WorldWideScience

Sample records for hardwoods

  1. Fertilizing Southern Hardwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. M. Broadfoot; A. F. Ike

    1967-01-01

    If present trends continue, fertilizing may soon be economically feasible in southern hardwood stands. Demands for the wood are rising, and the acreage alloted for growing it is steadily shrinking. To supply anticipated requests for information, the U. S. Forest Service has established tree nutrition studies at the Southern Hardwoods Laboratory in Stoneville,...

  2. Herbicide options for hardwood management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew W. Ezell; A. Brady Self

    2016-01-01

    The use of herbicides in hardwood management presents special problems in that many of the most effective herbicides are either designed to control hardwoods or the product is not labeled for such applications. Numerous studies involving herbicide application in hardwoods have been completed at Mississippi State University. This paper is a compilation of results from...

  3. Hardwood sawmill downtime costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan Wiedenbeck; Kyle Blackwell

    2003-01-01

    How time flies when you don't pay attention to it. With hardwood sawmill operating costs ranging from $4 to $25 per operating minute ($95/MBF to $335/MBF) and gross profit margins ranging from $0.10/BF to $0.35/BF, five extra minutes of downtime per day will cost a sawmill that produces an average of 20,000 BF per day (5 MMBF annually) between $21 and $73 per day...

  4. Is Eastern Hardwood Sawtimber Becoming Scarcer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    William G. Luppold; Gilbert P. Dempsey; Gilbert P. Dempsey

    1996-01-01

    In recent years the hardwood lumber industry has become increasingly concerned about the availability and quality of hardwood sawtimber. However, these concerns seem to contradict USDA Forest Service estimates of increased volume and quality of hardwood sawtimber. This paper examines changes in eastern hardwood sawtimber inventories and the apparent contradiction...

  5. 1997 Hardwood Research Award Winner: "Automatic Color Sorting of Hardwood Edge-Glued Panel Parts"

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Earl Kline; Richard Conners; Qiang Lu; Philip A. Araman

    1997-01-01

    The National Hardwood Lumber Association's 1997 Hardwood Research Award was presented to D. Earl Kline, Richard Conners, Qiang Lu and Philip Araman at the 25th Annual Hardwood Symposium for developing an automatic system for color sorting hardwood edge-glued panel parts. The researchers comprise a team from Virginia Tech University and the USDA Forest Service in...

  6. Harvesting costs and utilization of hardwood plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tim P. McDonald; Bryce J. Stokes

    1994-01-01

    The use of short rotation, intensive culture (SRIC) practices in hardwoods to meet fiber supply needs is becoming increasingly widespread. Total plated area of short rotation hardwood fiber plantations is currently about 22,000 ha (McDonald and Stokes 1993). That figure should certainly to grow in response to public concerns over loss of natural hardwood stands. With...

  7. Drying hardwood lumber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chow, A T

    1988-11-14

    Dried lumber is a high-value-added product, especially when it is of high quality. Lumber damaged during the drying operation can represent substantial lost revenue. It has been demonstrated that dehumidification kilns can improve lumber quality, and reduce energy consumption over conventional drying methods. A summary of the literature on drying hardwood lumber, particularly using heat pump dehumidification, has been prepared to allow the information to be readily accessible to Ontario Hydro personnel who work with customers in the lumber industry. For that purpose, this summary has been prepared from the perspective of the customer, a dry kiln operator. Included are brief descriptions of drying schedules, precautions needed to minimize drying defects in the lumber, and rules-of-thumb for selecting and estimating the capital cost of the drying equipment. A selection of drying schedules and moisture contents of green lumber, a glossary of lumber defects and brief descriptions of the possible preventive measures are also included. 10 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. An Examination of Regional Hardwood Roundwood Markets in West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    William Luppold; Delton Alderman; Delton Alderman

    2005-01-01

    West Virginia?s hardwood resource is large and diverse ranging from oak-hickory forests in the southern and western portions of the state to northern hardwood stands in the northeastern region. West Virginia also has a diverse group of primary hardwood- processing industries, including hardwood grade mills, industrial hardwood sawmills, engineered wood-product...

  9. Strategic plans for the Hardwood Tree Improvement and Regeneration Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles H. Michler; Keith E. Woeste

    2002-01-01

    The mission of the Hardwood Tree Improvement and Regeneration Center (HTIRC) at Purdue University is to advance the science of hardwood tree improvement and genomics in the central hardwood region of the United States by: developing and disseminating knowledge on improving the genetic quality of hardwood tree species; conserving fine hardwood germplasm; developing...

  10. Marketing Hardwoods to Furniture Producers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven A. Sinclair; Robert J. Bush; Philip A. Araman

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses some of the many problems in developing marketing programs for small wood products manufacturers. It examines the problems of using price as a dominant means for getting and attracting customers. The marketing of hardwood lumber to furniture producers is then used as an example. Data from 36 furniture lumber buyers is presented to illustrate...

  11. Bottomland Hardwood Ecosystem Management Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    John A. Stanturf; Calvin E. Meier

    1994-01-01

    Federal agency approaches to land management are undergoing a shift from parcel-specific concerns toward a more holistic, ecosystem management approach. Southern bottomland hardwood ecosystems provide important environmental services and commodity goods (Wharton et al. 1982), yet much of our knowledge of these systems comes from anecdotal information. The Bottomland...

  12. Anthracnose Diseases of Eastern Hardwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick H. Berry

    1985-01-01

    Anthracnose diseases of hardwood trees are widespread throughout the Eastern United States. The most common symptom of these diseases is dead areas or blotches on the leaves. Because of the brown and black, scorched appearance of the leaves, the diseases are sometimes called leaf blight.

  13. Soil Management for Hardwood Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. M. Broadfoot; B. G. Blackmon; J. B. Baker

    1971-01-01

    Soil management is the key to successful hardwood management because soil properties are probably the most important determinants of forest productivity. Because of the lack of soil uniformity, however, many foresters have become frustrated with attempts to relate soil to satisfactory growth. Since soil scientists have been unable to predict site quality for trees in...

  14. Planting and care of fine hardwood seedlings: Planting hardwood seedlings in the Central Hardwood Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paula M. Pijut

    2003-01-01

    Forest tree planting in the United States on public and private land exceeded 2.6 million acres in 1999. Of that total, approximately 1.3 million acres (48 percent) were planted by private individuals (AF & PA 2001). In the Central Hardwood Region forest tree planting by private landowners exceeded 100,000 acres in 1999. Trees are planted for various reasons...

  15. The Hardwood Tree Improvement and Regeneration Center: its strategic plans for sustaining the hardwood resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles H. Michler; Michael J. Bosela; Paula M. Pijut; Keith E. Woeste

    2003-01-01

    A regional center for hardwood tree improvement, genomics, and regeneration research, development and technology transfer will focus on black walnut, black cherry, northern red oak and, in the future, on other fine hardwoods as the effort is expanded. The Hardwood Tree Improvement and Regeneration Center (HTIRC) will use molecular genetics and genomics along with...

  16. Utilization of the Eastern Hardwood Resource by the Hardwood Sawmilling Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    William Luppold; John Baumgras; John Baumgras

    2001-01-01

    The eastern hardwood resource contains numerous species that differ in grain, color, texture, and workability. Because the value of hardwoods is derived from appearance, these variations in physical attributes can cause the price for identical grades of hardwood lumber to vary by as much as 600% between species. As a result, there is incentive for primary processors to...

  17. The state of hardwood lumber markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert P. Dempsey; William G. Luppold

    1992-01-01

    Although the 1990-91 recession has temporarily dampened the demand for hardwood lumber, the decade of the 1980s was a period of strong growth in the hardwood market. After experiencing a flat market in 1980 and a decline in 1982, the demand for hardwood lumber by both the domestic industry and the export market increased strongly—from 8 billion board feet in 1982 to 11...

  18. Hardwood supply in the Pacific Northwest-a policy perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry L. Raettig; Kent P. Connaughton; Glenn R. Ahrens

    1995-01-01

    The policy framework for the hardwood resource and hardwood industry in western Oregon and Washington is examined. Harvesting trends, harvesting behavior of public and private landowners, and harvesting regulation are presented to complete the analysis of factors affecting short-run hardwood supply. In the short term, the supply of hardwoods is generally favorable, but...

  19. Low-grade hardwood lumber production, markets, and issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan Cumbo; Robert Smith; Philip A. Araman

    2003-01-01

    Due to recent downturn in the economy and changes in traditional hardwood markets. U.S. hardwood manufacturers are facing significant difficulties. In particular, markets for low-grade lumber have been diminishing, while increased levels of the material are being produced at hardwood sawmills in the United States. A nationwide survey of hardwood lumber manufacturers...

  20. Gluing of Eastern Hardwoods: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry Sellers; James R. McSween; William T. Nearn

    1988-01-01

    Over a period of years, inrreasing demand for softwoods in the Eastern United States has led to an increase in the growth of hardwoods on cut-over softwood sites. Unfortunately these hardwood trees are often of a size and shape unsuitable for the production of high-grade lumber and veneer. They do, however, represent a viable, economic soures of raw material for...

  1. Automatic Edging and Trimming of Hardwood Lumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Earl Kline; Eugene M. Wengert; Philip A. Araman

    1990-01-01

    Studies have shown that there is a potential to increase hardwood lumber value by more than 20 percent through optimum edging and trimming. Even a small portion of this percentage can boost the profitability of hardwood lumber manufacturers substantially. The objective of this research project is to develop an automated system which would assist in correct edging and...

  2. 77 FR 71017 - Hardwood Plywood From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-28

    ...)] Hardwood Plywood From China Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject... plywood from China that are allegedly subsidized and sold in the United States at less than fair value... and subsidized imports of hardwood plywood from China. Accordingly, effective September 27, 2012, the...

  3. Sources of the Indiana hardwood industry's competitiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silas Tora; Eva Haviarova

    2008-01-01

    The estimated 1,600 forest products-related firms in Indiana employ more than 56,000 workers. Hardwood manufacturers are the largest segment, adding approximately $2 billion per year of raw product value. A recent report by BioCrossroads ranked the hardwood industry as the most important in the agricultural sector in Indiana. Like most of the other forest products...

  4. The pallet industry: a changing hardwood market

    Science.gov (United States)

    G.P. Dempsey; D.G. Martens

    1991-01-01

    From its inception during World War II, the wooden pallet industry has grown to become the Nation's largest industrial consumer of hardwood lumber products. Since most of the raw material in wooden pallets is lower grade lumber, the pallet industry's growth, efficiency, and changing raw material inputs must be of concern to the grade hardwood lumber industry...

  5. Management and inventory of southern hardwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    John A. Putnam; George M. Furnival; J.S. McKnight

    1960-01-01

    The valleys and uplands of the South outside the mountains and upper Piedmont have, since 1915, been responsible for about 45 percent of the national production of hardwood sawtimber. They are strong indications that this situation may continue indefinitely.

  6. Bottomland Hardwood Planting: Example Contract Specifications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Humprey, Monica

    2002-01-01

    This technical note provides an example of contract specifications that can be used as a template by USACE biologists, engineers, or contracting officers for contracting the planting of bottomland hardwood (BLH) seedlings...

  7. California's hardwood resource: history and reasons for lack of a sustained hardwood industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean W. Huber; Philip M. McDonald

    1992-01-01

    Interest in utilizing California's forest-zone hardwoods for lumber and wood products has waxed and waned for more than 140 years. In spite of many unsuccessful ventures, strong interest is once again evident from landowners, processors, consumers, and policy makers. Their interest suggests a need to know past pitfalls, to recognize some realities of hardwood...

  8. Planting and care of fine hardwood seedlings: Nursery production of hardwood seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglass F. Jacobs

    2003-01-01

    Access to quality tree seedlings is an essential component of a successful hardwood reforestation project. Hardwood plantations may be established by sowing seed directly to a field site, but the success of direct seeding operations has been inconsistent for many species, which indicates that more research is needed before this practice can be recommended. For...

  9. A management guide for northern hardwoods in New England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrian M. Gilbert; Victor S. Jensen

    1958-01-01

    Northern hardwood forests occupy about 9 million acres of land in New England. In recent years, these hardwood forests have made increasing contributions to the economy of this region. Their future management should be even more rewarding.

  10. Are there regional differences in US hardwood product exports?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matt Bumgardner; Scott Bowe; William Luppold

    2016-01-01

    Exporting is a critical component of the product mix for many domestic hardwood firms. Previous research has identified factors associated with hardwood lumber exporting behavior, but less is known about the advantages and disadvantages to exporting associated with the region within which a firm is located, or about exporting of secondary hardwood products. A procedure...

  11. Growth and shifts in eastern hardwood lumber production

    Science.gov (United States)

    William G. Luppold; Gilbert P. Dempsey

    1993-01-01

    An analysis of recent trends in eastern U.S. hardwood lumber production indicates that total output increased sharply between 1977 and 1991. The increase, however, was much more pronounced in the East's northern tier of states than in the southern. This paper first examines recent hardwood lumber usage trends and historic hardwood lumber production trends. Changes...

  12. 40 years of hardwood lumber comsumption: 1963 to 2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    William Luppold; Matthew Bumgardner

    2008-01-01

    An analysis of hardwood lumber consumption found that demand has changed dramatically over the past four decades as a result of material substitution, changes in construction and remodeling products markets, and globalization. In 1963 furniture producers consumed 36 percent of the hardwood products lumber used by domestic manufacturers. Producers of hardwood...

  13. U.S. Hardwood Imports Grow as World Supplies Expand

    Science.gov (United States)

    William C. Siegel; Clark Row

    1965-01-01

    Rapidly increasing imports have captured a significant share of America's hardwood markets. Total imports of hardwood raw materials and building products are now four times as large as exports. Before World War II the U. S. was a net exporter of hardwoods, and imports were limited to high-quality mahogany and specialty logs and lumber. Availability of large...

  14. Effect of vertical integration on the utilization of hardwood resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan Wiedenbeck

    2002-01-01

    The effectiveness of vertical integration in promoting the efficient utilization of the hardwood resource in the eastern United States was assessed during a series of interviews with vertically integrated hardwood manufacturers in the Appalachian region. Data from 19 companies that responded to the 1996 phone survey indicate that: 1) vertically integrated hardwood...

  15. Planting and care of fine hardwood seedlings: Diagnosing and controlling wildlife damage in hardwood plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James McKenna; Keith Woeste

    2004-01-01

    Once trees are planted and begin growing, damage from wildlife can threaten their quality. In this publication we discuss how to identify and manage injury to hardwoods from wildlife to minimize losses.

  16. A Dynamic Model of California's Hardwood Rangelands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard B. Standiford; Richard E. Howitt

    1991-01-01

    Low profitability of hardwood rangeland management, and oak tree harvesting for firewood markets and forage enhancement has led to concern about the long-term sustainability of the oak resource on rangelands. New markets for recreational hunting may give value to oaks for the habitat they provide for game species, and broaden the economic base for managers. A ranch...

  17. Guide to Regeneration of Bottomland Hardwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martha R. McKevlin

    1992-01-01

    This guide will help landowners, consulting foresters, and public service foresters regenerate bottomland hardwoods. It discusses (1) interpretation of site characteristics, (2) selection of species, and (3) selection of regeneration methods. A dichotomous key for selection of appropriate regeneration methods under various conditions is presented.

  18. Placing our northern hardwood woodlots under management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell J. Hutnik

    1956-01-01

    Do you own a woodlot? Does it contain mostly northern hardwoods - that is, beech, birch, maple, and ash, with some hemlock and spruce? If the answers to these two questions are "yes," then you may be interested in the work that is carried on at the Bartlett Experimental Forest in New Hampshire. This is one of the field laboratories established by the U. S....

  19. Efficient silvicultural practices for eastern hardwood management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary W. Miller; John E. Baumgras

    1994-01-01

    Eastern hardwood forests are now managed to meet a wide range of objectives, resulting in the need for silvicultural alternatives that provide timber, wildlife, aesthetics, recreation, and other benefits. However, forest management practices must continue to be efficient in terms of profiting from current harvests, protecting the environment, and sustaining production...

  20. Sampling the quality of hardwood trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrian M. Gilbert

    1959-01-01

    Anyone acquainted with the conversion of hardwood trees into wood products knows that timber has a wide range in quality. Some trees will yield better products than others. So, in addition to rate of growth and size, tree values are affected by the quality of products yielded.

  1. Chapter 10:Hardwoods for timber bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    James P. Wacker; Ed T. Cesa

    2005-01-01

    This chapter describes the joint efforts of the Forest Service and the FHWA to administer national programs including research, demonstration bridges, and technology transfer components. Summary information on a number of Forest Service-WIT demonstration bridges constructed with hardwoods is also provided.

  2. Proceedings, 15th central hardwood forest conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    David S. Buckley; Wayne K. Clatterbuck; [Editors

    2007-01-01

    Proceedings of the 15th central hardwood forest conference held February 27–March 1, 2006, in Knoxville, TN. Includes 86 papers and 30 posters pertaining to forest health and protection, ecology and forest dynamics, natural and artificial regeneration, forest products, wildlife, site classification, management and forest resources, mensuration and models, soil and...

  3. Proceedings 19th Central Hardwood Forest Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    John W. Groninger; Eric J. Holzmueller; Clayton K. Nielsen; Daniel C., eds. Dey

    2014-01-01

    Proceedings from the 2014 Central Hardwood Forest Conference in Carbondale, IL. The published proceedings include 27 papers and 47 abstracts pertaining to research conducted on biofuels and bioenergy, forest biometrics, forest ecology and physiology, forest economics, forest health including invasive species, forest soils and hydrology, geographic information systems,...

  4. Automation for Primary Processing of Hardwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel L. Schmoldt

    1992-01-01

    Hardwood sawmills critically need to incorporate automation and computer technology into their operations. Social constraints, forest biology constraints, forest product market changes, and financial necessity are forcing primary processors to boost their productivity and efficiency to higher levels. The locations, extent, and types of defects found in logs and on...

  5. Stocking chart for upland central hardwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin E. Dale; Donald E. Hilt

    1989-01-01

    The upland hardwoods stocking chart, introduced by Gingrich in 1967, has become one of the forest manager's most useful tools. The chart allows you to determine the condition of the present stand in relation to a stocking standard. The stocking of a stand is extremely helpful in prescribing various silvicultural treatments such as intermediate thinnings,...

  6. Harvesting systems for the northern forest hardwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chris B. LeDoux

    2011-01-01

    This monograph is a summary of research results and environmental compliance measures for timber harvesting operations. Data are presented from the Northern Research Station's forest inventory and analysis of 20 states in the northern forest hardwoods. Harvesting systems available in the region today are summarized. Equations for estimating harvesting costs are...

  7. A Guide to Bottomland Hardwood Restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-06-01

    floristically Ecological Importance of Understory diverse undergrowth may serve to pollinate flowers, Plants including those of trees. Undergrowth vegetation...Herbaceous plants include bedstraw, Variants and associated vegetation. Sycamore- violet, wild carrot, wild lettuce , amsonia, mint, legumes, pecan...elements of bottomland hardwood restoration such as species selection, site preparation, direct seeding, planting of seedlings, and alternative

  8. Defining Hardwood Veneer Log Quality Attributes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan Wiedenbeck; Michael Wiemann; Delton Alderman; John Baumgras; William Luppold

    2004-01-01

    This publication provides a broad spectrum of information on the hardwood veneer industry in North America. Veneer manufacturers and their customers impose guidelines in specifying wood quality attributes that are very discriminating but poorly defined (e.g., exceptional color, texture, and/or figure characteristics). To better understand and begin to define the most...

  9. Bottomland hardwood afforestation: State of the art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emile S. Gardiner; D. Ramsey Russell; Mark Oliver; Lamar C. Dorris

    2000-01-01

    Over the past decade, land managers have implemented large-scale afforestation operations across the Southern United States to rehabilitate agricultural land historically converted from bottomland hardwood forest cover types. These afforestation efforts were initially concentrated on public land managed by State or Federal Government agencies, but have later shifted...

  10. Applying group selection in upland hardwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary w. Miller; H. Clay Smith

    1991-01-01

    Interest in applying group selection in upland hardwoods has grown in recent years, primarily in response to public opposition to the aesthetic effects of clearcutting. Critics suggest that an uneven-aged silvicultural practice such as group selection might be a suitable compromise--drastically reducing negative visual effects of harvesting trees while continuing to...

  11. Information Sharing in the Hardwood Supply Chain

    OpenAIRE

    Stiess, Timothy Stephen

    2010-01-01

    The Hardwood Industry in United States has been challenged by low-cost competition from overseas. Although cost reduction strategies have had minimal success, the proximity of industry to the domestic market has large implications on a more customer-focused strategy. The problem arises that individual companies and supply chains evolved based on the principles of economies of size and not on the flexibility to adapt to customer needs and changing resource constraints. An increased rate at ...

  12. Researching effects of prescribed fire in hardwood forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacy L. Clark; Kathleen E. Franzreb; Cathryn H. Greenberg; Tara Keyser; Susan C. Loeb; David L. Loftis; W. Henry McNab; Joy M. O' Keefe; Callie Jo Schweitzer; Martin Spetich

    2012-01-01

    The Upland Hardwood Ecology and Management Research Work Unit (RWU 4157) is a group of research teams located across the South, strategically placed to conduct research in physiographic sub-regions of the upland hardwood ecosystems including the southern Appalachian Mountains, the Cumberland Plateau, the Boston Mountains, and the Missouri Plateau. Our RWU is one of 16...

  13. An econometric model of the hardwood lumber market

    Science.gov (United States)

    William G. Luppold

    1982-01-01

    A recursive econometric model with causal flow originating from the demand relationship is used to analyze the effects of exogenous variables on quantity and price of hardwood lumber. Wage rates, interest rates, stumpage price, lumber exports, and price of lumber demanders' output were the major factors influencing quantities demanded and supplied and hardwood...

  14. Spectral reflectance of five hardwood tree species in southern Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale R. Weigel; J.C. Randolph

    2013-01-01

    The use of remote sensing to identify forest species has been ongoing since the launch of Landsat-1 using MSS imagery. The ability to separate hardwoods from conifers was accomplished by the 1980s. However, distinguishing individual hardwood species is more problematic due to similar spectral and phenological characteristics. With the launch of commercial satellites...

  15. Match Your Hardwood Lumber to Current Market Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert J. Bush; Steven A. Sinclair; Philip A. Araman

    1990-01-01

    This article explains how hardwood lumber producers can best market their product. The study included four segments of the market for hardwood lumber. These segments were: furniture, cabinet, dimension and flooring, and molding/millwork manufacturers. The article explains how the study was conducted and the characteristics of companies (i.e., potential customers) that...

  16. Silvicultural guide for northern hardwoods in the northeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    William B. Leak; Mariko Yamasaki; Robbo. Holleran

    2014-01-01

    This revision of the 1987 silvicultural guide includes updated and expanded silvicultural information on northern hardwoods as well as additional information on wildlife habitat and the management of mixed-wood and northern hardwood-oak stands. The prescription methodology is simpler and more field-oriented. This guide also includes an appendix of familiar tables and...

  17. On Tour... Primary Hardwood Processing, Products and Recycling Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip A. Araman; Daniel L. Schmoldt

    1995-01-01

    Housed within the Department of Wood Science and Forest Products at Virginia Polytechnic Institute is a three-person USDA Forest Service research work unit (with one vacancy) devoted to hardwood processing and recycling research. Phil Araman is the project leader of this truly unique and productive unit, titled ãPrimary Hardwood Processing, Products and Recycling.ä The...

  18. Do region and gender influence hardwood product selection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delton Alderman

    2013-01-01

    Consumer preference is a fundamental focus of marketing research as it is used in developing marketing strategy and the positioning of products against competitors. This study evaluated consumer hardwood preferences of consumers from three United States geographical regions, which included six different metropolitan areas. Seven hardwood species and three laminate...

  19. Factors affecting regional changes in hardwood lumber production

    Science.gov (United States)

    William G. Luppold; Gilbert P. Dempsey; Gilbert P. Dempsey

    1994-01-01

    Hardwood lumber production increased by nearly 1.8 billion board feet between 1986 and 1990 and decreased sharply in 1991. However, not all areas of the country experienced the same growth in hardwood lumber production during the 1980s. While lumber production in inland regions of the eastern United States and the west increased during the 1980s, lumber output in...

  20. Hardwood lumber supply chain: current status and market opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urs Buehlmann; Matthew Bumgardner; Al Schuler; Mark Barford

    2007-01-01

    The membership of the Appalachian Hardwood Manufacturers Association was surveyed in 2005 to determine the current status of large Appalachian sawmills. The primary focus was to assess the impacts of globalization on primary manufacturing, but attention was also paid to general issues affecting the hardwood lumber supply chain-from concerns over forest health and log...

  1. A new tree classification system for southern hardwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    James S. Meadows; Daniel A. Jr. Skojac

    2008-01-01

    A new tree classification system for southern hardwoods is described. The new system is based on the Putnam tree classification system, originally developed by Putnam et al., 1960, Management ond inventory of southern hardwoods, Agriculture Handbook 181, US For. Sew., Washington, DC, which consists of four tree classes: (1) preferred growing stock, (2) reserve growing...

  2. Exploring research priorities for the North American hardwood industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Brinberg; Earl Kline; Delton Alderman; Philip Araman; Ed Cesa; Steve Milauskas; Tom Walthousen; Jan Wiedenbeck

    2008-01-01

    With the increase of globalization, the North American hardwood industry is facing many challenges to remain competitive and sustainable, facing drastic changes in the areas of labor, land, manufacturing, markets and marketing, and supply chain. The hardwood industry is especially vulnerable, with the influx of foreign manufacturers and suppliers with greater natural...

  3. Southern hardwood forestry group going strong after 50 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian Roy Lockhart; Steve Meadows; Jeff Portwood

    2005-01-01

    On November 15,200 1, the Southern Hardwood Forestry Group (referred to as the Group) met at the U.S. Forest Service Southern Research Station's Southern Hardwoods Laboratory in Stoneville, hlississippi to celebrate the Group's 50th anniversary. About 130 members and guests attended to celebrate the 50th anniversary of the Group and to honor its charter...

  4. Nondestructive evaluation of incipient decay in hardwood logs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiping Wang; Jan Wiedenbeck; Robert J. Ross; John W. Forsman; John R. Erickson; Crystal Pilon; Brian K. Brashaw

    2005-01-01

    Decay can cause significant damage to high-value hardwood timber. New nondestructive evaluation (NDE) technologies are urgently needed to effectively detect incipient decay in hardwood timber at the earliest possible stage. Currently, the primary means of inspecting timber relies on visual assessment criteria. When visual inspections are used exclusively, they provide...

  5. Hardwood genetics and tree improvement - A Midwest USA perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. H. Michler; R. Meilan; K. E. Woeste; P. M. Pijut; D. Jacobs; P. Aldrich; J. Glaubitz

    2005-01-01

    Fine hardwood trees in the Central Hardwoods region of the United States are an important resource for the furniture, cabinetry, flooring, modular home, and paneling manufacturing industries. Consumers find wood from these trees to be very desirable because of quality factors such as grain, strength and color. To enhance wood production, tree improvement programs can...

  6. Market Definition For Hardwood Timber in the Southern Appalachians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey P. Prestemon; John M. Pye; Karen Lee Abt; David N. Wear

    1999-01-01

    Direct estimation of aggregate hardwood supply is seriously complicated by the diversity of prices, species, and site conditions in hardwood stands. An alternative approach is to aggregate regional supply based on stumpage values of individual stands, arguably the real driver of harvest decisions. Complicating this approach is that species-specific prices are only...

  7. Central Hardwoods ecosystem vulnerability assessment and synthesis: a report from the Central Hardwoods Climate Change Response Framework project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie Brandt; Hong He; Louis Iverson; Frank R. Thompson; Patricia Butler; Stephen Handler; Maria Janowiak; P. Danielle Shannon; Chris Swanston; Matthew Albrecht; Richard Blume-Weaver; Paul Deizman; John DePuy; William D. Dijak; Gary Dinkel; Songlin Fei; D. Todd Jones-Farrand; Michael Leahy; Stephen Matthews; Paul Nelson; Brad Oberle; Judi Perez; Matthew Peters; Anantha Prasad; Jeffrey E. Schneiderman; John Shuey; Adam B. Smith; Charles Studyvin; John M. Tirpak; Jeffery W. Walk; Wen J. Wang; Laura Watts; Dale Weigel; Steve. Westin

    2014-01-01

    The forests in the Central Hardwoods Region will be affected directly and indirectly by a changing climate over the next 100 years. This assessment evaluates the vulnerability of terrestrial ecosystems in the Central Hardwoods Region of Illinois, Indiana, and Missouri to a range of future climates. Information on current forest conditions, observed climate trends,...

  8. Soil properties in 35 y old pine and hardwood plantations after conversion from mixed pine-hardwood forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Andrew Scott; Michael G. Messina

    2009-01-01

    Past management practices have changed much of the native mixed pine-hardwood forests on upland alluvial terraces of the western Gulf Coastal Plain to either pine monocultures or hardwood (angiosperm) stands. Changes in dominant tree species can alter soil chemical, biological, and physical properties and processes, thereby changing soil attributes, and ultimately,...

  9. Planting and care of fine hardwood seedlings: diseases in hardwood tree plantings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paula M. Pijut

    2006-01-01

    Hardwood trees planted for timber production, wildlife habitat, riparian buffers, native woodland restoration, windbreaks, watershed protection, erosion control, and conservation are susceptible to damage or even death by various native and exotic fungal or bacterial diseases. Establishment, growth, and the quality of the trees produced can be affected by these disease...

  10. Synergy of agroforestry and bottomland hardwood afforestation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twedt, D.J.; Portwood, J.; Clason, Terry R.

    2003-01-01

    Afforestation of bottomland hardwood forests has historically emphasized planting heavy-seeded tree species such as oak (Quercus spp.) and pecan (Caryaillinoensis) with little or no silvicultural management during stand development. Slow growth of these tree species, herbivory, competing vegetation, and limited seed dispersal, often result in restored sites that are slow to develop vertical vegetation structure and have limited tree diversity. Where soils and hydrology permit, agroforestry can provide transitional management that mitigates these historical limitations on converting cropland to forests. Planting short-rotation woody crops and intercropping using wide alleyways are two agroforestry practices that are well suited for transitional management. Weed control associated with agroforestry systems benefits planted trees by reducing competition. The resultant decrease in herbaceous cover suppresses small mammal populations and associated herbivory of trees and seeds. As a result, rapid vertical growth is possible that can 'train' under-planted, slower-growing, species and provide favorable environmental conditions for naturally invading trees. Finally, annual cropping of alleyways or rotational pulpwood harvest of woody crops provides income more rapidly than reliance on future revenue from traditional silviculture. Because of increased forest diversity, enhanced growth and development, and improved economic returns, we believe that using agroforestry as a transitional management strategy during afforestation provides greater benefits to landowners and to the environment than does traditional bottomland hardwood afforestation.

  11. Vegetative Propagation and the Genetic Improvement of North American Hardwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. E. Farmer

    1973-01-01

    Progress and problems in vegetative propagation of important North American hardwoods are reviewed with emphasis on rooting cuttings and the application of propagation techniques in breeding research. Some problems in rooting physiology are discussed.

  12. How second-growth northern hardwoods develop after thinning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert W., Jr. Wilson

    1953-01-01

    In the northern hardwood region, second-growth stands occupy thousands of acres. These stands are of all ages, in all conditions. They were brought about by fire, charcoal and fuelwood cuttings, land abandonment, or a combination of these causes.

  13. Two eras of globalization and hardwood sawtimber demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    William G. Luppold; Matthew S. Bumgardner

    2006-01-01

    In the early 1970s, the adoption of floating exchange rates resulted in more fluid transfers between international currencies and spurred increased international demand for hardwood lumber produced in the United States.

  14. The Wood and Bark of Hardwoods Growing on Southern Pine Sites - A Pictorial Atlas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles W. McMillin; Floyd G. Manwiller

    1980-01-01

    Provides a pictorial description of the structure and appearance of 23 pine-site hardwoods, an overview of hardwood anatomy, and data on the resource and certain important physical properties of stemwood and bark.

  15. Examination of worldwide hardwood lumber production, trade, and apparent consumption: 1995-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    William G. Luppold; Matthew S. Bumgardner

    2015-01-01

    Worldwide hardwood lumber production fluctuated between 1995 and 2013 and changed considerably with respect to regional market shares. Similarly, worldwide hardwood lumber imports and exports have been constantly changing. Understanding these changes is important because collectively, they define the hardwood lumber consumption of a region or country. In 1995, North...

  16. Decision Criteria for German Hardwood Lumber Buyers: Market Needs and Purchase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas G. Ponzurick; Robert J. Bush; Dieter Schaupp; Philip A. Araman

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a better understanding of hardwood exports to the German market. A mail survey was conducted which resulted in a 47.8 percent rate of response. Of those German hardwood buyers responding to the survey, 71 percent purchased hardwood lumber directly from North America.

  17. Impacts of changing hardwood lumber consumption and price on stumpage and sawlog prices in Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    William Luppold; Matthew Bumgardner; T. Eric. McConnell

    2014-01-01

    In the early 2000s, increasing US furniture imports preceded declining US hardwood lumber demand and price. In the summer of 2002, however, hardwood lumber prices started to increase as demand by construction industries increased. By the mid-2000s, hardwood lumber prices hit all-time highs. Lumber prices hit all-time highs for red oak (Quercus spp...

  18. Marketing low-grade hardwoods for furniture stock - a new approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugh W. Reynolds; Charles J. Gatchell

    1979-01-01

    A hardwood shortage of high-grade lumber exists while there is a surplus of low-grade hardwood timber. Two things are needed for the surplus to correct the shortage: a new manufacturing system and a new marketing technique. Utilization research at the Princeton Forestry Sciences Laboratory has developed the new system for converting low-grade hardwood for furniture use...

  19. The changing structure of the hardwood lumber industry with implications on technology adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    William Luppold; John Baumgras; John Baumgras

    2000-01-01

    The hardwood sawmilling industry has been changing over the last 50 years as a result of changes in hardwood sawtimber inventory and in the demand for hardwood lumber. In 1950 the industry was composed of numerous individual mills, few of which produced more than 3 million board feet of lumber annually. During this time the furniture industry was the major user of...

  20. Genetic improvement of hardwood fiber production in the north-central region: potentials and breeding alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.E., Jr. Farmer

    1973-01-01

    In the Lake States, aspens are now growing towards senility Faster than they are being harvested (Groff 1966). In the Central States, wood processing residues have recently supplied about one-half of the area's hardwood fiber requirement (Blyth 1970), thus allowing hardwood growing stock to continue its recuperation. In fact, the national hardwood fiber supply...

  1. Database for estimating tree responses of walnut and other hardwoods to ground cover management practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.W. Van Sambeek

    2010-01-01

    The ground cover in plantings of walnut and other hardwoods can substantially affect tree growth and seed production. The number of alternative ground covers that have been suggested for establishment in tree plantings far exceeds the number that have already been tested with walnut and other temperate hardwoods. Knowing how other hardwood species respond to ground...

  2. A Comparison of Market Needs to the Species and Quality Composition of the Eastern Hardwood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert J. Bush; Philip A. Araman

    1991-01-01

    Many markets for hardwood lumber have experienced growth in recent years. Eastern and Central hardwood lumber production reached an estimated 11.2 billion board feet in 1988, a twenty year high. Wood furniture, flooring, and exports have also experienced growth in the last ten years. During the same period, annual growth on eastern hardwood forests has exceeded annual...

  3. Technological advances in temperate hardwood tree improvement including breeding and molecular marker applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paula M. Pijut; Keith E. Woeste; G. Vengadesan

    2007-01-01

    Hardwood forests and plantations are an important economic resource for the forest products industry worldwide and to the international trade of lumber and logs. Hardwood trees are also planted for ecological reasons, for example, wildlife habitat, native woodland restoration, and riparian buffers. The demand for quality hardwood from tree plantations will continue to...

  4. Factors influencing changes in U.S. hardwood log and lumber exports from 1990 to 2011. BioResources

    Science.gov (United States)

    William G. Luppold; Matthew S. Bumgardner

    2013-01-01

    Domestic consumption of hardwood products in the United States since 2000 has trended downward, making exports the single most important market for higher grade hardwood lumber and a major market for higher value hardwood logs. Between 1990 and 2011, hardwood lumber exports increased by 46%. During most of this period, Canada was the largest export market for U.S....

  5. Automatic scanning of rough hardwood lumber for edging and trimming

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. Lynn Abbott; Daniel L. Schmoldt; Philip A. Araman; Sang-Mook Lee

    2001-01-01

    Scanning of unplaned, green hardwood lumber has received relatively little attention in the research community. This has been due in part to the difficulty of clearly imaging fresh-cut boards whose fibrous surfaces mask many wood features. Nevertheless, it is important to improve lumber processing early in the manufacturing stream because much wood material is...

  6. A Machine Vision System for Automatically Grading Hardwood Lumber - (Proceedings)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard W. Conners; Tai-Hoon Cho; Chong T. Ng; Thomas H. Drayer; Joe G. Tront; Philip A. Araman; Robert L. Brisbon

    1990-01-01

    Any automatic system for grading hardwood lumber can conceptually be divided into two components. One of these is a machine vision system for locating and identifying grading defects. The other is an automatic grading program that accepts as input the output of the machine vision system and, based on these data, determines the grade of a board. The progress that has...

  7. A logging residue "yield" table for Appalachian hardwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. Jeff Martin

    1976-01-01

    An equation for predicting logging-residue volume per acre for Appalachian hardwoods was developed from data collected on 20 timber sales in national forests in West Virginia and Virginia. The independent variables of type-of-cut, products removed, basal area per acre, and stand age explained 95 percent of the variation in residue volume per acre. A "yield"...

  8. Taper and volume equations for selected Appalachian hardwood species

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. Jeff Martin

    1981-01-01

    Coefficients for five taper/volume models are developed for 18 Appalachian hardwood species. Each model can be used to estimate diameter at any point on the bole, height to any preselected diameter, and cubic-foot volume between any two points on the bole. The resulting equations were tested on six sets of independent data and an evaluation of these tests is included,...

  9. Computer Vision Systems for Hardwood Logs and Lumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip A. Araman; Tai-Hoon Cho; D. Zhu; R. Conners

    1991-01-01

    Computer vision systems being developed at Virginia Tech University with the support and cooperation from the U.S. Forest Service are presented. Researchers at Michigan State University, West Virginia University, and Mississippi State University are also members of the research team working on various parts of this research. Our goals are to help U.S. hardwood...

  10. Field testing a soil site field guide for Allegheny hardwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    S.B. Jones

    1991-01-01

    A site quality evaluation decision model, developed for Allegheny hardwoods on the non-glaciated Allegheny Plateau of Pennsylvania and New York, was field tested by International Paper (IP) foresters and the author, on sites within the region of derivation and on glaciated sites north and west of the Wisconsin drift line. Results from the field testing are presented...

  11. Western hardwoods : value-added research and demonstration program

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. W. Green; W. W. Von Segen; S. A. Willits

    1995-01-01

    Research results from the value-added research and demonstration program for western hardwoods are summarized in this report. The intent of the program was to enhance the economy of the Pacific Northwest by helping local communities and forest industries produce wood products more efficiently. Emphasis was given to value-added products and barriers to increased...

  12. Regional analysis of hardwood lumber production: 1963 - 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    William Luppold; Matthew Bumgardner

    2008-01-01

    Between 1963 and 2005 hardwood lumber production in the eastern United States increased by more than 50%. Production more than doubled in the northeastern and north central regions while increasing by less than 25% in the southeastern and south central regions. Increased lumber production in the northern regions was facilitated by an expanding sawtimber inventory,...

  13. The economic potential of CT scanners for hardwood sawmills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald G. Hodges; Walter C. Anderson; Charles W. McMillin

    1990-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that a knowledge of internal log defects prior to sawing could improve lumber value yields significantly. This study evaluated the potential economic returns from investments in computerized tomographic (CT) scanners to detect internal defects in hardwood logs at southern sawmills. The results indicate that such investments would be profitable...

  14. Guide to wildlife tree management in New England northern hardwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl H. Tubbs; Richard M. DeGraaf; Mariko Yamasaki; William M. Healy

    1987-01-01

    Presents information on the culture and management of trees that have value as components of wildlife habitat in the northern hardwood and associated types in New England. Background information is provided for choosing the most suitable trees for wildlife habitats and for estimat ing the impact of timber production. Suggestions are made for choosing the numbers of...

  15. Decay fungi of oaks and associated hardwoods for western arborists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessie A. Glaeser; Kevin T. Smith

    2010-01-01

    Examination of trees for the presence and extent of decay should be part of any hazard tree assessment. Identification of the fungi responsible for the decay improves prediction of tree performance and the quality of management decisions, including tree pruning or removal. Scouting for Sudden Oak Death (SOD) in the West has drawn attention to hardwood tree species,...

  16. Pennsylvania hardwood timber bridges : field performance after 10 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    James P. Wacker; Carlito Calil

    2004-01-01

    Several hardwood demonstration timber bridges were built by the Pennsylvania Department of Transportation in the early nineteen nineties. These bridge superstructures are of the recently developed stress-laminated deck design-type using Red Oak lumber laminations that were pressure-treated with creosote preservatives. This paper will describe the data acquisition...

  17. Central hardwood forests: recent trends in a robust resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    T. W. Birch; D. A. Gansner; W. H. McWilliams

    1993-01-01

    Re-inventories completed for each of four Central Hardwood States (Kentucky, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia) show that forest area is increasing and stocking hit new highs; there is 27 percent more growing-stock volume than a decade ago. Large increases in volume have been recorded for all but the smallest diameter classes. Volume in trees 15 inches in diameter...

  18. Testing and analysis of internal hardwood log defect prediction models

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Edward Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The severity and location of internal defects determine the quality and value of lumber sawn from hardwood logs. Models have been developed to predict the size and position of internal defects based on external defect indicator measurements. These models were shown to predict approximately 80% of all internal knots based on external knot indicators. However, the size...

  19. A whole stand basal area projection model for Appalachian hardwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    John R. Brooks; Lichun Jiang; Matthew Perkowski; Benktesh Sharma

    2008-01-01

    Two whole-stand basal area projection models were developed for Appalachian hardwood stands. The proposed equations are an algebraic difference projection form based on existing basal area and the change in age, trees per acre, and/or dominant height. Average equation error was less than 10 square feet per acre and residuals exhibited no irregular trends.

  20. Production economics of harvesting young hardwood stands in central Appalachia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaoxiang Li; Jingxin Wang; Gary W. Miller; Joe McNeel

    2004-01-01

    Three harvesting systems of chainsaw/cable skidder, fell-buncher/grapple skidder, and harvester/forwarder were simulated in harvesting three hardwood stands of 30 to 50 years old in central Appalachia. Stands were generated by using a stand generator and harvesting prescriptions included clearcut, shelterwood cut, selective cut, diameter limit cut, and crop tree...

  1. A 3D stand generator for central Appalachian hardwood forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jingxin Wang; Yaoxiang Li; Gary W. Miller

    2002-01-01

    A 3-dimensional (3D) stand generator was developed for central Appalachian hardwood forests. It was designed for a harvesting simulator to examine the interactions of stand, harvest, and machine. The Component Object Model (COM) was used to design and implement the program. Input to the generator includes species composition, stand density, and spatial pattern. Output...

  2. Quality index tables for some eastern hardwood species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph J. Mendel; William H. Smith; William H. Smith

    1970-01-01

    This paper briefly reviews the quality-index concept, presents log-quality index tables for a selected group of eastern hardwood tree species, and explains how timber operators can use Q.I. for evaluating the lumber that can be sawed from logs and trees.

  3. Current status of the U.S. hardwood industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urs Buehlmann; Matthew Bumgardner; Michael. Sperber

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. manufacturing sector has seen challenging years during the past decades. The major driver behind the decline of U.S. manufacturing prowess has been the ongoing globalization of trade, which has brought market share losses for U.S.-based manufacturing in many hardwood lumber consuming industries. The wood furniture, flooring, and millwork industries, for...

  4. An investigation of factors affecting wettability of some southern hardwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd F. Shupe; Chung Y. Hse; Wan H. Wang

    1999-01-01

    >Wettability of sanded and nonsanded transverse and tangential sections of 22 southern hardwood species were[was] judged by measurement of contact angles using phenol-formaldehyde resins. As ex­pected, contact angle values on transverse sec­tions were higher than on tangential sections for both sanded and...

  5. An investigation of selected factors that influence hardwood wettability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd F. Shupe; Chung-Yun Hse; Wan H. Wang

    2001-01-01

    Wettability of sanded and non-sanded transverse and tangential sections of 22 southern hardwoods species was judged by measurement of contact angles using phenol formaldehyde resins. As expected, contact angle values on transverse sections were higher than those on tangential sections for both sanded and non-sanded surfaces. On sanded surfaces, hackberry had the...

  6. 78 FR 76857 - Hardwood Plywood From China; Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-19

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation Nos. 701-TA-490 and 731-TA-1204 (Final)] Hardwood..., the United States International Trade Commission (Commission) determines, pursuant to sections 705(b.... International Trade Commission, Washington, DC, and by publishing the notice in the Federal Register on June 19...

  7. An Old-Growth Definition for Southern Mixed Hardwood Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    William B. Batista; William J. Platt

    1997-01-01

    This report provides an old-growth definition for the southern mixed hardwood forests based on five exemplary stands that show no evidence of having undergone any natural catastrophe or clearcutting for at least 200 years. This forest type occurs in the U.S. southeastern Coastal Plain from the Carolinas to eastern Texas. The exemplary old-growth stands were restricted...

  8. Resistance of eastern hardwood stems to fire injury and damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin T. Smith; Elaine Kennedy Sutherland

    2006-01-01

    This paper reviews the protective features and defensive responses of eastern hardwood species exposed to fire. Trees survive fire through protective features such as thick bark and the induced defenses of compartmentalization. Dissection of trees exposed to prescribed fire in an oak forest in southern Ohio highlights the need to distinguish between bark scorch, stem...

  9. Seasonal influence on Ohio hardwood stumpage price trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    T. Eric. McConnell

    2014-01-01

    The average annual percentage rates of change in real sawtimber stumpage prices from 1978 through 2012 (dollars per thousand board feet, Doyle) for the 10 commercial hardwood species of Ohio were determined. Each species was then further examined for differing trend lines between the spring and fall reporting periods. Annual real rates of change ranged from -1.10...

  10. Validation of an internal hardwood log defect prediction model

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Edward. Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The type, size, and location of internal defects dictate the grade and value of lumber sawn from hardwood logs. However, acquiring internal defect knowledge with x-ray/computed-tomography or magnetic-resonance imaging technology can be expensive both in time and cost. An alternative approach uses prediction models based on correlations among external defect indicators...

  11. Competition and climate affects US hardwood-forest tree mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel A. Yaussy; Louis R. Iverson; Stephen N. Matthews

    2013-01-01

    Individual-tree measurements have been collected periodically on sites established in Kentucky, New York, Ohio, and Pennsylvania to investigate the effects of thinning on the growth and yield of valuable hardwood species. These plots were installed between 1959 and 1985. The long-term characteristics of this data set of 47,853 trees allowed us to investigate potential...

  12. Comparison of Germination and Viability Tests for Southern Hardwood Seed

    Science.gov (United States)

    F. T. Bonner; J. L. Gammage

    1967-01-01

    This paper summarizes a 3-year evaluation of 10 methods for testing germinability and viability of the seed of six species of southern hardwood. In five of the methods, the seeds were germinated. In the others, visual, biochemical, or physical properties were the criteria. Cutting tests were best for sweetgum and Nuttall oak seed, while cutting or water germination...

  13. Machine Vision Systems for Processing Hardwood Lumber and Logs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip A. Araman; Daniel L. Schmoldt; Tai-Hoon Cho; Dongping Zhu; Richard W. Conners; D. Earl Kline

    1992-01-01

    Machine vision and automated processing systems are under development at Virginia Tech University with support and cooperation from the USDA Forest Service. Our goals are to help U.S. hardwood producers automate, reduce costs, increase product volume and value recovery, and market higher value, more accurately graded and described products. Any vision system is...

  14. Influence of Lumber Volume Maximization in Sawing Hardwood Sawlogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip H. Steele; Francis G. Wagner; Lalit Kumar; Philip A. Araman

    1993-01-01

    The Best Opening Face (BOF) technology for volume maximization during sawing has been rapidly adopted by softwood sawmills. Application of this technology in hardwood sawmills has been limited because of their emphasis on sawing for the highest possible grade of lumber. The reason for this emphasis is that there is a relatively large difference in price between the...

  15. Software analyzes feasibility of saw kerf reduction for hardwood mills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip H. Steele

    2005-01-01

    Reductions in saw kerf on head rigs and resaws can dramatically increase lumber recovery in hardwood sawmills. Research has shown that lumber sawing variation reduction will increase lumber recovery above that obtained solely from kerf reduction. Reductions in sawing machine kerf or variation always come at some cost in both capital and variable costs. Determining...

  16. Interactive machine learning for postprocessing CT images of hardwood logs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erol Sarigul; A. Lynn Abbott; Daniel L. Schmoldt

    2003-01-01

    This paper concerns the nondestructive evaluation of hardwood logs through the analysis of computed tomography (CT) images. Several studies have shown that the commercial value of resulting boards can be increased substantially if log sawing strategies are chosen using prior knowledge of internal log defects. Although CT imaging offers a potential means of obtaining...

  17. Upland hardwood habitat types in southwestern North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michele M. Girard; Harold Goetz; Ardell J. Bjugstad

    1985-01-01

    The Daubenmire habitat type method was used to classify the upland hardwood draws of southwestern North Dakota. Preliminary data analysis indicates there are four upland habitat types: Fraxinus pennsylvanica/Prunus virginiana; F. pnnseanica-Ulmus americana/P. virginiana; Populus...

  18. Edge-glued panels from Alaska hardwoods: retail manager perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Nicholls; Matthew Bumgardner; Valerie Barber

    2010-01-01

    In Alaska, red alder (Alnus rubra Bong.) and paper birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh.) are both lesser-known hardwoods grown, harvested, and manufactured into appearance products, with potential for increased utilization. The production of edgeglued panels from red alder and paper birch offers one expansion opportunity for wood...

  19. Reproduction of upland hardwood forests in the central states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivan L. Sander; F. Bryan Clark

    1971-01-01

    This handbook summarizes data from studies of central hardwood reproduction after harvest cuttings ranging from single-tree selection cutting to complete clearcutting. Regardless of how the stands were cut, natural reproduction was always adequate to produce acceptable new stands; but the heavier cuttings favored intolerant species and faster growth of all species....

  20. Growth and Survival of Northern Hardwood Sprouts After Burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald A. Perala

    1974-01-01

    Root collar sprouting of nine hardwoods was measured annually after a prescribed burn. Basswood, red oak, and paper birch were the most vigorous sprouters; sugar maple and yellow birch the least; and American elm, bur oak, ironwood and red maple were intermediate. Parent tree diameter influenced spreading.

  1. Indicators of regenerative capacity for eastern hardwood forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    William H. McWilliams; Todd W. Bowersox; Patrick H. Brose; Daniel A. Devlin; James C. Finley; Steve Horsley; Kurt W. Gottschalk; Tonya W. Lister; Larry H. McCormick; Gary W. Miller; Kim C. Steiner; Susan L. Stout; James A. Westfall; Robert L. White

    2004-01-01

    Hardwood forests of the eastern United States are characterized by a complex mix of species associations that make it difficult to construct useful indicators of long-term sustainability, in terms of future forest composition and stocking levels. The Pennsylvania Regeneration Study examines regeneration adequacy in the state. The study uses the Forest Service's...

  2. A procedure for selection on marking in hardwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    George R., Jr. Trimble; Joseph J. Mendel; Richard A. Kennell

    1974-01-01

    This method of applying individual-tree selection silviculture to hardwood stands combines silvicultural considerations with financial maturity guidelines into a tree-marking system. To develop this system it was necessary to determine rates of return based on 4/4 lumber, for many of the important Appalachian species. Trees were viewed as capital investments that...

  3. Private forest owners of the Central Hardwood Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas W. Birch

    1997-01-01

    A recently completed survey of woodland owners provides insight into the owners of private forest lands in the Central Hardwood Region. There is increasing parcelization of forested lands and an increase in the numbers of nonindustrial private forest-land owners. Over half of the private owners have harvested timber from their holdings at some time in the past, they...

  4. Chapter 4:Grading and properties of hardwood structural lumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    David W. Green

    2005-01-01

    Structural lumber markets have traditionally been dominated by softwood species. Historically, however, hardwood species have been extensively used for certain structural products such as timbers for railway and highway bridges, railway ties, mine timbers, and for pallets and containers. In the 1920s, when uniform procedures were first developed for structural grading...

  5. Fire in Eastern Hardwood Forests through 14,000 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin A. Spetich; Roger W. Perry; Craig A. Harper; Stacy L. Clark

    2011-01-01

    Fire helped shape the structure and species composition of hardwood forests of the eastern United States over the past 14,000 years. Periodic fires were common in much of this area prior to European settlement, and fire-resilient species proliferated. Early European settlers commonly adopted Native American techniques of applying fire to the landscape. As the demand...

  6. Economic considerations of uneven-age hardwood management

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. Clay Smith; Gary W. Miller

    1987-01-01

    Uneven-age management or partial cutting methods as described in this paper allow foresters to manage eastern hardwood stands and harvest forest products without clearcutting. These methods can involve regular periodic harvests, at least for the short term, based on stand conditions and growing-site capabilities. We are not going to make the decision as to which is the...

  7. A century of progress in weed control in hardwood seedbeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    David B. South

    2009-01-01

    Weeds have existed in nurseries since before the time Bartram grew hardwoods during the 18th century. Hand weeding was the primary method of weed control during the first part of the 20th century. From 1931 to 1970, advances in chemistry increased the use of herbicides, and advances in engineering increased the reliance on machines for cultivation. Many managers now...

  8. A Multiple Sensor Machine Vision System Technology for the Hardwood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard W. Conners; D.Earl Kline; Philip A. Araman

    1995-01-01

    For the last few years the authors have been extolling the virtues of a multiple sensor approach to hardwood defect detection. Since 1989 the authors have actively been trying to develop such a system. This paper details some of the successes and failures that have been experienced to date. It also discusses what remains to be done and gives time lines for the...

  9. Sawtooth forces in cutting tropical hardwoods native to South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. P. Loehnertz; I. V. Cooz

    As a result of design, operation, and maintenance, sawblades used in tropical sawmills can cause many problems. Improvements in these areas are needed to reduce the waste associated with sawing of tropical species that are regarded as difficult to cut. In this study, cutting experiments that simulated bandsawing of tropical hardwoods showed the effect of chip...

  10. Development of radiation processes wood-polymer composites based on tropical hardwoods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iya, V.K.; Majali, A.B.

    1978-01-01

    The wood-polymer composites based on tropical hardwoods were prepared with three monomer systems. Use of chlorinated paraffin oil as an additive imparted fire resistance to the composites and also brought down the gamma dose requirement for total polymerisation. A number of tropical hardwoods can be upgraded by radiation curing, but for cost optimisation, hardwoods with high improvement per unit polymer should be selected. (author)

  11. Herbicide hardwood crop tree release in central West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey D. Kochenderfer; Shepard M. Zedaker; James E. Johnson; David W. Smith; Gary W. Miller

    2001-01-01

    Chemical crop tree release treatments were applied to young hardwood stands at three sites in central West Virginia to evaluate the effectiveness of glyphosate as Accord (41.5% SL), imazapyr as Arsenal AC (53.1% SL) and Chopper (27.6% EC), and triclopyr as Garlon 3A (44.4% triethylamine salt SL), and Garlon 4 (61.6% butoxyethyl ester EC) using hack-and-squirt injection...

  12. Chemical Weed Control Increases Survival and Growth in Hardwood Plantings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayne G. Erdmann

    1967-01-01

    In a plantation of four hardwood species on a silt loam soil planted to 1-0 stock, 4 pounds of active atrazine or simazine controlled weeds effectively without injuring the trees. Chemical weed control was better on plowed and disked ground than on unprepared ground. Yellow-poplar and white ash grew faster on prepared ground. Black walnut and red oak did not respond...

  13. Canopy structure and tree condition of young, mature, and old-growth Douglas-fir/hardwood forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    B.B. Bingham; J.O. Sawyer

    1992-01-01

    Sixty-two Douglas-fir/hardwood stands ranging from 40 to 560 years old were used to characterize the density; diameter, and height class distributions of canopy hardwoods and conifers in young (40 -100 yr), mature (101 - 200 yr) and old-growth (>200 yr) forests. The crown, bole, disease, disturbance, and cavity conditions of canopy conifers and hardwoods were...

  14. Assessing changes in the U.S. hardwood sawmill industry with a focus on markets and distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar Espinoza; Urs Buehlmann; Matthew Bumgardner; Bob. Smith

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. hardwood sawmilling industry has experienced significant changes over the past decade. A slowing housing industry, competition from imported products, higher transportation costs, and high stumpage prices have changed the business of manufacturing and marketing hardwood lumber. Also, hardwood lumber buyers are changing their business practices by shortening...

  15. Optimizing wildlife habitat quality and oak regeneration in bottomland hardwoods using midstory control and partial harvests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derek K. Alkire; Andrew W. Ezell; Andrew B. Self

    2011-01-01

    Bottomland hardwoods can provide both wildlife habitat and timber. However, past high-grading practices limit future income potential and have resulted in undesirable species composition in many areas. Thus, prevalence of desirable oak species should be increased. Our study will attempt to determine the proper harvest level for bottomland hardwoods which will optimize...

  16. Stand conditions immediately following a restoration harvest in an old-growth pine-hardwood remnant

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. C. Bragg

    2010-01-01

    Portions of the Levi Wilcoxon Demonstration Forest (LWDF), a privately owned parcel of old-growth pine and hardwoods in Ashley County, Arkansas, were recently treated to restore conditions similar to some historic accounts of the virgin forest. Following a hardwood-only cut, a post-harvest inventory showed that the number of tree species in the sample area declined...

  17. Manual herbicide application methods for managing vegetation in Appalachian hardwood forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey D. Kochenderfer; James N. Kochenderfer; Gary W. Miller

    2012-01-01

    Four manual herbicide application methods are described for use in Appalachian hardwood forests. Stem injection, basal spray, cut-stump, and foliar spray techniques can be used to control interfering vegetation and promote the development of desirable reproduction and valuable crop trees in hardwood forests. Guidelines are presented to help the user select the...

  18. Possible Demands for Eastern Hardwoods Resulting from Harvest Restrictions in the Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janice K. Wiedenbeck; Philip A. Araman

    1993-01-01

    Efforts to conserve the habitat of the northern spotted owl in the Pacific Northwest have placed softwood timber supplies under a great deal of pressure and driven up the price of softwood lumber. Hardwoods could meet some of the demand for products that have previously been manufactured from softwood species. Hardwood structural lumber may soon become an economically...

  19. Automatic Color Sorting System for Hardwood Edge-Glued Panel Parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard W. Conners; D.Earl Kline; Philip A. Araman

    1996-01-01

    The color sorting of edge-glued panel parts is becoming more important in the manufacture of hardwood products. Consumers, while admiring the natural appearance of hardwoods, do not like excessive color variation across product surfaces. Color uniformity is particularly important today because of the popularity of lightly stained products. Unfortunately, color sorting...

  20. Timber, Browse, and Herbage on Selected Loblolly-Shortleaf Pine-Hardwood Forest Stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale L. Wolters; Alton Martin; Warren P. Clary

    1977-01-01

    A thorough vegetation inventory was made on loblolly-shortleaf pine-hardwood stands scheduled by forest industry for clearcutting, site preparation, and planting to pine in north central Louisiana and southern Arkansas. Overstory timber, on the average, contained about equal proportions of softwood and hardwood basal area. Browse plants ranged from 5,500 to over 70,...

  1. Weight, Volume, and Physical Properties of Major Hardwood Species in the Upland-South

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander Clark; Douglas R. Phillips; Douglas J. Frederick

    1986-01-01

    The weight, volume, and physical properties oftrees1 to 20 inchesd.b.h.were determined for sweetgum, yellow-poplar, hickory, post oak, scarlet oak, southern red oak, and white oakin northern Alabama and Mississippi, eastern Arkansas, southern Kentucky and Tennessee. Hard hardwoods, soft hardwoods, and individual species equations are presented for predicting green and...

  2. Crop tree release options for young hardwood stands in North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamie L. Schuler; Daniel J. Robison

    2006-01-01

    Harvesting southern hardwood forests using even-aged reproduction methods commonly regenerate new stands with 20,000 to 50,000 stems per acre. Overstocking and an overabundance of non-commercial tree species are considered major constraints to growing productive and valuable hardwoods. Crop tree release practices have been promoted as an efficient way of thinning young...

  3. Using fire to restore pine/hardwood ecosystems in the Southern Appalachians of North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    James M. Vose; Wayne T. Swank; Barton D. Clinton; Ronald L. Hendrick; Amy E. Major

    1997-01-01

    In the Southern Appalachians, mixed pine/hardwood ecosystems occupy the most xeric sites (i.e., south/west aspect ridge sites). They are typically comprised of varying proportions of pitch pine (Pinus rigida), Virginia pine (Pinus virginiana), and/or shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata) and a mixture of hardwoods, including scarlet oak (Quercus coccinea), chestnut oak (...

  4. International trade of U.S. hardwood lumber and logs, 1990-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    William G. Luppold; Matthew S. Bumgardner

    2014-01-01

    United States (U.S.) hardwood log and lumber exports surged in the early- and mid-1970s in response to the adoption of floating exchange rates. However, assessing these changes in international trade became difficult in the 1980s due to increased underreporting of hardwood lumber and log shipments between the U.S. and Canada. By 1990, these data problems were rectified...

  5. Assessing the feasibility and profitability of cable logging in southern upland hardwood forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chris B. LeDoux; Dennis M. May; Tony Johnson; Richard H. Widmann

    1995-01-01

    Procedures developed to assess available timber supplies from upland hardwood forest statistics reported by the USDA Forest Services' Forest Inventory and Analysis unit were modified to assess the feasibility and profitability of cable logging in southern upland hardwood forests. Depending on the harvest system and yarding distance used, cable logging can be...

  6. An economic assessment of implementing streamside management zones in central Appalachian hardwood forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaoxiang Li; Chris B. LeDoux; Jingxin Wang

    2006-01-01

    The effects of variable width of streamside management zones (25, 50, 75, and 100 ft) (SMZs) and removal level of trees (10%, 30%, and 50% of basal area) on production and cost of implementing SMZs in central Appalachian hardwood forests were simulated by using a computer model. Harvesting operations were performed on an 80-year-old generated natural hardwood stand...

  7. Key to utilization of hardwoods on pine sites: the shaping-lathe headrig

    Science.gov (United States)

    P. Koch

    1976-01-01

    In past years, only 30% of southern pine biomass (above- and below-ground parts) ended as primary product. Moreover, hardwoods on pine sites were, and in many cases still are, destroyed with no thought of utilization. Now, however, processes have been invented that can raise utilization of each tree- pine and hardwood on pine sites a like to 67% of total biomass,...

  8. U.S. hardwood fiber demand and supply situation : globalization and structural change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter J. Ince; Irene Durbak

    2005-01-01

    This paper reviews demand and supply trends for hardwood fiber in the United States. The objective is to illustrate nationwide shifts in demand and supply and show how the hardwood pulpwood market reacts to those shifts at a regional level. Thus, the market situation is illustrated using an economic rationale, and trends are projected under assumptions about future...

  9. Nondestructive evaluation of hardwood logs:CT scanning, machine vision and data utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel L. Schmoldt; Luis G. Occena; A. Lynn Abbott; Nand K. Gupta

    1999-01-01

    Sawing of hardwood logs still relies on relatively simple technologies that, in spite of their lack of sophistication, have been successful for many years due to wood?s traditional low cost and ready availability. These characteristics of the hardwood resource have changed dramatically over the past 20 years, however, forcing wood processors to become more efficient in...

  10. Trends in the US hardwood lumber distribution industry: changing products, customers, and services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urs Buehlmann; Omar Espinoza; Matthew Bumgardner; Bob. Smith

    2010-01-01

    Efficient and effective supply chains are the backbone of any industry, including the forest products industry. As the US secondary hardwood industry has undergone a profound transformation and large parts of the industry have moved offshore, the supply chain is adapting to these new realities. Remaining and new customers of US hardwood lumber distributors tend to be...

  11. Quantifying flooding effects on hardwood seedling survival and growth for bottomland restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    John M. Kabrick; Daniel C. Dey; J.W. Van Sambeek; Mark V. Coggeshall; Douglass F. Jacobs

    2012-01-01

    Growing interest worldwide in bottomland hardwood restoration necessitates improved ecological understanding of flooding effects on forest tree seedlings using methodology that accurately reflects field conditions. We examined hardwood seedling survival and growth in an outdoor laboratory where the timing, depth, duration, and flow rate of flood water can be carefully...

  12. An Integrated Management Support and Production Control System for Hardwood Forest Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillermo A. Mendoza; Roger J. Meimban; William Sprouse; William G. Luppold; Philip A. Araman

    1991-01-01

    Spreadsheet and simulation models are tools which enable users to analyze a large number of variables affecting hardwood material utilization and profit in a systematic fashion. This paper describes two spreadsheet models; SEASaw and SEAIn, and a hardwood sawmill simulator. SEASaw is designed to estimate the amount of conversion from timber to lumber, while SEAIn is a...

  13. Harem: Hardwood lumber remanufacturing program for maxmizing value based on size, grade and current market prices

    Science.gov (United States)

    C.J. Schwehm; P. Klinkhachorn; Charles W. McMillin; Henry A. Huber

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes an expert system computer program which will determine the optimum way to edge and trim a hardwood board so as to yield the highest dollar value based on the grade, size of each board, and current market prices. The program uses the Automated Hardwood Lumber Grading Program written by Klinkhachorn, et al. for determining the grade of each board...

  14. Factors affecting the merchandising of hardwood logs in the southern tier of New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    John E. Wagner; Bryan Smalley; William Luppold

    2004-01-01

    In many areas of the eastern United States, hardwood boles are sawn into logs and then separated by product before proceeding to future processing. This type of product merchandising is facilitated by large differences in the relative value of hardwood logs of different species and grades. The objective of this study was to analyze the factors influencing the...

  15. Effects of group-selection timber harvest in bottomland hardwoods on fall migrant birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    John C. Kilgo; Karl V. Miller; Winston P. Smith

    1999-01-01

    Due to projected demands for hardwood timber, development of silvicultural practices that provide for adequate regeneration in southeastern bottomland hardwoods without causing undue harm to wildlife resources is critical. Group-selection silviculture involves harvesting a small group of trees, which creates a canopy gap (usually

  16. Timber harvesting patterns for major states in the central, northern, and mid-Atlantic hardwood regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    William G. Luppold; Matthew S. Bumgardner

    2018-01-01

    Timber harvesting is a major disturbance agent influencing the composition and structure of eastern hardwood forests. To better understand timber harvesting practices, we examined roundwood harvesting patterns in 13 eastern states in the Central, Mid-Atlantic, and Northern regions that contained high proportional volumes of hardwood in their forest inventories. Nearly...

  17. Status and trends of bottomland hardwood forests in the mid-Atlantic Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anita Rose; Steve Meadows

    2016-01-01

    Bottomland hardwood forests cover approximately 2.9 million acres of the Coastal Plain and Piedmont region of Virginia and North Carolina. As of 2014, 59 percent of bottomland hardwood forests were in the large-diameter stand-size class. Between 2002 and 2014, area of large-diameter sized stands increased, while that of medium- and small-diameter stands decreased,...

  18. Consumer ring count and grain texture preferences of selected eastern United States hardwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delton Alderman; Matthew Bumgardner; Scott Bowe; David Brinberg

    2008-01-01

    Historically, eastern hardwoods have been a staple of forest products production. However, hardwood producers are now faced with serious challenges from substitutable products, such as imports of foreign species, utilization of foreign species in overseas manufacture (e.g., case goods, etc.), and composite-based materials that are imported or manufactured here in the...

  19. Removal of selected pollutants from aqueous media by hardwood mulch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, Asim B.; Selvakumar, Ariamalar; Tafuri, Anthony N.

    2006-01-01

    Generic hardwood mulch, usually used for landscaping, was utilized to remove several selected pollutants (heavy metals and toxic organic compounds) typically found in urban stormwater (SW) runoff. The hardwood mulch sorbed all the selected pollutants from a spiked stormwater mixture, including copper (Cu 2+ ), cadmium (Cd 2+ ), chromium (Cr 6+ ), lead (Pb 2+ ), zinc (Zn 2+ ), 1,3 dichlorobenzene (DCB), naphthalene (NP), fluoranthene (FA), butylbenzylphthalate (BBP), and benzo(a)pyrene (B[a]P). Masses of the pollutants sorbed depended upon the pollutant species, contact time, and initial concentration which varied from 20 to 100%. Sorption rates of the metals, in general, were more rapid than those of the organics; however, mass removals (percent) of the organics, in contrast to those of the metals, were independent of their initial concentrations. With the exception of Cd, percentages (weight) of the metals removed declined as their initial concentrations decreased. None of the sorbed pollutants desorbed to any significant extent upon extended washing with water. It is quite feasible that in the presence of mulch the uptake of these pollutants by the aquatic species will be reduced significantly

  20. Avian response to bottomland hardwood reforestation: the first 10 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twedt, D.J.; Wilson, R.R.; Henne-Kerr, J.L.; Grosshuesch, D.A.

    2002-01-01

    Bttomland hardwood forests were planted on agricultural fields in Mississippi and Louisiana using either predominantly Quercus species (oaks) or Populus deltoides (eastern cottonwood). We assessed avian colonization of these reforested sites between 2 and 10 years after planting. Rapid vertical growth of cottonwoods (circa 2 - 3 m / yr) resulted in sites with forest structure that supported greater species richness of breeding birds, increased Shannon diversity indices, and supported greater territory densities than on sites planted with slower-growing oak species. Grassland birds (Spiza americana [Dickcissel], and Sturnella magna [Eastern Meadowlark]) were indicative of species breeding on oak-dominated reforestation # 10 years old. Agelaius phoeniceus (Red-winged Blackbird) and Colinus virginianus (Northern Bobwhite) characterized cottonwood reforestation # 4 years old, whereas 14 species of shrub-scrub birds (e.g., Passerina cyanea [Indigo Bunting]) and early-successional forest birds (e.g., Vireo gilvus [Warbling Vireo]) typified cottonwood reforestation 5 to 9 years after planting. Rates of daily nest survival did not differ between reforestation strategies. Nest parasitism increased markedly in older cottonwood stands, but was overwhelmed by predation as a cause of nest failure. Based on Partners in Flight prioritization scores and territory densities, the value of cottonwood reforestation for avian conservation was significantly greater than that of oak reforestation during their first 10 years. Because of benefits conferred on breeding birds, we recommend reforestation of bottomland hardwoods include a high proportion of fast-growing, early successional species such as cottonwood.

  1. Biomass models to estimate carbon stocks for hardwood tree species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz-Peinado, R.; Montero, G.; Rio, M. del

    2012-11-01

    To estimate forest carbon pools from forest inventories it is necessary to have biomass models or biomass expansion factors. In this study, tree biomass models were developed for the main hardwood forest species in Spain: Alnus glutinosa, Castanea sativa, Ceratonia siliqua, Eucalyptus globulus, Fagus sylvatica, Fraxinus angustifolia, Olea europaea var. sylvestris, Populus x euramericana, Quercus canariensis, Quercus faginea, Quercus ilex, Quercus pyrenaica and Quercus suber. Different tree biomass components were considered: stem with bark, branches of different sizes, above and belowground biomass. For each species, a system of equations was fitted using seemingly unrelated regression, fulfilling the additivity property between biomass components. Diameter and total height were explored as independent variables. All models included tree diameter whereas for the majority of species, total height was only considered in the stem biomass models and in some of the branch models. The comparison of the new biomass models with previous models fitted separately for each tree component indicated an improvement in the accuracy of the models. A mean reduction of 20% in the root mean square error and a mean increase in the model efficiency of 7% in comparison with recently published models. So, the fitted models allow estimating more accurately the biomass stock in hardwood species from the Spanish National Forest Inventory data. (Author) 45 refs.

  2. Manager's handbook for northern hardwoods in the north-central states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl H. Tubbs

    1977-01-01

    Provides a key for the resource manager to use in choosing silvicultural practices for the management of northern hardwoods. Control of stand composition, growth, and stand establishment for timber production, water, wildlife, and recreation are discussed.

  3. Promotion of adventitious root formation of difficult-to-root hardwood tree species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paula M. Pijut; Keith E. Woeste; Charles H. Michler

    2011-01-01

    North American hardwood tree species, such as alder (Alnus spp.), ash (Fraxinus spp.), basswood (Tilia spp.), beech (Fagus spp.), birch (Betula spp.), black cherry (Prunus seratina), black walnut (Juglans nigra), black willow (...

  4. Carbon Storage of bottomland hardwood afforestation in the Lower Mississippi Valley, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David T. Shoch; Gary Kaster; Aaron Hohl; Ray Souter

    2009-01-01

    The emerging carbon market is an increasingly important source of finance for bottomland hardwood afforestation in the Lower Mississippi River Valley (LMV). Notwithstanding, there is a scarcity of empirical...

  5. Comparison of two cut-to-length harvesting systems operating in eastern hardwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chris B. LeDoux; Niel K. Huyler

    2001-01-01

    We compared production rates, operating costs, and break-even points (BEP) for small and large cut-to-length (CTL) harvesting systems operating at several machine utilization rates (MUR) in mixed hardwood and softwood stands in Vermont.

  6. Photo guide for estimating risk to hardwood trees during prescribed burning operations in eastern oak forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick H. Brose

    2009-01-01

    A field guide of 40 photographs of common hardwood trees of eastern oak forests and fuel loadings surrounding their bases. The guide contains instructions on how to rapidly assess a tree's likelihood to be damaged or killed by prescribed burning.

  7. The shaping-lathe headrig-- key to utilization of hardwoods growing on southern pine sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    P. Koch

    1974-01-01

    For every cubic foot of pine on southern pine sites, there is about 0.8 cubic foot of hardwood. The shaping-lathe headrig, now in the final stages of commercialization, is a key to utilizing these small mixed hardwoods for pallets and industrial lumber. Lathe residues in the form of flakes can be the raw material for a new major industry manufacturing exterior...

  8. Tree regeneration by seed in bottomland hardwood forests: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroschel, Whitney A.; King, Sammy L.; Keim, Richard F.

    2016-01-01

    Bottomland hardwood forests (BLH) are found in temperate, humid regions of the southeastern US, primarily on alluvial floodplains adjacent to rivers. Altered hydrology in rivers and floodplains has caused changes in stand development and species composition of BLHs. We hypothesize that the driving mechanisms behind these changes are related to the regeneration process because of the complexity of recruitment and the vulnerability of species at that age in development. Here we review the state of our understanding regarding BLH regeneration, and identify potential bottlenecks throughout the stages of seed production, seed dispersal, germination, establishment, and survival. Our process-level understanding of regeneration by seed in BLHs is rudimentary, thus limiting our ability to predict the effects of hydrologic alterations on species composition. By focusing future research on the appropriate stages of regeneration, we can better understand the sources of forest-community transitions across the diverse range of BLH systems.

  9. Facilitating Oak and Hickory Regeneration in Mature Central Hardwood Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric J. Holzmueller

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Advanced oak and hickory regeneration is often absent in mature oak-hickory forests in the Central Hardwood Region of the United States. Prescribed fire and thinning, alone and combined, are commonly prescribed silvicultural treatments that are recommended to initiate the regeneration process. This study examined the regeneration response in three mature oak stands following four treatments: (1 thin, (2 burn, (3 thinning and burning, or (4 no treatment (control. Ten years after initial treatment, results indicate that oak and hickory seedlings had greater height and diameter in the thinning and burning treatment compared to the control and that this treatment may help facilitate desirable regeneration in mature oak-hickory forests.

  10. Nine-year performance of four hardwoods on a harvested site with and without fertilizer tree shelters, and weed mats in southern Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix, Jr. Ponder; J.W. Van Sambeek

    2013-01-01

    Quality hardwood species often dominate stands on intermediate to high quality sites before regeneration. However, successfully regenerating these species after the harvest is rarely achieved on these sites. Hardwood species were planted on a high quality site in southern Illinois after clearcutting to study the effect of several cultural practices on the hardwoods...

  11. Decline in the U.S. furniture industry: a case study of the impacts to the hardwood lumber supply chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shawn T. Grushecky; Urs Buehlmann; Al Schuler; William Luppold; Ed Cesa

    2006-01-01

    Traditionally, the wood household furniture industry has accounted for a sizeable portion of total hardwood lumber use in the United States. However, for more than a decade, imports have gained an increasing share of the hardwood furniture market, and lumber consumption by this industry has declined dramatically in the last 5 years. We used a case study methodology to...

  12. Thirteen Year Loblolly Pine Growth Following Machine Application of Cut-Stump Treament Herbicides For Hardwood Stump-Sprout Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clyde G. Vidrine; John C. Adams

    2002-01-01

    Thirteen year growth results of 1-0 out-planted loblolly pine seedlings on nonintensively prepared up-land mixed pine-hardwood sites receiving machine applied cut-stump treatment (CST) herbicides onto hardwood stumps at the time of harvesting is presented. Plantation pine growth shows significantly higher growth for pine in the CST treated plots compared to non-CST...

  13. Development of the selection system in northern hardwood forests of the Lake States: an 80-year silviculture research legacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christel Kern; Gus Erdmann; Laura Kenefic; Brian Palik; Terry. Strong

    2014-01-01

    The northern hardwood research program at the Dukes Experimental Forest in Michigan and Argonne Experimental Forest in Wisconsin has been adapting to changing management and social objectives for more than 80 years. In 1926, the first northern hardwood silviculture study was established in old-growth stands at the Dukes Experimental Forest. In response to social...

  14. Employment changes in U.S. hardwood lumber consuming industries during economic expansions and contractions since 1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    William G. Luppold; Matt Bumgardner

    2016-01-01

    Understanding employment trends is important for discerning the economic vitality of U.S. hardwood lumber users. After a period of growth in the 1990s, employment in industries consuming hardwood lumber has declined in the 21st century. The wood household furniture industry has experienced the greatest decline, with North Carolina, Virginia, and California being the...

  15. Relationships between prescribed burning and wildfire occurrence and intensity in pine-hardwood forests in north Mississippi, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen Brewer; Corey Rogers

    2006-01-01

    Using Geographic Information Systems and US Forest Service data, we examined relationships between prescribed burning (from 1979 to 2000) and the incidence, size, and intensity of wildfires (from 1995 to 2000) in a landscape containing formerly fire-suppressed, closed-canopy hardwood and pine-hardwood forests. Results of hazard (failure) analyses did not show an...

  16. Composting of organically amended/treated hardwood and softwood sawdust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takyi-Lartey, Rita

    2015-07-01

    Sawdust is a major waste produced by the wood industry. Adding value to sawdust through composting is one of the surest means by which environmental pollution could be minimized. About 500 kg of softwood and hardwood sawdust were separately mixed with mucuna leaves and kitchen waste in the ratio of 3:1:1 on weight basis and heaped using effluent from abattoir to develop composts. Objectives of the study were to monitor changes in the physico-chemical properties, NH4"+ ‒ N, NO3"‒ ‒ N, C:N ratio, minerals N, K, P, microbial load and toxic elements in the composts during a 12 week period. Germination test was also done to evaluate the stability and maturity of the composts developed. Degradation of softwood sawdust compost (SSC) was better in the mesophilic phase while that of hardwood sawdust compost (HSC) occurred in the thermophilic phase. Thus, significantly higher amount of the organic material in SSC was decomposed during the period as compared to HSC. Also, greater percentage of the nitrogen in the initial material of SSC was converted into plant-available inorganic nitrogen (NH4"+ and NO3"‒) than was achieved in HSC. Hence, most of the mineral nitrogen in HSC that was converted was lost, probably in the thermophilic phase. On the contrary, the amount of organic nitrogen contained in the finished composts of both SSC and HSC were adequately good for application to the soil. Additionally, concentrations of pathogenic microorganisms in SSC and HSC products were within acceptable limits in terms of toxicity on growing plants. The softwood sawdust compost was relatively more stable as compared to HSC under the experimental conditions. Concentrations of heavy metals in both SSC and HSC were also within acceptable limits that would cause no toxicity to plants. Also, moisture contents in both SSC and HSC were within the good range (40 - 60%) required for a good compost. Thus both SSC and HSC produced were of good quality. Further research targeting specific

  17. Sediment retention in a bottomland hardwood wetland in Eastern Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleiss, B.A.

    1996-01-01

    One of the often-stated functions of wetlands is their ability to remove sediments and other particulates from water, thus improving water quality in the adjacent aquatic system. However, actual rates of suspended sediment removal have rarely been measured in freshwater wetland systems. To address this issue, suspended sediment dynamics were measured in a 85-km2 bottomland hardwood (BLH) wetland adjacent to the highly turbid Cache River in eastern Arkansas during the 1988-1990 water years. A suspended sediment mass balance was calculated using depth-integrated, flow-weighted daily measurements at wetland inflow and outflow points. Over the three-year period, suspended sediment load decreased an average of 14% between upstream and downstream sampling points. To test the idea that the suspended sediments were retained by the adjacent wetland and to determine what portion of the BLH forest was most responsible for retaining the suspended sediments, concurrent measurements of sediment accretion were made at 30 sites in the wetland using feldspar clay marker horizons, sedimentation disks, the 137cesium method, and dendrogeomorphic techniques. Sedimentation rates exceeding 1 cm/yr were measured in frequently flooded areas dominated by Nyssa aquatica and Taxodium distichum. Maximum sedimentation rates did not occur on the natural levee, as would be predicted by classical fluvial geomorphology, but in the "first bottom," where retention time of the water reached a maximum. Multiple regression was used to relate sedimentation rates with several physical and biological factors. A combination of distance from the river, flood duration, and tree basal area accounted for nearly 90% of the variation in sedimentation rates.

  18. Effects of herbicide release on the growth of 8- to 12-year-old hardwood trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    G.W. Wendel; Neil I. Lamson; Neil I. Lamson

    1987-01-01

    In 8- to 12-year-old Appalachian hardwood stands, crop trees were released by stem injecting competing trees with a 20 percent aqueous solution of glyphosate. Species released were black cherry, red oak, and sugar maple. Release treatments were (a) injection of all trees within a 5-foot radius of the crop tree bole and (b) injections of all trees whose crown touched...

  19. Bottomland Hardwoods of the Mississippi Alluvial Valley: Characteristics and Management of Natural Function, Structure, and Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul B. Hamel; Thomas L. Foti; [Editors

    2001-01-01

    A symposium entitled "Bottomland hardwoods of the Mississippi Alluvial Valley: characteristics and management of natural function, structure, and composition" convened on October 28, 1995, as part of the Natural Areas Conference, October 25-28, 1995, In Fayetteville, AR. The symposium's goal was to provide informatibn that managers need to begin...

  20. Ten year regeneration of southern Appalachian hardwood clearcuts after controlling residual trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    P.M. Zaldivar-Garcia; D.T. Tew

    1991-01-01

    Two upland hardwood stands were clearcut in 1978 and three treatments to control the unmerchantable and/or cull trees were applied. The treatments applied to the residual trees were chainsaw felling, herbicide injection, and a control, where residual trees were left standing. Regeneration was sampled 10 years after the cutting.

  1. A Machine Vision System for Automatically Grading Hardwood Lumber - (Industrial Metrology)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard W. Conners; Tai-Hoon Cho; Chong T. Ng; Thomas T. Drayer; Philip A. Araman; Robert L. Brisbon

    1992-01-01

    Any automatic system for grading hardwood lumber can conceptually be divided into two components. One of these is a machine vision system for locating and identifying grading defects. The other is an automatic grading program that accepts as input the output of the machine vision system and, based on these data, determines the grade of a board. The progress that has...

  2. Automated grading, upgrading, and cuttings prediction of surfaced dry hardwood lumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang-Mook Lee; Phil Araman; A.Lynn Abbott; Matthew F. Winn

    2010-01-01

    This paper concerns the scanning, sawing, and grading of kiln-dried hardwood lumber. A prototype system is described that uses laser sources and a video camera to scan boards. The system automatically detects defects and wane, searches for optimal sawing solutions, and then estimates the grades of the boards that would result. The goal is to derive maximum commercial...

  3. A Multiple Sensor Machine Vision System for Automatic Hardwood Feature Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Earl Kline; Richard W. Conners; Daniel L. Schmoldt; Philip A. Araman; Robert L. Brisbin

    1993-01-01

    A multiple sensor machine vision prototype is being developed to scan full size hardwood lumber at industrial speeds for automatically detecting features such as knots holes, wane, stain, splits, checks, and color. The prototype integrates a multiple sensor imaging system, a materials handling system, a computer system, and application software. The prototype provides...

  4. Hardwood log grades and lumber grade yields for factory lumber logs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leland F. Hanks; Glenn L. Gammon; Robert L. Brisbin; Everette D. Rast

    1980-01-01

    The USDA Forest Service Standard Grades for Hardwood Factory Lumber Logs are described, and lumber grade yields for 16 species and 2 species groups are presented by log grade and log diameter. The grades enable foresters, log buyers, and log sellers to select and grade those log suitable for conversion into standard factory grade lumber. By using the apropriate lumber...

  5. Climatic and pollution influences on ecosystem processes in northern hardwood forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt S. Pregitzer; David D. Reed; Glenn D. Mroz; Andrew J. Burton; John A. Witter; Donald A. Zak

    1996-01-01

    The Michigan gradient study was established in 1987 to examine the effects of climate and atmospheric deposition on forest productivity and ecosystem processes in the Great Lakes region. Four intensively-monitored northern hardwood study sites are located along a climatic and pollutant gradient extending from southern lower Michigan to northwestern upper Michigan. The...

  6. Suitability of the line intersect method for sampling hardwood logging residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. Jeff Martin

    1976-01-01

    The line intersect method of sampling logging residues was tested in Appalachian hardwoods and was found to provide unbiased estimates of the volume of residue in cubic feet per acre. Thirty-two chains of sample line were established on each of sixteen 1-acre plots on cutover areas in a variety of conditions. Estimates from these samples were then compared to actual...

  7. Weight, Volume, and Physical Properties of Major Hardwood Species in the Piedmont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander Clark; Douglas R. Phillips; Douglas J. Frederick

    1986-01-01

    Weight, volume, and physical properties of trees 1 to 20 inches d.b.h.were determined for red maple, sweetgum, sycamore, yellow-poplar, elm, hickory, chestnut oak, scarlet oak, southern red oak, and white oak in the Piedmont of the Southeastern United States. A total of 772 trees were destructively sampled at 16 locations from Viryinia to Alabama. Hard hardwoods, soft...

  8. Relationships between growth, quality, and stocking within managed old-growth northern hardwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chris Gronewold; Anthony W. D' Amato; Brian J. Palik

    2012-01-01

    An understanding of long-term growth dynamics is central to the development of sustainable uneven-aged silvicultural systems for northern hardwood forests in eastern North America. Of particular importance are quantitative assessments of the relationships between stocking control and long-term growth and quality development. This study examined these relationships in a...

  9. 77 FR 65172 - Hardwood and Decorative Plywood From the People's Republic of China: Initiation of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-25

    ... feel are relevant to the development of an accurate listing of physical characteristics. Specifically... Department of Commerce building. In determining whether Petitioners have standing under section 732(c)(4)(A... hardwood and decorative plywood sold by Chinese exporters, as identified in affidavits regarding U.S. price...

  10. Impact of harvesting and atmospheric pollution on nutrient depletion of eastern US hardwood forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.B. Adams; J.A. Burger; A.B. Jenkins; L. Zelazny

    2000-01-01

    The eastern hardwood forests of the US may be threatened by the changing atmospheric chemistry and by changes in harvesting levels. Many studies have documented accelerated base cation losses with intensive forest harvesting. Acidic deposition can also alter nutrient cycling in these forests. The combination of increased harvesting, shorter rotations, and more...

  11. Reptile and amphibian response to season of burn in an upland hardwood forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cathryn H. Greenberg; Tyler Seiboldt; Tara L. Keyser; W. Henry McNab; Patrick Scott; Janis Bush; Christopher E. Moorman

    2018-01-01

    Growing-season burns are increasingly used in upland hardwood forest for multiple forest management goals. Many species of reptiles and amphibians are ground-dwelling, potentially increasing their vulnerability to prescribed fire, especially during the growing-season when they are most active. We used drift fences with pitfall traps to experimentally assess how...

  12. Use of plastic films for weed control during field establishment of micropropagated hardwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. W. Van Sambeek; John E. Preece; Carl A. Huetteman; Paul L. Roth

    1995-01-01

    This study compares the use of plastic films to conventional methods for establishing hardwoods on a recently cultivated old field site using 1-year-old micropropagated plantlets of white ash (Fraxinus americana L.) and silver maple (Acer saccharinum L.). After one growing season in the field, height of plantlets with all weed...

  13. Influence of Product and Supplier Attributes on Hardwood Lumber Purchase Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig L. Forbes; Steven A. Sinclair; Robert J. Bush; Philip A. Araman

    1994-01-01

    This study determined the influence of product and supplier attributes on hardwood lumber purchases by wood furniture manufacturers and investigated differences across manufacturer type, geographic region, firm size, and kiln ownership. Professional lumber buyers rated the importance and difference across suppliers of various attributes. Purchase influence scores were...

  14. Snag Condition and Woodpecker Foraging Ecology in a Bottomland Hardwood Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard N. Conner; Stanley D. Jones; Gretchen D. Jones

    1994-01-01

    We studied woodpecker foraging behavior, snag quality, and surrounding habitat in a bottomland hardwood forest in the Stephen F. Austin Experimental Forest from December 1984 through November 1986. The amount and location of woodpecker foraging excavations indicated that woodpeckers excavated mainly at the well-decayed tops and bases of snags. Woodpeckers preferred to...

  15. Control of decay in bolts and logs of northern hardwoods during storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodore C. Scheffer; T. W. Jones

    1953-01-01

    Many wood-using plants in the Northeast store large quantities of hardwood logs for rather long periods. Sometimes a large volume of the wood is spoiled by decay during the storage period. A number of people have asked: "How can we prevent this loss?"

  16. Nesting Ecology of Wood Thrush (Turdidae: Passeriformes) in Hardwood Forests of South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert A. Sargent; John C. Kilgo; Brian R. Chapman; Karl V. Miller

    2003-01-01

    We studied nesting success of the Wood Thrush (Hylocichla mustelina) in bottomland and upland hardwood forests in South Carolina. Twenty-one of 26 nests (80.8%) were located in bottomland sites, and 76.2% of these nests were in narrow (

  17. Natural regeneration of northern hardwoods in the northern Great Lakes Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl H. Tubbs

    1977-01-01

    Reviews silvical and silvicultural information about natural regeneration pertinent to forestry practices in Lake State northern hardwood types. Seed production; effects of light, moisture, temperature and competition on establishment and growth; and how damage affects mortality rates and form are covered. Clearcutting, selection, and shelterwood experiments are...

  18. Influences of Herbivory and Canopy Opening Size on Forest Regeneration in a Southern Bottomland Hardwood Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven B. Castleberry; W. Mark Ford; Carl V. Miller; Winston P. Smith

    2000-01-01

    We examined the effects of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) browsing and canopy opening size on relative abundance and diversity of woody and herbaceous regeneration in various sized forest openings in a southern, bottomland hardwood forest over three growing seasons (1995-1997). We created 36 canopy openings (gaps), ranging from 7 to 40m...

  19. Establishing even-age northern hardwood regeneration by the shelterwood method--a preliminary guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard M. Godman; Carl H. Tubbs

    1973-01-01

    The shelterwood system of regeneration with northern hardwoods is a reliable method of obtaining even-age stands of both tolerant and moderately tolerant species. Details of applying the two-cut system are described along with the necessary modifications for encouraging moderately tolerant species.

  20. Growth and Survival of Hardwoods and Pine Interplanted with European Alder

    Science.gov (United States)

    William T. Plass

    1977-01-01

    European black alder is recommended for planting on many surface mine spoils in the eastern United States. It grows rapidly on a range of spoil types and contributes to soil enrichment by fixing nitrogen and providing a leaf fall rich in nutrients. This study evaluated the effect of alder on the survival and growth of five hardwood and five pine species. After 10...

  1. Hardwood Face Veneer and Plywood Mill Closures in Michigan and Wisconsin Since 1950

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis T. Hendricks

    1966-01-01

    In recent years there has been a great deal of concern about the closure of numberous hardwood face veneer and plywood mills in Michigan and Wisconsin. As part of an overall study of that industry in the northern Lake States region, the basic reasons leading to the closure of these mills were investigated. In the past 15 years, there have been eight known mill...

  2. Revealing the Molecular Structural Transformation of Hardwood and Softwood in Dilute Acid Flowthrough Pretreatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Libing; Pu, Yunqiao; Cort, John R.; Ragauskas, Arthur J.; Yang, Bin

    2016-12-05

    To better understand the intrinsic recalcitrance of lignocellulosic biomass, the main hurdle to its efficient deconstruction, the effects of dilute acid flowthrough pretreatment on the dissolution chemistry of hemicellulose, cellulose, and lignin for both hardwood (e.g. poplar wood) and softwood (e.g. lodgepole pine wood) were investigated at temperatures of 200 °C to 270 °C and a flow rate of 25 mL/minute with 0.05% (w/w) H2SO4. Results suggested that the softwood cellulose was more readily to be degraded into monomeric sugars than that of hardwood under same pretreatment conditions. However, while the hardwood lignin was completely removed into hydrolysate, ~30% of the softwood lignin remained as solid residues under identical conditions, which was plausibly caused by vigorous C5-active recondensation reactions (C-C5). Unique molecular structural features that pronounced the specific recalcitrance of hardwood and softwood to dilute acid pretreatment were identified for the first time in this study, providing important insights to establish the effective biomass pretreatment.

  3. 78 FR 16250 - Hardwood and Decorative Plywood From the People's Republic of China: Amended Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [C-570-987] Hardwood and Decorative..., International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. SUMMARY: The Department of Commerce (the Department..., Import Administration, International Trade Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce, 14th Street and...

  4. The frequency and level of sweep in mixed hardwood saw logs in the eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter Hamner; Marshall S. White; Philip A. Araman

    2007-01-01

    Hardwood sawmills traditionally saw logs in a manner that either orients sawlines parallel to the log central axis (straight sawing) or the log surface (allowing for taper). Sweep is characterized as uniform curvature along the entire length of a log. For logs with sweep, lumber yield losses from straight and taper sawing increase with increasing levels of sweep. Curve...

  5. Species diversity of polyporoid and corticioid fungi in northern hardwood forests with differing management histories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel L. Lindner; Harold H., Jr. Burdsall; Glen R. Stanosz

    2006-01-01

    Effects of forest management on fungal diversity were investigated by sampling fruit bodies of polyporoid and corticioid fungi in forest stands that have different management histories. Fruit bodies were sampled in 15 northern hardwood stands in northern Wisconsin and the upper peninsula of Michigan. Sampling was conducted in five old-growth stands, five uneven-age...

  6. A Comparison of Several Artificial Neural Network Classifiers for CT Images of Hardwood Logs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel L. Schmoldt; Jing He; A. Lynn Abbott

    1998-01-01

    Knowledge of internal log defects, obtained by scanning, is critical to efficiency improvements for future hardwood sawmills. Nevertheless, before computed tomography (CT) scanning can be applied in industrial operations, we need to automatically interpret scan information so that it can provide the saw operator with the information necessary to make proper sawing...

  7. Stand and individual tree growth response to treatments in young natural hardwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel J. Robison; Tracy San Filipo; Charlie Lawrence III; Jamie L. Schuler; Bryan J. Berenguer

    2012-01-01

    Young even-aged upland Piedmont mixed hardwood and pine stands were treated with a variety of fertilizer and release (competition control) treatments. The sites studied are on the NC State University Hill Demonstration Forest in central North Carolina, and are characterized by formerly highly eroded agricultural sites (Richter et al. 2000) now in their third rotation...

  8. Survival of Hardwood Regeneration During Prescribed Fires: The Importance of Root Development and Root Collar Location

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick Brose; David Van Lear

    2004-01-01

    Fire ecology studies in eastern hardwood forests usually use plot-based inventory methods and focus on sprouting stems to detect changes in vegetative composition and structure. Rarely are individual stems studied and stems that fail to sprout are usually ignored. In this study, an individual stem mortality approach was employed. Four hundred fifty stems of eight...

  9. In vitro propagation of tropical hardwood tree species — A review (2001-2011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paula M. Pijut; Rochelle R. Beasley; Shaneka S. Lawson; Kaitlin J. Palla; Micah E. Stevens; Ying. Wang

    2012-01-01

    Tropical hardwood tree species are important economically and ecologically, and play a significant role in the biodiversity of plant and animal species within an ecosystem. There are over 600 species of tropical timbers in the world, many of which are commercially valuable in the international trade of plywood, roundwood, sawnwood, and veneer. Many of these tree...

  10. Assessing the feasibility and profitability of cut-to-length harvests in eastern hardwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chris B. LoDoux

    2002-01-01

    Cut-to-length (CTL) logging applications are becoming more popular in hardwood forests. CTL harvesting causes much less damage to the residual stand than conventional harvesting because logs and trees are not pulled through the stand and trees can be felled directionally.

  11. Modeling and simulating two cut-to-length harvesting systems in central Appalachian hardwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jingxin Wang; Chris B. LeDoux; Yaoxiang Li

    2003-01-01

    The production rates and costs of two cut-to-length harvesting systems was simulated using a modular ground-based simulation model and stand yield data from fully stocked, second growth even aged central Appalachian hardwood forests. The two harvesters simulated were a modified John Deere 988 tracked excavator with a model RP 1600 single grip sawhead and an excavator...

  12. Productivity and cost of manual felling and cable skidding in central Appalachian hardwood forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jingxin Wang; Charlie Long; Joe McNeel; John Baumgras; John Baumgras

    2004-01-01

    A field production study was conducted for a manual harvesting system using a chainsaw and cable skidder in a central Appalachian hardwood forest site. A partial cut was performed on a 50-acre tract with an average slope of 25 percent. Felling time pre tree was most affected by diameter at breast height and the distance between harvested trees while skidding cycle time...

  13. Production economics of harvesting small-diameter hardwood stands in central Appalachia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaoxiang Li; Jingxin Wang; Gary Miller; Joe McNeel

    2006-01-01

    Three harvesting systems of chainsaw/cable skidder, feller-buncher/grapple skidder, and harvester/forwarder were simulated in harvesting three hardwood stands 30 to 50 years old in central Appalachia. Stands were generated by using a 3D stand generator. Harvesting prescriptions included clearcut, shelterwood cut, selective cut, diameter limit cut, and crop tree release...

  14. Regeneration after cutting of old-growth northern hardwoods in New Hampshire

    Science.gov (United States)

    William B. Leak; Robert W., Jr. Wilson

    1958-01-01

    Past experience with cuttings in old-growth northern hardwoods has demonstrated that the primary regeneration problem is to obtain a large proportion of desirable species of good quality. Regardless of method or intensity of cutting, the total amount of reproduction usually is adequate. Second-growth stands are a different story: this report pertains only to old-growth...

  15. Long-term effects of single prescribed fires on hardwood regeneration in oak shelterwood stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick H. Brose

    2010-01-01

    One of the arguments against using prescribed fire to regenerate oak (Quercus spp.) forests is that the improvement in species composition of the hardwood regeneration pool is temporary and multiple burns are necessary to achieve and maintain oak dominance. To explore this concern, I re-inventoried a prescribed fire study conducted in the mid-1990s...

  16. Hardwoods for timber bridges : a national program emphasis by the USDA Forest Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    James P. Wacker; Ed Cesa

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the joint efforts of the Forest Service and the FHWA to administer national programs including research, demonstration bridges, and technology transfer components. Summary information on a number of Forest Service-WIT demonstration bridges constructed with hardwoods is also provided.

  17. Radial growth of hardwoods following the 1998 ice storm in New Hampshire and Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin T. Smith; Walter C. Shortle

    2003-01-01

    Ice storms and resulting injury to tree crowns occur frequently in North America. Reaction of land managers to injury caused by the regional ice storm of January 1998 had the potential to accelerate the harvesting of northern hardwoods due to concern about the future loss of wood production by injured trees. To assess the effect of this storm on radial stem growth,...

  18. Resistance is not futile: The response of hardwoods to fire-caused wounding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elaine Kennedy Sutherland; Kevin Smith

    2000-01-01

    Fires wound trees; but not all of them, and not always. Specific fire behavior and differences among tree species and individual trees produce variable patterns of wounding and wound response. Our work focuses on the relationships between fire behavior and tree biology to better understand how hardwood trees resist injury to the lower stem and either survive or succumb...

  19. Characterizing the adoption of low-grade hardwood lumber by the secondary wood processing industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert L. Smith; Wibke Pohle; Philip Araman; Dan Cumbo

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the adoption of low-grade lumber in the secondary hardwood industry. Factors influencing decisions regarding the utilization of low-grade lumber were identified and value-added opportunities to increase the use of low-grade lumber among manufacturers currently using higher grades were evaluated. Data were collected via a nationwide mail survey...

  20. Tangential scanning of hardwood logs: developing an industrial computer tomography scanner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nand K. Gupta; Daniel L. Schmoldt; Bruce Isaacson

    1999-01-01

    It is generally believed that noninvasive scanning of hardwood logs such as computer tomography (CT) scanning prior to initial breakdown will greatly improve the processing of logs into lumber. This belief, however, has not translated into rapid development and widespread installation of industrial CT scanners for log processing. The roadblock has been more operational...

  1. Predicting the regeneration of Appalachian hardwoods: adapting the REGEN model for the Appalachian Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lance A. Vickers; Thomas R. Fox; David L. Loftis; David A. Boucugnani

    2013-01-01

    The difficulty of achieving reliable oak (Quercus spp.) regeneration is well documented. Application of silvicultural techniques to facilitate oak regeneration largely depends on current regeneration potential. A computer model to assess regeneration potential based on existing advanced reproduction in Appalachian hardwoods was developed by David...

  2. Fifteen-Year Growth of Six Planted Hardwood Species on Sharkey Clay Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger M. Krinard; Harvey E. Kennedy

    1987-01-01

    Six hardwood species planted on Sharkey clay soil that had been disked the first 5 years for weed control were significantly taller at age 5 when compared to species grown on mowed sites. By age 15, there were no differences in heights within species except for sweet pecan. Average heights by species at age 15 were: cottonwood (Populus deltoides...

  3. The Number of Hardwood Sawmills Continues to Decrease - Is that Bad?

    Science.gov (United States)

    William G. Luppold; William G. Luppold

    2005-01-01

    The following Guest Editorial, "The Number of Hardwood Sawmills Continues to Decrease - Is that Bad?" is presented by William G. Luppold, Ph.D., of the USDA Forest Service Northeastern Research Station - Forestry Sciences Laboratory. In this article, Dr. Luppold examines many of the key issues surrounding the size and loss of sawmills, which has influenced...

  4. The sine method as a more accurate height predictor for hardwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Don C. Bragg

    2007-01-01

    Most hypsometers apply a mathematical technique that utilizes the tangent of angles and a horizontal distance to deliver the exact height of a tree under idealized circumstances. Unfortunately, these conditions are rarely met for hardwoods in the field. A “new” predictor based on sine and slope distance and discussed here does not require the same assumptions for...

  5. Impact of product mix and markets on the economic feasibility of hardwood thinning

    Science.gov (United States)

    John E. Baumgras; Chris B. LeDoux

    1989-01-01

    Results demonstrate how the economic feasibility of commercial hardwood thinning is impacted by tree diameter, product mix, and primary product markets. These results indicate that multiproduct harvesting can increase revenues by $0.01/ft³ to $0.32/ft³; and that small shifts in price levels or haul distance can postpone commercial thinning...

  6. Analysis of harvesting opportunities for thinning eastern hardwoods on steep terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chris B. LeDoux; John E. Baumgras

    1988-01-01

    Harvesting cost and revenue models were used to evaluate yarding costs by yarder type and to compare stump-to-mill harvesting costs to revenues available from multiproduct thinnings in eastern hardwoods. This analysis includes six types of cable yarders and thinnings in stands where the average diameter at breast height of trees harvested ranged from 7 to 12 inches. To...

  7. Preliminary Full-Scale Tests of the Center for Automated Processing of Hardwoods' Auto-Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip A. Araman; Janice K. Wiedenbeck

    1995-01-01

    Automated lumber grading and yield optimization using computer controlled saws will be plausible for hardwoods if and when lumber scanning systems can reliably identify all defects by type. Existing computer programs could then be used to grade the lumber, identify the best cut-up solution, and control the sawing machines. The potential value of a scanning grading...

  8. Consumer and manufacturer perceptions of hardwood panels made from character-marked lumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Nicholls; M. Bumgardner; V. Barber

    2010-01-01

    Hardwood panels made from edge-glued material are a versatile product that could be within the reach of many smaller wood products firms. However, products would need to be accepted throughout the supply chain for this opportunity to be achieved. This study evaluated preferences of consumers and manufacturers towards edge-glued panels from Alaskan red alder and paper...

  9. Silviculture-ecology of forest-zone hardwoods in the Sierra Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip M. McDonald; John C. Tappeiner

    1996-01-01

    Although the principal hardwood species in the forest zone of the Sierra Nevada (California black oak, tanoak, Pacific madrone, and canyon live oak) are key components of many ecosystems, they have received comparatively little study. Currently they are underutilized and unmanaged. This paper brings together what is known on the silviculture-ecology of these species...

  10. Leaf fall, humus depth, and soil frost in a northern hardwood forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    George Hart; Raymond E. Leonard; Robert S. Pierce

    1962-01-01

    In the mound-and-depression microtopography of the northern hardwood forest, leaves are blown off the mounds and collect in the depressions. This influence of microtopography on leaf accumulation is responsible for much of the variation in humus depth; and this, in turn, affects the formation and depth of soil frost.

  11. SITEQUAL--A User's Guide: Computerized Site Evaluation for 14 Southern Hardwood Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constance A. Harrington; Bettina M. Casson

    1986-01-01

    An interactive computer program, SITEQUAL, has been developed from the widely-used Baker and Broadfoot field guides, which evaluate site quality for 14 southern hardwood tree species. The SITEQUAL program calculates site index for all species simultaneously and provides a breakdown of site index into the component contributions by each of the four major soil factors...

  12. Rationale and Application of Tangential Scanning to Industrial Inspection of Hardwood Logs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nand K. Gupta; Daniel L. Schmoldt; Bruce Isaacson

    1998-01-01

    Industrial computed tomography (CT) inspection of hardwood logs has some unique requirements not found in other CT applications. Sawmill operations demand that large volumes of wood be scanned quickly at high spatial resolution for extended duty cycles. Current CT scanning geometries and commercial systems have both technical and economic [imitations. Tangential...

  13. Influence of Lumber Volume Maximization on Value in Sawing Hardwood Sawlogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip H. Steele; Francis G. Wagner; Lalit Kumar; Philip A. Araman

    1992-01-01

    Research based on applying volume-maximizing sawing solutions to idealized hardwood log forms has shown that average lumber yield can be increased by 6 percent. It is possible, however, that a lumber volume-maximizing solution may result in a decrease in lumber grade and a net reduction in total value of sawn lumber. The objective of this study was to determine the...

  14. The Value Versus Volume Yield Problem for Live-Sawn Hardwood Sawlogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip H. Steele; Francis G. Wagner; Lalit Kumar; Philip A. Araman

    1993-01-01

    The potential conflict between value and volume maximization in sawing hardwood sawlogs by the live sawing method was analyzed. Twenty-four digitally described red oak sawlogs were sawn at the log orientation of highest value yield. Five opening face sawlines were iteratively placed in the sawlog a 1/4-inch intervals and lumber grades, volumes, and values from...

  15. Hardwood supply chain and the role of log brokers in 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iris Montague; Adrienn Andersch; Jan Wiedenbeck; Urs. Buehlmann

    2013-01-01

    The recent economic crisis has greatly affected how companies conduct business. To be competitive, companies had to make changes to their product lines, distribution channels, marketing, and overall business strategies. This study was conducted to describe and analyze the log supply component of the hardwood forest products distribution chain and to investigate changes...

  16. The international hardwood lumber market and potential impacts on your bottom line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bill Luppold; Matthew. Bumgardner

    2014-01-01

    Even if you don't sell logs or lumber to foreign customers, the international hardwood market can impact your business in significant ways, and smart business leaders are taking notice so that they are ready for shifting market impacts. Many people believe that lumber exporting is only an opportunity for larger sawmills. However, even if you have a portable mill...

  17. Use of Hardwood Tree Species by Birds Nesting in Ponderosa Pine Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathryn L. Purcell; Douglas A. Drynan

    2008-01-01

    We examined the use of hardwood tree species for nesting by bird species breeding in ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forests in the Sierra National Forest, California. From 1995 through 2002, we located 668 nests of 36 bird species nesting in trees and snags on four 60-ha study sites. Two-thirds of all species nesting in trees or snags used...

  18. Effects of winter flooding on mass and gross energy of bottomland hardwood acorns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alan G. Leach; Jacob N. Straub; Richard M. Kaminski; Andrew W. Ezell; Tracy S. Hawkins; Theodor D. Leininger

    2012-01-01

    Decomposition of red oak acorns (Quercus spp.; Section Erythrobalanus) could decrease forage biomass and gross energy (GE) available to wintering ducks from acorns. We estimated changes in mass and GE for 3 species of red oak acorns in flooded and non-flooded bottomland hardwood forests in Mississippi during winter 2009–2010. Mass...

  19. Using low-grade hardwoods for CLT production: a yield analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Edward Thomas; Urs. Buehlmann

    2017-01-01

    Low-grade hardwood logs are the by-product of logging operations and, more frequently today, urban tree removals. The market prices for these logs is low, as is the value recovered from their logs when producing traditional forest products such as pallet parts, railroad ties, landscaping mulch, or chips for pulp. However, the emergence of cross-laminated timber (CLT)...

  20. Silviculture-ecology of three native California hardwoods on high sites in north central California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip M. McDonald

    1978-01-01

    Pacific madrone, tanoak, and California black oak are the most economically promising native California hardwoods. Volume and value data indicate upward trends in growing stock levels and prices received for their products. These trends are likely to continue. They suggest research is particularly needed for: (1) seed fall and regeneration, (2) sprout growth and...

  1. California’s Hardwood Resource: Seeds, Seedlings, and Sprouts of Three Important Forest-Zone Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip M. McDonald; John C. Tappeiner

    2002-01-01

    Although California black oak, tanoak, and Pacific madrone are the principal hardwood species in the forest zone of California and Oregon and are key components of many plant communities, their seed production, regeneration, and early growth requirements have received little study. Information is presented on seed production, storage, and germination, and on the...

  2. Impact of construction and remodeling markets on the U.S. secondary hardwood products industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matt Bumgardner; Urs Buehlmann; Al Schuler; Karen. Koenig

    2011-01-01

    The housing correction that started in 2007 continues to run its course. Excessive inventory levels, limited credit availability, and record foreclosure rates continue to have an impact on U.S. housing markets. With inventories high and demand for new construction low, the U.S. hardwood industry's largest markets for appearance-grade products remain under pressure...

  3. Survey studies how to reach primary hardwood producers with new information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip Araman; Robert Smith; Matthew Winn

    2009-01-01

    It is important for the timber industry to obtain new knowledge in order to stay competitive, increase productivity, or to produce new products from a sometime changing resource. We sought to understand how new knowledge— innovative techniques, improved technology, and marketing information—reach our primary forest industries in the United States. We surveyed hardwood...

  4. Soil respiration response to prescribed burning and thinning in mixed-conifer and hardwood forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amy Concilio; Siyan Ma; Qinglin Li; James LeMoine; Jiquan Chen; Malcolm North; Daryl Moorhead; Randy Jensen

    2005-01-01

    The effects of management on soil carbon efflux in different ecosystems are still largely unknown yet crucial to both our understanding and management of global carbon flux. To compare the effects of common forest management practices on soil carbon cycling, we measured soil respiration rate (SRR) in a mixed-conifer and hardwood forest that had undergone various...

  5. Life-cycle inventory of manufacturing hardwood lumber in Southeastern US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard D. Bergman; Scott A. Bowe

    2012-01-01

    Environmental impacts associated with the building industry have become of increasing importance. Materials and energy consumed during manufacture of building materials such as lumber affect a building’s environmental performance. This study determined environmental impacts of manufacturing hardwood lumber in the southeastern US using the life-cycle inventory method....

  6. Environmental impact of producing hardwood lumber using life-cycle inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard D. Bergman; S.A. Bowe

    2007-01-01

    Using sustainable building materials is gaining a significant presence in the United States therefore proving sustainability claims are becoming increasingly more important. Showing wood products as green building materials is vital for the long-term productivity of the wood building industry. This study examined hardwood lumber manufacturing using Life-Cycle Inventory...

  7. Litterfall in the hardwood forest of a minor alluvial-floodplain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvin E. Meier; John A. Stanturf; Emile S. Gardiner

    2006-01-01

    within mature deciduous forests, annual development of foliar biomass is a major component of aboveground net primary production and nutrient demand. As litterfall, this same foliage becomes a dominant annual transfer of biomass and nutrients to the detritus pathway. We report litterfall transfers of a mature bottomland hardwood forest in a minor alluvial-floodplain...

  8. Winter climate change affects growing-season soil microbial biomass and activity in northern hardwood forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorge Durán; Jennifer L. Morse; Peter M. Groffman; John L. Campbell; Lynn M. Christenson; Charles T. Driscoll; Timothy J. Fahey; Melany C. Fisk; Myron J. Mitchell; Pamela H. Templer

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the responses of terrestrial ecosystems to global change remains a major challenge of ecological research. We exploited a natural elevation gradient in a northern hardwood forest to determine how reductions in snow accumulation, expected with climate change, directly affect dynamics of soil winter frost, and indirectly soil microbial biomass and activity...

  9. Bud removal affects shoot, root, and callus development of hardwood Populus cuttings

    Science.gov (United States)

    A.H. Wiese; J.A. Zalesny; D.M. Donner; Ronald S., Jr. Zalesny

    2006-01-01

    The inadvertent removal and/or damage of buds during processing and planting of hardwood poplar (Populus spp.) cuttings are a concern because of their potential impact on shoot and root development during establishment. The objective of the current study was to test for differences in shoot dry mass, root dry mass, number of roots, length of the...

  10. Bats of the hardwood ecosystem experiment before timber harvest: assessment and prognosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeremy J. Sheets; John O. Whitaker; Virgil Jr. Brack; Dale W. Sparks

    2013-01-01

    Before experimental harvest of the Yellowwood (YW) and Morgan-Monroe (MM) State Forests (Indiana) as part of the Hardwood Ecosystem Experiment, bats were sampled using mist nets at four locations in MM and five locations in YW during each summer 2006 through 2008. Netting locations were adjacent to forest stands scheduled for experimental manipulations following...

  11. Influence of hardwood midstory and pine species on pine bole arthropods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher S. Collins; Richard N. Conner; Daniel Saenz

    2002-01-01

    Arthropod density on the boles of loblolly pines (Pinus taeda) was compared between a stand with and stand without hardwood midstory and between a stand of loblolly and shortleaf pines (P. echinata) in the Stephen E Austin Experimental Forest, Nacogdoches Co., Texas, USA from September 1993 through July 1994. Arthropod density was...

  12. permeability of twenty-two small diameter hardwoods growing on southern pine sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    E.T. Choong; F.O. Tesora

    1974-01-01

    Gas permeability of hardwoods growing on southern pine sites is significantly affected by moisture content in the longitudinal direction. The ratio of permeability in the transverse to longitudinal directions is from 12,000:1 for post oak to over 1,000,000:1 for other oaks, but it is not affected by moisture. Although variation in longitudinal permeability varies...

  13. Effects of intermediate-severity disturbance on composition and structure in mixed Pinus-hardwood stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin Trammell; Justin Hart; Callie Schweitzer; Daniel C. Dey; Michael Steinberg

    2017-01-01

    Increasingly, forest managers intend to create or maintain mixed Pinus-hardwood stands. This stand assemblage may be driven by a variety of objectives but is often motivated by the desire to enhance native forest diversity and promote resilience to perturbations. Documenting the effects of natural disturbances on species composition and stand...

  14. A Stocking Guide for Allegheny Hardwoods and Its Use in Controlling Intermediate Cuttings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin A. Roach

    1977-01-01

    A stocking guide for stands of Allegheny hardwoods (sugar maple or sugar maple-beech with varying admixtures of black cherry, red maple, white ash, sweet birch, and other species) on the Allegheny Plateau in northwestern Pennsylvania. Included are procedures for evaluating stocking and stand conditions, thinning even-aged stands, determining minimum residual stocking,...

  15. Development of second-growth northern hardwoods on Bartlett Experimental Forest - a 25-year record

    Science.gov (United States)

    William B. Leak

    1961-01-01

    Second-growth timber occupies more than one-third of the commercial northern hardwood forest land in New England. The origin of these stands - clearcutting, or land abandonment with or without fire - determined their present characteristics; they are essentially even-aged, with a high proportion of intolerant and intermediate species and many stems of sprout origin (...

  16. Effect of Hardwood Sawmill Edging and Trimming Practices on Furniture Part Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Earl Kline; Carmen Regalado; Eugene M. Wengert; Fred M. Lamb; Philip A. Araman

    1993-01-01

    In a recent edging and trimming study at three hardwood sawmills, it was observed that the lumber volume produced was approximately 10 percent less than would be necessary to make the most valuable lumber. Furthermore, the excess portion of wood that was removed from the edging and trimming process contained a large percentage of clear wood. In light of rising costs...

  17. Effects of edge contrast on redback salamander distribution in even-aged northern hardwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard M. DeGraaf; Mariko. Yamasaki

    2002-01-01

    Terrestrial salamanders are sensitive to forest disturbance associated with even-aged management. We studied the distribution of redback salamanders (Plethodon cinereus) for 4 yr at edges between even-aged northern hardwood stands along three replicate transects in each of three edge contrast types: regeneration/mature, sapling/mature, and...

  18. Assessing the opportunity cost of implementing streamside management zone guidelines in eastern hardwood forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chris B. LeDoux

    2006-01-01

    Forest landowners, managers, loggers, land-use planners, and other decision/policy makers need to understand the opportunity cost associated with different levels of allowable management and required/voluntary protection in streamside management zones (SMZs). Four different logging technologies, two mature hardwood stands, three levels of streamside zone protection,...

  19. The Hardwood Ecosystem Experiment: a framework for studying responses to forest management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert K. Swihart; Michael R. Saunders; Rebecca A. Kalb; G. Scott Haulton; Charles H., eds. Michler

    2013-01-01

    Conditions in forested ecosystems of southern Indiana are described before initiation of silvicultural treatments for the Hardwood Ecosystem Experiment (HEE). The HEE is a 100-year study begun in 2006 in Morgan-Monroe and Yellowwood State Forests to improve the sustainability of forest resources and quality of life of Indiana residents by understanding ecosystem and...

  20. Changes in early-successional hardwood forest area in four bird conservation regions across four decades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonja N. Oswalt; Kathleen E. Franzreb; David A. Buehler

    2012-01-01

    Early successional hardwood forests constitute important breeding habitat for many migratory songbirds. Declines in populations of these species suggest changes in habitat availability either on the species’ wintering grounds or on their early successional breeding grounds. We used Forest Inventory and Analysis data from 11 states across four decades to examine changes...

  1. Tree diameter a poor indicator of age in West Virginia hardwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter B. Gibbs

    1963-01-01

    Foresters generally recognize that diameter growth, height growth, sprouting vigor, and seed production are partially related to age; so age often has an important bearing upon silvicultural decisions. But unless past stand histories are fully known, the ages of hardwood trees can be determined only by increment borings, which not only require excessive time but also...

  2. Maximum size-density relationships for mixed-hardwood forest stands in New England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale S. Solomon; Lianjun Zhang

    2000-01-01

    Maximum size-density relationships were investigated for two mixed-hardwood ecological types (sugar maple-ash and beech-red maple) in New England. Plots meeting type criteria and undergoing self-thinning were selected for each habitat. Using reduced major axis regression, no differences were found between the two ecological types. Pure species plots (the species basal...

  3. Managing Appalachian hardwood stands using four regeneration practices--34 year results

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. Clay Smith; Gary W. Miller

    1987-01-01

    Adjacent Appalachian hardwood stands in West Virginia established on excellent growing sites were managed for a 34-year period using four regeneration practices. These practices included a commercial clearcut, 15.5-in diameter-limit, and two single-tree selection practices. An uncut area was maintained as a control. Stand development, growth response, and some stumpage...

  4. A Review of Techniques for Minimizing Beaver and White-Tailed Deer Damage in Southern Hardwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edward P. Hill; Douglas N. Lasher; R. Blake. Roper

    1978-01-01

    Methods of reducing beaver and deer damage to hardwood forest resources are reviewed. Beaver controls considered were poisons, chemosterilants, predators, and trapping. Population reduction through trapping with 330 conibear traps for two weeks during two successive years effectively eliminates beaver from small watersheds and shows greater promise for control than...

  5. Automated hardwood lumber grading utilizing a multiple sensor machine vision technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Earl Kline; Chris Surak; Philip A. Araman

    2003-01-01

    Over the last 10 years, scientists at the Thomas M. Brooks Forest Products Center, the Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, and the USDA Forest Service have been working on lumber scanning systems that can accurately locate and identify defects in hardwood lumber. Current R&D efforts are targeted toward developing automated lumber grading...

  6. Carbon sequestration resulting from bottomland hardwood afforestation in the Lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand F. Nero; Richard P. Maiers; Janet C. Dewey; Andrew J. Londo

    2010-01-01

    Increasing abandonment of marginal agricultural lands in the Lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley (LMAV) and rising global atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) levels create a need for better options of achieving rapid afforestation and enhancing both below and aboveground carbon sequestration. This study examines the responses of six mixtures of bottomland hardwood species...

  7. Snag recruitment and mortality in a bottomland hardwood forest following partial harvesting: second-year results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian Roy Lockhart; Philip A. Tappe; David G. Peitz; Christopher A. Watt

    2010-01-01

    Snags are defined simply as standing dead trees. They function as an important component of wildlife habitat. Unfortunately, little information has been gathered regarding snags in bottomland forest ecosystems. We initiated a study to determine the effects of harvesting on the flora and fauna of a bottomland hardwood ecosystem adjacent the Mississippi River in...

  8. The Integrated Hardwood Range Management Program: Education and Research as a Conservation Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard B. Standiford; James W. Bartolome

    1997-01-01

    California’s hardwood rangelands cover 10 million acres, providing wildlife habitat, esthetics, recreation, and watershed protection. About 85 percent of the area is privately owned, and private ranchers supply most of these open space values. The important public values from these privately-owned wildlands has created pressure for the state to regulate oak harvest and...

  9. Effect of resin variables on the creep behavior of high density hardwood composite panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.C. Tang; Jianhua Pu; C.Y Hse

    1993-01-01

    The flexural creep behavior of oriented strandboards (OSB) fabricated with mixed high, density hardwood flakes was investigated. Three types of adhesives, liquid phenolic-formaldehyde (LPF), melamine modified urea-formaldehyde (MUF), and LPF (face)/MUF (core) were chosen in this investigation. The resin contents (RC) used were 3.5 percent and 5.0 percent. The flakes...

  10. Research efforts on fuels, fuel models, and fire behavior in eastern hardwood forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas A. Waldrop; Lucy Brudnak; Ross J. Phillips; Patrick H. Brose

    2006-01-01

    Although fire was historically important to most eastern hardwood systems, its reintroduction by prescribed burning programs has been slow. As a result, less information is available on these systems to fire managers. Recent research and nationwide programs are beginning to produce usable products to predict fuel accumulation and fire behavior. We introduce some of...

  11. Consumer preferences for kitchen cabinets made from red alder: a comparison to other hardwoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David L. Nicholls; Geoffrey H. Donovan; Joseph. Roos

    2004-01-01

    In Alaska, red alder (Alnus rubra Bong.) is an abundant but commercially underutilized species despite having properties suitable for higher value products, including furniture and cabinetry. However, it laces the name recognition of mote traditional hardwoods. Our research measured the effect of this lack of familiarity on consumer preferences...

  12. Logging damage using an individual tree selection practice in Appalachian hardwood stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neil I. Lamson; H. Clay Smith; Gary W. Miller

    1985-01-01

    Four West Virginia hardwood stands, managed using individual-tree selection for the past 30 years, were examined after the third and, in one instance, the fourth periodic harvest to determine the severity of logging damage. On existing skid roads, trees were removed with a rubber-tired skidder or a crawler tractor with a rubber-tired arch. Logging damage reduced...

  13. Dimension yields from short logs of low-quality hardwood trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard N. Rosen; Harold A. Stewart; David J. Polak

    1980-01-01

    Charts are presented for determining yields of 4/4 dimension cuttings from short hardwood logs of aspen, soft maple, black cherry, yellow-poplar, and black walnut for several cutting grades and bolt sizes. Cost comparisons of short log and standard grade mixes show sizes. Cost comparisons of short log and standard grade mixes show the estimated least expensive...

  14. ABOVEGROUND BIOMASS DISTRIBUTION OF US EASTERN HARDWOOD FORESTS AND THE USE OF LARGE TREES AS AN INDICATOR OF FOREST DEVELOPMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Past clearing and harvesting of the deciduous hardwood forests of eastern USA released large amount of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere, but through recovery and regrowth these forests are now accumulating atmospheric carbon (C). This study examined quantities and distribution ...

  15. Logging in hardwood stands established on farm land

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjoerheden, R.

    1992-01-01

    Performance and costs for different harvesting systems in broad leaf stands established on former tillage is presented. The calculations, combined with a forecast of the market development, shows that it is risky to aim production exclusively at bulk products as fibre or fibre/energy. The harvest of fibre or energy wood can, however, be used as a means to increase profitability of a silvicultural programme aimed at production of high quality hardwood lumber. Management and logging in these stands will be carried out with small scale technology, often by the private forest owner. Todays large scale systems are not competitive in these stands. The cost calculations show that we lack economically sound systems for harvesting stands in the interval up to 5 cm DBH. The lowest logging cost for these stands was calculated for motor manual felling and chipping with a chipper/dumper mounted on a farm tractor. This alternative is competitive also in the interval 5-10 cm DBH but there is a number of other feasible systems, e.g. off-road chippers processing motor manually felled and piled trees. Tree section systems with extraction by forwarder or a farm tractor with grapple loader and a bogic trailer operates at low costs to roadside but costs for processing and, maybe, a more expensive secondary transportation must then be added. For thinnings in the interval 10-25 cm DBH tree chipping is the most cost efficient if only energy assortments is to be harvested. However, at the current price relations between energy wood and pulpwood tree section systems are preferable also in stands over 10 cm since it allows a combined harvest of fibre and energy. For the same reason, the seemingly most interesting system in later thinnings is a system with differentiated processing. The term denotes a system where pulpwood is cut motor manually down to 12.5 cm and extracted by forwarder or farm tractor. The remaining tops and branches are processed by an off-road chipper. (36 refs., 11 figs.)

  16. Shaping-lathe headrig will convert small hardwoods into pallet cants plus flakes for structural exterior flakeboard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter Koch

    1975-01-01

    Virtually all nations have an under-utilized resource of small-diameter, low-grade hardwoods of mixed species in a range of densities. The shaping-lathe headrig, now in the final stages of commercialization, is a key to utilizing these hardwoods for pallets, industrial lumber, and-with further development-railroad crossties. Lathe residues in the form of flakes can be...

  17. Changes in species, grade, and structure over 48 years in a managed New England northern hardwood stand

    Science.gov (United States)

    William B. Leak; Paul E. Sendak

    2002-01-01

    Three individual-tree selection harvests over a 48 yr period in a northern hardwood stand in New Hampshire resulted in an increase in the percentage of volume in trees with grade 1 and 2 butt logs from 21% (1952) to 30% (2000) in beech and 40% (1952) to 65% (2000) in sugar maple and other hardwoods. By 2000, 90% of the volume was in tolerant species.

  18. Challenges and Opportunities for North American Hardwood Manufacturers to Adopt Customization Strategies in an Era of Increased Competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L. Nicholls

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Much of the North American wood products industry was severely impacted by the recession of 2008–2009. In addition, many sectors within this industry face intense global competition. Against this backdrop, we examine economic opportunities for hardwood manufacturers to achieve greater competitive advantage via product customization, through a literature review and synthesis. We also discuss several related themes including agility, lean manufacturing, and clustering. We found that, in globally competitive environments, hardwood producers must be agile to adapt to economic conditions and dynamic customer demand. We discuss how some sectors of the hardwood industry have effectively exhibited customized production, and subsequently fared relatively well in the current economy. We conclude the synthesis by evaluating the importance of supply chains to achieving customization for hardwood producers. In the future, supply chains will need to be configured to rapidly respond to changing consumer demands, and pressure to provide more services will likely extend further back up the supply chain to hardwood sawmills. It is expected that sustainability practices, including green supply chain management, will impact operational and economic performance of hardwood firms as well.

  19. ASSESSING CHANGES IN THE U.S. HARDWOOD SAWMILL INDUSTRY WITH A FOCUS ON MARKETS AND DISTRIBUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Espinoza

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The U.S. hardwood sawmilling industry has experienced significant changes over the past decade. A slowing housing industry, competition from imported products, higher transportation costs, and high stumpage prices have changed the business of manufacturing and marketing hardwood lumber. Also, hardwood lumber buyers are changing their business practices by shortening lead times, requiring a more customized product, and buying smaller lumber quantities to cut costs and increase operational flexibility. A survey of hardwood lumber manufacturers was conducted in the fall of 2009 to assess changes and adaptations within the industry. Among respondents, average hardwood lumber sales decreased by 13.2 percent during the study's focus period from 2004 to 2008. Respondents also identified a change in customer demand with smaller, more frequent orders becoming more common. Moreover, the species mix shifted, with red oak losing considerable market share. Intermediaries, such as hardwood lumber distributors, were able to capture more of the industry's business. Respondents identified the slowing housing market and high energy costs as major factors affecting their businesses. While the survey's responses reflected the extremely challenging economic conditions, industry participants are aggressively adapting their businesses and pursuing new opportunities with the understanding that markets will eventually recover.

  20. Comparison the biodiversity of hardwood floodplain forests and black locust forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazalova, D.

    2015-01-01

    The introduction of non-native species starts in the context of global changes in the world. These nonnative species, that have come to our country, whether intentionally or unintentionally, are responsible for the loss of biodiversity, changes in trophic levels and in nutrient cycle, hydrology, hybridizations, and at last could have an impact on the economy. The species black locust (Robinia pseudoaccacia) was introduced to Europe in 1601, first for horticultural purposes, and later broke into forestry. However, due to its ability to effectively spread the vegetative and generative root sprouts seeds and without the presence of natural pest may be occurrence of black locust in European forests highly questionable. Primarily we tried to identify differences in species composition and biodiversity among indigenous hardwood floodplain forest and non-native black locust forest based on numerical methods. In the results we were able to demonstrate more biodiversity in hardwood floodplain forests. (authors)

  1. Positive and negative aspects of soda/anthraquinone pulping of hardwoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, R C; Bolton, T S; Abdoulmoumine, N; Lavrykova, N; Bose, S K

    2008-11-01

    The positive aspects of the non-sulfur soda/anthraquinone (SAQ) process are mostly tied to improved energy efficiency while lower pulp brightness after bleaching is its most significant drawback. A credible method that quantifies bleachability as well as an approach that solves the problem for SAQ pulps from hardwoods will be described. A straight line correlation (R2=0.904) was obtained between O2 kappa number and final light absorption coefficient (LAC) value after standardized OD0EpD1 bleaching of nine hardwood kraft pulps from three laboratories and one pulp mill. The bleachability of pulps from four different soda processes catalyzed by anthraquinone (AQ) and 2-methylanthraquinone (MAQ) was compared to that of conventional kraft pulps by comparing O2 kappa number decrease and final LAC values. It was observed that a mild hot water pre-hydrolysis improved the bleachability of SAQ pulps to a level equal to that of kraft.

  2. Tree species composition and structure in an old bottomland hardwood forest in south-central Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian Roy Lockhart; James M. Guldin; Thomas Foti

    2010-01-01

    Tree species composition and structure was determined for an old bottomland hardwood forest located in the Moro Creek Bottoms Natural Area in south-central Arkansas. Diversity for this forest was high with species richness ranging from 33 for the overstory and sapling strata to 26 for the seedling stratum and Shannon-Weiner values of 2.54 to 1.02 for the overstory and...

  3. Strip thinning young hardwood forests: multi-functional management for wood, wildlife, and bioenergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamie Schuler; Ashlee Martin

    2016-01-01

    Upland hardwood forests dominate the Appalachian landscape. However, early successional forests are limited. In WV and PA, for example, only 8 percent of the timberland is classified as seedling and sapling-sized. Typically no management occurs in these forests due to the high cost of treatment and the lack of marketable products. If bioenergy markets come to fruition...

  4. Site quality in Appalachian hardwoods: the biological and economic response under selection silviculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orris D. McCauley; George R., Jr. Trimble

    1975-01-01

    The relative or percentage value response after 12 years of selective cutting practices on low- and high-quality sites in Appalachian hardwoods amounted to a 119-percent increase on the low-quality site and 145 percent on the high-quality site. The absolute value or actual dollar response, on the other hand, showed that the low-quality site increased in value only $76/...

  5. Modeling the relationships among internal defect features and external Appalachian hardwood log defect indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Edward. Thomas

    2009-01-01

    As a hardwood tree grows and develops, surface defects such as branch stubs and wounds are overgrown. Evidence of these defects remain on the log surface for decades and in many instances for the life of the tree. As the tree grows the defect is encapsulated or grown over by new wood. During this process the appearance of the defect in the tree's bark changes. The...

  6. Computer Vision System For Locating And Identifying Defects In Hardwood Lumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conners, Richard W.; Ng, Chong T.; Cho, Tai-Hoon; McMillin, Charles W.

    1989-03-01

    This paper describes research aimed at developing an automatic cutup system for use in the rough mills of the hardwood furniture and fixture industry. In particular, this paper describes attempts to create the vision system that will power this automatic cutup system. There are a number of factors that make the development of such a vision system a challenge. First there is the innate variability of the wood material itself. No two species look exactly the same, in fact, they can have a significant visual difference in appearance among species. Yet a truly robust vision system must be able to handle a variety of such species, preferably with no operator intervention required when changing from one species to another. Secondly, there is a good deal of variability in the definition of what constitutes a removable defect. The hardwood furniture and fixture industry is diverse in the nature of the products that it makes. The products range from hardwood flooring to fancy hardwood furniture, from simple mill work to kitchen cabinets. Thus depending on the manufacturer, the product, and the quality of the product the nature of what constitutes a removable defect can and does vary. The vision system must be such that it can be tailored to meet each of these unique needs, preferably without any additional program modifications. This paper will describe the vision system that has been developed. It will assess the current system capabilities, and it will discuss the directions for future research. It will be argued that artificial intelligence methods provide a natural mechanism for attacking this computer vision application.

  7. shaping-lathe headrig yields solid and molded-flake hardwood products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter Koch; R.A. Caughey

    1978-01-01

    A shaping-lathe headrig, operated one shift daily, can be used to manufacture hardwood cants to be resawed into pallet shook, one-piece and dowel-laminated crossties, posts and rails, and other solid wood products in lengths from 6 to 9 feet. Residual flakes machined by the headrig supply a three-shift operation in which molded pallets and 4- by 8-foot sheets of...

  8. Utilization of hardwood as a chemical raw material in Latvian SSSR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalnin' sh, A; Vedernikov, N

    1975-01-01

    A successful solution to the problem of complex utilization of hardwood is abused on differential chemical action on the main wood components. Furfural is obtained by a directed conversion of pentosans with a yield of 70 to 80% of the theoretical maximum, while preserving the cellulose for subsequent hydrolysis (less than 10% loss). A new method is described for the rapid hydrolysis of cellulose; the resultant sugar solution can be used for the isolation of glucose or the production of fodder yeast.

  9. Spatial and temporal patterns of beetles associated with coarse woody debris in managed bottomland hardwood forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael D. Ulyshen; James L. Hanula; Scott Horn; John C. Kilgo; Christopher E. Moorman

    2004-01-01

    Malaise traps were used to sample beetles in artificial canopy gaps of different size (0.13 ha, 0.26 ha, and 0.50 ha) and age in a South Carolina bottomland hardwood forest. Traps were placed at the center, edge, and in the surrounding forest of each gap. Young gaps (~1 year) had large amounts of coarse woody debris compared to the surrounding forest, while older gaps...

  10. Production and cost analysis of a feller-buncher in central Appalachian hardwood forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlie Long; Jingxin Wang; Joe McNeel; John Baumgras; John Baumgras

    2002-01-01

    A time study was conducted to evaluate the productivity and cost of a feller-buncher operating in a Central Appalachian hardwood forest. The sites harvested during observation consisted of primarily red maple and black cherry. Trees felled in the study had an average diameter at breast height (DBH) of 16.1 in. and a total merchantable height of 16 ft. A Timbco 445C...

  11. California's hardwood resource: managing for wildlife, water, pleasing scenery, and wood products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip M. McDonald; Dean W. Huber

    1995-01-01

    A new management perspective that emphasizes a variety of amenities and commodities is needed for California’s forest-zone hardwoods. For the near future and perhaps more on public than on private land, these "yields" are wildlife, water, esthetics, and wood products. Each is presented first as an individual yield and then as part of a combined yield. As an...

  12. Increasing soil temperature in a northern hardwood forest: effects on elemental dynamics and primary productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick J. McHale; Myron J. Mitchell; Dudley J. Raynal; Francis P. Bowles

    1996-01-01

    To investigate the effects of elevated soil temperatures on a forest ecosystem, heating cables were buried at a depth of 5 cm within the forest floor of a northern hardwood forest at the Huntington Wildlife Forest (Adirondack Mountains, New York). Temperature was elevated 2.5, 5.0 and 7.5?C above ambient, during May - September in both 1993 and 1994. Various aspects of...

  13. Selective depredation of planted hardwood seedlings by wild pigs in a wetland restoration area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayer, J.J.

    1999-01-01

    Following the planting of several thousand hardwood seedlings in a 69-ha wetland restoration area in west-central South Carolina, wild pigs (Sus scrofa) depredated a large percentage of the young trees. This planting was undertaken as part of a mitigation effort to restore a bottomland hardwood community in the corridor and delta of a third order stream that had been previously impacted by the discharge of heated nuclear reactor effluent. The depredated restoration areas had been pretreated with both herbicide and control burning prior to planting the hardwood seedlings. After discovery of the wild pig damage, these areas were surveyed on foot to assess the magnitude of the depredation on the planted seedling crop. Foraging by the local wild pigs in the pretreatment areas selectively impacted only four of the nine hardwood species used in this restoration effort. Based on the surveys, the remaining five species did not appear to have been impacted at all. A variety of reasons could be used to explain this phenomenon. The pretreatment methodology is thought to have been the primary aspect of the restoration program that initially led the wild pigs to discover the planted seedlings. In addition, it is possible that a combination of other factors associated with odor and taste may have resulted in the selective depredation. Future wetland restoration efforts in areas with wild pigs should consider pretreatment methods and species to be planted. If pretreatment methods and species such as discussed in the present study must be used, then the prior removal of wild pigs from surrounding lands will help prevent depredations by this non-native species

  14. Opportunities for expanded and higher value utilization of No. 3A Common hardwood lumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian P. Shepley; Jan Wiedenbeck; Robert L. Smith

    2004-01-01

    The percentage of low-grade material composing the annual hardwood lumber production in the United States is on the rise. As a result, finding markets for low-grade and low-value lumber has been identified as a top priority by researchers and industry associations. This research used the ROMI-RIP and ROMI-CROSS simulation programs to determine specific conditions that...

  15. Selective depredation of planted hardwood seedlings by wild pigs in a wetland restoration area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, J.J.

    1999-12-17

    Following the planting of several thousand hardwood seedlings in a 69-ha wetland restoration area in west-central South Carolina, wild pigs (Sus scrofa) depredated a large percentage of the young trees. This planting was undertaken as part of a mitigation effort to restore a bottomland hardwood community in the corridor and delta of a third order stream that had been previously impacted by the discharge of heated nuclear reactor effluent. The depredated restoration areas had been pretreated with both herbicide and control burning prior to planting the hardwood seedlings. After discovery of the wild pig damage, these areas were surveyed on foot to assess the magnitude of the depredation on the planted seedling crop. Foraging by the local wild pigs in the pretreatment areas selectively impacted only four of the nine hardwood species used in this restoration effort. Based on the surveys, the remaining five species did not appear to have been impacted at all. A variety of reasons could be used to explain this phenomenon. The pretreatment methodology is thought to have been the primary aspect of the restoration program that initially led the wild pigs to discover the planted seedlings. In addition, it is possible that a combination of other factors associated with odor and taste may have resulted in the selective depredation. Future wetland restoration efforts in areas with wild pigs should consider pretreatment methods and species to be planted. If pretreatment methods and species such as discussed in the present study must be used, then the prior removal of wild pigs from surrounding lands will help prevent depredations by this non-native species.

  16. Rare Plants of Southeastern Hardwood Forests and the Role of Predictive Modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imm, D.W.; Shealy, H.E. Jr.; McLeod, K.W.; Collins, B.

    2001-01-01

    Habitat prediction models for rare plants can be useful when large areas must be surveyed or populations must be established. Investigators developed a habitat prediction model for four species of Southeastern hardwood forests. These four examples suggest that models based on resource and vegetation characteristics can accurately predict habitat, but only when plants are strongly associated with these variables and the scale of modeling coincides with habitat size

  17. Four test-demonstrations of hardwood log grades in the Northeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    George E. Doverspike; Harry W., Jr. Camp

    1951-01-01

    Farmers don't sell prime steers for the same price per pound as canner cows. Lumber dealers don't sell top-quality boards for the same price as Number 3 Common. If you are a timber owner, why should you sell hardwood trees or logs without considering their quality? Logs that yield a high proportion of their volume in the better grades of lumber are certainly...

  18. Effect of logging wounds on diameter growth of sawlog-size Appalachian hardwood crop trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neil I. Lamson; H. Clay Smith; H. Clay Smith

    1988-01-01

    In previously thinned, even-aged Appalachian hardwood stands, 5-year diameter growth of 102 wounded and 102 unwounded codominant crop trees were compared. A wounded crop tre was defined as one with at least one exposed sapwood logging wound at least 100 inch2 in size. An unwounded crop tree of the same species and size was selected near each of the 102 wounded trees....

  19. Logging damage associated with thinning central Appalachian hardwood stands with a wheeled skidder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary W. Miller; Neil I. Lamson; Samuel M. Brock

    1984-01-01

    In north central West Virginia, unmanaged 53-year-old, mixed oak-cove hardwood stands were thinned to 75, 60, and 45 percent residual stocking. Cut trees were skidded tree-length with a rubber-tired skidder. Logging destroyed or severely bent 26, 29, and 34 percent of the unmarked stems in the 75, 60, and 45 percent stocking plots, respectively. Because 94 percent of...

  20. Effects of rhododendron removal on the water use of hardwood species following eastern hemlock mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawthorne, S. N.; Miniat, C.; Elliott, K.

    2017-12-01

    Forest disturbance that alters vegetation species composition can affect ecosystem productivity and function. The loss of eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) to hemlock woolly adelgid infestations in southern Appalachian Mountains has resulted in more than a two-fold increase in growth of co-occurring rhododendron (Rhododendron maximum) understory, evergreen shrubs. In contrast, the growth of hardwood species increased by 1.2 fold during the same 5 year period following infestation. This study examines the effects of mechanically removing the rhododendron shrub layer on water use and growth of hardwood species. The treatment—hypothesized to speed ecosystem recovery of structure and function—involved cutting, spreading and burning rhododendron stems to remove both rhododendron and soil O-horizon. Sap flow, soil moisture and micro-climate (humidity, temperature) were measured in a pair of reference and treated plots. Preliminary results from the relatively dry summer/fall 2016 have shown that the mean daily transpiration (Et) of the treated plot was 24% greater than the mean daily Et of hardwood trees in the reference plot (t-test, p treatment plots compared to the reference plots. This suggests that the removal of the shrub layer reduced competition for resources for the canopy and seedling trees, which may increase tree growth and recruitment. Thus, in the wake of hemlock loss, recovery of riparian forest structure and function may be aided with shrub layer removal.

  1. Stiffness and Density Analysis of Rotary Veneer Recovered from Six Species of Australian Plantation Hardwoods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Lee McGavin

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Commercial interest in Australian hardwood plantations is increasing. The timber industry is investigating alternative supplies of forest resources, and the plantation growing industry is eager to explore alternative markets to maximize financial returns. Identifying suitable processing strategies and high-value products that suit young, plantation-grown hardwoods have proven challenging; however, recent veneer processing trials using simple veneer technology have demonstrated more acceptable recoveries of marketable products. The recovered veneers have visual qualities that are suitable for structurally-based products; however, the mechanical properties of the veneer are largely unknown. Veneers resulting from processing trials of six commercially important Australian hardwood species were used to determine key wood properties (i.e., density, dynamic modulus of elasticity (MoE, and specific MoE. The study revealed that a wide variation of properties existed between species and also within species. Simple mathematical modeling, using sigmoidal curves, was demonstrated to be an effective method to model the evolution of key wood properties across the billet radius and along the resulting veneer ribbon with benefits for tree breeders and processors.

  2. Changes in faunal and vegetation communities along a soil calcium gradient in northern hardwood forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beier, Colin M.; Woods, Anne M.; Hotopp, Kenneth P.; Gibbs, James P.; Mitchell, Myron J.; Dovciak, Martin; Leopold, Donald J.; Lawrence, Gregory B.; Page, Blair D.

    2012-01-01

    Depletion of Ca from forest soils due to acidic deposition has had potentially pervasive effects on forest communities, but these impacts remain largely unknown. Because snails, salamanders, and plants play essential roles in the Ca cycle of northern hardwood forests, we hypothesized that their community diversity, abundance, and structure would vary with differences in biotic Ca availability. To test this hypothesis, we sampled 12 upland hardwood forests representing a soil Ca gradient in the Adirondack Mountains, New York (USA), where chronic deposition has resulted in acidified soils but where areas of well-buffered soils remain Ca rich due to parent materials. Along the gradient of increasing soil [Ca2+], we observed increasing trends in snail community richness and abundance, live biomass of redback salamanders (Plethodon cinereus (Green, 1818)), and canopy tree basal area. Salamander communities were dominated by mountain dusky salamanders (Desmognathus ochrophaeus Cope, 1859) at Ca-poor sites and changed continuously along the Ca gradient to become dominated by redback salamanders at the Ca-rich sites. Several known calciphilic species of snails and plants were found only at the highest-Ca sites. Our results indicated that Ca availability, which is shaped by geology and acidic deposition inputs, influences northern hardwood forest ecosystems at multiple trophic levels, although the underlying mechanisms require further study.

  3. Encroachment Dynamics of Juniperus virginiana L. and Mesic Hardwood Species into Cross Timbers Forests of North-Central Oklahoma, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel L. Hoff

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Cross Timbers forests, typically dominated by Quercus stellata Wangenh. and Q. marilandica Muenchh., are the transition zone between eastern deciduous forest and prairie in the southern Great Plains. Fire exclusion beginning in the mid-1900s has led to increasing stand density and encroachment of fire-intolerant Juniperus virginiana L. and mesic hardwood. We measured current forest structure and tree ages of 25 stands (130 plots in north-central Oklahoma to characterize the extent and dynamics of encroachment. The respective basal area and stand density of the overstory (diameter at breast height; dbh > 10 cm were 19.0 m2 ha−1 and 407 trees ha−1 with Q. stellata comprising 43% of basal area and 42% of stand density. Quercus marilandica represented only 3% of basal area and 4% of overstory density. Juniperus virginiana represented 7% of basal area and 14% of stand density while mesic hardwoods, e.g., Celtis spp., Ulmus spp., Carya spp., 33% of basal area and stand density. The sapling layer was dominated by mesic hardwoods (68% and J. virginiana (25% while the seedling layer was dominated by mesic hardwoods (74%. The majority of Quercus recruited into the overstory between 1910–1970, while recruitment of J. virginiana and mesic hardwoods began more recently (post 1950s. Growth rate, based on the relationship between age and dbh, was faster for mesic hardwoods than for J. virginiana and Q. stellata. These results indicate that removal of recurrent surface fire as a disturbance agent has significantly altered forest composition in the Cross Timbers region by allowing encroachment of J. virginiana and fire-intolerant, mesic hardwoods. This increases wildfire risk because J. virginiana is very flammable and will alter how these forests respond to future drought and other disturbance events.

  4. Overstory tree status following thinning and burning treatments in mixed pine-hardwood stands on the William B. Bankhead National Forest, Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callie Jo Schweitzer; Yong Wang

    2013-01-01

    Prescribed burning and thinning are intermediate stand treatments whose consequences when applied in mixed pine-hardwood stands are unknown. The William B. Bankhead National Forest in northcentral Alabama has undertaken these two options to move unmanaged, 20- to 50-year-old loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) plantations towards upland hardwood-dominated...

  5. Introduction to natural disturbances and historic range of variation: type, frequency, severity, and post-disturbance structure in central hardwood forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katie Greenberg; Beverly S. Collins; Henry McNab; Douglas K. Miller; Gary R. Wein

    2015-01-01

    EXCERPT FROM: Natural Disturbances and Historic Range Variation 2015. Throughout the history of upland hardwood forests of the Central Hardwood Region, natural disturbances have been integral to shaping forest structure and composition, and essential in maintaining diverse biotic...

  6. A graphical automated detection system to locate hardwood log surface defects using high-resolution three-dimensional laser scan data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liya Thomas; R. Edward. Thomas

    2011-01-01

    We have developed an automated defect detection system and a state-of-the-art Graphic User Interface (GUI) for hardwood logs. The algorithm identifies defects at least 0.5 inch high and at least 3 inches in diameter on barked hardwood log and stem surfaces. To summarize defect features and to build a knowledge base, hundreds of defects were measured, photographed, and...

  7. Mapping hardwood mortality for the early detection of P. ramorum: an assessment of aerial surveys and object-oriented image analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erik Haunreiter; Zhanfeng Liu; Jeff Mai; Zachary Heath; Lisa Fischer

    2008-01-01

    Effective monitoring and identification of areas of hardwood mortality is a critical component in the management of sudden oak death (SOD). From 2001 to 2005, aerial surveys covering 13.5 million acres in California were conducted to map and monitor hardwood mortality for the early detection of Phytophthora ramorum, the pathogen responsible for SOD....

  8. Prescribed Burning and Erosion Potential in Mixed Hardwood Forests of Southern Illinois

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurbir Singh

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Prescribed fire has several benefits for managing forest ecosystems including reduction of fuel loading and invasive species and enhanced regeneration of desirable tree species. Along with these benefits there are some limitations like nutrient and sediment loss which have not been studied extensively in mixed hardwood forests. The objective of our research was to quantify the amount of sediment movement occurring on a watershed scale due to prescribed fire in a southern Illinois mixed hardwood ecosystem. The research site was located at Trail of Tears State Forest in western Union county, IL, USA and included five watershed pairs. One watershed in each pair was randomly assigned the prescribed burn treatment and the other remained as control (i.e., unburned. The prescribed burn treatment significantly reduced the litter depth with 12.6%–31.5% litter remaining in the prescribed burn treatment watersheds. When data were combined across all watersheds, no significant differences were obtained between burn treatment and control watershed for total suspended solids and sediment concentrations or loads. The annual sediment losses varied from 1.41 to 90.54 kg·ha−1·year−1 in the four prescribed burn watersheds and 0.81 to 2.54 kg·ha−1·year−1 in the four control watersheds. Prescribed burn watershed 7 showed an average soil sediment loss of 4.2 mm, whereas control watershed 8 showed an average accumulation of sediments (9.9 mm, possibly due to steeper slopes. Prescribed burning did not cause a significant increase in soil erosion and sediment loss and can be considered acceptable in managing mixed hardwood forests of Ozark uplands and the Shawnee Hills physiographic regions of southern Illinois.

  9. Foraging behavior of three passerines in mature bottomland hardwood forests during summer.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buffington, J., Matthew; Kilgo, John, C.; Sargent, Robert, A.; Miller, Karl, V.; Chapman, Brian, R.

    2001-08-01

    Attention has focused on forest management practices and the interactions between birds and their habitat, as a result of apparent declines in populations of many forest birds. Although avian diversity and abundance have been studied in various forest habitats, avian foraging behavior is less well known. Although there are published descriptions of avian foraging behaviors in the western United States descriptions from the southeastern United States are less common. This article reports on the foraging behavior of the White-eyed Vireo, Northern Parula, and Hooded Warbler in mature bottomland hardwood forests in South Carolina.

  10. Spatial ecology and behavior of eastern box turtles on the hardwood ecosystem experiment: pre-treatment results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrea F. Currylow; Brian J. MacGowan; Rod N. Williams

    2013-01-01

    To understand better how eastern box turtles (Terrapene carolina carolina) are affected by forest management practices, we monitored movements of box turtles prior to silvicultural treatments within the Hardwood Ecosystem Experiment (HEE) in Indiana. During 2007 and 2008, we tracked 23-28 turtles on six units of the HEE. Estimated minimum convex...

  11. Life Cycle Primary Energy and Carbon Analysis of Recovering Softwood Framing Lumber and Hardwood Flooring for Reuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard D. Bergman; Hongmei Gu; Thomas R. Napier; James Salazar; Robert H. Falk

    2012-01-01

    Recovering wood for reuse in a new house affects energy and greenhouse gas emissions. This paper finds the energy and emissions for recovering softwood framing lumber and hardwood flooring from an old house for installation in a new house. Recovering wood displaces primary production of new wood products and avoids the end-of-life (EOL) burdens for the old house. We...

  12. Nursery stock quality as an indicator of bottomland hardwood forest restoration success in the Lower Mississippi River Alluvial Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglass F. Jacobs; Rosa C. Goodman; Emile S. Gardiner; K Frances Salifu; Ronald P. Overton; George Hernandez

    2012-01-01

    Seedling morphological quality standards are lacking for bottomland hardwood restoration plantings in the Lower Mississippi River Alluvial Valley, USA, which may contribute toward variable restoration success. We measured initial seedling morphology (shoot height, root collar diameter, number of first order lateral roots, fresh mass, and root volume), second year field...

  13. Ectomycorrhizal sporophore distributions in a southeastern Appalachian mixed hardwood/conifer forest with thickets of Rhododendron maximum

    Science.gov (United States)

    John F. Walker; Orson R. Jr. Miller

    2002-01-01

    Sporophore abundance of putatively ectomycorrhizal fungi was compared in a mature mixed hardwood/conifer forest inside of (1) versus outside of (2) Rhododendron maximum thickets (RmT). Experimental blocks (1/4 ha) were established inside of (3) and outside of (3) RmT at the Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory in Macon County, North Carolina, USA. Litter...

  14. Labeling Defects in CT Images of Hardwood Logs with Species-Dependent and Species-Independent Classifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei Li; Jing He; A. Lynn Abbott; Daniel L. Schmoldt

    1996-01-01

    This paper analyses computed tomography (CT) images of hardwood logs, with the goal of locating internal defects. The ability to detect and identify defects automatically is a critical component of efficiency improvements for future sawmills and veneer mills. This paper describes an approach in which 1) histogram equalization is used during preprocessing to normalize...

  15. Forecasting Forest Type and Age Classes in the Appalachian-Cumberland Subregion of the Central Hardwood Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    David N. Wear; Robert Huggett

    2011-01-01

    This chapter describes how forest type and age distributions might be expected to change in the Appalachian-Cumberland portions of the Central Hardwood Region over the next 50 years. Forecasting forest conditions requires accounting for a number of biophysical and socioeconomic dynamics within an internally consistent modeling framework. We used the US Forest...

  16. Effects of soil compaction on residual stand growth in central Appalachian hardwood forest: a preliminary case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jingxin Wang; Chris LeDoux; Michael Vanderberg; Li Yaoxiang

    2006-01-01

    A preliminary study that quantified the impacts of soil compaction on residual tree growth associated with ground-based skidding traffic intensity and turn payload size was investigated in the central Appalachian hardwood forest. The field study was carried out on a 20-acre tract of the West Virginia University Research Forest. Skid trails were laid out in 170' -...

  17. Stand development and yields of Appalachian hardwood stands managed with single-tree selection for at least 30 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neil I Lamson; H. Clay Smith; H. Clay Smith

    1991-01-01

    Appalachian hardwood stands in West Virginia were managed for 30 or more years using single-tree selection regeneration practices. Stand yield data suggest that current stand growth will provide economical harvest cuts for several future cutting cycles. This case study indicates that the single-tree selection practice has potential for landowners who want to maintain...

  18. Mapping upland hardwood site quality and productivity with GIS and FIA in the Blue Ridge of North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claudia A. Cotton; Stephen R. Prisley; Thomas R. Fox

    2009-01-01

    The forested ecosystems of the southern Appalachians are some of the most diverse in North America due to the variability in climate, soils, and geologic parent material coupled with the complex topography found throughout the region. These same characteristics cause stands of upland hardwoods to be extremely variable with regard to site quality and productivity. Site...

  19. Evaluation of site impacts associated with three silvicultural prescriptions in an upland hardwood stand in northern Alabama, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emily A. Carter; Robert B. Rummer; Bryce J. Stokes

    2006-01-01

    Soil disturbance patterns and associated changes in soil physical status were measured in a study that evaluated the implementation of three alternative management prescriptions in an upland hardwood stand in northern Alabama, USA. Management prescriptions applied in this study consisted of a clear-cut, strip cut, and deferment cut that were compared to a non-harvested...

  20. Extraction and estimation of the quantity of calcium oxalate crystals in the foliage of conifer and hardwood trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakesh Minocha; Bradley Chamberlain; Stephanie Long; Swathi A. Turlapati; Gloria. Quigley

    2015-01-01

    The main goal of this study was to develop a method for the extraction and indirect estimation of the quantity of calcium oxalate (CaOx) in the foliage of trees. Foliar tissue was collected from a single tree of each species (five conifers and five hardwoods) for comparison of extractions in different solvents using 10 replicates per species from the same pool of...

  1. Regeneration response to midstory control following long-term single tree selection management of Southern Appalachian hardwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jason R. Lewis; John W. Groninger; David L. Loftis

    2006-01-01

    Sustainability of the single tree selection system in the mixed hardwood forests of the southern Appalachians is compromised by insufficient recruitment of oak species. In 1986, portions of a stand at Bent Creek Experimental Forest that have been under single tree selection management since 1945 were subjected to a midstory herbicide treatment in an effort to improve...

  2. Tree shelters and other methods for reducing deer damage to hardwood regeneration in the eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary W. Miller

    1998-01-01

    This report summarizes the basic silvicultural problems associated with regenerating commercial hardwood (broadleaf) species in the eastern United States and includes a review of current methods used to reduce the impact of deer browsing. The following topics are discussed: 1) the biological requirements and regeneration mechanism associated with several important tree...

  3. Causes and Remedies for Errors in International Forest Products Trade Data: Examples from the Hardwood Trade Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    William G. Luppold; William G. Luppold

    1995-01-01

    The quality of data concerning international hardwood products trade declined in the 1980s because of several problems associated with the collection and processing of individual export transaction records. This note examines the source, impact, and remedies for data problems caused by data screening procedures, nonreporting, recording errors, and alternative...

  4. Successes and failures in controlling weeds in hardwood seedbeds at the Arkansas Forestry Commission Baucum Forest Nursery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan Murray

    2009-01-01

    Fumigation with methyl bromide is essential in the production of hardwood seedlings in nurseries in the southern United States. However, the proposed rules under the 2008 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Risk Mitigation will further restrict the use of methyl bromide for nursery use.

  5. Sugar maple height-diameter and age-diameter relationships in an uneven-aged northern hardwood stand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laura S. Kenefic; R.D. Nyland

    1999-01-01

    Sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) height-diameter and age-diameter relationships are explored in a balanced uneven-aged northern hardwood stand in central New York. Results show that although both height and age vary considerably with diameter, these relationships can be described by statistically valid equations. The age-diameter relationship...

  6. An interactive machine-learning approach for defect detection in computed tomogaraphy (CT) images of hardwood logs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erol Sarigul; A. Lynn Abbott; Daniel L. Schmoldt; Philip A. Araman

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes recent progress in the analysis of computed tomography (CT) images of hardwood logs. The long-term goal of the work is to develop a system that is capable of autonomous (or semiautonomous) detection of internal defects, so that log breakdown decisions can be optimized based on defect locations. The problem is difficult because wood exhibits large...

  7. Quantifying structural and physiological controls on variation in canopy transpiration among planted pine and hardwood species in the southern Appalachians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelcy R. Ford; Robert M. Hubbard; James M. Vose

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that planted pine stands exhibit higher evapotranspiration (ET) and are more sensitive to climatic conditions compared with hardwood stands. Whether this is due to management and stand effects, biological effects or their interaction is poorly understood. We estimated growing season canopy- and sap flux-scaled leaf-level transpiration (Ec and...

  8. Asian longhorned beetle (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), an introduced pest of maple and other hardwood trees in North America and Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    P.S. Meng; K. Hoover; M.A. Keena

    2015-01-01

    The Asian longhorned beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky), threatens urban and forest hardwood trees both where introduced and in parts of its native range. Native to Asia, this beetle has hitchhiked several times in infested wood packaging used in international trade, and has established breeding populations in five U.S. states, Canada,...

  9. Two-age silviculture: an innovative tool for enhancing species diversity and vertical structure in Appalachian hardwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary W. Miller; Petra B. Wood; Jeffrey V. Nichols; Jeffrey V. Nichols

    1995-01-01

    Silvicultural practices that promote a two-age stand structure provide an opportunity to maintain diversity of woody species and vertical structure for extended periods of time in Appalachian hardwoods. Data from four two-age stands initiated by deferment cutting in West Virginia are summarized for the first 10 to 15 years after treatment. Results indicated that 15...

  10. Gate-to-Gate Life-Cycle Inventory on Hardwood Sawmills in the Northeastern Region of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard D. Bergman

    2007-01-01

    Using sustainable building materials is gaining a significant presence in the United States therefore proving sustainability claims are becoming increasingly more important. Certifying wood products as green building materials is vital for the long-term productivity of the wood building industry and for forest management. This study examined hardwood lumber...

  11. A Quantitative Assessment of the Structure and Functions of a Mature Bottomland Hardwood Community: The Iatt Creek Ecosystem Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvin E. Meier; John A. Stanturf; Emile S. Gardiner; Paul B. Hamel; Melvin L. Warren

    1999-01-01

    We report our efforts, initiated in 1995, to quantify ecological processes and functions in a relatively undisturbed, mature hardwood forest. The 320-ha site is located in central Louisiana on the upper reaches of Iatt Creek, an anastomosing minor stream bottom. The forest is a mature sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.)-cherrybark oak (

  12. Impact of a reduced winter snowpack on litter arthropod abundance and diversity in a northern hardwood forest ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamela H. Templer; Andrew F. Schiller; Nathan W. Fuller; Anne M. Socci; John L. Campbell; John E. Drake; Thomas H. Kunz

    2012-01-01

    Projected changes in climate for the northeastern USA over the next 100 years include a reduction in the depth and duration of the winter snowpack, which could affect soil temperatures and frost regimes. We conducted a snow-removal experiment in a northern hardwood forest at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest in central New Hampshire over 2 years to induce soil...

  13. Date of shoot collection, genotype, and original shoot position affect early rooting of dormant hardwood cuttings of Populus

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. S., Jr. Zalesny; A.H. Wiese

    2006-01-01

    Identifying superior combinations among date of dormant- season shoot collection, genotype, and original shoot position can increase the rooting potential of Populus cuttings. Thus, the objectives of our study were to: 1) evaluate variation among clones in early rooting from hardwood cuttings processed every three weeks from shoots collected...

  14. Host breadth and ovipositional behavior of adult Polydrusus sericeus and Phyllobius oblongus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), nonindigenous inhabitants of northern hardwood forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. A. Pinski; W. J. Mattson; K. F. Raffa

    2005-01-01

    Polydrusus sericeus (Schaller) and Phyllobius oblongus (L.) are nonindigenous root-feeding weevils in northern hardwood forests of Wisconsin and Michigan. Detailed studies of adult host range, tree species preferences, and effects of food source on fecundity and longevity have not been conducted in North America P....

  15. Improved prediction of hardwood tree biomass derived from wood density estimates and form factors for whole trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    David W. MacFarlane; Neil R. Ver Planck

    2012-01-01

    Data from hardwood trees in Michigan were analyzed to investigate how differences in whole-tree form and wood density between trees of different stem diameter relate to residual error in standard-type biomass equations. The results suggested that whole-tree wood density, measured at breast height, explained a significant proportion of residual error in standard-type...

  16. Harvest-related edge effects on prey availability and foraging of hooded warblers in a bottomland hardwood forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    John C. Kilgo

    2005-01-01

    The effects of harvest-created canopy gaps in bottomland hardwood forests on arthropod abundance and, hence, the foraging ecology of birds are poorly understood. I predicted that arthropod abundance would be high near edges of group-selection harvest gaps and lower in the surrounding forest, and that male Hooded Warblers (Wilsonia citrina) foraging...

  17. Evaluation of sampling methods to quantify abundance of hardwoods and snags within conifer-dominated riparian zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theresa Marquardt; Hailemariam Temesgen; Paul D. Anderson; Bianca. Eskelson

    2012-01-01

    Six sampling alternatives were examined for their ability to quantify selected attributes of snags and hardwoods in conifer-dominated riparian areas of managed headwater forests in western Oregon. Each alternative was simulated 500 times at eight headwater forest locations based on a 0.52-ha square stem map. The alternatives were evaluated based on how well they...

  18. Promoting and maintaining diversity in contemporary hardwood forests: Confronting contemporary drivers of change and the loss of ecological memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher R. Webster; Yvette L. Dickinson; Julia I. Burton; Lee E. Frelich; Michael A. Jenkins; Christel C. Kern; Patricia Raymond; Michael R. Saunders; Michael B. Walters; John L. Willis

    2018-01-01

    Declines in the diversity of herbaceous and woody plant species in the understory of eastern North American hardwood forests are increasingly common. Forest managers are tasked with maintaining and/or promoting species diversity and resilience; however, the success of these efforts depends on a robust understanding of past and future system dynamics and identification...

  19. Invasive earthworms deplete key soil inorganic nutrients (Ca, Mg, K, and P) in a northern hardwood forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kit Resner; Kyungsoo Yoo; Stephen D. Sebestyen; Anthony Aufdenkampe; Cindy Hale; Amy Lyttle; Alex. Blum

    2015-01-01

    Hardwood forests of the Great Lakes Region have evolved without earthworms since the Last Glacial Maximum, but are now being invaded by exotic earthworms introduced through agriculture, fishing, and logging. These exotic earthworms are known to increase soil mixing, affect soil carbon storage, and dramatically alter soil morphology. Here we show, using an active...

  20. Logging damage to residual trees following commercial harvesting to different overstory retention levels in a mature hardwood stand in Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayne K. Clatterbuck

    2006-01-01

    Partial cutting in mature hardwood stands often causes physical damage to residual stems through felling and skidding resulting in a decline in bole quality and subsequent loss of tree value. This study assessed the logging damage to residual trees following commercial harvesting in a fully stocked, mature oak-hickory stand cut to three overstory basal area retention...

  1. The vernal dam: Plant-microbe competition for nitrogen in northern hardwood forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zak, D.R.; Groffman, P.M.; Pregitzer, K.S.; Tiedje, J.M.; Christensen, S.

    1990-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) uptake by spring ephemeral communities has been proposed as a mechanism that retains N within northern hardwood forests during the season of maximum loss. To understand better the importance of these plants in retaining N, the authors followed the movement of 15 NH 4 + and 15 NO 3 - into plant and microbial biomass. Two days following isotope addition, microbial biomass represented the largest labile pool of N and contained 8.5 times as much N as Allium tricoccum L. biomass. Microbial immobilization of 15 N was 10-20 times greater than uptake by A. tricoccum. Nitrification of 15 NH 4 + was five times lower in cores containing A. tricoccum compared to those without the spring ephemeral. Spring N retention within northern hardwood forests cannot be fully explained by plant uptake because microbial immobilization represented a significantly larger sink for N. Results suggest that plant and microbial uptake of NH 4 + may reduce the quantity of substrate available for nitrification and thereby lessen the potential for NO 3 - loss via denitrification and leaching

  2. Organic matter budget in a mixed-hardwood forest in north central Florida

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lugo, A.E.; Gamble, J.F.; Ewel, K.C.

    1978-01-01

    Organic-matter flows through a mixed-hardwood forest were analyzed as part of a study of the unusual behavior of 137 Cs in Florida ecosystems. The data suggest that rates of organic-matter flow in the mixed-hardwood forest in north central Florida more closely approach those of similar systems in tropical areas than in temperate areas. Annual litterfall was 1069 g/m 2 ; litter turnover, 1.3/year; net daytime productivity of leaves and twigs, 12.4 g m -2 day -1 ; nighttime respiration, 5.1 g m -2 day -1 ; and stem respiration, 1.4 g m -2 day -1 . Constancy of litter storage (820 g/m 2 ) and leaf fall and lack of net wood deposition indicate that the forest is in steady state. It was concluded that 137 Cs accumulation in this forest is probably caused by intrinsic ecosystem processes, as previously suggested, rather than by buildup that might be expected in a successional ecosystem

  3. Results of a workshop concerning assessment of the functions of bottomland hardwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelle, James E.; Auble, Gregor T.; Hamilton, David B.; Johnson, Richard L.; Segelquist, Charles A.

    1987-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is authorized under Section 404 of the Clean Water Act (33 U.S.C. 1344) to participate in the regulation of the discharge of dredged or fill material into waters of the United States. This regulatory authority is exercised in partnership with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, which has responsibility for permit issuance, and in consultation with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and the National Marine Fisheries Service. Through amendments to the original statute, a series of legal actions and court decisions, and the development of operating guidance among the responsible agencies, Section 404 has evolved into the primary mechanism afforded Federal authorities for the protection of wetlands. EPA recognizes the importance of wetlands in achieving the goals of the Clean Water Act, which are to protect and maintain the chemical, physical, and biological integrity of the Nation’s waters. EPA Administrator Lee Thomas has identified wetlands protection as among the highest of Agency priorities. EPA recognizes that bottomland hardwood (BLH) wetlands have vital and unique attributes that, if lost, would severely impact the physical, chemical, and biological integrity of the Nation's waters. As part of a broad program to better protect the Nation's wetlands, EPA has therefore identified bottomland hardwood wetlands as a priority resource requiring special attention on a national basis.

  4. Biology and management of insect pests in North American intensively managed hardwood forest systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coyle, David R.; Nebeker, T., E.; Hart, E., R.; Mattson, W., J.

    2005-01-01

    Annu. Rev. Entomol. 50:1-29. Abstract Increasing demand for wood and wood products is putting stress on traditional forest production areas, leading to long-term economic and environmental concerns. Intensively managed hardwood forest systems (IMHFS), grown using conventional agricultural as well as forestry methods, can help alleviate potential problems in natural forest production areas. Although IMHFS can produce more biomass per hectare per year than natural forests, the ecologically simplified, monocultural systems may greatly increase the crops susceptibility to pests. Species in the genera Populus and Salix comprise the greatest acreage in IMHFS in North America, but other species, including Liquidambar styracifua and Platanus occidentalis, are also important. We discuss life histories, realized and potential damage, and management options for the most economically infuential pests that affect these hardwood species. The substantial inherent challenges associated with pest management in the monocultural environments created by IMHFS are reviewed. Finally, we discuss ways to design IMHFS that may reduce their susceptibility to pests, increase their growth and productivity potential, and create a more sustainable environment.

  5. Relative abundance and species richness of cerambycid beetles in partial cut and uncut bottomland hardwood forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, P.; King, S.

    2009-01-01

    Partial cutting techniques are increasingly advocated and used to create habitat for priority wildlife. However, partial cutting may or may not benefit species dependent on deadwood; harvesting can supplement coarse woody debris in the form of logging slash, but standing dead trees may be targeted for removal. We sampled cerambycid beetles during the spring and summer of 2006 and 2007 with canopy malaise traps in 1- and 2-year-old partial cut and uncut bottomland hardwood forests of Louisiana. We captured a total of 4195 cerambycid beetles representing 65 species. Relative abundance was higher in recent partial cuts than in uncut controls and with more dead trees in a plot. Total species richness and species composition were not different between treatments. The results suggest partial cuts with logging slash left on site increase the abundance of cerambycid beetles in the first few years after partial cutting and that both partial cuts and uncut forest should be included in the bottomland hardwood forest landscape.

  6. Assessment of the role of bottomland hardwoods in sediment and erosion control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinas, A.; Auble, Gregor T.; Segelquist, C.A.; Ischinger, Lee S.

    1988-01-01

    Drainage and clearing of bottomland hardwoods have long been recognized by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service) as important impacts of Federal water projects in the lower Mississippi River Valley. More recently, the water quality impacts of such projects (e.g., increases in sediments, nutrients, and pesticides) have also become of concern. In 1984, in an effort to better define problems concerning wetland losses and water degradation, EPA initiated a cooperative project with the Western Energy and Land Use Team (now the National Ecology Research Center) of the Service. Three phases of the project were identified: 1. To collect existing literature and data; 2. To select, develop, and test the utility of methods to quantify the relationships between land use, cover types, soils, hydrology, and water quality (as represented by sediment); and 3. To apply selected methodologies to several sites within the Yazoo Basin of Mississippi to determine the, potential effectiveness of various management alternatives to reduce sediment yield, increase sediment deposition, and improve water quality. Methods development focused on linking a simulation of water and sediment movement to a computerized geographic information system. We had several objectives for the resulting model. We desired that it should: 1. Estimate the importance of bottomland and hardwoods as a cover type that performs the functions of erosion and sediment control, 2. Simulate effects of proportions of ' various cover types and their specific spatial configurations, 3. Be applicable to moderately large spatial areas with minimal site-specific calibration, 4. Simulate spatial patterns of sediment loss-gain over time, and 5. Represent both sediment detachment and transport. While it was recognized that impacts and management alternatives could be sorted roughly into landscape measures and channel measures, the decision was made to focus study efforts

  7. Point Counts of Birds in Bottomland Hardwood Forests of the Mississippi Alluvial Valley: Duration, Minimum Sample Size, and Points Versus Visits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winston Paul Smith; Daniel J. Twedt; David A. Wiedenfeld; Paul B. Hamel; Robert P. Ford; Robert J. Cooper

    1993-01-01

    To compare efficacy of point count sampling in bottomland hardwood forests, duration of point count, number of point counts, number of visits to each point during a breeding season, and minimum sample size are examined.

  8. Ecophysiological behaviour of hardwood species in renaturalization processes of coniferous plantations [Campania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borghetti, M.; Saracino, A.; D'Alessandro, C.M.

    2005-01-01

    Coniferous plantations may play a nurse effect for natural regeneration of native hardwood species, which would otherwise be conditioned by intraspecific competition due to trees of the upper layers or be prevented by high radiation load of open environments. Regulation of canopy cover by means of thinning generates temporary or permanent variations of levels of irradiance in lower forest layers. These affect the capability of recruitment and establishment and the ecophysiological behaviour of natural regeneration. Here we present a review of the notions on effects of relative irradiance variations on ecophysiological behaviour of native tree species in lower layers of mesophile and meso-xerophile forests, giving some specific examples produced during the national project PRIN 2003 FOR BIO [it

  9. Production of furfural from waste aqueous hemicellulose solution of hardwood over ZSM-5 zeolite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Hongling; Liu, Haitang; Pang, Bo; Yu, Guang; Du, Jian; Zhang, Yuedong; Wang, Haisong; Mu, Xindong

    2014-11-01

    This study aimed to produce furfural from waste aqueous hemicellulose solution of a hardwood kraft-based dissolving pulp production processing in a green method. The maximum furfural yield of 82.4% and the xylose conversion of 96.8% were achieved at 463K, 1.0g ZSM-5, 1.05g NaCl and organic solvent-to-aqueous phase ratio of 30:15 (V/V) for 3h. The furfural yield was just 51.5% when the same concentration of pure xylose solution was used. Under the optimized condition, furfural yield was still up to 67.1% even after the fifth reused of catalyst. Catalyst recycling study showed that ZSM-5 has a certain stability and can be efficiently reused. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. PREPARATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF COMPOSITES COMPRISING MODIFIED HARDWOOD AND WOOD POLYMERS/POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruxanda Bodîrlău

    Full Text Available Chemical modification of hardwood sawdust from ash-tree species was carried out with a solution of maleic anhydride in acetone. Wood polymers, lignin, and cellulose were isolated from the wood sawdust and modified by the same method. Samples were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, providing evidence that maleic anhydride esterifies the free hydroxyl groups of the wood polymer components. Composites comprising chemically modified wood sawdust and wood polymers (cellulose, lignin-as variable weight percentages-, and poly (vinyl chloride were obtained and further characterized by using FTIR spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The thermal behavior of composites was investigated by using the thermogravimetric analysis (TGA. In all cases, thermal properties were affected by fillers addition.

  11. Principal forest dieback episodes in northern hardwoods: development of numeric indices of areal extent and severity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auclair, A.D.; Eglington, P.D.; Minnemeyer, S.L.

    1997-01-01

    The incidence of forest dieback in the Northern Hardwoods biome of Canada and the United States was determined for period from 1910 to 1990. Information from annual forest service pathology inventories in the two countries and other published literature was coded to estimate yearly the severity and areal extent of dieback on white/yellow birch and sugar maple from 1910 to 1990. Principal dieback episodes occurred as distinct waves coincident with maturation of the forest population in each of six regions. These episodes endured an average of 11 years. It is hypothesized that, once forest populations are mature, they are susceptible to extreme stresses such as freezing and drought which serve to synchronize the onset and subsidence of major dieback episodes. 38 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs

  12. Abundance of green tree frogs and insects in artificial canopy gaps in a bottomland hardwood forest.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horn, Scott; Hanula, James L.; Ulyshen, Michael D.; Kilgo, John C.

    2005-01-01

    Horn, Scott, James L. Hanula, Michael D. Ulyshen, and John C. Kilgo. 2005. Abundance of green tree frogs and insects in artificial canopy gaps in a bottomland hardwood forest. Am. Midl. Nat. 153:321-326. Abstract: We found more green tree frogs (Hyla cinerea) in canopy gaps than in closed canopy forest. Of the 331 green tree frogs observed, 88% were in canopy gaps. Likewise, higher numbers and biomasses of insects were captured in the open gap habitat. Flies were the most commonly collected insect group accounting for 54% of the total capture. These data suggest that one reason green tree frogs were more abundant in canopy gaps was the increased availability of prey and that small canopy gaps provide early successional habitats that are beneficial to green tree frog populations.

  13. Research on the pyrolysis of hardwood in an entrained bed process development unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovac, R.J.; Gorton, C.W.; Knight, J.A.; Newman, C.J.; O' Neil, D.J. (Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta, GA (United States). Research Inst.)

    1991-08-01

    An atmospheric flash pyrolysis process, the Georgia Tech Entrained Flow Pyrolysis Process, for the production of liquid biofuels from oak hardwood is described. The development of the process began with bench-scale studies and a conceptual design in the 1978--1981 timeframe. Its development and successful demonstration through research on the pyrolysis of hardwood in an entrained bed process development unit (PDU), in the period of 1982--1989, is presented. Oil yields (dry basis) up to 60% were achieved in the 1.5 ton-per-day PDU, far exceeding the initial target/forecast of 40% oil yields. Experimental data, based on over forty runs under steady-state conditions, supported by material and energy balances of near-100% closures, have been used to establish a process model which indicates that oil yields well in excess of 60% (dry basis) can be achieved in a commercial reactor. Experimental results demonstrate a gross product thermal efficiency of 94% and a net product thermal efficiency of 72% or more; the highest values yet achieved with a large-scale biomass liquefaction process. A conceptual manufacturing process and an economic analysis for liquid biofuel production at 60% oil yield from a 200-TPD commercial plant is reported. The plant appears to be profitable at contemporary fuel costs of $21/barrel oil-equivalent. Total capital investment is estimated at under $2.5 million. A rate-of-return on investment of 39.4% and a pay-out period of 2.1 years has been estimated. The manufacturing cost of the combustible pyrolysis oil is $2.70 per gigajoule. 20 figs., 87 tabs.

  14. Nitrogen biogeochemistry in the Adirondack Mountains of New York: hardwood ecosystems and associated surface waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, Myron J.; Driscoll, Charles T.; Inamdar, Shreeram; McGee, Greg G.; Mbila, Monday O.; Raynal, Dudley J.

    2003-01-01

    Factors that regulate the fate of atmospherically deposited nitrogen to hardwood forests and subsequent transport to surface waters in the Adirondack region of New York are described. - Studies on the nitrogen (N) biogeochemistry in Adirondack northern hardwood ecosystems were summarized. Specific focus was placed on results at the Huntington Forest (HFS), Pancake-Hall Creek (PHC), Woods Lake (WL), Ampersand (AMO), Catlin Lake (CLO) and Hennessy Mountain (HM). Nitrogen deposition generally decreased from west to east in the Adirondacks, and there have been no marked temporal changes in N deposition from 1978 through 1998. Second-growth western sites (WL, PHC) had higher soil solution NO 3 - concentrations and fluxes than the HFS site in the central Adirondacks. Of the two old-growth sites (AMO and CLO), AMO had substantially higher NO 3 - concentrations due to the relative dominance of sugar maple that produced litter with high N mineralization and nitrification rates. The importance of vegetation in affecting N losses was also shown for N-fixing alders in wetlands. The Adirondack Manipulation and Modeling Project (AMMP) included separate experimental N additions of (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 at WL, PHC and HFS and HNO 3 at WL and HFS. Patterns of N loss varied with site and form of N addition and most of the N input was retained. For 16 lake/watersheds no consistent changes in NO 3 - concentrations were found from 1982 to 1997. Simulations suggested that marked NO 3 - loss will only be manifested over extended periods. Studies at the Arbutus Watershed provided information on the role of biogeochemical and hydrological factors in affecting the spatial and temporal patterns of NO 3 - concentrations. The heterogeneous topography in the Adirondacks has generated diverse landscape features and patterns of connectivity that are especially important in regulating the temporal and spatial patterns of NO 3 - concentrations in surface waters

  15. The importance of hydrology in restoration of bottomland hardwood wetland functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, R.G.; Faulkner, S.P.; Gibson, K.A.

    2008-01-01

    Bottomland hardwood (BLH) forests have important biogeochemical functions and it is well known that certain structural components, including pulsed hydrology, hydric soils, and hydrophytic vegetation, enhance these functions. It is unclear, however, how functions of restored BLH wetlands compare to mature, undisturbed wetlands. We measured a suite of structural and functional attributes in replicated natural BLH wetlands (NAT), restored BLH wetlands with hydrology re-established (RWH), and restored BLH wetlands without hydrology re-established (RWOH) in this study. Trees were replanted in all restored wetlands at least four years prior to the study and those wetlands with hydrology re-established had flashboard risers placed in drainage ditches to allow seasonal surface flooding. Vegetation, soils, and selected biogeochemical functions were characterized at each site. There was a marked difference in woody vegetation among the wetlands that was due primarily to site age. There was also a difference in herbaceous vegetation among the restored sites that may have been related to differences in age or hydrology. Water table fluctuations of the RWH wetlands were comparable to those of the NAT wetlands. Thus, placing flashboard risers in existing drainage ditches, along with proper management, can produce a hydroperiod that is similar to that of a relatively undisturbed BLH. Average length of saturation within the upper 15 cm of soils was 37, 104, and 97 days for RWOH, RWH, and NAT, respectively. Soil moisture, denitrification potential, and soluble organic carbon concentrations differed among wetland sites, but soil carbon and nitrogen concentrations, heterotrophic microbial activity, and readily mineralizable carbon concentrations did not. Significant linear relationships were also found between soil moisture and heterotrophic microbial activity, readily mineralizable carbon, and soluble organic carbon. In addition, sedimentation rates were higher in NAT and RWH

  16. Study of root tensile strength of softwood and hardwood tree species: Implications for slope stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaiili, Marzieh; Abdi, Ehsan; Jafary, Mohammad; Majnounian, Baris

    2017-04-01

    Landslides are known as one of the major natural hazards and often incurring economics and human life losses. The role of tree roots in slope stability is very important, especially when human lives and infrastructure are at risk. The anchorage of roots and improvement of slope stability mainly depend on specific properties of root network systems, such as tensile strength. These properties of the roots which govern the degree of reinforcement are different among tree species. Although, many studies have been conducted about plant biotechnical properties of species, yet there is lack of knowledge on comparing root systems of softwood and hardwood tree species for similar site conditions. Therefore this study was conducted to assess the tensile strength of the root system of Picea abies (softwood species) and Fraxinus excelsior (hardwood species) planted on two forested hillslopes. To this aim, single root specimens were sampled for each species and their tensile strength were then measured in laboratory using a computer controlled Instron Universal Testing Machine. According to the results root tensile strength tends to decrease with diameter according to a power law for both species. Based on analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), a significant difference has been observed in the tensile strength between the two studied species. Also the results showed that the value of mean root tensile strength for Picea abies (19.31 ± 2.64 MPa) was much more than that of Fraxinus excelsior (16.98 ± 1.01 MPa) within all root diameter classes. The data presented in this study may expand the knowledge of biotechnical properties of Picea abies and Fraxinus excelsior, as biomaterial for soil bioengineering.

  17. A Forest Tent Caterpillar Outbreak Increased Resource Levels and Seedling Growth in a Northern Hardwood Forest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danaë M A Rozendaal

    Full Text Available In closed-canopy forests, gap formation and closure are thought to be major drivers of forest dynamics. Crown defoliation by insects, however, may also influence understory resource levels and thus forest dynamics. We evaluate the effect of a forest tent caterpillar outbreak on understory light availability, soil nutrient levels and tree seedling height growth in six sites with contrasting levels of canopy defoliation in a hardwood forest in northern lower Michigan. We compared resource levels and seedling growth of six hardwood species before, during and in the three years after the outbreak (2008-2012. Canopy openness increased strongly during the forest tent caterpillar outbreak in the four moderately and severely defoliated sites, but not in lightly defoliated sites. Total inorganic soil nitrogen concentrations increased in response to the outbreak in moderately and severely defoliated sites. The increase in total inorganic soil nitrogen was driven by a strong increase in soil nitrate, and tended to become stronger with increasing site defoliation. Seedling height growth increased for all species in the moderately and severely defoliated sites, but not in lightly defoliated sites, either during the outbreak year or in the year after the outbreak. Growth increases did not become stronger with increasing site defoliation, but were strongest in a moderately defoliated site with high soil nutrient levels. Growth increases tended to be strongest for the shade intolerant species Fraxinus americana and Prunus serotina, and the shade tolerant species Ostrya virginiana. The strong growth response of F. americana and P. serotina suggests that recurring forest tent caterpillar outbreaks may facilitate the persistence of shade intolerant species in the understory in the absence of canopy gaps. Overall, our results suggest that recurrent canopy defoliation resulting from cyclical forest insect outbreaks may be an additional driver of dynamics in

  18. A Forest Tent Caterpillar Outbreak Increased Resource Levels and Seedling Growth in a Northern Hardwood Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozendaal, Danaë M A; Kobe, Richard K

    2016-01-01

    In closed-canopy forests, gap formation and closure are thought to be major drivers of forest dynamics. Crown defoliation by insects, however, may also influence understory resource levels and thus forest dynamics. We evaluate the effect of a forest tent caterpillar outbreak on understory light availability, soil nutrient levels and tree seedling height growth in six sites with contrasting levels of canopy defoliation in a hardwood forest in northern lower Michigan. We compared resource levels and seedling growth of six hardwood species before, during and in the three years after the outbreak (2008-2012). Canopy openness increased strongly during the forest tent caterpillar outbreak in the four moderately and severely defoliated sites, but not in lightly defoliated sites. Total inorganic soil nitrogen concentrations increased in response to the outbreak in moderately and severely defoliated sites. The increase in total inorganic soil nitrogen was driven by a strong increase in soil nitrate, and tended to become stronger with increasing site defoliation. Seedling height growth increased for all species in the moderately and severely defoliated sites, but not in lightly defoliated sites, either during the outbreak year or in the year after the outbreak. Growth increases did not become stronger with increasing site defoliation, but were strongest in a moderately defoliated site with high soil nutrient levels. Growth increases tended to be strongest for the shade intolerant species Fraxinus americana and Prunus serotina, and the shade tolerant species Ostrya virginiana. The strong growth response of F. americana and P. serotina suggests that recurring forest tent caterpillar outbreaks may facilitate the persistence of shade intolerant species in the understory in the absence of canopy gaps. Overall, our results suggest that recurrent canopy defoliation resulting from cyclical forest insect outbreaks may be an additional driver of dynamics in temperate closed

  19. Anatomy and lignin distribution in reaction phloem fibres of several Japanese hardwoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Kaori; Yoshinaga, Arata; Takabe, Keiji

    2012-09-01

    Although tension wood formation and the structure of gelatinous fibres (G-fibres) have been widely investigated, studies of the influence of the reaction phenomenon on phloem fibres have been few and incomplete in comparison with those of xylem wood fibres. This study was undertaken to clarify the influence of stem inclination on phloem fibres using several Japanese hardwood species that produce different G-fibre types in tension wood. Eight hardwood species were inclined at 30-45° at the beginning of April. Specimens were collected in July and December. The cell-wall structure and lignin distribution of phloem fibres on both the tension and opposite sides were compared by light microscopy, ultraviolet microscopy, confocal laser scanning microscopy after staining with acriflavine, and transmission electron microscopy after staining with potassium permanganate. Three types of changes were found in tension-side phloem fibres: (1) increases in the proportion of the syringyl unit in lignin in the S(1) and S(2) layers and compound middle lamella (Cercidiphyllum japonicum), (2) formation of unlignified gelatinous layers (Melia azedarach and Acer rufinerve) and (3) increases in the number of layers (n) in the multi-layered structure of S(1) + S(2) + n (G + L) (Mallotus japonicus). Other species showed no obvious change in cell-wall structure or lignin distribution. Phloem fibres of the tree species examined in our study showed three types of changes in lignin distribution and cell-wall structure. The reaction phenomenon may vary with tree species and may not be closely related to G-fibre type in tension wood.

  20. Abundance and Size Distribution of Cavity Trees in Second-Growth and Old-Growth Central Hardwood Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhaofei Fan; Stephen R. Shifley; Martin A. Spetich; Frank R. Thompson III; David R. Larsen

    2005-01-01

    In central hardwood forests, mean cavity-tree abundance increases with increasing standsize class (seedling/sapling, pole, sawtimber, old-growth). However, within a size class, the number of cavity trees is highly variable among 0.1-ha inventory plots. Plots in young stands are most likely to have no cavity trees, but some plots may have more than 50 cavity trees/ha....

  1. Segregating the Effects of Seed Traits and Common Ancestry of Hardwood Trees on Eastern Gray Squirrel Foraging Decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundaram, Mekala; Willoughby, Janna R; Lichti, Nathanael I; Steele, Michael A; Swihart, Robert K

    2015-01-01

    The evolution of specific seed traits in scatter-hoarded tree species often has been attributed to granivore foraging behavior. However, the degree to which foraging investments and seed traits correlate with phylogenetic relationships among trees remains unexplored. We presented seeds of 23 different hardwood tree species (families Betulaceae, Fagaceae, Juglandaceae) to eastern gray squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis), and measured the time and distance travelled by squirrels that consumed or cached each seed. We estimated 11 physical and chemical seed traits for each species, and the phylogenetic relationships between the 23 hardwood trees. Variance partitioning revealed that considerable variation in foraging investment was attributable to seed traits alone (27-73%), and combined effects of seed traits and phylogeny of hardwood trees (5-55%). A phylogenetic PCA (pPCA) on seed traits and tree phylogeny resulted in 2 "global" axes of traits that were phylogenetically autocorrelated at the family and genus level and a third "local" axis in which traits were not phylogenetically autocorrelated. Collectively, these axes explained 30-76% of the variation in squirrel foraging investments. The first global pPCA axis, which produced large scores for seed species with thin shells, low lipid and high carbohydrate content, was negatively related to time to consume and cache seeds and travel distance to cache. The second global pPCA axis, which produced large scores for seeds with high protein, low tannin and low dormancy levels, was an important predictor of consumption time only. The local pPCA axis primarily reflected kernel mass. Although it explained only 12% of the variation in trait space and was not autocorrelated among phylogenetic clades, the local axis was related to all four squirrel foraging investments. Squirrel foraging behaviors are influenced by a combination of phylogenetically conserved and more evolutionarily labile seed traits that is consistent with a weak

  2. Abundance and size distribution of cavity trees in second-growth and old-growth central hardwood forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhaofei Fan; Stephen R. Shifley; Martin A. Spetich; Frank R. Thompson; David R. Larsen

    2005-01-01

    In central hardwood forests, mean cavity-tree abundance increases with increasing standsize class (seedling/sapling, pole, sawtimber, old-growth). However, within a size class, the number of cavity trees is highly variable among 0.1-ha inventory plots. Plots in young stands are most likely to have no cavity trees, but some plots may have more than 50 cavity trees/ha....

  3. The response of ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) to selection cutting in a South Carolina bottomland hardwood forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael D. Ulyshen; James L. Hanula; Scott Horn; John C. Kilgo; Christopher E. Moorman

    2005-01-01

    We compared the response of ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) to the creation of canopy gaps of different size (0.13, 0.26, and 0.50 ha) and age (1 and 7 years) in a bottomland hardwood forest (South Carolina, USA). Samples were collected four times in 2001 by malaise and pitfall traps placed at the center and edge of each gap, and 50 m into the surrounding forest...

  4. A Computer Vision System for Automated Grading of Rough Hardwood Lumber Using a Knowledge-Based Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai-Hoon Cho; Richard W. Conners; Philip A. Araman

    1990-01-01

    A sawmill cuts logs into lumber and sells this lumber to secondary remanufacturers. The price a sawmiller can charge for a volume of lumber depends on its grade. For a number of species the price of a given volume of material can double in going from one grade to the next higher grade. Thus, accurately establishing the grade of a volume of hardwood lumber is very...

  5. Amenability of Acacia and Eucalyptus Hardwood Pulps to Elemental Chlorine-Free Bleaching: Application and Efficacy of Microbial Xylanase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avdhesh Kumar Gangwar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study outlines the results of a biobleaching study of acacia (A. mangium and eucalyptus (E. globulus hardwood kraft pulps with commercial xylanase (Optimase CX 72 L. The comparative study was carried out using an elemental chlorine-free (ECF bleaching sequence (D0EPD1D2 after the enzyme (X stage. The enzyme treatment resulted in improved optical properties with a reduction in bleach chemical consumption. At an equivalent bleach chemical consumption, a brightness gain of 2.1 and 1.7 units and a whiteness gain of 2.7 and 2.3 units were observed with xylanase treatment in acacia and eucalyptus pulps, respectively. In ECF bleaching using the D0EPD1D2 sequence, a final brightness was achieved to the extent of 90% ISO and 89% ISO for acacia and eucalyptus, respectively, at an equivalent charge of bleach chemicals. The post-color (PC number was also reduced by up to 45% for both hardwood pulps compared with the control. The bleachability of acacia was observed to be significantly higher than that of eucalyptus. In addition, a 17.0% and 23.0% reduction in chlorine dioxide and sodium hydroxide, respectively, were obtained for both hardwood pulps after xylanase pre-bleaching, thus indicating an environmentally friendly approach to the process.

  6. Operational restoration of the Pen Branch bottomland hardwood and swamp wetlands - the research setting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, E.A.

    2000-01-01

    The Savannah River Swamp is a 3020 Ha forested wetland on the floodplain of the Savannah River and is located on the Department of Energy's Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, SC. Historically the swamp consisted of approximately 50 percent bald cypress-water tupelo stands, 40 percent mixed bottomland hardwood stands, and 10 percent shrub, marsh, and open water. Creek corridors were typical of Southeastern bottomland hardwood forests. The hydrology was controlled by flooding of the Savannah River and by flow from four creeks that drain into the swamp prior to flow into the Savannah River. Upstream dams have caused some alteration of the water levels and timing of flooding within the floodplain. Major impacts to the swamp hydrology occurred with the completion of the production reactors and one coal-fired powerhouse at the SRS in the early 1950's. Water was pumped from the Savannah River, through secondary heat exchangers of the reactors, and discharged into three of the tributary streams that flow into the swamp. Flow in one of the tributaries, Pen Branch, was typically 0.3 m3 s-1 (10-20) cfs prior to reactor pumping and 11.0 m3 s-1 (400 cfs) during pumping. This continued from 1954 to 1988 at various levels. The sustained increases in water volume resulted in overflow of the original stream banks and the creation of additional floodplains. Accompanying this was considerable erosion of the original stream corridor and deposition of a deep silt layer on the newly formed delta. Heated water was discharged directly into Pen Branch and water temperature in the stream often exceeded 65 degrees C. The nearly continuous flooding of the swamp, the thermal load of the water, and the heavy silting resulted in complete mortality of the original vegetation in large areas of the floodplain. In the years since pumping was reduced, early succession has begun in some affected areas. Most of this has been herbs, grasses, and shrubs. Areas that have seedlings are generally willow

  7. Teores de carboidratos em estacas lenhosas de mirtileiro Carbohidrates content in hardwood cuttings of blueberry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rérinton Joabél Pires de Oliveira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar as alterações no teor de carboidratos em estacas lenhosas de mirtileiro das cultivares Delite, Powder Blue e Seleção 19. O trabalho foi dividido em dois experimentos, primeiramente foram analisados os teores de amido e de açúcares solúveis a partir de ramos coletados em quatro épocas (03-06, 04-07, 24-07 e 11-08-2008 e, posteriormente, avaliou-se o teor de carboidratos em estacas coletadas nas mesmas épocas citadas, porém submetidas ao enraizamento e avaliadas em diferentes épocas (03-06, 04-07, 04-08, 03-09 e 03-10; 04-07, 04-08, 03-09, 03-10; 24-07, 04-08, 03-09 e 03-10; 11-08, 03-09 e 03-10. Verificou-se que a cultivar Powder Blue tem maior concentração de amido nos ramos que as cultivares Delite e Seleção 19. Estacas lenhosas de mirtileiro com baixos teores de amido, quando submetidas ao enraizamento, apresentam ressíntese de amido. No fim do período de inverno, ocorre aumento na concentração de amido nos ramos lenhosos de mirtileiro. Este aumento ao final do período de inverno está associado à maior taxa de enraizamento.The aim at this study was to evaluate the alterations on carbohydrates metabolism of hardwood cuttings of blueberries cv. Delite, Powder Blue and Seleção 19. The starch and soluble sugars concentration were evaluated in blueberry branches at four different times in a first experiment (06/03, 07/04, 07/24 and 08/11/2008 and later the metabolism of carbohydrates were evaluated in harvested hardwood cuttings submitted to rooting conditions (06/03, 07/04, 08/04, 09/03 and 10/03; 07/04, 08/04, 09/03 and 10/03; 07/24, 08/04, 09/03 and 10/03; 08/11, 09/03 and 10/03. It was verified that the cv. Powder Blue has higher starch concentration in the branches than Delite and Seleção 19. Hardwood cuttings of blueberry with low percentage of starch, when subjected to rooting, have resynthesis of starch. At the end of the winter, there is an increase in starch in the branches of

  8. Developing a Topographic Model to Predict the Northern Hardwood Forest Type within Carolina Northern Flying Squirrel (Glaucomys sabrinus coloratus Recovery Areas of the Southern Appalachians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Evans

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The northern hardwood forest type is an important habitat component for the endangered Carolina northern flying squirrel (CNFS; Glaucomys sabrinus coloratus for den sites and corridor habitats between boreo-montane conifer patches foraging areas. Our study related terrain data to presence of northern hardwood forest type in the recovery areas of CNFS in the southern Appalachian Mountains of western North Carolina, eastern Tennessee, and southwestern Virginia. We recorded overstory species composition and terrain variables at 338 points, to construct a robust, spatially predictive model. Terrain variables analyzed included elevation, aspect, slope gradient, site curvature, and topographic exposure. We used an information-theoretic approach to assess seven models based on associations noted in existing literature as well as an inclusive global model. Our results indicate that, on a regional scale, elevation, aspect, and topographic exposure index (TEI are significant predictors of the presence of the northern hardwood forest type in the southern Appalachians. Our elevation + TEI model was the best approximating model (the lowest AICc score for predicting northern hardwood forest type correctly classifying approximately 78% of our sample points. We then used these data to create region-wide predictive maps of the distribution of the northern hardwood forest type within CNFS recovery areas.

  9. Environmental Factors that Influence Physiological Functioning of Eight Bottomland Hardwood Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassahun, Z.; Renninger, H. J.

    2017-12-01

    With increases in extreme precipitation, flooding, and prolonged drought events in the southeastern United States, bottomland hardwood forests are expected to experience a drastic shift in their productivity and composition. As environmental conditions shift, certain tree species may experience an increase in productivity or could be more negatively affected over more resilient species, leading to a shift in species composition, water use, and carbon uptake. The goals of this research were to use sap flow measurements, leaf phenology, and photosynthetic rates to study species-specific responses to environmental drivers. Sap flow of eight co-occurring hardwood species as well as soil moisture and vapor pressure deficit were measured continuously over the course of a calendar year that included drought conditions and extended saturated soil conditions. We found that cherrybark oak used the most water during the growing season, about 20% more water than the next highest consumer, swamp chestnut oak. Given low, ample or saturated soil moisture conditions, we found that sap flow of winged elm, American elm, cherrybark oak, and shagbark hickory exhibited varying relationships with vapor pressure deficit under the different soil moisture conditions. While the relationship between sap flow and vapor pressure deficit did not differ depending on soil moisture in willow oak, swamp chestnut oak, and green ash. This suggests that winged elm, American elm, cherrybark oak, and shagbark hickory may be more negatively affected by drought conditions while willow oak, swamp chestnut oak, and green ash are more drought tolerant. Regarding leaf phenology, willow oak, cherrybark oak, and shagbark hickory were the first to experience leaf abscission at the end of the growing season when extended drought conditions occurred. In terms of leaf gas exchange, green ash exhibited the highest photosynthesis and transpiration rates, resulting in the lowest water-use efficiency compared with

  10. Herbivorous insect response to group selection cutting in a southeastern bottomland hardwood forest.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael D. Ulyshen; James L. Hanula; Scott Horn; Christopher E. Moorman.

    2005-04-01

    ABSTRACT Malaise and pitfall traps were used to sample herbivorous insects in canopy gaps created by group-selection cutting in a bottomland hardwood forest in South Carolina. The traps were placed at the centers, edges, and in the forest adjacent to gaps of different sizes (0.13, 0.26, and 0.50 ha) and ages (1 and 7 yr old) during four sampling periods in 2001. Overall, the abundance and species richness of insect herbivores were greater at the centers of young gaps than at the edge of young gaps or in the forest surrounding young gaps. There were no differences in abundance or species richness among old gap locations (i.e., centers, edges, and forest), and we collected significantly more insects in young gaps than old gaps. The insect communities in old gaps were more similar to the forests surrounding them than young gap communities were to their respective forest locations, but the insect communities in the two forests locations (surrounding young and old gaps) had the highest percent similarity of all. Although both abundance and richness increased in the centers of young gaps with increasing gap size, these differences were not significant.Weattribute the increased numbers of herbivorous insects to the greater abundance of herbaceous plants available in young gaps.

  11. Sorption of chlorophenols from aqueous solution by granular activated carbon, filter coal, pine and hardwood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, G S M; McLaughlan, R G

    2012-09-01

    Wood and coal, as low-cost sorbents, have been evaluated as an alternative to commercial granular activated carbon (GAC) for chlorophenol removal. Kinetic experiments indicated that filter coal had a significantly lower rate of uptake (approximately 10% of final uptake was achieved after three hours) than the other sorbents, owing to intra-particle diffusion limitations. The data fitted a pseudo-second-order model. Sorption capacity data showed that GAC had a high sorption capacity (294-467 mg g(-1)) compared with other sorbents (3.2-7.5 mg(g-1)). However, wood and coal had a greater sorption capacity per unit surface area than GAC. Sorption equilibrium data was best predicted using a Freundlich adsorption model. The sorption capacity for all sorbents was 2-chlorophenol coal than the other sorbents. The results showed that pine, hardwood and filter coal can be used as sorbent materials for the removal of chlorophenol from water; however, kinetic considerations may limit the application of filter coal.

  12. Effects of timber harvest on structural diversity and species composition in hardwood forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FARZAM TAVANKAR

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Tavankar F, Bonyad AE. 2015. Effects of timber harvest on structural diversity and species composition in hardwood forests. Biodiversitas 16: 1-9. Forest management leads to changes in structure and species composition of stands. In this research vertical and horizontal structure and species composition were compared in two harvested and protected stands in the Caspian forest of Iran. The results indicated the tree and seedling density, total basal area and stand volume was significantly (P < 0.01 higher in the protected stand. The Fagus orientalis L. had the most density and basal area in the both stands. Species importance value (SIV of Fagus orientalis in the protected stand (92.5 was higher than in the harvested stand (88.5. While, the SIV of shade-intolerant tree species such as Acer insigne, Acer cappadocicum and Alnus subcordata was higher in the harvested stand. The density of trees and seedling of rare tree species, such as Ulmus glabra, Tilia begonifolia, Zelkova caprinifolia and Fraxinus coriarifolia, was also higher in the protected stand. The Shannon-Wiener diversity index in the protected stand (0.84 was significantly higher (P < 0.01 than in the harvested stand (0.72. The highest diversity value in the harvested stand was observed in DBH of 10-40 cm class, while DBH of 40-70 cm had the highest diversity value in the protected stand.

  13. Reliance on shallow soil water in a mixed-hardwood forest in central Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines, Katie P; Stanley, Jane W; Meinzer, Frederick C; McCulloh, Katherine A; Woodruff, David R; Chen, Weile; Adams, Thomas S; Lin, Henry; Eissenstat, David M

    2016-04-01

    We investigated depth of water uptake of trees on shale-derived soils in order to assess the importance of roots over a meter deep as a driver of water use in a central Pennsylvania catchment. This information is not only needed to improve basic understanding of water use in these forests but also to improve descriptions of root function at depth in hydrologic process models. The study took place at the Susquehanna Shale Hills Critical Zone Observatory in central Pennsylvania. We asked two main questions: (i) Do trees in a mixed-hardwood, humid temperate forest in a central Pennsylvania catchment rely on deep roots for water during dry portions of the growing season? (ii) What is the role of tree genus, size, soil depth and hillslope position on the depth of water extraction by trees? Based on multiple lines of evidence, including stable isotope natural abundance, sap flux and soil moisture depletion patterns with depth, the majority of water uptake during the dry part of the growing season occurred, on average, at less than ∼60 cm soil depth throughout the catchment. While there were some trends in depth of water uptake related to genus, tree size and soil depth, water uptake was more uniformly shallow than we expected. Our results suggest that these types of forests may rely considerably on water sources that are quite shallow, even in the drier parts of the growing season. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  14. Heat applied chitosan treatment on hardwood chips to improve physical and mechanical properties of particleboard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Altay Basturk

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available High-heat treatment after surface application of chitosan was used in an effort to improve physical and mechanical performances of particleboard. Particleboard is mainly used in the furniture industry and also used as a home decoration material; however, it has a poor dimensional stability. In this work, hardwood chips were obtained from a commercial plant; half of the chips were used for the control panels without chitosan treatment, and the other half were treated with chitosan acetate solutions (2% wt. Those chitosan-treated particles were also exposed to extra high-heat (140oC treatment for 90 minutes to convert chitosan acetate back to chitin. Liquid phenol-formaldehyde resin was sprayed onto dry particles at a level of 6 and 7% (wt based upon oven-dry weight. The mat was pressed (200oC for 11 minutes to form 19 mm thickness and a target of 0.63 g cm-3 density panels. Thickness swelling, linear expansion, and water gain of the treated panels were reduced over untreated panels during a 24-hour water-soak test. In addition, chitosan-treated panels showed better internal bond strength than control panels. Static bending test results showed a negative effect for the chitosan treated particleboard.

  15. Preliminary Genomic Characterization of Ten Hardwood Tree Species from Multiplexed Low Coverage Whole Genome Sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Staton

    Full Text Available Forest health issues are on the rise in the United States, resulting from introduction of alien pests and diseases, coupled with abiotic stresses related to climate change. Increasingly, forest scientists are finding genetic/genomic resources valuable in addressing forest health issues. For a set of ten ecologically and economically important native hardwood tree species representing a broad phylogenetic spectrum, we used low coverage whole genome sequencing from multiplex Illumina paired ends to economically profile their genomic content. For six species, the genome content was further analyzed by flow cytometry in order to determine the nuclear genome size. Sequencing yielded a depth of 0.8X to 7.5X, from which in silico analysis yielded preliminary estimates of gene and repetitive sequence content in the genome for each species. Thousands of genomic SSRs were identified, with a clear predisposition toward dinucleotide repeats and AT-rich repeat motifs. Flanking primers were designed for SSR loci for all ten species, ranging from 891 loci in sugar maple to 18,167 in redbay. In summary, we have demonstrated that useful preliminary genome information including repeat content, gene content and useful SSR markers can be obtained at low cost and time input from a single lane of Illumina multiplex sequence.

  16. Decomposition and carbon storage of hardwood and softwood branches in laboratory-scale landfills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xiaoming, E-mail: wangxiaoming@cqu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Three Gorges Reservoir Region' s Eco-Environment under Ministry of Education, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Department of Civil, Construction, and Environmental Engineering, Campus Box 7908, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-7908 (United States); Barlaz, Morton A. [Department of Civil, Construction, and Environmental Engineering, Campus Box 7908, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-7908 (United States)

    2016-07-01

    Tree branches are an important component of yard waste disposed in U.S. municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills. The objective of this study was to characterize the anaerobic biodegradability of hardwood (HW) and softwood (SW) branches under simulated but optimized landfill conditions by measuring methane (CH{sub 4}) yields, decay rates, the decomposition of cellulose, hemicellulose and organic carbon, as well as carbon storage factors (CSFs). Carbon conversions to CH{sub 4} and CO{sub 2} ranged from zero to 9.5% for SWs and 17.1 to 28.5% for HWs. When lipophilic or hydrophilic compounds present in some of the HW and SW samples were extracted, some samples showed increased biochemical methane potentials (BMPs). The average CH{sub 4} yield, carbon conversion, and CSF measured here, 59.4 mL CH{sub 4} g{sup −1} dry material, 13.9%, and 0.39 g carbon stored g{sup −1} dry material, respectively, represent reasonable values for use in greenhouse gas inventories in the absence of detailed wood type/species data for landfilled yard waste. - Highlights: • Characterized biodegradation of branches under simulated but optimized landfill conditions • Observed varied biodegradation between HW and SW branches with different diameters • Inhibitory extractives were observed on boughs or twigs of some branch species. • CH{sub 4} yield and carbon storage factors presented for use in landfill related inventories.

  17. Development of hardwood seed zones for Tennessee using a geographic information system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, L.S.; Schlarbaum, S.E.; Van Manen, F.; Cecich, R.A.; Saxton, A.M.; Schneider, J.F.

    2003-01-01

    For species that have no or limited information on genetic variation and adaptability to nonnative sites, there is a need for seed collection guidelines based on biological, climatological, and/or geographical criteria. Twenty-eight hardwood species are currently grown for reforestation purposes at the East Tennessee State Nursery. The majority of these species have had no genetic testing to define guidelines for seed collection location and can be distributed to sites that have a very different environment than that of seed origin(s). Poor survival and/or growth may result if seedlings are not adapted to environmental conditions at the planting location. To address this problem, 30 yr of Tennessee county precipitation and minimum temperature data were analyzed and grouped using a centroid hierarchical cluster analysis. The weather data and elevational data were entered into a Geographic Information System (GIS) and separately layered over Bailey's Ecoregions to develop a seed zone system for Tennessee. The seed zones can be used as a practical guideline for collecting seeds to ensure that the resulting seedlings will be adapted to planting environments.

  18. Decomposition and carbon storage of hardwood and softwood branches in laboratory-scale landfills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xiaoming; Barlaz, Morton A.

    2016-01-01

    Tree branches are an important component of yard waste disposed in U.S. municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills. The objective of this study was to characterize the anaerobic biodegradability of hardwood (HW) and softwood (SW) branches under simulated but optimized landfill conditions by measuring methane (CH_4) yields, decay rates, the decomposition of cellulose, hemicellulose and organic carbon, as well as carbon storage factors (CSFs). Carbon conversions to CH_4 and CO_2 ranged from zero to 9.5% for SWs and 17.1 to 28.5% for HWs. When lipophilic or hydrophilic compounds present in some of the HW and SW samples were extracted, some samples showed increased biochemical methane potentials (BMPs). The average CH_4 yield, carbon conversion, and CSF measured here, 59.4 mL CH_4 g"−"1 dry material, 13.9%, and 0.39 g carbon stored g"−"1 dry material, respectively, represent reasonable values for use in greenhouse gas inventories in the absence of detailed wood type/species data for landfilled yard waste. - Highlights: • Characterized biodegradation of branches under simulated but optimized landfill conditions • Observed varied biodegradation between HW and SW branches with different diameters • Inhibitory extractives were observed on boughs or twigs of some branch species. • CH_4 yield and carbon storage factors presented for use in landfill related inventories.

  19. Spectroscopic analysis of hot-water- and dilute-acid-extracted hardwood and softwood chips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehto, Joni; Louhelainen, Jarmo; Huttunen, Marko; Alén, Raimo

    2017-09-01

    Hot-water and dilute sulfuric acid pretreatments were performed prior to chemical pulping for silver/white birch (Betula pendula/B. pubescens) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) chips to determine if varying pretreatment conditions on the original wood material were detectable via attenuated total reflectance (ATR) infrared spectroscopy. Pretreatment conditions varied with respect to temperature (130 °C and 150 °C) and treatment time (from 30 min to 120 min). The effects of the pretreatments on the composition of wood chips were determined by ATR infrared spectroscopy. The spectral data were compared to those determined by common wood chemistry analyses to evaluate the suitability of ATR spectroscopy method for rapid detection of changes in the wood chemical composition caused by different pretreatment conditions. In addition to determining wood species-dependent differences in the wood chemical composition, analytical results indicated that most essential lignin- and carbohydrates-related phenomena taking place during hot-water and acidic pretreatments could be described by applying this simple spectral method requiring only a small sample amount and sample preparation. Such information included, for example, the cleavage of essential lignin bonds (i.e., mainly β-O-4 linkages in guaiacyl and syringyl lignin) and formation of newly condensed lignin structures under different pretreatment conditions. Carbohydrate analyses indicated significant removal of hemicelluloses (especially hardwood xylan) and hemicelluloses-derived acetyl groups during the pretreatments, but they also confirmed the highly resistant nature of cellulose towards mild pretreatments.

  20. Syringyl Methacrylate, a Hardwood Lignin-Based Monomer for High-Tg Polymeric Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmberg, Angela L; Reno, Kaleigh H; Nguyen, Ngoc A; Wool, Richard P; Epps, Thomas H

    2016-05-17

    As viable precursors to a diverse array of macromolecules, biomass-derived compounds must impart wide-ranging and precisely controllable properties to polymers. Herein, we report the synthesis and subsequent reversible addition-fragmentation chain-transfer polymerization of a new monomer, syringyl methacrylate (SM, 2,6-dimethoxyphenyl methacrylate), that can facilitate widespread property manipulations in macromolecules. Homopolymers and heteropolymers synthesized from SM and related monomers have broadly tunable and highly controllable glass transition temperatures ranging from 114 to 205 °C and zero-shear viscosities ranging from ∼0.2 kPa·s to ∼17,000 kPa·s at 220 °C, with consistent thermal stabilities. The tailorability of these properties is facilitated by the controlled polymerization kinetics of SM and the fact that one vs two o -methoxy groups negligibly affect monomer reactivity. Moreover, syringol, the precursor to SM, is an abundant component of depolymerized hardwood (e.g., oak) and graminaceous (e.g., switchgrass) lignins, making SM a potentially sustainable and low-cost candidate for tailoring macromolecular properties.

  1. Deep Eutectic Solvent Aqueous Solutions as Efficient Media for the Solubilization of Hardwood Xylans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morais, Eduarda S; Mendonça, Patrícia V; Coelho, Jorge F J; Freire, Mara G; Freire, Carmen S R; Coutinho, João A P; Silvestre, Armando J D

    2018-02-22

    This work contributes to the development of integrated lignocellulosic-based biorefineries by the pioneering exploitation of hardwood xylans by solubilization and extraction in deep eutectic solvents (DES). DES formed by choline chloride and urea or acetic acid were initially evaluated as solvents for commercial xylan as a model compound. The effects of temperature, molar ratio, and concentration of the DES aqueous solutions were evaluated and optimized by using a response surface methodology. The results obtained demonstrated the potential of these solvents, with 328.23 g L -1 of xylan solubilization using 66.7 wt % DES in water at 80 °C. Furthermore, xylans could be recovered by precipitation from the DES aqueous media in yields above 90 %. The detailed characterization of the xylans recovered after solubilization in aqueous DES demonstrated that 4-O-methyl groups were eliminated from the 4-O-methylglucuronic acids moieties and uronic acids (15 %) were cleaved from the xylan backbone during this process. The similar M w values of both pristine and recovered xylans confirmed the success of the reported procedure. DES recovery in four additional extraction cycles was also demonstrated. Finally, the successful extraction of xylans from Eucalyptus globulus wood by using aqueous solutions of DES was demonstrated. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Forest harvesting effects on soil temperature, moisture, and respiration in a bottomland hardwood forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Londo, A.J.; Messina, M.G.; Schoenholtz, S.H.

    1999-01-01

    The effect of forest disturbance on C cycling has become an issue, given concerns about escalating atmospheric C content. The authors examined the effects of harvest intensity on in situ and laboratory mineral soil respiration in an East Texas bottomland hardwood forest between 6 and 22 mo after harvesting. Treatments included a clearcut, a partial cut wherein approximately 58% of the basal area was removed, and an unharvested control. The soda-lime absorption technique was used for in situ respiration (CO 2 efflux) and the wet alkali method (NaOH) was used for laboratory mineral soil respiration. Soil temperature and moisture content were also measured. Harvesting significantly increased in situ respiration during most sampling periods. This effect was attributed to an increase in live root and microflora activity associated with postharvesting revegetation. In situ respiration increased exponentially (Q 10 relationship) as treatment soil temperatures increased, but followed a parabolic-type pattern through the range of soil moisture measured (mean range 10.4--31.5%). Mean rates of laboratory mineral soil respiration measured during the study were unaffected by cutting treatment for most sampling sessions. Overall, the mean rate of CO 2 efflux in the clearcuts was significantly higher than that in the partial cuts, which in turn was significantly higher than that in the controls. Mass balance estimates indicate that these treatment differences will have little or no long-term effect on C sequestration of these managed forests

  3. Prioritizing bird conservation actions in the Prairie Hardwood transition of the Midwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thogmartin, Wayne E.; Crimmins, Shawn M.; Pearce, Jennie

    2014-01-01

    Large-scale planning for the conservation of species is often hindered by a poor understanding of factors limiting populations. In regions with declining wildlife populations, it is critical that objective metrics of conservation success are developed to ensure that conservation actions achieve desired results. Using spatially explicit estimates of bird abundance, we evaluated several management alternatives for conserving bird populations in the Prairie Hardwood Transition of the United States. We designed landscapes conserving species at 50% of their current predicted abundance as well as landscapes attempting to achieve species population targets (which often required the doubling of current abundance). Conserving species at reduced (half of current) abundance led to few conservation conflicts. However, because of extensive modification of the landscape to suit human use, strategies for achieving regional population targets for forest bird species would be difficult under even ideal circumstances, and even more so if maintenance of grassland bird populations is also desired. Our results indicated that large-scale restoration of agricultural lands to native grassland and forest habitats may be the most productive conservation action for increasing bird population sizes but the level of landscape transition required to approach target bird population sizes may be societally unacceptable.

  4. Modeling the Effects of Harvest Alternatives on Mitigating Oak Decline in a Central Hardwood Forest Landscape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen J Wang

    Full Text Available Oak decline is a process induced by complex interactions of predisposing factors, inciting factors, and contributing factors operating at tree, stand, and landscape scales. It has greatly altered species composition and stand structure in affected areas. Thinning, clearcutting, and group selection are widely adopted harvest alternatives for reducing forest vulnerability to oak decline by removing susceptible species and declining trees. However, the long-term, landscape-scale effects of these different harvest alternatives are not well studied because of the limited availability of experimental data. In this study, we applied a forest landscape model in combination with field studies to evaluate the effects of the three harvest alternatives on mitigating oak decline in a Central Hardwood Forest landscape. Results showed that the potential oak decline in high risk sites decreased strongly in the next five decades irrespective of harvest alternatives. This is because oak decline is a natural process and forest succession (e.g., high tree mortality resulting from intense competition would eventually lead to the decrease in oak decline in this area. However, forest harvesting did play a role in mitigating oak decline and the effectiveness varied among the three harvest alternatives. The group selection and clearcutting alternatives were most effective in mitigating oak decline in the short and medium terms, respectively. The long-term effects of the three harvest alternatives on mitigating oak decline became less discernible as the role of succession increased. The thinning alternative had the highest biomass retention over time, followed by the group selection and clearcutting alternatives. The group selection alternative that balanced treatment effects and retaining biomass was the most viable alternative for managing oak decline. Insights from this study may be useful in developing effective and informed forest harvesting plans for managing oak

  5. Spatial and temporal patterns of beetles associated with coarse woody debris in managed bottomland hardwood forests.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulyshen, M., D.; Hanula, J., L.; Horn, S.; Kilgo, J., C.; Moorman, C., E.

    2004-05-13

    For. Ecol. and Mgt. 199:259-272. Malaise traps were used to sample beetles in artificial canopy gaps of different size (0.13 ha, 0.26 ha, and0.50 ha) and age in a South Carolina bottomland hardwood forest. Traps were placed at the center, edge, and in the surrounding forest of each gap. Young gaps (ý 1 year) had large amounts of coarse woody debris compared to the surrounding forest, while older gaps (ý 6 years) had virtually none. The total abundance and diversity of wood-dwelling beetles (Buprestidae, Cerambycidae, Brentidae, Bostrichidae, and Curculionidae (Scolytinae and Platypodinae)) was higher in the center of young gaps than in the center of old gaps. The abundance was higher in the center of young gaps than in the surrounding forest, while the forest surrounding old gaps and the edge of old gaps had a higher abundance and diversity of wood-dwelling beetles than did the center of old gaps. There was no difference in wood-dwelling beetle abundance between gaps of different size, but diversity was lower in 0.13 ha old gaps than in 0.26 ha or 0.50 ha old gaps. We suspect that gap size has more of an effect on woodborer abundance than indicated here because malaise traps sample a limited area. The predaceous beetle family Cleridae showed a very similar trend to that of the woodborers. Coarse woody debris is an important resource for many organisms, and our results lend further support to forest management practices that preserve coarse woody debris created during timber removal.

  6. Avian response to microclimate in canopy gaps in a bottomland hardwood forest.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Champlin, Tracey B.; Kilgo, John C.; Gumpertz, Marcia L.; Moorman, Christopher E.

    2009-04-01

    Abstract - Microclimate may infl uence use of early successional habitat by birds. We assessed the relationships between avian habitat use and microclimate (temperature, light intensity, and relative humidity) in experimentally created canopy gaps in a bottomland hardwood forest on the Savannah River Site, SC. Gaps were 2- to 3-year-old group-selection timber harvest openings of three sizes (0.13, 0.26, 0.50 ha). Our study was conducted from spring through fall, encompassing four bird-use periods (spring migration, breeding, post-breeding, and fall migration), in 2002 and 2003. We used mist netting and simultaneously recorded microclimate variables to determine the influence of microclimate on bird habitat use. Microclimate was strongly affected by net location within canopy gaps in both years. Temperature generally was higher on the west side of gaps, light intensity was greater in gap centers, and relative humidity was higher on the east side of gaps. However, we found few relationships between bird captures and the microclimate variables. Bird captures were inversely correlated with temperature during the breeding and postbreeding periods in 2002 and positively correlated with temperature during spring 2003. Captures were high where humidity was high during post-breeding 2002, and captures were low where humidity was high during spring 2003. We conclude that variations in the local microclimate had minor infl uence on avian habitat use within gaps. Instead, habitat selection in relatively mild regions like the southeastern US is based primarily on vegetation structure, while other factors, including microclimate, are less important.

  7. Biocrude oils from the fast pyrolysis of poultry litter and hardwood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agblevor, F.A.; Beis, S.; Kim, S.S.; Tarrant, R.; Mante, N.O.

    2010-01-01

    The safe and economical disposal of poultry litter is becoming a major problem for the USA poultry industry. Current disposal methods such as land application and feeding to cattle are now under pressure because of pollution of water resources due to leaching, runoffs and concern for mad cow disease contamination of the food chain. Incineration or combustion is potentially applicable to large scale operations, but for small scale growers and EPA non-attainment areas, this is not a suitable option because of the high cost of operation. Thus, there is a need for developing appropriate technologies to dispose poultry litter. Poultry litters from broiler chicken and turkey houses, as well as bedding material were converted into biocrude oil in a fast pyrolysis fluidized bed reactor. The biocrude oil yields were relatively low ranging from 36 wt% to 50 wt% depending on the age and bedding material content of the litter. The bedding material (which was mostly hardwood shavings) biocrude oil yield was 63 wt%. The higher heating value (HHV) of the poultry litter biocrude oils ranged from 26 MJ/kg to 29 MJ/kg while that of the bedding material was 24 MJ/kg. The oils had relatively high nitrogen content ranging from 4 wt% to 8 wt%, very low sulfur (<1 wt%) content and high viscosity. The viscosities of the oils appeared to be a function of both the source of litter and the pyrolysis temperature. The biochar yield ranged from 27 wt% to 40 wt% depending on the source, age and composition of the poultry litter. The biochar ash content ranged from 24 wt% to 54 wt% and was very rich in inorganic components such as potassium and phosphorous.

  8. Regeneration Responses to Management for Old-Growth Characteristics in Northern Hardwood-Conifer Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aviva J. Gottesman

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Successful tree regeneration is essential for sustainable forest management, yet it can be limited by the interaction of harvesting effects and multiple ecological drivers. In northern hardwood forests, for example, there is uncertainty whether low-intensity selection harvesting techniques will result in adequate and desirable regeneration. Our research is part of a long-term study that tests the hypothesis that a silvicultural approach called “structural complexity enhancement” (SCE can accelerate the development of late-successional forest structure and functions. Our objective is to understand the regeneration dynamics following three uneven-aged forestry treatments with high levels of retention: single-tree selection, group selection, and SCE. Regeneration density and diversity can be limited by differing treatment effects on or interactions among light availability, competitive environment, substrate, and herbivory. To explore these relationships, manipulations and controls were replicated across 2 ha treatment units at two Vermont sites. Forest inventory data were collected pre-harvest and periodically over 13 years post-harvest. We used mixed effects models with repeated measures to evaluate the effect of treatment on seedling and sapling density and diversity (Shannon–Weiner H’. The treatments were all successful in recruiting a sapling class with significantly greater sapling densities compared to the controls. However, undesirable and prolific beech (Fagus americana sprouting dominates some patches in the understory of all the treatments, creating a high degree of spatial variability in the competitive environment for regeneration. Multivariate analyses suggest that while treatment had a dominant effect, other factors were influential in driving regeneration responses. These results indicate variants of uneven-aged systems that retain or enhance elements of stand structural complexity—including old-growth characteristics

  9. Bottomland hardwood establishment and avian colonization of reforested sites in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, R.R.; Twedt, D.J.; Fredrickson, L.H.; King, S.L.; Kaminski, R.M.

    2005-01-01

    Reforestation of bottomland hardwood sites in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley has markedly increased in recent years, primarily due to financial incentive programs such as the Wetland Reserve Program, Partners for Wildlife Program, and state and private conservation programs. An avian conservation plan for the Mississippi Alluvial Valley proposes returning a substantial area of cropland to forested wetlands. Understanding how birds colonize reforested sites is important to assess the effectiveness of avian conservation. We evaluated establishment of woody species and assessed bird colonization on 89 reforested sites. These reforested sites were primarily planted with heavy-seeded oaks (Quercus spp.) and pecans (Carya illinoensis). Natural invasion of light-seeded species was expected to diversify these forests for wildlife and sustainable timber harvest. Planted tree species averaged 397 + 36 stems/ha-1, whereas naturally invading trees averaged 1675 + 241 stems/ha. However, naturally invading trees were shorter than planted trees and most natural invasion occurred <100 m from an existing forested edge. Even so, planted trees were relatively slow to develop vertical structure, especially when compared with tree species planted and managed for pulpwood production. Slow development of vertical structure resulted in grassland bird species, particularly dickcissel (Spiza americana) and red-winged blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus), being the dominant avian colonizers for the first 7 years post-planting. High priority bird species (as defined by Partners in Flight), such as prothonotary warbler (Protonotaria citrea) and wood thrush (Hylocichla mustelina), were not frequently detected until stands were 15 years old. Canonical correspondence analysis revealed tree height had the greatest influence on the bird communities colonizing reforested sites. Because colonization by forest birds is dependent on tree height, we recommend inclusion of at least one fast-growing tree

  10. Rooting of hardwood cuttings of Roxo de Valinhos fig (Ficus carica L. with different propagation strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilmar Antônio Nava

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the substrate, cuttings collection time, the position and the cutting depth, and the propagation environment on rooting of 'Purple Valinhos' fig tree cuttings in Southwestern Paraná, Brazil. Two experiments were carried out at UTFPR, Câmpus Dois Vizinhos, with hardwoods cuttings from Roxo de Valinhos fig tree. The first experiment used a randomized block design, in 3 x 3 x 2 factorial (substrate x environment x collection time, with four replications of 10 cuttings per plot. The cuttings were collected in the first fifteen days of July and August. The substrates were sand, soil and the mixture of these [1:1 (v / v]. The environments used were open sky, tunnel with plastic cover and tunnel with half-shade black net cover. The second experiment used a randomized block design, 2 x 2 x 3 factorial (shoot cutting position x soil cover x shoot cutting depth, with four replications of 12 cuttings per plot. In the factor position, the vertically (0 º inclination and inclined (45 º inclination shoot cuttings were evaluated. Soil cover was tested with mulching plastic cover or not. The tested depths were 1/3, 1/2 and 2/3 in relation to the total length of the shoot cutting. In both experiments, the following were analyzed: rooting and mortality indices, number of leaves and primary shoots, length of the three largest roots per cutting. It was conclude that, the protected environment with plastic cover on sand as substrate must recommended for the rooting of fig estaca, collecting them in the first half of July. The inclination position and cutting depth of the estaca and the substrate coverage with plastic mulching did not influence the results.

  11. Climate change and the future of natural disturbances in the central hardwood region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dale, Virginia H [ORNL; Hughes, M. Joseph [University of Tennessee (UT); Hayes, Daniel J [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    The spatial patterns and ecological processes of the southeastern upland hardwood forests have evolved to reflect past climatic conditions and natural disturbance regimes. Changes in climate can lead to disturbances that exceed their natural range of variation, and the impacts of these changes will depend on the vulnerability or resiliency of these ecosystems. Global Circulation Models generally project annual increases in temperature across the southeastern United States over the coming decades, but changes in precipitation are less consistent. Even more unclear is how climate change might affect future trends in the severity and frequency of natural disturbances, such as severe storms, fires, droughts, floods, and insect outbreaks. Here, we use a time-series satellite data record to map the spatial pattern and severity of broad classes of natural disturbances the southeast region. The data derived from this map allow analysis of regional-scale trends in natural and anthropogenic disturbances in the region over the last three decades. Throughout the region, between 5% and 25% of forest land is affected by some sort of disturbance each year since 1985. The time series reveals periodic droughts that themselves are widespread and of low severity but are associated with more localized, high-severity disturbances such as fire and insect outbreaks. The map also reveals extensive anthropogenic disturbance across the region in the form of forest conversion related to resource extraction and urban and residential development. We discuss how changes in climate and disturbance regimes might affect southeastern forests in the future via altering the exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity of these ecosystems. Changes in climate are highly likely to expose southeastern forests to more frequent and severe disturbances, but ultimately how vulnerable or resilient southeastern forests are to these changes will depend on their sensitivity and capacity to adapt to these novel

  12. Windthrow and salvage logging in an old-growth hemlock-northern hardwoods forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, K.D.; Schulte, L.A.; Guntenspergen, G.R.

    2009-01-01

    Although the initial response to salvage (also known as, post-disturbance or sanitary) logging is known to vary among system components, little is known about longer term forest recovery. We examine forest overstory, understory, soil, and microtopographic response 25 years after a 1977 severe wind disturbance on the Flambeau River State Forest in Wisconsin, USA, a portion of which was salvage logged. Within this former old-growth hemlock-northern hardwoods forest, tree dominance has shifted from Eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) to broad-leaf deciduous species (Ulmus americana, Acer saccharum, Tilia americana, Populus tremuloides, and Betula alleghaniensis) in both the salvaged and unsalvaged areas. While the biological legacies of pre-disturbance seedlings, saplings, and mature trees were initially more abundant in the unsalvaged area, regeneration through root suckers and stump sprouts was common in both areas. After 25 years, tree basal area, sapling density, shrub layer density, and seedling cover had converged between unsalvaged and salvaged areas. In contrast, understory herb communities differed between salvaged and unsalvaged forest, with salvaged forest containing significantly higher understory herb richness and cover, and greater dominance of species benefiting from disturbance, especially Solidago species. Soil bulk density, pH, organic carbon content, and organic nitrogen content were also significantly higher in the salvaged area. The structural legacy of tip-up microtopography remains more pronounced in the unsalvaged area, with significantly taller tip-up mounds and deeper pits. Mosses and some forest herbs, including Athyrium filix-femina and Hydrophyllum virginianum, showed strong positive responses to this tip-up microrelief, highlighting the importance of these structural legacies for understory biodiversity. In sum, although the pathways of recovery differed, this forest appeared to be as resilient to the compound disturbances of windthrow

  13. Stand response of 16-year-old upland hardwood regeneration to crop-tree release on a medium quality site in the Southern Appalachians after 24 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. Henry. McNab

    2010-01-01

    A crop tree release was made in a 16-year-old upland hardwood stand on a medium-quality site using one of two treatments: mechanical or chemical. After 24 years there was no significant difference in stand response between the two treatments as measured by mean increase in stand diameter, basal area, total height, height to base of live...

  14. Simulated nitrogen deposition causes a decline of intra- and extraradical abundance of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and changes in microbial community structure in northern hardwood forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linda T.A. van Diepen; Erik A. Lilleskov; Kurt S. Pregitzer; R. Michael Miller

    2010-01-01

    Increased nitrogen (N) deposition caused by human activities has altered ecosystem functioning and biodiversity. To understand the effects of altered N availability, we measured the abundance of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and the microbial community in northern hardwood forests exposed to long-term (12 years) simulated N deposition (30 kg N ha-1...

  15. Multiscale habitat suitability index models for priority landbirds in the Central Hardwoods and West Gulf Coastal Plain/Ouachitas Bird Conservation Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    John M. Tirpak; D. Todd Jones-Farrand; Frank R., III Thompson; Daniel J. Twedt; William B., III Uihlein

    2009-01-01

    Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) models were developed to assess habitat quality for 40 priority bird species in the Central Hardwoods and West Gulf Coastal Plain/Ouachitas Bird Conservation Regions. The models incorporated both site and landscape environmental variables from one of six nationally consistent datasets. Potential habitat was first defined from unique...

  16. Root-collar diameter and third-year survival of three bottomland hardwoods planted on former agricultural fields in the Lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emile S. Gardiner; Douglass F. Jacobs; Ronald P. Overton; George Hernandez

    2009-01-01

    Athough the Lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley (LMAV) has experienced substantial afforestation of former agricultural fields during the past 2 decades, seedling standards that support satisfactory outplanting performance of bottomland hardwood tree species are not available. A series of experimental plantations, established on three afforestation sites in the LMAV,...

  17. Test of the Center for Automated Processing of Hardwoods' Auto-Image Detection and Computer-Based Grading and Cutup System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip A. Araman; Janice K. Wiedenbeck

    1995-01-01

    Automated lumber grading and yield optimization using computer controlled saws will be plausible for hardwoods if and when lumber scanning systems can reliably identify all defects by type. Existing computer programs could then be used to grade the lumber, identify the best cut-up solution, and control the sawing machines. The potential value of a scanning grading...

  18. Composition and seasonal phenology of a nonindigenous root-feeding weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) complex in northern hardwood forests in the Great Lakes Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. A. Pinski; W. J. Mattson; K. F. Raffa

    2005-01-01

    Phyllobius oblongus (L.), Polydrusus sericeus (Schaller), and Sciaphilus asperatus (Bonsdorff) comprise a complex of nonindigenous root-feeding weevils in northern hardwood forests of the Great Lakes region. Little is known about their detailed biology, seasonality, relative abundance, and distribution patterns....

  19. Improving disease resistance of butternut (Juglans cinerea), a threatened fine hardwood: a case of single-tree selection through genetic improvement and deployment

    Science.gov (United States)

    C.H. Michler; P.M. Pijut; D.F. Jacobs; R. Meilan; K.E. Woeste; M.E. Ostry

    2005-01-01

    Approaches for the development of disease-resistant butternut (Juglans cinerea L.) are reviewed. Butternut is a threatened fine hardwood throughout its natural range in eastern North America because of the invasion of the exotic fungus, Sirococcus clavigignenti-juglandacearum Nair, Kostichka and Kuntz, which causes butternut canker...

  20. Developing a unified monitoring and reporting system: a key to successful restoration of mixed-oak forests throughout the central hardwood region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel A. Yaussy; Gregory J. Nowacki; Thomas M. Schuler; Daniel C. Dey

    2008-01-01

    Many national forests and grasslands in the Central Hardwoods region of the United States recently have undergone Land Management Plan revision, which include management areas that promote restoration through a variety of management activities. Monitoring is a vital component of adaptive management whereby the effects from a variety of treatments (including controls)...

  1. Bio-oil production of softwood and hardwood forest industry residues through fast and intermediate pyrolysis and its chromatographic characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torri, Isadora Dalla Vecchia; Paasikallio, Ville; Faccini, Candice Schmitt; Huff, Rafael; Caramão, Elina Bastos; Sacon, Vera; Oasmaa, Anja; Zini, Claudia Alcaraz

    2016-01-01

    Bio-oils were produced through intermediate (IP) and fast pyrolysis (FP), using Eucalyptus sp. (hardwood) and Picea abies (softwood), wood wastes produced in large scale in Pulp and Paper industries. Characterization of these bio-oils was made using GC/qMS and GC×GC/TOFMS. The use of GC×GC provided a broader characterization of bio-oils and it allowed tracing potential markers of hardwood bio-oil, such as dimethoxy-phenols, which might co-elute in 1D-GC. Catalytic FP increased the percentage of aromatic hydrocarbons in P. abies bio-oil, indicating its potential for fuel production. However, the presence of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) draws attention to the need of a proper management of pyrolysis process in order to avoid the production of toxic compounds and also to the importance of GC×GC/TOFMS use to avoid co-elutions and consequent inaccuracies related to identification and quantification associated with GC/qMS. Ketones and phenols were the major bio-oil compounds and they might be applied to polymer production. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparative study for hardwood and softwood forest biomass: chemical characterization, combustion phases and gas and particulate matter emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Simone Simões; de Carvalho, João Andrade; Costa, Maria Angélica Martins; Soares Neto, Turíbio Gomes; Dellani, Rafael; Leite, Luiz Henrique Scavacini

    2014-07-01

    Two different types of typical Brazilian forest biomass were burned in the laboratory in order to compare their combustion characteristics and pollutant emissions. Approximately 2 kg of Amazon biomass (hardwood) and 2 kg of Araucaria biomass (softwood) were burned. Gaseous emissions of CO2, CO, and NOx and particulate matter smaller than 2.5 μm (PM2.5) were evaluated in the flaming and smoldering combustion phases. Temperature, burn rate, modified combustion efficiency, emissions factor, and particle diameter and concentration were studied. A continuous analyzer was used to quantify gas concentrations. A DataRam4 and a Cascade Impactor were used to sample PM2.5. Araucaria biomass (softwood) had a lignin content of 34.9%, higher than the 23.3% of the Amazon biomass (hardwood). CO2 and CO emissions factors seem to be influenced by lignin content. Maximum concentrations of CO2, NOx and PM2.5 were observed in the flaming phase. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Consequences of landscape patterns on the genetic composition of remnant hardwood stands in the Southeast: A pilot study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godt, Mary Jo, W.; Hamrick, J., L.

    2003-01-01

    Report of a pilot study intended to generate genetic data for a tree species in fragmented hardwood stands. It was anticipated that this data would permit assessment of the feasibility of long-term genetic research for which external funding support could be generated. A second objective was to initiate studies that addressed fundamental questions of how landscape structure, in conjunction with the population dynamics and reproductive characteristics of the tree species, influences genetic structure and long-term viability of hardwood forest stands on the Savannah River Site and in similar southeastern landscapes. Fragmentation of plant habitats can result in small, genetically isolated populations. Spatial isolation and small population size may have several consequences, including reduced reproduction, increased inbreeding and the stochastic loss of genetic variability. Such losses of genetic and genotypic diversity can reduce plant fitness and may diminish population viability. Deleterious genetic effects resulting from small population sizes can be ameliorated by gene flow via pollen and seed into fragmented populations.

  4. Silica uptake and release in live and decaying biomass in a northern hardwood forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clymans, Wim; Conley, Daniel J; Battles, John J; Frings, Patrick J; Koppers, Mary Margaret; Likens, Gene E; Johnson, Chris E

    2016-11-01

    In terrestrial ecosystems, a large portion (20-80%) of the dissolved Si (DSi) in soil solution has passed through vegetation. While the importance of this "terrestrial Si filter" is generally accepted, few data exist on the pools and fluxes of Si in forest vegetation and the rate of release of Si from decomposing plant tissues. We quantified the pools and fluxes of Si through vegetation and coarse woody debris (CWD) in a northern hardwood forest ecosystem (Watershed 6, W6) at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest (HBEF) in New Hampshire, USA. Previous work suggested that the decomposition of CWD may have significantly contributed to an excess of DSi reported in stream-waters following experimental deforestation of Watershed 2 (W2) at the HBEF. We found that woody biomass (wood + bark) and foliage account for approximately 65% and 31%, respectively, of the total Si in biomass at the HBEF. During the decay of American beech (Fagus grandifolia) boles, Si loss tracked the whole-bole mass loss, while yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis) and sugar maple (Acer saccharum) decomposition resulted in a preferential Si retention of up to 30% after 16 yr. A power-law model for the changes in wood and bark Si concentrations during decomposition, in combination with an exponential model for whole-bole mass loss, successfully reproduced Si dynamics in decaying boles. Our data suggest that a minimum of 50% of the DSi annually produced in the soil of a biogeochemical reference watershed (W6) derives from biogenic Si (BSi) dissolution. The major source is fresh litter, whereas only ~2% comes from the decay of CWD. Decay of tree boles could only account for 9% of the excess DSi release observed following the experimental deforestation of W2. Therefore, elevated DSi concentrations after forest disturbance are largely derived from other sources (e.g., dissolution of BSi from forest floor soils and/or mineral weathering). © 2016 The Authors. Ecology, published by Wiley Periodicals

  5. Foraging behavior of pileated woodpeckers in partial cut and uncut bottomland hardwood forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, P.; King, Sammy L.; Kaller, Michael D.

    2009-01-01

    In bottomland hardwood forests, partial cutting techniques are increasingly advocated and used to create habitat for priority wildlife like Louisiana black bear (Ursus americanus luteolus), white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), and Neotropical migrants. Although partial cutting may be beneficial to some species, those that use dead wood may be negatively affected since large diameter and poor quality trees (deformed, moribund, or dead) are rare, but normally targeted for removal. On the other hand, partial cutting can create dead wood if logging slash is left on-site. We studied foraging behavior of pileated woodpeckers (Dryocopus pileatus) in one- and two-year-old partial cuts designed to benefit priority species and in uncut forest during winter, spring, and summer of 2006 and 2007 in Louisiana. Males and females did not differ in their use of tree species, dbh class, decay class, foraging height, use of foraging tactics or substrate types; however, males foraged on larger substrates than females. In both partial cut and uncut forest, standing live trees were most frequently used (83% compared to 14% for standing dead trees and 3% for coarse woody debris); however, dead trees were selected (i.e. used out of proportion to availability). Overcup oak (Quercus lyrata) and bitter pecan (Carya aquatica) were also selected and sugarberry (Celtis laevigata) avoided. Pileated woodpeckers selected trees >= 50 cm dbh and avoided trees in smaller dbh classes (10-20 cm). Density of selected foraging substrates was the same in partial cut and uncut forest. Of the foraging substrates, woodpeckers spent 54% of foraging time on live branches and boles, 37% on dead branches and boles, and 9% on vines. Of the foraging tactics, the highest proportion of foraging time was spent excavating (58%), followed by pecking (14%), gleaning (14%), scaling (7%), berry-eating (4%), and probing (3%). Woodpecker use of foraging tactics and substrates, and foraging height and substrate

  6. Comparison of lab, pilot, and industrial scale low consistency mechanical refining for improvements in enzymatic digestibility of pretreated hardwood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Brandon W; Venditti, Richard; Park, Sunkyu; Jameel, Hasan

    2014-09-01

    Mechanical refining has been shown to improve biomass enzymatic digestibility. In this study industrial high-yield sodium carbonate hardwood pulp was subjected to lab, pilot and industrial refining to determine if the mechanical refining improves the enzymatic hydrolysis sugar conversion efficiency differently at different refining scales. Lab, pilot and industrial refining increased the biomass digestibility for lignocellulosic biomass relative to the unrefined material. The sugar conversion was increased from 36% to 65% at 5 FPU/g of biomass with industrial refining at 67.0 kWh/t, which was more energy efficient than lab and pilot scale refining. There is a maximum in the sugar conversion with respect to the amount of refining energy. Water retention value is a good predictor of improvements in sugar conversion for a given fiber source and composition. Improvements in biomass digestibility with refining due to lab, pilot plant and industrial refining were similar with respect to water retention value. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Subfossil leaves reveal a new upland hardwood component of the pre-European Piedmont landscape,Lancaster County, Pennsylvania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara J Elliott

    Full Text Available Widespread deforestation, agriculture, and construction of milldams by European settlers greatly influenced valley-bottom stream morphology and riparian vegetation in the northeastern USA. The former broad, tussock-sedge wetlands with small, anastomosing channels were converted into today's incised, meandering streams with unstable banks that support mostly weedy, invasive vegetation. Vast accumulations of fine-grained "legacy" sediments that blanket the regional valley-bottom Piedmont landscape now are being reworked from stream banks, significantly impairing the ecological health of downstream water bodies, most notably the Chesapeake Bay. However, potential restoration is impaired by lack of direct knowledge of the pre-settlement riparian and upslope floral ecosystems. We studied the subfossil leaf flora of Denlingers Mill, an obsolete (breached milldam site in southeastern Pennsylvania that exhibits a modern secondary forest growing atop thin soils, above bedrock outcrops immediately adjacent to a modified, incised stream channel. Presumably, an overhanging old-growth forest also existed on this substrate until the early 1700s and was responsible for depositing exceptionally preserved, minimally transported subfossil leaves into hydric soil strata, which immediately underlie post-European settlement legacy sediments. We interpret the eleven identified species of the subfossil assemblage to primarily represent a previously unknown, upland Red Oak-American Beech mixed hardwood forest. Some elements also appear to belong to a valley-margin Red Maple-Black Ash swamp forest, consistent with preliminary data from a nearby site. Thus, our results add significantly to a more complete understanding of the pre-European settlement landscape, especially of the hardwood tree flora. Compared with the modern forest, it is apparent that both lowland and upslope forests in the region have been modified significantly by historical activities. Our study

  8. Mineral Soil Carbon in Managed Hardwood Forests of the Northeastern US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vario, C.; Friedland, A.; Hornig, C.

    2013-12-01

    New England is characterized by extensive forest cover and large reservoirs of soil carbon (C). In northern hardwood forests, mineral soil C can account for up to 50% of total ecosystem C. There has been an increasing demand for forests to serve both as a C sink and a renewable energy source, and effective management of the ecosystem C balance relies on accurate modeling of each compartment of the ecosystem. However, the dynamics of soil C storage with respect to forest use are variable and poorly understood, particularly in mineral soils. For example, current regional models assume C pools after forest harvesting do not change, while some studies suggest that belowground mineral soil C pools can be affected by disturbances at the soil surface. We quantified mineral soil C pools in previously clear-cut stands in seven research or protected forests across New York, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, and Vermont. The ages of the sites sampled ranged from recently cleared to those with no disturbance history, with 21 forest stands represented in the study. Within each research forest studied, physical parameters such as soil type, forest type, slope and land-use history (aside from forest harvest) did not vary between the stands of different ages. Soil samples were collected to a depth of 60 cm below the mineral-organic boundary using a gas-powered augur and 9.5-cm diameter drill bit. Samples were collected in 10-cm increments in shallow mineral soil and 15-cm increments from 30-60 cm depth. Carbon, nitrogen (N), pH, texture and soil mineralogy were measured across the regional sites. At Bartlett Experimental Forest (BEF) in New Hampshire, mineral soil biogeochemistry in cut and uncut sites was studied at a finer scale. Measurements included soil temperature to 55 cm depth, carbon compound analyses using Py-GCMS and soil microbial messenger RNA extractions from mineral soil. Finally, we simulated C dynamics after harvesting by building a model in Stella, with a particular

  9. Improved Wood Properties Through Genetic Manipulation: Engineering of Syringyl Lignin in Softwood Species Through Xylem-Specific Expression of Hardwood Syringyl Monolignol Pathway Genes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandrashekhar P. Joshi; Vincent L. Chiang

    2009-01-29

    Project Objective: Our long-term goal is to genetically engineer higher value raw materials with desirable wood properties to promote energy efficiency, international competitiveness, and environmental responsiveness of the U.S. forest products industry. The immediate goal of this project was to produce the first higher value softwood raw materials engineered with a wide range of syringyl lignin quantities. Summary: The most important wood property affecting directly the levels of energy, chemical and bleaching requirements for kraft pulp production is lignin. Softwoods contain almost exclusively chemically resistant guaiacyl (G) lignin, whereas hardwoods have more reactive or easily degradable lignins of the guaiacyl (G)-syringyl (S) type. It is also well established that the reactive S lignin component is the key factor that permits much lower effective alkali and temperature, shorter pulping time and less bleaching stages for processing hardwoods than for softwoods. Furthermore, our pulping kinetic study explicitly demonstrated that every increase in one unit of the lignin S/G ratio would roughly double the rate of lignin removal. These are clear evidence that softwoods genetically engineered with S lignin are keys to revolutionizing the energy efficiency and enhancing the environmental performance of this industry. Softwoods and hardwoods share the same genetic mechanisms for the biosynthesis of G lignin. However, in hardwoods, three additional genes branch out from the G-lignin pathway and become specifically engaged in regulating S lignin biosynthesis. In this research, we simultaneously transferred aspen S-specific genes into a model softwood, black spruce, to engineer S lignin.

  10. Use of Excel ion exchange equilibrium solver with WinGEMS to model and predict NPE distribution in the Mead/Westvaco Evandale, TX, hardwood bleach plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher Litvay; Alan Rudie; Peter Hart

    2003-01-01

    An Excel spreadsheet developed to solve the ion-exchange equilibrium in wood pulps has been linked by dynamic data exchange to WinGEMS and used to model the non-process elements in the hardwood bleach plant of the Mead/Westvaco Evandale mill. Pulp and filtrate samples were collected from the diffusion washers and final wash press of the bleach plant. A WinGEMS model of...

  11. Effects of repeated growing season prescribed fire on the structure and composition of pine-hardwood forests in the southeastern Piedmont, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew Reilly; Kenneth Outcalt; Joseph O’Brien; Dale Wade

    2016-01-01

    We examined the effects of repeated growing season prescribed fire on the structure and composition of mixed pine–hardwood forests in the southeastern Piedmont region, Georgia, USA. Plots were burned two to four times over an eight-year period with low intensity surface fires during one of four six-week long periods from early April to mid-September. Density...

  12. Vital statistics of the union of Myanmar, land use, forest and cover area, annual allowable cut of teak and other hardwoods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sein Maung Wint

    1993-01-01

    Statistical data of net area sown, fallow land, culturable wasteland, reserved forest and forest area (1) by category; (2) by state and division; (3) by forest type; (4) by forest function; (5) by working circle of the Union of Myanmar are shown. Statistical data showing annual allowable cut of teak and other hardwoods by state/division can also be seen. Myanmar forest and woodland area together with other 17 countries of the world are included for comparison

  13. Vital statistics of the union of Myanmar, land use, forest and cover area, annual allowable cut of teak and other hardwoods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wint, Sein Maung

    1993-10-01

    Statistical data of net area sown, fallow land, culturable wasteland, reserved forest and forest area (1) by category; (2) by state and division; (3) by forest type; (4) by forest function; (5) by working circle of the Union of Myanmar are shown. Statistical data showing annual allowable cut of teak and other hardwoods by state/division can also be seen. Myanmar forest and woodland area together with other 17 countries of the world are included for comparison

  14. Vertical leaf area distribution, light transmittance, and application of the Beer-Lambert Law in four mature hardwood stands in the southern Appalachians

    Science.gov (United States)

    James M. Vose; Neal H. Sullivan; Barton D. Clinton; Paul V. Bolstad

    1995-01-01

    We quantified stand leaf area index and vertical leaf area distribution, and developed canopy extinction coefficients (k), in four mature hardwood stands. Leaf area index, calculated from litter fall and specific leaf area (cm²·g-1), ranged from 4.3 to 5.4 m²·m-2. In three of the four stands, leaf area was distributed in...

  15. Estimating number of workers potentially at risk of exposure to hardwood dust in certain industrial sectors in Italy using a national register.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarselli, Alberto; Di Marzio, Davide

    2014-11-24

    Hardwood dust is a well-known human carcinogen and its use is common in several economic activities. The aim of this study was to assess the extent of occupational exposure to hardwood dust in certain sectors of Italian industry. Information on occupational exposures was collected from enterprise exposure registers that must by law be reported to the National Workers' Compensation Authority, as at 31 December 2011. Data stored in the database included economic activity sector, work force size and exposed workers. The number of workers potentially exposed was estimated for some of the industrial sectors from national occupational statistics in Italy. The economic sector with the highest number of potentially exposed workers to hardwood dust was that classified as the manufacture of other wooden furniture with 15,760 men and 2,771 women, while the highest percentage of enterprises that had sent data (according to the ISTAT 2001 census) was in building and repair of non-metallic ships (21%). The systematic recording of occupational exposures is a source of data that permits recognition of high risk situations and aids exposure assessment for epidemiological studies.

  16. Effects of Repeated Growing Season Prescribed Fire on the Structure and Composition of Pine–Hardwood Forests in the Southeastern Piedmont, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J. Reilly

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We examined the effects of repeated growing season prescribed fire on the structure and composition of mixed pine–hardwood forests in the southeastern Piedmont region, Georgia, USA. Plots were burned two to four times over an eight-year period with low intensity surface fires during one of four six-week long periods from early April to mid-September. Density of saplings (0.25–11.6 cm diameter at breast height was significantly reduced after one or two fires during the first four-year period. Sapling density declined with additional burning over the next four years, but density of mesic hardwoods including sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua and red maple (Acer rubrum remained relatively high (~865 stems ha−1. Repeated burning had little effect on density or basal area of trees (≥11.7 cm dbh and changes in overstory structure were limited to small increases in the quadratic mean diameter of all trees and pines. We found little evidence to suggest differential effects on structure or composition due to timing of burn within the growing season. Although repeated growing season burning alters midstory structure and composition, burning alone is unlikely to result in immediate shifts in overstory composition or structure in mixed pine–hardwood forests of the southeastern Piedmont region.

  17. Life cycle environmental performance of renewable building materials in the context of residential construction : phase II research report: an extension to the 2005 phase I research report. Module C, Life-cycle inventory of hardwood lumber manufacturing in the Northeast and North Central United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard Bergman; Scott A. Bowe

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this study was to find the environmental impact of hardwood lumber production through a gate-to-gate Life-Cycle Inventory (LCI) on hardwood sawmills in the northeast and northcentral (NE/NC) United States. Primary mill data was collected per CORRIM Research Guidelines (CORRIM 2001). Life-cycle analysis is beyond the scope of the study.

  18. Life cycle environmental performance of renewable building materials in the context of residential construction : phase II research report: an extension to the 2005 phase I research report. Module L, Life-cycle inventory of hardwood lumber manufacturing in the Southeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard D. Bergman; Scott A. Bowe

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this study was to gain an understanding of the environmental impact of hardwood lumber production through a gate-to-gate life-cycle inventory (LCI) of hardwood sawmills in the Southeastern United States (SE). Primary mill data were collected per Consortium on Research for Renewable Industrial Materials (CORRIM) Research Guidelines. Life-cycle impact...

  19. Technical assessment of forest road network using Backmund and surface distribution algorithm in a hardwood forest of Hyrcanian zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parsakhoo, P.

    2016-07-01

    Aim of study: Corrected Backmund and Surface Distribution Algorithms (SDA) for analysis of forest road network are introduced and presented in this study. Research was carried out to compare road network performance between two districts in a hardwood forest. Area of study: Shast Kalateh forests, Iran. Materials and methods: In uncorrected Backmund algorithm, skidding distance was determined by calculating road density and spacing and then it was designed as Potential Area for Skidding Operations (PASO) in ArcGIS software. To correct this procedure, the skidding constraint areas were taken using GPS and then removed from PASO. In SDA, shortest perpendicular distance from geometrical center of timber compartments to road was measured at both districts. Main results: In corrected Backmund, forest openness in district I and II were 70.3% and 69.5%, respectively. Therefore, there was little difference in forest openness in the districts based on the uncorrected Backmund. In SDA, the mean distance from geometrical center of timber compartments to the roads of districts I and II were 199.45 and 149.31 meters, respectively. Forest road network distribution in district II was better than that of district I relating to SDA. Research highlights: It was concluded that uncorrected Backmund was not precise enough to assess forest road network, while corrected Backmund could exhibit a real PASO by removing skidding constraints. According to presented algorithms, forest road network performance in district II was better than district I. (Author)

  20. Effects of annual and interannual environmental variability on soil fungi associated with an old-growth, temperate hardwood forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, David J

    2015-06-01

    Seasonal and interannual variability in temperature, precipitation and chemical resources may regulate fungal community structure in forests but the effect of such variability is still poorly understood. In this study, I examined changes in fungal communities over two years and how these changes were correlated to natural variation in soil conditions. Soil cores were collected every month for three years from permanent plots established in an old-growth hardwood forest, and molecular methods were used to detect fungal species. Species richness and diversity were not consistent between years with richness and diversity significantly affected by season in one year but significantly affected by depth in the other year. These differences were associated with variation in late winter snow cover. Fungal communities significantly varied by plot location, season and depth and differences were consistent between years but fungal species within the community were not consistent in their seasonality or in their preference for certain soil depths. Some fungal species, however, were found to be consistently correlated with soil chemistry across sampled years. These results suggest that fungal community changes reflect the behavior of the individual species within the community pool and how those species respond to local resource availability. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Characterization of cytokinin signaling and homeostasis gene families in two hardwood tree species: Populus trichocarpa and Prunus persica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immanen, Juha; Nieminen, Kaisa; Duchens Silva, Héctor; Rodríguez Rojas, Fernanda; Meisel, Lee A; Silva, Herman; Albert, Victor A; Hvidsten, Torgeir R; Helariutta, Ykä

    2013-12-16

    Through the diversity of cytokinin regulated processes, this phytohormone has a profound impact on plant growth and development. Cytokinin signaling is involved in the control of apical and lateral meristem activity, branching pattern of the shoot, and leaf senescence. These processes influence several traits, including the stem diameter, shoot architecture, and perennial life cycle, which define the development of woody plants. To facilitate research about the role of cytokinin in regulation of woody plant development, we have identified genes associated with cytokinin signaling and homeostasis pathways from two hardwood tree species. Taking advantage of the sequenced black cottonwood (Populus trichocarpa) and peach (Prunus persica) genomes, we have compiled a comprehensive list of genes involved in these pathways. We identified genes belonging to the six families of cytokinin oxidases (CKXs), isopentenyl transferases (IPTs), LONELY GUY genes (LOGs), two-component receptors, histidine containing phosphotransmitters (HPts), and response regulators (RRs). All together 85 Populus and 45 Prunus genes were identified, and compared to their Arabidopsis orthologs through phylogenetic analyses. In general, when compared to Arabidopsis, differences in gene family structure were often seen in only one of the two tree species. However, one class of genes associated with cytokinin signal transduction, the CKI1-like family of two-component histidine kinases, was larger in both Populus and Prunus than in Arabidopsis.

  2. Adsorption of copper and zinc by biochars produced from pyrolysis of hardwood and corn straw in aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xincai; Chen, Guangcun; Chen, Linggui; Chen, Yingxu; Lehmann, Johannes; McBride, Murray B; Hay, Anthony G

    2011-10-01

    Biochars produced by pyrolysis of hardwood at 450 °C (HW450) and corn straw at 600 °C (CS600) were characterized and investigated as adsorbents for the removal of Cu(II) and Zn(II) from aqueous solution. The adsorption data were well described by a Langmuir isotherm, with maximum Cu(II) and Zn(II) adsorption capacities of 12.52 and 11.0 mg/g for CS600, 6.79 and 4.54 mg/g for HW450, respectively. Thermodynamic analysis suggested that the adsorption was an endothermic process and did not occur spontaneously. Although Cu(II) adsorption was only marginally affected by Zn(II), Cu(II) competed with Zn(II) for binding sites at Cu(II) and Zn(II) concentrations ≥ 1.0mM. Results from this study indicated that plant-residue or agricultural waste derived biochar can act as effective surface sorbent, but their ability to treat mixed waste streams needs to be carefully evaluated on an individual basis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of biodegradation on thermogravimetric and chemical characteristics of hardwood and softwood by brown-rot fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhenzhong; Fan, Qi; He, Zesen; Wang, Zhinan; Wang, Xiaobo; Sun, Jin

    2016-07-01

    The thermogravimetric and chemical characterization of hardwood Eucalyptus urophylla (Ep) and softwood Pinus massoniana (Mp) pretreated by brown-rot fungus Gloeophyllum trabeum were investigated. The results indicated that the brown-rot fungus pretreatment can optimize the thermal decomposition and decrease the initiation temperatures (8-11°C lower) of both the Ep and Mp pyrolysis. The mean activation energy values of the bio-treated samples were 29.7kJ/mol (for Ep) and 42.3kJ/mol (for Mp) lower than that of the un-treated samples at the conversion rate from 0.1 to 0.7 based on Flynn-Wall-Ozawa (FWO) method. After the bio-pretreatment, the required temperatures were lower (4-7°C) for the pyrolysis rates of hemicellulose and cellulose in Mp reaching maximum and termination. However, the situation was just the opposite for Ep. The variations in chemical properties of hydrogen bonding, as well as the relative changes in lignin/carbohydrate composition of both wood species were also examined. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Determination of Screw and Nail Withdrawal Strengths in Parallel and Perpendicular to Grain of some Hardwoods of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadegh Maleki

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, screw and nail withdrawal strengths parallel and perpendicular longitudinal to grain of some hardwoods; oak (Quercus castaneifolia, hornbeam (Carpinus betulus, beech (Fagus orientalis, Sycamore (Platanus oriantalis and poplar (Populus deltoids were investigated. The tests were conducted following ASTM D 1761 with specimen dimension of 15×5×5(T×R×L. Three kinds of screws namely sheet metal screw, wood screw and coarse drywall screw with diameter of 4 and 5 mm were used. Three different nails with nominal diameter of 2.5, 3.25 and 3.75 mm were also used. The highest screw withdrawal strengths parallel and perpendicular to grain were related to hornbeam, beech, oak, Sycamore and poplar respectively. Furthermore, the highest nail withdrawal strengths parallel and perpendicular to grain were related to hornbeam, oak, beech, Sycamore and poplar respectively for nails with 3.75 mm diameter. Higher density and shear strength of hornbeam compared to the other species accounts for its high screw and nail withdrawal strengths parallel and perpendicular to grain.

  5. Phylogenetic Relationships among Species of Phellinus sensu stricto, Cause of White Trunk Rot of Hardwoods, from Northern North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas J. Brazee

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Species in Phellinus s.s. are some of the most important wood-decaying fungal pathogens in northern temperate forests, yet data on species incidence in North America remains limited. Therefore, phylogenetic analyses were performed using four loci (ITS, nLSU, tef1 and rpb2 with isolates representing 13 species. Results of phylogenetic analyses using maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference revealed that eight species of Phellinus s.s. occur in North America, and include: P. alni, P. arctostaphyli, P. betulinus, P. lundellii, P. nigricans, P. tremulae and two undescribed species, P. NA1 and P. NA2. Meanwhile, P. tuberculosus, P. igniarius s.s., P. populicola, P. laevigatus s.s. and P. orienticus were not detected and appear restricted to Europe and/or Asia. The tef1 dataset outperformed all other loci used and was able to discriminate among all 13 of the currently known Phellinus s.s. species with significant statistical support. The internal transcribed spacer (ITS region performed well but a high level of intraspecific variation could lead to inflated taxa recognition. Phellinus alni exhibited the broadest host range, as demonstrated previously, and appears to be the most common species in northern hardwood (Acer-Betula-Fagus, northern floodplain (Fraxinus-Populus-Ulmus and coastal alder (Alnus forests of North America.

  6. Harvest-related edge effects on prey availability and foraging of hooded warblers in a bottomland hardwood forest.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Kilgo

    2005-04-20

    The effects of harvest-created canopy gaps in bottomland hardwood forests on arthropod abundance and, hence, the foraging ecology of birds are poorly understood. I predicted that arthropod abundance would be high near edges of group-selection harvest gaps and lower in the surrounding forest, and that male Hooded Warblers (Wilsonia citrina) foraging near gaps would find more prey per unit time than those foraging in the surrounding forest. In fact, arthropod abundance was greater >100 m from a gap edge than at 0-30 m or 30-100 m from an edge, due to their abundance on switchcane (Arundinaria gigantea); arthropods did not differ in abundance among distances from gaps on oaks (Quercus spp.) or red maple (Acer rubrum). Similarly, Hooded Warbler foraging attack rates were not higher near gap edges: when foraging for fledglings, attack rate did not differ among distances from gaps, but when foraging for themselves, attack rates actually were lower 0-30 m from gap edges than 30-100 m or >100 m from a gap edge. Foraging attack rate was positively associated with arthropod abundance. Hooded Warblers apparently encountered fewer prey and presumably foraged less efficiently where arthropods were least abundant, i.e., near gaps. That attack rates among birds foraging for fledglings were not affected by distance from gap (and hence arthropod abundance) suggests that prey availability may not be limiting at any location across the forest, despite the depressing effects of gaps on arthropod abundance.

  7. Concentrations and content of mercury in bark, wood, and leaves in hardwoods and conifers in four forested sites in the northeastern USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Yanai, Ruth D; Driscoll, Charles T; Montesdeoca, Mario; Smith, Kevin T

    2018-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is deposited from the atmosphere to remote areas such as forests, but the amount of Hg in trees is not well known. To determine the importance of Hg in trees, we analyzed foliage, bark and bole wood of eight tree species at four sites in the northeastern USA (Huntington Forest, NY; Sleepers River, VT; Hubbard Brook, NH; Bear Brook, ME). Foliar concentrations of Hg averaged 16.3 ng g-1 among the hardwood species, which was significantly lower than values in conifers, which averaged 28.6 ng g-1 (p < 0.001). Similarly, bark concentrations of Hg were lower (p < 0.001) in hardwoods (7.7 ng g-1) than conifers (22.5 ng g-1). For wood, concentrations of Hg were higher in yellow birch (2.1-2.8 ng g-1) and white pine (2.3 ng g-1) than in the other species, which averaged 1.4 ng g-1 (p < 0.0001). Sites differed significantly in Hg concentrations of foliage and bark (p = 0.02), which are directly exposed to the atmosphere, but the concentration of Hg in wood depended more on species (p < 0.001) than site (p = 0.60). The Hg contents of tree tissues in hardwood stands, estimated from modeled biomass and measured concentrations at each site, were higher in bark (mean of 0.10 g ha-1) and wood (0.16 g ha-1) than in foliage (0.06 g ha-1). In conifer stands, because foliar concentrations were higher, the foliar pool tended to be more important. Quantifying Hg in tree tissues is essential to understanding the pools and fluxes of Hg in forest ecosystems.

  8. Concentrations and content of mercury in bark, wood, and leaves in hardwoods and conifers in four forested sites in the northeastern USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanai, Ruth D.; Driscoll, Charles T.; Montesdeoca, Mario; Smith, Kevin T.

    2018-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is deposited from the atmosphere to remote areas such as forests, but the amount of Hg in trees is not well known. To determine the importance of Hg in trees, we analyzed foliage, bark and bole wood of eight tree species at four sites in the northeastern USA (Huntington Forest, NY; Sleepers River, VT; Hubbard Brook, NH; Bear Brook, ME). Foliar concentrations of Hg averaged 16.3 ng g-1 among the hardwood species, which was significantly lower than values in conifers, which averaged 28.6 ng g-1 (p < 0.001). Similarly, bark concentrations of Hg were lower (p < 0.001) in hardwoods (7.7 ng g-1) than conifers (22.5 ng g-1). For wood, concentrations of Hg were higher in yellow birch (2.1–2.8 ng g-1) and white pine (2.3 ng g-1) than in the other species, which averaged 1.4 ng g-1 (p < 0.0001). Sites differed significantly in Hg concentrations of foliage and bark (p = 0.02), which are directly exposed to the atmosphere, but the concentration of Hg in wood depended more on species (p < 0.001) than site (p = 0.60). The Hg contents of tree tissues in hardwood stands, estimated from modeled biomass and measured concentrations at each site, were higher in bark (mean of 0.10 g ha-1) and wood (0.16 g ha-1) than in foliage (0.06 g ha-1). In conifer stands, because foliar concentrations were higher, the foliar pool tended to be more important. Quantifying Hg in tree tissues is essential to understanding the pools and fluxes of Hg in forest ecosystems. PMID:29684081

  9. Effect of hydrological conditions on nitrous oxide, methane, and carbon dioxide dynamics in a bottomland hardwood forest and its implication for soil carbon sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, K.; Faulkner, S.P.; Baldwin, M.J.

    2008-01-01

    This study was conducted at three locations in a bottomland hardwood forest with a distinct elevation and hydrological gradient: ridge (high, dry), transition, and swamp (low, wet). At each location, concentrations of soil greenhouse gases (N2O, CH4 , and CO2), their fluxes to the atmosphere, and soil redox potential (Eh) were measured bimonthly, while the water table was monitored every day. Results show that soil Eh was significantly (P transition > ridge location. The ratio CO2/CH4 production in soil is a critical factor for evaluating the overall benefit of soil C sequestration, which can be greatly offset by CH4 production and emission. ?? Journal compilation ?? 2008 Blackwell Publishing.

  10. Seasonal Belowground Ecosystem and Eco-enzymatic Responses to Soil pH and Phosphorus Availability in Temperate Hardwood Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smemo, K. A.; Deforest, J. L.; Petersen, S. L.; Burke, D.; Hewins, C.; Kluber, L. A.; Kyker, S. R.

    2013-12-01

    Atmospheric acid deposition can increase phosphorus (P) limitation in temperate hardwood forests by increasing N availability, and therefore P demand, and/or by decreasing pH and occluding inorganic P. However, only recently have studies demonstrated that P limitation can occur in temperate forests and very little is known about the temporal aspects of P dynamics in acidic forest soils and how seasonal shifts in nutrient availability and demand influence microbial investment in extracellular enzymes. The objectives of this study were to investigate how P availability and soil pH influence seasonal patterns of nutrient cycling and soil microbial activity in hardwood forests that experience chronic acid deposition. We experimentally manipulated soil pH, P, or both for three years and examined soil treatment responses in fall, winter, spring, early summer, and late summer. We found that site (glaciated versus unglaciated) and treatment had the most significant influence on nutrient pools and cycling. In general, nutrient pools were higher in glaciated soils than unglaciated for measured nutrients, including total C and N (2-3 times higher), extractable inorganic nitrogen, and readily available P. Treatment had no impact on total C and N pools in either region, but did affect other measured nutrients such as ammonium, which was greatest in the elevated pH treatment for both sites. As expected, readily available P pools were highest in the elevated P treatments (3 fold increase in both sites), but raising pH decreased available P pools in the glaciated site. Raising soil pH increased both net N mineralization rates and net P mineralization rates, regardless of site. Nitrification responses were complex, but we observed an overall significant nitrification increase under elevated pH, particularly in the growing season. Extracellular enzyme activity showed more seasonal patterns than site and treatment effects, exhibiting significant growing season activity reductions for

  11. Century-scale Variations in Plant and Soil Nitrogen Pools and Isotopic Composition in Northern Hardwood Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodale, C. L.; Fuss, C. B.; Lang, A.; Ollinger, S. V.; Ouimette, A.; Vadeboncoeur, M. A.; Zhou, Z.; Lovett, G. M.

    2017-12-01

    The mineral soil may act as both a source and a sink of nitrogen to plants over decadal to centennial timescales. However, the enormous size and spatial heterogeneity of mineral soil N regularly impede study of its role over the course of forest succession. Here, we measured tree and soil stocks of C, N and 15N to 50 cm depth in and near Hubbard Brook, New Hampshire, across eight forest stands of varying time since harvest (two stands each of 20, 40, and 100 years post-harvest, and old-growth forest). Measurements show that tree biomass and N stocks increased with stand age to an average of 145 t C/ha and 556 kg N/ha in old-growth forests, as cumulative net growth and N increment rates decreased from young (20 and 40-year old) to mature (100-year) to old-growth stands. Plant %N varied more by site than species, while plant 15N varied more by tree species than by site. Of the most common species, Acer saccharum (sugar maple) had consistently lighter 15N in all tissues (bark, leaf, wood) than Betula alleghaniensis (yellow birch). Soil organic matter stocks are very large, averaging 154 t C/ha and 8.1 tN/ha to 50 cm depth. Neither C nor N stock varied regularly with stand age, but old-growth stands had lower C:N ratios and higher 15N values than the successional stands. Ongoing analysis will predict the effects of harvest, regrowth, and N inputs and losses on expected and observed 15N changes over succession. These observations support the great capacity of the mineral soil to store and potentially supply N to northern hardwood forests.

  12. Utilizing NASA EOS to Assist in Determining Suitable Planting Locations for Bottomland Hardwood Trees in St. Bernard Parish, Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reahard, R. R.; Arguelles, M.; Ewing, M.; Kelly, C.; Strong, E.

    2012-12-01

    St. Bernard Parish, located in southeast Louisiana, is rapidly losing coastal forests and wetlands due to a variety of natural and anthropogenic disturbances (e.g. subsidence, saltwater intrusion, low sedimentation, nutrient deficiency, herbivory, canal dredging, levee construction, spread of invasive species, etc.). After Hurricane Katrina severely impacted the area in 2005, multiple Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) have focused not only on rebuilding destroyed dwellings, but on rebuilding the ecosystems that once protected the citizens of St. Bernard Parish. Volunteer groups, NGOs, and government entities often work separately and independently of each other and use different sets of information to choose the best planting sites for restoring coastal forests. Using NASA Earth Observing Systems (EOS), Natural Resource Conservation Service (NRCS) soil surveys, and ancillary road and canal data in conjunction with ground truthing, the team created maps of optimal planting sites for several species of bottomland hardwood trees to aid in unifying these organizations, who share a common goal, under one plan. The methodology for this project created a comprehensive Geographic Information System (GIS) to help identify suitable planting sites in St. Bernard Parish. This included supplementing existing elevation data using Digital Elevation Models derived from LIDAR data, and determining existing land cover in the study area from classified Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) imagery. Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data from a single low-altitude swath was used to assess the health of vegetation over an area near the Mississippi River Gulf Outlet Canal (MRGO) and Bayou La Loutre. Historic extent of coastal forests was also mapped using aerial photos collected between 1952 and 1956. The final products demonstrated yet another application of NASA EOS in the rebuilding and monitoring of coastal ecosystems in

  13. Chemical characteristics and acidity of soluble organic substances from a northern hardwood forest floor, central Maine, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vance, G.F.; David, M.B.

    1991-01-01

    The authors understanding of the chemistry, structure, and reactions of organic substances in forest floor leachates is limited and incomplete. Therefore, the authors examined the organic and inorganic chemistry of forest floor leachates collected from a hardwood forest in central Maine over a two-year period (1987-1989), including detailed study of dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Seasonal variations in NH 4 + , NO 3 - , K + , and total Al were believed due to organic matter decomposition and release. Leaching of other base cations closely followed that of NO 3 - . Total DOC ranged from 2,228 to 7,193 μmol L -1 with an average of 4,835 μmol L -1 . Monosaccharides and polyphenols constituted 3.9% (range of 3.4 to 4.4%) and 3.0% (2.2 to 3.7%) of the DOC, respectively, which suggests DOC may contain partially oxidized products that are possibly of a lignocellulose nature. Fractionation of the forest floor DOC indicated high organic acid contents (hydrophobic and hydrophilic acids) that averaged 92% of the total DOC. Organic acids were isolated and analyzed for elemental content (C, H, N, and S), and determination of UV absorptivity (E 4 /E 6 ) ratios, CuO oxidation products, FT-IR and 13 C-NMR spectra, and acidity by potentiometric titration. Their FT-IR and 13 C-NMR spectra suggest they are primarily carboxylic acids, with aliphatic and aromatic structure. An organic charge contribution model was developed using titration data, DOC fractionation percentages, and the total DOC in the forest floor leachates. Application of the model to all solutions accounted for 97% of the charge balance deficits

  14. Snowpack-atmosphere gas exchanges of carbon dioxide, ozone, and nitrogen oxides at a hardwood forest site in northern Michigan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Seok

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Snowpack-atmosphere gas exchanges of CO2, O3, and NOx (NO + NO2 were investigated at the University of Michigan Biological Station (UMBS, a mid-latitude, low elevation hardwood forest site, during the 2007–2008 winter season. An automated trace gas sampling system was used to determine trace gas concentrations in the snowpack at multiple depths continuously throughout the snow-covered period from two adjacent plots. One natural plot and one with the soil covered by a Tedlar sheet were setup for investigating whether the primary source of measured trace gases was biogenic (i.e., from the soil or non-biogenic (i.e., from the snowpack. The results were compared with the “White on Green” study conducted at the Niwot Ridge (NWT Long Term Ecological Research site in Colorado. The average winter CO2 flux ± s.e. from the soil at UMBS was 0.54 ± 0.037 µmol m-2 s-1 using the gradient diffusion method and 0.71 ± 0.012 µmol m-2 s-1 using the eddy covariance method, and in a similar range as found for NWT. Observed snowpack-O3 exchange was also similar to NWT. However, nitrogen oxides (NOx fluxes from snow at UMBS were 10 times smaller than those at NWT, and fluxes were bi-directional with the direction of the flux dependent on NOx concentrations in ambient air. The compensation point for the change in the direction of NOx flux was estimated to be 0.92 nmol mol-1. NOx in snow also showed diurnal dependency on incident radiation. These NOx dynamics in the snow at UMBS were notably different compared to NWT, and primarily determined by snow-atmosphere interactions rather than by soil NOx emissions.

  15. Estimation of In-canopy Flux Distributions of Reactive Nitrogen and Sulfur within a Mixed Hardwood Forest in Southern Appalachia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Z.; Walker, J. T.; Chen, X.; Oishi, A. C.; Duman, T.

    2017-12-01

    Estimating the source/sink distribution and vertical fluxes of air pollutants within and above forested canopies is critical for understanding biological, physical, and chemical processes influencing the soil-vegetation-atmosphere exchange. The vertical source-sink profiles of reactive nitrogen and sulfur were examined using multiple inverse modeling methods in a mixed hardwood forest in the southern Appalachian Mountains where the ecosystem is highly sensitive to loads of pollutant from atmospheric depositions. Measurements of the vertical concentration profiles of ammonia (NH3), nitric acid (HNO3), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and ammonium (NH4+), nitrate (NO3-), and sulfate (SO42-) in PM2.5 were measured during five study periods between May 2015 and August 2016. The mean concentration of NH3 decreased with height in the upper canopy and increased below the understory toward the forest floor, indicating that the canopy was a sink for NH3 but the forest floor was a source. All other species exhibited patterns of monotonically decreasing concentration from above the canopy to the forest floor. Using the measured concentration profiles, we simulated the within-canopy flow fields and estimated the vertical source-sink flux profiles using three inverse approaches: a Eulerian high-order closure model (EUL), a Lagrangian localized near-field (LNF) model, and a new full Lagrangian stochastic model (LSM). The models were evaluated using the within- and above-canopy eddy covariance flux measurements of heat, CO2 and H2O. Differences between models were analyzed and the flux profiles were used to investigate the origin and fate of reactive nitrogen and sulfur compounds within the canopy. The knowledge gained in this study will benefit the development of soil-vegetation-atmosphere models capable of partitioning canopy-scale deposition of nitrogen and sulfur to specific ecosystem compartments.

  16. The response of ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) to selection cutting in a South Carolina bottomland hardwood forest.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulyshen, Michael, D.; Hanula, James L.; Horn, Scott; Kilgo, John, C.; Moorman, Christopher, E.

    2005-04-01

    We compared the response of ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) to the creation of canopy gaps of different size (0.13, 0.26, and 0.50 ha) and age (1 and 7 years) in a bottomland hardwood forest (South Carolina, USA). Samples were collected four times in 2001 by malaise and pitfall traps placed at the center and edge of each gap, and 50 m into the surrounding forest. Species richness was higher at the center of young gaps than in old gaps or in the forest, but there was no statistical difference in species richness between old gaps and the forests surrounding them. Carabid abundance followed the same trend, but only with the exclusion of Semiardistomis viridis (Say), a very abundant species that differed in its response to gap age compared to most other species. The carabid assemblage at the gap edge was very similar to that of the forest, and there appeared to be no distinct edge community. Species known to occur in open or disturbed habitats were more abundant at the center of young gaps than at any other location. Generalist species were relatively unaffected by the disturbance, but one species (Dicaelus dilatatus Say) was significantly less abundant at the centers of young gaps. Forest inhabiting species were less abundant at the centers of old gaps than in the forest, but not in the centers of young gaps. Comparison of community similarity at various trapping locations showed that communities at the centers of old and young gaps had the lowest similarity (46.5%). The community similarity between young gap centers and nearby forest (49.1%) and old gap centers and nearby forest (50.0%) was similarly low. These results show that while the abundance and richness of carabids in old gaps was similar to that of the surrounding forest, the species composition between the two sites differed greatly.

  17. Alternative rooting induction of semi-hardwood olive cuttings by several auxin-producing bacteria for organic agriculture systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Montero-Calasanz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Southern Spain is the largest olive oil producer region in the world. In recent years organic agriculture systems have grown exponentially so that new alternative systems to produce organic olive cuttings are needed. Several bacterial isolates, namely Pantoea sp. AG9, Chryseobacterium sp. AG13, Chryseobacterium sp. CT348, Pseudomonas sp. CT364 and Azospirillum brasilense Cd (ATCC 29729, have been used to induce rooting in olive semi-hardwood cuttings of Arbequina, Hojiblanca and Picual cultivars of olive (Olea europea L. The first four strains were previously selected as auxin-producing bacteria and by their ability to promote rooting in model plants. They have been classified on the basis of their 16S rDNA gene sequence. The known auxin producer A. brasilense Cd strain has been used as a reference. The inoculation of olive cuttings was performed in two different ways: (i by dipping cuttings in a liquid bacterial culture or (ii by immersing them in a paste made of solid bacterial inoculant and sterile water. Under nursery conditions all of the tested bacterial strains were able to induce the rooting of olive cuttings to a similar or greater extent than the control cuttings treated with indole-3-butyric acid (IBA. The olive cultivars responded differently depending on the bacterial strain and the inoculation method. The strain that consistently gave the best results was Pantoea sp. AG9, the only one of the tested bacterial strains to express the enzyme 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC deaminase. The results are also discussed in terms of potential commercial interest and nursery feasibility performance of these strains.

  18. Leaf area and foliar biomass relationships in northern hardwood forests located along an 800 km acid deposition gradient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burton, A.J.; Pregitzer, K.S.; Reed, D.D.

    1991-01-01

    The canopies of northern hardwood forests dominated by sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) were examined at five locations spanning 800 km along an acid deposition and climatic gradient in the Great Lakes region. Leaf area index (LAI) calculated from litterfall ranged from 6.0 to 8.0 in 1988, from 4.9 to 7.9 in 1989, and from 5.3 to 7.8 in 1990. The data suggest that maximum LAI for the sites is between 7 and 8. Insect defoliation and the allocation of assimilates to reproductive parts in large seed years reduced LAI by up to 34%. Allometric equations for leaf area and foliar biomass were not significantly different among sites. They predicted higher LAI values than were estimated from litterfall and could not account for the influences of defoliation and seed production. Canopy transmittance was a viable alternative for estimating LAI. Extinction coefficients (K) of 0.49 to 0.65 were appropriate for solar elevations of 63 degree to 41 degree. Patterns of specific leaf area (SLA) were similar for the sites. Average sugar maple SLA increased from 147 cm 2 g -1 in the upper 5 m of the canopy to 389 cm 2 g -1 in the seeding layer. Litterfall SLA averaged 196 cm 2 g -1 for all species and 192 cm 2 g -1 for sugar maple. Similarity among the sites in allometric relationships, maximum LAI, canopy transmittance, and patterns of SLA suggests these characteristics were controlled primarily by the similar nutrient and moisture availability at the sites. A general increasing trend in litter production along the gradient could not be attributed to N deposition or length of growing season due to year to year variability resulting from insect defoliation and seed production

  19. Effects of the exotic Crustacean, .i.Armadillidium vulgare./i. (Isopoda), and other macrofauna on organic matter dynamics in soil microcosms in a hardwood forest in central Florida

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Frouz, Jan; Lobinske, R.J.; Kalčík, Jiří; Ali, A.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 91, č. 2 (2008), s. 328-331 ISSN 0015-4040 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521; CEZ:AV0Z6066911 Keywords : Armadillidium vulgare * organic matter dynamics * hardwood forest Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.886, year: 2008

  20. Improving disease resistance of butternut (Juglans cinerea), a threatened fine hardwood: a case for single-tree selection through genetic improvement and deployment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michler, Charles H; Pijut, Paula M; Jacobs, Douglass F; Meilan, Richard; Woeste, Keith E; Ostry, Michael E

    2006-01-01

    Approaches for the development of disease-resistant butternut (Juglans cinerea L.) are reviewed. Butternut is a threatened fine hardwood throughout its natural range in eastern North America because of the invasion of the exotic fungus, Sirococcus clavigignenti-juglandacearum Nair, Kostichka and Kuntz, which causes butternut canker. Early efforts were made to identify and collect putatively resistant germ plasm, identify vectors and to characterize the disease. More recently, molecular techniques have been employed to genetically characterize both the pathogen and the resistant germ plasm. Much of the host resistance may originate from hybridization with a close Asian relative, Japanese walnut (Juglans ailanthifolia Carr.), and from a few natural phenotypic variants. Further genetic characterization is needed before classical breeding or genetic modification can be used to produce canker-resistant trees.

  1. Effect of cutting medium temperatures on rooting process and root primordium differentiation of hardwood cuttings of tetraploid robinia pseudoacacia cutting medium temperatures of tetraploid robinia pseudoacacia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ling, W.X.; Jine, Q.; Zhong, Z.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, to examine the effect of heat treatment on the rooting and root development of hardwood cuttings of the tetraploid Robinia pseudoacacia, cuttings of 1-year-old stems were taken from 3-year-old mother trees and treated with IBA solution (1000 mg/L) for 6 h, with water was as a control. Treated cuttings were rooted in heated or unheated nursery beds. Samples were collected on day ten after planting, and then for every five days. The bases of the cuttings were embedded in paraffin and sectioned before being examined under a microscope to determine whether there had been any morphological changes. We found no root primordia in the tissues of the hardwood cuttings of the tetraploid Robinia pseudoacacia before cutting. In the heated bed, adventitious roots originated from callus tissue and the junction between the pith rays and cortical parenchyma cells, and in the unheated bed, adventitious roots originated only from callus tissue. The rooting process involved callus formation, adventitious root formation and elongation; rooting occurred 5-7 days earlier in the heated cuttings than in the unheated ones, and rooting rates were significantly higher in the former 30 days and 50 days after cutting; the minimum effective accumulated temperatures for these three stages were 109.25 degree C, 211.68 degree C and 301.38 degree C, respectively. Our results revealed that heating the soil can promote adventitious root formation, speed up the rooting rate, and cut the propagation period of the tetraploid Robinia pseudoacacia. (author)

  2. Controls of Net Ecosystem Exchange at an Old Field, a Pine Plantation, and a Hardwood Forest under Identical Climatic and Edaphic Conditions-Isotopic Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chanton, J. P.; Mortazavi, B.

    2004-11-04

    During the past year we have submitted two manuscripts. 1. Mortazavi, B., J. Chanton, J.L. Prater, A.C. Oishi, R. Oren and G. Katul. Temporal variability in 13C of respired CO2 in a pine and a hardwood forest subject to similar climatic conditions (in Press). Oecologia 2. Mortazavi, B. and J. P. Chanton. Use of Keeling plots for determining sources of dissolved organic carbon in nearshore and open ocean systems (Published in Limnology and Oceanography (2004) Vol 49 pages 102-108). 3. Mortazavi, B., J. L. Prater, and J. P. Chanton (2004). A field-based method for simultaneous measurements of the 18O and 13C of soil CO2 efflux. Biogeosciences Vol 1:1-16 Most recent products delivered: Mortazavi, B. and J. P. Chanton. Abiotic and biotic controls on the 13C of respired CO2 in the southeastern US forest mosaics and a new technique for measuring the of soil CO2 efflux. Joint Biosphere Stable Isotope Network (US) and Stable Isotopes in Biosphere Atmosphere Exchange (EU) 2004 Meeting, Interlaken, Switzerland, March 31-April 4, 2004. Mortazavi, B., J. Chanton, J.L. Prater, A.C. Oishi, R. Oren and G. Katul. Temporal variability in 13C of respired CO2 in a pine and a hardwood forest subject to similar climatic conditions. American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting, San Francisco, USA, December 8-12, 2003. Prater, J., Mortazavi, B. and J. P. Chanton. Measurement of discrimination against 13C during photosynthesis and quantification of the short-term variability of 13C over a diurnal cycle. American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting, San Francisco, USA, December 8-12, 2003.

  3. Climate change in winter versus the growing-season leads to different effects on soil microbial activity in northern hardwood forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, P. O.; Templer, P. H.; Finzi, A.

    2014-12-01

    Mean winter air temperatures have risen by approximately 2.5˚ C per decade over the last fifty years in the northeastern U.S., reducing the maximum depth of winter snowpack by approximately 26 cm over this period and the duration of winter snow cover by 3.6 to 4.2 days per decade. Forest soils in this region are projected to experience a greater number of freeze-thaw cycles and lower minimum winter soil temperatures as the depth and duration of winter snow cover declines in the next century. Climate change is likely to result not only in lower soil temperatures during winter, but also higher soil temperatures during the growing-season. We conducted two complementary experiments to determine how colder soils in winter and warmer soils in the growing-season affect microbial activity in hardwood forests at Harvard Forest, MA and Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, NH. A combination of removing snow via shoveling and buried heating cables were used to induce freeze-thaw events during winter and to warm soils 5˚C above ambient temperatures during the growing-season. Increasing the depth and duration of soil frost via snow-removal resulted in short-term reductions in soil nitrogen (N) production via microbial proteolytic enzyme activity and net N mineralization following snowmelt, prior to tree leaf-out. Declining mass specific rates of carbon (C) and N mineralization associated with five years of snow removal at Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest may be an indication of microbial physiological adaptation to winter climate change. Freeze-thaw cycles during winter reduced microbial extracellular enzyme activity and the temperature sensitivity of microbial C and N mineralization during the growing-season, potentially offsetting nutrient and soil C losses due to soil warming in the growing-season. Our multiple experimental approaches show that winter climate change is likely to contribute to reduced microbial activity in northern hardwood forests.

  4. Multi-decade biomass dynamics in an old-growth hemlock-northern hardwood forest, Michigan, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerry D. Woods

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Trends in living aboveground biomass and inputs to the pool of coarse woody debris (CWD in an undisturbed, old-growth hemlock-northern hardwood forest in northern MI were estimated from multi-decade observations of permanent plots. Growth and demographic data from seven plot censuses over 47 years (1962–2009, combined with one-time measurement of CWD pools, help assess biomass/carbon status of this landscape. Are trends consistent with traditional notions of late-successional forests as equilibrial ecosystems? Specifically, do biomass pools and CWD inputs show consistent long-term trends and relationships, and can living and dead biomass pools and trends be related to forest composition and history? Aboveground living biomass densities, estimated using standard allometric relationships, range from 360–450 Mg/ha among sampled stands and types; these values are among the highest recorded for northeastern North American forests. Biomass densities showed significant decade-scale variation, but no consistent trends over the full study period (one stand, originating following an 1830 fire, showed an aggrading trend during the first 25 years of the study. Even though total above-ground biomass pools are neither increasing nor decreasing, they have been increasingly dominated, over the full study period, by very large (>70 cm dbh stems and by the most shade-tolerant species (Acer saccharum and Tsuga canadensis.CWD pools measured in 2007 averaged 151 m3/ha, with highest values in Acer-dominated stands. Snag densities averaged 27/ha, but varied nearly ten-fold with canopy composition (highest in Tsuga-dominated stands, lowest in Acer-dominated; snags constituted 10–50% of CWD biomass. Annualized CWD inputs from tree mortality over the full study period averaged 1.9–3.2 Mg/ha/yr, depending on stand and species composition. CWD input rates tended to increase over the course of the study. Input rates may be expected to increase over longer

  5. Cutting mountain hardwood stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralph W. Marquis; Sidney Weitzman; Carl J. Holcomb

    1954-01-01

    On the Fernow Experimental Forest in West Virginia, as on several other experimental forests in the Northeast, studies are being conducted to compare the biologic and economic results of different methods of forest management. The experiments are being carried out on compartments varying in size from 50 t o 150 acres. Such areas are large enough to permit the...

  6. Impacts of short-rotation early-growing season prescribed fire on a ground nesting bird in the central hardwoods region of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittman, H. Tyler; Krementz, David G.

    2016-01-01

    Landscape-scale short-rotation early-growing season prescribed fire, hereafter prescribed fire, in upland hardwood forests represents a recent shift in management strategies across eastern upland forests. Not only does this strategy depart from dormant season to growing season prescriptions, but the strategy also moves from stand-scale to landscape-scale implementation (>1,000 ha). This being so, agencies are making considerable commitments in terms of time and resources to this management strategy, but the effects on wildlife in upland forests, especially those dominated by hardwood canopy species, are relatively unknown. We initiated our study to assess whether this management strategy affects eastern wild turkey reproductive ecology on the Ozark-St. Francis National Forest. We marked 67 wild turkey hens with Global Positioning System (GPS) Platform Transmitting Terminals in 2012 and 2013 to document exposure to prescribed fire, and estimate daily nest survival, nest success, and nest-site selection. We estimated these reproductive parameters in forest units managed with prescribed fire (treated) and units absent of prescribed fire (untreated). Of 60 initial nest attempts monitored, none were destroyed or exposed to prescribed fire because a majority of fires occurred early than a majority of the nesting activity. We found nest success was greater in untreated units than treated units (36.4% versus 14.6%). We did not find any habitat characteristic differences between successful and unsuccessful nest-sites. We found that nest-site selection criteria differed between treated and untreated units. Visual concealment and woody ground cover were common selection criteria in both treated and untreated units. However, in treated units wild turkey selected nest-sites with fewer small shrubs (20 cm DBH) but not in untreated units. In untreated units wild turkey selected nest-sites with more large shrubs (≥5cm ground diameter) but did not select for small shrubs or large

  7. Impacts of Short-Rotation Early-Growing Season Prescribed Fire on a Ground Nesting Bird in the Central Hardwoods Region of North America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Tyler Pittman

    Full Text Available Landscape-scale short-rotation early-growing season prescribed fire, hereafter prescribed fire, in upland hardwood forests represents a recent shift in management strategies across eastern upland forests. Not only does this strategy depart from dormant season to growing season prescriptions, but the strategy also moves from stand-scale to landscape-scale implementation (>1,000 ha. This being so, agencies are making considerable commitments in terms of time and resources to this management strategy, but the effects on wildlife in upland forests, especially those dominated by hardwood canopy species, are relatively unknown. We initiated our study to assess whether this management strategy affects eastern wild turkey reproductive ecology on the Ozark-St. Francis National Forest. We marked 67 wild turkey hens with Global Positioning System (GPS Platform Transmitting Terminals in 2012 and 2013 to document exposure to prescribed fire, and estimate daily nest survival, nest success, and nest-site selection. We estimated these reproductive parameters in forest units managed with prescribed fire (treated and units absent of prescribed fire (untreated. Of 60 initial nest attempts monitored, none were destroyed or exposed to prescribed fire because a majority of fires occurred early than a majority of the nesting activity. We found nest success was greater in untreated units than treated units (36.4% versus 14.6%. We did not find any habitat characteristic differences between successful and unsuccessful nest-sites. We found that nest-site selection criteria differed between treated and untreated units. Visual concealment and woody ground cover were common selection criteria in both treated and untreated units. However, in treated units wild turkey selected nest-sites with fewer small shrubs (20 cm DBH but not in untreated units. In untreated units wild turkey selected nest-sites with more large shrubs (≥5 cm ground diameter but did not select for small

  8. Impacts of Short-Rotation Early-Growing Season Prescribed Fire on a Ground Nesting Bird in the Central Hardwoods Region of North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittman, H Tyler; Krementz, David G

    2016-01-01

    Landscape-scale short-rotation early-growing season prescribed fire, hereafter prescribed fire, in upland hardwood forests represents a recent shift in management strategies across eastern upland forests. Not only does this strategy depart from dormant season to growing season prescriptions, but the strategy also moves from stand-scale to landscape-scale implementation (>1,000 ha). This being so, agencies are making considerable commitments in terms of time and resources to this management strategy, but the effects on wildlife in upland forests, especially those dominated by hardwood canopy species, are relatively unknown. We initiated our study to assess whether this management strategy affects eastern wild turkey reproductive ecology on the Ozark-St. Francis National Forest. We marked 67 wild turkey hens with Global Positioning System (GPS) Platform Transmitting Terminals in 2012 and 2013 to document exposure to prescribed fire, and estimate daily nest survival, nest success, and nest-site selection. We estimated these reproductive parameters in forest units managed with prescribed fire (treated) and units absent of prescribed fire (untreated). Of 60 initial nest attempts monitored, none were destroyed or exposed to prescribed fire because a majority of fires occurred early than a majority of the nesting activity. We found nest success was greater in untreated units than treated units (36.4% versus 14.6%). We did not find any habitat characteristic differences between successful and unsuccessful nest-sites. We found that nest-site selection criteria differed between treated and untreated units. Visual concealment and woody ground cover were common selection criteria in both treated and untreated units. However, in treated units wild turkey selected nest-sites with fewer small shrubs (20 cm DBH) but not in untreated units. In untreated units wild turkey selected nest-sites with more large shrubs (≥5 cm ground diameter) but did not select for small shrubs or

  9. Tree-ring chronologies and stable carbon isotopic composition reveal impacts of hydro-climate change on bottomland hardwood forests of South-Central Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, A. G.; Lafon, C. W.; Hyodo, A.; Boutton, T. W.; Moore, G. W.

    2017-12-01

    Over the last three decades, South-Central Texas has experienced an increase in frequency and intensity of hydro-climatic anomalies such as extreme droughts and floods. These extreme events can have negative impacts on forest health and can strongly alter a wide range of ecosystem processes. Tree increment growth in bottomland hardwood forests is influenced by droughts and floods, which affects the carbon isotope values (δ13C) in tree-ring cellulose. This study aims to assess the impacts of hydro-climate change on the growth and physiological response of bottomland hardwood forests by investigating variations in radial growth and tree-ring carbon isotopic composition. Annual ring-width chronologies for 41 years (1975-2016) were developed from 24 water oak (Quercus nigra) trees at 4 sites along a 25 km transect located in the San Bernard River watershed. The δ13C values in cellulose were measured from 4-year ring composites including years with anomalously high and low precipitation. Dendroclimatology analysis involved correlating ring-width index with precipitation records and Palmer Drought Sensitivity Index (PDSI). Radial growth was more closely associated with spring-summer (Feb-Aug) precipitation (R2 = 0.42, pstress, as indicated by narrower growth rings and increased cellulose δ13C. However, the inter-site variation in δ13C indicated large hydro-climatic variation between sites (2.79-4.24‰ for wet years and 0.53-1.50‰ for drought years). δ13C values showed an increase of 0.78‰ and 2.40‰ from the wettest (1991-1994) to the driest period (2008-2011) at two of our sites, possibly due to drought-induced moisture-deficit-stress. However, at the other two sites, the δ13C values of tree rings from the same periods decreased by 0.65‰ and 1.19‰, possibly emanating from flooding-induced stress caused by waterlogging. This study provides insights on how hydro-climatic variations affect riparian forest health in the region and acts as a baseline for

  10. Establishing Pine Monocultures and Mixed Pine-Hardwood Stands on Reclaimed Surface Mined Land in Eastern Kentucky: Implications for Forest Resilience in a Changing Climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey Bell

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Surface mining and mine reclamation practices have caused significant forest loss and forest fragmentation in Appalachia. Shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata is threatened by a variety of stresses, including diseases, pests, poor management, altered fire regimes, and climate change, and the species is the subject of a widescale restoration effort. Surface mines may present opportunity for shortleaf pine restoration; however, the survival and growth of shortleaf pine on these harsh sites has not been critically evaluated. This paper presents first-year survival and growth of native shortleaf pine planted on a reclaimed surface mine, compared to non-native loblolly pine (Pinus taeda, which has been highly successful in previous mined land reclamation plantings. Pine monoculture plots are also compared to pine-hardwood polyculture plots to evaluate effects of planting mix on tree growth and survival, as well as soil health. Initial survival of shortleaf pine is low (42%, but height growth is similar to that of loblolly pine. No differences in survival or growth were observed between monoculture and polyculture treatments. Additional surveys in coming years will address longer-term growth and survival patterns of these species, as well as changes to relevant soil health endpoints, such as soil carbon.

  11. The emergence densities of annual cicadas (Hemiptera: Cicadidae) increase with sapling density and are greater near edges in a bottomland hardwood forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiavacci, Scott J; Bednarz, James C; McKay, Tanja

    2014-08-01

    The emergence densities of cicadas tend to be patchy at multiple spatial scales. While studies have identified habitat conditions related to these patchy distributions, their interpretation has been based primarily on periodical cicada species; habitat factors associated with densities of nonperiodical (i.e., annual) cicadas have remained under studied. This is despite their widespread distribution, diversity, and role as an important trophic resource for many other organisms, particularly within riparian areas. We studied habitat factors associated with the emergence densities of Tibicen spp. in a bottomland hardwood forest in east-central Arkansas. We found emergence densities were greatest in areas of high sapling densities and increased toward forest edges, although sapling density was a much stronger predictor of emergence density. Emergence densities also differed among sample areas within our study system. The habitat features predicting nymph densities were likely driven by a combination of factors affecting female selection of oviposition sites and the effects of habitat conditions on nymph survival. The differences in nymph densities between areas of our system were likely a result of the differential effects of flooding in these areas. Interestingly, our findings were similar to observations of periodical species, suggesting that both types of cicadas select similar habitat characteristics for ovipositing or are under comparable selective pressures during development. Our findings also imply that changes in habitat characteristics because of anthropogenically altered disturbance regimes (e.g., flooding) have the potential to negatively impact both periodical and annual species, which could have dramatic consequences for organisms at numerous trophic levels.

  12. Soil solution and sugar maple response to NH(4)NO (3) additions in a base-poor northern hardwood forest of Québec, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Jean-David; Houle, Daniel

    2009-08-01

    Nitrogen additions (NH4NO3) at rates of three- and ten-fold ambient atmospheric deposition (8.5 kg ha(-1) year(-1)) were realised in an acid- and base-poor northern hardwood forest of Québec, Canada. Soil solution chemistry, foliar chemistry, crown dieback and basal area growth of sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) were measured. Except for a transitory increase of NO3 and NH4 concentrations, there was no persistent increase in their level in soil solution 3 years after N treatments, with the exception of one plot out of three, that received the highest N addition, beginning to show persistent and high NO3 concentrations after 2 years of N additions. Three years of N additions have significantly increased the N DRIS index of sugar maple but not N foliar concentration. Potassium, Ca and Mn foliar concentrations, as well as P and Ca DRIS indices, decreased in treated plots after 3 years. No treatment effect was observed for basal area growth and dieback rate. One unexpected result was the significant decrease in foliar Ca even in the treated plots that received low N rates, despite the absence of significant NO3-induced leaching of Ca. The mechanism responsible for the decrease in foliar Ca is not known. Our results, however, clearly demonstrate that increased N deposition at sites with low base saturation may affect Ca nutrition even when clear signs of N saturation are not observed.

  13. Short-Term Response of Native Flora to the Removal of Non-Native Shrubs in Mixed-Hardwood Forests of Indiana, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua M. Shields

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available While negative impacts of invasive species on native communities are well documented, less is known about how these communities respond to the removal of established populations of invasive species. With regard to invasive shrubs, studies examining native community response to removal at scales greater than experimental plots are lacking. We examined short-term effects of removing Lonicera maackii (Amur honeysuckle and other non-native shrubs on native plant taxa in six mixed-hardwood forests. Each study site contained two 0.64 ha sample areas—an area where all non-native shrubs were removed and a reference area where no treatment was implemented. We sampled vegetation in the spring and summer before and after non-native shrubs were removed. Cover and diversity of native species, and densities of native woody seedlings, increased after shrub removal. However, we also observed significant increases in L. maackii seedling densities and Alliaria petiolata (garlic mustard cover in removal areas. Changes in reference areas were less pronounced and mostly non-significant. Our results suggest that removing non-native shrubs allows short-term recovery of native communities across a range of invasion intensities. However, successful restoration will likely depend on renewed competition with invasive species that re-colonize treatment areas, the influence of herbivores, and subsequent control efforts.

  14. Simulated Nitrogen Deposition has Minor Effects on Ecosystem Pools and Fluxes of Energy, Elements, and Biochemicals in a Northern Hardwoods Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talhelm, A. F.; Pregitzer, K. S.; Burton, A. J.; Xia, M.; Zak, D. R.

    2017-12-01

    The elemental and biochemical composition of plant tissues is an important influence on primary productivity, decomposition, and other aspects of biogeochemistry. Human activity has greatly altered biogeochemical cycles in ecosystems downwind of industrialized regions through atmospheric nitrogen deposition, but most research on these effects focuses on individual elements or steps in biogeochemical cycles. Here, we quantified pools and fluxes of biomass, the four major organic elements (carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen), four biochemical fractions (lignin, structural carbohydrates, cell walls, and soluble material), and energy in a mature northern hardwoods forest in Michigan. We sampled the organic and mineral soil, fine and coarse roots, leaf litter, green leaves, and wood for chemical analyses. We then combined these data with previously published and archival information on pools and fluxes within this forest, which included replicated plots receiving either ambient deposition or simulated nitrogen deposition (3 g N m-2 yr-1 for 18 years). Live wood was the largest pool of energy and all elements and biochemical fractions. However, the production of wood, leaf litter, and fine roots represented similar fluxes of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, cell wall material, and energy, while nitrogen fluxes were dominated by leaf litter and fine roots. Notably, the flux of lignin via fine roots was 70% higher than any other flux. Experimental nitrogen deposition had relatively few significant effects, increasing foliar nitrogen, increasing the concentration of lignin in the soil organic horizon and decreasing pools of all elements and biochemical fractions in the soil organic horizon except nitrogen, lignin, and structural carbohydrates. Overall, we found that differences in tissue chemistry concentrations were important determinants of ecosystem-level pools and fluxes, but that nitrogen deposition had little effect on concentrations, pools, or fluxes in this mature forest

  15. Effects of auxin and misting on the rooting of herbaceous and hardwood cuttings from the fig tree Efeitos de auxina e nebulização no enraizamento de estacas herbáceas e lenhosas de figueira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleiton Mateus Sousa

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Propagation of the fig tree predominately uses hardwood cuttings obtained from pruning stock plants. With a view to optimising fig tree propagation, the effects of auxin and misting on the rooting of herbaceous and hardwood cuttings from the fig tree were evaluated. An experiment was set up in a 2x2x2 factorial design, with two types of cuttings (softwood and hardwood, two levels of auxin (0 and 1000 mg L-1 indolbutyric acid and two environments (with and without misting. Thirty days after starting the experiment, rooting, root length, sprouting and losses were all evaluated. The interaction of the type of cutting and the auxin was significant for rooting, sprouting, root length and cutting loss. Misting did not affect the variables analysed. In the absence of auxin, there was no difference between the type of cutting for rooting, length of root and sprouting, while the application of auxin (1,000 mg L-1 produced a reduction in these variables. The production of fig tree seedlings can be made from either softwood or hardwood cuttings and does not require the use of auxin or misting.A propagação da figueira predomina com o uso de estacas lenhosas obtidas após a poda de plantas matrizes. Visando otimizar a propagação da figueira, avaliou-se os efeitos da auxina e da nebulização no enraizamento de estacas herbáceas e lenhosas de figueira. Foi implantado um experimento em fatorial 2x2x2, sendo dois tipos de estacas (herbáceas e lenhosas, dois níveis de auxina (0 e 1.000 mg L-1 de ácido indolbultírico e dois ambientes (com ou sem nebulização. Aos 30 dias após a implantação do experimento, avaliou-se o enraizamento, comprimento da radícula, brotação e perdas. A interação do tipo de estaca e auxina foi significativa para enraizamento, brotação, comprimento da radícula e perdas de estacas. A nebulização não interferiu nas variáveis analisadas. Na ausência de auxina não houve diferença entre os tipos de estacas para o

  16. Enraizamento de estacas semilenhosas de lichieira utilizando ácido indolbutírico Rooting of semi-hardwood litchi cuttings using indolbutiric acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Miranda Carvalho

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar o enraizamento de estacas semilenhosas de lichieira ( Litchi chinensis Sonn. da cultivar Bengal, empregando ácido indolbutírico (AIB e sistema de nebulização intermitente. As estacas apicais foram coletadas nos meses de outubro (Primavera, janeiro (Verão e abril (Outono, acondicionadas adequadamente e transferidas para uma estufa com nebulização intermitente, onde receberam as aplicações de : 0; 1.000; 2.000; 3.000 e 4.000 mg L-1 de AIB, com imersão da base das estacas, durante 10 segundos, e de 200 mg L-1 de AIB, com imersão das bases por 24 horas, em aeração. Em seguida, foram colocadas para enraizar em substrato de vermiculita, com casca de arroz carbonizada, na proporção de 1:1. Após 100 dias, foram obtidos os dados referentes à porcentagem de estacas vivas com folhas, porcentagem de estacas enraizadas por parcela, comprimento médio de raiz por estaca enraizada (cm, número médio de raízes formadas por estaca enraizada, massa média da matéria fresca das raízes (g, massa média da matéria seca das raízes(g. Pelos resultados, concluiu-se que não há necessidade da aplicação do AIB para o enraizamento de estacas de lichieira, cultivar Bengal, e que a melhor época de coleta das mesmas é o verão.The objective of the work was to study the rooting of semi-hardwood litchi cuttings (Litchi chinensis Sonn. of Bengal cultivar using indolbutiric acid (IBA in an intermittent nebulization system. The apical cuttings were collected in October (spring in Brazil, January (summer and April (fall. The cuttings were properly arranged and transferred to greenhouse with intermittent mist and treated with 0, 1000, 2000, 3000 and 4000 mg L-1 indolbutiric acid applications, having the cuttings bases been immersed during 10 seconds and with 200 mg L-1 indolbutiric acid application, having the bases been immersed for 24 hours in aeration. They were put to rooting in vermiculite substratum with 1

  17. Planting and care of fine hardwood seedlings: Regenerating hardwoods in the Central Hardwoods Region: Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix Ponder, Jr.; Phillip E. Pope

    2003-01-01

    A large number of factors determine the successful establishment of trees. The site for a tree refers to where it grows, and includes living and nonliving factors that may have an impact on the tree's survival and growth. Site factors may be similar enough over a large area so as to be considered one site or different enough to be considered different sites....

  18. Enraizamento de estacas lenhosas e herbáceas de cultivares de caquizeiro com diferentes concentrações de ácido indolbutírico Rooting of hardwood and herbaceous cuttings of japanese persimmon tree cultivars treated with different concentration of indolbutyric acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Costa Bastos

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Desenvolveu-se este trabalho com o objetivo de estudar a capacidade de enraizamento de estacas lenhosas e herbáceas de cultivares de caquizeiro tratadas com AIB. Estacas lenhosas e herbáceas foram coletadas de ramos de caquizeiro das cultivares Pomelo, Rama Forte, Taubaté, Giombo e Fuyu e submetidas à aplicação de AIB (0; 3.000 e 6.000 mg.L-1 por vinte segundos. Em seguida, as estacas foram colocadas em canteiro contendo uma mistura de terra + esterco de curral (3:1 v/v como substrato (estacas lenhosas e em bandejas de poliestireno expandido, contendo vermiculita média, em câmara de nebulização intermitente (estacas herbáceas. Como conclusão, observou-se que as cultivares de caquizeiro apresentam diferenças quanto ao potencial de formação de raízes e brotações; estacas herbáceas apresentam maior tendência na propagação via estaquia em comparação às estacas lenhosas.This work was carried out with the objective to study the capacity of rooting of hardwood and herbaceous cuttings of Japanese persimmon tree cultivars treated with IBA. Hardwood and herbaceous cuttings were collected from branches of Japanese persimmon tree and submitted to treatments in function of cultivars (Pomelo, Rama Forte, Taubaté, Giombo and Fuyu and of application of IBA (0, 3,000 and 6,000 mg.L-1 for twenty seconds. Later the cuttings were placed in stonemason containing a soil mixture + corral manure (3:1 v/v as substrate (hardwood cuttings and in polyethylene trays containing vermiculite as substrate, in intermittent mist chamber (herbaceous cuttings. As conclusion is observed that the cultivars of Japanese persimmon tree present differences in relationship to potential of roots and shoots formation; herbaceous cuttings present higher tendency in the propagation through cutting in comparison with the hardwood cuttings.

  19. Estiolamento, incisão na base da estaca e uso do ácido indolbutírico na propagação da caramboleira por estacas lenhosas Effect of indolebutyric acid, etiolation and basal injury on propagation of star fruit by hardwood cuttings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Costa Bastos

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, avaliar o efeito do estiolamento, da incisão na base da estaca e do tratamento com ácido indolbutírico (AIB no enraizamento de estacas lenhosas de caramboleira. As estacas foram padronizadas com um par de folhas inteiras e 12 cm de comprimento. O experimento foi conduzido em delineamento estatístico inteiramente casualizado, em arranjo fatorial 3 x 4, onde os fatores estudados foram técnicas aplicadas nas estacas (estiolamento, ferimento na base e controle e diferentes concentrações de AIB (0; 3.000; 6.000 e 9.000 mg L-1. As estacas lenhosas foram utilizadas como tratamento-controle. O estiolamento foi realizado 45 dias antes da retirada da estaca no ramo, envolvendo-se a base da futura estaca com fita plástica preta. A incisão na base da estaca foi realizada no preparo das mesmas, através de dois cortes na base. As estacas foram mantidas em câmara de nebulização intermitente e, após 75 dias, avaliaram-se as porcentagens de estacas enraizadas, de estacas vivas, de formação de calos e o número de raízes emitidas por estaca. Concluiu-se que as técnicas de estiolamento e ferimento na base da estaca, e a aplicação de AIB não induziram a formação de raízes em estacas lenhosas de caramboleira.The aim of this work was to verify the influence of shading, lesion in cutting bases and application of Indolbutyric acid (IBA in the rooting of star fruit hardwood cuttings. The cuttings were padronized with three buds, two leaves, and 12 cm of length. The experimental design was completely randomized, with the factorial scheme 3 x 4, where the studied factors were the cutting types (shaded hardwood, hardwood with lesion on the base, and hardwood, considered the control and different concentration of IBA (0; 3,000; 6,000, and 9,000 mg L-1. The shading started 45 days before removing the cuttings from the branch, wrapping up the base of the future cuttings with black plastic tape. The incision on the base of

  20. Enraizamento de estacas lenhosas de pessegueiro cv. Okinawa em diferentes diâmetros de ramos, substratos e recipientes Rooting of peach cv. Okinawa hardwood cuttings at different stem diameters, substrates, and pots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Brasil Dias Tofanelli

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho foi desenvolvido no Departamento de Produção Vegetal - Setor Horticultura da Faculdade de Ciências Agronômicas (FCA da Universidade Estadual Paulista "Júlio de Mesquita Filho" (UNESP, Campus de Botucatu (SP com o objetivo de avaliar a influência de diferentes substratos e tipos de recipientes no potencial de enraizamento de estacas lenhosas de pessegueiro cultivar Okinawa com diferentes diâmetros. As estacas foram tratadas com 2,5g L-1 de ácido indol-butírico. O período de permanência das estacas na casa de vegetação foi de 50 dias. Os tratamentos consistiram de seis substratos: areia, casca de arroz carbonizada, vermiculita, areia + casca de arroz carbonizada, areia + vermiculita e casca de arroz carbonizada + vermiculita, com as misturas na proporção 1:1v/v, três tipos de recipientes: sacos plásticos, bandejas de poliestireno expandido e bandejas plásticas e dois grupos de estacas com diâmetros diferentes: 2 a 6mm e 6 a 10mm. O melhor resultado de enraizamento foi obtido em sacos plásticos com vermiculita independente do diâmetro das estacas.This work was carried out at the Department of Plant Production/Horticulture of the Faculdade de Ciências Agronômicas (FCA of the Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP located in Botucatu (SP, Brazil. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of substrate and pot type on rooting of stem hardwood cuttings of peach cultivar Okinawa with different diameters. The cuttings were treated with 2.5g L-1 of IBA. The cuttings were maintained in greenhouse for 50 days. The treatments consisted of the combination of six substrate compositions: sand, carbonized rice husk, vermiculite, sand + carbonized rice husk, sand + vermiculite, and carbonized rice husk + vermiculite, mixture at proportion 1:1v/v and three types of pots: plastic bags, polystyrene trays, plastic trays and two groups of cutting diameter: 2 to 6mm and 6 to 10mm. The highest rooting frequency was obtained

  1. Enraizamento de estacas semilenhosas de mirtilo sob o efeito de diferentes concentrações de ácido indolbutírico Rooting of semi-hardwood cuttings of blueberry under different indolebutyric acid concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doralice Lobato de Oliveira Fischer

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Dentre os métodos de multiplicação, o mirtilo pode ser propagado por sementes, rebentos, micropropagação e estaquia. Comercialmente, a propagação por meio de estaca é o método mais utilizado, proporcionando resultados diversos de acordo com a cultivar. Objetivou-se, com este trabalho, avaliar o efeito do ácido indolbutírico (AIB no enraizamento de estacas semilenhosas de mirtilo das cultivares Delite e Bluebelle, coletadas em dezembro/2005. O material utilizado, oriundo de plantas irrigadas, foi segmento de ramos principais, com quatro gemas e diâmetro médio de 6 mm, contendo duas folhas na extremidade superior, cortadas pela metade. Após o preparo, as estacas foram tratadas com AIB, nas concentrações de 0; 1.000; 2.000 e 4.000 mg. L-1, sendo colocadas para enraizar em areia de granulometria grossa lavada, sob irrigação intermitente por microaspersão. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi em blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições e dez estacas por parcela. Para a cultivar Bluebelle, o uso de AIB na concentração de 1.000 mg.L-1 propiciou, aos 120 dias após a instalação do experimento, maior número e comprimento de raízes, número e comprimento de brotações e enraizamento de 37,5%. A cultivar Delite apresentou maior facilidade de emissão de raízes e brotações, independentemente do uso de AIB, com percentual de estacas enraizadas superior a 82,5%.Blueberries can be propagated by a variety of methods such as seeds, suckers, micropropagation and cuttings. Commercially, most propagation is done by cutting, providing different results depending on the cultivar. Thus, the objective of this research was to evaluate the indolebutyric acid (IBA effect on rooting of semi-hardwood cuttings of blueberry cultivars Delite and Bluebelle collected on December/2005. Four-node segments with 6 mm approximately, containing 2 upper leaves cut in half were taken from main branches of irrigated plants. After preparation, the

  2. Hardwood log supply: a broader perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iris Montague; Adri Andersch; Jan Wiedenbeck; Urs. Buehlmann

    2015-01-01

    At regional and state meetings we talk with others in our business about the problems we face: log exports, log quality, log markets, logger shortages, cash flow problems, the weather. These are familiar talking points and real and persistent problems. But what is the relative importance of these problems for log procurement in different regions of...

  3. PURIFICATION OF HARDWOOD-DERIVED AUTOHYDROLYSATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joni Tapani Lehto,

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Carbohydrate-containing hydrolysates (1.1 to 14.9% of wood dry matter obtained from autohydrolysis (at 130 to 150°C for 30 to 120 minutes of birch (Betula pendula chips prior to pulping were purified with respect to non-carbohydrate materials, without carbohydrate losses, either by ethyl acetate extraction or XAD-4 resin treatment. In the former case, about 50% of lignin and practically all the furanoic compounds (2-furaldehyde and 5-(hydroxymethylfurfural could be removed, whereas in the latter case, the corresponding amounts were about 30% and 50 to 90%, respectively. A partial recovery of various unsaturated impurities is of importance, because they may act as inhibitors when biochemically converting carbohydrates in hydrolysates into value-added products.

  4. Most Costly Insects & Diseases of Southern Hardwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    T. H. Filer; J. D. Solomon

    1987-01-01

    Insect borers, especially carpenter worms and red oak borers, cause degrade in oaks, an average of $45 per thousand board feet, and an annual loss of $112 million in the 2.5 billion board feet of oaks cut annually.

  5. Heat sterilization times of five hardwood species

    Science.gov (United States)

    William T. Simpson; Xiping Wang; John W. Forsman; John R. Erickson

    2005-01-01

    Heat sterilization of lumber, timbers, and pallets is currently used to kill insects, thus preventing their transfer between countries in international trade. An important factor in this treatment is the time required for the center of any wood configuration to reach the temperature necessary to kill the insect. This study explored the effect of size (1-, 1.5-, and 2.0...

  6. Computer Simulation of a Hardwood Processing Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Earl Kline; Philip A. Araman

    1990-01-01

    The overall purpose of this paper is to introduce computer simulation as a decision support tool that can be used to provide managers with timely information. A simulation/animation modeling procedure is demonstrated for wood products manufacuring systems. Simulation modeling techniques are used to assist in identifying and solving problems. Animation is used for...

  7. Economic choice for hardwood sawmill operations (ECHO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    P.H. Steele; Philip A. Araman; C. Boden

    2002-01-01

    Reductions in sawkerf on headrigs and resaws can dramatically increase lumber recovery. Research has also shown that lumber target size reductions are even more important than kerf reductions in providing increased lumber recovery. Decreases in either sawkerf or lumber size, however, always come at some cost in both capital and variable costs. Determining whether the...

  8. Silvicultural systems for southern bottomland hardwood forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    James S. Meadows; John A. Stanturf

    1997-01-01

    Silvicultural systems integrate both regeneration and intermediate operations in an orderly process for managing forest stands. The clearcutting method of regeneration favors the development of species that are moderately intolerant to intolerant of shade. In fact, clearcutting is the most proven and widely used method of successfully regenerating bottomland oak...

  9. Invasive plant species in hardwood tree plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochelle R. Beasley; Paula M. Pijut

    2010-01-01

    Invasive plants are species that can grow and spread aggressively, mature quickly, and invade an ecosystem causing economic and environmental damage. Invasive plants usually invade disturbed areas, but can also colonize small areas quickly, and may spread and dominate large areas in a few short years. Invasive plant species displace native or desirable forest...

  10. Quality drying of hardwood lumber : guidebook -- checklist

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. S. Boone; M. R. Milota; J. D. Danielson; D. W. Huber

    The IMPROVE Lumber Drying Program is intended to increase awareness of the lumber drying system as a critical component in the manufacture of quality lumber. One objective of the program is to provide easy-to-use tools that a kiln operator can use to maintain an efficient kiln operation and therefore improve lumber drying quality. This report is one component of the...

  11. Metodologias de aplicação de AIB no enraizamento de estacas semilenhosas de Sapium glandulatum (vell. pax Methodologies of IBA application in the rooting of Sapium glandulatum (vell. pax semi-hardwood cuttings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.G.A. Ferreira

    2009-01-01

    , não sendo um método recomendável para o aumento da indução radicial de Sapium glandulatum. Pelo exposto, pode-se considerar que estacas de brotações do ano desta espécie não são indicadas para sua propagação vegetativa, de acordo com os tratamentos realizados.The species Sapium glandulatum, commonly known as "leiteiro", is one of the Brazilian native species potentially recommended for the recovery of degraded areas, mainly due to its pioneering character and probable medicinal properties since its family, Euphorbiaceae, is rich in phenolic compounds. In April/2000 and December/2001, experiments were carried out in a greenhouse to investigate the effects of different indolebutyric acid (IBA levels in concentrated solution (10 seconds immersion, diluted solution (16 hours immersion and as talc, associated or not with boric acid, on the rooting of Sapium glandulatum semi-hardwood cuttings. The latter were produced from sproutings of the year collected from stock plants located in Bocaiúva do Sul, Paraná State, Brazil. The length of each cutting was about 10 cm, with 2 half apical leaves. The following treatments were evaluated: 0, 4000, 6000 and 8000 mg L-1 IBA, alone and with 150 mg L-1 boric acid (concentrated solution; 0, 200 and 400 mg L-1 IBA, alone and with 150 mg L-1 boric acid (diluted solution; and 0, 4000, 6000 and 8000 mg L-1 IBA as talc. After 70 days in greenhouse, the best period for cutting collection was December/2000 (summer, and 8000 mg L-1 IBA in concentrated solution led to the highest rooting percentage (14%, although not significantly different from the remaining treatments. The diluted solution did not show promising results for root system induction due to the high mortality of cuttings. The results for IBA as talc were not higher than those for the best treatments in concentrated solution, which indicates this method is not recommended to increase Sapium glandulatum rooting induction. Thus, sprouting cuttings of the year from

  12. 78 FR 68297 - Hardwood Lumber and Hardwood Plywood Promotion, Research and Information Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-13

    ... should reference the docket number and the date and page number of this issue of the Federal Register and... regulatory approaches that maximize net benefits (including potential economic, environmental, public health... cover startup costs of the Order; to invest Board funds pursuant to the Act; to have its books audited...

  13. Planting and care of fine hardwood seedlings: Designing hardwood tree plantings for wildlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian J. MacGowan

    2003-01-01

    Woody plants can be of value to many wildlife species. The species of tree or shrub, or the location, size, and shape of planting can all have an impact on wildlife. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the benefits of trees and shrubs for wildlife and how to design tree and shrub plantings for wildlife. Some of the practices may conflict with other management...

  14. 78 FR 67979 - Hardwood Lumber and Hardwood Plywood Promotion, Research and Information Order; Referendum...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-13

    ... submitted on the Internet at: http://www.regulations.gov or to the Promotion and Economics Division, Fruit...: Patricia A. Petrella, Marketing Specialist, Promotion and Economics Division, Fruit and Vegetable Program... promotion programs. Abstract: The information collection requirements in the request are essential to carry...

  15. Product costing practices in the North American hardwood component industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrienn Andersch; Urs Buehlmann; Jan Wiedenbeck; Steve Lawser

    2011-01-01

    Companies, when bidding for jobs, need to be able to price products competitively while also assuring that the necessary profitability can be achieved. These goals, competitive pricing and profitability, cannot be reliably achieved unless industry participants possess a full understanding of their company's cost structure. Competitors blame companies without...

  16. Research on Producing Green Dimension Directly From Hardwood Logs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip A. Araman

    1995-01-01

    Because of rising timber costs and an increasing demand for high-grade timber, suppliers of solid wood products need additional material options. We feel that European and Japanese processing concepts of producing green dimension and other clear material directly from logs could provide an answer. In this paper we present a brief overview of our research results on...

  17. Estimating seed crops of conifer and hardwood species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip M. McDonald

    1992-01-01

    Cone, acorn, and berry crops of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws. var. ponderosa), sugar pine (Pinus lambertiana Dougl.), Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco), California white fir (Abies concolor var. lowiana (Gord...

  18. Emission Factors of Selected Organic Compounds from Domestic Hardwood Combustion

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hopan, F.; Šyc, Michal; Horák, J.; Dej, M.; Krpec, K.; Ocelka, T.; Tomšej, T.; Pekárek, Vladimír

    LVI, č. 3 (2009), s. 81-85 ISSN 1210-0471 R&D Projects: GA MŽP(CZ) SP/1A2/116/07; GA MŠk 2B08048 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : wood * small sources * emission factors Subject RIV: DI - Air Pollution ; Quality http://transactions.fs.vsb.cz/2009-3/12hop.pdf

  19. Automatic Color Sorting of Hardwood Edge-Glued Panel Parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Earl Kline; Richard Conners; Qiang Lu; Philip A. Araman

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes an automatic color sorting system for red oak edge-glued panel parts. The color sorting system simultaneously examines both faces of a panel part and then determines which face has the "best" color, and sorts the part into one of a number of color classes at plant production speeds. Initial test results show that the system generated over...

  20. Hardwood species classification with DWT based hybrid texture ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    to decompose the image up to 7 levels using Daubechies (db3) wavelet as decom ... binary pattern (DWTFOSLBPu2) texture features at the 4th level of image decomposi ...... In addition, inclusion of further levels of image decomposition gives rise to ..... Texture analysis of SAR sea ice imagery using gray level co-occurrence.

  1. Managing carbon sequestration and storage in northern hardwood forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eunice A. Padley; Deahn M. Donner; Karin S. Fassnacht; Ronald S. Zalesny; Bruce Birr; Karl J. Martin

    2011-01-01

    Carbon has an important role in sustainable forest management, contributing to functions that maintain site productivity, nutrient cycling, and soil physical properties. Forest management practices can alter ecosystem carbon allocation as well as the amount of total site carbon.

  2. Photosynthetic Characteristics of Five Hardwood Species in a Mixed Stand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi-Jean S. Sung; Paul P. Kormanik; Stanley J. Zarnoch

    1999-01-01

    In 1998, photosythesis (Pn) was measured in cherrybark oak, green ash, swamp chestnut oak, sweetgum, and water hickory in a mixed stand established in February 1994. Based on the apparent quantum yield obtained from light response curves, cherrybark oak had the lowest Pn in August whereas sweetgum, green ash, and water hickory were equally active in Pn. Daily August...

  3. Restoring bottomland hardwood forests: A comparison of four techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    John A. Stanturf; Emile S. Cardiner; James P. Shepard; Callie J. Schweitzer; C. Jeffrey Portwood; Lamar Dorris

    2004-01-01

    Large-scale afforestation of former agricultural lands in the Lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley (LMAV) is one of the largest forest restoration efforts in the world and continues to attract interest from landowners, policy makers, scientists, and managers. The decision by many landowners to afforest these lands has been aided in part by the increased availability of...

  4. Environmental and management injury in hardwood tree plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Seifert; Keith Woeste

    2005-01-01

    The injuries described in this publication sometimes mimic those caused by animals, insects, and diseases. Some environmental and management-related ijuries can be treated, but it is best to prevent their recurrence.

  5. Researchers propose single grade rule for evaluating hardwood pallet cants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hal Mitchell; Marshall White; Philip Araman; Peter Hamner

    2008-01-01

    In "price taker" markets, successful businesses are the low cost producers, and pallet manufacturers are no exception. The single largest cost component of pallet manufacturing is raw material costs. Cants and lumber typically account for over 60% of operating costs. In the last three decades, cants have replaced lumber as the primary raw...

  6. PERCHLORATE PHYTOREMEDIATION USING HARDWOOD TREES AND VASCULAR PLANTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perchlorate has contaminated water and soils at several locations in the United States. Perchlorate iswater soluble, exceedingly mobile in aqueous systems, and can persist for many decades under typical ground and surface water conditions. Perchlorate is of concern because of...

  7. Dynamics of mid-Appalachian red spruce-hardwood ecotones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam W. Rollins; Harold S. Adams; Steven L. Stephenson

    2010-01-01

    Ten belt transects, each consisting of a series of contiguous 10 x 10 m (100 m2) quadrats were established between 1992 and 1994 at seven study sites in the mountains of southwestern Virginia and eastern central West Virginia. All of the study sites occurred in areas where a relatively distinct and narrow ecotone existed between a forest...

  8. Simulating cut-to-length harvesting operations in Appalachian hardwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jingxin Wang; Chris B. LeDoux; Yaoxiang Li

    2005-01-01

    Cut-to-length (CTL) harvesting systems involving small and large harvesters and a forwarder were simulated using a modular computer simulation model. The two harvesters simulated were a modified John Deere 988 tracked excavator with a single grip sawhead and a Timbco T425 based excavator with a single grip sawhead. The forwarder used in the simulations was a Valmet 524...

  9. Lathe creates hardwood flakes for manufacture of "super strong" flakeboard

    Science.gov (United States)

    P. Koch

    1973-01-01

    Most industry members got their first look at a prototype of the Koch lathe at this year's Southern Forest Products Assn. Machinery Exhibition held in Atlanta. With the residue from this machine, Dr. Peter Koch, project leader at the Southern Forest Experiment Station in Pineville, LA thinks it will be possible to create a flake that can be used for making a...

  10. Site index determination techniques for southern bottomland hardwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian Roy Lockhart

    2013-01-01

    Site index is a species-specific indirect measure of forest productivity expressed as the average height of dominant and codominant trees in a stand of a specified base age. It is widely used by forest managers to make informed decisions regarding forest management practices. Unfortunately, forest managers have difficulty in determining site index for southern US...

  11. Terminology and biology of fire scars in selected central hardwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin T. Smith; Elaine Kennedy Sutherland

    2001-01-01

    Dendrochronological analysis of fire scars requires tree survival of fire exposure. Trees survive fire exposure by: (1) avoidance of injury through constitutive protection and (2) induced defense. Induced defenses include (a) compartmentalization processes that resist the spread of injury and infection and (b) closure processes that restore the continuity of the...

  12. Reciprocity on the hardwood: passing patterns among professional basketball players.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robb Willer

    Full Text Available Past theory and research view reciprocal resource sharing as a fundamental building block of human societies. Most studies of reciprocity dynamics have focused on trading among individuals in laboratory settings. But if motivations to engage in these patterns of resource sharing are powerful, then we should observe forms of reciprocity even in highly structured group environments in which reciprocity does not clearly serve individual or group interests. To this end, we investigated whether patterns of reciprocity might emerge among teammates in professional basketball games. Using data from logs of National Basketball Association (NBA games of the 2008-9 season, we estimated a series of conditional logistic regression models to test the impact of different factors on the probability that a given player would assist another player in scoring a basket. Our analysis found evidence for a direct reciprocity effect in which players who had "received" assists in the past tended to subsequently reciprocate their benefactors. Further, this tendency was time-dependent, with the probability of repayment highest soon after receiving an assist and declining as game time passed. We found no evidence for generalized reciprocity - a tendency to "pay forward" assists - and only very limited evidence for indirect reciprocity - a tendency to reward players who had sent others many assists. These findings highlight the power of reciprocity to shape human behavior, even in a setting characterized by extensive planning, division of labor, quick decision-making, and a focus on inter-group competition.

  13. Reciprocity on the hardwood: passing patterns among professional basketball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willer, Robb; Sharkey, Amanda; Frey, Seth

    2012-01-01

    Past theory and research view reciprocal resource sharing as a fundamental building block of human societies. Most studies of reciprocity dynamics have focused on trading among individuals in laboratory settings. But if motivations to engage in these patterns of resource sharing are powerful, then we should observe forms of reciprocity even in highly structured group environments in which reciprocity does not clearly serve individual or group interests. To this end, we investigated whether patterns of reciprocity might emerge among teammates in professional basketball games. Using data from logs of National Basketball Association (NBA) games of the 2008-9 season, we estimated a series of conditional logistic regression models to test the impact of different factors on the probability that a given player would assist another player in scoring a basket. Our analysis found evidence for a direct reciprocity effect in which players who had "received" assists in the past tended to subsequently reciprocate their benefactors. Further, this tendency was time-dependent, with the probability of repayment highest soon after receiving an assist and declining as game time passed. We found no evidence for generalized reciprocity - a tendency to "pay forward" assists - and only very limited evidence for indirect reciprocity - a tendency to reward players who had sent others many assists. These findings highlight the power of reciprocity to shape human behavior, even in a setting characterized by extensive planning, division of labor, quick decision-making, and a focus on inter-group competition.

  14. Biotechnology and genetic optimization of fast-growing hardwoods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garton, S.; Syrkin-Wurtele, E.; Griffiths, H.; Schell, J.; Van Camp, L.; Bulka, K. (NPI, Salt Lake City, UT (United States))

    1991-02-01

    A biotechnology research program was initiated to develop new clones of fast-growing Populus clones resistant to the herbicide glyphosate and resistant to the leaf-spot and canker disease caused by the fungus Septoria musiva. Glyphosate-resistant callus was selected from stem segments cultured in vitro on media supplemented with the herbicide. Plants were regenerated from the glyphosate-resistant callus tissue. A portion of plants reverted to a glyphosate susceptible phenotype during organogenesis. A biologically active filtrate was prepared from S. musiva and influenced fresh weight of Populus callus tissue. Disease-resistant plants were produced through somaclonal variation when shoots developed on stem internodes cultured in vitro. Plantlets were screened for disease symptoms after spraying with a suspension of fungal spores. A frequency of 0.83 percent variant production was observed. Genetically engineered plants were produced after treatment of plant tissue with Agrobacterium tumefasciens strains carrying plasmid genes for antibiotic resistance. Transformers were selected on media enriched with the antibiotic, kanamycin. Presence of foreign DNA was confirmed by Southern blot analysis. Protoplasts of popular were produced but did not regenerate into plant organs. 145 refs., 12 figs., 36 tabs.

  15. The ecology of garlic mustard in eastern hardwood forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian C. McCarthy

    2003-01-01

    Upwards of 25% of the plant species in many eastern floras have been introduced. Many of these species have become invasive. Many of the worst invasives are native to Eurasia and were brought to the U.S. either intentionally for forage, fiber production, erosion control, ornamentals, or unintentionally via crop seed contaminant, transportation, or nursery stock.

  16. Throughfall and stemflow chemistry in a northern hardwood forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eaton, J S; Likens, G E; Bormann, F H

    1973-01-01

    The contribution of throughfall and stemflow as pathways of the intrasystem nutrient cycle within the forested Hubbard Brook ecosystem was investigated. Nutrients followed were Ca, Mg, K, Na, NO/sub 3/, SO/sub 4/, NH/sub 4/, Fl, PO/sub 4/, H, organic N, and organic matter. Variation in throughfall and stemflow chemistry were determined under American beech, sugar maple, and yellow birch, the three major species comprising the forest studied. Nutrients generally recognized as being associated with organic molecules (e.g. P, N) moved more slowly from the forest canopy to the forest floor. These nutrients moved out of the canopy primarily via litterfall. Nutrients more commonly found in an ionic form (e.g. K) were found to move very rapidly from the forest canopy to the available nutrient pool in throughfall and stemflow. A comparison is made between the amount of each nutrient present in the forest canopy and the amount of these nutrients found in the throughfall and stemflow. The importance of hydrogen ion exchange in the removal of cations from the forest canopy is shown. Precipitation of low pH probably acts to accelerate the intrasystem cycling of nutrients within forested ecosystems. Total nutrient removal from the forest canopy by throughfall and stemflow is presented along with a comparison with the removal by litterfall.

  17. Quality drying in a hardwood lumber predryer : guidebook--checklist

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. M. Wengert; R. S. Boone

    The IMPROVE Lumber Drying Program is intended to increase awareness of the lumber drying system as a critical component in the manufacture of quality lumber. One objective of the program is to provide easy-to-use tools that a kiln/predryer operator can use to maintain an efficient drying operation and therefore improve lumber drying quality. This report is one...

  18. Flowering and seed production in seven hardwood species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ted J. Grisez

    1975-01-01

    As forest management has grown more intensive in the cherry-maple and oak forests of the Allegheny region, the need for additional knowledge of the seeding habits of important tree species has become apparent. Reproduction of new stands after cutting depends, to a large extent, on an adequate seed supply. And seeds and friuts represent an important source of food for...

  19. Deferment cutting in Appalachian hardwoods: the what, whys, and hows

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. Clay Smith; Gary W. Miller

    1991-01-01

    Deferment cutting is a regeneration practice that resembles a seed-tree or shelterwood cutting. The difference is that residual trees are not cut when the reproduction becomes established. Instead, residual trees are left until new reproduction matures to sawtimber size, and another regeneration cut is the silvicultural objective. Hence, with deferment cutting specific...

  20. Log and tree sawing times for hardwood mills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everette D. Rast

    1974-01-01

    Data on 6,850 logs and 1,181 trees were analyzed to predict sawing times. For both logs and trees, regression equations were derived that express (in minutes) sawing time per log or tree and per Mbf. For trees, merchantable height is expressed in number of logs as well as in feet. One of the major uses for the tables of average sawing times is as a bench mark against...