesen Palle

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Europe the mountain hare (Lepus timidus exists in Great Britain, Norway, Sweden, Finland, parts of the Alps and in Eastern Europe, but not in Denmark. Interspecific hybridization has been demonstrated between native Swedish mountain hares and introduced brown hares (Lepus europaeus. During the data collection in a study concerning Danish brown hares we identified 16 hares with a single very divergent haplotype. Results Phylogenetic analysis shows that the divergent Danish haplotype is most closely related to the Swedish mountain hare. The frequency of Lepus timidus mtDNA haplotype in the Eastern Danish hare populations is estimated to 6%. Conclusion In contrast to what is known, the Danish hare populations are not pure L. europaeus populations but include introgressed brown hares with Swedish L. timidus mtDNA. The most probable explanation of this is natural migration or translocation of introgressed brown hares from Sweden. The impurity of hare populations has implications for conservation and population genetics.

  2. Introgression of mountain hare (Lepus timidus) mitochondrial DNA into wild brown hares (Lepus europaeus) in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fredsted, Tina; Wincentz, Trine; Villesen, Palle

    2006-01-01

    ). During the data collection in a study concerning Danish brown hares we identified 16 hares with a single very divergent haplotype. Results Phylogenetic analysis shows that the divergent Danish haplotype is most closely related to the Swedish mountain hare. The frequency of Lepus timidus mtDNA haplotype...... in the Eastern Danish hare populations is estimated to 6%. Conclusion In contrast to what is known, the Danish hare populations are not pure L. europaeus populations but include introgressed brown hares with Swedish L. timidus mtDNA. The most probable explanation of this is natural migration or translocation...

  3. Prevalence of thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. in farmed hares (Lepus europaeus).

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    Santaniello, Antonio; Dipineto, Ludovico; Veneziano, Vincenzo; Mariani, Ugo; Fioretti, Alessandro; Menna, Lucia Francesca

    2014-10-01

    Thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. were isolated from 118/240 (49.2%) rectal swabs from commercially farmed hares (Lepus europaeus) in southern Italy. Using multiplex PCR, Campylobacter coli was identified in 118/118 (100%) positive samples, while 17/118 (14.4%) positive samples were also positive for Campylobacter jejuni. Adult hares had a higher prevalence of infection with Campylobacter spp. than juvenile hares. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Geographic variation in winter adaptations of snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus)

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    Gigliotti, Laura C.; Diefenbach, Duane R.; Sheriff, M.J.

    2017-01-01

    Understanding adaptations of nonhibernating northern endotherms to cope with extreme cold is important because climate-induced changes in winter temperatures and snow cover are predicted to impact these species the most. We compared winter pelage characteristics and heat production of snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus Erxleben, 1777) on the southern edge of their range, in Pennsylvania (USA), to a northern population, in the Yukon (Canada), to investigate how hares might respond to changing environmental conditions. We also investigated how hares in Pennsylvania altered movement rates and resting spot selection to cope with variable winter temperatures. Hares from Pennsylvania had shorter, less dense, and less white winter coats than their northern counterparts, suggesting lower coat insulation. Hares in the southern population had lower pelage temperatures, indicating that they produced less heat than those in the northern population. In addition, hares in Pennsylvania did not select for resting spots that offered thermal advantages, but selected locations offering visual obstruction from predators. Movement rates were associated with ambient temperature, with the smallest movements occurring at the lower and upper range of observed ambient temperatures. Our results indicate that snowshoe hares may be able to adapt to future climate conditions via changes in pelage characteristics, metabolism, and behavior.

  5. On Lepus salae, a new African Hare

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    Jentink, F.A.

    1880-01-01

    Hitherto only a small number of well defined species of Hares are known from Africa, viz: one or two species from Algiers and Tunis; eleven have been described as inhabiting the N. E. parts of Africa as far as Somáliland, while Waterhouse ¹) has pointed out that in South Africa there exist three

  6. Mitochondrial and nuclear DNA reveals reticulate evolution in hares (Lepus spp., Lagomorpha, Mammalia) from Ethiopia.

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    Tolesa, Zelalem; Bekele, Endashaw; Tesfaye, Kassahun; Ben Slimen, Hichem; Valqui, Juan; Getahun, Abebe; Hartl, Günther B; Suchentrunk, Franz

    2017-01-01

    For hares (Lepus spp., Leporidae, Lagomorpha, Mammalia) from Ethiopia no conclusive molecular phylogenetic data are available. To provide a first molecular phylogenetic model for the Abyssinian Hare (Lepus habessinicus), the Ethiopian Hare (L. fagani), and the Ethiopian Highland Hare (L. starcki) and their evolutionary relationships to hares from Africa, Eurasia, and North America, we phylogenetically analysed mitochondrial ATPase subunit 6 (ATP6; n = 153 / 416bp) and nuclear transferrin (TF; n = 155 / 434bp) sequences of phenotypically determined individuals. For the hares from Ethiopia, genotype composition at twelve microsatellite loci (n = 107) was used to explore both interspecific gene pool separation and levels of current hybridization, as has been observed in some other Lepus species. For phylogenetic analyses ATP6 and TF sequences of Lepus species from South and North Africa (L. capensis, L. saxatilis), the Anatolian peninsula and Europe (L. europaeus, L. timidus) were also produced and additional TF sequences of 18 Lepus species retrieved from GenBank were included as well. Median joining networks, neighbour joining, maximum likelihood analyses, as well as Bayesian inference resulted in similar models of evolution of the three species from Ethiopia for the ATP6 and TF sequences, respectively. The Ethiopian species are, however, not monophyletic, with signatures of contemporary uni- and bidirectional mitochondrial introgression and/ or shared ancestral polymorphism. Lepus habessinicus carries mtDNA distinct from South African L. capensis and North African L. capensis sensu lato; that finding is not in line with earlier suggestions of its conspecificity with L. capensis. Lepus starcki has mtDNA distinct from L. capensis and L. europaeus, which is not in line with earlier suggestions to include it either in L. capensis or L. europaeus. Lepus fagani shares mitochondrial haplotypes with the other two species from Ethiopia, despite its distinct phenotypic and

  7. Stress evaluation in hares (Lepus europaeus Pallas captured for traslocation

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    Antonio Lavazza

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available With the aim to evaluate the capturing techniques some haematic and physiological parameters were studied to discrim- inate stressed hares from non stressed hares. A total of 66 wild hares (experimental group were sampled in 14 different non-hunting areas, where hares are usually captured for later release in low-density areas. In the same season a total of 30 hares (about 1 year old, reared in cages and thus showing a reduced fear of man, were sampled (control group. In each area the hares were captured by cours- ing with 3-4 dogs (greyhounds or lurches. The dogs were released by the different hunter teams to find and drive into trammel nets any hare that was seen running. After capture, the hares remained inside darkened, wooden capture-boxes for a variable period of time before blood drawing. For blood sample collection all the hares were physically restrained and their eyes immediately covered. Blood, always collected within 1-2 minutes, was drawn from the auricular vein. Blood samples (plasma were analysed for glucose, AST, ALT, CPK and cortisol concentrations. Body temperature, heart and respiratory rate, sex, and age were evaluated in each hare. The effect of origin, sex and age on haematic and physiolog- ical parameters was analysed by ANOVA. Every measured parameter of the hares bearing to the capture group or the control group (reared was then subjected to stepwise and to discriminant analysis, in order to select the groups of stressed (discriminated by the controls and non-stressed hares. CPK, AST and glucose were found to be the best parameters for distinguishing stressed from non-stressed hares. The intensive exercise suffered by the wild hares induced a depletion of energetic reserves, so that most of the captured hares showed lower glucose and higher CPK activity in the plasma, probably due to muscle damage (P< 0.05. After reclassi- fying the hares in the two groups of stressed and non stressed hares, the reference values (means

  8. Variation of partial transferrin sequences and phylogenetic relationships among hares (Lepus capensis, Lagomorpha) from Tunisia.

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    Awadi, Asma; Suchentrunk, Franz; Makni, Mohamed; Ben Slimen, Hichem

    2016-10-01

    North African hares are currently included in cape hares, Lepus capensis sensu lato, a taxon that may be considered a superspecies or a complex of closely related species. The existing molecular data, however, are not unequivocal, with mtDNA control region sequences suggesting a separate species status and nuclear loci (allozymes, microsatellites) revealing conspecificity of L. capensis and L. europaeus. Here, we study sequence variation in the intron 6 (468 bp) of the transferrin nuclear gene, of 105 hares with different coat colour from different regions in Tunisia with respect to genetic diversity and differentiation, as well as their phylogenetic status. Forty-six haplotypes (alleles) were revealed and compared phylogenetically to all available TF haplotypes of various Lepus species retrieved from GenBank. Maximum Likelihood, neighbor joining and median joining network analyses concordantly grouped all currently obtained haplotypes together with haplotypes belonging to six different Chinese hare species and the African scrub hare L. saxatilis. Moreover, two Tunisian haploypes were shared with L. capensis, L timidus, L. sinensis, L. yarkandensis, and L. hainanus from China. These results indicated the evolutionary complexity of the genus Lepus with the mixing of nuclear gene haplotypes resulting from introgressive hybridization or/and shared ancestral polymorphism. We report the presence of shared ancestral polymorphism between North African and Chinese hares. This has not been detected earlier in the mtDNA sequences of the same individuals. Genetic diversity of the TF sequences from the Tunisian populations was relatively high compared to other hare populations. However, genetic differentiation and gene flow analyses (AMOVA, FST, Nm) indicated little divergence with the absence of geographically meaningful phylogroups and lack of clustering with coat colour types. These results confirm the presence of a single hare species in Tunisia, but a sound inference on

  9. Interaction of the tick (Haemaphysalis leporispalustris) with a cyclic snowshoe hare (Lepus americanus) population.

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    Keith, L B; Cary, J R

    1990-10-01

    Prevalence and intensity of the tick, Haemaphysalis leporispalustris, were monitored during 1963 to 1976 in a cyclic snowshoe hare (Lepus americanus) population near Rochester, Alberta, Canada. Prevalence was near zero from December through March, and near 100% among adult hares from May through September. Prevalence among juvenile hares approached 100% by age 2 mo. Intensity peaked for both adults and juveniles during May-June and again in August. Mean intensities were significantly higher among adult males than adult females in 5 of 13 yr, and almost significant in two others. Tick intensities were lowest during 3 yr, 1969 to 1971, when hare densities were highest. Tick intensities in spring were correlated with intensities the previous fall. Survival of marked adult and juvenile hares was unrelated to intensities of infestation. Mean numbers of corpora lutea and embryos tended to be lower among adult females with heavy tick infestations, and intra-uterine losses rose steadily from about 3 to 13% as tick intensities increased from none to heavy. Comparison of average tick intensities on adults 1-, 2-, and greater than or equal to 3-yr-old yielded no evidence of increased immunity with age.

  10. European hare Lepus europaeus(Lagomorpha: Leporidae an invasive species in Peru

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    Horacio Zeballos

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We describe the current distribution of the European hare, Lepus europaeus, in Peru which currently covers the highlands, Andean valleys, surrounding areas of the Titicaca Lake and coastal irrigations; in Arequipa, Cusco, Moquegua, Puno and Tacna departments. Based on its current distribution we developed models of potential distribution of this species, which would forecast this species in northern Peru. We make recommendations on the main issues that should be studied in Peru, and the possible consequences of their invasive process of in Peru.

  11. Do Soils affect Brown Hare (Lepus europaeus abundance in agricultural habitats?

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    Francesco Santilli

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In recent years, much research on brown hare (Lepus europaeus, Pallas 1778 ecology has been conducted in Europe to identify habitat-species relationships and the reasons for the decline in hare populations that have occurred since the 1960s. However, very few studies have considered the influence of soil texture on the abundance of this species in agricultural habitats. In this paper we examine the relationship between winter brown hare density in protected areas (game refuges in four provinces of the Tuscany region (central Italy and soil texture. Results show that hares reach higher densities in areas characterized by "loam" soils compared to areas where soils are richer in clay. Although this relationship is probably complex, soil texture may indirectly affect brown hare populations by influencing the temperature and moisture of the ground and influencing the timing of farming operations (tillage. Riassunto Il suolo influenza l’abbondanza della lepre Lepus europaeus negli ambienti agricoli? Negli ultimi anni sono state effettuate numerose ricerche sull’ecologia della lepre europea Lepus europaeus, al fine di evidenziare le relazioni fra questa specie ed il tipo di habitat e di comprendere i motivi del declino avvenuto a partire dagli anni ’60. Ciononostante pochi studi hanno preso in considerazione l’influenza del tipo di suolo sulla consistenza di questo lagomorfo negli ambienti agricoli. Nel presente lavoro viene esaminata la relazione fra la densità invernale della lepre all’interno delle zone di ripopolamento e cattura di quattro province toscane e la tessitura del suolo di queste aree. E’ stato riscontrato che le lepri raggiungono densità più elevate in aree dove predominano i suoli franchi rispetto ad aree dove risultano più argillosi. Sebbene questa relazione sia probabilmente complessa, la tessitura del suolo potrebbe influenzare

  12. Monitoring of Francisella tularensis and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis in Danish hares (Lepus europaeus) by fluorescent in-situ hybridization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mette Sif; Chriél, Mariann; Larsen, Gitte

    of 59 hares (Lepus Europaeus) have been screened for presence of the zoonotic bacteria Francisella tularensis and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis by fluorescent in-situ hybridization (FISH). Ten hares were positive for Y. pseudotuberculosis and one was positive for F. tularensis. F. tularensis and Y....... pseudotuberculosis has a wide host range and causes high mortality in hares. When it comes to zoonotic potential F. tularensis poses the major risk for humans, where it causes tularemia - a potentially deadly disease. FISH is an easy, cheap and not at least safe method for monitoring F. tularensis and Y...

  13. Home range dynamics of mountain hare (Lepus timidus in the Swiss Alps

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    Anne-Sophie Genini-Gamboni

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Little is known on the ecology and behaviour of alpine mountain hare (Lepus timidus. Between 1996 and 1997 we analysed by radiotracking the pattern of space use of 8 mountain hares from the Swiss Alps. We estimated home range size using both the kernel density estimator and the minimum convex polygon. We found smaller ranges (38 ha compared to those reported for the species in boreal or arctic habitats, but similar to ranges in Scotland. Hares did not use a centre of major activity (core area and showed high home range overlap, confirming their non-territorial behaviour. Smaller ranges were used during winter compared to the other seasons, whilst no difference in size was found between sexes. Riassunto Dinamica dell'uso dello spazio della lepre bianca (Lepus timidus nelle Alpi Svizzere Le informazioni relative all'ecologia e al comportamento della lepre alpina (Lepus timidus sono ad oggi scarse. In questo studio abbiamo analizzato l'utilizzo dello spazio di una popolazione di lepre bianca sulle Alpi Svizzere. Tra il 1996 e il 1997 sono stati marcati con redio collare 8 individui di lepre alpina. L'home range è stato calcolato utilizzando lo stimatore di densità kernel (KDE ed il metodo del minimo poligono convesso (MCP. L'ampiezza degli home range (38 ha è risultata inferiore a quella riportata per la specie in habitat boreali ed artici. ma simile a quella riscontrata in Scozia. All'interno dell home range non è stato rilevato alcun centro di maggiore attività (core area ed è stata evidenziata una notevole sovrapposizione tra gli stessi, confermando la non territorialità della specie. Le aree frequentate in inverno sono risultate più piccole rispetto alle altre stagioni e non sono state riscontrate differenze tra i sessi.

  14. Simulating Brown hare (Lepus europaeus Pallas dispersion: a tool for wildlife management of wide areas

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    Andrea Amici

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The second half of the 20th century was characterised by intense processes of urbanisation, industrialisation and agricultural mechanisation, leading to a fragmentation of the agricultural and forest landscape. This, in turn, reduced the bio-permeability of the territory and affected the dispersion of many wild species. Brown hare (Lepus europeus dispersion is dramatically affected by habitat fragmentation, presence of predators, intense tillage and elevated hunting pressure. Consequently, the only stable populations of hare are often in no-hunting areas where wildlife management is efficient. It is necessary, therefore, to identify not only additional areas suitable for reproduction, but also the most suitable dispersion pathways for hares, in order to optimise management. In the present study, by means of a Geographic Information System (GIS, a deterministic hare suitability model was developed on the basis of a multicriterial approach and fuzzy logic. Subsequently, a friction surface was derived from the suitability map in order to describe the land bio-permeability. Finally, on the basis of species potential, the spread of hares from stable population areas (source areas to the remaining territory was simulated. The area of study was the province of Viterbo (central Italy. The suitability map showed good discrimination ability (ROC=0.705. The hare dispersion simulation map allowed the potential spreading of this species throughout the provincial territory to be analysed. Isolated or less connected zones were highlighted, allowing the distribution of habitat enhancements, and/or the institution of new no-hunting areas devoted to the reproduction and consequent spread of hares throughout the territory, to be localised. The presented flexible and reiterable methodology could prove useful for wildlife management and hunting planning over a wide area. It would thus provide an important contribution to reducing the importance of animal

  15. Molecular Markers for Genetic Diversity Studies of European Hare (Lepus europaeus Pallas, 1778 Populations

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    Noémi Soós

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to give an overview of different molecular techniques which have been used in studies concerning population genetic issues of Lepus species and specifically of L. europaeus. The importance of these researches is ever-growing as the European populations of the brown hare have suffered several falloffs as a consequent upon both natural and anthropogenic effects. With developing tools and techniques molecular genetics have become the centrepiece of population genetics and conservation biology. Nucleic acid methods based on both bi- and uniparentally inherited DNA (allozymes, microsatellites, Y chromosome, mtDNA are often used to study genetic structure, diversity and phylogeography of different species’ populations due to their effectiveness in identifying genetic variability

  16. Deviance partitioning of host factors affecting parasitization in the European brown hare ( Lepus europaeus)

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    Alzaga, Vanesa; Tizzani, Paolo; Acevedo, Pelayo; Ruiz-Fons, Francisco; Vicente, Joaquín; Gortázar, Christian

    2009-10-01

    Deviance partitioning can provide new insights into the ecology of host-parasite interactions. We studied the host-related factors influencing parasite prevalence, abundance, and species richness in European brown hares ( Lepus europaeus) from northern Spain. We defined three groups of explanatory variables: host environment, host population, and individual factors. We hypothesised that parasite infection rates and species richness were determined by different host-related factors depending on the nature of the parasite (endo- or ectoparasite, direct or indirect life cycle). To assess the relative importance of these components, we used deviance partitioning, an innovative approach. The explained deviance (ED) was higher for parasite abundance models, followed by those of prevalence and then by species richness, suggesting that parasite abundance models may best describe the host factors influencing parasitization. Models for parasites with a direct life cycle yielded higher ED values than those for indirect life cycle ones. As a general trend, host individual factors explained the largest proportion of the ED, followed by host environmental factors and, finally, the interaction between host environmental and individual factors. Similar hierarchies were found for parasite prevalence, abundance, and species richness. Individual factors comprised the most relevant group of explanatory variables for both types of parasites. However, host environmental factors were also relevant in models for indirect life-cycle parasites. These findings are consistent with the idea of the host as the main habitat of the parasite; whereas, for indirect life-cycle parasites, transmission would be also modulated by environmental conditions. We suggest that parasitization can be used not only as an indicator of individual fitness but also as an indicator of environmental quality for the host. This research underlines the importance of monitoring parasite rates together with environmental

  17. Colonization history of Mallorca Island by the European rabbit, Oryctolagus cuniculus, and the Iberian hare, Lepus granatensis (Lagomorpha: Leporidae)

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    Seixas, Fernando A.; Juste, Javier; Campos, Paula

    2014-01-01

    The Mediterranean islands have a long history of human-mediated introductions resulting in frequent replacements of their fauna and flora. Although these histories are sometimes well documented or may be inferred from paleontological studies, the use of phylogenetic and population genetic...... reconstruction methods provides a complementary perspective for answering questions related to the history of insular species. In the present study, we infer the colonization history of Mallorca (Balearic Islands) by the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) and the Iberian hare (Lepus granatensis) using...... sequence variation of the mitochondrial DNA control region from continental and insular specimens (total of 489 sequences). Additionally, the taxonomic identity of Mallorcan L. granatensis was confirmed using a diagnostic nuclear marker. For both Mallorcan rabbits and hares, genetic diversity...

  18. Factors affecting Brown Hare (Lepus europaeus hunting bags in Tuscany region (central Italy

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    Francesco Santilli

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We carried out an exploratory analysis of hare Lepus europaeus hunting bags (number of brown hares shot in the nineteen Hunting Districts of Tuscany (central Italy from 2001 to 2004, in order to identify which variables (land use and characteristics, climate and management could affect hare harvest. Vineyards and grass in rotation with winter cereals were positively associated with the number of hares shot, whereas industrial crops (mainly sunflowers seemed to have a negative effect,as did the density of grazing sheep. Mean annual rainfall was negatively related to the harvest but with a borderline significance. We found a positive relationship between the number of hares harvested and the percentage of protected areas managed to conserve and produce small game species, whereas private hunting estates showed a negative association. Restocking both with wild hares captured in protected areas and with farm-reared animals did not show any effect on hunting bags of hares. Riassunto Fattori influenzanti il carniere di lepri (Lepus europaeus in Toscana (Italia centrale E’ stata condotta una ricerca preliminare sui carnieri di lepre (dal 2001 al 2004 dei diciannove Ambiti Territoriali di Caccia della Toscana, al fine di identificare quali variabili (di tipo ambientale, climatico e gestionale possano influire sulla resa venatoria di questa specie. Il numero di lepri abbattute dai cacciatori è risultato influenzato positivamente dalla percentuale di vigneti e di foraggiere in avvicendamento, mentre le colture industriali (principalmente rappresentate dal girasole e la densità del bestiame ovicaprino hanno evidenziato un effetto negativo. Anche le precipitazioni medie annuali sono risultate associate negativamente al numero di lepri abbattute, tuttavia in questo caso la variabile non ha raggiunto il livello di significatività statistica. L’abbondanza del carniere di

  19. Reducing visual stimulations in european hares (Lepus europaeus Pallas captured for translocation

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    Marco Ferretti

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Stress may be an important variable affecting the survival of the captured hares, for this reason the Authors studied the effect of the use of a blindfolding hood applied to the hares immediately after net trapping. A total of 119 hares were captured by coursing with 3-4 dogs (greyhounds or lurchers in no hunting areas of Tuscany. Immediately after net trapping 38 hares were blindfolded with a hood and 81 were normally handled to the wooden darkened capture- boxes without blinding their eyes (control. From all the hares a sample of blood was collected within 1-2 min by the auricular vein. Blood samples were analyzed for haemocromocytometry and metabolic profile determination. Data were analyzed by ANOVA. Sub-clinically stressed hares were discriminated from nonstressed hares by the use of the discriminant function based on CK, AST and glucose and the differences were tested by chi2c Results showed that body temperature, heart and respiratory rates, glucose, cholesterol, CK, AST, ALT, BUN, total protein and some haemocromo-cytometric parameters were significantly higher in captured hares without blindfold. The incidence of subclinically stressed hares was 26% in the hares equipped with the blindfold and 81% in the hares without blindfold (chi2c=32.98, P<0.0001 (presence of subclinical stress discriminated by the use of a discriminant function based on CPK, AST and glucose. For this reason the procedures designed for the translocation of the hares could take advantage by the use of a blindfold which should be applied to the hares immediately after their trapping.

  20. Health screening of free-ranging European brown hares (Lepus europaeus) on the German North-Sea island Pellworm.

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    Posautz, Annika; Loncaric, Igor; Lundin, Marie; Hoffmann, Daniel; Lavazza, Antonio; Kelemen, Zsofia; Beiglböck, Christoph; Walzer, Christian; Kübber-Heiss, Anna

    2015-08-04

    A sudden decline of the European brown hare (Lepus europaeus) population in one of the best hunting districts for small game species in northern Germany, the German North-Sea island Pellworm, in the years 2007/08 following marked habitat changes led to the implementation of a thorough health assessment program of the population. 110 animals were collected during the normal hunting season in the years 2010 and 2011. A post-mortem examination and histopathological investigation was performed on all animals. Additionally, routine bacteriology of the small intestine and parasitology were carried out. Sera of hares were tested for European Brown Hare Syndrome (EBHS) by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, and for Treponema sp. by indirect immunofluorescent test. Additional testing was performed when deemed necessary. The most striking result was a shift in the intestinal bacterial flora towards Gram-negative Enterobacteriaceae with a predominance of either Escherichia coli, or Aeromonas sp., or a high-grade double-infection with these two pathogens with subsequent catarrhal enteritis. Additionally, a marked coccidiosis, and varying infestations with the nematode Trichostrongylus retortaeformis were found. The sero-prevalence for EBHS was 78.1%, and for Treponema 43.9%. The shift and decrease in diversity of the intestinal flora was the main and most consistent result found. In the authors' opinion the change of the habitat combined with other stressors increased the animals' sensitivity to ubiquitous bacterial species and parasites which usually would not have such fatal effects.

  1. Exploration forays in juvenile European hares (Lepus europaeus): dispersal preludes or hunting-induced troubles?

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    Avril, Alexis; Letty, Jérôme; Léonard, Yves; Pontier, Dominique

    2014-02-26

    Movements of animals have important consequences, at both the individual and population levels. Due to its important implications in the evolutionary dynamics of populations, dispersal is one of the most studied types of movement. In contrast, non-permanent extra home-range movements are often paid less attention. However, these movements may occur in response to important biological processes such as mating or predation avoidance. In addition, these forays are often preludes to permanent dispersal, because they may help individuals gain cues about their surroundings prior to settlement in a new place.In the European hare, exploration forays occur predominantly in juveniles, the time at which most hares disperse. In France, the timing of dispersal also overlaps with the hare hunting period. However, the determinants of such behaviour have not yet been studied. Herein, we investigate whether these non-permanent explorations are dispersal attempts/preludes or, in contrast, whether they are triggered by other factors such as disturbances related to hunting. Contrary to natal dispersal, we did not find strong male-bias in the propensity to engage in explorations. Exploration forays occurred less in juveniles than in adults and later in the season than natal dispersal. This was the case both for philopatric movements and for movements occurring after dispersal and settlement. These movements were also more likely to occur during the hare hunting period and the mating season. We suggest that explorations in hares are triggered by factors other than dispersal and that hares may respond to hunting disturbances. Overall, we emphasize the need to account for human-related predation risk as a factor driving space-use in harvested species.

  2. Relationship between habitat, densities and metabolic profile in brown hares (Lepus europaeus Pallas

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    Marco Bagliacca

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Some habitat traits and haematic parameters were studied to understand the relationships between the hare densities, habitat characteristics and physiological and nutritional condition of the animals. A total of 33 protected areas, reserved for wild game reproduction, located in the Province of Florence (Central Italy, were monitored during a 2-year period. In each protected area the hares were submitted to census. The habitat features of the protected areas were studied and the following parameters were categorised: altitude; cleared-land/total-land ratio; main exposure; main ground composition; water availability; main slope; anthropogenic presence; predator presence; wooded borders; presence of trees and shrubs; surveillance against hunting; demographic predator control; kind of cultivation; unharvested crops for game. After the census the hares were captured for translocation outside in “free” hunting areas. During capture the hares were put in darkened, wooden capture-boxes and remained inside for a variable period of time (10min to 3h. A sample of 3 to 7 hares, captured per year and per each protected area, were removed from the boxes (physically restrained, with covered eyes for blood sample collection, sex, age and live weight determination. The following analyses were performed on frozen plasma samples: ALanine aminoTransferase (ALT, ASpartate aminoTransferase (AST, glucose, cholesterol, Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN, Ca, P, Mg, Na, K, and Cl concentrations. The relationship between hare density and habitat characteristics was analysed by single regressions analysis. Then the habitat characteristics were subjected to multivariate analysis in relationship to hare body condition. The haematic parameters were analysed by least square means considering habitat traits, animal density, age and sex, as main categorical factors, interaction sex*age, and “pregnant and non-reproducing” nested within sex. Results showed that the highest density

  3. Range and status of the Italian hare Lepus corsicanus in Corsica

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    Pietri, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Though the Italian hare may have been introduced to Corsica, the knowledge on the state of its insular population are today of interest, given the fragile status of the species in mainland Italia. In order to draw the first distribution maps of L. corsicanus in Corsica, we have collected all observations of the species between 2002 and 2012 based on molecular or phenotypic criteria. The distribution of Italian hare covers three regions of the island, for a total surface area of close to 2900 ...

  4. Multi-scale habitat relationships of snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus) in the mixed conifer landscape of the Northern Rockies, USA: Cross-scale effects of horizontal cover with implications for forest management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph D. Holbrook; John R. Squires; Lucretia E. Olson; Rick L. Lawrence; Shannon L. Savage

    2016-01-01

    Snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus) are an ecologically important herbivore because they modify vegetation through browsing and serve as a prey resource for multiple predators. We implemented a multiscale approach to characterize habitat relationships for snowshoe hares across the mixed conifer landscape of the northern Rocky Mountains, USA. Our objectives were to (1)...

  5. SNP Identification through Transcriptome Analysis of the European Brown Hare (Lepus europaeus): Cellular Energetics and Mother's Curse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoutzias, Grigoris D; Giannoulis, Themistoklis; Moutou, Katerina A; Psarra, Anna-Maria G; Stamatis, Costas; Tsipourlianos, Andreas; Mamuris, Zissis

    2016-01-01

    The European brown hare (Lepus europaeus, Pallas 1778) is an important small game species in Europe. Due to its size and position in the food chain, as well as its life history, phenotypic variation and the relatively recent speciation events, brown hare plays an important role in the structure of various ecosystems and has emerged as an important species for population management and evolutionary studies. In order to identify informative SNPs for such studies, heart and liver tissues of three samples from the European lineage and a three-sample pool from the Anatolian lineage were subjected to RNA-Sequencing analysis. This effort resulted in 9496 well-assembled protein-coding sequences with close homology to human. After applying very stringent filtering criteria, 66185 polymorphic sites were identified in 7665 genes/cds and 2050 of those polymorphic sites are potentially capable of distinguishing the European from the Anatolian lineage. From these distinguishing mutations we focused on those in genes that are involved in cellular energy production, namely the glycolysis, Krebs cycle and the OXPHOS machinery. A selected set of SNPs was also validated by Sanger sequencing. By simulating the three European individuals as one pool, no substantial informative-SNP identification was lost, making it a cost-efficient approach. To our knowledge this is the first attempt to correlate the differentiation in both nuclear and mitochondrial genome between the two different lineages of L. europaeus with the observed spatial partitioning of the lineages of the species, proposing a possible mechanism that is maintaining the reproductive isolation of the lineages.

  6. SNP Identification through Transcriptome Analysis of the European Brown Hare (Lepus europaeus): Cellular Energetics and Mother’s Curse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moutou, Katerina A.; Psarra, Anna-Maria G.; Stamatis, Costas; Tsipourlianos, Andreas; Mamuris, Zissis

    2016-01-01

    The European brown hare (Lepus europaeus, Pallas 1778) is an important small game species in Europe. Due to its size and position in the food chain, as well as its life history, phenotypic variation and the relatively recent speciation events, brown hare plays an important role in the structure of various ecosystems and has emerged as an important species for population management and evolutionary studies. In order to identify informative SNPs for such studies, heart and liver tissues of three samples from the European lineage and a three-sample pool from the Anatolian lineage were subjected to RNA-Sequencing analysis. This effort resulted in 9496 well-assembled protein-coding sequences with close homology to human. After applying very stringent filtering criteria, 66185 polymorphic sites were identified in 7665 genes/cds and 2050 of those polymorphic sites are potentially capable of distinguishing the European from the Anatolian lineage. From these distinguishing mutations we focused on those in genes that are involved in cellular energy production, namely the glycolysis, Krebs cycle and the OXPHOS machinery. A selected set of SNPs was also validated by Sanger sequencing. By simulating the three European individuals as one pool, no substantial informative-SNP identification was lost, making it a cost-efficient approach. To our knowledge this is the first attempt to correlate the differentiation in both nuclear and mitochondrial genome between the two different lineages of L. europaeus with the observed spatial partitioning of the lineages of the species, proposing a possible mechanism that is maintaining the reproductive isolation of the lineages. PMID:27459096

  7. SNP Identification through Transcriptome Analysis of the European Brown Hare (Lepus europaeus: Cellular Energetics and Mother's Curse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigoris D Amoutzias

    Full Text Available The European brown hare (Lepus europaeus, Pallas 1778 is an important small game species in Europe. Due to its size and position in the food chain, as well as its life history, phenotypic variation and the relatively recent speciation events, brown hare plays an important role in the structure of various ecosystems and has emerged as an important species for population management and evolutionary studies. In order to identify informative SNPs for such studies, heart and liver tissues of three samples from the European lineage and a three-sample pool from the Anatolian lineage were subjected to RNA-Sequencing analysis. This effort resulted in 9496 well-assembled protein-coding sequences with close homology to human. After applying very stringent filtering criteria, 66185 polymorphic sites were identified in 7665 genes/cds and 2050 of those polymorphic sites are potentially capable of distinguishing the European from the Anatolian lineage. From these distinguishing mutations we focused on those in genes that are involved in cellular energy production, namely the glycolysis, Krebs cycle and the OXPHOS machinery. A selected set of SNPs was also validated by Sanger sequencing. By simulating the three European individuals as one pool, no substantial informative-SNP identification was lost, making it a cost-efficient approach. To our knowledge this is the first attempt to correlate the differentiation in both nuclear and mitochondrial genome between the two different lineages of L. europaeus with the observed spatial partitioning of the lineages of the species, proposing a possible mechanism that is maintaining the reproductive isolation of the lineages.

  8. Pseudogenization of the MCP-2/CCL8 chemokine gene in European rabbit (genus Oryctolagus, but not in species of Cottontail rabbit (Sylvilagus and Hare (Lepus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van der Loo Wessel

    2012-08-01

    revealed in situations of dysfunction or gene loss. Infections with Myxoma virus (MYXV tend to be fatal in European rabbit (genus Oryctolagus, while being harmless in Hares (genus Lepus and benign in Cottontail rabbit (genus Sylvilagus, the natural hosts of the virus. This communication should stimulate research on a possible role of MCP-2/CCL8 in poxvirus related pathogenicity.

  9. Multiscale habitat relationships of snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus) in the mixed conifer landscape of the Northern Rockies, USA: Cross-scale effects of horizontal cover with implications for forest management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbrook, Joseph D; Squires, John R; Olson, Lucretia E; Lawrence, Rick L; Savage, Shannon L

    2017-01-01

    Snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus) are an ecologically important herbivore because they modify vegetation through browsing and serve as a prey resource for multiple predators. We implemented a multiscale approach to characterize habitat relationships for snowshoe hares across the mixed conifer landscape of the northern Rocky Mountains, USA. Our objectives were to (1) assess the relationship between horizontal cover and snowshoe hares, (2) estimate how forest metrics vary across the gradient of snowshoe hare use and horizontal cover, and (3) model and map snowshoe hare occupancy and intensity of use. Results indicated that both occupancy and intensity of use by snowshoe hares increased with horizontal cover and that the effect became stronger as intensity of use increased. This underscores the importance of dense horizontal cover to achieve high use, and likely density, of snowshoe hares. Forest structure in areas with high snowshoe hare use and horizontal cover was characterized as multistoried with dense canopy cover and medium-sized trees (e.g., 12.7-24.4 cm). The abundance of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) was associated with snowshoe hare use within a mixed conifer context, and the only species to increase in abundance with horizontal cover was Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii) and subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa). Our landscape-level modeling produced similar patterns in that we observed a positive effect of lodgepole pine and horizontal cover on both occupancy and use by snowshoe hares, but we also observed a positive yet parabolic effect of snow depth on snowshoe hare occupancy. This work is among the first to characterize the multiscale habitat relationships of snowshoe hares across a mixed conifer landscape as well as to map their occupancy and intensity of use. Moreover, our results provide stand- and landscape-level insights that directly relate to management agencies, which aids in conservation efforts of snowshoe hares and their associated

  10. The effect of landscape heterogeneity on population density and habitat preferences of the European hare (Lepus europaeus) in contrasting farmlands

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pavliska, P. L.; Riegert, J.; Grill, S.; Šálek, Martin

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 88, January (2018), s. 8-15 ISSN 1616-5047 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Lepus europaeus * Field size * Agricultural policy * Conservation measures * Density-dependent habitat selection Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.429, year: 2016

  11. Modeling individual movement decisions of brown hare (Lepus europaeus) as a key concept for realistic spatial behavior and exposure: A population model for landscape-level risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinmann, Joachim U; Wang, Magnus

    2017-09-01

    Spatial behavior is of crucial importance for the risk assessment of pesticides and for the assessment of effects of agricultural practice or multiple stressors, because it determines field use, exposition, and recovery. Recently, population models have increasingly been used to understand the mechanisms driving risk and recovery or to conduct landscape-level risk assessments. To include spatial behavior appropriately in population models for use in risk assessments, a new method, "probabilistic walk," was developed, which simulates the detailed daily movement of individuals by taking into account food resources, vegetation cover, and the presence of conspecifics. At each movement step, animals decide where to move next based on probabilities being determined from this information. The model was parameterized to simulate populations of brown hares (Lepus europaeus). A detailed validation of the model demonstrated that it can realistically reproduce various natural patterns of brown hare ecology and behavior. Simulated proportions of time animals spent in fields (PT values) were also comparable to field observations. It is shown that these important parameters for the risk assessment may, however, vary in different landscapes. The results demonstrate the value of using population models to reduce uncertainties in risk assessment and to better understand which factors determine risk in a landscape context. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:2299-2307. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  12. Toxoplasma gondii infection in the mountain hare (Lepus timidus) and domestic rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus). II. Early immune reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustafsson, K.; Wattrang, E.; Fossum, C.

    1997-01-01

    As already reported, the mountain hare is much more susceptible than the domestic rabbit to oral inoculation with Toxoplasma gondii, as judged by pathological changes and dissemination of parasites within the body. In the present paper, further interspecies variations are reported. Concentrations...

  13. First evidence of Leishmania infection in European brown hare (Lepus europaeus) in Greece: GIS analysis and phylogenetic position within the Leishmania spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsokana, C N; Sokos, C; Giannakopoulos, A; Mamuris, Z; Birtsas, P; Papaspyropoulos, K; Valiakos, G; Spyrou, V; Lefkaditis, M; Chatzopoulos, D C; Kantere, M; Manolakou, K; Touloudi, A; Burriel, A Rodi; Ferroglio, E; Hadjichristodoulou, C; Billinis, C

    2016-01-01

    Although the existence of a sylvatic transmission cycle of Leishmania spp., independent from the domestic cycle, has been proposed, data are scarce on Leishmania infection in wild mammals in Greece. In this study, we aimed to investigate the presence of Leishmania infection in the European brown hare in Greece, to infer the phylogenetic position of the Leishmania parasites detected in hares in Greece, and to identify any possible correlation between Leishmania infection in hares with environmental parameters, using the geographical information system (GIS). Spleen samples from 166 hares were tested by internal transcribed spacer-1 (ITS-1)-nested PCR for the detection of Leishmania DNA. Phylogenetic analysis was performed on Leishmania sequences from hares in Greece in conjunction with Leishmania sequences from dogs in Greece and 46 Leishmania sequences retrieved from GenBank. The Leishmania DNA prevalence in hares was found to be 23.49 % (95 % confidence interval (CI) 17.27-30.69). The phylogenetic analysis confirmed that the Leishmania sequences from hares in Greece belong in the Leishmania donovani complex. The widespread Leishmania infection in hares should be taken into consideration because under specific circumstances, this species can act as a reservoir host. This study suggests that the role of wild animals, including hares, in the epidemiology of Leishmania spp. in Greece deserves further elucidation.

  14. European brown hare syndrome virus in free-ranging European brown hares from Argentina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frolich, K.; Kujawski, G.E.J.G.; Rudolph, M.

    2003-01-01

    From 1998 to 2000, serum samples of 80 shot European brown hares (Lepus europaeus) from Argentina were examined for antibodies against European brown hare syndrome virus (EBHSV) and 80 spleen samples were tested for EBHSV-antigen by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Nine hares were...

  15. The Apennine hare Lepus corsicanus in Latium, Central Italy: a habitat suitability model and comparison with its current range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Maria Angelici

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available La lepre appenninica Lepus corsicanus nel Lazio, Italia centrale: un modello di idoneità ambientale a confronto con la distribuzione attuale.
    La lepre appenninica (Lepus corsicanus è un endemismo italiano distribuito in Italia centro-meridionale, in Sicilia e in Corsica. Nel Lazio esistono piccole popolazioni, spesso isolate tra loro. Scopo di questo lavoro è la realizzazione di un modello di idoneità ambientale per questa specie. L’areale sinora conosciuto nel Lazio dimostra che il taxon è adattabile a diverse tipologie ambientali e a varie altitudini s.l.m. Il modello è stato elaborato su piattaforma GIS, attribuendo al tipo di uso del suolo (secondo la classificazione del progetto CLC e alla quota (categorie DTM un punteggio conforme alle preferenze ecologiche della specie. Il modello ottenuto è stato comparato con uno proposto precedentemente e confrontato con la distribuzione attuale della specie ottenuta a partire dai dati di presenza raccolti dal 1990 al 2009. Anche considerando la maggior mole di dati utilizzata nel presente studio, la differenza più evidente tra i due modelli è l’estensione maggiore delle aree ad alta idoneità ambientale da noi ottenuta. L’85.7% delle localizzazioni ricade nella classe di idoneità più elevata, suggerendo che il modello riflette le preferenze ecologiche della specie e può rappresentare un utile strumento gestionale.

  16. DNA markers for identifying individual snowshoe hares using field-collected pellets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael K. Schwartz; Kristine L. Pilgrim; Kevin S. McKelvey; Pilar T. Rivera; Leonard F. Ruggiero

    2007-01-01

    Snowshoe hare (Lepus americanus) abundance has been of interest to wildlife biologists, as hares are essential prey items for many rare and endangered predators. Snowshoe hare abundance has most commonly been estimated through indices such as pellet counts. While pellet counts may be useful in the areas they are developed and when hares are dense,...

  17. Widespread introgression of mountain hare genes into Fennoscandian brown hare populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levänen, Riikka; Thulin, Carl-Gustaf; Spong, Göran; Pohjoismäki, Jaakko L O

    2018-01-01

    In Fennoscandia, mountain hare (Lepus timidus) and brown hare (Lepus europaeus) hybridize and produce fertile offspring, resulting in gene flow across the species barrier. Analyses of maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) show that introgression occur frequently, but unavailability of appropriate nuclear DNA markers has made it difficult to evaluate the scale- and significance for the species. The extent of introgression has become important as the brown hare is continuously expanding its range northward, at the apparent expense of the mountain hare, raising concerns about possible competition. We report here, based on analysis of 6833 SNP markers, that the introgression is highly asymmetrical in the direction of gene flow from mountain hare to brown hare, and that the levels of nuclear gene introgression are independent of mtDNA introgression. While it is possible that brown hares obtain locally adapted alleles from the resident mountain hares, the low levels of mountain hare alleles among allopatric brown hares suggest that hybridization is driven by stochastic processes. Interspecific geneflow with the brown hare is unlikely to have major impacts on mountain hare in Fennoscandia, but direct competition may.

  18. Demography of snowshoe hares in relation to regional climate variabilty during a 10-year population cycle in interior Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    K. Kielland; K. Olson; E. Euskirchen

    2009-01-01

    We monitored populations of snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus, Erxleben) in interior Alaska for 10 years from 1999 to 2008. During this period, fall densities of hares fluctuated approximately 14-fold. High population growth rates over summer were followed by large population declines over winter. Young-of-the-year hares tended to gain mass over...

  19. Brown hares on the edge: Genetic population structure of the Danish brown hare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Liselotte W.; Fredsted, Tina; Wincentz, Trine

    2009-01-01

    Andersen L. W., Fredsted T., Wincentz T. and Pertoldi C. 2009. Brown hares on the edge: Genetic population structure of the Danish brown hare. Acta Theriologica 54: 97-110. Denmark lies on the edge of the distributional range of the brown hare Lepus europaeus Pallas, 1778, where population......-69.8 respectively). There was no correlation between the geographic and the genetic distance. Population structure was influenced by genetic drift, anthropogenic effects (eg translocation and escapes from hare-farms) and by post-glacial recolonization from southern refuges or refuges north east of the Black Sea...... glaciations or by stocking effects. Colonization from southern refuges was supported by the observation that haplotype 2 in the Danish brown hare was identical to the central European ancestral haplotype c07....

  20. Synchrony in the snowshoe hare cycle in Northwestern North America, 1970-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    C.J. Krebs; K. Kielland; J.P Bryant; M. O' Donoghue; F. Doyle; C. McIntyre; D. DiFolco; N. Berg; S. Carriere; R. Boonstra; S. Boutin; A. J. Kenney; D. G. Reid; K. Bodony; J. Putera; H. K. Timm; T. Burke.

    2013-01-01

    Snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus Erxleben, 1777) fluctuate in 9–10 year cycles throughout much of their North American range. Regional synchrony has been assumed to be the rule for these cycles, so that hare populations in virtually all of northwestern North America have been assumed to be in phase. We gathered qualitative and quantitative data on...

  1. Influence of forest structure on the abundance of snowshoe hares in western Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan D. Berg; Eric M. Gese; John R. Squires; Lise M. Aubry

    2012-01-01

    Snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus) are a primary prey species for Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) in western North America. Lynx management plans require knowledge of potential prey distribution and abundance in the western United States. Whether even-aged regenerating forests or multi-storied forests contain more snowshoe hares is currently unknown. During 2006-...

  2. Haring's Heroes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirker, Sara Schickle

    2007-01-01

    One American artist that students enjoy is Keith Haring. They love the symbolic figures, movement, energy, vitality, spirit, and excitement that characterizes his art. Haring was driven by a strong desire to communicate and developed his own language with his bold lines, objects, figures, colors and patterns. In this article, the author presents…

  3. Estimating Cape hare occupancy and abundance in southern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study outlines the importance of integrating spotlighting data and occupancy modelling to estimate the spatial occupancy, abundance and habitat preferences of Cape hares Lepus capensis in southern Tunisia. Exploring the spatial distribution pattern of this species is problematic because of its nocturnal and secretive ...

  4. Parasitic infections of wild rabbits and hares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilić Tamara

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the most important parasitic infections of wild rabbits and hares, which harmful effect in this animal population is manifested as a gradual weakening of the immune system, reduction in fertility, weight loss and constant exhaustion. Order of Lagomorpha (hares or lagomorphs belongs to superorder of higher mammals which includes the family of rabbits (Leporidae which are represented in Europe as well as the family of whistleblowers (Ochotonidae which live only in North America and Northern regions of Asia. The most important representatives of Leporidae family are European hare (Lepus europeus and wild rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus. The most important endoparasitosis of hares and wild rabbits are: coccidiosis, encephalitozoonosis (nosemosis, toxoplasmosis, sarcocystosis, giardiasis, cryptosporidiosis, protostrongylosis, trichostrngylodosis, passalurosis, anoplocephalidosis, cysticercosis and fasciolosis. The most frequent ectoparasites of rabbits and wild hares are fleas, lice and ticks. Reduction in hare population, which is noticed in whole Europe including Serbia, is caused by changed living conditions, quantitatively and qualitatively insufficient nutrition, increased use of herbicides as well as various infectious diseases and the diseases of parasitic etiology. Since wild rabbits and hares pose a threat to health of domestic rabbits and people, knowledge of parasitic fauna of these wild animals is of extreme epizootiological and epidemiological importance.

  5. Can snowshoe hares control treeline expansions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olnes, Justin; Kielland, Knut; Juday, Glenn P; Mann, Daniel H; Genet, Hélène; Ruess, Roger W

    2017-10-01

    Treelines in Alaska are advancing in elevation and latitude because of climate warming, which is expanding the habitat available for boreal wildlife species, including snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus). Snowshoe hares are already present in tall shrub communities beyond treeline and are the main browser of white spruce (Picea glauca), the dominant tree species at treeline in Alaska. We investigated the processes involved in a "snowshoe hare filter" to white spruce establishment near treeline in Denali National Park, Alaska, USA. We modeled the pattern of spruce establishment from 1970 to 2009 and found that fewer spruce established during periods of high hare abundance. Multiple factors interact to influence browsing of spruce, including the hare cycle, snow depth and the characteristics of surrounding vegetation. Hares are abundant at treeline and may exclude spruce from otherwise optimal establishment sites, particularly floodplain locations with closed shrub canopies. The expansion of white spruce treeline in response to warming climate will be strongly modified by the spatial and temporal dynamics of the snowshoe hare filter. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  6. Inhibition of snowshoe hare succinate dehydrogenase activity as a mechanism of deterrence for papyriferic acid in birch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer Sorensen Forbey; Xinzhu Pu; Dong Xu; Knut Kielland; John. Bryant

    2011-01-01

    The plant secondary metabolite papyriferic acid (PA) deters browsing by snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus) on the juvenile developmental stage of the Alaska paper birch (Betula neoalaskana). However, the physiological mechanism that reduces browsing remains unknown. We used pharmacological assays and molecular modeling to test the...

  7. Defense of winter-dormant Alaska paper birch against snowshoe hares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichardt, Paul B; Bryant, John P; Clausen, Thomas P; Wieland, Gregory D

    1984-12-01

    Mature growth-phase internodes of Alaska paper birch (Betula resinifera) are preferred by the snowshoe hare (Lepus americanus) over juvenile growth-phase internodes due to the low food value of the latter. While the mature over juvenile preferencec cannot be explained by the levels of inorganic nutrients or gross chemical fractions (resins or phenols), it can be explained by the striking differences in secondary metabolites of the two growth phases. The principle compound which renders the juvenile phase internodes unpalatable is papyriferic acid, a triterpene which is a demonstrated feeding deterrent to snowshoe hares and which is present in juvenile internodes at concentrations 25 times greater than those in mature internodes.

  8. Climate change induced molting mismatch? Mountain hare abundance reduced by duration of snowcover and predator abundance

    OpenAIRE

    Pedersen, Simen; Odden, Morten; Pedersen, Hans-Christian

    2017-01-01

    In northern latitudes, species that have adapted to snow cover by molting and changing pelage color will be particularly vulnerable to climate change, as predation levels may increase due to a mismatch with background coloration. Here, we investigated the synergistic effect of mammalian generalist predators (red fox Vulpes vulpes and pine marten Martes martes) and the duration of snow cover on the abundance of a winter-adapted species, the mountain hare (Lepus timidus). We analyzed 12 yr of d...

  9. Haring-Inspired Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corfield, Marie

    2007-01-01

    While exploring Keith Haring's Web site one day, the author discovered two untitled pieces from 1982 that became inspiration pieces for a lesson on symmetry and complementary colors for her second graders. Haring's simple shapes and colors and playful images are very similar to those found in the margins or on the cover of any typical child's…

  10. Parasitism in a declining population of snowshoe hares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, I M; Keith, L B; Cary, J R

    1986-07-01

    Prevalence and intensity of six endoparasites were determined in 346 snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus) obtained at Rochester, Alberta, during December-April 1981-1982, the second winter of a cyclic population decline. The data were analyzed for (1) differences among host sex and age classes, and among months and sample sources, and (2) evidence that parasitism was of demographic significance to the hare population. Prevalence and intensity of Obeliscoides cuniculi were consistently highest among adult hares, but rose most sharply from February to March among juveniles. In contrast, prevalence and intensity of Nematodirus triangularis were highest among juveniles; prevalence reached 90-100% by January, whereas intensity continued to rise through April. Prevalence and intensity of both Trichuris leporis and Protostrongylus boughtoni were highest also among juvenile hares; neither parameter exhibited a definite trend over time. Prevalences of Taenia pisiformis (cysticerci) and Eimeria spp. were unrelated to sex, age or month; but Taenia intensity was highest among juveniles, and Eimeria intensity tended to decrease from December to April. Intensities of Nematodirus, Protostrongylus and Eimeria were higher in male hares than in females. Prevalence and intensity were correlated directly in Obeliscoides, Nematodirus, Trichuris and Eimeria. Hares that died during trapping and handling, or from natural predation, had greater intensities of Obeliscoides than did animals killed on purpose. There was no indication, however, that risk of death was increased by the other parasitic infections. Age-related immune responses to parasitism (except Obeliscoides) were evidenced by reduced or stabilized prevalence and/or intensity among older hares. A multiple-regression model predicted depressed body weight with increasing intensities of Nematodirus, Trichuris or Protostrongylus. Other body-condition and reproductive indices were unassociated with parasite intensities. Within the hare

  11. Predators choose prey over prey habitats: evidence from a lynx-hare system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keim, Jonah L; DeWitt, Philip D; Lele, Subhash R

    2011-06-01

    Resource selection is grounded in the understanding that animals select resources based on fitness requirements. Despite uncertainty in how mechanisms relate to the landscape, resource selection studies often assume, but rarely demonstrate, a relationship between modeled variables and fitness mechanisms. Using Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) and snowshoe hare (Lepus americanus) as a model system, we assess whether prey habitat is a viable surrogate for encounters between predators and prey. We simultaneously collected winter track data for lynx and hare in two study areas. We used information criteria to determine whether selection by lynx is best characterized by a hare resource selection probability function (RSPF) or by the amount of hare resource use. Results show that lynx selection is better explained by the amount of hare use (SIC = -21.9; Schwarz's Information Criterion) than by hare RSPF (SIC = -16.71), and that hare RSPF cannot be assumed to reveal the amount of resource use, a primary mechanism of predator selection. Our study reveals an obvious but important distinction between selection and use that is applicable to all resource selection studies. We recommend that resource selection studies be coupled with mechanistic data (e.g., metrics of diet, forage, fitness, or abundance) when investigating mechanisms of resource selection.

  12. Modeling the Influence of Forest Structure on Microsite Habitat Use by Snowshoe Hares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela K. Fuller

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Snowshoe hare (Lepus americanus is an important prey species for many Carnivora and has strong influences on community structure and function in northern forests. An understanding of within-stand (microsite forest structural characteristics that promote high use by hares is important to provide forest management guidelines. We measured forest structural characteristics at the microsite-scale in north-central Maine and used an information-theoretic modeling approach to infer which characteristics were most strongly associated with use by hares during winter. We measured overwinter hare pellet density to model relationships among microsite-scale vegetation structure and hare use. Overwinter pellet density was positively associated with live stem cover (3 × coniferous saplings + deciduous saplings and negatively associated with overstory canopy closure; the two variables explained 71% of the variation in microsite use by hares. The highest pellet densities were in grids with canopy closure 22,000 stems/ha. Silvicultural practices that create dense areas of conifer and deciduous saplings should receive high within-stand use by hares in winter. These conditions can be achieved by promoting the release of advanced regeneration and reducing overstory cover to encourage establishment of shade-intolerant species; clearcutting is one such silvicultural prescription to achieve these conditions.

  13. Abundancia y distribución de la liebre ibérica (Lepus granatensis Rosenhauer, 1856 en el Parque Natural de la Sierra de Mariola (Alicante-Valencia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belda, A.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Abundance and distribution of the Iberian hare (Lepus granatensis Rosenhauer, 1856 in the Sierra de Mariola Natural Park (Alicante-Valencia The Iberian hare (Lepus granatensis Rosenhauer, 1856 is a species of great value in Spanish Mediterranean ecosystems for several reasons, such as its interest to hunters, its contribution to soil fertility and plant diversity, and its role as prey. However, factors such as fragmentation, degradation and loss of habitat and diseases, predation and high pressure hunting are having a detrimental effect on the conservation of the species. It is therefore of interest to determine the abundance and distribution of the Iberian hare in areas of the peninsula where there are insufficient data to establish guidelines for conservation and sustainable management of hare populations in the peninsula. Our goal was to assess the abundance and distribution of the Iberian hare in the most widely used areas of a mountainous Mediterranean landscape in the Iberian peninsular (Mariola Mountain Park, located between the provinces of Alicante and Valencia. Data obtained from studies conducted in transects from 2008 to 2010 showed that intra-annual abundance was highest in spring (KIA half of 0.26 hares/km and lowest in winter (average 0.075 KIA hares/km. As to their preferences in relation to land use, abundance was highest in the matrix of dry groves (KIA half of 0.33 hares/km and irrigated groves (average 0.2 KIA hares/km. The matrix of natural vegetation and agricultural abandonment had low numbers of hares, with values of 0.083 and 0.033 hares/km, respectively.

  14. Genetic relatedness of Brucella suis biovar 2 isolates from hares, wild boars and domestic pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreizinger, Zsuzsa; Foster, Jeffrey T; Rónai, Zsuzsanna; Sulyok, Kinga M; Wehmann, Enikő; Jánosi, Szilárd; Gyuranecz, Miklós

    2014-08-27

    Porcine brucellosis generally manifests as disorders in reproductive organs potentially leading to serious losses in the swine industry. Brucella suis biovar 2 is endemic in European wild boar (Sus scrofa) and hare (Lepus europeus, Lepus capensis) populations, thus these species may play a significant role in disease spread and serve as potential sources of infection for domestic pigs. The aim of this study was an epidemiologic analysis of porcine brucellosis in Hungary and a comparative analysis of B. suis bv. 2 strains from Europe using multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA). MLVA-16 and its MLVA-11 subset were used to determine the genotypes of 68 B. suis bv. 2 isolates from Hungary and results were then compared to European MLVA genotypes. The analyses indicated relatively high genetic diversity of B. suis bv. 2 in Hungary. Strains isolated from hares and wild boars from Hungary showed substantial genetic divergence, suggesting separate lineages in each host and no instances of cross species infections. The closest relatives of strains from Hungarian wild boars and domestic pigs were mainly in the isolates from German and Croatian boars and pigs. The assessment of the European MLVA genotypes of wild boar isolates generally showed clustering based on geographic origin. The hare strains were relatively closely related to one another and did not cluster based on geographic origin. The limited relationships between geographic origin and genotype in isolates from hares might be the result of cross-border live animal translocation. The results could also suggest that certain B. suis strains are more adapted to hares. Across Europe, isolates from domestic pigs were closely related to isolates originating from both hares and wild boars, supporting the idea that wild animals are a source of brucellosis in domestic pigs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Of lemmings and snowshoe hares: the ecology of northern Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebs, Charles J.

    2011-01-01

    Two population oscillations dominate terrestrial community dynamics in northern Canada. In the boreal forest, the snowshoe hare (Lepus americanus) fluctuates in cycles with an 8–10 year periodicity and in tundra regions lemmings typically fluctuate in cycles with a 3–4 year periodicity. I review 60 years of research that has uncovered many of the causes of these population cycles, outline areas of controversy that remain and suggest key questions to address. Lemmings are keystone herbivores in tundra ecosystems because they are a key food resource for many avian and mammalian predators and are a major consumer of plant production. There remains much controversy over the role of predation, food shortage and social interactions in causing lemming cycles. Predation is well documented as a significant mortality factor limiting numbers. Food shortage is less likely to be a major limiting factor on population growth in lemmings. Social interactions might play a critical role in reducing the rate of population growth as lemming density rises. Snowshoe hares across the boreal forest are a key food for many predators and their cycles have been the subject of large-scale field experiments that have pinpointed predation as the key limiting factor causing these fluctuations. Predators kill hares directly and indirectly stress them by unsuccessful pursuits. Stress reduces the reproductive rate of female hares and is transmitted to their offspring who also suffer reduced reproductive rates. The maternal effects produced by predation risk induce a time lag in the response of hare reproductive rate to density, aiding the cyclic dynamics. PMID:20980307

  16. Linking climate change to population cycles of hares and lynx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Chuan; Stenseth, Nils Chr; Krebs, Charles J; Zhang, Zhibin

    2013-11-01

    The classic 10-year population cycle of snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus, Erxleben 1777) and Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis, Kerr 1792) in the boreal forests of North America has drawn much attention from both population and community ecologists worldwide; however, the ecological mechanisms driving the 10-year cyclic dynamic pattern are not fully revealed yet. In this study, by the use of historic fur harvest data, we constructed a series of generalized additive models to study the effects of density dependence, predation, and climate (both global climate indices of North Atlantic Oscillation index (NAO), Southern Oscillation index (SOI) and northern hemispheric temperature (NHT) and local weather data including temperature, rainfall, and snow). We identified several key pathways from global and local climate to lynx with various time lags: rainfall shows a negative, and snow shows a positive effect on lynx; NHT and NAO negatively affect lynx through their positive effect on rainfall and negative effect on snow; SOI positively affects lynx through its negative effect on rainfall. Direct or delayed density dependency effects, the prey effect of hare on lynx and a 2-year delayed negative effect of lynx on hare (defined as asymmetric predation) were found. The simulated population dynamics is well fitted to the observed long-term fluctuations of hare and lynx populations. Through simulation, we find density dependency and asymmetric predation, only producing damped oscillation, are necessary but not sufficient factors in causing the observed 10-year cycles; while extrinsic climate factors are important in producing and modifying the sustained cycles. Two recent population declines of lynx (1940-1955 and after 1980) were likely caused by ongoing climate warming indirectly. Our results provide an alternative explanation to the mechanism of the 10-year cycles, and there is a need for further investigation on links between disappearance of population cycles and global

  17. Prevalence of helminths in a cyclic snowshoe hare population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, L B; Cary, J R; Yuill, T M; Keith, I M

    1985-07-01

    Five species of helminths were monitored in a population of snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus) near Rochester, Alberta, during 1961-1977. Prevalence of both Obeliscoides cuniculi and Protostrongylus boughtoni among young hares averaged about 50% by age 2 mo, then tended to level off. Prevalence of Taenia pisiformis (cysticerci) and Dirofilaria scapiceps rose more slowly, but continued to increase steadily beyond their mean levels of 8% and 1% at age 2 mo. There were well defined seasonal (within-year) cycles in prevalence of O. cuniculi and P. boughtoni that were generated evidently to a major degree by arrested development of larvae in fall and renewed development in late winter. It was hypothesized that renewed larval development was triggered (in February) in O. cuniculi by the seasonal rise of circulating pituitary gonadotrophins, and (in April) in P. boughtoni by the seasonal rise of gonadal androgens and estrogens. Indices to gonadal hormone levels in hares indicated that these increased most rapidly among males, and may have accounted for the higher prevalences of P. boughtoni in males during April-May. Neither T. pisiformis nor D. scapiceps exhibited conspicuous seasonal changes in prevalence. Maximum prevalence of T. pisiformis was attained at about 1 yr of age, whereas D. scapiceps increased among adult snowshoes through age 2 yr before stabilizing. Long-term (between-year) changes in prevalence of O. cuniculi, T. pisiformis, and D. scapiceps were correlated significantly with the cyclic hare population which declined from a peak in fall 1961 to a low in 1965-1966, rose to another peak by fall 1970, and declined again to a low in 1975. There was no detectable time lage between this "10-yr" cycle in hare density and the cycles of parasite prevalence among juveniles (less than 1 yr of age). Among adult hares, the cycle of O. cuniculi prevalence was likewise synchronous with that of the hare population, but the cycles of D. scapiceps and T. pisiformis lagged

  18. Snowshoe hare multi-level habitat use in a fire-adapted ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gigliotti, Laura C.; Jones, Benjamin C.; Lovallo, Matthew J.; Diefenbach, Duane R.

    2018-01-01

    Prescribed burning has the potential to improve habitat for species that depend on pyric ecosystems or other early successional vegetation types. For species that occupy diverse plant communities over the extent of their range, response to disturbances such as fire might vary based on post-disturbance vegetation dynamics among plant communities. Although responses of snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus) to fire have been studied in conifer-dominated forests in northern parts of the species’ range, there is a lack of information on snowshoe hare habitat use in fire-dependent communities in southern parts of their range. We used global positioning system (GPS) and very high frequency (VHF) radio-collars to monitor the habitat use of 32 snowshoe hares in a scrub-oak (Quercus ilicifolia)-pitch pine (Pinus rigida) barrens complex in northeastern Pennsylvania where prescribed fire has been used for habitat restoration. The area contained stands that underwent prescribed burning 1–6 years prior to our study. Also, we investigated fine-scale determinants of habitat use within stands. We found that regardless of season, hares did not select for areas that had been burned within 6 years prior. Hares primarily used stands of older scrub oak, conifer, or hardwoods, which contained dense understory vegetation and canopy cover. Hare habitat use also was positively associated with stand edges. Our results suggest that hares do not respond to prescribed burning of scrub oak in the short-term. In addition, by focusing on structural determinants of habitat use, rather than broad-scale characteristics such as stand type, management strategies for snowshoe hares can be adapted over the extent of their range despite the multitude of different land cover types across which the species occurs. 

  19. Seasonal Effects of Habitat on Sources and Rates of Snowshoe Hare Predation in Alaskan Boreal Forests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dashiell Feierabend

    Full Text Available Survival and predation of snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus has been widely studied, yet there has been little quantification of the changes in vulnerability of hares to specific predators that may result from seasonal changes in vegetation and cover. We investigated survival and causes of mortalities of snowshoe hares during the late increase, peak, and decline of a population in interior Alaska. From June 2008 to May 2012, we radio-tagged 288 adult and older juvenile hares in early successional and black spruce (Picea mariana forests and, using known-fate methods in program MARK, evaluated 85 survival models that included variables for sex, age, and body condition of hares, as well as trapping site, month, season, year, snowfall, snow depth, and air temperature. We compared the models using Akaike's information criterion with correction for small sample size. Model results indicated that month, capture site, and body condition were the most important variables in explaining survival rates. Survival was highest in July, and more generally during summer, when alternative prey was available to predators of hares. Low survival rates coincided with molting periods, breeding activity in the spring, and the introduction of juveniles to the sample population in the fall. We identified predation as the cause of mortality in 86% of hare deaths. When the source of predation could be determined, hares were killed more often by goshawks (Accipiter gentilis than other predators in early successional forest (30%, and more often by lynx (Lynx canadensis than other predators in black spruce forest (31%. Great horned owls (Bubo virginianus and coyotes (Canis latrans represented smaller proportions of hare predation, and non-predatory causes were a minor source (3% of mortality. Because hares rely on vegetative cover for concealment from predators, we measured cover in predation sites and habitats that the hares occupied and concluded that habitat type had a

  20. Seasonal Effects of Habitat on Sources and Rates of Snowshoe Hare Predation in Alaskan Boreal Forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feierabend, Dashiell; Kielland, Knut

    2015-01-01

    Survival and predation of snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus) has been widely studied, yet there has been little quantification of the changes in vulnerability of hares to specific predators that may result from seasonal changes in vegetation and cover. We investigated survival and causes of mortalities of snowshoe hares during the late increase, peak, and decline of a population in interior Alaska. From June 2008 to May 2012, we radio-tagged 288 adult and older juvenile hares in early successional and black spruce (Picea mariana) forests and, using known-fate methods in program MARK, evaluated 85 survival models that included variables for sex, age, and body condition of hares, as well as trapping site, month, season, year, snowfall, snow depth, and air temperature. We compared the models using Akaike's information criterion with correction for small sample size. Model results indicated that month, capture site, and body condition were the most important variables in explaining survival rates. Survival was highest in July, and more generally during summer, when alternative prey was available to predators of hares. Low survival rates coincided with molting periods, breeding activity in the spring, and the introduction of juveniles to the sample population in the fall. We identified predation as the cause of mortality in 86% of hare deaths. When the source of predation could be determined, hares were killed more often by goshawks (Accipiter gentilis) than other predators in early successional forest (30%), and more often by lynx (Lynx canadensis) than other predators in black spruce forest (31%). Great horned owls (Bubo virginianus) and coyotes (Canis latrans) represented smaller proportions of hare predation, and non-predatory causes were a minor source (3%) of mortality. Because hares rely on vegetative cover for concealment from predators, we measured cover in predation sites and habitats that the hares occupied and concluded that habitat type had a greater

  1. The sensitive hare: sublethal effects of predator stress on reproduction in snowshoe hares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheriff, Michael J; Krebs, Charles J; Boonstra, Rudy

    2009-11-01

    1. Prey responses to high predation risk can be morphological or behavioural and ultimately come at the cost of survival, growth, body condition, or reproduction. These sub-lethal predator effects have been shown to be mediated by physiological stress. We tested the hypothesis that elevated glucocorticoid concentrations directly cause a decline in reproduction in individual free-ranging female snowshoe hares, Lepus americanus. We measured the cortisol concentration from each dam (using a faecal analysis enzyme immunoassay) and her reproductive output (litter size, offspring birth mass, offspring right hind foot (RHF) length) 30 h after birth. 2. In a natural monitoring study, we monitored hares during the first and second litter from the population peak (2006) to the second year of the decline (2008). We found that faecal cortisol metabolite (FCM) concentration in dams decreased 52% from the first to the second litter. From the first to the second litter, litter size increased 122%, offspring body mass increased 130%, and offspring RHF length increased 112%. Dam FCM concentrations were inversely related to litter size (r(2) = 0.19), to offspring birth mass (r(2) = 0.32), and to offspring RHF length (r(2) = 0.64). 3. In an experimental manipulation, we assigned wild-caught, pregnant hares to a control and a stressed group and held them in pens. Hares in the stressed group were exposed to a dog 1-2 min every other day before parturition to simulate high predation risk. At parturition, unsuccessful-stressed dams (those that failed to give birth to live young) and stressed dams had 837% and 214%, respectively, higher FCM concentrations than control dams. Of those females that gave birth, litter size was similar between control and stressed dams. However, offspring from stressed dams were 37% lighter and 16% smaller than offspring from control dams. Increasing FCM concentration in dams caused the decline of offspring body mass (r(2) = 0.57) and RHF (r(2) = 0.52). 4

  2. Keith Haring/Journal

    OpenAIRE

    Gustavino, Berenice

    2012-01-01

    Cet ouvrage est la traduction française du Journal de l'artiste américain Keith Haring, publié initialement en langue originale en 1996. Au fur et mesure des quatre-cents pages, le lecteur est invité à suivre les réflexions de l'artiste, déposées entre 1977 et 1989 dans des dizaines de cahiers manuscrits. De ses années de formation au succès international qu’on lui connaît, K. Haring y tient le registre des questionnements au cœur de  sa recherche plastique : les possibilités d’une fusion ent...

  3. Hepatitis E virus in wild rabbits and European brown hares in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerschmidt, F; Schwaiger, K; Dähnert, L; Vina-Rodriguez, A; Höper, D; Gareis, M; Groschup, M H; Eiden, M

    2017-12-01

    Recently, a change of hepatitis E from being a typical travel-associated disease to an autochthonous zoonosis in Germany was observed. An increasing number of autochthonous infections with the hepatitis E Virus (HEV) have been recognized in developed countries. Venison from wild boar is already known to be a potential source of infection, if not prepared properly by the consumer. In Germany, certain wild animals are known to be a reservoir for HEV. However, current information is missing about European brown hares (Lepus europaeus) and wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus). Thus, a total of 833 hunting-harvested animals (European brown hares n = 669; wild rabbits n = 164) were tested for the occurrence of HEV RNA and HEV antibodies. For this, liver and blood specimens were taken after hunts in six German federal states. HEV antibodies were found by ELISA in 2.2% (624/14) of European brown hares, but no HEV RNA was detectable by nested real-time RT-PCR. In contrast, a seroprevalence of 37.3% (126/47) was observed for wild rabbits, and 17.1% (164/28) of the samples were HEV RNA positive. Genomic analysis revealed that these partial sequences clustered within the rabbit clade of HEV-3 genotype. In addition, one rabbit sequence segregated into subtype 3g of HEV-3. Highest seroprevalences for hares and rabbits were detected in the federal states of Bavaria and of Schleswig-Holstein, respectively. Comparing urban, rural and insular areas, the highest seroprevalence was shown for wild rabbits in rural areas and for European brown hares on the northern island Fehmarn. This study provides evidence that European brown hares and wild rabbits from Germany can be infected with HEV. The different prevalences indicate that wild rabbits are a potential reservoir for HEV in Germany, whereas European brown hares seem to be only of minor importance for the epidemiology of HEV. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. Project Roadkill: Linking European Hare vehicle collisions with landscape-structure using datasets from citizen scientists and professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stretz, Carina; Heigl, Florian; Steiner, Wolfgang; Bauer, Thomas; Suppan, Franz; Zaller, Johann G.

    2015-04-01

    Road networks can implicate lots of negative effects for wildlife. One of the most important indication for strong landscape fragmentation are roadkills, i.e. collisions between motorised vehicles and wild animals. A species that is often involved in roadkills is the European hare (Lepus europaeus). European hare populations are in decline throughout Europe since the 1960s and classified as "potentially endangered" in the Red Data Book of Austria. Therefore, it is striking that in the hunting year 2013/14, 19,343 hares were killed on Austrian roads translating to 53 hare roadkills each day, or rather about two per hour. We hypothesized, that (I) hare-vehicle-collisions occur as an aggregation of events (hotspot), (II) the surrounding landscape influences the number of roadkilled hares and (III) roadkill data from citizen science projects and data from professionals (e.g. hunters, police) are convergent. Investigations on the surrounding landscape of the scenes of accidents will be carried out using land cover data derived from Landsat satellite images. Information on road kills are based on datasets from two different sources. One dataset stems from the citizen science project "Roadkill" (www.citizen-science.at/roadkill) where participants report roadkill findings via a web application. The second dataset is from a project where roadkill data were collected by the police and by hunters. Besides answering our research questions, findings of this project also allow the location of dangerous roadkill hotspots for animals and could be implemented in nature conservation actions.

  5. HARE: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mckie, Jim

    2012-01-09

    This report documents the results of work done over a 6 year period under the FAST-OS programs. The first effort was called Right-Weight Kernels, (RWK) and was concerned with improving measurements of OS noise so it could be treated quantitatively; and evaluating the use of two operating systems, Linux and Plan 9, on HPC systems and determining how these operating systems needed to be extended or changed for HPC, while still retaining their general-purpose nature. The second program, HARE, explored the creation of alternative runtime models, building on RWK. All of the HARE work was done on Plan 9. The HARE researchers were mindful of the very good Linux and LWK work being done at other labs and saw no need to recreate it. Even given this limited funding, the two efforts had outsized impact: _ Helped Cray decide to use Linux, instead of a custom kernel, and provided the tools needed to make Linux perform well _ Created a successor operating system to Plan 9, NIX, which has been taken in by Bell Labs for further development _ Created a standard system measurement tool, Fixed Time Quantum or FTQ, which is widely used for measuring operating systems impact on applications _ Spurred the use of the 9p protocol in several organizations, including IBM _ Built software in use at many companies, including IBM, Cray, and Google _ Spurred the creation of alternative runtimes for use on HPC systems _ Demonstrated that, with proper modifications, a general purpose operating systems can provide communications up to 3 times as effective as user-level libraries Open source was a key part of this work. The code developed for this project is in wide use and available at many places. The core Blue Gene code is available at https://bitbucket.org/ericvh/hare. We describe details of these impacts in the following sections. The rest of this report is organized as follows: First, we describe commercial impact; next, we describe the FTQ benchmark and its impact in more detail; operating

  6. Inhibition of snowshoe hare succinate dehydrogenase activity as a mechanism of deterrence for papyriferic acid in birch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbey, Jennifer Sorensen; Pu, Xinzhu; Xu, Dong; Kielland, Knut; Bryant, John

    2011-12-01

    The plant secondary metabolite papyriferic acid (PA) deters browsing by snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus) on the juvenile developmental stage of the Alaska paper birch (Betula neoalaskana). However, the physiological mechanism that reduces browsing remains unknown. We used pharmacological assays and molecular modeling to test the hypothesis that inhibition of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) is a mode of action (MOA) of toxicity of PA in snowshoe hares. We tested this hypothesis by measuring the effect of PA on the activity of SDH in liver mitochondria isolated from wild hares. In addition, we used molecular modeling to determine the specific binding site of PA on SDH. We found that PA inhibits SDH from hares by an uncompetitive mechanism in a dose-dependent manner. Molecular modeling suggests that inhibition of SDH is a result of binding of PA at the ubiquinone binding sites in complex II. Our results provide a MOA for toxicity that may be responsible for the concentration-dependent anti-feedant effects of PA. We propose that snowshoe hares reduce the dose-dependent toxic consequences of PA by relying on efflux transporters and metabolizing enzymes that lower systemic exposure to dietary PA.

  7. Automated Verification of Design Patterns with LePUS3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Jonathan; Gasparis, Epameinondas; Eden, Ammon H.; Kazman, Rick

    2009-01-01

    Specification and [visual] modelling languages are expected to combine strong abstraction mechanisms with rigour, scalability, and parsimony. LePUS3 is a visual, object-oriented design description language axiomatized in a decidable subset of the first-order predicate logic. We demonstrate how LePUS3 is used to formally specify a structural design pattern and prove ( verify ) whether any JavaTM 1.4 program satisfies that specification. We also show how LePUS3 specifications (charts) are composed and how they are verified fully automatically in the Two-Tier Programming Toolkit.

  8. Long-term patterns in Iberian hare population dynamics in a protected area (Doñana National Park) in the southwestern Iberian Peninsula: Effects of weather conditions and plant cover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carro, Francisco; Soriguer, Ramón C

    2017-01-01

    The Iberian hare (Lepus granatensis) is a widely distributed endemic species in the Iberian Peninsula. To improve our knowledge of its population dynamics, the relative abundance and population trends of the Iberian hare were studied in the autumns of 1995-2012 in a protected area (Doñana National Park) by spotlighting in 2 different habitats: marshland and ecotones. The average relative abundance was 0.38 hare/km (SD = 0.63) in the marshland and 3.6 hares/km (SD = 4.09) in ecotones. The Iberian hare population exhibited local interannual fluctuations and a negative population trend during the study period (1995-2012). The results suggest that its populations are in decline. The flooding of parts of the marshland in June, July and October favor hare abundance in the ecotone. Hare abundance in the marshland increases as the flooded surface area increases in October. These effects are more pronounced if the rains are early (October) and partially flood the marsh. By contrast, when marsh grasses and graminoids are very high and thick (as measured using the aerial herbaceous biomass [biomass marshland] as a proxy), the abundance of hares decreases dramatically as does the area of the marsh that is flooded (in November). © 2016 International Society of Zoological Sciences, Institute of Zoology/Chinese Academy of Sciences and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  9. Density and habitat requirements of sympatric hares and cottontails in northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Vidus Rosin

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract From 2005 to 2009, densities and habitat selection by the European hare (Lepus europaeus and Eastern cottontail (Sylvilagus floridanus were assessed during feeding activity in an intensively cultivated area in northern Italy. Hare average density (74 ind./km2 was comparable to the highest values reported for European farming areas. Preand post-breeding density fluctuated widely across the study years, probably as a consequence of changes in the carrying capacity of the study area. Cottontail population size progressively increased, as expected for a recently introduced species supported by high reproductive performances. Hares used both crops and spontaneous vegetation during their feeding activity. Conversely, cottontails avoided winter cereals and preferred to feed on alfalfa. Our results suggest that simplified agro-ecosystems cannot maintain high density hare populations even at a short time scale. Landscape heterogeneity could enhance the chances of coexistence between the two lagomorphs.
    Riassunto Densità ed esigenze ecologiche della lepre e del silvilago in condizioni di simpatria in Italia settentrionale Tra il 2005 e il 2009, la densità e l’uso del habitat durante l’attività di alimentazione da parte della Lepre europea (Lepus europaeus e del Silvilago (Sylvilagus floridanus sono stati indagati in un’area intensamente coltivata nell’Italia settentrionale. La densità media della lepre nell’area di studio (74 ind./km2 corrisponde ai valori maggiori riportati per le aree agricole europee. Le densità pre- e post riproduttive della lepre hanno mostrato sensibili fluttuazioni durante il periodo di studio, probabilmente dovute ai cambiamenti stagionali della capacità portante dell’area di studio. L’abbondanza del silvilago è aumentata durante gli ultimi tre anni di studio, come prevedibile per una

  10. Endogenous hepatitis C virus homolog fragments in European rabbit and hare genomes replicate in cell culture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Silva

    Full Text Available Endogenous retroviruses, non-retroviral RNA viruses and DNA viruses have been found in the mammalian genomes. The origin of Hepatitis C virus (HCV, the major cause of chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma in humans, remains unclear since its discovery. Here we show that fragments homologous to HCV structural and non-structural (NS proteins present in the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus and hare (Lepus europaeus genomes replicate in bovine cell cultures. The HCV genomic homolog fragments were demonstrated by RT-PCR, PCR, mass spectrometry, and replication in bovine cell cultures by immunofluorescence assay (IFA and immunogold electron microscopy (IEM using specific MAbs for HCV NS3, NS4A, and NS5 proteins. These findings may lead to novel research approaches on the HCV origin, genesis, evolution and diversity.

  11. Keith Haring: The Political Line

    OpenAIRE

    Drugeon, Fanny

    2014-01-01

    Au sein des nombreuses publications sur l’artiste new-yorkais mort du sida en 1990 à l’âge de 31 ans, ce catalogue de l’exposition qui s’est tenue au musée d’art moderne de la Ville de Paris d’avril à août 2013 se singularise par son angle d’approche. « Haring se consacra à la justice et à l’évolution sociale » (p. 16), précise l’historien de l’art Dieter Buchhart dans son essai, « La Ligne politique infinie ». Et c’est à travers ce prisme qu’est analysée l’œuvre de Keith Haring, tout en rebe...

  12. Browsing by Lepus capensis in the Karoo | Kerley | African Zoology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although previously described as a grazer, Lepus capensis utilizes browse extensively in the Karoo. Observations of dietary selection by this species in the Karoo are presented, and potential competition with stock farmers is suggested. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ...

  13. Kinetic studies of alkaline phosphatase extracted from rabbit (Lepus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Studies were carried out to ascertain some kinetic properties of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) extracted from Lepus townsendii liver. Incubation of ALP extract with 4-nitrophenylphosphate (4-NPP) formed the basis for determination of enzyme activity. Spectrophotometric method was used to assay the enzyme activity, and the ...

  14. Kinetic studies of alkaline phosphatase extracted from rabbit ( Lepus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies were carried out to ascertain some kinetic properties of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) extracted from Lepus townsendii liver. Incubation of ALP extract with 4-nitrophenylphosphate (4-NPP) formed the basis for determination of enzyme activity. Spectrophotometric method was used to assay the enzyme activity, and the ...

  15. Cystine nephrolithiasis in an endangered canid, Chrysocyon brachyurus (Carnivora: Canidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma B. Mussart

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available Se halló cálculos de cistina en la pelvis renal de un ejemplar adulto de Chrysocyon brachyurus (aguará-guazú, cuya muerte había ocurrido en el zoológico de Sáenz Peña (Chaco. El diagnóstico fue realizado por el método colorimétrico del nitroprusiato. La presencia de cristales microscópicos hexagonales en el cálculo pulverizado confirmó la presunción de cistina. La cistinuria es una aminoaciduria hereditaria que a largo plazo produce nefrolitiasis. El aguará-guazú puede padecer esta metabolopatía, por lo que durante su cautiverio la orina de este animal debería ser investigada para detectar la presencia de cristales de cistina; un tratamiento oportuno puede salvarle la vida. En Argentina, el número de C. brachyurus no superaría los 1000 ejemplares, en peligro de extinción.

  16. Dietas de Abrothrix andinus, Phyllotis xanthopygus (Rodentia y Lepus europaeus (Lagomorpha en un ambiente altoandino de Chile Feeding habits of Abrothrix andinus, Phyllotis xanthopygus (Rodentia and Lepus europaeus (Lagomorpha in an Andean environment of Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FRANCISCO LÓPEZ-CORTÉS

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Los roedores nativos Abrothrix andinus, Phyllotis xanthopygus y el lagomorfo introducido Lepus europaeus, coexisten en ambientes altoandinos del centro-norte de Chile, donde la disponibilidad de alimento es escasa y distribuida heterogéneamente en el paisaje. Propusimos que en estos ambientes las especies en estudio se comportarían como herbívoros generalistas y que existiría una alta sobreposición en la dieta entre la liebre y los roedores nativos. El objetivo de este trabajo fue documentar la composición de la dieta de las tres especies y determinar su amplitud, preferencia y sobreposición en la dieta a partir del análisis microhistológico de heces frescas. Los resultados indican que las tres especies se comportaron como herbívoros-folívoros, siendo la dieta de L. europaeus la de mayor amplitud trófica. Abrothrix andinus seleccionó todos los ítemes que consume, mientras que P. xanthopygus y L. europaeus realizaron un consumo más oportunista. La mayor sobreposición en la dieta se observó entre los roedores nativosThe native rodents Abrothrix andinus, Phyllotis xanthopygus and the introduced lagomorph Lepus europaeus coexist in the highlands of north-central Chile, where food availability is scarce. We hypothesized that in these environments, the studied species would behave as generalist herbivores and where the diet of native rodents would overlap that of hares greatly. The aim of this study was to quantify feeding habits, amplitude, diet preferences and overlap of these three species through microhistological analysis of fresh faeces. While all three species behaved as herbivore-folivores, L. europaeus showed the largest niche breath. Abrothrix andinus selected all consumed items, while P. xanthopygus and L. europaeus exhibited a more opportunistic consumption food items. The highest diet overlap was observed between native rodents

  17. Performance and mortality of farmed hares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigo, N; Trocino, A; Poppi, L; Giacomelli, M; Grilli, G; Piccirillo, A

    2015-06-01

    Performance and mortality of hares were evaluated for 2 consecutive years in a large farm in Veneto Region (Northern Italy). On average, fertile reproductive pairs (n=318) gave birth 4.8 times and produced 11.4 live leverets, weaned 8.4 leverets and produced 7.0 growing hares (60 days) every year. Mean mortality was 3.6%, 22.9%, 9.7% and 2.5% in newborn (0 to 2 days of age), suckling (3 to 25 days), growing (26 to 60 days) and sub-adult (61 days until sale) hares, respectively. The main causes of mortality were enteric diseases (75.5%, 75.9% and 12.1% in suckling, growing and sub-adult hares, respectively), followed by respiratory diseases (3.4%, 8.0% and 36.2% in suckling, growing and sub-adult hares, respectively), starvation (11.3% and 8.8% in suckling and growing hares, respectively) and trauma (7.1%, 2.3% and 30.2% in suckling, growing and sub-adult hares, respectively). In reproducing hares, mortality was 24.7% and 15.4% in 2010 and 2011, respectively. Respiratory diseases (34.8%) and ulcerative pododermatitis (18.9%) were the most common pathological changes detected in reproducing hares. Farmed hares seem to be affected by diseases resembling those of rabbits reared under intensive conditions. It seems necessary to improve the husbandry of hares to reach satisfactory technical standards and to preserve their health.

  18. Hare e o Problema da Ladeira Escorregadia

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    Charles Feldhaus

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with Richard Hare's Kantian Utilitarianism aplied to bioethics and discusses his attempt to solve the problem of the slippery-slope. The distinction between two levels of moral thinking, the intuitive and the critical, is appointed by the philosopher as a possible solution. The question, then, is the following: can Hare really avoid the slippery-slope problem? The answer seems to be "no".

  19. Short Communications Browsing by Lepus capensis in the Karoo

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1989-08-31

    Aug 31, 1989 ... Stewart (1971) recorded grasses in the diet of L. capensis in East Africa and Smithers (1983) ... was used to indicate the extent of utilization in relation to availability. A preference index greater than one ... There appeared to be a degree of habituation to humans at this research site. Hares would allow an ...

  20. Pathogens of wild maned wolves (Chrysocyon brachyurus) in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida Curi, Nelson Henrique; Coelho, Carlyle Mendes; de Campos Cordeiro Malta, Marcelo; Magni, Elisa Maria Vaz; Sábato, Marco Aurelio Lima; Araújo, Amanda Soriano; Lobato, Zelia Inês Portela; Santos, Juliana Lúcia Costa; Santos, Hudson Andrade; Ragozo, Alessandra Alves Mara; de Souza, Silvio Luís Pereira

    2012-10-01

    The maned wolf, Chrysocyon brachyurus, is an endangered Neotropical canid that survives at low population densities. Diseases are a potential threat for its conservation but to date have been poorly studied. We performed clinical evaluations and investigated the presence of infectious diseases through serology and coprologic tests on maned wolves from Galheiro Natural Private Reserve, Perdizes City, Minas Gerais State, southeastern Brazil. Fifteen wolves were captured between 2003 and 2008. We found high prevalences of antibody to canine distemper virus (CDV; 13/14), canine parvovirus (CPV; 4/14), canine adenovirus type 2 (13/14), canine coronavirus (5/11), canine parainfluenza virus (5/5), and Toxoplasma gondii (6/8), along with Ancylostomidae eggs in all feces samples. Antibodies against Leishmania sp. were found in one of 10 maned wolves, and all samples were negative for Neospora caninum. Evidence of high exposure to these viral agents was also observed in unvaccinated domestic dogs from neighboring farms. High prevalence of viral agents and parasites such as CDV, CPV, and Ancylostomidae indicates that this population faces considerable risk of outbreaks and chronic debilitating parasites. This is the first report of exposure to canine parainfluenza virus in Neotropical free-ranging wild canids. Our findings highlight that canine pathogens pose a serious hazard to the viability of maned wolves and other wild carnivore populations in the area and emphasize the need for monitoring and protecting wildlife health in remaining fragments of the Cerrado biome.

  1. Potensi Bakteri Endofit Pengendali Nematoda Peluka Akar (Pratylenchus brachyurus pada Nilam

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    RITA HARNI

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Root lesion nematode (Pratylenchus brachyurus is one of the most important pathogens of patchouli that caused significant losses. Studies on the potential of endophytic bacterial to control P. brachyurus on patchouli had been conducted. To evaluate the effectiveness of endophytic bacterial against to P. brachyurus on patchouli, nine isolates of bacteria (NJ2, NJ25, NJ41, NJ46, NJ57, NA22, ERB21, ES32, and E26 were applied by deeping root seedling into bacterial suspension. A study of the physiological characteristics of nine isolates was conducted by using specific medium. The results showed that endophytic bacterial was significantly reduced the population of P. brachyurus and all isolates bacterial promoted growth of patchouli (shoot weight, root weight, and root length. Four isolates, i.e. Bacillus NJ46, Bacillus Na22, Bacillus NJ2, and Bacillus NJ57 were among the potential control agents that reduced nematode populations as much as 68.1–73.9%. Almost all of the isolated bacteria from patchouli roots were able to solubilizing phosphate, while some of them had the ability to produce chitinase, cellulase, protease, HCN, and fluorescency.

  2. Using experimentation to understand the 10-year snowshoe hare cycle in the boreal forest of North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebs, Charles J; Boonstra, Rudy; Boutin, Stan

    2018-01-01

    Population cycles have long fascinated ecologists from the time of Charles Elton in the 1920s. The discovery of large population fluctuations in undisturbed ecosystems challenged the idea that pristine nature was in a state of balance. The 10-year cycle of snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus Erxleben) across the boreal forests of Canada and Alaska is a classic cycle, recognized by fur traders for more than 300 years. Since the 1930s, ecologists have investigated the mechanisms that might cause these cycles. Proposed causal mechanisms have varied from sunspots to food supplies, parasites, diseases, predation and social behaviour. Both the birth rate and the death rate change dramatically over the cycle. Social behaviour was eliminated as a possible cause because snowshoe hares are not territorial and do not commit infanticide. Since the 1960s, large-scale manipulative experiments have been used to discover the major limiting factors. Food supply and predation quickly became recognized as potential key factors causing the cycle. Experiments adding food and restricting predator access to field populations have been decisive in pinpointing predation as the key mechanism causing these fluctuations. The immediate cause of death of most snowshoe hares is predation by a variety of predators, including the Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis Kerr). The collapse in the reproductive rate is not due to food shortage as was originally thought, but is a result of chronic stress from predator chases. Five major issues remain unresolved. First, what is the nature of the predator-induced memory that results in the prolonged low phase of the cycle? Second, why do hare cycles form a travelling wave, starting in the centre of the boreal forest in Saskatchewan and travelling across western Canada and Alaska? Third, why does the amplitude of the cycle vary greatly from one cycle to the next in the same area? Fourth, do the same mechanisms of population limitation apply to snowshoe hares in

  3. AVALIAÇÃO DA RESISTÊNCIA DE CULTIVARES E LINHAGENS DE SOJA A Pratylenchus brachyurus EVALUATION OF SOYBEAN CULTIVARS AND LINES RESISTANCE TO Pratylenchus brachyurus

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    Silamar Ferraz

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Pratylenchus brackyurus, que tem larga distribuição geográfica devido ao grande número de hospedeiros, causa prejuízos à soja em todo o mundo. Clorose e nanismo em plantas de soja são sintomas muito comuns associados à infestação desse nematóide. O presente trabalho teve por objetivo avaliara a resistência de cultivares e linhagens de soja a P. bhrachyurus. As sementes dos genótipos foram tratadas com uma mistura de álcool, hipoclorito de sódio e água (1:2:7 e pré-germinadas. Cada plântula foi inoculada com 450 juvenis e/ou adultos de P. brachyurus e, após 50 dias em casa de vegetação, as plantas foram colhidas, avaliando-se o número de nematóides por sistema radicular e os fatores de reprodução. A hospedabilidade foi verificada em todas as cultivares e/ou linhagens testadas, com 18,52% dos genótipos apresentando reações de alta suscetibilidade, 45,68% de suscetibilidade, 34,57% de pouca resistência e 1,23% com moderada resistência ao ataque de P. Brachyurus.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Glycine max; lesão radicular; nematóide.

    Pratylenchus brachyurus, a plant parasitic nematode which has wide distribution due to a broad range of hosts, causes damages to soybean all over the world. Chlorosis and dwarfing in soybean plants are very common symptoms associated with this nematode infestation. The present work had as objective to evaluate the resistance of soybean cultivars and lines to P. brachyurus. Seeds of all genotypes were treated with a mixture of alcohol, sodium hypochloride, water (1:2:7. Pre-germinated seedlings were inoculated with 450 nematodes and, after 50 days under greenhouse conditions, the plants were harvested, when nematode number per root system and

  4. Instability of the snowshoe hare and woody plant interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, John F; Bryant, John P

    1984-07-01

    We show that Alaskan woody plants respond to browsing in two ways that might destabilize a plantherbivore interaction and account for snowshoe hare population 'cycles'. (1) Browse production of preferred, earliersuccessional woody plants increases in response to moderate levels of browsing. Such yield increases are potentially destabilizing. Later successional woody plants show decreases in yield after moderate browsing, which is consistent with the persistence of snowshoe hares in late successional 'refuge' habitats (Keith 1966, Wolff 1980). (2) Many woody plants are destructively overbrowsed or girdled at the peak of the snowshoe hare cycle. The more palatable and plastic, early to mid successional plants respond by sprouting accompanied by juvenile reversion. Sprouts are markedly less palatable than mature shoots. We show here that sprout palatability and twig biomass are restored in 2-3 years for earlier successional plants, but palatability may not recover for 4-10 years in sprouts of some mid to late successional plants. The decrease in palatability helps to account for the snowshoe hare 'crash' (assuming that damage to more palatable plants is widespread during the 'peak'), and the 2-3 year time lag for recovery of more palatable species could account for (May 1974) the observed 8-11 year period of the hare cycles. Browse yield increases acting during the snowshoe hare population nadir and increase, and sprouting with juvenile reversion acting during the hare peak and decline can in principle account for the oscillatory nature and the observed 8-11 year periodicity of the snowshoe hare cycle.

  5. A plant toxin mediated mechanism for the lag in snowshoe hare population recovery following cyclic declines

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeAngelis, Donald L.; Bryant, John P.; Liu, Rongsong; Gourley, Stephen A.; Krebs, Charles J; Reichardt, Paul B

    2015-01-01

    A necessary condition for a snowshoe hare population to cycle is reduced reproduction after the population declines. But the cause of a cyclic snowshoe hare population's reduced reproduction during the low phase of the cycle, when predator density collapses, is not completely understood. We propose that moderate-severe browsing by snowshoe hares upon preferred winter-foods could increase the toxicity of some of the hare's best winter-foods during the following hare low, with the result being a decline in hare nutrition that could reduce hare reproduction. We used a combination of modeling and experiments to explore this hypothesis. Using the shrub birch Betula glandulosa as the plant of interest, the model predicted that browsing by hares during a hare cycle peak, by increasing the toxicity B. glandulosa twigs during the following hare low, could cause a hare population to cycle. The model's assumptions were verified with assays of dammarane triterpenes in segments of B. glandulosa twigs and captive hare feeding experiments conducted in Alaska during February and March 1986. The model's predictions were tested with estimates of hare density and measurements of B. glandulosa twig growth made at Kluane, Yukon from 1988–2008. The empirical tests supported the model's predictions. Thus, we have concluded that a browsing-caused increase in twig toxicity that occurs during the hare cycle's low phase could reduce hare reproduction during the low phase of the hare cycle.

  6. A secondary nursery area for the copper shark Carcharhinus brachyurus from the late Miocene of Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landini, Walter; Collareta, Alberto; Pesci, Fabio; Di Celma, Claudio; Urbina, Mario; Bianucci, Giovanni

    2017-10-01

    The life history strategies of sharks often include the use of protected nursery areas by young-of-the-year and juveniles. Nursery areas can be primary (i.e., grounds where the sharks are born and spend the very first part of their lives) or secondary (i.e., grounds inhabited by slightly older but not yet mature individuals). Criteria utilized to recognize these strategic habitats include: high concentration of young sharks, high food availability, and low predation risk. Since the fossil record of sharks consists mainly of isolated teeth, identification of paleonurseries involves a series of problems due to difficult application of actualistic criteria. A rich shark tooth-bearing level (ST-low1) has recently been discovered in the upper Miocene deposits of the Pisco Formation exposed at Cerro Colorado (southern coast of Peru). Most of the teeth collected from this level belong to the extant copper shark Carcharhinus brachyurus. These teeth are small and compatible with those of extant juveniles. This observation, coupled with other paleoenvironmental considerations, indicates that the ST-low1 horizon could have represented a nursery ground for juvenile individuals of C. brachyurus. The absence of very small-sized teeth (i.e., referable to young-of-the-year) suggests a secondary nursery ground inhabited by immature copper sharks. Observations on the tooth size of other Lamniformes, Carcharhiniformes, and Myliobatiformes occurring along with C. brachyurus point to a significantly juvenile structure of this elasmobranch assemblage, thus supporting the hypothesis of a communal use of the Cerro Colorado paleonursery.

  7. Granulomatous pneumonia due to Spirocerca lupi in two free-ranging maned wolves (Chrysocyon brachyurus) from central Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    This case report describes the anatomic pathology findings in two free-ranging maned wolves (Chrysocyon brachyurus) from central-western region of Brazil presenting granulomatous pneumonia associated with intralesional infection by Spirocerca lupi. Both wolves had multiple, white, 1-1.5 cm in diamet...

  8. MANDIBULAR MORPHOMETRY APPLIED TO ANESTHETIC BLOCKAGE IN THE MANED WOLF (CHRYSOCYON BRACHYURUS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Junior, Paulo; de Moraes, Flavio Machado; de Carvalho, Natan da Cruz; Canelo, Evandro Alves; Thiesen, Roberto; Santos, André Luiz Quagliatto

    2016-03-01

    Chrysocyon brachyurus (maned wolf) is the biggest South American canid and has a high frequency of dental injuries, both in the wild and in captivity. Thus, veterinary procedures are necessary to preserve the feeding capacity of hundreds of captive specimens worldwide. The aim of this study was to investigate the mandibular morphometry of the maned wolf with emphasis on the establishment of anatomic references for anesthetic block of the inferior alveolar and mental nerves. Therefore, 16 measurements in 22 mandibles of C. brachyurus adults were taken. For extraoral block of the inferior alveolar nerve at the level of the mandibular foramen, the needle should be advanced close to the medial face of the mandibular ramus for 11.4 mm perpendicular to the palpable concavity. In another extraoral approach, the needle may be introduced for 30.4 mm from the angular process at a 20-25° angle to the ventral margin. For blocking only the mental nerve, the needle should be inserted for 10 mm from ventral border, close to the labial surface of the mandibular body, at the level of the lower first premolar. The mandibular foramen showed similar position, size, and symmetry in the maned wolf specimens examined. Comparison of the data observed here with those available for other carnivores indicates the need to determine these anatomic references specifically for each species.

  9. Assessment of verbascoside-based dietary supplement on some blood and physio-productive parameters in intensively-reared Lepus Corsicanus hares

    OpenAIRE

    Vizzarri, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    Over the past decade, researchers and food manufacturers have significantly focused attention on polyphenols. The key reason for this interest is the recognition of the antioxidant properties of these substances, their great abundance in our diet and the probable role in preventing diseases associated with oxidative stress. The great class of polyphenols consists the phenylpropanoidsglucosides, distributed in many medicinal plants, which are responsible for cytostatic, cardiac and hepatic eff...

  10. Populational genetic structure of free-living maned wolves (Chrysocyon brachyurus determined by proteic markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. S. R. De Mattos

    Full Text Available Electrophoretic analysis of presumptive twenty gene loci products was conducted in hemolisates and plasma samples of twenty-eight maned wolves (Chrysocyon brachyurus from an area in northeastern São Paulo State, Brazil. The area sampled was divided into three sub-areas, with the Mogi-Guaçu and Pardo rivers regarded as barriers to the gene flow. The polymorphism degree and heterozygosity level (intralocus and average estimated in this study were similar to those detected by other authors for maned wolves and other species of wild free-living canids. The samples of each sub-area and the total sample exhibited genotype frequencies consistent with the genetic equilibrium model. The values of the F-statistics evidenced absence of inbreeding and population subdivision and, consequently, low genetic distances were found among the samples of each area.

  11. EFFICACY OF ENDOPHYTIC BACTERIA IN REDUCING PLANT PARASITIC NEMATODE Pratylenchus brachyurus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Harni

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Pratylenchus brachyurus is a major parasitic nematode on patchouli that reduces plant production up to 85%. The use of endophytic bacteria is promising for controlling nematode and promoting plant growth through production of phytohormones and enhancing the availability of soil nutrients. The objective of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of endophytic bacteria to control P. brachyurus on patchouli plant and its influence on plant productions (plant fresh weight and patchouli oil. The study was conducted at Cimanggu Experimental Garden and Laboratory of the Indonesian Spice and Medicinal Crops Research Institute (ISMECRI, Bogor, West Java. The experi-ment was designed in a randomized block with seven treatments and eight replications; each replication consisted of 10 plants. The treatments evaluated were five isolates of endophytic bacteria (Achromobacter xylosoxidans TT2, Alcaligenes faecalis NJ16, Pseudomonas putida EH11, Bacillus cereus MSK and Bacillus subtilis NJ57, synthetic nematicide as a reference, and non-treated plant as a control.  Four-week old patchouli plants of cv. Sidikalang were treated by soaking the roots in suspension of endophytic bacteria (109 cfu  ml-1 for one hour before trans-planting to the field. At one month after planting, the plants were drenched with the bacterial suspension as much as 100 ml per plant. The results showed that applications of the endophytic bacteria could suppress the nematode populations (52.8-80% and increased plant weight (23.62-57.48% compared to the control. The isolate of endophytic bacterium Achromobacter xylosoxidans TT2 was the best and comparable with carbofuran.

  12. Hare and Others on the Proposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Corcoran

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available History witnesses alternative approaches to “the proposition”. The proposition has been referred to as the object of belief, disbelief, and doubt: generally as the object of propositional attitudes, that which can be said to be believed, disbelieved, understood, etc. It has also been taken to be the object of grasping, judging, assuming, affirming, denying, and inquiring: generally as the object of propositional actions, that which can be said to be grasped, judged true or false, assumed for reasoning purposes, etc. The proposition has also been taken to be the subject of truth and falsity: generally as the subject of propositional properties, that which can be said to be true, false, tautological, informative, inconsistent, etc. It has also been taken as the subject and object of logical relations, e.g. that which can be said to imply, be implied, contradict, be contradicted, etc. Prima facie, such properties and relations are non-mental and objective. It has also been taken to be the resultants or products of propositional operations, usually mental or linguistic; e.g. judging, affirming, and denying have been held to produce propositions called judgments, affirmations, and negations, respectively. Propositions have also been taken to be certain declarative sentences. Finally, propositions have been taken to be meanings of certain declarative sentences. This essay is an informal, selective, and incomplete survey of alternative approaches to “the proposition” with special attention to the views of the late American philosopher Peter Hare (1935–2008 and of those who influenced him.

  13. Perancangan Media Promosi Menu Afternoon Tea Cafe Hare and Hatter Surabaya

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes, Ervina; Kurniawan, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Perancangan media promosi menu afternoon tea di Café Hare and Hatter merupakan sebuah USAha untuk meningkatkan penjualan dan minat pasar terhadap menu afternoon tea di café Hare and Hatter, juga bagaimana merancang suatu media promosi menu afternoon tea di Café Hare and Hatter dengan pendekatan tradisi dan nilai – nilai dalam afternoon tea time, sehingga Hare and Hatter semakin dikenal dengan menu unggulan afternoon tea. Tujuan utama dari perancangan ini adalah menciptakan suatu media promosi...

  14. Naturalismo e existencialismo na teoria moral de Richard Hare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antônio Oliveira de Azevedo

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1677-2954.2009v8n2p247Em um artigo de 1966, Amartya Sen procurou mostrar que mesmo Richard Hare, um devoto explícitodo antinaturalismo em ética, ainda que inadvertidamente, incorreu num tipo de naturalismo que Senintitulou de existencial. Neste breve artigo, traço um resumo dessa crítica à teoria de Hare, em especial,da chamada “Lei de Hume”, a qual Sen preferiu apropriadamente intitular “Regra de Hare”. Pretendomostrar como esse tipo peculiar de “existencialismo” nos conduz, ainda que sob o possível protesto deHare e seus seguidores, a conclusões subjetivistas e relativistas sobre a moralidade.

  15. SELEÇÃO DE GENÓTIPOS DE ABACAXI PARA RESISTÊNCIA A Meloidogyne javanica E Pratylenchus brachyurus RESISTANCE OF PINEAPPLE GENOTYPES TO Meloidogyne javanica AND Pratylenchus brachyurus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Humberto Calfa

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Dez genótipos de abacaxi foram avaliados para resistência às espécies de nematóides, Meloidogyne javanica e Pratylenchus brachyurus, em dois experimentos conduzidos em casa de vegetação, seguindo o delineamento inteiramente casualizado com seis repetições, empregando o cv. Smooth Cayenne como padrão de suscetibilidade. Cada parcela foi constituída de uma planta/vaso, contendo solo esterilizado com brometo de metila. Após dois meses do plantio das mudas, as plantas foram inoculadas com 1.000 juvenis (J2 de M. javanica no primeiro experimento e 1.000 indivíduos de P. brachyurus no segundo experimento. Após 90 dias da inoculação foram avaliados os seguintes parâmetros: peso do sistema radicular, número de ovos e de nematóides por planta e fatores de reprodução. A seleção para resistência foi baseada na percentagem de redução do fator de reprodução. Em relação a M. javanica, os genótipos FRF-632 e H-3607 foram pouco resistentes (PR e os de LBB-1385, Primavera, FRF-609 e LBB-1396 comportaram-se como moderadamente resistentes (MR. Para P. brachyurus foram selecionados como pouco resistentes (PR os genótipos de H-3607, LBB-396, Perolera, FRF-609 e Primavera.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Ananas comosus; resistência; nematóide das galhas; nematóide das lesões radiculares.

    The resistance of ten genotypes of pineapple to two nematodes species, Meloidogyne javanica and Pratylenchus brachyurus, was evaluated in two experiments at greenhouse. Each one of them was completely randomized with six replications. The cultivar Smooth Cayenne was used as a susceptible control. Each plot was represented by one plant/pot. Each pot held 4 l of soil

  16. ANATOMY OF BONE AND MUSCLE OF SCAPULA AND ARM OF Chrysocyon Brachyurus (CARNIVORA, CANIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saulo Gonçalves Pereira

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The maned wolf, Chrysocyon brachyurus - Illiger, 1815, is the largest canid of South America     and its found in the central region of the continent, preferably in open field biomes. It may reach between 20 and 33 kg and up to 125 cm. It is under threat of extinction. Anatomical knowledge is  of great importance to the completion of information about wild species and clinical, surgical, and conservationist implications. This study aimed to describe the bones and the bone accidents of the cingulate forelimb of brachial region and their respective muscles in maned wolf, through dissection procedures of animals preserved in 10% formalin solution. The animals belong to the didactic collection of the Laboratory of Education and Research on Wild Animals of UFU, and are the result of roadkill. The bones are scapula and humerus. There was no clavicula. The muscles are: M. deltoideus; M. supraspinatus; M. infraspinatus; M. teres major; M. teres minor; M. triceps brachii caput: laterale, accessorium, longum and mediale; M. anconeus; M. biceps; M. subscapularis; M.  coracobrachialis; M. tensor fasciae antebrachii; M. brachial. The scapula and arm have specific accidents; however, they are similar to domestic dogs. The humerus is straight. The muscles have some peculiarities. Keywords: anatomy; canids; maned wolf; muscles; osteology.

  17. Generating 3D Scenes in the style of Keith Haring

    OpenAIRE

    Ronfard, Rémi; Doussot, Quentin

    2012-01-01

    http://www.generativeart.com; International audience; Recently, interest in shape grammar models of pictorial style has been revived by the success of generative modelers for buildings and cities. Stochastic methods have been introduced for learning the parameters of shape grammars to adapt to different architectural or visual styles, including Mondrian. We extend those recent approaches for generating 3D graphics in the style of Keith Haring paintings, whose visual vocabulary is significantl...

  18. Taxonomy Icon Data: Kuroda's sea hare [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Kuroda's sea hare Aplysia kurodai Mollusca Aplysia_kurodai_L.png Aplysia_kurodai_NL.png Aplysia_ku...rodai_S.png Aplysia_kurodai_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Aplysia+ku...rodai&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Aplysia+kurodai&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/tax...onomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Aplysia+kurodai&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Aplysia+ku

  19. Spatial behaviour and survival of translocated wild brown hares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fischer, C.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The fragility of many populations of brown hares in Western Europe is a concern for managers, hunters and naturalists. We took advantage of a locally high density population to use wild individuals to restock areas where the species had disappeared or was close to disappearing. The aim of the project was to assess the evolution of the spatial behaviour after release using radio–tracking. Over 150 wild brown hares were translocated, one third of which were fitted with radio collars. In addition, fifteen individuals were radio–tagged and released back into the source population as a control. Most individuals settled in less than two months and their seasonal home range, once settled, was similar to that observed in the source population. Mean duration of tracking was not significantly different between the two groups. Moreover, two years after the last translocation, tagged individuals can still be observed, but most hares present are not tagged, which indicates natural reproduction of the released individuals. The translocation of wild individuals thus appears to give encouraging results.

  20. Factor Structure of the Hare Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version (PCL: YV) in Incarcerated Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Craig S.; Kosson, David S.; Forth, Adelle E.; Hare, Robert D.

    2006-01-01

    Two studies are reported on the underlying dimensions of the psychopathy construct in adolescents as measured by the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Youth Version (PCL: YV; Forth, Kosson, & Hare, 2003). In Study 1, the PCL: YV item ratings for 505 male adolescents incarcerated in 5 different settings in North America were used to test the fit of 3…

  1. Ecology of snowshoe hares in southern boreal and montane forests [Chapter 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karen E. Hodges

    2000-01-01

    Snowshoe hares occur in many of the montane and sub-boreal forests of the continental United States, as well as throughout the boreal forests of Canada and Alaska. Population dynamics in their southern range were previously thought to be noncyclic, in contrast to the strong 10-year fluctuation that typifies boreal populations of snowshoe hares. Time series data and...

  2. Environmental surveillance during an outbreak of tularaemia in hares, the Netherlands, 2015.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janse, Ingmar; Maas, Miriam; Rijks, Jolianne M; Koene, Miriam; van der Plaats, Rozemarijn Qj; Engelsma, Marc; van der Tas, Peter; Braks, Marieta; Stroo, Arjan; Notermans, Daan W; de Vries, Maaike C; Reubsaet, Frans; Fanoy, Ewout; Swaan, Corien; Kik, Marja Jl; IJzer, Jooske; Jaarsma, Ryanne I; van Wieren, Sip; de Roda-Husman, Ana Maria; van Passel, Mark; Roest, Hendrik-Jan; van der Giessen, Joke

    2017-01-01

    Tularaemia, a disease caused by the bacterium Francisella tularensis, is a re-emerging zoonosis in the Netherlands. After sporadic human and hare cases occurred in the period 2011 to 2014, a cluster of F. tularensis-infected hares was recognised in a region in the north of the Netherlands from

  3. Canada Lynx Dispersal, Space and Habitat Use Patterns During a Snowshoe Hare Population Cycle products

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Products resulting from the Tetlin NWR project "Canada Lynx Dispersal, Space and Habitat Use Patterns During a Snowshoe Hare Population Cycle" (PRIMR survey...

  4. Microbiota and anthropic interference on antimicrobial resistance profile of bacteria isolated from Brazilian maned-wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olney Vieira-da-Motta

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Both the study of Brazilian wild mammal fauna and the conditions that foster the preservation of endangered species, such as Brazilian Maned-wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus, in wild life are of extreme importance. In order to study the resistance profile of microbiota bacterial colonizing Brazilian Maned-wolf, this work investigated samples from eight male captive and free roaming animals originating from different Brazilian geographical regions. Samples for microbiological purposes were collected with swabs and kept in appropriate transport medium. Using routine microbiological techniques, the isolated bacteria were tested toward antimicrobial drugs by the agar disk diffusion method. Results showed that all samples from wild animals were sensitive toward all drugs tested. Conversely, the resistance profile of bacteria isolated from captive animals varied among strains and animal body site location. Escherichia coli samples from prepuce, anus and ear showed multi-resistance toward at least four drugs, especially against erythromycin and tetracycline, followed by Proteus mirabilis and P. vulgaris strains isolated from anus and ear. Among Gram-positive bacteria, strains of coagulase-negative staphylococci showed multi-resistance mainly toward erythromycin and amoxicillin. The work discusses these findings and suggests that profile of multi-resistance bacteria from captive subjects may be attributed to direct contact with human or through lifestyle factors such as feeding, predation or contact of animals with urban animals such as birds, rodents, and insects from surrounding environments.

  5. Dietary metal toxicity to the marine sea hare, Aplysia californica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, Tayler A; Capo, Thomas R; Bielmyer-Fraser, Gretchen K

    2015-01-01

    Metal pollution from anthropogenic inputs is a concern in many marine environments. Metals accumulate in tissue and in excess cause toxicity in marine organisms. This study investigated the accumulation and effects of dietary metals in a macroinvertebrate. The green seaweed, Ulva lactuca and the red seaweed, Agardhiella subulata were each concurrently exposed to two concentrations (100 or 1000 μg/L) of five metals (Cu, Ni, Pb, Cd, and Zn). Additionally, U. lactuca was exposed to 10 μg/L of the metal mixture as well as 10 or 100 μg/L of each metal individually for 48 h. The seaweeds were then used as food for the sea hare, Aplysia californica for two to three weeks depending on the exposure concentration. Body mass of A. californica was measured weekly, and at the end of the exposure duration, metal concentrations were quantified in dissected organs (mouth, esophagus, crop, gizzard, ovotestis, heart, hepatopancreas, gill, and the carcass). Metal distribution and accumulation in the organs of A. californica varied with the metal. A. californica fed the metal-exposed diets had significantly reduced body weight by the end of the exposure periods, as compared to controls; however, differences were observed in the extent of growth reductions, dependent on exposure concentration, duration, and exposure regime (metal mixture versus individual metal-exposed diet). Metal mixture diets decreased A. californica growth more so than comparable individual metal diets, despite more metal accumulating in the individual metal diets. Additionally, Zn- and Cu-contaminated algal diets decreased control-normalized growth of A. californica significantly more than comparable Cd-, Pb-, or Ni-contaminated diets. The seaweed diets in this study contained environmentally relevant tissue metal burdens. Therefore, these results have implications for metals in marine systems. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. One Measure Does Not a Construct Make: Directions toward Reinvigorating Psychopathy Research--Reply to Hare and Neumann (2010)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skeem, Jennifer L.; Cooke, David J.

    2010-01-01

    In our article (J. L. Skeem & D. J. Cooke, 2010), we outlined the dangers inherent in conflating the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R; R. Hare, 1991) with psychopathy itself. In their response, R. Hare and C. Neumann (2010) seemed to agree with key points that the PCL-R should not be confused with psychopathy and that criminal behavior is not…

  7. Core area and centre of activity of maned wolves, Chrysocyon brachyurus (Illiger (Mammalia, Canidae, submitted to supplemental feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquim de Araújo Silva

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on the finding of remains (tracks, scats, and hairs, an analysis was made of the core area and centre of activity of maned wolves, Chrysocyon brachyurus (Illiger, 1815, living in a private natural reserve in which ecotourism activities are developed and these animals are daily fed bovine meat. A total of 465 samples of remains were recorded. Using the fixed kernel method, the area encompassing all samples recorded was estimated at 25.7 km², yet 50% of all samples were found in an area of only 1.5 km², representing 5.8% of the total area covered. For estimating the core area of the animals, the frequency of occurrence of the samples was determined by superimposing a 50 x 50 m cell grid over a map of the area encompassing all recorded occurrences. Based on the cells containing more than six occurrences, the animals' core area was 0.99 km², which included the place where the animals are fed. The centre of activity was located only 0.50 km from this place. The high negative correlation (r = -0.93, p A área central e o centro de atividade de lobos-guará, Chrysocyon brachyurus (Illiger, 1815, foram determinados através de seus vestígios (fezes, pegadas e pêlos em uma reserva natural particular, onde esses animais estão sujeitos à alimentação artificial e sofrem influência de atividades turísticas. No total, foram registrados 465 vestígios, sendo que 65,8% corresponderam à estação seca. Através do método Kernel fixo, a área compreendida por todos os vestígios foi de 25,7 km², sendo que 50% encontravam-se em uma área de apenas 1,5 km², o que representou 5,8% do total da área amostrada. A área central de atividade dos animais foi obtida pelo cálculo da freqüência dos registros dos vestígios através da sobreposição de uma quadrícula subdividida em células de 50 x 50 m sobre a área que abrangia todos os registros. Considerando as células com mais de seis registros a área central de atividade atribuída aos

  8. Population Viability and Vital Rate Sensitivity of an Endangered Avian Cooperative Breeder, the White-Breasted Thrasher (Ramphocinclus brachyurus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortensen, Jennifer L; Reed, J Michael

    2016-01-01

    Social behaviors can significantly affect population viability, and some behaviors might reduce extinction risk. We used population viability analysis to evaluate effects of past and proposed habitat loss on the White-breasted Thrasher (Ramphocinclus brachyurus), a cooperatively breeding songbird with a global population size of population projection model for this endangered species, parameterizing the model with data from eight years of field study before and after habitat loss within the stronghold of the species' distribution. The recent habitat loss resulted in an approximately 18% predicted decline in population size; this estimate was mirrored by a separate assessment using occupancy data. When mortality rates remained close to the pre-habitat loss estimate, quasi-extinction probability was low under extant habitat area, but increased with habitat loss expected after current plans for resort construction are completed. Post-habitat loss mortality rate estimates were too high for projected populations to persist. Vital rate sensitivity analyses indicated that population growth rate and population persistence were most sensitive to juvenile mortality. However, observed values for adult mortality were closest to the threshold value above which populations would crash. Adult mortality, already relatively low, may have the least capacity to change compared to other vital rates, whereas juvenile mortality may have the most capacity for improvement. Results suggest that improving mortality estimates and determining the cause(s) of juvenile mortality should be research priorities. Despite predictions that aspects of cooperative systems may result in variation in reproduction or juvenile mortality being the most sensitive vital rates, adult mortality was the most sensitive in half of the demographic models of other avian cooperative breeders. Interestingly, vital rate sensitivity differed by model type. However, studies that explicitly modeled the species

  9. Population Viability and Vital Rate Sensitivity of an Endangered Avian Cooperative Breeder, the White-Breasted Thrasher (Ramphocinclus brachyurus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L Mortensen

    Full Text Available Social behaviors can significantly affect population viability, and some behaviors might reduce extinction risk. We used population viability analysis to evaluate effects of past and proposed habitat loss on the White-breasted Thrasher (Ramphocinclus brachyurus, a cooperatively breeding songbird with a global population size of <2000 individuals. We used an individual-based approach to build the first demographic population projection model for this endangered species, parameterizing the model with data from eight years of field study before and after habitat loss within the stronghold of the species' distribution. The recent habitat loss resulted in an approximately 18% predicted decline in population size; this estimate was mirrored by a separate assessment using occupancy data. When mortality rates remained close to the pre-habitat loss estimate, quasi-extinction probability was low under extant habitat area, but increased with habitat loss expected after current plans for resort construction are completed. Post-habitat loss mortality rate estimates were too high for projected populations to persist. Vital rate sensitivity analyses indicated that population growth rate and population persistence were most sensitive to juvenile mortality. However, observed values for adult mortality were closest to the threshold value above which populations would crash. Adult mortality, already relatively low, may have the least capacity to change compared to other vital rates, whereas juvenile mortality may have the most capacity for improvement. Results suggest that improving mortality estimates and determining the cause(s of juvenile mortality should be research priorities. Despite predictions that aspects of cooperative systems may result in variation in reproduction or juvenile mortality being the most sensitive vital rates, adult mortality was the most sensitive in half of the demographic models of other avian cooperative breeders. Interestingly, vital

  10. Historical wildlife dynamics on Dugway Proving Ground: population and disease trends in jack rabbits over two decades. [Lepus californicus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eberhardt, L.E.; Van Voris, P.

    1986-08-01

    In an effort to determine whether US Army activities on the Dugway Proving Ground (DPG) have had an impact on resident wildlife, intensive studies have been conducted on the biology and ecology of the black-tailed jack rabbit (Lepus californicus) since 1965. in addition, the incidence of endemic diseases in several species of resident wildlife on the DPG have been studied from the late 1950s through the mid-1970s. The objectives of this report are to: (1) compile and summarize the jack rabbit data and some of the disease information that is presently contained only in annual reports; (2) compare the DPG jack rabbit data to data available on other jack rabbit populations; and (3) analyze the data for unusual or unexplained fluctuations in population densities or in incidence of disease.

  11. Conservazione e gestione della Lepre italica (Lepus corsicanus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Riga

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Il recente riconoscimento dello status specifico della Lepre italica (Lepus corsicanus e l?accertamento dell?areale distributivo rappresentano le azioni più importanti per la conservazione di un taxon endemico che si era creduto estinto. Nella penisola la specie presenta un areale discontinuo, il cui limite settentrionale è dato dal comune di Manciano (GR, sul versante tirrenico e da una linea che dalla provincia de L'Aquila arriva al Gargano. In Sicilia la distribuzione è relativamente continua anche in aree non protette. Dati genetici hanno permesso di confermare la presenza in Corsica. Al contrario, nell?Isola d'Elba, a seguito di estese ricerche, sono stati identificati solo esemplari di L. europaeus. Nell?Italia peninsulare L. corsicanus è spesso presente in simpatria con popolazioni di L. europaeus, mentre in Sicilia la lepre europea non ha originato popolazioni stabili, nonostante l?immissione di molte migliaia di individui. La distribuzione ecologica di L. corsicanus ed analisi ambientali specifiche, suggeriscono l?adattamento prevalente agli ambienti a clima mediterraneo, benché essa sia presente anche a quote elevate (> 1.500 m s.l.m.. Dati preliminari di abbondanza relativa hanno evidenziato una situazione diversificata tra la penisola e la Sicilia e tra aree a diverso regime di gestione; un confronto tra le aree protette ha evidenziato rispettivamente valori di 5,54 e 11,73 ind./km². La riduzione quali-quantitativa e la frammentazione dell?habitat delle lepri è un fenomeno potenzialmente pericoloso per la sopravvivenza delle popolazioni, determinando fenomeni di estinzione locale dovuti alle basse densità di popolazione, inducendo fenomeni di erosione della variabilità genetica e di riduzione della fitness degli individui. L?introduzione di L. europaeus può costituire un importante fattore limitante sia per la possibile competizione

  12. Repair of minor true hare lip using V-Y plasty: How i do it

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelrahman EM Ezzat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Minor true hare lip is rare central midline deficiency of the upper lip. There are multiple techniques but little consensus on the preferred surgical technique. Materials And Methods: A transoral approach for repair using mucosal V-Y plasty is described by employing a vertical inverted V incision. Result: The contour of the free labial border immediately improves with avoidance of skin scar. Conclusions: The midline cleft lip notch or minor true (hare lip midline clefts can be effectively treated by mucosal lengthening using a V-Y plasty. Moreover, the ability to augment the tubercle with mucosa through a VY plasty is simple and easy.

  13. Snowshoe hares display limited phenotypic plasticity to mismatch in seasonal camouflage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimova, Marketa; Mills, L. Scott; Lukacs, Paul M.; Mitchell, Michael S.

    2014-01-01

    As duration of snow cover decreases owing to climate change, species undergoing seasonal colour moults can become colour mismatched with their background. The immediate adaptive solution to this mismatch is phenotypic plasticity, either in phenology of seasonal colour moults or in behaviours that reduce mismatch or its consequences. We observed nearly 200 snowshoe hares across a wide range of snow conditions and two study sites in Montana, USA, and found minimal plasticity in response to mismatch between coat colour and background. We found that moult phenology varied between study sites, likely due to differences in photoperiod and climate, but was largely fixed within study sites with only minimal plasticity to snow conditions during the spring white-to-brown moult. We also found no evidence that hares modify their behaviour in response to colour mismatch. Hiding and fleeing behaviours and resting spot preference of hares were more affected by variables related to season, site and concealment by vegetation, than by colour mismatch. We conclude that plasticity in moult phenology and behaviours in snowshoe hares is insufficient for adaptation to camouflage mismatch, suggesting that any future adaptation to climate change will require natural selection on moult phenology or behaviour.

  14. 78 FR 19356 - Notice of Schedule Information Submission Deadline for O'Hare International Airport, San...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-29

    ... International Airport, San Francisco International Airport, John F. Kennedy International Airport, and Newark Liberty International Airport for the Winter 2013-2014 Scheduling Season AGENCY: Federal Aviation... at Chicago's O'Hare International Airport (ORD), San Francisco International Airport (SFO), New York...

  15. 77 FR 19410 - Notice of Schedule Information Submission Deadline for O'Hare International Airport, San...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-30

    ... International Airport, San Francisco International Airport, John F. Kennedy International Airport, and Newark Liberty International Airport for the Winter 2012-2013 Scheduling Season AGENCY: Department of... at Chicago's O'Hare International Airport (ORD), San Francisco International Airport (SFO), New York...

  16. The ecology of snowshoe hares in northern boreal forests [Chapter 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karen E. Hodges

    2000-01-01

    Snowshoe hares exhibit eight to 11 year population fluctuations across boreal North America, typically with an amplitude of 10 to 25 fold. These fluctuations are synchronous across the continent, with the most recent peak densities occurring in 1990 and 1991. The numeric cycle is driven by changes in survival and reproduction, with annual survival of adults...

  17. INTER-RELIGIOUS DIALOGUE WITHIN THE HARE KRISHNA MANDIR COMMUNITY YOGYAKARTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanny Suitela

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to know how inter-religious dialogue was grasped by Hare Krishna Mandir community in Jogjakarta. Hare Krishna Mandir is one of Hindus community boarding schools (Asram which being in Indonesia beneath of the umbrella of International Society for Krishna Consciousness (ISKCON. Results show that core of tenet of Hare Krishna Mandir community emphasizes on the development of individual knowledge and spirituality of student as a Hindus. Somehow, the community is being aware on pluralism context of Indonesia, therefore it also gives special attention on its community relationship to the others who live surround them. The community claims the necessity to develop interreligious dialogue as basic daily approach of communication with the others. Sunday Face comprises of the embodiment of that understanding. It is a program heading on Sunday, every week, involving many participants from different backgrounds. They gather together, they talk and share some relevant issues, and they learn from one and another point of views on solution as well as contribution to those. The program obviously contributes to sustaining religious harmony in Jogjakarta, and of course it gives better understanding for Indonesian people on the importance of inter-religious dialogue in a plural society of Indonesia. In addition to, it also contributes to shape open minded, necessity to hear, to learn, and to respect one and others among not only religious people, also society at all. Key words: Hare Krishna Mandir, interreligious dialogue, Sunday Face

  18. Efeito do teor de matéria orgânica do solo, cultura de cobertura e sistema de plantio no controle de Pratylenchus brachyurus em soja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Junior Natalino da Costa

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available No controle do nematoide das lesões (Pratylenchus brachyurus, têm sido indicadas algumas estratégias visando redução dos níveis populacionais, e outras que estimulam o desenvolvimento radicular, assim, objetivou-se, neste trabalho, identificar os benefícios das interações entre culturas de cobertura, teor de matéria orgânica do solo e sistemas de plantio. Foram escolhidas 2 áreas com infestação natural do nematoide e implantadas as culturas de cobertura Crotalaria spectabilis, Pennisetum glaucum (milheto ADR 300, Brachiaria decumbens, milho (híbrido 'Formula', além de tratamentos com e sem capina química. A testemunha foi o alqueive (capina periódica. O plantio das coberturas foi realizado no dia 22/02/2010, e, no dia 3/11/2010, foi implantada a cultura da soja. Cada ensaio contou com parcelas de 6 m e 10 linhas (espaçamento de 0,45 m. O delineamento utilizado foi o de blocos ao acaso, com 4 repetições. Como sub parcelas, foram utilizados o plantio direto e o convencional da soja e das coberturas, com a utilização de uma grade aradora. As avaliações constaram de massa seca de culturas de cobertura, níveis populacionais de nematoides, massa verde de raízes, massa seca de parte aérea e rendimento de grãos. De acordo com os resultados obtidos, a matéria orgânica do solo apresentou benefícios, com diminuição da taxa de multiplicação de P. brachyurus, além disso, houve interação com a cultura de cobertura e o método de plantio. O plantio convencional reduziu os níveis de infecção nas avaliações até 40 dias após a emergência (40 DAE, contudo, na avaliação seguinte (70 DAE, os níveis no plantio direto foram menores, evidenciando atributos positivos desta técnica de plantio. Dentre as culturas de cobertura, C. spectabilis apresentou maior antagonismo a P. brachyurus. A testemunha capinada e a capina química evitaram a multiplicação, mas o nematoide manteve níveis suficientes para causar prejuízos.

  19. 78 FR 57677 - Notice of Submission Deadline for Schedule Information for O'Hare International Airport, San...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-19

    ... International Airport, San Francisco International Airport, John F. Kennedy International Airport, and Newark Liberty International Airport for the Summer 2014 Scheduling Season AGENCY: Federal Aviation... at Chicago's O'Hare International Airport (ORD), San Francisco International Airport (SFO), New York...

  20. Frequency of parasites and Salmonella infection in captive maned-wolf, Chrysocyon brachyurus, kept in Zoos at the State of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilioli R.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirty-one captive maned wolves (Chrysocyon brachyurus, Illiger 1815 from 11 Zoos at the State of São Paulo, Brazil, were screened to investigate the presence of parasites and Salmonella infection by parasitological diagnostic methods and fecal selective culture. The most frequent ecto and endoparasites found were Ctenocephalides felis (56.2%, Rhipicephalus sanguineus (12.5%, Ancylostoma caninum (45.1%, Strongyloides sp. (29.0%, Uncinaria stenocephala (3.2%, Capillaria sp. (3.2%, Entamoeba sp. (22.9%, Sarcocystis sp. (29.0%, Cryptosporidium sp. (19.3%, Eimeria sp. (19.3%, Giardia sp. (9.6% and Isospora sp. (3.2%. Four different serotypes of Salmonella were identified in six animals (25%. Only one infected animal showed clinical signs of diarrhea. The ability to harbor Salmonella spp. as normal nonpathogenic bacteria of the gastrointestinal tract may be a physiological adaptation of this specie.

  1. An ecological assessment of Hispid Hare Caprolagus hispidus (Mammalia: Lagomorpha: Leporidae in Manas National Park, Assam, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naba K. Nath

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study of the Hispid Hare Caprolagus hispidus in the tall grassland habitat of Manas National Park, Assam during 2009–2010 is the first detailed assessment in northeastern India.  We assessed the status, distribution, habitat use and key threats to this rare and little studied lagomorph species.  After interviewing local forest staff, 20 grassland patches within a survey area of 2.65ha were selected and transects (50x2 m laid randomly to determine the presence/absence of Hispid Hare by recording pellets and other indirect evidence.  Hare presence was recorded in 17 grassland patches within transects dominated by Imperata cylindrica and Saccharum narenga.  Hispid Hare preferred dry savannah grasslands to wet alluvial grasslands during winter and avoided recently burned patches due to lack of cover and food.  The distribution pattern observed was clumped (s2/a = 6.2, with more evidence of Hispid Hare presence in areas where ground cover was dense, dry and away from water sources. Population density was estimated at 381.55 individuals/km2, which in comparison with other studies indicates that Manas National Park currently holds the highest density of Hispid Hare.  Habitat loss due to overgrazing, unsustainable thatch harvesting, burning of grassland, weed invasion, encroachment and hunting were identified as key threats which must be addressed to ensure survival of this threatened species in the Park.  

  2. Phylogeny of the sea hares in the aplysia clade based on mitochondrial DNA sequence data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medina, Monica; Collins, Timothy; Walsh, Patrick J.

    2004-02-20

    Sea hare species within the Aplysia clade are distributed worldwide. Their phylogenetic and biogeographic relationships are, however, still poorly known. New molecular evidence is presented from a portion of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase c subunit 1 gene (cox1) that improves our understanding of the phylogeny of the group. Based on these data a preliminary discussion of the present distribution of sea hares in a biogeographic context is put forward. Our findings are consistent with only some aspects of the current taxonomy and nomenclatural changes are proposed. The first, is the use of a rank free classification for the different Aplysia clades and subclades as opposed to previously used genus and subgenus affiliations. The second, is the suggestion that Aplysia brasiliana (Rang, 1828) is a junior synonym of Aplysia fasciata (Poiret, 1789). The third, is the elimination of Neaplysia since its only member is confirmed to be part of the large Varria clade.

  3. Le MAC de Lyon s’ouvre à l’univers de Keith Haring

    OpenAIRE

    Vernier, Angélique; Crémieux, Anne

    2008-01-01

    L’exposition Keith Haring au Musée d’Art Contemporain de Lyon se tient du 22 février au 29 juin 2008. Le 4 mai prochain, l’artiste américain aurait eu 50 ans. C’est à cette occasion que l’exposition a été montée. Très riche, elle se veut des plus accessibles, pédagogiques et ludiques, à l’image de l’artiste qu’elle célèbre. Tout musée d’art moderne, aussi moderne soit-il, reste un musée, c’est-à-dire un espace somme toute antithétique de l’œuvre de Keith Haring. Artiste de rue, de souterrains...

  4. Le MAC de Lyon s’ouvre à l’univers de Keith Haring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Crémieux

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available L’exposition Keith Haring au Musée d’Art Contemporain de Lyon se tient du 22 février au 29 juin 2008. Le 4 mai prochain, l’artiste américain aurait eu 50 ans. C’est à cette occasion que l’exposition a été montée. Très riche, elle se veut des plus accessibles, pédagogiques et ludiques, à l’image de l’artiste qu’elle célèbre. Tout musée d’art moderne, aussi moderne soit-il, reste un musée, c’est-à-dire un espace somme toute antithétique de l’œuvre de Keith Haring. Artiste de rue, de souterrains...

  5. Variation of corneal glycosaminoglycan values of hares in relation to environmental pollution by industrial emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miková, M; Nováková, E

    1979-09-01

    In localities contaminated by industrial emissions a significant decrease in keratan sulfate and chondroitin 4-sulfate occurs in the cornea of the hare. The changes also occur in hares living near small emission sources with a local emission zone; therefore they should not be neglected, especially if the area is used for recreation, as in the case reported here. The decrease in glycosaminoglycan values is more pronounced in adults than in juveniles, because of the length of exposure. Relatively large amounts of keratan sulfate in the glycosaminoglycan fraction correspond to changes expected in a prematurely senescent tissue. Because of the painstaking laboratory work required, assessment of glycosaminoglycans could be used for special bioindication purposes but would not be suitable for routine monitoring.

  6. Information aspects of interspecific relations of fox and brown hare in snow season in steppe forests

    OpenAIRE

    А. V. Mikheyev

    2005-01-01

    On the basis of materials of field research the characteristic of trail activity of fox and brown hare in steppe forests of the South-East of Ukraine in a gradient of a snow cover conditions is presented. The estimation of qualitative and quantitative parameters of traces groups of both species as elements of an information field, and also analysis of the aspects of their interrelation subject to various factors in the specified period of year are carried out.

  7. Kuu kultuurikulgur : Noaga tehtud plaadikaaned. Chungini jõulupidu : Hare Christmas! 6 miljonit digitaalaaret

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Pastaca uue heliplaadikogumiku "Remiksid" esitlusest 19. dets. Tallinnas klubis Juuksur ja 20. dets. Tartus klubis Maailm (kaasa mängivad Galaktlan ja Hannes Praks). 16. dets. avab Tartus Lastekunstikooli galeriis uksed muusiku ja usuteaduslase Chungini kuraatoriprojekt "Hare Christmas/Guten Weichnachten". 20. nov. avati sait www. europeana.eu, mille eesmärgiks anda allalaadimiseks Euroopa kultuuriväärtusi (sümfooniad, poeemid ja maalid digitaliseeritud kujul)

  8. Biogenic amines in the meat of hunted pheasant and hare during the course of storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdeňka Hutařová

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Venison is becoming more and more interesting for consumers. Although treatment procedures of hunted game differ from slaughtered livestock, the hygienic quality of game meat must still be ensured. Potential indicators of meat hygienic quality include the content of biogenic amines. The aim of the present study was to assess the content and changes of biogenic amines in the muscles of selected kinds of small game (common pheasant and brown hare during storage, and based on the obtained results, to assess the hygienic quality of the meat. Biogenic amines (putrescine, cadaverine, histamine, tyramine, phenylethylamine, and tryptamine in the breast and thigh muscles separated by reverse phase liquid chromatography and consequently were detected using tandem mass spectrometry. Based on the determined content of biogenic amines, both pheasant and hare meats complied with values of high quality meat. The sum of biogenic amines did not exceed the value of 5 mg/kg after 7 days at 0 °C or 7 °C in pheasant meat, and after 21 days at 0 °C or after 14 days at 7 °C in brown hare meat. The biogenic amine content and the speed of their formation in venison can be very helpful for the evaluation of both meat hygienic quality and safety of these foods during storage.

  9. EFEITO DE PRODUTOS QUÍMICOS E NATURAIS SOBRE A POPULAÇÃO DE NEMATÓIDE Pratylenchus brachyurus NA CULTURA DA CANA-DE-AÇÚCAR EFFECT OF NATURAL AND CHEMICAL PRODUCTS ON Pratylenchus brachyurus POPULATION IN SUGARCANE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria de Oliveira Faleiro Machado

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito de produtos químicos e naturais sobre a população do nematóide Pratylenchus brachyurus, na cultura da cana-de-açúcar (Saccharum sp., cv. RB 835486, esta pesquisa foi conduzida na Escola de Agronomia e Engenharia de Alimentos, da Universidade Federal de Goiás, em Goiânia, GO, e nos campos experimentais da Usina Jalles Machado S/A, em Goianésia, GO. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos completos casualizados, em esquema fatorial 5 x 2, com cinco repetições. Os dez tratamentos avaliados foram testemunha, abamectina 0,5 L.ha-1, abamectina 1,0 L.ha-1, óleo de nim 2,0 L.ha-1, aldicarb 150G 12 kg.ha-1, todos com e sem aplicação de torta de filtro (30 t.ha-1. Avaliações da população de P. brachyurus foram feitas aos dois, quatro, seis e oito meses após o plantio, além da avaliação de produtividade ao final do primeiro corte. Os tratamentos tiveram efeito significativo aos dois, quatro e seis meses após o plantio, sendo que, somente o produto aldicarb apresentou eficiência, reduzindo a população do nematóide. Abamectina e oléo de nim não apresentaram efeito nematicida consistente, mostrando, algumas vezes populações do nematóide maiores do que a testemunha. Efeito significativo da torta de filtro sobre a redução da população de P. brachyurus apenas foi observado aos seis meses após o plantio, embora em termos de produtividade as parcelas que receberam torta de filtro apresentaram incremento médio de 10 t.ha-1.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Fitonematóides; Azadirachta indica; controle; torta de filtro.

    The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of natural and chemical products on

  10. Ossian & the Hare: An Experiment in Poetry and the Alchemy of Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson, Naomi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Ossian & the Hare is an experimental film-essay combination intended to work like two sides of the one coin. The 20-minute long film is designed to be more experiential than narrative driven, moving us through various spaces and atmospheres as if in a kind of dreamscape. In pointing up some of the thinking and ideas that are embedded in the film, the text provides a framework situating the film within a film-as-artwork context. It outlines many of the influences that contribute both to visual style and content, offering more depth to the overall experience of viewing the film.

  11. A modelling approach to evaluating the effectiveness of Ecological Focus Areas: the case of the European brown hare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langhammer, Maria; Grimm, Volker; Putz, Sandro

    2016-01-01

    Payment program, and voluntary agri-environment measures. However, empirically evaluating the effectiveness of these measures is challenging. We therefore demonstrate here that mechanistic simulation models are a valuable tool for performing these evaluations. As an example, we use the Animal, Landscape...... of each type was increased separately up to 5% of the area in three Danish landscapes, which are characterised by low hare densities. The effects on female and yearling abundance were observed over a period of 30 years. All greening scenarios had significant positive effects on hare populations...

  12. Hare TRIM5α Restricts Divergent Retroviruses and Exhibits Significant Sequence Variation from Closely Related Lagomorpha TRIM5 Genes▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Adam J.; Hué, Stéphane; Schaller, Torsten; Pillay, Deenan; Towers, Greg J.

    2010-01-01

    TRIM5α proteins recruit and restrict incoming cytoplasmic retroviruses. Primate TRIM5α sequence diversity underlies species-specific restriction and is likely caused by selective pressure from ancient pathogenic infections. Here we show that TRIM5α from the European brown hare restricts diverse retroviruses. Furthermore, it differs significantly in sequence from TRIM5α from the closely related rabbit, suggesting evolutionary changes in the last 12 million years since these species diverged. We propose that, like primates, lagomorphs have been subject to selective pressure from TRIM5-sensitive viruses, possibly related to the endogenous lentivirus RELIK found in both rabbits and hares. PMID:20861252

  13. Hare TRIM5α restricts divergent retroviruses and exhibits significant sequence variation from closely related lagomorpha TRIM5 genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Adam J; Hué, Stéphane; Schaller, Torsten; Pillay, Deenan; Towers, Greg J

    2010-12-01

    TRIM5α proteins recruit and restrict incoming cytoplasmic retroviruses. Primate TRIM5α sequence diversity underlies species-specific restriction and is likely caused by selective pressure from ancient pathogenic infections. Here we show that TRIM5α from the European brown hare restricts diverse retroviruses. Furthermore, it differs significantly in sequence from TRIM5α from the closely related rabbit, suggesting evolutionary changes in the last 12 million years since these species diverged. We propose that, like primates, lagomorphs have been subject to selective pressure from TRIM5-sensitive viruses, possibly related to the endogenous lentivirus RELIK found in both rabbits and hares.

  14. Exposure of free-ranging maned wolves (Chrysocyon brachyurus) to infectious and parasitic disease agents in the Noël Kempff Mercado National Park, Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deem, Sharon L; Emmons, Louise H

    2005-06-01

    Maned wolves (Chrysocyon brachyurus) are neotropic mammals, listed as a CITES Appendix II species, with a distribution south of the Amazon forest from Bolivia, through northern Argentina and Paraguay and into eastern Brazil and northern Uruguay. Primary threats to the survival of free-ranging maned wolves include habitat loss, road kills, and shooting by farmers. An additional threat to the conservation of maned wolves is the risk of morbidity and mortality due to infectious and parasitic diseases. Captive maned wolves are susceptible to, and die from, common infectious diseases of domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) including canine distemper virus (CDV), canine parvovirus (CPV), rabies virus, and canine adenovirus (CAV). Results from this study show that free-ranging maned wolves in a remote area of Bolivia have been exposed to multiple infectious and parasitic agents of domestic carnivores, including CAV, CDV, CPV, canine coronavirus, rabies virus, Leptospira interrogans spp., Toxoplasma gondii, and Dirofilaria immitis, and may be at increased risk for disease due to these agents.

  15. Chemical Diversity and Biological Properties of Secondary Metabolites from Sea Hares of Aplysia Genus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato B. Pereira

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The marine environment is an important source of structurally-diverse and biologically-active secondary metabolites. During the last two decades, thousands of compounds were discovered in marine organisms, several of them having inspired the development of new classes of therapeutic agents. Marine mollusks constitute a successful phyla in the discovery of new marine natural products (MNPs. Over a 50-year period from 1963, 116 genera of mollusks contributed innumerous compounds, Aplysia being the most studied genus by MNP chemists. This genus includes 36 valid species and should be distinguished from all mollusks as it yielded numerous new natural products. Aplysia sea hares are herbivorous mollusks, which have been proven to be a rich source of secondary metabolites, mostly of dietary origin. The majority of secondary metabolites isolated from sea hares of the genus Aplysia are halogenated terpenes; however, these animals are also a source of compounds from other chemical classes, such as macrolides, sterols and alkaloids, often exhibiting cytotoxic, antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral and/or antifeedant activities. This review focuses on the diverse structural classes of secondary metabolites found in Aplysia spp., including several compounds with pronounced biological properties.

  16. [Pollock, Warhol, Basquiat, Haring 20th century American painters from a psychological perspective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petôvári, Csaba

    2010-01-01

    Pollock, Warhol, Basquiat and Haring made an international reputation for themselves with their art foremost of the American artists of the 20th century, and became pop cultural icons for the man in the street and for the media as well. Accordingly to the habits of the consumer society their art and even themselves become product and consumer's goods. Their not mistaken, individual style - which also became their trademark - makes that possible. The connection between the four artists is that each of them had a dependent personality, their fine art activity was arguable in their period, and after all themselves and his artworks get into the increased attention of the media. These four artists embody the brand-new artist type, who steps into a star status. Besides the artworks the artist also get into the focus of interest. Through psychological aspect their artworks tell a lot about their way of life, their personality, and the social estate around them. Four of them were catalysts, they set new art trends. The influence of Basquiat and Haring stretched over to the 21st century, and keeps going in the graffiti street-art which gets into the "high art" at last, and captivates the art galleries and critics as well.

  17. Chemical Diversity and Biological Properties of Secondary Metabolites from Sea Hares of Aplysia Genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Renato B; Andrade, Paula B; Valentão, Patrícia

    2016-02-19

    The marine environment is an important source of structurally-diverse and biologically-active secondary metabolites. During the last two decades, thousands of compounds were discovered in marine organisms, several of them having inspired the development of new classes of therapeutic agents. Marine mollusks constitute a successful phyla in the discovery of new marine natural products (MNPs). Over a 50-year period from 1963, 116 genera of mollusks contributed innumerous compounds, Aplysia being the most studied genus by MNP chemists. This genus includes 36 valid species and should be distinguished from all mollusks as it yielded numerous new natural products. Aplysia sea hares are herbivorous mollusks, which have been proven to be a rich source of secondary metabolites, mostly of dietary origin. The majority of secondary metabolites isolated from sea hares of the genus Aplysia are halogenated terpenes; however, these animals are also a source of compounds from other chemical classes, such as macrolides, sterols and alkaloids, often exhibiting cytotoxic, antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral and/or antifeedant activities. This review focuses on the diverse structural classes of secondary metabolites found in Aplysia spp., including several compounds with pronounced biological properties.

  18. 14 CFR Special Federal Aviation... - Operating Limitations for Unscheduled Operations at Chicago's O'Hare International Airport

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... same information when making a Reservation. Table 1—Codes for Call Sign/Tail Number Input Codes for... through a touch-tone telephone interface, an Internet Web interface, or directly through the ARO. “Public..., security or other regulatory requirements to operate at O'Hare. Section 5. Reservation Procedures. a. The...

  19. Roles of Host Species, Geographic Separation, and Isolation in the Seroprevalence of Jamestown Canyon and Snowshoe Hare Viruses in Newfoundland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, Hugh

    2012-01-01

    California serogroup viruses, including Jamestown Canyon virus (JCV) and snowshoe hare virus (SSHV), are mosquito-borne members of the Bunyaviridae family and are endemic across North America. These arboviruses are potential pathogens which occasionally cause neuroinvasive disease in humans and livestock. A neutralization assay was used to document JCV and SSHV seroprevalence using blood collected from a variety of domestic and wildlife host species. These species were sampled in an island setting, Newfoundland, which contains diverse ecoregions, ecological landscapes, and habitats. Seroprevalence rates for each virus differed significantly among host species and within certain species across different geographic areas. JCV was significantly associated with large mammals, and SSHV was significantly associated with snowshoe hares. Seroprevalence rates in the 5 species of animals tested for prior exposure to JCV ranged from 0% in snowshoe hares to 64% in horses. Seroprevalence rates for SSHV ranged from less than 1% in bovines to 55% in all snowshoe hares. The seroprevalence of SSHV differed significantly (P Newfoundland was associated with significantly lower JCV seroprevalence (P < 0.01) than that for cattle which had lived off-island. PMID:22798366

  20. Diet adjustments of maned wolves, Chrysocyon brachyurus (Illiger (Mammalia, Canidae, subjected to supplemental feeding in a private natural reserve, Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquim A. Silva

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available From the analysis of 230 scats, the diet of the maned wolves, Chrysocyon brachyurus (Illiger, 1815, was determined in a private natural reserve in southeastern Brazil in which ecotourism activities are developed and the animals are deliberately fed bovine meat. A total of 569 occurrences of food items were recorded, of which 56.8% were of animal origin and 29.1% of vegetal origin. Rodents, insects and birds added up to 35.8% of the occurrences, yet accounted for 68.5% of the total number of preys (277. Insects, however, had practically no importance (0.1% in the total estimated biomass consumed. Even though the fruit Solanum lycocarpum St.-Hil. is a common food item in the diet of the maned wolf, its occurrence in the diet at the Serra do Caraça Reserve was insignificant, accounting for only 4.8% of the total number of food item occurrences and 3.4% of the total estimated biomass consumption. Food items of anthropic origin and inorganic items (e.g., plastic represented 14.1% of all occurrences, which shows that the animals are used to the presence of humans. Seasonal variations in consumption were found for S. lycocarpum (c² = 10,09; p < 0,001, for other fruits (c² = 19,73; p < 0,001, and for reptiles (c² = 15,56; p < 0,001, all of which were more frequently eaten during the dry months. There was a significant correlation between the availability of small mammals and their consumption by the maned wolves (r s = 0.59; p = 0.041, yet the same was not observed for the fruits of S. lycocarpum (r s = 0,101; p = 0,754. Our findings stress the need for a better understanding of the effects of additional foods on the natural feeding habits of the maned wolf.

  1. Psychopathy in Bulgaria: The cross-cultural generalizability of the Hare Psychopathy Checklist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Michael J.; Abramowitz, Carolyn; Vasilev, Georgi; Bozgunov, Kiril; Vassileva, Jasmin

    2014-01-01

    The generalizability of the psychopathy construct to Eastern European cultures has not been well-studied, and no prior studies have evaluated psychopathy in non-offender samples from this population. The current validation study examines the factor structure, internal consistency, and external validity of the Bulgarian translation of the Hare Psychopathy Checklist: Screening Version. Two hundred sixty-two Bulgarian adults from the general community were assessed, of which 185 had a history of substance dependence. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated good fit for the two-, three-, and four-factor models of psychopathy. Zero-order and partial correlation analyses were conducted between the two factors of psychopathy and criterion measures of antisocial behavior, internalizing and externalizing psychopathology, personality traits, addictive disorders and demographic characteristics. Relationships to external variables provided evidence for the convergent and discriminant validity of the psychopathy construct in a Bulgarian community sample. PMID:25313268

  2. Paleomagnetism of Eocene Talerua Member Lavas on Hareøen Island, West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, N.; Schmidt, Anne G.; Riisager, P.

    2005-01-01

    in the West Greenland flood volcanic province. Rock magnetic experiments and microprobe analysis show that the dominant magnetic mineral in all studied lavas is titanomagnetite that has experienced variable amounts of high temperature deuteric oxidation as well as low temperature hydro-thermal oxidation....... Based on detailed demagnetisation experiments, well-defined paleomagnetic site-mean directions were isolated from all 19 lavas. The composite profile contains two magnetic polarity zones suggesting a maximum duration of Talerua Member volcanism of ~1.4 Myr. After grouping flows indicating the same......The results of a palaeomagnetic sampling carried out along two vertical profiles (altogether 19 lavaflows, 126 samples) covering the entire stratigraphy of the Talerua Member lavas (~39 Myr old) that outcrop on the island Hareøen are presented and represent some of the youngest volcanism...

  3. Chromosomal similarity between the Scaly-headed parrot (Pionus maximiliani, the Short-tailed parrot (Graydidascalus brachyurus and the Yellow-faced parrot (Salvatoria xanthops (Psittaciformes: Aves: a cytotaxonomic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Caparroz

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Behavior, morphology, allozyme studies and DNA hybridization and sequencing data all suggest the independent evolution of the Old and New World parrots and support tribe status for the American species, although the phylogenetic relationships within this tribe are still poorly understood. A previous study has shown that the Yellow-faced parrot (Amazona xanthops Spix 1824 exhibits large karyotypic differences compared to the other Amazona species and suggested that this species should be renamed Salvatoria xanthops, although the relationships between S. xanthops and the other New World parrots remain unclear. In the present work, we describe the karyotype of the Scaly-headed parrot (Pionus maximiliani, Kuhl 1820 and the karyotype and C-banding pattern of the Short-tailed parrot (Graydidascalus brachyurus, Kuhl 1820 and compare them to the karyotype and C-banding pattern of S. xanthops, as well as to the karyotypes of other New World parrots. The chromosomal similarity between these three species and the karyotypic differences between them and other New World parrots suggest that G. brachyurus and S. xanthops are sister species and are most closely related to members of the genus Pionus.

  4. CONFIABILIDAD Y VALIDEZ DE LA VERSIÓN CHILENA DE LA HARE PCL-R Chilean version of Hare PCL-R: a study of reliability and validity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth León-Mayer

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Antecedentes. En Chile, al igual que en otros países latinoamericanos, diversas modificaciones judiciales y el interés de los profesionales en sistematizar sus métodos de evaluación en psicopatía promovieron la traducción, adaptación y revisión de las propiedades psicométricas de la Hare Psychopathy Checklist Revised (PCL-R. Objetivo. Evaluar aspectos de la confiabilidad y validez de la versión chilena del PCL-R en población forense masculina chilena. Material y métodos. Se realizó traducción y retrotraducción de la escala con la autorización del autor y editorial; se constituyó una muestra de 293 sujetos varones penados que aceptaron participar en la investigación. Entre otros análisis, se contrastó el diagnóstico obtenido a ciegas con la PCL-R con el aportado por el equipo técnico de Gendarmería de Chile. Resultados. La congruencia interna medida con Alfa de Cronbach fue la siguiente: total =0,91; F1= 0,86; F2 = 0,87; F3 = 0,67; F4= 0,77. Valor Kappa ambos tipos de evaluaciones = 0,804; p Background. In Chile as in other Latin American countries the introduction of the Adversarial Model in the Judicial System increased the need for the systematization of the evaluation of psychopathy, thus making necessary the translation, adaptation and revision of the psychometric properties of the Hare Psychopathy Checklist Revised. Objective. To evaluate aspects of the reliability and validity of the Chilean version of the PCL-R in Chilean male inmate population. Materials and methods. The PCL-R was translated and backtranslated with the authorization of the author and of the Editorial House. A sample of 293 inmates was constituted and the respective informed consent obtained. Several analyses were made including a blind comparison of the diagnosis made with the PCL-R and the one made by the Technical Area of Gendarmería of Chile. Results. The internal congruence measured with Crombach Alfa was: total =0,91; F1= 0,86; F2 = 0,87; F3

  5. Book review: Ham radio's technical culture. By K. Haring. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press. 2007. xvii + 220 pp. #18.95. cloth. ISBN: 0262083558

    OpenAIRE

    Geoghegan, Hilary

    2008-01-01

    Book review: Ham radio's technical culture. By K. Haring. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press. 2007. xvii + 220 pp. #18.95. cloth. ISBN: 0262083558 Department of Geography Royal Holloway, University of London - (Geoghegan, Hilary)

  6. Expansión Hare Krishna en contextos de crisis: resignificando la movilización social desde una perspectiva religiosa en Chile

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bahamondes González, Luis Andrés; Marín Alarcón, Nelson

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on the expansion of the Hare Krishna movement in Santiago, Chile, analysing mobilization discourse and mechanisms adopted in the face of the social upheavals of the new millennium...

  7. Book review: Ham radio's technical culture. By K. Haring. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press. 2007. xvii + 220 pp. £18.95. cloth. ISBN: 0262083558

    OpenAIRE

    Geoghegan, Hilary

    2008-01-01

    284 Book reviewHam radio's technical culture. By K. Haring. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press. 2007. xvii + 220 pp. £18.95. cloth. ISBN: 0262083558 SAGE Publications, Inc.2008DOI: 10.1177/14744740080150020805 HilaryGeoghegan Department of Geography Royal Holloway, University of London `G4PDH, G4PDH, this is 2M1QQQ calling you. How do you copy?' Music to the amateur radio enthusiast's ears. Radio hams are the subject of Kristen Haring's enjoyab...

  8. Hinduísmos ocidentalizados e suas percepções acerca do sexo: Movimento Hare Krishna e Movimento Rajneesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Airton Luiz Jungblut

    Full Text Available Resumo Tematizando o Movimento Hare Krishna e o Movimento Rajneesh, o texto analisa, comparativamente, o tratamento dado por essas duas modalidades religiosas indianas ao tema “sexo” em seu processo de difusão pelo Ocidente. Busca-se avaliar de que forma cada um desses movimentos apresentam alternativas discursivas ao campo religioso ocidental que, como se sabe, opera com uma forte antinomia entre sexo e religião.

  9. Sequestration of Dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) and Acrylate from the Green Alga Ulva Spp. by the Sea Hare Aplysia juliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamio, Michiya; Koyama, Mao; Hayashihara, Nobuko; Hiei, Kaori; Uchida, Hajime; Watanabe, Ryuichi; Suzuki, Toshiyuki; Nagai, Hiroshi

    2016-05-01

    Many animals sequester secondary metabolites from their food. In this study, we hypothesized that the sea hare Aplysia juliana sequesters secondary metabolites from green algae. To test this, we performed NMR-based metabolomic analysis on methanol extracts of Ulva spp. and A. juliana. Another sea hare, Bursatella leachii, which mainly feeds on another type of alga, was added to this analysis as an outgroup. Two body parts of the sea hares, skin and digestive glands, were used in the analysis. Principal component analysis (PCA) on the NMR data of these samples detected biomarkers common to Ulva spp. and A. juliana. This result indicates sequestration of secondary metabolites by the herbivore from the plants. The biomarker metabolites were identified as dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) and acrylate, which were concentrated in skin of A. juliana and were released from the skin of live animals when physically stressed. Thus, our NMR-based metabolomic study revealed sequestration of algae-derived secondary metabolites in skin of A. Juliana, and in the discharge of the metabolites under conditions that mimic attack by predators.

  10. Avaliação de espécies vegetais e cultivares de soja para a composição de esquemas de rotação ou sucessão de culturas para o manejo de Pratylenchus brachyurus

    OpenAIRE

    Neucimara Rodrigues Ribeiro

    2009-01-01

    Nas últimas safras, o nematóides das lesões radiculares(Pratylenchus brachyurus) tem causado enorme prejuízo a cultura da soja no Brasil. Assim, a presente tese foi desenvolvida com o objetivo de avaliar a reação de espécies vegetais e de genótipos de soja a P. brachyurus, para a composição de esquemas de rotação ou sucessão que viabilizem a produção econômica de soja em áreas infestadas. Os experimentos foram conduzidos na Embrapa Soja, em Londrina-PR, no ano de 2006. Na avaliação da resist...

  11. Sea Hare Aplysia punctata (Mollusca: Gastropoda) Can Maintain Shell Calcification under Extreme Ocean Acidification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Nicholas; Dupont, Sam; Sigwart, Julia D

    2016-10-01

    Ocean acidification is expected to cause energetic constraints upon marine calcifying organisms such as molluscs and echinoderms, because of the increased costs of building or maintaining shell material in lower pH. We examined metabolic rate, shell morphometry, and calcification in the sea hare Aplysia punctata under short-term exposure (19 days) to an extreme ocean acidification scenario (pH 7.3, ∼2800 μatm pCO 2 ), along with a group held in control conditions (pH 8.1, ∼344 μatm pCO 2 ). This gastropod and its congeners are broadly distributed and locally abundant grazers, and have an internal shell that protects the internal organs. Specimens were examined for metabolic rate via closed-chamber respirometry, followed by removal and examination of the shell under confocal microscopy. Staining using calcein determined the amount of new calcification that occurred over 6 days at the end of the acclimation period. The width of new, pre-calcified shell on the distal shell margin was also quantified as a proxy for overall shell growth. Aplysia punctata showed a 30% reduction in metabolic rate under low pH, but calcification was not affected. This species is apparently able to maintain calcification rate even under extreme low pH, and even when under the energetic constraints of lower metabolism. This finding adds to the evidence that calcification is a largely autonomous process of crystallization that occurs as long as suitable haeomocoel conditions are preserved. There was, however, evidence that the accretion of new, noncalcified shell material may have been reduced, which would lead to overall reduced shell growth under longer-term exposures to low pH independent of calcification. Our findings highlight that the chief impact of ocean acidification upon the ability of marine invertebrates to maintain their shell under low pH may be energetic constraints that hinder growth of supporting structure, rather than maintenance of calcification.

  12. The effect of severe drought on the abundance of ticks on vegetation and on scrub hares in the Kruger National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Spickett

    1995-09-01

    Full Text Available Free-living ixodid ticks were collected monthly from August 1988 to July 1993 from the vegetation of landscape zones 17 (Sclerocarya caffra/Acacia nigrescens Savanna and 4 (Thickets of the Sabie and Crocodile Rivers in the south-east and south-west of the Kruger National Park respectively, and parasitic ticks from scrub hares in the latter landscape zone. Total tick collections from the vegetation of both landscape zones were lowest in the year following the drought year of August 1991 to July 1992, while the tick burdens of the scrub hares were lowest during the drought year itself.

  13. Psychometric properties of the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) in a representative sample of Canadian federal offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storey, Jennifer E; Hart, Stephen D; Cooke, David J; Michie, Christine

    2016-04-01

    The Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R; Hare, 2003) is a commonly used psychological test for assessing traits of psychopathic personality disorder. Despite the abundance of research using the PCL-R, the vast majority of research used samples of convenience rather than systematic methods to minimize sampling bias and maximize the generalizability of findings. This potentially complicates the interpretation of test scores and research findings, including the "norms" for offenders from the United States and Canada included in the PCL-R manual. In the current study, we evaluated the psychometric properties of PCL-R scores for all male offenders admitted to a regional reception center of the Correctional Service of Canada during a 1-year period (n = 375). Because offenders were admitted for assessment prior to institutional classification, they comprise a sample that was heterogeneous with respect to correctional risks and needs yet representative of all offenders in that region of the service. We examined the distribution of PCL-R scores, classical test theory indices of its structural reliability, the factor structure of test items, and the external correlates of test scores. The findings were highly consistent with those typically reported in previous studies. We interpret these results as indicating it is unlikely any sampling limitations of past research using the PCL-R resulted in findings that were, overall, strongly biased or unrepresentative. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Toxic, antimicrobial and hemagglutinating activities of the purple fluid of the sea hare Aplysia dactylomela Rang, 1828

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melo V.M.M.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial, hemagglutinating and toxic activities of the purple fluid of the sea hare Aplysia dactylomela are described. Intact or dialyzed purple fluid inhibited the growth of species of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and the action was not bactericidal but bacteriostatic. The active factor or factors were heat labile and sensitive to extreme pH values. The fluid preferentially agglutinated rabbit erythrocytes and, to a lesser extent, human blood cells, and this activity was inhibited by the glycoprotein fetuin, a fact suggesting the presence of a lectin. The fluid was also toxic to brine shrimp nauplii (LD50 141.25 µg protein/ml and to mice injected intraperitoneally (LD50 201.8 ± 8.6 mg protein/kg, in a dose-dependent fashion. These toxic activities were abolished when the fluid was heated. Taken together, the data suggest that the activities of the purple fluid are due primarily to substance(s of a protein nature which may be involved in the chemical defense mechanism of this sea hare.

  15. Food habits of two syntopic canids, the maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus and the crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous, in southeastern Brazil Hábitos alimentarios de dos cánidos sintópicos, el aguara guazú (Chrysocyon brachyurus y el zorro del monte (Cerdocyon thous, en el sudeste de Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADRIANA DE ARRUDA BUENO

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus and the crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous are two South American canids with large overlap in their geographic distribution. However, there are few data on the comparative ecology of these species. The aim of this research was to quantify the diet of these two canids living in syntopy at three levels: frequency of occurrence, minimum number of individuals preyed and estimated biomass ingested. Additionally, seasonality in the consumption of major groups of food items and aspects of prey size distribution were assessed. The study took place in the Experimental Station of Itapetininga, São Paulo State, Brazil. General results showed that both canids are omnivorous in accordance with other studies. By occurrences, the wolves consumed vegetal and animal food in similar proportions, whereas the foxes consumed more animals, mainly insects. In contrast, both canids ingested mainly animal food if biomass is considered. The maned wolf consumed more wolf's fruit (Solanum lycocarpum and small mammals in the dry season, and miscellaneous fruits during the wet season. The crab-eating fox also ingested more miscellaneous fruits in the wet season, but the insects were mostly consumed during dry months. The crab-eating fox is more generalist than the maned wolf, but the wolf seems better able to handle distinct prey types. The distribution of prey sizes suggested separate food niches: while the maned wolf consumed a larger spectrum of prey sizes, especially small vertebrates between 10.1 and 100.0 g, the crab-eating fox consumed smaller prey, mainly insects between 0.01 and 0.1 gEl aguara guazú (Chrysocyon brachyurus y el zorro del monte (Cerdocyon thous son dos cánidos sudamericanos cuyas distribuciones geográficas se sobreponen extensamente. Sin embargo, hay pocos datos sobre la ecología comparativa de estas especies. El objetivo de esta investigación fue cuantificar la dieta de estos dos cánidos en sintopia en

  16. Consorciação e manejo de Brachiaria decumbens em mudas de cafeeiros infestados com Pratylenchus brachyurus em condições de casa de vegetação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Kazuhiro Kubo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da consorciação e manejo de Brachiaria decumbens cv. 'Basilisk' em cafeeiro (Coffea arabica cv. 'Catuaí Vermelho' infestado por Pratylenchus brachyurus (Pb, o presente experimento foi desenvolvido em condições de casa de vegetação. Os tratamentos utilizados, com cinco repetições, foram: 1. Café não inoculado no limpo; 2. Café não inoculado consorciado com B. decumbens; 3. Café inoculado com 5000 juvenis e adultos de Pb por vaso (10L, no limpo; 4. Café inoculado com Pb consorciado com B. decumbens podadas semanalmente; 5. Café inoculado com Pb consorciado com B. decumbens com aplicação do herbicida glifosato. Aos 3, 4, 7, 10 e 11 meses após transplante dos cafeeiros, houve um aumento significativo na altura das plantas de cafeeiro sem nematoide mantidas no limpo, comparadas com os tratamentos com cafeeiros em solo infestado com Pb consorciado com B. decumbens podadas e café em solo infestado com Pb consorciado com B. decumbens com aplicação de glifosato. Na avaliação final, realizada 278 dias após à inoculação das plantas, o peso da matéria seca da parte aérea nos tratamentos com Pb consorciado com braquiária e com aplicação de glifosato apresentaram menores valores, quando comparado com a testemunha sem nematoide e sem plantas consorciadas. Com relação ao peso da matéria fresca das raízes, todos os tratamentos foram significativamente mais baixos do que a testemunha sem nematoide e sem consorciação. A população final de P. brachyurus nas raízes foi maior quando o café foi consorciado com braquiária

  17. Landscape structure and management alter the outcome of a pesticide ERA: evaluating impacts of endocrine disruption using the ALMaSS European Brown Hare model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Topping, Christopher John; Dalby, Lars; Skov, Flemming

    2016-01-01

    , and indeed how to generate such landscapes. This paper evaluates the contribution of landscape and farming components to a model based risk assessment of a fictitious endocrine disruptor on hares. In addition, we present methods and code examples for generation of landscape structures and farming simulation...

  18. Presence of anti-Toxoplasma gondii, -Neospora caninum, -Leishmania spp. and -Ehrlichia canis antibodies in free-ranging maned wolves (Chrysocyon brachyurus in the northeastern region of the state of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solange Oliveira

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available O lobo-guará (Chrysocyon brachyurus habita o ecossistema de Cerrado e é considerado o maior canídeo da América do Sul e uma espécie ameaçada de extinção pela "International Union for Conservation of Nature" (IUNC. O objetivo desse estudo foi investigar a presença de anticorpos anti-Toxoplasma gondii, -Neospora caninum, -Leishmania spp. e -Ehrlichia canis em lobos-guará da região nordeste do estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Das 17 amostras de soro testadas por meio da reação de imunofluorescência indireta (RIFI, 88,2% (15/17, 17,6% (3/17 e 52,9% (9/17 apresentaram anticorpos anti-T. gondii, -Leishmania spp. e -E. canis, respectivamente. Todos os animais testados foram soronegativos para N. caninum. Esses resultados indicam a exposição dos lobos-guará dessa região aos agentes pesquisados. A presença de um complexo industrial, agricultura extensiva e fragmentação de habitat na região nordeste do estado de São Paulo, favorece a proximidade desses animais silvestres a ambientes urbanos o que pode contribuir para a transmissão de doenças entre os animais silvestres, domésticos e o homem.

  19. SpaceInn hare-and-hounds exercise: Estimation of stellar properties using space-based asteroseismic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, D. R.; Chaplin, W. J.; Davies, G. R.; Miglio, A.; Antia, H. M.; Ball, W. H.; Basu, S.; Buldgen, G.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J.; Coelho, H. R.; Hekker, S.; Houdek, G.; Lebreton, Y.; Mazumdar, A.; Metcalfe, T. S.; Silva Aguirre, V.; Stello, D.; Verma, K.

    2016-07-01

    Context. Detailed oscillation spectra comprising individual frequencies for numerous solar-type stars and red giants are either currently available, e.g. courtesy of the CoRoT, Kepler, and K2 missions, or will become available with the upcoming NASA TESS and ESA PLATO 2.0 missions. The data can lead to a precise characterisation of these stars thereby improving our understanding of stellar evolution, exoplanetary systems, and the history of our galaxy. Aims: Our goal is to test and compare different methods for obtaining stellar properties from oscillation frequencies and spectroscopic constraints. Specifically, we would like to evaluate the accuracy of the results and reliability of the associated error bars, and to see where there is room for improvement. Methods: In the context of the SpaceInn network, we carried out a hare-and-hounds exercise in which one group, the hares, simulated observations of oscillation spectra for a set of ten artificial solar-type stars, and a number of hounds applied various methods for characterising these stars based on the data produced by the hares. Most of the hounds fell into two main groups. The first group used forward modelling (i.e. applied various search/optimisation algorithms in a stellar parameter space) whereas the second group relied on acoustic glitch signatures. Results: Results based on the forward modelling approach were accurate to 1.5% (radius), 3.9% (mass), 23% (age), 1.5% (surface gravity), and 1.8% (mean density), as based on the root mean square difference. Individual hounds reached different degrees of accuracy, some of which were substantially better than the above average values. For the two 1M⊙ stellar targets, the accuracy on the age is better than 10% thereby satisfying the requirements for the PLATO 2.0 mission. High stellar masses and atomic diffusion (which in our models does not include the effects of radiative accelerations) proved to be sources of difficulty. The average accuracies for the

  20. Expansión Hare Krishna en contextos de crisis: resignificando la movilización social desde una perspectiva religiosa en Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahamondes González, Luis Andrés

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the expansion of the Hare Krishna movement in Santiago, Chile, analysing mobilization discourse and mechanisms adopted in the face of the social upheavals of the new millennium. It seeks to understand not only recent internal transformation of the Hare Krishna movement, but also to identify social action strategies and independent policies concerning social issues in the public arena. We will analyse the active position the religious group has embraced in a context of growing social demands and how its actions are guided by the philosophical and spiritual conception of its doctrine.La presente investigación se focalizará en la expansión del movimiento Hare Krishna en Santiago de Chile, analizando los discursos y mecanismos de movilización que desarrollan sus integrantes frente al escenario de agitación social vivido con la llegada del nuevo milenio. Con ello no solo se buscará vislumbrar las transformaciones internas acaecidas en el movimiento durante el último tiempo, sino además pretendemos identificar estrategias de acción social y políticas independientes frente a inquietudes o problemas sociales instalados en la agenda pública. De esta forma, analizaremos la manera como este grupo religioso se posiciona activamente en un escenario de demandas sociales y guía su accionar desde la particularidad filosófica y espiritual de su doctrina.

  1. A Galactose-Binding Lectin Isolated from Aplysia kurodai (Sea Hare Eggs Inhibits Streptolysin-Induced Hemolysis

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    Imtiaj Hasan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A specific galactose-binding lectin was shown to inhibit the hemolytic effect of streptolysin O (SLO, an exotoxin produced by Streptococcus pyogenes. Commercially available lectins that recognize N-acetyllactosamine (ECA, T-antigen (PNA, and Tn-antigen (ABA agglutinated rabbit erythrocytes, but had no effect on SLO-induced hemolysis. In contrast, SLO-induced hemolysis was inhibited by AKL, a lectin purified from sea hare (Aplysia kurodai eggs that recognizes α-galactoside oligosaccharides. This inhibitory effect was blocked by the co-presence of d-galactose, which binds to AKL. A possible explanation for these findings is that cholesterol-enriched microdomains containing glycosphingolipids in the erythrocyte membrane become occupied by tightly stacked lectin molecules, blocking the interaction between cholesterol and SLO that would otherwise result in penetration of the membrane. Growth of S. pyogenes was inhibited by lectins from a marine invertebrate (AKL and a mushroom (ABA, but was promoted by a plant lectin (ECA. Both these inhibitory and promoting effects were blocked by co-presence of galactose in the culture medium. Our findings demonstrate the importance of glycans and lectins in regulating mechanisms of toxicity, creation of pores in the target cell membrane, and bacterial growth.

  2. Cholinesterase inhibitors from Sargassum and Gracilaria gracilis: seaweeds inhabiting South Indian coastal areas (Hare Island, Gulf of Mannar).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natarajan, Suganthy; Shanmugiahthevar, Karutha Pandian; Kasi, Pandima Devi

    2009-01-01

    Dementia is a chronic progressive mental disorder, which adversely affects memory, thinking, comprehension, calculation and language. Some of the commonest forms of dementia are Alzheimer's disease, Parkinsonism, Dementia with Lewy Bodies and Myasthenia gravis. All these disorders are related to abnormalities in the central cholinergic system, which shows a decline in acetylcholine level. Cholinesterase (ChE) inhibitors are one of the novel strategies used for the symptomatic treatment of neurological disorders like dementia. In the course of screening new ChE inhibitors from marine sources, about 11 seaweeds, which have wide pharmaceutical applications, were collected from Hare Island, Gulf of Mannar, Tamilnadu, India. Methanolic extracts of the seaweeds were assessed for ChE inhibitory activity under in vitro conditions. Kinetic parameters IC(50), K(i) and V(max) were also analysed. The results showed that 3/11 seaweeds showed 50% inhibition for both ChEs (using acetylthiocholine iodide and butyrylthiocholine iodide as substrate) at concentrations of 2 mg mL(-1) (Gracilaria gracilis, Sargassum, Cladophora fasicularis for ChE with acetylthiocholine iodide as substrate and Gracilaria gracilis, Gracilaria edulis, Sargassum for ChE with butyrylthiocholine iodide as substrate) and 4/11 showed no inhibitory activity. Inhibitory activity of seaweed extracts was compared with standard drug donepezil. Enzyme kinetic analysis showed that algal extracts exhibited mixed type inhibition (partially non-competitive inhibition).

  3. The embryonic life history of the tropical sea hare Stylocheilus striatus (Gastropoda: Opisthobranchia) under ambient and elevated ocean temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwitz, Rael; Jackson, Matthew D; Mills, Suzanne C

    2017-01-01

    Ocean warming represents a major threat to marine biota worldwide, and forecasting ecological ramifications is a high priority as atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions continue to rise. Fitness of marine species relies critically on early developmental and reproductive stages, but their sensitivity to environmental stressors may be a bottleneck in future warming oceans. The present study focuses on the tropical sea hare, Stylocheilus striatus (Gastropoda: Opisthobranchia), a common species found throughout the Indo-West Pacific and Atlantic Oceans. Its ecological importance is well-established, particularly as a specialist grazer of the toxic cyanobacterium, Lyngbya majuscula. Although many aspects of its biology and ecology are well-known, description of its early developmental stages is lacking. First, a detailed account of this species' life history is described, including reproductive behavior, egg mass characteristics and embryonic development phases. Key developmental features are then compared between embryos developed in present-day (ambient) and predicted end-of-century elevated ocean temperatures (+3 °C). Results showed developmental stages of embryos reared at ambient temperature were typical of other opisthobranch species, with hatching of planktotrophic veligers occurring 4.5 days post-oviposition. However, development times significantly decreased under elevated temperature, with key embryonic features such as the velum, statocysts, operculum, eyespots and protoconch developing approximately 24 h earlier when compared to ambient temperature. Although veligers hatched one day earlier under elevated temperature, their shell size decreased by approximately 20%. Our findings highlight how an elevated thermal environment accelerates planktotrophic development of this important benthic invertebrate, possibly at the cost of reducing fitness and increasing mortality.

  4. The embryonic life history of the tropical sea hare Stylocheilus striatus (Gastropoda: Opisthobranchia under ambient and elevated ocean temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rael Horwitz

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Ocean warming represents a major threat to marine biota worldwide, and forecasting ecological ramifications is a high priority as atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions continue to rise. Fitness of marine species relies critically on early developmental and reproductive stages, but their sensitivity to environmental stressors may be a bottleneck in future warming oceans. The present study focuses on the tropical sea hare, Stylocheilus striatus (Gastropoda: Opisthobranchia, a common species found throughout the Indo-West Pacific and Atlantic Oceans. Its ecological importance is well-established, particularly as a specialist grazer of the toxic cyanobacterium, Lyngbya majuscula. Although many aspects of its biology and ecology are well-known, description of its early developmental stages is lacking. First, a detailed account of this species’ life history is described, including reproductive behavior, egg mass characteristics and embryonic development phases. Key developmental features are then compared between embryos developed in present-day (ambient and predicted end-of-century elevated ocean temperatures (+3 °C. Results showed developmental stages of embryos reared at ambient temperature were typical of other opisthobranch species, with hatching of planktotrophic veligers occurring 4.5 days post-oviposition. However, development times significantly decreased under elevated temperature, with key embryonic features such as the velum, statocysts, operculum, eyespots and protoconch developing approximately 24 h earlier when compared to ambient temperature. Although veligers hatched one day earlier under elevated temperature, their shell size decreased by approximately 20%. Our findings highlight how an elevated thermal environment accelerates planktotrophic development of this important benthic invertebrate, possibly at the cost of reducing fitness and increasing mortality.

  5. Defense through sensory inactivation: sea hare ink reduces sensory and motor responses of spiny lobsters to food odors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love-Chezem, Tiffany; Aggio, Juan F; Derby, Charles D

    2013-04-15

    Antipredator defenses are ubiquitous and diverse. Ink secretion of sea hares (Aplysia) is an antipredator defense acting through the chemical senses of predators by different mechanisms. The most common mechanism is ink acting as an unpalatable repellent. Less common is ink secretion acting as a decoy (phagomimic) that misdirects predators' attacks. In this study, we tested another possible mechanism--sensory inactivation--in which ink inactivates the predator's reception of food odors associated with would-be prey. We tested this hypothesis using spiny lobsters, Panulirus argus, as model predators. Ink secretion is composed of two glandular products, one being opaline, a viscous substance containing concentrations of hundreds of millimolar of total free amino acids. Opaline sticks to antennules, mouthparts and other chemosensory appendages of lobsters, physically blocking access of food odors to the predator's chemosensors, or over-stimulating (short term) and adapting (long term) the chemosensors. We tested the sensory inactivation hypotheses by treating the antennules with opaline and mimics of its physical and/or chemical properties. We compared the effects of these treatments on responses to a food odor for chemoreceptor neurons in isolated antennules, as a measure of effect on chemosensory input, and for antennular motor responses of intact lobsters, as a measure of effect on chemically driven motor behavior. Our results indicate that opaline reduces the output of chemosensors by physically blocking reception of and response to food odors, and this has an impact on motor responses of lobsters. This is the first experimental demonstration of inactivation of peripheral sensors as an antipredatory defense.

  6. Cossos místics, cossos polítics: el control material de l'experiència religiosa al moviment Hare Krisna

    OpenAIRE

    Vallverdú, Jaume

    2010-01-01

    Sobre la base del treball etnogràfic entre els Hare Krisna, analitzo el cos com a símbol religiós i des d’una perspectiva essencialment materialista. Això implica estudiar com els processos i significats de l’experiència religiosa són mediatitzats i modulats per les representacions i les regles sobre el cos imperants en aquest moviment. Partint de la negació del cos propi associat al “món material” i de la identificació de la identitat personal amb l’esperit, reflexiono sobre com l’estruct...

  7. Crisis alimentarias y religión en la modernidad tardía. Cambios, reinterpretaciones y mercantilización de los principios alimentarios en el culto Hare Krishna-Food crises and religion in late modernity. Changes, reinterpretations and commercialisation of dietary principles in the Hare Krishna cult

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Néstor Nuño Martínez

    2017-01-01

    ... de la "sociedad del riesgo" y de los cambios en los modelos de producción y distribución de alimentos, han aumentado progresivamente las inseguridades y preocupaciones alimentarias. Este artículo describe y analiza a distintos niveles las consecuencias de estos cambios en el culto Hare Krishna. © 2016 Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Instituto de Investigaciones Antropológicas. Este es un artículo Open Access bajo la licencia CC BY-NC-ND (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/). Palabras cl...

  8. A P-Scan de Robert Hare na avaliação da psicopatia : estudo exploratório numa amostra de reclusos portugueses

    OpenAIRE

    Lobo, Carla Alexandra Costa Correia Ferreira

    2007-01-01

    Dissertação de Mestrado em Psicologia - Área de Especialização em Psicologia da Justiça. A ideia para este trabalho surgiu da admiração pelo trabalho de Robert Hare, que nos conduziu a uma definição de psicopatia como um agrupamento de traços de personalidade e comportamentos socialmente desviantes. Só que tanto a PCL-R como a PCL-SV são escalas demoradas a passar e envolvem a presença do psicopata, que normalmente é um recluso, dado ser nas prisões que é mais fácil encontrar u...

  9. Distribution of wild mammal assemblages along an urban-rural-forest landscape gradient in warm-temperate East Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Masayuki; Koike, Fumito

    2013-01-01

    Urbanization may alter mammal assemblages via habitat loss, food subsidies, and other factors related to human activities. The general distribution patterns of wild mammal assemblages along urban-rural-forest landscape gradients have not been studied, although many studies have focused on a single species or taxon, such as rodents. We quantitatively evaluated the effects of the urban-rural-forest gradient and spatial scale on the distributions of large and mid-sized mammals in the world's largest metropolitan area in warm-temperate Asia using nonspecific camera-trapping along two linear transects spanning from the urban zone in the Tokyo metropolitan area to surrounding rural and forest landscapes. Many large and mid-sized species generally decreased from forest landscapes to urban cores, although some species preferred anthropogenic landscapes. Sika deer (Cervus nippon), Reeves' muntjac (Muntiacus reevesi), Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata), Japanese squirrel (Sciurus lis), Japanese marten (Martes melampus), Japanese badger (Meles anakuma), and wild boar (Sus scrofa) generally dominated the mammal assemblage of the forest landscape. Raccoon (Procyon lotor), raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides), and Japanese hare (Lepus brachyurus) dominated the mammal assemblage in the intermediate zone (i.e., rural and suburban landscape). Cats (feral and free-roaming housecats; Felis catus) were common in the urban assemblage. The key spatial scales for forest species were more than 4000-m radius, indicating that conservation and management plans for these mammal assemblages should be considered on large spatial scales. However, small green spaces will also be important for mammal conservation in the urban landscape, because an indigenous omnivore (raccoon dog) had a smaller key spatial scale (500-m radius) than those of forest mammals. Urbanization was generally the most important factor in the distributions of mammals, and it is necessary to consider the spatial scale of

  10. Distribution of Wild Mammal Assemblages along an Urban–Rural–Forest Landscape Gradient in Warm-Temperate East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Masayuki; Koike, Fumito

    2013-01-01

    Urbanization may alter mammal assemblages via habitat loss, food subsidies, and other factors related to human activities. The general distribution patterns of wild mammal assemblages along urban–rural–forest landscape gradients have not been studied, although many studies have focused on a single species or taxon, such as rodents. We quantitatively evaluated the effects of the urban–rural–forest gradient and spatial scale on the distributions of large and mid-sized mammals in the world's largest metropolitan area in warm-temperate Asia using nonspecific camera-trapping along two linear transects spanning from the urban zone in the Tokyo metropolitan area to surrounding rural and forest landscapes. Many large and mid-sized species generally decreased from forest landscapes to urban cores, although some species preferred anthropogenic landscapes. Sika deer (Cervus nippon), Reeves' muntjac (Muntiacus reevesi), Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata), Japanese squirrel (Sciurus lis), Japanese marten (Martes melampus), Japanese badger (Meles anakuma), and wild boar (Sus scrofa) generally dominated the mammal assemblage of the forest landscape. Raccoon (Procyon lotor), raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides), and Japanese hare (Lepus brachyurus) dominated the mammal assemblage in the intermediate zone (i.e., rural and suburban landscape). Cats (feral and free-roaming housecats; Felis catus) were common in the urban assemblage. The key spatial scales for forest species were more than 4000-m radius, indicating that conservation and management plans for these mammal assemblages should be considered on large spatial scales. However, small green spaces will also be important for mammal conservation in the urban landscape, because an indigenous omnivore (raccoon dog) had a smaller key spatial scale (500-m radius) than those of forest mammals. Urbanization was generally the most important factor in the distributions of mammals, and it is necessary to consider the spatial

  11. Distribution of wild mammal assemblages along an urban-rural-forest landscape gradient in warm-temperate East Asia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masayuki Saito

    Full Text Available Urbanization may alter mammal assemblages via habitat loss, food subsidies, and other factors related to human activities. The general distribution patterns of wild mammal assemblages along urban-rural-forest landscape gradients have not been studied, although many studies have focused on a single species or taxon, such as rodents. We quantitatively evaluated the effects of the urban-rural-forest gradient and spatial scale on the distributions of large and mid-sized mammals in the world's largest metropolitan area in warm-temperate Asia using nonspecific camera-trapping along two linear transects spanning from the urban zone in the Tokyo metropolitan area to surrounding rural and forest landscapes. Many large and mid-sized species generally decreased from forest landscapes to urban cores, although some species preferred anthropogenic landscapes. Sika deer (Cervus nippon, Reeves' muntjac (Muntiacus reevesi, Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata, Japanese squirrel (Sciurus lis, Japanese marten (Martes melampus, Japanese badger (Meles anakuma, and wild boar (Sus scrofa generally dominated the mammal assemblage of the forest landscape. Raccoon (Procyon lotor, raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides, and Japanese hare (Lepus brachyurus dominated the mammal assemblage in the intermediate zone (i.e., rural and suburban landscape. Cats (feral and free-roaming housecats; Felis catus were common in the urban assemblage. The key spatial scales for forest species were more than 4000-m radius, indicating that conservation and management plans for these mammal assemblages should be considered on large spatial scales. However, small green spaces will also be important for mammal conservation in the urban landscape, because an indigenous omnivore (raccoon dog had a smaller key spatial scale (500-m radius than those of forest mammals. Urbanization was generally the most important factor in the distributions of mammals, and it is necessary to consider the spatial scale

  12. A multi-event model to study stage-dependent dispersal in radio-collared hares: when hunting promotes costly transience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avril, Alexis; Letty, Jérôme; Pradel, Roger; Léonard, Yves; Santin-Janin, Hugues; Pontier, Dominique

    2012-06-01

    Behavioral ecologists have often assumed that dispersal is costly mainly because of unfamiliarity with traversed habitats during dispersal and energy costs of the movement per se; thus, dispersers that have successfully settled should experience survival rates comparable to those of philopatric individuals. In this paper, we tested that hypothesis using 152 radio-collared European hares in a harvested population. We developed a multi-event capture recapture model, combining telemetry data and recoveries and separately modeling the foray probability, the settlement probability, and the permanent dispersal probability. The parameterization introduced here raises the possibility of separately testing effects on survival and dispersal probabilities at each stage of dispersal (departure, transience, and settlement). In accordance with our expectations, we reveal that dispersers incur higher mortality risks during transience and the early settlement period than philopatric individuals or settled dispersers. We also found that dispersers suffer from higher risks of being shot. Those results illustrate that unfamiliarity with the habitat during transience makes dispersal costly and that settled dispersers may enjoy survival rates comparable to those of philopatric individuals. Surprisingly, we also found that individuals have a higher probability of foraying during the hunting season. We suggest that hunting and related disturbances increase dispersal costs both by increasing mortality risk during transience and (perhaps) by increasing movement rates. We emphasize the need to take human pressures into account as factors that may drive the demographics of movements in populations.

  13. Evaluation of the cholinomimetic actions of trimethylsulfonium, a compound present in the midgut gland of the sea hare Aplysia brasiliana (Gastropoda, Opisthobranchia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.M. Kerchove

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Trimethylsulfonium, a compound present in the midgut gland of the sea hare Aplysia brasiliana, negatively modulates vagal response, indicating a probable ability to inhibit cholinergic responses. In the present study, the pharmacological profile of trimethylsulfonium was characterized on muscarinic and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. In rat jejunum the contractile response induced by trimethylsulfonium (pD2 = 2.46 ± 0.12 and maximal response = 2.14 ± 0.32 g was not antagonized competitively by atropine. The maximal response (Emax to trimethylsulfonium was diminished in the presence of increasing doses of atropine (P<0.05, suggesting that trimethylsulfonium-induced contraction was not related to muscarinic stimulation, but might be caused by acetylcholine release due to presynaptic stimulation. Trimethylsulfonium displaced [³H]-quinuclidinyl benzilate from rat cortex membranes with a low affinity (Ki = 0.5 mM. Furthermore, it caused contraction of frog rectus abdominis muscles (pD2 = 2.70 ± 0.06 and Emax = 4.16 ± 0.9 g, which was competitively antagonized by d-tubocurarine (1, 3 or 10 µM with a pA2 of 5.79, suggesting a positive interaction with nicotinic receptors. In fact, trimethylsulfonium displaced [³H]-nicotine from rat diaphragm muscle membranes with a Ki of 27.1 µM. These results suggest that trimethylsulfonium acts as an agonist on nicotinic receptors, and thus contracts frog skeletal rectus abdominis muscle and rat jejunum smooth muscle via stimulation of postjunctional and neuronal prejunctional nicotinic cholinoreceptors, respectively.

  14. A gray wolf (Canis lupus) delivers live prey to a pup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L. David

    2014-01-01

    A two-year-old sibling Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) carefully captured an Arctic Hare (Lepus arcticus) leveret alive on Ellesmere Island, Nunavut, Canada, and delivered it alive to a pup 28–33 days old. This appears to be the first observation of a Gray Wolf delivering live prey to a pup.

  15. The use of radio telemetry in Martes research: techniques and technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig M. Thompson; Rebecca A. Green; Joel Sauder; Kathryn L. Purcell; Richard Sweitzer; Jon. Armeno

    2012-01-01

    Radiotelemetry was fi rst used on a Martes species in 1972, when 5 American martens ( Martes americana ) captured incidentally during a snowshoe hare ( Lepus americanus ) research project in Minnesota were radio-collared. Since then, at least 128 research projects have used radiotelemetry to investigate...

  16. Comprehensive enzymatic analysis of the cellulolytic system in digestive fluid of the Sea Hare Aplysia kurodai. Efficient glucose release from sea lettuce by synergistic action of 45 kDa endoglucanase and 210 kDa ß-glucosidase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akihiko Tsuji

    Full Text Available Although many endo-ß-1,4-glucanases have been isolated in invertebrates, their cellulolytic systems are not fully understood. In particular, gastropod feeding on seaweed is considered an excellent model system for production of bioethanol and renewable bioenergy from third-generation feedstocks (microalgae and seaweeds. In this study, enzymes involved in the conversion of cellulose and other polysaccharides to glucose in digestive fluids of the sea hare (Aplysia kurodai were screened and characterized to determine how the sea hare obtains glucose from sea lettuce (Ulva pertusa. Four endo-ß-1,4-glucanases (21K, 45K, 65K, and 95K cellulase and 2 ß-glucosidases (110K and 210K were purified to a homogeneous state, and the synergistic action of these enzymes during cellulose digestion was analyzed. All cellulases exhibited cellulase and lichenase activities and showed distinct cleavage specificities against cellooligosaccharides and filter paper. Filter paper was digested to cellobiose, cellotriose, and cellotetraose by 21K cellulase, whereas 45K and 65K enzymes hydrolyzed the filter paper to cellobiose and glucose. 210K ß-glucosidase showed unique substrate specificity against synthetic and natural substrates, and 4-methylumbelliferyl (4MU-ß-glucoside, 4MU-ß-galactoside, cello-oligosaccharides, laminarin, and lichenan were suitable substrates. Furthermore, 210K ß-glucosidase possesses lactase activity. Although ß-glucosidase and cellulase are necessary for efficient hydrolysis of carboxymethylcellulose to glucose, laminarin is hydrolyzed to glucose only by 210K ß-glucosidase. Kinetic analysis of the inhibition of 210K ß-glucosidase by D-glucono-1,5-lactone suggested the presence of 2 active sites similar to those of mammalian lactase-phlorizin hydrolase. Saccharification of sea lettuce was considerably stimulated by the synergistic action of 45K cellulase and 210K ß-glucosidase. Our results indicate that 45K cellulase and 210K

  17. Comprehensive enzymatic analysis of the cellulolytic system in digestive fluid of the Sea Hare Aplysia kurodai. Efficient glucose release from sea lettuce by synergistic action of 45 kDa endoglucanase and 210 kDa ß-glucosidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Akihiko; Tominaga, Keiko; Nishiyama, Nami; Yuasa, Keizo

    2013-01-01

    Although many endo-ß-1,4-glucanases have been isolated in invertebrates, their cellulolytic systems are not fully understood. In particular, gastropod feeding on seaweed is considered an excellent model system for production of bioethanol and renewable bioenergy from third-generation feedstocks (microalgae and seaweeds). In this study, enzymes involved in the conversion of cellulose and other polysaccharides to glucose in digestive fluids of the sea hare (Aplysia kurodai) were screened and characterized to determine how the sea hare obtains glucose from sea lettuce (Ulva pertusa). Four endo-ß-1,4-glucanases (21K, 45K, 65K, and 95K cellulase) and 2 ß-glucosidases (110K and 210K) were purified to a homogeneous state, and the synergistic action of these enzymes during cellulose digestion was analyzed. All cellulases exhibited cellulase and lichenase activities and showed distinct cleavage specificities against cellooligosaccharides and filter paper. Filter paper was digested to cellobiose, cellotriose, and cellotetraose by 21K cellulase, whereas 45K and 65K enzymes hydrolyzed the filter paper to cellobiose and glucose. 210K ß-glucosidase showed unique substrate specificity against synthetic and natural substrates, and 4-methylumbelliferyl (4MU)-ß-glucoside, 4MU-ß-galactoside, cello-oligosaccharides, laminarin, and lichenan were suitable substrates. Furthermore, 210K ß-glucosidase possesses lactase activity. Although ß-glucosidase and cellulase are necessary for efficient hydrolysis of carboxymethylcellulose to glucose, laminarin is hydrolyzed to glucose only by 210K ß-glucosidase. Kinetic analysis of the inhibition of 210K ß-glucosidase by D-glucono-1,5-lactone suggested the presence of 2 active sites similar to those of mammalian lactase-phlorizin hydrolase. Saccharification of sea lettuce was considerably stimulated by the synergistic action of 45K cellulase and 210K ß-glucosidase. Our results indicate that 45K cellulase and 210K ß-glucosidase are the

  18. Comprehensive Enzymatic Analysis of the Cellulolytic System in Digestive Fluid of the Sea Hare Aplysia kurodai. Efficient Glucose Release from Sea Lettuce by Synergistic Action of 45 kDa Endoglucanase and 210 kDa ß-Glucosidase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Akihiko; Tominaga, Keiko; Nishiyama, Nami; Yuasa, Keizo

    2013-01-01

    Although many endo-ß-1,4-glucanases have been isolated in invertebrates, their cellulolytic systems are not fully understood. In particular, gastropod feeding on seaweed is considered an excellent model system for production of bioethanol and renewable bioenergy from third-generation feedstocks (microalgae and seaweeds). In this study, enzymes involved in the conversion of cellulose and other polysaccharides to glucose in digestive fluids of the sea hare (Aplysia kurodai) were screened and characterized to determine how the sea hare obtains glucose from sea lettuce (Ulva pertusa). Four endo-ß-1,4-glucanases (21K, 45K, 65K, and 95K cellulase) and 2 ß-glucosidases (110K and 210K) were purified to a homogeneous state, and the synergistic action of these enzymes during cellulose digestion was analyzed. All cellulases exhibited cellulase and lichenase activities and showed distinct cleavage specificities against cellooligosaccharides and filter paper. Filter paper was digested to cellobiose, cellotriose, and cellotetraose by 21K cellulase, whereas 45K and 65K enzymes hydrolyzed the filter paper to cellobiose and glucose. 210K ß-glucosidase showed unique substrate specificity against synthetic and natural substrates, and 4-methylumbelliferyl (4MU)-ß-glucoside, 4MU–ß-galactoside, cello-oligosaccharides, laminarin, and lichenan were suitable substrates. Furthermore, 210K ß-glucosidase possesses lactase activity. Although ß-glucosidase and cellulase are necessary for efficient hydrolysis of carboxymethylcellulose to glucose, laminarin is hydrolyzed to glucose only by 210K ß-glucosidase. Kinetic analysis of the inhibition of 210K ß-glucosidase by D-glucono-1,5-lactone suggested the presence of 2 active sites similar to those of mammalian lactase-phlorizin hydrolase. Saccharification of sea lettuce was considerably stimulated by the synergistic action of 45K cellulase and 210K ß-glucosidase. Our results indicate that 45K cellulase and 210K ß-glucosidase are the

  19. Comprehensive enzymatic analysis of the amylolytic system in the digestive fluid of the sea hare, Aplysia kurodai: Unique properties of two α-amylases and two α-glucosidases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akihiko Tsuji

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sea lettuce (Ulva pertusa is a nuisance species of green algae that is found all over the world. East-Asian species of the marine gastropod, the sea hare Aplysia kurodai, shows a clear feeding preference for sea lettuce. Compared with cellulose, sea lettuce contains a higher amount of starch as a storage polysaccharide. However, the entire amylolytic system in the digestive fluid of A. kurodai has not been studied in detail. We purified α-amylases and α-glucosidases from the digestive fluid of A. kurodai and investigated the synergistic action of these enzymes on sea lettuce. A. kurodai contain two α-amylases (59 and 80 kDa and two α-glucosidases (74 and 86 kDa. The 59-kDa α-amylase, but not the 80-kDa α-amylase, was markedly activated by Ca2+ or Cl−. Both α-amylases degraded starch and maltoheptaose, producing maltotriose, maltose, and glucose. Glucose production from starch was higher with 80-kDa α-amylase than with 59-kDa α-amylase. Kinetic analysis indicated that 74-kDa α-glucosidase prefers short α-1,4-linked oligosaccharide, whereas 86-kDa α-glucosidase prefers large α-1,6 and α-1,4-linked polysaccharides such as glycogen. When sea lettuce was used as a substrate, a 2-fold greater amount of glucose was released by treatment with 59-kDa α-amylase and 74-kDa α-glucosidase than by treatment with 45-kDa cellulase and 210-kDa β-glucosidase of A. kurodai. Unlike mammals, sea hares efficiently digest sea lettuce to glucose by a combination of two α-amylases and two α-glucosidases in the digestive fluids without membrane-bound maltase–glucoamylase and sucrase–isomaltase complexes.

  20. Short Communications Browsing by Lepus capensis in the Karoo

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1989-08-31

    Aug 31, 1989 ... tion / % availability) of Davies, Botha & Skinner (1986) was used to indicate the extent of utilization in relation to availability. A preference index greater than one indicates selection for that item, whereas a value of less than one indicates that the item is being utilized less than its availability would suggest.

  1. Kinetic studies of alkaline phosphatase extracted from rabbit (Lepus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Double reciprocal plot of ALP assay in the presence of inhibitor NaH2PO4 ( ) and the control ( ) analysis. [I]: concentration of inhibitor = 0.67 mM. Table 2. Kinetic constants of alkaline phosphatase extracted from L. townsendii liver. Km (mM ). Ki (mM). Vmax (µM/min-1). 0.5 ± 0.25. 0.9 ± 0.33. 20 ± 0.63. Values are Mean ± S.D ...

  2. Locating Pleistocene Refugia: Comparing Phylogeographic and Ecological Niche Model Predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-07-01

    past landscapes and environments may lead to erroneous conclusions. For example, the Lepus arcticus ( Arctic Hare) phylogeographic prediction [52] is...Molecular Ecology 13: 3501–3514. 10. Fedorov V, Stenseth NC (2002) Multiple glacial refugia in the North American Arctic : inference from phylogeography...Meyer E, Soberón J, Sánchez-Cordero V, et al. (2005) Modeling distributional shifts of individual species and biomes . In: Lovejoy TE, Hannah L, eds

  3. Environmental Assessment for Infrastructure Improvements in the Base Developed Area at Eielson Air Force Base, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    Eielson AFB. Common species include moose (Alces alces), black bear (Ursus americanus), grizzly bear (U. arctos), snowshoe hare (Lepus americanus...of this EA. Tutka, LLC Keith Guyer, P.G, Project Manager B.S. Geology Years of Experience: 30 EA: Draft EA Author and Revisions Amber...Resources Technician 907-377-5182 thomas.slater@eielson.af.mil Natural Resources / Wetlands Mr. Keith Guyer, Tutka, LLC/Air Force Subcontractor 907

  4. Environmental Assessment for the Upgrade and Construction of the Eielson Air Force Base Rail Line, Eielson Air Force Base, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    Eielson AFB. Common species include moose (A/ces a/ces), black bear (Ursus americanus), grizzly bear (U. arctos), snowshoe hare (Lepus americanus...and Revisions Keith Guyer, P.G, Project Manager B.S. Geology Years of Experience: 30 EA: Draft EA Review 28 5.0 LIST OF AGENCIES AND PERSONS...Force Subcontractor amber@tutkallc.com Mr .. Keith Guyer, Tutka, 907-272-8010 Draft EA Review LLCIAir Force Subcontractor keith @tutkallc.com Judith E

  5. Een studie over emelten en hare bestrijding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de W.H.

    1925-01-01

    After a survey of the literature since 1602 on leather-jackets in agriculture, systematic and biological features are discussed of species important for the Netherlands. Next follow questions of more direct agricultural importance. The excreta and the intestinal content could not derive much from

  6. Supplementary Table 1.xlsx

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Guma

    27, Elephas maximus. 28, Indian Porcupine, 44, 0, 4, 4, 6, 0, 5, 5, 5, 9, 6. 29, Hystrix indica. 30, Black-naped hare, 28, 0, 4, 4, 4, 2, 0, 3, 4, 4, 3. 31, Lepus nigricollis. 32, Civet, 29, 0, 1, 4, 4, 1, 3, 4, 4, 3, 5. 33, Viverricula indica. 34, Mongoose, 2, 0, 1, 0, 0, 0, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0. 35, Herpestes vitticollis. 36, Wild dog, 2, 0, 0, 0, 1, 0, 1, 0, 0 ...

  7. Comparison of serum hormone levels of captive and free-living maned wolves Chrysocyon brachyurus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.B. Maia

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Serum hormone levels were compared between captive and free-living maned wolves and seasonal variations of sex hormones were studied. Blood samples were collected from 16 male and 26 female adult animals from Brazilian zoos, and from 30 male and 24 female free-living adults to determine serum progesterone and testosterone by radioimmunoassay. Serum testosterone concentrations varied (P 0.05. Sixteen captive males showed higher testosterone concentration during winter and spring compared with 30 free-living animals (P < 0.05. Progesterone concentration varied among seasons in 26 captive females (P < 0.05, being higher in autumn (15.3 ± 3.1 ng/mL than in summer (6.6 ± 1.5 ng/mL, winter (5.3 ± 3.1 ng/mL and spring (4.3 ± 0.7 ng/mL. Progesterone concentration of 24 free-living females varied between autumn (17.1 ± 6.0 ng/mL and winter (1.7 ± 0.3 ng/mL (P < 0.05, but we could not obtain data for spring or summer. No difference in progesterone levels was observed between captive and free-living females in autumn and winter.

  8. Physiological implications of landscape use by free-ranging maned wolves (Chrysocyon brachyurus) in Brazil

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carly Vynne; Rebecca K. Booth; Samuel K. Wasser

    2014-01-01

    .... The need to consider conservation of large mammals in landscape mosaics is very relevant to the Brazilian Cerrado, which is the world's most biologically diverse and threatened savanna. The maned wolf...

  9. Abdominal and pelvic ultrasound study of the maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana D. Guimarães

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was the ultrasound characterization of the abdominal and pelvic regions of five maned wolves kept in captivity at the Triage Center of Wild Animals of the Federal University of Viçosa (Centro de Triagem de Animais Silvestres, Universidade Federal de Viçosa. This characterization included descriptions of ultrasonographic aspects and measurements of various structures using B-mode ultrasound. Biometric data were collected to assess the existence of significant linear correlations between these measurements and the measurements obtained by ultrasound. Additionally, hematological and serum biochemistry evaluations of the animals were performed. The ultrasound findings were similar to those available in the literature on domestic dogs, which were used for comparison as a result of the lack of published data regarding maned wolves. The latter species showed characteristics closely resembling those of the former, differing in the spleen and left renal cortex echogenicities, in the appearance of the prostatic and testicular regions and in the hepatic portal vein morphology. In the current study, the biometric values were similar to those previously published; however, no data regarding thoracic perimeter, modified crown-rump length or thoracic depth were found in the literature for this Canidae species. Statistical analysis showed the existence of a strong negative correlation between the modified crown-rump length and left renal length, between the modified crown-rump length and the right renal volume, between the thoracic perimeter and the height at the cranial pole of the left adrenal gland and between the thoracic perimeter and the height at the caudal pole of the left adrenal gland. Laboratory findings, including segmented neutrophil, eosinophil, monocyte and lymphocyte counts and the serum levels of glucose, ALT, alkaline phosphatase, urea, total protein, globulin, creatine phosphokinase, triglyceride, sodium, phosphate, potassium and chloride, were inconsistent with values found by other authors. The ultrasound is a diagnostic imaging method that must be further explored in the medicine of wild animals; therefore, additional research in this area is required.

  10. Intraocular pressure and Schirmer tear test values in maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane S. Honsho

    Full Text Available Abstract: The purpose of this study was to establish baseline data on lacrimal quantity (STT-1 and intraocular pressure (IOP in captive maned wolves. Ten healthy adult maned wolves were contained with a snare pole and muzzle and kept in decubitus of the left side. STT-1 measurement was performed on the lateral third of the lower conjunctival sac for one minute. The cornea was desensitized and intraocular pressure was measured with an tonopen. Average STT-1 in both eyes was 11±5mm.min-1, with no statistical difference between the left and right eye (p=0.960. Average IOP in both eyes was 20±6mmHg, with no statistical difference between the left and right eye (p=0.836. Average STT-1 was lower than, and IOP was the same as normal levels found in dogs. There was no statistical difference in the age of the animals, and STT-1 and IOP values. In the present paper, average maned wolf STT-1 levels were lower compared with those found in dogs, while the IOP was the same in maned wolves as in dogs. Due to the increased incidence in providing emergency care for maned wolf victims of road kill and fires, determination reference values of ocular parameters may improve the correct diagnosis and treatment of the disease.

  11. Retraction notice to: Environmental cadmium and zinc concentrations in liver and kidney of European hare from different Serbian regions, Zoran I. Petrović, Vlado B. Teodorović, Mirjana R. Dimitrijević, Sunčica Z. Borozan, Miloš T. Beuković, Dragica M. Nikolić, Aurelija T. Spirić , [Hem. Ind. 67 (4 593-599 (2013 DOI: 10.2298/HEMIND120815100P

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article has been retracted at the request of authors. The retraction has been made because the authors admitted that they have done dual submission of the text and drawings from article named "Environmental Cd and Zn Concentrations in Liver and Kidney of European Hare from Different Serbian Regions: Age and Tissue Differences" published in Bull Environ Contam Toxicol (2013 90:203-207 DOI 10.1007/s00128-012-0901-7. One of the conditions of submission of a paper for publication are that authors confirm that their work is entirely originally written, someone else’s data and/or text are appropriately cited or quoted and permission has been obtained for use of copyrighted material from other sources. Therefore, the retracted article represents a serious improperly usage of the scientific publishing system. Apologies are offered to readers of the journal Hem.Ind. that this abuse was not detected during the submission, i.e. peer review process. Link to the retracted article 10.2298/HEMIND120815100P

  12. Knopmutatie bij den aardappel : en hare beteekenis voor den landbouw

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorst, J.C.

    1924-01-01

    Gradual deterioration during vegetative propagation had never been demonstrated in the potato but sudden changes which remain constant had repeatedly been described. However, erroneous conclusions might result from admixtures, modifications and diseases. A collection of bud mutations, mainly from

  13. Afghan Tortoise, Korean Hare: Advising in Hard and Soft Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    the communist insurgents in check, Karzai’s inability to keep the Taliban from resurging and reestablishing shadow governments in rural Pashtun areas...192 Misra, 65. Although many non-Pashtuns rejected the Taliban teachings as 193 Amalendu Misra, Afghanistan: A Labyrinth of...1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and

  14. “Is it still safe to eat traditional food?” Addressing traditional food safety concerns in aboriginal communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bordeleau, Serge, E-mail: Serge.Bordeleau@uqat.ca [Chaire de Recherche du Canada en Foresterie Autochtone, Université du Québec en Abitibi-Témiscamingue, 445 boul. de l' Université, Rouyn-Noranda, Québec J9X 5E4 (Canada); Chaire Industrielle CRSNG-UQAT-UQÀM en Aménagement Forestier Durable, Université du Québec en Abitibi-Témiscamingue, 445 boul. de l' Université, Rouyn-Noranda, Québec J9X 5E4 (Canada); Asselin, Hugo, E-mail: Hugo.Asselin@uqat.ca [Chaire de Recherche du Canada en Foresterie Autochtone, Université du Québec en Abitibi-Témiscamingue, 445 boul. de l' Université, Rouyn-Noranda, Québec J9X 5E4 (Canada); Chaire Industrielle CRSNG-UQAT-UQÀM en Aménagement Forestier Durable, Université du Québec en Abitibi-Témiscamingue, 445 boul. de l' Université, Rouyn-Noranda, Québec J9X 5E4 (Canada); and others

    2016-09-15

    Food insecurity is a growing concern for indigenous communities worldwide. While the risk of heavy metal contamination associated to wild food consumption has been extensively studied in the Arctic, data are scarce for the Boreal zone. This study addressed the concerns over possible heavy metal exposure through consumption of traditional food in four Anishnaabeg communities living in the Eastern North American boreal forest. Liver and meat samples were obtained from 196 snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus) trapped during winter 2012 across the traditional lands of the participating communities and within 56–156 km of a copper smelter. Interviews were conducted with 78 household heads to assess traditional food habits, focusing on snowshoe hare consumption. Concentrations in most meat and liver samples were below the detection limit for As, Co, Cr, Ni and Pb. Very few meat samples had detectable Cd and Hg concentrations, but liver samples had mean dry weight concentrations of 3.79 mg/kg and 0.15 mg/kg respectively. Distance and orientation from the smelter did not explain the variability between samples, but percent deciduous and mixed forest cover had a marginal negative effect on liver Cd, Cu and Zn concentrations. The estimated exposition risk from snowshoe hare consumption was low, although heavy consumers could slightly exceed recommended Hg doses. In accordance with the holistic perspective commonly adopted by indigenous people, the nutritional and sociocultural importance of traditional food must be considered in risk assessment. Traditional food plays a significant role in reducing and preventing serious health issues disproportionately affecting First Nations, such as obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases. Traditional consumption of snowshoe hare (Lepus americanus) entails low risk of heavy metal exposure if animals are tapped > 50 km from a point emission source (such as a copper smelter in the present study), if risk-increasing behaviours are

  15. Long–term variation of demographic parameters in four small game species in Europe: opportunities and limits to test for a global pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gée, A.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available For decades, decreases in several populations of some small sedentary game species have been reported in Europe. From the literature, we extracted mortality and reproductive rates that were available for European populations in four iconic species, the grey partridge (Perdix perdix, the black grouse (Tetrao tetrix, the capercaillie (T. urogallus and the brown hare (Lepus europaeus, to examine how demographic parameters vary with time. Our study revealed the need to consider many confounding factors (age, sex, origin of studied individuals, season, country and methods and the scarcity of recent demographic studies. Statistical analyses showed contrasted patterns of demographic traits with time within and between species. Our results highlighted that there may be consistency with a population decrease in grey partridge and black grouse that has been reported in the literature. However, analyses in capercaillie and brown hare showed less support for a population decrease at the European scale. The significant effects of interactions between time and age (in grey partridge, capercaillie and brown hare, method or origin of individuals on demographic traits and the emergence of contrasted patterns between short, intermediate and long monitoring periods (in grey partridge and black grouse suggested that further studies should pay particular attention to potential confounding factors. Finally, the lack of recent data and doubts about the relative importance of reported causal factors indicate the need for further studies on the links between demographic traits, densities and environmental changes in the long term, and particularly on the role of predation and habitat change.

  16. Improving the assessment of predator functional responses by considering alternate prey and predator interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, K; Boutin, S; Hossie, T J; Krebs, C J; O'Donoghue, M; Murray, D L

    2017-07-01

    To improve understanding of the complex and variable patterns of predator foraging behavior in natural systems, it is critical to determine how density-dependent predation and predator hunting success are mediated by alternate prey or predator interference. Despite considerable theory and debate seeking to place predator-prey interactions in a more realistic context, few empirical studies have quantified the role of alternate prey or intraspecific interactions on predator-prey dynamics. We assessed functional responses of two similarly sized, sympatric carnivores, lynx (Lynx canadensis) and coyotes (Canis latrans), foraging on common primary (snowshoe hares; Lepus americanus) and alternate (red squirrels; Tamiasciurus hudsonicus) prey in a natural system. Lynx exhibited a hyperbolic prey-dependent response to changes in hare density, which is characteristic of predators relying primarily on a single prey species. In contrast, the lynx-squirrel response was found to be linear ratio dependent, or inversely dependent on hare density. The coyote-hare and coyote-squirrel interactions also were linear and influenced by predator density. We explain these novel results by apparent use of spatial and temporal refuges by prey, and the likelihood that predators commonly experience interference and lack of satiation when foraging. Our study provides empirical support from a natural predator-prey system that (1) predation rate may not be limited at high prey densities when prey are small or rarely captured; (2) interference competition may influence the predator functional response; and (3) predator interference has a variable role across different prey types. Ultimately, distinct functional responses of predators to different prey types illustrates the complexity associated with predator-prey interactions in natural systems and highlights the need to investigate predator behavior and predation rate in relation to the broader ecological community. © 2017 by the Ecological

  17. The elusive nature of adaptive mitochondrial DNA evolution of an Arctic lineage prone to frequent introgression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melo-Ferreira, Jose; Vilela, Joana; Fonseca, Miguel M.

    2014-01-01

    understood. Hares (Lepus spp.) are privileged models to study the impact of natural selection on mitogenomic evolution because 1) species are adapted to contrasting environments, including arctic, with different metabolic pressures, and 2) mtDNA introgression from arctic into temperate species is widespread......Mitochondria play a fundamental role in cellular metabolism, being responsible for most of the energy production of the cell in the oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) pathway. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) encodes for key components of this process, but its direct role in adaptation remains far from...... selection in several codons in genes of the OXPHOS complexes, most notably affecting the arctic lineage. However, using theoretical models, no predictable effect of these differences was found on the structure and physicochemical properties of the encoded proteins, suggesting that the focus of selection may...

  18. Functional responses of human hunters to their prey - why harvest statistics may not always reflect changes in prey population abundance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kahlert, Johnny Abildgaard; Fox, Anthony David; Heldbjerg, Henning

    Harvest records are often assumed to offer an indirect measure of population abundance in huntable species. However, this requires population density changes are reflected in comparable linear changes in harvest rates. We tested this assumption for common snipe Gallinago gallinago, common wood...... species. Relationships between the annual kill and population abundance were complex and incorporation of hunting legislation changes improved optimal model fits between harvest statistics and count data. Consideration of the validity of the underlying assumptions is necessary before harvest records...... pigeon Columba palumbus, coot Fulica atra, grey partridge Perdix perdix, roe deer Capreolus capreolus and brown hare Lepus europaeus in Denmark. If we consider hunting a form of predator-prey interaction, the annual kill can be viewed as a predator functional response to prey population size. Convergence...

  19. [Population, distribution and food composition of wolves (Canis lupus) at Saihanwula Nature Reserve, Inner Mongolia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiu-Yi; Zhang, Li-Jia; Wang, An-Meng; Bater; Nasendelger; Yuan, Li; Bao, Wei-Dong

    2011-04-01

    To provide initial value for population restoration and management of wolves (Canis lupus) in the wild, line transect survey and fecal analysis method were used to study the population ecology of wolf at Saihanwula National Nature Reserve, Inner Mongolia. The results revealed that the population number was at least seven within the reserve and population density was 4.18+/-2.88 individual per 100 km2. The wolf population was mainly distributed in Shengshan and Qinyunshan core areas; active sites appeared mostly along mountain ridges, roads and valleys at Shengshan and mountain ridges at Qinyunshan. Hare (Lepus capensis) and plants occurred frequently in the food composition of wolf scats. Food types varied between years but not seasons (Winter-Spring and Summer-Autumn).

  20. The CCl4 action upon physiological indices in Lepus timidus and the protective role of some substances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina PAUNESCU

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this study is to demonstrate the hepatoprotective role of grape seed oil and Cynara scolymus leaf extract. This experiment lasted for 12 days performed on male and female rabbit. The animals were intoxicated in the latest day of experiment (day 12th with CCl4 in a dose of 30μl/100g body weight and a group of them was treated for 12 days with 0.4 mg/kg body weight/day of Cynara scolymus (artichoke leaf extract while another group was treated with grape seed oil (1ml/kg body weight/day. Intoxication with CCl4 caused an increase a glycemia and a number of leukocytes, decrease cholesterol, triglycerides value, and a number of erythrocytes. We observed that the extract of Cynara scolymus leaf and the grape seed oil had a protective effect against CCl4 intoxication.

  1. Cristallini e misurazioni biometriche nella Lepre bianca (Lepus timidus in Provincia di Sondrio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ferloni

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available A partire dalla stagione venatoria 2000 è stato introdotto in Provincia di Sondrio il controllo di tutti i capi di Lepre bianca abbattuti, allo scopo di effettuare valutazioni accurate del sesso, dell'età e delle misurazioni biometriche degli animali. La valutazione dell'età è stata effettuata tramite pesatura del cristallino dell'occhio e tramite palpazione del tubercolo di Stroh. Per una valutazione dell'età è stata utilizzata come riferimento la curva dei pesi di Walhovd (1965. In totale, dal 2000 al 2002, sono stati analizzati 187 esemplari di Lepre bianca (84 maschi e 103 femmine. Dei 154 capi di cui è stata valutata l'età, 54 sono risultati piccoli dell'anno e 100 adulti, di cui 57 di 1 anno e 43 di oltre due anni. Il peso di cristallino rivelatosi discriminante per distinguere tra piccoli e adulti era compreso tra 220 e 240 mg, come rilevato anche da altri autori (Flux, 1970, Walhovd, 1965. È stata inoltre individuata una buona corrispondenza tra la valutazione dell'età tramite peso del cristallino e la palpazione del tubercolo di Stroh, tecnica che ha fornito una valutazione corretta della classe d'età nell'83% degli animali analizzati. Il peso del cristallino dei piccoli ha permesso anche di determinare approssimativamente la distribuzione delle nascite nel corso dell'anno. Le misurazioni biometriche rilevate sono state: lunghezza del corpo, lunghezza della coda, lunghezza dell'orecchio destro, lunghezza del piede posteriore, peso pieno e peso vuoto. I risultati ottenuti sono stati confrontati per le diverse classi di età e di sesso tramite Analisi della Varianza (One-Way ANOVA. Le differenze principali sono emerse tra giovani e adulti, relativamente al peso (sia peso pieno sia peso vuoto e, nel 2001, anche alla lunghezza totale, entrambi maggiori negli adulti. Tra gli adulti sono emerse differenze significative anche nel peso dei due sessi, con le femmine più pesanti dei maschi. Non sono invece state rilevate differenze tra le età o i sessi in merito alle altre misure rilevate.

  2. Population dynamics, movement and home range of black-tailed jackrabbits (Lepus californicus) in Curlew Valley, northern Utah. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoddart, L.C.

    1978-12-01

    The long-term objective of the jackrabbit study in Curlew Valley, Utah and on the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory was to describe observed changes in rabbit density in terms of mortality and natality rates and to relate changes in these two population parameters to variation in environmental factors. Fall rabbit density in Curlew Valley has been observed to change by a factor of 17; changes appear to be largely determined by variation in mortality rates, as shown with K-factor analysis. Mortality of the population from fall--spring is correlated with the coyote/rabbit ratio. Spring--fall adult mortality and birth-fall loss of juveniles are correlated with coyote numbers. Coyote numbers in the relationships are modified to reflect variation in coyote feeding behavior with changes in rabbit and rodent numbers as indicated by coyote food habits studies in Curlew Valley. Coyote predation rates have varied markedly between years as a result of functional and numerical responses in the coyote population. Proposed coyote predation models, which account for the entire observed jackrabbit cycle, are consistent with existing predation theory.

  3. Respuesta dietaria de tres rapaces frente a una presa introducida en Patagonia Dietary response of three raptor species to an introduced prey in Patagonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANA L. MONSERRAT

    2005-09-01

    Predators with strong functional responses may be able to help stabilize prey population levels. This is worth noting mainly in the case of introduced prey, whose impact on native ecosystems often involves significant economic and environmental damage. The current Patagonian situation is critical with respect to introduced species. Previous studies have shown that native vertebrate predators are able to change their feeding patterns, switching from native to exotic prey. We assessed the food habits of the grey buzzard-eagle (Geranoaetus melanoleucus, the Magellanic horned owl (Bubo magellanicus, and the red-backed hawk (Buteo polyosoma, the three most important avian predators of the introduced European hare (Lepus europaeus in north-western Patagonia. We analysed 321, 115 and 78 eagle, owl, and hawk pellets respectively. We evaluated their functional responses to hare densities and compared their diets between different sites. Sigmodontine rodents were the hawk's and owl's main prey, followed by the tuco-tuco (Ctenomys spp.. The eagle consumed mainly European hares and then tuco-tucos, showing a significant functional response to the introduced prey. This raptor also had different diets in sites with high and low hare density. The other two raptors did not show a significant functional response to hare densities. However, the hawk's diet varied according to geographic location. We conclude that eagles and hawks are generalist predators, whereas the owl tends to specialize on small mammals. The changes in the eagle's diet in relation to European hare densities provide the potential to contribute to regulate the hare population

  4. Monitoring coyote population dynamics by genotyping faeces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prugh, L R; Ritland, C E; Arthur, S M; Krebs, C J

    2005-04-01

    Reliable population estimates are necessary for effective conservation and management, and faecal genotyping has been used successfully to estimate the population size of several elusive mammalian species. Information such as changes in population size over time and survival rates, however, are often more useful for conservation biology than single population estimates. We evaluated the use of faecal genotyping as a tool for monitoring long-term population dynamics, using coyotes (Canis latrans) in the Alaska Range as a case study. We obtained 544 genotypes from 56 coyotes over 3 years (2000-2002). Tissue samples from all 15 radio-collared coyotes in our study area had > or = 1 matching faecal genotypes. We used flexible maximum-likelihood models to study coyote population dynamics, and we tested model performance against radio telemetry data. The staple prey of coyotes, snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus), dramatically declined during this study, and the coyote population declined nearly two-fold with a 1(1/2)-year time lag. Survival rates declined the year after hares crashed but recovered the following year. We conclude that long-term monitoring of elusive species using faecal genotyping is feasible and can provide data that are useful for wildlife conservation and management. We highlight some drawbacks of standard open-population models, such as low precision and the requirement of discrete sampling intervals, and we suggest that the development of open models designed for continuously collected data would enhance the utility of faecal genotyping as a monitoring tool.

  5. Genetic sampling for estimating density of common species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ellen; Hodges, Karen E; Sollmann, Rahel; Mills, L Scott

    2017-08-01

    Understanding population dynamics requires reliable estimates of population density, yet this basic information is often surprisingly difficult to obtain. With rare or difficult-to-capture species, genetic surveys from noninvasive collection of hair or scat has proved cost-efficient for estimating densities. Here, we explored whether noninvasive genetic sampling (NGS) also offers promise for sampling a relatively common species, the snowshoe hare (Lepus americanus Erxleben, 1777), in comparison with traditional live trapping. We optimized a protocol for single-session NGS sampling of hares. We compared spatial capture-recapture population estimates from live trapping to estimates derived from NGS, and assessed NGS costs. NGS provided population estimates similar to those derived from live trapping, but a higher density of sampling plots was required for NGS. The optimal NGS protocol for our study entailed deploying 160 sampling plots for 4 days and genotyping one pellet per plot. NGS laboratory costs ranged from approximately $670 to $3000 USD per field site. While live trapping does not incur laboratory costs, its field costs can be considerably higher than for NGS, especially when study sites are difficult to access. We conclude that NGS can work for common species, but that it will require field and laboratory pilot testing to develop cost-effective sampling protocols.

  6. Tick-borne encephalitis transmission risk: its dependence on host population dynamics and climate effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palo, R Thomas

    2014-05-01

    Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is a human disease caused by a flavivirus that is spread by ticks (Ixodes ricinus). In 2011 and 2012, the highest TBE incidence ever was recorded in Sweden. It has been proposed that warmer spring temperatures result in higher survival of ticks and thus high incidence of TBE. Here, analyses were done of time series of TBE for 1976-2011 in relation to the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), mean summer temperatures, and yearly number of harvested European hare (Lepus europeaus), roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), and red fox (Vulpes vulpes) in the County of Stockholm, the area with most TBE cases in recent years in Sweden. The results show that the winter NAO index or winter temperature has no significant effect on the variation in wildlife numbers harvested or TBE cases over time. Mean summer temperature above 12°C had a slight effect, but a multivariate model revealed that only the numbers of European hare and red fox remained in the model and explained 64.4% of the variation in TBE cases. Ticks do not seem to be as sensitive to climate variations as anticipated, even though that summer temperature has increased by 2°C during the time period studied here. Instead, TBE cases seem to be more dependent on host population dynamics than on climate factors.

  7. Hosts, seasonality and geographic distribution of the South African tortoise tick, Amblyomma marmoreum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.G. Horak

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The tortoise tick Amblyomma marmoreum was collected from large numbers of reptiles and other animals during the course of numerous surveys conducted in South Africa. A total of 1 229 ticks, of which 550 were adults, were recovered from 309 reptiles belonging to 13 species, with leopard tortoises, Geochelone pardalis being the most heavily infested. The 269 birds sampled harboured 4 901 larvae, 217 nymphs and no adult ticks, and the prevalence of infestation was greatest on hel meted guinea fowls, Numida meleagris. Only two larvae were recovered from 610 rodents, including 31 spring hares, Pedetes capensis, whereas 1 144 other small mammals yielded 1 835 immature ticks, of which 1 655 were collected from 623 scrub hares, Lepus saxatilis. The 213 carnivores examined harboured 2 459 ticks of which none were adult. A single adult tick and 6 684 larvae and 62 nymphs were recovered from 656 large herbivores, and a total of 4 081 immature ticks and three adults were collected from 1 543 domestic animals and 194 humans. Adult male and female A. marmoreum were most numerous on reptiles during January and February, and larvae during March. The largest numbers of larvae were present on domestic cattle and helmeted guineafowls in the Eastern Cape Province during March or April respectively, whereas larvae were most numerous on helmeted guineafowls, scrub hares and the vegetation in north-eastern Mpumalanga Province during May. In both provinces nymphs were most numerous between October and December. Amblyomma marmoreum appears to be most prevalent in the western regions of the Western and Eastern Cape and Free State provinces, and the north-eastern regions of the Northern Cape, KwaZulu- Natal, Mpumulanga and Limpopo provinces.

  8. Coxiella burnetii in wildlife and ticks in an endemic area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psaroulaki, Anna; Chochlakis, Dimosthenis; Angelakis, Emmanouil; Ioannou, Ioannis; Tselentis, Yannis

    2014-10-01

    Ticks are considered to be a natural reservoir of Coxiella burnetii and are responsible for the spread of infection in wild animals and for the transmission to domestic animals. More than 40 tick species are naturally infected with C. burnetii. In Cyprus, few studies have been carried out on the distribution and incidence of C. burnetii infection in wildlife and the threat that infected wild animals pose to humans and domestic animals remains uncertain. During 3 studies in Cyprus, lasting 7 years (2000-2006), ticks were collected from rats (98 Rattus norvegicus and 38 R. rattus), 74 mouflons (Ovis orientalis ophion), 32 foxes (Vulpes vulpes indutus), 247 hares (Lepus europaeus), 557 birds (endemic and migratory) and 10 different tick species. All samples were tested for the presence of Coxiella burnetii using molecular assays. In total, 31% (23/74) of mouflons, 28% (9/32) of foxes, 48% (15/31) of hares and 31% (41/131) of birds were positive for C. burnetii. We tested 1315 ticks (195 pools) and C. burnetii was detected in 28.9% (56/195) of them. Forty percent (24/60) of ticks collected from hares and 25.2% (27/107) of tick pools collected from mouflons were positive for C. burnetii. However, C. burnetii was detected in only one tick from foxes and one from birds. Positive samples were prevalent all over the island and did not show a specific geographic distribution pattern. Several animal and tick species collected from wildlife are potential sources of C. burnetii in Cyprus. These species are abundant in the area and may represent a risk for domestic livestock that share grazing environments. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Efficacies of prevention and control measures applied during an outbreak in Southwest Madrid, Spain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anaiá da Paixão Sevá

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne disease of worldwide distribution, currently present in 98 countries. Since late 2010, an unusual increase of human visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis cases has been observed in the south-western Madrid region, totaling more than 600 cases until 2015. Some hosts, such as human, domestic dog and cat, rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus, and hare (Lepus granatensis, were found infected by the parasite of this disease in the area. Hares were described as the most important reservoir due to their higher prevalence, capacity to infect the vector, and presence of the same strains as in humans. Various measures were adopted to prevent and control the disease, and since 2013 there was a slight decline in the human sickness. We used a mathematical model to evaluate the efficacy of each measure in reducing the number of infected hosts. We identified in the present model that culling both hares and rabbits, without immediate reposition of the animals, was the best measure adopted, decreasing the proportion of all infected hosts. Particularly, culling hares was more efficacious than culling rabbits to reduce the proportion of infected individuals of all hosts. Likewise, lowering vector contact with hares highly influenced the reduction of the proportion of infected hosts. The reduction of the vector density per host in the park decreased the leishmaniasis incidence of hosts in the park and the urban areas. On the other hand, the reduction of the vector density per host of the urban area (humans, dogs and cats decreased only their affected population, albeit at a higher proportion. The use of insecticide-impregnated collar and vaccination in dogs affected only the infected dogs' population. The parameters related to the vector contact with dog, cat or human do not present a high impact on the other hosts infected by Leishmania. In conclusion, the efficacy of each control strategy was determined, in order to direct future actions

  10. Efficacies of prevention and control measures applied during an outbreak in Southwest Madrid, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevá, Anaiá da Paixão; Martcheva, Maia; Tuncer, Necibe; Fontana, Isabella; Carrillo, Eugenia; Moreno, Javier; Keesling, James

    2017-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne disease of worldwide distribution, currently present in 98 countries. Since late 2010, an unusual increase of human visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis cases has been observed in the south-western Madrid region, totaling more than 600 cases until 2015. Some hosts, such as human, domestic dog and cat, rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus), and hare (Lepus granatensis), were found infected by the parasite of this disease in the area. Hares were described as the most important reservoir due to their higher prevalence, capacity to infect the vector, and presence of the same strains as in humans. Various measures were adopted to prevent and control the disease, and since 2013 there was a slight decline in the human sickness. We used a mathematical model to evaluate the efficacy of each measure in reducing the number of infected hosts. We identified in the present model that culling both hares and rabbits, without immediate reposition of the animals, was the best measure adopted, decreasing the proportion of all infected hosts. Particularly, culling hares was more efficacious than culling rabbits to reduce the proportion of infected individuals of all hosts. Likewise, lowering vector contact with hares highly influenced the reduction of the proportion of infected hosts. The reduction of the vector density per host in the park decreased the leishmaniasis incidence of hosts in the park and the urban areas. On the other hand, the reduction of the vector density per host of the urban area (humans, dogs and cats) decreased only their affected population, albeit at a higher proportion. The use of insecticide-impregnated collar and vaccination in dogs affected only the infected dogs' population. The parameters related to the vector contact with dog, cat or human do not present a high impact on the other hosts infected by Leishmania. In conclusion, the efficacy of each control strategy was determined, in order to direct future actions in this and in

  11. Dynamics of nutrient uptake strategies: lessons from the tortoise and the hare

    OpenAIRE

    Menge, Duncan N. L.; Ballantyne, Ford; Weitz, Joshua S

    2011-01-01

    Many autotrophs vary their allocation to nutrient uptake in response to environmental cues, yet the dynamics of this plasticity are largely unknown. Plasticity dynamics affect the extent of single versus multiple nutrient limitation and thus have implications for plant ecology and biogeochemical cycling. Here we use a model of two essential nutrients cycling through autotrophs and the environment to determine conditions under which different plastic or fixed nutrient uptake strategies are ada...

  12. INTRASPECIFIC VARIATION IN ANT SEX RATIOS AND THE TRIVERS-HARE HYPOTHESIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boomsma, J J; Grafen, A

    1990-07-01

    We consider worker-controlled sex investments in eusocial Hymenoptera (ants in particular) and assume that relatedness asymmetry is variable among colonies and that workers are able to assess the relatedness asymmetry in their own colony. We predict that such "assessing" workers should maximize their inclusive fitness by specializing in the production of the sex to which they are relatively most related, i.e., colonies whose workers have a relatedness asymmetry below the population average should specialize in males, whereas colonies whose workers have a higher than average relatedness asymmetry should specialize in making females. Our argument yields the expectation that colony sex ratios will be bimodally distributed in ant populations where relatedness asymmetry is variable owing to multiple mating, worker reproduction, and/or polygyny. No such bimodality is expected, however, in ant species where relatedness asymmetry is known to be constant, or in cases where relatedness asymmetry is supposed to be irrelevant due to allospecific brood rearing under queen control, as in the slave-making ants. Comparative data on colony sex ratios in ants are reviewed to test the predictions. The data partly support our contentions, but are as yet insufficient to be considered as decisive evidence. © 1990 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  13. Hare Majesteit de Smalfilm’ : De making of de vroege amateurfilm(er)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aasman, Susanna; Van der Heijden, Tim

    2014-01-01

    This article reconstructs the world of the Dutch amateur film around 1930; a dynamic period during which the amateur film gradually developed from being just one branch of photography (cinematography) to becoming an independent film discipline. On the basis of the series ‘Her Majesty, Super 8’, a

  14. 'Hare Majesteit de Smalfilm' - De 'making of' de vroege amateurfilm(er)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heijden, T.; Aasman, S.I.

    2014-01-01

    This article reconstructs the world of the Dutch amateur film around 1930; a dynamic period during which the amateur film gradually developed from being just one branch of photography (cinematography) to becoming an independent film discipline. On the basis of a series of articles about amateur

  15. Hare Majesteit de Smalfilm’ De making of de vroege amateurfilm(er)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijden, Tim van der; Aasman, Susan

    2014-01-01

    abstractThis article reconstructs the world of the Dutch amateur film around 1930; a dynamic period during which the amateur film gradually developed from being just one branch of photography (cinematography) to becoming an independent film discipline. On the basis of a series of articles about

  16. Installation Restoration Program Phase 1 - Records Search, O’Hare Air Reserve Forces Facility, Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-12-01

    GEOLOGIC DATA MAIN GATE jL [ESERVEGENTEJohnlson~ td . LES Cr 9n Rd. G D B=vAT 3 3 2902 A enk 7 023 10 5Ci. . .. E U . 0 o 173W Dixon Blvd.0 * 32f 19 30 c...Hill. The basis for this model was a system developed for EPA by JEB Associates of McLean, Virginia. The JRB model was modified to meet Air Force

  17. The tortoise and the hare: Reducing resource availability shifts competitive balance between plant species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean E. Pearson; Yvette K. Ortega; John L. Maron

    2017-01-01

    Determining how changes in abiotic conditions influence community interactions is a fundamental challenge in ecology. Meeting this challenge is increasingly imperative in the Anthropocene where climate change and exotic species introductions alter abiotic context and biotic composition to reshuffle natural systems.

  18. The hare or the tortoise? Modeling optimal speed-accuracy tradeoff settings

    OpenAIRE

    van Ravenzwaaij, D.

    2012-01-01

    Decision making is strongly influenced by the speed-accuracy trade-off. In this dissertation, I have tackled the issue of speed versus accuracy from both a theoretical and an empirical viewpoint and have been drawn time and time again to the same inescapable conclusion: speeded decision making cannot be thoroughly investigated without a formal quantitative process model. Only by transforming relatively uninformative behavioral data into meaningful psychological processes can there be hope for...

  19. The hare or the tortoise? Modeling optimal speed-accuracy tradeoff settings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ravenzwaaij, D.

    2012-01-01

    Decision making is strongly influenced by the speed-accuracy trade-off. In this dissertation, I have tackled the issue of speed versus accuracy from both a theoretical and an empirical viewpoint and have been drawn time and time again to the same inescapable conclusion: speeded decision making

  20. Attitudes of Xhosa-speaking students at the University of Fort Hare ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This analysis indicates that while English is recognised as the dominant language in South Africa and, more specifically, in the domain of education, some categories of respondents acknowledge the usefulness of Xhosa as an additional medium of instruction. This survey clearly shows that it would make little sense to ...

  1. Factor Structure of the Hare Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version (PCL: YV) in Adolescent Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosson, David S.; Neumann, Craig S.; Forth, Adelle E.; Salekin, Randall T.; Hare, Robert D.; Krischer, Maya K.; Sevecke, Kathrin

    2013-01-01

    Despite substantial evidence for the fit of the 3- and 4-factor models of Psychopathy Checklist-based ratings of psychopathy in adult males and adolescents, evidence is less consistent in adolescent females. However, prior studies used samples much smaller than recommended for examining model fit. To address this issue, we conducted a confirmatory…

  2. Unpreferred plants affect patch choice and spatial distribution of European brown hares

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijper, D. P. J.; Bakker, J. P.

    2008-01-01

    Many herbivore species prefer to forage on patches of intermediate biomass. Plant quality and forage efficiency are predicted to decrease with increasing plant standing crop which explains the lower preference of the herbivore. However, often is ignored that on the long-term, plant species

  3. "Lepusculus domini, erotic hare, Meister Lampe" : Zur Rolle des Hasen in der Kulturgeschichte

    OpenAIRE

    Gehrisch, Birgit

    2005-01-01

    Die vorliegende Untersuchung der kulturgeschichtlichen Bedeutung des Hasen beginnt in prähistorischer Zeit. Älteste archäologische Zeugnisse stammen aus der jüngeren Altsteinzeit. Neben der Darstellung des Hasen an einer Felswand in der Höhle von Gabillou in Frankreich finden sich Beispiele paläolithischer Kleinkunst in Form von Gravierungen sowie als Tierplastik im Höhlensystem von Isturitz. Diese Bildnisse des Hasen vermitteln einen Eindruck faszinierend-genauer Naturbeobachtung der Paläoli...

  4. The Hare and the Water: A Tanzanian Folktale. Water in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abernathy-Tabor, Michelle

    The Water in Africa Project was realized over a 2-year period by a team of Peace Corps volunteers, World Wise Schools (WWS) classroom teachers, and WWS staff members. As part of an expanded, detailed design, resources were collected from over 90 volunteers serving in African countries, photos and stories were prepared, and standards-based learning…

  5. Winter food of the fox Vulpes vulpes in the Province of Cuneo (North-Western Italy / Alimentazione invernale della Volpe Vulpes vulpes nell'Albese (Provincia di Cuneo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Debernardi

    1991-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The diet of the Fox Vulpes vulpes was studied by the analysis of 157 gastric contents coming from hilly areas of the Province of Cuneo. Samples were gathered during January-March of the years '86 (N. 41, '87 (N. 72 and '88 (N. 44. The mean percentage of frequency was determined for the following feeding categories: Fruits (26.1%, Other vegetable components (19.7%, Insects (2.5%, Wild birds (11.5%, Insectivores and Rodents (42.7%, Lepus capensis (13.4%, Indeterminate Lagomorphs (17.2%, Domestic animals (59.2% and Other (2.5%. The diet is analysed in relation to some available trophic resources (dumps, restoking of hares and of pheasants. Riassunto Vengono presentati i dati dell'analisi di 157 contenuti gastrici di Vulpes vulpes, provenienti da aree collinari della provincia di Cuneo; i campioni si riferiscono ai primi tre mesi delle annate '86 (N. 41, '87 (N. 72 e '88 (N. 44. Sono state determinate le frequenze percentuali delle seguenti categorie alimentari: Frutti (26,1%, Altre componenti vegetali (19,7%, Insetti (2,5%, Uccelli selvatici (11,5%, Insettivori e Roditori (42,7%, Lepus capensis (13,4%, Lagomorfi indeterminati (17,2%, Animali domestici (59,2% e Altro (2,5%. La dieta viene esaminata in relazione ad alcuni aspetti legati alle disponibilità trofiche del territorio (presenza di discariche, ripopolamenti di selvaggina.

  6. Papyriferic acid, an antifeedant triterpene from birch trees, inhibits succinate dehydrogenase from liver mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Stuart; Richards, Stephen M; Cover, Siow-Leng; Brandon, Sue; Davies, Noel W; Bryant, John P; Clausen, Thomas P

    2009-10-01

    Papyriferic acid (PA) is a triterpene that is secreted by glands on twigs of the juvenile ontogenetic phase of resin producing tree birches (e.g., Betula neoalaskana, B. pendula) and that deters browsing by mammals such as the snowshoe hare (Lepus americanus). We investigated the pharmacology of PA as a first step in understanding its antifeedant effect. After oral administration to rats, PA and several metabolites were found in feces but not urine, indicating that little was absorbed systemically. Metabolism involved various combinations of hydrolysis of its acetyl and malonyl ester groups, and hydroxylation of the terpene moiety. The presence of a malonyl group suggested a possible interaction with succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), a mitochondrial enzyme known to be competitively inhibited by malonic acid. The effect of PA on the oxidation of succinate by SDH was examined in mitochondrial preparations from livers of ox, rabbit, and rat. In all three species, PA was a potent inhibitor of SDH. Kinetic analysis indicated that, unlike malonate, PA acted by an uncompetitive mechanism, meaning that it binds to the enzyme-substrate complex. The hydrolysis product of PA, betulafolienetriol oxide, was inactive on SDH. Overall, the evidence suggests that PA acts as the intact molecule and interacts at a site other than the succinate binding site, possibly binding to the ubiquinone sites on complex II. Papyriferic acid was potent (K(iEIS) ranged from 25 to 45 microM in the three species) and selective, as malate dehydrogenase was unaffected. Although rigorous proof will require further experiments, we have a plausible mechanism for the antifeedant effect of PA: inhibition of SDH in gastrointestinal cells decreases mitochondrial energy production resulting in a noxious stimulus, 5-HT release, and sensations of nausea and discomfort. There is evidence that the co-evolution of birches and hares over a large and geographically-diverse area in Northern Europe and America has

  7. Population dynamics, movement and home range of black-tailed jackrabbits (Lepus californicus) in Curlen Valley, Northern Utah. Progress report, October 1, 1976--September 30, 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoddart, L.C.

    1977-06-01

    The long-term objective of the jackrabbit study in Curlew Valley, Utah and on the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory is to describe observed changes in rabbit density in terms of mortality and natality rates and to relate changes in these two population parameters to variation in environmental factors. Spring rabbit density in Curlew Valley has been observed to change by a factor of 60; changes appear to be largely determined by variation in mortality rates, as shown with K-factor analysis. Mortality of the population from fall-spring is correlated with the coyote/rabbit ratio. Spring-fall adult mortality and birth-fall loss of juveniles are correlated with coyote numbers. Coyote numbers in the relationships are modified to reflect variation in coyote feeding behavior with changes in rabbit and rodent numbers as indicated by coyote food habits studies in Curlew Valley. Coyote predation rates have varied markedly between years as a result of functional and numerical responses in the coyote population. Proposed coyote predation models, which account for the entire observed jackrabbit cycle, are consistent with existing predation theory.

  8. Comparison of two spatial optimization techniques: a framework to solve multiobjective land use distribution problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Burghard Christian; Lescot, Jean-Marie; Laplana, Ramon

    2009-02-01

    Two spatial optimization approaches, developed from the opposing perspectives of ecological economics and landscape planning and aimed at the definition of new distributions of farming systems and of land use elements, are compared and integrated into a general framework. The first approach, applied to a small river catchment in southwestern France, uses SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) and a weighted goal programming model in combination with a geographical information system (GIS) for the determination of optimal farming system patterns, based on selected objective functions to minimize deviations from the goals of reducing nitrogen and maintaining income. The second approach, demonstrated in a suburban landscape near Leipzig, Germany, defines a GIS-based predictive habitat model for the search of unfragmented regions suitable for hare populations (Lepus europaeus), followed by compromise optimization with the aim of planning a new habitat structure distribution for the hare. The multifunctional problem is solved by the integration of the three landscape functions ("production of cereals," "resistance to soil erosion by water," and "landscape water retention"). Through the comparison, we propose a framework for the definition of optimal land use patterns based on optimization techniques. The framework includes the main aspects to solve land use distribution problems with the aim of finding the optimal or best land use decisions. It integrates indicators, goals of spatial developments and stakeholders, including weighting, and model tools for the prediction of objective functions and risk assessments. Methodological limits of the uncertainty of data and model outcomes are stressed. The framework clarifies the use of optimization techniques in spatial planning.

  9. Thelazia callipaeda (Spirurida, Thelaziidae) in wild animals: report of new host species and ecological implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otranto, Domenico; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Mallia, Egidio; DiGeronimo, Peter M; Brianti, Emanuele; Testini, Gabriella; Traversa, Donato; Lia, Riccardo P

    2009-12-23

    Thelazia callipaeda infects the eyes of carnivores and humans in Far Eastern Asiatic and European countries. Studies have demonstrated the occurrence of T. callipaeda in foxes from areas where canine thelaziosis is endemic. However, there is little information on the role of wild carnivores as hosts of this nematode. From May 2003 to May 2009, a total of 130 carcasses of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes; n=75), wolves (Canis lupus; n=2), beech martens (Martes foina; n=22), brown hares (Lepus europaeus; n=13), Eurasian badgers (Meles meles; n=10), and wild cats (Felis silvestris; n=8) were examined in an area of southern Italy where canine thelaziosis is highly prevalent. At necropsy, animals were examined and nematodes were collected from the conjunctival sacs of both eyes. All nematodes were morphologically identified and at least five specimens from each of the five host species were molecularly processed by PCR amplification and sequencing of a partial mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene (cox1). Five out of the six wild animal species examined were found to be infected with eyeworms. The overall infection rate, excluding the Eurasian badgers that were all negative, was 39.1%. All the 189 adult nematodes collected (intensity of infection=4+/-2.2) were morphologically identified as T. callipaeda. The molecular analysis confirmed that the only haplotype of T. callipaeda circulating in Europe (i.e., haplotype 1) is present in that area. The competence of red foxes, wolves, beech martens, brown hares, and wild cats as definitive hosts for T. callipaeda is discussed in relationship to their ecology and their likely exposure to the vector Phortica variegata in the study area. The role the wild fauna plays in maintaining and spreading eyeworm infection in humans and domestic animals is also discussed.

  10. [Isolation of influenza virus A (Orthomyxoviridae, Influenza A virus), Dhori virus (Orthomyxoviridae, Thogotovirus), and Newcastle's disease virus (Paromyxoviridae, Avulavirus) on the Malyi Zhemchuzhnyi Island in the north-western area of the Caspian Sea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iashkulov, K B; Shchelkanov, M Iu; L'vov, S S; Dzhambinov, S D; Galkina, I V; Fediakina, I T; Bushkieva, B Ts; Morozova, T N; Kireev, D E; Akanina, D S; Litvin, K E; Usachev, E V; Prilipov, A G; Grebennikova, T V; Gromashevskiĭ, V L; Iamnikova, S S; Zaberezhnyĭ, A D; L'vov, D K

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents the results of the 2003 and 2006 environmental virological monitoring surveys on the Malyi Zhemchuzhnyi Island where a large breeding colony of sea gull (Laridae) is located. In the past several years, expansion of cormorants (Phalacrocorax carbo) has enhanced the intensity of populational interactions. The investigators isolated 13 strains of influenza A virus (Orthomyxoviridae, Influenza A virus) subtype H13N1 (from sea gulls (n = 4), cormorants (n = 9) 1 strain of Dhori virus (Orthomyxoviridae, Thogotovirus) from a cormorantwith clinical symptoms of the disease, 3 strains of Newcastle disease virus (Paramyxoviridae, Avulavirus) from cormorants. RT-PCR revealed influenza A virus subtype H5 in 3.1% of the cloacal lavages from cormorants. Neutralization test indicated that sera from cormorants contained specific antibodies against West Nile (Flaviviridae, Flavivirus) (15.0%), Sindbis (Togaviridae, Alphavirus) (5.0%), Dhori (10.0%), and Tahini (Bunyaviridae, Orthobunyavirus) (5.0%); sera from herring gulls had antibodies against Dhori virus (16.7%); there were no specific antibodies to Inco (Bunyaviridae, Orthobunyavirus) and mountain hare (Lepus timidus) (Bunyaviridae, Orthobunyavirus) virus.

  11. Automatic detection of animals in mowing operations using thermal cameras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steen, Kim Arild; Villa-Henriksen, Andrés; Therkildsen, Ole Roland; Green, Ole

    2012-01-01

    During the last decades, high-efficiency farming equipment has been developed in the agricultural sector. This has also included efficiency improvement of moving techniques, which include increased working speeds and widths. Therefore, the risk of wild animals being accidentally injured or killed during routine farming operations has increased dramatically over the years. In particular, the nests of ground nesting bird species like grey partridge (Perdix perdix) or pheasant (Phasianus colchicus) are vulnerable to farming operations in their breeding habitat, whereas in mammals, the natural instinct of e.g., leverets of brown hare (Lepus europaeus) and fawns of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) to lay low and still in the vegetation to avoid predators increase their risk of being killed or injured in farming operations. Various methods and approaches have been used to reduce wildlife mortality resulting from farming operations. However, since wildlife-friendly farming often results in lower efficiency, attempts have been made to develop automatic systems capable of detecting wild animals in the crop. Here we assessed the suitability of thermal imaging in combination with digital image processing to automatically detect a chicken (Gallus domesticus) and a rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in a grassland habitat. Throughout the different test scenarios, our study animals were detected with a high precision, although the most dense grass cover reduced the detection rate. We conclude that thermal imaging and digital imaging processing may be an important tool for the improvement of wildlife-friendly farming practices in the future.

  12. Intrapopulation variation in gray wolf isotope (delta(15)N and delta(13)C) profiles: implications for the ecology of individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urton, Erin J M; Hobson, Keith A

    2005-09-01

    Trophic relationships among organisms in terrestrial boreal ecosystems define ecological communities and are important in determining dynamics of energy flow and ecosystem function. We examined trophic relationships between the gray wolf (Canis lupus) and 18 mammalian species from the boreal forest of central Saskatchewan, Canada, using delta(13)C and delta(15)N stable isotope values measured in guard hair samples. Variance in isotope values for wolves and other carnivores was investigated as a proxy for variation in diet among individuals. Isosource, an isotopic source partitioning model, quantified the relative range in proportions of five most-likely prey items in the diets of wolves. The distribution of feasible contributions from each source was dominated by elk (Cervus elaphus; mean: 48%, range:11-75%), followed by white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus; mean: 21%, range: 0-54%), moose (Alces alces; mean:14%, range: 0-41%), beaver (Castor canadensis; mean: 8%, range:0-25%) and snowshoe hare (Lepus americanus; mean: 8%, range: 0-24%). Despite social foraging, our results indicate highly variable diets among individuals and we discuss this in terms of individual versus group ecology of boreal wolves.

  13. Survey of Wild and Domestic Mammals for Infection with Leishmania infantum following an Outbreak of Desert Zoonotic Visceral Leishmaniasis in Jiashi, People's Republic of China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Hua Gao

    Full Text Available In 2008 and 2009, an outbreak of desert-subtype zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis occurred in Jiashi county, Xinjiang, China. So far, no animal reservoir has been identified for this type of visceral leishmaniasis. Therefore, we surveyed the most common mammals (wild and domestic for Leishmania infections during the outbreak in 2008 and 2009 in order to identify the source of the visceral leishmaniasis in this region. Spleen, liver, bone marrow and blood samples collected from 86 wood mice (Apodemus sylvaticus, 61midday jirds (Meriones meridianus and 27 Yarkand hares (Lepus yarkandensis were tested for the presence of Leishmania by microscopy, culture and PCR. All of the animals were found to be negative for Leishmania infections; On the other hand, Leishmania DNA was detected in blood samples collected from livestock reared in the outbreak area: 30.36% (17/56 of sheep, 21.57% (11/51 of goats, 17.78% (8/45 of cattle, and 21.62 (8/37 of donkeys were positive for Leishmania DNA by PCR. The amplified kDNA sequences from the livestock samples matched Leishmania DNA sequences isolated from patients with visceral leishmaniasis in the study area. We suggest that these domestic mammals are a possible reservoir host for Leishmania infantum in the outbreak area.

  14. Molecular delineation of the Y-borne Sry gene in the Formosan pangolin (Manis pentadactyla pentadactyla) and its phylogenetic implications for Pholidota in extant mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hon-Tsen; Ma, Gwo-Chin; Lee, Dong-Jay; Chin, Shih-Chien; Tsao, Hsien-Shao; Wu, Sheng-Hai; Shih, Shu-Yi; Chen, Ming

    2011-01-01

    The systematic status of Pholidota has been a matter of debate, particularly regarding the apparent inconsistency between morphological and molecular studies. The Sry gene, a master regulator of male sex determination in eutherian mammals, has not yet been used for phylogenetic analyses of extant mammals. The objective of the present study was to clone and characterize the complete gene (1300 base pairs; bp) and amino acid sequences (229 residues) of Sry from the Formosan pangolin (Manis pentadactyla pentadactyla), a member of Pholidota. The Sry amino acid identity between pangolin and other reported species ranged from 42.5% (mouse, Mus musculus) to 84.1% (European hare, Lepus europaeus). Sequence conservation was primarily in the high motility group (HMG) box (234 bp), whereas homology outside the HMG box was low. The cloned Sry was mapped to the pangolin Y chromosome by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH); this was confirmed to be the first Y-borne molecular marker identified in Pholidota. Based on Bayesian phylogenetic analysis for Sry HMG sequences from 36 representative taxa, including the Formosan pangolin, Pholidota was more closely related to Carnivora than to Xenarthra, consistent with the emerging molecular tree inferred from markers not located on the Y chromosome. In conclusion, this study characterized the gene structure of Sry of the Formosan pangolin and provided insights into the phylogenetic position of Pholidota. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Testing the recovery of stellar rotation signals from Kepler light curves using a blind hare-and-hounds exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aigrain, S.; Llama, J.; Ceillier, T.; Chagas, M. L. das; Davenport, J. R. A.; García, R. A.; Hay, K. L.; Lanza, A. F.; McQuillan, A.; Mazeh, T.; de Medeiros, J. R.; Nielsen, M. B.; Reinhold, T.

    2015-07-01

    We present the results of a blind exercise to test the recoverability of stellar rotation and differential rotation in Kepler light curves. The simulated light curves lasted 1000 d and included activity cycles, Sun-like butterfly patterns, differential rotation and spot evolution. The range of rotation periods, activity levels and spot lifetime were chosen to be representative of the Kepler data of solar-like stars. Of the 1000 simulated light curves, 770 were injected into actual quiescent Kepler light curves to simulate Kepler noise. The test also included five 1000-d segments of the Sun's total irradiance variations at different points in the Sun's activity cycle. Five teams took part in the blind exercise, plus two teams who participated after the content of the light curves had been released. The methods used included Lomb-Scargle periodograms and variants thereof, autocorrelation function and wavelet-based analyses, plus spot modelling to search for differential rotation. The results show that the `overall' period is well recovered for stars exhibiting low and moderate activity levels. Most teams reported values within 10 per cent of the true value in 70 per cent of the cases. There was, however, little correlation between the reported and simulated values of the differential rotation shear, suggesting that differential rotation studies based on full-disc light curves alone need to be treated with caution, at least for solar-type stars. The simulated light curves and associated parameters are available online for the community to test their own methods.

  16. Hare Krishna vs. Shiva Shiva”: Swami Agehananda Bharati, Drugs, and the Mystical State in Hindusim

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helton Christopher Jason

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper will form an overview of Swami Agehananda Bharati’s views about drugs as a catalyst for achieving the mystical state (in both a Hindu and general context, as well as his observations of the perception of drugs throughout the Hindu community, inside and outside South Asia. It will demonstrate that Bharati considered drugs a valid means toward achieving the mystical state, both as a scholar of Hinduism and as a practicing sannyasin.

  17. Software Description for the O’Hare Runway Configuration Management System. Volume II. Low-Level Pseudocode,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-10-01

    at fix KUBIS ] CHR CGT (character representation (length 3) of hourly arrival demand at fix CGT CHR VAINS [character representation (length 3) of...TTLDgP [floating point value of total hourly departure demand) tN FLT KUBIS [floating point value of hourly arrival demand at fix KI(I SI FLT COT

  18. O’Hare International Airport, Chicago Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-10-01

    O’h6RE IAP IL p STATImN 6.4411 vAlls u WIT BULS TEMPERATURE DEPRESION (P) TOTAL TOTAL 0 1.2 3.4 5.4 7.8 It.0 )@ll.12113.1d 115-1617-11 -~.22 .42 .4 ?.lt...SCRMT jS 1ATCIIYHO RC SUMMARY ATk -F>AT,, S i~JlrMfAf 72 L1 iJCA’IJ-CltAiL IAP IL I. ) AL.E 1 "Tlf ________________ WIT BULB TEMPERATURE DEPRESION (P

  19. 76 FR 18622 - Notice of Submission Deadline for Schedule Information for O'Hare International Airport, John F...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-04

    ... Airport (EWR) in accordance with the International Air Transport Association (IATA) Worldwide Scheduling... INFORMATION: The FAA has designated ORD as an IATA Level 2, Schedules Facilitated Airport, and JFK and EWR as Level 3, Coordinated Airports. Scheduled operations at JFK and EWR are limited by the FAA ] Orders, the...

  20. 77 FR 58608 - Notice of Submission Deadline for Schedule Information for O'Hare International Airport, San...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-21

    ...'s John F. Kennedy International Airport (JFK), and Newark Liberty International Airport (EWR) in... Level 2 airport, SFO as a Level 2 airport, JFK as a Level 3 airport, and EWR as a Level 3 airport. Scheduled operations at JFK and EWR are currently limited by FAA Orders until a final Congestion Management...

  1. 75 FR 20672 - Notice of Submission Deadline for Schedule Information for O'Hare International Airport, John F...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-20

    ...), New York's John F. Kennedy International Airport (JFK), and Newark Liberty International Airport (EWR... designated ORD as an IATA Level 2, Schedules Facilitated Airport, and JFK and EWR as Level 3, Coordinated Airports. The scheduled operations at JFK and EWR are currently limited by FAA orders.\\1\\ The FAA is...

  2. 75 FR 58020 - Notice of Submission Deadline for Schedule Information for O'Hare International Airport, John F...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-23

    ... (EWR) in accordance with the International Air Transport Association (IATA) Worldwide Scheduling... IATA Level 2, Schedules Facilitated Airport, and JFK and EWR as Level 3, Coordinated Airports. Scheduled operations at JFK and EWR are currently limited by the FAA by orders until October 29, 2011.\\1\\ \\1...

  3. 76 FR 56868 - Notice of Submission Deadline for Schedule Information for O'Hare International Airport, John F...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-14

    ... (EWR) in accordance with the International Air Transport Association (IATA) Worldwide Slot Guidelines... airport, JFK as a Level 3 airport, and EWR as a Level 3 airport. Scheduled operations at JFK and EWR are... (1200-0200 UTC) and at EWR and JFK from 0600 to 2300 Eastern Time (1000-0300 UTC). Carriers should...

  4. Factor Structure of the Hare Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version in German Female and Male Detainees and Community Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevecke, Kathrin; Pukrop, Ralf; Kosson, David S.; Krischer, Maya K.

    2009-01-01

    Substantial evidence exists for 3- and 4-factor models of psychopathy underlying patterns of covariation among the items of the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) in diverse adult samples. Although initial studies conducted with the Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version (PCL:YV) indicated reasonable fit for these models in incarcerated male…

  5. Modelling the hare and the tortoise: predicting the range of in-vehicle task times using critical path analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Catherine; Stanton, Neville A

    2013-01-01

    Analytic models can enable predictions about important aspects of the usability of in-vehicle information systems (IVIS) to be made at an early stage of the product development process. Task times provide a quantitative measure of user performance and are therefore important in the evaluation of IVIS usability. In this study, critical path analysis (CPA) was used to model IVIS task times in a stationary vehicle, and the technique was extended to produce predictions for slowperson and fastperson performance, as well as average user (middleperson) performance. The CPA-predicted task times were compared to task times recorded in an empirical simulator study of IVIS interaction, and the predicted times were, on average, within acceptable precision limits. This work forms the foundation for extension of the CPA model to predict IVIS task times in a moving vehicle, to reflect the demands of the dual-task driving scenario. The CPA method was extended for the prediction of slowperson and fastperson IVIS task times. Comparison of the model predictions with empirical data demonstrated acceptable precision. The CPA model can be used in early IVIS evaluation; however, there is a need to extend it to represent the dual-task driving scenario.

  6. Population limitation of the northern red-backed vole in the boreal forests of northern Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonstra, Rudy; Krebs, Charles J

    2006-11-01

    1. Across the vast boreal forests of North America, no population cycles in Clethrionomys species occur. In Eurasia, by contrast, some Clethrionomys populations of the same species undergo regular 3-5-year cycles. We examined the effects of nutrients, food, competitors, predators and climate on population limitation in the northern red-backed vole (Clethrionomys rutilus Pallas) in the south-western Yukon to determine why this difference occurs. 2. From 1986 to 1996 we added food, reduced large mammal predators and excluded snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus Erxleben) from large plots and found that none of these manipulations affected red-backed vole abundance. Adding nutrients as nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium (NPK) fertilizer had a slight negative effect, probably acting through a reduction in dwarf shrub productivity caused by competition from grasses. 3. We monitored weasel populations directly through trapping and indirectly through snow tracking. Predation by these vole specialists was irrelevant as a limiting factor most of the time because voles in this area do not reach the densities needed to sustain weasel populations. Other boreal forest mammal and bird predators did not focus on red-backed voles. However, when red-backed vole populations increased in the forest and Microtus voles also increased in the meadows, weasel populations increased and may have temporarily depressed red-backed voles in winter. 4. We monitored one major potential food, white spruce seeds, but seed fall was not related to population changes in red-backed voles, even after mast years. 5. We assessed the impact of weather variables, and the average depth of the snow pack during winter (October-March) was correlated directly with vole demography, having both direct effects in that year and delayed effects in the following year. 6. Our long-term trapping data (1973-96) indicate that Clethrionomys populations fluctuated, with peaks following hare peaks by 2-3 years. 7. We propose

  7. Rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus 2 (GI.2) is replacing endemic strains of RHDV in the Australian landscape within 18 months of its arrival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahar, Jackie E; Hall, Robyn N; Peacock, David; Kovaliski, John; Piper, Melissa; Mourant, Roslyn; Huang, Nina; Campbell, Susan; Gu, Xingnian; Read, Andrew; Urakova, Nadya; Cox, Tarnya; Holmes, Edward C; Strive, Tanja

    2017-11-01

    Rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus 2 (RHDV2; Lagovirus GI.2) is a pathogenic calicivirus that affects European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) and various hare (Lepus) species. GI.2 was first detected in France in 2010 and subsequently caused epidemics in wild and domestic lagomorph populations throughout Europe. In May 2015 GI.2 was detected in Australia. Within 18 months of its initial detection GI.2 had spread to all Australian states and territories and rapidly became the dominant circulating strain, replacing Rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV/GI.1) in mainland Australia. Reconstruction of the evolutionary history of 127 Australian GI.2 isolates revealed that the virus arrived in Australia at least several months before its initial description and likely circulated unnoticed in wild rabbit populations in the east of the continent prior to its detection. GI.2 sequences isolated from five hares clustered with sequences from sympatric rabbit populations sampled contemporaneously, indicating multiple spillover events into hares rather than an adaptation of the Australian GI.2 to a new host. Since the presence of GI.2 in Australia may have wide ranging consequences for rabbit biocontrol, particularly with the release of the novel biocontrol agent GI.1a/RHDVa-K5 in March 2017, ongoing surveillance is critical to understanding the interactions of the various lagoviruses in Australia, and their impact on host populations.IMPORTANCE This study describes the spread and distribution of Rabbit Haemorrhagic Disease virus 2 (GI.2) in Australia since its first detection in May 2015. Within the first 18 months following its detection, RHDV2 spread from east to west across the continent and became the dominant strain in all mainland states of Australia. This has important implications for pest animal management and for owners of pet and farmed rabbits, as there is currently no effective vaccine available in Australia for GI.2. The closely related RHDV (GI.1) is used to

  8. 78 FR 7447 - Endangered Species; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    ...) Cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris tigris) Maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus.... Species: Leopard (Panthera pardus) Snow leopard (Uncia uncia) Applicant: Smoky Mountain Zoo, Pigeon Forge...

  9. 77 FR 74506 - Endangered Species; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-14

    ... wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus) Baird's tapir (Tapirus bairdii) Red-crowned crane (Grus japonensis) Komodo... Iguanidae Species: African wild dog (Lycaon pictus) Amur tiger (Panthera tigris altaica) Lar gibbon...

  10. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PCAP-01-1638 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PCAP-01-1638 gb|ACR84303.1| duffy antigen/chemokine receptor [Lepus castroviej...oi] gb|ACR84305.1| duffy antigen/chemokine receptor [Lepus castroviejoi] gb|ACR84306.1| duffy antigen/chemok...ine receptor [Lepus castroviejoi] gb|ACR84307.1| duffy antigen/chemokine receptor [Lepus castroviejoi] gb|AC...R84308.1| duffy antigen/chemokine receptor [Lepus castroviejoi] ACR84303.1 1e-126 75% ...

  11. Nematoides em feijoeiro-comum: ocorrência nos Estados do Paraná e São Paulo, e interação de cultivares com Pratylenchus brachyurus, Meloidogyne incognita e Meloidogyne javanica

    OpenAIRE

    Mauro Ferreira Bonfim Junior

    2013-01-01

    O feijoeiro-comum (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) é cultivado em vários países ao redor do mundo. O Brasil figura nesse cenário como o segundo maior produtor mundial de grãos secos da cultura, que é a principal fonte de proteína de origem vegetal para o consumo interno. Os nematoides-das-galhas, Meloidogyne incognita e M. javanica, são as principais espécies causadoras da redução de produtividade da cultura. Entretanto, o status hospedeiro das cultivares comerciais atuais ao nematoide das galhas é de...

  12. Characterization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus spp. carrying the mecC gene, isolated from wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loncaric, Igor; Kübber-Heiss, Anna; Posautz, Annika; Stalder, Gabrielle L; Hoffmann, Daniel; Rosengarten, Renate; Walzer, Chris

    2013-10-01

    A recently identified mecA homologue, mecC, in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has been isolated from humans and different animal hosts. The aim of this study was to determine antimicrobial resistance and provide molecular characterization of MRSA and methicillin-resistant non-Staphylococcus aureus staphylococci (MRnSA) isolated from wildlife that carried the gene mecC. Five S. aureus and one coagulase-negative Staphylococcus isolate displaying phenotypic oxacillin resistance, but not recognized with conventional PCR for mecA, were further characterized by a polyphasic approach. The presence of mecC in all isolates was determined using specific PCR. PCR targeting Panton-Valentine leucocidin (PVL) genes of MRSA was performed. MRSA isolates were genotyped by spa typing and multilocus sequence typing. All isolates were genotyped by staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) typing. 16S rDNA sequence analysis for MRnSA identification was performed. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed for all isolates. All five MRSA isolates contained the mecC gene, were PVL negative, carried SCCmec type XI and belonged to ST130 (where ST stands for sequence type), with spa types t843, t10513 or t3256, or to ST2620, with spa type t4335. The MRnSA isolate, most closely related to Staphylococcus stepanovicii, carried mecA and blaZ genes related to SCCmec XI. MRSA isolates exhibited resistance to the β-lactams only. The MRSA isolates described in this study represent the first detection of mecC-positive MRSA in a European otter (Lutra lutra) and a European brown hare (Lepus europaeus). The MRnSA isolate represents the first isolation of MRnSA from a Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx).

  13. Occurrence of tongue worm, Linguatula cf. serrata (Pentastomida: Linguatulidae in wild canids and livestock in south-eastern Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shokoofeh Shamsi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Pentastomids are obligate zoonotic arthropod parasites utilising canids and vulpids as their definitive hosts and several herbivorous species as their intermediate hosts. Reported only 10 times in Australia over the last 150 years as incidental findings, adult Pentastomids referred to as Linguatula serrata have been encountered in nasal cavities of domestic and wild dogs, and foxes. Nymphs have been reported in cattle and rabbits. In the present study, a number of potential definitive hosts, including red foxes (Vulpes vulpes, wild dogs (Canis lupus dingo and C.l. dingo x C. familiaris and feral cats (Felis catus, and intermediate hosts cattle (Bos taurus, sheep (Ovis aries, feral pigs (Sus scrofa, rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus, goats (Capra hircus and a European hare (Lepus europaeus, from the highlands of south-eastern Australia were examined. Of the animals examined 67.6% of wild dogs (n = 37, 14.5% of red foxes (n = 55 and 4.3% of cattle (n = 164 were found to be infected with Pentastomids, herein identified as Linguatula cf. serrata. The common occurrence of the parasite in wild dogs and less frequently in foxes suggests these wild canids have potential to act as a reservoir for infection of livestock, wildlife, domestic dogs and possibly humans. The unexpected high frequency of the parasite in wild dogs and foxes in south-eastern Australia suggests the parasite is more common than previously realised. Of the potential intermediate hosts in the region, only 4.3% of cattle were found to be infected with pentastomid nymphs which suggest the search for the host(s acting as the main intermediate host in the region should continue. Future studies should investigate transmission patterns, health impacts on hosts and whether the parasite has zoonotic significance in Australia. Keywords: Tongue worm, Australia, Linguatulidae, Pentastomida

  14. Occurrence of tongue worm, Linguatula cf. serrata (Pentastomida: Linguatulidae) in wild canids and livestock in south-eastern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamsi, Shokoofeh; McSpadden, Kate; Baker, Sara; Jenkins, David J

    2017-12-01

    Pentastomids are obligate zoonotic arthropod parasites utilising canids and vulpids as their definitive hosts and several herbivorous species as their intermediate hosts. Reported only 10 times in Australia over the last 150 years as incidental findings, adult Pentastomids referred to as Linguatula serrata have been encountered in nasal cavities of domestic and wild dogs, and foxes. Nymphs have been reported in cattle and rabbits. In the present study, a number of potential definitive hosts, including red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), wild dogs (Canis lupus dingo and C.l. dingo x C. familiaris) and feral cats (Felis catus), and intermediate hosts cattle (Bos taurus), sheep (Ovis aries), feral pigs (Sus scrofa), rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus), goats (Capra hircus) and a European hare (Lepus europaeus), from the highlands of south-eastern Australia were examined. Of the animals examined 67.6% of wild dogs (n = 37), 14.5% of red foxes (n = 55) and 4.3% of cattle (n = 164) were found to be infected with Pentastomids, herein identified as Linguatula cf. serrata. The common occurrence of the parasite in wild dogs and less frequently in foxes suggests these wild canids have potential to act as a reservoir for infection of livestock, wildlife, domestic dogs and possibly humans. The unexpected high frequency of the parasite in wild dogs and foxes in south-eastern Australia suggests the parasite is more common than previously realised. Of the potential intermediate hosts in the region, only 4.3% of cattle were found to be infected with pentastomid nymphs which suggest the search for the host(s) acting as the main intermediate host in the region should continue. Future studies should investigate transmission patterns, health impacts on hosts and whether the parasite has zoonotic significance in Australia.

  15. Alternative prey use affects helminth parasite infections in grey wolves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, Olwyn C; Roth, James D

    2016-09-01

    Predators affect prey populations not only through direct predation, but also by acting as definitive hosts for their parasites and completing parasite life cycles. Understanding the affects of parasitism on prey population dynamics requires knowing how their predators' parasite community is affected by diet and prey availability. Ungulates, such as moose (Alces americanus) and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), are often important prey for wolves (Canis lupus), but wolves also consume a variety of alternative prey, including beaver (Castor canadensis) and snowshoe hare (Lepus americanus). The use of alternative prey, which may host different or fewer parasites than ungulates, could potentially reduce overall abundance of ungulate parasites within the ecosystem, benefiting both wolves and ungulate hosts. We examined parasites in wolf carcasses from eastern Manitoba and estimated wolf diet using stable isotope analysis. Taeniidae cestodes were present in most wolves (75%), reflecting a diet primarily comprised of ungulates, but nematodes were unexpectedly rare. Cestode abundance was negatively related to the wolf's δ(13) C value, indicating diet affects parasite abundance. Wolves that consumed a higher proportion of beaver and caribou (Rangifer tarandus), estimated using Bayesian mixing models, had lower cestode abundance, suggesting the use of these alternative prey can reduce parasite loads. Long-term consumption of beavers may lower the abundance of adult parasites in wolves, eventually lowering parasite density in the region and ultimately benefiting ungulates that serve as intermediate hosts. Thus, alternative prey can affect both predator-prey and host-parasite interactions and potentially affect food web dynamics. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2016 British Ecological Society.

  16. Population ecology of two woodland caribou herds in the southern Yukon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Farnell

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the mid 1980's, the Aishihik herd of woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou declined from approximately 1500 to 583 animals. During the same period a nearby herd, the Wolf Lake Herd increased from approximately 664 to 1249 animals. This paper compares aspects of the ecology of these two herds to determine how these relationships conform to a general model of caribou population ecology described by Seip (1992. Comparisons include caribou demographic characteristics and distribution patterns, predator densities, abundance of alternate prey, human hunting and snow depth on caribou winter range. Ecological differences between herds were apparent in the ratio of prime bulls to cows, the abundance of moose (Alces alces, the occurrence of coyotes (Canis latrans, late winter snow conditions, and access to hunting. We hypothesize that the Wolf Lake herd was able to grow because wolves {Canis lupus preyed mainly on the relatively abundant moose population. A highly clumped winter caribou distribution may have further reduced the impact of wolf predation on the Wolf Lake herd. In contrast, the decline of the Aishihik herd was accompanied by a relative scarcity of moose, few prime aged caribou bulls probably due to a more liberal trophy harvest, and wider late-winter dispersion that offered wolves greater access to caribou. The decline may have been exaggerated by the peak in the snowshoe hare (Lepus americanus cycle which may have temporarily improved wolf pup survival. We suspect that moose are normally the primary prey of wolves in the Yukon and that a decline in moose eventually results in their being too scarce to offer an economical prey choice, prompting a prey switch to caribou. Results of our analyses conform incompletely to Seip's (1992 model for woodland caribou population ecology, particularly because the Wolf Lake herd prospered where moose were relatively abundant.

  17. Canada lynx Lynx canadensis habitat and forest succession in northern Maine, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoving, C.L.; Harrison, D.J.; Krohn, W.B.; Jakubas, W.J.; McCollough, M.A.

    2004-01-01

    The contiguous United States population of Canada lynx Lynx canadensis was listed as threatened in 2000. The long-term viability of lynx populations at the southern edge of their geographic range has been hypothesized to be dependent on old growth forests; however, lynx are a specialist predator on snowshoe hare Lepus americanus, a species associated with early-successional forests. To quantify the effects of succession and forest management on landscape-scale (100 km2) patterns of habitat occupancy by lynx, we compared landscape attributes in northern Maine, USA, where lynx had been detected on snow track surveys to landscape attributes where surveys had been conducted, but lynx tracks had not been detected. Models were constructed a priori and compared using logistic regression and Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC), which quantitatively balances data fit and parsimony. In the models with the lowest (i.e. best) AIC, lynx were more likely to occur in landscapes with much regenerating forest, and less likely to occur in landscapes with much recent clearcut, partial harvest and forested wetland. Lynx were not associated positively or negatively with mature coniferous forest. A probabilistic map of the model indicated a patchy distribution of lynx habitat in northern Maine. According to an additional survey of the study area for lynx tracks during the winter of 2003, the model correctly classified 63.5% of the lynx occurrences and absences. Lynx were more closely associated with young forests than mature forests; however, old-growth forests were functionally absent from the landscape. Lynx habitat could be reduced in northern Maine, given recent trends in forest management practices. Harvest strategies have shifted from clearcutting to partial harvesting. If this trend continues, future landscapes will shift away from extensive regenerating forests and toward landscapes dominated by pole-sized and larger stands. Because Maine presently supports the only verified

  18. Automatic Detection of Animals in Mowing Operations Using Thermal Cameras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ole Green

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available During the last decades, high-efficiency farming equipment has been developed in the agricultural sector. This has also included efficiency improvement of moving techniques, which include increased working speeds and widths. Therefore, the risk of wild animals being accidentally injured or killed during routine farming operations has increased dramatically over the years. In particular, the nests of ground nesting bird species like grey partridge (Perdix perdix or pheasant (Phasianus colchicus are vulnerable to farming operations in their breeding habitat, whereas in mammals, the natural instinct of e.g., leverets of brown hare (Lepus europaeus and fawns of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus to lay low and still in the vegetation to avoid predators increase their risk of being killed or injured in farming operations. Various methods and approaches have been used to reduce wildlife mortality resulting from farming operations. However, since wildlife-friendly farming often results in lower efficiency, attempts have been made to develop automatic systems capable of detecting wild animals in the crop. Here we assessed the suitability of thermal imaging in combination with digital image processing to automatically detect a chicken (Gallus domesticus and a rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus in a grassland habitat. Throughout the different test scenarios, our study animals were detected with a high precision, although the most dense grass cover reduced the detection rate. We conclude that thermal imaging and digital imaging processing may be an important tool for the improvement of wildlife-friendly farming practices in the future.

  19. Molecular characterization of adipose tissue in the African elephant (Loxodonta africana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emeli M Nilsson

    Full Text Available Adipose tissue (AT is a dynamic and flexible organ with regulatory roles in physiological functions including metabolism, reproduction and inflammation; secreted adipokines, including leptin, and fatty acids facilitate many of these roles. The African elephant (Loxodonta africana is experiencing serious challenges to optimal reproduction in captivity. The physiological and molecular basis of this impaired fertility remains unknown. AT production of leptin is a crucial molecular link between nutritional status, adiposity and fertility in many species. We propose that leptin has a similar function in the African elephant. African elephant visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue (AT was obtained from both sexes and a range of ages including females with known pregnancy status. RNA was extracted and histological sections created and analyzed by microarray, PCR and immunohistochemistry respectively. Gas-chromatography was used to determine the fatty acid composition of AT. Microarray expression profiling was used to compare gene expression profiles of AT from pre-pubertal versus reproductively competent adult African elephants. This study demonstrates, for the first time, leptin mRNA and protein expression in African elephant AT. The derived protein sequence of the elephant leptin protein was exploited to determine its relationship within the class I helical cytokine superfamily, which indicates that elephant leptin is most closely related to the leptin orthologs of Oryctolagus cuniculus (European rabbit, Lepus oiostolus (woolly hare, and members of the Ochotonidae (Pika. Immunohistological analysis identified considerable leptin staining within the cytoplasm of adipocytes. Significant differences in fatty acid profiles between pregnant and non-pregnant animals were revealed, most notably a reduction in both linoleic and α linoleic acid in pregnant animals. This report forms the basis for future studies to address the effect of nutrient composition

  20. How to interest people for the hare instead of the chase, an exploration of open script design to change consumer behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stam, Liesbeth; Eggink, Wouter; Lim, Y.K.; Niedderer, K.; Redström, J.; Stolterman, E.; Valtonen, A.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we raise the question: does our consumer behaviour make us happy? The infinite source of consumer desires seems to be the justification of an ever increasing amount of products that inundate our lives. Consumption itself is set free from any functional bond, bringing our current

  1. Galactic archeology with CoRoT, Kepler, and K2: Hare&Hounds exercises within the asteroSTEP collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miglio, Andrea; Casagrande, Luca

    2015-08-01

    Inferring the full, detailed chemodynamical evolution of the Milky Way is a long sought-after goal now being made achievable by unprecedented quantities and types of stellar catalogs. However, interpretation of these data relies critically on understanding the uncertainties and biases inherent to the methods used. Here, we report on the status of a large collaborative project that aims at assessing under which conditions and with which accuracy the properties of a stellar population can be recovered, given current state-of-the-art analysis methods. We seek a comprehensive understanding of the impacts of target selection biases and uncertainties on classical (spectroscopic, astrometric, photometric) and asteroseismic data. In this poster, we describe how this collaboration is structured into teams and tasks, the generation of mock Milky Way catalogs, and progress along other aspects of the project.

  2. 78 FR 27253 - Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-09

    ... specimens of African wild dog (Lycaon pictus) for the purpose of enhancement of the survival of the species... Gruidae Psittacidae Sturnidae Species: Maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus) Parma wallaby (Macropus parma...

  3. Influence de la rotation culturale, fertilisation et du labour sur l ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influence de la rotation culturale, fertilisation et du labour sur l'infestation des racines de sorgho ( sorghum bicolor ) par le nématode Pratylenchus brachyurus et l'effet sur le rendement de la culture au Burkina Faso.

  4. Analysis of the seasonal activity rate of sympatric carnivores and their prey in Saguaro National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mary Beth Benton; Siria A. Cerda-Navarro; Katie R. Keck; Brittany N. McKnight

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the monthly activity rates of bobcats (Lynx rufus), gray foxes (Urocyon cinereoargenteus) and four of their potential prey species, antelope jackrabbits (Lepus alleni), black-tailed jackrabbits (Lepus californicus), desert cottontails (Sylvilagus audubonii) and eastern cottontails (Sylvilagus floridanus), in Saguaro National Park using remote camera...

  5. An outdoor investigation of the absorption degradation of single ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Author Affiliations. Osayemwenre Gilbert O1 Meyer Edson L1 Mamphweli Sampson1. Fort Hare Institute of Technology (FHIT), Chemistry Building, 3rd Floor, University of Fort Hare, Private Bag x1314, Alice 5700, South Africa ...

  6. The concept of superfetation: a critical review on a 'myth' in mammalian reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roellig, Kathleen; Menzies, Brandon R; Hildebrandt, Thomas B; Goeritz, Frank

    2011-02-01

    Superfetation is understood as another conception during an already ongoing pregnancy. This implies the existence of young of different developmental stages within the female reproductive tract during certain periods of pregnancy. Nevertheless, a clear definition of the term as well as distinct criteria to identify the occurrence of superfetation in a species is missing. The variable anatomy of mammalian reproductive tracts seems to make the occurrence of superfetation more or less likely but impedes the simple evaluation of whether it is present or not. Additionally, adequate determination methods are missing or are difficult to apply at the right time. Superfetation or rather superfetation-like pregnancies are reported for numerous species including humans, livestock and rodents. The usual criteria to assume a case of superfetation include the finding of discordantly developed young within the uterus during post mortem or parturition of young after a birth interval shorter than the assumed pregnancy length. Often the occurrence of superfetation is concluded because other explanations of reproductive artifacts are missing. Even severe reproductive pathologies are often confused with superfetation. True superfetation or superfetation as a reproductive strategy may exist in some mammals. In the American mink (Neovison (Mustela) vison) and the European badger (Meles meles) superfetation occurs in combination with embryonic diapause. In the European brown hare (Lepus europaeus), superfetation has long been assumed to exist but evidence is still controversial. Superfetation definitely occurs in certain species of poeciliid and zenarchopterid fish, some of which also exhibit viviparity and maternal care. In mammals, the evolution of such a reproductive mechanism poses many interesting evolutionary, endocrine, microbial and immunological questions that require further investigation. Here we review the scant and at times ancient literature on this poorly understood topic

  7. Effects of habitat and landscape characteristics on medium and large mammal species richness and composition in northern Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María José Andrade-Núñez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing world population and demand for food and other products has accelerated the conversion of natural habitats into agricultural lands, plantations and urban areas. Changes in habitat and landscape characteristics due to land-use change can have a significant effect on species presence, abundance, and distribution. Multi-scale approaches have been used to determine the proper spatial scales at which species and communities are responding to habitat transformation. In this context, we evaluated medium and large mammal species richness and composition in gallery forest (n = 10, grassland (n = 10, and exotic tree plantation (n = 10 in a region where grasslands have been converted into exotic tree plantations. We quantified mammal species richness and composition with camera traps and track surveys. The composition of the mammal community was related with local habitat variables, and landscape variables measured at seven spatial scales. We found 14 mammal species in forest, 11 species in plantation, and 7 mammal species in grassland. Two species are exotics, the wild boar Sus scrofa Linnaeus, 1758 and the European hare Lepus europaeus Pallas, 1778. The most common species are the crab-eating fox Cerdocyon thous Linnaeus, 1766, the nine-banded armadillo Dasypus novemcinctus Linnaeus, 1758 and the gray brocket deer Mazama gouazoubira G. Fischer, 1814 which are generalist species. Our results showed significant differences in mammal species richness and composition among the three habitat types. Plantations can have positive and negative effects on the presence of species restricted to grasslands. Positive effects are reflected in a wider local distribution of some forest species that rarely use grassland. The most important habitat and landscape variables that influenced mammal species richness and composition were vertical structure index, canopy cover, tree species diversity, percentage of grass, and the percentage of forest and grassland

  8. Population dynamics of plant nematodes in cultivated soil: effect of summer cover crops in old agricultural land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodie, B B; Good, J M; Jaworski, C A

    1970-04-01

    In a 6-year cover crop sequence study, nematode population densities varied with different cover crops. Millet favored rapid increase of Belonolaimus longicaudatus and supported relatively large numbers of Pratylenchus brachyurus. Beggarweed and 'Coastal' bermudagrass favored rapid increase of B. Iongicaudatus and to a lesser extent P. brachyurus and Trichodorus christiei. Hairy indigo and Crotalaria supported relatively large numbers of P. brachyurus but suppressed B. longicaudatus. Hairy indigo also supported increases of T. christiei and Xiphinema americanum. Marigold did not favor development of any parasitic nematode species present. Tomato transplant yield was inversely related to nematode population, particularly to B. Iongicaudatus. Largest yields were obtained from plots with smallest numbers of B. longicaudatus and smallest yields were from plots with largest numbers of B. longicaudatus.

  9. Mechanisms of Action of Escapin, a Bactericidal Agent in the Ink Secretion of the Sea Hare Aplysia californica: Rapid and Long-Lasting DNA Condensation and Involvement of the OxyR-Regulated Oxidative Stress Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Ko-Chun; Tai, Phang C.

    2012-01-01

    The marine snail Aplysia californica produces escapin, an l-amino acid oxidase, in its defensive ink. Escapin uses l-lysine to produce diverse products called escapin intermediate products of l-lysine (EIP-K), including α-amino-ε-caproic acid, Δ1-piperidine-2-carboxylic acid, and Δ2-piperidine-2-carboxylic acid. EIP-K and H2O2 together, but neither alone, is a powerful bactericide. Here, we report bactericidal mechanisms of escapin products on Escherichia coli. We show that EIP-K and H2O2 together cause rapid and long-lasting DNA condensation: 2-min treatment causes significant DNA condensation and killing, and 10-min treatment causes maximal effect, lasting at least 70 h. We isolated two mutants resistant to EIP-K plus H2O2, both having a single missense mutation in the oxidation regulatory gene, oxyR. A complementation assay showed that the mutated gene, oxyR(A233V), renders resistance to EIP-K plus H2O2, and a gene dosage effect leads to reduction of resistance for strains carrying wild-type oxyR. Temperature stress with EIP-K does not produce the bactericidal effect, suggesting the effect is due to a specific response to oxidative stress. The null mutant for any single DNA-binding protein—Dps, H-NS, Hup, Him, or MukB—was not resistant to EIP-K plus H2O2, suggesting that no single DNA-binding protein is necessary to mediate this bactericidal effect, but allowing for the possibility that EIP-K plus H2O2 could function through a combination of DNA-binding proteins. The bactericidal effect of EIP-K plus H2O2 was eliminated by the ferrous ion chelator 1,10-phenanthroline, and it was reduced by the hydroxyl radical scavenger thiourea, suggesting hydroxyl radicals mediate the effects of EIP-K plus H2O2. PMID:22232273

  10. El hogar estudiantil Hare Rapa Nui de Viña del Mar. Una mirada a la educación, la emigración y la diversidad en el contexto estatal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Zurob Dreckmann

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Cada año, llegan nuevos jóvenes rapanui a estudiar al continente, respaldados por un sistema de becas de residencia de la Junaeb, la cual mantiene un hogar estudiantil exclusivo para ellos, en Viña del Mar. Aquí, nos hemos interesado en la problemática educacional de Rapa Nui desde la perspectiva de la emigración, que pone de relieve el modo en que estos jóvenes enfrentan la cotidianeidad chilena y urbana; lo que a su vez incide en el desarrollo de procesos de identificación étnica. Así, abordaremos algunos problemas a los que se ven enfrentados los becarios en su intento por completar estudios formales, que en definitiva desembocan en un alto grado de fracaso académico.

  11. Effects of livestock on the feeding ecology of endemic culpeo foxes (Pseudalopex culpaeus smithersi in central Argentina Efectos del ganado sobre la ecología trófica del zorro culpeo (Pseudalopex culpaeus smithersi (Carnivora: Canidae endémico del centro de Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MÓNICA V. PIA

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Livestock can affect the feeding ecology of carnivores either directly, by becoming potential prey, or indirectly, by modifying selection of other prey. Selection of other prey is modified through the negative effects of livestock on food and cover, which reduces density and increases vulnerability of wild prey. Pseudalopex culpaeus smithersi is an endemic subspecies of culpeo fox of central Argentina that is persecuted due to predation on livestock. We studied the direct and indirect effects of livestock on P. c. smithersi's feeding ecology by evaluating its diet, prey availability, and prey selection in two areas with different livestock abundance-a national park and an adjacent sheep and cattle ranch in the Achala grassland plateau. We studied diets from feces and used conversion coefficients to estimate prey numbers and biomass consumed. Culpeos preyed primarily on native rodents (cavies and cricetines according to both prey numbers and biomass. The differences in culpeo diet, prey availability, and prey selection between sites were strongly associated with effects of livestock. Culpeos consumed more livestock carrion and birds at the ranch, and tucos (Ctenomys sp. only at the park. Livestock density was high at the ranch and low at the park, cricetine and tuco densities were significantly higher at the park, and European hare (Lepus europaeus densities were similar between sites. According to prey numbers consumed culpeos did not appear to be selective, but according to biomass they consumed cricetines more and hares less than expected at both sites and sheep more than expected at the park. Livestock may reduce densities and increase vulnerabilities of cricetines and fossorial tucos in Achala by soil trampling that destroys burrows, competition for forage, and reduction of grass coverEl ganado puede afectar la ecología trófica de los carnívoros en forma directa, siendo una presa potencial, e indirecta, modificando la selección de otras

  12. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Natural Resources Institute, Chatham Maritime, Chatham, Kent, ME4 4TB, UK/ Namulonge Agricultural. Research Institute, P.O. Box 7084, Kampala, .... Meloidogyne is variable. Some observations have shown M. incognita and M. .... hospedeiras de Pratylenchus brachyurus. 3. Plantas diversas Fitopatalogia Brasileira 6:.

  13. 78 FR 23286 - Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-18

    ...) African wild dog (Lycaon pictus) Rothschild's starling (Leucopsar rothschildi) Radiated tortoise...) Koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) African wild dog (Lycaon pictus) Andean condor (Vultur gryphus) Harpy... under 50 CFR 17.21(g) for the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus), maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus), banteng...

  14. evaluation of tomato genotypes for resistance to root-knot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    Agriculture. CABI International Wallingford. UK. pp. 203-209. Bridge, J. and Page, S.L.J. 1980. Tropical pest management, root gall scoring scale. 26. Number 3. Chindo, P.S., Emechebe, A.M. and Marley, P.S.. 2006.. Effect of initial population density of pratylenchus brachyurus on maize department of crop protection, faculty ...

  15. The Namibian coast, on the west coast of southern Africa, has a high ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    denise

    brachyurus, the spotted gulley shark Triakis mega- lopterus and the smoothhound Mustelus mustelus, are targeted. Access to shore-angling on the Namibian coast is restricted to about one-quarter of the coastline, some. 260 km, stretching from Sandwich Harbour, south of. Walvis Bay, to the mouth of the Ugab River in the ...

  16. Charismatic microfauna alter cyanobacterial production through a trophic cascade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geange, S. W.; Stier, A. C.

    2010-06-01

    The trophic ecology of cyanobacterial blooms is poorly understood on coral reefs. Blooms of toxic cyanobacteria, Lyngbya majuscula, can quickly form large mats. The herbivorous sea hare, Stylocheilus striatus, and the predatory nudibranch, Gymnodoris ceylonica, often associate with these blooms, forming a linear food chain: nudibranch—sea hare—cyanobacteria. Using laboratory studies, this study quantified (1) the functional response of nudibranchs, (2) the effect of sea hare size on predation rates, and (3) the strength of the indirect effect of sea hare predation on cyanobacteria (i.e., a trophic cascade). Nudibranchs consumed on average 2.4 sea hares d-1, with the consumption of small sea hares 22 times greater than the consumption of large sea hares. Predation of sea hares reduced herbivory. Cyanobacterial biomass was 1.5 times greater when nudibranchs were present relative to when nudibranchs were absent. Although sea hare grazing can substantially reduce cyanobacterial biomass, predation of sea hares may mitigate grazing pressure, and therefore increase the abundance of cyanobacteria.

  17. extraction of high quality dna from polysaccharides-secreting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cistvr

    ily and was well digested by restriction enzymes. All of the other methods tested resulted in the ... that was not contaminated with inhibitors of DNA modifying enzymes and poly- merases. Both pathogens secrete excessive .... De gomziekte van het suikerret. hare oorzaak in hare bestrijding. Archief voor de Suikerindustrie ...

  18. South African Journal of Animal Science: Contact

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Principal Contact. Prof V Muchenje Editor-in-Chief University of Fort Hare. University of Fort Hare. Faculty of Science and Agriculture. P. Bag X 1314, Alice, 5700, South Africa. Alternative email: vmuchenje@hotmail.com. Phone: +27 40 602 2059. Fax: +27 86 628 2967. Email: vmuchenje@ufh.ac.za ...

  19. Integrated Cognitive Architectures For Robust Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-20

    which has been often associated with similar functions (Ferrer, OʼHare, & Bunge , 2009). The modelʼs second key component is the production rules that...state fMRI Study. Cerebral Cortex, 18, 2735-2747. Ferrer, E., OʼHare, E. O., & Bunge , S. A. (2009). Fluid reasoning and the developing brain

  20. The Content Validity of Juvenile Psychopathy: An Empirical Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynam, Donald R.; Derefinko, Karen J.; Caspi, Avshalom; Loeber, Rolf; Stouthamer-Loeber, Magda

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the content validity of a juvenile psychopathy measure, the Childhood Psychopathy Scale (CPS; D. R. Lynam, 1997), based on a downward translation of an adult instrument, the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R; R. D. Hare, 1991). The CPS was compared with two other indices of juvenile psychopathy: (a) an index derived…

  1. The Role of Antisociality in the Psychopathy Construct: Comment on Skeem and Cooke (2010)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hare, Robert D.; Neumann, Craig S.

    2010-01-01

    J. Skeem and D. J. Cooke (2010) asserted that Hare and Neumann consider criminality to be an essential component of the psychopathy construct. The assertion, presented in the guise of a debate on the nature of psychopathy, is neither accurate nor consistent with the clinical and empirical literature on psychopathy to which Hare and Neumann have…

  2. Ecology of lynx in northern Canada and Alaska [Chapter 9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garth Mowat; Kim G. Poole; Mark O' Donoghue

    2000-01-01

    We review the ecology of lynx in the northern part of its range, drawing heavily on the results of recent research from that region. Snowshoe hares form the bulk of prey items in essentially all studies and at all periods in the cycle, but use of alternative prey, often red squirrel, increases as hares become scarce. Caching of freshly killed prey is rare,...

  3. Space-use, diet, demographics, and topographic associations of lynx in the southern Canadian Rocky Mountains: A study [Chapter 12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton D. Apps

    2000-01-01

    Snowshoe hares are considered the primary prey of Canada lynx throughout their range. Relative to northern populations, hares occurring in mountainous regions at southern latitudes are thought to remain at low and stable densities through time. Hence, the ecology of associated southern lynx populations is expected to resemble that of northern populations during the low...

  4. Endemicity of cleft lip/palate in a rural community in South-East Ghana

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The causal factors and magnitude of malformation of cleft lip (hare lip) amongst some inhabitants of Wudoaba, a village in south-eastern Ghana was investigated because most women visiting the night market in the village claimed some of their counterparts had cleft lip (hare-lip) while some spoke through their nose.

  5. The Cerrito Site (AR-4): A Piedra Lumbre Phase Settlement at Abiquiu Reservoir,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-11-01

    fragment AR- 513-2- 2c Lepus sp. AR-513-O-3c Capra sp. Lepus sp. Neotoma sp. AR-513-2-c/c Canis familiaris Capra sp. Turkey AR- 513-2-ic i...of the fauna of the Abiquiu Reservoir District: Wildlife which now utilize the area in moderate numbers include mule deer, antelope, cottontail...the mourning doves... Most of the rocky slopes and gravelly banks on the project are too unstable to harbor much wildlife . Cliff swallows and swifts

  6. Serologic evidence of Leishmania infection in free-ranging wild and domestic canids around a Brazilian National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curi, Nelson Henrique de Almeida; Miranda, Ildikó; Talamoni, Sônia A

    2006-02-01

    Transmission of disease between wildlife, domestic animals, and humans is of great concern to conservation issues and public health. Here we report on the prevalence of anti-Leishmania sp. antibodies in 21 wild canids (7 Chrysocyon brachyurus, 12 Cerdocyon thous, and 2 Lycalopex vetulus) and 74 free domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) sampled around the Serra do Cipó National Park. In dogs, the apparent prevalence was 8.1% and in wild canids it was 19% (2 crab-eating foxes, C. thous, and 2 maned wolves, C. brachyurus). Management of the domestic dog population with evaluation of incidence changes in humans and wildlife, and enlightenment on the role of wild reservoirs are essential issues for future action and research.

  7. Serologic evidence of Leishmania infection in free-ranging wild and domestic canids around a Brazilian National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Henrique de Almeida Curi

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Transmission of disease between wildlife, domestic animals, and humans is of great concern to conservation issues and public health. Here we report on the prevalence of anti-Leishmania sp. antibodies in 21 wild canids (7 Chrysocyon brachyurus, 12 Cerdocyon thous, and 2 Lycalopex vetulus and 74 free domestic dogs (Canis familiaris sampled around the Serra do Cipó National Park. In dogs, the apparent prevalence was 8.1% and in wild canids it was 19% (2 crab-eating foxes, C. thous, and 2 maned wolves, C. brachyurus. Management of the domestic dog population with evaluation of incidence changes in humans and wildlife, and enlightenment on the role of wild reservoirs are essential issues for future action and research.

  8. Dasyrhynchus pacificus Robinson, 1965 (Trypanorhyncha: Dasyrhynchidae description of the adult form Descrição da forma adulta de Dasyrhynchus pacificus Robinson, 1965 (Trypanorhyncha: Dasynrhynchidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Carmona de São Clemente

    1989-03-01

    Full Text Available One out of four specimens of sharks, Carcharhinus brachyurus (Günther, 1860, captured off the southern Brazilian Coast, harboured cestodes identified as Dasyrhynchus pacificus Robinson, 1965, of which the adult form is now described and referred as ocurring in Brazil.Um entre quatro espécimes de Carcharhinus brachyurus (Günther, 1860, coletados na costa sul brasileira, estava parasitado por cestóides pertencentes ao gênero Dasyrhynchus Pintner, 1928. Os espécimes foram identificados como D. pacificus Ribinson, 1965, sendo este o primeiro registo da ocorrência desta espécie no Brasil. Nesta oportunidade, é pela primeira vez apresentada a descrição da forma adulta, embora sem o proglotide grávido.

  9. Larval development of Japanese "conchostracans": Part 3, larval development of Lynceus biformis (crustacea, branchiopoda, laevicaudata) based on scanning electron microscopy and fluorescence microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olesen, Jørgen; Fritsch, Martin; Grygier, Mark J

    2013-02-01

    For comparison with the remarkable larvae of the laevicaudatan (clam shrimp) Lynceus brachyurus, a basic description of the larval sequence of another laevicaudatan branchiopod, the Japanese Lynceus biformis, is provided. Four larval stages have been identified, ranging in size from 258 to 560 μm in length. The first stage has no flattened dorsal shield, in contrast to the three following stages, in which such a shield is present. During development, the only significant changes to the naupliar appendages occur in the antenna at the molt from stage 1 to 2, with the addition of a fourth apical seta to the endopod and a change in the form of the naupliar process, used for food manipulation, from a long, unbranched, pointed spine to a bifid structure. In addition, buds of trunk limbs (five pairs) first appear externally in stage 4 but can be recognized through the cuticle in the previous stage. The larval sequence and larval morphology of L. biformis differ from those of L. brachyurus in at least two respects. L. brachyurus has a dorsal shield in the earliest known stages, but such a shield is lacking in the first stage of L. biformis. Another difference is that L. brachyurus has a huge, flattened, kidney-shaped labrum, whereas that of L. biformis is smaller and bears four robust, denticulate spines on the distal margin. Based on out-group comparison, the morphology of L. biformis, at least in these respects, is likely to represent the ancestral morphology. Despite the partly peculiar morphology of the larvae of Lynceus species, they share many similarities with other branchiopod larvae, at least two of which, the naupliar swimming/feeding apparatus and the mode of development of the trunk limbs, could be considered synapomorphies for the Branchiopoda. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Environmental Assessment: Space Innovation and Development Center Schriever AFB, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-01

    community. Pocket gophers (Thomomys sp.), Ord’s kangaroo rat (Dipodymis ordii), prairie voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus), deer mice ( Peromyscus ... maniculatus ), black-tailed jackrabbits (Lepus californicus), western harvest mouse (Reithrodontomys megalotis), thirteen-lined ground squirrel...children, who are more at risk because of developing body systems, comparatively higher consumption-to-weight ratios, behaviors that may expose

  11. Incisor morphology as an aid in the systematics of the South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    were never so pronounced thar, depending on the toot.h sectioned. ambiguous classification of the species could result. Incisor tooth pattern variation in L. capensis. The L. C£Jpensis incisor tooth pattern provides a reliable means of separating this taxon from the other Lepus material. The enamel fold was consistently ...

  12. 1 Land use determinants of small mammal abundance and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Like other animals, small mammals must obtain sufficient energy, nutrients and vitamins ... frequency of plague incidence, based on results from previous research on rodents, fleas and plague casualties ..... Plague Distribution and Outbreaks in the Western Usambara Mountains, Tanzania' (Acronym: LEPUS), funded by the.

  13. Finding of No Significant Impact: Military Family Housing Revitalization Project Nellis Air Force Base, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-02-01

    species ( Dipodomys spp.), jackrabbit (Lepus californicus), western cottontail (Sylvilagus audubon), mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), kit fox (Vulpes...impacts are anticipated under the No-Action Alternative. 4.2.4 Transportation Direct and indirect traffic impacts were determined for key roadways

  14. Environmental Assessment: Military Housing Privatization Initiative Schriever Air Force Base, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-08-24

    key and essential positions; • Preservation of historic housing; and • Housing for the personnel whose level of regular military compensation is... Dipodomys ordii Lepus californicus Microtus pennsylvanicus Peromyscus maniculatus Procyon lotor Reithrodontomys mega/otis Spermophilus...proposed action). The following table presents the projected changes to traffic counts at key intersections. It should be noted that the study did not

  15. Распределение и экология рыси lynx lynx L. (1758) на Лено-Амгинском междуречье Якутии

    OpenAIRE

    Мордосов, И.

    2012-01-01

    The materials for distribution, ecology, status and population movement of the Lynx lynx L. are given. It is established that an increase in the percentage of forest area leads to a reduction in the number of blue hare and lynx. The highest density of hare and lynx population is relatively high observed within the taiga-alas landscapes. In recent decades, the number of hare movement is regulated by an active hunting, which may lead to a change of the lynx population status. It is suggested th...

  16. Furbearer track count index testing and development

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Indices of abundance can be useful in monitoring furbearer populations where actual counts of individual animals are difficult. I sampled marten and snowshoe hare...

  17. Data summary of all endpoints measured

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — qPCR results for Vitellogenin. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Armstrong, B., J. Lazorchak , K. Jensen , H. Haring , M.E. Smith, R. Flick...

  18. Omega-3 Fatty Acids during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    OMEGA-3 FATTY ACIDS DURING PREGNANCY S HARE W ITH W OMEN OMEGA-3 FATTY ACIDS DURING PREGNANCY During pregnancy, your ... the foods you eat and vitamins you take. Omega-3 fatty acids (omega-3s) are an important ...

  19. Mida teha, et rohkem noori õpetajaks hakkaks? / Merit Paist, Georg Aher, Eimar Veldre, Monika Sillang

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Küsimusele vastavad Tallinna Ülikooli vastuvõtuspetsialist Merit Paist, koolitamis- ja nõustamiskeskuse Hared juhatuse liige Georg Aher, Tallinna Ülikooli üliõpilased Eimar Veldre ja Monika Sillang

  20. Perineal Massage in Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    PERINEAL MASSAGE IN PREGNANCY S HARE W ITH W OMEN PERINEAL MASSAGE IN PREGNANCY What Is My “Perineum”? Your perineum ... research studies. Several studies have found that perineal massage during the last weeks of pregnancy can reduce ...

  1. COMMON GROUNDS BETWEEN PRINTMAKING AND STREET ART

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Balamber, Burcak

    2016-01-01

    ... to street based artists such as Keith Haring and Jean-Michel Basquiat entering to the galleries, and transformed into an artistic manner of expression having aesthetic concerns by adopting a more inclusive definition ‘street art...

  2. http://spilplus.journals.ac.za

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    March Hare, and the sixteenth according to the Dormouse --- the King ...... On Chomsky's earlier view, of a system of rules and principles that .... A less inadequate version of the rule would read as follows: 'Switch the ...... Metaphysics Market.

  3. Veterans’ Disability Benefits: Better Accountability and Access Would Improve the Benefits Delivery at Discharge Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    Keith Ellison House of Representatives The Honorable Brad Ellsworth House of Representatives The Honorable Gabrielle Giffords House of...Representatives The Honorable Kirsten Gillibrand House of Representatives The Honorable Phil Hare House of Representatives The Honorable Baron Hill House of

  4. Military Disability System: Increased Supports for Servicemembers and Better Pilot Planning Could Improve the Disability Evaluation Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    Representatives The Honorable David Davis House of Representatives The Honorable Joe Donnelly House of Representatives The Honorable Keith Ellison...Honorable Kirsten Gillibrand House of Representatives The Honorable Phil Hare House of Representatives The Honorable Baron Hill House of

  5. Army Health Care. Progress Made in Staffing and Monitoring Units that Provide Outpatient Case Management, but Additional Steps Needed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    The Honorable Joe Courtney House of Representatives The Honorable Joe Donnelly House of Representatives The Honorable Keith Ellison House of... Hare House of Representatives The Honorable Baron Hill House of Representatives The Honorable Mazie Hirono House of Representatives The Honorable

  6. Temperature profile data from CTD casts as part of the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Study and Norton Sound Project from 1985-07-14 to 1989-09-08 (NODC Accession 0000360)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected from the O'HARE and NOAA Ship JOHN N. COBB from July 14, 1985 to September 8, 1989. Data were submitted by University of...

  7. Cyber awareness initiatives in South Africa: a national perspective

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Grobler, M

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Research, the University of Fort Hare, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, and the University of Pretoria. Current initiatives cover secondary school pupils, tertiary level students, public and private sector enterprises, and senior citizens...

  8. Effect of reduced humic acid on the transport of ferrihydrite nanoparticles under anoxic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Peng; Li, Wenlu; Wang, Dengjun; Jiang, Yi; Pan, Chao; Fortner, John D; Yuan, Songhu

    2017-02-01

    Humic acid (HA) occurs ubiquitously in the subsurface environments and is well-known to play a critical role in the fate and transport of ferrihydrite nanoparticles (NPs) and NPs-associated contaminants. Under anoxic conditions, HA can readily be reduced by microorganisms or geochemical reducing species, and the mechanisms and kinetics of ferrihydrite reduction by reduced HA (HAred) are well-documented; however, the role of these redox reactions on the transport of ferrihydrite NPs is largely underestimated. This study provides new knowledge regarding the role of HA (both reduced HA (HAred) and oxidized HA (HAox)) of environmentally relevant concentrations (0-50 mg C/L) on the transport of ferrihydrite NPs in anoxic sand columns. Our findings show that, regardless of the redox state, the presence of a low concentration of HA (3 mg C/L) inhibited ferrihydrite NP's transport due to enhanced aggregation (and deposition) between positively charged ferrihydrite NPs and negatively charged HA molecules. In contrast, higher HA (both HAred and HAox) concentration (≥10 mg C/L) significantly enhanced the mobility of ferrihydrite NPs, primarily due to the enhanced electrostatic and steric stabilization originating from excessively adsorbed HA molecules. Interestingly, the transport of ferrihydrite NPs is substantially lower in the presence of HAred than in the presence of HAox. This distinct effect (HAred vs. HAox) on the particle transport is attributed to the fact that reductive dissolution of ferrihydrite NPs occurs in the presence of HAred (ferrihydrite dissolves and thus total breakthrough decreases), but not in the presence of HAox. Furthermore, the abatement extent of ferrihydrite NPs transport triggered by the presence of HAred is dependent on dissolved HAred concentration. Taken together, our findings provide direct, and much needed insights into the distinct roles of redox state of HA on the transport of redox-sensitive metal-bearing NPs in porous media

  9. The Entry Psychiatric Screen (EPS): A Psychiatric Screening Procedure for Applicants for Military Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-12-01

    Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR (First, et al., 2001) and the Hare Psychopathy Checklist (Hart, Cox, & Hare, 1995). In total, 96 induction...psychotic characteristics. EPS Antisocial Scale Here again, the lack of participants in our sample who manifested clinical levels of psychopathy ... Psychopathy Checklist revealed that no members of our sample met the criteria for clinical psychopathy . For each of the three remaining diagnostic

  10. Distinctive Functions of the United States Air Force in the Cyberspace Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    of this distinct cyberspace function. As observed by Hare and Zimmermann, in the joint fight today “we cannot achieve victory without dominating...physical domains. 30 Hare and Zimmermann, “The Air Force in Cyberspace”, 94. 31 Rogers, “Shaping the Air Force”, 11; Radice, “Dominating Cyberspace”, 2...Base, CO. 2 November 2009. Alexander, LT GEN Keith B. “Warfighting in Cyberspace.” Joint Forces Quarterly, Issue 46 (3rd Quarter 2007), 58-61

  11. Waves and the Equilibrium Range at Ocean Weather Station P

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-08

    Climate Stations group, with assistance from Keith Ronnholm. The crew of the R/V New Horizon (SIO) helped with the October 2012 mooring turnaround...Oceanogr., 23, 2143–2149. Edson, J. B., A. A. Hinton, K. E. Prada, J. E. Hare , and C. W. Fairall (1998), Direct covariance flux estimates from mobile...platforms at sea, J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 15(2), 547–562. Fairall, C., E. Bradley, J. Hare , A. Grachev, and J. Edson (2003), Bulk parameterization of

  12. Army National Guard African-American Officers: Making Them More Competitive

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-24

    system. Like all officers in the ARNG, African-American officers’ careers and promotions are often determined by a single document. Col. Keith Maxie...There are some senior Black officers who feel no obligation to mentor junior Black officers.39 In The Black Anglo-Saxons, Nathan Hare describes...39 Smith, ―Why Black Officers Still Fail,‖ 23. 40 Nathan Hare , The Black Anglo-Saxons, 2nd ed. (Chicago: Third Word Press, 1991). 41 Smith, ―Why

  13. Hundred metre virtual telescope captures unique detailed colour image

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    appearance of the star before, but it is quite astounding that we can now see it, and in colour." Although it is only 15 by 15 pixel across, the reconstructed image shows an extreme close-up of a star 100 times larger than the Sun, a diameter corresponding roughly to the distance between the Earth and the Sun. This star is, in turn, surrounded by a sphere of molecular gas, which is about three times as large again. T Leporis, in the constellation of Lepus (the Hare), is located 500 light-years away. It belongs to the family of Mira stars, well known to amateur astronomers. These are giant variable stars that have almost extinguished their nuclear fuel and are losing mass. They are nearing the end of their lives as stars, and will soon die, becoming white dwarfs. The Sun will become a Mira star in a few billion years, engulfing the Earth in the dust and gas expelled in its final throes. Mira stars are among the biggest factories of molecules and dust in the Universe, and T Leporis is no exception. It pulsates with a period of 380 days and loses the equivalent of the Earth's mass every year. Since the molecules and dust are formed in the layers of atmosphere surrounding the central star, astronomers would like to be able to see these layers. But this is no easy task, given that the stars themselves are so far away -- despite their huge intrinsic size, their apparent radius on the sky can be just half a millionth that of the Sun. "T Leporis looks so small from the Earth that only an interferometric facility, such as the VLTI at Paranal, can take an image of it. VLTI can resolve stars 15 times smaller than those resolved by the Hubble Space Telescope," says Le Bouquin. To create this image with the VLTI astronomers had to observe the star for several consecutive nights, using all the four movable 1.8-metre VLT Auxiliary Telescopes (ATs). The ATs were combined in different groups of three, and were also moved to different positions, creating more new interferometric

  14. Moving from measuring to predicting bycatch mortality: predicting the capture condition of a longline-caught pelagic shark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek Richard Dapp

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Incidental fisheries capture has been identified as having a major effect on shark populations throughout the world. However, factors that contribute to the mortality of shark bycatch during fisheries capture are not fully understood. Here, we investigated the effects of capture duration, sea surface temperature, and shark total length (snout to the tip of the upper caudal lobe on the physiology and condition of longline-caught bronze whalers, Carcharhinus brachyurus. Plasma lactate and potassium concentration had a positive linear relationship with capture duration, indicating that this species experiences increasing physiological challenges while on fishing gear. Additionally, we used stereotype logistic regression models to determine variables that could predict the capture condition of sharks (categorized as healthy, sluggish, or moribund or dead. In these models, elevated plasma lactate concentration, plasma potassium concentration, and capture duration increased the likelihood of C. brachyurus being captured in a sluggish condition or in a moribund or dead condition. After plasma lactate concentration exceeded 27.4 mmol/L, plasma potassium concentration exceeded 8.3 mmol/L, or capture durations exceeded 293 minutes, the majority of captured sharks (>50% were predicted to be moribund or dead. We recommend that a reduction in the amount of time longlines are left fishing (soak time will reduce immediate and post-release mortality in C. brachyurus bycatch and that our methods could be applied to identify causes of fisheries-induced mortality in future studies. The identification of operational, environmental, and biological variables contributing to poor condition will be necessary to implement conservation strategies that reduce mortality during capture.

  15. Cultural Resources Investigations for Libby Reservoir, Lincoln County, Northwest, Montana. Volume 1. Environment, Archaeology, and Land Use Patterns in the Middle Kootenai River Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-12-01

    Ovis sp. and D. aries Ursus sp. Canis sp. C. -u__ s C. familiaria Lepus sp. Sylvilagus nuttalli Marmota sp. Sciurus sp. Thomomys talpoides -nychomys...particular species into individual streams. According to Bruce May (personal communication 1982) of the Montana Department of Fish and Wildlife ...Ursus, Canis lupus, and Felis concolor) that range in weight from 382 kg (a large grizzly bear) or 270 kg (a large male caribou) to 22.5 kg (a small

  16. Construct Space Innovation and Development Center (SID) at Schriever Air Force Base, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-01

    pennsylvanicus), deer mice ( Peromyscus maniculatus ), black-tailed jackrabbits (Lepus californicus), western harvest mouse (Reithrodontomys megalotis...more at risk because of developing body systems, comparatively higher consumption-to-weight ratios, behaviors that may expose them to more risks...more at risk because of developing body systems, comparatively higher consumption-to-weight ratios, behaviors that may expose them to more risks and

  17. Acquisition of Resort Property Located in Indian Springs, Nevada, Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    artifacts and features, and to present methods for recordation, should be developed prior to the initiation of a contract to purchase the APE. Table...tailed jackrabbits (Lepus californicus), desert woodrat (Neotoma lepida), kangaroo rats (Dipodomys spp.), coyote, and desert kit fox (Vulpes...states “determine if the requirement can be satisfied by (1.1.1) Use of other real property under Air Force control.” In 1.2 ( Methods of Acquisition

  18. Environmental Assessment: Employment of the 2.75-Inch Rocket at Saylor Creek Air Force Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-01

    project would meet seven key objectives: • Improve and increase realistic combat training for A-10 attack pilots. • Satisfy an Air Combat Command (ACC...spp.) and kangaroo rats ( Dipodomys spp.) were also observed. Mountain cottontail (Sylvilagus nuttallii), black-tail jackrabbits (Lepus californicus...G5 S5 Ord’s Kangaroo Rat ( Dipodomys ordii ) 84 Heteromyidae G5 S5 Desert Woodrat (Neotoma lepida ) 17 Muridae G5 S4 Coyote (Canis latrans ) 39

  19. Teste de ELISA indireto para diagnóstico sorológico de leishmaniose visceral em canídeos silvestres Indirect ELISA for the serological diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis in wild canids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo R.B. Ferreira

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Na América do Sul, alguns canídeos silvestres são considerados reservatórios naturais da Leishmania chagasi. A resposta imunológica desses animais à Leishmania é pouco conhecida, havendo a necessidade de métodos diagnósticos adequados para esse fim. No presente estudo, é descrita a padronização do ensaio imunoenzimático indireto (ELISA para o diagnóstico sorológico de leishmaniose visceral em canídeos silvestres brasileiros. Foram estudadas amostras de soro e plasma de 12 canídeos cativos: sete lobos-guará (Chrysocyon brachyurus, três raposinhas (Lycalopex vetulus e dois cachorros-do-mato (Cerdocyon thous. As amostras de um C. brachyurus e uma L. vetulus, cativos em área endêmica para LV, que apresentavam doença clínica e positividade em testes de Imunofluorescência Indireta e Reação em Cadeia de Polimerase, foram utilizadas como controles positivos. Foram comparados os conjugados anti-IgG de cão e proteína A, ambos ligados a peroxidase, cujos testes detectaram quatro (04/12 e três (03/12 C. brachyurus soropositivos para anticorpos anti-Leishmania sp., respectivamente. As médias das densidades ópticas (DOs das amostras negativas foram nitidamente mais baixas do que as médias das DOs dos positivos tanto no ELISA com anti-IgG de cão (4,8 vezes como com proteína A (15,5 vezes. Os soros de três C. brachyurus positivos no ELISA indireto foram avaliados por Western blotting e identificaram 22 bandas, sendo imunodominantes as de peso molecular de 19, 22, 24, 45 e 66 kDa. Os testes ELISA com a proteína A e o conjugado anti-IgG de cão apresentaram respectivamente concordância excelente (Kappa = 1; pIn South America, some wild canids are considered natural reservoirs of Leishmania chagasi. The immunological response of wild canids to Leishmania is not well understood, and the development of diagnostic methods is necessary for such purpose. In the present study, the standardization of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent

  20. Influence de la rotation culturale, de la fertilisation et du labour sur les populations de nématodes phytoparasites du sorgho (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Traoré, M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Influence of crop rotation, fertilization and tillage on populations of plant parasitic nematodes of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench. The soil nematodes of three long-term trials (1960, 1980 and 1990 representing the production of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench under different agricultural practices (rotation, tillage and fertilization in the Center West of Burkina Faso, have been explored in the wake of the harvest during the agricultural season 2007/2008. The objective was to identify these nematodes and to study the influence of agricultural practices on this nematofauna. Nematodes were extracted by the method of Seinhorst elutriator. Plant-parasitic nematodes identified are Pratylenchus brachyurus, Tylenchorhynchus martini, Helicotylenchus multicinctus, Scutellonema Caveness, Criconemoides curvatum, Telotylenchus indicus and Xiphinema sp. The first three species represent approximately 98% of individuals surveyed. On the first site, the treatments involving mineral fertilizer and recycling of sorghum straw were favorable for the control of nematodes instead of treatments involving manure. As for rotations, monoculture of sorghum was more infested by nematodes than the rotations sorghum – cowpea and sorghum – cotton. On the second site, the nitrogen has increased of infestation by the two major nematodes in comparison to treatments without nitrogen, with the exception of treatment with anaerobic compost incorporation. On the third site, deep plowing has been unfavorable to the main nematode sorghum compared to shallow tillage. The nematofauna in fallow was more diversified than in cultivated sites and P. brachyurus, the main nematode related to sorghum has fallen sharply in fallow.

  1. Population dynamics of plant nematodes in cultivated soil: effect of summer cover crops in newly cleared land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodie, B B; Good, J M; Jaworski, C A

    1970-07-01

    Five nematode species were studied for ability to develop on seven summer cover crops in rotation with tomato transplants grown every third year. Increase of Tylenchorhynchus claytoni, Trichodorus christiei, Pratylenchus brachyurus, Helicotylenchus dihystera, and Xiphinema americanum in newly cleared soil varied with different cover crops. No substantial nematode population increases occurred until the third summer of crop growth. All species except X. americanum and H. dihystera developed best on sudangrass and millet. Crotalaria caused substantial increase of H. dihystera and P. brachyurus but suppressed the other species. Marigold suppressed all species except X. americanum which increased substantially on marigold during the 5th year. Cotton favored rapid increase of T. christiei, and moderate increases of all species except T. claytoni which was suppressed. Beggarweed favored moderate increases of T. christiei and H. dihystera but suppressed the other species. Hairy indigo favored rapid increase of H. dihystera, moderate increases of T. christiei and X. americanum, and suppressed the other species. Number of marketable transplants was reduced after 2 years of sudangrass and cotton; these crops favored increases of T. christiei and T. claytoni. The better cover crops prevented increases of most plant parasitic nematodes in land cropped to tomato, a suitable host.

  2. Is climate change affecting wolf populations in the high arctic?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mech, L.D. [Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center, Biological Resources Division, U.S. Geological Survey, 8711-37th St., SE, 58401-7317 Jamestown, North Dakota (United States)

    2004-11-01

    Global climate change may affect wolves in Canadas High Arctic (80{sup o} N) acting through three trophic levels (vegetation, herbivores, and wolves). A wolf pack dependent on muskoxen and arctic hares in the Eureka area of Ellesmere Island denned and produced pups most years from at least 1986 through 1997. However, when summer snow covered vegetation in 1997 and 2000 for the first time since records were kept, halving the herbivore nutrition-replenishment period, muskox and hare numbers dropped drastically, and the area stopped supporting denning wolves through 2003. The unusual weather triggering these events was consistent with global-climate-change phenomena.

  3. A Symbiotic Relationship: The Observe-Orient-Decide-Act (OODA) Loop, Intuition, and Strategic Thought

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    renowned psychologist, reveals in his book, Hare Brain, Tortoise Mind, the value of developing intuition, “…the unconscious realms of the human mind will...content/uploads/2011/03/KVUOA_Toimetised_13_Mols.pdf (accessed March 6 2013).; Keith H. Hammonds, “The Strategy of the Fighter Pilot,” Fast Company...20. 45 Chester W. Richards, e-mail to author, October 17, 2012. 46 Guy Claxton, Hare Brain, Tortoise Mind (New York, NY: Harper Collins, 2000), 4. 47 Ibid., 6. 48 Ibid., 148.

  4. Onshore Wind Stress and Buoyancy Flux Observed on a Dissipative Mediterranean Beach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    There are a few people I’d be remiss if I did not thank personally. On the oceanography side, to Mr. Keith Wyckoff for his enthusiasm and for...1610, doi:10.1175/JPO-D-12-0173.1. Fairall, C. W., E. F. Bradley, J. E. Hare , A. A. Grachev, and J. B. Edson, 2003: Bulk parameterization of air–sea...doi:10.1029/93JC01439. Grachev, A., C. Fairall, J. Hare , J. Edson, and S. Miller, 2003: Wind stress vector over ocean waves. J. Phys. Oceanogr

  5. Isolation of a 60 kDa protein with in vitro anticancer activity against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-06-04

    Jun 4, 2007 ... Sea hares have greatly attracted the interest of all those investigating chemical defense substances. Most of these substances are low molecular weight compounds derived from algal diets. In vitro anticancer effect of a 60 kDa protein isolated from the purple fluid of Aplysia dactylomela on four.

  6. AcEST: BP921688 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MK0977 ... 31 2.6 sp|P04875|VGLM_BUNSH Envelope glycoprotein OS=Bunyavirus snowsho... 30 5.6 sp|A1U7G1|AMIE_...BUNSH Envelope glycoprotein OS=Bunyavirus snowshoe hare GN=M PE=1 SV=1 Length = 1441 Score = 29.6 bits (65),

  7. Acceleration of vegetation turnover and element cycling by mammalian herbivory in riparian ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lem G. Butler; Knut Kielland

    2008-01-01

    1. We examined the effects of browsing by moose and snowshoe hares on vegetation structure, species composition, plant demography and element cycling in 25 riparian (willow) vegetation stands along the Tanana River, interior Alaska, across a 250-km gradient that represented a fivefold range in moose densities (0.2 to 1.0 km-2). 2. Browsing...

  8. mobile phone interaction techniques for rural economy development

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DJFLEX

    analysis (Gavrila, 1999 & Poppe, 2007), in motion estimation (Erol et al., 2007), motion of the eyes. 365. E.Edim Azom, Telkom Centre of Excellence in De velopment E-commerce, Department of Computer Science,. University of Fort Hare, Alice, Eastern Cape, South Africa. N. Muyingi Hippolyte, MTC Endowed Chair of ICT, ...

  9. Tetralogy of Fallot with Pulmonary Obstruction at the Level of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1974-04-06

    Apr 6, 1974 ... to the Department of Anatomy, University of Pretoria. During routine dissection of the thorax by ... Department of Anatomy and Histology, University of Pretoria. T. MULLER, M.B. CH.B. Date received: 12 .... spina bifida, umbilical hernia, atresia ani, cleft palate, hare-lip and stenosis of the oesophagus.

  10. Simple Computation of the Heat of Formation and Density from Theoretically Predicted Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    Hare, J. J.; Byrd, E.F.C. J. Phys. Chem. A 2007, 111 (42), 10874–10879. 4. Atkins , P. W. Physical Chemistry ; Oxford University Press: Oxford, 1982...Solvent Interactions, (Politzer P.; Murray, J. S., Editors), Theoretical and Computational Chemistry 1994, 1, Elsevier Scientific, Amsterdam, pp. 243

  11. Impact of Makurdi Zoological Garden and Manaterium on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and animal population reduced drastically. This also affected the management and the attitude of the staff to work. At this point, the animals were at the receiving end and such animals as Hare, white nose monkey, Baboon, Rabbits, Crocodile, Manatee and Chimpanzee died. Key words: Conservation, Education, Impact, ...

  12. 507 community perception on climate change and usage patterns

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    NTFPs) by forest-dependent communities as ... In conclusion, climate has been varying around forest communities in Kilolo affecting their livelihood. At the same time, NTFPs seem to ..... hare, Bush pig and Stone hyrax. It was learnt that local people ...

  13. Animal damage to birch

    Science.gov (United States)

    James S. Jordan; Francis M. Rushmore

    1969-01-01

    A relatively few animal species are responsible for most of the reported damage to the birches. White-tailed deer, yellow-bellied sapsuckers, porcupines, moose, and hares are the major animals involved. We will review reports of damage, discuss the underlying causes, and describe possible methods of control. For example, heavy deer browsing that eliminates birch...

  14. Mercury profiles in sediment from the marginal high of Arabian Sea: An indicator of increasing anthropogenic Hg input

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chakraborty, P.; Vudamala, K.; Chennuri, K.; Armoury, K.; Linsy, P.; Ramteke, D.; Sebastian, T.; Jayachandran, S.; Naik, C.; Naik, R.; Nath, B.N.

    P, et al (2008) Sulfide and iron control on mercury speciation in anoxic estuarine sediment slurries. Mar Chem 111:214–220. Hare A, Stern G a, Macdonald RW, et al (2008) Contemporary and preindustrial mass budgets of mercury in the Hudson Bay...

  15. Kunnen we genoegen nemen met plastic Panda's?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keulartz, Jozef

    2012-01-01

    In Plastic Panda's stelt 'volksfilosoof' Bas Haring het belang van biodiversiteit ter discussie, niet toevallig uitgerekend rond het Internationaal Jaar van de Biodiversiteit. Wanneer soorten in het huidige tempo blijven uitsterven, zal hun aantal rond het eind van deze eeuw gehalveerd zijn. Moeten

  16. Journal of Chemical Sciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Volume 129 Issue 10 October 2017 pp 1513-1520 REGULAR ARTICLE. Synthesis and phosphatase activity of a Cobalt(II) phenanthroline complex · MAMONI GARAI DHANANJAY DEY HARE RAM YADAV MILAN MAJI ANGSHUMAN ROY CHOUDHURY BHASKAR BISWAS · More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF.

  17. Researchers urge climate-resilience support for South African maize ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    20 avr. 2016 ... The IDRC-supported study, conducted by the universities of Cape Town, Venda, and Fort Hare, urges the government to invest in a comprehensive ... index for decision making and planning, researchers recommended helping farmers adapt to a changing climate with low-cost, climate-smart options, ...

  18. Journal of Chemical Sciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unprecedented hetero-geometric discrete copper(II) complexes: Crystal structure and bio-mimicking of Catecholase activity · ABHRANIL DE DHANANJAY DEY HARE RAM YADAV MILAN MAJI VINAYAK RANE R M KADAM ANGSHUMAN ROY CHOUDHURY BHASKAR BISWAS · More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF.

  19. Improving the efficiency and sustainability of disinfection at a small ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    driniev

    Improving the efficiency and sustainability of disinfection at a small rural water treatment plant. MNB Momba1*, N Makala1, Z Tyafa1, BM Brouckaert2, CA Buckley2 and PA Thompson3. 1Biochemistry and Microbiology Programme Unit, University of Fort Hare, P/Bag X1314, Alice 5700, South Africa. 2Pollution Research ...

  20. Anti-hyperlipidemic and biochemical effect of extract of Tulbaghia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-08-30

    Aug 30, 2012 ... Anti-hyperlipidemic and biochemical effect of extract of. Tulbaghia violacea rhizomes on high cholesterol diet fed rats. O. S. Olorunnisola1, G. Bradley1 and A. J. Afolayan2*. 1Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, University of Fort Hare, Private Bag X1314, Alice 5700, South Africa. 2Phytomedicine ...

  1. Vocabulary Use by Low, Moderate, and High ASL-Proficient Writers Compared to Hearing ESL and Monolingual Speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singleton, Jenny L.; Morgan, Dianne; DiGello, Elizabeth; Wiles, Jill; Rivers, Rachel

    2004-01-01

    The written English vocabulary of 72 deaf elementary school students of various proficiency levels in American Sign Language (ASL) was compared with the performance of 60 hearing English-as-a-second-language (ESL) speakers and 61 hearing monolingual speakers of English, all of similar age. Students were asked to retell "The Tortoise and the Hare"…

  2. Worldwide Environmental Compliance Assessment System (ECAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-03-01

    Panthera tigris Temperate and tropical Asia Tiger, Tasmanian Thylacinus cynocephalus Australia Wallaby, banded hare Lagostrophus fasciatus Australia...giganteus Australia (Tasmania) forester tasmaniensis Kangaroo, western gray Macropus fuliginosis Australia Leopard Panthera pardus Asia Leopard, clouded...Neofelis nebulosa Southeast and south- central Asia, Taiwan Leopard, snow Panthera uncia Central Asia Lion, Asiatic Panthera leo persica Turkey Lynx

  3. Effects of ensiling of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) maize (MON810) on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the degradation of the Bt protein (Cry1Ab) in Bt maize during ensiling and chemical composition of the silage. Two laboratory studies were conducted at the University of Fort Hare. One Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) maize cultivar (DKC80-12B) and its isoline (DKC80-10) in the 2008/2009 study and two Bt ...

  4. Bridging the Hemispheres through the Use of Technology: International Collaboration in Social Work Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rautenbach, John Victor; Black-Hughes, Christine

    2012-01-01

    The social work programs of the University of Fort Hare, East London, South Africa, and Minnesota State University, Mankato, United States, began using various technologies in 2007 to facilitate interaction. This project included conducting practicum supervision and seminars via videoconferencing (using Breeze, Adobe Connect, and Skype) and…

  5. 2017-10-27T12:16:30Z https://www.ajol.info/index.php/all/oai oai:ojs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... University of Fort Hare, Alice, Republic of South Africa calibration; disc pasture meter To estimate the standing crop of the herbaceous layer for the study area with ... The calibration data were analysed using a simple linear regression analysis, which gave a significant correlation between the square-root transformation of ...

  6. Heuristic Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-08-01

    Chicago 22 South Greene ftreet Champaign, IL 61820 Graduate School of Business Baltimore, MD 21201 1101 E. 5ath St.C Karen Rider Dr. Alan H. Schoenfeld ...01003 School of Education Dr. Douglas Wetzel Stanford, CA 94305 Mr. Brad Sympson Code 12 Dr. hares . Phth avyPeronne R& CeterNavy Personnel F&D Center

  7. Developing Proactive Methods for General Aviation Data Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    skills (Goh & Wiegmann, 2001; Wiegmann, et al., 2002; Burian, Orasanu, & Hitt , 2000; Wiggins & O’Hare, 2003) • Low risk perception/overconfidence (Goh...Aviation Administration, Office of Aerospace Medicine. Burian, B., Orasanu, J., & Hitt , J. (2000). Plan continua- tion errors: A factor in aviation

  8. An outdoor investigation of the absorption degradation of single ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    [1] G O Osayemwenre, The electrical, structural and elemental analysis of degraded single junction amorphous silicon solar modules, M.Sc. Thesis (Fort Hare University, 2014). [2] G Acciani, G B Simione and S Vergura, Thermographic analysis of photovoltaic panels; Inter- national Conference on Renewable Energies and ...

  9. Predicting the effects of forest management on lynx populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    John R. Squires

    2008-01-01

    Lynx are quintessential snowshoe hare predators with morphological adaptations such as large paws. This species depends on boreal forests, so the listing of Canada Lynx as a Threatened species is a major conservation issue to forest managers. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service stated that human alteration of forest abundance, composition, and connectivity was the most...

  10. Second Baseline Study in the Citronen Fjord Area North Greenland 1997

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glahder, C.

    period samples were collected of seaweed (Laminaria sp), fish (Fourhorned sculpin), river sediments, Arctic willow, Entired-leafed mountain avens, grasses and faeces from Muskox, Alpine hare and Collared lemming. These samples have been prepared for storage, and are now stored at the National...

  11. Electronic intermodal supply chain manifest freight ITS operational test evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report presents the results of a 2.5 year freight Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) evaluation of an air cargo security and logistics system which was deployed at O'Hare and JFK international airports. In September 1999, the Federal Highwa...

  12. 75 FR 54629 - Notice of Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-08

    ..., gold of pleasure, hare's ear mustard, lesquerella, lunaria. meadowfoam, milkweed, mustard seed, oil radish, poppy seed, rapeseed, sesame, sweet rocket, calendula, castor oil plant, Chinese tallowtree...-trimethoxy-6- methylphenyl) methanone, in or on grape at 0.2 parts per million (ppm). A practical analytical...

  13. 12 Sanou 04.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hond

    2007-06-02

    Jun 2, 2007 ... An observation of the functioning of literature and the mask reveals striking similarities, which led the author to wonder if, like ..... hare, hyena, crocodile, lion, etc.) adopt the behaviours, attitudes and acts of the ani- mal they represent. Therefore, beyond the sculptured representation of the animal, we may ...

  14. Perceptions of undergraduate nursing students on peer mentorship ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to describe the perceptions of undergraduate nursing students regarding peer mentorship training at the university of Fort Hare, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. A qualitative design involving 49 purposively selected student nurses participated in the study. A structured interview was used ...

  15. Doratomyces columnaris sp. nov

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swart, H.J.

    1967-01-01

    In the course of a routine investigation of fungi growing on dung pellets of hares collected in the Melville Koppies Nature Reserve in Johannesburg some rather small coremia were noticed. Slides were prepared and an attempt made to isolate the organism in pure culture was successful. The structure

  16. Designing the Bayous: The Control of Water in the Atchafalaya Basin 1800-1995

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    oratory. 9 Variations on these plans were common, including patently hare- brained schemes. The House of Representa- tives Flood Control...Wildlife remained as the Fish and Wildlife Service. The organizational gymnastics of the agency left an enduring mark. The FWS did not grow as

  17. 2523-IJBCS-Article-Cheikh Amet Bassirou Sane

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    Tuberculitermes flexuosus. Roy-Noël, 1969. Humiv. TK. Parc. [11], [14]. Tuberculitermes guineensis Silvestri. Humiv. SL. Savane. [7], [14]. Nasutitermitinae. (Hare, 1937). Trinervitermes. Holmgren, 1912. *Trinervitermes geminatus. Wasmann, 1897. Fourrag. DK, TH, SL, MT,. TK. Verger, ferme,. Pâturage, Parc,. Savane. Mg.

  18. Mad Tea Party Cyclic Partitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekes, Robert; Pedersen, Jean; Shao, Bin

    2012-01-01

    Martin Gardner's "The Annotated Alice," and Robin Wilson's "Lewis Carroll in Numberland" led the authors to put this article in a fantasy setting. Alice, the March Hare, the Hatter, and the Dormouse describe a straightforward, elementary algorithm for counting the number of ways to fit "n" identical objects into "k" cups arranged in a circle. The…

  19. A Short History of Phenomenological Psychology in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    denise

    Giorgi in Pittsburgh, U.S.A. Upon discovering that van den Berg himself was a prolific writer, I set about reading his books as well as the work of. Medard Boss and Gion Condrau in Zurich. Van den Berg again visited South African and. Fort Hare University in 1972, when he offered a two month course on phenomenological.

  20. Using MMPI–2–RF Correlates to Elucidate the PCL–R and Its Four Facets in a Sample of Male Forensic Psychiatric Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein Haneveld, E.; Kamphuis, J.H.; Smid, W.; Forbey, J.D.

    2017-01-01

    This study documents the associations between the MMPI-2-RF (Ben-Porath & Tellegen, 2008 ) scale scores and the Psychopathy Checklist Revised (PCL-R; Hare, 2003 ) facet scores in a forensic psychiatric sample. Objectives were to determine how the MMPI-2-RF scales might enhance substantive

  1. Assessment of Irrigation Performance along the Canal Reach of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents the results of irrigation performance assessment made along the canal reaches of community-managed Hare irrigation scheme in. Southern Ethiopia. Field measurement, interview, group discussion and measurement of water supply were undertaken, and output performance indicators were assessed.

  2. Mathematical Formulation of the Arsenal Exchange Model. Revision 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-06-01

    KIP was taken and reduced to its hare bones form, without the LP surrogate constraint ption. This mouitied RIP was then added to in order to...One yoga ton Warheads (TEMTl This computation requires the derivation of the damage tun I ; for a perfectly reliable, one meg.:ton weapon which is

  3. Civil Liberties, "Brainwashing" and "Cults": A Select Annotated Bibliography. Second Edition, Revised and Expanded.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Thomas, Comp.

    This annotated bibliography presents 126 selected references on the topic of cults. Focusing mainly on religious cults, including the Reverend Sun Myung Moon's Unification Church and the Hare Krishna groups, the entries examine allegations of mind control tactics over converts, issues raised by the allegations, and controversial methods used by…

  4. Marked by Fire: Anishinaabe Articulations of Nationhood in Treaty Making with the United States and Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Heidi Kiiwetinepinesiik

    2012-01-01

    The story, known as "The Theft of Fire," illustrates numerous meanings and teachings crucial to understanding Anishinaabe nationhood. This story contains two discernible points. First, it reveals how the Anishinaabe obtained fire. The second discernible feature within this story is the marking of the hare by his theft of fire. Stories…

  5. Synthesis, characterization and antibacterial screening of 2,4 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    seafood

    2012-05-15

    May 15, 2012 ... 1Department of Chemistry, University of Fort Hare, Alice 5700, South Africa. 2Department of ... characterized by elemental analysis, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and ultraviolet visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy, and ..... Nickel(II) complexes of 2-hydrazino-4,6-dimethyl pyrimidine, J. Inorg. Nucleic Chem.

  6. The Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version and Adolescent and Adult Recidivism-- Considerations with Respect to Gender, Ethnicity, and Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockdale, Keira C.; Olver, Mark E.; Wong, Stephen C. P.

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigated the predictive accuracy of the Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version (PCL: YV; A. E. Forth, D. S. Kosson, & R. D. Hare, 2003) for youth and adult recidivism, with respect to gender, ethnicity, and age, in a sample of 161 Canadian young offenders who received psychological services from an outpatient mental health…

  7. Psychopathy and the Combination of Psychopathy and Sexual Deviance as Predictors of Sexual Recidivism: Meta-Analytic Findings Using the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawes, Samuel W.; Boccaccini, Marcus T.; Murrie, Daniel C.

    2013-01-01

    Clinicians routinely administer Hare's (2003) Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) to sex offenders and report PCL-R scores as meaningful predictors of recidivism risk. Although a 2005 meta-analysis reported a small (d = 0.29) association between PCL-R scores and sexual recidivism (Hanson & Morton-Bourgon, 2005), no meta-analysis has examined…

  8. American Involvement in Fringe Religious Cults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intellect, 1977

    1977-01-01

    "Twenty million Americans are involved in fringe religious cults such as spiritualism, Hare Krishna, Scientology, and Black Gospel groups," according to anthropologist Irving Zaretsky of the University of Chicago. He recently completed a 10-year period as a participant-observer of fringe religious groups in the San Francisco Bay area and the…

  9. Psychopathy and Suicidality in Female Offenders: Mediating Influences of Personality and Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verona, Edelyn; Hicks, Brian M.; Patrick, Christopher J.

    2005-01-01

    The influence of personality and childhood abuse on suicidal behaviors and psychopathy was examined among female prisoners. Scores on the affective/interpersonal component (Factor 1; F1) and the antisocial deviance (Factor 2; F2) component of psychopathy were obtained from the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (R. D. Hare, 1991). Suicide attempt and…

  10. Soil Food Web Changes during Spontaneous Succession at Post Mining Sites: A Possible Ecosystem Engineering Effect on Food Web Organization?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frouz, J.; Thébault, E.; Pizl, V.; Adl, S.; Cajthaml, T.; Baldrián, P.; Hánel, L.; Starý, J.; Tajovský, K.; Materna, J.; Nováková, A.; Ruiter, de P.C.

    2013-01-01

    Lagomorphs (a group that consists of pikas, hares, rabbits and allies) are notable for their conservative morphology retained for most of their over 50 million years evolutionary history. On the other hand, their remarkable morphological uniformity partly stems from a considerable number of

  11. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U14951-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tin - California sea hare &U01352_1(U01352|pid... 559 e-157 AY825362_1( AY825362 |pid:none) Chorispora bun...geana putative actin... 543 e-157 X13055_1( X13055 |pid:none) Murine mRNA for cytop

  12. Comparing Road-Kill Datasets from Hunters and Citizen Scientists in a Landscape Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Heigl

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Road traffic has severe effects on animals, especially when road-kills are involved. In many countries, official road-kill data are provided by hunters or police; there are also road-kill observations reported by citizen scientists. The aim of the current study was to test whether road-kill reports by hunters stem from similar landscapes than those reported by citizen scientists. We analysed the surrounding landscapes of 712 road-kill reportings of European hares in the province of Lower Austria. Our data showed that road-killed hares reported both by hunters and citizens are predominantly surrounded by arable land. No difference of hedges and solitary trees could be found between the two datasets. However, significant differences in landcover classes and surrounding road networks indicate that hunters’ and citizen scientists’ data are different. Hunters reported hares from landscapes with significantly higher percentages of arable land, and greater lengths of secondary roads. In contrast, citizens reported hares from landscapes with significantly higher percentages of urban or industrial areas and greater lengths of motorways, primary roads, and residential roads. From this we argue that hunters tend to report data mainly from their hunting areas, whereas citizens report data during their daily routine on the way to/from work. We conclude that a citizen science approach is an important source for road-kill data when used in addition to official data with the aim of obtaining an overview of road-kill events on a landscape scale.

  13. Ecology and conservation of lynx in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard F. Ruggiero; Keith B. Aubry; Steven W. Buskirk; Gary M. Koehler; Charles J. Krebs; Kevin S. McKelvey; John R. Squires

    1999-01-01

    Once found throughout the Rocky Mountains and forests of the northern states, the lynx now hides in pockets of its former range while feeding mostly on small animals like snowshoe hares. A team of government and university scientists review the newest scientific knowledge of this unique cat's history, distribution, and ecology. The chapters on this web site...

  14. Bibliographical Note

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lam, H.J.

    1940-01-01

    Dr. C. A. BACKER and Dr. O. POSTHUMUS, Varenflora voor Java. Overzicht deiop Java voorkomende varens en varenachtigen, hare verspreiding, oekologie en toepassingen. Uitgave van (Fern flora for Java. Conspectus of the ferns and fern allies occurring in Java, their distribution, ecology and use.

  15. 77 FR 53249 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Requests for Comments; Clearance of New Approval of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-31

    ... Liberty International Airport (EWR), and LaGuardia Airport (LGA). The FAA also has designated O'Hare... departure slots at JFK, EWR, and LGA. The designations resulted in part from increasing congestion and... and SFO. The information is reported to the FAA by carriers holding a slot at JFK, EWR, or LGA; by...

  16. 78 FR 5856 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Requests for Comments; Clearance of New Approval of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-28

    ... Airport (EWR), and LaGuardia Airport (LGA). The FAA also has designated O'Hare International Airport (ORD... JFK, EWR, and LGA. The designations resulted in part from increasing congestion and delays at the... information is reported to the FAA by carriers holding a slot at JFK, EWR, or LGA; by carriers operating at...

  17. A Multimethod Assessment of Juvenile Psychopathy: Comparing the Predictive Utility of the PCL:YV, YPI, and NEO PRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cauffman, Elizabeth; Kimonis, Eva R.; Dmitrieva, Julia; Monahan, Kathryn C.

    2009-01-01

    The current study compares 3 distinct approaches for measuring juvenile psychopathy and their utility for predicting short- and long-term recidivism among a sample of 1,170 serious male juvenile offenders. The assessment approaches compared a clinical interview method (the Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version [PCL:YV]; Forth, Kosson, & Hare,…

  18. Psychopathy and Violence: The Importance of Factor Level Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Zach; Kosson, David S.

    2008-01-01

    The power of scales based on the Psychopathy Checklist (PCL; R. D. Hare, 1980) for prediction of violent behavior is well established. Although evidence suggests that this relationship is chiefly due to the impulsive and antisocial lifestyle component (Factor 2), the predictive power of psychopathy for violence may also reflect the multiplicative…

  19. The SRP-II as a Rich Source of Data on the Psychopathic Personality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Whitney S.; Salekin, Randall T.; Sellbom, Martin

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the factor structure, external correlates, and predictive utility of the Self-Report Psychopathy scale (SRP-II; Hare, Harpur, & Hemphill, 1989). Despite a revision of the SRP-II to address, among other criticisms, a lack of items reflecting antisocial behavior, we hypothesized that the SRP-II would have a conceptually coherent…

  20. Is Criminal Behavior a Central Component of Psychopathy? Conceptual Directions for Resolving the Debate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skeem, Jennifer L.; Cooke, David J.

    2010-01-01

    The development of the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R; R. D. Hare, 2003) has fueled intense clinical interest in the construct of psychopathy. Unfortunately, a side effect of this interest has been conceptual confusion and, in particular, the conflating of measures with constructs. Indeed, the field is in danger of equating the PCL-R with…

  1. Using the PCL-R to Help Estimate the Validity of Two Self-Report Measures of Psychopathy with Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poythress, Norman G.; Lilienfeld, Scott O.; Skeem, Jennifer L.; Douglas, Kevin S.; Edens, John F.; Epstein, Monica; Patrick, Christopher J.

    2010-01-01

    Two self-report measures of psychopathy, Levenson's Primary and Secondary Psychopathy scales (LPSP) and the Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI), were administered to a large sample of 1,603 offenders. The most widely researched measure of criminal psychopathy, the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R), served as a provisional referent…

  2. Reliability and Construct Validity of the Dutch Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version--Findings from a Sample of Male Adolescents in a Juvenile Justice Treatment Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Jacqueline; de Ruiter, Corine; Doreleijers, Theo; Hillege, Sanne

    2009-01-01

    The present study examines the reliability and construct validity of the Dutch version of the Psychopathy Check List: Youth Version (PCL:YV) in a sample of male adolescents admitted to a secure juvenile justice treatment institution (N = 98). Hare's four-factor model is used to examine reliability and validity of the separate dimensions of…

  3. Psychopathic Predators? Getting Specific about the Relation between Psychopathy and Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, Jacqueline P.; Skeem, Jennifer L.; Barchard, Kimberly; Lilienfeld, Scott O.; Poythress, Norman G.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R; Hare, 1991, 2003) is often used to assess risk of violence, perhaps based on the assumption that it captures emotionally detached individuals who are driven to prey upon others. This study is designed to assess the relation between (a) core interpersonal and affective traits of psychopathy and…

  4. An OER Framework, Heuristic and Lens: Tools for Understanding Lecturers' Adoption of OER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Glenda; Trotter, Henry

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines three new tools--a framework, an heuristic and a lens--for analysing lecturers' adoption of OER in higher educational settings. Emerging from research conducted at the universities of Cape Town (UCT), Fort Hare (UFH) and South Africa (UNISA) on why lecturers adopt--or do not adopt--OER, these tools enable greater analytical…

  5. Aidsimemoriaali pääseb interneti kaudu / Neeme Raud

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raud, Neeme, 1969-

    1998-01-01

    New Yorgi Moodsa Kunsti Muuseumis avatud kübergalerii, kus on 150 aidsiohvri-kunstniku tööd (Keith Haring, Joe Brainard, Scott Burton, Frank Moore, David Wojnarowicz, Martin Wong jt.) Internetiaadress www.artistswithaids.org. või www.moma.org.

  6. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DNOV-01-2020 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available minin-type EGF-like and link domain-containing scavenger receptor 2) (FEEL-2) (Hyaluronan receptor for endocytosis...) [Contains: 175 kDa stabilin-2 (175 kDa hyaluronan receptor for endocytosis)] gb|AAG13634.1| hyaluronan receptor for endocytos...is HARE precursor [Rattus norvegicus] Q8CFM6 1e-16 90% ...

  7. 75 FR 49956 - Dewey C. Mackay, M.D.; Revocation of Registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-16

    ... education, the details of the pain history are not spelled out under law, so much as spelled out under best... Investigator that T.S., an employee of Respondent stated during an interview that Respondent ``saw between 85.... According to Dr. Hare, the evaluation and proper diagnosis requires both taking a medical history and...

  8. Rhodes University: A Different Place

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    canberry

    The paragraph reads as follows: For a number of years Rhodes followed its pattern of ensuring a place for any qualified student, either at Rhodes or at Fort Hare, and then went along with the govern ment's insis - tence on minis terial permission for black African students at Rhodes. When their numbers approached 100 ...

  9. Trajectories of Trauma Symptoms and Resilience in Deployed US Military Service Members: Prospective Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    Lehman DR, Tweed RG, Haring M, Sonnega J, et al. Resilience to loss and chronic grief : a prospective study from preloss to 18-months postloss. J Pers Soc...WWT, Bonanno GA, Mancini AD, Ho S, Chan M, Hung WK, et al. Trajectories of psychological distress among Chinese women diagnosed with breast cancer

  10. Simple Numerical Analysis of Longboard Speedometer Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hare, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Simple numerical data analysis is described, using a standard spreadsheet program, to determine distance, velocity (speed) and acceleration from voltage data generated by a skateboard/longboard speedometer (Hare 2012 "Phys. Educ." 47 409-17). This simple analysis is an introduction to data processing including scaling data as well as…

  11. Market Sampling of Landings of Commercial Fish Species in the Netherlands in 2006

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verver, S.W.; Overzee, van H.M.J.

    2007-01-01

    Dit rapport geeft een overzicht van alle door IMARES afgenomen monsters in 2006 van de belangrijkste commerciele vissoorten zoals haring, makreel, horsmakreel, (blauwe) wijting, schol, tong, tarbot en kabeljauw. Daarnaast is er aandacht voor de bemonsteringsprocedure van de aanvoer van commerciële

  12. Market Sampling of Landings of Commercial Fish Species in the Netherlands in 2005

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verver, S.W.; Overzee, van H.M.J.

    2007-01-01

    Dit rapport geeft een overzicht van alle door IMARES afgenomen monsters in 2005 van de belangrijkste commerciele vissoorten zoals haring, makreel, horsmakreel, (blauwe) wijting, schol, tong, tarbot en kabeljauw. Daarnaast is er aandacht voor de bemonsteringsprocedure van de aanvoer van commerciële

  13. Market Sampling of Landings of Commercial Fish Species in the Netherlands in 2004

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verver, S.W.

    2007-01-01

    Dit rapport geeft een overzicht van alle door IMARES afgenomen monsters in 2004 van de belangrijkste commerciele vissoorten zoals haring, makreel, horsmakreel, (blauwe) wijting, schol, tong, tarbot en kabeljauw. Daarnaast is er aandacht voor de bemonsteringsprocedure van de aanvoer van commerciële

  14. Market Sampling of Landings of Commercial Fish Species in the Netherlands in 2007

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verver, S.W.; Overzee, van H.M.J.

    2008-01-01

    Dit rapport geeft een overzicht van alle door IMARES afgenomen monsters in 2007 van de belangrijkste commerciele vissoorten zoals haring, makreel, horsmakreel, (blauwe) wijting, schol, tong, tarbot en kabeljauw. Daarnaast is er aandacht voor de bemonsteringsprocedure van de aanvoer van commerciële

  15. Asia Beyond the Border: Physical Geography - Central and Northeastern Asia -

    Science.gov (United States)

    1961-03-21

    Lai Shan and Baita Shan ranges, the latter one at its westernmost extension is calledTaSüeh Shah: farther west lies the Zeus range, known by several...forests • that hare sunrived here» Tomrist hotels» colorful toeddist temples aM ttisgstes raises are s&m. on the’terrace platforms» The highest

  16. Properties of Fluorinated Graphene Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    Properties of Fluorinated Graphene Films Jeremy T. Robinson,* James S. Burgess, Chad E. Junkermeier, Stefan C. Badescu, Thomas L. Reinecke, F. Keith ...Chem. Soc., Dalton Trans. 1974, 1268–1273. (4) Taylor, R.; Holloway, J. H.; Hope, E. G.; Avent, A. G.; Langley, G. J.; Dennis, T. J.; Hare , J. P

  17. Property Predictions for Nitrate Salts with Nitroxy-Functionalized Cations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    Baboul, A. G.; Clifford, S.; Cioslowski, J.; Stefanov, B. B.; Liu, G.; Liashenko, A.; Piskorz, P.; Komaromi, I.; Martin, R. L.; Fox, D. J.; Keith , T...Journal of Physical Chemistry 1959, 63, 1522–1523. Rice, B. M.; Pai, S. V.; Hare , J. Predicting Heats of Formation of Energetic Materials Using Quantum

  18. MONTAGE: A Methodology for Designing Composable End-to-End Secure Distributed Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    MITRE, 1977. [Bis95] Matt Bishop. Race conditions, files, and security flaws; or the tortoise and the hare redux. Report CSE-95-8, Univ. of California...Tal Garfinkel, Keith Adams, Andrew Warfield, and Jason Franklin. Compat- ibility is Not Transparency: VMM Detection Myths and Realities. In Proc. 11th

  19. Travel, Boundaries, and the Movement of Culture(s): Explanations for the Folk/Fine Art Quandary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, John Howell; Congdon, Kristin G.

    1998-01-01

    Illustrates the difficulty in trying to establish clearly defined categories between art forms. Addresses the problem through discussions of three artists: Malcah Zeldis, Mabel Burkholder, and Keith Haring. Suggests that a travel metaphor grants people a flexible and historically-oriented way to speak about artwork and art categories. (CMK)

  20. Defense Acquisition Research Journal. Volume 20, Number 2, Issue 66, July 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Shipe Industrial College of the Armed Forces Dr. Keith Snider Naval Postgraduate School Dr. John Snoderly Defense Acquisition University Dr. David M...possible (Maier & Rechtin, 2009). For example, heuristic No. 3 from Ward’s thesis is: “The tortoise was faster than the hare .” Heuristic No. 6, however, is

  1. The Fabrication of Arrays of Single Ions in Silicon via Ion Implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    97] A. Gara, M. A. Blumrich, D. Chen, G. L.-T. Chiu, P. Coteus, M. E. Gi- ampapa, R. A. Haring , P. Heidelberger, D. Hoenicke, G. V. Kopcsay, T. A...structural dynamics of proteins. Science, 330(6002):341 – 346, 2010. [102] Joseph W. Britton, Brian C. Sawyer, Adam C. Keith , C.-C. Joseph Wang

  2. The Berry Amendment: Requiring Defense Procurement to Come from Domestic Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-24

    assets, $6.75 billion in liabilities, including an unfunded health care obligation of $1.85 billion. 49 According to Vice Admiral Keith W. Lippert...111th Congress Legislation Proposed H.R. 6262, the Jobs through Procurement Act, was introduced on September 29, 2010, by then-Representative Phil Hare

  3. Defense Acquisition Review Journal. Volume 15, Number 3, Issue 49, December 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    Keith Snider Naval Postgraduate School Charles E. Tompkins III, Esq. Information Resources Management College The Defense Acquisition Review Journal...Become part of a focus group s haring similar interests. • Become a nationally recognized expert in your fi eld or speciality. • Be asked to speak

  4. Psychopathy in Youth and Intelligence: An Investigation of Cleckley's Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salekin, Randall T.; Neumann, Craig S.; Leistico, Anne-Marie R.; Zalot, Alecia A.

    2004-01-01

    Cleckley (1941) hypothesized that true or "primary" psychopathic individuals have "good" intelligence. This study examined the relation between psychopathy and intelligence in 122 detained children and adolescents. We used the Psychopathy Checklist?Youth Version (PCL?YV; Forth, Kosson, & Hare, 2003) to assess psychopathy and administered novel…

  5. Effects of climate change on wildlife in the Northern Rockies [Chapter 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin S. McKelvey; Polly C. Buotte

    2018-01-01

    Few data exist on the direct effects of climatic variability and change on animal species. Therefore, projected climate change effects must be inferred from what is known about habitat characteristics and the autecology of each species. Habitat for mammals, including predators (Canada lynx, fisher, wolverine) and prey (snowshoe hare) that depend on high-elevation,...

  6. Relations between Temperament and Theory of Mind Development in the United States and China: Biological and Behavioral Correlates of Preschoolers' False-Belief Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Jonathan D.; Wellman, Henry M.; Olson, Sheryl L.; Miller, Alison L.; Wang, Li; Tardif, Twila

    2013-01-01

    The emotional reactivity hypothesis holds that, over the course of phylogeny, the selection of animals with less reactive temperaments supported the development of sophisticated social-cognitive skills in several species, including humans (Hare, 2007). In the ontogenetic human case, an emotional reactivity hypothesis predicts that children with…

  7. 472-IJBCS-Article-Dr Alexandre Dansi

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Int. J. Biol. Chem. Sci. 3(6): 1357-1374, 2009. 1364. Table 2: List of the vernacular names recorded per species and their meaning. Species. Vernacular names. Ethnic groups. Meaning of vernacular names. Abiwèrè. Tchabè. -. Agbô. Idatcha, Mahi,. Goun, Fon. Slimy vegetable. Assôworou lamba. Slimy vegetable of hare.

  8. Unprecedented hetero-geometric discrete copper (II) complexes ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unprecedented hetero-geometric discrete copper(II) complexes: Crystal structure and bio-mimicking of Catecholase activity. ABHRANIL DE DHANANJAY DEY HARE RAM YADAV MILAN MAJI VINAYAK RANE R M KADAM ANGSHUMAN ROY CHOUDHURY BHASKAR BISWAS. Regular Article Volume 128 Issue 11 ...

  9. Researchers urge climate-resilience support for South African maize ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-04-20

    Apr 20, 2016 ... The IDRC-supported study, conducted by the universities of Cape Town, Venda, and Fort Hare, urges the government to invest in a comprehensive “household vulnerability index” (HVI) to identify households most at risk from the impacts of climate change, and then to support them in becoming more ...

  10. 77 FR 31332 - Mid-Atlantic Fishery Management Council (MAFMC); Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-25

    ... Organizational Reports, the New England Council Liaison Report, Executive Director's Report, Science Report... effects of climate on fisheries resources of the Mid-Atlantic region will be presented by Jon Hare of NMFS... Organizational Reports, the New England Council Liaison Report, the Executive Director's Report, Science Report...

  11. Effect of altitude on erosive characteristics of concurrent rainfall ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-05-31

    May 31, 2010 ... The Department of Geography, Geoinformatics and Meteoro- logy at the University of Pretoria supplied the Davis-MC. Systems (D-MCS) equipment. The Govan Mbeki Research and. Development Centre at the University of Fort Hare supplied additional funding. References. ELWELL HA (1978) Modelling ...

  12. The effect of Acacia karroo supplementation and thermal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of the current study was to determine the effect of Acacia karroo supplementation and thermal preparation on consumer sensory scores of meat from indigenous Xhosa lop-eared goat breed. 18 castrated four-month-old Xhosa lop-eared kids were kept at the University of Fort Hare Farm until slaughter. Sample ...

  13. do the new Zimbabwean constitutional provisions on judicial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RV

    BA English (Solusi University); LLB, LLM (University of Fort Hare) and and is currently undertaking a .... The Constitution of Zimbabwe stipulates, in line with international norms, that no person or organ of ..... Ex Parte Chairperson of the Constitutional Assembly: in re Certification of the Constitution of the. Republic of South ...

  14. (A. Smith 1829) from the southern African subregion

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1989-11-28

    Nov 28, 1989 ... cover would not be a reliable measure of availability as flowers represent a small proportion of the plant canopy and are also only temporarily present. From these observations it may be concluded that. Cape hares are not obligate grazers but are capable of utilizing browse, a strategy which allows this ...

  15. Biosynthesis of 3-Dimethylsulfoniopropionate in Marine Algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-02-04

    accumulation in plants. Plant Growth Meg. 21,79-102. Hare, P.D. Cress, W.A, and Van Staden , J. (1998) Dissecting the role of osmolyte accumulation...leaves of both betaine-accumulating and nonaccumulating cereal plants. Plant Cell Physiol. 34,493-495. Ishitani. M., Nakamura, T., Han , S.Y., and

  16. A Meta-Ethnography of Two Studies on Interactions in Schools: Reflections on the Process of Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakos, Michalis; Fritzsche, Bettina

    2017-01-01

    This paper reflects upon our experience gained from engagement in a meta-ethnography of two studies on interactions between teachers and students in schools situated in England and Germany. Starting with a short overview of Noblit and Hare's (1988) conceptualisation of the method, the paper outlines the meta-ethnography we undertook especially…

  17. The Normativity of the Helping Child--Meta-Ethnographic Perspectives on Individualised Learning in Age-Mixed Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huf, Christina; Raggl, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    This paper discusses possibilities of synthesising ethnographic data. This discussion implies a critical appraisal of the methodology of "Meta-Ethnography." Taking Noblit's and Hare's concept of Meta-Ethnography as a starting point to develop their own practice of synthesising data, the paper suggests to reconsider the possibility to…

  18. Antibacterial activity of metal complexes of antifolate drug ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-08-02

    Aug 2, 2010 ... Full Length Research Paper. Antibacterial activity of metal complexes of antifolate drug pyrimethamine. Omoruyi G. Idemudia and Peter A. Ajibade*. Department of Chemistry, University of Fort Hare, Private Bag X1314, Alice 5700, South Africa. Accepted 16 March, 2010. Ag(I), Co(II) and Cu(II) complexes of ...

  19. Isolation of a 60 kDa protein with in vitro anticancer activity against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 60 kDa protein was purified from secreted purple fluid of A. dactylomela, a sea hare from Persian Gulf. The protein purification procedure consisted basically of ammonium sulfate precipitation, ion exchange chromatography using DEAE– Sepharose and ultra-filtration method. In vitro antiproliferative and cytotoxic activity ...

  20. Pilot-Vehicle Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-11-01

    pertinent to the design, evaluation and implementation of automated systems are raised in the human factors literature ( Erikson 1991, O’Hare and Roscoe 1990... Erik , J. Sirevaag, and Rolf Braune," A Psychophysiological Assessment of Operator Workload During Simulated Flight Missions," Human Factors, April 1987

  1. Impact of intermittent physical exercises on mental health of some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... from Nkonkobe District freely volunteered in physical exercises training programme for twelve weeks at the University of Fort Hare. During the programme, they completed pre-intervention and post intervention questionnaires probing their perceptions and the impact of intermittent physical exercises on their mental health.

  2. Deployment Area Selection and Land Withdrawal/Acquisition. M-X/MPS (M-X/Multiple Protective Shelter) Environmental Technical Report. Quality of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-10-02

    workers to come to the boomtown for only a short time to amass personal savings ( Susskind and O’Hare, 1977). Thus, the alleged deterioration in the 0...34 ... . • . ,. _ -. ,*\\ -., * Bronder, Leonard D., Nancy Carlisle and Michael D. Savage, Jr., 1977. Financial Strategies for Alleviation of Socioeconomic Impacts

  3. A critical survey of Xhosa Lexicography 1772-1989 | Mtuze | Lexikos

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... currently being compiled at the University of Fort Hare and which promises to be the most definitive Xhosa dictionary this century. Keywords: dictionaries, lexicography in africa, historical, contemporary, scenario, needs, the greater dictionary of xhosa, policy, methodology, criteria, evaluation, problems, translatability ...

  4. "I Always Wanted to Be a Hero." Life without Parole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Angela M.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the author recalls her face-to-face meeting with a prison inmate. Paul Jensen is currently serving a life sentence without parole in South Dakota for a crime committed at age 14. In January 1996, Paul was involved in a robbery that went tragically wrong and resulted in the shooting death of taxi cab driver Michael Hare. Three…

  5. 76 FR 16413 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-23

    ... treatment on alfalfa, potato, and rice; seed treatment on alfalfa, barley, dry bean and peas (crop subgroup 6C), potato, rice, soybeans, triticale, and wheat; and nursery seed and seedlings of conifers and... subgroup 20A (borage, crambe, gold of pleasure (camelina), cuphea, echium, hare's ear mustard, lesquerella...

  6. Screening of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivars against root-lesion nematode species

    OpenAIRE

    Söğüt, Mehmet Ali; GÖZ, Fatma Gül; ÖNAL, Tufan; DEVRAN, Zübeyir; TONGUÇ, Muhammet

    2015-01-01

    In this study, screening of 15 Phaseolus vulgaris cultivars and genotypes (Zülbiye, Kınalı, Perla, Kwintus, Özayşe, Tokat Sırık, Musica, Şelale, Nadide, Gina, Serra, Karabağ, Funda, and Lepus) and 1 Pisum sativum cultivar (Araka) for host suitability to 4 root-lesion nematodes, Pratylenchus thornei, P. crenatus, P. neglectus, and P. penetrans, was carried out in 2010 and 2011 under controlled conditions. The experiment was set up in a completely randomized block design with 7 replicates. Appr...

  7. [New study on the history of anesthesiology--(5) and (6). Reevaluation of surgical achievements by Tokumei Takamine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuki, A

    2000-11-01

    A half century has passed since K. Higaon-na, a historian from Okinawa, first reported that in 1689 Tokumei Takamine (1653-1738) had performed successfully a hare-lip operation under general anesthesia with mafutsu-san for a royal grandchild Sho-eki of the Ryukyu Dynasty in the Ruykuys, now known as Okinawa. As Higaon-na obtruded his opinion above mentioned without any substantial proof on the public, and many medical historians as well as historians have followed him thereafter. No historical documents are available concerning surgical achievements by Tokumei Takamine to clarify them in detail but it clearly says in the genealogy of the Takamines that Kou Kaiyu ([symbol: see text]) taught his ancestral prescription and surgical technique of hare-lip operation to Tokumei Takamine on his repeated solicitation when they stayed in Fu-chou. Takamine made two scrolls describing the secret prescription and surgical method of hare-lip, and presented them to a magistrate Genzaimon Murao and his physician Doh-yo Isashiki in 1690. In 1986, a scroll has been found in Sendai city of Kagoshima prefecture, which was transcribed by two physicians named Antei Kore-eda and Encho Nagai at Kagoshima in 1754. No information is available about biographies of these two physicians. A careful study of this scroll has revealed that it bears the prescription of an ointment including ten remedies to dress the incision and surgical method of hare-lip. Accordingly it is clearly proven by this newly discovered scroll that Tokumei Takamine did not administer any general anesthetics when he performed surgical operations for hare-lip on several occasions.

  8. Clinical trials with canine distemper vaccines in exotic carnivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montali, R J; Bartz, C R; Teare, J A; Allen, J T; Appel, M J; Bush, M

    1983-12-01

    Two types of killed canine distemper virus (CDV) vaccine and a modified-live CDV vaccine were clinically evaluated in four species of exotic carnivores. In 16 trials in which 13 red pandas (Ailurus fulgens) were given the killed vaccine, only 1 animal had a virus-neutralization titer that exceeded 1:100. A red panda given modified-live CDV vaccine deemed safe for gray foxes and ferrets died of bacterial pneumonia 16 days later. There was no pathologic evidence of canine distemper in that panda. The same modified-live vaccine proved to be immunogenic and safe in 12 bush dogs (Speothos venaticus), 5 maned wolves (Chrysocyon brachyurus), and 3 fennec foxes (Fennecus zerda) in which virus-neutralization titers often exceeded 1:512 and persisted for several months after vaccination.

  9. Efeito do controle de nematóides na qualidade da fibra do algodoeiro Effect of nematode control on fiber properties of upland cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubens Rodolfo Albuquerque Lordello

    1985-01-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito do tratamento com torta de mamona e com nematicidas sistêmicos (aldicarb, carbofurã, oxamil e sulfona de aldicarb, na qualidade das fibras do algodoeiro (Gossypium hirsutum cv. IAC 17 cultivado em área infestada por Meloidogyne incognita, Pratylenchus brachyurus, Helicotylenchus dihysteroides e Xiphinema sp., no nunicípio de Paranapanema, no Estado de São Paulo. As características afetadas foram: o comprimento das fibras, no qual só o carbofurã produziu aumento significativo; a resistência das fibras, que aumentou com os tratamentos torta de mamona e aldicarb; e a maturidade das fibras, onde, com exceção do oxamil, todos os tratamentos foram superiores à testemunha. As características de uniformidade e índice de finura das fibras não diferiram da testemunha em nenhum dos tratamentos.The effect of nematode control using castor bean cake and systemic nematicide treatments (Aldicarb, Carbofuran, Oxamyl and Sulfon Aldicarb, on the fiber properties of upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum cv. IAC 17 was evaluated. The crop was grown in Paranapanema - SP, Brazil, in a field infested with Meloidogyne incognita, Pratylenchus brachyurus, Helicotylenchus dihysteroides and Xiphinema sp. The properties affected were: fiber length, which improved only with Carbofuran; fiber strength, that improved with the treatments castor bean calce and Aldicarb; and fiber maturity, in which all treatments showed superior results than the check, except Oxamyl. No treatment effects on fiber fineness and uniformity were observed.

  10. [Association between single nucleotide polymorphism of MC4R gene and carcass traits in rabbits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Mei-Shan; Chen, Shi-Yi; Lai, Song-Jia; Deng, Xiao-Song; Chen, Yun; Wan, Jie

    2008-12-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the coding sequence of melanoeortin-4 receptor (MC4R) gene were detected by PCR-SSCP and DNA sequencing method in Harbin white rabbit, Tianfu black rabbit, Belgian hare, ZIKA rabbit, and California rabbit breeds. A-->G conversion mutation at base position 237 was found with high frequency in Harbin white rabbit, Belgian hare, and Zika rabbit and low frequency in Tianfu black rabbit and California rabbit. The allele A was pre-dominant allele for each of meat rabbit breeds. AA genotype frequency was higher than AG genotype in the five studied rabbit breeds. GLM analysis for the effect of genotypes on performance traits demonstrated that AG genotype was significantly associated with body weight, eviscerated weight and feed conversion efficiency (P0.05). It was concluded from the results that MC4R gene could be a candidate modifier gene that affects or controls body weight and carcass traits of rabbit.

  11. Amoralizm i psychopatia (AMORALISM AND PSYCHOPATHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wacław Janikowski

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Amoralist in a philosophically technical sense is a person who acknowledges that it would be morally wrong if she did certain act, yet she does not care about it at all, lacking any moral motivations as such. She would be capable of identifying moral reasons, but treating them as not reasons for her. The author points out that amoralists exist - they are persons ranked highly in R.D. Hare's PCL-R test (which, published in 1991, has been widely accepted in practice around the world, and Hare's concept of 'psychopathy' is now firmly grounded in clinical and theoretical community. Then he argues against apparently analytical claim of ethical rationalism. This claim, mostly considered sort of 'moral internalism', is not true, neither conceptually, nor factually. In the course of coming to such conclusion, the author discusses two peculiarities of psychopaths' minds: their difficulties with moral/conventional differentiation and being deprived of Violence Inhibition Mechanism.

  12. Mammalian cycles: internally defined periods and interaction-driven amplitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebs, CJ

    2015-01-01

    The cause of mammalian cycles—the rise and fall of populations over a predictable period of time—has remained controversial since these patterns were first observed over a century ago. In spite of extensive work on observable mammalian cycles, the field has remained divided upon what the true cause is, with a majority of opinions attributing it to either predation or to intra-species mechanisms. Here we unite the eigenperiod hypothesis, which describes an internal, maternal effect-based mechanism to explain the cycles’ periods with a recent generalization explaining the amplitude of snowshoe hare cycles in northwestern North America based on initial predator abundance. By explaining the period and the amplitude of the cycle with separate mechanisms, a unified and consistent view of the causation of cycles is reached. Based on our suggested theory, we forecast the next snowshoe hare cycle (predicted peak in 2016) to be of extraordinarily low amplitude. PMID:26339557

  13. Surveys of mammal populations in the areas adjacent to Forsmark and Tierp. A pilot study 2001-2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cederlund, Goeran; Hammarstroem, Angelica; Wallin, Kjell [Svensk Viltfoervaltning AB, Ramsberg (Sweden)

    2003-04-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co is in the process of selecting a safe and environmentally acceptable location for the deep-level repository of radioactive waste. SKB has expressed the importance of monitoring mammal species that are of interest both in biodiversity issues and for local hunting and recreational purposes. To get relevant data on the dynamics of the mammal populations it is important to estimate the abundance and variations over time. Data achieved can be used to specifically monitor endangered species (like wolf, Canis lupus, and otter, Lutra lutra), detect effects from e.g. drilling activities on populations (important to hunters) and be used for assessment programs (MKB). One of the major goals is to monitor populations over several years and to obtain information that is essential for modelling of energy/carbon flows in the biosphere and ultimately calculations of the risks of exposure to radionuclide. From late 2001 to late spring 2002 a pilot study was accomplished in the areas surrounding the suggested areas in the Tierp region and in Forsmark (Oskarshamn was not included in this pilot study). A reference area was chosen near the coast some 20 km north of Forsmark. The aim was to initiate surveys of most of the larger mammal species that were expected to be found in the region. Selected species were wolf, lynx, otter, marten, mink, red fox, beaver, wild boar, red deer, roe deer, moose, European hare and mountain hare. Several methods were used and adapted to expected habitat use and expected local density of the species. Line transects were used on snow to index (frequency of tracks crossing the transects) or calculate actual number (for example the Buffon method). Pellet counts were used in spring to calculate hare and cervid (moose and deer species) density. In mid winter an aerial (helicopter) survey was conducted along the coast to count moose. The aquatic mammals were tracked on snow along selected parts of the streams and

  14. Mammalian cycles: internally defined periods and interaction-driven amplitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LR Ginzburg

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The cause of mammalian cycles—the rise and fall of populations over a predictable period of time—has remained controversial since these patterns were first observed over a century ago. In spite of extensive work on observable mammalian cycles, the field has remained divided upon what the true cause is, with a majority of opinions attributing it to either predation or to intra-species mechanisms. Here we unite the eigenperiod hypothesis, which describes an internal, maternal effect-based mechanism to explain the cycles’ periods with a recent generalization explaining the amplitude of snowshoe hare cycles in northwestern North America based on initial predator abundance. By explaining the period and the amplitude of the cycle with separate mechanisms, a unified and consistent view of the causation of cycles is reached. Based on our suggested theory, we forecast the next snowshoe hare cycle (predicted peak in 2016 to be of extraordinarily low amplitude.

  15. The trouble with psychopathy as a general theory of crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Glenn D

    2004-04-01

    The concept of psychopathy, as defined by Robert Hare, is reviewed with respect to its status as a general theory of crime. A hybrid of the medical pathology model and personality trait approach, the psychopathy concept proposes that a significant portion of serious crime is committed by psychopathic individuals. Hare's version of psychopathy, besides demonstrating weak applicability and a propensity for tautology, is subject to labeling effects, oversimplicity, reductionism, the fundamental attributional error, inattention to context, and disregard for the dynamic nature of human behavior. It is concluded that the psychopathy concept is substantially limited with respect to its ability to describe and clarify general criminal behavior but that it may still have value as a partial explanation for certain types of non-criminal predatory behavior.

  16. Parental experiences of early postnatal discharge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Ingrid; Danbjørg, Dorthe B.; Aagaard, Hanne

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: the aim of this study was to investigate new parents׳ experiences of early postnatal discharge. DESIGN: a meta-synthesis including 10 qualitative studies was conducted using Noblit and Hare׳s method of meta-synthesis development. SETTING: qualitative studies performed in western...... countries from 2003-2013 were included. PARTICIPANTS: the 10 included studies involved 237 mothers and fathers, first time parents as well as multiparous. FINDINGS: we identified four overlapping and mutually dependent themes reflecting the new parents׳ experiences of early postnatal discharge: Feeling...... and taking responsibility; A time of insecurity; Being together as a family; and Striving to be confident. The mothers׳ and fathers׳ experiences of responsibility, security and confidence in their parental role, were positively influenced by having the opportunity to be together as a family, receiving...

  17. Establishing Research and Management Priorities for Invasive Water Primroses (Ludwigia spp.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    invasive (Reichard and White 2001). In 1733, English colonists established a plant introduction station and botanical gardens in Savannah, Georgia...City of Eugene Department of Parks and Open Space Division, Eugene, Oregon. 14pp. Cohen, M.F., C. Hare, J. Kozlowski, R.S. McCormick, L. Chen, L...in wetlands of the Sinos River basin. Brazilian Journal of Biology 70:1179-1184. Martins, C. 1866. Sur les racines aérifères ou vessies natatoires

  18. New Approach to Predict Hugoniot Properties of Explosives Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-12

    Gaussian, Inc., Pittsburgh PA, 2003. [12] B.M. Rice, S.V. Pai, J. Hare, Combust. Flame, 118 (1999) 445-458. [13] P.W. Atkins , Physical chemistry , 2nd ed...6] approach was used to predict heats of formation in the solid phase and detonation properties using quantum chemistry calculations. 2...1 www.webbook.nist.gov/ chemistry DRDC-RDDC-2014-N35 For heats of sublimation, only PETN case is studied in this work

  19. Could Realistic Job Previews Reduce First-Term Attrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-03-01

    IET. The PIET is also administered to high school students who enlist in 32 the summer prior to their senior year. These recruits then attend BCT...film that emphasized that the greatest challenges faced by recruits were not related to training events, but in adjusting to Army life— homesickness ...military settings. For example, in 1996, the Navy developed a video that is shown to new recruits who are traveling by bus from O’Hare International

  20. Sécurité de la gestion dynamique des ressources basée sur la prise en compte des profils de consommation en ressources des machines virtuelles, dans un cloud IaaS

    OpenAIRE

    Lazri, Kahina

    2014-01-01

    Hardware virtualisation is the core technology which enables resource sharing among multiple virtual machines possibly belonging to different tenants within cloud infrastructures. Resources haring is the main feature that enables cost effectiveness of cloud platforms, achieved through dynamic resource management. However, resource sharing brings several new security concerns. Several proofs of concepts have demontrated new attack strategies brought by the resource sharing paradigm, known as c...

  1. El bricolage geoeléctrico: un recurso de bajo coste en la prospección arqueológica de subsuelo

    OpenAIRE

    Peña, José Antonio; Esquivel, José Antonio

    1995-01-01

    We hare constructed, with D.I.Y. facilities, equipment for electrical survey. With the purpose of demonstrating its practical viability, a series of carefully programmed experiments have been carried out, followed by this suitable numerical treatment has allowed us to know the range of application of the equipment. The results obtained are valid and can be reproduced, so showing that with very limited equipment can be carried out geophysical survey useful to Archaeology through shallow electr...

  2. 農耕者と漁労者の比較心理(3) : 通過儀礼における霊魂観(教育心理)

    OpenAIRE

    服部, 純子; ハットリ, スミコ; Sumiko, HATTORI

    2000-01-01

    Purpose This study of culture and personality was designed to investigate the comparative psychology of farming villagers and fishing villagers, in particular, attitudes toward life rituals: rites of birth, adolescence, marriage, critical years, and death. In their everyday life, they cherish life along the life cycles of 'hare, 'ke' and 'kegare' through rituals. Method Research was based on reference to Japanese festivals, and to essays on death, in order to determine the typical commonaliti...

  3. Kultura stravování hnutí Haré Krišna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Konečná

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the issue of the function and meaning of eating for the members of the Hare Krishna movement and follows the question what cultural specifics of eating are significant for this movement. In this paper there are also presented topics such as symbolism of food, the principles of sacrifices which are related to the principles of purity, eating habits, sacredness of cows or food sovereignty.

  4. Proceedings of the 1977 symposium on instrumentation and process control for fossil demonstration plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-01-01

    The 1977 Symposium on Instrumentation and Process Control for Fossil Demonstration Plants was held at Hyatt Regency O'Hare, Chicago, Illinois, July 13 to 15, 1977. It was sponsored by the Argonne National Laboratory, the U.S. Energy Research and Development Administration and the Instrument Society of America (Chicago Section). Seventeen papers from thee proceedings were entered individually into EDB and ERA (three papers weree entered previously). (LTN)

  5. Comments on: High fat intake leads to acute postprandial exposure to circulating endotoxin in type 2 diabetic subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Yu Vorotnikova

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Comments on: Harte AL, Varma MC, Tripathi G, McGee KC, Al-Daghri NM, Al-Attas OS, Sabico S, O'Hare JP, Ceriello A, Saravanan P, Kumar S, McTernan PG. High fat intake leads to acute postprandial exposure to circulating endotoxin in type 2 diabetic subjects. Diabetes Care. 2012 Feb; 35(2: 375-82

  6. 40 CFR 180.412 - Sethoxydim; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... pleasure, seed 35.0 Grape 1.0 Grape, raisin 2.0 Hare's ear mustard, seed 35.0 Hog, fat 0.2 Hog, meat 0.2... Mustard, seed 35.0 Nectarine 0.2 Nut, tree, group 14 0.2 Oil radish, seed 35.0 Okra 2.5 Pea and bean... Blueberry 4.0 Borage, meal 10 Borage, seed 6.0 Buckwheat, flour 25 Buckwheat, grain 19 Caneberry subgroup 13...

  7. Preliminary study of the diet of the European mink (Mustela lubreola ) in the southwest of France

    OpenAIRE

    Libois, Roland

    2001-01-01

    The diet has been studied in 3 zones where two species, polecat and European mink, cohabiting. Feces were collected at the animals resting-place with radio transmitters. The diet of mink is electic : mammals (Ondatra, Arvicola sapidus, rats…), birds (duck, rallids…), frogs and toads and fish. The polecat eats mammals (rabbits, hares and small mammals), some birds and reptiles, plenty toads. The trophic similarity is fairly low. In fact, for two weasels , individual and seasonal varia...

  8. Weaknesses in the Resident Language Training System of Defense Language Institute Affect the Quality of Trained Linguists

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-05-06

    group: Arabic 186 35 Chinese 196 37 Tagalog 2 1 Greek 31 8 Indonesian (including Malay) 7 3 Japanese 10 2 Korean 361 62 Persian 6 3 Thai 3 3 Turkish...policement,ate.). thing bot the me" elementary needs: errors in promeciation and grammar ae frequvent, but can he snderuod by a nativ, speaker msed to dealing...le Intelligible; cani usally headle elementary constructions quite so. orately hut does not hare thor. nugh or confident control of the grammar . 34

  9. Method for operating an automobile with a combustion engine with applied ignition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderton, R.A.; Smith, R.R.; Tippler, R.

    1982-01-28

    A method is proposed to operate automobiles with combustion engines with applied ignition directly after the assembly on a petrol-mineral oil mixture; this prevents a spark plug fouling when the cars which hare just been completed are operated on short distances only. This petrol-mineral oil mixture should consist preferably of 95-98 ROZ petrol and mineral oil share of less than 5 vol.% preferably 0,5 vol.%.

  10. The Medical Implications of Women On Submarines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-11-26

    have produced the following findings: 1. The offspring of 435 rats exposed to 6% CO2 for a single gestational day demonstrated a cardiac malformation...living at home have secondary hyperparathyroidism and high bone turnover in winter. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 1996; 81:1129-33...Workers v. Johnson Controls, Inc. US Reports. Vol. 499 US 187. Washington, DC: US Supreme Court, 1991. 148. Haring OM. Cardiac malformations in rats

  11. Survey of Francisella tularensis in Wild Animals in Japan in Areas Where Tularemia is Endemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotta, Akitoyo; Tanabayashi, Kiyoshi; Fujita, Osamu; Shindo, Junji; Park, Chu-Ho; Kudo, Noboru; Hatai, Hitoshi; Oyamada, Toshifumi; Yamamoto, Yoshie; Takano, Ai; Kawabata, Hiroki; Sharma, Neekun; Uda, Akihiko; Yamada, Akio; Morikawa, Shigeru

    2016-09-21

    Samples taken from 428 wild animals and 126 ticks, collected from a tularemia-endemic area in Japan between 2005 and 2013, were analyzed for the presence of Francisella tularensis. F. tularensis was isolated from a Japanese hare carcass whereas the samples from live animals and ticks were negative for F. tularensis by real-time PCR. Our results suggest that F. tularensis is still present in Japan although its prevalence is considerably low even in areas where tularemia is endemic.

  12. The association between chronic pain and obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Okifuji A; Hare BD

    2015-01-01

    Akiko Okifuji, Bradford D HarePain Research and Management Center, Department of Anesthesiology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USAAbstract: Obesity and pain present serious public health concerns in our society. Evidence strongly suggests that comorbid obesity is common in chronic pain conditions, and pain complaints are common in obese individuals. In this paper, we review the association between obesity and pain in the general population as well as chronic pain patients. We also r...

  13. Analysér!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre, Henrik Jøker

    Hvad er sammenhængen mellem en vittighed om en sovjetisk fangelejr og et eventyr af H.C. Andersen? Hvorfor er vi så fascinerede af andre kulturers syn på vores egen kultur? Og hvad kan vi lære af Joseph Beuys’ kunstværk "Hvordan man forklarer billederne til den døde hare?" I spændingsfeltet mellem...

  14. Weathering the Cyber Storm: The Military’s Resiliency to Cyber Attacks in Future Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    Facebook users do not know and 16 Forest B. Hare and Glenn Zimmerman, “The Air Force in...action in his own network, is he conducting an active defense? Does blocking a port on a friendly router constitute a counterattack? General Keith ...of Military and Associated Terms, 8 November 2010, 200 [Emphasis added]. 38 Keith Repik, “Defeating Adversary Network Intelligence Effort with

  15. Support for the Annual Meeting (30th) of the Cognitive Science Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-01

    Gunzelmann Tom Griffiths Todd Gureckis James Hampton Mary Hare Mary Hegarty Aaron Hoffman Robert Jacobs Marc Joanisse Matt Jones Ken Koedinger...Grow Stronger: Reducing Structural Overlap Can Increase Inductive Strength Hee Seung Lee, Keith Holyoak 297 Structured Correlation From the Causal...Magiiano, Keith K. Millis, Danielle S. McNamara, Christopher A. Kurby 607 Are Three Words All We Need? Recognizing Genre At the Sub- Sentential

  16. The Other Quiet Professionals: Lessons for Future Cyber Forces from the Evolution of Special Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Andy Mellow, LTC Forrest Hare , David Poole, and Jos Olivero about acquisition matters. More recently, we benefited from engaging discussions with...two organizations are colocated and share a single commander and director, GEN Keith Alexander. At his nomination hearing before the Senate Armed...kinds of neglect faced by pre-USSOCOM SOF. In his nomination hearing, USCYBERCOM commander GEN Keith Alexander stated that “we can stand up the

  17. Final Environmental Assessment for Proposed Colorado Springs Airport/El Paso County School District 11 Property Acquisition and Future Development at Peterson Air Foce Base, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    rolling topography. This species preys largely on rabbits and hares but also takes smaller rodents such as black-tailed prairie dogs. This species...AFB. 2010. Design Analysis: East Gate Realignment. September. Peterson AFB 2010e Peterson AFB. 2010. Personal Communication with Keith ...Andrew Chen (AMEC), Keith Gramprie (21 CES/CEAOP), and Christine Andrews (City of Colorado Springs Airport). 22 September. Peterson AFB 2010j

  18. 2014 Defects in Semiconductors Gordon Research Conference & Gordon Research Seminar. Research Area 1: Materials Science, 1.3 Physical Properties of Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    34 11:15 am - 11:30 am Discussion 11:30 am - 12:00 pm Keith McKenna (University of York) "Effect of Grain Boundaries in TiO2 on Electron Mobility...Pennsylvania State University Poster Presenter Registered McKenna , Keith University of York Speaker Registered Mengyan, Rick W Texas Tech...University of Cambridge Speaker Registered Osayemwenre, Gilbert Fort Hare Institute of Technology (FHIT) Poster Presenter Registered Patel, Neil

  19. Unusual magnetic interactions in compounds with the ThMn12 structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paixao, J.A.; Langridge, S.; Sørensen, S.Å.

    1997-01-01

    Neutron diffraction experiments have been performed on single crystals of MFe4Al8 where M = Y, Lu, Dy and U. All compounds hare the ThMn12 bet crystal structure with Fe and Al atoms on separate sites. The Fe sublattice order antiferromagnetically above 100 K with a wave vector (epsilon, epsilon 0...... a + - + - antiferromagnetic configuration with moments almost perpendicular to the applied field....

  20. The Role of Socio-Communicative Rearing Environments on the Development of Social and Physical Cognition in Apes

    OpenAIRE

    Russell, J. L.; Lyn, H.; Schaeffer, J. A.; HOPKINS, W. D.

    2011-01-01

    The cultural intelligence hypothesis (CIH) claims that humans' advanced cognition is a direct result of human culture and that children are uniquely specialized to absorb and utilize this cultural experience (Tomasello, 2000). Comparative data demonstrating that 2.5 year old human children outperform apes on measures of social cognition but not on measures of physical cognition support this claim (E. Herrmann, J. Call, M. V. Hernandez-Lloreda, B. Hare, & M. Tomasello, 2007). However, the prev...

  1. The Possibility of Moral Reasoning in Hare’s Prescriptivism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    m zamani

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The contemporary approaches to moral philosophy have experienced diverging directions regarding the possibility and justification of reasoning. Hare claims that in spite of the fact that intuitivists like Moore, Ross, and Prichard block the use of reasoning by accepting the intuitiveness of knowledge of good and bad, emotivism takes the same rout by focusing on emotions and emphasizing the freedom of choice. While descriptivism and also naturalism accept the possibility of reasoning through admitting the indicative nature of ethical speech, they reject or limit the freedom of choice. He tries to justify both the freedom of choice and the possibility of rational reasoning in moral. In so doing, Hare takes refuge in the non-self-contradiction and compatibility principles to insist on the universalizability of rules of moral reasoning. To make judgments of relevance is the prerequisite in morals which subsequently encompasses universalizability and the possibility of reasoning. Using the linguistic analysis, Hare tries to show that as language in which predicate-logic governs statements, imperatives and moral sentences are governed by rational relationships and principles of compatibility. From this point of view, an individual’s judgments are justifiable, provided that it is not in contradiction with his previous judgments. The aim of this study is to state, analyze, and criticize Hare’s views regarding the provision of rational reasoning and its possibility in terms of the challenges he faces with regard to competing schools of thought.

  2. Evolutionary Insights into IL17A in Lagomorphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Neves

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In leporids, IL17A had been implicated in the host defense against extracellular pathogens, such as Francisella tularensis that infects hares and rabbits and causes the zoonotic disease tularemia. Here, we studied IL17A from five lagomorphs, European rabbit, pygmy rabbit, brush rabbit, European brown hare, and American pika. We observed that this protein is highly conserved between these species, with a similarity of 97–99% in leporids and ~88% between leporids and American pika. The exon/intron structure, N-glycosylation sites, and cysteine residues are conserved between lagomorphs. However, at codon 88, one of the interaction sites between IL17A and its receptor IL17RA, there is an Arg>Pro mutation that only occurs in European rabbit and European brown hare. This could induce critical alterations in the IL17A structure and conformation and consequently modify its function. The differences observed between leporids and humans or rodents might also represent important alterations in protein structure and function. In addition, as for other interleukins, IL17A sequences of human and European rabbit are more closely related than the sequences of human and mouse or European rabbit and mouse. This study gives further support to the hypothesis that European rabbit might be a more suitable animal model for studies on human IL17.

  3. Facets of psychopathy, heart rate variability and cognitive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Anita Lill; Johnsen, Bjørn Helge; Thornton, David; Waage, Leif; Thayer, Julian F

    2007-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the four facets of Hare's Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R; Hare, 1991; Bolt, Hare, Vitale, & Newman, 2004) were related to physiological and cognitive mechanisms. Fifty-three male prisoners participated in this study. Physiological responses were measured as heart rate variability (HRV) and heart rate (HR). Cognitive functions were measured using a continuous performance test (CPT; California Computerized Assessment Package, Abbreviated version) and a working memory test (WMT); based on Baddeley & Hitch (1974). The regression analysis of the HRV revealed that the interpersonal facet explained most of the variance during baseline (28%), CPT (16%), and WMT (12%). This was also true for the HR data during baseline (28%), CPT (20%), WMT (10%), and recovery (13%). The antisocial facet explained 10% of the variance only during baseline. Subjects scoring high compared to low on the interpersonal facet also showed better cognitive functioning. The study suggests that the different facets were differently associated with both physiological and cognitive functions.

  4. Response of winter chemical defense in Alaska paper birch and green alder to manipulation of plant carbon/nutrient balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, J P; Chapin, F S; Reichardt, P B; Clausen, T P

    1987-07-01

    Plant carbon/nutrient balance has been implicated as an important factor in plant defensive chemistry and palatability to herbivores. We tested this hypothesis by fertilizing juvenile growth form Alaska paper birch and green alder with N, P and N-plus-P in a balanced 2x2 factorial experiment. Additionally, we shaded unfertilized plants of both species. Fertilization with N and N-plus-P increased growth of Alaska paper birch, reduced the concentration of papyriferic acid in internodes and increased the palatability of birch twigs to snowshoe hares. Shading decreased birch growth, decreased the concentration of papyriferic acid in internodes and increased twig palatability. These results indicate that the defensive chemistry and palatability of winter-dormant juvenile Alaska paper birch are sensitive to soil fertility and shade. Conversely the defensive chemistry and palatability of green alder twigs to snowshoe hares were not significantly affected by soil fertility or shade. The greater sensitivity of Alaska paper birch defensive chemistry and palatability to snowshoe hares in comparison to green alder is in agreement with the hypothesis that early successional woody plants that are adapted to high resource availability are more plastic in their chemical responses to the physical environment than are species from less favorable environments.

  5. Game statistics for the Island of Olkiluoto in 2011-2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niemi, M.; Nieminen, M. [Faunatica Oy, Espoo (Finland); Jussila, I. [Turku Univ. (Finland)

    2012-11-15

    The game statistics for the island of Olkiluoto were updated in the summer 2012 and compared with earlier statistics. Population size estimates are based on interviews of the local hunters. No moose or deer inventories were made in the winter 2011-2012. The moose population has been decreasing slightly during the past ten years. The increasing lynx population has decreasing effect on small ungulate (white-tailed deer and roe deer) populations. The number of hunted mountain hares and European brown hares decreased when comparing the previous year. In addition, the number of hunted raccoon dogs was about 50 per cent lower than in the year 2010. Altogether 27 waterfowls were hunted in 2011. The population of mountain hare is abundant, despite that there were lynx living on the eastern part of island during the winter 2011. Based on track observations, there are pine martens living on the area as well. In addition, there were some observations of wolves visiting on the area. The winter 2011-2012 was milder than the previous one, and it seemed that young swans wintering on the area survived better that in the previous winter. (orig.)

  6. Using Latent Variable- and Person-Centered Approaches to Examine the Role of Psychopathic Traits in Sex Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krstic, Sonja; Neumann, Craig S; Roy, Sandeep; Robertson, Carrie A; Knight, Raymond A; Hare, Robert D

    2017-04-13

    The current study employed both latent variable- and person-centered approaches to examine psychopathic traits in a large sample of sex offenders (N = 958). The offenders, who had committed a range of sexual crimes, had been assessed with the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R; Hare, 2003). Structural equation modeling results indicated that the four-factor model of psychopathy (Hare, 2003; Neumann, Hare, & Newman, 2007) provided good representation of the dimensional nature of psychopathic traits across the sample of offenders, and that the PCL-R factors significantly predicted sexual crimes. In particular, the Affective and Antisocial psychopathy factors each predicted sexually violent crimes. Latent profile analysis results revealed evidence for a 4-class solution, with the subtypes showing distinct PCL-R facet profiles, consistent with previous research. The four subtypes were validated using sexual crime profiles. The prototypic psychopathy subtype (high on all 4 PCL-R facets) evidenced more violent sexual offenses than did the other subtypes. Taken together, the results demonstrate how variable- and person-centered approaches in combination can add to our understanding of the psychopathy construct and its correlates. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Antisocial behavior: Dimension or category(ies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biro Mikloš

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Classificatory systems (DSM-IV, ICD-10 use different criteria for defining a rather common antisocial disorder, traditionally referred as psychopathy. Most empirical studies of this phenomenon use Cleckley's operational definition that was applied and amended in Hare's revised Psychopathy Checklist (PCL-R. In modern literature, the fact that there is less than a perfect correspondence between classificatory systems and Hare's PCL-R is often cited as an indication that antisocial behavior is not confined to a distinct category of people but is rather a continuous personality dimension. In order to further elucidate the nosology of antisocial behaviors, a Psychopathy Assessment Questionnaire (PAQ based on Cleckley - Hare's criteria and consisting of 40 binary items was administered to 339 men (135 prisoners and 204 members of the general population. Four distinct clusters of respondents were identified by means of hierarchical cluster analysis: Psychopathic type (characterized by high positive scores on dimension of Unemotionality; Antisocial type (characterized by high positive scores on Social deviance dimension; Adapted type (characterized by negative scores on all dimensions; and Hyper-controlled type (characterized by extremely negative scores on dimension Social deviance accompanied with positive scores on Unemotionality dimension. Additional comparison with MMPI profiles which classified prison sample in two groups ("Psychopathic profiles" and "Non- Psychopathic profiles" shows that there is no expected compatibility between MMPI and PAQ. We conclude that Antisocial type can be treated as a distinct category, while Psychopathic type displays characteristics of dimensional distribution.

  8. Robert Knox and the anatomy of beauty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neher, Allister

    2011-06-01

    Robert Knox (1791-1862) is typically remembered as the Edinburgh anatomist to whom the murderers Burke and Hare sold the bodies of their victims. This association brought Knox infamy and damaged his life and career. Before the Burke and Hare scandal, Knox was one of the most famous, original and influential anatomists in Britain. He was also something of a dandy with a sophisticated appreciation of the visual arts. His most significant writings on artistic subjects were his books A Manual of Artistic Anatomy and Great Artists and Great Anatomists: A Biographical and Philosophical Study. Knox's interesting and independently minded opinions on the central artistic questions of his day were taken seriously by his contemporaries. His demotion in the official history of anatomy following his involvement with Burke and Hare, however, also removed him from the history of art theory in 19th century Britain. Knox was such a magnetic and impressive figure, though, that he has to be brought back to his era and his era is not complete without him. This paper discusses how Knox's writings on anatomy and biology shaped his contributions to art theory. It is a first step towards returning Knox, the art theorist, to the cultural life of 19th century Britain.

  9. Meta-ethnography 25 years on: challenges and insights for synthesising a large number of qualitative studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toye, Francine; Seers, Kate; Allcock, Nick; Briggs, Michelle; Carr, Eloise; Barker, Karen

    2014-06-21

    Studies that systematically search for and synthesise qualitative research are becoming more evident in health care, and they can make an important contribution to patient care. Our team was funded to complete a meta-ethnography of patients' experience of chronic musculoskeletal pain. It has been 25 years since Noblit and Hare published their core text on meta-ethnography, and the current health research environment brings additional challenges to researchers aiming to synthesise qualitative research. Noblit and Hare propose seven stages of meta-ethnography which take the researcher from formulating a research idea to expressing the findings. These stages are not discrete but form part of an iterative research process. We aimed to build on the methods of Noblit and Hare and explore the challenges of including a large number of qualitative studies into a qualitative systematic review. These challenges hinge upon epistemological and practical issues to be considered alongside expectations about what determines high quality research. This paper describes our method and explores these challenges. Central to our method was the process of collaborative interpretation of concepts and the decision to exclude original material where we could not decipher a concept. We use excerpts from our research team's reflexive statements to illustrate the development of our methods.

  10. Opening the black box—Development, testing and documentation of a mechanistically rich agent-based model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Topping, Chris J.; Høye, Toke; Olesen, Carsten Riis

    2010-01-01

    Although increasingly widely used in biology, complex adaptive simulation models such as agent-based models have been criticised for being difficult to communicate and test. This study demonstrates the application of pattern-oriented model testing, and a novel documentation procedure to present a...... be compared to real-world data allows the formulation and testing of varied hypotheses in ways not tractable to experimentation. In the case of the brown hare the results provide a new insight into population regulation and the causes of the declines......Although increasingly widely used in biology, complex adaptive simulation models such as agent-based models have been criticised for being difficult to communicate and test. This study demonstrates the application of pattern-oriented model testing, and a novel documentation procedure to present...... a detailed agent-based model of the European brown hare, a species in widespread decline in Europe. The model was built based on available literature data, using multiple field data patterns from an island hare population study to guide model development. A general and widely applicable approach...

  11. Black-tailed and white-tailed jackrabbits in the American West: History, ecology, ecological significance, and survey methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simes, Matthew; Longshore, Kathleen M.; Nussear, Kenneth E.; Beatty, Greg L.; Brown, David E.; Esque, Todd C.

    2015-01-01

    Across the western United States, Leporidae are the most important prey item in the diet of Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos). Leporids inhabiting the western United States include black-tailed (Lepus californicus) and white-tailed jackrabbits (Lepus townsendii) and various species of cottontail rabbit (Sylvilagus spp.). Jackrabbits (Lepus spp.) are particularly important components of the ecological and economic landscape of western North America because their abundance influences the reproductive success and population trends of predators such as coyotes (Canis latrans), bobcats (Lynx rufus), and a number of raptor species. Here, we review literature pertaining to black-tailed and white-tailed jackrabbits comprising over 170 published journal articles, notes, technical reports, conference proceedings, academic theses and dissertations, and other sources dating from the late 19th century to the present. Our goal is to present information to assist those in research and management, particularly with regard to protected raptor species (e.g., Golden Eagles), mammalian predators, and ecological monitoring. We classified literature sources as (1) general information on jackrabbit species, (2) black-tailed or (3) white-tailed jackrabbit ecology and natural history, or (4) survey methods. These categories, especially 2, 3, and 4, were further subdivided as appropriate. The review also produced several tables on population trends, food habits, densities within various habitats, and jackrabbit growth and development. Black-tailed and white-tailed jackrabbits are ecologically similar in general behaviors, use of forms, parasites, and food habits, and they are prey to similar predators; but they differ in their preferred habitats. While the black-tailed jackrabbit inhabits agricultural land, deserts, and shrublands, the white-tailed jackrabbit is associated with prairies, alpine tundra, and sagebrush-steppe. Frequently considered abundant, jackrabbit numbers in western North

  12. Risk of importing zoonotic diseases through wildlife trade, United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlin, Boris I; Schloegel, Lisa M; Daszak, Peter

    2009-11-01

    The United States is the world's largest wildlife importer, and imported wild animals represent a potential source of zoonotic pathogens. Using data on mammals imported during 2000-2005, we assessed their potential to host 27 selected risk zoonoses and created a risk assessment that could inform policy making for wildlife importation and zoonotic disease surveillance. A total of 246,772 mammals in 190 genera (68 families) were imported. The most widespread agents of risk zoonoses were rabies virus (in 78 genera of mammals), Bacillus anthracis (57), Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (48), Echinococcus spp. (41), and Leptospira spp. (35). Genera capable of harboring the greatest number of risk zoonoses were Canis and Felis (14 each), Rattus (13), Equus (11), and Macaca and Lepus (10 each). These findings demonstrate the myriad opportunities for zoonotic pathogens to be imported and suggest that, to ensure public safety, immediate proactive changes are needed at multiple levels.

  13. The impact of small terrestrial mammals on beech (Fagus sylvatica plantations in spruce monoculture

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    Luboš Purchart

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the impact of small terrestrial mammals on forest regeneration as yet. In order to determine the level of small rodent impact on artificial forest regeneration, 508 saplings have been researched in a spruce monoculture in the Drahany Uplands. With the objective to hone the interpretation of the data, small terrestrial rodents were trapped to help determine species spectrum. The occurrence of Apodemus flavicollis, Clethrionomys glareolus and Sorex araneus was verified. In 52 cases damage to the trunk caused by small rodents was monitored (10.1% of all saplings. 8 specimens (1.6% had their branches nibbled and 9 saplings (1.8% had tips of branches or trunk tops browsed. Browsing by Lepus europaeus – 423 (83.3% of all damaged specimens was significant.

  14. Small mammals of the Addo Elephant National Park

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    P. Swanepoel

    1975-07-01

    Full Text Available A survey of the small mammals of the Addo Elephant National Park resulted in a checklist, as well as information on relative numbers, distribution within the Park, reproductive activity, sex ratios, and body measurements. Forty mammals species occur in the Park, while three re-introduced species probably do not occur any longer. Of the 40 species 28 are considered small mammals comprising 13 rodent, eight carnivore, two shrew, two bat, one primate and one lagomorph species, as well as the aardvark: Crociduraflavescens, C. cyanea infumata, Rousettus aegyptiacus, Eptesicus capensis, Cercopithecus pygerythrus, Canis mesomelas, Ictonyx striatus, Poecilogale albinucha, Genetta sp., Herpestes pulverulentus, Suricata suricatta, Proteles cristatus, Felis caracal, Orycteropus afer, Lepus saxatilis, Cryptomys hottentotus, Hystrix africae-australis, Pedetes capensis, Graphiurus murinus, Aethomys namaquensis, Praomys natalensis, Rhabdomys pumilio, Mus minutoides, Rattus rattus, Saccostomys campestris, Desmodillus auricularis, Otomys irroratus and 0. unisulcatus.

  15. Effects of wildlife of ethyl and methyl parathion applied to California USA rice fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custer, T.W.; Hill, E.F.; Ohlendorf, H.M.

    1985-01-01

    Selected rice fields on the Sacramento National Wildlife Refuge Complex were aerially sprayed one time during May or June 1982 with either ethyl (0.11 kg Al/ha) or methyl (0.84 kg AI/ha) parathion for control of tadpole shrimp, Triops longicaudatus. No sick or dead vertebrate wildlife were found or adjacent to the treated rice fields after spraying. Specimens of the following birds and mammals were assayed for brain cholinesterase (ChE) activity to determine exposure to either form of parathion; house mouse, Mus musculus; black-tailed jackrabbit, Lepus californicus; mallard, Anas platyrhynchos; ring-necked pheasant, Phasianus colchicus; American coot, Fulica americana; and red-winged blackbird, Agelaius phoeniceus. Both mice and pheasants from methyl parathion-treated fields had overall mean ChE activities that were significantly (P fields, but sufficient information on potential hazards was obtained to warrant caution in use of these chemicals, especially methyl parathion, in rice fields.

  16. Effects on wildlife of ethyl and methyl parathion applied to California rice fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custer, T.W.; Hill, E.F.; Ohlendorf, H.M.

    1985-01-01

    Selected rice fields on the Sacramento National Wildlife Refuge Complex were aerially sprayed one time during May or June 1982 with either ethyl (0.11 kg Al/ha) or methyl (0.84 kg AI/ha) parathion for control of tadpole shrimp, Triops longicaudatus. No sick or dead vertebrate wildlife were found or adjacent to the treated rice fields after spraying. Specimens of the following birds and mammals were assayed for brain cholinesterase (ChE) activity to determine exposure to either form of parathion; house mouse, Mus musculus; black-tailed jackrabbit, Lepus californicus; mallard, Anas platyrhynchos; ring-necked pheasant, Phasianus colchicus; American coot, Fulica americana; and red-winged blackbird, Agelaius phoeniceus. Both mice and pheasants from methyl parathion-treated fields had overall mean ChE activities that were significantly (P fields, but sufficient information on potential hazards was obtained to warrant caution in use of these chemicals, especially methyl parathion, in rice fields.

  17. Comparison of different extenders on the preservability of rabbit semen stored at 5°C for 72 hours

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    Michele Di Iorio

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to compare Cortalap® extender with tris-citric acid-glucose (TCG, Lepus® and Merk III®, to assess the in vitro preservability of rabbit spermatozoa stored for 72 h at 5°C. The best extender identified in vitro was then compared with fresh semen to determine fertility and prolificacy rates in vivo. Eight semen pools were split into four subsamples and each of them was diluted to a ratio of 1:10 (volume:volume with four different extenders (Lepus®, Cortalap®, TCG and Merk III® and stored at 5°C for 72 h. Sperm motility, viability, sperm membrane and acrosome integrity were evaluated in both fresh and chilled semen at 4, 24, 48 and 72 h of storage. The results showed that Cortalap® was the best extender to preserve the quality of rabbit semen in vitro over 72 h in comparison with the other extenders (P<0.05. Then, Cortalap® was used for an artificial insemination (AI trial to be compared with fresh semen. Two groups of does (n=30 each were inseminated with fresh and chilled semen. The fertility and prolificacy rates for the does inseminated with chilled semen were significantly lower compared with those inseminated with fresh semen (P<0.05. In conclusion, although Cortalap® proved to be the best extender to preserve semen quality in vitro after 72 h at 5°C, the in vivo results showed that its use is not recommended in AI programmes.

  18. A Century of Shope Papillomavirus in Museum Rabbit Specimens.

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    Escudero Duch, Clara; Williams, Richard A J; Timm, Robert M; Perez-Tris, Javier; Benitez, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Sylvilagus floridanus Papillomavirus (SfPV) causes growth of large horn-like tumors on rabbits. SfPV was described in cottontail rabbits (probably Sylvilagus floridanus) from Kansas and Iowa by Richard Shope in 1933, and detected in S. audubonii in 2011. It is known almost exclusively from the US Midwest. We explored the University of Kansas Natural History Museum for historical museum specimens infected with SfPV, using molecular techniques, to assess if additional wild species host SfPV, and whether SfPV occurs throughout the host range, or just in the Midwest. Secondary aims were to detect distinct strains, and evidence for strain spatio-temporal specificity. We found 20 of 1395 rabbits in the KU collection SfPV symptomatic. Three of 17 lagomorph species (S. nuttallii, and the two known hosts) were symptomatic, while Brachylagus, Lepus and eight additional Sylvilagus species were not. 13 symptomatic individuals were positive by molecular testing, including the first S. nuttallii detection. Prevalence of symptomatic individuals was significantly higher in Sylvilagus (1.8%) than Lepus. Half of these specimens came from Kansas, though new molecular detections were obtained from Jalisco-Mexico's first-and Nebraska, Nevada, New Mexico, and Texas, USA. We document the oldest lab-confirmed case (Kansas, 1915), pre-dating Shope's first case. SfPV amplification was possible from 63.2% of symptomatic museum specimens. Using multiple methodologies, rolling circle amplification and, multiple isothermal displacement amplification in addition to PCR, greatly improved detection rates. Short sequences were obtained from six individuals for two genes. L1 gene sequences were identical to all previously detected sequences; E7 gene sequences, were more variable, yielding five distinct SfPV1 strains that differing by less than 2% from strains circulating in the Midwest and Mexico, between 1915 and 2005. Our results do not clarify whether strains are host species specific, though

  19. Fitonematoides associados a frutíferas na região Noroeste do Paraná, Brasil Plant parasitic nematodes associated with fruit crops in the Northwest of Paraná, Brazil

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    Cláudia Regina Dias-Arieira

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de estudar a ocorrência de nematoides fitoparasitos em frutíferas cultivadas na região noroeste do Paraná, realizou-se um levantamento, envolvendo 124 amostras de solo e raízes coletadas de 19 espécies de frutíferas, em 15 municípios, no período de dezembro/2007 a fevereiro/2009. As amostras foram submetidas a extrações e avaliadas sob microscópio óptico. Foram constatados nove diferentes gêneros de nematoides. Em citros, a espécie mais frequente e abundante foi Tylenchulus semipenetrans, sendo também recuperados das amostras os gêneros Meloidogyne, Pratylenchus, Helicotylenchus, Xiphinema, Trichodorus, Mesocriconema e Dolichodorus. Nas demais frutíferas, os gêneros observados foram Meloidogyne, Pratylenchus, Helicotylenchus e Hemicycliophora. A maior abundância de Pratylenchus brachyurus ocorreu em abacaxizeiro, Meloidogyne incognita em figueira e caquizeiro, e Helicotylenchus dihystera e H. multicinctus em bananeira. Os principais gêneros de fitonematoides foram constatados em aproximadamente 50% das amostras, podendo representar risco para fruteiras da região se não manejados adequadamente.A survey was carried out in order to study the occurrence of plant parasitic nematodes in fruit crops in the Northwest of Paraná, from December 2007 to February 2009. A hundred and twenty four soil and roots samples were collected from 19 species of fruit crops in 15 different municipalities. Nematodes were extracted from the samples and identified under an optical microscope. Nine genera of plant parasitic nematodes were found. In citrus, the most abundant species was Tylenchulus semipenetrans, but it was also recovered Meloidogyne, Pratylenchus, Helicotylenchus, Xiphinema, Trichodorus, Mesocriconema and Dolichodorus. In the other fruit crops, Meloidogyne, Pratylenchus, Helicotylenchus and Hemicycliophora were recovered. Pratylenchus brachyurus was most abundant in pineapple crops, Meloidogyne incognita in fig and

  20. Desarrollo morfológico y conductual de pollos del aguilucho chico Buteo albigula (Aves: Accipitridae en el noroeste de la Patagonia argentina Morphologic and behavioral development of white-throated hawk Buteo albigula (Aves: Accipitridae nestlings in northwestern Argentine Patagonia

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    VALERIA OJEDA

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available El desarrollo morfológico y conductual del aguilucho chico (Buteo albigula en el nido fue estudiado en cercanías de San Carlos de Bariloche, al noroeste de la Patagonia argentina. El estudio se basó en el seguimiento de dos pollos producidos en diferentes nidos en la temporada reproductiva 2001-2002, y se lo complementó con datos tomados ad libitum en otros nidos, esa misma y anteriores temporadas. Los pollos permanecieron en el nido por aproximadamente seis semanas. Durante su desarrollo morfológico se evidenciaron diversos cambios; notablemente, la aparición secuencial de dos plumones natales, que solo fue observada entre especies de Buteo neotropicales, para B. brachyurus. La conducta de los pollos se encuadró en los patrones comunes para otras especies de Buteo de tamaño corporal similar. Además, se caracterizó, por primera vez para la Argentina, un juvenil (muerto accidentalmente, y se tomaron medidas y peso (por primera vez para B. albigula de dos adultos anillados cerca de sus nidos. El juvenil fue relativamente similar al descrito en Chile. Los adultos, que serían los primeros aguiluchos chicos en ser anillados, se suman a los escasos ejemplares medidos en el área reproductiva conocida de la especie.The morphological and behavioral development of white-throated hawk (Buteo albigula nestlings was studied near San Carlos de Bariloche, in northwestern Argentine Patagonia. The study was mainly based on the monitoring of two nestlings produced at different nests during 2001-2002 breeding season, and was reinforced with data obtained at libitum in other nests the same and previous breeding seasons. The nestling period extended for approximately 6 weeks. Morphological development was characterized by several changing features, but the most surprising was the development of first and second natal down, which was only known, among Neotropical Buteo species, for B. brachyurus. Nestling behavioral development matched the general

  1. Indigenous fish species in the modern ichthyofauna of the Balkhash basin

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    Nadir Shamilevich Mamilov

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous fish fauna of the Balkhash basin was mostly formed in the postglacial period and consists of 10 species from Cyprinidae family, 5 from Balitoridae, and 1 from Percidae. More than 20 alien fish species were introduced here during XXth century that led to eradication of indigenous fishes from the Balkhash Lake and the Ili River. Our investigations of the fish fauna during last 25 years revealed permanent shortage of living area of indigenous fishes. Nowadays fish communities from only indigenous fish species exist in some remote and isolated water bodies. Areas of all indigenous fish species are become disconnected. Reduction of habitats goes relatively slow for naked osman Gymnodiptychus dybowskii (Kessler, 1874, spotted thicklip loach Triplophysa strauchii (Kessler, 1874, and gray loach Triplophysa dorsalis (Kessler, 1872. Drastic reductions of areas were revealed for Ili marinka Schizothorax pseudoaksaiensis Herzenstein 1889, Balkhash marinka Schizothorax argentatus Kessler 1874, Severtsov’s loach Triplophysa sewerzowii (G.Nikolskii, 1938, Seven River’s minnow Phoxinus brachyurus Berg 1912, Balkhsh minnow Rhynchocypris poljakowii Kessler 1879, and Balkhash perch Perca schrenkii Kessler 1874. Marinkas, osmans and perch often become victims of overfishing and poaching of local people. In that region water resources usually are used by wasteful way and loaded with pollutants. Many indigenous fish species are able to bear relatively high level of environment pollution. Hence, the main threats for indigenous fishes are introductions of trout and sander, habitats lose and unstable hydrological regimen.

  2. Evolution of lactation: nutrition v. protection with special reference to five mammalian species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClellan, Holly L; Miller, Susan J; Hartmann, Peter E

    2008-12-01

    The evolutionary origin of the mammary gland has been difficult to establish because little knowledge can be gained on the origin of soft tissue organs from fossil evidence. One approach to resolve the origin of lactation has compared the anatomy of existing primitive mammals to skin glands, whilst another has examined the metabolic and molecular synergy between mammary gland development and the innate immune system. We have reviewed the physiology of lactation in five mammalian species with special reference to these theories. In all species, milk fulfils dual functions of providing protection and nutrition to the young and, furthermore, within species the quality and quantity of milk are highly conserved despite maternal malnutrition or illness. There are vast differences in birth weight, milk production, feeding frequency, macronutrient concentration, growth rate and length of lactation between rabbits, quokkas (Setonix brachyurus), pigs, cattle and humans. The components that protect the neonate against infection do so without causing inflammation. Many protective components are not unique to the mammary gland and are shared with the innate immune system. In contrast, many of the macronutrients in milk are unique to the mammary gland, have evolved from components of the innate immune system, and have either retained or developed multiple functions including the provision of nourishment and protection of the hatchling/neonate. Thus, there is a strong argument to suggest that the mammary gland evolved from the inflammatory response; however, the extensive protection that has developed in milk to actively avoid triggering inflammation seems to be a contradiction.

  3. Molecular and serological detection of Leishmania spp. in captive wild animals from Ilha Solteira, SP, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jusi, Márcia Mariza Gomes; Starke-Buzetti, Wilma Aparecida; Oliveira, Trícia Maria Ferreira de Sousa; Tenório, Michely da Silva; Sousa, Lúcio de Oliveira de; Machado, Rosangela Zacarias

    2011-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is a zoonotic disease that affects 12 million people worldwide. Several mammalian species can serve as a reservoir for this disease. Dogs are the main reservoir for visceral leishmaniasis in urban areas, which has become a serious public health concern in Brazil. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of Leishmania spp. in captive wild animals from Ilha Solteira, São Paulo, Brazil. Blood and various tissues samples were collected from animals of five different species: Speothos venaticus, Chrysocyon brachyurus, Cerdocyon thous, Pseudalopex vetulus, and Procyon cancrivorus. Antibodies against Leishmania spp. were detected in three wild canids by indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). PCR analyses of blood and bone marrow from all animals were negative, but Leishmania DNA was found in the tissues and skin of seropositive animals. Positive PCR samples were also positive for Leishmania donovani complex. Analysis of sequenced PCR products showed similarities with different regions of Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum and Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi kinetoplastids. Measures to control visceral leishmaniasis in wild animals kept in Brazilian zoos should be established, as no disease control programs are currently available.

  4. Diversity of medium and large sized mammals in a Cerrado fragment of central Brazil

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    F.S. Campos

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Studies related to community ecology of medium and large mammals represent a priority in developing strategies for conservation of their habitats. Due to the significant ecological importance of these species, a concern in relation to anthropogenic pressures arises since their populations are vulnerable to hunting and fragmentation. In this study, we aimed to analyze the diversity of medium and large mammals in a representative area of the Cerrado biome, located in the National Forest of Silvânia, central Brazil, providing insights for future studies on the biodiversity and conservation of Cerrado mammals. Sampling was carried out by linear transects, search for traces, footprint traps and camera traps. We recorded 23 species, among which three are listed in threat categories (e.g., Myrmecophaga tridactyla, Chrysocyon brachyurus and Leopardus tigrinus. We registered 160 records in the study area, where the most frequently recorded species were Didelphis albiventris (30 records and Cerdocyon thous (28 records. Our results indicated that a small protected area of Cerrado can include a large and important percentage of the diversity of mammals in this biome, providing information about richness, abundance, spatial distribution and insights for future studies on the biodiversity and conservation of these biological communities.

  5. COMPOSITION OF MEDIUM AND LARGE MAMMALS IN FOREST RESERVE IN THE CERRADO OF BRAZIL CENTRAL

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    Rodrigo Jose Viana Leite

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Knowledge about fauna location and distribution is very important for animal biology understanding. Conservation Units are relevant to biodiversity when considering factors such as hunting, agricultural expansion and forest fires. The conservation of native vegetation fragments under more suitable management plans, recovery areas and surveys are essential to the mammals preservation. This study aimed to survey the mammals of medium and large size of the Brasilia National Forest Area 1. To carry out this study it was performed weekly rounds in search for direct and indirect mammals traces existing at forest reserve. It is reported the presence of 27 species in the study area. According to the IUCN Red List, four species are vulnerable to extinction: tapir (Tapirus terrestris, giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla, giant armadillo (Priodontes maximus and oncilla (Leopardus guttulus. Two species were recorded nearly threatened species: maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus and pampas deer (Ozotocerus bezoarticus. Also according to the same list, 48% (n=13 of species are declining in population trend and 26% (n=7 for this data is unknown. Differences in the area were observed, with mammal species presence associated to Cerrado vegetation types and in distribution of records over the period.

  6. The origins of the enigmatic Falkland Islands wolf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Jeremy J; Soubrier, Julien; Prevosti, Francisco J; Prates, Luciano; Trejo, Valentina; Mena, Francisco; Cooper, Alan

    2013-01-01

    The origins of the extinct Falkland Islands wolf (FIW), Dusicyon australis, have remained a mystery since it was first recorded by Europeans in the seventeenth century. It is the only terrestrial mammal on the Falkland Islands (also known as the Malvinas Islands), which lie ~460 km from Argentina, leading to suggestions of either human-mediated transport or overwater dispersal. Previous studies used ancient DNA from museum specimens to suggest that the FIW diverged from its closest living relative, the South American maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus) around 7 Ma, and colonized the islands ~330 ka by unknown means. Here we retrieve ancient DNA from subfossils of an extinct mainland relative, Dusicyon avus, and reveal the FIW lineage became isolated only 16 ka (8-31 ka), during the last glacial phase. Submarine terraces, formed on the Argentine coastal shelf by low sea-stands during this period, suggest that the FIW colonized via a narrow, shallow marine strait, potentially while it was frozen over.

  7. Exposure of Free-Ranging Wild Carnivores and Domestic Dogs to Canine Distemper Virus and Parvovirus in the Cerrado of Central Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furtado, Mariana Malzoni; Hayashi, Erika Midori Kida; Allendorf, Susan Dora; Coelho, Claudio José; de Almeida Jácomo, Anah Tereza; Megid, Jane; Ramos Filho, José Domingues; Silveira, Leandro; Tôrres, Natália Mundim; Ferreira Neto, José Soares

    2016-09-01

    Human population growth around protected areas increases the contact between wild and domestic animals, promoting disease transmission between them. This study investigates the exposure of free-ranging wild carnivores and domestic dogs to canine distemper virus (CDV) and parvovirus in Emas National Park (ENP) in the Cerrado savanna of central Brazil. Serum samples were collected from 169 wild carnivores, including the maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus), crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous), hoary fox (Pseudalopex vetulus), puma (Puma concolor), ocelot (Leopardus pardalis), pampas cat (Leopardus colocolo), jaguarundi (Herpailurus yagouaroundi), striped hog-nosed skunk (Conepatus semistriatus) and coati (Nasua nasua), and from 35 domestic dogs living on rural properties bordering ENP. Serological tests showed that 10.6% of wild carnivores (maned wolves, crab-eating foxes and ocelots) and 71.4% of domestic dogs were exposed to CDV, and 56.8% of wild carnivores, including all species sampled except coatis, and 57.1% of domestic dogs were exposed to parvovirus. This report is the first to indicate that the free-ranging pampas cat, jaguarundi and striped hog-nosed skunk are exposed to parvovirus. CDV and parvovirus deserve attention in ENP, and it is extremely important to monitor the health of carnivore populations and perform molecular diagnosis of the viruses to determine the possible involvement of the domestic dog in their transmission.

  8. Fitonematoides associados a frutíferas na região Noroeste do Paraná, Brasil

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    Cláudia Regina Dias-Arieira

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de estudar a ocorrência de nematoides fitoparasitos em frutíferas cultivadas na região noroeste do Paraná, realizou-se um levantamento, envolvendo 124 amostras de solo e raízes coletadas de 19 espécies de frutíferas, em 15 municípios, no período de dezembro/2007 a fevereiro/2009. As amostras foram submetidas a extrações e avaliadas sob microscópio óptico. Foram constatados nove diferentes gêneros de nematoides. Em citros, a espécie mais frequente e abundante foi Tylenchulus semipenetrans, sendo também recuperados das amostras os gêneros Meloidogyne, Pratylenchus, Helicotylenchus, Xiphinema, Trichodorus, Mesocriconema e Dolichodorus. Nas demais frutíferas, os gêneros observados foram Meloidogyne, Pratylenchus, Helicotylenchus e Hemicycliophora. A maior abundância de Pratylenchus brachyurus ocorreu em abacaxizeiro, Meloidogyne incognita em figueira e caquizeiro, e Helicotylenchus dihystera e H. multicinctus em bananeira. Os principais gêneros de fitonematoides foram constatados em aproximadamente 50% das amostras, podendo representar risco para fruteiras da região se não manejados adequadamente.

  9. Meloidogyne and Pratylenchus species in sugarcane fields in the state of Alagoas, Brazil

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    Marissônia de Araujo Noronha

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to accomplish a survey on populations of Meloidogyne and Pratylenchus species in sugarcane farming areas in the state of Alagoas, Brazil. Twenty samples of soil and roots were processed to extract and quantify nematodes; however, the identification of Meloidogyne species was performed using only 12 samples. Pratylenchus spp. were reported at moderate population levels of 68-1556 specimens 50g-1 of roots and 2-298 specimens 100cm-3 of soil in twenty analyzed samples. For Meloidogyne spp., these values were of 12-487 specimens 50g-1 of roots and 0-140 specimens 100cm-3 of soil. Based on electrophoresis of esterase isozymes, M. incognita was reported to be the most frequent species, followed by M. javanica and M. arenaria. Pratylenchus species identified through morphometrical and morphological characteristics were P. zeae and P. brachyurus , with predominance for the first species. No significant correlation (P≤0.05 were reported between nematode populations and sugarcane cropping systems.

  10. Roadkill hotspots in a protected area of Cerrado in Brazil: planning actions to conservation

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    Bruno H Saranholi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Here we aimed to identify the main points of animal death by roadkill in the view of helping mitigation plans and reducing the impact over the local fauna of a protected area. Materials and methods. We surveyed the roads around a protected area of Cerrado (São Paulo, Brazil from May 2012 to August 2013. We recorded the local of roadkills, biometric and morphologic data of the animals, and collected samples of tissue for molecular species confirmation. Results. Thirty-one roadkilled animals were registered, including threatened species: Leopardus pardalis; Cuniculus paca and Chrysocyon brachyurus. Most roadkills were represented by mammals (54.8% and reptiles (38.7%, and the mortality rate was 1.46 animals/km/year. Three roadkill hotspots were detected, suggesting that they were important points of animal crossing, probably because of the existence of natural remnant vegetation and intersection of roads by riparian vegetation. Conclusions. This work provided strong evidence of the most critical points where mitigation strategies should be immediately implemented and highlighted the importance of detecting roadkill hotspots and the species or taxonomic groups more affected, helping to elaborate effective actions that can improve fauna conservation.

  11. Depletion of trophy large-sized sharks populations of the Argentinean coast, south-western Atlantic: insights from fishers' knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejo Irigoyen

    Full Text Available Abstract Globally, sharks are impacted by a wide range of human activities, resulting in many populations being depleted. Trophy large-sized sharks of the Argentinean coast, the sand-tiger Carcharias taurus , the copper Carcharhinus brachyurus and the sevengill shark Notorynchus cepedianus are under intense sport and artisanal fishing since the 50's decade. However, the current and historical information for the assessment of its populations status is scarce. The aim of this work was to analyze the status of conservation of these species through the gathering of expert fishermen knowledge (FK on semi-structured interviews. Abundance variation perception between the beginning and the end of fishermen careers revealed a critical status for the species study (means variation between -77 and -90 %. Furthermore, a best day's catch analysis reinforce this result in the case of the sand tiger shark. The school shark Galeorhinus galeus was included on this work with the objective of contrast FK with formal information available of catch-per-unit-effort (CPUE time series. Both sources of information, despite are not comparable, shows declines ~ - 80%. The critical conservation situation of study species needs urgent management action, particularly for the san tiger shark which could became regionally extinct before the reaction of stakeholders occurs.

  12. Diversity of ticks in the wildlife screening center of São Paulo city, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Fernandes Martins

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The Wildlife Screening Center (CETAS of the Tietê Ecological Park (PET, situated at the municipality of São Paulo, receives, treats and rehabilitates wild animals that have been dislodged from their natural environment due to different reasons. This study analyzed the ixodid fauna, and the rickettsial infection in these ticks, collected on wild animals received at the PET’s CETAS. During the period from March 2003 to November 2016, 936 ticks were collected from 96 wild animals (16 bird and 18 mammal species that were sent to CETAS. The following 12 ixodid species were identified: Amblyomma aureolatum, Amblyomma brasiliense, Amblyomma calcaratum, Amblyomma dubitatum, Amblyomma longirostre, Amblyomma ovale, Amblyomma parkeri, Amblyomma sculptum, Amblyomma varium, Haemaphysalis juxtakochi, Ixodes loricatus and Rhipicephalus microplus. From 67 tick specimens tested by the Real Time PCR for rickettsiae, none were positive. The present research records for the first time in Brazil the following association between the tick stages and hosts that have never been reported before: Amblyomma sculptum nymphs on Caprimulgus parvulus, Asio clamator, Buteo brachyurus, Coragyps atratus, Amazona aestiva and Aramus guarauna, Amblyomma dubitatum nymphs on Alouatta guariba and Sphiggurus villosus, Amblyomma aureolatum adults on Bradypus variegatus, Amblyomma longirostre larvae and nymphs on A. clamator, and nymphs on Megascops choliba and Pyroderus scutatus, besides Amblyomma parkeri nymphs on Penelope obscura and Callicebus nigrifrons, and adult on Nasua nasua.

  13. Retinal structure of birds of prey revealed by ultra-high resolution spectral-domain optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggeri, Marco; Major, James C; McKeown, Craig; Knighton, Robert W; Puliafito, Carmen A; Jiao, Shuliang

    2010-11-01

    To reveal three-dimensional (3-D) information about the retinal structures of birds of prey in vivo. An ultra-high resolution spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) system was built for in vivo imaging of retinas of birds of prey. The calibrated imaging depth and axial resolution of the system were 3.1 mm and 2.8 μm (in tissue), respectively. 3-D segmentation was performed for calculation of the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) map. High-resolution OCT images were obtained of the retinas of four species of birds of prey: two diurnal hawks (Buteo platypterus and Buteo brachyurus) and two nocturnal owls (Bubo virginianus and Strix varia). These images showed the detailed retinal anatomy, including the retinal layers and the structure of the deep and shallow foveae. The calculated thickness map showed the RNFL distribution. Traumatic injury to one bird's retina was also successfully imaged. Ultra-high resolution SD-OCT provides unprecedented high-quality 2-D and 3-D in vivo visualization of the retinal structures of birds of prey. SD-OCT is a powerful imaging tool for vision research in birds of prey.

  14. Potencial atrator de tubarões costeiros em recife artificial no litoral norte do estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Attractive potential of coastal sharks in artificial reef on the Northern Coast of Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Vieira Faria

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Artificial reefs have been used in many countries to increase coastal fishery productivity. In order to increase fish attraction to the Northern Coast of Rio de Janeiro State, it was installed an artificial reef (1,500 m² 5 nautical miles off Manguinhos's Bay (São Francisco de ltabapoana, Rio de Janeiro. The artificial structures were made of tires, concrete and cement blocks. A gill net of 125 x 3 m was monthly used in the artificial reef (AR and in a control area (CA to determine the effect of the experimental structures on the stock and diversity of coastal sharks. Considering the complexity of a sustainable elasmobranch exploitation, sharks were focused in this study. During 24 months of investigation (April/96 to March/98, a total of 325 individuais distributed in four shark species were captured in the two areas (AR and CA: Mustelus higmani (Springer & Lowe, 1963 (AR = 70; CA = 82 individuals, Rhizoprionodon lalandii (Valenciennes, 1839 (AR = 86; CA = 56 individuals, R. porosus (Poey, 1861 (AR = 16; CA = 14 individuals and Carcharhinus brachyurus (Günther, 1870 (AR = 1 individual. The attractive potential of the artificial reef is suggested by the predominance of the shark R. lalandii in the reef complex after the first year of monitoring, with the increase of the structures.

  15. The clinical EEG and personality in mentally abnormal offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, R C

    1984-08-01

    A retrospective survey was undertaken of the clinical EEG in a series of consecutive admissions to Broadmoor Special Hospital (N = 265). Following reporting of the records by visual inspection, the EEGs were classified according to 4 descriptive categories: predominantly monorhythmic; low voltage fast, 'choppy'; dysrhythmic with excess theta; and dysrhythmic with paroxysmal features. The last 3 categories constituted EEG patterns with atypical or anomalous features. The EEGs of patients with high scores on Welsh's MMPI Anxiety scale ('withdrawers') were compared with those of patients with low scores ('approachers'). Lateralization of paroxysmal EEG features was studied with reference to MMPI personality measures (Blackburn's Impulsivity and Sociability and Welsh's Anxiety), legal diagnosis, type of offence, and relationship to victim. The EEGs were studied in a further sample of 29 admissions who had been assessed, using Hare's Research Scale for the Assessment of Psychopathy (Hare, 1980). While the overall incidence of atypical EEG features reported in the present study (around 60% of cases) was comparable with that reported previously for offender populations, they occurred significantly more frequently in 'withdrawers' than in 'approachers'. This suggests that the high frequency of atypical EEG features in abnormal offenders may be due to the preponderance of 'withdrawers' in this population. Patients who had committed violent offences against strangers, as opposed to people known to them, tended to have bilateral paroxysmal features in their EEG. High scores on Hare's Psychopathy scale were significantly associated with prominent Posterior Temporal Slow Activity. The study offers some prospect that the combined use of EEG and personality assessments may be of potential value in the assessment of dangerousness.

  16. Existence: who needs it? The non-identity problem and merely possible people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, Rivka

    2013-11-01

    In formulating procreative principles, it makes sense to begin by thinking about whose interests ought to matter to us. Obviously, we care about those who exist. Less obviously, but still uncontroversially, we care about those who will exist. Ought we to care about those who might possibly, but will not actually, exist? Recently, unusual positions have been taken regarding merely possible people and the non-identity problem. David Velleman argues that what might have happened to you - an existent person - often doesn't merit moral consideration since the alternative person one would have been had what might have happened actually happened is a merely possible person about whom one has no reason to care. He argues that his way of thinking can eliminate the non-identity problem. Caspar Hare argues that merely possible people have interests and are morally relevant. He argues that we can solve the non-identity problem by rejecting the view that merely possible people are morally irrelevant. Both Hare and Velleman argue that focusing on one's de dicto rather than on one's de re children can help us avoid the non-identity problem. I analyze the role that merely possible, nonexistent hypothetical entities ought to play in our moral reasoning, especially with regard to procreation. I refute both Velleman's and Hare's views and demonstrate the difficulties we encounter when we try to apply their views to common non-identity cases. I conclude with the common-sense view regarding who matters, morally: only those who do, did, or will exist. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Short- and long-term recidivism prediction of the PCL-R and the effects of age: a 24-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olver, Mark E; Wong, Stephen C P

    2015-01-01

    We prospectively examined the short- and long-term prediction of several recidivism outcomes as a function of psychopathy and age in a sample of 273 Canadian federal inmates with an average 24 years post-release follow-up. Offenders were rated using the original 22-item Hare Psychopathy Checklist (PCL: Hare, 1980) based on extensive archival file information, and the ratings were used to compute the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (Hare, 2003) and the 4 facet scores. PCL-R total scores and the Lifestyle and Antisocial facets, but not the Interpersonal and Affective facets, showed mostly small and some moderate predictive efficacy for general and nonviolent recidivism over 3-, 5-, 10-, and 20-year fixed follow-ups, and predicted violence recidivism at shorter follow-ups. Age at release was negatively correlated with all recidivism outcomes and follow-up periods for both high and low PCL-R rated offenders, and uniquely predicted all recidivism outcomes after controlling for the PCL-R using Cox regression survival analysis. Increased age was consistently linked to recidivism reduction even for psychopathic offenders. The results showed that both PCL-R scores and age contributed to the prediction of recidivism; however, the PCL-R facets made differential contributions that varied with the type of offense (violent vs. nonviolent) and follow-up time (shorter vs. longer). The results have implications for both risk assessment using the PCL-R and potentially for risk reduction interventions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. [The correlations between polymorphism of growth hormone receptor gene and butcher traits in rabbit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xiao-Song; Wan, Jie; Chen, Shi-Yi; Wang, Yan; Lai, Song-Jia; Jiang, Mei-Shan; Xu, Min

    2008-11-01

    Five rabbit populations (Belgian hare, Tianfu black rabbit, Great line of Zika rabbit, Harbin white rabbit, and California rabbit) were used to analyze the polymorphism of growth hormone receptor (GHR) gene by PCR-SSCP. Results indicated that there were two mutation sites (C705T and C810T) in the 5 populations. The least square analyses showed that the live weight, visceraste weight, and slaughter percentage of AA and MM genotypes were significantly lower than BB and NN genotypes (P0.05). It suggested that GHR gene may be a candidate gene responsible for butcher trait in rabbit.

  19. Scenarios for the South African water sector in 2025; Paper

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Claassen, Marius

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available of the state and the engagement of society, whereas the Development Bank of Southern Africa published Prospects for South Africa’s Future, which identifies 16 drivers and describes 2 scenarios for South Africa (DBSA, 2011). Scenario development process... comes from the children’s story of the race between the tortoise and the hare, which demonstrates the value of a methodical approach. The Busy Bee illuminates the scenario where there is good intent and effort, but ignorance of complexity foils...

  20. Against the golden rule argument against abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonin-Vail, D

    1997-01-01

    R.M. Hare and Harry J. Gensler have each argued that abortion can be shown to be immoral by appealing to a version of the golden rule. I argue that both versions of the golden rule argument against abortion should be rejected: each rests on a version of the golden rule which is objectionable on independent grounds, each is unable to support its conclusion when the rule is satisfactorily modified, and each is unable to avoid the implication that contraception is as wrong as abortion and for the same reason. In addition, some further problems particular to each position are identified.