Sample records for hardwoods

  1. Fertilization of Northern Hardwoods

    R. Lea; D.G. Brockway


    Northern hardwoods grow over a considerable range of climatic and edaphic conditions and exhibit a wide range in productivity.Many northern hardwood forests are capable of high production relative to other forest types, but are often slow to reach maximum productivity because of low nutrient availability.Altering the patterns of biomass accumulation so that managers...

  2. 1997 Hardwood Research Award Winner: "Automatic Color Sorting of Hardwood Edge-Glued Panel Parts"

    D. Earl Kline; Richard Conners; Qiang Lu; Philip A. Araman


    The National Hardwood Lumber Association's 1997 Hardwood Research Award was presented to D. Earl Kline, Richard Conners, Qiang Lu and Philip Araman at the 25th Annual Hardwood Symposium for developing an automatic system for color sorting hardwood edge-glued panel parts. The researchers comprise a team from Virginia Tech University and the USDA Forest Service in...

  3. Harvesting costs and utilization of hardwood plantations

    Tim P. McDonald; Bryce J. Stokes


    The use of short rotation, intensive culture (SRIC) practices in hardwoods to meet fiber supply needs is becoming increasingly widespread. Total plated area of short rotation hardwood fiber plantations is currently about 22,000 ha (McDonald and Stokes 1993). That figure should certainly to grow in response to public concerns over loss of natural hardwood stands. With...

  4. Anthracnose Diseases of Eastern Hardwoods

    Frederick H. Berry


    Anthracnose diseases of hardwood trees are widespread throughout the Eastern United States. The most common symptom of these diseases is dead areas or blotches on the leaves. Because of the brown and black, scorched appearance of the leaves, the diseases are sometimes called leaf blight.

  5. The pallet industry: a changing hardwood market

    G.P. Dempsey; D.G. Martens


    From its inception during World War II, the wooden pallet industry has grown to become the Nation's largest industrial consumer of hardwood lumber products. Since most of the raw material in wooden pallets is lower grade lumber, the pallet industry's growth, efficiency, and changing raw material inputs must be of concern to the grade hardwood lumber industry...

  6. Flexural Properties of Eastern Hardwood Pallet Parts

    John A. McLeod; Marshall S. White; Paul A. Ifju; Philip A. Araman


    Accurate estimates of the flexural properties of pallet parts are critical to the safe, yet efficient, design of wood pallets. To develop more accurate data for hardwood pallet parts, 840 stringers and 2,520 deckboards, representing 14 hardwood species, were sampled from 35 mills distributed throughout the Eastern United States. The parts were sorted by species,...

  7. Automated computer grading of hardwood lumber

    P. Klinkhachorn; J.P. Franklin; Charles W. McMillin; R.W. Conners; H.A. Huber


    This paper describes an improved computer program to grade hardwood lumber. The program was created as part of a system to automate various aspects of the hardwood manufacturing industry. It enhances previous efforts by considering both faces of the board and provides easy application of species dependent rules. The program can be readily interfaced with a computer...

  8. Thermal Insulation from Hardwood Residues

    Sable, I.; Grinfelds, U.; Vikele, L.; Rozenberga, L.; Zeps, M.; Luguza, S.


    Adequate heat is one of the prerequisites for human wellbeing; therefore, building insulation is required in places where the outside temperature is not suitable for living. The climate change, with its rising temperatures and longer dry periods, promotes enlargement of the regions with conditions more convenient for hardwood species than for softwood species. Birch (Betula pendula) is the most common hardwood species in Latvia. The aim of this work was to obtain birch fibres from wood residues of plywood production and to form low-density thermal insulation boards. Board formation and production was done in the presence of water; natural binder, fire retardant and fungicide were added in different concentrations. Board properties such as density, transportability or resistance to particulate loss, thermal conductivity and reaction to fire were investigated. This study included thermal insulation boards with the density of 102-120 kg/m3; a strong correlation between density and the binder amount was found. Transportability also improved with the addition of a binder, and 0.1-0.5% of the binder was the most appropriate amount for this purpose. The measured thermal conductivity was in the range of 0.040-0.043 W/(m·K). Fire resistance increased with adding the fire retardant. We concluded that birch fibres are applicable for thermal insulation board production, and it is possible to diversify board properties, changing the amount of different additives.

  9. Small Hardwoods Reduce Growth of Pine Overstory

    Charles X. Grano


    Dense understory hardwoods materially decreased the growth of a 53-year-old and a 47-year-old stand of loblolly and shortleaf pines. Over a 14-year period, hardwood eradication with chemicals increased average annual yield from the 53-year-old stand by 14.3 cubic feet, or 123 board-feet per acre. In the 47-year-old stand the average annual treatment advantage was...

  10. Hardwood Lumber Scaling [and] Hardwood Log Scaling and Grading. Slide Scripts.

    Wooten, D. E.; Touse, Robert D.

    These two slide scripts, part of a series of slide scripts designed for use in vocational agriculture classes, deal with scaling and grading hardwood logs and lumber. The first script includes narrations for use with 39 slides, which explain the techniques of scaling and grading hardwood logs, and the second script contains the narrations to…

  11. U.S. Hardwood Imports Grow as World Supplies Expand

    William C. Siegel; Clark Row


    Rapidly increasing imports have captured a significant share of America's hardwood markets. Total imports of hardwood raw materials and building products are now four times as large as exports. Before World War II the U. S. was a net exporter of hardwoods, and imports were limited to high-quality mahogany and specialty logs and lumber. Availability of large...

  12. Are there regional differences in US hardwood product exports?

    Matt Bumgardner; Scott Bowe; William Luppold


    Exporting is a critical component of the product mix for many domestic hardwood firms. Previous research has identified factors associated with hardwood lumber exporting behavior, but less is known about the advantages and disadvantages to exporting associated with the region within which a firm is located, or about exporting of secondary hardwood products. A procedure...

  13. U.S. hardwood lumber production: 1963 to 2003

    William Luppold; Matthew Bumgardner


    Between 1963 and 2003 northern hardwood lumber production more than doubled while production in the southern regions increased by less than 25 percent. In 1963 the major users of hardwood lumber were the furniture manufacturers located in the southeast region, and hardwood flooring producers located in the south central region. By contrast more than 60 percent of the...

  14. Use of Cover Crops in Hardwood Production

    Randy Rentz


    Cover crops are as essential a practice in hardwood production as in pine production or any other nursery operation. Without proper cover crop rotation in a nursery plan, we open ourselves up to an array of problems: more diseases, wrong pH, more weeds, reduced fertility, and less downward percolation of soil moisture due, in part, to compaction....

  15. Unsound defect volume in hardwood pallet cants

    Philip Araman; Matt Winn; Firoz Kabir; Xavier Torcheux; Guillaume Loizeaud


    A study was conducted to determine the percentage of unsound defect volume to sound/clear wood in pallet cants at selected sawmills in Virginia and West Virginia. Splits,wane, shake, holes, decay, unsound knots, bark pockets, and mechanical defects were all considered to be unsound. Data were collected from seven Appalachian area sawmills for four hardwood species: red...

  16. Eradicating Understory Hardwoods By Repeated Prescribed Burning

    Charles X. Grano


    In a loblolly-shorleaf pine stand contained abundant litter, one winter fire killed 94 percent of the stems of understory hardwoods up to 3.5 inches in diameter at teh base. Prolific sprouting ensued. Eleven annual summer burns eliminated sprouting on 85 percent of the rootstocks, and seven biennial summer burns eliminated sprouting on 59 percent of them.

  17. 77 FR 71017 - Hardwood Plywood From China


    ... notice in the Federal Register of October 3, 2012 (77 FR 60460). The conference was held in Washington... COMMISSION Hardwood Plywood From China Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject... plywood from China that are allegedly subsidized and sold in the United States at less than fair...

  18. Hydrology of a natural hardwood forested wetland

    George M. Chescheir; Devendra M. Amatya; R. Wayne Skaggs


    This paper documents the hydrology of a natural forested wetland near Plymouth, NC, USA. The research site was located on one of the few remaining, undrained non-riverine, palustrine forested hardwood wetlands on the lower coastal plain of North Carolina. A 137 ha watershed within the 350ha wetland was selected for intensive field study. Water balance components...

  19. Silvics of North America: Volume 2. Hardwoods

    Russell M. Burns; Barbara H. Honkala; [Technical coordinators


    The silvical characteristics of about 200 forest tree species and varieties are described. Most are native to the 50 United States and Puerto Rico, but a few are introduced and naturalized. Information on habitat, life history, and genetics is given for 15 genera, 63 species, and 20 varieties of conifers and for 58 genera, 128 species, and 6 varieties of hardwoods....

  20. Automated Grading of Rough Hardwood Lumber

    Richard W. Conners; Tai-Hoon Cho; Philip A. Araman


    Any automatic hardwood grading system must have two components. The first of these is a computer vision system for locating and identifying defects on rough lumber. The second is a system for automatically grading boards based on the output of the computer vision system. This paper presents research results aimed at developing the first of these components. The...

  1. 78 FR 16250 - Hardwood and Decorative Plywood From the People's Republic of China: Amended Preliminary...


    ... or more species of hardwoods, softwoods, or bamboo. Hardwood and decorative plywood may include... Comments. 2. Scope of the Investigation. 3. Respondent Selection. 4. Injury Test. 5. Application...

  2. Predicting Pallet Part Yields From Hardwood Cants

    Mitchell, Hal Lee


    Pallet cant quality directly impacts pallet part processing and material costs. By knowing the quality of the cants being processed, pallet manufacturers can predict costs to attain better value from their raw materials and more accurately price their pallets. The study objectives were 1) to develop a procedure for accurately predicting hardwood pallet part yield as a function of raw material geometry and grade, processing equipment, and pallet part geometry, 2) to develop a model for accur...

  3. Do region and gender influence hardwood product selection?

    Delton Alderman


    Consumer preference is a fundamental focus of marketing research as it is used in developing marketing strategy and the positioning of products against competitors. This study evaluated consumer hardwood preferences of consumers from three United States geographical regions, which included six different metropolitan areas. Seven hardwood species and three laminate...

  4. A key for the Forest Service hardwood tree grades

    Gary W. Miller; Leland F. Hanks; Harry V., Jr. Wiant


    A dichotomous key organizes the USDA Forest Service hardwood tree grade specifications into a stepwise procedure for those learning to grade hardwood sawtimber. The key addresses the major grade factors, tree size, surface characteristics, and allowable cull deductions in a series of paried choices that lead the user to a decision regarding tree grade.

  5. Factors affecting the use of hardwood flooring in urban rehabilitation

    Robert L. Jr. Nevel; Robert L. Jr. Nevel


    The continued use of hardwood flooring in urban rehabilitation is being threatened. A study of the influences that determine the choice of flooring indicates that economic, physical, or technological factors dominate. Most factors affecting the use of hardwood flooring are related to cost, availability, and compatibility. Of these factors, time and cost of installation...

  6. Spectral reflectance of five hardwood tree species in southern Indiana

    Dale R. Weigel; J.C. Randolph


    The use of remote sensing to identify forest species has been ongoing since the launch of Landsat-1 using MSS imagery. The ability to separate hardwoods from conifers was accomplished by the 1980s. However, distinguishing individual hardwood species is more problematic due to similar spectral and phenological characteristics. With the launch of commercial satellites...

  7. Planting and care of fine hardwood seedlings: diseases in hardwood tree plantings

    Paula M. Pijut


    Hardwood trees planted for timber production, wildlife habitat, riparian buffers, native woodland restoration, windbreaks, watershed protection, erosion control, and conservation are susceptible to damage or even death by various native and exotic fungal or bacterial diseases. Establishment, growth, and the quality of the trees produced can be affected by these disease...

  8. 78 FR 68297 - Hardwood Lumber and Hardwood Plywood Promotion, Research and Information Order


    ... position of covered hardwood in the marketplace that includes any type of test, study, or analysis designed... governmental action or policy, by local, state, Federal, and foreign governments or subdivision thereof, other... also maintain a monetary reserve and carry over excess funds from one fiscal period to the...

  9. Central Hardwoods ecosystem vulnerability assessment and synthesis: a report from the Central Hardwoods Climate Change Response Framework project

    Leslie Brandt; Hong He; Louis Iverson; Frank R. Thompson; Patricia Butler; Stephen Handler; Maria Janowiak; P. Danielle Shannon; Chris Swanston; Matthew Albrecht; Richard Blume-Weaver; Paul Deizman; John DePuy; William D. Dijak; Gary Dinkel; Songlin Fei; D. Todd Jones-Farrand; Michael Leahy; Stephen Matthews; Paul Nelson; Brad Oberle; Judi Perez; Matthew Peters; Anantha Prasad; Jeffrey E. Schneiderman; John Shuey; Adam B. Smith; Charles Studyvin; John M. Tirpak; Jeffery W. Walk; Wen J. Wang; Laura Watts; Dale Weigel; Steve. Westin


    The forests in the Central Hardwoods Region will be affected directly and indirectly by a changing climate over the next 100 years. This assessment evaluates the vulnerability of terrestrial ecosystems in the Central Hardwoods Region of Illinois, Indiana, and Missouri to a range of future climates. Information on current forest conditions, observed climate trends,...

  10. Synergy of agroforestry and bottomland hardwood afforestation

    Twedt, D.J.; Portwood, J.; Clason, Terry R.


    Afforestation of bottomland hardwood forests has historically emphasized planting heavy-seeded tree species such as oak (Quercus spp.) and pecan (Caryaillinoensis) with little or no silvicultural management during stand development. Slow growth of these tree species, herbivory, competing vegetation, and limited seed dispersal, often result in restored sites that are slow to develop vertical vegetation structure and have limited tree diversity. Where soils and hydrology permit, agroforestry can provide transitional management that mitigates these historical limitations on converting cropland to forests. Planting short-rotation woody crops and intercropping using wide alleyways are two agroforestry practices that are well suited for transitional management. Weed control associated with agroforestry systems benefits planted trees by reducing competition. The resultant decrease in herbaceous cover suppresses small mammal populations and associated herbivory of trees and seeds. As a result, rapid vertical growth is possible that can 'train' under-planted, slower-growing, species and provide favorable environmental conditions for naturally invading trees. Finally, annual cropping of alleyways or rotational pulpwood harvest of woody crops provides income more rapidly than reliance on future revenue from traditional silviculture. Because of increased forest diversity, enhanced growth and development, and improved economic returns, we believe that using agroforestry as a transitional management strategy during afforestation provides greater benefits to landowners and to the environment than does traditional bottomland hardwood afforestation.

  11. Managing mountain hardwoods - a ten-year appraisal

    George R., Jr. Trimble


    Ten years ago - in 1949 - four 5-acre plots were established on the Fernow Experimental Forest near Parsons, West Virginia, to show the effects upon mountain hardwoods of each of four management treatments.

  12. Bottomalnd hardwood reforestatoin plan Dahomey National Wildlife Refuge

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Plan describes anticipated hardwood reforestation activites on agricultural fields of Dahomey NWR form 1992 - 1995. Site selection, tree compositon and spacing are...

  13. Database for estimating tree responses of walnut and other hardwoods to ground cover management practices

    J.W. Van Sambeek


    The ground cover in plantings of walnut and other hardwoods can substantially affect tree growth and seed production. The number of alternative ground covers that have been suggested for establishment in tree plantings far exceeds the number that have already been tested with walnut and other temperate hardwoods. Knowing how other hardwood species respond to ground...

  14. Examination of worldwide hardwood lumber production, trade, and apparent consumption: 1995-2013

    William G. Luppold; Matthew S. Bumgardner


    Worldwide hardwood lumber production fluctuated between 1995 and 2013 and changed considerably with respect to regional market shares. Similarly, worldwide hardwood lumber imports and exports have been constantly changing. Understanding these changes is important because collectively, they define the hardwood lumber consumption of a region or country. In 1995, North...

  15. Manufacturers and distributors in the U.S. hardwood lumber supply chain: Perceptions of industry trends

    Omar Espinoza; Urs Buehlmann; Matthew Bumgardner; Bob. Smith


    Global competition, a slowing housing market, and shifts in the customer base have contributed to reduced demand for hardwood lumber and have increased the need for specialized services by suppliers of hardwood lumber such as sawmills or distributors. Customers of hardwood lumber suppliers also have started initiatives to reduce internal costs dramatically, frequently...

  16. Environmental impact of producing hardwood lumber using life-cycle inventory

    Richard D. Bowe Bergman


    Using sustainable building materials is gaining a significant presence in the US. This study examined hardwood lumber manufacturing using life-cycle inventory methodology. Material flow and energy use were identified for hardwood sawmills in northeastern US. A hardwood log volume conversion of 43.7% to planed dry lumber was found. Values of 608 MJ/m3 of electrical and...

  17. U.S. Hardwood Sawmill Log Procurement Practices

    Adrienn Andersch


    Full Text Available U.S. hardwood sawmill log procurement practices are evolving because of the recent economic recession, market and supply chain shifts, and changing landowner objectives, among other factors. The objective of this study was to characterize the log procurement practices of hardwood sawmills and to characterize the role that log brokers play in supplying the sawmill industry with raw material. To meet this objective, a mail survey on hardwood log procurement practices in the U.S. hardwood sawmill industry was conducted. Survey respondents highlighted several factors that had major effects on their businesses, including “Increasing fuel and trucking cost,” “High logging cost,” “Unpredictable log supply,” “Log shortages,” “Logger shortages,” and “Low log quality,” among others. Results showed that large sawmills tend to rely more on gatewood from loggers and stumpage harvested by company contract loggers than do small- and medium-sized sawmills. This study failed to find an increase in the role of log brokers as an intermediary between landowners and hardwood sawmills during the last decade. Moreover, sawmills indicated only a limited demand for log broker services, with log delivery and the procurement of specialty logs identified as being the most highly demanded broker services.

  18. The Acoustical Properties of Indonesian Hardwood Species

    Tarcisius Rio Mardikanto


    Full Text Available The acoustical properties of four Indonesian tropical hardwood species were evaluated in this study. The objectives of this study were to determine acoustical parameters e.g. logarithmic decrement, sound absorption, sound velocity as well as density and wood stiffness; and to evaluate the potential of those species for acoustical purposes. Sonokeling (Dalbergia latifolia, Mahoni (Swietenia mahagony, Acacia (Acacia mangium and Manii wood (Maesopsis eminii were selected in this research. Three different cutting plane patterns of sawn timber (quarter-sawn, flat-sawn, and plain-sawn were converted into small specimens. The methods for determining acoustical properties were longitudinal vibration testing and time of flight of ultrasonic wave method. The result showed no significant difference (α=0.05 of acoustical properties in logarithmic decrement, sound absorption, and ultrasonic velocity means on quarter-sawn, flat-sawn, and plain-sawn for all wood species tested. We found that Mahoni and Sonokeling had good acoustical properties of logarithmic decrement, ultrasonic wave velocity, and ratio of wood stiffness to wood density; and is preferred for crafting musical instruments. Acacia and Manii woods are recommended for developing acoustic panels in building construction because those species possess higher sound absorption values.

  19. Cultivation of fast-growing hardwoods

    White, E.H.; Abrahamson, L.P. (State Univ. of New York, Syracuse, NY (United States). Coll. of Environmental Science and Forestry)


    The intensive culture of hybrid poplar has received in-depth study as part of the Fast-Growing Hardwood Program. Research has concentrated on short-rotation intensive culture systems. Specific studies and operations included establishing and maintaining a nursery/cutting orchard, installing clone-site trials in central and southern New York State and initiating studies of no-till site preparation, nutrient utilization efficiency, wood quality and soil solution chemistry. The nursery/cutting orchard was used to provide material for various research plantings and as a genotype repository. Clone- site trials results showed that hybrid poplar growth potential was affected by clone type and was related to inherent soil-site conditions. No-till techniques were shown to be successful in establishing hybrid poplar in terms of survival and growth when compared to conventional clean tillage and/or no competition control, and can be considered for use on sites that are particularly prone to erosion. Nutrient use efficiency was significantly affected by clone type, and should be a consideration when selecting clones for operational planting if fertilization is to be effectively and efficiently used. Wood quality differed among clones with site condition and tree age inferred as important factors. Soil solution chemistry was minimally affected by intensive cultural practices with no measured adverse effect on soil water quality. Generally, results of these studies showed that appropriate hybrid poplar clones grown in short-rotation intensively cultured systems can be used successfully in New York State if proper site conditions exist and appropriate establishment and maintenance techniques are used. 37 refs., 4 figs., 22 tabs.

  20. Stand structure and stocking control in Appalachian mixed hardwoods

    George R., Jr. Trimble; H. Clay Smith


    Uneven-aged management using a "q" technique for structure control is discussed for Appalachian mixed hardwoods. The success in attaining stand structure goals with periodic selection cuts was evaluated. Where these goals had not been reached, the authors speculated, on the basis of current stand conditions, whether they would be reached, and if so, when. For...

  1. A century of progress in weed control in hardwood seedbeds

    David B. South


    Weeds have existed in nurseries since before the time Bartram grew hardwoods during the 18th century. Hand weeding was the primary method of weed control during the first part of the 20th century. From 1931 to 1970, advances in chemistry increased the use of herbicides, and advances in engineering increased the reliance on machines for cultivation. Many managers now...

  2. Validation of an internal hardwood log defect prediction model

    R. Edward. Thomas


    The type, size, and location of internal defects dictate the grade and value of lumber sawn from hardwood logs. However, acquiring internal defect knowledge with x-ray/computed-tomography or magnetic-resonance imaging technology can be expensive both in time and cost. An alternative approach uses prediction models based on correlations among external defect indicators...

  3. Testing and analysis of internal hardwood log defect prediction models

    R. Edward. Thomas


    The severity and location of internal defects determine the quality and value of lumber sawn from hardwood logs. Models have been developed to predict the size and position of internal defects based on external defect indicator measurements. These models were shown to predict approximately 80% of all internal knots based on external knot indicators. However, the size...

  4. Indicators of regenerative capacity for eastern hardwood forests

    William H. McWilliams; Todd W. Bowersox; Patrick H. Brose; Daniel A. Devlin; James C. Finley; Steve Horsley; Kurt W. Gottschalk; Tonya W. Lister; Larry H. McCormick; Gary W. Miller; Kim C. Steiner; Susan L. Stout; James A. Westfall; Robert L. White


    Hardwood forests of the eastern United States are characterized by a complex mix of species associations that make it difficult to construct useful indicators of long-term sustainability, in terms of future forest composition and stocking levels. The Pennsylvania Regeneration Study examines regeneration adequacy in the state. The study uses the Forest Service's...

  5. Simulation of hydrology of short rotation hardwood plantations

    John E. Parsons; Carl C. Trettin


    A 76 ha hardwood plantation at Trice Research Forest near Sumter, SC is being usedto study forest hydrology on an operational scale. The overall objective of this project is to develop tools to enable forest managers to assess and manage sustainable short rotation woody crop production systems. This paper reports on the use of the water management model, WATRCOM, as a...

  6. Decay fungi of oaks and associated hardwoods for western arborists

    Jessie A. Glaeser; Kevin T. Smith


    Examination of trees for the presence and extent of decay should be part of any hazard tree assessment. Identification of the fungi responsible for the decay improves prediction of tree performance and the quality of management decisions, including tree pruning or removal. Scouting for Sudden Oak Death (SOD) in the West has drawn attention to hardwood tree species,...

  7. OPTIGRAMI: Optimum lumber grade mix program for hardwood dimension parts

    David G. Martens; Jr., Robert L. Nevel; Jr. Nevel


    With rapidly increasing lumber prices and shortages of some grades and species, the furniture industry must find ways to use its hardwood lumber resource more efficiently. A computer program called OPTIGRAMI is designed to help managers determine the best lumber to use in producing furniture parts. OPTIGRAMI determines the least-cost grade mix of lumber required to...

  8. Technical considerations in harvesting and sawing defective hardwood butts

    Thomas W., Jr. Church; Thomas W. Church


    How important are butt defects in hardwoods? We have no reliable estimate of the volume or value of timber lost through basal injuries. However, butt defects will be almost as important in future timber harvests as they are at present. Why? Because most butt defects are due to two causes: fire and logging. Damage from both these agents may be reduced, but it certainly...

  9. Butt-log grade distributions for five Appalachian hardwood species

    John R. Myers; Gary W. Miller; Harry V., Jr. Wiant; Joseph E. Barnard; Joseph E. Barnard


    Tree quality is an important factor in determining the market value of hardwood timber stands, but many forest inventories do not include estimates of tree quality. Butt-log grade distributions were developed for northern red oak, black oak, white oak, chestnut oak, and yellow-poplar using USDA Forest Service log grades on more than 4,700 trees in West Virginia. Butt-...

  10. Regional analysis of hardwood lumber production: 1963 - 2005

    William Luppold; Matthew Bumgardner


    Between 1963 and 2005 hardwood lumber production in the eastern United States increased by more than 50%. Production more than doubled in the northeastern and north central regions while increasing by less than 25% in the southeastern and south central regions. Increased lumber production in the northern regions was facilitated by an expanding sawtimber inventory,...

  11. Mistletoes on Hardwoods in the United States (FIDL)

    Robert F. Scharpf; Frank G. Hawksworth


    The traditional use of mistletoes during holiday seasons, their involvement in folklore and legend, their consumption by domestic and wild animals, and their use for medicinal purposes make mistletoes of widespread interest to the public. The fact that these plants are parasites that injure and eventually kill trees both conifers and hardwoods is not well known. Two...

  12. A Machine Vision System for Automatically Grading Hardwood Lumber - (Proceedings)

    Richard W. Conners; Tai-Hoon Cho; Chong T. Ng; Thomas H. Drayer; Joe G. Tront; Philip A. Araman; Robert L. Brisbon


    Any automatic system for grading hardwood lumber can conceptually be divided into two components. One of these is a machine vision system for locating and identifying grading defects. The other is an automatic grading program that accepts as input the output of the machine vision system and, based on these data, determines the grade of a board. The progress that has...

  13. Machine Vision Systems for Processing Hardwood Lumber and Logs

    Philip A. Araman; Daniel L. Schmoldt; Tai-Hoon Cho; Dongping Zhu; Richard W. Conners; D. Earl Kline


    Machine vision and automated processing systems are under development at Virginia Tech University with support and cooperation from the USDA Forest Service. Our goals are to help U.S. hardwood producers automate, reduce costs, increase product volume and value recovery, and market higher value, more accurately graded and described products. Any vision system is...

  14. Current status of the U.S. hardwood industry

    Urs Buehlmann; Matthew Bumgardner; Michael. Sperber


    The U.S. manufacturing sector has seen challenging years during the past decades. The major driver behind the decline of U.S. manufacturing prowess has been the ongoing globalization of trade, which has brought market share losses for U.S.-based manufacturing in many hardwood lumber consuming industries. The wood furniture, flooring, and millwork industries, for...

  15. Hardwood biochar influences calcareous soil physicochemical and microbiological status

    The effects of biochar application to calcareous soils are not well documented. In a laboratory incubation study, a hardwood-based, fast pyrolysis biochar was applied (0, 1, 2, and 10% by weight) to a calcareous soil. Changes in soil chemistry, water content, microbial respiration, and microbial com...

  16. Computer Vision Systems for Hardwood Logs and Lumber

    Philip A. Araman; Tai-Hoon Cho; D. Zhu; R. Conners


    Computer vision systems being developed at Virginia Tech University with the support and cooperation from the U.S. Forest Service are presented. Researchers at Michigan State University, West Virginia University, and Mississippi State University are also members of the research team working on various parts of this research. Our goals are to help U.S. hardwood...

  17. A 5-Year Assessment Of Shortleaf Pine And Hardwood Sprouts Relative To Three Methods Of Hardwood Control In The Arkansas Ozarks

    Michael D. Cain


    Abstract - Compared with untreated checks, manual hardwood control and herbicide injection of hardwoods facilitated the development of direct seeded shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata Mill.) regeneration following a single-tree selection harvest in a mature natural stand of shortleaf pines in northwest Arkansas. Five years after...

  18. Chlorine dioxide project allows Stora to clean up, use hardwoods

    Butters, G.


    Effluent fouling into the Strait of Canso between Nova Scotia mainland and Cape Breton Island has caused Stora Forest Industries Ltd. to develop a $5.6 million solution to its chlorine and acid problems. In 1987, Stora produced about 160,000 tonnes of market pulp where their resource base increasingly consisted of hardwood. The company uses hardwood chips for a growing percentage of its annual pulp production and for its hog fuel boiler, but became faced with having to use more local hardwoods which contributes to the resin problem. Their solution was to construct a 12-tpd chlorine dioxide generator, a process using dry sodium chlorate added to concentrated H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/, The products are chlorine dioxide and highly concentrated sulphuric acid resulting from the elimination of water at the starting point. This will eliminate the acid effluent from the generator and the sulphuric acid will be recycled to the top of the chlorine dioxide generation process. In the new process, ClCO/sub 2/ replaces 70% of the chlorine in the first stage, with 100% substitution a goal. In addition to eliminating the chlorine, other benefits include an increase in pulp production, a nominal increase in pulp strength, lower production costs, and an economic incentive to harvest the area's mixed-wood stands.

  19. Fire effects on wildlife in Central Hardwoods and Appalachian regions

    Harper, Craig A.; Ford, William; Lashley, Marcus A.; Moorman, Christopher; Stambaugh, Michael C.


    Fire is being prescribed and used increasingly to promote ecosystem restoration (e.g., oak woodlands and savannas) and to manage wildlife habitat in the Central Hardwoods and Appalachian regions, USA. However, questions persist as to how fire affects hardwood forest communities and associated wildlife, and how fire should be used to achieve management goals. We provide an up-to-date review of fire effects on various wildlife species and their habitat in the Central Hardwoods and Appalachians. Documented direct effects (i.e., mortality) on wildlife are rare. Indirect effects (i.e., changes in habitat quality) are influenced greatly by light availability, fire frequency, and fire intensity. Unless fire intensity is great enough to kill a portion of the overstory, burning in closed-canopy forests has provided little benefit for most wildlife species in the region because it doesn’t result in enough sunlight penetration to elicit understory response. Canopy reduction through silvicultural treatment has enabled managers to use fire more effectively. Fire intensity must be kept low in hardwoods to limit damage to many species of overstory trees. However, wounding or killing trees with fire benefits many wildlife species by allowing increased sunlight to stimulate understory response, snag and subsequent cavity creation, and additions of large coarse woody debris. In general, a fire-return interval of 2 yr to 7 yr benefits a wide variety of wildlife species by providing a diverse structure in the understory; increasing browse, forage, and soft mast; and creating snags and cavities. Historically, dormant-season fire was most prevalent in these regions, and it still is when most prescribed fire is implemented in hardwood systems as burn-days are relatively few in the growing season of May through August because of shading from leaf cover and high fuel moisture. Late growing-season burning increases the window for burning, and better control on woody composition is

  20. Growth of thinned and unthinned hardwood stands on a good site in northern California

    Philip M. McDonald; Nicholas R. Vaughn


    Pacific madrone (Arbutus menziesii Pursh), tanoak (Lithocarpus densiflorus (Hook. & Arn.) Rehd.), and California black oak (Quercus kelloggii Newb.) are three hardwood species commonly found in the Sierra Nevada of California, an area better known for its mixed-conifer forests. Hardwood stands in this region currently are...

  1. Pallet Recycling and Material Substitution: How Will Hardwood Markets Be Affected?

    Robert J. Bush; Philip A. Araman; Vijay S. Reddy


    An estimated 4.53 billion board feet of solid hardwood and 1.79 billion board feet of solid softwood were used in the production of pallets and containers in 1995. When compared to estimates for 1992, the use of both softwoods and hardwoods has decreased. Use for pallets and containers, as a percentage of total lumber production, also decreased for both materials...

  2. Consumer ring count and grain texture preferences of selected eastern United States hardwoods

    Delton Alderman; Matthew Bumgardner; Scott Bowe; David Brinberg


    Historically, eastern hardwoods have been a staple of forest products production. However, hardwood producers are now faced with serious challenges from substitutable products, such as imports of foreign species, utilization of foreign species in overseas manufacture (e.g., case goods, etc.), and composite-based materials that are imported or manufactured here in the...

  3. Automatic Color Sorting System for Hardwood Edge-Glued Panel Parts

    Richard W. Conners; D.Earl Kline; Philip A. Araman


    The color sorting of edge-glued panel parts is becoming more important in the manufacture of hardwood products. Consumers, while admiring the natural appearance of hardwoods, do not like excessive color variation across product surfaces. Color uniformity is particularly important today because of the popularity of lightly stained products. Unfortunately, color sorting...

  4. Developing a Multi Sensor Scanning System for Hardwood Inspection and Processing

    Richard W. Conners; D.Earl Kline; Philip A. Araman


    For the last few years the authors as part of the Center for Automated Processing of Hardwoods have been attempting to develop a multiple sensor hardwood defect detection system. This development activity has been ongoing for approximately 6 years, a very long time in the commercial development world. This paper will report the progress that has been made and will...

  5. Status of hardwood forest resources in the Appalachian region including estimates of growth and removals

    Christopher M. Oswalt; Jeffery A. Turner


    The Appalachian Hardwood Region (AHR) is an important wood producing area of the Eastern United States and is near a large portion of the U.S. population that is growing considerably. Combined, these two forces create the need for assessments of the hardwood forest resources in the region. Here we present results from an investigation into the forest resources of the...

  6. Trends in the US hardwood lumber distribution industry: changing products, customers, and services

    Urs Buehlmann; Omar Espinoza; Matthew Bumgardner; Bob. Smith


    Efficient and effective supply chains are the backbone of any industry, including the forest products industry. As the US secondary hardwood industry has undergone a profound transformation and large parts of the industry have moved offshore, the supply chain is adapting to these new realities. Remaining and new customers of US hardwood lumber distributors tend to be...

  7. Small Mammal Communities of Mature Pine Hardwood Stands in the Ouachita Mountains

    Phillip A. Tappe; Ronald E. Thill; Joseph J. Krystofik; Gary A. Heidt


    A study was conducted on the Ouachita and Ozark National Forests in Arkansas to evaluate the effects of alternative pine-hardwood reproduction cutting methods on small mammal abundance and diversity. Pretreatment characteristics of small mammal communities on 20 late-rotation mixed pine-hardwood stands in four physiographic zones of the Ouachita Mountain region of...

  8. 40 CFR 63.2264 - Initial compliance demonstration for a hardwood veneer dryer.


    ... hardwood veneer dryer. 63.2264 Section 63.2264 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Plywood and Composite Wood Products Initial Compliance Requirements § 63.2264 Initial compliance demonstration for a hardwood veneer dryer....

  9. Felling and skidding costs associated with thinning a commercial Appalachian hardwood stand in northern West Virginia

    Samuel M. Brock; Kenneth D. Jones; Gary W. Miller


    Detailed cost information on thinning operations is needed to develop economic guidelines for managing immature central Appalachian hardwood stands. Three thinning treatments were applied in a 50-yr-old mixed-oak, cove hardwood stand in northern West Virginia. A commercial logging contractor using chain saws and a rubber-tired skidder conducted the logging operations....


    Seed Rahman Jafari Petroudy


    Full Text Available Based on global research and experiences producing newsprint from bagasse, the possibility of using bagasse chemical pulp in the furnish of local mill-made mixed hardwood CMP pulp was studied at laboratory scale, for making newsprint. Bagasse soda chemical pulp at digester yield of about 47% was bleached to about 60% brightness by single stage hydrogen peroxide. The effects of using up to 30% bagasse chemical pulp in a blend with hardwood CMP pulp, with or without softwood kraft pulp, were studied. The results showed that superior hand sheet properties could be achieved by using bagasse chemical pulp; in comparison with main mill pulp furnish (83% hardwood CMP pulp and 17% imported long fiber pulp. In other words, by using bagasse chemical pulp in a blend with local mill made hardwood CMP pulp, acceptable newsprint could be made with considerable reduction in the consumptions of hardwood species and softwood reinforcing kraft pulp.

  11. Avian response to bottomland hardwood reforestation: the first 10 years

    Twedt, D.J.; Wilson, R.R.; Henne-Kerr, J.L.; Grosshuesch, D.A.


    Bttomland hardwood forests were planted on agricultural fields in Mississippi and Louisiana using either predominantly Quercus species (oaks) or Populus deltoides (eastern cottonwood). We assessed avian colonization of these reforested sites between 2 and 10 years after planting. Rapid vertical growth of cottonwoods (circa 2 - 3 m / yr) resulted in sites with forest structure that supported greater species richness of breeding birds, increased Shannon diversity indices, and supported greater territory densities than on sites planted with slower-growing oak species. Grassland birds (Spiza americana [Dickcissel], and Sturnella magna [Eastern Meadowlark]) were indicative of species breeding on oak-dominated reforestation # 10 years old. Agelaius phoeniceus (Red-winged Blackbird) and Colinus virginianus (Northern Bobwhite) characterized cottonwood reforestation # 4 years old, whereas 14 species of shrub-scrub birds (e.g., Passerina cyanea [Indigo Bunting]) and early-successional forest birds (e.g., Vireo gilvus [Warbling Vireo]) typified cottonwood reforestation 5 to 9 years after planting. Rates of daily nest survival did not differ between reforestation strategies. Nest parasitism increased markedly in older cottonwood stands, but was overwhelmed by predation as a cause of nest failure. Based on Partners in Flight prioritization scores and territory densities, the value of cottonwood reforestation for avian conservation was significantly greater than that of oak reforestation during their first 10 years. Because of benefits conferred on breeding birds, we recommend reforestation of bottomland hardwoods include a high proportion of fast-growing, early successional species such as cottonwood.

  12. Biomass models to estimate carbon stocks for hardwood tree species

    Ruiz-Peinado, R.; Montero, G.; Rio, M. del


    To estimate forest carbon pools from forest inventories it is necessary to have biomass models or biomass expansion factors. In this study, tree biomass models were developed for the main hardwood forest species in Spain: Alnus glutinosa, Castanea sativa, Ceratonia siliqua, Eucalyptus globulus, Fagus sylvatica, Fraxinus angustifolia, Olea europaea var. sylvestris, Populus x euramericana, Quercus canariensis, Quercus faginea, Quercus ilex, Quercus pyrenaica and Quercus suber. Different tree biomass components were considered: stem with bark, branches of different sizes, above and belowground biomass. For each species, a system of equations was fitted using seemingly unrelated regression, fulfilling the additivity property between biomass components. Diameter and total height were explored as independent variables. All models included tree diameter whereas for the majority of species, total height was only considered in the stem biomass models and in some of the branch models. The comparison of the new biomass models with previous models fitted separately for each tree component indicated an improvement in the accuracy of the models. A mean reduction of 20% in the root mean square error and a mean increase in the model efficiency of 7% in comparison with recently published models. So, the fitted models allow estimating more accurately the biomass stock in hardwood species from the Spanish National Forest Inventory data. (Author) 45 refs.

  13. Results of a workshop concerning ecological zonation in bottomland hardwoods

    Roelle, James E.; Auble, Gregor T.; Hamilton, David B.; Johnson, Richard L.; Segelquist, Charles A.


    Under Section 404 of the Clean Water Act, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has regulatory responsibilities concerning the discharge of dredged or fill material into the Nation's waters. In addition to its advisory role in the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers' permit program, EPA has a number of specific authorities, including formulation of the Section 404(b)(1) Guidelines, use of Section 404(c) to prohibit disposal at particular sites, and enforcement actions for unauthorized discharges. A number of recent court cases focus on the geographic scope of Section 404 jurisdiction in potential bottomland hardwood (BLH) wetlands and the nature of landclearing activities in these areas that require a permit under Section 404. Accordingly, EPA needs to establish the scientific basis for implementing its responsibilities under Section 404 in bottomland hardwoods. EPA is approaching this task through a series of workshops designed to provide current scientific information on bottomland hardwoods and to organize that information in a manner pertinent to key questions, including the following. What are the characteristics of bottomland hardwoods (in terms of hydrology, soils, vegetation, fish, wildlife, agricultural potential, and the like) and how can the functions (e.g., flood storage, water quality maintenance, detrital export) that they perform best be quantified? How do perturbations like landclearing, levee construction, and drainage impact the functions that bottomland hardwoods perform and how can these effects best be quantified? And finally, how significant are the impacts and how is their significance likely to change under various management scenarios? The first workshop in this series was held December 3-7, 1984, in St. Francisville, Louisiana. The workshop was attended by over 40 scientists and regulators (see ACKNOWLEDGMENTS section) and facilitated by the editors of this report under an Interagency Agreement between EPA and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife

  14. Carbon Storage of bottomland hardwood afforestation in the Lower Mississippi Valley, U.S.A.

    David T. Shoch; Gary Kaster; Aaron Hohl; Ray Souter


    The emerging carbon market is an increasingly important source of finance for bottomland hardwood afforestation in the Lower Mississippi River Valley (LMV). Notwithstanding, there is a scarcity of empirical...

  15. 78 FR 36791 - Hardwood Plywood From China; Institution of Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Investigations...


    ..., including but not limited to veneers, particleboard, and medium-density fiberboard (``MDF''). All hardwood..., but are not limited to, paper, aluminum, high pressure laminate (``HPL''), MDF, medium density overlay...

  16. Survey of understory plant diversity in mature bottomland hardwood tracts in the Mississippi Delta

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This research was designed to collect data on the understory plant composition of remnant bottomland hardwood forest tracts on accessible public lands in the LMAV...

  17. Sulfite pretreatment to overcome recalcitrance of lignocellulose (SPORL) for robust enzymatic saccharification of hardwoods

    G. S. Wang; X. J. Pan; Junyong Zhu; Roland Gleisner; D. Rockwood


    This study demonstrates sulfite pretreatment to overcome recalcitrance of lignocellulose (SPORL) for robust bioconversion of hardwoods. With only about 4% sodium bisulfite charge on aspen and 30-min pretreatment at temperature 180[...

  18. Power consumption and lumber yields for reduced-kerf circular saws cutting hardwoods

    Donald G. Cuppett


    Two 50-inch diameter headsaws were used for sawing (a) hardwood cants into boards, and (b) hardwood bolts into pallet parts. One saw had a 9x10 gage plate with 114-inch kerf teeth, and the other had a 7x8 gage plate with 9/32-inch kerf teeth. Power consumption for the two saws was determined with a watt-hour meter, measuring power used for paired cuts in 6-inch thick...

  19. Vegetation classification in southern pine mixed hardwood forests using airborne scanning laser point data.

    McGaughey, Robert J. [USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station; Reutebuch, Stephen E. [USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station


    Forests of the southeastern United States are dominated by a relatively small number of conifer species. However, many of these forests also have a hardwood component composed of a wide variety of species that are found in all canopy positions. The presence or absence of hardwood species and their position in the canopy often dictates management activities such as thinning or prescribed burning. In addition, the characteristics of the under- and mid-story layers, often dominated by hardwood species, are key factors when assessing suitable habitat for threatened and endangered species such as the Red Cockaded Woodpecker (Picoides borealis) (RCW), making information describing the hardwood component important to forest managers. General classification of cover types using LIDAR data has been reported (Song et al. 2002, Brennan and Webster 2006) but most efforts focusing on the identification of individual species or species groups rely on some type of imagery to provide more complete spectral information for the study area. Brandtberg (2007) found that use of intensity data significantly improved LIDAR detection and classification of three leaf-off deciduous eastern species: oaks (Quercus spp.), red maple (Acer rubrum L.), and yellow poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera L.). Our primary objective was to determine the proportion of hardwood species present in the canopy using only the LIDAR point data and derived products. However, the presence of several hardwood species that retain their foliage through the winter months complicated our analyses. We present two classification approaches. The first identifies areas containing hardwood and softwood (conifer) species (H/S) and the second identifies vegetation with foliage absent or present (FA/FP) at the time of the LIDAR data acquisition. The classification results were used to develop predictor variables for forest inventory models. The ability to incorporate the proportion of hardwood and softwood was important to the

  20. Development of an upland hardwood demonstration forest on the Mary Olive Thomas Demonstration Forest

    Seth D. Hunt; John S. Kush; Rebecca J. Barlow


    Landowners have experienced a dizzying array of timber prices over the past several years. At one time, hardwood pulpwood brought very little per ton and today it brings as much or more than pine pulpwood. In some markets in the Southeast today, oak sawtimber is bringing more than pine poles. Many landowners, who previously said they wanted their hardwood stands left...


    Seed Rahman Jafari Petroudy; Hossein Resalati Mail; pejman Rezayati Charani Mail


    Based on global research and experiences producing newsprint from bagasse, the possibility of using bagasse chemical pulp in the furnish of local mill-made mixed hardwood CMP pulp was studied at laboratory scale, for making newsprint. Bagasse soda chemical pulp at digester yield of about 47% was bleached to about 60% brightness by single stage hydrogen peroxide. The effects of using up to 30% bagasse chemical pulp in a blend with hardwood CMP pulp, with or without softwood kraft pulp, were st...

  2. First year survival of barefoot and containerized hardwood tree seedlings planted in northeast Texas lignite minesoils

    Wood, J.; Denman, J. [Texas Utilities Mining Company, Mt. Pleasant, TX (United States); Waxler, M.; Huber, D.A. [Weyerhaeuser, Hot Springs, AK (United States)


    Successful regeneration of hardwood tree seedlings is critical to the reclamation of quality wildlife habitat and commercial forests on lignite mines in northeast Texas. Because bareroot hardwood seedlings survival rates have often been lower than desired, the survival of containerized and bareroot hardwood tree seedlings was compared. Seven hardwood species, including six species of oaks, were planted in lignite minesoils on sites classified as bottomland, slope and upland. Three species were planted per site. Containerized seedlings were planted during the fall and winter, whereas bareroot seedlings were planted in the winter only. Survival was determined at the end of the first growing season. Results across all sites indicate that winter-planted containerized seedlings (74%) or bareroot seedlings (76%). Within the sites, the only significant difference was on upland sites where survival of winter-planted containerized seedlings (60%) was lower than bareroot seedlings (77%). Survival among species was not significantly different. There was no significant survival benefit from using more expensive containerized hardwood seedlings. The results also question the practice of planting containerized hardwood seedlings during the typical winter planting season for optimum survival.

  3. Caloric values for young sprouts of nine hardwood species

    Neenan, M. (An Foras Taluntais, Oak Park, Carlow, Ireland); Steinbeck, K.


    Caloric content, specific gravity, and ash content of 6- to 15-year-old sprouts of nine hardwood species were determined in midsummer. Energy values for wood, bark, first order branches, twigs, and leaves were determined with an adiabatic bomb calorimeter. The values found for coppice material averaged 4791 cal/g and were comparable to published values for older wood. Intraspecific differences among tissues were greater than the relatively small but significant differences among species. Differences in yield potential are therefore likely to outweigh variations in caloric content among species where total energy production per unit of land area is concerned. Ash content varied from 0.65 percent for wood to 5.88 percent for bark.

  4. Calorific values for young sprouts of nine hardwood species

    Neenan, M.; Steinbeck, K.

    Calorific content, specific gravity and ash content of 10 to 15 year old sprouts of nine hardwood species were determined in mid-summer. Energy values for wood, bark, first order branches, twigs and leaves were determined with an adiabatic bomb calorimeter. The values found for coppice material averaged 4791 cal/g and were comparable to published values for older wood. Intraspecific differences among tissues were greater than the relatively small but significant differences among species. Differences in yield potential are therefore likely to outweigh variations in calorific content among species where total energy production per unit of land area is concerned. Ash content varied from 0.65% for wood to 5.88% for bark.


    Amarnath Dhamodaran,


    Full Text Available A multiple linear regression analysis was carried out to predict the length of pellets under compression in the die based on moisture, temperature, pressure, hold time, and their interaction terms. Excellent correlations were obtained in the dependency of the considered parameters on length of compressed material inside the die. Springback characteristics based on axial changes after the compaction process were analyzed. The expansion for hardwood pellets (16.28% was found to be lowest at particle size 0.150 to 0.300 mm with 8% moisture (w.b, 60 °C, 139.3 MPa pressure, and a hold time of 15S. The expansion for softwood pellets (20.56% was lowest with particle size 0.300 to 0.425 mm, at 8% moisture (w.b, 70 °C, 159.2 MPa, and a hold time of 30S.

  6. Nine-year performance of four hardwoods on a harvested site with and without fertilizer tree shelters, and weed mats in southern Illinois

    Felix, Jr. Ponder; J.W. Van Sambeek


    Quality hardwood species often dominate stands on intermediate to high quality sites before regeneration. However, successfully regenerating these species after the harvest is rarely achieved on these sites. Hardwood species were planted on a high quality site in southern Illinois after clearcutting to study the effect of several cultural practices on the hardwoods...

  7. Synopsis of wetland functions and values: bottomland hardwoods with special emphasis on eastern Texas and Oklahoma

    Wilkinson, D.L.; Schneller-McDonald, K.; Olson, R.W.; Auble, G.T.


    Bottomland hardwood wetlands are the natural cover type of many floodplain ecosystems in the southeastern United States. They are dynamic, productive systems that depend on intermittent flooding and moving water for maintenance of structure and function. Many of the diverse functions performed by bottomland hardwoods (e.g., flood control, sediment trapping, fish and wildlife habitat) are directly or indirectly valued by humans. Balanced decisions regarding bottomland hardwoods are often hindered by a limited ability to accurately specify the functions being performed by these systems and, furthermore, by an inability to evaluate these functions in economic terms. This report addresses these informational needs. It focuses on the bottomland hardwoods of eastern Texas and Oklahoma, serving as an introduction and entry to the literature. It is not intended to serve as a substitute for reference to the original literature. The first section of the report is a review of the major functions of bottomland hardwoods, grouped under the headings of hydrology, water quality, productivity, detritus, nutrients, and habitat. Although the hydrology of these areas is diverse and complex, especially with respect to groundwater, water storage at high flows can clearly function to attenuate peak flows, with possible reductions in downstream flooding damage. Water moving through a bottomland hardwood system carries with it various organic and inorganic constituents, including sediment, organic matter, nutrients, and pollutants. When waterborne materials are introduced to bottomland hardwoods (from river flooding or upland runoff), they may be retained, transformed, or transported. As a result, water quality may be significantly altered and improved. The fluctuating and flowing water regime of bottomland hardwoods is associated with generally high net primary productivity and rapid fluxes of organic matter and nutrients. These, in turn, support secondary productivity in the bottomland

  8. Hardwoods for Woody Energy Crops in the Southeast United States:Two Centuries of Practitioner Experience

    Kline, Keith L [ORNL; Coleman, Mark [USDA Forest Service


    This paper summarizes opinions from forest industry experts on the potential for hardwood tree species to serve as feedstock for bioenergy in the Southeast United States. Hardwoods are of interest for bioenergy because of desirable physical qualities, genetic research advances, and growth potential. Experts observe that high productivity rates in southeastern plantations are confined to limited site conditions or require costly inputs. Eastern cottonwood and American sycamore grow quickly on rich bottomlands where they compete with higher-value crops. These species are also prone to pests and disease. Sweetgum is frost hardy, has few pest or disease problems, and grows across a broad range of sites, yet growth rates are relatively low. Eucalypts require few inputs and offer high potential productivity, but are limited by frost to the lower coastal plain and Florida. More time and investment in silviculture, selection, and breeding will be needed to develop hardwoods as competitive biofuel feedstock species. Loblolly pine has robust site requirements, growth rates rivaling hardwoods and lower costs of production. Because of existing stands and know-how, the forestry community considers loblolly pine to be a prime candidate for plantation bioenergy in the Southeast. Further research is required to study naturally regenerated hardwood biomass resources.

  9. The market for U. S. hardwoods in the United Kingdom: market needs and satisfaction with U. S. Products

    Robert J. Bush; Philip A. Araman


    Importers of hardwood lumber in the United Kingdom were studied to determine the product and supplier attributes that most influenced their purchase decisions. Importers of North American hardwoods were least satisfied with Lumber Straightness. Straightness, Absence of Stain and the Absence of Surface Checks were the most important lumber attributes. On Time Shipment...

  10. Alteration Of Nutrient Status By Manipulation Of Composition And Density In A Shortleaf Pine-Hardwood Stand

    Hal O. Liechty; Valerie L. Sawyer; Michael G. Shelton


    Abstract - Uneven-aged management is used to promote adequate pine reproduction and control species composition of shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata Mill.)-hardwood stands in the Interior Highlands of the southern United States. The modification of pine-hardwood composition in these stands has the potential to alter nutrient pools and availability since...

  11. Sustaining Oak Ecosystems in the Central Hardwood Region: Lessons from the Past--Continuing the History of Disturbance

    Daniel C. Dey; Richard P. Guyette


    Oak savannas, woodlands and forests were dominant ecosystems throughout the central hardwood Region (CHR) before European settlement. Today, only 0.02 percent of the original oak savannas present at the time of European settlement remain, and bottomland hardwood forests have been reduced by 70 to 95 percent depending on the watershed (Nuzzo 1986, Sharitz and Mitsch...

  12. Use of the bottomland hardwoods subset of the wetland values data base

    Auble, Gregor T.


    This report documents a bibliographic data base concerning functions and values of bottomland hardwoods and similarly vegetated areas. This data base is being provided for a limited time (until September 30, 1988) as a supplement to the publication entitled "Synopsis of Wetland Functions and Values: Bottomland Hardwoods with Special Emphasis on Eastern Texas and Oklahoma" (Wilkinson et al. 1987). The bottomland hardwoods data base is a subset of a larger bibliographic data base, Wetland Values, developed by the National Wetlands Inventory of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Stuber 1986). The focus of these bibliographic data bases is on functions and values of wetlands; few articles on structure (e.g., phytosociology) are included.

  13. Current state and problems of noble hardwoods plants: the Regions’ point of view

    Calvo E


    Full Text Available This paper illustrates the current state of noble hardwoods plants established in Italy since early ’90s, with the aim of describing the extension, distribution and quality of wood production obtained. Based on both results of this investigation and advices issued by administrative Regions, several considerations are discussed aimed to identify new directions for research and extension activities, as well as to support appropriate managing practices, in the light of the absence of an integrated system among the noble hardwoods productions, the agricultural sector and the timber market.

  14. The scenic impact of key forest attributes and long-term management alternatives for hardwood forests

    R.G. Ribe


    The problem of identifying the scenic value of forest attributes and management plans is empirically explored. A sample of hardwood forests in Wisconsin, representing a diversity of management histories, is analyzed through photographs and field inventories. Scenic beauty judgements of the photographs by a diversity of respondents yield general scenic beauty estimates...

  15. Changes in early-successional hardwood forest area in four bird conservation regions across four decades

    Sonja N. Oswalt; Kathleen E. Franzreb; David A. Buehler


    Early successional hardwood forests constitute important breeding habitat for many migratory songbirds. Declines in populations of these species suggest changes in habitat availability either on the species’ wintering grounds or on their early successional breeding grounds. We used Forest Inventory and Analysis data from 11 states across four decades to examine changes...

  16. Fine Root Dynamics and Forest Production Across a Calcium Gradient in Northern Hardwood and Conifer Ecosystems

    Byung Bae Park; Ruth D. Yanai; Timothy J. Fahey; Scott W. Bailey; Thomas G. Siccama; James B. Shanley; Natalie L. Cleavitt


    Losses of soil base cations due to acid rain have been implicated in declines of red spruce and sugar maple in the northeastern USA. We studied fine root and aboveground biomass and production in five northern hardwood and three conifer stands differing in soil Ca status at Sleepers River, VT; Hubbard Brook, NH; and Cone Pond, NH. Neither aboveground biomass and...

  17. Shifts and future trends in the forest resources of the Central Hardwood region

    Thomas L. Schmidt; William H. McWilliams


    Forests in the Central Hardwood region are undergoing change in terms of area, volume, species composition, and forest structure. These forests are dominated by deciduous species; are increasing their average stand size, volume, and age; and, are experiencing woody plant species replacement as shade intolerant species are being replaced by more shade tolerant species....

  18. Impact of product mix and markets on the economic feasibility of hardwood thinning

    John E. Baumgras; Chris B. LeDoux


    Results demonstrate how the economic feasibility of commercial hardwood thinning is impacted by tree diameter, product mix, and primary product markets. These results indicate that multiproduct harvesting can increase revenues by $0.01/ft³ to $0.32/ft³; and that small shifts in price levels or haul distance can postpone commercial thinning...

  19. Analysis of harvesting opportunities for thinning eastern hardwoods on steep terrain

    Chris B. LeDoux; John E. Baumgras


    Harvesting cost and revenue models were used to evaluate yarding costs by yarder type and to compare stump-to-mill harvesting costs to revenues available from multiproduct thinnings in eastern hardwoods. This analysis includes six types of cable yarders and thinnings in stands where the average diameter at breast height of trees harvested ranged from 7 to 12 inches. To...

  20. Examining the Use of Internal Defect Information for Information-Augmented Hardwood Log Breakdown

    Luis G. Occeña; Daniel L. Schmoldt; Suraphan Thawornwong


    In present-day hardwood sawmills, log breakdown is hampered by incomplete information about log geometry and internal features. When internal log scanning becomes operational, it will remove this roadblock and provide a complete view of each logâs interior. It is not currently obvious, however, how dramatically this increased level of information will improve log...

  1. Rhododendron thickets alter N Cycling and soul extracellular enzyme activities in southern Appalachian hardwood forests

    Nina Wurzburger; Ronald L. Hendrick


    Rhododendron maximum L., a spreading understory shrub, inhibits overstory. Regeneration and alters forest community structure in southern Appalachian hardwood forests. Using paired plots and reciprocal litter transplants in forests with and without R. maximum cover, we examined the influence of R. maximum on Leaf...

  2. 77 FR 65172 - Hardwood and Decorative Plywood From the People's Republic of China: Initiation of Antidumping...


    ... two invoices for hardwood and decorative plywood sold by Chinese exporters, as identified in... NME countries, and from India, Indonesia, and the Republic of Korea, as the Department has previously... Chinese exporters/ producers will be used as the basis for selecting the mandatory respondents....

  3. Impact of forest liming on growth, vigor, and reproduction of sugar maple and associated hardwoods

    Robert P. Long; Stephen B. Horsley; Paul R. Lilja


    In 1985 a long-term study was initiated by the Pennsylvania Bureau of Forestry and the Northeastern Research Station to evaluate factors impeding regeneration of Allegheny hardwoods (Auchmoody, unpublished). The major factors suspected of limiting regeneration were high soil aluminum levels associated with low soil pH (typically 3.6 to 4.2 in surface mineral soils),...

  4. Long-term impact of liming on growth and vigor of northern hardwoods

    Robert P. Long; Stephen B. Horsley; Thomas J. Hall


    Sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) is a keystone species in the northern hardwood forest, and decline episodes have negatively affected the growth and health of sugar maple in portions of its range over the past 50+ years. Crown health, growth, survival, and flower and seed production of sugar maple were negatively affected by a widespread decline...

  5. Hardwood vigor and survival following applications of imazapyr in mid-rotation pine plantations

    Prabudhda Dahal Dahal; Hal O. Liechty; Bryan Rupar; Conner Fristoe; Eric Heitzman


    Tree vigor, live crown ratios, dieback, and survival of hardwood competition were monitored for 2 years following a fall application (16 ounces per acre) of imazapyr on 4 stands of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) in the Gulf Coastal Plain of Louisiana and Arkansas. Assessments during the first growing season following application indicated that 87 to...

  6. Impacts of shortleaf pine-hardwood forest management on soils in the Ouachita Highlands: A review

    Hal O. Liechty; Michael G. Shelton; Kenneth R. Luckow; Donald J. Turton


    Shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata Mill.) is the most ecologically and economically important tree species in the Ouachita Highlands of the southcentral United States. This species can occur in relatively pure stands but most frequently exists in mixed stands with various hardwood species. Because of the diversity of land ownership, public concerns about...

  7. Intensive hardwood log bucker training using HW Buck dramatically improves value recovery

    James B. Pickens; Aaron Everett; Scott Noble; John E. Baumgras; Philip A. Araman; Conrad Waniger; Al Steele


    It has long been recognized that inappropriate placement of crosscuts when manufacturing hardwood logs from harvested stems (log bucking) reduces the value of logs produced. Recent studies have estimated losses in the range from 28% to 38% in the lake states region. It has not, however, been clear how to correct the problem. Efforts to improve value recovery have...

  8. A Qualitative Investigation of Competition in the U.S. Hardwood Lumber Industry

    Robert J. Bush; Steven A. Sinclair; Philip A. Araman


    Competition in the U.S. hardwood lumber industry was investigated through interviews with company executives. The largest and smallest companies in the industry were found to be the most production oriented. When the competitive strategies of the companies were categorized using Porterâs (21) strategic typology, Overall Cost Leadership strategies were found to be the...

  9. Rapid indices of potential nitrogen mineralization for intensively managed hardwood plantations

    D. Andrew Scott; Alixanna McLearen Norris; James A. Burger


    Short-rotation hardwood plantations generally require repeated applications of nitrogen (N) fertilizer to maintain desired growth and are being installed on two previous land uses: agricultural fields and cutover forest lands. Because the soil organic matter chemistry is different between agricultural field and cutover soils, indices of N availability developed for one...

  10. Using short-rotation hardwood plantations as “green” inventory for southeastern pulp mills

    Thomas Gallagher; Robert Shaffer


    As a routine wood source for a pulp mill, recent past studies have shown that intensively-managed, short-rotation hardwood plantations are not cost effective. The objective of this study was to determine if these plantations may be cost effective as "green" inventory, replacing some portion of high cost remote woodyard inventory. Three southeastern pulp mills...

  11. An economic analysis of hardwood fiber production on dryland irrigated sites in the US Southeast

    Tom Gallagher; Bob Shaffer; Bob Rummer


    Although there is renewed interest in intensively managed, short-rotation plantations as a source of hardwood for pulp mills, few have been established in the Southeast. Understanding all the costs associated with these plantations will help determine their feasibility. Using a model developed to summarize all the costs, a break-even analysis was completed to determine...

  12. Ten year regeneration of southern Appalachian hardwood clearcuts after controlling residual trees

    P.M. Zaldivar-Garcia; D.T. Tew


    Two upland hardwood stands were clearcut in 1978 and three treatments to control the unmerchantable and/or cull trees were applied. The treatments applied to the residual trees were chainsaw felling, herbicide injection, and a control, where residual trees were left standing. Regeneration was sampled 10 years after the cutting.

  13. A framework for assessing climate change vulnerability and identifying adaptation responses in the central hardwoods region

    Patricia R. Butler; Leslie A. Brandt; Stephen D. Handler; Maria K. Janowiak; Patricia D. Shannon; Chris W. Swanston


    The Central Hardwood region contains a mosaic of forests, woodlands, savannas, and other ecosystems that will increasingly be affected by a changing climate over the next century. Understanding potential impacts is important to sustaining healthy forests under changing conditions. The objectives of the Climate Change Response Framework ( are to...

  14. An appraisal of early reproduction after cutting in northern Appalachian hardwood stands

    George R., Jr. Trimble; George Hart


    How shall I cut to get reproduction? What kind of reproduction will I get if I cut the way I am planning to? All foresters have asked themselves these questions. To help supply some answers to these questions for the northern Appalachian hardwood area, the authors have summarized and analyzed before- and after-cutting reproduction data collected over a period of 10...

  15. Regeneration after cutting of old-growth northern hardwoods in New Hampshire

    William B. Leak; Robert W., Jr. Wilson


    Past experience with cuttings in old-growth northern hardwoods has demonstrated that the primary regeneration problem is to obtain a large proportion of desirable species of good quality. Regardless of method or intensity of cutting, the total amount of reproduction usually is adequate. Second-growth stands are a different story: this report pertains only to old-growth...

  16. The international hardwood lumber market and potential impacts on your bottom line

    Bill Luppold; Matthew. Bumgardner


    Even if you don't sell logs or lumber to foreign customers, the international hardwood market can impact your business in significant ways, and smart business leaders are taking notice so that they are ready for shifting market impacts. Many people believe that lumber exporting is only an opportunity for larger sawmills. However, even if you have a portable mill...

  17. Effects of winter flooding on mass and gross energy of bottomland hardwood acorns

    Alan G. Leach; Jacob N. Straub; Richard M. Kaminski; Andrew W. Ezell; Tracy S. Hawkins; Theodor D. Leininger


    Decomposition of red oak acorns (Quercus spp.; Section Erythrobalanus) could decrease forage biomass and gross energy (GE) available to wintering ducks from acorns. We estimated changes in mass and GE for 3 species of red oak acorns in flooded and non-flooded bottomland hardwood forests in Mississippi during winter 2009–2010. Mass...

  18. Effects of canopy herbivory on nutrient cycling in a northern hardwood forest in Western North Carolina

    Barbara C. Reynolds; Mark D. Hunter; D.A. Crossely


    In May 1998 an outbreak of sawflies, Periclista sp. (Hymenoptera: Symphyta), occurred in a high-elevation hardwood forest in western North Carolina. Estimated defoliation of northern red oak (Quercus rubra) and white oak (Q. alba) removed 40% of leaf area Weights of frass (insect feces) collected at the site...

  19. Effects of even-aged management on forest birds at northern hardwood stand interfaces

    Richard M. DeGraaf


    Breeding birds were counted along transects across edges of even-aged northern hardwood stands in the White Mountain National Forest, New Hampshire, U.S.A. Two replicate transects across each of 7 edge types representing 3 classes of contrast (abrupt, intermediate, and subtle) were sampled during June 1983-1985 to define species assemblages at stand edges and estimate...

  20. A Machine Vision System for Automatically Grading Hardwood Lumber - (Industrial Metrology)

    Richard W. Conners; Tai-Hoon Cho; Chong T. Ng; Thomas T. Drayer; Philip A. Araman; Robert L. Brisbon


    Any automatic system for grading hardwood lumber can conceptually be divided into two components. One of these is a machine vision system for locating and identifying grading defects. The other is an automatic grading program that accepts as input the output of the machine vision system and, based on these data, determines the grade of a board. The progress that has...

  1. A Multiple Sensor Machine Vision System for Automatic Hardwood Feature Detection

    D. Earl Kline; Richard W. Conners; Daniel L. Schmoldt; Philip A. Araman; Robert L. Brisbin


    A multiple sensor machine vision prototype is being developed to scan full size hardwood lumber at industrial speeds for automatically detecting features such as knots holes, wane, stain, splits, checks, and color. The prototype integrates a multiple sensor imaging system, a materials handling system, a computer system, and application software. The prototype provides...

  2. Influence of hardwood midstory and pine species on pine bole arthropods

    Christopher S. Collins; Richard N. Conner; Daniel Saenz


    Arthropod density on the boles of loblolly pines (Pinus taeda) was compared between a stand with and stand without hardwood midstory and between a stand of loblolly and shortleaf pines (P. echinata) in the Stephen E Austin Experimental Forest, Nacogdoches Co., Texas, USA from September 1993 through July 1994. Arthropod density was...

  3. Snag Condition and Woodpecker Foraging Ecology in a Bottomland Hardwood Forest

    Richard N. Conner; Stanley D. Jones; Gretchen D. Jones


    We studied woodpecker foraging behavior, snag quality, and surrounding habitat in a bottomland hardwood forest in the Stephen F. Austin Experimental Forest from December 1984 through November 1986. The amount and location of woodpecker foraging excavations indicated that woodpeckers excavated mainly at the well-decayed tops and bases of snags. Woodpeckers preferred to...

  4. Nondestructive Evaluation of Hardwood Logs Using Automated Interpretation of CT Images

    Daniel L. Schmoldt; Dongping Zhu; Richard W. Conners


    Computed tomography (CT) imaging is being used to examine the internal structure of hardwood logs. The following steps are used to automatically interpret CT images: (1) preprocessing to remove unwanted portions of the image, e.g., annual ring structure, (2) image-by-image segmentation to produce relatively homogeneous image areas, (3) volume growing to create volumes...

  5. Effect of resin variables on the creep behavior of high density hardwood composite panels

    R.C. Tang; Jianhua Pu; C.Y Hse


    The flexural creep behavior of oriented strandboards (OSB) fabricated with mixed high, density hardwood flakes was investigated. Three types of adhesives, liquid phenolic-formaldehyde (LPF), melamine modified urea-formaldehyde (MUF), and LPF (face)/MUF (core) were chosen in this investigation. The resin contents (RC) used were 3.5 percent and 5.0 percent. The flakes...

  6. Using low-grade hardwoods for CLT production: a yield analysis

    R. Edward Thomas; Urs. Buehlmann


    Low-grade hardwood logs are the by-product of logging operations and, more frequently today, urban tree removals. The market prices for these logs is low, as is the value recovered from their logs when producing traditional forest products such as pallet parts, railroad ties, landscaping mulch, or chips for pulp. However, the emergence of cross-laminated timber (CLT)...

  7. A classification system for predicting pallet part quality from hardwood cants

    E. Paul Craft; Kenneth R., Jr. Whitenack


    Producers who manufacture pallet parts from hardwood cants generally must purchase cants on the basis of existing structural timber grades that do not adequately reflect the quality of pallet parts produced from resawed cants. A system for classifying cants for pallet part production has been developed that more accurately reflects the parts grade mix that can be...

  8. Site disturbance and soil impacts resulting from mechanized thinning of upland hardwood stands in Southeastern Kentucky

    Jason Thompson; Emily. Carter


    A large scale silvicultural trial was designed to examine the effectiveness of five treatments in reducing the potential future impacts of gypsy moth infestation and oak decline on upland hardwood forests in the Daniel Boone National Forest in southeastern Kentucky. Three of the five prescriptions were implemented with a mechanical harvesting system. The system...

  9. Ten-Year Growth of Five Planted Hardwood Species Mechanical Weed Control on Sharkey Clay Soil

    Roger M. Krinard; Harvey E. Kennedy


    Five hardwood species planted on Sharkey clay soil showed little practical difference in growth whether plots were mowed or diskedfor weed control in years 6 to 10, although disking had given better growth in the first 5 years. After 10 years, cottonwood (Populus deltoides Bartr. ex Marsh.) stem volume was at least three times greater than other species. Changes in...

  10. Effects of Pine and Hardwood Basal Areas After Uneven-Aged Silvicultural Treatments on Wildlife Habitat

    Darren A. Miller; Bruce D. Leopold; L. Mike Conner; Michael G. Shelton


    Uneven-aged management (UEAM) is becoming increasingly popular in the southeastern United States. However, effects of UEAM on wildlife habitat have not been adequately documented. We examined response of habitat within stands of varying levels of pine and hardwood basal area under an uneven-aged managegement regime in southern Mississippi. Summer and winter trends in...

  11. In vitro propagation of tropical hardwood tree species — A review (2001-2011)

    Paula M. Pijut; Rochelle R. Beasley; Shaneka S. Lawson; Kaitlin J. Palla; Micah E. Stevens; Ying. Wang


    Tropical hardwood tree species are important economically and ecologically, and play a significant role in the biodiversity of plant and animal species within an ecosystem. There are over 600 species of tropical timbers in the world, many of which are commercially valuable in the international trade of plywood, roundwood, sawnwood, and veneer. Many of these tree...

  12. Crystalliferous Bacillus cereus group bacteria from a Maryland hardwood forest are dominated by psychrotolerant strains

    Crystal forming Bacillus spp. were isolated from soil samples collected at different elevations within a mixed hardwood forest in central Maryland, and their phylogenetic relationships determined by multilocus sequence analysis. The vast majority of isolates obtained were associated with two phylog...

  13. Relationships between growth, quality, and stocking within managed old-growth northern hardwoods

    Chris Gronewold; Anthony W. D' Amato; Brian J. Palik


    An understanding of long-term growth dynamics is central to the development of sustainable uneven-aged silvicultural systems for northern hardwood forests in eastern North America. Of particular importance are quantitative assessments of the relationships between stocking control and long-term growth and quality development. This study examined these relationships in a...

  14. Effects of edge contrast on redback salamander distribution in even-aged northern hardwoods

    Richard M. DeGraaf; Mariko. Yamasaki


    Terrestrial salamanders are sensitive to forest disturbance associated with even-aged management. We studied the distribution of redback salamanders (Plethodon cinereus) for 4 yr at edges between even-aged northern hardwood stands along three replicate transects in each of three edge contrast types: regeneration/mature, sapling/mature, and...

  15. Effect of Hardwood Sawmill Edging and Trimming Practices on Furniture Part Production

    D. Earl Kline; Carmen Regalado; Eugene M. Wengert; Fred M. Lamb; Philip A. Araman


    In a recent edging and trimming study at three hardwood sawmills, it was observed that the lumber volume produced was approximately 10 percent less than would be necessary to make the most valuable lumber. Furthermore, the excess portion of wood that was removed from the edging and trimming process contained a large percentage of clear wood. In light of rising costs...

  16. Control and management of eastern baccharis in a recently established bottomland hardwood plantation

    Benton Gann; Lynne Thompson; Jamie L. Schuler


    Eastern baccharis (Baccharis halimifolia L.) is a frequent invader in bottomland hardwood plantations established in southeastern Arkansas. This dioecious shrub can affect the survival and growth of newly planted stems. This study evaluated the utility of various herbicides and mechanical control treatments to manage eastern baccharis in an...


    Md. Saiful Islam; Sinin Hamdan; Mohamad Rusop; Md. Rezaur Rahman; Abu Saleh Ahmed; M. A. M. Mohd Idrus


    Chemical modification is an often-followed route to improve physical and mechanical properties of solid wood materials. In this study five kinds of tropical light hardwoods species, namely jelutong (Dyera costulata), terbulan (Endospermum diadenum), batai (Paraserianthes moluccana), rubberwood (Hevea brasiliensis), and pulai (Alstonia pneumatophora), were chemically modified with benzene diazonium salt to improve their dimensional stability and water repellent efficiency. The dimensional stab...

  18. Recent Developments in US Hardwood Lumber Markets and Linkages to Housing Construction

    Urs Buehlmann; Matthew Bumgardner; Delton Alderman


    Purpose of Review. The housing industry has long provided important markets for the higher-value hardwood lumber used in fixtures such as cabinets, flooring, and millwork. These markets have become even more important in the face of the decline in furniture manufacture in the USA. The importance of housing and other construction markets to the US...

  19. Biology and Management of Insect Pests in North American Intensively Managed Hardwood Forest Systems

    David R. Coyle; T. Evan Nebeker; Elwood R. Hart; William J. Mattson


    Increasing demand for wood and wood products is putting stress on traditional forest production areas, leading to long-term economic and environmental concerns. Intensively managed hardwood forest systems (IMHFS), grown using conventional agricultural as well as forestry methods, can help alleviate potential problems in natural forest production areas. Although IMHFS...

  20. Influence of Product and Supplier Attributes on Hardwood Lumber Purchase Decisions

    Craig L. Forbes; Steven A. Sinclair; Robert J. Bush; Philip A. Araman


    This study determined the influence of product and supplier attributes on hardwood lumber purchases by wood furniture manufacturers and investigated differences across manufacturer type, geographic region, firm size, and kiln ownership. Professional lumber buyers rated the importance and difference across suppliers of various attributes. Purchase influence scores were...

  1. Influence of stand density on stem quality in pole-size northern hardwoods.

    Richard M. Godman; David J. Books


    Relates the type and frequency of limbs and limb-related defects in the first two logs of five hardwood species to residual basal area 15 years after initial cutting. Also discusses other tree characteristics influenced by stand density and the applicability of present silvicultural guides to improve stem quality.

  2. Revealing the Molecular Structural Transformation of Hardwood and Softwood in Dilute Acid Flowthrough Pretreatment

    Zhang, Libing; Pu, Yunqiao; Cort, John R.; Ragauskas, Arthur J.; Yang, Bin


    To better understand the intrinsic recalcitrance of lignocellulosic biomass, the main hurdle to its efficient deconstruction, the effects of dilute acid flowthrough pretreatment on the dissolution chemistry of hemicellulose, cellulose, and lignin for both hardwood (e.g. poplar wood) and softwood (e.g. lodgepole pine wood) were investigated at temperatures of 200 °C to 270 °C and a flow rate of 25 mL/minute with 0.05% (w/w) H2SO4. Results suggested that the softwood cellulose was more readily to be degraded into monomeric sugars than that of hardwood under same pretreatment conditions. However, while the hardwood lignin was completely removed into hydrolysate, ~30% of the softwood lignin remained as solid residues under identical conditions, which was plausibly caused by vigorous C5-active recondensation reactions (C-C5). Unique molecular structural features that pronounced the specific recalcitrance of hardwood and softwood to dilute acid pretreatment were identified for the first time in this study, providing important insights to establish the effective biomass pretreatment.

  3. Hardwood supply chain and the role of log brokers in 2012

    Iris Montague; Adrienn Andersch; Jan Wiedenbeck; Urs. Buehlmann


    The recent economic crisis has greatly affected how companies conduct business. To be competitive, companies had to make changes to their product lines, distribution channels, marketing, and overall business strategies. This study was conducted to describe and analyze the log supply component of the hardwood forest products distribution chain and to investigate changes...

  4. Modeling Factors that Influence Firm Performance in the Eastern Hardwood Lumber Manufacturing Industry

    Perkins, Brian


    This research investigated the relationship between several firm-controlled, marketing and management factors and firm performance. Hypotheses describing the relationship between the strategic, geographic, tactical, technological and organizational factors and firm performance of hardwood lumber manufacturers were tested. These factors were operationalized, measured in a mail survey and used in statistical analysis to identify relationships among the variables. An adjusted response rate of...

  5. Establishment and growth of native hardwood and conifer seedlings underplanted in thinned Douglas-fir stands.

    Kathleen G. Maas-Hebner; William H. Emmingham; David L. Larson; Samuel S. Chan


    Five conifers and two hardwoods native to the Pacific Northwest were planted under four overstory densities of 30-year-old plantations of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) in the Oregon Coast Range, USA. Stand treatments were unthinned (547 trees ha-1), narrow thin (252 trees ha-1),...

  6. Nine-year response of hardwood understory to organic matter removal and soil compaction

    Felix Ponder


    The effects of three levels of organic matter removal (OMR) and three levels of soil compaction (SC) on the development of understory vegetation in a central hardwood forest were evaluated 9 years after treatments were applied as part of a national program of long-term soil productivity research. The three levels of biomass removal (OMR) were removal of merchantable...

  7. Surface fire effects on conifer and hardwood crowns--applications of an integral plume model

    Matthew Dickinson; Anthony Bova; Kathleen Kavanagh; Antoine Randolph; Lawrence Band


    An integral plume model was applied to the problems of tree death from canopy injury in dormant-season hardwoods and branch embolism in Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) crowns. Our purpose was to generate testable hypotheses. We used the integral plume models to relate crown injury to bole injury and to explore the effects of variation in fire...

  8. Harvesting costs and environmental impacts associated with skyline yarding shelterwood harvests and thinning in Appalachian hardwoods

    J. E. Baumgras; C. B. LeDoux; J. R. Sherar


    To evaluate the potential for moderating the visual impact and soil disturbance associated with timber harvesting on steep-slope hardwood sites, thinning and shelterwood harvests were conducted with a skyline yarding system. Operations were monitored to document harvesting production, residual stand damage, soil disturbance, and visual quality. Yarding costs for...

  9. Effects of fire and thinning on oak and other hardwood species regeneration in mixed oak forests of southeastern Ohio

    Brian C. McCarthy; Matthew A. Albrecht


    We conducted a study of hardwood regeneration in the mixed oak forests of unglaciated southeastern Ohio following various silvicultural practices. Our study was conducted at three separate forests within the region.


    Past clearing and harvesting of the deciduous hardwood forests of eastern USA released large amount of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere, but through recovery and regrowth these forests are now accumulating atmospheric carbon (C). This study examined quantities and distribution ...


    Omar Espinoza


    Full Text Available The U.S. hardwood sawmilling industry has experienced significant changes over the past decade. A slowing housing industry, competition from imported products, higher transportation costs, and high stumpage prices have changed the business of manufacturing and marketing hardwood lumber. Also, hardwood lumber buyers are changing their business practices by shortening lead times, requiring a more customized product, and buying smaller lumber quantities to cut costs and increase operational flexibility. A survey of hardwood lumber manufacturers was conducted in the fall of 2009 to assess changes and adaptations within the industry. Among respondents, average hardwood lumber sales decreased by 13.2 percent during the study's focus period from 2004 to 2008. Respondents also identified a change in customer demand with smaller, more frequent orders becoming more common. Moreover, the species mix shifted, with red oak losing considerable market share. Intermediaries, such as hardwood lumber distributors, were able to capture more of the industry's business. Respondents identified the slowing housing market and high energy costs as major factors affecting their businesses. While the survey's responses reflected the extremely challenging economic conditions, industry participants are aggressively adapting their businesses and pursuing new opportunities with the understanding that markets will eventually recover.


    Douyong Min,


    Full Text Available Red maple, sweet gum, trembling aspen, red alder, and Eucalyptus globulus samples were pretreated with dilute sulfuric acid and green liquor before enzymatic saccharification. Substrates showed different levels of delignification and sugar recovery, depending on the applied pretreatments and the syringaldehyde/vanillin ratio (S/V. Three major conclusions were drawn in this research. First, lignin is the greatest contributor to recalcitrance of hardwood to enzymatic saccharification. Second, a high S/V ratio is a useful indicator of high delignification during a pretreatment process. Third, green liquor pretreatment is a promising pretreatment method because of a high delignification degree and sugar recovery. In addition, xylan also contributes to the recalcitrance of hardwoods toward enzymatic saccharification.

  13. Selective depredation of planted hardwood seedlings by wild pigs in a wetland restoration area

    Mayer, J.J.


    Following the planting of several thousand hardwood seedlings in a 69-ha wetland restoration area in west-central South Carolina, wild pigs (Sus scrofa) depredated a large percentage of the young trees. This planting was undertaken as part of a mitigation effort to restore a bottomland hardwood community in the corridor and delta of a third order stream that had been previously impacted by the discharge of heated nuclear reactor effluent. The depredated restoration areas had been pretreated with both herbicide and control burning prior to planting the hardwood seedlings. After discovery of the wild pig damage, these areas were surveyed on foot to assess the magnitude of the depredation on the planted seedling crop. Foraging by the local wild pigs in the pretreatment areas selectively impacted only four of the nine hardwood species used in this restoration effort. Based on the surveys, the remaining five species did not appear to have been impacted at all. A variety of reasons could be used to explain this phenomenon. The pretreatment methodology is thought to have been the primary aspect of the restoration program that initially led the wild pigs to discover the planted seedlings. In addition, it is possible that a combination of other factors associated with odor and taste may have resulted in the selective depredation. Future wetland restoration efforts in areas with wild pigs should consider pretreatment methods and species to be planted. If pretreatment methods and species such as discussed in the present study must be used, then the prior removal of wild pigs from surrounding lands will help prevent depredations by this non-native species.

  14. Modeling the relationships among internal defect features and external Appalachian hardwood log defect indicators

    R. Edward. Thomas


    As a hardwood tree grows and develops, surface defects such as branch stubs and wounds are overgrown. Evidence of these defects remain on the log surface for decades and in many instances for the life of the tree. As the tree grows the defect is encapsulated or grown over by new wood. During this process the appearance of the defect in the tree's bark changes. The...

  15. Equations for predicting internal log defect measurements of common Appalachian hardwoods

    Ed Thomas


    As a hardwood tree develops, surface defects such as wounds and branch stubs are overgrown or encapsulated into the tree. Evidence of such a defect remains present on the tree for decades, or for the life of the tree, in the form of bumps and changes in bark pattern. During this process, the appearance of the defect on the tree changes. The defect becomes flatter, the...

  16. Site quality in Appalachian hardwoods: the biological and economic response under selection silviculture

    Orris D. McCauley; George R., Jr. Trimble


    The relative or percentage value response after 12 years of selective cutting practices on low- and high-quality sites in Appalachian hardwoods amounted to a 119-percent increase on the low-quality site and 145 percent on the high-quality site. The absolute value or actual dollar response, on the other hand, showed that the low-quality site increased in value only $76/...

  17. Where do the logs go after harvest? A look at the role of hardwood exports

    Matt. Bumgardner


    If you have recently harvested timber, a question you might have is, "Where did the logs go after they left my woodland?" Most likely, they were processed somewhere in the United States. Just over 2.3% of the total hardwood log volume harvested in the U.S. was exported in 2014, the latest year for which data are available. Considering only the higher value...

  18. Strip thinning young hardwood forests: multi-functional management for wood, wildlife, and bioenergy

    Jamie Schuler; Ashlee Martin


    Upland hardwood forests dominate the Appalachian landscape. However, early successional forests are limited. In WV and PA, for example, only 8 percent of the timberland is classified as seedling and sapling-sized. Typically no management occurs in these forests due to the high cost of treatment and the lack of marketable products. If bioenergy markets come to fruition...

  19. Biodegradation of hardwood lignocellulosics by the western poplar clearwing borer, Paranthrene robiniae (Hy. Edwards).

    Ke, Jing; Laskar, Dhrubojyoti Dey; Chen, Shulin


    Lignin in plant cell wall is a source of useful chemicals and also the major barrier for saccharification of lignocellulosic biomass for producing biofuel and bioproducts. Enzymatic lignin degradation/modification process could bypass the need for chemical pretreatment and thereby facilitate bioprocess consolidation. Herein, we reveal our new discovery in elucidating the process of hardwood lignin modification/degradation by clearwing borer, Paranthrene robiniae . The wood-boring clearwing borer, P. robiniae , effectively tunnels hardwood structures during the larval stage; its digestion products from wood components, however, has not yet been investigated. A series of analysis conducted in this study on tunnel walls and frass produced provided evidence of structural alterations and lignin degradation during such hardwood digestion process. The analysis included solid state (13)C cross-polarization magic angle spinning (CP/MAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR), pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS), and thermogravimetric (TG) analysis; the results strongly suggest that the structural alteration of lignin primarily involved a preferential degradation of syringyl units accompanied by oxidation on the side chains of lignin guaiacyl moieties. This study also further indicated that unlike the wood-feeding termite the clearwing borer does not target cellulose as an energy source, and thus its lignin degradation ability should provide potential information on how to disassemble and utilize hardwood lignin. Overall, this biological model with an efficient lignin disruption system will provide the new insight into novel enzyme system required for effective plant cell wall disintegration for enhanced cellulose accessibility by enzymes and production of value-added lignin derived products.

  20. Nocturnal insect availability in bottomland hardwood forests managed for wildlife in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley

    Loraine Ketzler,; Christopher Comer,; Twedt, Daniel J.


    Silviculture used to alter forest structure and thereby enhance wildlife habitat has been advocated for bottomland hardwood forest management on public conservation lands in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley. Although some songbirds respond positively to these management actions to attain desired forest conditions for wildlife, the response of other species, is largely unknown. Nocturnal insects are a primary prey base for bats, thereby influencing trophic interactions within hardwood forests. To better understand how silviculture influences insect availability for bats, we conducted vegetation surveys and sampled insect biomass within silviculturally treated bottomland hardwood forest stands. We used passive blacklight traps to capture nocturnal flying insects in 64 treated and 64 untreated reference stands, located on 15 public conservation areas in Arkansas, Louisiana, and Mississippi. Dead wood and silvicultural treatments were positively associated with greater biomass of macro-Lepidoptera, macro-Coleoptera, and all insect taxa combined. Biomass of micro-Lepidoptera was negatively associated with silvicultural treatment but comprised only a small proportion of total biomass. Understanding the response of nocturnal insects to wildlife-forestry silviculture provides insight for prescribed silvicultural management affecting bat species.

  1. Impact of lignin and carbohydrate chemical structures on degradation reactions during hardwood kraft pulping processes

    Ricardo B. Santos


    Full Text Available Most studies aimed at determining rates of hardwood delignification and carbohydrate degradation have focused on understanding the behavior of a single wood species. Such studies tend to determine either the delignification rate or the rate of carbohydrate degradation without examining the potential interactions resulting from related variables. The current study provides a comprehensive evaluation on both lignin and carbohydrate degradation during kraft pulping of multiple hardwood species. The kraft delignification rates of E. urograndis, E. nitens, E. globulus, sweet gum, maple, red oak, red alder, cottonwood, and acacia were obtained. Furthermore, the kinetics of glucan, xylan, and total carbohydrate dissolution during the bulk phase of the kraft pulping process for the above species were also investigated. The wide ranges of delignification and carbohydrate degradation rates were correlated to wood chemical characteristics. It appears that the S/G ratio and lignin-carbohydrate-complexes (LCCs are the main characteristics responsible for the differences in kraft pulping performance among the hardwoods studied.

  2. Changes in faunal and vegetation communities along a soil calcium gradient in northern hardwood forests

    Beier, Colin M.; Woods, Anne M.; Hotopp, Kenneth P.; Gibbs, James P.; Mitchell, Myron J.; Dovciak, Martin; Leopold, Donald J.; Lawrence, Gregory B.; Page, Blair D.


    Depletion of Ca from forest soils due to acidic deposition has had potentially pervasive effects on forest communities, but these impacts remain largely unknown. Because snails, salamanders, and plants play essential roles in the Ca cycle of northern hardwood forests, we hypothesized that their community diversity, abundance, and structure would vary with differences in biotic Ca availability. To test this hypothesis, we sampled 12 upland hardwood forests representing a soil Ca gradient in the Adirondack Mountains, New York (USA), where chronic deposition has resulted in acidified soils but where areas of well-buffered soils remain Ca rich due to parent materials. Along the gradient of increasing soil [Ca2+], we observed increasing trends in snail community richness and abundance, live biomass of redback salamanders (Plethodon cinereus (Green, 1818)), and canopy tree basal area. Salamander communities were dominated by mountain dusky salamanders (Desmognathus ochrophaeus Cope, 1859) at Ca-poor sites and changed continuously along the Ca gradient to become dominated by redback salamanders at the Ca-rich sites. Several known calciphilic species of snails and plants were found only at the highest-Ca sites. Our results indicated that Ca availability, which is shaped by geology and acidic deposition inputs, influences northern hardwood forest ecosystems at multiple trophic levels, although the underlying mechanisms require further study.

  3. Mapping hardwood mortality for the early detection of P. ramorum: an assessment of aerial surveys and object-oriented image analysis

    Erik Haunreiter; Zhanfeng Liu; Jeff Mai; Zachary Heath; Lisa Fischer


    Effective monitoring and identification of areas of hardwood mortality is a critical component in the management of sudden oak death (SOD). From 2001 to 2005, aerial surveys covering 13.5 million acres in California were conducted to map and monitor hardwood mortality for the early detection of Phytophthora ramorum, the pathogen responsible for SOD....

  4. Introduction to natural disturbances and historic range of variation: type, frequency, severity, and post-disturbance structure in central hardwood forests

    Katie Greenberg; Beverly S. Collins; Henry McNab; Douglas K. Miller; Gary R. Wein


    EXCERPT FROM: Natural Disturbances and Historic Range Variation 2015. Throughout the history of upland hardwood forests of the Central Hardwood Region, natural disturbances have been integral to shaping forest structure and composition, and essential in maintaining diverse biotic...

  5. Yield and utilization of hardwood fiber grown on short rotations. [Platanus occidentalis, Liquidambar styraciflua, Liriodendron tulipifera

    Steinbeck, K.; Brown, C.L.


    Plantations of broad-leaved tree species harvested in cycles of less than 10 years can help meet man's increasing cellulose and energy needs. A system of growing hardwoods like an agricultural row crop, harvested with equipment equivalent to corn silage cutters and using the ensuing sprout growth as the next crop, was conceived by foresters in Georgia in 1965. Research has focused on the tree species, sites, and cultural practices suited for this concept as well as the biomass yields and the utility of the fiber that was produced. About 70 hectares of American sycamore (Platanus occidentalis L.), sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.), and yellow poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera L.) test plantings have been established in the Piedmont and Coastal Plain regions of Georgia. These species, when given proper care, can be grown successfully on many sites previously deemed unsuitable for hardwood growth. Stumps will resprout throughout the year, ensuring a continuous flow of raw material to the user. The biomass yields from hardwood fields vary with species, site, cultural practices, and rotation age. Fresh weight yields of unfoliated sycamore sprouts grown on an upland site varied from 14.3 tons/ha/yr when harvested annually to 21.8 tons/ha/yr with harvest at age four. When sprouts were harvested every two years, 46 kg/ha/2 yrs of nitrogen, 35 kg calcium, 22 kg potassium, and 6 kg phosphorus were removed in the harvested material. Juvenile American sycamore stump sprouts have been successfully converted into corrugating medium, particleboard, fiberboard, hardboard, and newsprint. It can be cooked by the Kraft and NSSC processes. One-, two-, and four-year-old sycamore sprouts presented no unusual problems in the Kraft process, and yields ranged from 45 to 57 percent with an average yield of 52 percent. Cooking times were relatively short.

  6. Foraging behavior of three passerines in mature bottomland hardwood forests during summer.

    Buffington, J., Matthew; Kilgo, John, C.; Sargent, Robert, A.; Miller, Karl, V.; Chapman, Brian, R.


    Attention has focused on forest management practices and the interactions between birds and their habitat, as a result of apparent declines in populations of many forest birds. Although avian diversity and abundance have been studied in various forest habitats, avian foraging behavior is less well known. Although there are published descriptions of avian foraging behaviors in the western United States descriptions from the southeastern United States are less common. This article reports on the foraging behavior of the White-eyed Vireo, Northern Parula, and Hooded Warbler in mature bottomland hardwood forests in South Carolina.

  7. Results of a workshop concerning assessment of the functions of bottomland hardwoods

    Roelle, James E.; Auble, Gregor T.; Hamilton, David B.; Johnson, Richard L.; Segelquist, Charles A.


    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is authorized under Section 404 of the Clean Water Act (33 U.S.C. 1344) to participate in the regulation of the discharge of dredged or fill material into waters of the United States. This regulatory authority is exercised in partnership with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, which has responsibility for permit issuance, and in consultation with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and the National Marine Fisheries Service. Through amendments to the original statute, a series of legal actions and court decisions, and the development of operating guidance among the responsible agencies, Section 404 has evolved into the primary mechanism afforded Federal authorities for the protection of wetlands. EPA recognizes the importance of wetlands in achieving the goals of the Clean Water Act, which are to protect and maintain the chemical, physical, and biological integrity of the Nation’s waters. EPA Administrator Lee Thomas has identified wetlands protection as among the highest of Agency priorities. EPA recognizes that bottomland hardwood (BLH) wetlands have vital and unique attributes that, if lost, would severely impact the physical, chemical, and biological integrity of the Nation's waters. As part of a broad program to better protect the Nation's wetlands, EPA has therefore identified bottomland hardwood wetlands as a priority resource requiring special attention on a national basis.

  8. Biology and management of insect pests in North American intensively managed hardwood forest systems.

    Coyle, David R.; Nebeker, T., E.; Hart, E., R.; Mattson, W., J.


    Annu. Rev. Entomol. 50:1-29. Abstract Increasing demand for wood and wood products is putting stress on traditional forest production areas, leading to long-term economic and environmental concerns. Intensively managed hardwood forest systems (IMHFS), grown using conventional agricultural as well as forestry methods, can help alleviate potential problems in natural forest production areas. Although IMHFS can produce more biomass per hectare per year than natural forests, the ecologically simplified, monocultural systems may greatly increase the crops susceptibility to pests. Species in the genera Populus and Salix comprise the greatest acreage in IMHFS in North America, but other species, including Liquidambar styracifua and Platanus occidentalis, are also important. We discuss life histories, realized and potential damage, and management options for the most economically infuential pests that affect these hardwood species. The substantial inherent challenges associated with pest management in the monocultural environments created by IMHFS are reviewed. Finally, we discuss ways to design IMHFS that may reduce their susceptibility to pests, increase their growth and productivity potential, and create a more sustainable environment.

  9. Winter climate change affects growing-season soil microbial biomass and activity in northern hardwood forests.

    Durán, Jorge; Morse, Jennifer L; Groffman, Peter M; Campbell, John L; Christenson, Lynn M; Driscoll, Charles T; Fahey, Timothy J; Fisk, Melany C; Mitchell, Myron J; Templer, Pamela H


    Understanding the responses of terrestrial ecosystems to global change remains a major challenge of ecological research. We exploited a natural elevation gradient in a northern hardwood forest to determine how reductions in snow accumulation, expected with climate change, directly affect dynamics of soil winter frost, and indirectly soil microbial biomass and activity during the growing season. Soils from lower elevation plots, which accumulated less snow and experienced more soil temperature variability during the winter (and likely more freeze/thaw events), had less extractable inorganic nitrogen (N), lower rates of microbial N production via potential net N mineralization and nitrification, and higher potential microbial respiration during the growing season. Potential nitrate production rates during the growing season were particularly sensitive to changes in winter snow pack accumulation and winter soil temperature variability, especially in spring. Effects of elevation and winter conditions on N transformation rates differed from those on potential microbial respiration, suggesting that N-related processes might respond differently to winter climate change in northern hardwood forests than C-related processes.

  10. Inhibition effects on fermentation of hardwood extracted hemicelluloses by acetic acid and sodium.

    Walton, Sara; van Heiningen, Adriaan; van Walsum, Peter


    Extraction of hemicellulose from hardwood chips prior to pulping is a possible method for producing ethanol and acetic acid in an integrated forest bio-refinery, adding value to wood components normally relegated to boiler fuel. Hemicellulose was extracted from hardwood chips using green liquor, a pulping liquor intermediate consisting of aqueous NaOH, Na(2)CO(3), and Na(2)S, at 160 degrees C, held for 110 min in a 20 L rocking digester. The extracted liquor contained 3.7% solids and had a pH of 5.6. The organic content of the extracts was mainly xylo-oligosaccharides and acetic acid. Because it was dilute, the hemicellulose extract was concentrated by evaporation in a thin film evaporator. Concentrates from the evaporator reached levels of up to 10% solids. Inhibitors such as acetic acid and sodium were also concentrated by this method, presenting a challenge for the fermentation organisms. Fermentation experiments were conducted with Escherichia coli K011. The un-concentrated extract supported approximately 70% conversion of the initial sugars in 14 h. An extract evaporated down to 6% solids was also fermentable while a 10% solids extract was not initially fermentable. Strain conditioning was later found to enable fermentation at this level of concentration. Alternative processing schemes or inhibitor removal prior to fermentation are necessary to produce ethanol economically.

  11. Arboriculture for quality timber production with hardwood: results after 20 years from planting

    Barreca L


    Full Text Available In the last decades, production forestry plantations has been developed using typical forest tree species, or species of agricultural interest, such as walnut and cherry. The use of these species in a context different than the traditional one put a number of problems not easy to solve. The present study has considered some timber-quality plantations of hardwoods species (Acer pseudoplatanus L., Prunus avium L., Fraxinus excelsior L., Juglans regia L. established on the Serre Catanzaresi (VV, with the aim of assessing the achievements obtained both in quantitative (growth and qualitative (shape of the stems, degree of branching terms. The results of the analyses carried out revealed that the studied plantations are an interesting example of possibilities and limits of cultivation of commonly used hardwoods in relation to the practices adopted. The observed differences are mainly related to the different species used. Some of them (sycamore and wild cherry guaranteed satisfactory results, others (ash and walnut showed severe limitations, due to the poor quality of planting material, the incompatibility between the species needs and site characteristics, or because these species usually constitute mixed populations.

  12. Forecasting Forest Type and Age Classes in the Appalachian-Cumberland Subregion of the Central Hardwood Region

    David N. Wear; Robert Huggett


    This chapter describes how forest type and age distributions might be expected to change in the Appalachian-Cumberland portions of the Central Hardwood Region over the next 50 years. Forecasting forest conditions requires accounting for a number of biophysical and socioeconomic dynamics within an internally consistent modeling framework. We used the US Forest...

  13. Pre-treatment assemblages of wood-boring beetles (Coleoptera: Buprestidae, Cerambycidae) of the hardwood ecosystem experiment

    Jeffrey D. Holland; John T. Shukle; Hossam Eldien M. Abdel Moniem; Thomas W. Mager; Kapil R. Raje; Kyle Schnepp; Shulin. Yang


    Longhorned beetles are a diverse and important group of insects in forest ecosystems; several species attack weakened or stressed trees, relatively few attack healthy trees, and most species use only dead and decomposing wood. We surveyed longhorned beetles and metallic wood-boring beetles using four different types of traps at 36 Hardwood Ecosystem Experiment (Indiana...

  14. Mapping hardwood forests through a two-stage unsupervised classification by integrating Landsat Thematic Mapper and forest inventory data

    Shao, Gang; Pauli, Benjamin P.; Haulton, G. Scott; Zollner, Patrick A.; Shao, Guofan


    Sound forest management requires accurate forest maps at an appropriate scale. Forest cover data developed at a national scale may be too coarse for forest management at a local level. We demonstrated a two-stage unsupervised classification, integrating Continuous Forest Inventory (CFI) data and Landsat imageries, to classify forest types for Indiana State Forests (ISF) and 8-km surrounding areas. In the first stage, an automatic unsupervised classification assisted by CFI data was applied in ISF. In the second stage, the resultant forest cover information from the first stage was used to expand the classification area into the 8-km surrounding areas. Splitting the classification procedure into two stages made it possible to expand the classification area beyond the coverage of the CFI data. This data-aided unsupervised classification approach increased the repeatability of forest mapping. The resultant map contains five forest types: conifer, conifer-hardwood, maple, mixed hardwood, and oak-hickory forests. The overall accuracy was 81.9%, and the total disagreement was 0.176. The accuracies of conifer, conifer-hardwood, maple, mixed hardwood, and oak-hickory forests were 81.6, 63.4, 75.0, 33.3, and 90%, respectively. This forest mapping technique is suitable for automated mapping of forest areas where extensive plot data are available.

  15. Effect of liquid hot water pretreatment severity on properties of hardwood lignin and enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose.

    Ko, Ja Kyong; Kim, Youngmi; Ximenes, Eduardo; Ladisch, Michael R


    Lignin, one of the major components of lignocellulosic biomass, plays an inhibitory role on the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose. This work examines the role of lignin in pretreated hardwood, where extents of cellulose hydrolysis decrease, rather than increase with increasing severity of liquid hot water pretreatment. Hardwood pretreated with liquid hot water at severities ranging from log Ro  = 8.25 to 12.51 resulted in 80-90% recovery of the initial lignin in the residual solids. The ratio of acid insoluble lignin (AIL) to acid soluble lignin (ASL) increased and the formation of spherical lignin droplets on the cell wall surface was observed as previously reported in the literature. When lignins were isolated from hardwoods pretreated at increasing severities and characterized based on glass transition temperature (Tg ), the Tg of isolated lignins was found to increase from 171 to 180°C as the severity increased from log Ro  = 10.44 to 12.51. The increase in Tg suggested that the condensation reactions of lignin molecules occurred during pretreatment and altered the lignin structure. The contribution of the changes in lignin properties to enzymatic hydrolysis were examined by carrying out Avicel hydrolysis in the presence of isolated lignins. Lignins derived from more severely pretreated hardwoods had higher Tg values and showed more pronounced inhibition of enzymatic hydrolysis. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Using short-rotation, intensively managed hardwood plantations as ‘green’ inventory for southeastern U.S

    Tom Gallagher; Bob Shaffer; Bob Rummer


    As a routine wood source for a pulp mill, recent studies have shown that intensively managed, short-rotation hardwood plantations are not cost effective. The objective of this study was to determine if these plantations may be cost effective as "green" inventory, replacing some portion of high cost remote woodyard inventory. Three southeastern U.S. pulp mills...

  17. Comparison of estimates of hardwood bole volume using importance sampling, the centroid method, and some taper equations

    Harry V., Jr. Wiant; Michael L. Spangler; John E. Baumgras


    Various taper systems and the centroid method were compared to unbiased volume estimates made by importance sampling for 720 hardwood trees selected throughout the state of West Virginia. Only the centroid method consistently gave volumes estimates that did not differ significantly from those made by importance sampling, although some taper equations did well for most...

  18. Fuel reduction treatments affect stand structure of hardwood forests in Western North Carolina and Southern Ohio, USA

    Thomas A. Waldrop; Daniel A. Yaussy; Ross J. Phillips; Todd A. Hutchinson; Lucy Brudnak; Ralph E.J. Boerner


    Prescribed fire and mechanical treatments were tested at the two hardwood sites of the National Fire and Fire Surrogate Study (southern and central Appalachian regions) for impacts to stand structure. After two fires and one mechanical treatment, no treatment or treatment combination restored stand structure to historical levels. Burning alone had little impact on...

  19. Gate-to-Gate Life-Cycle Inventory on Hardwood Sawmills in the Northeastern Region of the United States

    Richard D. Bergman


    Using sustainable building materials is gaining a significant presence in the United States therefore proving sustainability claims are becoming increasingly more important. Certifying wood products as green building materials is vital for the long-term productivity of the wood building industry and for forest management. This study examined hardwood lumber...

  20. Differential sensitivity to climate change of C and N cycling processes across soil horizons in a northern hardwood forest

    Jorge Durán; Jennifer L. Morse; Alexandra Rodríguez; John L. Campbell; Lynn M. Christenson; Charles T. Driscoll; Timothy J. Fahey; Melany C. Fisk; Myron J. Mitchell; Pamela H. Templer; Peter M. Groffman


    Climate of the northern hardwood forests of North America will become significantly warmer in the coming decades. Associated increases in soil temperature, decreases in water availability and changes in winter snow pack and soil frost are likely to affect soil carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycling. Most studies of the effects of climate change on soil function have...

  1. Extraction and estimation of the quantity of calcium oxalate crystals in the foliage of conifer and hardwood trees

    Rakesh Minocha; Bradley Chamberlain; Stephanie Long; Swathi A. Turlapati; Gloria. Quigley


    The main goal of this study was to develop a method for the extraction and indirect estimation of the quantity of calcium oxalate (CaOx) in the foliage of trees. Foliar tissue was collected from a single tree of each species (five conifers and five hardwoods) for comparison of extractions in different solvents using 10 replicates per species from the same pool of...

  2. Harvest-related edge effects on prey availability and foraging of hooded warblers in a bottomland hardwood forest

    John C. Kilgo


    The effects of harvest-created canopy gaps in bottomland hardwood forests on arthropod abundance and, hence, the foraging ecology of birds are poorly understood. I predicted that arthropod abundance would be high near edges of group-selection harvest gaps and lower in the surrounding forest, and that male Hooded Warblers (Wilsonia citrina) foraging...

  3. Mapping upland hardwood site quality and productivity with GIS and FIA in the Blue Ridge of North Carolina

    Claudia A. Cotton; Stephen R. Prisley; Thomas R. Fox


    The forested ecosystems of the southern Appalachians are some of the most diverse in North America due to the variability in climate, soils, and geologic parent material coupled with the complex topography found throughout the region. These same characteristics cause stands of upland hardwoods to be extremely variable with regard to site quality and productivity. Site...

  4. Evaluation of sampling methods to quantify abundance of hardwoods and snags within conifer-dominated riparian zones

    Theresa Marquardt; Hailemariam Temesgen; Paul D. Anderson; Bianca. Eskelson


    Six sampling alternatives were examined for their ability to quantify selected attributes of snags and hardwoods in conifer-dominated riparian areas of managed headwater forests in western Oregon. Each alternative was simulated 500 times at eight headwater forest locations based on a 0.52-ha square stem map. The alternatives were evaluated based on how well they...

  5. 75 FR 1587 - Medford-Park Falls Ranger District, Chequamegon-Nicolet National Forest, Park Falls Hardwoods...


    ... Forest Service Medford-Park Falls Ranger District, Chequamegon-Nicolet National Forest, Park Falls... Statement. SUMMARY: The USDA Forest Service, Chequamegon-Nicolet National Forest, Medford-Park Falls Ranger... within the Park Falls Hardwoods project area. The primary purpose of this proposal is to...

  6. Assessment of the role of bottomland hardwoods in sediment and erosion control

    Molinas, A.; Auble, Gregor T.; Segelquist, C.A.; Ischinger, Lee S.


    Drainage and clearing of bottomland hardwoods have long been recognized by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service) as important impacts of Federal water projects in the lower Mississippi River Valley. More recently, the water quality impacts of such projects (e.g., increases in sediments, nutrients, and pesticides) have also become of concern. In 1984, in an effort to better define problems concerning wetland losses and water degradation, EPA initiated a cooperative project with the Western Energy and Land Use Team (now the National Ecology Research Center) of the Service. Three phases of the project were identified: 1. To collect existing literature and data; 2. To select, develop, and test the utility of methods to quantify the relationships between land use, cover types, soils, hydrology, and water quality (as represented by sediment); and 3. To apply selected methodologies to several sites within the Yazoo Basin of Mississippi to determine the, potential effectiveness of various management alternatives to reduce sediment yield, increase sediment deposition, and improve water quality. Methods development focused on linking a simulation of water and sediment movement to a computerized geographic information system. We had several objectives for the resulting model. We desired that it should: 1. Estimate the importance of bottomland and hardwoods as a cover type that performs the functions of erosion and sediment control, 2. Simulate effects of proportions of ' various cover types and their specific spatial configurations, 3. Be applicable to moderately large spatial areas with minimal site-specific calibration, 4. Simulate spatial patterns of sediment loss-gain over time, and 5. Represent both sediment detachment and transport. While it was recognized that impacts and management alternatives could be sorted roughly into landscape measures and channel measures, the decision was made to focus study efforts

  7. 2013 Field Report For: Bat Occurrence Relative to Silvicultural Treatments Intended to Yield Desired Forest Conditions for Priority Wildlife Species in Bottomland Hardwood Forests

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Draft report describes acoustically sampling for bats and estimation of flying insect biomass within various hardwood forests stand condictions of the MAV. Efforts...

  8. Crystalliferous Bacillus cereus group bacteria from a Maryland hardwood forest are dominated by psychrotolerant strains.

    Blackburn, Michael B; Martin, Phyllis A W; Kuhar, Daniel; Farrar, Robert R; Gundersen-Rindal, Dawn E


    Crystal-forming bacteria of the Bacillus cereus group were isolated from soil samples collected at different elevations within a mixed hardwood forest in central Maryland, and their phylogenetic relationships determined by multilocus sequence analysis. The vast majority of isolates obtained were associated with two phylogenetic groups known to be psychrotolerant, with very few isolates representing phylogenetic groups more typically associated with Bacillus thuringiensis. Isolates from the psychrotolerant groups were found to grow on solid media at 7 °C. Isolates of 11 highly related, novel sequence types (STs) from the psychrotolerant group that includes Bacillus weihenstephanensis were generally found at higher elevations, and were not associated with soils near streams. Isolates of two related STs from the second psychrotolerant group were nearly always found at the bottoms of ravines near streams, in areas abundant in earthworm castings.


    Ruxanda Bodîrlău

    Full Text Available Chemical modification of hardwood sawdust from ash-tree species was carried out with a solution of maleic anhydride in acetone. Wood polymers, lignin, and cellulose were isolated from the wood sawdust and modified by the same method. Samples were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, providing evidence that maleic anhydride esterifies the free hydroxyl groups of the wood polymer components. Composites comprising chemically modified wood sawdust and wood polymers (cellulose, lignin-as variable weight percentages-, and poly (vinyl chloride were obtained and further characterized by using FTIR spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The thermal behavior of composites was investigated by using the thermogravimetric analysis (TGA. In all cases, thermal properties were affected by fillers addition.

  10. Deconstruction of Nordic hardwood in switchable ionic liquids and acylation of the dissolved cellulose.

    Eta, Valerie; Mikkola, Jyri-Pekka


    Nordic hardwood (Betula pendula) was fractionated in a batch autoclave equipped with a custom-made SpinChem(®) rotating bed reactor, at 120 °C using CO2 and CS2-based switchable ionic liquids systems. Analyses of the non-dissolved wood after treatment showed that 64 wt% of hemicelluloses and 70 wt% of lignin were removed from the native wood. Long processing periods or successive short-time treatments using fresh SILs further decreased the amount of hemicelluloses and lignin in the non-dissolved fraction to 12 and 15 wt%, respectively. The cellulose-rich fraction was partially dissolved in an organic superbase and an ionic liquid system for further derivatization. Homogeneous acylation of the dissolved cellulose in the presence or absence of catalyst resulted in cellulose acetates with variable degree of substitution (DS), depending on the treatment conditions. By varying the reaction conditions, the cellulose acetate with the desired DS could be obtained under mild conditions.


    Md Saiful Islam,


    Full Text Available Chemical modification is an often-followed route to improve physical and mechanical properties of solid wood materials. In this study five kinds of tropical light hardwoods species, namely jelutong (Dyera costulata, terbulan (Endospermum diadenum, batai (Paraserianthes moluccana, rubberwood (Hevea brasiliensis, and pulai (Alstonia pneumatophora, were chemically modified with benzene diazonium salt to improve their dimensional stability and water repellent efficiency. The dimensional stability of treated samples in terms of volumetric swelling coefficient (S and anti-swelling-efficiency (ASE were found to improve with treatment. The water repellent efficiency (WRE values also seemed to improve considerably with treatment of wood samples. Furthermore, treated wood samples had lower water and moisture absorption compared to that of untreated ones.

  12. Production of furfural from waste aqueous hemicellulose solution of hardwood over ZSM-5 zeolite.

    Gao, Hongling; Liu, Haitang; Pang, Bo; Yu, Guang; Du, Jian; Zhang, Yuedong; Wang, Haisong; Mu, Xindong


    This study aimed to produce furfural from waste aqueous hemicellulose solution of a hardwood kraft-based dissolving pulp production processing in a green method. The maximum furfural yield of 82.4% and the xylose conversion of 96.8% were achieved at 463K, 1.0g ZSM-5, 1.05g NaCl and organic solvent-to-aqueous phase ratio of 30:15 (V/V) for 3h. The furfural yield was just 51.5% when the same concentration of pure xylose solution was used. Under the optimized condition, furfural yield was still up to 67.1% even after the fifth reused of catalyst. Catalyst recycling study showed that ZSM-5 has a certain stability and can be efficiently reused.

  13. Structure-function relationships in hardwood--insight from micromechanical modelling.

    de Borst, K; Bader, T K


    A micromechanical model is presented that predicts the stiffness of wood tissues in their three principal anatomical directions, across various hardwood species. The wood polymers cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin, common to all wood tissues, serve as the starting point. In seven homogenisation steps, the stiffnesses of these polymers are linked to the macroscopic stiffness. The good agreement of model predictions and corresponding experimental data for ten different European and tropical species confirms the functionality and accuracy of the model. The model enables investigating the influence of individual microstructural features on the overall stiffness. This is exploited to elucidate the mechanical effects of vessels and ray cells. Vessels are shown to reduce the stiffness of wood at constant overall density. This supports that a trade-off exists between the hydraulic efficiency and the mechanical support in relation to the anatomical design of wood. Ray cells are shown to act as reinforcing elements in the radial direction.

  14. Abundance of green tree frogs and insects in artificial canopy gaps in a bottomland hardwood forest.

    Horn, Scott; Hanula, James L.; Ulyshen, Michael D.; Kilgo, John C.


    Horn, Scott, James L. Hanula, Michael D. Ulyshen, and John C. Kilgo. 2005. Abundance of green tree frogs and insects in artificial canopy gaps in a bottomland hardwood forest. Am. Midl. Nat. 153:321-326. Abstract: We found more green tree frogs (Hyla cinerea) in canopy gaps than in closed canopy forest. Of the 331 green tree frogs observed, 88% were in canopy gaps. Likewise, higher numbers and biomasses of insects were captured in the open gap habitat. Flies were the most commonly collected insect group accounting for 54% of the total capture. These data suggest that one reason green tree frogs were more abundant in canopy gaps was the increased availability of prey and that small canopy gaps provide early successional habitats that are beneficial to green tree frog populations.

  15. Study of root tensile strength of softwood and hardwood tree species: Implications for slope stability

    Esmaiili, Marzieh; Abdi, Ehsan; Jafary, Mohammad; Majnounian, Baris


    Landslides are known as one of the major natural hazards and often incurring economics and human life losses. The role of tree roots in slope stability is very important, especially when human lives and infrastructure are at risk. The anchorage of roots and improvement of slope stability mainly depend on specific properties of root network systems, such as tensile strength. These properties of the roots which govern the degree of reinforcement are different among tree species. Although, many studies have been conducted about plant biotechnical properties of species, yet there is lack of knowledge on comparing root systems of softwood and hardwood tree species for similar site conditions. Therefore this study was conducted to assess the tensile strength of the root system of Picea abies (softwood species) and Fraxinus excelsior (hardwood species) planted on two forested hillslopes. To this aim, single root specimens were sampled for each species and their tensile strength were then measured in laboratory using a computer controlled Instron Universal Testing Machine. According to the results root tensile strength tends to decrease with diameter according to a power law for both species. Based on analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), a significant difference has been observed in the tensile strength between the two studied species. Also the results showed that the value of mean root tensile strength for Picea abies (19.31 ± 2.64 MPa) was much more than that of Fraxinus excelsior (16.98 ± 1.01 MPa) within all root diameter classes. The data presented in this study may expand the knowledge of biotechnical properties of Picea abies and Fraxinus excelsior, as biomaterial for soil bioengineering.

  16. A Forest Tent Caterpillar Outbreak Increased Resource Levels and Seedling Growth in a Northern Hardwood Forest.

    Rozendaal, Danaë M A; Kobe, Richard K


    In closed-canopy forests, gap formation and closure are thought to be major drivers of forest dynamics. Crown defoliation by insects, however, may also influence understory resource levels and thus forest dynamics. We evaluate the effect of a forest tent caterpillar outbreak on understory light availability, soil nutrient levels and tree seedling height growth in six sites with contrasting levels of canopy defoliation in a hardwood forest in northern lower Michigan. We compared resource levels and seedling growth of six hardwood species before, during and in the three years after the outbreak (2008-2012). Canopy openness increased strongly during the forest tent caterpillar outbreak in the four moderately and severely defoliated sites, but not in lightly defoliated sites. Total inorganic soil nitrogen concentrations increased in response to the outbreak in moderately and severely defoliated sites. The increase in total inorganic soil nitrogen was driven by a strong increase in soil nitrate, and tended to become stronger with increasing site defoliation. Seedling height growth increased for all species in the moderately and severely defoliated sites, but not in lightly defoliated sites, either during the outbreak year or in the year after the outbreak. Growth increases did not become stronger with increasing site defoliation, but were strongest in a moderately defoliated site with high soil nutrient levels. Growth increases tended to be strongest for the shade intolerant species Fraxinus americana and Prunus serotina, and the shade tolerant species Ostrya virginiana. The strong growth response of F. americana and P. serotina suggests that recurring forest tent caterpillar outbreaks may facilitate the persistence of shade intolerant species in the understory in the absence of canopy gaps. Overall, our results suggest that recurrent canopy defoliation resulting from cyclical forest insect outbreaks may be an additional driver of dynamics in temperate closed

  17. Research on the pyrolysis of hardwood in an entrained bed process development unit

    Kovac, R.J.; Gorton, C.W.; Knight, J.A.; Newman, C.J.; O' Neil, D.J. (Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta, GA (United States). Research Inst.)


    An atmospheric flash pyrolysis process, the Georgia Tech Entrained Flow Pyrolysis Process, for the production of liquid biofuels from oak hardwood is described. The development of the process began with bench-scale studies and a conceptual design in the 1978--1981 timeframe. Its development and successful demonstration through research on the pyrolysis of hardwood in an entrained bed process development unit (PDU), in the period of 1982--1989, is presented. Oil yields (dry basis) up to 60% were achieved in the 1.5 ton-per-day PDU, far exceeding the initial target/forecast of 40% oil yields. Experimental data, based on over forty runs under steady-state conditions, supported by material and energy balances of near-100% closures, have been used to establish a process model which indicates that oil yields well in excess of 60% (dry basis) can be achieved in a commercial reactor. Experimental results demonstrate a gross product thermal efficiency of 94% and a net product thermal efficiency of 72% or more; the highest values yet achieved with a large-scale biomass liquefaction process. A conceptual manufacturing process and an economic analysis for liquid biofuel production at 60% oil yield from a 200-TPD commercial plant is reported. The plant appears to be profitable at contemporary fuel costs of $21/barrel oil-equivalent. Total capital investment is estimated at under $2.5 million. A rate-of-return on investment of 39.4% and a pay-out period of 2.1 years has been estimated. The manufacturing cost of the combustible pyrolysis oil is $2.70 per gigajoule. 20 figs., 87 tabs.

  18. Anatomy and lignin distribution in reaction phloem fibres of several Japanese hardwoods.

    Nakagawa, Kaori; Yoshinaga, Arata; Takabe, Keiji


    Although tension wood formation and the structure of gelatinous fibres (G-fibres) have been widely investigated, studies of the influence of the reaction phenomenon on phloem fibres have been few and incomplete in comparison with those of xylem wood fibres. This study was undertaken to clarify the influence of stem inclination on phloem fibres using several Japanese hardwood species that produce different G-fibre types in tension wood. Eight hardwood species were inclined at 30-45° at the beginning of April. Specimens were collected in July and December. The cell-wall structure and lignin distribution of phloem fibres on both the tension and opposite sides were compared by light microscopy, ultraviolet microscopy, confocal laser scanning microscopy after staining with acriflavine, and transmission electron microscopy after staining with potassium permanganate. Three types of changes were found in tension-side phloem fibres: (1) increases in the proportion of the syringyl unit in lignin in the S(1) and S(2) layers and compound middle lamella (Cercidiphyllum japonicum), (2) formation of unlignified gelatinous layers (Melia azedarach and Acer rufinerve) and (3) increases in the number of layers (n) in the multi-layered structure of S(1) + S(2) + n (G + L) (Mallotus japonicus). Other species showed no obvious change in cell-wall structure or lignin distribution. Phloem fibres of the tree species examined in our study showed three types of changes in lignin distribution and cell-wall structure. The reaction phenomenon may vary with tree species and may not be closely related to G-fibre type in tension wood.

  19. The importance of hydrology in restoration of bottomland hardwood wetland functions

    Hunter, R.G.; Faulkner, S.P.; Gibson, K.A.


    Bottomland hardwood (BLH) forests have important biogeochemical functions and it is well known that certain structural components, including pulsed hydrology, hydric soils, and hydrophytic vegetation, enhance these functions. It is unclear, however, how functions of restored BLH wetlands compare to mature, undisturbed wetlands. We measured a suite of structural and functional attributes in replicated natural BLH wetlands (NAT), restored BLH wetlands with hydrology re-established (RWH), and restored BLH wetlands without hydrology re-established (RWOH) in this study. Trees were replanted in all restored wetlands at least four years prior to the study and those wetlands with hydrology re-established had flashboard risers placed in drainage ditches to allow seasonal surface flooding. Vegetation, soils, and selected biogeochemical functions were characterized at each site. There was a marked difference in woody vegetation among the wetlands that was due primarily to site age. There was also a difference in herbaceous vegetation among the restored sites that may have been related to differences in age or hydrology. Water table fluctuations of the RWH wetlands were comparable to those of the NAT wetlands. Thus, placing flashboard risers in existing drainage ditches, along with proper management, can produce a hydroperiod that is similar to that of a relatively undisturbed BLH. Average length of saturation within the upper 15 cm of soils was 37, 104, and 97 days for RWOH, RWH, and NAT, respectively. Soil moisture, denitrification potential, and soluble organic carbon concentrations differed among wetland sites, but soil carbon and nitrogen concentrations, heterotrophic microbial activity, and readily mineralizable carbon concentrations did not. Significant linear relationships were also found between soil moisture and heterotrophic microbial activity, readily mineralizable carbon, and soluble organic carbon. In addition, sedimentation rates were higher in NAT and RWH

  20. Impacts of harvesting forest residues for bioenergy on nutrient cycling and community assemblages in northern hardwood forests

    Donner, D.M.; Zalesny, R.S. [United States Dept. of Agriculture Forest Service, Rhinelander, WI (United States). Northern Research Station, Inst. for Applied Ecosystem Studies; St Pierre, M.; Eklund, D. [Chequamegon-Nicolet National Forest, Rhinelander, WI (United States); Coyle, D.R. [Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Entomology; Ribic, C.A. [Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (United States). United States Geological Survey, WI Cooperative Wildlife Research Unit


    This study assessed the impacts of whole-tree harvesting on the nutrient cycles and community assemblages in northern hardwood forests. The woody biomass left on the forest floor after logging is important for nutrient cycling in addition to providing seed beds and creating habitats for wildlife. The impact of fine woody debris (FWD) removal on nutrient availability and above and below ground community assemblages on rich soils in regenerating northern hardwood stands in Wisconsin was investigated at 9 sites within a national forest. Soil carbon and nitrogen availability was assessed. Insect pitfalls, amphibian time-constraint searches, herbaceous plant quadrants, and soil cores along transects were sampled during the summer months of 2009. Results of the study will be used to evaluate the trade-offs of harvesting woody biomass on public lands for energy use as well as to develop management guidelines for maintaining biodiversity and forest health.

  1. Species characterization and responses of subcortical insects to trap-logs and ethanol in a hardwood biomass plantation: Subcortical insects in hardwood plantations

    Coyle, David R. [D. B. Warnell School of Forestry and Natural Resources; University of Georgia; 180 E. Green Street Athens GA 30602 U.S.A.; Brissey, Courtney L. [D. B. Warnell School of Forestry and Natural Resources; University of Georgia; 180 E. Green Street Athens GA 30602 U.S.A.; Gandhi, Kamal J. K. [D. B. Warnell School of Forestry and Natural Resources; University of Georgia; 180 E. Green Street Athens GA 30602 U.S.A.


    1. We characterized subcortical insect assemblages in economically important eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides Bartr.), sycamore (Platanus occidentalis L.) and sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.) plantations in the southeastern U.S.A. Furthermore, we compared insect responses between freshly-cut plant material by placing traps directly over cut hardwood logs (trap-logs), traps baited with ethanol lures and unbaited (control) traps. 2. We captured a total of 15 506 insects representing 127 species in four families in 2011 and 2013. Approximately 9% and 62% of total species and individuals, respectively, and 23% and 79% of total Scolytinae species and individuals, respectively, were non-native to North America. 3. We captured more Scolytinae using cottonwood trap-logs compared with control traps in both years, although this was the case with sycamore and sweetgum only in 2013. More woodborers were captured using cottonwood and sweetgum trap-logs compared with control traps in both years, although only with sycamore in 2013. 4. Ethanol was an effective lure for capturing non-native Scolytinae; however, not all non-native species were captured using ethanol lures. Ambrosiophilus atratus (Eichhoff) and Hypothenemus crudiae (Panzer) were captured with both trap-logs and control traps, whereas Coccotrypes distinctus (Motschulsky) and Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff were only captured on trap-logs. 5. Indicator species analysis revealed that certain scolytines [e.g. Cnestus mutilates (Blandford) and Xylosandrus crassiusculus (Motschulsky)] showed significant associations with trap-logs or ethanol baits in poplar or sweetgum trap-logs. In general, the species composition of subcortical insects, especially woodboring insects, was distinct among the three tree species and between those associated with trap-logs and control traps.

  2. Segregating the Effects of Seed Traits and Common Ancestry of Hardwood Trees on Eastern Gray Squirrel Foraging Decisions.

    Mekala Sundaram

    Full Text Available The evolution of specific seed traits in scatter-hoarded tree species often has been attributed to granivore foraging behavior. However, the degree to which foraging investments and seed traits correlate with phylogenetic relationships among trees remains unexplored. We presented seeds of 23 different hardwood tree species (families Betulaceae, Fagaceae, Juglandaceae to eastern gray squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis, and measured the time and distance travelled by squirrels that consumed or cached each seed. We estimated 11 physical and chemical seed traits for each species, and the phylogenetic relationships between the 23 hardwood trees. Variance partitioning revealed that considerable variation in foraging investment was attributable to seed traits alone (27-73%, and combined effects of seed traits and phylogeny of hardwood trees (5-55%. A phylogenetic PCA (pPCA on seed traits and tree phylogeny resulted in 2 "global" axes of traits that were phylogenetically autocorrelated at the family and genus level and a third "local" axis in which traits were not phylogenetically autocorrelated. Collectively, these axes explained 30-76% of the variation in squirrel foraging investments. The first global pPCA axis, which produced large scores for seed species with thin shells, low lipid and high carbohydrate content, was negatively related to time to consume and cache seeds and travel distance to cache. The second global pPCA axis, which produced large scores for seeds with high protein, low tannin and low dormancy levels, was an important predictor of consumption time only. The local pPCA axis primarily reflected kernel mass. Although it explained only 12% of the variation in trait space and was not autocorrelated among phylogenetic clades, the local axis was related to all four squirrel foraging investments. Squirrel foraging behaviors are influenced by a combination of phylogenetically conserved and more evolutionarily labile seed traits that is

  3. A GIS-based approach to stand visualization and spatial pattern analysis in a mixed hardwood forest in West Virginia

    Benktesh D. Sharma; Jingxin Wang; Gary Miller


    Tree spatial patterns were characterized for a 75-year-old mixed hardwood forest dominated by northern red oak, chestnut oak, red maple and yellow-poplar. All trees ≥5 inches diameter at breast height (d.b.h.) were measured for diameter, total height, crown height, and crown width along with their locations in the field over an area of 8 acres. The spatial...

  4. Soil CO2 efflux and water use efficiency across diverse cover types in southern Appalachian hardwood forests

    Ruba C. Bilal; John R. Seiler; Brian D. Strahm; John A. Peterson


    We are investigating biogeochemical cycling in a mixed hardwood forest in the Ridge and Valley physiographic province in Montgomery County, Virginia. The broad aim of the study is to understand how carbon, water and nutrient cycles vary among diverse stand types in a relatively small spatial area. The specific objectives here are to determine patterns in soil CO2...

  5. Optimization of ECF bleaching of kraft pulp. Part 1, Optimal bleaching of hardwood pulps made with different alkali charges

    Thomas J. McDonough; Shunichiro Uno; Alan W. Rudie; Charles E. Courchene


    In an earlier modeling study, we showed that when a hardwood kraft pulp is bleached in the D0(EO)D1ED2 sequence with a D0 stage kappa factor of 0.20, the brightness of the pulp emerging from the D2 stage can be accurately predicted from the brightness of the pulp entering that stage. The entering brightness, in turn is a well-defined function of the ratio of the D1...

  6. A Computer Vision System for Automated Grading of Rough Hardwood Lumber Using a Knowledge-Based Approach

    Tai-Hoon Cho; Richard W. Conners; Philip A. Araman


    A sawmill cuts logs into lumber and sells this lumber to secondary remanufacturers. The price a sawmiller can charge for a volume of lumber depends on its grade. For a number of species the price of a given volume of material can double in going from one grade to the next higher grade. Thus, accurately establishing the grade of a volume of hardwood lumber is very...

  7. Windows of opportunity: white-tailed deer and the dynamics of northern hardwood forests of the northeastern US

    Sage, R.W.; Porter, W.F.; Underwood, H.B.


    Herbivory, lighting regimes, and site conditions are among the most important determinants of forest regeneration success, but these are affected by a host of other factors such as weather, predation, human exploitation, pathogens, wind and fire. We draw together > 50 years of research on the Huntington Wildlife Forest in the central Adirondack Mountains of New York to explore regeneration of northern hardwoods. A series of studies each of which focused on a single factor failed to identify the cause of regeneration failure. However, integration of these studies led to broader understanding of the process of forest stand development and identified at least three interacting factors: lighting regime, competing vegetation and selective browsing by white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). The diverse 100-200 year-old hardwood stands present today probably reflect regeneration during periods of low deer density (< 2.0 deer/km super(2)) and significant forest disturbance. If this hypothesis is correct, forest managers can mimic these 'natural windows of opportunity' through manipulation of a few sensitive variables in the system. Further, these manipulations can be conducted on a relatively small geographic scale. Control of deer densities on a scale of 500 ha and understory American beech (Fagus grandifolia) on a scale of < 100 ha in conjunction with an even-aged regeneration system consistently resulted in successful establishment of desirable hardwood regeneration.

  8. Comparison of soil bacterial communities in a natural hardwood forest and coniferous plantations in perhumid subtropical low mountains.

    Lin, Yu-Te; Hu, Hsueh-Wen; Whitman, William B; Coleman, David C; Chiu, Chih-Yu


    The bacterial community of forest soils is influenced by environmental disturbance and/or meteorological temperature and precipitation. In this study, we investigated three bacterial communities in soils of a natural hardwood forest and two plantations of conifer, Calocedrus formosana and Cryptomeria japonica, in a perhumid, low mountain area. By comparison with our previous studies with similar temperature and/or precipitation, we aimed to elucidate how disturbance influences the bacterial community in forest soils and whether bacterial communities in similar forest types differ under different climate conditions. Analysis of 16S ribosomal RNA gene clone libraries revealed that Acidobacteria and Proteobacteria were the most abundant phyla in the three forest soil communities, with similar relative abundance of various bacterial groups. However, UniFrac analysis based on phylogenetic information revealed differences of bacterial communities between natural hardwood forest and coniferous plantation soils. The diversities of bacterial communities of the replanted Calocedrus and Cryptomeria forests were higher than that in natural hardwood forest. The bacterial diversity of these three forest soil were all higher than those in the same forest types at other locations with less precipitation or with lower temperature. In addition, the distribution of some of the most abundant operational taxonomic units in the three communities differed from other forest soils, including those related to Acidobacteria, α-, β- and γ-Proteobacteria. Reforestation could increase the bacterial diversity. Therefore, soil bacterial communities could be shaped by the forestry management practices and climate differences in warm and humid conditions.

  9. Near-infrared spectroscopic monitoring of the diffusion process of deuterium-labeled molecules in wood. Part II: hardwood.

    Tsuchikawa, Satoru; Siesler, H W


    Fourier transform near-infrared (FT-NIR) transmission spectroscopy was applied to monitor the diffusion process of deuterium-labeled molecules in hardwood (Beech). The results are compared with previous data obtained on softwood (Sitka spruce) in order to consistently understand the state of order in cellulose of wood. The saturation accessibility and diffusion rate varied characteristically with the OH groups in different states of order in the wood substance, the diffusants, and the wood species, respectively. The variation of saturation accessibility should be associated with the fundamental difference of the fine structure such as the microfibrils in the wood substance. The effect of the anatomical cellular structure on the accessibility was reflected in the variation of the diffusion rate with the wood species. The size effect of the diffusants also played an important role for the diffusion process in wood. Since the volumetric percentage of wood fibers and wood rays is relatively similar, the dichroic effects due to the anisotropy of the cellulose chains were apparently diminished. Finally, we proposed a new interpretation of the fine structure of the microfibrils in the cell wall by comparing a series of results from hardwood and softwood. Each elementary fibril in the hardwood has a more homogeneous arrangement in the microfibrils compared to that in the softwood.

  10. Operational restoration of the Pen Branch bottomland hardwood and swamp wetlands - the research setting

    Nelson, E.A.


    The Savannah River Swamp is a 3020 Ha forested wetland on the floodplain of the Savannah River and is located on the Department of Energy's Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, SC. Historically the swamp consisted of approximately 50 percent bald cypress-water tupelo stands, 40 percent mixed bottomland hardwood stands, and 10 percent shrub, marsh, and open water. Creek corridors were typical of Southeastern bottomland hardwood forests. The hydrology was controlled by flooding of the Savannah River and by flow from four creeks that drain into the swamp prior to flow into the Savannah River. Upstream dams have caused some alteration of the water levels and timing of flooding within the floodplain. Major impacts to the swamp hydrology occurred with the completion of the production reactors and one coal-fired powerhouse at the SRS in the early 1950's. Water was pumped from the Savannah River, through secondary heat exchangers of the reactors, and discharged into three of the tributary streams that flow into the swamp. Flow in one of the tributaries, Pen Branch, was typically 0.3 m3 s-1 (10-20) cfs prior to reactor pumping and 11.0 m3 s-1 (400 cfs) during pumping. This continued from 1954 to 1988 at various levels. The sustained increases in water volume resulted in overflow of the original stream banks and the creation of additional floodplains. Accompanying this was considerable erosion of the original stream corridor and deposition of a deep silt layer on the newly formed delta. Heated water was discharged directly into Pen Branch and water temperature in the stream often exceeded 65 degrees C. The nearly continuous flooding of the swamp, the thermal load of the water, and the heavy silting resulted in complete mortality of the original vegetation in large areas of the floodplain. In the years since pumping was reduced, early succession has begun in some affected areas. Most of this has been herbs, grasses, and shrubs. Areas that have seedlings are

  11. Teores de carboidratos em estacas lenhosas de mirtileiro Carbohidrates content in hardwood cuttings of blueberry

    Rérinton Joabél Pires de Oliveira


    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar as alterações no teor de carboidratos em estacas lenhosas de mirtileiro das cultivares Delite, Powder Blue e Seleção 19. O trabalho foi dividido em dois experimentos, primeiramente foram analisados os teores de amido e de açúcares solúveis a partir de ramos coletados em quatro épocas (03-06, 04-07, 24-07 e 11-08-2008 e, posteriormente, avaliou-se o teor de carboidratos em estacas coletadas nas mesmas épocas citadas, porém submetidas ao enraizamento e avaliadas em diferentes épocas (03-06, 04-07, 04-08, 03-09 e 03-10; 04-07, 04-08, 03-09, 03-10; 24-07, 04-08, 03-09 e 03-10; 11-08, 03-09 e 03-10. Verificou-se que a cultivar Powder Blue tem maior concentração de amido nos ramos que as cultivares Delite e Seleção 19. Estacas lenhosas de mirtileiro com baixos teores de amido, quando submetidas ao enraizamento, apresentam ressíntese de amido. No fim do período de inverno, ocorre aumento na concentração de amido nos ramos lenhosos de mirtileiro. Este aumento ao final do período de inverno está associado à maior taxa de enraizamento.The aim at this study was to evaluate the alterations on carbohydrates metabolism of hardwood cuttings of blueberries cv. Delite, Powder Blue and Seleção 19. The starch and soluble sugars concentration were evaluated in blueberry branches at four different times in a first experiment (06/03, 07/04, 07/24 and 08/11/2008 and later the metabolism of carbohydrates were evaluated in harvested hardwood cuttings submitted to rooting conditions (06/03, 07/04, 08/04, 09/03 and 10/03; 07/04, 08/04, 09/03 and 10/03; 07/24, 08/04, 09/03 and 10/03; 08/11, 09/03 and 10/03. It was verified that the cv. Powder Blue has higher starch concentration in the branches than Delite and Seleção 19. Hardwood cuttings of blueberry with low percentage of starch, when subjected to rooting, have resynthesis of starch. At the end of the winter, there is an increase in starch in the branches of

  12. Herbivorous insect response to group selection cutting in a southeastern bottomland hardwood forest.

    Michael D. Ulyshen; James L. Hanula; Scott Horn; Christopher E. Moorman.


    ABSTRACT Malaise and pitfall traps were used to sample herbivorous insects in canopy gaps created by group-selection cutting in a bottomland hardwood forest in South Carolina. The traps were placed at the centers, edges, and in the forest adjacent to gaps of different sizes (0.13, 0.26, and 0.50 ha) and ages (1 and 7 yr old) during four sampling periods in 2001. Overall, the abundance and species richness of insect herbivores were greater at the centers of young gaps than at the edge of young gaps or in the forest surrounding young gaps. There were no differences in abundance or species richness among old gap locations (i.e., centers, edges, and forest), and we collected significantly more insects in young gaps than old gaps. The insect communities in old gaps were more similar to the forests surrounding them than young gap communities were to their respective forest locations, but the insect communities in the two forests locations (surrounding young and old gaps) had the highest percent similarity of all. Although both abundance and richness increased in the centers of young gaps with increasing gap size, these differences were not significant.Weattribute the increased numbers of herbivorous insects to the greater abundance of herbaceous plants available in young gaps.

  13. Decomposition and carbon storage of hardwood and softwood branches in laboratory-scale landfills

    Wang, Xiaoming, E-mail: [Key Laboratory of Three Gorges Reservoir Region' s Eco-Environment under Ministry of Education, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Department of Civil, Construction, and Environmental Engineering, Campus Box 7908, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-7908 (United States); Barlaz, Morton A. [Department of Civil, Construction, and Environmental Engineering, Campus Box 7908, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-7908 (United States)


    Tree branches are an important component of yard waste disposed in U.S. municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills. The objective of this study was to characterize the anaerobic biodegradability of hardwood (HW) and softwood (SW) branches under simulated but optimized landfill conditions by measuring methane (CH{sub 4}) yields, decay rates, the decomposition of cellulose, hemicellulose and organic carbon, as well as carbon storage factors (CSFs). Carbon conversions to CH{sub 4} and CO{sub 2} ranged from zero to 9.5% for SWs and 17.1 to 28.5% for HWs. When lipophilic or hydrophilic compounds present in some of the HW and SW samples were extracted, some samples showed increased biochemical methane potentials (BMPs). The average CH{sub 4} yield, carbon conversion, and CSF measured here, 59.4 mL CH{sub 4} g{sup −1} dry material, 13.9%, and 0.39 g carbon stored g{sup −1} dry material, respectively, represent reasonable values for use in greenhouse gas inventories in the absence of detailed wood type/species data for landfilled yard waste. - Highlights: • Characterized biodegradation of branches under simulated but optimized landfill conditions • Observed varied biodegradation between HW and SW branches with different diameters • Inhibitory extractives were observed on boughs or twigs of some branch species. • CH{sub 4} yield and carbon storage factors presented for use in landfill related inventories.

  14. Preliminary Genomic Characterization of Ten Hardwood Tree Species from Multiplexed Low Coverage Whole Genome Sequencing.

    Margaret Staton

    Full Text Available Forest health issues are on the rise in the United States, resulting from introduction of alien pests and diseases, coupled with abiotic stresses related to climate change. Increasingly, forest scientists are finding genetic/genomic resources valuable in addressing forest health issues. For a set of ten ecologically and economically important native hardwood tree species representing a broad phylogenetic spectrum, we used low coverage whole genome sequencing from multiplex Illumina paired ends to economically profile their genomic content. For six species, the genome content was further analyzed by flow cytometry in order to determine the nuclear genome size. Sequencing yielded a depth of 0.8X to 7.5X, from which in silico analysis yielded preliminary estimates of gene and repetitive sequence content in the genome for each species. Thousands of genomic SSRs were identified, with a clear predisposition toward dinucleotide repeats and AT-rich repeat motifs. Flanking primers were designed for SSR loci for all ten species, ranging from 891 loci in sugar maple to 18,167 in redbay. In summary, we have demonstrated that useful preliminary genome information including repeat content, gene content and useful SSR markers can be obtained at low cost and time input from a single lane of Illumina multiplex sequence.

  15. Prediction of mixed hardwood lignin and carbohydrate content using ATR-FTIR and FT-NIR.

    Zhou, Chengfeng; Jiang, Wei; Via, Brian K; Fasina, Oladiran; Han, Guangting


    This study used Attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy and Fourier transform near-infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy with principal component regression (PCR) and partial least squares regression (PLS) to build hardwood prediction models. Wet chemistry analysis coupled with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was employed to obtain the chemical composition of these samples. Spectra loadings were studied to identify key wavenumber in the prediction of chemical composition. NIR-PLS and FTIR-PLS performed the best for extractives, lignin and xylose, whose residual predictive deviation (RPD) values were all over 3 and indicates the potential for either instrument to provide superior prediction models with NIR performing slightly better. During testing, it was found that more accurate determination of holocellulose content was possible when HPLC was used. Independent chemometric models, for FT-NIR and ATR-FTIR, identified similar functional groups responsible for the prediction of chemical composition and suggested that coupling the two techniques could strengthen interpretation and prediction.

  16. Effects of herbaceous vegetation on the survival and growth of hardwood tree seedlings

    Carlson, E.W.


    First year survival and growth of several hardwood tree species planted with herbaceous vegetation on recently mined areas where soil, lime, and fertilizers were used at five locations throughout the bituminous coal region of Pennsylvania is discussed. In one study begun in 1978, five tree species (Robinia pseudacaia, Quercus rubra, Liriodendron tulipifera, Populus robusta, and Juglans nigra) were planted in vegetated and non-vegetated plots. Survival was good for all species except Populus robusta, which failed due to poor quality stock. Height growth of Robinia pseudoacacia was good, all other species were poor. In another study in 1978, herbaceous competition was evaluated using three grass-legume mixtures (Lotus corniculatus L. with either Festuca arundinacea L., Eragrostis curvula L.), seeded at two rates, and using two herbicides on an area with a previously established cover. No significant differences occurred between herbaceous covers in survival and first year height growth of the two species (Robinia pseudoacacia and Quercus rubra) used. In a third study begun in 1979, eight tree species (the five already mentioned plus Alnus gluthosa, Acer saccharum, and Fraxinus americana) were planted in non-seeded plots and in plots seeded with two different mixtures (Festuca arundinacea L. with either Lotus corniculatus or Cornilla varia L.). Early survival was good for all species.

  17. Biomass system model estimates of short-rotation hardwood production in Hawaii

    Phillips, V.D.; Wei Liu; Singh, Devindar (Hawaii Univ., Manoa, Honolulu (United States). Coll. of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources); Merriam, R.A.


    By coupling a short-rotation, intensive-culture (SRIC) biomass production model with a geographical information system and database, potential biomass supply (dry Mg) and delivered cost ($ (dry Mg)[sup -1]) of three promising tropical hardwoods, Eucalyptus grandis, E. saligna, and Leucaena leucocephala, were estimated at all locations identified as potentially available for tree plantations on the island of Maui. Analyses were performed at two scales - island-wide for general land-use planning, and specific-site for field-level recommendations. The results are presented as yield and delivered cost maps and biomass supply curves for the entire island, and as a management strategies depicted graphically as functions of growing space and rotation age that provide least-cost biomass feedstocks delivered from two specific field sites to a designated bioconversion facility on Maui. The methodology is a cost- and time-efficient means to provide useful information to land owners and other decision makers contemplating SRIC forestry as an alternative land use. (Author)

  18. Changes in hardwood forest understory plant communities in response to European earthworm invasions.

    Hale, Cindy M; Frelich, Lee E; Reich, Peter B


    European earthworms are colonizing earthworm-free northern hardwood forests across North America. Leading edges of earthworm invasion provide an opportunity to investigate the response of understory plant communities to earthworm invasion and whether the species composition of the earthworm community influences that response. Four sugar maple-dominated forest sites with active earthworm invasions were identified in the Chippewa National Forest in north central Minnesota, USA. In each site, we established a 30 x 150 m sample grid that spanned a visible leading edge of earthworm invasion and sampled earthworm populations and understory vegetation over four years. Across leading edges of earthworm invasion, increasing total earthworm biomass was associated with decreasing diversity and abundance of herbaceous plants in two of four study sites, and the abundance and density of tree seedlings decreased in three of four study sites. Sample points with the most diverse earthworm species assemblage, independent of biomass, had the lowest plant diversity. Changes in understory plant community composition were most affected by increasing biomass of the earthworm species Lumbricus rubellus. Where L. rubellus was absent there was a diverse community of native herbaceous plants, but where L. rubellus biomass reached its maximum, the herbaceous-plant community was dominated by Carex pensylvanica and Arisaema triphyllum and, in some cases, was completely absent. Evidence from these forest sites suggests that earthworm invasion can lead to dramatic changes in the understory community and that the nature of these changes is influenced by the species composition of the invading earthworm community.

  19. Spectroscopic analysis of hot-water- and dilute-acid-extracted hardwood and softwood chips

    Lehto, Joni; Louhelainen, Jarmo; Huttunen, Marko; Alén, Raimo


    Hot-water and dilute sulfuric acid pretreatments were performed prior to chemical pulping for silver/white birch (Betula pendula/B. pubescens) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) chips to determine if varying pretreatment conditions on the original wood material were detectable via attenuated total reflectance (ATR) infrared spectroscopy. Pretreatment conditions varied with respect to temperature (130 °C and 150 °C) and treatment time (from 30 min to 120 min). The effects of the pretreatments on the composition of wood chips were determined by ATR infrared spectroscopy. The spectral data were compared to those determined by common wood chemistry analyses to evaluate the suitability of ATR spectroscopy method for rapid detection of changes in the wood chemical composition caused by different pretreatment conditions. In addition to determining wood species-dependent differences in the wood chemical composition, analytical results indicated that most essential lignin- and carbohydrates-related phenomena taking place during hot-water and acidic pretreatments could be described by applying this simple spectral method requiring only a small sample amount and sample preparation. Such information included, for example, the cleavage of essential lignin bonds (i.e., mainly β-O-4 linkages in guaiacyl and syringyl lignin) and formation of newly condensed lignin structures under different pretreatment conditions. Carbohydrate analyses indicated significant removal of hemicelluloses (especially hardwood xylan) and hemicelluloses-derived acetyl groups during the pretreatments, but they also confirmed the highly resistant nature of cellulose towards mild pretreatments.


    K.Koskenhely; K.Nieminen; E.Hiltunen; H.Paulapuro


    The purpose of this study was to compare plate and conical refiner fillings in refining of softwood and hardwood pulp fibers. Contrary to expectations,better tensile strength values were achieved when BSW was refined with conical fillings and the development of strength Was found to be insensitive to variations in refining intensity. A bar microprocile was measured with the aid of a profilometer. The leading edges of conicalfilling bars.were found to be rounder. A possible reason for the better tensile strength of pulp refined with conical fillings is that the round edge helps large SW fiber flocs to enter the space between the bars, resulting in less heterogeneous or more efficient treatment of fibers.The recorded gap closure values supported the above interpretation. The gap between conical fillings was found to become wider when pulp consistency and thus fiber flocculation increased, whereas increased pulp consistency decreased the gap between plate fillings, which was further reflected as increased fiber cutting. The reduction in fiber length was proportional to the increase in gap closure,supporting the earlier theory that fibers are squeezed and crushed between the bars. More attention should be paid to the wear of filling materials when refining BSW. A filling material which wears so that the bar edges are rounded would seem to promote high tensile strength and high average fiber length.


    K.Koskenhely; K.Nieminen; E.Hiltunent; H.Paulapuro


    The purpose of this study was to compare plate and conical refiner fillings in refining of softwood and hardwood pulp fibers. Contrary to expectations, better tensile strength values were achieved when BSW was refined with conical fillings and the development of strength was found to be insensitive to variations in refining intensity. A bar microprofile was measured with the aid of a profilometer. The leading edges of conical filling bars were found to be rounder. A possible reason for the better tensile strength of pulp refined with conical fillings is that the round edge helps large SW fiber flocs to enter the space between the bars, resulting in less heterogeneous or more efficient treatment of fibers. The recorded gap closure values supported the above interpretation. The gap between conical fillings was found to become wider when pulp consistency and thus fiber flocculation increased, whereas increased pulp consistency decreased the gap between plate fillings, which was further reflected as increased fiber cutting. The reduction in fiber length was proportional to the increase in gap closure, supporting the earlier theory that fibers are squeezed and crushed between the bars. More attention should be paid to the wear of filling materials when refining BSW. A filling material which wears so that the bar edges are rounded would seem to promote high tensile strength and high average fiber length.

  2. Effects of timber harvest on structural diversity and species composition in hardwood forests



    Full Text Available Tavankar F, Bonyad AE. 2015. Effects of timber harvest on structural diversity and species composition in hardwood forests. Biodiversitas 16: 1-9. Forest management leads to changes in structure and species composition of stands. In this research vertical and horizontal structure and species composition were compared in two harvested and protected stands in the Caspian forest of Iran. The results indicated the tree and seedling density, total basal area and stand volume was significantly (P < 0.01 higher in the protected stand. The Fagus orientalis L. had the most density and basal area in the both stands. Species importance value (SIV of Fagus orientalis in the protected stand (92.5 was higher than in the harvested stand (88.5. While, the SIV of shade-intolerant tree species such as Acer insigne, Acer cappadocicum and Alnus subcordata was higher in the harvested stand. The density of trees and seedling of rare tree species, such as Ulmus glabra, Tilia begonifolia, Zelkova caprinifolia and Fraxinus coriarifolia, was also higher in the protected stand. The Shannon-Wiener diversity index in the protected stand (0.84 was significantly higher (P < 0.01 than in the harvested stand (0.72. The highest diversity value in the harvested stand was observed in DBH of 10-40 cm class, while DBH of 40-70 cm had the highest diversity value in the protected stand.

  3. Characterization of Softwood and Hardwood LignoBoost Kraft Lignins with Emphasis on their Antioxidant Activity

    Jevgenija Ponomarenko


    Full Text Available Fractionation of softwood and hardwood LignoBoost kraft lignins, using sequential extraction with organic solvents of increasing hydrogen-bonding ability (dichloromethane, n-propanol, and methanol, was carried out. Using SEC, analytical pyrolysis, FTIR and UV/VIS spectroscopy, and chemical analytical methods, four fractions were obtained and characterized in terms of their yield, composition, functionality, lignin structural features, and antioxidant properties. In tests with free radicals (ABTS●+, DPPH●, O2●- and the ORAC (oxygen radical absorbance capacity assay, the high radical scavenging capacity of the lignin’s soluble fractions was demonstrated. The antioxidant activity of the fractions was tested by their influence on thermo-oxidative destruction of model polyurethane elastomers. The TGA data clearly revealed the antioxidant effect of the three fractions, with the most prominent activity for the propanol-soluble fraction. The dichloromethane fraction has potential as an antioxidant for non-polar products. Novel correlations between lignin’s structural features and its radical scavenging activity were found that can be used for tuning lignin’s antioxidant properties.

  4. Plants Species Diversity in Hyrcanian Hardwood Forests, Northern Iran (Case Study: Mazandaran Province

    Kambiz Abrari Vajari


    Full Text Available In order to better understand and manage forest ecosystems, it is important to study the relationship between environmental factors and plants in these ecosystems. We investigated plant species diversity of three hardwood forest stands in the Hyrcanian forests, Sari, northern Iran. Our aim was to determine the effect of forest stand type on the diversity of plant species. One plot 150 × 150 m established at the center of each forest stand and in each plot, nine subplots 50 × 50 m were selected. Diversity values (Richness, diversity and evenness indices were measured in five sample areas 0.01 ha per 50 × 50 m quadrates by estimating cover percentage of each species. The results showed that Geophytes (43.33% had the highest life form spectrum among species. JACCARD'S similarity index revealed that the highest values exist between Parrotia-Carpinus and Carpinus stands. All herb layer species diversity indices varied significantly among different forest stands. Cover percentage significantly positively correlated with diversity indices in Parrotia-Carpinus stand. Diversity and richness indices of herb-layers plants were significantly negatively correlated with cover percentage in Fagus stand. Correlation analysis between all diversity measures and cover percentage in Carpinus stand wasn't significant. The result of the present study revealed that species diversity in temperate broad-leaved deciduous forest was significantly influenced by forest stand type

  5. Changes in forest floor composition and chemistry along an invasive earthworm gradient in a hardwood forest

    Jourdain, J. N.; Filley, T. R.; Top, S. M.; Thayer, C.; Johnson, A.; Jenkins, M.; Welle, P.; Zurn-Birkhimer, S.; Kroeger, T.; Gemscholars


    Recent studies have demonstrated how invasive European earthworm species have caused large and long lasting perturbations to forest floor dynamics and soil composition in many northern hardwood forests. The type of perturbation is driven primarily by the composition and activity of the invasive species and the original state of the forest system. Over the past 4 years we have investigated an invasive earthworm front moving through the Ojibwa Red Lake Reservation (Minnesota). Significant shifts in litter and organic horizon mass were observed, similar to other gradients identified in the region, but the species of earthworms exhibited differences compared to other reservation lands in the region--possibly driven by the availability of recreation fishing near to the sites. Sharp gradients in earthworm abundance were observed exhibiting shifts from 600- 900 individuals per meter square to no observed worms within only 500 meters. The gradients in earthworm activity also influenced decay rates of litter, as was observed by placement of litter decay bags across the gradient. Our findings demonstrate the tenuous nature of many tribal reservation forests and point to the need for policies to address spread on such species to minimize impacts to soil carbon stocks as well as culturally important plant species.

  6. Differential response by hardwood and deciduous stands in New England forests to climate change and insect-induced mortality

    Munger, J. William; Wofsy, Steven C.; Orwig, David A.; Williams, Chris


    Forests in the northeastern United States include large areas dominated by mosaics of oak/maple and hemlock stands. Often the hardwood dominated stands include a significant cohort of hemlock saplings. However, long-term survival of hemlock in this region is threatened by Hemlock Wooly Adelgid (HWA), an invasive insect that is fatal to eastern hemlock. The northern limit of HWA is affected in part by winter minimum temperature and warmer winters are enabling northward expansion of HWA infestation. At the Harvard Forest in central Massachusetts, two long-term eddy flux towers are measuring carbon exchange in a >100 year old hardwood stand since 1992 (EMS- Ha1) and in a 100-200 year old hemlock stand (Ha2) since 2004. The flux measurements are complemented by vegetation dynamics plots. Carbon exchange at the two sites has distinctly different seasonality. The hardwood site has a shorter carbon uptake period, but higher peak fluxes, while the hemlock stand has a long carbon uptake period extending from spring thaw until early winter freeze. Some contribution from the evergreen hemlock in the understory is evident before canopy greenup at the EMS tower and spring and fall carbon uptake rates have been increasing and contribute in part to a trend towards larger annual carbon uptake at this site. Carbon uptake by hemlock increases with warmer temperatures in the spring and fall transition. Adelgids have reached the hemlock stand near Ha2 and have been widely distributed in the canopy since spring of 2012. The hemlock canopy in that stand is thinning and net carbon uptake and evapotranspiration have been decreasing since 2012. Adelgids have also been observed in scattered stands near the Ha1 tower, but as of 2015 the trees are still healthy. Because hemlocks stands have different seasonality and provide a distinct soil and sub-canopy light environment, their mortality and replacement by hardwood species will have significant impacts on forest dynamics, carbon balance, and

  7. Windthrow and salvage logging in an old-growth hemlock-northern hardwoods forest

    Lang, K.D.; Schulte, L.A.; Guntenspergen, G.R.


    Although the initial response to salvage (also known as, post-disturbance or sanitary) logging is known to vary among system components, little is known about longer term forest recovery. We examine forest overstory, understory, soil, and microtopographic response 25 years after a 1977 severe wind disturbance on the Flambeau River State Forest in Wisconsin, USA, a portion of which was salvage logged. Within this former old-growth hemlock-northern hardwoods forest, tree dominance has shifted from Eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) to broad-leaf deciduous species (Ulmus americana, Acer saccharum, Tilia americana, Populus tremuloides, and Betula alleghaniensis) in both the salvaged and unsalvaged areas. While the biological legacies of pre-disturbance seedlings, saplings, and mature trees were initially more abundant in the unsalvaged area, regeneration through root suckers and stump sprouts was common in both areas. After 25 years, tree basal area, sapling density, shrub layer density, and seedling cover had converged between unsalvaged and salvaged areas. In contrast, understory herb communities differed between salvaged and unsalvaged forest, with salvaged forest containing significantly higher understory herb richness and cover, and greater dominance of species benefiting from disturbance, especially Solidago species. Soil bulk density, pH, organic carbon content, and organic nitrogen content were also significantly higher in the salvaged area. The structural legacy of tip-up microtopography remains more pronounced in the unsalvaged area, with significantly taller tip-up mounds and deeper pits. Mosses and some forest herbs, including Athyrium filix-femina and Hydrophyllum virginianum, showed strong positive responses to this tip-up microrelief, highlighting the importance of these structural legacies for understory biodiversity. In sum, although the pathways of recovery differed, this forest appeared to be as resilient to the compound disturbances of windthrow

  8. Spatial and temporal patterns of beetles associated with coarse woody debris in managed bottomland hardwood forests.

    Ulyshen, M., D.; Hanula, J., L.; Horn, S.; Kilgo, J., C.; Moorman, C., E.


    For. Ecol. and Mgt. 199:259-272. Malaise traps were used to sample beetles in artificial canopy gaps of different size (0.13 ha, 0.26 ha, and0.50 ha) and age in a South Carolina bottomland hardwood forest. Traps were placed at the center, edge, and in the surrounding forest of each gap. Young gaps (ý 1 year) had large amounts of coarse woody debris compared to the surrounding forest, while older gaps (ý 6 years) had virtually none. The total abundance and diversity of wood-dwelling beetles (Buprestidae, Cerambycidae, Brentidae, Bostrichidae, and Curculionidae (Scolytinae and Platypodinae)) was higher in the center of young gaps than in the center of old gaps. The abundance was higher in the center of young gaps than in the surrounding forest, while the forest surrounding old gaps and the edge of old gaps had a higher abundance and diversity of wood-dwelling beetles than did the center of old gaps. There was no difference in wood-dwelling beetle abundance between gaps of different size, but diversity was lower in 0.13 ha old gaps than in 0.26 ha or 0.50 ha old gaps. We suspect that gap size has more of an effect on woodborer abundance than indicated here because malaise traps sample a limited area. The predaceous beetle family Cleridae showed a very similar trend to that of the woodborers. Coarse woody debris is an important resource for many organisms, and our results lend further support to forest management practices that preserve coarse woody debris created during timber removal.

  9. Avian response to microclimate in canopy gaps in a bottomland hardwood forest.

    Champlin, Tracey B.; Kilgo, John C.; Gumpertz, Marcia L.; Moorman, Christopher E.


    Abstract - Microclimate may infl uence use of early successional habitat by birds. We assessed the relationships between avian habitat use and microclimate (temperature, light intensity, and relative humidity) in experimentally created canopy gaps in a bottomland hardwood forest on the Savannah River Site, SC. Gaps were 2- to 3-year-old group-selection timber harvest openings of three sizes (0.13, 0.26, 0.50 ha). Our study was conducted from spring through fall, encompassing four bird-use periods (spring migration, breeding, post-breeding, and fall migration), in 2002 and 2003. We used mist netting and simultaneously recorded microclimate variables to determine the influence of microclimate on bird habitat use. Microclimate was strongly affected by net location within canopy gaps in both years. Temperature generally was higher on the west side of gaps, light intensity was greater in gap centers, and relative humidity was higher on the east side of gaps. However, we found few relationships between bird captures and the microclimate variables. Bird captures were inversely correlated with temperature during the breeding and postbreeding periods in 2002 and positively correlated with temperature during spring 2003. Captures were high where humidity was high during post-breeding 2002, and captures were low where humidity was high during spring 2003. We conclude that variations in the local microclimate had minor infl uence on avian habitat use within gaps. Instead, habitat selection in relatively mild regions like the southeastern US is based primarily on vegetation structure, while other factors, including microclimate, are less important.

  10. Regeneration Responses to Management for Old-Growth Characteristics in Northern Hardwood-Conifer Forests

    Aviva J. Gottesman


    Full Text Available Successful tree regeneration is essential for sustainable forest management, yet it can be limited by the interaction of harvesting effects and multiple ecological drivers. In northern hardwood forests, for example, there is uncertainty whether low-intensity selection harvesting techniques will result in adequate and desirable regeneration. Our research is part of a long-term study that tests the hypothesis that a silvicultural approach called “structural complexity enhancement” (SCE can accelerate the development of late-successional forest structure and functions. Our objective is to understand the regeneration dynamics following three uneven-aged forestry treatments with high levels of retention: single-tree selection, group selection, and SCE. Regeneration density and diversity can be limited by differing treatment effects on or interactions among light availability, competitive environment, substrate, and herbivory. To explore these relationships, manipulations and controls were replicated across 2 ha treatment units at two Vermont sites. Forest inventory data were collected pre-harvest and periodically over 13 years post-harvest. We used mixed effects models with repeated measures to evaluate the effect of treatment on seedling and sapling density and diversity (Shannon–Weiner H’. The treatments were all successful in recruiting a sapling class with significantly greater sapling densities compared to the controls. However, undesirable and prolific beech (Fagus americana sprouting dominates some patches in the understory of all the treatments, creating a high degree of spatial variability in the competitive environment for regeneration. Multivariate analyses suggest that while treatment had a dominant effect, other factors were influential in driving regeneration responses. These results indicate variants of uneven-aged systems that retain or enhance elements of stand structural complexity—including old-growth characteristics

  11. Forest liming increases forest floor carbon and nitrogen stocks in a mixed hardwood forest.

    Melvin, April M; Lichstein, Jeremy W; Goodale, Christine L


    In acid-impacted forests, decreased soil pH and calcium (Ca) availability have the potential to influence biotic and abiotic controls on carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycling. We investigated the effects of liming on above- and belowground C and N pools and fluxes 19 years after lime addition to the Woods Lake Watershed, Adirondack Park, New York, USA. Soil pH and exchangeable Ca remained elevated in the forest floor and upper mineral soil of limed areas. Forest floor C and N stocks were significantly larger in limed plots (68 vs. 31 Mg C/ha, and 3.0 vs. 1.5 Mg N/ha), resulting from a larger mass of Oa material. Liming reduced soil basal respiration rates by 17% and 43% in the Oe and Oa horizons, respectively. Net N mineralization was significantly lower in the limed soils for both forest floor horizons. Additional measurements of forest floor depth outside of our study plots, but within the treatment and control subcatchments also showed a deeper forest floor in limed areas; however, the mean depth of limed forest floor was 5 cm shallower than that observed in our study plots. Using a differential equation model of forest floor C dynamics, we found that liming effects on C fluxes measured within our study plots could explain the small observed increase in the Oe C stock but were not large enough to explain the increase in the Oa. Our catchment-wide assessment of forest floor depth, however, indicates that our plot analysis may be an overestimate of ecosystem-scale C and N stocks. Our results suggest that the mechanisms identified in our study, primarily liming-induced reduction in decomposition rates, may account for much of the observed increase in forest floor C. These findings emphasize the importance of understanding of the effects of liming in hardwood forests, and the long-term impacts of acid deposition on forest C and N uptake and retention.

  12. Bottomland hardwood establishment and avian colonization of reforested sites in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley

    Wilson, R.R.; Twedt, D.J.; Fredrickson, L.H.; King, S.L.; Kaminski, R.M.


    Reforestation of bottomland hardwood sites in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley has markedly increased in recent years, primarily due to financial incentive programs such as the Wetland Reserve Program, Partners for Wildlife Program, and state and private conservation programs. An avian conservation plan for the Mississippi Alluvial Valley proposes returning a substantial area of cropland to forested wetlands. Understanding how birds colonize reforested sites is important to assess the effectiveness of avian conservation. We evaluated establishment of woody species and assessed bird colonization on 89 reforested sites. These reforested sites were primarily planted with heavy-seeded oaks (Quercus spp.) and pecans (Carya illinoensis). Natural invasion of light-seeded species was expected to diversify these forests for wildlife and sustainable timber harvest. Planted tree species averaged 397 + 36 stems/ha-1, whereas naturally invading trees averaged 1675 + 241 stems/ha. However, naturally invading trees were shorter than planted trees and most natural invasion occurred <100 m from an existing forested edge. Even so, planted trees were relatively slow to develop vertical structure, especially when compared with tree species planted and managed for pulpwood production. Slow development of vertical structure resulted in grassland bird species, particularly dickcissel (Spiza americana) and red-winged blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus), being the dominant avian colonizers for the first 7 years post-planting. High priority bird species (as defined by Partners in Flight), such as prothonotary warbler (Protonotaria citrea) and wood thrush (Hylocichla mustelina), were not frequently detected until stands were 15 years old. Canonical correspondence analysis revealed tree height had the greatest influence on the bird communities colonizing reforested sites. Because colonization by forest birds is dependent on tree height, we recommend inclusion of at least one fast-growing tree

  13. Rooting of hardwood cuttings of Roxo de Valinhos fig (Ficus carica L. with different propagation strategies

    Gilmar Antônio Nava


    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the substrate, cuttings collection time, the position and the cutting depth, and the propagation environment on rooting of 'Purple Valinhos' fig tree cuttings in Southwestern Paraná, Brazil. Two experiments were carried out at UTFPR, Câmpus Dois Vizinhos, with hardwoods cuttings from Roxo de Valinhos fig tree. The first experiment used a randomized block design, in 3 x 3 x 2 factorial (substrate x environment x collection time, with four replications of 10 cuttings per plot. The cuttings were collected in the first fifteen days of July and August. The substrates were sand, soil and the mixture of these [1:1 (v / v]. The environments used were open sky, tunnel with plastic cover and tunnel with half-shade black net cover. The second experiment used a randomized block design, 2 x 2 x 3 factorial (shoot cutting position x soil cover x shoot cutting depth, with four replications of 12 cuttings per plot. In the factor position, the vertically (0 º inclination and inclined (45 º inclination shoot cuttings were evaluated. Soil cover was tested with mulching plastic cover or not. The tested depths were 1/3, 1/2 and 2/3 in relation to the total length of the shoot cutting. In both experiments, the following were analyzed: rooting and mortality indices, number of leaves and primary shoots, length of the three largest roots per cutting. It was conclude that, the protected environment with plastic cover on sand as substrate must recommended for the rooting of fig estaca, collecting them in the first half of July. The inclination position and cutting depth of the estaca and the substrate coverage with plastic mulching did not influence the results.

  14. Climate change and the future of natural disturbances in the central hardwood region

    Dale, Virginia H [ORNL; Hughes, M. Joseph [University of Tennessee (UT); Hayes, Daniel J [ORNL


    The spatial patterns and ecological processes of the southeastern upland hardwood forests have evolved to reflect past climatic conditions and natural disturbance regimes. Changes in climate can lead to disturbances that exceed their natural range of variation, and the impacts of these changes will depend on the vulnerability or resiliency of these ecosystems. Global Circulation Models generally project annual increases in temperature across the southeastern United States over the coming decades, but changes in precipitation are less consistent. Even more unclear is how climate change might affect future trends in the severity and frequency of natural disturbances, such as severe storms, fires, droughts, floods, and insect outbreaks. Here, we use a time-series satellite data record to map the spatial pattern and severity of broad classes of natural disturbances the southeast region. The data derived from this map allow analysis of regional-scale trends in natural and anthropogenic disturbances in the region over the last three decades. Throughout the region, between 5% and 25% of forest land is affected by some sort of disturbance each year since 1985. The time series reveals periodic droughts that themselves are widespread and of low severity but are associated with more localized, high-severity disturbances such as fire and insect outbreaks. The map also reveals extensive anthropogenic disturbance across the region in the form of forest conversion related to resource extraction and urban and residential development. We discuss how changes in climate and disturbance regimes might affect southeastern forests in the future via altering the exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity of these ecosystems. Changes in climate are highly likely to expose southeastern forests to more frequent and severe disturbances, but ultimately how vulnerable or resilient southeastern forests are to these changes will depend on their sensitivity and capacity to adapt to these novel

  15. Modeling the Effects of Harvest Alternatives on Mitigating Oak Decline in a Central Hardwood Forest Landscape.

    Wang, Wen J; He, Hong S; Spetich, Martin A; Shifley, Stephen R; Thompson Iii, Frank R; Fraser, Jacob S


    Oak decline is a process induced by complex interactions of predisposing factors, inciting factors, and contributing factors operating at tree, stand, and landscape scales. It has greatly altered species composition and stand structure in affected areas. Thinning, clearcutting, and group selection are widely adopted harvest alternatives for reducing forest vulnerability to oak decline by removing susceptible species and declining trees. However, the long-term, landscape-scale effects of these different harvest alternatives are not well studied because of the limited availability of experimental data. In this study, we applied a forest landscape model in combination with field studies to evaluate the effects of the three harvest alternatives on mitigating oak decline in a Central Hardwood Forest landscape. Results showed that the potential oak decline in high risk sites decreased strongly in the next five decades irrespective of harvest alternatives. This is because oak decline is a natural process and forest succession (e.g., high tree mortality resulting from intense competition) would eventually lead to the decrease in oak decline in this area. However, forest harvesting did play a role in mitigating oak decline and the effectiveness varied among the three harvest alternatives. The group selection and clearcutting alternatives were most effective in mitigating oak decline in the short and medium terms, respectively. The long-term effects of the three harvest alternatives on mitigating oak decline became less discernible as the role of succession increased. The thinning alternative had the highest biomass retention over time, followed by the group selection and clearcutting alternatives. The group selection alternative that balanced treatment effects and retaining biomass was the most viable alternative for managing oak decline. Insights from this study may be useful in developing effective and informed forest harvesting plans for managing oak decline.

  16. Hardwood species classification with DWT based hybrid texture feature extraction techniques

    Arvind R Yadav; R S Anand; M L Dewal; Sangeeta Gupta


    In this work, discrete wavelet transform (DWT) based hybrid texture feature extraction techniques have been used to categorize the microscopic images of hardwood species into 75 different classes. Initially, the DWT has been employed to decompose the image up to 7 levels using Daubechies (db3) wavelet as decomposition filter. Further, first-order statistics (FOS) and four variants of local binary pattern (LBP) descriptors are used to acquire distinct features of these images at various levels. The linear support vector machine (SVM), radial basis function (RBF) kernel SVM and random forest classifiers have been employed for classification. The classification accuracy obtained with state-of-the-art and DWT based hybrid texture features using various classifiers are compared. The DWT based FOS-uniform local binary pattern (DWTFOSLBPu2) texture features at the 4th level of image decomposition have produced best classification accuracy of 97.67 ± 0.79% and 98.40 ± 064% for grayscale and RGB images, respectively, using linear SVM classifier. Reduction in feature dataset by minimal redundancy maximal relevance (mRMR) feature selection method is achieved and the best classification accuracy of 99.00 ± 0.79% and 99.20 ± 0.42% have been obtained for DWT based FOS-LBP histogram Fourier features (DWTFOSLBP-HF) technique at the 5th and 6th levels of image decomposition for grayscale and RGB images, respectively, using linear SVM classifier. The DWTFOSLBP-HF features selected with mRMR method has also established superiority amongst the DWT based hybrid texture feature extraction techniques for randomly divided database into different proportions of training and test datasets.

  17. Modeling the Effects of Harvest Alternatives on Mitigating Oak Decline in a Central Hardwood Forest Landscape.

    Wen J Wang

    Full Text Available Oak decline is a process induced by complex interactions of predisposing factors, inciting factors, and contributing factors operating at tree, stand, and landscape scales. It has greatly altered species composition and stand structure in affected areas. Thinning, clearcutting, and group selection are widely adopted harvest alternatives for reducing forest vulnerability to oak decline by removing susceptible species and declining trees. However, the long-term, landscape-scale effects of these different harvest alternatives are not well studied because of the limited availability of experimental data. In this study, we applied a forest landscape model in combination with field studies to evaluate the effects of the three harvest alternatives on mitigating oak decline in a Central Hardwood Forest landscape. Results showed that the potential oak decline in high risk sites decreased strongly in the next five decades irrespective of harvest alternatives. This is because oak decline is a natural process and forest succession (e.g., high tree mortality resulting from intense competition would eventually lead to the decrease in oak decline in this area. However, forest harvesting did play a role in mitigating oak decline and the effectiveness varied among the three harvest alternatives. The group selection and clearcutting alternatives were most effective in mitigating oak decline in the short and medium terms, respectively. The long-term effects of the three harvest alternatives on mitigating oak decline became less discernible as the role of succession increased. The thinning alternative had the highest biomass retention over time, followed by the group selection and clearcutting alternatives. The group selection alternative that balanced treatment effects and retaining biomass was the most viable alternative for managing oak decline. Insights from this study may be useful in developing effective and informed forest harvesting plans for managing oak

  18. Comparison of photosynthetic damage from arthropod herbivory and pathogen infection in understory hardwood saplings.

    Aldea, Mihai; Hamilton, Jason G; Resti, Joseph P; Zangerl, Arthur R; Berenbaum, May R; Frank, Thomas D; Delucia, Evan H


    Arthropods and pathogens damage leaves in natural ecosystems and may reduce photosynthesis at some distance away from directly injured tissue. We quantified the indirect effects of naturally occurring biotic damage on leaf-level photosystem II operating efficiency (Phi(PSII)) of 11 understory hardwood tree species using chlorophyll fluorescence and thermal imaging. Maps of fluorescence parameters and leaf temperature were stacked for each leaf and analyzed using a multivariate method adapted from the field of quantitative remote sensing. Two tree species, Quercus velutina and Cercis canadensis, grew in plots exposed to ambient and elevated atmospheric CO(2) and were infected with Phyllosticta fungus, providing a limited opportunity to examine the potential interaction of this element of global change and biotic damage on photosynthesis. Areas surrounding damage had depressed Phi(PSII )and increased down-regulation of PSII, and there was no evidence of compensation in the remaining tissue. The depression of Phi(PSII) caused by fungal infections and galls extended >2.5 times further from the visible damage and was approximately 40% more depressed than chewing damage. Areas of depressed Phi(PSII) around fungal infections on oaks growing in elevated CO(2) were more than 5 times larger than those grown in ambient conditions, suggesting that this element of global change may influence the indirect effects of biotic damage on photosynthesis. For a single Q. velutina sapling, the area of reduced Phi(PSII) was equal to the total area directly damaged by insects and fungi. Thus, estimates based only on the direct effect of biotic agents may greatly underestimate their actual impact on photosynthesis.

  19. Sorption of atrazine, acetochlor, and 2,4-D by hardwood-derived biochar

    Gonzalez, J. M.; Shipitalo, M. J.


    Offsite transport of herbicides and other agricultural pesticides to streams and other bodies of water can adversely impact drinking water supplies and aquatic ecology. Atrazine, acetochlor, and 2,4-D are herbicides commonly used to control weeds in maize (Zea mays) and soybean (Glycine max), the dominant crops in the U.S. Midwest. Unfortunately, these materials are frequently detected at high concentrations in surface runoff and subsurface drainage, especially when rainstorms occur shortly after their application. Thus, edge-of-field technologies employing effective sorbents to remove pesticides in water are needed to reduce this concern. In this study, we investigated the sorption of atrazine, acetochlor, and 2,4-D by a hardwood-derived biochar. Sorption kinetics and isotherms were determined for each pesticide using concentrations ranging from 5 to 100 ug L-1. The results from the kinetic sorption studies were fitted to pseudo first- and second-order reaction models and demonstrated that sorption was fast; in less than an hour > 90% of the added pesticides were sorbed and after 24 hours up to 100% was removed. The pH of the suspensions after the sorption kinetic and isotherm studies was 8.26 ± 0.51. Thus, because of the nature of the biochar and the pesticides used in this study, hydrophobic interactions appear to be the main mechanism of sorption. Furthermore, since the sorption was fast, we hypothesize that sorption occurred on the surface of biochar. The information from this study can be used to develop agricultural best management practices to remove pesticides in water.

  20. Mycorrhizal response to experimental pH and P manipulation in acidic hardwood forests.

    Laurel A Kluber

    Full Text Available Many temperate forests of the Northeastern United States and Europe have received significant anthropogenic acid and nitrogen (N deposition over the last century. Although temperate hardwood forests are generally thought to be N-limited, anthropogenic deposition increases the possibility of phosphorus (P limiting productivity in these forest ecosystems. Moreover, inorganic P availability is largely controlled by soil pH and biogeochemical theory suggests that forests with acidic soils (i.e.,

  1. Bio-oil production of softwood and hardwood forest industry residues through fast and intermediate pyrolysis and its chromatographic characterization.

    Torri, Isadora Dalla Vecchia; Paasikallio, Ville; Faccini, Candice Schmitt; Huff, Rafael; Caramão, Elina Bastos; Sacon, Vera; Oasmaa, Anja; Zini, Claudia Alcaraz


    Bio-oils were produced through intermediate (IP) and fast pyrolysis (FP), using Eucalyptus sp. (hardwood) and Picea abies (softwood), wood wastes produced in large scale in Pulp and Paper industries. Characterization of these bio-oils was made using GC/qMS and GC×GC/TOFMS. The use of GC×GC provided a broader characterization of bio-oils and it allowed tracing potential markers of hardwood bio-oil, such as dimethoxy-phenols, which might co-elute in 1D-GC. Catalytic FP increased the percentage of aromatic hydrocarbons in P. abies bio-oil, indicating its potential for fuel production. However, the presence of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) draws attention to the need of a proper management of pyrolysis process in order to avoid the production of toxic compounds and also to the importance of GC×GC/TOFMS use to avoid co-elutions and consequent inaccuracies related to identification and quantification associated with GC/qMS. Ketones and phenols were the major bio-oil compounds and they might be applied to polymer production.

  2. Consequences of landscape patterns on the genetic composition of remnant hardwood stands in the Southeast: A pilot study.

    Godt, Mary Jo, W.; Hamrick, J., L.


    Report of a pilot study intended to generate genetic data for a tree species in fragmented hardwood stands. It was anticipated that this data would permit assessment of the feasibility of long-term genetic research for which external funding support could be generated. A second objective was to initiate studies that addressed fundamental questions of how landscape structure, in conjunction with the population dynamics and reproductive characteristics of the tree species, influences genetic structure and long-term viability of hardwood forest stands on the Savannah River Site and in similar southeastern landscapes. Fragmentation of plant habitats can result in small, genetically isolated populations. Spatial isolation and small population size may have several consequences, including reduced reproduction, increased inbreeding and the stochastic loss of genetic variability. Such losses of genetic and genotypic diversity can reduce plant fitness and may diminish population viability. Deleterious genetic effects resulting from small population sizes can be ameliorated by gene flow via pollen and seed into fragmented populations.

  3. Assessing Site Availability of Aspen and Northern Hardwoods for Potential Feedstock Development in Michigan: A Case Study

    Sara Alian


    Full Text Available The importance of wood and wood byproducts as biomass feedstocks is of increasing interest as a source of ethanol and electricity. Second generation woody feedstock sources in Michigan, e.g., hybrid poplar and hybrid willow (Populus spp., and native forests, particularly aspen and northern hardwoods, are a potential source of woody biomass for these uses. This study provides a geographic information system (GIS framework for assessing the current spatial extent of aspen and northern hardwoods and their proximity to roads. Additionally, the potential for expanding the area of these feedstock sources based on pre-European settlement vegetation cover is assessed. Utilizing GIS technology to compile, edit and analyze available geospatial data (e.g., present day and pre-European settlement land use/cover, soils, road infrastructure, and land ownership for counties located in the eastern half of the Upper Peninsula and northern half of the Lower Peninsula of Michigan provides a robust framework for various management scenarios to be evaluated in a cost effective manner and foster better decision making.

  4. Understanding the relationships between American ginseng harvest and hardwood forests inventory and timber harvest to improve co-management of the forests of eastern United States

    James L. Chamberlain; Stephen Prisley; Michael McGuffin


    The roots of American ginseng have been harvested from the hardwood forests of eastern United States, along-side timber, since the mid-1700s. Very little is known about this non-timber commodity relative to timber, although significant volumes of ginseng root have been harvested from the same forests along with timber. The harvest of ginseng correlated positively and...

  5. Stand response of 16-year-old upland hardwood regeneration to crop-tree release on a medium quality site in the Southern Appalachians after 24 years

    W. Henry. McNab


    A crop tree release was made in a 16-year-old upland hardwood stand on a medium-quality site using one of two treatments: mechanical or chemical. After 24 years there was no significant difference in stand response between the two treatments as measured by mean increase in stand diameter, basal area, total height, height to base of live...

  6. Changes in Organic Matter And Nutrients in Forest Floor After Applying Several Reproductive Cutting Methods in Shortleaf Pine-Hardwood Stands

    Hal O. Liechty; Michael G. Shelton


    Abstract - This study was initiated to determine the effects of various regeneration cutting methods on forest floor mass and nutrient content in shortleaf pine-hardwood communities in the Ouachita and Ozark National Forests. Clearcutting generally altered forest floor concentrations of N, P, and S as well as loss on ignition by increasing the amount...

  7. Developing a unified monitoring and reporting system: a key to successful restoration of mixed-oak forests throughout the central hardwood region

    Daniel A. Yaussy; Gregory J. Nowacki; Thomas M. Schuler; Daniel C. Dey; Eugene J. DeGayner


    Many national forests and grasslands in the Central Hardwoods region of the United States recently have undergone Land Management Plan revision, which include management areas that promote restoration through a variety of management activities. Monitoring is a vital component of adaptive management whereby the effects from a variety of treatments (including controls)...

  8. Evaluation of regeneration potential of Pinus koraiensis in mixed pine-hardwood forests in the Xiao Xing'an Mountains, China

    LI Yun-bin; MOU Pu; WANG Tian-ming; GE Jianping


    Large scale harvest of Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis) seeds as a food product in the mixed Korean pine-hardwood forest of northeastern China poses a serious threat to the sustainability and restoration of this endangered regional ecosystem.Seed collection over past decades greatly reduced the seed bank and subsequent seedling and sapling recruitment,and impacting a wide array of granivorous animals that rely on the pine seeds.We surveyed Korean pine seeds,including solid seeds (SS),insect consumed seeds (ICS) and other (animal) consumed (OCS)kernels,of the seed bank (forest floor and the top 10 cm of mineral soil),the seedlings and saplings from 1 m2 sample plots in five forest types in Liangshui Nature Reserve (LNR) of the southern Xiao Xing'an Mountains in northeastern China to provide accurate information for assessing the Korean pine regeneration potential.The average number of pine seeds in the seed bank were 11.2 seeds/m2,9.1 seeds/m2,4.6 seeds/m2,1.1 seeds/m2,and 0.2 seeds/m2 in Korean pine-basswood forest,mixed Korean pine-hardwood forest,mixed conifer-hardwood forest,white birch forests,and oak forests,respectively.In the first three forest types,percentages of SS (potentially viable seeds) were 11.2%,3.5% and 27.8%,respectively.The percentages of ICS (not viable seeds) were consistent at around 35%.The higher but variable percentages of OCS (not viable seeds) indicated high seed predation in these forests.Compared with other studies,we recorded higher percentages of seed damage,probably due to our survey approach and the increased depth of seed bank sampled in our study.Depletion of pine seeds in the seed bank greatly reduced seedling and sapling recruitment.Densities of pine seedlings varied from about 180 trees/ha in the mixed Korean pine-hardwood forest to about 5,400 trees/ha in the mixed conifer-hardwood forests and showed a high degree of spatial variation.Saplings were rare in the mixed Korean pine-hardwood forest,but ranged in the

  9. Nitrogen immobilization by wood-chip application: Protecting water quality in a northern hardwood forest

    Homyak, P.M.; Yanai, R.D.; Burns, Douglas A.; Briggs, R.D.; Germain, R.H.


    Forest harvesting disrupts the nitrogen cycle, which may affect stream water quality by increasing nitrate concentrations, reducing pH and acid neutralizing capacity, and mobilizing aluminum and base cations. We tested the application of wood chips derived from logging slash to increase immobilization of N after harvesting, which should reduce nitrate flux to streams. In August 2004, a stand of northern hardwoods was patch-clearcut in the Catskill Mountains, NY, and four replicates of three treatments were implemented in five 0.2-ha cut patches. Wood chips were applied to the soil surface at a rate equivalent to the amount of slash smaller than eight inches in diameter (1?? treatment). A second treatment doubled that rate (2??), and a third treatment received no chips (0??). Additionally, three uncut reference plots were established in nearby forested areas. Ion exchange resin bags and soil KCl-extractions were used to monitor nitrate availability in the upper 5-10 cm of soil approximately every seven weeks, except in winter. Resin bags indicated that the wood chips retained 30% or 42% of the nitrate pulse, while for KCl extracts, the retention rate was 78% or 100% of the difference between 0?? and uncut plots. During the fall following harvest, wood-chip treated plots had resin bag soil nitrate concentrations about 25% of those in 0?? plots (p = 0.0001). In the first growing season after the cut, nitrate concentrations in wood-chip treated plots for KCl extracts were 13% of those in 0?? treatments (p = 0.03) in May and about half those in 0?? treatments (p = 0.01) in July for resin bags. During spring snowmelt, however, nitrate concentrations were high and indistinguishable among treatments, including the uncut reference plots for resin bags and below detection limit for KCl extracts. Wood chips incubated in litterbags had an initial C:N of 125:1, which then decreased to 70:1 after one year of field incubation. These changes in C:N values indicate that the wood

  10. Foraging behavior of pileated woodpeckers in partial cut and uncut bottomland hardwood forest

    Newell, P.; King, Sammy L.; Kaller, Michael D.


    In bottomland hardwood forests, partial cutting techniques are increasingly advocated and used to create habitat for priority wildlife like Louisiana black bear (Ursus americanus luteolus), white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), and Neotropical migrants. Although partial cutting may be beneficial to some species, those that use dead wood may be negatively affected since large diameter and poor quality trees (deformed, moribund, or dead) are rare, but normally targeted for removal. On the other hand, partial cutting can create dead wood if logging slash is left on-site. We studied foraging behavior of pileated woodpeckers (Dryocopus pileatus) in one- and two-year-old partial cuts designed to benefit priority species and in uncut forest during winter, spring, and summer of 2006 and 2007 in Louisiana. Males and females did not differ in their use of tree species, dbh class, decay class, foraging height, use of foraging tactics or substrate types; however, males foraged on larger substrates than females. In both partial cut and uncut forest, standing live trees were most frequently used (83% compared to 14% for standing dead trees and 3% for coarse woody debris); however, dead trees were selected (i.e. used out of proportion to availability). Overcup oak (Quercus lyrata) and bitter pecan (Carya aquatica) were also selected and sugarberry (Celtis laevigata) avoided. Pileated woodpeckers selected trees >= 50 cm dbh and avoided trees in smaller dbh classes (10-20 cm). Density of selected foraging substrates was the same in partial cut and uncut forest. Of the foraging substrates, woodpeckers spent 54% of foraging time on live branches and boles, 37% on dead branches and boles, and 9% on vines. Of the foraging tactics, the highest proportion of foraging time was spent excavating (58%), followed by pecking (14%), gleaning (14%), scaling (7%), berry-eating (4%), and probing (3%). Woodpecker use of foraging tactics and substrates, and foraging height and substrate

  11. Silica uptake and release in live and decaying biomass in a northern hardwood forest.

    Clymans, Wim; Conley, Daniel J; Battles, John J; Frings, Patrick J; Koppers, Mary Margaret; Likens, Gene E; Johnson, Chris E


    In terrestrial ecosystems, a large portion (20-80%) of the dissolved Si (DSi) in soil solution has passed through vegetation. While the importance of this "terrestrial Si filter" is generally accepted, few data exist on the pools and fluxes of Si in forest vegetation and the rate of release of Si from decomposing plant tissues. We quantified the pools and fluxes of Si through vegetation and coarse woody debris (CWD) in a northern hardwood forest ecosystem (Watershed 6, W6) at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest (HBEF) in New Hampshire, USA. Previous work suggested that the decomposition of CWD may have significantly contributed to an excess of DSi reported in stream-waters following experimental deforestation of Watershed 2 (W2) at the HBEF. We found that woody biomass (wood + bark) and foliage account for approximately 65% and 31%, respectively, of the total Si in biomass at the HBEF. During the decay of American beech (Fagus grandifolia) boles, Si loss tracked the whole-bole mass loss, while yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis) and sugar maple (Acer saccharum) decomposition resulted in a preferential Si retention of up to 30% after 16 yr. A power-law model for the changes in wood and bark Si concentrations during decomposition, in combination with an exponential model for whole-bole mass loss, successfully reproduced Si dynamics in decaying boles. Our data suggest that a minimum of 50% of the DSi annually produced in the soil of a biogeochemical reference watershed (W6) derives from biogenic Si (BSi) dissolution. The major source is fresh litter, whereas only ~2% comes from the decay of CWD. Decay of tree boles could only account for 9% of the excess DSi release observed following the experimental deforestation of W2. Therefore, elevated DSi concentrations after forest disturbance are largely derived from other sources (e.g., dissolution of BSi from forest floor soils and/or mineral weathering). © 2016 The Authors. Ecology, published by Wiley Periodicals

  12. Functional diversity response to hardwood forest management varies across taxa and spatial scales.

    Murray, Bryan D; Holland, Jeffrey D; Summerville, Keith S; Dunning, John B; Saunders, Michael R; Jenkins, Michael A


    Contemporary forest management offers a trade-off between the potential positive effects of habitat heterogeneity on biodiversity, and the potential harm to mature-forest communities caused by habitat loss and perforation of the forest canopy. While the response of taxonomic diversity to forest management has received a great deal of scrutiny, the response of functional diversity is largely unexplored. However, functional diversity may represent a more direct link between biodiversity and ecosystem function. To examine how forest management affects diversity at multiple spatial scales, we analyzed a long-term dataset that captured changes in taxonomic and functional diversity of moths (Lepidoptera), longhorned beetles (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), and breeding birds in response to contemporary silvicultural systems in oak-hickory hardwood forests. We used these datasets to address the following questions: how do even- and uneven-aged silvicultural systems affect taxonomic and functional diversity at the scale of managed landscapes compared to the individual harvested and unharvested forest patches that comprise the landscapes, and how do these silvicultural systems affect the functional similarity of assemblages at the scale of managed landscapes and patches? Due to increased heterogeneity within landscapes, we expected even-aged silviculture to increase and uneven-aged silviculture to decrease functional diversity at the landscape level regardless of impacts at the patch level. Functional diversity responses were taxon-specific with respect to the direction of change and time since harvest. Responses were also consistent across patch and landscape levels within each taxon. Moth assemblage species richness, functional richness, and functional divergence were negatively affected by harvesting, with stronger effects resulting from uneven-aged than even-aged management. Longhorned beetle assemblages exhibited a peak in species richness two years after harvesting, while

  13. Chemical characteristics and enzymatic saccharification of lignocellulosic biomass treated using high-temperature saturated steam: comparison of softwood and hardwood.

    Asada, Chikako; Sasaki, Chizuru; Hirano, Takeshi; Nakamura, Yoshitoshi


    This study investigated the effect of high-temperature saturated steam treatments on the chemical characteristics and enzymatic saccharification of softwood and hardwood. The weight loss and chemical modification of cedar and beech wood pieces treated at 25, 35, and 45 atm for 5 min were determined. Fourier transform infrared and X-ray diffraction analyses indicated that solubilization and removal of hemicellulose and lignin occurred by the steam treatment. The milling treatment of steam-treated wood enhanced its enzymatic saccharification. Maximum enzymatic saccharification (i.e., 94% saccharification rate of cellulose) was obtained using steam-treated beech at 35 atm for 5 min followed by milling treatment for 1 min. However, the necessity of the milling treatment for efficient enzymatic saccharification is dependent on the wood species.


    Mun'aim Idrus


    Full Text Available In this study the tropical light hardwood species jelutong (Dyera costulata, terbulan (Endospermum diadenum, batai (Paraserianthes moluccana, rubberwood (Hevea brasiliensis, and pulai (Alstonia pneumatophora were treated with benzene diazonium salt to improve their dynamic Young’s modulus (Ed, and thermal stability. Benzine diazonium salt reacted with cellulose in wood and produced 2,6-diazocellulose by a coupling reaction, as confirmed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy. Values of Ed were calculated from the free-free flexural vibration method and found to increase on treatment. The morphological properties were studied by FTIR and scanning electron microscopy (SEM and found to be changed. Thermal properties of treated wood samples were evaluated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. The treated wood samples exhibited an increased thermal stability relative to the untreated wood samples; this increase may be related to the formation of 2, 6-diazo cellulose compound.

  15. Subfossil leaves reveal a new upland hardwood component of the pre-European Piedmont landscape,Lancaster County, Pennsylvania.

    Sara J Elliott

    Full Text Available Widespread deforestation, agriculture, and construction of milldams by European settlers greatly influenced valley-bottom stream morphology and riparian vegetation in the northeastern USA. The former broad, tussock-sedge wetlands with small, anastomosing channels were converted into today's incised, meandering streams with unstable banks that support mostly weedy, invasive vegetation. Vast accumulations of fine-grained "legacy" sediments that blanket the regional valley-bottom Piedmont landscape now are being reworked from stream banks, significantly impairing the ecological health of downstream water bodies, most notably the Chesapeake Bay. However, potential restoration is impaired by lack of direct knowledge of the pre-settlement riparian and upslope floral ecosystems. We studied the subfossil leaf flora of Denlingers Mill, an obsolete (breached milldam site in southeastern Pennsylvania that exhibits a modern secondary forest growing atop thin soils, above bedrock outcrops immediately adjacent to a modified, incised stream channel. Presumably, an overhanging old-growth forest also existed on this substrate until the early 1700s and was responsible for depositing exceptionally preserved, minimally transported subfossil leaves into hydric soil strata, which immediately underlie post-European settlement legacy sediments. We interpret the eleven identified species of the subfossil assemblage to primarily represent a previously unknown, upland Red Oak-American Beech mixed hardwood forest. Some elements also appear to belong to a valley-margin Red Maple-Black Ash swamp forest, consistent with preliminary data from a nearby site. Thus, our results add significantly to a more complete understanding of the pre-European settlement landscape, especially of the hardwood tree flora. Compared with the modern forest, it is apparent that both lowland and upslope forests in the region have been modified significantly by historical activities. Our study

  16. Observations of reactive nitrogen oxide fluxes by eddy covariance above two mid-latitude North American mixed hardwood forests

    J. A. Geddes


    Full Text Available Significant knowledge gaps persist in the understanding of forest–atmosphere exchange of reactive nitrogen oxides, partly due to a lack of direct observations. Chemical transport models require representations of dry deposition over a variety of land surface types, and the role of canopy exchange of NOx (= NO + NO2 is highly uncertain. Biosphere–atmosphere exchange of NOx and NOy (= NOx + HNO3 + PANs + RONO2 + pNO3− + ... was measured by eddy covariance above a mixed hardwood forest in central Ontario (HFWR, and a mixed hardwood forest in northern lower Michigan (PROPHET during the summers of 2011 and 2012 respectively. NOx and NOy mixing ratios were measured by a custom built two-channel analyzer based on chemiluminescence, with selective NO2 conversion via LED photolysis and NOy conversion via a hot molybdenum converter. Consideration of interferences from water and O3, and random uncertainty of the calculated fluxes are discussed. NOy flux observations were predominantly of deposition at both locations. The magnitude of deposition scaled with NOy mixing ratios, resulting in campaign-average deposition velocities close to 0.6 cm s−1 at both locations. A~period of highly polluted conditions (NOy concentrations up to 18 ppb showed distinctly different flux characteristics than the rest of the campaign. Integrated daily average NOy flux was 0.14 mg (N m−2 day−1 and 0.34 mg (N m−2 day−1 at HFWR and PROPHET respectively. Concurrent wet deposition measurements were used to estimate the contributions of dry deposition to total reactive nitrogen oxide inputs, found to be 22% and 40% at HFWR and PROPHET, respectively.

  17. Disturbance history and tree establishment in old-growth Pinus koraiensis hardwood forests in the Russian Far East

    Ishikawa, Yukio [Senshu Univ., Bibai (Japan). Dept. of Forestry and Landscape Architecture; Krestov, Pavel [Inst. of Biology and Pedology, Vladivostok (Russian Federation). Lab. of Geobotany; Namikawa, Kanji [Hokkaido Univ. of Education, Sapporo (Japan). Sapporo College, Biological Lab.


    Dendro-ecological studies were undertaken to document the disturbance history in two old-growth mixed Pinus koraiensis hardwood forests in the southern part of the Sikhote-Alin mountains in the Russian Far East. Establishment of four common canopy conifers, Abies holophylla, A. nephrolepis, P. koraiensis and Picea ajanensis, and three common canopy hardwoods, Acer mono, Betula costata and Tilia amurensis, were also inferred from population age structures and spatial dispersion patterns. Growth releases on increment cores suggested that peak periods of growth releases indicating partial canopy disturbances have repeatedly occurred over the past 230 yr at intervals from ca. 35 to 100 yr. Slight releases and suppressions other than the peak releases occurred in many years of both histories, suggesting the formation of smaller-scale canopy gaps. Despite the predominance of anthropogenic fires in Primorskiy Kray at present, destructive fires had not affected either forest. Wind disturbances and low intensity fires are likely factors controlling the dynamics of the forests. Under the disturbance regime, P. koraiensis has maintained its populations through its dependence on canopy gaps for establishment. Age distribution and gap dependence of P. ajanensis, A. nephrolepis and A. mono suggested continuous establishment of these species under a closed canopy, whereas occasional establishment of T. amurensis was derived largely from vegetative reproduction. Restricted establishment of A. holophylla and B. costata suggested a variety in kinds of disturbance throughout the histories. Continuous habitation of the study area by P. koraiensis is likely under the disturbance regime without destructive fires 59 refs, 3 figs, 4 tabs

  18. Extraction and estimation of the quantity of calcium oxalate crystals in the foliage of conifer and hardwood trees.

    Minocha, Rakesh; Chamberlain, Bradley; Long, Stephanie; Turlapati, Swathi A; Quigley, Gloria


    The main goal of this study was to develop a method for the extraction and indirect estimation of the quantity of calcium oxalate (CaOx) in the foliage of trees. Foliar tissue was collected from a single tree of each species (five conifers and five hardwoods) for comparison of extractions in different solvents using 10 replicates per species from the same pool of tissue. For each species, calcium (Ca) and oxalate were extracted sequentially in double deionized water and 2N acetic acid, and finally, five replicate samples were extracted in 5% (0.83N) perchloric acid (PCA) and the other five in 2N hydrochloric acid (HCl); three cycles of freezing and thawing were used for each solvent. Total ions were extracted by microwave digestion. Calcium was quantified with an inductively coupled plasma emission spectrophotometer method and oxalate was eluted and quantified using a high performance liquid chromatography method. This experiment was repeated again with two conifer and two hardwood species using four trees per species, and two analytical replicates for each tree. We report here that, regardless of age of individual trees within a species, time of collection or species type, the third extraction in PCA or HCl resulted in near equimolar quantities of Ca and oxalate (r(2) ≥ 0.99). This method provides an easy estimate of the quantity of CaOx crystals using a small sample of foliar tissue. An additional benefit of PCA is that it precipitates the nucleic acids and proteins, allowing the quantification of several free/soluble metabolites such as amino acids, polyamines, organic acids and inorganic elements all from a single sample extract.

  19. Quantifying the Role of Bottomland Hardwood Forest Flood Attenuation in the Central U.S

    Hubbart, J. A.; Bulliner, E. A.; Freeman, G. W.; Scollan, D. P.; Romine, J.; Chinnasamy, P.; Huang, D.; Schulz, J.


    Contemporary floodplain management is a growing concern, particularly in regions where climate change predictions include increased precipitation such as the central U.S. and Missouri. Historically, bottomland hardwood forests (BHF) played a significant role in runoff and flood attenuation. However, most of the floodplain BHF in Missouri was removed in the 19th and 20th centuries to cultivate the rich underlying soils. In many instances, BHF conversion required the installation of drainage and flood control structures, such as drainage tiles, ditches, levees, and dams. Many stream and river channels were straightened and enlarged to further reduce flooding. Structural changes, coupled with changes in vegetation and soils, drastically altered the hydrology of streams, floodplains, and the remnant BHF. Today, century-old management practices are coming under scrutiny in the Midwest in terms of management efficacy in contemporary urbanizing watersheds. Therefore, work is being conducted in central Missouri to quantify current floodplain flow attenuation of a 303(d) listed impaired urban stream. Instrumentation was installed in lower reaches of the Hinkson Creek Watershed (230km2) in the spring of 2010 in a case study comparing a remnant BHF and an abandoned agricultural floodplain site using replicated study designs. Instrumentation includes two 80 m2 grids of nine equally spaced four meter deep piezometers to monitor groundwater flow and volumetric water content (VWC) sensor profiles that monitor VWC at 15, 30, 50, 75 and 100 cm depth. Grids were enlarged to 120 m2 to measure leaf area index (LAI), surface infiltration capacity with double ring infiltrometers, and soil characteristics. Soil characteristics were quantified by extracting soil cores at soil depths of 0, 15, 30, 50, 75 and 100 cm (n = 302). LAI in the BHF was on average 3.06 (SD = 0.65, min = 1.31, max = 4.38, n = 42). Preliminary analysis indicates that average infiltration capacity is 44 cm/hr (SD = 38

  20. Improved Wood Properties Through Genetic Manipulation: Engineering of Syringyl Lignin in Softwood Species Through Xylem-Specific Expression of Hardwood Syringyl Monolignol Pathway Genes

    Chandrashekhar P. Joshi; Vincent L. Chiang


    Project Objective: Our long-term goal is to genetically engineer higher value raw materials with desirable wood properties to promote energy efficiency, international competitiveness, and environmental responsiveness of the U.S. forest products industry. The immediate goal of this project was to produce the first higher value softwood raw materials engineered with a wide range of syringyl lignin quantities. Summary: The most important wood property affecting directly the levels of energy, chemical and bleaching requirements for kraft pulp production is lignin. Softwoods contain almost exclusively chemically resistant guaiacyl (G) lignin, whereas hardwoods have more reactive or easily degradable lignins of the guaiacyl (G)-syringyl (S) type. It is also well established that the reactive S lignin component is the key factor that permits much lower effective alkali and temperature, shorter pulping time and less bleaching stages for processing hardwoods than for softwoods. Furthermore, our pulping kinetic study explicitly demonstrated that every increase in one unit of the lignin S/G ratio would roughly double the rate of lignin removal. These are clear evidence that softwoods genetically engineered with S lignin are keys to revolutionizing the energy efficiency and enhancing the environmental performance of this industry. Softwoods and hardwoods share the same genetic mechanisms for the biosynthesis of G lignin. However, in hardwoods, three additional genes branch out from the G-lignin pathway and become specifically engaged in regulating S lignin biosynthesis. In this research, we simultaneously transferred aspen S-specific genes into a model softwood, black spruce, to engineer S lignin.

  1. Effects of Repeated Growing Season Prescribed Fire on the Structure and Composition of Pine–Hardwood Forests in the Southeastern Piedmont, USA

    Matthew J. Reilly


    Full Text Available We examined the effects of repeated growing season prescribed fire on the structure and composition of mixed pine–hardwood forests in the southeastern Piedmont region, Georgia, USA. Plots were burned two to four times over an eight-year period with low intensity surface fires during one of four six-week long periods from early April to mid-September. Density of saplings (0.25–11.6 cm diameter at breast height was significantly reduced after one or two fires during the first four-year period. Sapling density declined with additional burning over the next four years, but density of mesic hardwoods including sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua and red maple (Acer rubrum remained relatively high (~865 stems ha−1. Repeated burning had little effect on density or basal area of trees (≥11.7 cm dbh and changes in overstory structure were limited to small increases in the quadratic mean diameter of all trees and pines. We found little evidence to suggest differential effects on structure or composition due to timing of burn within the growing season. Although repeated growing season burning alters midstory structure and composition, burning alone is unlikely to result in immediate shifts in overstory composition or structure in mixed pine–hardwood forests of the southeastern Piedmont region.

  2. Grubbing by wild boars (Sus scrofa L.) and its impact on hardwood forest soil carbon dioxide emissions in Switzerland.

    Risch, Anita C; Wirthner, Sven; Busse, Matt D; Page-Dumroese, Deborah S; Schütz, Martin


    Interest in soil C storage and release has increased in recent years. In addition to factors such as climate/land-use change, vertebrate animals can have a considerable impact on soil CO(2) emissions. To date, most research has considered herbivores, while the impact of omnivorous animals has rarely been investigated. Our goal was to determine how European wild boars (Sus scrofa L.), large omnivores that consume soil-inhabiting animals and belowground plant parts by grubbing in the soil, affect soil C dynamics. We measured soil respiration (CO(2)), temperature, and moisture on paired grubbed and non-grubbed plots in six hardwood forest stands for a 3-year period and sampled fine root and microbial biomass at the beginning and after 2 years of the study. We also measured the percentage of freshly disturbed forest soil within the larger surroundings of each stand and used this information together with hunting statistics and forest cover data to model the total amount of CO(2) released from Swiss forest soils due to grubbing during 1 year. Soil CO(2) emissions were significantly higher on grubbed compared to non-grubbed plots during the study. On average 23.1% more CO(2) was released from these plots, which we associated with potential alterations in CO(2) diffusion rates, incorporation of litter into the mineral soil and higher fine root/microbial biomass. Thus, wild boars considerably increased the small-scale heterogeneity of soil properties. Roughly 1% of Switzerland's surface area is similar to our sites (boar density/forest cover). Given the range of forest soil disturbance of 27-54% at our sites, the geographic information system model predicted that boar grubbing would lead to the release of an additional 49,731.10-98,454.74 t CO(2) year(-1). These values are relatively small compared to total soil emissions estimated for Swiss hardwood forests and suggest that boars will have little effect on large-scale emissions unless their numbers increase and their

  3. Observations of reactive nitrogen oxide fluxes by eddy covariance above two midlatitude North American mixed hardwood forests

    Geddes, J. A.; Murphy, J. G.


    Significant knowledge gaps persist in the understanding of forest-atmosphere exchange of reactive nitrogen oxides, partly due to a lack of direct observations. Chemical transport models require representations of dry deposition over a variety of land surface types, and the role of canopy exchange of NOx (= NO + NO2) is highly uncertain. Biosphere-atmosphere exchange of NOx and NOy (= NOx + HNO3 + PANs + RONO2 + pNO3- + ...) was measured by eddy covariance above a mixed hardwood forest in central Ontario (Haliburton Forest and Wildlife Reserve, or HFWR), and a mixed hardwood forest in northern lower Michigan (Program for Research on Oxidants: Photochemistry, Emissions and Transport, or PROPHET) during the summers of 2011 and 2012 respectively. NOx and NOy mixing ratios were measured by a custom-built two-channel analyser based on chemiluminescence, with selective NO2 conversion via LED photolysis and NOy conversion via a hot molybdenum converter. Consideration of interferences from water vapour and O3, and random uncertainty of the calculated fluxes are discussed. NOy flux observations were predominantly of deposition at both locations. In general, the magnitude of deposition scaled with NOy mixing ratios. Average midday (12:00-16:00) deposition velocities at HFWR and PROPHET were 0.20 ± 0.25 and 0.67 ± 1.24 cm s-1 respectively. Average nighttime (00:00-04:00) deposition velocities were 0.09 ± 0.25 cm s-1 and 0.08 ± 0.16 cm s-1 respectively. At HFWR, a period of highly polluted conditions (NOy concentrations up to 18 ppb) showed distinctly different flux characteristics than the rest of the campaign. Integrated daily average NOy flux was -0.14 mg (N) m-2 day-1 and -0.34 mg (N) m-2 day-1 (net deposition) at HFWR and PROPHET respectively. Concurrent wet deposition measurements were used to estimate the contributions of dry deposition to total reactive nitrogen oxide inputs, found to be 22 and 40% at HFWR and PROPHET respectively.

  4. Fine roots are the dominant source of recalcitrant plant litter in sugar maple-dominated northern hardwood forests.

    Xia, Mengxue; Talhelm, Alan F; Pregitzer, Kurt S


    Most studies of forest litter dynamics examine the biochemical characteristics and decomposition of leaf litter, but fine roots are also a large source of litter in forests. We quantified the concentrations of eight biochemical fractions and nitrogen (N) in leaf litter and fine roots at four sugar maple (Acer saccharum)-dominated hardwood forests in the north-central United States. We combined these results with litter production data to estimate ecosystem biochemical fluxes to soil. We also compared how leaf litter and fine root biochemistry responded to long-term simulated N deposition. Compared with leaf litter, fine roots contained 2.9-fold higher acid-insoluble fraction (AIF) and 2.3-fold more condensed tannins; both are relatively difficult to decompose. Comparatively, leaf litter had greater quantities of more labile components: nonstructural carbohydrates, cellulose and soluble phenolics. At an ecosystem scale, fine roots contributed over two-thirds of the fluxes of AIF and condensed tannins to soil. Fine root biochemistry was also less responsive than leaf litter to long-term simulated N deposition. Fine roots were the dominant source of difficult-to-decompose plant carbon fractions entering the soil at our four study sites. Based on our synthesis of the literature, this pattern appears to be widespread in boreal and temperate forests.

  5. A heat wave during leaf expansion severely reduces productivity and modifies seasonal growth patterns in a northern hardwood forest.

    Stangler, Dominik Florian; Hamann, Andreas; Kahle, Hans-Peter; Spiecker, Heinrich


    A useful approach to monitor tree response to climate change and environmental extremes is the recording of long-term time series of stem radial variations obtained with precision dendrometers. Here, we study the impact of environmental stress on seasonal growth dynamics and productivity of yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis Britton) and sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) in the Great Lakes, St Lawrence forest region of Ontario. Specifically, we research the effects of a spring heat wave in 2010, and a summer drought in 2012 that occurred during the 2005-14 study period. We evaluated both growth phenology (onset, cessation, duration of radial growth, time of maximum daily growth rate) and productivity (monthly and seasonal average growth rates, maximum daily growth rate, tree-ring width) and tested for differences and interactions among species and years. Productivity of sugar maple was drastically compromised by a 3-day spring heat wave in 2010 as indicated by low growth rates, very early growth cessation and a lagged growth onset in the following year. Sugar maple also responded more sensitively than yellow birch to a prolonged drought period in July 2012, but final tree-ring width was not significantly reduced due to positive responses to above-average temperatures in the preceding spring. We conclude that sugar maple, a species that currently dominates northern hardwood forests, is vulnerable to heat wave disturbances during leaf expansion, which might occur more frequently under anticipated climate change.

  6. Technical assessment of forest road network using Backmund and surface distribution algorithm in a hardwood forest of Hyrcanian zone

    Parsakhoo, P.


    Aim of study: Corrected Backmund and Surface Distribution Algorithms (SDA) for analysis of forest road network are introduced and presented in this study. Research was carried out to compare road network performance between two districts in a hardwood forest. Area of study: Shast Kalateh forests, Iran. Materials and methods: In uncorrected Backmund algorithm, skidding distance was determined by calculating road density and spacing and then it was designed as Potential Area for Skidding Operations (PASO) in ArcGIS software. To correct this procedure, the skidding constraint areas were taken using GPS and then removed from PASO. In SDA, shortest perpendicular distance from geometrical center of timber compartments to road was measured at both districts. Main results: In corrected Backmund, forest openness in district I and II were 70.3% and 69.5%, respectively. Therefore, there was little difference in forest openness in the districts based on the uncorrected Backmund. In SDA, the mean distance from geometrical center of timber compartments to the roads of districts I and II were 199.45 and 149.31 meters, respectively. Forest road network distribution in district II was better than that of district I relating to SDA. Research highlights: It was concluded that uncorrected Backmund was not precise enough to assess forest road network, while corrected Backmund could exhibit a real PASO by removing skidding constraints. According to presented algorithms, forest road network performance in district II was better than district I. (Author)

  7. Mutants of the pentose-fermenting yeast Pachysolen tannophilus tolerant to hardwood spent sulfite liquor and acetic acid.

    Harner, Nicole K; Bajwa, Paramjit K; Habash, Marc B; Trevors, Jack T; Austin, Glen D; Lee, Hung


    A strain development program was initiated to improve the tolerance of the pentose-fermenting yeast Pachysolen tannophilus to inhibitors in lignocellulosic hydrolysates. Several rounds of UV mutagenesis followed by screening were used to select for mutants of P. tannophilus NRRL Y2460 with improved tolerance to hardwood spent sulfite liquor (HW SSL) and acetic acid in separate selection lines. The wild type (WT) strain grew in 50 % (v/v) HW SSL while third round HW SSL mutants (designated UHW301, UHW302 and UHW303) grew in 60 % (v/v) HW SSL, with two of these isolates (UHW302 and UHW303) being viable and growing, respectively, in 70 % (v/v) HW SSL. In defined liquid media containing acetic acid, the WT strain grew in 0.70 % (w/v) acetic acid, while third round acetic acid mutants (designated UAA301, UAA302 and UAA303) grew in 0.80 % (w/v) acetic acid, with one isolate (UAA302) growing in 0.90 % (w/v) acetic acid. Cross-tolerance of HW SSL-tolerant mutants to acetic acid and vice versa was observed with UHW303 able to grow in 0.90 % (w/v) acetic acid and UAA302 growing in 60 % (v/v) HW SSL. The UV-induced mutants retained the ability to ferment glucose and xylose to ethanol in defined media. These mutants of P. tannophilus are of considerable interest for bioconversion of the sugars in lignocellulosic hydrolysates to ethanol.

  8. Host plant phenology affects performance of an invasive weevil, Phyllobius oblongus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), in a northern hardwood forest.

    Coyle, David R; Jordan, Michelle S; Raffa, Kenneth F


    We investigated how host plant phenology and plant species affected longevity, reproduction, and feeding behavior of an invasive weevil. Phyllobius oblongus L. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is common in northern hardwood forests of the Great Lakes Region. Adults emerge in spring, feed on foliage of woody understory plants, and oviposit in the soil. Preliminary data indicate that adults often feed on sugar maple, Acer saccharum Marshall, foliage early in the season, then feed on other species such as raspberry, Rubus spp. Whether this behavior reflects temporal changes in the quality of A. saccharum tissue or merely subsequent availability of later-season plants is unknown. We tested adult P. oblongus in laboratory assays using young (newly flushed) sugar maple foliage, old (2-3 wk postflush) sugar maple foliage, and raspberry foliage. Raspberry has indeterminate growth, thus always has young foliage available for herbivores. Survival, oviposition, and leaf consumption were recorded. In performance assays under no-choice conditions, mated pairs were provided one type of host foliage for the duration of their lives. In behavioral choice tests, all three host plants were provided simultaneously and leaf area consumption was compared. Adults survived longer on and consumed greater amounts of young maple and raspberry foliage than old maple foliage. P. oblongus preferred young maple foliage to old maple foliage early in the season, however, later in the growing season weevils showed less pronounced feeding preferences. These results suggest how leaf phenology, plant species composition, and feeding plasticity in host utilization may interact to affect P. oblongus population dynamics.

  9. Optimization study of ethanolic fermentation from oil palm trunk, rubberwood and mixed hardwood hydrolysates using Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Chin, K L; H'ng, P S; Wong, L J; Tey, B T; Paridah, M T


    Ethanolic fermentation using Saccharomyces cerevisiae was carried out on three types of hydrolysates produced from lignocelulosic biomass which are commonly found in Malaysia such as oil palm trunk, rubberwood and mixed hardwood. The effect of fermentation temperature and pH of hydrolysate was evaluated to optimize the fermentation efficiency which defined as maximum ethanol yield in minimum fermentation time. The fermentation process using different temperature of 25 degrees Celsius, 30 degrees Celsius and 40 degrees Celsius were performed on the prepared fermentation medium adjusted to pH 4, pH 6 and pH 7, respectively. Results showed that the fermentation time was significantly reduced with the increase of temperature but an adverse reduction in ethanol yield was observed using temperature of 40 degrees Celsius. As the pH of hydrolysate became more acidic, the ethanol yield increased. Optimum fermentation efficiency for ethanolic fermentation of lignocellulosic hydrolysates using S. cerevisiae can be obtained using 33.2 degrees Celsius and pH 5.3.

  10. Genome scans for divergent selection in natural populations of the widespread hardwood species Eucalyptus grandis (Myrtaceae) using microsatellites

    Song, Zhijiao; Zhang, Miaomiao; Li, Fagen; Weng, Qijie; Zhou, Chanpin; Li, Mei; Li, Jie; Huang, Huanhua; Mo, Xiaoyong; Gan, Siming


    Identification of loci or genes under natural selection is important for both understanding the genetic basis of local adaptation and practical applications, and genome scans provide a powerful means for such identification purposes. In this study, genome-wide simple sequence repeats markers (SSRs) were used to scan for molecular footprints of divergent selection in Eucalyptus grandis, a hardwood species occurring widely in costal areas from 32° S to 16° S in Australia. High population diversity levels and weak population structure were detected with putatively neutral genomic SSRs. Using three FST outlier detection methods, a total of 58 outlying SSRs were collectively identified as loci under divergent selection against three non-correlated climatic variables, namely, mean annual temperature, isothermality and annual precipitation. Using a spatial analysis method, nine significant associations were revealed between FST outlier allele frequencies and climatic variables, involving seven alleles from five SSR loci. Of the five significant SSRs, two (EUCeSSR1044 and Embra394) contained alleles of putative genes with known functional importance for response to climatic factors. Our study presents critical information on the population diversity and structure of the important woody species E. grandis and provides insight into the adaptive responses of perennial trees to climatic variations. PMID:27748400

  11. Harvest-related edge effects on prey availability and foraging of hooded warblers in a bottomland hardwood forest.

    John Kilgo


    The effects of harvest-created canopy gaps in bottomland hardwood forests on arthropod abundance and, hence, the foraging ecology of birds are poorly understood. I predicted that arthropod abundance would be high near edges of group-selection harvest gaps and lower in the surrounding forest, and that male Hooded Warblers (Wilsonia citrina) foraging near gaps would find more prey per unit time than those foraging in the surrounding forest. In fact, arthropod abundance was greater >100 m from a gap edge than at 0-30 m or 30-100 m from an edge, due to their abundance on switchcane (Arundinaria gigantea); arthropods did not differ in abundance among distances from gaps on oaks (Quercus spp.) or red maple (Acer rubrum). Similarly, Hooded Warbler foraging attack rates were not higher near gap edges: when foraging for fledglings, attack rate did not differ among distances from gaps, but when foraging for themselves, attack rates actually were lower 0-30 m from gap edges than 30-100 m or >100 m from a gap edge. Foraging attack rate was positively associated with arthropod abundance. Hooded Warblers apparently encountered fewer prey and presumably foraged less efficiently where arthropods were least abundant, i.e., near gaps. That attack rates among birds foraging for fledglings were not affected by distance from gap (and hence arthropod abundance) suggests that prey availability may not be limiting at any location across the forest, despite the depressing effects of gaps on arthropod abundance.

  12. Soil nitrogen drives community-level phosphorus resorption in a co-limited system: evidence from a northern hardwood forest

    See, C. R.; Yanai, R. D.


    Fertilization studies in northeastern forests suggest that forest productivity may be co-limited by nitrogen and phosphorus. Foliar nutrient resorption is a crucial conservation mechanism for plants. Resorption controls litterfall nutrient concentration, and litterfall is the largest aboveground nutrient flux in this system. Previous studies have attempted to link the foliar resorption of P to soil P status with mixed results. We propose that in an N and P co-limited system, foliar resorption of P may be linked to N availability. Here we compare the foliar chemistry of six hardwood tree species to soil chemistry across 18 plots in 6 stands in Bartlett Experimental Forest, New Hampshire. Resorption efficiency was calculated by species as the percent difference between green and senesced leaves. We weighted the resorption efficiencies for dominant tree species in each plot by their litterfall mass to create a community-level estimate of resorption for each plot. Estimates of soil N content to 30 centimeters in the mineral soil were strongly correlated with community-level estimates of both P resorption efficiency (p=0.002) and proficiency (p=0.006). At the population level, this trend was observed in four of the six tree species sampled. Neither N nor P resorption was correlated with any of the soil P fractions we examined. If N availability drives biological P conservation, it would provide an important mechanism for the coupled cycling of N and P in co-limited systems.

  13. Sequential Fenton oxidation and hydrothermal treatment to improve the effect of pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis on mixed hardwood.

    Jeong, So-Yeon; Lee, Jae-Won


    Sequential Fenton oxidation (FO) and hydrothermal treatment were performed to improve the effect of pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis of mixed hardwood. The molar ratio of the Fenton reagent (FeSO4·7H2O and H2O2) was 1:25, and the reaction time was 96h. During the reaction, little or no weight loss of biomass was observed. The concentration of Fe(2+) was determined and was found to increase continuously during FO. Hydrothermal treatment at 190-210°C for 10-80min was performed following FO. Sequential FO and hydrothermal treatment showed positive effects on pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis. Xylose concentration in the hydrolysate was as high as 14.16g/L when FO-treated biomass was treated at 190°C, while its concentration in the raw material was 3.72g/L. After 96h of enzymatic hydrolysis, cellulose conversion in the biomass obtained following sequential treatment was 69.58-79.54%. In contrast, the conversion in the raw material (without FO) was 64.41-67.92%.

  14. Insulinotrophic and insulin-like effects of a high molecular weight aqueous extract of Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb. hardwood.

    Mohankumar, Suresh K; O'Shea, Tim; McFarlane, James R


    Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb. (PM) is an Ayurvedic traditional medicine well known for its antidiabetic potential. To fractionate the antidiabetic constituent(s) of the aqueous of extract of PM hardwood (PME). Bio-assay methods including, insulin secretion from mouse pancreas and glucose uptake by mouse skeletal muscle, were used to determine and fractionate the antidiabetic activity of PME. Results obtained from the in vitro experiments were then verified by examining the effect of PME on glucose clearance in normoglycemic, non-diabetic sheep in vivo. Exposure of mouse pancreatic and muscle tissues to PME stimulated the insulin secretion and glucose uptake, respectively, in a concentration-dependent manner. PME-mediated muscle glucose uptake was not potentiated in the presence of insulin indicating that PME acts via pathways which are utilized by insulin. Bio-assay-guided fractionation of PME yielded a high molecular weight fraction which had potent antidiabetic properties in vitro, and in in vivo. Our findings, we believe for the first time, provide novel insights for the antidiabetic constituents of PM and demonstrate that a high molecular weight constituent(s) of PM has potent insulinotrophic and insulin-like properties. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of hydrological conditions on nitrous oxide, methane, and carbon dioxide dynamics in a bottomland hardwood forest and its implication for soil carbon sequestration

    Yu, K.; Faulkner, S.P.; Baldwin, M.J.


    This study was conducted at three locations in a bottomland hardwood forest with a distinct elevation and hydrological gradient: ridge (high, dry), transition, and swamp (low, wet). At each location, concentrations of soil greenhouse gases (N2O, CH4 , and CO2), their fluxes to the atmosphere, and soil redox potential (Eh) were measured bimonthly, while the water table was monitored every day. Results show that soil Eh was significantly (P transition > ridge location. The ratio CO2/CH4 production in soil is a critical factor for evaluating the overall benefit of soil C sequestration, which can be greatly offset by CH4 production and emission. ?? Journal compilation ?? 2008 Blackwell Publishing.

  16. 阔叶树材横切面构造的涨落谱分析%Fluctuation spectrum analysis on cross-section structure of hardwoods

    龙涛; 罗建举; 孙建平


    Hardwood is widely used as interior decoration materials, mainly because that its anatomical structure is in great complication and therefore it possesses good aesthetic decorative value. To further explore the aesthetic principles of wood, thefluctuation spectrum analysis was carried out on cross-section structure of six hardwood species with typical pore distribution patterns by means of Fourier image transformation technology. The results show that all thefluctuation spectra of cross-section structure of the six hardwood species were closely similar to 1/f fluctuation spectrum, especially in the frequency bands of 8~12Hz (corresponding to the human brain's α-band) almost completely consistent with 1/ffluctuation spectrum. This result further theoretically explains the reason why hardwood is more suitable as interior decoration materials lies in that its surface structurefluctuation is close similar to 1/ffluctuation. The wood surface structurefluctuation similar to 1/ffluctuation can stimulate the human body to produce A-rhythm brain waves, and let people feel comfortable and pleasant.%阔叶树材多用作室内装饰装修材料,主要是由于其组织构造复杂多变而具有较好的美学装饰价值.为了进一步探究木材的美学原理,运用傅立叶变换图像处理技术对6种具有典型管孔分布类型的阔叶树材横切面构造进行了涨落谱分析.结果表明6种阔叶树材横切面构造的涨落谱都与1/f涨落谱相近,特别是在8-12Hz频率段(对应于人体大脑的α波段)与1/f涨落谱几乎完全一致.这一结果进一步从理论上说明阔叶树材之所以更适合于用作室内装饰装修材料,是因为其表面构造呈1/f涨落.木材表面构造上这种接近于1/f涨落现象可以刺激人体大脑产生α节律波,从而让人获得舒适愉悦的美感.

  17. [Effects of harvest disturbance on soil CH4 flux in a secondary hardwood forest in Northeast china].

    Hai-Long, Sun


    From June, 2007 to October, 2009, a measurement with static chamber/gas chromatograph techniques was conducted on the soil CH4 flux in a typical secondary hardwood forest in Northeast China under the effects of different harvest disturbances, i.e., uncut (control), clear cutting (including both farming and reforestation after clear cutting), 50% stand volume removed, and 25% stand volume removed. In all of the four treatments, the soil was the sink of atmospheric CH4, but cutting decreased the soil CH4 uptake flux, with the order of uncut (-85.03 microg CH4 x m;(-2) x h(-1)) > 50% stand volume removed (-80.31 microg CH4 x m(-2) x h(-1)) > 25% stand volume removed (-70.97 microg CH4 x m(-2)h(-1)) > farming after clear cutting (-65.57 microg CH4 x m(-2) x h(-1)) > reforestation after clear cutting (-62.02 miocrog CH4 x m(-2) x h(-1)). During the study period, the seasonal patterns of the soil CH4 uptake flux in all treatments were similar, with a higher value in growth season and a lower one in winter. After the harvest disturbance, the soil temperature, humidity, and NO(3-)-N, and NH(4+)-N contents were all increased, and the soil CH4 flux had a significant quadratic correlation with soil temperature, and a negative linear correlation with soil moisture content. It was suggested that the increase of the soil moisture, NO(3-)-N, and NHa(4+)-N contents after the forest harvest was the main cause of the decrease of the soil CH4 uptake flux.

  18. Root tip morphology, anatomy, chemistry and potential hydraulic conductivity vary with soil depth in three temperate hardwood species.

    Wang, Yan; Dong, Xueyun; Wang, Hongfeng; Wang, Zhengquan; Gu, Jiacun


    Root traits in morphology, chemistry and anatomy are important to root physiological functions, but the differences between shallow and deep roots have rarely been studied in woody plants. Here, we selected three temperate hardwood species, Juglans mandshurica Maxim., Fraxinus mandschurica Rupr. and Phellodendron amurense Rupr., in plantations in northeastern China and measured morphological, anatomical and chemical traits of root tips (i.e., the first-order roots) at surface (0-10 cm) and subsurface (20-30 cm) soil layers. The objectives of this study were to identify how those traits changed with soil depth and to reveal potential functional differences. The results showed that root diameters in deep root tips were greater in J. mandshurica and F. mandschurica, but smaller in P. amurense. However, root stele diameter and the ratio of stele to root diameter in the subsurface layer were consistently greater in all three species, which may enhance their abilities to penetrate into soil. All deep roots exhibited lower tissue nitrogen concentration and respiration rate, which were possibly caused by lower nutrient availability in the subsurface soil layer. Significant differences between shallow and deep roots were observed in xylem structure, with deep roots having thicker stele, wider maximum conduit and greater number of conduits per stele. Compared with shallow roots, the theoretical hydraulic conductivities in deep roots were enhanced by 133% (J. mandshurica), 78% (F. mandschurica) and 217% (P. amurense), respectively, indicating higher efficiency of transportation. Our results suggest that trees' root tip anatomical structure and physiological activity vary substantially with soil environment.

  19. Simulated atmospheric N deposition alters fungal community composition and suppresses ligninolytic gene expression in a northern hardwood forest.

    Ivan P Edwards

    Full Text Available High levels of atmospheric nitrogen (N deposition may result in greater terrestrial carbon (C storage. In a northern hardwood ecosystem, exposure to over a decade of simulated N deposition increased C storage in soil by slowing litter decay rates, rather than increasing detrital inputs. To understand the mechanisms underlying this response, we focused on the saprotrophic fungal community residing in the forest floor and employed molecular genetic approaches to determine if the slower decomposition rates resulted from down-regulation of the transcription of key lignocellulolytic genes, by a change in fungal community composition, or by a combination of the two mechanisms. Our results indicate that across four Acer-dominated forest stands spanning a 500-km transect, community-scale expression of the cellulolytic gene cbhI under elevated N deposition did not differ significantly from that under ambient levels of N deposition. In contrast, expression of the ligninolytic gene lcc was significantly down-regulated by a factor of 2-4 fold relative to its expression under ambient N deposition. Fungal community composition was examined at the most southerly of the four sites, in which consistently lower levels of cbhI and lcc gene expression were observed over a two-year period. We recovered 19 basidiomycete and 28 ascomycete rDNA 28S operational taxonomic units; Athelia, Sistotrema, Ceratobasidium and Ceratosebacina taxa dominated the basidiomycete assemblage, and Leotiomycetes dominated the ascomycetes. Simulated N deposition increased the proportion of basidiomycete sequences recovered from forest floor, whereas the proportion of ascomycetes in the community was significantly lower under elevated N deposition. Our results suggest that chronic atmospheric N deposition may lower decomposition rates through a combination of reduced expression of ligninolytic genes such as lcc, and compositional changes in the fungal community.

  20. Long-term changes in forest carbon under temperature and nitrogen amendments in a temperate northern hardwood forest.

    Savage, Kathleen E; Parton, William J; Davidson, Eric A; Trumbore, Susan E; Frey, Serita D


    Currently, forests in the northeastern United States are net sinks of atmospheric carbon. Under future climate change scenarios, the combined effects of climate change and nitrogen deposition on soil decomposition, aboveground processes, and the forest carbon balance remain unclear. We applied carbon stock, flux, and isotope data from field studies at the Harvard forest, Massachusetts, to the ForCent model, which integrates above- and belowground processes. The model was able to represent decadal-scale measurements in soil C stocks, mean residence times, fluxes, and responses to a warming and N addition experiment. The calibrated model then simulated the longer term impacts of warming and N deposition on the distribution of forest carbon stocks. For simulation to 2030, soil warming resulted in a loss of soil organic matter (SOM), decreased allocation to belowground biomass, and gain of aboveground carbon, primarily in large wood, with an overall small gain in total system carbon. Simulated nitrogen addition resulted in a small increase in belowground carbon pools, but a large increase in aboveground large wood pools, resulting in a substantial increase in total system carbon. Combined warming and nitrogen addition simulations showed a net gain in total system carbon, predominately in the aboveground carbon pools, but offset somewhat by losses in SOM. Hence, the impact of continuation of anthropogenic N deposition on the hardwood forests of the northeastern United States may exceed the impact of warming in terms of total ecosystem carbon stocks. However, it should be cautioned that these simulations do not include some climate-related processes, different responses from changing tree species composition. Despite uncertainties, this effort is among the first to use decadal-scale observations of soil carbon dynamics and results of multifactor manipulations to calibrate a model that can project integrated aboveground and belowground responses to nitrogen and climate

  1. The response of ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) to selection cutting in a South Carolina bottomland hardwood forest.

    Ulyshen, Michael, D.; Hanula, James L.; Horn, Scott; Kilgo, John, C.; Moorman, Christopher, E.


    We compared the response of ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) to the creation of canopy gaps of different size (0.13, 0.26, and 0.50 ha) and age (1 and 7 years) in a bottomland hardwood forest (South Carolina, USA). Samples were collected four times in 2001 by malaise and pitfall traps placed at the center and edge of each gap, and 50 m into the surrounding forest. Species richness was higher at the center of young gaps than in old gaps or in the forest, but there was no statistical difference in species richness between old gaps and the forests surrounding them. Carabid abundance followed the same trend, but only with the exclusion of Semiardistomis viridis (Say), a very abundant species that differed in its response to gap age compared to most other species. The carabid assemblage at the gap edge was very similar to that of the forest, and there appeared to be no distinct edge community. Species known to occur in open or disturbed habitats were more abundant at the center of young gaps than at any other location. Generalist species were relatively unaffected by the disturbance, but one species (Dicaelus dilatatus Say) was significantly less abundant at the centers of young gaps. Forest inhabiting species were less abundant at the centers of old gaps than in the forest, but not in the centers of young gaps. Comparison of community similarity at various trapping locations showed that communities at the centers of old and young gaps had the lowest similarity (46.5%). The community similarity between young gap centers and nearby forest (49.1%) and old gap centers and nearby forest (50.0%) was similarly low. These results show that while the abundance and richness of carabids in old gaps was similar to that of the surrounding forest, the species composition between the two sites differed greatly.

  2. Snowpack-atmosphere gas exchanges of carbon dioxide, ozone, and nitrogen oxides at a hardwood forest site in northern Michigan

    Brian Seok


    Full Text Available Abstract Snowpack-atmosphere gas exchanges of CO2, O3, and NOx (NO + NO2 were investigated at the University of Michigan Biological Station (UMBS, a mid-latitude, low elevation hardwood forest site, during the 2007–2008 winter season. An automated trace gas sampling system was used to determine trace gas concentrations in the snowpack at multiple depths continuously throughout the snow-covered period from two adjacent plots. One natural plot and one with the soil covered by a Tedlar sheet were setup for investigating whether the primary source of measured trace gases was biogenic (i.e., from the soil or non-biogenic (i.e., from the snowpack. The results were compared with the “White on Green” study conducted at the Niwot Ridge (NWT Long Term Ecological Research site in Colorado. The average winter CO2 flux ± s.e. from the soil at UMBS was 0.54 ± 0.037 µmol m-2 s-1 using the gradient diffusion method and 0.71 ± 0.012 µmol m-2 s-1 using the eddy covariance method, and in a similar range as found for NWT. Observed snowpack-O3 exchange was also similar to NWT. However, nitrogen oxides (NOx fluxes from snow at UMBS were 10 times smaller than those at NWT, and fluxes were bi-directional with the direction of the flux dependent on NOx concentrations in ambient air. The compensation point for the change in the direction of NOx flux was estimated to be 0.92 nmol mol-1. NOx in snow also showed diurnal dependency on incident radiation. These NOx dynamics in the snow at UMBS were notably different compared to NWT, and primarily determined by snow-atmosphere interactions rather than by soil NOx emissions.

  3. Alternative rooting induction of semi-hardwood olive cuttings by several auxin-producing bacteria for organic agriculture systems

    M. C. Montero-Calasanz


    Full Text Available Southern Spain is the largest olive oil producer region in the world. In recent years organic agriculture systems have grown exponentially so that new alternative systems to produce organic olive cuttings are needed. Several bacterial isolates, namely Pantoea sp. AG9, Chryseobacterium sp. AG13, Chryseobacterium sp. CT348, Pseudomonas sp. CT364 and Azospirillum brasilense Cd (ATCC 29729, have been used to induce rooting in olive semi-hardwood cuttings of Arbequina, Hojiblanca and Picual cultivars of olive (Olea europea L. The first four strains were previously selected as auxin-producing bacteria and by their ability to promote rooting in model plants. They have been classified on the basis of their 16S rDNA gene sequence. The known auxin producer A. brasilense Cd strain has been used as a reference. The inoculation of olive cuttings was performed in two different ways: (i by dipping cuttings in a liquid bacterial culture or (ii by immersing them in a paste made of solid bacterial inoculant and sterile water. Under nursery conditions all of the tested bacterial strains were able to induce the rooting of olive cuttings to a similar or greater extent than the control cuttings treated with indole-3-butyric acid (IBA. The olive cultivars responded differently depending on the bacterial strain and the inoculation method. The strain that consistently gave the best results was Pantoea sp. AG9, the only one of the tested bacterial strains to express the enzyme 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC deaminase. The results are also discussed in terms of potential commercial interest and nursery feasibility performance of these strains.

  4. Effect of Preconditioning Treatments and Auxins on the Rooting of Semi-Hardwood Cuttings of Olive Planted During Winter Under Mist Condition

    Manish Thakur


    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted during winter to find the effect of girdling, etiolation and auxins i.e. IBA and NAA on rooting of semi- hardwood cuttings of olive cv. Leccino under mist. The experiment comprised of 13 treatments and was combinations of girdling, etiolation and auxins. The results indicated that the best rooting characteristics viz; highest percent rooted cuttings (53.33, number of primary roots (6.58 and secondary roots (8.53 and diameter (0.46 mm were maximum with cuttings treated with IBA at 5000 ppm, where as the maximum primary root length (5.30 cm and secondary root length (2.42 was recorded with the treatment girdling + IBA 4000 ppm + NAA 1000 ppm and IBA 4000 ppm, respectively. Regarding the shoot characteristics viz; plant height (14.59 cm was recorded highest for the treatment IBA@ 4000 ppm which was at par with the treatment IBA @ 5000 ppm (14.26 cm. Highest plant diameter (2.40 mm, numbers of leaves (16.26 and leaf area (36.42 cm2 were highest for the treatment IBA @ 5000 ppm. Survival percentage of cuttings (71.57 % was also highest in cuttings treated with IBA @ 5000 ppm. It is concluded that IBA at 5000 ppm was found to be the best treatment for propagation of olive through semi- hardwood cuttings during winter.

  5. Point counts of landbirds in bottomland hardwood forests of the Mississippi Alluvial Valley: How long and how many?

    Smith, W.P.; Wiedenfeld, D.A.; Hanel, P.B.; Twedt, D.J.; Ford, R.P.; Cooper, R.J.; Smith, Winston Paul


    To quantify efficacy of point count sampling in bottomland hardwood forests, we examined the influence of point count duration on corresponding estimates of number of individuals and species recorded. To accomplish this we conducted a totalof 82 point counts 7 May-16 May 1992distributed among three habitats (Wet, Mesic, Dry) in each of three regions within the lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley (MAV). Each point count consisted of recording the number of individual birds (all species) seen or heard during the initial three minutes and per each minute thereafter for a period totaling ten minutes. In addition, we included 384 point counts recorded during an 8-week period in each of 3 years (1985-1987) among 56 randomly-selected forest patches within the bottomlands of western Tennessee. Each point count consisted of recording the number of individuals (excluding migrating species) during each of four, 5 minute intervals for a period totaling 20 minutes. To estimate minimum sample size, we determined sampling variation at each level (region, habitat, and locality) with the 82 point counts from the lower (MAV) and applied the procedures of Neter and Wasserman (1974:493; Applied linear statistical models). Neither the cumulative number of individuals nor number of species per sampling interval attained an asymptote after 10 or 20 minutes of sampling. For western Tennessee bottomlands, total individual and species counts relative to point count duration were similar among years and comparable to the pattern observed throughout the lower MAV. Across the MAV, we recorded a total of 1,62 1 birds distributed among 52 species with the majority (8721/1621) representing 8 species. More birds were recorded within 25-50 m than in either of the other distance categories. There was significant variation in numbers of individuals and species among point counts. For both, significant differences between region and patch (nested within region) occurred; neither habitat nor interaction

  6. Effects of structural complexity enhancement on eastern red-backed salamander (Plethodon cinereus) populations in northern hardwood forests

    McKenny, H.C.; Keeton, W.S.; Donovan, T.M.


    Managing for stand structural complexity in northern hardwood forests has been proposed as a method for promoting microhabitat characteristics important to eastern red-backed salamanders (Plethodon cinereus). We evaluated the effects of alternate, structure-based silvicultural systems on red-backed salamander populations at two research sites in northwestern Vermont. Treatments included two uneven-aged approaches (single-tree selection and group-selection) and one unconventional approach, termed "structural complexity enhancement" (SCE), that promotes development of late-successional structure, including elevated levels of coarse woody debris (CWD). Treatments were applied to 2 ha units and were replicated two to four times depending on treatment. We surveyed red-backed salamanders with a natural cover search method of transects nested within vegetation plots 1 year after logging. Abundance estimates corrected for detection probability were calculated from survey data with a binomial mixture model. Abundance estimates differed between study areas and were influenced by forest structural characteristics. Model selection was conducted using Akaike Information Criteria, corrected for over-dispersed data and small sample size (QAICc). We found no difference in abundance as a response to treatment as a whole, suggesting that all of the uneven-aged silvicultural systems evaluated can maintain salamander populations after harvest. However, abundance was tied to specific structural habitat attributes associated with study plots within treatments. The most parsimonious model of habitat covariates included site, relative density of overstory trees, and density of more-decayed and less-decayed downed CWD. Abundance responded positively to the density of downed, well-decayed CWD and negatively to the density of poorly decayed CWD and to overstory relative density. CWD volume was not a strong predictor of salamander abundance. We conclude that structural complexity enhancement

  7. Effect of Timing on Callus Formation and Rooting Ability in IBA-Treated Hardwood Stem Cuttings of Persian Walnut, Hazelnut and Apple



    Full Text Available Promotion of callus formation and rooting in hardwood stem cuttings of Persian walnut (Juglans regia L., hazelnut (C. maxima and apple Malus pumila were evaluated by taking cuttings every two weeks from December 2001 through November 2002. Cuttings were treated with 4-indol-3-butyric acid (IBA at 3000 ppm for 6 s, placed in a greenhouse under intermittent mist, and evaluated after 8 weeks. There were three replications of each species and sampling date. The results showed that the rooting of cuttings was zero in late spring, summer, and early autumn, whereas there was a significant increase in percentage rooting, with rapid and complete callus formation in late autumn, winter, and early spring. For example, in December, callus formation and rooting percentages were: Persian walnut (80 and 6%, hazelnut (49 and 36%, and Apple (43 and 31.5%, respectively.

  8. 宁波骨木镶嵌髹饰工艺调查%A Study on Inlay and Lacquer Decoration Technique of Bone and Hardwood in Ningbo



    According to the ifeld investigation in the workshop in Ningbo, the author systematical y introduces the history and technique of bone-hardwood inlay, which is national non-material cultural heritage. Also, the essay analyzes its value by comparison with similar exquisite technique in Southeast, even East Asia and South Asia.%作者通过对宁波骨木镶嵌髹饰工艺作坊的实地调查,系统介绍了作为国家级非物质文化遗产的宁波骨木镶嵌历史与工艺,并与东南亚乃至东亚、南亚同类工艺比照分析其价值。

  9. An assessment of the relationship between potential chemical indices of nitrogen saturation and nitrogen deposition in hardwood forests in southern Ontario.

    Watmough, Shaun A


    Southern Ontario receives the highest levels of atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition in Canada and there are concerns that forests in the region may be approaching a state of 'N saturation'. In order to evaluate whether potential chemical indices provide evidence of N saturation, 23 hardwood plots were sampled along a modeled N-deposition gradient ranging from 9.3 to 12.8 kg/ha/year. All plots were dominated by sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) and foliar N and foliar delta(15)N were positively correlated with modeled N deposition. However, forest floor N content and the C:N ratio were unrelated to N deposition, but were instead related to soil pH and annual temperature; lower C:N ratios and higher N content in the forest floor were found at the most acidic sites in the cooler, northern part of the study region despite lower N deposition. Likewise, delta(15)N values in surface mineral soil and the (15)N enrichment factor of foliage (delta(15)N foliage - delta(15)N soil) are correlated to soil pH and temperature and not N deposition. Further, potential N mineralization, ammonification, and nitrification in Ontario maple stands were highest in the northern part of the region with the lowest modeled N deposition. Nitrogen cycling in soil appears to be primarily influenced by the N status of the forest floor and other soil properties rather than N deposition, indicating that chemical indices in soil in these hardwood plots may not provide an early indicator of N saturation.

  10. Controls of Net Ecosystem Exchange at an Old Field, a Pine Plantation, and a Hardwood Forest under Identical Climatic and Edaphic Conditions-Isotopic Studies

    Chanton, J. P.; Mortazavi, B.


    During the past year we have submitted two manuscripts. 1. Mortazavi, B., J. Chanton, J.L. Prater, A.C. Oishi, R. Oren and G. Katul. Temporal variability in 13C of respired CO2 in a pine and a hardwood forest subject to similar climatic conditions (in Press). Oecologia 2. Mortazavi, B. and J. P. Chanton. Use of Keeling plots for determining sources of dissolved organic carbon in nearshore and open ocean systems (Published in Limnology and Oceanography (2004) Vol 49 pages 102-108). 3. Mortazavi, B., J. L. Prater, and J. P. Chanton (2004). A field-based method for simultaneous measurements of the 18O and 13C of soil CO2 efflux. Biogeosciences Vol 1:1-16 Most recent products delivered: Mortazavi, B. and J. P. Chanton. Abiotic and biotic controls on the 13C of respired CO2 in the southeastern US forest mosaics and a new technique for measuring the of soil CO2 efflux. Joint Biosphere Stable Isotope Network (US) and Stable Isotopes in Biosphere Atmosphere Exchange (EU) 2004 Meeting, Interlaken, Switzerland, March 31-April 4, 2004. Mortazavi, B., J. Chanton, J.L. Prater, A.C. Oishi, R. Oren and G. Katul. Temporal variability in 13C of respired CO2 in a pine and a hardwood forest subject to similar climatic conditions. American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting, San Francisco, USA, December 8-12, 2003. Prater, J., Mortazavi, B. and J. P. Chanton. Measurement of discrimination against 13C during photosynthesis and quantification of the short-term variability of 13C over a diurnal cycle. American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting, San Francisco, USA, December 8-12, 2003.

  11. Multi-decade biomass dynamics in an old-growth hemlock-northern hardwood forest, Michigan, USA

    Kerry D. Woods


    Full Text Available Trends in living aboveground biomass and inputs to the pool of coarse woody debris (CWD in an undisturbed, old-growth hemlock-northern hardwood forest in northern MI were estimated from multi-decade observations of permanent plots. Growth and demographic data from seven plot censuses over 47 years (1962–2009, combined with one-time measurement of CWD pools, help assess biomass/carbon status of this landscape. Are trends consistent with traditional notions of late-successional forests as equilibrial ecosystems? Specifically, do biomass pools and CWD inputs show consistent long-term trends and relationships, and can living and dead biomass pools and trends be related to forest composition and history? Aboveground living biomass densities, estimated using standard allometric relationships, range from 360–450 Mg/ha among sampled stands and types; these values are among the highest recorded for northeastern North American forests. Biomass densities showed significant decade-scale variation, but no consistent trends over the full study period (one stand, originating following an 1830 fire, showed an aggrading trend during the first 25 years of the study. Even though total above-ground biomass pools are neither increasing nor decreasing, they have been increasingly dominated, over the full study period, by very large (>70 cm dbh stems and by the most shade-tolerant species (Acer saccharum and Tsuga canadensis.CWD pools measured in 2007 averaged 151 m3/ha, with highest values in Acer-dominated stands. Snag densities averaged 27/ha, but varied nearly ten-fold with canopy composition (highest in Tsuga-dominated stands, lowest in Acer-dominated; snags constituted 10–50% of CWD biomass. Annualized CWD inputs from tree mortality over the full study period averaged 1.9–3.2 Mg/ha/yr, depending on stand and species composition. CWD input rates tended to increase over the course of the study. Input rates may be expected to increase over longer

  12. Validating a novel lidar distributional approach for forest floor fuel load mapping: Eastern hardwoods vs. western spruce-fir environments

    van Aardt, J. A.; Arthur, M.; Swetnam, T.; Mitchell, B.


    the above- and below-ground return distributions. This approach from the Kentucky, USA oak hardwood forest environment was extended to a spruce-fir forest type in the Pinaleño mountains of the Coronado National Forest (Arizona, USA). Field and airborne data were collected according to similar specifications for both study areas. For instance, the Pinaleño lidar data were acquired in September 2008 using a Leica ALS-50 sensor at a nominal point density of 7 returns/m2, which matches the sensor type and point density of the Kentucky data set. The same lidar return distributional approach was applied to the western USA data to assess the robustness of this novel method across forest types and geographies. Final results will be presented at the conference and could bode well for the application of distributional approaches to accurate and precise CWD estimation.

  13. Impacts of Short-Rotation Early-Growing Season Prescribed Fire on a Ground Nesting Bird in the Central Hardwoods Region of North America.

    H Tyler Pittman

    Full Text Available Landscape-scale short-rotation early-growing season prescribed fire, hereafter prescribed fire, in upland hardwood forests represents a recent shift in management strategies across eastern upland forests. Not only does this strategy depart from dormant season to growing season prescriptions, but the strategy also moves from stand-scale to landscape-scale implementation (>1,000 ha. This being so, agencies are making considerable commitments in terms of time and resources to this management strategy, but the effects on wildlife in upland forests, especially those dominated by hardwood canopy species, are relatively unknown. We initiated our study to assess whether this management strategy affects eastern wild turkey reproductive ecology on the Ozark-St. Francis National Forest. We marked 67 wild turkey hens with Global Positioning System (GPS Platform Transmitting Terminals in 2012 and 2013 to document exposure to prescribed fire, and estimate daily nest survival, nest success, and nest-site selection. We estimated these reproductive parameters in forest units managed with prescribed fire (treated and units absent of prescribed fire (untreated. Of 60 initial nest attempts monitored, none were destroyed or exposed to prescribed fire because a majority of fires occurred early than a majority of the nesting activity. We found nest success was greater in untreated units than treated units (36.4% versus 14.6%. We did not find any habitat characteristic differences between successful and unsuccessful nest-sites. We found that nest-site selection criteria differed between treated and untreated units. Visual concealment and woody ground cover were common selection criteria in both treated and untreated units. However, in treated units wild turkey selected nest-sites with fewer small shrubs (20 cm DBH but not in untreated units. In untreated units wild turkey selected nest-sites with more large shrubs (≥5 cm ground diameter but did not select for small

  14. Impacts of Short-Rotation Early-Growing Season Prescribed Fire on a Ground Nesting Bird in the Central Hardwoods Region of North America.

    Pittman, H Tyler; Krementz, David G


    Landscape-scale short-rotation early-growing season prescribed fire, hereafter prescribed fire, in upland hardwood forests represents a recent shift in management strategies across eastern upland forests. Not only does this strategy depart from dormant season to growing season prescriptions, but the strategy also moves from stand-scale to landscape-scale implementation (>1,000 ha). This being so, agencies are making considerable commitments in terms of time and resources to this management strategy, but the effects on wildlife in upland forests, especially those dominated by hardwood canopy species, are relatively unknown. We initiated our study to assess whether this management strategy affects eastern wild turkey reproductive ecology on the Ozark-St. Francis National Forest. We marked 67 wild turkey hens with Global Positioning System (GPS) Platform Transmitting Terminals in 2012 and 2013 to document exposure to prescribed fire, and estimate daily nest survival, nest success, and nest-site selection. We estimated these reproductive parameters in forest units managed with prescribed fire (treated) and units absent of prescribed fire (untreated). Of 60 initial nest attempts monitored, none were destroyed or exposed to prescribed fire because a majority of fires occurred early than a majority of the nesting activity. We found nest success was greater in untreated units than treated units (36.4% versus 14.6%). We did not find any habitat characteristic differences between successful and unsuccessful nest-sites. We found that nest-site selection criteria differed between treated and untreated units. Visual concealment and woody ground cover were common selection criteria in both treated and untreated units. However, in treated units wild turkey selected nest-sites with fewer small shrubs (20 cm DBH) but not in untreated units. In untreated units wild turkey selected nest-sites with more large shrubs (≥5 cm ground diameter) but did not select for small shrubs or

  15. Soil solution and sugar maple response to NH(4)NO (3) additions in a base-poor northern hardwood forest of Québec, Canada.

    Moore, Jean-David; Houle, Daniel


    Nitrogen additions (NH4NO3) at rates of three- and ten-fold ambient atmospheric deposition (8.5 kg ha(-1) year(-1)) were realised in an acid- and base-poor northern hardwood forest of Québec, Canada. Soil solution chemistry, foliar chemistry, crown dieback and basal area growth of sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) were measured. Except for a transitory increase of NO3 and NH4 concentrations, there was no persistent increase in their level in soil solution 3 years after N treatments, with the exception of one plot out of three, that received the highest N addition, beginning to show persistent and high NO3 concentrations after 2 years of N additions. Three years of N additions have significantly increased the N DRIS index of sugar maple but not N foliar concentration. Potassium, Ca and Mn foliar concentrations, as well as P and Ca DRIS indices, decreased in treated plots after 3 years. No treatment effect was observed for basal area growth and dieback rate. One unexpected result was the significant decrease in foliar Ca even in the treated plots that received low N rates, despite the absence of significant NO3-induced leaching of Ca. The mechanism responsible for the decrease in foliar Ca is not known. Our results, however, clearly demonstrate that increased N deposition at sites with low base saturation may affect Ca nutrition even when clear signs of N saturation are not observed.

  16. Establishing Pine Monocultures and Mixed Pine-Hardwood Stands on Reclaimed Surface Mined Land in Eastern Kentucky: Implications for Forest Resilience in a Changing Climate

    Geoffrey Bell


    Full Text Available Surface mining and mine reclamation practices have caused significant forest loss and forest fragmentation in Appalachia. Shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata is threatened by a variety of stresses, including diseases, pests, poor management, altered fire regimes, and climate change, and the species is the subject of a widescale restoration effort. Surface mines may present opportunity for shortleaf pine restoration; however, the survival and growth of shortleaf pine on these harsh sites has not been critically evaluated. This paper presents first-year survival and growth of native shortleaf pine planted on a reclaimed surface mine, compared to non-native loblolly pine (Pinus taeda, which has been highly successful in previous mined land reclamation plantings. Pine monoculture plots are also compared to pine-hardwood polyculture plots to evaluate effects of planting mix on tree growth and survival, as well as soil health. Initial survival of shortleaf pine is low (42%, but height growth is similar to that of loblolly pine. No differences in survival or growth were observed between monoculture and polyculture treatments. Additional surveys in coming years will address longer-term growth and survival patterns of these species, as well as changes to relevant soil health endpoints, such as soil carbon.


    Qijie Chen,


    Full Text Available In recent years there has been an increasing interest in using high-yield pulp (HYP as a partial replacement for hardwood bleached kraft pulp (HWBKP in the production of high-quality fine papers as a cost-effective way of improving the product performance. This study investigated the substitution of HYP for HWBKP and its effect on the Alkenyl Succinic Anhydride (ASA sizing performance. The results showed that the substitution of an aspen HYP for HWBKP can increase the ASA sizing performance at a HYP substitution as high as 15 to 20%. The ASA addition sequence has an influence on the ASA sizing performance and first adding ASA to the HYP followed by mixing with kraft pulps was the preferred method. Using precipitated calcium carbonate (PCC as a paper filler at a dosage of less than 20% can increase the ASA sizing performance due to the contribution of the calcium soap of the hydrolysed ASA. A PCC dosage greater than 20% resulted in a negative impact on the sizing performance. It was also found that different PCC loading sequences can also affect the ASA sizing performance.

  18. Implications in the design of a method for visual grading and mechanical testing of hardwood structural timber for designation within the European strength classes

    Riesgo-Munoz, G.; Remacha-Gete, A.; Pedras-Saavedra, F.


    The international strength class system (En 338:2003) is based on a testing standard (EN 408:2004) that is not easy to use with hardwoods, although some of this type of timber, such as European oak (Quercus robur L.), is highly appreciated for construction purposes. This study proposes specifications for sampling design, visual grading and mechanical testing of oak wood. With this aim, 27 adult oaks were felled and sawn into pieces. A sample of quarter-sawn planks was selected, then air-dried and planed to 50x100x2,000 mm. The beams were visually graded in accordance with ten standards, and were mechanically tested, at an average wood moisture content of 21%. The Spanish visual grading standard UNE 56544:2007 was the most effective for categorizing the pieces. According to this standard, 39% of the sampled beams were suitable for structural use. The mean value of modulus of elasticity (11,702 N mm{sup -}2) and characteristic density (714 Kg m{sup -}3) enable preliminary designation of the wood in visual grade ME-2, to European strength class D40. However, the bending strength was too low for inclusion of the timber in the European strength classes. Criteria are proposed for elaborating visual grading rules for oak wood and for structural beam testing in order to allocate oak visual strength grades into strength classes. (Author) 35 refs.

  19. Economics, Environmental Impacts, and Supply Chain Analysis of Cellulosic Biomass for Biofuels in the Southern US: Pine, Eucalyptus, Unmanaged Hardwoods, Forest Residues, Switchgrass, and Sweet Sorghum

    Jesse Daystar


    Full Text Available The production of six regionally important cellulosic biomass feedstocks, including pine, eucalyptus, unmanaged hardwoods, forest residues, switchgrass, and sweet sorghum, was analyzed using consistent life cycle methodologies and system boundaries to identify feedstocks with the lowest cost and environmental impacts. Supply chain analysis was performed for each feedstock, calculating costs and supply requirements for the production of 453,592 dry tonnes of biomass per year. Cradle-to-gate environmental impacts from these modeled supply systems were quantified for nine mid-point indicators using SimaPro 7.2 LCA software. Conversion of grassland to managed forest for bioenergy resulted in large reductions in GHG emissions due to carbon uptake associated with direct land use change. By contrast, converting forests to cropland resulted in large increases in GHG emissions. Production of forest-based feedstocks for biofuels resulted in lower delivered cost, lower greenhouse gas (GHG emissions, and lower overall environmental impacts than the agricultural feedstocks studied. Forest residues had the lowest environmental impact and delivered cost per dry tonne. Using forest-based biomass feedstocks instead of agricultural feedstocks would result in lower cradle-to-gate environmental impacts and delivered biomass costs for biofuel production in the southern U.S.

  20. Short-Term Response of Native Flora to the Removal of Non-Native Shrubs in Mixed-Hardwood Forests of Indiana, USA

    Joshua M. Shields


    Full Text Available While negative impacts of invasive species on native communities are well documented, less is known about how these communities respond to the removal of established populations of invasive species. With regard to invasive shrubs, studies examining native community response to removal at scales greater than experimental plots are lacking. We examined short-term effects of removing Lonicera maackii (Amur honeysuckle and other non-native shrubs on native plant taxa in six mixed-hardwood forests. Each study site contained two 0.64 ha sample areas—an area where all non-native shrubs were removed and a reference area where no treatment was implemented. We sampled vegetation in the spring and summer before and after non-native shrubs were removed. Cover and diversity of native species, and densities of native woody seedlings, increased after shrub removal. However, we also observed significant increases in L. maackii seedling densities and Alliaria petiolata (garlic mustard cover in removal areas. Changes in reference areas were less pronounced and mostly non-significant. Our results suggest that removing non-native shrubs allows short-term recovery of native communities across a range of invasion intensities. However, successful restoration will likely depend on renewed competition with invasive species that re-colonize treatment areas, the influence of herbivores, and subsequent control efforts.

  1. Wpływ kwasu 2-chloroetanofosfonoiuego (Ethrel na ukorzenianie się zdrewniałych sadzonek czarnych porzeczek [Effect of 2-chloroethylphosphonic acid (Ethrel on the rooting of the blackcurrant hardwood cuttings

    Janusz Lipecki


    Full Text Available The effect of Ethrel on root formation in the blackcurrant (cv. Blacksmith hardwood cuttings was investigated in five different periods of the year. Low concentrations of Ethrel (up to 250 ppm stimulated rooting, whereas higher concentrations (above 250 ppm had a harmful effect on root formation. It is suggested that ethylene can act as a rooting promoter (when low concentrations of Ethrel were used or as rooting inhibitor (when Ethrel was used in high concentrations. Complete cessation of the inflorescence development was observed in cuttings treated with Ethrel at 100 ppm and higher concentrations.

  2. Plant regulators for rooting of hardwood cuttings of blackberry plants cv. Xavante/ Reguladores vegetais no enraizamento de estacas lenhosas da amoreira-preta cv. Xavante

    Renato Vasconcelos Botelho


    Full Text Available Aiming to evaluate the use of plant regulators for rooting of hardwood cuttings of blackberry cv. Xavante, two experiments were carried out in a greenhouse. In the first one the concentrations of indolil butyric acid varied in 0, 1000, 1500, 2000, 2500 and 3000 mg L-1. And in the second one, the plant regulator that was used was paclobutrazol at the concentrations of 0, 200, 400, 600, 800 and 1000 mg L-1. For each experiment the base of the cuttings were dipped in the solutions for ten seconds. After that, the cuttings were planted in rigid plastic vases with sand and kept under intermittent misty system. The following variables were evaluated, 71 days after planting: percentage of rooted cuttings, percentage of callus presence, average length of roots, number of roots, fresh weight of roots, percentage of sprouting. The treatment of hardwood cuttings with 2000 mg L-1 IBA had the greatest percentage of rooting (60%. Nevertheless, the treatment with 1000 mg L-1 IBA attained already high rooting percentage (56%, with 96% of sprouted cuttings and 17.6 roots per cutting. Cuttings treated with PBZ presented greater callus presence but they did not root, thus it is not possible to recommend this product for rooting of blackberry plants cv. Xavante among the tested concentrations.Com o objetivo de avaliar o emprego de reguladores vegetais no enraizamento de estacas lenhosas da amora-preta cv. Xavante dois experimentos foram conduzidos em casa-de-vegetação. No primeiro, empregou-se o ácido indol butírico (AIB nas concentrações de 0, 1000, 1500, 2000, 2500, 3000 mg L-1. No segundo, o regulador utilizado foi o paclobutrazol (PBZ nas concentrações de 0, 200, 400, 600, 800, 1000 mg L-1. Em ambos os experimentos as estacas ficaram imersas por 10 segundos nas respectivas soluções. Posteriormente foram plantados em vasos de plástico rígido contendo areia, sendo mantidas em casade- vegetação sob nebulização intermitente. Após 71 dias do plantio

  3. Analysis on Influencing Factors for Hardwood Cuttage of Lonicera tatarica var. micrantha%小花忍冬硬枝扦插影响因素分析

    赵丽; 季蒙; 王美珍; 乔福成


    Lonicera tatarica var.micrantha is a fine tree species with good ornament and strong stress resistance.In order to solve the great variation for differentiation of filial generation with seed breeding,combined with the characteristics of Lonicera tatarica var.micrantha,the hardwood cuttage experiment has been done with the treatments of different matrix,hormones and concentrations.The results show that matrix type,hormone type and the concentrations of hormone can directly influence the survival rate of cuttage,and the hormone types directly influence the growth of underground root.The average survival rate of cuttage can reach 70% by use of the combination of pearl salt ︰ sand = 1 ︰ 2,NAA,100 mg/L.Hormone ABT 2 of 100 mg/L can promote the growth of underground root system.%小花忍冬是观赏性和抗逆性兼具的优良树种之一。为了解决其种子繁殖子代分化变异大的问题,结合小花忍冬特性,通过不同基质、激素及不同浓度的处理,对其进行了硬枝扦插试验。结果表明:基质种类、激素种类、激素浓度都直接影响其扦插成活率,激素种类直接影响地下根系的生长量。其中,使用珍珠岩︰沙子=1︰2、NAA、100 mg/L组合,其扦插成活率均值达70%,效果最佳;使用激素ABT2号100 mg/L能较好地促进地下根系的生长。

  4. Copper and zinc adsorption by softwood and hardwood biochars under elevated sulphate-induced salinity and acidic pH conditions.

    Jiang, Shasha; Huang, Longbin; Nguyen, Tuan A H; Ok, Yong Sik; Rudolph, Victor; Yang, Hong; Zhang, Dongke


    Biochar adsorption may lower concentrations of soluble metals in pore water of sulphidic Cu/Pb-Zn mine tailings. Unlike soil, high levels of salinity and soluble cations are present in tailing pore water, which may affect biochar adsorption of metals from solution. In the present study, removal of soluble copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) ions by soft- (pine) and hard-wood (jarrah) biochars pyrolysed at high temperature (about 700 °C) was evaluated under typical ranges of pH and salinity conditions resembling those in pore water of sulphidic tailings, prior to their direct application into the tailings. Surface alkalinity, cation exchange capacity, and negative surface charge of biochars affected Cu and Zn adsorption capacities. Quantitative comparisons were provided by fitting the adsorption equilibrium data with either the homogeneous or heterogeneous surface adsorption models (i.e. Langmuir and Freundlich, respectively). Accordingly, the jarrah biochar showed higher Cu and Zn adsorption capacity (Qmax=4.39 and 2.31 mg/g, respectively) than the softwood pine biochar (Qmax=1.47 and 1.00 mg/g). Copper and Zn adsorption by the biochars was favoured by high pH conditions under which they carried more negative charges and Cu and Zn ions were predicted undergoing hydrolysis and polymerization. Within the tested range, salinity had relatively weak effects on the adsorption, which perhaps influenced the surface charge and induced competition for negative charged sites between Na(+) and exchangeable Ca(2+) and/or heavy metal ions. Large amounts of waste wood/timber at many mine sites present a cost-effective opportunity to produce biochars for remediation of sulphidic tailings and seepage water. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Investigation of genome structure of a cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase locus in a basal angiosperm hardwood species, Liriodendron tulipifera L., reveals low synteny

    Yi XU; Scott E. SCHLARBAUM; Haiying LIANG


    Basal angiosperms contain a wide diversity of floral and growth forms and gave rise to the largest recent angiosperm lineages.As none of the basal angiosperm genomes has been sequenced,examining large bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) inserts remains the main approach to providing a first glimpse of the structure and organization of their genomes.In this study,we sequenced a 126.9-kbp BAC contig harboring a cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase gene (LtuCAD1) in a basal angiosperm species,Liriodendron tulipifera L.,an important timber tree species with significant ecological and economic values.A key enzyme in lignin biosynthesis,CAD catalyzes the final step in the synthesis of monolignols.We carried out phylogenetic analyses of seven full-length CAD family genes (LtuCAD1-7) obtained from a comprehensive Liriodendron expressed sequence tag dataset.The phylogenetic tree suggests that LtuCAD1 is the primary CAD gene involved in lignifications as it is the only Liriodendron CAD grouped with the bona fide CADs class.As well as the LtuCAD1,the BAC contig contained fragmented sequences for one integrase,eight hypothetical proteins,two gag-pol polyproteins,one RNase H family protein,and one chromatin binding protein.Comparative analysis with other angiosperm species suggests that the genomic segment in this BAC has undergone frequent arrangement.This study is our initial step in identifying and understanding lignin biosynthesis genes from basal angiosperm species.Such knowledge can help bridge the information gap between hardwood (angiosperm) and softwood (gymnosperm) species and benefit potential breeding and biotechnology application for enhanced production ofbiomass and digestibility in L.tulipifera.

  6. Source characterization of biomass burning particles: The combustion of selected European conifers, African hardwood, savanna grass, and German and Indonesian peat

    Iinuma, Y.; Brüggemann, E.; Gnauk, T.; Müller, K.; Andreae, M. O.; Helas, G.; Parmar, R.; Herrmann, H.


    We carried out a detailed size-resolved chemical characterization of particle emissions from the combustion of European conifer species, savanna grass, African hardwood, and German and Indonesian peat. Combustion particles were sampled using two sets of five-stage Berner-type cascade impactors after a buffer volume and a dilution tunnel. We determined the emission factors of water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC, 46-6700 mg kg-1, sum of five stages), water-insoluble organic carbon (WISOC, 1300-6100 mg kg-1), (apparent) elemental carbon (ECa, 490-1800 mg kg-1), inorganic ions (68-400 mg kg-1), n-alkanes (0.38-910 mg kg-1), n-alkenes (0.45-180 mg kg-1), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) (1.4-28 mg kg-1), oxy-PAHs (0.08-1.0 mg kg-1), lignin decomposition products (59-620 mg kg-1), nitrophenols (1.4-31 mg kg-1), resin acids (0-110 mg kg-1), and cellulose and hemicellulose decomposition products (540-5900 mg kg-1). The combustion and particle emission characteristics of both of peat were significantly different from those of the other biofuels. Peat burning yielded significantly higher emission factors of total fine particles in comparison to the other biofuels. Very high emission factors of n-alkanes and n-alkenes were observed from peat combustion, which may be connected to the concurrently observed "missing" CCN in peat smoke. A high level of monosaccharide anhydrides, especially levoglucosan, was detected from all types of biofuel combustion. The fractions of monosaccharide anhydrides in the emitted total carbon were higher in smaller particles (aerodynamic diameter, Dpa < 0.42 μm).

  7. Effects of a clearcut on the net rates of nitrification and N mineralization in a northern hardwood forest, Catskill Mountains, New York, USA

    Burns, Douglas A.; Murdoch, Peter S.


    The Catskill Mountains of southeastern New York receive among the highest rates of atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition in eastern North America, and ecosystems in the region may be sensitive to human disturbances that affect the N cycle. We studied the effects of a clearcut in a northern hardwood forest within a 24-ha Catskill watershed on the net rates of N mineralization and nitrification in soil plots during 6 years (1994-1999) that encompassed 3-year pre- and post-harvesting periods. Despite stream NO3- concentrations that increased by more than 1400 ??mol l-1 within 5 months after the clearcut, and three measures of NO3- availability in soil that increased 6- to 8-fold during the 1st year after harvest, the net rates of N mineralization and nitrification as measured by in situ incubation in the soil remained unchanged. The net N-mineralization rate in O-horizon soil was 1- 2 mg N kg-1 day-1 and the net nitrification rate was about 1 mg N kg-1 day-1, and rates in B-horizon soil were only one-fifth to one-tenth those of the O-horizon. These rates were obtained in single 625 m2 plots in the clearcut watershed and reference area, and were confirmed by rate measurements at 6 plots in 1999 that showed little difference in N-mineralization and nitrification rates between the treatment and reference areas. Soil temperature increased 1 ?? 0.8??C in a clearcut study plot relative to a reference plot during the post-harvest period, and soil moisture in the clearcut plot was indistinguishable from that in the reference plot. These results are contrary to the initial hypothesis that the clearcut would cause net rates of these N-cycling processes to increase sharply. The in situ incubation method used in this study isolated the samples from ambient roots and thereby prevented plant N uptake; therefore, the increases in stream NO3- concentrations and export following harvest largely reflect diminished uptake. Changes in temperature and moisture after the clearcut were

  8. Effects of Covering on Growth Potential and Chlorophyll Content of Hardwood Cutting of Lycium barbarum%覆盖对枸杞硬枝扦插苗生长势及叶绿素含量的影响

    张巨琼; 蔺海明; 林楠


    Objective:To study the effect of plastic Him covering, straw covering, plastic film covering in greenhouse and no-covering cutting on growth and Chlorophyll content of Lycium barbarian hardwood cutting seedlings. Methods: Single factor randomized block design method was used in this research. Results: The effect of different covering treatments on germination rate, seedling rate and growth potential were all plastic film covering in greenhouse > plastic film covering > straw covering > no-covering cutting. Chlorophyll a, Chlorophyll b, Chlorophyll a + b content and Ca/Cb were significantly different with different coverings in different periods. Conclusion: The optimal covering on hardwood cutting of Lycium barbarum is plastic film covering in greenhouse. Both plastic film and straw covering are better than no-covering cutting.%目的:研究地膜覆盖、麦草覆盖、地膜+弓棚覆盖和露地扦插对枸杞硬枝扦插苗生长势及叶绿素含量的影响.方法:采用单因素随机区组设计.结果:覆盖对枸杞硬枝扦插苗萌芽率、成苗率及生长势的影响均为地膜+弓棚覆盖>地膜覆盖>麦草覆盖>露地扦插;不同处理及不同时期的叶绿素a、b、(a+b)含量和叶绿素(a/b)值均差异显著.结论:枸杞硬枝扦插育苗的最佳覆盖方式为地膜+弓棚覆盖,地膜覆盖和麦草覆盖亦优于露地扦插.

  9. Enraizamento de estacas semilenhosas de lichieira utilizando ácido indolbutírico Rooting of semi-hardwood litchi cuttings using indolbutiric acid

    Carlos Miranda Carvalho


    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar o enraizamento de estacas semilenhosas de lichieira ( Litchi chinensis Sonn. da cultivar Bengal, empregando ácido indolbutírico (AIB e sistema de nebulização intermitente. As estacas apicais foram coletadas nos meses de outubro (Primavera, janeiro (Verão e abril (Outono, acondicionadas adequadamente e transferidas para uma estufa com nebulização intermitente, onde receberam as aplicações de : 0; 1.000; 2.000; 3.000 e 4.000 mg L-1 de AIB, com imersão da base das estacas, durante 10 segundos, e de 200 mg L-1 de AIB, com imersão das bases por 24 horas, em aeração. Em seguida, foram colocadas para enraizar em substrato de vermiculita, com casca de arroz carbonizada, na proporção de 1:1. Após 100 dias, foram obtidos os dados referentes à porcentagem de estacas vivas com folhas, porcentagem de estacas enraizadas por parcela, comprimento médio de raiz por estaca enraizada (cm, número médio de raízes formadas por estaca enraizada, massa média da matéria fresca das raízes (g, massa média da matéria seca das raízes(g. Pelos resultados, concluiu-se que não há necessidade da aplicação do AIB para o enraizamento de estacas de lichieira, cultivar Bengal, e que a melhor época de coleta das mesmas é o verão.The objective of the work was to study the rooting of semi-hardwood litchi cuttings (Litchi chinensis Sonn. of Bengal cultivar using indolbutiric acid (IBA in an intermittent nebulization system. The apical cuttings were collected in October (spring in Brazil, January (summer and April (fall. The cuttings were properly arranged and transferred to greenhouse with intermittent mist and treated with 0, 1000, 2000, 3000 and 4000 mg L-1 indolbutiric acid applications, having the cuttings bases been immersed during 10 seconds and with 200 mg L-1 indolbutiric acid application, having the bases been immersed for 24 hours in aeration. They were put to rooting in vermiculite substratum with 1

  10. Bottomland Hardwood Forest Influence on Floodplain Hydrology and Stream Bank Stability in an Urbanizing Watershed of the Central U.S

    Hubbart, J. A.; Zell, C.; Huang, D.


    Conversion of bottomland hardwood forest (BHF) to agricultural and urban land uses in the 19th and 20th centuries altered the hydrology of streams, floodplains, and remnant BHF. Broadened and steepened stream channels lead to increased channel instability, accelerated erosion, and reduced floodplain hydrologic connectivity. A case study was implemented to investigate floodplain and stream hydrogeomorphological processes comparing a remnant BHF and Ag site (sites = 0.90 km apart). 120 m2 grids were established to estimate canopy cover (LAI = 3.1), soil characteristics by the soil core method at depths of 0, 15, 30, 50, 75 and 100 cm (n = 302), and surface soil infiltration capacity (n = 42). 80 m2 grids (each site) were implemented with nine equally spaced piezometers to estimate shallow groundwater depth and flow. Stream bank erosion study sites were located adjacent to BHF and agricultural floodplain study sites using the erosion pin method (10 pin plots, n = 342 pins). Results indicate average porosity (n = 150) of 0.56 (SD = 0.04) and 0.59 (SD = 0.04) in agricultural and BHF sites, respectively. Average infiltration capacity was 44 cm/hr (SD = 38 cm/hr) and 59 cm/hr (SD = 54 cm/hr) in agricultural and BHF sites, respectively. Depth integrated calculations of equivalent depth of soil water (EDSW) were significantly different (CI = 99%) 33.3 cm/m (SD = 2.24 cm/m) and 36.9 cm/m (SD = 2.68 cm/m) between Ag and BHF sites, respectively. Shallow groundwater analyses (Water Year 2011) indicated that average head at the BHF and Ag sites increased by approximately 0.25 m, and 0.50 m, respectively 90 m inland from the streambank. Stream bank erosion results showed that during a drier (762 mm) than average (10yr avg = 1077 mm) rainfall year (Water Year 2011), 15.7 and 177.8 tonnes of soil erosion occurred on the right side (facing downstream) stream banks of the BHF and Ag sites, respectively. Average bank erosion depth measured at the BHF and Ag sites was 18 and 112 mm

  11. Comparison of the susceptibility of two hardwood species, Mimosa scabrella Benth and Eucalyptus viminalis labill, to steam explosion and enzymatic hydrolysis

    L. P. Ramos


    Full Text Available Steam explosion of two hardwood species was carried out with and without addition of sulfuric acid (H2SO4 0.5%, p/v as a pretreatment catalyst. In general, wood chips of Eucalyptus viminalis Labill were shown to be more amenable to pretreatment than chips derived from bolds of Mimosa scabrella Benth (bracatinga. This was apparent from all pretreatment parameters tested including the overall recovery yields of pretreated fractions, carbohydrates (pentoses and hexoses recovered as water-solubles, yield of dehydration by-products and lignin susceptibility to acid hydrolysis. There was no evidence for complete deacetylation of both wood species during pretreatment and lignin appeared to undergo extensive acid hydrolysis at higher pretreatment severities. Steam treatment at 205ºC for 5 min without addition of an acid catalyst was shown to be uncapable of removing the hemicellulose component from bracatinga chips, as determined by chemical analysis of the steam-treated water-insoluble fractions. Nearly 30% of the hemicellulose (xylan found in bracatinga remained unhydrolysed after pretreatment, whereas more than 90% of this component could be removed from eucalypt chips under the same pretreatment conditions. Likewise, pretreatment of eucalypt chips resulted in a more extensive solubilization of glucans (cellulose by acid hydrolysis. Addition of dilute H2SO4 as a pretreatment catalyst generally increased the recovery yield of fermentable sugars in the water-soluble fractions and this effect was more pronounced for the pretreatment of bracatinga chips. Steam-treated substrates produced from bracatinga were also less accessible to enzymatic hydrolysis than those produced from eucalypt chips, regardless of the use of an acid catalyst.Duas espécies de angiospermas foram comparadas em relação à suas susceptibilidades ao pré-tratamento por explosão a vapor. De um modo geral, cavacos industriais de Eucalyptus viminalis Labill apresentaram-se mais

  12. 不同浓度IBA对榛子硬枝扦插生根的影响%Effects of Different IBA Concentration on Rooting of Hardwood Cuttings of Hazelnut



    The effects of concentration of IBA on rooting of hardwood cuttings of Corylus heterophylla,hybrid hazelnut and Corylus avellana were investigated.The results showed that average rooting rate of Corylus heterophylla reached 13.7% and 15.6% respectively,under 400mg/kg and 500mg/kg of IBA.And IBA concentration of 400mg/kg had remarkably effects on rooting rate of Corylus avellana,the highest reached 62.10%.Different concentrations of IBA have no significant difference on rooting characteristics of hybrid hazel.%以平榛、杂交榛、欧榛枝条为无性繁殖材料,研究IBA对榛子生根率和生根指数的影响。结果显示:平榛在IBA浓度为400 mg/kg和500 mg/kg时生根率最高,分别达到了13.75%和15.61%;欧榛在IBA浓度为400 mg/kg时生根率最高,为62.10%;不同浓度IBA对杂交榛生根影响较小。

  13. Enraizamento de estacas lenhosas e herbáceas de cultivares de caquizeiro com diferentes concentrações de ácido indolbutírico Rooting of hardwood and herbaceous cuttings of japanese persimmon tree cultivars treated with different concentration of indolbutyric acid

    Débora Costa Bastos


    Full Text Available Desenvolveu-se este trabalho com o objetivo de estudar a capacidade de enraizamento de estacas lenhosas e herbáceas de cultivares de caquizeiro tratadas com AIB. Estacas lenhosas e herbáceas foram coletadas de ramos de caquizeiro das cultivares Pomelo, Rama Forte, Taubaté, Giombo e Fuyu e submetidas à aplicação de AIB (0; 3.000 e 6.000 mg.L-1 por vinte segundos. Em seguida, as estacas foram colocadas em canteiro contendo uma mistura de terra + esterco de curral (3:1 v/v como substrato (estacas lenhosas e em bandejas de poliestireno expandido, contendo vermiculita média, em câmara de nebulização intermitente (estacas herbáceas. Como conclusão, observou-se que as cultivares de caquizeiro apresentam diferenças quanto ao potencial de formação de raízes e brotações; estacas herbáceas apresentam maior tendência na propagação via estaquia em comparação às estacas lenhosas.This work was carried out with the objective to study the capacity of rooting of hardwood and herbaceous cuttings of Japanese persimmon tree cultivars treated with IBA. Hardwood and herbaceous cuttings were collected from branches of Japanese persimmon tree and submitted to treatments in function of cultivars (Pomelo, Rama Forte, Taubaté, Giombo and Fuyu and of application of IBA (0, 3,000 and 6,000 mg.L-1 for twenty seconds. Later the cuttings were placed in stonemason containing a soil mixture + corral manure (3:1 v/v as substrate (hardwood cuttings and in polyethylene trays containing vermiculite as substrate, in intermittent mist chamber (herbaceous cuttings. As conclusion is observed that the cultivars of Japanese persimmon tree present differences in relationship to potential of roots and shoots formation; herbaceous cuttings present higher tendency in the propagation through cutting in comparison with the hardwood cuttings.

  14. 银杏硬枝插穗不同处理方法生根成活率试验%Rooting and survival rate test of Ginkgo hardwood cuttings under different treatments



      5 treatments were set to study the rooting and survival rate of Ginkgo hardwood cuttings. The two cutting modes were spring collection and winter storage, and rooting medicaments were self-made macromolecule·hormone hydrogel membranes and rooting pow-der (ABT 1) of 100mg/kg solution. The results showed that there was no significant difference between the survival rate of spring collect cuttings with self-made macromolecule·hormone hydrogel membranes and that of cottage covering with plastic film. The above two methods can significantly improve the survival rate of cuttings than the methods of dipping the winter store cuttings in 100mg/kg solution ABT rooting powder and mulching winter store cuttings with plastic film.%  试验设5个处理,采用春采和冬储两种采穗方式,用自制高分子·激素水凝胶生根膜和ABT 1号生根粉100 mg/kg溶液对银杏硬枝插穗进行处理。试验结果表明银杏春采插穗涂自制高分子·激素水凝胶生根膜露地与地膜覆盖扦插育苗生根成活率无显著差异,较冬储插穗浸ABT生根粉100 mg/kg溶液露地、地膜覆盖扦插可显著提高插穗生根成活率。

  15. Studies on refining properties of kraft bamboo pulp, hardwood pulp and wheat straw pulp%竹浆、阔叶木浆和麦草浆打浆性能的研究

    吴乾斌; 张美云; 夏新兴; 赵琳


      对竹浆、阔叶木浆和麦草浆进行了筛分,得出竹浆中R16目纤维和R200目细小纤维组分含量均最高。收集三种浆料的长纤维,进行打浆,得出:麦草纤维细胞壁容易破除,打浆度和保水值较高,纤维本身强度较差;竹纤维难分丝帚化;竹浆中的细小纤维组分容易破裂,吸水润胀。麦草纤维结合力强,成纸的抗张指数和耐破指数较高,撕裂指数和耐折度低;竹纤维成纸的各项物理指标均较高。%  After screened classification of the kraft bamboo pulp, hardwood pulp and wheat straw pulp, the fibers (above 16 mesh) content and fines (below 200 mesh) content of bamboo pulp are both high. Long fibers (over 200 mesh) of three kinds of pulp being refined, the fiber’s wall of wheat straw is removed easily and fiber’s strength is low. Fiber’s wall of bamboo brooms hardly. Fines of bamboo are beaten easily. The binding strength of wheat straw is high, so the tensile index and burst index are high, while the tear index and folding endurance are low. The entire physical index of bamboo fiber is high.

  16. Effects of Different Plant Growth Regulators on Hardwood Cutting with Kyoho Grape%不同植物生长调节剂对巨峰葡萄硬枝扦插的效应

    郄红丽; 周宁; 黄颖宏


    [Objective] The aim was to study effects of different plant growth regulators on hardwood cutting with Kyoho grape.[Method] With clear water as control,two treatments of Naphthalene acetic acid(NAA) and Aspirin(main ingredient salicylic acid) were set up,to analyze the survival rate of cuttings,the growth of roots and main tips.[Result] NAA and SA both could improve the survival rate of cuttings,promote the growth of roots and main tips.[Conclusion] NAA and SA both conducive to survival and growth of Kyoho grape,and the effect of NAA was better.%[目的]研究不同植物生长调节剂对巨峰葡萄硬枝扦插的效应。[方法]试验设萘乙酸(NAA)和阿司匹林(主要成分为水杨酸,SA)2个处理,以清水为对照,分析插条的成活率、地下部分根系及地上部分主梢的生长情况。[结果]萘乙酸和阿司匹林均能提高扦插苗木的成活率,促进地下部分根系及地上部分主梢的生长。[结论]萘乙酸和阿司匹林均有利于巨峰葡萄硬枝扦插的成活和生长,且萘乙酸比阿司匹林的效果好。

  17. 42种阔叶树材木纤维长度和宽度的研究%The research on wood fiber length and width of 42 kinds of hardwood

    黄日明; 陈承德


    对42种阔叶树材木纤维的长度和宽度进行了测定。结果表明,纤维最短的是芒果(842μm),最长的为木棉(2258μm);宽度最小的是相思树(15μm),最大是拟赤杨(44μm);纤维长宽比值,最低是泡桐仅为31,最高是木棉83。天然野生的酸枣和杜英与人工栽培的对比,二者的纤维长度均存在极显著差异,酸枣纤维宽度差异不显著,杜英差异显著。盆架木的纤维长度和宽度,集美产的和龙岩产的对比均存在显著差异,银桦和芒果纤维长度和宽度不同产地之间均无显著差异。%The wood fiber length and width of 42 kinds of hardwood were determined. The results showed: the shortest fiber is Mangifera indica (842μm); the longest fiber is Bombax ceiba (2258μm); the smallest fiber width is Acaia confusa(15μm); the largest fiber width is Alniphyllum fortunei (44μm). The minimum fiber length-width ratio is Paulownia fortuneionly with 31; the maximum is Bombax ceiba with 83. There were more significant differences between natural wild and artificial cultivation in fiber length of the Choerospondias axillaris and the Elaeocarpus decipiens. There was no significant difference between them in the fiber width of the Choerospondias axillaris. There were significant differences between them in the fiber width of the Elaeocarpus decipiens. There were significant differences in the fiber length and width of the Alstonia scholaris between Jimei and Longyan. There was no significant difference in the fiber length and width of the Grevillea robusta and Mangifera indica between different regions.

  18. Enraizamento de estacas lenhosas de pessegueiro cv. Okinawa em diferentes diâmetros de ramos, substratos e recipientes Rooting of peach cv. Okinawa hardwood cuttings at different stem diameters, substrates, and pots

    Mauro Brasil Dias Tofanelli


    Full Text Available O trabalho foi desenvolvido no Departamento de Produção Vegetal - Setor Horticultura da Faculdade de Ciências Agronômicas (FCA da Universidade Estadual Paulista "Júlio de Mesquita Filho" (UNESP, Campus de Botucatu (SP com o objetivo de avaliar a influência de diferentes substratos e tipos de recipientes no potencial de enraizamento de estacas lenhosas de pessegueiro cultivar Okinawa com diferentes diâmetros. As estacas foram tratadas com 2,5g L-1 de ácido indol-butírico. O período de permanência das estacas na casa de vegetação foi de 50 dias. Os tratamentos consistiram de seis substratos: areia, casca de arroz carbonizada, vermiculita, areia + casca de arroz carbonizada, areia + vermiculita e casca de arroz carbonizada + vermiculita, com as misturas na proporção 1:1v/v, três tipos de recipientes: sacos plásticos, bandejas de poliestireno expandido e bandejas plásticas e dois grupos de estacas com diâmetros diferentes: 2 a 6mm e 6 a 10mm. O melhor resultado de enraizamento foi obtido em sacos plásticos com vermiculita independente do diâmetro das estacas.This work was carried out at the Department of Plant Production/Horticulture of the Faculdade de Ciências Agronômicas (FCA of the Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP located in Botucatu (SP, Brazil. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of substrate and pot type on rooting of stem hardwood cuttings of peach cultivar Okinawa with different diameters. The cuttings were treated with 2.5g L-1 of IBA. The cuttings were maintained in greenhouse for 50 days. The treatments consisted of the combination of six substrate compositions: sand, carbonized rice husk, vermiculite, sand + carbonized rice husk, sand + vermiculite, and carbonized rice husk + vermiculite, mixture at proportion 1:1v/v and three types of pots: plastic bags, polystyrene trays, plastic trays and two groups of cutting diameter: 2 to 6mm and 6 to 10mm. The highest rooting frequency was obtained

  19. Efeito do ácido indolbutírico e da cultivar no enraizamento de estacas lenhosas de mirtilo Effect of indolebutyric acid and cultivar on rooting of hardwood cuttings of blueberry

    Doralice Lobato de Oliveira Fischer


    Full Text Available Dentre os métodos de multiplicação do mirtilo, a propagação por meio de estacas é uma técnica de baixo custo, que proporciona resultados variáveis, de acordo com a cultivar e outros fatores. Objetivou-se, com este trabalho, avaliar o efeito do AIB no enraizamento de estacas lenhosas de mirtilo das cultivares Powderblue, Delite, Climax, Bluebelle e Woodard. O material vegetativo utilizado, oriundo de matrizeiro, constituiu em segmentos de ramos principais, com 15 cm de comprimento e diâmetro aproximado de 6 mm. Após o preparo das estacas, as bases das mesmas foram imersas, por 15 segundos, em uma solução com fitorregulador (AIB, nas concentrações de 0; 1.000; 2.000; 4.000 e 8.000 mg.L-1 , sendo colocadas para enraizar em areia de granulometria média, sob irrigação intermitente, por microaspersão. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições e dez estacas por parcela. Após oito meses da instalação do experimento, avaliaram-se a porcentagem de estacas enraizadas, o número médio de raízes por estaca, o comprimento da maior raiz, o número médio de brotações e o comprimento da maior brotação. A resposta das diferentes cultivares de mirtilo ao enraizamento das estacas variou com a concentração de ácido indolbutírico (AIB. Independentemente do uso de AIB e da cultivar, na maioria dos tratamentos, a porcentagem de enraizamento foi superior a 55%.Among the propagation methods of blueberry, cutting is the technique that presents low cost. However, it provides different results depending on cultivar and others factors. Thus, the objective of this research was to evaluate the IBA effect on rooting of hardwood cuttings of blueberry cultivars Powderblue, Delite, Climax, Bluebelle and Woodard. The vegetative material used (from mother nursery was 15 cm long segment taken from main branches with approximately 6 mm diameter. After cuttings preparation, the cuttings base were immersed for 15 seconds

  20. Enraizamento de estacas semilenhosas de mirtilo sob o efeito de diferentes concentrações de ácido indolbutírico Rooting of semi-hardwood cuttings of blueberry under different indolebutyric acid concentrations

    Doralice Lobato de Oliveira Fischer


    Full Text Available Dentre os métodos de multiplicação, o mirtilo pode ser propagado por sementes, rebentos, micropropagação e estaquia. Comercialmente, a propagação por meio de estaca é o método mais utilizado, proporcionando resultados diversos de acordo com a cultivar. Objetivou-se, com este trabalho, avaliar o efeito do ácido indolbutírico (AIB no enraizamento de estacas semilenhosas de mirtilo das cultivares Delite e Bluebelle, coletadas em dezembro/2005. O material utilizado, oriundo de plantas irrigadas, foi segmento de ramos principais, com quatro gemas e diâmetro médio de 6 mm, contendo duas folhas na extremidade superior, cortadas pela metade. Após o preparo, as estacas foram tratadas com AIB, nas concentrações de 0; 1.000; 2.000 e 4.000 mg. L-1, sendo colocadas para enraizar em areia de granulometria grossa lavada, sob irrigação intermitente por microaspersão. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi em blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições e dez estacas por parcela. Para a cultivar Bluebelle, o uso de AIB na concentração de 1.000 mg.L-1 propiciou, aos 120 dias após a instalação do experimento, maior número e comprimento de raízes, número e comprimento de brotações e enraizamento de 37,5%. A cultivar Delite apresentou maior facilidade de emissão de raízes e brotações, independentemente do uso de AIB, com percentual de estacas enraizadas superior a 82,5%.Blueberries can be propagated by a variety of methods such as seeds, suckers, micropropagation and cuttings. Commercially, most propagation is done by cutting, providing different results depending on the cultivar. Thus, the objective of this research was to evaluate the indolebutyric acid (IBA effect on rooting of semi-hardwood cuttings of blueberry cultivars Delite and Bluebelle collected on December/2005. Four-node segments with 6 mm approximately, containing 2 upper leaves cut in half were taken from main branches of irrigated plants. After preparation, the

  1. A Guide to Bottomland Hardwood Restoration


    to 5 Y2 years without losing viability. Hawthorn Dry, sandy, stony ridges to MT I July - Nov. Unknown. Crataegus spp. moist river bottoms and in...MT T to VT Sept. - Oct. Store in sealed Celtis laevigata fronts of new alluvium but not container at 411F (5°C) in deep swamps. for up to 5 ½ years...maple Acer barbatum Flowering dogwood Cornus florida Green ash Fraxinus pennsylvanica Hackberry Celtis occidentalis Hawthorn Crataegus spp

  2. Hardwood log supply: a broader perspective

    Iris Montague; Adri Andersch; Jan Wiedenbeck; Urs. Buehlmann


    At regional and state meetings we talk with others in our business about the problems we face: log exports, log quality, log markets, logger shortages, cash flow problems, the weather. These are familiar talking points and real and persistent problems. But what is the relative importance of these problems for log procurement in different regions of...

  3. Hardwood Sprout Development on Cleared Sites

    Frank W. Woods; John T. Cassady; Charles X Grano; Robert L. Johnson


    Clearing forest land of undesirable vegetation, with a view to obtaining desirable trees, is becoming increasingly common in the South. Bulldozers and other heavy equipment are generally used in such efforts. Success is measured largely by the degree to which recovery of the unwanted plants is prevented or slowed. This Occasional Paper contains three articles on the...

  4. Competition between hardwood hammocks and mangroves

    Sternberg, L.D.S.L.; Teh, S.Y.; Ewe, S.M.L.; Miralles-Wilhelm, F.; DeAngelis, D.L.


    The boundaries between mangroves and freshwater hammocks in coastal ecotones of South Florida are sharp. Further, previous studies indicate that there is a discontinuity in plant predawn water potentials, with woody plants either showing predawn water potentials reflecting exposure to saline water or exposure to freshwater. This abrupt concurrent change in community type and plant water status suggests that there might be feedback dynamics between vegetation and salinity. A model examining the salinity of the aerated zone of soil overlying a saline body of water, known as the vadose layer, as a function of precipitation, evaporation and plant water uptake is presented here. The model predicts that mixtures of saline and freshwater vegetative species represent unstable states. Depending on the initial vegetation composition, subsequent vegetative change will lead either to patches of mangrove coverage having a high salinity vadose zone or to freshwater hammock coverage having a low salinity vadose zone. Complete or nearly complete coverage by either freshwater or saltwater vegetation represents two stable steady-state points. This model can explain many of the previous observations of vegetation patterns in coastal South Florida as well as observations on the dynamics of vegetation shifts caused by sea level rise and climate change. ?? 2007 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.


    Joni Tapani Lehto,


    Full Text Available Carbohydrate-containing hydrolysates (1.1 to 14.9% of wood dry matter obtained from autohydrolysis (at 130 to 150°C for 30 to 120 minutes of birch (Betula pendula chips prior to pulping were purified with respect to non-carbohydrate materials, without carbohydrate losses, either by ethyl acetate extraction or XAD-4 resin treatment. In the former case, about 50% of lignin and practically all the furanoic compounds (2-furaldehyde and 5-(hydroxymethylfurfural could be removed, whereas in the latter case, the corresponding amounts were about 30% and 50 to 90%, respectively. A partial recovery of various unsaturated impurities is of importance, because they may act as inhibitors when biochemically converting carbohydrates in hydrolysates into value-added products.

  6. Enraizamento de estacas lenhosas de três cultivares de mirtileiro com diferentes concentrações de AIB Rooting of hardwood cuttings of three blueberry cultivars with different concentrations of IBA

    Gerson Kleinick Vignolo


    .Commercially, propagation of blueberry by cutting is the very usual method, which gives a range of results according to the cultivar. This research aimed to evaluate the effect of indol-butyric acid (IBA on rooting of blueberry hardwood cuttings. It was used segments of secondary branches with four buds and mean diameter of 4.5mm. The experimental design was totally randomized in a 5x3 factorial, five concentrations of IBA (0; 1500; 3000; 4500 and 6000mg L-1 and three cultivars (Delite, Bluebelle and Briteblue. It was used four replications and ten cuttings per plot. After cutting, the base of the cuttings was dipped for 10 seconds into a solution of IBA. Then, they were put to root in a mix of thick sand and commercial substrate Turfa Fertil® (1:1 with pH 5.5 and manually irrigated. After 138 days from trial installation, percentage of rooted cuttings, number of root per cutting, length of the largest root, number of shoots, length of the largest shoot and percentage of surviving cuttings were evaluated. According to the results it was not verified interaction among different factors. It was verified difference among cultivars only in the length of the largest root, number of root per cutting and percentage of surviving cuttings. For concentration of IBA, it was verified by regression analysis, a linear behavior for the variables increasing rooted and survived, but the response was quadratic for the longest root length. It was concluded that the concentration up to 6000mg L-1 IBA is not sufficient to express the maximum rooting potential of the blueberry cuttings cultivars Delite, Bluebelle and Briteblue.

  7. Metodologias de aplicação de AIB no enraizamento de estacas semilenhosas de Sapium glandulatum (vell. pax Methodologies of IBA application in the rooting of Sapium glandulatum (vell. pax semi-hardwood cuttings

    B.G.A. Ferreira


    , não sendo um método recomendável para o aumento da indução radicial de Sapium glandulatum. Pelo exposto, pode-se considerar que estacas de brotações do ano desta espécie não são indicadas para sua propagação vegetativa, de acordo com os tratamentos realizados.The species Sapium glandulatum, commonly known as "leiteiro", is one of the Brazilian native species potentially recommended for the recovery of degraded areas, mainly due to its pioneering character and probable medicinal properties since its family, Euphorbiaceae, is rich in phenolic compounds. In April/2000 and December/2001, experiments were carried out in a greenhouse to investigate the effects of different indolebutyric acid (IBA levels in concentrated solution (10 seconds immersion, diluted solution (16 hours immersion and as talc, associated or not with boric acid, on the rooting of Sapium glandulatum semi-hardwood cuttings. The latter were produced from sproutings of the year collected from stock plants located in Bocaiúva do Sul, Paraná State, Brazil. The length of each cutting was about 10 cm, with 2 half apical leaves. The following treatments were evaluated: 0, 4000, 6000 and 8000 mg L-1 IBA, alone and with 150 mg L-1 boric acid (concentrated solution; 0, 200 and 400 mg L-1 IBA, alone and with 150 mg L-1 boric acid (diluted solution; and 0, 4000, 6000 and 8000 mg L-1 IBA as talc. After 70 days in greenhouse, the best period for cutting collection was December/2000 (summer, and 8000 mg L-1 IBA in concentrated solution led to the highest rooting percentage (14%, although not significantly different from the remaining treatments. The diluted solution did not show promising results for root system induction due to the high mortality of cuttings. The results for IBA as talc were not higher than those for the best treatments in concentrated solution, which indicates this method is not recommended to increase Sapium glandulatum rooting induction. Thus, sprouting cuttings of the year from

  8. 硬木中流体移动的双尺度多孔机理的依据(Ⅱ)描述实验结果的双尺度计算模型%Evidence of Dual Scale Porous Mechanisms During Fluid Migration in Hardwood Species (Ⅱ) A Dual Scale Computational Model to Describe the Experimental Results

    Patrick PERRE


    The second part of this paper is devoted to the computational modelling of transient water migration in hardwood. During re-saturation, the moisture content, measured during the process by using X-ray attenuation (see part 1 of this paper), increases quickly very close to the cavity, but requires a very long time for the remaining part of the sample to absorb the moisture in wetting. For this configuration and this material, the macroscopic approach fails. Consequently, a dual-porosity approach is proposed. The computational domain uses a 2-D axisymmetric configuration for which the axial coordinate represents the macroscopic longitudinal direction of the sample whereas the radial coordinate allows the slow migration from each active vessel towards the fibre zone to be considered. The latter is a microscopic space variable. The moisture content field evolution depicts clearly the dual scale mechanisms:a very fast longitudinal migration in the vessel followed by a slow migration from the vessel towards the fibre zone.The macroscopic moisture content field resulting from this dual scale mechanism is in quite good agreement with the experimental data.

  9. 78 FR 67979 - Hardwood Lumber and Hardwood Plywood Promotion, Research and Information Order; Referendum...


    ... conducts business shall have the jurisdiction to review a final ruling on the petition, if the petitioner... considered electronic voting, but the use of computers is not universal. Conducting the referendum from...

  10. 2,6-Di-hidroxiacetofenona e tipo de corte basal no enraizamento de estacas semi-lenhosas de pessegueiro ‘Okinawa’ 2,6-Di-hydroxyacetophenone and basal cuts on rooting of the peach semi-hardwood cuttings

    Mauro Brasil Dias Tofanelli


    Full Text Available A propagação do pessegueiro (Prunus persica no Brasil é baseada na enxertia sobre porta-enxertos oriundos de sementes. Outros métodos de propagação de frutíferas poderiam ser utilizados para o pessegueiro visando obtenção de materiais de melhor qualidade. Neste trabalho objetivou-se avaliar o efeito do 2,6-di-hidroxiacetofenona aplicado previamente ao ácido indol-butírico em estacas semi-lenhosas de pessegueiro da cultivar Okinawa preparadas com diferentes tipos de corte basal. Foram coletados ramos do porta-enxerto ‘Okinawa’ em dezembro de 2001 para o preparo das estacas sem folhas, com 12cm de comprimento, 7mm de diâmetro, quatro gemas e diferentes tipos de cortes basais (corte longitudinal, corte lateral e corte da casca tratado-as na base com 0 e 300mg L-1 de 2,6-di-hidroxiacetofenona por 4h em aeração (oxigenação e depois com 2500mg L-1 ácido indol-butírico por 5s. As estacas foram plantadas em bandejas de poliestireno expandido (72 células com vermiculita fina e colocadas em casa de nebulização por 45 dias. A aplicação de 300mg L-1 de 2,6-DHAP e a realização de lesões nas bases das estacas foram eficientes para aumentar o enraizamento das estacas semi-lenhosas do pessegueiro ‘Okinawa’, demonstrando que estas técnicas podem ser utilizadas para a propagação de pessegueiro por estaquia.The Peach (Prunus persica propagation in Brazil is basically by grafting on rootstock propagated by seeds. Others methods for fruit tree propagation could be used for peach to obtain high quality plants. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of the 2,6-di-hydroxyacetoplenone applied previously to the indol-butyric acid in peach semi-hardwood cuttings prepared with different types of cuts in the bases. The cuttings were prepared with 12cm in length, 7mm in diameter, 4 shoots, and with different basal cuts (longitudinal incision, lateral incision and husk incision and treated with 0 and 300mg L-1 of 2,6-di

  11. Reciprocity on the hardwood: passing patterns among professional basketball players.

    Willer, Robb; Sharkey, Amanda; Frey, Seth


    Past theory and research view reciprocal resource sharing as a fundamental building block of human societies. Most studies of reciprocity dynamics have focused on trading among individuals in laboratory settings. But if motivations to engage in these patterns of resource sharing are powerful, then we should observe forms of reciprocity even in highly structured group environments in which reciprocity does not clearly serve individual or group interests. To this end, we investigated whether patterns of reciprocity might emerge among teammates in professional basketball games. Using data from logs of National Basketball Association (NBA) games of the 2008-9 season, we estimated a series of conditional logistic regression models to test the impact of different factors on the probability that a given player would assist another player in scoring a basket. Our analysis found evidence for a direct reciprocity effect in which players who had "received" assists in the past tended to subsequently reciprocate their benefactors. Further, this tendency was time-dependent, with the probability of repayment highest soon after receiving an assist and declining as game time passed. We found no evidence for generalized reciprocity - a tendency to "pay forward" assists - and only very limited evidence for indirect reciprocity - a tendency to reward players who had sent others many assists. These findings highlight the power of reciprocity to shape human behavior, even in a setting characterized by extensive planning, division of labor, quick decision-making, and a focus on inter-group competition.

  12. Reciprocity on the hardwood: passing patterns among professional basketball players.

    Robb Willer

    Full Text Available Past theory and research view reciprocal resource sharing as a fundamental building block of human societies. Most studies of reciprocity dynamics have focused on trading among individuals in laboratory settings. But if motivations to engage in these patterns of resource sharing are powerful, then we should observe forms of reciprocity even in highly structured group environments in which reciprocity does not clearly serve individual or group interests. To this end, we investigated whether patterns of reciprocity might emerge among teammates in professional basketball games. Using data from logs of National Basketball Association (NBA games of the 2008-9 season, we estimated a series of conditional logistic regression models to test the impact of different factors on the probability that a given player would assist another player in scoring a basket. Our analysis found evidence for a direct reciprocity effect in which players who had "received" assists in the past tended to subsequently reciprocate their benefactors. Further, this tendency was time-dependent, with the probability of repayment highest soon after receiving an assist and declining as game time passed. We found no evidence for generalized reciprocity - a tendency to "pay forward" assists - and only very limited evidence for indirect reciprocity - a tendency to reward players who had sent others many assists. These findings highlight the power of reciprocity to shape human behavior, even in a setting characterized by extensive planning, division of labor, quick decision-making, and a focus on inter-group competition.

  13. The ecology of garlic mustard in eastern hardwood forests

    Brian C. McCarthy


    Upwards of 25% of the plant species in many eastern floras have been introduced. Many of these species have become invasive. Many of the worst invasives are native to Eurasia and were brought to the U.S. either intentionally for forage, fiber production, erosion control, ornamentals, or unintentionally via crop seed contaminant, transportation, or nursery stock.

  14. Biotechnology and genetic optimization of fast-growing hardwoods

    Garton, S.; Syrkin-Wurtele, E.; Griffiths, H.; Schell, J.; Van Camp, L.; Bulka, K. (NPI, Salt Lake City, UT (United States))


    A biotechnology research program was initiated to develop new clones of fast-growing Populus clones resistant to the herbicide glyphosate and resistant to the leaf-spot and canker disease caused by the fungus Septoria musiva. Glyphosate-resistant callus was selected from stem segments cultured in vitro on media supplemented with the herbicide. Plants were regenerated from the glyphosate-resistant callus tissue. A portion of plants reverted to a glyphosate susceptible phenotype during organogenesis. A biologically active filtrate was prepared from S. musiva and influenced fresh weight of Populus callus tissue. Disease-resistant plants were produced through somaclonal variation when shoots developed on stem internodes cultured in vitro. Plantlets were screened for disease symptoms after spraying with a suspension of fungal spores. A frequency of 0.83 percent variant production was observed. Genetically engineered plants were produced after treatment of plant tissue with Agrobacterium tumefasciens strains carrying plasmid genes for antibiotic resistance. Transformers were selected on media enriched with the antibiotic, kanamycin. Presence of foreign DNA was confirmed by Southern blot analysis. Protoplasts of popular were produced but did not regenerate into plant organs. 145 refs., 12 figs., 36 tabs.

  15. Relationships between harvest of American ginseng and hardwood timber production

    Stephen P. Prisley; James Chamberlain; Michael McGuffin


    The goal of this research was to quantify the relationship between American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) and timber inventory and harvest. This was done through compilation and analysis of county-level data from public datasets: ginseng harvest data from U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, US Forest Service (USFS) forest inventory and analysis (FIA)...

  16. Rooting of yellow native Passionfruit by semi-hardwood cuttings

    Celso Lopes de Albuquerque Junior


    Full Text Available The objective of this estudy was to evaluate the influence of cuttings related to their position in the branch (basal, middle and apical and presence of leaves on rooting native yellow passionfruit (Passiflora actinia. Cuttings with two nodes were prepared 80-10 cm long, and his was planted inplastic pots containing vermiculite, maintained in a greenhouse under intermittent mist for 90 days. We evaluated the percentage of rooted cuttings, number of roots, dry weight and length of roots. The statistical design was randomized blocks with 6 treatments, each treatment consisted of four replications with 12 cuttings each. We performed analysis of variance and Tukey’s test to the data interpretation. It was concluded that the presence of leaves on the basal cuttings showed the highest rooting percentage, the greater number of roots higher dry weight and greater length of roots.

  17. Hardwoods in U.S. wood pallet production

    Robert J. Bush; Philip A. Araman; E. Bradley Hager


    Research indicates that in 2006, 7.26 billion board feet (approximately 17.1 million m3) of new solid wood was utilized by the U.S. wood pallet and container manufacturing industry. During the same year, the study estimates that 5.09 billion board feet (approximately 12.0 million m3) were recovered mostly from used pallets for reuse and recycling. This paper reports...

  18. Hardwood pallet cant quality and pallet part yields

    Hal L. Mitchell; Marshall White; Philip Araman; Peter Hamner


    Raw materials are the largest cost component in pallet manufacturing. The primary raw material used to produce pallet parts are pallet cants. Therefore, pallet cant quality directly impacts pallet part processing and material costs. By knowing the quality of the cants being processed, pallet manufacturers can predict these costs and improve manufacturing efficiency....

  19. Modeling hardwood crown radii using circular data analysis

    Paul F. Doruska; Hal O. Liechty; Douglas J. Marshall


    Cylindrical data are bivariate data composed of a linear and an angular component. One can use uniform, first-order (one maximum and one minimum) or second-order (two maxima and two minima) models to relate the linear component to the angular component. Crown radii can be treated as cylindrical data when the azimuths at which the radii are measured are also recorded....

  20. Researchers propose single grade rule for evaluating hardwood pallet cants

    Hal Mitchell; Marshall White; Philip Araman; Peter Hamner


    In "price taker" markets, successful businesses are the low cost producers, and pallet manufacturers are no exception. The single largest cost component of pallet manufacturing is raw material costs. Cants and lumber typically account for over 60% of operating costs. In the last three decades, cants have replaced lumber as the primary raw...

  1. Deriving Biomass Estimation Equations for Seven Plantation Hardwood Species

    Bryce E. Schlaegel; Harvey E. Kennedy


    Trees of seven species sampled from a plantation over 7 years were used to derive weight equations to predict primary tree components. The seven species required the use of five different model forms to insure the greatest precision. Regardless of model form, all equations include variables for tree diameter, tree height, age, and number of trees planted. The most...

  2. Automatic Color Sorting of Hardwood Edge-Glued Panel Parts

    D. Earl Kline; Richard Conners; Qiang Lu; Philip A. Araman


    This paper describes an automatic color sorting system for red oak edge-glued panel parts. The color sorting system simultaneously examines both faces of a panel part and then determines which face has the "best" color, and sorts the part into one of a number of color classes at plant production speeds. Initial test results show that the system generated over...

  3. Product costing practices in the North American hardwood component industry

    Adrienn Andersch; Urs Buehlmann; Jan Wiedenbeck; Steve. Lawser


    Companies, when bidding for jobs, need to be able to price products competitively while also assuring that the necessary profitability can be achieved. These goals, competitive pricing and profitability, cannot be reliably achieved unless industry participants possess a full understanding of their company's cost structure. Competitors blame companies without...

  4. Acorn viability following prescribed fire in upland hardwood forests

    Katie Greenberg; Tara Keyser; Stan Zarnoch; Kris Connor


    Restoration of structure and function of mixed-oak (Quercus spp.) forests is a focal issue of forest land managers in the eastern United States due to widespread regeneration failure and poor overstory recruitment of oaks, particularly on productive sites. Prescribed fire is increasingly used as a tool in oak ecosystem restoration, with the goal of reducing competition...

  5. Enraizamento de estacas lenhosas de pereira tratadas com AIB e mantidas em ambiente de estufa tipo B.O.D. e de telado Rooting of hardwood cuttings of pear tree with IBA under B.O.D. chamber and greenhouse environment

    Wilson Barbosa


    Full Text Available Pesquisou-se o enraizamento da pereira em ambiente controlado de estufa tipo B.O.D. e em telado simples. Utilizou-se a cultivar híbrida 'Limeira', destinada exclusivamente para fins culinários e para porta-enxerto. Estacas lenhosas sem folhas, medindo 25 cm de comprimento, foram tratadas com ácido indolbutírico (AIB nas concentrações de 0; 2.000; 4.000 e 6.000 mg.L-1 por 10 segundos. Como substrato, utilizou-se da mistura de vermiculita e areia grossa (2:1 v/v, sendo a mesma umedecida com meio contendo solução salina MS e sacarose 1%. As estacas permaneceram por 42 dias dentro de estufas tipo B.O.D. (temperatura de 25ºC, umidade relativa do ar de 90% e fotoperíodo de 8 horas e de telado com irrigação por microaspersão, sem controle ambiental. Em ambiente controlado de estufa, as estacas não-tratadas com AIB iniciaram intensa brotação das gemas e formação de calo após sete dias do plantio. Já em ambiente de telado, essas estacas demoraram 21 dias para o início de brotação das gemas, mostrando menor desenvolvimento de calo. Nas estacas tratadas com AIB, os calos surgiram nas regiões dos cortes após o terceiro dia de incubação na estufa B.O.D. As raízes desenvolveram-se a partir dos tecidos da base e dos calos, tornando-se mais nítidas a partir de 14 e 28 dias, respectivamente, para os ambientes de estufa e de telado. Após 42 dias, o melhor percentual de enraizamento (83% foi verificado no tratamento com AIB a 2.000 mg.L-1, em ambiente de estufa B.O.D. O emprego dessa estufa, com temperatura, luz e umidade relativa controladas, mostrou-se viável em relação ao telado, no processo de enraizamento das estacas lenhosas da pereira 'Limeira', podendo favorecer o sistema de propagação vegetativa da pereira e encurtar o período da formação de mudas.The rooting of cuttings pear under controlled environment of chamber (B.O.D. type and greenhouse was searched. Hardwood cuttings of 'Limeira' pear, without leaves, measuring

  6. An evaluation of hardwood fuel models for planning prescribed fires in oak shelterwood stands

    Patrick H. Brose


    The shelterwood burn technique is becoming more accepted and used as a means of regenerating eastern mixed-oak (Quercus spp.) forests on productive upland sites. Preparation is important to successfully implement this method; part of that preparation is selecting the proper fuel model (FM) for the prescribed fire. Because of the mix of leaf litter...

  7. 77 FR 66436 - Hardwood and Decorative Plywood From the People's Republic of China: Initiation of Antidumping...


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE...-to-size by the manufacturer in accordance with a customer's requirements, or made to other sizes. A... detailed at Table 4 through 10 of that Standard; (2) plywood platforms with a face and back ply of cork; (3...

  8. Photosynthetic responses to understory shade and elevated carbon dioxide concentration in 4 northern hardwood tree species

    Sefcik, L.T.; Zak, D.R.; Ellsworth, D.S. [Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI (United States). School of Natural Resources and Environment


    Stimulation of photosynthesis in response to elevated carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) varies among tree species and species groups. In this study, seedling responses to elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) concentrations and solar irradiance over 2 growing seasons were investigated for shade tolerant Acer saccharum Marsh.; Fagus grandifolia J.F. Ehrh; and shade-intolerant Prunus serotina. Seedlings were exposed to a combination of elevated and ambient concentrations of CO{sub 2} and understory shade in open-top chambers placed in a forest understory. It was observed that the elevated CO{sub 2} treatment increased mean light-saturated net photosynthetic rates by 63 per cent in the shade-tolerant species and 67 per cent in the shade-intolerant species. When measured at the elevated CO{sub 2}, long-term enhancement of photosynthesis was 10 per cent lower than the instantaneous enhancement observed in ambient-CO{sub 2}-grown plants. As the growth irradiance increased, proportional enhancement due to elevated CO{sub 2} decreased from 97 per cent for plants grown in deep shade to 47 per cent for plants grown in moderate shade. Results indicated that in nitrogen (N) limited northern temperate forests, trees grown in deep shade may display greater photosynthetic gains from a CO{sub 2} enriched atmosphere than trees growing in more moderate shade, due to greater down-regulation. It was concluded that if elevated CO{sub 2} levels promote the survival of shade-intolerant species in dim understory light, the future composition and dynamics of successional forest communities may be altered. 70 refs., 2 tabs., 3 figs.

  9. Photosynthetic responses to understory shade and elevated carbon dioxide concentration in four northern hardwood tree species

    Sefcik, L.T.; Zak, D.R.; Ellsworth, D.S. [Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI (United States). School of Natural Resources and Environment


    The stimulation of photosynthesis in response to elevated carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) varies among tree species and species groups and is compounded by other environmental conditions. This study investigated whether understory shade modified light-limited and light-saturated photosynthetic rates in species differing in shade tolerance grown in an elevated CO{sub 2} environment. The study aimed to validate the hypothesis that shade-intolerant species would have a greater photosynthetic response to elevated CO-2 than shade-tolerant species. To evaluate the hypothesis, various species of tree seedlings were grown in elevated and ambient CO{sub 2} in understory conditions of deep or moderate shade. Light-limited and light-saturated photosynthetic rates were measured in order to examine the physiological changes related to CO{sub 2} and light availability in Acer saccharum Marsh; Fagus grandifolia; Prunus serotina; and Betula paprifera Marsh. Results of the study showed that the elevated CO{sub 2} treatment increased mean light-saturated photosynthetic rates by 63 per cent in the shade-tolerant species, and 67 per cent in the shade-intolerant species. However, long-term enhancement of photosynthesis was 10 per cent lower when measured at the elevated CO{sub 2} than in the instantaneous enhancement noted in ambient CO{sub 2} grown plants. Growth light environment affected long-term photosynthetic enhancement by CO{sub 2}. When growth irradiance increased, proportional enhancement due to elevated CO{sub 2} decreased from 97 per cent for plants grown in deep shade to 47 per cent for plants grown in moderate shade. Results indicated that trees grown in deep shade in nitrogen-limited northern temperate forests may display greater photosynthetic gains from a CO{sub 2} enriched atmosphere than trees growing in more moderate shade. It was concluded that if photosynthetic gains by deep-shade grown plants in response to elevated CO{sub 2} translate into improved growth and survival of shade-intolerant species, the future composition and dynamics of successional forst communities may be altered. 69 refs., 2 tabs., 3 figs.

  10. Hardwood cover crops:can they enhance loblolly pine seedling production

    Paul P. Kormanik; Shi-Jean S. Sung; T.L. Kormanik; Stanley J. Zarnoch


    It has been extremely difficult to obtain more than two loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) crops following even effective soil fumigation with methyl bromide in southern forest tree nurseries. The traditional agronomic cover crops such as sorghum and sudex, unless followed by fumigation, do not normally produce satisfactory loblolly pine seedling crops. Various species...

  11. Light and soil humidity influencing oak seedling growth and physiology in mixed hardwood gaps

    Raddi S


    Full Text Available In “S. Rossore, Migliarino, Massaciuccoli” Natural Park (Pisa, I six-month-old pedunculate oak seedlings (Quercus robur L. were transplanted within natural gaps of a mixed oak forest. Micro-environmental variability for radiation and water soil content were measured for 145 seedlings during the year. Irradiation relative to the open field (IR ranged from 5% to 57%. Seven classes of IR each with 20 seedlings were selected. Leaf mass per area was strongly influenced by IR. In the first 3 years survival was high (95, 76 and 75%, respectively and seedling reached 14±6 cm, 27±13 cm and 39±19 (sd cm of height. Even if IR and soil water content (SWC were negatively associated, indicating a lower SWC at the centre of the gaps, height and its relative growth rate increased with IR (explored range: 8-40% with a significant interaction with SWC in the 1st year, indicating the positive effect of soil moisture. In the 3rd year dimensional traits were higher in L+W+ (high light and humidity followed by L-W+ (low light and high humidity, L+W- and finally by L-W-. Summer drought typical of the Mediterranean climate was evaluated by chlorophyll fluorescence of PSII on apical leaves of seedlings and mature trees at the beginning (21 June and in mid-summer (20 July. While in June physiological traits did not differ between low and high IR, in mid-summer (at the peak of water-stress seedlings of the two highest light classes showed chronic photoinhibition (Fv/Fm<0.75 and an increase in thermal dissipation (D by constitutive term (Dc=1-Fv/Fm and by regulated mechanisms of dissipation through xanthophyll-cycle term (Dx. Moreover, in July seedling leaf physiology largely differed with IR: leaves acclimated to high IR have higher photosynthetic potentialities, as shown by electron transport rate (ETR and quantum yield (P at saturating light maintained by an increase of the fraction of open reaction centres (qP, counterbalancing the efficiency decrease of the single reaction centres (Fv’/Fm’ dynamically protected via xanthophyll-cycle (Dx. Tree apical leaf physiology behaved differently from seedling leaves both in June (except Fv/Fm and in July (except Dx. In June photochemistry was higher in tree apical leaves with higher ETR, P, qP and Fv’/Fm’ with a lower fraction of energy dissipated and in particular through lower loss by photoprotection through Dx as expected for high light conditions without stress; in July no chronic photoinhibition was observed in tree light leaves, the efficiency of single reaction centres (Fv’/Fm’ remained high but a drop in the fraction of open centre (qP decreased significantly P and thus ETR. Consequently the highest potentialities in photochemistry (P were observed in large gaps (at 40% IR.

  12. Dynamics of nitrogen oxides and ozone above and within a mixed hardwood forest in northern Michigan

    B. Seok


    Full Text Available The dynamic behavior of nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2 and ozone (O3 above and within the canopy at the University of Michigan Biological Station AmeriFlux (UMBS Flux site was investigated by continuous multi-height vertical gradient measurements during the summer and the fall of 2008. A daily maximum in nitric oxide (NO mixing ratios was consistently observed during the morning hours between 06:00 and 09:00 EST above the canopy. Daily NO maxima ranged between 0.1 and 2 ppbv (with a median of 0.3 ppbv, which were 2 to 20 times above the atmospheric background. The sources and causes of the morning NO maximum were evaluated using NOx and O3 measurements and synoptic and micrometeorological data. Numerical simulations with a multi-layer canopy-exchange model were done to further support this analysis. The observations indicated that the morning NO maximum was caused by the photolysis of NO2 from non-local air masses, which were transported into the canopy from aloft during the morning breakup of the nocturnal boundary layer. The analysis of simulated process tendencies indicated that the downward turbulent transport of NOx into the canopy compensates for the removal of NOx through chemistry and dry deposition. The sensitivity of NOx and O3 concentrations to soil and foliage NOx emissions was also assessed with the model. Uncertainties associated with the emissions of NOx from the soil or from leaf-surface nitrate photolysis did not explain the observed diurnal behavior in NOx (and O3 and, in particular, the morning peak in NOx mixing ratios. However, a ~30% increase in early morning NOx and NO peak mixing ratios was simulated when a foliage exchange NO2 compensation point was considered. This increase suggests the potential importance of leaf-level, bidirectional exchange of NO2 in understanding the observed temporal variability in NOx at UMBS.

  13. Dynamics of nitrogen oxides and ozone above and within a mixed hardwood forest in Northern Michigan

    B. Seok


    Full Text Available The dynamic behavior of nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2 and ozone (O3 above and within the canopy at the University of Michigan Biological Station AmeriFlux (UMBS Flux site was investigated by continuous multi-height vertical gradient measurements during the summer and the fall of 2008. A daily maximum in nitric oxide (NO levels was consistently observed during the morning hours between 06:00 and 09:00 EST above the canopy. Daily NO maxima ranged between 0.2 and 2 ppbv (with a median of 0.3 ppbv, which was 2 to 20 times above its atmospheric background. The sources and causes of this NO maximum were evaluated using NOx and O3 measurements and synoptic and micrometeorological data. This analysis was further supported by numerical simulations with a multi-layer canopy exchange model implemented into a single-column chemistry-climate model. The observations indicated that the morning NO maximum was caused by the photolysis of NO2 from non-local air masses, which were transported into the canopy from aloft during the morning breakup of the nocturnal boundary layer. The analysis of simulated process tendencies indicated that the downward turbulent transport of NOx into the canopy compensates for the removal of NOx through chemistry and dry deposition. The sensitivity of NOx and O3 concentrations on soil and foliage NOx emissions was also assessed with the model. Uncertainties associated with the emissions of NOx from the soil or from leaf-surface nitrate photolysis did not explain the observed diurnal behavior in NOx (and O3, and in particular, the morning NOx peak mixing ratio. However, when considering the existence of a NO2 compensation point, an increase in the early morning NOx and NO peak mixing ratios by ~30% was simulated. This increase suggests the potential importance of leaf-level, bi-directional exchange of NO2 in understanding the observed temporal variability in NOx at UMBS.

  14. Isotopic signals of summer denitrification in a northern hardwood forested catchment

    Sarah K. Wexler; Christine L. Goodale; Kevin J. McGuire; Scott W. Bailey; Peter M. Groffman


    Despite decades of measurements, the nitrogen balance of temperate forest catchments remains poorly understood. Atmospheric nitrogen deposition often greatly exceeds streamwater nitrogen losses; the fate of the remaining nitrogen is highly uncertain. Gaseous losses of nitrogen to denitrification are especially poorly documented and are often ignored. Here, we provide...

  15. Soil microbial communities buffer physiological responses to drought stress in three hardwood species.

    Kannenberg, Steven A; Phillips, Richard P


    Trees possess myriad adaptations for coping with drought stress, but the extent to which their drought responses are influenced by interactions with soil microbes is poorly understood. To explore the role of microbes in mediating tree responses to drought stress, we exposed saplings of three species (Acer saccharum, Liriodendron tulipifera, and Quercus alba) to a four week experimental drought in mesocosms. Half of the pots were inoculated with a live soil slurry (i.e., a microbial inoculum derived from soils beneath the canopies of mature A. saccharum, L. tulipifera or Q. alba stands), while the other half of the pots received a sterile soil slurry. Soil microbes ameliorated drought stress in L. tulipifera by minimizing reductions in leaf water potential and by reducing photosynthetic declines. In A. saccharum, soil microbes reduced drought stress by lessening declines in leaf water potential, though these changes did not buffer the trees from declining photosynthetic rates. In Q. alba, soil microbes had no effects on leaf physiological parameters during drought stress. In all species, microbes had no significant effects on dynamic C allocation during drought stress, suggesting that microbial effects on plant physiology were unrelated to source-sink dynamics. Collectively, our results suggest that soil microbes have the potential to alter key parameters that are used to diagnose drought sensitivity (i.e., isohydry or anisohydry). To the extent that our results reflect dynamics occurring in forests, a revised perspective on plant hydraulic strategies that considers root-microbe interactions may lead to improved predictions of forest vulnerability to drought.

  16. Structural and chemical characterization of hardwood from tree species with applications as bioenergy feedstocks.

    Cetinkol, Özgül Persil; Smith-Moritz, Andreia M; Cheng, Gang; Lao, Jeemeng; George, Anthe; Hong, Kunlun; Henry, Robert; Simmons, Blake A; Heazlewood, Joshua L; Holmes, Bradley M


    Eucalypt species are a group of flowering trees widely used in pulp production for paper manufacture. For several decades, the wood pulp industry has focused research and development efforts on improving yields, growth rates and pulp quality through breeding and the genetic improvement of key tree species. Recently, this focus has shifted from the production of high quality pulps to the investigation of the use of eucalypts as feedstocks for biofuel production. Here the structure and chemical composition of the heartwood and sapwood of Eucalyptus dunnii, E. globulus, E. pillularis, E. urophylla, an E. urophylla-E. grandis cross, Corymbia citriodora ssp. variegata, and Acacia mangium were compared using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and biochemical composition analysis. Some trends relating to these compositions were also identified by Fourier transform near infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy. These results will serve as a foundation for a more comprehensive database of wood properties that will help develop criteria for the selection of tree species for use as biorefinery feedstocks.

  17. Using silviculture to improve health in northeastern conifer and eastern hardwood forests

    Kurt W. Gottschalk; Kurt W. Gottschalk


    The traditional role of silviculture was to manipulate forest vegetation to provide wood and related forest products for humanity's benefit over a long period. Silviculturists soon noticed that such manipulation influenced other components of the ecosystem. In particular, insects and diseases responded dramatically to silvicultural practices-both positively and...

  18. Photodegradation of Timber of Three Hardwood Species Caused by Different Light Sources

    TOLVAJ, László


    Full Text Available In this study, resistance of black locust, beech and poplar wood to photodegradation was tested, applying sunlight, a xenon lamp and a mercury vapour lamp. The irradiation time was 200 hours for sunlight and the xenon light and 20 hours for the mercury light. The changes were monitored by colour measurements and infrared spectroscopy. The colour change of black locust was more intensive at the beginning of the irradiation than that of the beech and poplar. The degradation of aromatic structure of lignin (absorbing at 1510 and 1596 cm-1 in black locust was minor compared to the same changes of beech and poplar during the first 10 hours. The mercury lamp induced more intensive changes both in colour and in infrared spectrum than the other two light sources. The results show that the high extractive content of black locust absorbs a considerable amount of light radiation protecting the main chemical components of wood.

  19. The role of bound chlorine in the brightness reversion of bleached hardwood kraft pulp

    Kátia Maria Morais Eiras


    Full Text Available Our previous paper showed fragmentary evidence that pulp brightness reversion may be negatively affected by its organically bound chlorine (OX content. A thorough investigation on eucalyptus kraft pulp led to the conclusion that OX increases reversion of certain pulps but this trend is not universal. Alkaline bleaching stages decrease reversion regardless of pulp OX content. Pulps bleached with high temperature chlorine dioxide revert less than those bleached with conventional chlorine dioxide in sequences ending with a chlorine dioxide stage but similarly in sequences ending with a final peroxide stage. The use of secondary condensate for pulp washing decreases reversion.

  20. 78 FR 58283 - Hardwood and Decorative Plywood from the People's Republic of China: Final Affirmative...


    ... investigation, is January 1, 2011, through December 31, 2011. Case History The events that have occurred since... Wood Co., Ltd 27.16 Lizhong Wood Industry Limited Co 27.16 Shandong Lichen Group Co., Ltd...

  1. Response of sugar maple to calcium addition to northern hardwood forest.

    Juice, Stephanie M; Fahey, Timothy J; Siccama, Thomas G; Driscoll, Charles T; Denny, Ellen G; Eagar, Christopher; Cleavitt, Natalie L; Minocha, Rakesh; Richardson, Andrew D


    Watershed budget studies at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest (HBEF), New Hampshire, USA, have demonstrated high calcium depletion of soil during the 20th century due, in part, to acid deposition. Over the past 25 years, tree growth (especially for sugar maple) has declined on the experimental watersheds at the HBEF. In October 1999, 0.85 Mg Ca/ha was added to Watershed 1 (W1) at the HBEF in the form of wollastonite (CaSiO3), a treatment that, by summer 2002, had raised the pH in the Oie horizon from 3.8 to 5.0 and, in the Oa horizon, from 3.9 to 4.2. We measured the response of sugar maple to the calcium fertilization treatment on W1. Foliar calcium concentration of canopy sugar maples in W1 increased markedly beginning the second year after treatment, and foliar manganese declined in years four and five. By 2005, the crown condition of sugar maple was much healthier in the treated watershed as compared with the untreated reference watershed (W6). Following high seed production in 2000 and 2002, the density of sugar maple seedlings increased significantly on W1 in comparison with W6 in 2001 and 2003. Survivorship of the 2003 cohort through July 2005 was much higher on W1 (36.6%) than W6 (10.2%). In 2003, sugar maple germinants on W1 were approximately 50% larger than those in reference plots, and foliar chlorophyll concentrations were significantly greater (0.27 g/m2 vs. 0.23 g/m2 leaf area). Foliage and fine-root calcium concentrations were roughly twice as high, and manganese concentrations twice as low in the treated than the reference seedlings in 2003 and 2004. Mycorrhizal colonization of seedlings was also much greater in the treated (22.4% of root length) than the reference sites (4.4%). A similar, though less dramatic, difference was observed for mycorrhizal colonization of mature sugar maples (56% vs. 35%). These results reinforce and extend other regional observations that sugar maple decline in the northeastern United States and southern Canada is caused in part by anthropogenic effects on soil calcium status, but the causal interactions among inorganic nutrition, physiological stress, mycorrhizal colonization, and seedling growth and health remain to be established.

  2. Spatial coexistence of American beech and sugar maple regeneration in post-harvest northern hardwood forests

    Nelson, Andrew S.; Wagner, Robert G.


    International audience; & Context Fine scale regeneration patterns of coexistent spe-cies are influenced by regeneration mechanisms and microsite requirements. Spatial patterns may be either disjunct or over-lapping, which will determine competitive effects and microsite dominance, and future forest composition. & Aims Using American beech (Fagus grandifolia Ehrh.) and sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marshall) as an example, three hypotheses were tested: (1) random beech spatial patterns, (2) clu...

  3. Calcium and aluminum impacts on sugar maple physiology in a northern hardwood forest.

    Halman, Joshua M; Schaberg, Paul G; Hawley, Gary J; Pardo, Linda H; Fahey, Timothy J


    Forests of northeastern North America have been exposed to anthropogenic acidic inputs for decades, resulting in altered cation relations and disruptions to associated physiological processes in multiple tree species, including sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.). In the current study, the impacts of calcium (Ca) and aluminum (Al) additions on mature sugar maple physiology were evaluated at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest (Thornton, NH, USA) to assess remediation (Ca addition) or exacerbation (Al addition) of current acidified conditions. Fine root cation concentrations and membrane integrity, carbon (C) allocation, foliar cation concentrations and antioxidant activity, foliar response to a spring freezing event and reproductive ability (flowering, seed quantity, filled seed and seed germination) were evaluated for dominant sugar maple trees in a replicated plot study. Root damage and foliar antioxidant activity were highest in Al-treated trees, while growth-associated C, foliar re-flush following a spring frost and reproductive ability were highest in Ca-treated trees. In general, we found that trees on Ca-treated plots preferentially used C resources for growth and reproductive processes, whereas Al-treated trees devoted C to defense-based processes. Similarities between Al-treated and control trees were observed for foliar cation concentrations, C partitioning and seed production, suggesting that sugar maples growing in native forests may be more stressed than previously perceived. Our experiment suggests that disruption of the balance of Ca and Al in sugar maples by acid deposition continues to be an important driver of tree health.

  4. Role of teak and other hardwoods in shipbuilding as evidenced from literature and shipwrecks

    Tripati, S.; Shukla, S.R.; Shashikala, S.; Sardar, A.A.

    texts set a high value for teak4. A Harap- pan period shipwreck has been excavated at Ra’s Al Jinns, 200 km southeast of Muscat and it shows that among other timbers, teakwood was used in the con- struction of the ship5. Information... of Panini (5th century BC), Patanjali (2nd century BC), Pliny, Strabo (60 BC–19 AD), the Periplus Maris Erythraei (60–100 AD) and Arrian (200 AD)6,14–17. In the Ashtadhyayi, Pan- ini14 has described a large variety of timber species, namely amra...

  5. Recycling cellulase towards industrial application of enzyme treatment on hardwood kraft-based dissolving pulp.

    Wang, Qiang; Liu, Shanshan; Yang, Guihua; Chen, Jiachuan; Ji, Xingxiang; Ni, Yonghao


    Cost-effectiveness is vital for enzymatic treatment of dissolving pulp towards industrial application. The strategy of cellulase recycling with fresh cellulase addition was demonstrated in this work to activate the dissolving pulp, i.e. decreasing viscosity and increasing Fock reactivity. Results showed that 48.8-35.1% of cellulase activity can be recovered from the filtered liquor in five recycle rounds, which can be reused for enzymatic treatment of dissolving pulp. As a result, the recycling cellulase with addition fresh cellulase of 1mg/g led to the pulp of viscosity 470mL/g and Fock reactivity 80%, which is comparable with cellulase charge of 2mg/g. Other pulp properties such as alpha-cellulose, alkaline solubility and molecular weight distribution were also determined. Additionally, a zero-release of recycling cellulase treatment was proposed to integrate into the dissolving pulp production process.

  6. 78 FR 25946 - Hardwood and Decorative Plywood From the People's Republic of China: Antidumping Duty Investigation


    ....14 Multilayer Wood Plant. Highland Industries Inc Hanlin Timber Products 22.14 Company Ltd. Highland.... & Exp. Co., Ltd Linyi Dayong Wood Co., 22.14 Ltd. Jiaxing Gsun Imp. & Exp. Co., Ltd Linyi Yutai Timber... Jinguoyuan Wood 22.14 Trade Co., Ltd. Co., Ltd. Linyi Anshun Timber Co., Ltd..... Linyi Anshun Timber Co.,...

  7. UNECE:降低阔叶锯材产量%UNECE:Lower Output of Hardwood Lumber




  8. 77 FR 64955 - Hardwood and Decorative Plywood From the People's Republic of China: Initiation of Countervailing...


    ... by subparagraph (A); or (ii) determine industry support using a statistically valid sampling method... subject to limitations of time and information. Although this may result in different definitions of the...; 4412.99.7000; 4412.99.8000; and 4412.99.9000. While HTSUS subheadings are provided for ] convenience...

  9. Hyd-Mech FB7 short rotation hardwood feller-buncher test

    Dennis Curtin; Bryce Stokes; Doug Fredericks


    The FB7 is a first-generation prototype continuous feller-buncher manufactured by Hyd-Mech Engineering, Ltd. of Woodstock, Ontario. It was developed and funded by the National Research Council of Canada to harvest short-rotational bioenergy plantations of hybrid poplar. The development specifications were for stumps with diameters of up to eight inches and with a...

  10. Estimated Hardwood Volume Available for Wood Chipmills or Other Low Grade Uses

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The potential of wood chip mills to influence the distribution of harvests and the dynamics of wood fiber utilization has become an issue of concern. Where wood chip...

  11. Decay fungi associated with oaks and other hardwoods in the western United States

    Jessie A. Glaeser; Kevin T. Smith


    An assessment of the presence and extent of the wood decay process should be part of any hazard tree analysis. Identification of the fungi responsible for decay improves both the prediction of the consequences of wood decay and the prescription of management options including tree pruning or removal. Until the outbreak of Sudden Oak Death (SOD), foresters in the...

  12. Preparation and Characterization of Cellulose Nanofibers from Two Commercial Hardwood and Softwood Pulps

    Stelte, Wolfgang; Sanadi, Anand R.


    The aim of this work was to study the mechanical fibrillation process for the preparation of cellulose nanofibers from two commercial hard- and softwood cellulose pulps. The process consisted of initial refining and subsequent high-pressure homogenization. The progress in fibrillation was studied...... using different microscopy techniques, mechanical testing, and fiber density measurements of cellulose films prepared after different processing stages. The mechanical properties of cellulose films showed an increase in strength and stiffness with decreasing fiber size, and this stabilized after...... a certain number of passes in the homogenizer. Atomic force microscopy studies showed that the obtained cellulose nanofibers had diameters in the 10−25-nm range. The significant difference between the two samples was that the ultimate failure strain for cellulose films made of softwood fibers increased...

  13. Development of regeneration following gypsy moth defoliation of Appalachian Plateau and Ridge & Valley hardwood stands

    D.M. Hix; D.E. Fosbroke; R.R., Jr. Hicks; K.W. Gottschalk


    The effects of gypsy moth defoliation and subsequent overstory mortality on regeneration were located in the Appalachian Plateau physiographic province, and the Maryland stands were located in the Ridge & Valley province. Pre-defoliation data (1984-1986) were compared with post-defoliation data (1989) from the same 315 six-foot-radius plots.

  14. Observations following wildfire in a young stand of Virginia pine and hardwoods

    Thomas W., Jr. Church


    Fire has often been used as a silvicultural tool in managing most of the southern pines. At present, however, there is not enough evidence to show whether similar techniques can be used in Virginia pine stands. The purpose of this note is to offer some observations on how a wildfire affected a young pine-oak stand.

  15. Decline of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in northern hardwood forests exposed to chronic nitrogen additions.

    van Diepen, Linda T A; Lilleskov, Erik A; Pregitzer, Kurt S; Miller, R Michael


    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi are important below-ground carbon (C) sinks that can be sensitive to increased nitrogen (N) availability. The abundance of AM fungi (AMF) was estimated in maple (Acer spp.) fine roots following more than a decade of experimental additions of N designed to simulate chronic atmospheric N deposition. Abundance of AMF was measured by staining and ocular estimation, as well as by analyzing for the AMF indicator fatty acid 16:1omega5c in phospholipid (biomass indicator) and neutral lipid (lipid storage indicator) fractions. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal biomass, storage structures and lipid storage declined in response to N addition measured by both methods. This pattern was found when AM response was characterized as colonization intensity, on an areal basis and in proportion to maple above-ground biomass. The phospholipid fraction of the fatty acid 16:1omega5c was positively correlated with total AMF colonization and the neutral lipid fraction with vesicle colonization. Decreased AMF abundance with simulated N deposition suggests reduced C allocation to these fungi or a direct soil N-mediated decline. The fatty acid (phospholipid and neutral lipid fractions) 16:1omega5c was found to be a good indicator for AMF active biomass and stored energy, respectively.

  16. Managing Appalachian hardwood stands using four management practices: 60-year results

    Thomas M. Schuler; Melissa Thomas-Van Gundy; John P. Brown; Jan Wiedenbeck


    A long-term forest management case study on the Fernow Experimental Forest in West Virginia referred to as the Cutting Practice Level study is evaluated after 60 years. Treatments include a commercial clearcut (one time application), a 39 cm diameter-limit (applied 4 times), uneven-aged management using two variations of single-tree selection (applied 7 and 8 times,...

  17. A simplified hardwood log-sawing program for three-dimensional profile data

    R. Edward. Thomas


    Current laser scanning systems in sawmills collect low-resolution three-dimensional (3D) profiles of logs. However, these scanners are capable of much more. As a demonstration, the U.S. Forest Service, Forestry Sciences Laboratory in Princeton, WV, constructed a 3D laser log scanner using off -the-shelf industrial scanning components.

  18. SOLVE II: A Technique to Improve Efficiency and Solve Problems in Hardwood Sawmills

    Edward L. Adams; Daniel E. Dunmire


    The squeeze between rising costs and product values is getting tighter for sawmill managers. So, they are taking a closer took at the efficiency of their sawmills by making a complete analysis of their milling situation. Such an analysis requires considerable time and expense. To aid the manager with this task, the USDA Forest Service's Northeastern Forest...


    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  20. Invertebrate resources in Mississippi hardwood bottomlands, moist-soil habitat, and flooded cropland: Completion report

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Assessment of invertebrate resources in green tree reservoirs and seasonally-flooded crop fields at Noxubee National Wildlife Refuge. Mean winter invertebrate...

  1. Overcoming Constraints to High-Yield Plantation-Grown Hardwoods in the Southeastern United States



    This project was comprised of the following four inter-related tasks: Task 1 Plantation Maintenance and Measurement--Data on dry weight productivity per tree and/or growth as measured by individual tree height and diameter at a specified height on the stem was determined at the end of each of five years corresponding to ages 2 through 6. Measurements of height and diameter were recorded once a month during the growing season on a subsample of four trees per clone per species per treatment combination. Dry biomass in the leaf litter traps during the growing season once the canopy has closed was periodically collected and measured. Foliar nutrient levels were determined once a month by removing LPI 8 on each subsampled measurement tree and completing nutrient analyses. Weather data, including precipitation, minimum and maximum temperature and photosynthetically active radiation on an hourly basis were recorded daily. Information on irrigation rates and fertilization levels were collected. Task 2 Intra- And Interspecific Variation In Osmotic Potential--The specific objectives of this task were: (1) to determine whether limitation in water availability constrains productivity and influences leaf osmotic potential of cottonwood, sycamore, and/or sweetgum growing under short-rotation field conditions, (2) to document the occurrence of osmotic adjustment under varying levels of water availability levels, and (3) to determine the effect of nitrogen fertilization on osmotic potential and response to irrigation. Task 3 Leaf Gas Exchange And Water-Use Efficiency--The specific objectives of this task were: (1) to quantify the contribution of photosynthesis, respiration, and water-use efficiency to the productivity of individual cottonwood, sycamore, and sweetgum trees grown under various levels of water and/or nutrient availability, and (2) to quantify intra- and interspecific variability for photosynthesis, respiration, and water-use efficiency for cottonwood, sycamore, and/or sweetgum. Task 4 Whole-Plant Carbon Budgets--The specific objectives of this task were: (1) to evaluate foliar and non-foliar dry matter allocation with respect to water and/or nutrient availability; (2) to test the impacts of water and/or nutrient availability on tissue-specific respiration rates, and (3) to evaluate whole-plant carbon budgets for individual clones or species as a means of determining the relative limitations placed on above-ground production by respiratory processes in branches, stems, and roots.

  2. Coarse woody debris in managed central hardwood forests of Indiana, USA

    Michael A. Jenkins; Christopher R. Webster; George R. Parker; Martin A. Spetich


    We evaluated the volume of down deadwood (DDW) and the basal area of standing deadwood (SDW) from a chronosequence of 110 silvicultural openings and 34 mature stands (72-105 years old) across three Ecological Landtype Phases (ELTP; wet-mesic bottomlands, mesic slopes, and dry-mesic slopes) in southern Indiana, USA. The volume of DDW decreased with increasing opening...

  3. Scanning Hardwood Lumber for Processing and Grading - What To Do Now and Why

    D. Earl Kline; Richard Conners; Philip A. Araman


    A cooperative effort between Virginia Tech, the USDA Forest Service, and the industry has led to the development of a new scanning technology to automatically detect lumber grading features that affect the value of the end product. This effort has resulted in several commercial scanning systems now available through Group Seven Systems and Nova Technologies. These...

  4. Thirteen-year hardwood tree performance on a Midwest surface mine

    Ashby, W.C.; Kolar, C.A. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States). Dept. of Plant Biology


    Black walnut (Juglans nigra L.), sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.), tuliptree (Liriodendron tulipifera L.), white oak (Quercus alba L.), bur oak (Q. macrocarpa Michx.), and pin oak (Q. palustris Muenchh.) seedlings were planted both fall 1980 and spring 1981 on mixed overburden strip-mining banks (ungraded), mixed overburden graded to approximate original contour (AOC) (graded), mixed overburden graded to AOC wit h 60 cm of replaced pre-mining surface soil materials (topsoil), and on old fields near the strip-mine (unmined). Black walnut and pin oak were also planted as seed, with a total of 6000 seedlings/seed spots in the study. Initial species field viability ranged from 86 to 100%. With one exception, after 3 growing seasons oak seedlings had 50% or greater survival. Survival was mostly lower after 3 years with some additional mortality by years 8 and 13. Height and diameter breast height were measured after 13 years. Survival and growth of trees planted fall or spring was similar overall with variable performance by species. Seedlings of several species on the ungraded site had over 50% survival after 13 years, with fewer trees where planted as seed. Mean height of all species combined was significantly greater on the ungraded than on any other site and was lowest on the topsoil site. The unmined sites had high variability in species survival and height. Better reclamation with trees resulted from a deep, well-drained rooting medium with minimal compaction and a mineral-rich surface soil including coarse fragments over 2 mm in size for long-term productivity.

  5. Forest Succession and Maternity Day Roost Selection by Myotis septentrionalis in a Mesophytic Hardwood Forest

    Alexander Silvis


    Full Text Available Conservation of summer maternity roosts is considered critical for bat management in North America, yet many aspects of the physical and environmental factors that drive roost selection are poorly understood. We tracked 58 female northern bats (Myotis septentrionalis to 105 roost trees of 21 species on the Fort Knox military reservation in north-central Kentucky during the summer of 2011. Sassafras (Sassafras albidum was used as a day roost more than expected based on forest stand-level availability and accounted for 48.6% of all observed day roosts. Using logistic regression and an information theoretic approach, we were unable to reliably differentiate between sassafras and other roost species or between day roosts used during different maternity periods using models representative of individual tree metrics, site metrics, topographic location, or combinations of these factors. For northern bats, we suggest that day-roost selection is not a function of differences between individual tree species per se, but rather of forest successional patterns, stand and tree structure. Present successional trajectories may not provide this particular selected structure again without management intervention, thereby suggesting that resource managers take a relatively long retrospective view to manage current and future forest conditions for bats.

  6. A diverse assemblage of fossil hardwood from the Upper Tertiary (Miocene?) of the Arauco Peninsula, Chile

    Schöning, Meike; Bandel, Klaus


    Silicified woods of 10 dicotyledonous tree families of probably Miocene age from the Arauco Peninsula, central Chile are described and classified according to their anatomy. The diversity is surprisingly high, in that of the 19 samples analyzed, virtually every one could belong to a different species of tree or shrub. Almost all species document a damp climate, and most have related species living in the central zone of modern Chile. The samples were collected in a narrow zone on Punta El Fraile, west of the town of Arauco. The following families are based on woods from the Arauco Peninsula: Anacardiaceae, Boraginaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Fagaceae, Lauraceae, Leguminosae, Monimiaceae, the first report of fossil Myristicaceae, Myrtaceae, and Proteaceae. Their diagenetic history is connected to tuffaceous material and calcareous concretions.

  7. Elevation dependent sensitivity of northern hardwoods to Ca addition at Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, NH USA

    Rakesh Minocha; Stephanie Long; Palaniswamy Thangavel; Subhash C. Minocha; Christopher Eagar; Charles T. Driscoll


    Acidic deposition has caused a depletion of calcium (Ca) in the northeastern forest soils. Wollastonite (Ca silicate) was added to watershed 1 (WS1) at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest (HBEF) in 1999 to evaluate its effects on various functions of the HBEF ecosystem. The effects of Ca addition on foliar soluble (extractable in 5% HClO4) ions...

  8. Effects of seasonal prescribed fires on hardwood advance regeneration in shelterwood stands

    Patrick Brose; David Van Lear


    Shelterwood harvesting of mature oak (Quercus spp. L.) stands on productive sites often fails because fast-growing intolerant and already established tolerant species outcompete oak reproduction for dominance of the advance regeneration pool. We hypothesized that prescribe fire would improve the competitive position of oak in the advance regeneration...


    Iiro Pulkkinen


    Full Text Available The purpose of this investigation was to study the effect of fiber characteristics, especially fiber wall thickness, on the hygroexpansion behavior of paper due to humidity changes. Five different eucalyptus Kraft pulp samples were studied with an OPTIDIM hygroexpansivity tester. As a reference, birch and acacia were included. In all, seven pulp samples were refined at low consistency (LC, using a Voith Sulzer refiner. Both anisotropic and isotropic sheets were investigated. The sheets were dried under restraint. The results showed that fiber wall thickness is an important factor in controlling the hygroexpansivity of paper through fiber network activation.

  10. Attenuation of blast sound by a mixed stand of pine and hardwood

    White, Michael J.; Pater, Larry L.; Lee, Ryan J.; Swenson, George W.


    We performed an experiment to determine the attenuation of impulsive sound by a forest in northeastern Texas in July 2002. In the measurement, microphones were placed along a line that extended at one end into approximately 300 m of mostly 20-cm-diam pine trees, and at the other end into an open field of roughly the same extent. Explosive charges of 0.57- and 2.27-kg Composition C-4 were detonated at four locations along the line, at either edge of the open field and at either edge of the trees, in order to compare sound attenuation rates within the woods to those in the open field. Additional microphones were placed 2 and 4 km away to compare propagation from sources in either wooded or open positions to microphones in either wooded or open positions, with all paths substantially forested. Charge size, height-of-burst, and microphone height were varied in order to excite and probe a variety of acoustic propagation modes within the tree layer. We discuss preliminary results of 1/3-octave band analysis of this data set, consider ways to separately identify the observed power law and exponential decay rates, and speculate on their controlling mechanisms.

  11. Changes in dissolved organic matter quality in a northern hardwood forest revealed by excitation emission spectroscopy

    Saraceno, J.; Shanley, J. B.; Pellerin, B. A.; Hansen, A. M.


    Changes in dissolved organic matter (DOM) quality may result from unusual and extreme precipitation patterns such as floods and droughts. In order to study DOM quality changes, we collected several hundred surface water samples during the past eight years from the W-9 watershed of the Sleepers River Research Watershed in Danville, Vermont for optical analysis of dissolved organic matter. We present the results of parallel factor (PARAFAC) and principal component analysis (PCA) on excitation emission matrices (EEMs). This analysis revealed that peaks T, C and M as identified by PARAFAC were the most prominent EEM features. The intensity of these peaks varied on inter-annual, seasonal and event time periods and these shifts reflect changes in DOM quality. Likely drivers of this variability in DOM chemistry are seasonal shifts in flow paths, antecedent moisture conditions, and precipitation duration and intensity. For example, during events, the relative proportion of protein-like, peak T fluorophores increased, likely from flushing of fresh polyphenols from surficial and shallow flow paths. During the winter, when groundwater dominates flow, EEMs were strong in humic-like peak C and peak M fluorophores, reflecting deeper soil sources and longer flow paths. Our analyses will reveal how DOM quality responds to climatic drivers, and thus how we can expect DOM quality to evolve under projected climate change scenarios.

  12. Effect of hot water extracted hardwood and softwood chips on particleboard properties

    Manuel Raul Pelaez-Samaniego; Vikram Yadama; Tsai Garcia-Perez; Eini Lowell; Thomas Amidon


    The affinity of particleboard (PB) to water is one of the main limitations for using PB in moisture-rich environments. PB dimensional stability and durability can be improved by reducing the available hydroxyl groups in wood through hemicellulose removal, for example, by hot water extraction (HWE), which increases wood resistance to moisture uptake. The resulting...

  13. Characterization of Hardwood Soda-AQ Lignins Precipitated from Black Liquor through Selective Acidification

    Kumar, Hemanathan; Alén, Raimo; Sahoo, Gokarneswar


    In the development of integrated biorefinery process alternatives to produce value-added by-products, various black liquors from sulfur-free pulping processes offer potential feedstocks for recovering their main chemical constituents, lignin and aliphatic carboxylic acids. In this study, lignin fractions were obtained from silver birch (Betula pendula) soda-anthraquinone black liquor by carbonation (pH to about 8.5) or by acidification (pH to about 2) with H2SO4 after carbonation or directly....

  14. Mast species composition alters seed fate in North American rodent-dispersed hardwoods.

    Lichti, Nathanael I; Steele, Michael A; Zhang, Hao; Swihart, Robert K


    Interactions between plants and scatter-hoarding animals may shift from mutualism to predation as a function of the resources available to those animals. Because seed species differ in their nutrient content and defenses to predation, resource selection and cache management by scatter-hoarders, and thus seed fate, may also depend on the relative availability of different seed types. We tracked the fates of tagged Castanea dentata, Quercus alba, and Q. rubra seeds presented to rodents in pairwise combinations and found that C. dentata, which has moderate dormancy prior to germination, survived better in the presence of Q. alba (no dormancy) than with Q. rubra (longer dormancy). Decisions made by scatter-hoarders in response to the composition of available seed resources can alter the relationship between masting and seed dispersal effectiveness in individual tree species and may have influenced the evolution of asynchrony among species-specific masting patterns in temperate forests. In theory, preferential allocation of certain seed species to storage or consumption could also result in indirect apparent predation by one seed species on another.

  15. The influence of red-backed salamanders (Plethodon cinereus) on nutrient cycling in Appalachian hardwood forests

    Eric B. Sucre; Jessica A. Homyack; Thomas R. Fox; Carola A. Haas


    The use of amphibians as biological indicators of ecosystem health has received considerable attention because of the increasing importance placed upon maintaining biodiversity in forested ecosystems. In this study, we imposed three different eastern red-backed salamander (Plethodon cinereus) treatments: 1) low (n = 4; added 0 salamanders to each...

  16. Biological and physical influences on soil 14CO2 seasonal dynamics in a temperate hardwood forest

    C. L. Phillips


    Full Text Available While radiocarbon (14C abundance in standing stocks of soil carbon has been used to evaluate rates of soil carbon turnover on timescales of several years to centuries, soil-respired 14CO2 measurements are an important tool for identifying more immediate responses to disturbance and climate change. Soil 14CO2 data are often temporally sparse, however, and could be interpreted better with more context for typical seasonal ranges and trends. We report on a semi-high-frequency sampling campaign to distinguish physical and biological drivers of soil 14CO2 at a temperate forest site in Northern Wisconsin, USA. We sampled 14CO2 profiles every three weeks during snow-free months through 2012, in three intact plots and one trenched plot that excluded roots. Respired 14CO2 declined through the summer in intact plots, shifting from an older C composition that contained more bomb 14C, to a younger composition more closely resembling present 14C levels in the atmosphere. In the trenched plot respired 14C was variable but remained comparatively higher than in intact plots, reflecting older bomb-enriched 14C sources. Although respired 14CO2 from intact plots correlated with soil moisture, related analyses did not support a clear cause-and-effect relationship with moisture. The initial decrease in 14CO2 from spring to midsummer could be explained by increases in 14C-deplete root respiration; however, 14CO2 continued to decline in late summer after root activity decreased. We also investigated whether soil moisture impacted vertical partitioning of CO2 production, but found this had little effect on respired 14CO2 because CO2 contained modern bomb-C at depth, even in the trenched plot. This surprising result contrasted with decades to centuries-old pre-bomb CO2 produced in lab incubations of the same soils. Our results suggest that root-derived C and other recent C sources had dominant impacts on 14CO2 in situ, even at depth. We propose that 14CO2 may have declined through late summer in intact plots because of continued microbial turnover of root-derived C, following declines in root respiration. Our results agree with other studies showing large seasonal fluctuations in respired Δ14CO2, and suggest root C inputs are an important driver.

  17. Acid bi-sulphite pulping effects on hardwoods and a softwood revealed by atomic force microscopy

    Chunilall, Viren


    Full Text Available aggregation of cellulose fibril aggregates (CFA) during processing in order to preserve the reactivity of dissolving pulp. Previous atomic force microscopy (AFM) studies on a species of Eucalyptus showed that there is an increase in the CFA dimensions during...

  18. Structural and Chemical Characterization of Hardwood from Tree Species with Applications as Bioenergy Feedstocks

    Çetinkol, Özgül Persil; Smith-Moritz, Andreia M.; Cheng, Gang; Lao, Jeemeng; George, Anthe; Hong, Kunlun; Henry, Robert; Simmons, Blake A.; Heazlewood, Joshua L.; Holmes, Bradley M.; Zabotina, Olga A.


    Eucalypt species are a group of flowering trees widely used in pulp production for paper manufacture. For several decades, the wood pulp industry has focused research and development efforts on improving yields, growth rates and pulp quality through breeding and the genetic improvement of key tree species. Recently, this focus has shifted from the production of high quality pulps to the investigation of the use of eucalypts as feedstocks for biofuel production. Here the structure and chemical composition of the heartwood and sapwood of Eucalyptus dunnii, E. globulus, E. pillularis, E. urophylla, an E. urophylla-E. grandis cross, Corymbia citriodora ssp. variegata, and Acacia mangium were compared using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and biochemical composition analysis. Some trends relating to these compositions were also identified by Fourier transform near infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy. These results will serve as a foundation for a more comprehensive database of wood properties that will help develop criteria for the selection of tree species for use as biorefinery feedstocks.

  19. 78 FR 33059 - Hardwood and Decorative Plywood From the People's Republic of China: Antidumping Duty...


    .... Background: The Department of Commerce (``the Department'') published a notice in the Federal Register on May... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE... Administration, International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. DATES: Effective Date: June 3, 2013...

  20. Pedologic and geomorphic impacts of a tornado blowdown event in a mixed pine-hardwood forest

    Jonathan D. Phillips; Daniel A. Marion; Alice V. Turkington


    Biomechanical effects of trees on soils and surface processes may be extensive in forest environments. Two blowdown sites caused by a November 2005 tornado in the Ouachita National Forest, Arkansas allowed a case study examination of bioturbation associated with a specific forest blowdown event, as well as detailed examination of relationships between tree root systems...

  1. A Computer Vision System forAnalyzing Images of Rough Hardwood Lumber

    Tai-Hoon Cho; Richard W. Conners; Philip A. Araman


    A sawmill cuts logs into lumber and sells this lumber to secondary remanufacturers. The price a sawmiller can charge for a volume of lumber depends on its grade. For a number of species the price of a given volume of material can double in going from one grade to the next higher grade. While the grade of a board largely depends on the distribution of defects on the...

  2. An integrated approach for determining the size of hardwood group-selection openings

    Chris B. LeDoux


    The use of group-selection methods is becoming more widespread as landowners and forest managers attempt to respond to public pressure to reduce the size of clearcut blocks. Several studies have shown that harvesting timber in smaller groups or clumps increases the cost of operations for both cable and ground-based logging systems. Recent regeneration studies have...

  3. The effects of flooding and sedimentation on seed germination of two bottomland hardwood tree species

    Pierce, A.R.; King, S.L.


    Flooding and sedimentation are two of the dominant disturbances that influence tree species composition and succession in floodplain forests. The importance of these disturbances may be most notable during the germination and establishment phases of plant succession. Channelization of most alluvial systems in the southeastern United States has caused dramatic and systematic alterations to both hydrologic and sedimentation processes of floodplain systems. We determined the influence of these altered abiotic processes on the germination and growth of two common floodplain tree species: swamp chestnut oak (Quercus michauxii Nutt.) and overcup oak (Q. lyrata Walt.). Flood durations of 0 days, 15 days, and 30 days prior to germination was a factor in germination, but the effect varied by species. For instance, ovcrcup oak, which has a higher tolerance to flooding than swamp chestnut oak, had higher germination rates in the flooded treatments (15-day x?? = 78% and 30-day x?? = 85%) compared to the non-flooded treatment (x?? = 54%). In contrast, germination rates of swamp chestnut oak were negatively affected by the 30-day flood treatment. Sediment deposition rates of 2 cm of top soil, 2 cm of sand, and 8 cm of sand also affected germination, but were secondary to flood duration. The main effect of the sediment treatment in this experiment was a reduction in above-ground height of seedlings. Our study provides evidence for the importance of both flooding and sedimentation in determining tree species composition in floodplain systems, and that tolerance levels to such stressors vary by species. ?? 2007, The Society of Wetland Scientists.

  4. Sampling sufficiency of the anatomical characteristics of Brazilian hardwood using the resampling method

    André Luiz Missio


    Full Text Available Sampling sufficiency of the anatomical characteristics of fibres from Luehea divaricata wood was investigated through the bootstrap resampling method. Sampling sufficiency of fibre length, fibre diameter, lumen diameter and fibre wall thickness were determined. Three scenarios of sampling sufficiency evaluation were used: general, segregation between juvenile and mature wood, and accumulation throughout the life of the tree. The segregation of juvenile and mature wood showed that sampling sufficiency in juvenile wood was higher than in mature wood, up to three times for the fibre length. In general, results indicated higher values than suggested in specific standards and by other authors. Therefore, resampling bootstrap methodology, even though underused in forestry research, is an alternative for new studies, as it does not have restrictive hypotheses such as data normality.

  5. Differential anatomical responses to elevated CO2 in saplings of four hardwood species.

    Watanabe, Yoko; Satomura, Takami; Sasa, Kaichiro; Funada, Ryo; Koike, Takayoshi


    To determine whether an elevated carbon dioxide concentration ([CO(2)]) can induce changes in the wood structure and stem radial growth in forest trees, we investigated the anatomical features of conduit cells and cambial activity in 4-year-old saplings of four deciduous broadleaved tree species - two ring-porous (Quercus mongolica and Kalopanax septemlobus) and two diffuse-porous species (Betula maximowicziana and Acer mono) - grown for three growing seasons in a free-air CO(2) enrichment system. Elevated [CO(2)] had no effects on vessels, growth and physiological traits of Q. mongolica, whereas tree height, photosynthesis and vessel area tended to increase in K. septemlobus. No effects of [CO(2)] on growth, physiological traits and vessels were seen in the two diffuse-porous woods. Elevated [CO(2)] increased larger vessels in all species, except B. maximowicziana and number of cambial cells in two ring-porous species. Our results showed that the vessel anatomy and radial stem growth of Q. mongolica, B. maximowicziana and A. mono were not affected by elevated [CO(2)], although vessel size frequency and cambial activity in Q. mongolica were altered. In contrast, changes in vessel anatomy and cambial activity were induced by elevated [CO(2)] in K. septemlobus. The different responses to elevated [CO(2)] suggest that the sensitivity of forest trees to CO(2) is species dependent.

  6. Forest Succession and Maternity Day roost selection by Myotis septentrionalis in a mesophytic hardwood forest

    Alexander Silvis,; Ford, W. Mark; Eric R. Britzke,; Nathan R. Beane,; Joshua B. Johnson,


    Conservation of summer maternity roosts is considered critical for bat management in North America, yet many aspects of the physical and environmental factors that drive roost selection are poorly understood. We tracked 58 female northern bats (Myotis septentrionalis) to 105 roost trees of 21 species on the Fort Knox military reservation in north-central Kentucky during the summer of 2011. Sassafras (Sassafras albidum) was used as a day roost more than expected based on forest stand-level availability and accounted for 48.6% of all observed day roosts. Using logistic regression and an information theoretic approach, we were unable to reliably differentiate between sassafras and other roost species or between day roosts used during different maternity periods using models representative of individual tree metrics, site metrics, topographic location, or combinations of these factors. For northern bats, we suggest that day-roost selection is not a function of differences between individual tree species per se, but rather of forest successional patterns, stand and tree structure. Present successional trajectories may not provide this particular selected structure again without management intervention, thereby suggesting that resource managers take a relatively long retrospective view to manage current and future forest conditions for bats.

  7. Structural and chemical characterization of hardwood from tree species with applications as bioenergy feedstocks.

    Özgül Persil Cetinkol

    Full Text Available Eucalypt species are a group of flowering trees widely used in pulp production for paper manufacture. For several decades, the wood pulp industry has focused research and development efforts on improving yields, growth rates and pulp quality through breeding and the genetic improvement of key tree species. Recently, this focus has shifted from the production of high quality pulps to the investigation of the use of eucalypts as feedstocks for biofuel production. Here the structure and chemical composition of the heartwood and sapwood of Eucalyptus dunnii, E. globulus, E. pillularis, E. urophylla, an E. urophylla-E. grandis cross, Corymbia citriodora ssp. variegata, and Acacia mangium were compared using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR, X-ray diffraction (XRD and biochemical composition analysis. Some trends relating to these compositions were also identified by Fourier transform near infrared (FT-NIR spectroscopy. These results will serve as a foundation for a more comprehensive database of wood properties that will help develop criteria for the selection of tree species for use as biorefinery feedstocks.

  8. Brittleheart as a critical feature for visual strength grading of tropical hardwood - Approach of detection

    Kuisch, H.; Gard, W.; Botter, E.; Kuilen, J.-W. van de


    Brittleheart is a well-known phenomenon in many tropical wood species which reduces the strength properties considerably. According to national strength grading standards such as BS 5756 and NEN 5493, timber with brittleheart has to be rejected. In many cases, however, brittleheart is not visible on

  9. Concentrated Sulfuric Acid Hydrolysis of Hardwood Aspen and Softwood Pine for Bioethanol Production

    Janga, Kando Khalifa


    Bioethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass has been targeted as an alternative solution to the existing dependence on fossil fuels in the transportation sector. However, the recalcitrant nature of lignocelluloses has been a challenge to the hydrolytic processes and hence commercialization.This study has investigated the feasibility of the concentrated sulfuric acid hydrolysis (CSAH) process for bioethanol production from wood-based lignocelluloses. This is because the process enjoys h...

  10. Abundance of Green Tree Frogs and Insects in Artificial Canopy Gaps in a Bottomland Hardwood Forest.

    Horn, Scott; Hanula, James, L.; Ulyshen, Michael D.; Kilgo, John, C.


    ABSTRACT - We found more green tree frogs ( Hyla cinerea) n canopv gaps than in closed canopy forest. Of the 331 green tree frogs observed, 88% were in canopv gaps. Likewise, higher numbers and biomasses of insects were captured in the open gap habitat Flies were the most commonlv collected insect group accounting for 54% of the total capture. These data suggest that one reason green tree frogs were more abundant in canopy gaps was the increased availability of prey and that small canopy gaps provide early successional habitats that are beneficial to green tree frog populations.

  11. PROFIT-PC: a program for estimating maximum net revenue from multiproduct harvests in Appalachian hardwoods

    Chris B. LeDoux; John E. Baumgras; R. Bryan Selbe


    PROFIT-PC is a menu driven, interactive PC (personal computer) program that estimates optimum product mix and maximum net harvesting revenue based on projected product yields and stump-to-mill timber harvesting costs. Required inputs include the number of trees/acre by species and 2 inches diameter at breast-height class, delivered product prices by species and product...

  12. FT-Raman investigation of milled-wood lignins : softwood, hardwood, and chemically modified black spruce lignins

    Umesh P. Agarwal; James D. McSweeny; Sally A. Ralph


    Raman spectroscopy is being increasingly applied to study wood and other lignin-containing biomass/biomaterials. Lignin’s contribution to the Raman spectra of such materials needs to be understood in the context of various lignin structures, substructures, and functional groups so that lignin-specific features could be identified and the spectral information could be...

  13. Revision and application of the LINKAGES model to simulate forest growth in central hardwood landscapes in response to climate change

    William D. Dijak; Brice B. Hanberry; Jacob S. Fraser; Hong S. He; Wen J. Wang; Frank R. Thompson


    Context. Global climate change impacts forest growth and methods of modeling those impacts at the landscape scale are needed to forecast future forest species composition change and abundance. Changes in forest landscapes will affect ecosystem processes and services such as succession and disturbance, wildlife habitat, and production of forest...

  14. Post-breeding bird responses to canopy tree retention, stand size, and edge in regenerating Appalachian hardwood stands

    McDermott, M.E.; Wood, P.B.


    Avian use of even-aged timber harvests is likely affected by stand attributes such as size, amount of edge, and retained basal area, all characteristics that can easily be manipulated in timber harvesting plans. However, few studies have examined their effects during the post-breeding period. We studied the impacts of clearcut, low-leave two-age, and high-leave two-age harvesting on post-breeding birds using transect sampling and mist-netting in north-central West Virginia. In our approach, we studied the effects of these harvest types as well as stand size and edge on species characteristic of both early-successional and mature forest habitats. In 2005-2006, 13 stands ranging from 4 to 10. years post-harvest and 4-21. ha in size were sampled from late June through mid-August. Capture rates and relative abundance were similar among treatments for generalist birds. Early-successional birds had the lowest capture rates and fewer species (~30% lower), and late-successional birds reached their highest abundance and species totals (double the other treatments) in high-leave two-age stands. Area sensitivity was evident for all breeding habitat groups. Both generalist and late-successional bird captures were negatively related to stand size, but these groups showed no clear edge effects. Mean relative abundance decreased to nearly zero for the latter group in the largest stands. In contrast, early-successional species tended to use stand interiors more often and responded positively to stand size. Capture rates for this group tripled as stand size increased from 4 to 21. ha. Few birds in the forest periphery responded to harvest edge types despite within-stand edge effects evident for several species. To create suitable habitat for early-successional birds, large, non-linear openings with a low retained basal area are ideal, while smaller harvests and increased residual tree retention would provide habitat for more late-successional birds post-breeding. Although our study has identified habitat use patterns for different species in timber harvests, understanding habitat-specific bird survival is needed to help determine the quality of silvicultural harvests for post-breeding birds. ?? 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  15. The Relation of Flood Timing and Duration to Variation in Selected Bottomland Hardwood Communities of Southern Arkansas.


    of Carpinus caroliniana Walt. (ironwood), Quercus falcata Michx. var. pagodefoiia Ell. (cherrybark oak), Quercus nigra L. (water oak), Liquidambar...2 F D B~m 2 F DBAWm D Am- Quercus faZcata Michx. var. 10 1 10 2 0.37 6 8 9.66 30 3 8.64 14 18.67 pagodufoli.a Ell. Quercus nigra L. 10 2 20 4...0 morus rub L. 10 1 0 00 0 00 0 0 0 1 0 Vaooiniw" eZlottii Chapa. 10 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 00 1 0 SiZa bona-nox L. 10 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 vitie

  16. Characterization of Hardwood-Derived Carboxymethylcellulose by High pH Anion Chromatography Using Pulsed Amperometric Detection


    An approach for the quantitative analysis of substituent distribution in carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) is presented. In short, the high-pH anion-exchange chromatography method, coupled to pulsed amperometric detection (PAD), is introduced. Each of the seven derivatives in CMC is presented by a single peak on the PAD trace, thus enabling an easy quantification. New inside information on monomer composition is obtained by this novel method, which is essential for understanding the structure vers...

  17. Effects of excess nitrogen on biogeochemistry of a temperate hardwood forest: Evidence of nutrient redistribution by a forest understory species

    Gilliam, Frank S.; Billmyer, Jake H.; Walter, Christopher A.; Peterjohn, William T.


    Excess nitrogen (N) in terrestrial ecosystems can arise from anthropogenically-increased atmospheric N deposition, a phenomenon common in eastern US forests. In spite of decreased N emissions over recent years, atmospheric concentrations of reactive N remain high in areas within this region. Excess N in forests has been shown to alter biogeochemical cycling of essential plant nutrients primarily via enhanced production and leaching of nitrate, which leads to loss of base cations from the soil. The purpose of our study was to investigate this phenomenon using a multifaceted approach to examine foliar nutrients of two herbaceous layer species in one N-treated watershed (WS3-receiving aerial applications of 35 kg N/ha/yr as ammonium sulfate, from 1989 to the present) and two untreated reference watersheds at the Fernow Experimental Forest, WV, USA. In 1993, we analyzed foliar tissue of Viola rotundifolia, a dominant herb layer species and prominent on all seven sample plots in each watershed. In 2013 and 2014, we used foliar tissue from Rubus allegheniensis, which had become the predominant species on WS3 and had increased, though to a lesser extent, in cover on both reference watersheds. Foliar N and potassium (K) were higher and foliar calcium (Ca) was lower on WS3 than on the reference watersheds for both species. Magnesium (Mg) was lower on WS3 for Viola, but was not different among watersheds for Rubus. Results support the stream chemistry-based observation that excess N lowers plant-available Ca and, to a lesser degree, Mg, but not of K. Foliar manganese (Mn) of Rubus averaged >4 times that of Viola, and was >50% higher on WS3 than on the reference watersheds. A Mn-based mechanism is proposed for the N-meditated increase in Rubus on WS3. Data suggest that excess N deposition not only alters herb community composition and biogeochemical cycling of forest ecosystems, but can do so simultaneously and interactively.

  18. Impacts of nitrogen deposition on herbaceous ground flora and epiphytic foliose lichen species in southern Ontario hardwood forests.

    McDonough, Andrew M; Watmough, Shaun A


    In this study 70 sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) dominated plots in Ontario, Canada were sampled in the spring of 2009 and 2010 and herbaceous plant and epiphytic foliose lichen species data were compared against modeled N and S deposition data, climate parameters and measured soil and plant/lichen S and N concentration. Herbaceous plant species richness was positively correlated with temperature and indices of diversity (Shannon Weiner and Simpson's Index) were positively correlated with soil pH but not N or S deposition or standardized foliar N scores. Herbaceous community composition was strongly controlled by traditional factors, but there was a small and significant influence of atmospheric S and N deposition. Epiphytic lichen species richness exhibited a strong negative relationship with standardized foliar N score and only one lichen species (Phaeophyscia rubropulchra) was observed at sites with a standardized foliar N score of 0.76.

  19. Impacts of Flooding Regime Modification on Wildlife Habitats of Bottomland Hardwood Forests in the Lower Mississippi Valley.


    styraciflua), shellbark hickory ( Carya laciniosa), and shagbark hickory (C. ovata) dominating in the control while American hornbeam and silver maple (Acer...Trees and Shrubs in the Lower Mississippi Valley (After Whitlow and Harris 1979) Common Name Scientific Name Very Tolerant* Water hickory Carya ...aquatica Pecan C. illinoensis Buttonbush Cephalanthus occidentalis Swamp privet Forestiera acuminata Green ash Fraxinus pennsylvanica Water locust Gleditsia

  20. Application of Ca stable isotopes to long-term changes in the Ca cycle of a Northern Hardwood forest

    Kurtz, A. C.; Takagi, K.; Bailey, S. W.; Bullen, T. D.


    The Hubbard Brook Ecosystem Study (New Hampshire, USA) presents an unusual opportunity for the application of innovative isotope methods in forest biogeochemistry. Changes in biogeochemical cycling resulting from decades of acid deposition, subsequent reductions in acid deposition, and a series of experimental treatments (harvesting, Ca amendment) have been studied continuously for 60 years at this site. Importantly, researchers have archived soil, water, and vegetation samples for much of the site's history. Our work seeks to complement earlier mass balance studies of Ca cycling by measuring Ca isotope ratios on archived samples. In the first component of our study, we examined the Ca isotopic response to an experimental clearcut in the early 1980's. Earlier work showed that the clearcut promoted dramatic loss of Ca from the watershed, indicated by a 5-fold increase in streamwater Ca concentrations. The mechanism for this loss was unclear as no resolvable changes in soil Ca pools were observed. Our work shows that streamwater dissolved Ca becomes isotopically lighter as Ca concentrations increase. These data are best accounted for by an increase in Ca loss from the soil cation exchange complex. Soil exchangeable δ44Ca itself evolves towards lighter values in the years following the experimental harvest. We interpret this as replenishment of the soil exchange complex by release of isotopically light Ca from root biomass. In the second component of our study, we examine decadal-scale changes in streamwater and soil Ca in an un-manipulated biogeochemical reference watershed. Historical data from Hubbard Brook show that streamwater Ca concentrations began decreasing sharply in the early 1970's, attributed to decreased deposition of both acidity and Ca with the passage of the Clean Air Act. Preliminary data indicate no resolvable change in the average δ44Ca of streamwater, with variability mostly attributable to discharge (flowpath control). Preliminary data similarly suggest that most of the variability in shallow soil exchangeable δ44Ca is related to landscape position rather than temporal trends.

  1. Development of a methodology of optimization and fixing prices of Hardwood Exports from U.S. to Europe and Asia

    Diana Brenes-Ramírez


    The objective of maximizing total contribution margin of the company is achieved by applying the theory PRO ( Pricing and Revenue Optimization which provides a consistent and concrete approach to pricing decisions throughout the organization also seeks represent the price as a process worthy of being continuously improved . By the negative association between price and demand and with the equation that describes this relation it is introduced into the equation of total contribution margin that is maximized for obtain the optimal price.

  2. Prescribed burning effects on soil enzyme activity in a southern Ohio hardwood forest: A landscape-scale analysis

    Ralph E. J. Boerner; Kelly L. M. Decker; Elaine K. Sutherland


    We assessed the effect of a single, dormant season prescribed fire on soil enzyme activity in oak-hickory (Quercus-Carya) forests in southern Ohio, USA. Four enzymes specific for different C sources were chosen for monitoring: acid phosphatase, beta-glucosidase, chitinase and phenol oxidase. Postfire acid phosphatase activity was generally reduced by burning and...

  3. Colonization of Three Maple Species by Asian Longhorned Beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis, in Two Mixed-Hardwood Forest Stands.

    Dodds, Kevin J; Hull-Sanders, Helen M; Siegert, Nathan W; Bohne, Michael J


    Asian longhorned beetle (ALB), Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky), is an invasive insect that has successfully established multiple times in North America. To investigate host colonization and reproductive success (exit holes/eggs), two ALB infested forest stands were sampled in central Massachusetts, USA. Infested Acer platanoides L., Acer rubrum L., and Acer saccharum Marsh. were felled, bucked into 1 m sections and dissected to determine indications of ALB infestations, such as presence of life stages or signs of damage on trees. ALB damage was also aged on a subset of trees to determine the earliest attacks on the three Acer species. In one stand, ALB oviposition was significantly higher on the native A. rubrum and A. saccharum than the exotic A. platanoides. In the second stand, ALB oviposition was significantly higher and cumulative reproductive success was higher on A. rubrum than A. platanoides or A. saccharum. An A. saccharum had the earliest signs of attack that occurred in 2006. Acer rubrum (2007) and A. platanoides (2010) were colonized shortly thereafter. Overall, ALB was more successful in A. rubrum, where adults emerged from 53% and 64% of trees in each stand, compared to A. platanoides (11% and 18%) or A. saccharum (14% and 9%).

  4. Colonization of Three Maple Species by Asian Longhorned Beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis, in Two Mixed-Hardwood Forest Stands

    Kevin J. Dodds


    Full Text Available Asian longhorned beetle (ALB, Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky, is an invasive insect that has successfully established multiple times in North America. To investigate host colonization and reproductive success (exit holes/eggs, two ALB infested forest stands were sampled in central Massachusetts, USA. Infested Acer platanoides L., Acer rubrum L., and Acer saccharum Marsh. were felled, bucked into 1 m sections and dissected to determine indications of ALB infestations, such as presence of life stages or signs of damage on trees. ALB damage was also aged on a subset of trees to determine the earliest attacks on the three Acer species. In one stand, ALB oviposition was significantly higher on the native A. rubrum and A. saccharum than the exotic A. platanoides. In the second stand, ALB oviposition was significantly higher and cumulative reproductive success was higher on A. rubrum than A. platanoides or A. saccharum. An A. saccharum had the earliest signs of attack that occurred in 2006. Acer rubrum (2007 and A. platanoides (2010 were colonized shortly thereafter. Overall, ALB was more successful in A. rubrum, where adults emerged from 53% and 64% of trees in each stand, compared to A. platanoides (11% and 18% or A. saccharum (14% and 9%.

  5. Reduced snow cover alters root-microbe interactions and decreases nitrification rates in a northern hardwood forest.

    Sorensen, Patrick O; Templer, Pamela H; Christenson, Lynn; Duran, Jorge; Fahey, Timothy; Fisk, Melany C; Groffman, Peter M; Morse, Jennifer L; Finzi, Adrien C


    Snow cover is projected to decline during the next century in many ecosystems that currently experience a seasonal snowpack. Because snow insulates soils from frigid winter air temperatures, soils are expected to become colder and experience more winter soil freeze-thaw cycles as snow cover continues to decline. Tree roots are adversely affected by snowpack reduction, but whether loss of snow will affect root-microbe interactions remains largely unknown. The objective of this study was to distinguish and attribute direct (e.g., winter snow- and/or soil frost-mediated) vs. indirect (e.g., root-mediated) effects of winter climate change on microbial biomass, the potential activity of microbial exoenzymes, and net N mineralization and nitrification rates. Soil cores were incubated in situ in nylon mesh that either allowed roots to grow into the soil core (2 mm pore size) or excluded root ingrowth (50 μm pore size) for up to 29 months along a natural winter climate gradient at Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, NH (USA). Microbial biomass did not differ among ingrowth or exclusion cores. Across sampling dates, the potential activities of cellobiohydrolase, phenol oxidase, and peroxidase, and net N mineralization rates were more strongly related to soil volumetric water content (P forests. © 2016 by the Ecological Society of America.

  6. The effect of curve sawing two-sided cants from small diameter hardwood sawlogs on lumber and pallet part yields

    Peter Hamner; Marshall S. White; Philip A. Araman


    Curve sawing is a primary log breakdown process that incorporates gang-saw technology to allow two-sided cants from logs with sweep to be cut parallel to the log surface or log axis. Since curve-sawn logs with sweep are cut along the grain, the potential for producing high quality straight-grain lumber and cants increases, and strength, stiffness, and dimensional...

  7. Yields in high density, short rotation intensive culture (SRIC)—plantations of Eucalyptus and Other Hardwood Species

    R.M. Sachs; C.B. Low


    Initial high density (17,200 trees ha-1, 6961 trees a-1) plantations of Eucalyptus grandis yielded up to 22 oven dry tons (ODT) ha-l yr-I (10 ta-1 yr-1) on an approximate 6 month rotation. Border effects could not be eliminated from the small sized plots used...

  8. Shipping coal to Newcastle: are SRIC populus plantations a viable fiber production option for the central hardwoods region?

    C.H. Strauss


    Production costs for short rotation, intensive culture (SRIC) Populus biomass were developed from commercial-sized plantations under investigation throughout the eastern U.S. Populus hybrid planted on good quality plantation sites at a density of 850 cuttings/acre was projected to yield an average of 7 ovendry (OD) tons/acre/year....

  9. Managing hardwood-softwood mixtures for future forests in eastern North America: assessing suitability to projected climate change

    John M. Kabrick; Kenneth L. Clark; Anthony W. D' Amato; Daniel C. Dey; Laura S. Kenefic; Christel C. Kern; Benjamin O. Knapp; David A. MacLean; Patricia Raymond; Justin D. Waskiewicz


    Despite growing interest in management strategies for climate change adaptation, there are few methods for assessing the ability of stands to endure or adapt to projected future climates. We developed a means for assigning climate "Compatibility" and "Adaptability" scores to stands for assessing the suitability of tree species for projected climate...

  10. Effects of prescribed fire on the buried seed bank in mixed-hardwood forests of the southern Appalachian Mountains

    Tara L. Keyser; Tracy L. Roof; Jacquelyne L. Adams; Dean Simon; Gordon Warburton


    This study characterizes the seed bank prior to and immediately following dormant-season prescribed fire in mature, mixed-Quercus spp. (oak) forests in the southern Appalachian Mountains. Thirty samples from the litter/duff (LD) and the top 5 cm of the mineral soil (MS) were collected from five 5-ha burn units (6 plots per experimental unit) before...

  11. Species selection trials and silvicultural techniques for the restoration of bottomland hardwood forests - a 10 year review

    Kenneth W. McLeod; Michael R. Reed; Barbara P. Moyer; Thomas G. Ciravolo


    From 1992 to 1994, species trials were initiated in the Fourmile Branch delta to investigate the best methods of re-establishing tree species in a severely disturbed, thermally affected stream delta. Treatments examined included planting stock type, habitat, tree shelters, root pruning, and competition controls. Survival of most species, as determined in 1994 or 1996...

  12. Sustaining Young Forest Communities: Ecology and Management of Early Successional Habitats in the Central Hardwood Region, USA

    Cathryn H. Greenberg; Beverly S. Collins; Frank R. Thompson III


    There is a rising concern among natural resource scientists and managers about decline of the many plant and animal species associated with early ­successional habitats. There is no concise definition of early successional habitats. However, all have a well developed ground cover or shrub and young tree component, lack a closed, mature tree canopy, and are created or...

  13. Quantifying canopy complexity and effects on productivity and resilience in late-successional hemlock-hardwood forests.

    Fahey, Robert T; Fotis, Alexander T; Woods, Kerry D


    The regrowing forests of eastern North America have been an important global C sink over the past 100+ years, but many are now transitioning into late succession. The consequences of this transition are unclear due to uncertainty around the C dynamics of old- growth forests. Canopy structural complexity (CSC) has been shown to be an important source of variability in C dynamics in younger forests (e.g., in productivity and resilience to disturbance), but its role in late-successional forests has not been widely addressed. We investigated patterns of CSC in two old-growth forest landscapes in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, USA, to assess factors associated with CSC and its influence on productivity and disturbance resilience (to moderate-severity windstorm). CSC was quantified using a portable below-canopy LiDAR (PCL) system in 65 plots that also had long-term (50-70+ years). inventory data, which were used to quantify aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP), disturbance history, and stand characteristics. We found high and variable CSC relative to younger forests across a suite of PCL-derived metrics. Variation in CSC was driven by species composition and size structure, rather than disturbance history or site characteristics. Recent moderate severity wind disturbance decreased plot-scale CSC, but increased stand-scale variation in CSC. The strong positive correlation between CSC and productivity illustrated in younger forests was not present in undisturbed portions of these late-successional ecosystems. Moderate severity disturbance appeared to reestablish the positive link between CSC and productivity, but this relationship was scale and severity dependent. A positive CSC-productivity relationship was evident at the plot scale with low-severity, dispersed disturbance, but only at a patch scale in more severely disturbed areas. CSC does not appear to strongly correlate With variation in productivity in undisturbed old-growth forests, but may play a very important (and scale/severity-dependent) role in their response to disturbance. Understanding potential, drivers and consequences of CSC in late-successional forests will inform management focused on promoting complexity and old-growth conditions, and illustrate potential inipacts of such treatments on regional C dynamics.

  14. Mycorrhizal fungal communities respond to experimental elevation of soil pH and P availability in temperate hardwood forests.

    Carrino-Kyker, Sarah R; Kluber, Laurel A; Petersen, Sheryl M; Coyle, Kaitlin P; Hewins, Charlotte R; DeForest, Jared L; Smemo, Kurt A; Burke, David J


    Many forests are affected by chronic acid deposition, which can lower soil pH and limit the availability of nutrients such as phosphorus (P), but the response of mycorrhizal fungi to changes in soil pH and P availability and how this affects tree acquisition of nutrients is not well understood. Here, we describe an ecosystem-level manipulation in 72 plots, which increased pH and/or P availability across six forests in Ohio, USA. Two years after treatment initiation, mycorrhizal fungi on roots were examined with molecular techniques, including 454-pyrosequencing. Elevating pH significantly increased arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal colonization and total fungal biomass, and affected community structure of AM and ectomycorrhizal (EcM) fungi, suggesting that raising soil pH altered both mycorrhizal fungal communities and fungal growth. AM fungal taxa were generally negatively correlated with recalcitrant P pools and soil enzyme activity, whereas EcM fungal taxa displayed variable responses, suggesting that these groups respond differently to P availability. Additionally, the production of extracellular phosphatase enzymes in soil decreased under elevated pH, suggesting a shift in functional activity of soil microbes with pH alteration. Thus, our findings suggest that elevating pH increased soil P availability, which may partly underlie the mycorrhizal fungal responses we observed.

  15. Effect of heat treatment on longitudinal gas and liquid permeability of circular and square-shaped native hardwood specimens

    Taghiyari, Hamid Reza; Moradi Malek, Bahman


    Effects of heat-treatment on longitudinal permeability of circular and square wood specimens were studied here. Specimens were heated to 50, 75, 100, 125, 150, and 185 °C. Results showed that permeability increased at the lowest temperature due to shrinkage; then, it decreased due to irreversible hydrogen bonding and stiffness. The highest temperature increased permeability due to micro-cracks. The higher perimeter in the square specimens aggravated the effects of heat treatment.

  16. Redistribution of soil nitrogen, carbon and organic matter by mechanical disturbance during whole-tree harvesting in northern hardwoods

    Ryan, D.F.; Huntington, T.G.; Wayne, Martin C.


    To investigate whether mechanical mixing during harvesting could account for losses observed from forest floor, we measured surface disturbance on a 22 ha watershed that was whole-tree harvested. Surface soil on each 10 cm interval along 81, randomly placed transects was classified immediately after harvesting as mineral or organic, and as undisturbed, depressed, rutted, mounded, scarified, or scalped (forest floor scraped away). We quantitatively sampled these surface categories to collect soil in which preharvest forest floor might reside after harvest. Mechanically mixed mineral and organic soil horizons were readily identified. Buried forest floor under mixed mineral soil occurred in 57% of mounds with mineral surface soil. Harvesting disturbed 65% of the watershed surface and removed forest floor from 25% of the area. Mechanically mixed soil under ruts with organic or mineral surface soil, and mounds with mineral surface soil contained organic carbon and nitrogen pools significantly greater than undisturbed forest floor. Mechanical mixing into underlying mineral soil could account for the loss of forest floor observed between the preharvest condition and the second growing season after whole-tree harvesting. ?? 1992.

  17. 78 FR 58273 - Hardwood and Decorative Plywood From the People's Republic of China: Final Determination of Sales...


    ...., 59.46 Export Trade Co., Ltd. Ltd. Suzhou Oriental Dragon Import And Linyi City Qunxiang Wood 59.46 Export Corp Ltd. Corp. Suzhou Oriental Dragon Import And Linyi Huachengyongbin 59.46 Export Corp Ltd. Wood Corp. Suzhou Oriental Dragon Import And Linyi City Tiancai Wood 59.46 Export Corp Ltd....

  18. Estimating genetic potential of biofuel forest hardwoods to withstand metal toxicity in industrial effluent under dry tropical conditions.

    Manzoor, S A; Mirza, S N; Zubair, M; Nouman, W; Hussain, S B; Mehmood, S; Irshad, A; Sarwar, N; Ammar, A; Iqbal, M F; Asim, A; Chattha, M U; Chattha, M B; Zafar, A; Abid, R


    Biofuel tree species are recognized as a promising alternative source of fuel to conventional forms. Additionally, these tree species are also effective in accumulating toxic heavy metals present in some industrial effluents. In developing countries such as Pakistan, the use of biofuel tree species is gaining popularity not only for harvesting economical and environmentally friendly biofuel, but also to sequester poisonous heavy metals from industrial wastewater. This study was aimed at evaluating the genetic potential of two biofuel species, namely, Jatropha curcas and Pongamia pinnata, to grow when irrigated with industrial effluent from the Pak-Arab Fertilizer Factory Multan, Southern Punjab, Pakistan. The growth performances of one-year-old seedlings of both species were compared in soil with adverse physiochemical properties. It was found that J. curcas was better able to withstand the toxicity of the heavy metals present in the fertilizer factory effluent. J. curcas showed maximum gain in height, diameter, and biomass production in soil irrigated with 75% concentrated industrial effluent. In contrast, P. pinnata showed a significant reduction in growth in soil irrigated with more than 50% concentrated industrial effluent, indicating that this species is less tolerant to higher toxicity levels of industrial effluent. This study identifies J. curcas as a promising biofuel tree species that can be grown using industrial wastewater.

  19. Soil nitrogen affects phosphorus recycling: foliar resorption and plant-soil feedbacks in a northern hardwood forest.

    See, Craig R; Yanai, Ruth D; Fisk, Melany C; Vadeboncoeur, Matthew A; Quintero, Brauuo A; Fahey, Timothy J


    Previous studies have attempted to link foliar resorption of nitrogen and phosphorus to their. respective availabilities in soil, with mixed results. Based on resource optimization theory, we hypothesized that the foliar resorption of one element could be driven by the availability of another element. We tested various measures of soil N and P as predictors of N and P resorption in six tree species in 18 plots across six stands at the Bartlett Experimental Forest, New Hampshire, USA. Phosphorus resorption efficiency (P resorption also increased with soil P content, which is difficult to explain basdd on single-element limitation, butfollows from the correlation between soil N and soil P. The expected single-element relationships were evident only in the 0 horizon: P resorption was high where resin-available P was low in the Oe (P resorption was high where potential N mineralization in the Oa was low (P resorption. The striking effect of soil N content on foliar P resorption is the first evidence of multiple-element control on nutrient resorption to be reported from an unmanipulated ecosystem.

  20. Change in Soil and Forest Floor Carbon after Shelterwood Harvests in a New England Oak-Hardwood Forest, USA

    Kayanna L. Warren


    Full Text Available There has been effort worldwide to quantify how much carbon forests contain in order to designate appropriate offset credits to forest carbon climate mitigation. Carbon pools on or immediately below the soil surface are understood to be very active in response to environmental change but are not well understood. Our study focused on the effects of shelterwood regeneration harvests in New England on the carbon stored in litter, woody debris, and surface soil carbon. Results demonstrate significant difference in surface (0–10 cm soil carbon between control (nonharvested and harvested sites, with higher carbon percentage on control sites. Results showed a significant difference in coarse woody debris with higher amounts of carbon per area on harvested sites. No significant difference in litter mass was recorded between harvested and control sites. When coarse woody debris and litter are included with soil carbon, total carbon did not have a significant decline over 20 years following shelterwood treatment to the forest to secure regeneration, but there was considerable variability among sites. When taking all surface soil carbon measurements together, our results suggest that for accounting purposes the measurement of below-ground carbon after shelterwood harvests is not necessary for the southern New England region.

  1. Effects of silvicultural operations in a Mississippi River bottomland hardwood forest on ground beetles in the genus Brachinus

    Lynne C. Thompson; Brian Roy Lockhart


    Little information is available on how insects are affected by anthropogenic influences in the bottomland forests of the West Gulf Coastal Plain. This study investigates one genus of ground beetles that lives in managed forested landscapes to discover which species are positively and negatively influenced by human disturbances. Ground beetles (Carabidae) were collected...

  2. From missing source to missing sink: long-term changes in the nitrogen budget of a northern hardwood forest.

    Yanai, Ruth D; Vadeboncoeur, Matthew A; Hamburg, Steven P; Arthur, Mary A; Fuss, Colin B; Groffman, Peter M; Siccama, Thomas G; Driscoll, Charles T


    Biogeochemical monitoring for 45 years at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest in New Hampshire has revealed multiple surprises, seeming contradictions, and unresolved questions in the long-term record of ecosystem nitrogen dynamics. From 1965 to 1977, more N was accumulating in living biomass than was deposited from the atmosphere; the "missing" N source was attributed to biological fixation. Since 1992, biomass accumulation has been negligible or even negative, and streamwater export of dissolved inorganic N has decreased from ~4 to ~1 kg of N ha(-1) year(-1), despite chronically elevated atmospheric N deposition (~7 kg of N ha(-1) year(-1)) and predictions of N saturation. Here we show that the ecosystem has shifted to a net N sink, either storing or denitrifying ~8 kg of N ha(-1) year(-1). Repeated sampling over 25 years shows that the forest floor is not detectably accumulating N, but the C:N ratio is increasing. Mineral soil N has decreased nonsignificantly in recent decades, but the variability of these measurements prevents detection of a change of <700 kg of N ha(-1). Whether the excess N is accumulating in the ecosystem or lost through denitrification will be difficult to determine, but the distinction has important implications for the local ecosystem and global climate.

  3. Furfural formation from the pre-hydrolysis liquor of a hardwood kraft-based dissolving pulp production process.

    Liu, Haitang; Hu, Huiren; Jahan, M Sarwar; Ni, Yonghao


    This study aimed to produce furfural from the PHL. Results showed best furfural yield of 32.8% and the furfural selectivity of 37.7% in the monophase system (170 °C, 100 min), while they were 60.1% and 69.8%, respectively in the biphase system. The lower furfural selectivity in the monophase system was explained by more side reactions, such as fragmentation, condensation reactions, resinification and others. Model compounds such as: xylose, furfural, syringaldehyde, were used to confirm/identify these side reactions. The addition of dilute sulfuric acid/acetic acid in the system under the same conditions decreased the recovery of furfural. The addition of syringaldehyde into the PHL also led to a decrease in the furfural yield, supporting the conclusion that lignin structures in the PHL may also be involved in the side reactions, thus decreasing the furfural yield.

  4. Product costing guide for wood dimension and component manufacturers

    Adrienn Andersch; Urs Buehlmann; Jeff Palmer; Janice K. Wiedenbeck; Steve. Lawser


    The North American hardwood dimension and components industry plays a critical role in the hardwood forest products industry as the industry is a user of high-value hardwood lumber. Customer expectations, global markets, and international competition, however, require hardwood dimension and components manufacturers to continuously improve their ability to manage their...

  5. Market for Tropical Hardwood Lumber Subdued but Stable%热带阔叶木材市场低迷,但保持稳定




  6. Seed handling practices: four fast-growing hardwoods for humid tropical plantations in the Eighties. [Acacia mangium, Albizia falcataria, E. deglupta, Gmelina arborea

    Bowen, M.R.; Eusebio, T.V.


    Research in Sabah in 1981/82 is reported on the phenology, harvesting, cleaning, testing and storage of the seed of Acacia mangium, Albizia falcataria, Eucalyptus deglupta and Gmelina arborea. Seed handling practices were standardized for all except G. arborea. In A. mangium, branch lopping was the preferred harvesting method, and variation was observed in the fruiting season and seed funicle type (probably due to introgression with A. auriculiformis).

  7. Effect of soil frost on growing season nitrogen uptake by fine roots of mature trees in northern hardwood forests of the United States

    Socci, A. M.; Templer, P. H.


    Forests of the northeastern United States are predicted to experience a decrease in the depth and duration of the winter snowpack over the next 100 years. Even when coupled with warmer winter air temperatures, the absence of snow as insulation can increase soil frost during the winter months. Past research has determined that there are species-level effects of soil frost on dominant forest trees. For example, in stands dominated by sugar maple (Acer saccharum), induced soil frost led to increased fine root mortality and soil nitrate leaching. Soil frost also increased fine root mortality in stands dominated by yellow birch (Betula allegheniensis), but there was no significant change in leaching of soil nitrate. We hypothesized that greater nitrogen (N) losses from stands dominated by sugar maple may be due to reduced N uptake by fine roots of this tree species. To determine the impact of increased soil freezing on fine root uptake of N, we established a snow manipulation experiment in mixed sugar maple/American beech (Fagus grandifolia) forests at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest in New Hampshire (n=4 paired snow-removal and reference plots; each 13m X 13m). Snow removal occurred during the first six weeks of winter over two years. During each growing season following snow removal, we used the N depletion technique to measure in situ rates of uptake of ammonium and nitrate by fine roots of sugar maple during the early, peak and late growing season. Among all sampling dates and plots, we observed significantly lower uptake of N as nitrate compared to ammonium. During the first growing season, at moderate ammonium availability (35 μM N) we observed significantly less uptake of ammonium by fine roots of sugar maple in the snow removal plots relative to the reference plots during the early growing season (April-May), with no significant differences in uptake of ammonium during the peak (July) and late (September) growing season. We observed no differences in uptake of ammonium among the snow removal and references plots at higher ammonium availability (200 μM N), nor nitrate at either concentration throughout the growing season. Results of our study suggest that the observed increase in N losses following periods of soil frost could be due to a decrease in N uptake by fine roots of mature trees, especially in the early growing season. Our study shows the effects of vegetation responses to climate change on ecosystem nitrogen cycling.

  8. Point Counts of Birds in Bottomland Hardwood Fotests of the Mississippi Alluvial Valley: Duration, Minimum Sample Size, and Points Versus Visits

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Provides guidelines concerning sampling effort to achieve appropriate level of precision regarding avian point count sampling in the MAV. To compare efficacy of...

  9. Recovering/concentrating of hemicellulosic sugars and acetic acid by nanofiltration and reverse osmosis from prehydrolysis liquor of kraft based hardwood dissolving pulp process.

    Ahsan, Laboni; Jahan, M Sarwar; Ni, Yonghao


    This work investigated the feasibility of recovering and concentrating sugars and acetic acid (HAc) from prehydrolysis liquor (PHL) of the kraft-based dissolving pulp process prior to fermentation of hemicellulosic sugars, by the combination of activated carbon adsorption, nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO) processes. To reduce the fouling PHL was subjected to adsorption on activated carbon, then the treated PHL (TPHL) passed through a nanofiltration (NF DK) membrane to retain the sugars, and the permeate of acetic acid rich solution was passed through a reverse osmosis membrane (RO SG). It was found that for NF process sugars were concentrated from 48 to 227g/L at a volume reduction factor (VRF) of 5 while 80 to 90% of acetic acid was permeated. For the reverse osmosis process, 68% of acetic acid retention was achieved at pH 4.3 and 500 psi pressure and the HAc concentration increased from 10 to 50g/L.

  10. Recovery of acetic acid from pre-hydrolysis liquor of hardwood kraft-based dissolving pulp production process by reactive extraction with triisooctylamine.

    Yang, G; Jahan, M Sarwar; Ahsan, Laboni; Zheng, Linqiang; Ni, Yonghao


    Acetic acid was one of the main compositions of the pre-hydrolysis liquor (PHL), which was recovered by reactive extraction with triisooctylamine (TIOA) diluted with decanol. Dilution of TIOA played an important role in extracting acetic acid from the PHL. The recovery of acetic acid from the PHL by TIOA was increased from 10.34% to 66.60% with the dilution of TIOA to 20% by decanol at the HAc to TIOA molar ratio of 1, consequently, the equilibrium distribution coefficient KD increased. The effects of time, temperature and pH on the extraction process were also studied. The extraction process was very fast. The acetic acid extraction decreased from 65.13% to 57.34% with the rise of temperature to 50°C from 20°C. A higher pH increased the dissociation of acetic acid, as a result, decreased acetic acid extraction. The hemicelluloses in the PHL were unaffected on the extraction process of acetic acid.

  11. Responses of hybrid poplar clones and red maple seedlings to ambient O(3) under differing light within a mixed hardwood forest.

    Wei, C; Skelly, J M; Pennypacker, S P; Ferdinand, J A; Savage, J E; Stevenson, R E; Davis, D D


    The responses of ramets of hybrid poplar (Populus spp.) (HP) clones NE388 and NE359, and seedlings of red maple (Acer rubrum, L.) to ambient ozone (O(3)) were studied during May-September of 2000 and 2001 under natural forest conditions and differing natural sunlight exposures (sun, partial shade and full shade). Ambient O(3) concentrations at the study site reached hourly peaks of 109 and 98 ppb in 2000 and 2001, respectively. Monthly 12-h average O(3) concentrations ranged from 32.3 to 52.9 ppb. Weekly 12-h average photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) within the sun, partial shade and full shade plots ranged from 200 to 750, 50 to 180, and 25 to 75 micromol m(-2) s(-1), respectively. Ambient O(3) exposure induced visible foliar symptoms on HP NE388 and NE359 in both growing seasons, with more severe injury observed on NE388 than on NE359. Slight foliar symptoms were observed on red maple seedlings during the 2001 growing season. Percentage of total leaf area affected (%LAA) was positively correlated with cumulative O(3) exposures. More severe foliar injury was observed on plants grown within the full shade and partial shade plots than those observed on plants grown within the sun plot. Lower light availability within the partial shade and full shade plots significantly decreased net photosynthetic rate (Pn) and stomatal conductance (g(wv)). The reductions in Pn were greater than reductions in g(wv), which resulted in greater O(3) uptake per unit Pn in plants grown within the partial shade and full shade plots. Greater O(3) uptake per unit Pn was consistently associated with more severe visible foliar injury in all species and/or clones regardless of differences in shade tolerance. These studies suggest that plant physiological responses to O(3) exposure are likely complicated due to multiple factors under natural forest conditions.

  12. Influence of pyrolysis temperature and hardwood species on resulting biochar properties and their effect on azimsulfuron sorption as compared to other sorbents

    Trigo, Carmen, E-mail: [Department of Soil, Water & Climate, University of Minnesota, 1991 Upper Buford Circle, St. Paul, MN 55108 (United States); Cox, Lucia, E-mail: [Instituto de Recursos Naturales y Agrobiología de Sevilla (IRNASE-CSIC), P.O. Box 1052, 41080 Seville (Spain); Spokas, Kurt, E-mail: [USDA-Agricultural Research Service, 1991 Upper Buford Circle, Rm. 439, St. Paul, MN 55108 (United States)


    Azimsulfuron is an acidic herbicide with a high water solubility which makes risk of groundwater contamination a concern. Various wood based biochars produced at different pyrolysis temperatures were characterized along with their sorption capacity for the herbicide azimsulfuron. In addition, we compared sorption on biochars with sorption on mineral sorbents such as clay minerals and iron oxides. In biochar formed at high temperatures (500 °C and 700 °C), FT-IR studies confirmed the increase in aromaticity. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images of the biochars showed differences in the macroporous structure and lower size pores at higher temperatures. SSA (Specific Surface Area) of the biochars increased with pyrolysis temperature and, for all different biochars, this resulted in higher sorption of azimsulfuron. In the case of mineral sorbents, sorption is not related to SSA. Higher sorption is observed in a montmorillonite, of lower SSA, than in mixture of clay minerals with 30% smectite (w/w). On the contrary as with the clays, sorption on the two iron oxyhydroxides increased with SSA. Desorption studies showed hysteresis. Leaching studies showed no effect on azimsulfuron retention on soil column amended with apple wood biochar, while a reduction of azimsulfuron in leachates in soil columns amended with the modified montmorillonite and alder wood biochar (500 °C). Total retention was shown for alder wood biochar. - Highlights: • Use of biochars and mineral sorbents to mitigate azimsulfuron water contamination • Sorption relates with SSA for biochar and iron oxyhydroxide but not for clays. • Higher sorption values for biochar pyrolysis at 700 °C than mineral sorbents • Different effects on leaching for apple wood biochar, SW-Fe and alder wood biochar.

  13. The chemistry of subcritical water reactions of a hardwood derived lignin and lignin model compounds with nitrogen, hydrogen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide

    Hill Bembenic, Meredith A.

    Biofuels, like cellulosic ethanol, may only be cost effective if the lignin byproduct is upgraded to value-added products. However, lignin's inherent aromatic structure and interunit crosslinkages hinder effective conversion. High temperature H2O is considered for lignin conversion, because H2O exhibits unusual properties at higher temperatures (particularly at its supercritical point of 374°C and 3205 psi) including a decreased ion product and a decreased static dielectric constant (similar to those of polar organic solvents at room temperature) such that there is a high solubility for organic compounds, like lignin. Much of the research concerning lignin and supercritical H2O has focused on further decomposition to gases (e.g., H2, CH4, and CO2) where nearly no char formation is expected in the presence of a catalyst. However, the conditions required for supercritical H2O are difficult to maintain, catalysts can be expensive, and gases are not favorable to the current liquid fuel infrastructure. Reactions using Organosolv lignin, subcritical H2O (365°C) and various industrial gases (N2, H2, CO, and CO2 at an initial pressure of 500 psi) for 30 min. were examined to determine both lignin's potential to generate value-added products (e.g., monomer compounds and methanol) and the role (if any) of the H2O and the gases during the reactions. The behavior of H2O at reaction temperature and pressure is expected to be similar to the behavior of supercritical H 2O without the need to maintain supercritical conditions. Different characterization techniques were used for the products collected including primarily GC/FID-TCD of the evolved gases, GC/MS analysis of the organic liquids, solid phase microextraction analysis of the water, and solid state 13C-NMR analysis of the residues. The reactor pressure at temperature was shown to influence the reactivity of the H2O and lignin, and the highest conversions (≈54--62%) were obtained when adding a gas. However, the collected solids from the CO reactions appeared to be the most reacted (i.e., the most changed from the unreacted lignin) according to solid state 13C-NMR analysis, and the widest variety of products (methoxy-substituted phenolic compounds) were obtained when using CO according to GC/MS analysis. Therefore, reactions with CO were completed that varied the initial reaction pressure (300, 500 and 800 psi) in order to elucidate the effects of CO pressure. Similar conversion (≈54--58%) and DCM-soluble liquid product yields (≈53--62%) were obtained for the different pressure reactions, but the reactions with an initial pressure of 500 psi had the greatest change in aromaticity from the unreacted lignin. Additional reactions between Organosolv lignin and H2O with CO (initial pressure of 500 psi) were conducted where the reaction time was varied (15, 30 and 60 min.) to determine the effect of reaction time. Longer reaction time (60 min.) appeared to inhibit conversion to low molecular weight compounds (i.e., conversion and DCM-soluble yields were lower at ≈53% and ≈28%, respectively). Solid state 13C-NMR of collected residues also showed that there are losses in carbons representative of both guaiacyl and syringyl components as reaction time increases, which may indicate that methoxy groups are being cleaved or the products are reacting with each other (i.e., repolymerization) to form high molecular weight compounds as reaction time is increased. The role of H2O and the gases during the baseline reactions and the expanded CO reactions is not intuitive based on the results, so reactions with lignin model compounds (i.e., aromatic aldehydes represented by vanillin and syringaldehyde, aromatic ketones represented by acetovanillone and acetosyringone, and aromatic ethers represented by dibenzyl ether and 2-phenethyl phenyl ether) were completed to study this. From these results, the suggested reaction pathway of Organosolv lignin reactions in subcritical H2O with and without added pressure is: 1) cleavage of ethers (via hydrolysis) to form smaller methoxy-substituted phenolic monomers with aldehyde- or ketone-substituents representative of lignin monomers; 2) cleavage of the methoxy-, aldehyde- and/or ketone-substituents to form primarily methoxy-substituted phenolic monomers; 3) rearrangement of these phenolic monomers due to the enhanced pressure at reaction temperature; 4) formation of oligomers due to interaction amongst the methoxy-substituted phenolic monomers, which is also due to the enhanced pressure at reaction temperature; and 5) repolymerization of the monomers and oligomers to form high molecular weight compounds (i.e., longer reactions times or different pressures seemed to enhance these reactions). Under these conditions, depolymerization seems to be the dominant reaction pathway versus repolymerization. Reactions with lignin and H2O at 365°C have not been previously reported nor has the reaction chemistry for lignin depolymerization at these conditions been established. The results with lignin (or lignin model compounds), subcritical H2O and CO also show that the desired product slate can be modified with different pressure and time conditions. In particular, increasing reaction time (from 15 to 60 min.) caused lignin conversion to decrease, and the products appeared to be reacting with each other. However, the longer reaction time also showed that more methanol is generated (along with more solids).

  14. Repeated manual release in a young plantation: Effect on douglas-fir seedlings, hardwoods, shrubs, forbs, and grasses. Forest Service research paper (Final)

    McDonald, P.M.; Fiddler, G.O.; Harrison, H.R.


    Douglas-fir seedlings on the Arcata Resource Area, Bureau of Land Management, U.S. Department of the Interior, in central coastal California, were released by chain sawing and grubbing competing vegetation around them at different frequencies (0, 2, and 3 grubbings) over a 5-year period. After 5 years, average Douglas-fir stem diameter (measured at 12 inches above mean groundline) of seedlings grubbed at ages 1, 2, and 5 was 0.91 inches, and of seedlings grubbed after the first and fifth growing season was 0.95 inches. Both were significantly larger than counterparts in the control (0.57 inches).


    韩有志; 王政权


    种子扩散是种群动态中的一个关键环节,研究其扩散格局对了解种子库及更新格局有重要意义.于1999~2000年在天然次生林中选择样地并设置样带,共设取样点1376个,观察和估计了水曲柳(Fraxinus mandshurica)的种子雨格局.结果发现,母树附近,尤其是冠幅范围内,各方向的种子雨没有显著差别.但种子雨密度随距离有明显变化,冠幅范围内平均可达462~903个*m-2.距冠缘10~20 m急剧减少,为50~190个*m-2.72.5%~96.4%的种子散落在距母株树干10 m 的范围内.饱满种子顺风方向扩散距离可达70~80 m.变异函数分析表明,种子雨在母株附近有聚集分布特征,远离母株后趋于随机格局.母树单株散生的样地中,空间格局尺度为9.7 m,在此尺度上自相关变异占60%,随机变异接近40%.母树集群分布的样地中,格局尺度为36.6~47.0 m,空间自相关变异占54.8%~57.7%.种子捕食实验与调查表明,啮齿类动物对水曲柳种子进行季节性摄食,导致落种格局发生大的变化.秋季大量种子散落期间,种子很少被摄食.冬季种子的摄食率相当高,尤其枯落物中和枯落物表层的种子摄食率达90%~100%.

  16. 金叶榆硬枝扦插试验初探%Preliminary Tests on Hardwood Cuttings of Ulmus pumila cv. jinye

    杨艳丽; 孙福林; 黄晓霞


    在大通植物园进行金叶榆扦插试验,结果表明沙壤土扦插和地膜覆盖可提高扦插苗的高、地径生长量,明显提高扦插成活率。%Ulmus pumila cv. jinye cutting test wewe conducted in botanical garden of Datong, the results showed in sandy loam soil cutting and mulching can increase height and diameter growth, improved significant- ly survival rate of cuttings.

  17. Influence of pyrolysis temperature and hardwood species on resulting biochar properties and their effect on azimsulfuron sorption as compared to other sorbents

    Azimsulfuron is an acidic herbicide with a high water solubility which makes risk of groundwater contamination a concern. Various wood based biochars produced at different pyrolysis temperatures were characterized along with their sorption capacity for the herbicide azimsulfuron. In addition, we com...


    Unintentional and avoidable human exposure is a consequence of pesticide use indoors. Pesticides on household surfaces are a source of exposure to children. Therefore, concern has been raised regarding the potential for contamination of foods in homes where pesticides have been...

  19. Do trees fall downhill? Relationship between treefall direction and slope-aspect and wind in eight old-growth oak stands in the central hardwood forest

    James S. Rentch


    This study examined the relationship between direction of treefall and slope-aspect, and prevailing wind in eight old-growth stands where single-tree canopy gaps characterize the dominant disturbance regime. All live and downed trees were inventoried in 0.45-ha sample plots. To determine crown asymmetry, crown sizes of live trees were measured along two perpendicular...

  20. Influence of moisture regime and tree species composition on nitrogen cycling dynamics in hardwood forests of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky, USA

    Fabio, Eric S; Arthur, Mary A; Rhoades, Charles C


    .... Seasonal monitoring of N cycling dynamics was carried out for 2 years in deciduous forest stands that differed in soil moisture status and geologic substrate, and thus, in tree species composition...

  1. A Brief Introduction of Hardwood Export in USA 2007%2007年美国出口硬木情况简介



    @@ 1 美国硬木出口下降大约12% 2007年前9个月份美国硬木出口累计下降了12%至2.105百万m3(上年同期为2.386百万m3).相对应的出口硬木价值下降了大约10%至US10.9亿(上年同期为12.1亿).

  2. 沙棘的无性繁殖——硬枝扦插试验%Asexual Reproduction of Seabuckthorn with Sub-hardwood Cuttings

    王呼和; 白茹珍; 李仁贵




    Unintentional and avoidable human exposure is a consequence of pesticide use indoors. Pesticides on household surfaces are a source of exposure to children. Therefore, concern has been raised regarding the potential for contamination of foods in homes where pesticides have been...

  4. Developments to the Sylvan stand structure model to describe wood quality changes in southern bottomland hardwood forests because of forest management

    David R. Larsen; Ian R. Scott


    Growth models can produce a wealth of detailed information that is often very difficult to perceive because it is frequently presented either as summary tables, stand view or landscape view visualizations. We have developed new tools for use with the Sylvan model (Larsen 1994) that allow the analysis of wood-quality changes as a consequence of forest management....

  5. Cultural Resources Investigations of Larose to Golden Meadow Hurricane Protection Project Levee Section D, Lafourche Parish, Louisiana


    Hardwoods that comprise the nonwetlands and the hardwood interarea include live oaks (Quercus virginiana), mayhaw ( Crataegus opaca), hackberry (Celtis... laevigata ), bitter pecan (Carya aquatica), pawpaw (Asimina triloba), and sweetgum (Liquidambar styriciflua). Plant understory includes palmetto (Sabal

  6. Trends in domestic and international markets for ash logs and lumber

    Dan. Meyer


    While ash is a "minor" commercial hardwood species relative to oak, poplar, and maple, it still accounts for roughly 3 percent of all hardwood lumber produced, with an estimated kiln-dried value exceeding $150 million annually.

  7. From Preconceived Perceptions to Purchasing Realities, Species Names Carry Powerful Marketing Images (an editorial)

    Matt Bumgardner; Scott Bowe; Scott Bowe


    Hardwood product marketing has certainly evolved over the years. Twenty years ago, we promoted, hardwoods over softwoods, for their durability, strength and stature. Then we focused on solid wood products as better than engineered or veneered products. With the emergence of so many tropical substitutes, we focused on North American hardwoods as the right choice,...

  8. Increasing the biomass production of short rotation coppice forestry. Quarterly progress report, January 1-March 31, 1980

    Steinbeck, K.


    The objective of this project is to determine means of increasing the biomass yield of short rotation hardwood forests through certain species admixtures, irrigation, fertilization and intensive cultural practices and the development of techniques for cloning in sterile culture of superior sycamore and other hardwood strains and the identification and propagation of individual hardwoods with superior growth and other characteristics.

  9. ROMI 4.0: Updated Rough Mill Simulator

    Timo Grueneberg; R. Edward Thomas; Urs. Buehlmann


    In the secondary hardwood industry, rough mills convert hardwood lumber into dimension parts for furniture, cabinets, and other wood products. ROMI 4.0, the US Department of Agriculture Forest Service's ROugh-MIll simulator, is a software package designed to simulate the cut-up of hardwood lumber in rough mills in such a way that a maximum possible component yield...

  10. Fauna using nest boxes in four timber types in eastern Texas

    Richard N. Conner; Daniel Saenz; D. Craig Rudolph


    Occupancy of 240 nest boxes in pure pine, pine-hardwood, upland hardwood, and bottomland hardwood forests (60 boxes in each forest type) were monitored for six years on the Stephen F. Austin Experimental Forest, Nacogdoches County in eastern Texas. Three boxes were placed at twenty sites in each forest type. Initially, each site had a box with 3.2, 4.7, or 5.7 cm...

  11. 有机结合氯对漂白硫酸盐阔叶木浆返黄的影响%The Role of Bound Chlorine in the Brightness Reversion of Bleached Hardwood Kraft Pulp




  12. Use of waveform lidar and hyperspectral sensors to assess selected spatial and structural patterns associated with recent and repeat disturbance and the abundance of sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) in a temperate mixed hardwood and conifer forest

    Anderson, J.E.; Ducey, M.J.; Fast, A.; Martin, M.E.; Lepine, L.; Smith, M.-L.; Lee, T.D.; Dubayah, R.O.; Hofton, M.A.; Hyde, P.; Peterson, B.E.; Blair, J.B.


    Waveform lidar imagery was acquired on September 26, 1999 over the Bartlett Experimental Forest (BEF) in New Hampshire (USA) using NASA's Laser Vegetation Imaging Sensor (LVIS). This flight occurred 20 months after an ice storm damaged millions of hectares of forestland in northeastern North America. Lidar measurements of the amplitude and intensity of ground energy returns appeared to readily detect areas of moderate to severe ice storm damage associated with the worst damage. Southern through eastern aspects on side slopes were particularly susceptible to higher levels of damage, in large part overlapping tracts of forest that had suffered the highest levels of wind damage from the 1938 hurricane and containing the highest levels of sugar maple basal area and biomass. The levels of sugar maple abundance were determined through analysis of the 1997 Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) high resolution spectral imagery and inventory of USFS Northern Research Station field plots. We found a relationship between field measurements of stem volume losses and the LVIS metric of mean canopy height (r2 = 0.66; root mean square errors = 5.7 m3/ha, p < 0.0001) in areas that had been subjected to moderate-to-severe ice storm damage, accurately documenting the short-term outcome of a single disturbance event. ?? 2011 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).

  13. 合欢硬枝扦插生根解剖及相关酶活性变化研究%Rooting Anatomy of Hardwood Cutting for Albizia julibrissin Duraxx.and Activity Change of Related Enzymes During Rooting Process

    周祥明; 刘玉堂; 赵宪争; 宋兆伟; 王姝



  14. A Study on Ash and Silica Content of Surinam's Commercial Hardwoods%苏里南商用木材的灰分及二氧化硅含量分析

    张耀丽; 徐永吉; 陈亚飞



  15. Efeito do ácido indolbutírico e época de coleta no enraizamento de estacas semi-lenhosas do cacaueiro Effect of indolbutyric acid and cutting harvesting period on rooting of semi-hardwood cocoa cuttings

    José Basílio Vieira Leite


    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi verificar o efeito do ácido indolbutírico (AIB no enraizamento de estacas do cacaueiro. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 3 x 5 x 2, envolvendo 3 clones (Cepec 2008, CCN 51 e TSH 1188, 5 concentrações de ácido indolbutírico AIB (0; 1.000; 3.000; 6.000 e 9.000 mg kg-1, duas épocas do ano (verão e inverno,, cinco repetições e 10 estacas por parcela. A avaliação do experimento foi realizada 120 dias após o plantio e analisadas as seguintes variáveis: percentagem de sobrevivência (SOB, número de brotações (NB, matéria seca das brotações (MSB, percentagem de estacas enraizadas (ENR, número de raízes (NR e matéria seca de raízes (MSR. Os fatores época do ano e concentração de AIB apresentaram efeito significativo para as variáveis estudadas quando isolados e em interação com os clones. Os dados obtidos possibilitaram concluir que o valor médio da concentração ideal de AIB (CI foi de 4.169 mg kg-1 e 3.985 mg kg-1 no verão e inverno, respectivamente. Verificou-se que os clones apresentam diferentes respostas em relação à CI de AIB e época do ano. De modo geral, as CIs no verão foram maiores que no inverno. Os resultados mostraram que a época de plantio e a concentração de AIB influenciaram de maneira mais expressiva na sobrevivência e enraizamento das estacas dos clones Cepec 2008 e CCN 51 e em menor intensidade no clone TSH 1188. Existe uma concentração ideal de AIB para cada um dos clones estudados.The objective of this work was to verify the effect of indolbutyric acid (IBA on rooting of cocoa cuttings. The layout used was a complete randomized design in a 3 x 5 x 2 factorial scheme with three clones (Cepec 2008, CCN 51 e TSH 1188, five concentrations of indolbutyric acid - IBA - (0, 1.000, 3.000, 6.000 e 9.000 mg kg-1, two harvest periods (summer and winter, 10 cuttings per plot and five replications. At 120 days after planting, it was analyzed the following variables: survival percentage (SOB, shoot number (NB shoots dry matter (MSB and roots dry matter (MSR. The factors period of the year and IBA concentration showed significant effect in the variables studied isolated and in interaction with clones. The obtained data permit to conclude that the mean ideal concentrations (CI of IBA were 4.169 mg kg-1 and 3.985 mg kg-1 in the summer and in the winter, respectively. It was verified that the clones showed different responses in regard to CI of IBA and year period. In general, the CI's in the summer were higher than in the winter. The results showed that period of the year and IBA concentrations influenced expressively the survival and rooting of cuttings of Cepec 2008 and CCN 51 clones and, with lower intensity, the TSH 1188 clone. There is an ideal IBA concentration for each one of the studied clones.

  16. 75 FR 81832 - Asian Longhorned Beetle; Quarantined Area and Regulated Articles


    ... wounds and sawdust accumulation at tree bases. They feed on, and over-winter in, the interiors of trees... native to China, Japan, Korea, and the Isle of Hainan, is a destructive pest of hardwood trees. It attacks many healthy hardwood trees, including maple, horse chestnut, birch, poplar, willow, and elm....

  17. 76 FR 52541 - Asian Longhorned Beetle; Quarantined Areas and Regulated Articles


    ... wounds and sawdust accumulation at the tree base, eventually killing the tree. They feed on, and over... and trunks of trees. After emerging, adult beetles feed for 10 to 15 days and then mate. Adult females... and Korea is a destructive pest of hardwood trees. It attacks many healthy hardwood trees,...

  18. Use of trees by the Texas ratsnake (Elaphe obsoleta) in eastern Texas

    Josh B. Pierce; Robert R. Fleet; Lance McBrayer; D. Craig Rudolph


    We present information on the use of trees by Elaphe obsoleta (Texas Ratsnake) in a mesic pine-hardwood forest in eastern Texas. Using radiotelemetry, seven snakes (3 females, 4 males) were relocated a total of 363 times from April 2004 to May 2005, resulting in 201 unique locations. Snakes selected trees containing cavities and used hardwoods and...

  19. Conversion of an oak seed orchard to oak silvopasture

    K. Connor; L. Dimov; R. Barlow; M. Smith; E. Kirkland


    The potential of hardwood silvopasture has yet to be realized in the Southeastern United States. The decommissioning of the Stauffer Nursery, Opelika, AL, provided the opportunity to intensively research hardwood silvopasture using various oak species. Average crown diameter ranged from 5.9 feet in white oak (Quercus alba) to 10.7 feet in Nuttall oak...

  20. Performance of pallet parts recovered from used wood pallets

    John W. Clarke; Marshall S. White; Philip A. Araman


    The flexural modulus of elasticity (MOE), flexural modulus of rupture (MOR), and density of used pallet parts were measured and compared to the same properties of new parts. Seventy-four percent of used pallet parts sampled were hardwoods, and 26 percent were softwoods. The average mixed hardwood parts were 41 percent stronger and 40 percent stiffer than the mixed...

  1. Pyrolysis bio-oils as additives for vegetable oil based lubricants

    Softwood and hardwood lignins, along with hardwood as such, were pyrolyzed to afford bio-oil distillates in which phenols were major products. Extraction with alkali gave a range of lignin-related phenols having molecular weights (MWs) from 110 to 344. Because vegetable oil based lubricants have dra...

  2. Experimental Research of Moisture Evaporation Process from Biomass in a Drying Chamber

    Bulba E.E.


    Full Text Available Presented mass evaporation rate hardwood (birch, aspen, maple, poplar derived from experimental studies. The dependence of temperature on evaporation mass rate and calculated the accommodation coefficient for the respective temperature ranges are obtained. Analyzed the temperature of drying conditions relevant species hardwood.

  3. Cradle-to-gate life-cycle inventory of U.S. wood products production: CORRIM phase I and phase II products

    Maureen E. Puettmann; Richard Bergman; Steve Hubbard; Leonard Johnson; Bruce Lippke; Elaine Oneil; Francis G. Wagner


    This article documents cradle-to-gate life-cycle inventories for softwood lumber, hardwood lumber, and solid-strip hardwood flooring manufacturing from the Inland Northwest and the Northeast–North Central regions of the US. Environmental impacts were measured based on emissions to air and water, solid waste, energy consumption, and resource use. The manufacturing stage...

  4. Interannual consistency of gross energy in red oak acorns

    A.G. Leach; R.M. Kaminski; J.N. Straub; A.W. Ezell; T.S. Hawkins; T.D. Leininger


    Red oak Quercus spp., Subgenus Erythrobalanus acorns are forage for mallards Anas platyrhyncos, wood ducks Aix sponsa, and other wildlife that use bottomland hardwood forests in the southeastern United States. However, annual variation in true metabolizable energy from acorns would affect carrying-capacity estimates of bottomland hardwood forests for wintering ducks....

  5. Woodland Birds in Three Different Forest Types in Eastern Texas

    Clifford E. Shackelford; Richard N. Conner


    Birds were censusedalong three routes through relatively mature forest in eastern Texas using the fixed circular plot technique. The routes sampled three forest types (based on tree species composition): (1)longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) Savannah, (2) mixed pine-hardwood forest, and (3) bottomland hardwood forest. Each route consisted of 20 plots censused twice...

  6. Red-cockaded woodpeckers and silvicultural practice: is uneven-aged silviculture preferable to even-aged?

    D. Craig Rudolph; Richard N. Conner


    The endangered red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) has become a high-profile management issue in the southeastern United States. Suitable habitat consists of mature to old pine, or mixed pine-hardwood forest, with minimal hardwood midstory vegetation. Loss of habitat, detrimental silvicultural practices, and changes in the fire regime have...

  7. Woody energy crops in the southeastern United States: two centuries of practitioner experience

    Keith L. Kline; Mark D. Coleman


    Forest industry experts were consulted on the potential for hardwood tree species to serve as feedstock for bioenergy in the southeastern United States. Hardwoods are of interest for bioenergy because of desirable physical qualities, genetic research advances, and growth potential. Yet little data is available regarding potential productivity and costs. This paper...

  8. SILVAH: managers and scientists working together to improve research and management

    Susan L Stout; Patrick H. Brose


    SILVAH is a systematic approach to silvicultural prescription development based on inventory and analysis of stand data for Allegheny hardwood, northern hardwood, and mixed oak forests. SILVAH includes annual training sessions and decision support software, and it ensures a consistent, complete, and objective approach to prescriptions. SILVAH has created a community of...

  9. Influence of irrigation method and container type on Northern red oak seedling growth and media electrical conductivity

    Anthony S. Davis; Douglass F. Jacobs; Ronald P. Overton; R. Kasten Dumroese


    Container production of hardwood seedlings has not been extensively practiced. Efficient nursery production of hardwood seedlings in containers can be limited by formation of a broad foliar canopy, which limits irrigation uniformity. This study was established to investigate suitability of subirrigation, a method of irrigating seedlings from the container base that...

  10. Development of a Computer Vision Technology for the Forest Products Manufacturing Industry

    D. Earl Kline; Richard Conners; Philip A. Araman


    The goal of this research is to create an automated processing/grading system for hardwood lumber that will be of use to the forest products industry. The objective of creating a full scale machine vision prototype for inspecting hardwood lumber will become a reality in calendar year 1992. Space for the full scale prototype has been created at the Brooks Forest...

  11. Selecting a sampling method to aid in vegetation management decisions in loblolly pine plantations

    David R. Weise; Glenn R. Glover


    Objective methods to evaluate hardwood competition in young loblolly pine (Pinustaeda L.) plantations are not widely used in the southeastern United States. Ability of common sampling rules to accurately estimate hardwood rootstock attributes at low sampling intensities and across varying rootstock spatial distributions is unknown. Fixed area plot...

  12. Weed management at ArborGen, South Carolina SuperTree Nursery

    Mike Arnette


    Weed management is vital to producing healthy hardwood seedlings. Several methods are available to each nursery, and it is common knowledge that what works for one situation may not work for another. The weed control methods used in nursery beds of hardwood species at the South Carolina SuperTree Nursery (Blenheim) are listed below.

  13. Distance and phenology influence pollen gene flow, male reproductive success, and female mate choice in a northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) seed orchard

    Northern red oak is a high-value hardwood used for lumber, furniture and veneer. Intensively managed northern red oak orchards require genetic gain for trait improvement. Data from conifer seed orchards and natural and managed stands of hardwood trees have shed light on the distance over which polle...

  14. Chemicals derived from pyrolysis bio-oils as antioxidants in fuels and lubricants

    Softwood and hardwood lignins and hardwood were pyrolyzed to produce bio-oils to produce lignin-derived bio-oils of which phenols were the major component. These bio-oils were extracted with alkali to yield a range of lignin-related phenols having molecular weights (MWs) from 110 to 344. When tested...

  15. 40 CFR Table 6 to Subpart Dddd of... - Initial Compliance Demonstrations for Work Practice Requirements


    ... Composite Wood Products Pt. 63, Subpt. DDDD, Table 6 Table 6 to Subpart DDDD of Part 63—Initial Compliance... § 63.2263). (2) Hardwood veneer dryer Process less than 30 volume percent softwood species You meet the... that the dryer meets the criteria of a “hardwood veneer dryer” AND you have a record of the...

  16. 40 CFR 63.2241 - What are the work practice requirements and how must I meet them?


    ... SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Plywood and Composite Wood... rotary dryers instead of the work practices for dry rotary dryers. If you have a hardwood veneer dryer or veneer redryer, you may choose to designate your hardwood veneer dryer or veneer redryer as a...

  17. Proximate analysis, backwards stepwise regression between gross calorific value, ultimate and chemical analysis of wood.

    Telmo, C; Lousada, J; Moreira, N


    The gross calorific value (GCV), proximate, ultimate and chemical analysis of debark wood in Portugal were studied, for future utilization in wood pellets industry and the results compared with CEN/TS 14961. The relationship between GCV, ultimate and chemical analysis were determined by multiple regression stepwise backward. The treatment between hardwoods-softwoods did not result in significant statistical differences for proximate, ultimate and chemical analysis. Significant statistical differences were found in carbon for National (hardwoods-softwoods) and (National-tropical) hardwoods in volatile matter, fixed carbon, carbon and oxygen and also for chemical analysis in National (hardwoods-softwoods) for F and (National-tropical) hardwoods for Br. GCV was highly positively related to C (0.79 * * *) and negatively to O (-0.71 * * *). The final independent variables of the model were (C, O, S, Zn, Ni, Br) with R(2)=0.86; F=27.68 * * *. The hydrogen did not contribute statistically to the energy content.

  18. A comparative study of the hydrolysis of gamma irradiated lignocelluloses

    E. Betiku


    Full Text Available The effect of high-dose irradiation as a pretreatment method on two common lignocellulosic materials; hardwood (Khaya senegalensis and softwood (Triplochiton scleroxylon were investigated by assessing the potential of cellulase enzyme derived from Aspergillus flavus Linn isolate NSPR 101 to hydrolyse the materials. The irradiation strongly affected the materials, causing the enzymatic hydrolysis to increase by more than 3 fold. Maximum digestibility occurred in softwood at 40kGy dosage of irradiation, while in hardwood it was at 90kGy dosage. The results also showed that, at the same dosage levels (p < 0.05, hardwood was hydrolysed significantly better compared to the softwood.

  19. Hunting Plan for Migratory Birds and Big Game at Hillside National Wildlife Refuge - 1979

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Refuge habitat types are dominated by bottom land hardwoods interspersed with bald cypress/tupelo-sloughs and "brakes" (Type 7 wetlands) in the wetter areas and...

  20. Historic Resources Assessment, Tennessee-Tombigbee Waterway Wildlife Mitigation Project, Mobile and Tensaw River Deltas, Alabama


    Quercus nigra ), sugarberry (Celtis laevigata), honey locust (Gleditsia triacanthos), American hornbeam (Carpinus caroliniana), American holly (Ilex opaca...Rhamnus caroliniana), red mulberry ( Morus rubra), and dwarf palmetto (Sabal minor) occur. The transition between the bottomland hardwood forest and the