WorldWideScience

Sample records for hardwood raw materials

  1. Raw materials scoreboard

    OpenAIRE

    Vidal-Legaz, Beatriz; Mancini, Lucia; Blengini, Giovanni Andrea; Pavel, Claudiu; Marmier, Alain; Blagoeva, Darina; Latunussa, Cynthia; Nuss, Philip; Dewulf, Jo; Nita, Viorel; Kayam, Yildirim; Manfredi, Simone; Magyar, Armin; Dias, Patrícia; Baranzelli, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    The raw materials scoreboard is an initiative of the European Innovation Partnership (EIP) on Raw Materials. Its purpose is to provide quantitative data on the EIP's general objectives and on the raw materials policy context. It presents relevant and reliable information that can be used in policymaking in a variety of areas. The scoreboard will, for example, contribute to monitoring progress towards a circular economy, a crucial issue on which the European Commission recently adopted an ambi...

  2. Raw material uranium; Rohstoff Uran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2017-03-15

    Uranium is an important raw material in human life. Mostly using nuclear fission uranium is used in nuclear medicine, industry and research. The most important application is the generation of electricity in nuclear power plants. Due to the global availability the worldwide uranium supply is guaranties for a long time. The contribution covers the issues medicine, neutron research, energy generation, occurrence, mining, processing, recycling and disposal.

  3. The pallet industry: a changing hardwood market

    Science.gov (United States)

    G.P. Dempsey; D.G. Martens

    1991-01-01

    From its inception during World War II, the wooden pallet industry has grown to become the Nation's largest industrial consumer of hardwood lumber products. Since most of the raw material in wooden pallets is lower grade lumber, the pallet industry's growth, efficiency, and changing raw material inputs must be of concern to the grade hardwood lumber industry...

  4. Future Sources of Organic Raw Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Irving S.

    1978-01-01

    Examines the need for industrial organization, academic institutions, and national governments to agree on cooperative roles in planning the future raw materials demands of the chemical industry. Political and social concerns, as well as technical and economic considerations, are important to the raw material future of the industry. (MA)

  5. Raw material selection for object construction

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Perlow, J

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available An important step in the construction of novel objects is the ability to recognise combinations of raw materials which are likely to be useful. We aim to exploit the intuition that the visual characteristics of candidate raw materials provide useful...

  6. Quality quantification model of basic raw materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Š. Vilamová

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Basic raw materials belong to the key input sources in the production of pig iron. The properties of basic raw materials can be evaluated using a variety of criteria. The essential ones include the physical and chemical properties. Current competitive pressures, however, force the producers of iron more and more often to include cost and logistic criteria into the decision-making process. In this area, however, they are facing a problem of how to convert a variety of vastly different parameters into one evaluation indicator in order to compare the available raw materials. This article deals with the analysis of a model created to evaluate the basic raw materials, which was designed as part of the research.

  7. Plastic raw materials in Neolithic pottery production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander A. Bobrinsky

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper is dedicated to the investigation of various natural silts as the most ancient type of raw material used in pottery production. The authors describe the specific features of the composition of plain and mountain silts, and discover the same features in ancient ceramics from different regions in Russia. It can be concluded that silts were the earliest raw material used, a tradition that faded away during the evolution of pottery production.

  8. PERSPECTIVE NONMETALLIC RAW MATERIALS AND THEIR UTILIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Havelka Jaroslav

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available It is the existence of the domestic base of raw materials and stable or growing markets that are a precondition for the prospectiveness industrial minerals. Traditional and non-traditional prospective nonmetal-liferous raw materials can be distinguished. The main trends in new industrial applications of industrial minerals are being stated. In the Czech Republic, the following may be ranked among the traditional prospective nonme-talliferous raw materials: kaoline, refractory clays, ceramic and expandable clays, glass and foundry sands, li-mestones, building stones, gypsum, cast basalt, bentonite, diatomite, feldspars, graphite. Alkali rocks, industrial garnets, flaky mica, wollastonite and yet unmined staurolite, minerals of the sillimanite group and others belong to the non-traditional prospective industrial minerals.

  9. Ethanol is a strategic raw material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baras Josip K.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The first part of this review article considers general data about ethanol as an industrial product, its qualities and uses. It is emphasized that, if produced from biomass as a renewable raw material, its perspectives as a chemical raw material and energent are brilliant. Starchy grains, such as corn, must be used as the main raw materials for ethanol production. The production of bioethanol by the enzyme-catalyzed conversion of starch followed by (yeast fermentation, distillation is the process of choice. If used as a motor fuel, anhydrous ethanol can be directly blended with gasoline or converted into an oxygenator such as ETBE. Finally, bioethanol production in Yugoslavia and the possibilities for its further development are discussed.

  10. Raw material studies of West Central Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Bogosavljević Petrović

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with raw material problems in the territory of West Central Serbia geologically determined as the Čačak-Kraljevo (or West Morava basin. Our research is presented through the most striking case studies, Lojanik, Vlaška Glava and Lazac.  The Lojanik hill is a silicified forest by origin. It has occasionally been in use from the earliest periods of prehistory until today as a source of black and ochre-coloured flint, opal and silicified wood. A detailed prospection, including the mapping of surface finds using square nets, was conducted during two research campaigns.The Vlaška Glava is an open-air Palaeolithic site at which artefacts made of white, ochre, red, brown and black chert, silicified magnesite, volcanic and metamorphic rocks were found. Our research of primary and secondary geological deposits in the vicinity of the site showed equivalent raw material. We also found an interesting primary deposit of high quality bluish grey flint with outcrop activities (Workshop 1.The Lazac shaft is a contemporary magnesite mine, recently abandoned because of the high percentage of silicon-dioxide. We determined the same raw material in collections found at nearby Neolithic sites. Certain similarities between the wooden support systems of ore exploration in the Middle Ages and modern times were established at the entrance of the shaft.Our research in the territory of the West Morava basin resulted in reconstruction of some links between geological deposits and settlements and also creation of a relevant base for future raw material studies.

  11. Hydrogenated cottonseed oil as raw material for biobased materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    There has been a lot of recent interest in using vegetable oils as biodegradable and renewable raw materials for the syntheses of various biobased materials. Although most of the attention has been paid to soybean oil thus far, cottonseed oil is a viable alternative. An advantage of cottonseed oil...

  12. Control Analysis Of Tobacco Raw Material Supplies Using Eoq Method Economic Order Quantity To Reach Efficiency Total Costs Of Raw Material In Pr. Sukun

    OpenAIRE

    Wiwik Sudarwati; Umi Marfuah

    2017-01-01

    The raw material inventory control system determines and guarantees the availability of raw material stock in the right quantity quality and timing. The problem in this research is the procurement of raw materials of tobacco. PR. Sukun still often experiences the excess. This is related to the frequency of raw material purchases and the quantity of raw material purchases which can lead to waste of working capital embedded in raw material inventory raw material ordering costs and raw material ...

  13. CREATION OF COLLAGEN PRODUCTS FISH RAW MATERIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Antipova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purposeful use of proteins of connecting fabrics is based first of all on structural and mechanical and physical and chemical properties of collagen, his physiology to a human body. Traditional source of collagen is the split of skins of the cattle, but in view of the objective reasons (spongy encephalopathy, reduction of a livestock of cattle, there was a need for search of alternative sources. The particular interest and popularity represent collagenic proteins in biomedical technologies, when receiving surgical sutural materials, wound healing means, prolongator of medicines, artificial organs and fabrics, implatant. New data on use the collagen containing of sources are directly connected with expansion of a source of raw materials of processing industries of agrarian and industrial complex on the basis of deep processing of biological resources and their maximum involvement in the main and special production with significant growth in an exit of useful products from raw materials unit. In this regard, researches of a microstructure of skins and fractional composition of proteins of objects of research are conducted; data on the general chemical composition and the content of collagen in them are received. Experimental data showed that the most perspective source of collagen from the studied fishes of internal reservoirs is the skin of a silver carp that is caused by the high content of target substance collagen, the low content of fat. The technology of receiving collagenic substances with the high technical characteristics allowing to apply them in production of medical materials is proved and realized in vitro. The comparative analysis showed that substances from a split of skins of cattle and a silver carp have an identical set of amino acids, but are characterized by the different content of separate amino acid s.

  14. Pallet Recycling and Material Substitution: How Will Hardwood Markets Be Affected?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert J. Bush; Philip A. Araman; Vijay S. Reddy

    1997-01-01

    An estimated 4.53 billion board feet of solid hardwood and 1.79 billion board feet of solid softwood were used in the production of pallets and containers in 1995. When compared to estimates for 1992, the use of both softwoods and hardwoods has decreased. Use for pallets and containers, as a percentage of total lumber production, also decreased for both materials...

  15. Aerospace Fuels From Nonpetroleum Raw Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaszewski, Bryan A.; Hepp, Aloysius F.; Kulis, Michael J.; Jaworske, Donald A.

    2013-01-01

    Recycling human metabolic and plastic wastes minimizes cost and increases efficiency by reducing the need to transport consumables and return trash, respectively, from orbit to support a space station crew. If the much larger costs of transporting consumables to the Moon and beyond are taken into account, developing waste recycling technologies becomes imperative and possibly mission enabling. Reduction of terrestrial waste streams while producing energy and/or valuable raw materials is an opportunity being realized by a new generation of visionary entrepreneurs; several relevant technologies are briefly compared, contrasted and assessed for space applications. A two-step approach to nonpetroleum raw materials utilization is presented; the first step involves production of supply or producer gas. This is akin to synthesis gas containing carbon oxides, hydrogen, and simple hydrocarbons. The second step involves production of fuel via the Sabatier process, a methanation reaction, or another gas-to-liquid technology, typically Fischer-Tropsch processing. Optimization to enhance the fraction of product stream relevant to transportation fuels via catalytic (process) development at NASA Glenn Research Center is described. Energy utilization is a concern for production of fuels whether for operation on the lunar or Martian surface, or beyond. The term green relates to not only mitigating excess carbon release but also to the efficiency of energy usage. For space, energy usage can be an essential concern. Another issue of great concern is minimizing impurities in the product stream(s), especially those that are potential health risks and/or could degrade operations through catalyst poisoning or equipment damage; technologies being developed to remove heteroatom impurities are discussed. Alternative technologies to utilize waste fluids, such as a propulsion option called the resistojet, are discussed. The resistojet is an electric propulsion technology with a powered

  16. Critical Raw Materials and the Circular Economy – Background report

    OpenAIRE

    MATHIEUX FABRICE; ARDENTE FULVIO; BOBBA SILVIA; NUSS PHILIP; BLENGINI GIOVANNI; ALVES DIAS PATRICIA; BLAGOEVA DARINA; TORRES DE MATOS CRISTINA; WITTMER DOMINIC; PAVEL CLAUDIU; HAMOR TAMAS; SAVEYN HANS; GAWLIK BERND; ORVEILLON GLENN; HUYGENS DRIES

    2017-01-01

    This report is a background document used by several European Commission services to prepare the EC report on critical raw materials and the circular economy, a commitment of the European Commission made in its Communication ‘EU action plan for the Circular Economy’. It represents a JRC contribution to the Raw Material Initiative and to the EU Circular Economy Action Plan. It combines the results of several research programmes and activities of the JRC on critical raw materials in a context o...

  17. Synopsis of utilization research on SRIC raw materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    John B. Crist

    1983-01-01

    The take-home message of this paper is this: Raw materials produced using SRIC are suitable for many reconstituted end products. Juvenility, rapid growth, and bark contents do not greatly hinder the usefulness of the raw materials. In the future, increased industrial acceptance of SRIC methods and materials should be a major thrust and is discussed.

  18. High belite cement from alternative raw materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghorab, H. Y.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Three high belite laboratory clinkers were prepared from traditional and alternative raw materials. Reference clinker was obtained from 77% limestone, 11% sandy clays, 11% fatty clays and 1% iron scales. The fatty clays were replaced by red brick powder in the raw meal of the second clinker and were lowered to 2% with the replacement of 10% of the limestone by egg shells in the third clinker. The SEM examination revealed clear presence of crossed striae and twinning in the rounded belite grains of the reference clinker caused by the transformation of the α´-belite to the β polymorph. Striae were weaker in the second and third clinkers indicating a probable stabilization of the α ‘-belite polymorph. Compressive strength of the respective cements were attained first after 28 days and the early strength did not improve with increasing fineness. Higher compressive strength values were found for the cement prepared from second clinker.Se han preparado tres clinkeres de laboratorio con altos contenidos en belita a partir de materias primas tradicionales y alternativas. El clinker de referencia se obtuvo a partir de una mezcla de caliza, arcillas arenosas y grasas y limaduras de hierro. Las arcillas grasas fueron sustituidas por polvo de ladrillo rojo en la preparación del segundo clinker, y en el tercero el contenido de arcilla grasa fue de solo un 2% y parte de la caliza fue sustituida por cascara de huevo. El estudio realizado por SEM muestra superficies estriadas alrededor de los granos de belita que indican una transformación del polimorfo α´ a la forma β-C₂S, durante el enfriamiento. Esas estrías son menos marcadas en el segundo y tercer clinker, indicando, una estabilización del polimorfo α´-C₂S. Los valores de resistencias a compresión de los correspondientes cementos, a 28 días de curado, no se ven incrementados por la finura de dichos cementos. Las mayores resistencias se obtuvieron en el cemento preparado a partir del cl

  19. Scoping Future Policy Dynamics in Raw Materials Through Scenarios Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Vitor; Keane, Christopher; Sturm, Flavius; Schimpf, Sven; Bodo, Balazs

    2017-04-01

    The International Raw Materials Observatory (INTRAW) project is working towards a sustainable future for the European Union in access to raw materials, from an availability, economical, and environmental framework. One of the major exercises for the INTRAW project is the evaluation of potential future scenarios for 2050 to frame economic, research, and environmental policy towards a sustainable raw materials supply. The INTRAW consortium developed three possible future scenarios that encompass defined regimes of political, economic, and technological norms. The first scenario, "Unlimited Trade," reflects a world in which free trade continues to dominate the global political and economic environment, with expectations of a growing demand for raw materials from widely distributed global growth. The "National Walls" scenario reflects a world where nationalism and economic protectionism begins to dominate, leading to stagnating economic growth and uneven dynamics in raw materials supply and demand. The final scenario, "Sustainability Alliance," examines the dynamics of a global political and economic climate that is focused on environmental and economic sustainability, leading towards increasingly towards a circular raw materials economy. These scenarios were reviewed, tested, and provided simulations of impacts with members of the Consortium and a panel of global experts on international raw materials issues which led to expected end conditions for 2050. Given the current uncertainty in global politics, these scenarios are informative to identifying likely opportunities and crises. The details of these simulations and expected responses to the research demand, technology investments, and economic components of raw materials system will be discussed.

  20. Sulfur Release from Cement Raw Materials during Solid Fuel Combustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anders Rooma; Larsen, Morten B.; Glarborg, Peter

    2011-01-01

    During combustion of solid fuels in the material inlet end of cement rotary kilns, local reducing conditions can occur and cause decomposition of sulfates from cement raw materials. Decomposition of sulfates is problematic because it increases the gas-phase SO2 concentration, which may cause...... deposit formation in the kiln system. SO2 release from cement raw materials during combustion of solid fuels has been studied experimentally in a high temperature rotary drum. The fuels were tire rubber, pine wood, petcoke, sewage sludge, and polypropylene. The SO2 release from the raw materials...

  1. Investigation on pyrolysis of some organic raw materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purevsuren B

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available We have been working on pyrolysis of some organic raw materials including different rank coals, oil shale, wood waste, animal bone, cedar shell, polypropylene waste, milk casein and characterization of obtained hard residue, tar and pyrolytic water and gas after pyrolysis. The technical characteristics of these organic raw materials have been determined and the thermal stability characteristics such as thermal stability indices (T5% and T25% determined by using thermogravimetric analysis. The pyrolysis experiments were performed at different heating temperatures and the yields of hard residue, tar, pyrolysis water and gaseous products were determined and discussed. The main technical characteristics of hard residue of organic raw materials after pyrolysis have been determined and the adsorption ability of pyrolysis hard residue and its activated carbon of organic raw materials also determined. The pyrolysis tars of organic raw materials were distilled in air condition and determined the yields of obtained light, middle and heavy fractions and bitumen like residue with different boiling temperature. This is the first time to investigate the curing ability of pyrolysis tars of organic raw materials for epoxy resin and the results of these experiments showed that only tar of milk casein has the highest (95.0%, tar of animal bone has certain (18.70% and tars of all other organic raw materials have no curing ability for epoxy resin.

  2. VERAM - Vision and Roadmap for European Raw Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgarten, Wibke; Vashev, Boris

    2017-04-01

    The overall objective of VERAM project is to produce a Vision and Roadmap for European Raw Materials in 2050 based on raw materials research and innovation (R&I) coordination. Two leading European Technology Platforms (ETPs): ETP SMR (Sustainable Minerals Resources) and FTP (Forest Technology Platform) are joining forces to develop a common vison and roadmap with the support of ECTP (European Construction Technology Platform), represented by UNIVPM, SusChem (ETP for Sustainable Chemistry), represented by Cefic, EuMaT (Advanced Materials ETP), represented by VITO, ERAMIN 2, represented by Research Centre JUELICH and WoodWisdom Network Plus represented by the Agency for Renewable Resources (FNR). This partnership provides VERAM with expertise from downstream applications and additional knowledge on non-biotic and biotic raw materials. The project encourages capacity building as well as transfer of knowledge. It expects to provide an innovation reference point for the European Institute of Innovation & Technology (EIT) Raw Materials (formerly the KIC Raw MatTERS), to coordinate the network involved in the European Innovation Partnership (EIP) on Raw Materials Commitments and relevant proposals funded under Horizon 2020. It provides a platform for identifying gaps and complementarities and enables their bridging. VERAM will be able to advise the European Commission and Member States on future research needs and policies to stimulate innovation and assist in overcoming fragmentation in the implementing the EIP Raw Materials Strategic Implementation Plan. VERAM looks for mutually beneficial information exchange, encourages cross-fertilization between actions undertaken by different raw material industries, and expects to accelerate exploitation of breakthrough innovations. One of the main outcomes of the project is the presentation of a common long term 2050 Vision and Roadmap for relevant raw materials including metals, industrial minerals and aggregates and wood. The

  3. Raw material and materials for production of chemical current sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olszanski, S.; Brudka, Z.; Rychlewski, J.

    1982-01-01

    During work to replace imported raw material by domestic in the production of chemical sources of current, the central laboratory of storage batteries and elements of the Polish People's Republic has developed: technology for thermal treatment of inexpensive channel carbon black guaranteeing possibility of using it in agglomerate mixture of manganese chemical current sources (thermal treatment of carbon black, wetting by a solution of weak carboxylic acid conducted in an atmosphere of flue gases at 1100/sup 0/C), expander for negative active mass of the Pb-storage batteries based on lignin formed as wastes in the production of vanilin; gluing thyotropic composite for gluing covers and tanks of storage batteries.

  4. Tracing and control of raw materials sourcing for vaccine manufacturers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faretra Peysson, Laurence

    2010-05-01

    The control of the raw materials used to manufacture vaccines is mandatory; therefore, a very clear process must be in place to guarantee that raw materials are traced. Those who make products or supplies used in vaccine manufacture (suppliers of culture media, diagnostic tests, etc.) must apply quality systems proving that they adhere to certain standards. ISO certification, Good Manufacturing Practices for production sites and the registration of culture media with a 'Certificate of Suitability' from the European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines and Healthcare are reliable quality systems pertaining to vaccine production. Suppliers must assure that each lot of raw materials used in a product that will be used in vaccine manufacture adheres to the level of safety and traceability required. Incoming materials must be controlled in a single 'Enterprise Resource Planning' system which is used to document important information, such as the assignment of lot number, expiration date, etc. Ingredients for culture media in particular must conform to certain specifications. The specifications that need to be checked vary according to the ingredient, based on the level of risk. The way a raw material is produced is also important, and any aspect relative to cross-contamination, such as the sanitary measures used in producing and storing the raw material must be checked as well. In addition, suppliers can reduce the risk of viral contamination of raw materials by avoiding purchases in countries where a relevant outbreak is currently declared. 2010 The International Association for Biologicals. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Polymers Based on Renewable Raw Materials – Part I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives an overview of the production and application of polymer materials based on renewable raw materials – biopolymers. It is pointed out that, investment of resources in the study of renewable raw materials in the last twenty years has led to the improvement of old and development of completely new chemical and biochemical processes for using biomass for the production of low molecular weight chemical substances, and especially for the production of biopolymers, which are biodegradable and compostable, and biopolymers which are nonbiodegradable. In the same period, producers of polymers based on fossil raw materials have also developed biopolymers that are biodegradable and some of them compostable and, most important, compatible with biopolymers based on renewable raw materials. The facts considering the state of biopolymers based on renewable raw materials on the market, and prediction of production increase over the next five years are also stated. Additionally, the main renewable raw materials and the biopolymers made from them that are already present in the world market are briefly listed. A short review of biopolymers based on cellulose from wood and annual plants is also given.

  6. ICE CREAM WITH A COMBINED COMPOSITION OF RAW MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. E. Khodyreva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dairy products are the product of daily demand. Nowadays actively assimilate new types of raw materials, tech-nology, formulation. One of the propagation methods of enriching dairy products is a combination of milk and vegetable raw materials. The possibility of making a concentrated paste of Jerusalem artichoke in dairy products was investigated. The ice cream sundae "Vanilla" was chosen as the object of research.

  7. Raw material ‘criticality’—sense or nonsense?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenzel, M.; Kullik, J.; Reuter, M. A.; Gutzmer, J.

    2017-03-01

    The past decade has seen a resurgence of interest in the supply security of mineral raw materials. A key to the current debate is the concept of ‘criticality’. The present article reviews the criticality concept, as well as the methodologies used in its assessment, including a critical evaluation of their validity in view of classical risk theory. Furthermore, it discusses a number of risks present in global raw materials markets that are not captured by most criticality assessments. Proposed measures for the alleviation of these risks are also presented. We find that current assessments of raw material criticality are fundamentally flawed in several ways. This is mostly due to a lack of adherence to risk theory, and highly limits their applicability. Many of the raw materials generally identified as critical are probably not critical. Still, the flaws of current assessments do not mean that the general issue of supply security can simply be ignored. Rather, it implies that new assessments are required. While the basic theoretical framework for such assessments is outlined in this review, detailed method development will require a major collaborative effort between different disciplines along the raw materials value chain. In the opinion of the authors, the greatest longer-term challenge in the raw materials sector is to stop, or counteract the effects of, the escalation of unit energy costs of production. This issue is particularly pressing due to its close link with the renewable energy transition, requiring more metal and mineral raw materials per unit energy produced. The solution to this problem will require coordinated policy action, as well as the collaboration of scientists from many different fields—with physics, as well as the materials and earth sciences in the lead.

  8. Pellet production from agricultural raw materials - A systems study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, Daniel; Bernesson, Sven; Hansson, Per-Anders [Department of Energy and Technology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. Box 7032, SE-75007 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2011-01-15

    The demand for biofuel pellets has increased considerably in recent years, causing shortage of the traditional raw materials sawdust and wood shavings. In this study, the costs and energy requirements for the production of pellets from agricultural raw materials were analysed. The materials studied were Salix, reed canary grass, hemp, straw, screenings, rape-seed meal, rape cake and distiller's waste. Four production scales were analysed, having an annual output of 80,000, 8000, 800 and 80 tonnes of pellets per year. It was concluded that the raw materials of greatest interest were Salix and reed canary grass. They had competitive raw material costs and acceptable fuel properties and could be mixed with sawdust in existing large-scale pelleting factories. Straw had low production costs but can cause serious ash-related problems and should, as also is the case for screenings, be avoided in small-scale burners. Hemp had high raw material costs and is of less commercial interest, while distiller's waste, rape-seed meal and rape cake had higher alternative values when used as protein feed. The scale of production had a crucial influence on production costs. The machinery was used much more efficiently in large-scale plants, resulting in clear cost savings. Small-scale pelleting, both static and mobile, required cheap raw materials, low labour costs and long utilisation times to be profitable. In most cases, briquetting would be more commercially viable. The energy use in manufacturing pellets from air-dried crops was generally no higher than when moist sawdust was used as the raw material. (author)

  9. Raw materials for new technologies. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuersten, M. (Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe, Hannover (Germany, F.R.)) (ed.)

    1990-01-01

    This volume contains 10 lectures given at the fifth international symposium on mineral resources held on October 19-21, 1988 in Hannover (FRG). The papers deal with the following subjects: 1. Advanced materials and the economy (J.P. Clark); 2. New materials: Research trends and technological impacts (H. Czichos); 3. High-Tech ceramics - new materials bring new prospects (G. Petzow); 4. BRITE-EURAM - international materials research for a future-oriented industry (summary) (J. G. Wurm); 5. The rare-earth industry, problems and prospects (summary) (P. Falconnet); 6. Precious metals in and for new technologies (H.-G. Bachmann); 7. Deposits of rare metals (F.W. Wellmer); 8. Alloys of the traditional metals and their future (summary) (H. Hauck et al.); 9. Minor metals - elements of increasing importance (U. Kerney); 10. Starting materials for advanced ceramics - production and properties (G. Franz; G. Schwier). (orig./MM) With 103 figs.; 36 tabs.

  10. Basic Thermal Parameters of Selected Foods and Food Raw Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Božiková

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In general, processing and manipulation with foods and food raw materials have significant influence on their physical properties. The article is focused on thermophysical parameters measurement of selected foods and food raw materials. There were examined thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity of selected materials. For detection of thermal parameters was used instrument Isomet 2104, which principle of measurement is based on transient methods. In text are presented summary results of thermal parameters measurement for various foods and food raw materials as: granular materials – corn flour and wheat flour; fruits, vegetables and fruit products – grated apple, dried apple and apple juice; liquid materials – milk, beer etc. Measurements were performed in two temperature ranges according to the character of examined material. From graphical relations of thermophysical parameter is evident, that thermal conductivity and diffusivity increases with temperature and moisture content linearly, only for granular materials were obtained non‑linear dependencies. Results shows, that foods and food raw materials have different thermal properties, which are influenced by their type, structure, chemical and physical properties. From presented results is evident, that basic thermal parameters are important for material quality detection in food industry.

  11. Incentivizing secondary raw material markets for sustainable waste management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreck, Maximilian; Wagner, Jeffrey

    2017-09-01

    Notwithstanding several policy initiatives in many countries over a number of years, there remains a general sense that too much municipal solid waste is generated and that too much of the waste that is generated is landfilled. There is an emerging consensus that a sustainable approach to waste management requires further development of secondary raw material markets. The purpose of this paper is to propose a theoretical economic model that focuses upon this stage of a sustainable waste management program and explores policy options that could motivate efficiency in secondary raw material markets. In particular, we show how firm profit and social welfare optimizing objectives can be reconciled in a two-product market of waste management processes: landfilling and material reclamation. Our results provide theoretical support for building out recent Circular Economy initiatives as well as for the relatively recent emergence of landfill mining as a means for procuring secondary raw materials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Ethanol Production from Traditional and Emerging Raw Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolf, Andreas; Karhumaa, Kaisa; Hahn-Hägerdal, Bärbel

    The ethanol industry of today utilizes raw materials rich in saccharides, such as sugar cane or sugar beets, and raw materials rich in starch, such as corn and wheat. The concern about supply of liquid transportation fuels, which has brought the crude oil price above 100 /barrel during 2006, together with the concern about global warming, have turned the interest towards large-scale ethanol production from lignocellulosic materials, such as agriculture and forestry residues. Baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the preferred fermenting microorganism for ethanol production because of its superior and well-documented industrial performance. Extensive work has been made to genetically improve S. cerevisiae to enable fermentation of lignocellulosic raw materials. Ethanolic fermentation processes are conducted in batch, fed-batch, or continuous mode, with or without cell recycling, the relative merit of which will be discussed.

  13. Solutions for Critical Raw Materials under Extreme Conditions: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luisa Grilli

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In Europe, many technologies with high socio-economic benefits face materials requirements that are often affected by demand-supply disruption. This paper offers an overview of critical raw materials in high value alloys and metal-matrix composites used in critical applications, such as energy, transportation and machinery manufacturing associated with extreme working conditions in terms of temperature, loading, friction, wear and corrosion. The goal is to provide perspectives about the reduction and/or substitution of selected critical raw materials: Co, W, Cr, Nb and Mg.

  14. Raw materials for wood-polymer composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig Clemons

    2008-01-01

    To understand wood-plastic composites (WPCs) adequately, we must first understand the two main constituents. Though both are polymer based, they are very different in origin, structure, and performance. Polymers are high molecular weight materials whose performance is largely determined by its molecular architecture. In WPCs, a polymer matrix forms the continuous phase...

  15. Textile Raw Material Quality and Ecological Security Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semak Bohdan B.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the article lies in showing the role of management and marketing in formation and assessment of quality and ecological security of the domestic textile raw material and use of the obtained information for the needs of development of this raw material market and products manufactured on its basis. It was established in the result of the conducted study that the process of marketing management should be built on the basis of a deep study of needs of textile raw material and manufactured on its basis products consumers and is a key factor of successful development of the market of ecological textile in Ukraine. The article shows the role and justifies a necessity of introduction of ecological standardisation as a necessary prerequisite of formation of the system of textile raw material quality and ecological security management for manufacturing ecological textile. Further studies should be carried out in spheres of development of systems of control over the textile raw material quality and ecological security level for ensuring its correspondence with domestic and international regulatory documents.

  16. Polymers Based on Renewable Raw Materials – Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović, S.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A short review of biopolymers based on starch (starch derivatives, thermoplastic starch, lignin and hemicelluloses, chitin (chitosan and products obtained by degradation of starch and other polysaccharides and sugars (poly(lactic acid, poly(hydroxyalkanoates, as well as some of their basic properties and application area, are given in this part. The problem of environmental and economic feasibility of biopolymers based on renewable raw materials and their competitiveness with polymers based on fossil raw materials is discussed. Also pointed out are the problems that appear due to the increasing use of agricultural land for the production of raw materials for the chemical industry and energy, instead for the production of food for humans and animals. The optimistic assessments of experts considering the development perspectives of biopolymers based on renewable raw materials in the next ten years have also been pointed out.At the end of the paper, the success of a team of researchers gathered around the experts from the company Bayer is indicated. They were the first in the world to develop a catalyst by which they managed to effectively activate CO - and incorporate it into polyols, used for the synthesis of polyurethanes in semi-industrial scale. By applying this process, for the first time a pollutant will be used as a basic raw material for the synthesis of organic compounds, which will have significant consequences on the development of the chemical industry, and therefore the production of polymers.

  17. European initiative on cdio in raw material programmes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edelbro, Catrin; Hulthén, Erik; Clausen, Elisabeth; Tanner, David; Herrera Herbert, Juan; Jonsson, Kristina; Bealieu, Stephan; Kamp, A.; Försth, Michael

    2017-01-01

    One of five Knowledge and Innovation Communities (KICs), was launched in Europe in 2014 and has its focus on exploration, extraction, mineral processing, metallurgy, recycling and material substitution of raw materials. To reach the vision, where the European Union’s industrial strength is based on

  18. Lignocellulose as raw material in fermentation processes

    OpenAIRE

    Mussatto, Solange I.; Teixeira, J. A.

    2010-01-01

    Lignocellulose in the form of forestry, agricultural, and agro-industrial wastes is accumulated in large quantities every year. These materials are mainly composed of three groups of polymers, namely cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. Cellulose and hemicellulose are sugar rich fractions of interest for use in fermentation processes, since microorganisms may use the sugars for growth and production of value added compounds such as ethanol, food additives, organic acids, enzymes,...

  19. Strategic raw materials. Risk management; Strategische Rohstoffe. Risikovorsorge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertau, Martin [Technische Univ. Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Technische Chemie; Gutzmer, Jens [Helmholtz-Institut fuer Ressourcentechnologie Freiberg (Germany); Matschullat, Joerg (ed.) [Technische Univ. Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany). Interdisziplinaeres Oekologisches Zentrum (IOeZ); Kausch, Peter

    2014-07-01

    This volume is divided into four chapters: (1) Raw material management, (2) Primary raw materials, (3) Secondary raw materials and recycling, (4). Processing and products. The topics for the chapter ''Raw material management'' are: Substitution of raw materials - framework conditions and implementation; Thales: Strategic raw materials; Time for cooperation between the EU and China in raw materials policy; Availability of elements for the semiconductor industry; Market price risks of raw material-intensive companies - identification and management. The topics on the second item ''Primary raw materials'' are: The supply of economic-critical raw materials - A search and analysis for causes; Lithium extraction from primary raw materials - state and perspectives; The global market of rare earths - A balancing act; Rare earth deposits in Namibia; New technologies in exploration and discovery - Focus on activities in Europe. The third chapter, ''Secondary Raw Materials and Recycling'', covered the topics: Technology metals - Systemic Requirements along the recycling chain; Integrated re-use of high-tech and greentech wastes; From the sewage sludge ash to the phosphorus fertilizer RecoPhos P38 in the stress field of waste, fertilizer and soil protection. In chapter 4. ''Processing and products'' are the topics: Treatment and processing of rare earth metals; Processing of mineral resources - opportunities and challenges; Consequences of modern germanium chemistry; Strategic resources - Risk management. A review and outlook with a pinch of fantasy.. [German] Dieser Band gliedert sich in vier Kapitel: (1) Rohstoffwirtschaft, (2) Primaere Rohstoffe, (3) Sekundaere Rohstoffe und Recycling,(4). Verarbeitung und Produkte. Die Themen zum Kapitel ''Rohstoffwirtschaft'' sind: Substitution von Rohstoffen - Rahmenbedingungen und Umsetzung; Thales: Strategische Rohstoffe; Zeit fuer

  20. Schungite raw material quality evaluation using image processing method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chertov, Aleksandr N.; Gorbunova, Elena V.; Sadovnichii, Roman V.; Rozhkova, Natalia N.

    2017-06-01

    In modern times when technologies are developing rapidly, the high-carbon schungite rocks of Karelia are promising mineral raw material for production of active fillers for composite materials, radio shielding materials, silicon carbide, stable aqueous dispersions, sorbents, catalysts, carbon nanomaterials, and other products. An intensive evolution of radiometric separation and sorting methods based on different physical phenomena occurring in the interaction of minerals and their constituent chemical elements with different types of radiation open new enrichment opportunities for schungite materials. This is especially pertinent to optical method of enrichment, which is a part of radiometric methods. The present work is devoted to the research and development of preliminary quality assessment principles for raw schungite on the basis of image processing principles and perspectives of the optical separation for its [schungite] enrichment. Obtained results of preliminary studies allow us to describe the selective criteria for separation of mentioned raw material by optical method, as well as to propose the method of quality indicator assessing for schungite raw materials. All conceptual and theoretical fundamentals are corroborated by the results of experimental studies of schungite rock samples with breccia and vein textures with different sizes from Maksovo deposit.

  1. Control Analysis Of Tobacco Raw Material Supplies Using Eoq Method Economic Order Quantity To Reach Efficiency Total Costs Of Raw Material In Pr. Sukun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiwik Sudarwati

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The raw material inventory control system determines and guarantees the availability of raw material stock in the right quantity quality and timing. The problem in this research is the procurement of raw materials of tobacco. PR. Sukun still often experiences the excess. This is related to the frequency of raw material purchases and the quantity of raw material purchases which can lead to waste of working capital embedded in raw material inventory raw material ordering costs and raw material storage costs. The purpose of this research is to know how to make an efficiency level in procurement of raw material inventory between EOQ method compared with policy of PR. Sukun. The type of research used is analytic descriptive type. Data analysis begins by analyzing raw material quantity comparison total raw material inventory cost and raw material cost between PR Sukun policy with EOQ method. Based on the results of research known that by using EOQ method can be much more efficient compared to policy of PR. Sukun. The quantity and frequency of purchasing raw materials is less but still take into account the safety stock and reorder point so the production process is not disturbed. In addition the cost of purchasing ordering costs and raw materials storage costs less so as to create efficiencies on the cost of raw materials inventory. PR. Sukun in the procurement of raw material inventory should use EOQ method to be more efficient and take into account the safety stock and reorder point to avoid the inventory excess of raw materials.

  2. Characterization of silica quartz as raw material in photovoltaic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boussaa, S. Anas, E-mail: sabiha.anas@gmail.com; Kheloufi, A.; Kefaifi, A.; Kerkar, F. [Division croissance cristalline et procédés métallurgiques CCPM Centre de recherche en technologie des semi-conducteurs pour l’énergétique (C.R.T.S.E) 02 Bd Frantz Fanon BP. 140 Alger 7 merveilles, Alger 16200 (Algeria); Zaourar, N. Boutarek [Laboratoire des technologies des matériaux, USTHB, B.P. 32 El Alia, Bab Ezzouar, Alger, Algérie 16111 (Algeria)

    2016-07-25

    Raw materials are essential for the functioning of modern societies, and access to these raw materials is vital to the world economy. Sustainable development, both globally level, raises important new challenges associated with access and efficient use of raw materials. High purity quartz, is consider as a critical raw material and it is a rare commodity that only forms under geological conditions where a narrow set of chemical and physical parameters is fulfilled. When identified and following special beneficiation techniques, high purity quartz obtains very attractive prices and is applied in high technology sectors that currently are under rapid expansion such as photovoltaic solar cells, silicon metal - oxide wafers in the semiconductor industry and long distance optical fibers that are used in communication networks. Crystalline silicon remains the principal material for photovoltaic technology. Metallurgical silicon is produced industrially by the reduction of silica with carbon in an electric arc furnace at temperatures higher than 2000 °C in the hottest parts, by a reaction that can be written ideally as: SiO{sub 2} + 2C = Si + 2CO. The aim of this study has been to test experimental methods for investigating the various physical and chemical proprieties of Hoggar quartz with different techniques: X Ray Fluorescence, infra-red spectroscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy, Optic Microscopy, Carbon Analyzer and Vickers Hardness. The results show finally that the quartz has got good result in purity but need enrichment for the photovoltaic application.

  3. Characterization of silica quartz as raw material in photovoltaic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boussaa, S. Anas; Kheloufi, A.; Zaourar, N. Boutarek; Kefaifi, A.; Kerkar, F.

    2016-07-01

    Raw materials are essential for the functioning of modern societies, and access to these raw materials is vital to the world economy. Sustainable development, both globally level, raises important new challenges associated with access and efficient use of raw materials. High purity quartz, is consider as a critical raw material and it is a rare commodity that only forms under geological conditions where a narrow set of chemical and physical parameters is fulfilled. When identified and following special beneficiation techniques, high purity quartz obtains very attractive prices and is applied in high technology sectors that currently are under rapid expansion such as photovoltaic solar cells, silicon metal - oxide wafers in the semiconductor industry and long distance optical fibers that are used in communication networks. Crystalline silicon remains the principal material for photovoltaic technology. Metallurgical silicon is produced industrially by the reduction of silica with carbon in an electric arc furnace at temperatures higher than 2000 °C in the hottest parts, by a reaction that can be written ideally as: SiO2 + 2C = Si + 2CO. The aim of this study has been to test experimental methods for investigating the various physical and chemical proprieties of Hoggar quartz with different techniques: X Ray Fluorescence, infra-red spectroscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy, Optic Microscopy, Carbon Analyzer and Vickers Hardness. The results show finally that the quartz has got good result in purity but need enrichment for the photovoltaic application.

  4. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF RAW SUGAR MATERIAL FOR SUGAR PRODUCER COMPLEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Gromkovskii

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. In the article examines the statistical data on the development of average weight and average sugar content of sugar beet roots. The successful solution of the problem of forecasting these raw indices is essential for solving problems of sugar producing complex control. In the paper by calculating the autocorrelation function demonstrated that the predominant trend component of the growth raw characteristics. For construct the prediction model is proposed to use an autoregressive first and second order. It is shown that despite the small amount of experimental data, which provide raw sugar producing enterprises laboratory, using autoregression is justified. The proposed model allows correctly out properly the dynamics of changes raw indexes in the time, which confirms the estimates. In the article highlighted the fact that in the case the predominance trend components in the dynamics of the studied characteristics of sugar beet proposed prediction models provide the better quality of the forecast. In the presence the oscillations portions of the curve describing the change raw performance, for better construction of the forecast required increase number of measurements data. In the article also presents the results of the use adaptive prediction Brown’s model for predicting sugar beet raw performance. The statistical analysis allowed conclusions about the level of quality sufficient to describe changes raw indices for the forecast development. The optimal discount rates data are identified that determined by the form of the curve of growth sugar content of the beet root and mass in the process of maturation. Formulated conclusions of the quality of the forecast, depending on these factors that determines the expert forecaster. In the article shows the calculated expression, derived from experimental data that allow calculate changes of the raw material feature of sugar beet in the process of maturation.

  5. Construction raw materials policy and supply practices in Northwestern Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulen, M.J. van der; Koopmans, T.P.F.; Pietersen, H.S.

    2003-01-01

    The present contribution is an inventory of the construction raw materials policy and supply practices in The Netherlands, Belgium, North Rhine-Westphalia, Lower Saxony, Great Britain, Norway and Denmark. The work has been commissioned by the Dutch government in order to benchmark its domestic

  6. Strategies towards sustainable bark sourcing as raw material for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To appraise the amount of sustainable bark stripped and time to complete bark recovery as basis for sourcing of raw materials for plant-based drugs. Methodology and Results: A two-year experiment was conducted and several local harvest practices were tested on Garcinia lucida (named Essok in Boulou ...

  7. production of manual arc welding electrodes with local raw materials

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CHUKSSUCCESS 4 LOVE

    PRODUCTION OF MANUAL METAL ARC WELDING ELECTRODES. WITH LOCAL RAW MATERIALS. C. C. UGOAMADI. Department of Mechanical Engineering,. Michael Okpara University of Agriculture,. Umudike, Umuahia, Abia State. Nigeria. ABSTRACT. Manual arc welding using flux coated electrodes is carried out by ...

  8. Use of alternative raw materials for yoghurt production | Farinde ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soymilk and maize steep water were used as alternative raw materials to cow milk and commercial starter, respectively, for production of yoghurt. The cow milk used was both Fresh milk and dried powdered milk (DANO). The cost of production of the yoghurt samples as well as their chemical, microbial and organoleptic ...

  9. Mineralogy And Raw Material Characterization Of Esie Stone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Electronprobe mineral data of samples of Esie statues is presented as a possible tool for provenance studies. Most of the samples contain talc, chlorite, cummingtonite and rarely tremolite. Other talc-bearing schists are prevalent in the Esie area. However talc-cummingtonite rocks, similar to the raw materials used for the ...

  10. production of manual arc welding electrodes with local raw materials

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CHUKSSUCCESS 4 LOVE

    formulated to satisfy three major objectives: to form fusible slags, to stabilize the arc and to produce an inert gas shielding during welding. In the research carried out, several flux samples of various local raw materials were collected, their chemical compositions were determined and the results utilized in producing manual ...

  11. Waste to wealth: Industrial raw materials potential of peels of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Waste to wealth: Industrial raw materials potential of peels of Nigerian sweet orange ( Citrus sinensis. ... Ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometric scan of the extract, revealed a single prominent peak at a wavelength of 300 nm, as was also the case with paper chromatography which showed one major band separation.

  12. Indigenous processing methods and raw materials of borde , an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study of village-level processing techniques and raw materials used for the production of borde was carried out using open-ended questionnaires and on the spot interviews with producers at six localities in southern Ethiopia. The major focus of the study was on indigenous processing methods, types and proportions of ...

  13. Supplying the Federal German Republic with mineral raw materials in the light of current political developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sames, W.; Wellmer, F.W. (Bundesministerium fuer Wirtschaft, Bonn-Duisdorf (Germany, F.R.))

    1980-08-01

    The article is the first in a series of contributions which will provide an in-depth study of raw materials policy and the economics of raw materials as viewed from the Federal Republic of Germany. The supply situation of the Federal Republic of Germany is sketched for the major mineral raw materials. Subjects: Raw materials availability and supply risks; developing countries making increased efforts to refine raw materials; raw materials reserves in the USSR and USA; the leading position of the USSR as a raw materials producer; low dependence of the Federal Republic of Germany on COMECON countries for raw materials; dependence on industrialized nations; securing of raw materials supplies by bilateral agreements; assistance with raw materials development and production in the ACP states (a group of African, Caribbeau and Pacific countries).

  14. THE ANALYSIS OF THE RUSSIAN RAW MATERIALS EXPORTING STRATEGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. I. Didenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article gives a methodology for assessing the strategy of export-raw material orientation of the Russian economy, from the point of impact on the social sphere, directly to the person. The dynamics of oil production in Russia, dynamics of export of Russian oil, the price of oil on the world market and the dynamics of the social sphere in Russia were analyzed using data for 1990–2012.The purpose of this article is to study the possibilities of raw material export-oriented strategy of Russia. Possibility raw export-oriented strategy was evaluated dependence of the social sphere - the index GINI, the average wage of household savings from the development of fuel – energy complex. Finding the functional dependence of each of these indicators of social sphere both of oil production and oil exports from Russia plus the price of oil on the world market were tasks.Empirical estimates show the ability of the raw material export-oriented strategy of the Russian economy to ensure the development of the social sphere of the country under condition increasing in the growth rate of energy consumption. Resource-rich countries should pursue a policy of reducing their exports and thus increase their domestic consumption.

  15. Material Classification Using Raw Time-of-Flight Measurements

    KAUST Repository

    Su, Shuochen

    2016-12-13

    We propose a material classification method using raw time-of-flight (ToF) measurements. ToF cameras capture the correlation between a reference signal and the temporal response of material to incident illumination. Such measurements encode unique signatures of the material, i.e. the degree of subsurface scattering inside a volume. Subsequently, it offers an orthogonal domain of feature representation compared to conventional spatial and angular reflectance-based approaches. We demonstrate the effectiveness, robustness, and efficiency of our method through experiments and comparisons of real-world materials.

  16. Agaves as a raw material: recent technologies and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narváez-Zapata, J A; Sánchez-Teyer, L F

    2009-01-01

    Agave plants are a valuable source of raw material due to its fibrous and complex sugar content of their leaves and core, and their bagasse waste can be use for several aims. This plant genus belongs to the Agavaceae family and until now more than 200 species have been described. A large number of Agave species are currently used as raw material in several biotechnological processes. This review shows the reported applications and patents on fields like alcoholic brewages with special reference to Tequila and Mezcal, the isolation and use of compounds such as saponins and agave fructans, and their potential biotechnological application on several human demands. The process to obtain fibers and cellulose, stock feeds, and several miscellaneous extractives are also reviewed. Some possibilities and problems of cultivation are discussed.

  17. Modeling and Optimization of Cement Raw Materials Blending Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianhong Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on modelling and solving the ingredient ratio optimization problem in cement raw material blending process. A general nonlinear time-varying (G-NLTV model is established for cement raw material blending process via considering chemical composition, feed flow fluctuation, and various craft and production constraints. Different objective functions are presented to acquire optimal ingredient ratios under various production requirements. The ingredient ratio optimization problem is transformed into discrete-time single objective or multiple objectives rolling nonlinear constraint optimization problem. A framework of grid interior point method is presented to solve the rolling nonlinear constraint optimization problem. Based on MATLAB-GUI platform, the corresponding ingredient ratio software is devised to obtain optimal ingredient ratio. Finally, several numerical examples are presented to study and solve ingredient ratio optimization problems.

  18. Chemical composition of the clays as indicator raw material sources

    OpenAIRE

    Khramchenkova Rezida Kh.

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents the results of study on the chemical composition of unglazed pottery from the excavations of the Bulgar fortified settlement site and the clay, selected from the modern deposits of ceramic raw materials located near the medieval settlement sites. Significant differences in macro- and microelement composition of different groups of ceramics have been revealed. The difference in the macroelemental composition is largely determined by the ceramic fabric recipe. Thus, the high ...

  19. MICROBIOLOGY OF RAW MATERIALS USED FOR CONFECTIONARY PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Petrová

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to evaluate the microbiological quality of raw materials used for preparation of confectionery products. For microbiological evaluation total count of bacteria, mesophilic aerobic bacteria, coliform bacteria, yeast and microscopic filamentous fungi in samples of raw materials used in the manufacture and creams of confectionery products were detected. In addition to these groups of microorganisms the presence of pathogenic microorganisms Salmonella spp. and Staphylococcus aureus in creams was monitored. Products are assessed according to the limit values of the number of microorganisms defined in the Codex Alimentary of the Slovak Republic. For microbiological analysis of confectionery products, sampling of components of confectionary products and cream was carried out according to current health regulations and altogether 65 samples of components and creams were collected: 10 samples of raw materials sugar, 10 samples of flour, 10 samples of butter and 10 samples of eggs, 5 samples of butter yolk from cream-filled disposable bag without rum addition, 5 samples of butter yolk from cream-filled disposable bag with rum addition, 5 samples of cream-filled multiple use paid bag, 5 samples of cream-filled newly purchased paid bag, 5 samples of Venček corpus and 5 samples of the French cubes corpus. From raw material the highest TBC (2.65log CFU was in flour, but the lowest in sugar (1.35 log CFU, the highest years counts was found on flour (2.42, but lowest in butter (1.18, while wasn’t in egg. In samples of creams and corpus were increased occurrence of yeast, coliform bacteria. Salmonella spp. and Staphylococcus aureus weren’t isolated from any tested sample.

  20. Fate of Salmonella in dry confectionery raw materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komitopoulou, E; Peñaloza, W

    2009-06-01

    To study the behaviour of salmonellae inoculated in the dry, raw materials, related to chocolate confectionery manufacture, as affected by the strain, cell preparation method and storage temperature. Outbreak and non outbreak-associated salmonellae were used for the inoculation of cocoa butter oil, crushed cocoa and hazelnut shells, cocoa beans and almond kernels. Dry matrices were inoculated with lawn-collected and broth-grown cells and were stored at 5 and 21 degrees C for 21 days. Results demonstrated that all strains survived in all dry matrices. Lawn-collected cells survived considerably better than broth-collected cells, at either temperature, and outbreak-associated strains of Salmonella serotype Enteritidis PT30 and Salmonella serotype Oranienburg appeared to be among the best surviving strains. The work demonstrated that salmonellae can survive storage for 3-4 weeks in dry raw materials and that survival is dependent on the source of strains, cell preparation and inoculation methodology, and storage temperature. The data contributes to understanding the parameters to consider when assessing the risk of dry raw materials as the most likely source of salmonellae in chocolate processing plants. It also demonstrates the importance of implementing effective lethal processes and segregation procedures to prevent cross-contamination to ensure the safety of confectionery products regarding Salmonella.

  1. Chemical composition of the clays as indicator raw material sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khramchenkova Rezida Kh

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of study on the chemical composition of unglazed pottery from the excavations of the Bulgar fortified settlement site and the clay, selected from the modern deposits of ceramic raw materials located near the medieval settlement sites. Significant differences in macro- and microelement composition of different groups of ceramics have been revealed. The difference in the macroelemental composition is largely determined by the ceramic fabric recipe. Thus, the high calcium content corresponds to the addition of river shells, the high content of silicon results from sand addition. A more interesting picture has been revealed in the course of studies of the so-called “trace elements” (microelements. Nine groups of ceramics with different elemental set have been distinguished. The first two groups consist of imported ceramics; other groups have demonstrated a rather pronounced elemental composition. The most notable variations are observed in chromium, vanadium and nickel content. Similar microelement composition variety has been observed in clays from deposits of different localization, while the concentration of the mentioned elements in a variety of clays also differs considerably. Therefore, marker elements typical of different clays have been identified. A comparative analysis of the data obtained for clay raw materials and ceramics has been conducted. The results demonstrate the potential of studying the elemental composition in order to determine the localization of the raw material sources for ceramic production.

  2. Investigation of thermal properties of raw materials of asphalt mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Géber, R.; Simon, A.; Kocserha, I.

    2017-02-01

    Asphalt mixtures are composite materials, which are made of different grades of mineral aggregates and bitumen. During the mixing process mineral materials were blended with bitumen at relatively high temperature (∼200 °C). As the binding process come off in these higher temperature range, thermal properties of asphaltic materials are important. The aim of this project is to reveal the thermal properties of raw materials. During our research two types of mineral aggregates were tested (limestone and dolomite) by different methods. Differential thermal analysis, thermal expansion and thermal conductivity were investigated at technologically important temperatures. The results showed that the structure of mineral materials did not change at elevated temperatures, expansion of samples was neglible, while thermal conductivity changed by temperature.

  3. Sequential parametric optimization of methane production from different sources of forest raw material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsakas, Leonidas; Rova, Ulrika; Christakopoulos, Paul

    2015-01-01

    The increase in environmental problems and the shortage of fossil fuels have led to the need for action in the development of sustainable and renewable fuels. Methane is produced through anaerobic digestion of organic materials and is a biofuel with very promising characteristics. The success in using methane as a biofuel has resulted in the operation of several commercial-scale plants and the need to exploit novel materials to be used. Forest biomass can serve as an excellent candidate for use as raw material for anaerobic digestion. During this work, both hardwood and softwood species-which are representative of the forests of Sweden-were used for the production of methane. Initially, when untreated forest materials were used for the anaerobic digestion, the yields obtained were very low, even with the addition of enzymes, reaching a maximum of only 40 mL CH4/g VS when birch was used. When hydrothermal pretreatment was applied, the enzymatic digestibility improved up to 6.7 times relative to that without pretreatment, and the yield of methane reached up to 254 mL CH4/g VS. Then the effect of chemical/enzymatic detoxification was examined, where laccase treatment improved the methane yield from the more harshly pretreated materials while it had no effect on the more mildly pretreated material. Finally, addition of cellulolytic enzymes during the digestion improved the methane yields from spruce and pine, whereas for birch separate saccharification was more beneficial. To achieve high yields in spruce 30 filter paper units (FPU)/g was necessary, whereas 15 FPU/g was enough when pine and birch were used. During this work, the highest methane yields obtained from pine and birch were 179.9 mL CH4/g VS and 304.8 mL CH4/g VS, respectively. For mildly and severely pretreated spruce, the methane yields reached 259.4 mL CH4/g VS and 276.3 mL CH4/g VS, respectively. We have shown that forest material can serve as raw material for efficient production of methane. The

  4. Map of critical raw material deposits in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillaume, Bertrand

    2016-04-01

    Map of critical raw material deposits in Europe Guillaume BERTRAND1, Daniel CASSARD1, Nikolaos ARVANITIDIS2, Gerry STANLEY3 and the EuroGeoSurvey Mineral Resources Expert Group4. 1 - Bureau de Recherches Géologiques et Minières (BRGM), Georesources Divison, 3 avenue Claude Guillemin, 45060 Orléans cedex 2, FRANCE. 2 - Sveriges Geologiska Undersökning (SGU), Box 670, SE-751 28, Uppsala, SWEDEN 3 - Geological Survey of Ireland (GSI), Beggars Bush, Haddington Road, Dublin D04 K7X4, IRELAND 4 - EuroGeoSurveys, Rue Joseph II 36-38, 1000 Brussels, BELGIUM The Critical Raw Material (CRM) Deposit Map of Europe, prepared by EuroGeoSurvey's Mineral Resources Expert Group (MREG), shows European mineral deposits from the ProMine Mineral Deposit database containing critical commodities, according to the 2014 list of critical raw materials of the European Commission. EuroGeoSurveys (EGS), The Geological Surveys of Europe, is a not-for-profit organization representing 37 National Geological Surveys and some regional Geological Surveys in Europe. It provides the European Institutions with expert, independent, balanced and practical pan-European advice and information as an aid to problem-solving, policy development, regulatory and programme formulation in areas such as natural resources, energy and geo-hazards. The EGS MREG is actively involved in contributing to policy and strategy-making processes aimed at identifying, characterizing and safeguarding resource potential, especially for critical raw materials through data provision, research, technological development and innovation. The European Union aspires to reducing the import dependency of raw materials, especially CRM, that are essential to Europe's industries. In this respect, mineral resource information, data sharing and networking by European Geological Surveys is crucial. The Strategic Implementation Plan of the European Innovation Partnership on Raw Materials highlights the need for establishing and maintaining a

  5. Analysis of Mechanical Properties of Fabrics of Different Raw Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aušra ADOMAITIENĖ

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The study analyzes dependence of mechanical properties (breaking force, elongation at break, static friction force and static friction coefficient on integrated fabric structure factor j and raw material density r, among the fabrics of different raw material (cotton, wool, polypropylene, polyester and polyacrylnitrile and woven in different conditions. The received results demonstrate that sometimes strong dependences exist (wool, polypropylene and polyacrylnitrile, whereas in some cases (cotton and polyester there is no correlation. It was also discovered that the breaking force and elongation at break in the direction of weft increase, when fabric structure becomes more rigid. In the meantime variations of the curves in the direction of warp are insignificant. Regarding static friction force and static friction coefficient (found in two cases, when fabrics were rubbing against leather and materials, it was discovered that consistency of the curves is irregular, i. e. they either increase or decrease, when integrated fabric structure factor j growth. It was also identified that some dependences are not strong and relationship between explored and analyzed factors does not exist. Variation of all these mechanical properties with respect to material density r enables to conclude that increase of material density r results in poor dependences or they are whatsoever non-existent.http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.17.2.487

  6. 21 CFR 1304.31 - Reports from manufacturers importing narcotic raw material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... material. (a) Every manufacturer which imports or manufactures from narcotic raw material (opium, poppy... following information shall be submitted for each type of narcotic raw material (quantities are expressed as...) Ending inventory. (c) The following information shall be submitted for each narcotic raw material...

  7. Non-wood plants as raw material for pulp and paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. SAIJONKARI-PAHKALA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was begun in 1990 when there was a marked shortage of short fibre raw material for the pulp industry. During the last ten years the situation has changed little, and the shortage is still apparent. It was estimated that 0.5 to 1 million hectares of arable land would be set aside from cultivation in Finland during this period. An alternative to using hardwoods in printing papers is non-wood fibres from herbaceous field crops. The study aimed at determining the feasibility of using non-wood plants as raw material for the pulp and paper industry, and developing crop management methods for the selected species. The properties considered important for a fibre crop were high yielding ability, high pulping quality and good adaptation to the prevailing climatic conditions and possibilities for low cost production. A strategy and a process to identify, select and introduce a crop for domestic short fibre production is described in this thesis. The experimental part of the study consisted of screening plant species by analysing fibre and mineral content, evaluating crop management methods and varieties, resulting in description of an appropriate cropping system for large-scale fibre plant production. Of the 17 herbaceous plant species studied, monocotyledons were most suitable for pulping. They were productive and well adapted to Finnish climatic conditions. Of the monocots, reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea L. and tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb. were the most promising. These were chosen for further studies and were included in field experiments to determine the most suitable harvesting system and fertilizer application procedures for biomass production. Reed canary grass was favoured by delayed harvesting in spring when the moisture content of the crop stand was 10-15% of DM before production of new tillers. When sown in early spring, reed canary grass typically yielded 7-8 t ha-1 within three years on clay soil. The yield

  8. Insulating materials from renewable raw materials. 4. ed.; Daemmstoffe aus nachwachsenden Rohstoffen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandhorst, Joerg; Spritzendorfer, Josef; Gildhorn, Kai; Hemp, Markus

    2012-03-27

    The thermal insulation has become a central issue in the construction and renovation of buildings. The question of healthy building materials and appropriate construction follows the desire of a comfartable and allergy-free living. Due to these developments, insulation materials from renewable resources increasingly has raised the consciousness. The brochure under consideration describes the dynamic market of insulation materials consisting of renewable raw materials. Wood fibers, wood wool, sheep wool, flax, hemp, reeds, meadow grass, cork, cellulose, seaweed and bulrushes are considered as renewable raw materials for insulating materials.

  9. Valorization of rice straw waste: an alternative ceramic raw material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Á. Guzmán A

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the production of rice a large amount of solid residue is produced, for which alternative utilizations are scarce or are not commonly applied in industry. Rice straw (RS is a waste product of rice harvest that is generated in equal or greater quantities than the rice itself. RS is frequently burned in open air, which makes it a significant source of pollution. In the search for possible uses of RS, it should be noted that its ash (RSA is particularly rich in silica, alkaline and alkaline earth metals and may be used as a source of alkalis and silica for the production of triaxial ceramics. The present research work proposes the production of a ceramic raw material from RS for its use in the fabrication of ceramic materials for the construction industry. Based on the chemical and mineralogical composition of RSA created under different thermal conditions, the most suitable RSA for this purpose was that obtained from treating RS at a temperature of 800 ºC for a time of 2 h. The resulting RSA presented high contents of SiO2 (79.62%, alkaline oxides (K2O (10.53% and alkaline earth oxides (CaO (2.80%. It is concluded that RSA is a new alternative ceramic raw material that can be used as a replacement for the fluxing (mainly feldspar and inert (quartz materials that are used in the production of triaxial ceramics.

  10. Renewable raw materials in the field of industry; Nachwachsende Rohstoffe in der Industrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, D.

    2006-07-01

    Being used to the practiced processing of raw materials for many decades the industry had to tap the advantage of renewable raw materials again. Conventional processing methods had to be changed and to be newly developed. This has been a rewarding task considering the ecological advantages but also considering the interesting markets for products based upon renewable raw materials. Today the German industry above all the chemical industry again processes agricultural and forestal raw materials to a considerable extent. Ten percent of the raw materials processed by the chemical industry are renewable. The wood processing industry is an important economic sector that achieves a value creation with the raw material wood exceeding the value creation of other industries by far. This brochure gives an overview of the possible substances, which are processed from renewable raw materials in Germany and it shows the important role that agricultural raw materials and wood already play for the industry nowadays. (orig.)

  11. EU Raw Materials Information System and Raw Materials Scoreboard: addressing the data needs in support of the EU policies – an example for water use in mining

    OpenAIRE

    VIDAL LEGAZ BEATRIZ; LATUNUSSA CYNTHIA; BLENGINI GIOVANNI; HAMOR TAMAS; MANFREDI SIMONE; PENNINGTON DAVID

    2017-01-01

    In order to count on a sound and continuously updated knowledge base for the support of the EU raw materials policy, the European Commission is developing the Raw Materials Information System and the Raw Materials Scoreboard. Sustainability aspects such as the social and environmental performance of production are also core elements. Among the latter, water is a resource and an environmental compartment of paramount importance in the operation and sustainability of mining activities in multip...

  12. RECOVERY OF URANIUM VALUES FROM URANIUM BEARING RAW MATERIALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michal, E.J.; Porter, R.R.

    1959-06-16

    Uranium leaching from ground uranium-bearing raw materials using MnO/sub 2/ in H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ is described. The MnO/sub 2/ oxidizes U to the leachable hexavalent state. The MnO/sub 2/ does not replace Fe normally added, because the Fe complexes P and catalyzes the MnO/sub 2/ reaction. Three examples of continuous processes are given, but batch operation is also possible. The use of MnO/sub 2/ makes possible recovery of very low U values. (T.R.H.)

  13. The technological raw material heating furnaces operation efficiency improving issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paramonov, A. M.

    2017-08-01

    The issue of fuel oil applying efficiency improving in the technological raw material heating furnaces by means of its combustion intensification is considered in the paper. The technical and economic optimization problem of the fuel oil heating before combustion is solved. The fuel oil heating optimal temperature defining method and algorithm analytically considering the correlation of thermal, operating parameters and discounted costs for the heating furnace were developed. The obtained optimization functionality provides the heating furnace appropriate thermal indices achievement at minimum discounted costs. The carried out research results prove the expediency of the proposed solutions using.

  14. [Research progress of Chinese herbal medicine raw materials in cosmetics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yan-jun; Kong, Wei-jun; Yang, Mei-hua; Yang, Shi-hai

    2015-10-01

    Advocating green, nature, environmental protection, safety and the pursuit of efficacy are the trends of cosmetics in the world. In recent years, more and more Chinese herbal extracts with mild, high safety and small irritation are applied to cosmetics as the natural additives. This has become a new hot spot. The recent application advances of Chinese medicine raw materials in cosmetics are overviewed according to their main functions. This review will provide useful references for the future development and application of Chinese medicinal herbs cosmetics.

  15. Increasing the effectiveness of utilization of magnesite raw materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovalev, M.N.; Vladimirov, A.I.

    1986-05-01

    In view of the fact that the existing experience of the mining industry on waste reprocessing is inadequate, the authors carried out experimental-industrial beneficiation studies in the heavy suspensions (7736 ton) of a low-quality magnesite mass in an effort to understand the technological feasibility of the reworking processes. In the study the authors identified a number of essential problems that require specific solutions for obtaining further improvements in the effectiveness of processing the low-quality raw materials. Recommendations are suggested.

  16. Characterization of some selected vulcanized and raw silicon rubber materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasikala, A.; Kala, A.

    2017-06-01

    Silicone Rubber is a high need of importance of Medical devices, Implants, Aviation and Aerospace wiring applications. Silicone rubbers are widely used in industry, and there are in multiple formulations. A raw and vulcanized silicone rubber Chemical and Physical structures of particles was confirmed and mechanical strength has been analyzed by FTIR spectroscopy. Thermal properties studied from Thermo Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) analysis. Activation energy of the rubber materials were calculated using Broido method, Piloyon-Novikova relation and coats-Red fern methods.

  17. Pyrolysis of municipal plastic wastes: Influence of raw material composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, A; de Marco, I; Caballero, B M; Laresgoiti, M F; Adrados, A

    2010-04-01

    The objective of this work is the study of pyrolysis as a feedstock recycling process, for valorizing the rejected streams that come from industrial plants, where packing and packaging wastes are classified and separated for their subsequent mechanical recycling. Four real samples collected from an industrial plant at four different times of the year, have been pyrolysed under nitrogen in a 3.5dm(3) autoclave at 500 degrees C for 30min. Pyrolysis liquids are a complex mixture of organic compounds containing valuable chemicals as styrene, ethyl-benzene, toluene, etc. Pyrolysis solids are composed of the inorganic material contained in the raw materials, as well as of some char formed in the pyrolysis process, and pyrolysis gases are mainly composed of hydrocarbons together with some CO and CO(2), and have very high gross calorific values (GCV). It has been proved by the authors that the composition of the raw material (paper, film, and metals contents) plays a significant role in the characteristics of pyrolysis products. High paper content yields water in the pyrolysis liquids, and CO and CO(2) in the gases, high PE film content gives rise to high viscosity liquids, and high metals content yields more aromatics in the liquid products, which may be attributed to the metals catalytic effect. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. 29 CFR 779.333 - Goods sold for use as raw materials in other products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Goods sold for use as raw materials in other products. 779... Service Establishments Sales Not Made for Resale § 779.333 Goods sold for use as raw materials in other products. Goods are sold for resale where they are sold for use as a raw material in the production of a...

  19. 40 CFR 63.1346 - Standards for new or reconstructed raw material dryers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Industry Emission Standards and Operating Limits § 63.1346 Standards for new or reconstructed raw material dryers. (a) New or reconstructed raw material dryers located at facilities that are major sources can not... demonstrate a 98 percent reduction in THC emissions from the exit of the raw materials dryer to discharge to...

  20. Order acceptance in food processing systems with random raw material requirements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kilic, Onur A.; van Donk, Dirk Pieter; Wijngaard, Jacob; Tarim, S. Armagan

    This study considers a food production system that processes a single perishable raw material into several products having stochastic demands. In order to process an order, the amount of raw material delivery from storage needs to meet the raw material requirement of the order. However, the amount

  1. Regenerative raw materials - High technology without end; Nachwachsende Rohstoffe - Spitzentechnologie ohne Ende

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenig, Barbara

    2007-07-01

    Regenerative raw materials are the basis for a multiplicity of environmentally friendly products. Regenerating raw materials fascinate by special qualities and offer the possibility of preserving only restricted existing fossil resources and climatic friendly managing. The review under consideration reports on areas in which vegetable raw materials already are established as well as on future prospects.

  2. [Husk of Venezuelan cocoa as raw material of infusions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangronis, Elba; José Soto, María; Valero, Yolmar; Buscema, Ignacio

    2014-06-01

    In the cocoa bean industry, some by-products go underutilized. Some of these components could provide other innovative products, and such is the case with the husk of the cocoa bean. Previous studies have attributed the husk with a high antioxidant capacity, which added to its relative low cost, makes it an attractive ingredient for the production of infusions. However, prior to promoting it as such, its quality needs to be guaranteed. This study evaluated the chemical composition of the husk of cocoa, its microbiologic quality and other parameters in order to be considered raw material in the preparation of infusions. The cocoa was cultivated in two different states in Venezuela. Moisture, protein, fat, ash, carbohydrates, microbiologic quality and ochratoxin A as well antioxidant properties, content of foreign matter, insoluble ash in HCL and aqueous extract were evaluated in the husk of cocoa seeds. Applied methods were in compliance with national and international norms. Significant differences were determined between the samples through the ANOVA application. A low level in moisture content, but high in ash, along with a microbiologic quality that met the norm, and an absence of ochratoxin A were observed in the totality of the analyzed samples. Low levels of foreign matter, the high value of its aqueous extract and high phenolic compounds content with antioxidant activity allow for the recommendation of the husk of cocoa as raw material for the preparation of infusions.

  3. Prospects for development of hydrocarbon raw materials resources reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vertakova, Y. V.; Babich, T. N.; Polozhentseva, Y. S.; Zvyagintsev, G. L.

    2017-10-01

    The article presents data on the influence of factors in the field of innovative technology of thermocatalytic depolymerization of solid household wastes (SHW) on the efficiency and prospects for the development of technogenic hydrocarbon raw materials resource reproduction. Process thermodynamics, reactions kinetics, the mechanism of thermolysis of secondary polymers in organic solvents have been studied by means of laboratory experiments. It is shown that different morphological groups of wastes dissolve practically at the same rate at temperatures of 250-310°C. A homogeneous product is formed in the liquid phase; the spread of values for the elements lies in the interval of 1.5-4.5 %; technological requirements of the stages of formation of boiler fuels are satisfied. Using the principles of patent analysis, new techniques of processing household waste components are proposed. The basics of energy-efficient and energy-saving processes of technogenic hydrocarbon raw materials resource reproduction have been laid. The possibility of increasing the production payback and intensification is shown. Ecological and demographic safety for population and technical and economic benefits from SHW processing are achieved.

  4. Ceramics Porcelain Based Electric Solid Insulator Using Local Raw Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Indiani

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstractElectric solid insulator based on ceramics porcelain had been made by using local raw materials: 68% feldspar, 10% kaolinite and 22% quartz, and also added 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25% cullet (From total mass. The forming process of the porcelain was conducted by milling the raw materials using ball mill and screened using 200 mesh screening. The samples were formed by using the dry-press method with the pressure of 50MPa, then the samples is sintered at temperature of 1000oC, 1050oC, 1100oC, 1150oC for 2 hours. The properties of the samples had been analyzed for their shrinkage, density, bending strength and resistivity. The result of the experiment showed that the optimum value was reached by ceramic which was added by 15% cullet and sintered at temperature of 1100oC. This ceramic had shrinkage of 9,70%, density of 2,44 g/cm3, bending strength of 86,73 MPa and the resistivity at 25oC is 2,32x108 Ωcm.

  5. Valorization of Phosphorus Secondary Raw Materials by Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyciszkiewicz, Małgorzata; Saeid, Agnieszka; Malinowski, Przemysław; Chojnacka, Katarzyna

    2017-03-16

    This paper presents the possibility of producing phosphorus fertilizers through Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans utilization in secondary raw materials solubilization. Phosphorus was obtained from the bones of poultry and fish as well as from Morocco phosphorite. Four doses of poultry bones and fish bones were used in the experiment (2, 4, 10 and 20 g/L) and two doses (2 and 4 g/L) of phosphorite were also used. The experimenters measured the final pH, which increased in proportion to the increase in the number of poultry bone doses, whereas in the case of fish bones it decreased in proportion to the increase in the number of fish bone doses. Only in the case of phosphorite, where 10 g/L were used, there was a slight increase in pH during solubilization observed. The highest phosphorus concentration of 1.9% (expressed as P₂O₅) was found for the solubilization performed on fish bones with the highest dose (20 g/L). The formulation obtained in this study meets the necessary requirements for use as a bio-fertilizer because of the relatively low content of P₂O₅ and the low content of toxic elements. The results confirm the utilization of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans in the biosolubilization of phosphorus renewable raw materials that can alleviate the problem of the world's depleting phosphorite deposits.

  6. Raw material requirements planning in fruit juice production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milić Dušan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The primary purpose of this research is to determine the production capacity requirements of a model fruit juice producer. In addition to fruit processing capacities, the company is in possession of its own land devoted to orchards. The research was conducted on the basis of a balance method, which has been used in fruit production for the planning of processing capacity requirements, i.e. the striking of a harmonious balance between the land capacity utilization via orchards and the industry of fruit processing. For the planned production of 33,280 tons of raw materials, at average yields, the producer should be in possession of an area of 2,344 ha. For the processing capacity of 160 tons of raw materials a day, the producer should be in possession of the following diversity and spatial distribution of cultivated fruit species: strawberries (516 ha, raspberries (332 ha, sour cherries (361 ha, apricots (71 ha, peaches (178 ha, blueberries (320 ha, plums (50 ha, pears (89 ha, apples (137 ha, quinces (50 ha, and grapes (240 ha.

  7. From raw material to dish: pasta quality step by step.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicignano, Angelo; Di Monaco, Rossella; Masi, Paolo; Cavella, Silvana

    2015-10-01

    Pasta is a traditional Italian cereal-based food that is popular worldwide because of its convenience, versatility, sensory and nutritional value. The aim of this review is to present a step-by-step guide to facilitate the understanding of the most important events that can affect pasta characteristics, directing the reader to the appropriate production steps. Owing to its unique flavor, color, composition and rheological properties, durum wheat semolina is the best raw material for pasta production. Although pasta is traditionally made from only two ingredients, sensory quality and chemical/physical characteristics of the final product may vary greatly. Starting from the same ingredients, there are a lot of different events in each step of pasta production that can result in the development of varieties of pasta with different characteristics. In particular, numerous studies have demonstrated the importance of temperature and humidity conditions of the pasta drying operation as well as the significance of the choice of raw material and operating conditions on pasta quality. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Insulating materials from renewable raw materials. 3. upd. ed.; Daemmstoffe aus nachwachsenden Rohstoffen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandhorst, Joerg; Spritzendorfer, Josef; Gildhorn, Kai; Hemp, Markus

    2009-07-01

    Due to increasing energy prices, obligations to climatic protection and the desire for comfortable, allergy-free living, the thermal insulation is a central question with building and sanitation. Under this aspect, the contribution under consideration describes the very dynamic market of the insulating materials from renewable raw materials and deals with the questions of the users. In particular, the following raw materials are considered in the production of insulating materials: Wood fibre, wood chips, wood wool, sheep wool, flax, hemp, reeds, straw, cellulose.

  9. Methodology for Evaluating Raw Material Changes to RSRM Elastomeric Insulation Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mildenhall, Scott D.; McCool, Alex (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) uses asbestos and silicon dioxide filled acrylonitrile butadiene rubber (AS-NBR) as the primary internal insulation to protect the case from heat. During the course of the RSRM Program, several changes have been made to the raw materials and processing of the AS-NBR elastomeric insulation material. These changes have been primarily caused by raw materials becoming obsolete. In addition, some process changes have been implemented that were deemed necessary to improve the quality and consistency of the AS-NBR insulation material. Each change has been evaluated using unique test efforts customized to determine the potential impacts of the specific raw material or process change. Following the evaluations, the various raw material and process changes were successfully implemented with no detectable effect on the performance of the AS-NBR insulation. This paper will discuss some of the raw material and process changes evaluated, the methodology used in designing the unique test plans, and the general evaluation results. A summary of the change history of RSRM AS-NBR internal insulation is also presented.

  10. Thorium and Uranium in the Rock Raw Materials Used For the Production of Building Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pękala, Agnieszka

    2017-10-01

    Thorium and uranium are constant components of all soils and most minerals thereby rock raw materials. They belong to the particularly dangerous elements because of their natural radioactivity. Evaluation of the content of the radioactive elements in the rock raw materials seems to be necessary in the early stage of the raw material evaluation. The rock formations operated from deposits often are accumulated in landfills and slag heaps where the concentration of the radioactive elements can be many times higher than under natural conditions. In addition, this phenomenon may refer to buildings where rock raw materials are often the main components of the construction materials. The global control system of construction products draws particular attention to the elimination of used construction products containing excessive quantities of the natural radioactive elements. In the presented study were determined the content of thorium and uranium in rock raw materials coming from the Bełachatów lignite deposit. The Bełchatów lignite deposit extracts mainly lignite and secondary numerous accompanying minerals with the raw material importance. In the course of the field works within the framework of the carried out work has been tested 92 samples of rocks of varied petrographic composition. There were carried out analyses of the content of the radioactive elements for 50 samples of limestone of the Jurassic age, 18 samples of kaolinite clays, and 24 samples of siliceous raw materials, represented by opoka-rocks, diatomites, gaizes and clastic rocks. The measurement of content of the natural radioactive elements thorium and uranium based on measuring the frequency counts of gamma quantum, recorded separately in measuring channels. At the same time performed measurements on volume patterns radioactive: thorium and uranium. The studies were carried out in Mazar spectrometer on the powdered material. Standardly performed ten measuring cycles, after which were calculated

  11. Emergy Analysis of Biogas Systems Based on Different Raw Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Lin, Cong; Li, Jing; Duan, Na; Li, Xue; Fu, Yanyan

    2013-01-01

    Environmental pollution and energy crisis restrict the development of China, and the utilization of renewable technology is an effective strategy to alleviate the damage. Biogas engineering has rapidly developed attributes to solve environmental problems and create a renewable energy product biogas. In this paper, two different biogas plants' materials were analyzed by emergy method. One of them is a biogas project whose degraded material is feces (BPF system), and the other is the one whose degraded material is corn straw (BPC system). As a result, the ecological-economic values of BPF and BPC are $28,300/yr and $8,100/yr, respectively. Considering currency, environment, and human inputs, both of the biogas projects have the ability of disposing waste and potential for development. The proportion of biogas output is much more than fertilizer output; so, fertilizer utilization should be emphasized in the future. In comparison, BPF is better than BPC in the aspects of ecological-economic benefits, environmental benefits, and sustainability. The reason is the difficulty of corn straw seasonal collection and degradation. Thus it is proposed that BPC should be combined with the other raw materials. PMID:23476134

  12. Emergy Analysis of Biogas Systems Based on Different Raw Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental pollution and energy crisis restrict the development of China, and the utilization of renewable technology is an effective strategy to alleviate the damage. Biogas engineering has rapidly developed attributes to solve environmental problems and create a renewable energy product biogas. In this paper, two different biogas plants’ materials were analyzed by emergy method. One of them is a biogas project whose degraded material is feces (BPF system, and the other is the one whose degraded material is corn straw (BPC system. As a result, the ecological-economic values of BPF and BPC are $28,300/yr and $8,100/yr, respectively. Considering currency, environment, and human inputs, both of the biogas projects have the ability of disposing waste and potential for development. The proportion of biogas output is much more than fertilizer output; so, fertilizer utilization should be emphasized in the future. In comparison, BPF is better than BPC in the aspects of ecological-economic benefits, environmental benefits, and sustainability. The reason is the difficulty of corn straw seasonal collection and degradation. Thus it is proposed that BPC should be combined with the other raw materials.

  13. Utilization of raw material from early thinnings; Ensiharvennuspuun hyoedyntaeminen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alen, R.; Marttina, M.; Toivanen, J. [Jyvaeskylae Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Chemistry

    1997-12-01

    Wood material from early thinnings is one of the most potential new material reserves (4 - 6 million m{sup 3}) for industrial purposes. However, the prerequisites for an enhanced utilisation of this reserve would be, besides more efficient logging, debarking, and chipping, an optimal fractionation of wood material into energy and fibre production. The aim of this project was to promote the use of first-thinning wood as a competitive raw material for energy production by increasing the potential utilisation of the corresponding wood resource for chemical pulping. During the year 1996 the variation of fibre length distribution within the stem and top (total height of 12 m) of a 27-years-old pine wood (Pinus sylvestris) was determined. Tentative calculations indicated that about 67 % of the wood dry matter consists of fibres having an average fibre length more than 2 mm. It was considered that most of this fraction with high quality fibre properties could be recovered and used for pulping. In addition, the detailed FTIR analysis of different samples from the same pine wood showed that there was an adequate correlation between the FTIR spectrometric data and the fibre length averages. (orig.)

  14. Flue gas desulphurisation gypsum as a raw material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demmich, Joerg [Knauf Gips KG, Iphofen (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    For decades the use of wet desulphurisation processes with the production of FGD gypsum has been well-proven in the power industry around the globe. In the meantime the European gypsum industry has also adapted with additional investments to the processing of moist, finely divided FGD gypsum. However, it is extremely difficult at this point of time to give any corresponding long-term prognosis on the development of the environment and energy policy with respect to the long-term raw material supplies with FGD gypsum for the gypsum industry. Two very different scenarios are described leading to entirely different results regarding FGD gypsum production in Germany. One of the scenarios expects a substantial extension of renewable energies in Germany. According to that, this would lead to a considerable reduction of FGD gypsum quantities produced at least in Germany. (orig.)

  15. Cross-laminated timber made of Hungarian raw materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marko, G.; Bejo, L.; Takats, P.

    2016-04-01

    Cross-laminated timber (CLT), generally made out of softwood, enjoys increasing popularity throughout Europe. This material offers a versatile, eco-friendly technology to create strong, lightweight and energy-efficient buildings. Unfortunately, the sites and climatic conditions in Hungary are not suitable for growing high-quality coniferous trees. Transporting raw materials from other countries (sometimes thousands of kilometres away) negates the environmental advantages of wood-based construction. Local options are definitely preferable from an ecological aspect. Poplar wood (populus spp.) is of great economic importance in Hungary. There are several relatively high density, high strength varieties growing in large quantities in Hungary, that may be used as alternatives to softwood, with comparable properties. There is an increasing interest in using poplar as a construction material, especially in regions were there is a shortage of traditional construction timber. This paper presents the results of a preliminary investigation to create CLT using poplar lumber. Laboratory-scale CLT specimens were created in a hot press, and tested for their loadbearing capacity. The MOR values of poplar CLT are comparable to, albeit somewhat lowerthan those of softwood CLT. Further investigations are required to establish the economic viability and technological conditions for the commercial production of poplar CLT.

  16. Material characterization of microsphere-based scaffolds with encapsulated raw materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridharan, BanuPriya; Mohan, Neethu; Berkland, Cory J; Detamore, Michael S

    2016-06-01

    "Raw materials," or materials capable of serving both as building blocks and as signals, which are often but not always natural materials, are taking center stage in biomaterials for contemporary regenerative medicine. In osteochondral tissue engineering, a field leveraging the underlying bone to facilitate cartilage regeneration, common raw materials include chondroitin sulfate (CS) for cartilage and β-tricalcium phosphate (TCP) for bone. Building on our previous work with gradient scaffolds based on microspheres, here we delved deeper into the characterization of individual components. In the current study, the release of CS and TCP from poly(D, L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microsphere-based scaffolds was evaluated over a time period of 4 weeks. Raw material encapsulated groups were compared to 'blank' groups and evaluated for surface topology, molecular weight, and mechanical performance as a function of time. The CS group may have led to increased surface porosity, and the addition of CS improved the mechanical performance of the scaffold. The finding that CS was completely released into the surrounding media by 4 weeks has a significant impact on future in vivo studies, given rapid bioavailability. The addition of TCP seemed to contribute to the rough external appearance of the scaffold. The current study provides an introduction to degradation patterns of homogenous raw material encapsulated scaffolds, providing characterization data to advance the field of microsphere-based scaffolds in tissue engineering. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. THE EFFECTS OF WOOD RAW MATERIAL PRODUCTION ACTIVITIES ON WOOD QUALITY CLASSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saliha Ünver

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Wood raw material production without barked round is 3.5 billion m3 in the world. According to their amounts, industrial wood products set out log, fiber chip and pulp wood respectively in. Wood raw material produced in Turkey is not enough for market demand, so 9% of industrial wood demand has been imported. For this reason, the quality loses are as important as the quantity loses, which can be occurred during wood raw material production. Both preserving of continuity of forest sources and saving of addition to country economy are important during wood raw material production. To reduce the quality losses on the wood raw material is possible with the usage of developed techniques, taking into consideration sector demand, storing of wood raw material by suitable conditions and being worked the experienced worker.

  18. Rare earth elements exploitation, geopolitical implications and raw materials trading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemin, Marie-Charlotte

    2015-04-01

    , establishing a company in China can lower the production cost (since the company buys the products used in its production at a lower price). In the fifth session, they study the raw materials trading based on the futures contracts example. A producer, to avoid a rise in prices of raw materials used in his production can use derivative products on the financial market: futures contracts for instance. This product ensures a quantity and quality for a price and a delivery date agreed upon today. Actually, producers can use a method called Fix price hedging in order to fix the price of a specific product. The main idea is to balance out the "physical position" (spot market) and the "paper position" (futures market). Even if the REE are commercialized in form of a non-perishable's oxide, the flow of the stock must be guaranteed and this is why it is important for producers to secure their supply of raw materials. In the last session, students search local companies that use REE in their production process and study their strategy on the market.

  19. Lithic raw material procurement in the Moravian Neolithic: the search for extra-regional networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Kuča

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The study of lithic raw material procurement can contribute to the study of ancient networks. Petrographic analysis combined with systematic mapping of raw material outcrops has been conducted in Moravia and adjacent territories by A. Přichystal over a period of more than three decades. Combined with well excavated (including wet-screening and 14C (radiometric dated sites,allows us to study changes in the distribution networks of raw materials during the Mesolithic and Neolithic periods.

  20. Cassava: a new source of fibrous raw materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phengpricha, N.

    1980-01-01

    Data are presented on the anatomy and chemistry of cassava (Manihot esculenta) wood which show that it has short fibres in comparison with other species, but that the main chemical constituents are similar to those of other hardwoods. In Thailand, waste wood from cassava amounted to 4.04 million t in 1976, and although suitable for production of panels (e.g. chipboard, particleboard) only about 2 million t was used for this purpose. It is suggested that use of cassava wood be promoted to alleviate the problems of timber shortage and illegal logging in protected forests.

  1. Determination of minor and trace elements in geological materials used as raw ceramic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gazulla Barreda, M.F.; Rodrigo Edo, M.; Orduña Cordero, M.; Ventura Vaquer, M.J.

    2016-07-01

    A study has been undertaken to develop a methodology to determine minor and trace elements in geological ceramic raw materials by wavelength-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (WD-XRF) spectrometry. The set up of the methodology has been done either by optimising not only the sample preparation process but also optimising the measurement with the aid of the software Pro-Trace, and also by making an exhaustive compilation of reference materials for calibration and validation. The developed method is precise and accurate and allows the analysis of Ba, Ce, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, La, Mn, Ni, Pb, Rb, S, Sr, Ta, Th, U, V, Y, Zn and Zr present in the sample as minor or trace elements in geological materials used as raw ceramic material in a relatively short period of time. Besides, the method is more environmentally friendly than other methodologies as it does not require the use of solvents or reagents. (Author)

  2. [Multivariate analysis of relationships between material properties and hygroscopicity of Chinese medicine raw materials].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Li-Jie; Feng, Yi; Xu, De-Sheng; Ruan, Ke-Feng; Hong, Yan-Long; Fu, Xiao-Ju

    2012-04-01

    Material properties and hygroscopicity were determined. Principal component analysis and partial least squares regression were applied to evaluate relationships between material properties and hygroscopicity of Chinese medicine raw materials. The results showed that hygroscopicity was correlated with water content, particle size distribution, water soluble characteristic and cohesion. Balanced moisture content was positively correlated with water content, particle size distribution, water soluble characteristic and cohesion. Moisture absorption velocity was negatively correlated with particle size distribution, protruding degree and positively correlated with water soluble characteristic and cohesion. Moisture absorption acceleration was positively correlated with water content, particle size distribution and negatively correlated with water soluble characteristic and cohesion. Hygroscopicity of Chinese medicine raw materials is interpreted in terms of physics.

  3. Use of basaltic waste as red ceramic raw material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. Mendes

    Full Text Available Abstract Nowadays, environmental codes restrict the emission of particulate matters, which result in these residues being collected by plant filters. This basaltic waste came from construction aggregate plants located in the Metropolitan Region of Londrina (State of Paraná, Brazil. Initially, the basaltic waste was submitted to sieving (< 75 μm and the powder obtained was characterized in terms of density and particle size distribution. The plasticity of ceramic mass containing 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% of basaltic waste was measured by Atterberg method. The chemical composition of ceramic formulations containing 0% and 20% of basaltic waste was determined by X-ray fluorescence. The prismatic samples were molded by extrusion and fired at 850 °C. The specimens were also tested to determine density, water absorption, drying and firing shrinkages, flexural strength, and Young's modulus. Microstructure evaluation was conducted by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and mercury intrusion porosimetry. Basaltic powder has similar physical and chemical characteristics when compared to other raw materials, and contributes to ceramic processing by reducing drying and firing shrinkage. Mechanical performance of mixtures containing basaltic powder is equivalent to mixtures without waste. Microstructural aspects such as pore size distribution were modified by basaltic powder; albite phase related to basaltic powder was identified by X-ray diffraction.

  4. Texture analysis of cosmetic/pharmaceutical raw materials and formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, A; Bianchini, R; Jachowicz, J

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this work was to quantify textural properties of cosmetic and pharmaceutical raw materials. Textural parameters such as hardness, consistency, cohesiveness, index of viscosity, stickiness and resilience were evaluated. The measurements were performed using texture analyser - a tensile metre equipped with special probes (in the form of acrylic cylinder and stainless steel sphere), which can penetrate the measured sample of a product recording the force, distance and time. The instrument simulates the action of a human finger touching the surface and probing the properties of an object. The set-up has been previously shown to quantify the rheological/textural properties of cosmetic and pharmaceutical products such as creams, lotion and gels as well as rheological behaviour of human skin. The results include the analysis of water, glycerine and mineral oil as well as aqueous solutions of thickeners such as Acrylates/C10-30 Alkyl Acrylate Crosspolymer (Ultrez-20 obtained from Noveon) and carbomer. Solutions of common surfactants and complex surfactant formulations such as shampoos have also been investigated. The results, in the form plots of force as a function of time or distance, resulting from slow bidirectional probe movement (submergence and desubmergence) in the analysed fluid, were interpreted by considering buoyancy, drag and viscous drag force given by Stokes equation. The data can be used to correlate with tactile evaluations of products by trained panel evaluations. © 2014 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  5. Comparison of Different Wood Species as Raw Materials for Bioenergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojana Klašnja

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Most projections of the global energy use predict that biomass will be an important component of primary energy sources in the coming decades. Short rotation plantations have the potential to become an important source of renewable energy in Europe because of the high biomass yields, a good combustion quality as solid fuel, ecological advantages and comparatively low biomass production costs. Materials and Methods: In this study, the wood of black locust Robinia pseudoacacia, white willow Salix alba L., poplars Populus deltoides and Populus x euramericana cl.I-214, aged eight years were examined. Immediately after the felling, sample discs were taken to assess moisture content, ash content, the width of growth rings, wood densities and calorific values, according to the standard methodology. Results:The mean values of willow, poplar and black locust wood density were 341 kg/m3, 336 kg/m3 and 602 kg/m3,respectively. The average heating values of willow poplar and black locust wood were 18.599 MJ/kg, 18.564 MJ/kg and 21.196 MJ/kg, respectively. The FVI index (average values was higher for black locust (17.186 than for poplar and willow clones, which were similar: 11.312 and 11.422 respectively. Conclusions: Black locust wood with a higher density, calorific value and ash content compared to poplar and willow wood proved to be a more suitable raw material as RES. However, it is very important, from the aspect of the application of wood of these tree species as RES, to also consider the influence of the biomass yield per unit area of the plantations established as “energy plantations”.

  6. Exploring China's materialization process with economic transition: analysis of raw material consumption and its socioeconomic drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Heming; Tian, Xin; Tanikawa, Hiroki; Chang, Miao; Hashimoto, Seiji; Moriguchi, Yuichi; Lu, Zhongwu

    2014-05-06

    China's rapidly growing economy is accelerating its materialization process and thereby creating serious environmental problems at both local and global levels. Understanding the key drivers behind China's mass consumption of raw materials is thus crucial for developing sustainable resource management and providing valuable insights into how other emerging economies may be aiming to accomplish a low resource-dependent future. Our results show that China's raw material consumption (RMC) rose dramatically from 11.9 billion tons in 1997 to 20.4 billion tons in 2007, at an average annual growth rate at 5.5%. In particular, nonferrous metal minerals and iron ores increased at the highest rate, while nonmetallic minerals showed the greatest proportion (over 60%). We find that China's accelerating materialization process is closely related to its levels of urbanization and industrialization, notably demand for raw materials in the construction, services, and heavy manufacturing sectors. The growing domestic final demand level is the strongest contributor of China's growth in RMC, whereas changes in final demand composition are the largest contributors to reducing it. However, the expected offsetting effect from changes in production pattern and production-related technology level, which should be the focus of future dematerialization in China, could not be found.

  7. CAN BE BLUEBERRIES THE RISK FOOD AND RAW MATERIAL?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Medvecký2

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Fruits of the highbush blueberries are popular for their beneficial effects on human health and for their excellent sweet-vine taste. Our work is focused on risk assessment of selected elements in relation to the content of bioactive compounds in wild and cultivated of highbush blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L.. Anthocyanins are polyphenols that are widely distributed in plants, and contribute to the brilliant blue, red or purple colour in leaves, flowers or fruits. In the samples the antioxidant capacity by the method of Brand – Williams using DPPH (2,2–difenyl-1-pikrylhydrazyl and the content of anthocyanins by the modified method Lapornik in two samples of wild blueberries from different areas of Slovakia (Čertovica and Oravské Veselé and in 6 cultivated varieties highbush blueberry (Bluejay, Bluecrop, Patriot, Berkeley, Brigitta, Nelson were determined. The contents of risky elements - Cd, Pb were assessed by AAS method. The contents of Pb were in all observed samples higher than the maximum limit given by the legislation (cultivated: 0.5612 – 0.9912 mg.kg-1, wild: 0.792 – 0.874 mg.kg-1. The measured content values of Cd were in all samples of blueberries lower than hygienic limit. The highest content of anthocyanins from analysed samples was in wild blueberries from surrouding Čertovica 4870.125 ± 22.803 mg.dm-3, but in this sample was simultaneously the lowest antioxidant capacity of 61.15 ± 1.002 %. The highest antioxidant capacity was measured in sample of cultivated variety Bluejay 87.175 ± 0.45 %. It is important to carry out monitoring of heavy metals to consumption of safe food raw materials and foodstuffs.

  8. Introduction to production yield analysis : a new tool for improvement of raw material yield

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Somsen, D.; Capelle, A.

    2002-01-01

    Mass losses during processing will result in a decrease of production yield. Losses can be separated in wanted and unwanted losses. Wanted losses are necessary to transform raw material into desired final product(s). Unwanted losses will result in additional raw material usage and generate

  9. Comparison of Biochars Characteristics from Different Raw Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUN Tao

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Biochar is the carbon-rich product from biomass under limited supply of oxygen. Biochar has been well recognized in enhancing terrestrial carbon sequestration and greenhouse gas mitigation as well as in improving soil fertility and plant productivity. To explore the differences of biochars produced from different raw materials, six biochar samples made from alfalfa straw, wheat straw, cotton straw, grape vines, sludge and lignite were selected as test material. Qualitative and quantitative analysis by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy(FTIR and Boehm titration were used to determine the amount of the surface functional groups of biochars. Meanwhile the scanning electron microscopy(SEM was used to characterize the surface morphology of biochar samples. In addition, the basic physicochemical characteristics of biochar samples, such as pH value, organic carbon content and cation exchange capacity were also determined. The results showed that all of the biochar were alkaline except the sludge biochar was acidic. The organic carbon content of alfalfa biochar was the highest(588.43 g·kg-1 and sludge biochar was the lowest(168.17 g·kg-1. Furthermore, the rank of cation exchange capacity was alfalfa straw biochar, cotton straw biochar > grape vine biochar > wheat straw biochar > sludge biochar > lignite biochar. FTIR spectrum showed that there were the aromatic hydrocarbon and the oxygen group on the surface of biochar and the structure of biochar was mainly based on the aromatic rings skeleton. The total functional groups content of alfalfa straw biochar was the highest, but that of sludge biochar was the lowest. The SEM results showed that there were obvious pore structure on the surface of plant-based biochar, but none on the surface of mineral-based biochar. Alfalfa straw biochar, wheat straw biochar, cotton straw biochar and grape vine biochar can be applied to improve farmland soil quality and increase soil fertility, and lignite biochar

  10. Secondary raw materials for synthesising new kind of cements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goñi, S.

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper is a comparative study of some characteristics of new belite cements obtained from two kind of wastes, which were used as secondary raw materials: fly ash (FA, of low CaO content, from coal combustion, and ash from incineration of municipal solid waste (MSWIA. Cements were synthesised in a range of temperature between 700°C and 900°C from MSWIA and FA, which were previously activated by hydrothermal treatment at 200°C The evolution of cemented phases with the heating temperature was followed by X-ray diffraction (XRD. The results were compared with those obtained from heating the starting FA and MSWIA without the previous hydrothermal treatment. The degree of hydration was quantitatively evaluated by the combined water content, determined from thermogravimetric analyses, during a period of 28 days or 200 days from mixing depending of hydration kinetics of each cement.

    Este trabajo es un estudio comparativo de algunas de las características de nuevos cementos belíticos, obtenidos a partir de dos tipos de residuos, como materia prima secundaria: cenizas volantes (CV de bajo contenido en cal, procedentes de la combustión del carbón y cenizas procedentes de la incineración de residuos sólidos urbanos (CIRSU. Los cementos fueron sintetizados en un rango de temperaturas comprendido entre 700°C y 900°C después de un tratamiento hidrotermal de la CV y CIRSU a 200°C La evolución de las fases cementicias, con la temperatura de calentamiento, fue estudiada por difracción de rayos X (DRX. Los resultados fueron comparados con aquellos obtenidos, directamente, por calentamiento de los residuos, sin un tratamiento hidrotermal previo de los mismos. El grado de hidratación fue cuantitativamente evaluado, por medio del análisis termogravimétrico, a partir del agua combinada de los cementos hidratados durante un período de 28 días o 200 días, dependiendo de la cinética de hidratación de cada cemento.

  11. Traceability System Model for Quality Gelatin Raw Material of Cattle Hides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Nur

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Several criteria must be accomplished within the provision of quality products in terms of the types of materials, the processing methods and effort to get it. Traceability system involves various parties that have different needs and goals in the process of supplying raw materials. Hence, there is a need for institutional systems engineering that can organize and manage the tracking process, the procurement of raw materials that guarantee the origin of gelatin raw materials, and facilitate the industry and customer to create a standardized quality of product. The purpose of the study formulates the institutional tracking models of gelatin raw material from cattle hide based on various criteria and assessment of the expert opinion. The methods used in this study were Interpretative structural modeling to formulate a representation of institutional tracking efficiently and analytical hierarchy process to determine the tracking strategy of industrial gelatin raw materials from cowhide. The results obtained from the study were some key elements of institutional tracking model for industrial gelatin raw materials from cowhide and the traceability strategies for industrial raw materials from cattle hide gelatin Indonesia. (Animal Production 12(3: 190-198 (2010 Key Words: traceability, institutional model, cattle hide, gelatin

  12. [Screening of compounds of nitrofuran in imported meat raw materials].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakrevskii, V V; Leleko, S N

    2014-01-01

    The article presents the results of screening studies of quantification of the nitrofuran drugs imported in raw meat (turkey, beef pork, veal, lamb, chicken). Identification was carried out by the detection ofsuch nitrofurans metabolites as: 1-aminogidantoin (AGD), 3-amino-2-oxazolidinone (AOZ) and 3-amino-5-morpholinomethyl-2-oxazolidinone (AMOZ). There are analyzed the positive and negative effects of nitrofuran drugs. The data for the establishment of the potential risks to human health when using contaminated raw meat metabolites of nitrofurans are discussed. These drugs are prohibited in livestock in Europe since 1995 due to the adverse effects (carcinogenic, mutagenic, teratogenic and toxic) on animals and the potential risk to humans. In the Russian Federation in accordance with SanPin 2.3.2.1078-01 01.01.2012 for the first time the was introduced rationing for nitrofurans (including furazolidone).

  13. Application of geophysical methods in exploration and exploitation of mineral raw materials

    OpenAIRE

    Delipetrov, Todor; Blažev, Krsto; Doneva, Blagica; Delipetrev, Marjan; Dimov, Gorgi

    2013-01-01

    Opening of a mine is complex procedure dependent on more parameters, but as the most important are: deposit with sufficient concentration of useful material which can be extract with appropriate technological process and economic working. Anyway, for possible opening of a mine, first and necessary factor is determination of deposit area and defining the space distribution and concentration of mineral raw material. Intense exploitation of mineral raw materials which were base for future dev...

  14. INTRAW, the EU Observatory for raw materials: fostering international cooperation and developing new opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Victor; Allington, Ruth; Keane, Christopher

    2016-04-01

    A secure supply of raw materials is a European priority that extends beyond country borders and national policies. Recent European initiatives have pioneered the development of an EU strategy on raw materials emphasizing the concept of the "added value chain", which continues to pursue the three pillar strategy to: (1) ensure the fair and sustainable supply of raw materials from international markets, promoting international cooperation with developed and developing countries; (2) foster sustainable supply of raw materials from European sources, and (3) reduce consumption of primary raw materials by increasing resource efficiency and promoting recycling. This contribution presents the Horizon 2020 funded project INTRAW, the objective of which is to establish the European Union's International Observatory for Raw Materials. The creation and maintenance of the European Union's International Observatory for Raw Materials is designed to have a strong impact in two dimensions: 1. To narrow the existing gap in aspects of the raw materials knowledge infrastructure in the EU by providing a link with the same knowledge infrastructure in technologically advanced reference countries. This should contribute to the harmonization of mineral policies all over the EU, by providing data that enables evidence-based policies and appropriate, cost-effective management, planning and adaptation decisions by the public sector. This will benefit businesses, industry and society. The Observatory will also provide to policy makers in the EU and its Member States the data they need to facilitate discussion in multilateral forums. 2. To enable a better alignment of the R&I activities among the individual EU members and international cooperation countries AND between the European Union and international cooperation countries by boosting synergies with international research and innovation programmes. This way the EU's role and scientific capabilities in the raw materials area will be

  15. Globalization and its influence to the availability of the Raw material sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vodzinský Vladimír

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Process of globalization does not lead only to concentration of physical and financial capital, and to centralization of its managing, what can be considered as its main signs, but at same time it gives whole raw of new claims to realization of technologies and their material basis.One of very important claims is also change in structure and volume of raw materials, that is gradually viewing in increased change from consumption of so-called classical raw materials, without which it is not possible to create basic components of information technologies.Information technologies are then creating important basis for quickly developed new branches of economy.

  16. The U.S. Chemical Industry, the Raw Materials It Uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1972

    1972-01-01

    The raw materials used by the industry are considered in this section of the annual chemical industry report, including data covering: natural gas, lead, mercury, phosphate rock, potash, salt, petroleum products including petrochemical feedstocks. (PR)

  17. The influence of the quality of raw material preparation on energy consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suchitra, Z.; Kriz, P.; Libal, J.

    1979-01-01

    By using raw material with a higher energy content and corresponding additives and by changing the operational conditions of paper-making equipment, it is possible to obtain energy savings while maintaining the product quality.

  18. Determination of diclofenac sodium and related compounds in raw materials and formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaulieu, N; Lovering, E G; Lefrançois, J; Ong, H

    1990-01-01

    A liquid chromatographic method has been developed for determination of drug and related compounds in diclofenac sodium raw material, slow-release, and enteric coated tablets. The method specifies a 5 microns octadecylsilane bonded phase column, a mobile phase of tetrahydrofuran-acetonitrile-buffer, pH 5 (1 + 4 + 8.3), and detection at 229 nm. The method resolves 10 known related compounds with limits of quantitation of 0.2% or less. Seventeen drug raw material samples were evaluated. Total impurity levels ranged from 0.1 to 0.9%. The method has also been used for determination of drug content in raw materials and formulations. Mean assay levels in drug raw materials ranged between 98.3% and 101.8%.

  19. Annual report 1997. Energies and raw materials; Rapport annuel 1997. Energies et matieres premieres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    This report gives the important directions of French energy policy. Nuclear energy, electric power, natural gas, coal and petroleum products are reviewed. The situations and the forecasting for raw materials are also given. (N.C.)

  20. THE RAW MINERAL SALTS USE IN COSMETICS FORMULATIONS: ASSORTMENT, MINERAL RAW MATERIALS CHARACTERISTICS AND COSMETICS FORMULATION TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. B. Evseeva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of mineral raw materials (brine lakes, thermal springs, sea water, bischofite in cosmetics is presented in this article. The assortment of cosmetics that contain mineral salts is presented. The technological characteristics of production of these cosmetic formulations, in particular the ability of mineral salts to influence the stability of formulation and the sensory properties of products are given. The main approaches of that formulation development are described.

  1. Biotechnologies for critical raw material recovery from primary and secondary sources: R&D priorities and future perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hennebel, T.; Boon, N.; Maes, S.; Lenz, M.

    2015-01-01

    Europe is confronted with an increasing supply risk of critical raw materials. These can be defined as materials of which the risks of supply shortage and their impacts on the economy are higher compared to most of other raw materials. Within the framework of the EU Innovation Partnership on raw

  2. The use of rapid spectroscopic screening methods to detect adulteration of food raw materials and ingredients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Klavs Martin; Khakimov, Bekzod; Engelsen, Søren Balling

    2016-01-01

    with chemometrics appears to be an efficient first choice for testing incoming raw materials and ingredients in the food production. However, in order to realize its full potential, it is necessary to move away from the current thoughts at the Parnassus, namely the targeted approach. This review will focus...... on the exploitation of the capability of NIR spectroscopy to fingerprint incoming raw materials and ingredients as an integrated part of the industry's self-monitoring program typically called process analytical technology....

  3. Enhancement of efficiency of storage and processing of food raw materials using radiation technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracheva, A. Yu.; Zav'yalov, M. A.; Ilyukhina, N. V.; Kukhto, V. A.; Tarasyuk, V. T.; Filippovich, V. P.; Egorkin, A. V.; Chasovskikh, A. V.; Pavlov, Yu. S.; Prokopenko, A. V.; Strokova, N. E.; Artem'ev, S. A.; Polyakova, S. P.

    2016-12-01

    The work is dedicated to improvement of efficiency of storage and processing of food raw materials using radiation technologies. International practice of radiation processing of food raw materials is presented and an increase in the consumption of irradiated food products is shown. The prospects of using radiation technologies for the processing of food products in Russia are discussed. The results of studies of radiation effects on various food products and packaging film by γ radiation and accelerated electrons are presented.

  4. Improved consumer properties of wafers using non-traditional raw materials

    OpenAIRE

    Лозовая, Татьяна Михайловна

    2014-01-01

    An urgent problem of increasing nutritional and biological value of wafers with fatty fillings, formulae of which include non-traditional raw materials is set forth, and some results of our studies are given. The main purpose of the research is to justify the possibility and feasibility of using natural non-traditional raw materials in the production of wafers. For these studies, organoleptic characteristics, nutritional value, amino acid, fatty acid, mineral and vitamin composition, clinical...

  5. Enhancement of efficiency of storage and processing of food raw materials using radiation technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gracheva, A. Yu.; Zav’yalov, M. A.; Ilyukhina, N. V.; Kukhto, V. A.; Tarasyuk, V. T.; Filippovich, V. P. [All-Russia Research Institute of Preservation Technology (Russian Federation); Egorkin, A. V.; Chasovskikh, A. V. [Research Institute of Technical Physics and Automation (Russian Federation); Pavlov, Yu. S., E-mail: rad05@bk.ru [Frumkin Institute of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences (Russian Federation); Prokopenko, A. V., E-mail: pav14@mail.ru [National Research Nuclear University (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute) (Russian Federation); Strokova, N. E. [Moscow State University (Russian Federation); Artem’ev, S. A. [Russian Research Institute of Baking Industry (Russian Federation); Polyakova, S. P. [Russian Research Institute of Confectionery Industry (Russian Federation)

    2016-12-15

    The work is dedicated to improvement of efficiency of storage and processing of food raw materials using radiation technologies. International practice of radiation processing of food raw materials is presented and an increase in the consumption of irradiated food products is shown. The prospects of using radiation technologies for the processing of food products in Russia are discussed. The results of studies of radiation effects on various food products and packaging film by γ radiation and accelerated electrons are presented.

  6. Stochastic Modelling and Self Tuning Control of a Continuous Cement Raw Material Mixing System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannu T. Toivonen

    1980-01-01

    Full Text Available The control of a continuously operating system for cement raw material mixing is studied. The purpose of the mixing system is to maintain a constant composition of the cement raw meal for the kiln despite variations of the raw material compositions. Experimental knowledge of the process dynamics and the characteristics of the various disturbances is used for deriving a stochastic model of the system. The optimal control strategy is then obtained as a minimum variance strategy. The control problem is finally solved using a self-tuning minimum variance regulator, and results from a successful implementation of the regulator are given.

  7. Raw material selectivity in Late Pliocene Oldowan sites in the Makaamitalu Basin, Hadar, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman-Neuman, Talia; Hovers, Erella

    2012-03-01

    We report the results of an analysis of raw material selection patterns in the assemblages from two Late Pliocene in situ archaeological localities in the Makaamitalu Basin (Hadar, Ethiopia). While the same local conglomerate was used as a raw material source for both archaeological occurrences, different selection criteria are identified. At A.L. 894, selection for quality is subtle and the clearest selection is against non-homogeneous raw materials. In the A.L. 666 assemblage, higher-quality raw materials were selected and some rare raw materials reached the locality from unknown sources. A comparison between the Makaamitalu and other Oldowan assemblages reveals an overall shift toward higher complexity of both selectivity and transport behaviors from ca. 2.0 Ma onward, contrasting a typo-technological conservatism that pertains until ~1.6 Ma. It is hypothesized that an increase in complexity of behaviors related to raw material selection and acquisition involved changes in the intensity and fidelity of technological knowledge transmission. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Use of raw materials in the United States from 1900 through 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos, Grecia R.

    2017-08-22

    The economic growth of an industrialized nation such as the United States requires raw materials for construction (buildings, bridges, highways, and so forth), defense, and processing and manufacture of goods and services. Since the beginning of the 20th century, the types and quantities of raw materials used have increased and changed significantly. This fact sheet quantifies the amounts of raw materials (other than food and fuel) that have been used in the U.S. economy annually for a period of 115 years, from 1900 through 2014. It provides a broad overview of the quantity (weight) of nonfood and nonfuel materials used in the economy and illustrates the use and significance of raw nonfuel minerals in particular as building blocks of society.These data have been compiled to help the public and policymakers understand the changing annual flow of raw materials put into use in the United States. Such information can be helpful in assessing the potential effects of materials use on the environment, assessing materials’ intensity of use, and examining the role that these materials play in the economy. The data presented indicate the substitution and shift in materials usage from renewable to nonrenewable materials during the 20th century. The disaggregated quantities by commodity (not shown in this fact sheet) may be tested against supply adequacy and end of life issues.

  9. Effect of Selected Alternative Fuels and Raw Materials on the Cement Clinker Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strigáč Július

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the study of the effects of alternative fuels and raw materials on the cement clinker quality. The clinker quality was expressed by the content of two principal minerals alite C3S and belite C2S. The additions of alternative fuels ashes and raw materials, in principle, always increased the belite content and conversely reduced the amount of alite. The alternative fuels with high ash content were used such as the meat-bone meal, sewage sludge from sewage treatment plants and paper sludge and the used alternative raw materials were metallurgical slags - granulated blastfurnace slag, air cooled blastfurnace slag and demetallized steel slag, fluidized bed combustion fly ash and waste glass. Meat-bone meal, sewage sludge from sewage treatment plants and paper sludge were evaluated as moderately suitable alternative fuels which can be added in the amounts of 2.8 wt. % addition of meat-bone meals ash, 3.64 wt. % addition of sewage sludge ash and 3.8 wt. % addition of paper sludge ash to the cement raw mixture. Demetallised steel slag is suitable for production of special sulphate resistant cement clinker for CEM I –SR cement with addition up to 5 wt. %. Granulated blastfurnace slag is a suitable alternative raw material with addition 4 wt. %. Air cooled blastfurnace slag is a suitable alternative raw material with addition 4.2 wt. %. Waste glass is not very appropriate alternative raw material with addition only 1.16 wt. %. Fluidized bed combustion fly ash appears not to be equally appropriate alternative raw material for cement clinker burning with less potential utilization in the cement industry and with addition 3.41 wt. %, which forms undesired anhydrite CaSO4 in the cement clinker.

  10. Chlorogenic acid in raw materials for the production of chicory coffee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawirska-Wojtasiak, Renata; Wojtowicz, Elżbieta; Przygoński, Krzysztof; Olkowicz, Mariola

    2014-08-01

    Chicory coffee is produced from traditional raw materials. Other materials are added to improve its aroma. The aim of this study was to test new raw materials with a high content of chlorogenic acid (CGA) as the criterion for their selection. This acid is degraded in the course of roasting and is a source of phenolic compounds affecting coffee aroma. For this reason, contents of CGAs were analyzed in traditional and new materials before and after roasting and compared with the chemicals formed in the roasted pure standard of chlorogenic acid (5-CQA). It was shown that the novel raw materials contained considerable amounts of 5-CQA, frequently higher than in traditional chicory. The roasting process caused significant losses of 5-CQA in the tested raw materials, amounting to 55-91%. In turn, the analysis of volatile compounds in roasted materials showed the presence of certain phenolic and heterocyclic compounds that were also formed as degradation products of the pure 5-CQA chemical standard. Novel raw materials, mainly chokeberry, artichoke and lovage, are rich sources of CGAs, particularly 5-CQA. Their application in the production of chicory coffee may result in an increased content of primarily phenolic compounds in its aroma. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Resource selection of lithic raw materials in the Middle Palaeolithic in southern France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Constance L; Wilson, Lucy

    2011-11-01

    The work reported here uses several approaches to examine the costs and benefits associated with exploiting potential sources of lithic raw material in the Vaucluse, southern France, and then tests the results against the proportions of raw materials from various sources found in the lithic assemblage of a Middle Palaeolithic site, the Bau de l'Aubesier. A previously published equation designed to quantify the attractiveness of each source proves to be significantly correlated with source use, but the results show that it can be improved. We then individually test the components of the attractiveness equation (raw material quality, source extent, terrain difficulty, and the size and abundance of raw material pieces at the source) and additional variables (Calories expended to get from the source to the site using a straight-line route, Calories expended using a least-cost path, surface distance of the source from the site, and distance to the closest used source) using generalized linear models. Since very similar raw materials can be found at more than one source, we combine such similar sources into source areas, and test the area of the source area (AOSA) and the total area of sources within the source area (AOSISA), as two additional independent variables. The best model shows that raw material quality, source extent, abundance of large and very large rocks, and AOSISA, are positively correlated with use of sources, while terrain difficulty, abundance of small and medium rocks, Calories, and AOSA, are negatively correlated with source use. This shows that the hominins at the Bau de l'Aubesier optimized their raw material procurement to get the most good quality material that they could, while minimizing the time and energy spent getting and using it. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Building Energy Efficiency and the Use of Raw Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Luo

    To become a country of energy saving, consumption reduction, low carbon emissions and life has become a national policy background, we need to convert conception of architectural aesthetics and make necessary adjustments and consciousness. Techniques and methods of support, or method of the research are still needed in the construction, building energy conservation, the environmental protection, low carbon and recycling methods are taken measures. Developing, finding and adopingt "native" and "primary" processed materials, or in which inject new technology to form new material is an effective approach to ensure more ways from environmental protection, energy-saving building and building materials in such ideas to implement.

  13. Addition of large amount of municipal sewage sludge as raw material in cement clinker production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Minrui; Feng, Huajun; Li, Na; Shen, Dongsheng; Zhou, Yuyang; Jia, Yufeng

    2017-12-01

    Two addition modes were used to explore the maximum addition of municipal sewage sludge as a raw material in cement clinker production. The clinker and cement product quality were determined by chemical analysis, cement quality testing, characterization of the clinker crystalline phases, and leaching tests. Municipal sewage sludge addition in the raw mix could be up to 30% based on the cement clinker moduli, and the cement quality met the P.O 42.5 cement standard (GB 175-2007). The amount of municipal sewage sludge added based on the direct addition mode should be less than 15% because of an insufficient early-term cement strength (third day). The leaching concentrations of heavy metals in all cements were below the threshold (GB 30760-2014) using the latest leaching procedure (GB 30810-2014). The municipal sewage sludge could be used with a high addition (30%) in the raw mix as a raw material in cement clinker production.

  14. Raw-materials mixtures from waste of the coal industry for production of ceramic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galpern, E.I. [Scientific-Manufacturing Enterprise ``Ceramics``, Donetsk (Ukraine); Pashchenko, L.V. [Inst. of Physical, Organic and Coal Chemistry of NASU, Donetsk (Ukraine)

    1998-09-01

    The liquidation of waste dumps on the surface of mining enterprises and realization of measures by environment protection of air and aquatic basins are connected to the complex processing of mining mass. The main directions of utilization of mining rocks and coal wastes realized in Ukraine industry are: - filling of mines worked-out area by grouting solutions; - ceramic brick, porous filling materials and binding materials production; - road-making, construction of hydrostructures and industrial objects; - output of concrete items predominantly for using in mining conditions. The peculiarity of wastes using in above-mentioned fields is the possibility of their mass application in quantities commensurable with valumes of their yields. The experience of enterprises work which process mining rocks into building materials by burning method (ceramic brick, porous aggregates of concretes as aggloporite, expanded clay aggregate) has shown that unconstant and, as the rule, exceeding norms content of carbon and sulphur in the rock results to deterioration of products quality and technological factors of production. Unstability of carbon content in raw material makes the burning process hardly operated. Obtained products having residual carbon in the view of coke residue are often characterized by lower physical-mechanical characteristics. (orig./SR)

  15. Fracture mechanics of polymer mortar made with recycled raw materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Godoy Jurumenha

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to show that industrial residues could be used in construction applications so that production costs as well as environmental protection can be improved. The fracture properties of polymer mortar manufactured with recycled materials are investigated to evaluate the materials behaviour to crack propagation. The residues used in this work were spent sand from foundry industry as aggregate, unsaturated polyester resin from polyethylene terephthalate (PET as matrix and polyester textile fibres from garment industry, producing an unique composite material fully from recycled components with low cost. The substitution of fresh by used foundry sand and the insertions of textile fibres contribute to a less brittle behaviour of polymer mortar.

  16. CONTRIBUTION TO THE STATISTICAL INTERPRETATION OF RAW MATERIALS FOR THE CEMENT INDUSTRY OF SPLIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Matijaca

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available Up to the last two decades cement was produced from mari called »tupina« (with about 76% CaCOj which is an ideal mixture for cement production. Due to the quantity decrease of this raw material, cement production went on using the mixture of other members of the flysch series: limestones, marls, clay, loess, sandstones a.o. By the analysis of natural materials the CaCO^ content has mostly been proved. Therefore, knowing the correlation of oxides in mineral raw material is of special significance. The article discusses investigation results of the correlation between CaCO-i and other oxides of the raw material (the paper is published in Croatian.

  17. production of manual arc welding electrodes with local raw materials

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CHUKSSUCCESS 4 LOVE

    ABSTRACT. Manual arc welding using flux coated electrodes is carried out by producing an electric arc between the base metal and a flux covered metal electrode with electric current that depends on the type of electrode, material, welding position and the desired strength. The composition of flux coated electrodes is ...

  18. Cost minimization through optimized raw material quality composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urs Buehlmann; R. Edward Thomas; Xiaoqui. Zuo

    2011-01-01

    Lumber, a heterogeneous, anisotropic material produced from sawing logs, contains a varying number of randomly dispersed, unusable areas (defects) distributed over each boards’ surface area. Each board's quality is determined by the frequency and distribution of these defects and the board's dimension. Typically, the industry classifies lumber into five...

  19. EFFICIENCY OF RAW MATERIAL INVENTORIES IN IMPROVING SUPPLY CHAIN PERFORMANCE of CV. FIVA FOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artadi Nugraha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The production and number of processed food industries have slightly increased; as a result, the companies must compete to maximize their profits by conducting their efficient production process. CV. Fiva Food is one of the companies in the field of processed foods, especially in processed meat that has implemented supply chain management. It is necessary for the company to take measurements of its performance and efficiency for the entire supply chain such as procurement of raw materials. The purposes of this study were to analyze the performance of the company's supply chain and determine the most efficient  method of procurement for its raw materials as well as and to provide recommendations for the company to improve its performance of entire supply chain. This study used SCOR in analyzing the performance of supply chain and EOQ and POQ method to be compared with the method that the company uses to determine which method of procurement for raw materials is the most efficient one. The result showed that based on the matrix, the company's performance is unfavorable when it was compared to the benchmark performance of inventory days of supply. In addition, this study showed that the POQ method produces the lowest total inventory cost with savings of Rp6.647.015 for raw materials of MDM whereas EOQ method produced the lowest total inventory cost with savings of Rp222.153,78 for raw materials of FQ85CL. Keywords: performance suppy chain, SCOR, fiva food, EOQ, POQ

  20. Different drying technologies and alternation of mycobiots in the raw material of Hyssopus officinalis L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raila, Algirdas; Lugauskas, Albinas; Kemzūraite, Aurelija; Zvicevicius, Egidijus; Ragazinskiene, Ona; Railiene, Marija

    2009-01-01

    Contamination of medicinal plant mass with mycobiots is one of the negative factors deteriorating the quality of raw material. In order to evaluate the impact of the yield processing technologies upon the changes of mycobiots in raw material, the mycobiotic conditions of herb hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis L.) raw material were evaluated under various regimes of active ventilation and optimization of the drying parameters. The impact of ventilation intensity and temperature of drying agent upon the changes and abundance of mycobiota species in medicinal raw material was determined. Irrespective of the temperature of the airflow, the strongest suppressive effect upon the mycobiotic contamination in Hyssopi herba was produced by the 5,000 m3 x (t x h)(-1) airflow. Analysis of the isolated fungi revealed the prevalence of Penicillium, Aspergillus, Alternaria, Cladosporium, Mucor, Rhizopus species in the raw material. In separate samples Botrytis cinerea, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Aureobasidium pullulans, Chrysosporium merdarium, Cladorrhinum foecundissimum, Ulocladium consortiale, Trichoderma hamatum, T. harzianum, Gilmaniella humicola, Talaromyces flavus, Rhizomucor pusillus, Hansfordia ovalispora, Verticicladium trifi dum, Trichosporiella cerebriformis micromycetes were also rather abundant. Detection of the above-mentioned micromycetes in herb hyssop samples differed, and partially depended upon the medium used for their isolation.

  1. Vinasse organic matter quality and mineralization potential, as influenced by raw material, fermentation and concentration processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parnaudeau, V; Condom, N; Oliver, R; Cazevieille, P; Recous, S

    2008-04-01

    Both dilute and concentrated vinasse can be spread on agricultural fields or used as organic fertilizer. The effects of different characteristics of the original raw material on the biochemical composition of vinasse and their C and N mineralization in soil were investigated. Vinasse samples were obtained from similar industrial fermentation processes based on the growth of microorganisms on molasses from different raw material (sugar beet or sugar cane) and vinasse concentration (dilute or concentrated). The nature of the raw material used for fermentation had the greatest effect on the nature and size of the resistant organic pool. This fraction included aromatic compounds originating from the raw material or from complex molecules and seemed to be quantitatively related to acid-insoluble N. Samples derived from sugar beet were richer in N compounds and induced greater net N mineralization. The effect of evaporation varied with the nature of the raw material. Concentration led to a slight increase in the abundance of phenolic compounds, acid-insoluble fraction, and a slight decrease in the labile fraction of vinasses partly or totally derived from sugar beet. The effect of the dilute vinasse from sugar cane was greater. The concentrated vinasse had a smaller labile fraction, induced N immobilization at the beginning of incubation, and exhibited greater N concentration in the acid-insoluble fraction than the dilute vinasse.

  2. Raw Material Equivalents: The Challenges of Accounting for Sustainability in a Globalized World

    OpenAIRE

    Anke Schaffartzik; Dominik Wiedenhofer; Nina Eisenmenger

    2015-01-01

    The indicator domestic material consumption (domestic extraction + imports – exports) is widely used to track the scale, composition, and dynamics of material use. As production increasingly occurs at a spatial distance from the demand it ultimately satisfies, new accounting challenges arise that this indicator may not be able to meet. In response, indicators in raw material equivalents (RME) have been developed to account for material use, no matter where it occurs, associated with final dem...

  3. Energy and resource saving raw materials for dactyloscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikonnikova Lyubov F.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The “developing” properties of ferromagnetic fingerprint powders are defined by the chemical nature and the particle sizes of the pigment which form acidity of its surface, adhesive and magnetic properties, and color spectrum. The optimum ratio of these physical and chemical parameters is observed in the pigment consisting of iron-containing sludge tempered at 800°C, which contains α-Fe2O3 and impurity of clay materials.

  4. Technogeneous mineral wastes – source of raw materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michalíková Františka

    Full Text Available The electron microanalysis is used for the evaluation of properties of the technogeneous mineral wastes - the Jelšava waste sands. In the contribution flotation results of the given waste are presented prognosticating a high-quality magnesite concentrate from it. The acquired knowledge, can be rationally used also as a factographic material for explaining the unsuitable wet treatment and, at the same time, it can serve for the proper formulation and construction of other possible technological solutions.

  5. REFERENCE MATERIALS INSTITUTE DEVELOPER AND PRODUCER OF REFERENCE MATERIALS OF RAW AND METALLURGICAL PRODUCTION MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Stepanovskikh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the history of creation of Russian reference materials (RMs, the stages of start-up and development of the Institute for Certified Reference Materials as a main producer of RMs of metallurgical production in Russia. The article considers the experience of the Institute for Certified Reference Materials for RMs development and metrological assurance of quantity chemical analysis based on their use.

  6. Obtaining a fish minced feed by the method of cryoextrusion from frozen fish raw materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Titova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Developed the technology of obtaining a fish minced feed (cryo minced fish feed by the method of cryoextrusion using by the utility model extrusion of a piston-type cold working bodies for grinding the fish raw material in a frozen state. Justified the possibility of replacement in the standard technology of production the feed from the minced fish such technological operations as the defrosting and subsequent grinding of raw materials to the operation like a cold extrusion or cryoextrusion. Used the shape of the holes of the die for forcing the raw material in the form of “hourglass” with a diameter of 7 mm, the length of the process of pushing – 40 seconds. Determine the actual losses of raw material in the milling process meth of cryoextrusion ranging from 1% to 2.5%, including the losses when cutting block for the preparation of raw materials to piercing. It is established that the finished product – cryo minced fish feed, has a homogeneous grinding, juicy, crumbly texture, the temperature in the thickness of the product is not changed and equal to the temperature of raw materials before processing, that is minus 18 °C. Developed the principal technological scheme of obtaining the cryo minced fish feed by the method of cryoextrusion. The calculation of material balance in the production of beef has shown that the use of the new method will allow to increase the product yield up to 99%. Based on the studies of the chemical composition of fish and feed of mince obtained by traditional and developed methods established that the protein content in the cryo minced fish feed remains unchanged. Developed draft technical specifications for the production of cryo minced fish feed and technological instructions for the production of cryo minced fish feed for fodder purposes, and also prepared the application for the patent named “Obtaining cryo minced fish feed from the frozen fish by the method of cryoextrusion”.

  7. The potential of encapsulating "raw materials" in 3D osteochondral gradient scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Neethu; Gupta, Vineet; Sridharan, Banupriya; Sutherland, Amanda; Detamore, Michael S

    2014-04-01

    Scaffolds with continuous gradients in material composition and bioactive signals enable a smooth transition of properties at the interface. Components like chondroitin sulfate (CS) and bioactive glass (BG) in 3D scaffolds may serve as "raw materials" for synthesis of new extracellular matrix (ECM), and may have the potential to completely or partially replace expensive growth factors. We hypothesized that scaffolds with gradients of ECM components would enable superior performance of engineered constructs. Raw material encapsulation altered the appearance, structure, porosity, and degradation of the scaffolds. They allowed the scaffolds to better retain their 3D structure during culture and provided a buffering effect to the cells in culture. Following seeding of rat mesenchymal stem cells, there were several instances where glycosaminoglycan (GAG), collagen, or calcium contents were higher with the scaffolds containing raw materials (CS or BG) than with those containing transforming growth factor (TGF)-β3 or bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2. It was also noteworthy that a combination of both CS and TGF-β3 increased the secretion of collagen type II. Moreover, cells seeded in scaffolds containing opposing gradients of CS/TGF-β3 and BG/BMP-2 produced clear regional variations in the secretion of tissue-specific ECM. The study demonstrated raw materials have the potential to create a favorable microenvironment for cells; they can significantly enhance the synthesis of certain extracellular matrix (ECM) components when compared to expensive growth factors; either alone or in combination with growth factors they can enhance the secretion of tissue specific matrix proteins. Raw materials are promising candidates that can be used to either replace or be used in combination with growth factors. Success with raw materials in lieu of growth factors could have profound implications in terms of lower cost and faster regulatory approval for more rapid translation of

  8. Arachidonic acid production by Mortierella alpina using raw crop materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Ganggang; Guan, Zhengbing; Liu, Feixian G; Liao, Xiangru; Cai, Yujie

    2015-01-01

    Arachidonic acid (ARA) is one of the three essential fatty acids, and it is important for human body to keep healthy and is widely used. At present, expensive materials such as glucose and yeast extract are generally reported to be optimal for ARA production. A new cost-effective fermentation process including cheaper material for ARA production is of great significance. Feasibility of using corn meal and powdered soybean for fungal growth and lipid accumulation was evaluated by means of single factor test. N-hexadecane concentration was optimized, and the effect of temperature on biomass and ARA content was examined. Mortierella alpina made better use of the aforementioned material as carbon and nitrogen sources for both hyphae growth and ARA production compared with glucose and yeast extract. Maximal levels of 10.9 g/L ARA and 26.1 g/L total lipids were obtained when 66 g/L corn meal, 54 g/L soybean meal and 6% (v/v) n-hexadecane were supplemented. A temperature-shift strategy involved three steps, namely, 30°C (3 days) - 25°C (4 days) - 20°C (4 days), which further improved ARA production by 24.7%. Several factors such as carbon and nitrogen sources, temperature and dissolved oxygen had great influence on biomass and microbial oil production. Mortierella alpina preferred corn and soybean meal compared with glucose and yeast extract, which would surely alleviate the high cost of ARA production. Based on this study, the new process is both low cost and practicable.

  9. Sucrose: A Prospering and Sustainable Organic Raw Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Siegfried; Rose, Thomas; Moser, Matthias

    Sucrose (α-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-d-fructofuranoside) is an inexpensive chemical produced by sugar cane and sugar beet cultivation. Chemical and/or biochemical transformations convert it into highly valuable synthetic intermediates such as 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), bioethylene, 1,2-propylene glycol and levulinic acid. Sucrose can also be converted into biodegradable polymers such as polyesters and polyurethanes, as well as into novel carbohydrates such as isomaltulose, trehalulose, inulin, levan, Neo-amylose, and dextran, highly valuable additives for food and cosmetics and materials for separation and purification technologies.

  10. [Isolation and identification of impurities from raw material of clindamycin phosphate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yue; Wu, Tong; Chen, Shu-Zeng; Sun, Qiu-Shi; Qin, Li; Xu, Ling-Yue

    2010-11-01

    Four impurities were isolated from raw material of clindamycin phosphate (CP), and their structures have been determined. LC-MS was used to determine the molecular weights of the impurities in the raw material of CP. Reversed-phase preparative HPLC was used to prepare them, and their chemical structures were identified by HR-MS and NMR. The four unknown impurities were determined as clindamycin-B-phosphate (1), clindamycin-2,4-diphosphate (2), 3',6'-dehydro clindamycin phosphate (3), epi-clindamycin phosphate (4). Impurity 1 has been included in BP and EP, while 2, 3 and 4 have not. The impurities 2, 3, 4 are first separated from raw material of CP.

  11. Development of old-growth northern hardwoods on Bartlett Experimental Forest - a 22-year record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley M. Filip; David A. Marquis; William B. Leak

    1960-01-01

    Northern hardwood forests provide the industries of New England with their most valuable woods: yellow birch and sugar maple for veneer, paper birch for turning stock, and other hardwood species for a variety of specialty products. As a result of recent developments in hardwood pulping, these northern hardwood forests now represent a tremendous reservoir of raw...

  12. Ferroelectric thin films using oxides as raw materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.B. Araújo

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available This work describes an alternative method for the preparation of ferroelectric thin films based on pre-calcination of oxides, to be used as precursor material for a solution preparation. In order to show the viability of the proposed method, PbZr0.53Ti0.47O3 and Bi4Ti3O12 thin films were prepared on fused quartz and Si substrates. The results were analyzed by X-ray Diffraction (XRD, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM, Infrared Spectroscopy (IR and Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy (RBS. The films obtained show good quality, homogeneity and the desired stoichiometry. The estimated thickness for one layer deposition was approximately 1000 Å and 1500 Å for Bi4Ti3O12 and PbZr0.53Ti0.47O3 films, respectively.

  13. Solid and liquid residues as raw materials for biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallert, C; Winter, J

    2002-11-01

    In the past few decades huge amounts of solid and paste-like wastes of domestic and industrial origin have been deposited on sanitary landfills worldwide. Only a small proportion was incinerated, where incineration plants were available. Since primary resources, such as ores for metal production or crude oil for the production of gasoline, diesel, solvents and plastics, or coal and natural gas as sources for energy or chemicals are not available in unlimited quantities, and because the deposition of residues, wastes and worn-out commodities on sanitary landfills causes pollution of the atmosphere, the soil and the groundwater due to hazardous gaseous emissions and toxic leachates, wastes from households and from industry must be avoided or minimized at an early stage. Whenever waste material can be recycled it must be re-introduced into production processes and the non-recyclable fractions should be used as a fuel for energy recovery. After incineration, the highly toxic dust fractions of ashes and slags resulting from burning the wastes should be deposited on sanitary landfills, while the granulated mineral slag fractions could be used as a substitute for the sand in cement as a construction material. Here we review various processes for the treatment of organic fractions of differently composed wastes to upgrade them to more valuable, re-usable products or at least to recover their energy content. Upgrading processes of organic wastes include composting, biogas fermentation, production of organic acids and solvents, and biopolymer or biosurfactants production. We also include biological purification procedures for the most important components of wastes, such as chitin from the shells of Crustaceae. Typical examples from pilot-scale or full-scale studies are discussed for each process.

  14. DELINEATION OF BOUNDARY CONTOURS OF MINERAL RAW MATERIALS WITHIN THE DEPOSIT SPACE CONSIDERING THE QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Tomašić

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of performed explorations, in the phase of deposit preparation and development for exploitation the obtained results regarding the raw material quality were transfered to the surface. The results served both for the development and planning of deposit excavation dynamics and for the delineation of boundary contours by mineral raw materials within the deposit space considering the quality, The case presented in the article refers to the marl and limestone open pit for the cement industry, the »Partizan« near Split (the paper is published in Croatian.

  15. Mining of Radioactive Raw Materials as an Origin of the Nuclear Fuel Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bedřich Michálek

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The mining of radioactive raw materials may be considered as an origin of the nuclear fuel chain and thus determines the amount of radioactive wastes which have to be stored safety in the final stage of the fuel chain. The paper informs about the existing trends in mining of radioactive raw materials in the world, provides an overview of development in mining in the Czech Republic and of possibilities of future exploiting some uranium deposits. It points a possibility of non-traditional obtaining uranium from mine waters from underground uranium mines closed and flooded earlier.

  16. Raw material changes and their processing parameters in an extrusion cooking process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheng, Hongyuan; Friis, Alan

    In this work, the effects of raw material and process parameters on product expansion in a fish feed extrusion process were investigated. Four different recipes were studied with a pilot-scale twin-screw co-rotating extruder according to a set of pre-defined processing conditions. In the four.......4%. The experimental data show that product expansion decreases with increase of protein content. Several different methods have been applied to quantitatively correlate the changes of raw material composition with product bulk density....

  17. MAHONIA AQUIFOLIUM AS A PROMISING RAW MATERIAL FOR THE FOOD INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VLADIMIR N. SOROKOPUDOV

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of the food industry leads to the expansion of the range of processed raw materials. Mahonia aquifolium today can be attributed to the non-traditional agricultural plants. However, the analysis of the chemical composition of the fruits showed that they contain significant amount of carbohydrates, vitamin C, various minerals, which recommend it for a wider use in the diet. Also due to the presence in the fruits of Mahonia aquifolium anthocyanins can extend of the use as raw material for natural anthocyanin dyes obtaining.

  18. Influence of raw material properties upon critical quality attributes of continuously produced granules and tablets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fonteyne, Margot; Wickström, Henrika; Peeters, Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    quality attributes of granules and tablets, produced by a continuous from-powder-to-tablet wet granulation line. The granulation process parameters were kept constant to examine the differences in the end product quality caused by the variability of the raw materials properties only. Theophylline......-Lactose-PVP (30-67.5-2.5%) was used as model formulation. Seven different grades of theophylline were granulated. Afterward, the obtained granules were tableted. Both the characteristics of granules and tablets were determined. The results show that differences in raw material properties both affect...... their processability and several critical quality attributes of the resulting granules and tablets....

  19. Raw material consumption of the European Union--concept, calculation method, and results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoer, Karl; Weinzettel, Jan; Kovanda, Jan; Giegrich, Jürgen; Lauwigi, Christoph

    2012-08-21

    This article presents the concept, calculation method, and first results of the "Raw Material Consumption" (RMC) economy-wide material flow indicator for the European Union (EU). The RMC measures the final domestic consumption of products in terms of raw material equivalents (RME), i.e. raw materials used in the complete production chain of consumed products. We employed the hybrid input-output life cycle assessment method to calculate RMC. We first developed a highly disaggregated environmentally extended mixed unit input output table and then applied life cycle inventory data for imported products without appropriate representation of production within the domestic economy. Lastly, we treated capital formation as intermediate consumption. Our results show that services, often considered as a solution for dematerialization, account for a significant part of EU raw material consumption, which emphasizes the need to focus on the full production chains and dematerialization of services. Comparison of the EU's RMC with its domestic extraction shows that the EU is nearly self-sufficient in biomass and nonmetallic minerals but extremely dependent on direct and indirect imports of fossil energy carriers and metal ores. This implies an export of environmental burden related to extraction and primary processing of these materials to the rest of the world. Our results demonstrate that internalizing capital formation has significant influence on the calculated RMC.

  20. Raw material procurement for termite fishing tools by wild chimpanzees in the Issa valley, Western Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida-Warren, Katarina; Sommer, Volker; Piel, Alex K; Pascual-Garrido, Alejandra

    2017-10-01

    Chimpanzee termite fishing has been studied for decades, yet the selective processes preceding the manufacture of fishing tools remain largely unexplored. We investigate raw material selection and potential evidence of forward planning in the chimpanzees of Issa valley, western Tanzania. Using traditional archaeological methods, we surveyed the location of plants from where chimpanzees sourced raw material to manufacture termite fishing tools, relative to targeted mounds. We measured raw material abundance to test for availability and selection. Statistics included Chi-Squared, two-tailed Wilcoxon, and Kruskall-Wallace tests. Issa chimpanzees manufactured extraction tools only from bark, despite availability of other suitable materials (e.g., twigs), and selected particular plant species as raw material sources, which they often also exploit for food. Most plants were sourced 1-16 m away from the mound, with a maximum of 33 m. The line of sight from the targeted mound was obscured for a quarter of these plants. The exclusive use of bark tools despite availability of other suitable materials indicates a possible cultural preference. The fact that Issa chimpanzees select specific plant species and travel some distance to source them suggests some degree of selectivity and, potentially, forward planning. Our results have implications for the reconstruction of early hominin behaviors, particularly with regard to the use of perishable tools, which remain archaeologically invisible. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Raw materials and technology fuel U.S. economic growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, T.D.

    2002-01-01

    In 1900, the average U.S. citizen's average life span was 47 years. He traveled about 1,900 km (1,200 miles) in a lifetime and resided in a home with an icebox for food storage and oil or gas for lighting. He communicated by mail, telegraph and crude telephones with limited availability and range. By 2000, the average citizen's life span was 77 years. He traveled an average of 19,000 km/a (12,000 miles/ year) by automobile alone. He resided in a home with many electrical appliances, including refrigerators and electric lights. And the communicated almost instantaneously with any other part of the globe by several widely available means, including portable phones and e-mail. Technology, the application of knowledge about the Earth's materials, their extraction and fabrication into products, helped create this change. Throughout the 20th century, the United States was a leader in technology. Automobiles, refrigerators, electric lighting, telephones and personal computers are only a few examples of the products invented and improved or further developed by American technology (National Academy of Engineering, 2000).

  2. Raw material generated from pet bottle recycling and its derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Almeida Santos

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The recycling process is no longer a pejorative connotation business to become the main business of any company not only because of the need to conserve virgin resources, but mainly because of the benefits to the environment. In this sense, this paper aims at assessing the possibility of exports of polyethylene terephthalate - PET known for - a type of product that can be recycled and reprocessed into products of various types and applications. This article has been structured based on exploratory research bibliographic database of scientific articles, books, newspapers and magazines where we analyze the main steps involved in the recycling of PET and its exploitation for export. Support of organizations and associations such as the Brazilian Association of PET (ABIPET contributed to the development of theoretical framework. The market operated and what can still be very large, with the possibility of exponential growth supported by: the economy in the use of virgin resources reduces the impact of chemicals in the environment, saving energy used in the production process, reducing the use of financial resources allocated to the reuse of materials.

  3. The influence of the raw material on the wood product manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Salim, Roaa; Johansson, Jimmy

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on the later part of the wood processing chain in wood industry: the wood product manufacturing. Wood product manufacturers are facing many challenges e.g. due to the high variability of the raw material. Waste and rework are prevalent, resulting in high manufacturing costs. Each processing step in the manufacturing affects material utilization and cost efficiency. The proportion of the material cost and waste in most wood products are high. The challenge for wood product m...

  4. Processing biofuels from farm raw materials - A systems study; Pelletering och brikettering av jordbruksraavaror - En systemstudie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, Daniel; Bernesson, Sven

    2008-03-15

    Use of processed biofuels (pellets, briquettes) has greatly increased in Sweden in recent decades, mainly to replace fossil fuels in large boilers, e.g. in coal powder boilers. More recently, the demand from private households and residential heating systems has also increased, mainly due to conversion from fossil heating oil. This increased interest in pellets and briquettes for heating is beginning to cause a shortage of the traditional raw materials, sawdust and wood shavings, and therefore attention is turning to using a variety of agricultural products as raw material. Such raw materials include cultivated energy crops and wastes and by-products from agriculture. This study describes the typical systems currently used for production of pellets and briquettes and investigates the possibility of using energy crops (Salix, reed canary-grass and hemp) and various wastes and by-products from processing of farm products (straw, cereal screenings, rape-seed meal and distiller's waste) as raw materials. Previous experiences of pelletizing and briquetting of these raw materials are reviewed in order to comprehensively identify possible combustion problems that may occur. On the basis of the results obtained, scenarios for possible production systems in a five-year perspective are presented and the costs and energy demands for these systems calculated. These future scenarios include large scale plants and micro-scale plants, as well as static and mobile equipment. The five main conclusions from the study are: - The farm raw materials of greatest interest for large-scale production are pelleted Salix and reed canary-grass. They have competitive prices and acceptable fuel properties and could be mixed with sawdust in existing large-scale pelletizing factories in Sweden. - Straw has low production costs but can cause serious ash-related problems. Hemp has too high production costs to be of commercial interest, while distiller's waste and rape-seed meal currently

  5. TATA LETAK GUDANG RAW MATERIAL CHEMICAL MENGGUNAKAN METODE SHARED STORAGE DAN REL SPACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indramawan Hadi Kuswoyo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Storage system in the manufacturing industry in this modern era is a very important role especially international scale company, may not directly produce or distribute all of the work unit. this led to the need for raw materials warehouse, warehouse storage systems should not be large in size because if supported by a good inventory of the warehouse to the maximum utilization of the problems faced by the company occurred in the warehouse of raw materials (raw materials. deficiencies in the arrangement of items in the warehouse procedures cause problems in the warehouse, so the warehouse impressed narrow and less structured cause inefficiencies time retrieval and storage of materials, as well as complicate the operator in handling the placement process raw materials. In the method of shared storage and rail space (relationchip chart for the relationship between activity is indicated by activity relationship approach, which shows each activity as a single activity model in the form of a diagram. ARD basic idea of the link between patterns of flow of goods and location of service activities related to production activities. ARD is the development of ARC (activity relationship chart.

  6. Iterative dual energy material decomposition from spatial mismatched raw data sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xing; Hu, Jing-Jing; Zhao, Yun-Song; Zhang, Hui-Tao; Zhang, Peng

    2014-01-01

    Today's clinical dual energy computed tomography (DECT) scanners generally measure different rays for different energy spectra and acquire spatial mismatched raw data sets. The deficits in clinical DECT technologies suggest that mainly image based material decomposition methods are in use nowadays. However, the image based material decomposition is an approximate technique, and beam hardening artifacts remain in decomposition results. A recently developed image based iterative method for material decomposition from inconsistent rays (MDIR) can achieve much better image quality than the conventional image based methods. Inspired by the MDIR method, this paper proposes an iterative method to indirectly perform raw data based DECT even with completely mismatched raw data sets. The iterative process is initialized by density images that were obtained from an image based material decomposition. Then the density images are iteratively corrected by comparing the estimated polychromatic projections and the measured polychromatic projections. Only three iterations of the method are sufficient to greatly improve the qualitative and quantitative information in material density images. Compared with the MDIR method, the proposed method needs not to perform additional water precorrection. The advantages of the method are verified with numerical experiments from inconsistent noise free and noisy raw data.

  7. Oat raw materials and bakery products - amino acid composition and celiac immunoreactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickowska, Barbara; Litwinek, Dorota; Gambuś, Halina

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the biochemical and immunochemical properties of avenins in some special oat raw materials and additionally the possibility of using them as a raw material for the gluten-free bakery products. The compared oat raw materials were - oat flakes, commercial oat flours (including gluten-free oat flour) and residual oat flour, which is by-product of β-glucan preparation. Biochemical characteristic included amino acid compositions and SDS-PAGE profiles of extracted avenins. The immunochemical reactivity with polyclonal anti-gluten and monoclonal anti-gliadin antibodies was evaluated qualitatively and quantitatively by immunoblotting and ELISA methods. Additionally, experimental bakery products made of examined raw materials were assessed according to their suitability for the celiac patients' diet. The highest protein content was measured in the β-glucan preparation "Betaven" and gluten-free oat flour. Proteins of all materials are rich in glutamic and aspartic acid, leucine and arginine. Proportions of amino acids in avenins extracted from most of oat raw materials are similar, excluding gluten-free oat flour, which has a very low avenin content and proportions of individual amino acids are different. The SDS-PAGE protein pattern consisted of proteins with molecular weight of about 25-35 kDa. Polyclonal anti-gluten anti-body recognized all protein fractions of molecular weight higher than 20 kDa. Quantitative ELISA analysis shows that the majority of samples has a gliadin-like protein content within the range of 80-260 mg/kg, excluding gluten-free flours and corresponding bakery products. Altogether, β-glucan preparation has extremely high level of gliadin-like proteins. In the examined oat raw materials and foods the contents of immunoreactive amino acid sequences exceeded the limit of 20 mg/kg (considered as gluten-free) except for gluten-free flours (oat and  the prepared mixture) and the bakery products based on gluten

  8. Red mud as secondary source for critical raw materials - extraction study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ujaczki, Éva; Zimmermann, Yannick S.; Gasser, Christoph A.; Molnár, Mónika; Feigl, Viktória; Lenz, Markus

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Red mud is a by-product of alumina extraction from bauxite by the Bayer process produced in the billion tons scale worldwide. Red muds, or more generally bauxite residues, are regarded as waste, but may potentially be valuable sources of critical raw materials (CRM). In the present study

  9. The increasing multifunctionality of Agricultural Raw Materials: Three dilemmas for Innovation and Adoption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boehlje, M.; Bröring, S.

    2011-01-01

    Agricultural raw materials are increasingly being used for multiple industries or sectors beyond the traditional fiber and nutrition industries: energy in the form of ethanol and biodiesel, industrial products such as polymers and bio-based synthetic chemicals and fibers, and pharmaceutical/health

  10. Uncertainty analysis in raw material and utility cost of biorefinery synthesis and design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheali, Peam; Quaglia, Alberto; Gernaey, Krist

    2014-01-01

    are characterized by considerable uncertainty. These uncertainties might have significant impact on the results of the design problem, and therefore need to be carefully evaluated and managed, in order to generate candidates for robust design. In this contribution, we study the effect of data uncertainty (raw...... material price and utility cost) on the design of a biorefinery process network....

  11. Effect of the raw material composition of fabrics on the Limiting Oxygen Index (LOI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeler, S.; Ceric, B.

    1986-01-01

    The raw material composition of fabrics is one of the most important factors for LOI value. LOI value was determined in samples of varying composition composed of cellulose, protein, and synthetic fibers and their mixtures, based on ASTM D 2863-76. Cellulose fibers and their mixtures exhibited the lowest value, while synthetic fibers had the highest LOI value.

  12. Influence of raw material properties upon critical quality attributes of continuously produced granules and tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonteyne, Margot; Wickström, Henrika; Peeters, Elisabeth; Vercruysse, Jurgen; Ehlers, Henrik; Peters, Björn-Hendrik; Remon, Jean Paul; Vervaet, Chris; Ketolainen, Jarkko; Sandler, Niklas; Rantanen, Jukka; Naelapää, Kaisa; De Beer, Thomas

    2014-07-01

    Continuous manufacturing gains more and more interest within the pharmaceutical industry. The International Conference of Harmonisation (ICH) states in its Q8 'Pharmaceutical Development' guideline that the manufacturer of pharmaceuticals should have an enhanced knowledge of the product performance over a range of raw material attributes, manufacturing process options and process parameters. This fits further into the Process Analytical Technology (PAT) and Quality by Design (QbD) framework. The present study evaluates the effect of variation in critical raw material properties on the critical quality attributes of granules and tablets, produced by a continuous from-powder-to-tablet wet granulation line. The granulation process parameters were kept constant to examine the differences in the end product quality caused by the variability of the raw materials properties only. Theophylline-Lactose-PVP (30-67.5-2.5%) was used as model formulation. Seven different grades of theophylline were granulated. Afterward, the obtained granules were tableted. Both the characteristics of granules and tablets were determined. The results show that differences in raw material properties both affect their processability and several critical quality attributes of the resulting granules and tablets. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Influence of the globalization process on the utilization of raw materials sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vodzinský Vladimír

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available In the majority of the transition states of Central and Eastern Europe the abandonment of the extensive utilization of raw materials sources is connected with transformation. But this trend has a deeper roots and more general characteristics. In its sense it results from the globalization process and the associated factors. This paper is dedicated to their analysis.

  14. Tracing Raw Materials of Commercially-supplied Mirin by Carbon Stable Isotope Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    IZU, Hanae; HASHIGUCHI, Tomokazu; HASHIMOTO, Tomoko; MATSUMARU, Katsumi

    2013-01-01

      In this study, we determined the carbon stable isotope ratios of the extract (δ13CEx) and alcohol (δ13CAlc) in commercially-supplied Mirin in order to confirm them as a potential index for verifying the raw-material origins...

  15. Dependence of quality properties for grey iron on used raw materials

    OpenAIRE

    Weiss, E.; Fedorko, G.; Futáš, P.; Pribulová, A.; Vasková, I.

    2009-01-01

    Grey iron castings keep the first place among castings on base of iron. Present trend in growing entrance production costs of cast stock force manufacturer to cost minimizing. Therefore is most actual deal replacement pig iron by steel scrap. In contribution are presented results research work relating to influence of raw materials on grey iron properties.

  16. Dependence of quality properties for grey iron on used raw materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Weiss

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Grey iron castings keep the first place among castings on base of iron. Present trend in growing entrance production costs of cast stock force manufacturer to cost minimizing. Therefore is most actual deal replacement pig iron by steel scrap. In contribution are presented results research work relating to influence of raw materials on grey iron properties.

  17. Polarimetric Determination of Starch in Raw Materials and Discharged Waste from Beer Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Farcas

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Brewer’s spent grain (BGS is a by-product of thebrewing process, consisting of the solid fraction of barley malt remainingafter separation of worth. In this research, raw materials and discharged waste from beer production were evaluated on the basis of starch content, using Ewers polarimetric method.

  18. Quality improvement of granular secondary raw building materials by separation and cleansing techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xing, W.

    2004-01-01

    Contaminated granular wastes are potentially reusable because they have similar physical and chemical properties as primary raw building materials. From environmental aspects, the reuse must not result in polluting the soil, groundwater and surface water. Therefore the leaching values of inorganic

  19. On the increasing multifunctionality of agricultural raw materials: three dilemmas for innovation and adoption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boehlje, M.; Bröring, S.

    2010-01-01

    The agricultural sector is increasingly becoming multifunctional. It is the entry point of several value chains. Agricultural raw materials are increasingly being used for multiple industries or sectors beyond the traditional fiber and nutrition industries—energy in the form of ethanol and

  20. Acoustic assessment of wood quality of raw forest materials : a path to increased profitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiping Wang; Peter Carter; Robert J. Ross; Brian K. Brashaw

    2007-01-01

    Assessment of the quality of raw wood materials has become a crucial issue in the operational value chain as forestry and the wood processing industry are increasingly under economic pressure to maximize extracted value. A significant effort has been devoted toward developing robust nondestructive evaluation (NDE) technologies capable of predicting the intrinsic wood...

  1. Current problems of raw fish material processing while manufacturing dried products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yashonkov A. A.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The substantiation for using techniques of fish raw material canning has been presented, raw fish being caught or farmed in aquaculture. The main problems in raw fish canning have been reviewed, including significant reduction in thermolabile vitamins in the ultimate product as compared with the raw material due to the thermal processing. Promising canning technique – vacuum drying – has been proposed. This technique makes possible to reduce the temperature of thermal processing down to 50…55 °С and significantly enlarge preservation of thermolabile vitamins from the raw fish. Sampling of raw materials, semi-finished products, finished products, including preparation for analysis has been conducted by standard methods. Disadvantages of this way have been found, it is low energy efficiency of the process. The way to intensify the vacuum drying of aquatic organisms has been proposed based on the method of preliminary pore-forming due to augmenting the area of moisture evaporation. The design of the pilot plant has been proposed in order to research the process of pore forming and vacuum drying. Target species for processing have been suggested. They are as follows: Azov goby (fillet for food products and Black Sea sprat for feeds. The recipes of the feed mixture for granulated floating food for trout have been developed. The results of the first series of the pilot research have been provided. The experiments have proved that preliminary pore forming immediately before vacuum drying makes possible to enlarge the surface area of moisture evaporation by 15…25 %. By processing photomicrographs of sections by means of a special software the authors have got the results demonstrating that when manufacturing dried products by pore forming and drying under pressure 10 kPa the pore take 35...38 % of the inner volume of the product and with drying under pressure 10 kPa – only 18...21 %, and when drying under the atmospheric pressure – 11...13 %.

  2. Use of raw materials in the United States from 1900 through 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos, Grecia R.

    2012-12-21

    Since the beginning of the 20th century, the types and quantities of raw materials used by U.S. manufacturers and consumers have changed over time. This fact sheet quantifies the amounts of those materials (other than food and fuel) that have been input into the U.S. economy annually for a period of 111 years, from 1900 through 2010. It provides a broad overview of all materials used but highlights the use and importance of raw nonfuel minerals in particular. This fact sheet supersedes U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet 2009–3008, which was published in April 2009 and covered the period 1900 through 2006. These data have been compiled to help the public and policymakers understand the flow of raw materials used in the United States in physical terms. Such information can be helpful in assessing the past and potential effects of the materials on the environment, evaluating the materials’ intensity of use, and examining the role that these materials play in the economy. It can also provide insight into what may happen to the materials at the end of their useful life.

  3. High-Temperature Release of SO2 from Calcined Cement Raw Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anders Rooma; Larsen, Morten B.; Glarborg, Peter

    2011-01-01

    During combustion of alternative fuels in the material inlet end of cement rotary kilns, local reducing conditions may occur and cause reductive decomposition of sulfates from calcined cement raw materials. Decomposition of sulfates is problematic because it increases the gas-phase SO2...... concentration, which may cause deposit formation in the kiln system. In this study, the release of sulfur from calcined cement raw materials under both oxidizing and reducing conditions is investigated. The investigations include thermodynamic equilibrium calculations in the temperature interval of 800–1500 °C...... and experiments in a tube furnace reactor in the temperature interval of 900–1100 °C. The investigated conditions resemble actual conditions in the material inlet end of cement rotary kilns. It was found that the sulfates CaSO4, K2SO4, and Na2SO4 were all stable under oxidizing conditions but began to decompose...

  4. Use of outer planet satellites and asteroids as sources of raw materials for life support systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molton, P.M.; Divine, T.E.

    1977-01-01

    Industrialization of space and other space activities depend entirely on supply of materials from the Earth. This is a high cost route for materials supply. Space industrialization will require life support systems for maintenance and operation staff and these will of necessity be of a sophisticated nature. Use of raw materials obtained by an unmanned space shuttle, initially, and by manned shuttles later could significantly reduce the cost of life support in space. These raw materials could be obtained from small asteroids and satellites, and would consist of primary nutrients. Future development of such sources is discussed, including food production in automated asteroid-based facilities. The level of technology required is available now, and should become economical within a century.

  5. TGA-DTA and chemical composition study of raw material of Bikaner region for electrical porcelain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tak, S. K.; Shekhawat, M. S.; Mangal, R.

    2013-06-01

    Porcelains are vitrified and a fine grained ceramic product, used either glazed or unglazed and is often manufactured from a tri-axial body mix of clays, quartz and alkaline feldspar. Physical properties associated with porcelain include those of permeability, high strength, hardness, glassiness, durability, whiteness, translucence, resonance, brittleness, high resistance to the passage of electricity, high resistance to thermal shock and high elasticity[1,2]. Porcelain insulators are made from three raw materials; clay; feldspar and quartz. For porcelain manufacture the clay is categorized in two groups; ball clay and kaolin, each of which plays an important role, either in the preparation of the product or in the properties of the finished products. The following research highlights the importance that suits these materials for their contributions to the final properties of the product. Keeping this view a TGA-DTA and chemical composition of these raw materials were observed and these materials are found suitable for production of Electrical Porcelain.

  6. Environmental situation and development of mineral raw material base in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larikova, O. I.

    2003-04-01

    The necessity of the further development of mineral raw material base and exploration for new deposits in Russia, connected with the loss of traditional sources of mineral and raw material resources in the former USSR republics, let us to study several ecological problems of top priority: 1. To determine all natural factors that affect the development of mineral raw material base; to determine the availability of the Russian territory ranged according to the favorable conditions for the development of its mineral raw material base. 2. To determine all natural factors in order to find regions where natural environment is not capable of self-restoration and where additional burden resulted from deposits' development could cause irreversible environmental changes and ecological catastrophes. 3. To evaluate the main negative results arisen from deposits' development and to set up the complex of nature protection measures in order to reduce negative influence on the environment. To solve the first task, scientists from VIEMS and VNIIgeosystem have compiled the Atlas of electronic geo-ecological maps of Russia consisting of more than 20 digital geoecological maps grouped into 4 blocks: - natural factors, including continuous and discontinuous permafrost, seismological danger, avalanche and mudflow hazards, manifestation of exogenous geological processes; - unique natural resources and objects, including current and designed reservation parks, unique lake systems, areas used mainly by small-in-numbers peoples of the North; - hydro geological factors - rate of underground water resources in operation and provision of population with fresh underground water; - social and economic factors, including density and natural increase of population disease and mortality rates, the number of unemployed, etc. On the final map, the whole territory of Russia has been divided into 4 categories: - territories, where the law prohibits the exploration, - territories, those are adverse for

  7. Synthesis of Zeolites from Bolivian Raw Materials for Catalysis and Detergency Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia, Gustavo [UNESP

    2014-01-01

    Zeolites are very useful in many technological applications such as catalysis, separation and purification of gases and solvents, ion-exchange, etc. The production of zeolites is nowadays carried out with a variety of reagents, such starting materials render large scale production of zeolites expensive. Hence alternative synthesis routes for zeolite production at a lower cost are currently under investigation. One of these routes involves the use of natural aluminosilicate raw materials which...

  8. Minimasi Biaya Bahan Baku Kayu Bulat Pada Industri Penggergajian Kayu Jati Di Ipk Brumbung (Minimization of Round Wood Raw Material Cost at Teak Sawmill at Brumbung Sawmill)

    OpenAIRE

    Prahasto, Hendro

    1993-01-01

    The objective of this study is to find optimal allocation of round wood raw material used by teak sawmill, so as to minimize cost of raw materialThe result of linear programming analysis shows that, in 1991 the optimal cost of raw material at Brumbung teak sawmill was Rp 9,992,759,165. Using this optimal raw material allocation scheme, Brumbung teak sawmill could decrease raw material cost about Rp 390,573,835 in 1991.

  9. Comparing line-intersect, fixed-area, and point relascope sampling for dead and downed coarse woody material in a managed northern hardwood forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    G. J. Jordan; M. J. Ducey; J. H. Gove

    2004-01-01

    We present the results of a timed field trial comparing the bias characteristics and relative sampling efficiency of line-intersect, fixed-area, and point relascope sampling for downed coarse woody material. Seven stands in a managed northern hardwood forest in New Hampshire were inventoried. Significant differences were found among estimates in some stands, indicating...

  10. Landfill mining: Development of a theoretical method for a preliminary estimate of the raw material potential of landfill sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfsberger, Tanja; Nispel, Jörg; Sarc, Renato; Aldrian, Alexia; Hermann, Robert; Höllen, Daniel; Pomberger, Roland; Budischowsky, Andreas; Ragossnig, Arne

    2015-07-01

    In recent years, the rising need for raw materials by emerging economies (e.g. China) has led to a change in the availability of certain primary raw materials, such as ores or coal. The accompanying rising demand for secondary raw materials as possible substitutes for primary resources, the soaring prices and the global lack of specific (e.g. metallic) raw materials pique the interest of science and economy to consider landfills as possible secondary sources of raw materials. These sites often contain substantial amounts of materials that can be potentially utilised materially or energetically. To investigate the raw material potential of a landfill, boreholes and excavations, as well as subsequent hand sorting have proven quite successful. These procedures, however, are expensive and time consuming as they frequently require extensive construction measures on the landfill body or waste mass. For this reason, this article introduces a newly developed, affordable, theoretical method for the estimation of landfill contents. The article summarises the individual calculation steps of the method and demonstrates this using the example of a selected Austrian sanitary landfill. To assess the practicality and plausibility, the mathematically determined raw material potential is compared with the actual results from experimental studies of excavated waste from the same landfill (actual raw material potential). © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. The properties of weft knitted fabric medical and preventive treatment action using eco-raw materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halavska, L.; Batrak, O.

    2016-07-01

    A new trend in the world is the clothing production using the new types of ecological raw materials application - milk, pineapple, coconut, hemp, banana, eucalyptus, clams, corn, bamboo, soya, nettle yarn. This makes it possible to create textile materials of new generation with unique antibacterial and antiseptic properties. Such materials have a positive preventive and sometimes therapeutic effect on people, and their health. Eco-raw materials clothing is able to protect the human body from the environment harmful effects: cold, heat, rain, dust, opportunely remove from underclothing layer the steam and gases, sweat; maintain in underclothing layer the necessary microclimate for normal organism functioning. Study of knitwear consumer properties, produced with eco-materials, is an urgent task of the world vector, directed on ecological environmental protection. This paper presents the research results of hygroscopicity and capillarity weft knitted fabrics, what knitted from different types of eco-raw materials: bamboo yarn, yarn containing soybean and nettle yarn. Character of influence of the liquid raising level changes depending on the experiment time and the knitting structure is revealed.

  12. A framework for evaluating the accessibility of raw materials from end-of-life products and the Earth's crust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Sandra R; Wäger, Patrick A; Turner, David A; Shaw, Peter J; Williams, Ian D

    2017-10-01

    An increasing number of geochemically scarce metallic raw materials are entering into our lives via new technologies. A reversal of this trend is not foreseeable, leading to concerns regarding the security of their supply. However, the evaluation of raw material supply is currently hampered by inconsistent use of fundamental terminologies and incomplete assessment criteria. In this paper, we aim to establish a consistent framework for evaluating raw material supply from both anthropogenic and geological sources. A method for concept extraction was applied to evaluate systematically the use of fundamental terms in the evaluation of raw material supply. The results have shown that 'availability' is commonly used in raw material supply evaluations, whilst other researchers suggest that raw material supply should be evaluated based on 'accessibility'. It was revealed that 'accessibility' actually comprises two aspects: 'availability' and 'approachability'. Raw material 'approachability' has not previously been explicitly addressed at a system level. A novel, consistent framework for evaluating raw material supply was therefore developed. To demonstrate the application of the established framework, we evaluated the raw material supply of four rare earth element case studies. Three case studies are End-of-Life products (the anthroposphere) from Switzerland: (i) phosphors in fluorescent lamps, (i) permanent magnets in the drive motors of electric cars and (iii) fibre optic cable. The fourth case study source is the Earth's crust (the geosphere): Mount Weld deposit in Australia. The framework comprises a comprehensive evaluation of six components relating to raw material mining and processing: their geological knowledge, eligibility, technology, economic, societal and environmental impacts. Our results show that metals are not considered to be fully accessible in any of the case studies due to a lack of necessary technologies and potential societal and environmental

  13. Raw materials exploitation in Prehistory of Georgia: sourcing, processing and distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tushabramishvili, Nikoloz; Oqrostsvaridze, Avthandil

    2016-04-01

    Study of raw materials has a big importance to understand the ecology, cognition, behavior, technology, culture of the Paleolithic human populations. Unfortunately, explorations of the sourcing, processing and distribution of stone raw materials had a less attention until the present days. The reasons of that were: incomplete knowledge of the archaeologists who are doing the late period archaeology (Bronze Age-Medieval) and who are little bit far from the Paleolithic technology and typology; Ignorance of the stone artifacts made on different kind of raw-materials, except flint and obsidians. Studies on the origin of the stone raw materials are becoming increasingly important since in our days. Interesting picture and situation have been detected on the different sites and in different regions of Georgia. In earlier stages of Middle Paleolithic of Djruchula Basin caves the number of basalt, andesite, argillite etc. raw materials are quite big. Since 130 000 a percent of the flint raw-material is increasing dramatically. Flint is an almost lonely dominated raw-material in Western Georgia during thousand years. Since approximately 50 000 ago the first obsidians brought from the South Georgia, appeared in Western Georgia. Similar situation has been detected by us in Eastern Georgia during our excavations of Ziari and Pkhoveli open-air sites. The early Lower Paleolithic layers are extremely rich by limestone artifacts while the flint raw-materials are dominated in the Middle Paleolithic layers. Study of these issues is possible to achieve across chronologies, the origins of the sources of raw-materials, the sites and regions. By merging archaeology with anthropology, geology and geography we are able to acquire outstanding insights about those populations. New approach to the Paleolithic stone materials, newly found Paleolithic quarries gave us an opportunities to try to achieve some results for understanding of the behavior of Paleolithic populations, geology and

  14. The analysis of plant-based raw materials of unknown origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasek, Marek; Wroczyński, Piotr; Sołobodowska, Sylwia; Lal, Natalia

    2013-01-01

    Chosen aspects of the safety of use of several herbs received from National Medicines Institute, which came from smuggling, have been examined. The analysis has been conducted in three different aspects: (1) Possibilities of contamination of plant-based raw materials by metals of heavy elements (As, Cd, Cu, Cr, Pb). (2) Conscious smuggling of intoxicating preparation or narcotics in plant-based raw materials. (3) Radioactive contamination originating mostly from 137Cs isotope. To solve the problem, analytical methods of GFAAS and ICP-MS, X-ray diffraction and high-distributive spectrometry of gamma-radiation have been applied. Determined concentration of arsenic in all analyzed samples and the concentration of lead in one sample exceeded allowable concentration recommended by WHO. In analyzed materials, no presence of narcotics or radioactive contamination of 137Cs isotope has been detected.

  15. Lime kiln dust as a potential raw material in portland cement manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, M. Michael; Callaghan, Robert M.

    2004-01-01

    In the United States, the manufacture of portland cement involves burning in a rotary kiln a finely ground proportional mix of raw materials. The raw material mix provides the required chemical combination of calcium, silicon, aluminum, iron, and small amounts of other ingredients. The majority of calcium is supplied in the form of calcium carbonate usually from limestone. Other sources including waste materials or byproducts from other industries can be used to supply calcium (or lime, CaO), provided they have sufficiently high CaO content, have low magnesia content (less than 5 percent), and are competitive with limestone in terms of cost and adequacy of supply. In the United States, the lime industry produces large amounts of lime kiln dust (LKD), which is collected by dust control systems. This LKD may be a supplemental source of calcium for cement plants, if the lime and cement plants are located near enough to each other to make the arrangement economical.

  16. Raw materials evaluation and process development studies for conversion of biomass to sugars and ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilke, C.R.; Yang, R.D.; Sciamanna, A.S.; Freitas, R.P.

    1978-06-01

    A range of cellulosic raw materials in the form of agricultural crop residue was analyzed for chemical composition and assessed for potential yields of sugars through chemical pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis of these materials. Corn stover was used as a representative raw material for a preliminary process design and economic assessment of the production of sugars and ethanol. With the process as presently developed, 23 gallons of ethanol can be obtained per ton of corn stover at a processing cost of about $1.80 per gallon exclusive of by-product credits. The analysis shows the cost of ethanol to be highly dependent upon (1) the cost of the biomass, (2) the extent of conversion to glucose, (3) enzyme recovery and production cost and (4) potential utilization of xylose. Significant cost reduction appears possible through further research in these directions.

  17. Influence of qualitative composition of raw materials on the production of hydrogen by microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Н. Б. Голуб

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim was to study the influence of the quality of the agricultural waste materials to the process of producing hydrogen group of microorganisms. Researches were conducted by microbiological and chromatographic methods of analysis. The process of producing hydrogen passes using agricultural waste in anaerobic mesophilic regime for the use of groups of microorganisms. On all types of waste found production of hydrogen. The pretreatment of raw material increases access of microorganisms to nutrients, destruction of lignino-cellulosic frame and decontamination of methanegenic bacterias. The aging of culture leads to transition the butyric type of fermentation to acetone-butyric type, which causes decreasing the yield of hydrogen. The maximum yield of hydrogen was 128 g H2 per kg of cellulose. It was obtained by using barley straw as raw material, which contains great amount of hemicelluloses.

  18. Estimation of raw material performance in mammalian cell culture using near infrared spectra combined with chemometrics approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hae Woo; Christie, Andrew; Liu, Jun Jay; Yoon, Seongkyu

    2012-01-01

    Understanding variability in raw materials and their impacts on product quality is of critical importance in the biopharmaceutical manufacturing processes. For this purpose, several spectroscopic techniques have been studied for raw material characterization, providing fast and nondestructive ways to measure quality of raw materials. However, investigations of correlation between spectra of raw materials and cell culture performance have been scarce due to their complexity and uncertainty. In this study, near-infrared spectra and bioassays of multiple soy hydrolysate lots manufactured by different vendors were analyzed using chemometrics approaches in order to address variability of raw materials as well as correlation between raw material properties and corresponding cell culture performance. Principal component analysis revealed that near-infrared spectra of different soy lots contain enough physicochemical information about soy hydrolysates to allow identification of lot-to-lot variability as well as vendor-to-vendor differences. The identified compositional variability was further analyzed in order to estimate cell growth and protein production of two mammalian cell lines under the condition of varying soy dosages using partial least square regression combined with optimal variable selection. The performance of the resulting models demonstrates the potential of near-infrared spectroscopy as a robust lot selection tool for raw materials while providing a biological link between chemical composition of raw materials and cell culture performance. Copyright © 2012 American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE).

  19. Energy and raw material potentials of wood residue in the Pacific Coast States: a summary of a preliminary feasibility investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John B. Grantham; Eldon Estep; John M. Pierovich; Harold Tarkow; Thomas C. Adams

    1974-01-01

    Results are reported of a preliminary investigation of feasibility of using wood residue to meet energy and raw material needs in the Pacific Coast States. Magnitude of needs was examined and volume of logging-residue and unused mill residue was estimated. Costs of obtaining and preprocessing logging residue for energy and pulp and particle board raw material were...

  20. Radioactivity and associated radiation hazards in ceramic raw materials and end products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viruthagiri, G; Rajamannan, B; Suresh Jawahar, K

    2013-12-01

    Studies have been planned to obtain activity and associated radiation hazards in ceramic raw materials (quartz, feldspar, clay, zircon, kaolin, grog, alumina bauxite, baddeleyite, masse, dolomite and red mud) and end products (ceramic brick, glazed ceramic wall and floor tiles) as the activity concentrations of uranium, thorium and potassium vary from material to material. The primordial radionuclides in ceramic raw materials and end products are one of the sources of radiation hazard in dwellings made of these materials. By the determination of the activity level in these materials, the indoor radiological hazard to human health can be assessed. This is an important precautionary measure whenever the dose rate is found to be above the recommended limits. The aim of this work was to measure the activity concentration of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in ceramic raw materials and end products. The activity of these materials has been measured using a gamma-ray spectrometry, which contains an NaI(Tl) detector connected to multichannel analyser (MCA). Radium equivalent activity, alpha-gamma indices and radiation hazard indices associated with the natural radionuclides are calculated to assess the radiological aspects of the use of the ceramic end products as decorative or covering materials in construction sector. Results obtained were examined in the light of the relevant international legislation and guidance and compared with the results of similar studies reported in different countries. The results suggest that the use of ceramic end product samples examined in the construction of dwellings, workplace and industrial buildings is unlikely to give rise to any significant radiation exposure to the occupants.

  1. Farmers as providers of raw materials and energy. Proceedings; Der Landwirt als Energie- und Rohstoffwirt. Konferenzbeitraege

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    Within the 10th EUROSOLAR conference at 14th to 15th April, 2008, at Leipzig (Federal Republic of Germany), the following lectures were held: (a) Bioenergy in the Federal Republic of Germany: Potentials, state of the art and perspectives (M. Kaltschmitt, V. Lenz, D. Thraen); (b) Chances and risks of the energy production from biomass in rural area (G. Thalheim); (c) To the compatibility of utilizing bio energy and environmental preservation (K. Mueschen); (d) Biorefinery systems - industrial material use of regenerative raw materials (B. Kamm); (e) Agriculturists and forestry experts as producers of raw material - current risks and new chances (H. Fischer); (f) Potentials of the improvement of productivity by means of an expansion of options of useful plants (K. Goedeke); (g) Farmers as providers of energy and raw materials (H. Loick); (h) Problems and challenges of the utilization of biomass (P. Volkmer); (i) Energetic recycling management (G. Mehler); (j) Pure fuels instead of fuel mixtures - The farmer as providers of energy and raw materials (P. Schrum); (k) Feed and distribution of bio-natural gas from the view of a regional provider (J. Horn); (l) Biogasification and feed into natural gas networks - by the example of BGA Darmstadt-Wixhausen (M. Schlegel); (m) The right framework for the feed of bio methane into natural gas nets (S. Reichelt); (n) Virtual power plants - Efficient option of the local energy production (G. Weissmueller); (o) The role of bio energy in the power mix renewable energies (R. Bischof); (p) The autonomous power supply - from the bio energy village to the autonomous solar energy village (K. Scheffer); (q) Bio energy villages at the Lake Constance - Model projects for the rural area (B. Mueller); (r) Bio energy region Mureck / Steiermark (K. Totter); (s) The bio energy in the current German legislation process (H.-J. Fell).

  2. Prospects of rice straw as a raw material for paper making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Daljeet; Bhardwaj, Nishi Kant; Lohchab, Rajesh Kumar

    2017-02-01

    Pulp and paper mills are indispensable for any nation as far as the growth of the nation is concerned. Due to fast growth in population, urbanization and industrialization, the demand and consumption of paper has increased tremendously. These put high load on our natural resources and force the industry to look for alternative raw material. Rice straw is a lignocellulosic material abundantly available in wood short countries like China, India, Bangladesh, etc. and can be used as raw material for this industry. Open burning of rice straw releases noxious green house gases to the air and poses serious threats to global air chemistry and human health. So, it is a dual benefit option (for farmers and industries) to use rice straw as a raw material in pulp and paper industry. Organosolv pulping using acids are the prominent choices of researchers to convert this residue into valuable pulp but in developed countries only. Developing world favours the soda and soda-AQ processes as these are economical. As a virtue of less lignin content in comparison to wood, rice straw requires less harsh conditions for cooking and can be easily pulped. Bleaching is a crucial step of paper making but also responsible for causing water pollution. Many studies revealed that during the process more than 500 chlorinated compounds are released that are highly toxic, bioaccumulative and carcinogenic in nature. Most of the industries over the globe switch on to the elemental chlorine free short sequence bleaching methods using chlorine dioxide, hypochlorite and hydrogen peroxide. This paper presented the effective need of ecofriendly, economically reliable pulping and bleaching sequences in case of rice straw to eliminate the problems of chlorinated compounds in wastewater of paper mills. Such approach of using waste as a raw material with its environmentally safe processing for making paper can prove to be valuable towards sustainable growth. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Pyrolysis of municipal plastic wastes II: Influence of raw material composition under catalytic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, A; de Marco, I; Caballero, B M; Laresgoiti, M F; Adrados, A; Torres, A

    2011-01-01

    In this work, the results obtained in catalytic pyrolysis of three plastic waste streams which are the rejects of an industrial packing wastes sorting plant are presented. The samples have been pyrolysed in a 3.5 dm(3) reactor under semi-batch conditions at 440 °C for 30 min in nitrogen atmosphere. Commercial ZSM-5 zeolite has been used as catalyst in liquid phase contact. In every case, high HHV gases and liquids which can be useful as fuels or source of chemicals are obtained. A solid fraction composed of the inorganic material contained in the raw materials and some char formed in the pyrolysis process is also obtained. The zeolite has shown to be very effective to produce liquids with great aromatics content and C3-C4 fraction rich gases, even though the raw material was mainly composed of polyolefins. The characteristics of the pyrolysis products as well as the effect of the catalyst vary depending on the composition of the raw material. When paper rich samples are pyrolysed, ZSM-5 zeolite increases water production and reduces CO and CO(2) generation. If stepwise pyrolysis is applied to such sample, the aqueous liquid phase can be separated from the organic liquid fraction in a first low temperature step. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The usage of plastic waste as a secondary raw material for the modification of sandcrete properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klovas, A.; Daukšys, M.; Venčkauskas, L.

    2015-03-01

    Recently the usage of various industry wastes as a secondary raw material tends to increase its relevancy. One of possible options to decrease the amount of waste is to use them to produce new products or materials. The operation of various secondary raw materials (tire rubber, tire cord, ground glass shards, ground ceramic waste products) during the concrete mixture preparation allows to change its as well as cured concrete properties. Recently polymer and steel fibers are used for concrete reinforcement. This study analyses the usage possibility of plastic shavings for the reinforcement of concrete. The technological properties of cement slurry (sand, fraction of 0/4 and 10 kg/m3, 15 kg/m3 and 20 kg/m3 of plastic shavings) as well as mechanical, physical and porosity properties of cured sandcrete were established during the experimental research. The geometric characteristics of mill-shredded plastic shavings were established. Experimental results revealed that the usage of plastic shavings decreased slurry slump and density. The minor decrease of cured sandcrete density (~2200 kg/m3) was noticed with the addition of plastic shavings within the limits of 10 - 20 kg/m3. The flexural strength of cured sandcrete increased from 36 % to 57 % compared with reference specimen (without plastic shavings). The dependence of flexural force and deflection was obtained. Study revealed that the residual strength after crack opening is bigger with the usage of plastic shavings as a secondary raw material compared with reference specimen.

  5. WATER-JET CUTTING MACHINE NOW AVAILABLE FROM THE CERN RAW MATERIALS STORES

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    The CERN Raw Materials Stores has recently acquired a new water-jet cutting machine. The machine is capable of cutting all types and shapes of materials up to 70 mm in thickness, with an accuracy of +/- 0.1mm/m. For the time being, users requiring materials to be cut should supply drawings in DXF, DWG or IGES (AutoCad) file format. The machine will be operational as of 1st October 2007. The Stores Team Paulo Dos Santos FI-LS-MM 72308

  6. Carbon dioxide: a raw material and a future chemical fuel for a sustainable energy industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amouroux, J.; Siffert, P.

    2011-03-01

    Carbon dioxide is a major raw material of the future, for the capture plants which use amines, aminoacids, ammonia or zeolites. This very high purity raw material (99.9 %) opens the way of a new industrial revolution in agreement with the proposal of Nobel Prize laureates and the DOE strategy. Our goal is to explain the large advantages and the main routes for CO2 valorization, which are starting around the world. The most promising ways for this valorization are methanol synthesis as fuel for transportation and methane formation for electricity network regulation. The first way allows the use of liquid fuels, as distribution infrastructure already exists; instead of gaseous fuels (H2), for which there is storage, distribution problems and no infrastructure exist. The second way is methane synthesis during off-peak hours and burning of this methane during peak hours in order to regulate the electric network.

  7. Validation of simultaneous volumetric and HPLC methods for the determination of pridinol mesylate in raw material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simionato, Laura D; Ferello, Leonardo; Stamer, Sebastián; Zubata, Patricia D; Segall, Adriana I

    2013-01-01

    Simple, sensitive, and economical simultaneous volumetric and HPLC methods for the determination of pridinol mesylate in raw material have been developed. The volumetric method is based on the reaction of pridinol with sodium lauryl sulphate in diluted sulphuric acid. Dimethyl yellow was used as indicator to detect the end point of the titration in aqueous/organic layer. The HPLC method for the determination of pridinol mesylate employs a reverse phase C18 column at ambient temperature with a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile: 0.05 M potassium dihydrogen phosphate, pH adjusted to 5.0 (1 : 2, v/v). The flow rate was 0.8 mL/min. Quantitation was achieved with UV detection at 258 nm based on peak area. Both methods were found to be suitable for the quality control of pridinol mesylate in raw material.

  8. Application of Technogenic-Raw Material and Burning Out Additive in Composite Ceramic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga KIZINIEVIČ

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The investigation of the composite ceramic system containing easily fusible hydro-micous clay, technogenic finely dispersed raw material, and burning out waste additive is presented in the article. The properties of the raw materials used are described in the paper. The obtained ceramic bodies were burned at 1000 °C and 1050 °C temperatures, keeping at the highest burning temperature for 4 h. The analysis of physical-mechanical properties of composite ceramics (density, compressive strength, water absorption, its structural parameters (effective and total open porosity, reserve of pore volume, relative wall thickness of the pores and capillaries, and X-ray diffraction analysis was performed. The interdependencies between some structural parameters are described by empirical equations. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.18.3.2443

  9. The use of foresight methods in strategic raw materials intelligence - an international review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konrat Martins, Marco Antonio; Bodo, Balazs; Falck, Eberhard

    2017-04-01

    Foresight methods are systematic attempts to look into the longer term future of science, society, economy and technology. There is a range of tools and techniques that can be used individually or combined, most commonly classified into qualitative, quantitative or semi-quantitative methods, that follow an exploratory or normative approach. These tools can help to identify the longer term visions, orienting policy formulation and decisions, triggering actions, among other objectives. There is an identified lack of European strategic foresight knowledge in the raw materials domain. Since the European Raw Materials Initiative was launched in 2008, the EU has been attempting to overcome challenges related to the future access of non-energy and non-agricultural raw materials. In this context, the ongoing H2020 project, MICA (Mineral Intelligence Capacity Analysis, Grant Agreement No. 689648), has been launched to answer to stakeholders needs by consolidating relevant data, determining relevant methods and tools, and investigating Raw Materials Intelligence options for European mineral policy development, all tailored to fit under the umbrella of a European Raw Materials Intelligence Capacity Platform (EU-RMICP). As part of the MICA activities, an assessment of best practices and benchmarks of international raw materials foresight case studies has been carried out in order to review how EU and non-EU countries have employed foresight. A pool of 30 case studies has been collected and reviewed internationally, one third of which were selected for detailed assessment. These were classified according to their background and goals, in function of methods employed, and to the purpose of each method in the study: a total of 12 different methods were identified in these studies. For longer time frames, qualitative predictive methods such as Scenario Development have been repeatedly observed for mineral raw materials foresight studies. Substantial variations were observed in

  10. Energies and raw material. Annual report; Energies et matieres premieres. Rapport annuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    The annual report of the french General Direction of the Energy and the Raw Material (DGEMP) deals with the energy policy. The following subjects are analysed: the french program of fight against the global warming; the biogas; the radioactive wastes management program; the french nuclear industry re-organization; Tchernobyl; the electric power and gas public service; the risk prevention concerning the electric power production; the international Gaz De France protocol; the closing of the Ales mine; the cooperation ELF and TOTAL; the french para-petroleum industry; the raw material prices; the french mining situation; the french energy policy audit by the AIE; the energy accidents of december. The DGEMP organization chart with contacts and the publications are also included. (A.L.B.)

  11. Exploiting epoxidized natural rubber latex (ENRL) as a starting raw material for latex-based products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siti Nor Qamarina, M.; Fatimah Rubaizah, M. R.; Nurul Suhaira, A.; Norhanifah, M. Y.

    2017-12-01

    Epoxidized natural rubber latex (ENRL) is a chemically modified natural rubber latex produced from epoxidation process that involves usage of organic peracids. Conversion of the ENRL into dry rubber products has been known to exhibit many beneficial properties, however limited published works were found on diversifiying the ENRL latex-based products applications. In this preliminary work, different source of raw materials and neutralization systems were investigated. The objective was to explore possibilities in producing distinctive ENRL. Findings have demonstrated that different source of raw materials and neutralization systems influenced the typical ENRL specifications, stability behavior and particle size distribution. Morphological observations performed on these ENRL systems appeared to agree with the ENRL characteristics achieved. Since experimenting these two main factors resulted in encouraging ENRL findings, detailed work shall be further scrutinized to search for an optimum condition in producing marketable ENRL specifically for latex-based products applications.

  12. Fate of starch in food processing: from raw materials to final food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delcour, Jan A; Bruneel, Charlotte; Derde, Liesbeth J; Gomand, Sara V; Pareyt, Bram; Putseys, Joke A; Wilderjans, Edith; Lamberts, Lieve

    2010-01-01

    Starch, an essential component of an equilibrated diet, is present in cereals such as common and durum wheat, maize, rice, and rye, in roots and tubers such as potato and cassava, and in legumes such as peas. During food processing, starch mainly undergoes nonchemical transformations. Here, we focus on the occurrence of starch in food raw materials, its composition and properties, and its transformations from raw material to final products. We therefore describe a number of predominant food processes and identify research needs. Nonchemical transformations that are dealt with include physical damage to starch, gelatinization, amylose-lipid complex formation, amylose crystallization, and amylopectin retrogradation. A main focus is on wheat-based processes. (Bio)chemical modifications of starch by amylolytic enzymes are dealt with only in the context of understanding the starch component in bread making.

  13. Sensory properties of marinated herring (Clupea harengus) processed from raw material from commercial landings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Durita; Hyldig, Grethe; Nielsen, Jette

    2005-01-01

    Sensory properties of marinated herring processed from raw material from Danish commercial catches were described and related to fishing season and biological, chemical and functional properties. Herring was caught on five cruises and stored on board in tanks or ice. The sensory profile of marina......Sensory properties of marinated herring processed from raw material from Danish commercial catches were described and related to fishing season and biological, chemical and functional properties. Herring was caught on five cruises and stored on board in tanks or ice. The sensory profile...... stored in ice smelled and tasted more of fresh herring and were juicier than herring from the North Sea stored in tanks. (C) 2004 Society of Chemical Industry...

  14. Greening Industry:Essays on industrial energy use and markets for forest raw materials

    OpenAIRE

    Mansikkasalo, Anna

    2013-01-01

    The overall purpose of this thesis is to investigate market developments and policy issues that influence the environmental performance of the industry sector. The analysis concentrates mainly on the industry’s input use in the form of energy and forest raw materials. The thesis consists of an introductory part, and five self-contained papers. Paper I addresses important market signals and firm specific management practices that may explain differences in observed energy intensities across in...

  15. Chemical composition of clays as indicator of the raw material sources

    OpenAIRE

    Khramchenkova Rezida Kh.

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents the results of study on the chemical composition of unglazed pottery from the excavations of the Bulgar fortified settlement site and the clay, selected from the modern deposits of ceramic raw materials located near the medieval settlement sites. Significant differences in macro- and microelement composition of different groups of ceramics have been revealed. The difference in the macroelemental composition is largely determined by the ceramic fabric recipe. Thus, the high ...

  16. The Increasing Multifunctionality of Agricultural Raw Materials: Three Dilemmas for Innovation and Adoption

    OpenAIRE

    Boehlje, Michael; Broring, Stefanie

    2011-01-01

    Agricultural raw materials are increasingly being used for multiple industries or sectors beyond the traditional fiber and nutrition industries: energy in the form of ethanol and biodiesel, industrial products such as polymers and bio-based synthetic chemicals and fibers, and pharmaceutical/health products such as functional foods, growth hormones and organ transplants. A combination of the new science of biotechnology, the new potential end uses of the products of that science and the broade...

  17. Influence of Raw Material Composition on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Nodular Cast Iron

    OpenAIRE

    Alan Vaško; Juraj Belan; Lenka Hurtalová; Eva Tillová

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the influence of raw material composition on the microstructure, mechanical and fatigue properties and micromechanisms of failure of nodular cast iron. In order to evaluate the influence of charge composition, the structural analysis, mechanical and fatigue tests and microfractographic analysis were carried out on specimens of ten melts with different charge compositions. The basic charge of individual melts was formed by different ratio of pig iron and st...

  18. Regenerative raw materials. High technology without end; Nachwachsende Rohstoffe. Spitzentechnologie ohne Ende

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-11-03

    In recent years, the use of renewable raw materials has developed rapidly. Meanwhile, biomass is one of the most important renewable energy source and a serious alternative to fossil fuel-based industry. The brochure under consideration presents an insight into the complex and promising topic ''Renewable Resources''. In particular, the areas in which renewable resources already are established as well as areas that need to be extended in the future are described.

  19. [Trace elements in raw materials and nutrient media for cultivation of antibiotic-producing organisms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romantseva, L M; Shablovskaia, I S; Sergeeva, A M; Marugin, V V; Sher, A A

    1988-09-01

    The contents of microelements such as Fe, Cu, Zn and As in samples of raw materials including food grade ones used in preparation of nutrient media for cultivation of antibiotic-producing organism and water were determined spectrophotometrically with using complex forming organic reagents. An original procedure for the sample combustion in the assay was developed. The natural background levels of the microelements in the nutrient media used in manufacture of some antibiotics were estimated.

  20. Staphylococcus xylosus fermentation of pork fatty waste: raw material for biodiesel production

    OpenAIRE

    Marques, Roger Vasques; Paz, Matheus Francisco da; Duval,Eduarda Hallal; Corrêa, Luciara Bilhalva; Corrêa, Érico Kunde

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The need for cleaner sources of energy has stirred research into utilising alternate fuel sources with favourable emission and sustainability such as biodiesel. However, there are technical constraints that hinder the widespread use of some of the low cost raw materials such as pork fatty wastes. Currently available technology permits the use of lipolytic microorganisms to sustainably produce energy from fat sources; and several microorganisms and their metabolites are being investig...

  1. Social-economic processes of fuel and raw materials region: diversification, mathematical modeling and regularities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novichikhin, A. V.; Fryanov, V. N.; Petrova, T. V.; Pavlova, L. D.; Temlyantsev, M. V.

    2017-09-01

    The paper proposes the structure of production diversification in the fuel and raw material region. A distinctive feature of diversification is the provision of regional reproduction of natural resources - reserves of mineral deposits, as well as fuel and energy deposits - traditionally consumed energy products. The algorithm for determining the regularities of socio-economic processes in the region is developed and the results of its concretization are presented. The difference of the proposed algorithm is the joint accounting of quantitative and qualitative information, the emergence properties of social and economic systems under favorable and the following problem situations: crisis, resource scarcity, uncertainty of the prediction of changes in external conditions, changes in legislative bases. It is suggested to implement identification of possible negative processes at the initial stage and when eliminating them step by step: the formation of a hypothesis about the existence of regularity, cognitive modeling, formulation of statements. Based on the results of cognitive modeling of development scenarios for fuel and raw material regions, a set of statements that form the methodological basis for correcting hypotheses about regularities is justified. Four regularities of social and economic processes of the fuel and raw materials region are revealed.

  2. The influence of raw material contamination with mycotoxins on alcoholic fermentation indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kłosowski, Grzegorz; Mikulski, Dawid; Grajewski, Jan; Błajet-Kosicka, Anna

    2010-05-01

    The aim of the research was to describe the influence of selected mycotoxins on major factors (alcohol concentration, productivity, yield and energy) that are characteristic of the fermentation process of maize mashes. Indicators of the alcoholic fermentation of mashes made from raw material with low contaminations levels were compared with mashes obtained from raw material that was selectively contaminated with mycotoxins on the following concentrations: aflatoxin B(1)-11.65 ppb, B(2)-12.60 ppb, G(1)-12.34 ppb, G(2)-12.04 ppb; ochratoxin A-177.5 ppb; zearalenone-352 ppb; deoxynivalenol-2274 ppb; fumonisin B(1)-1875 ppb, B(2)-609 ppb, B(3)-195 ppb. It was found that, apart from fumonisin, all mycotoxins substantially affected the course of subsequent fermentation phases, in particular the first and the main fermentation phases. The highest drop in alcohol concentration at the main stage of the process amounted to 1% v/v and it was achieved by contamination with zearalenone. The statistically significant drop in the final fermentation yield was observed; this was caused by raw material contaminated with all studied mycotoxins, except for fumonisin. The decrease in ethanol yield in reference to the control variant ranged from 1.42 to 3.20 dm(3) of absolute alcohol out of 100 kg of starch, depending on a toxin. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Normalized mass mapping of Orbitrap data to define complex, polyglycerol-based raw material compositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strife, Robert J; Mangels, Michele L

    2010-06-15

    Kendrick Mass Mapping of complex sample compositions, via data derived by Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICRMS) at 1,000,000 resolution, is becoming more common. The Orbitrap mass spectrometer (Fourier Transform Axially Harmonic Orbital Trapping) also uses FT methods and indirect detection, though operating at a maximum resolution of 100,000. We define the more general case of Normalized Mass Mapping to any repeating oligomer unit (e.g., C(3)H(6)O(2)) and apply it to Orbitrap-based mapping of a complex polyglycerol ester, 'green' raw material. Mass measurement errors showed sub-ppm precision and accuracy in many cases, parameters that are critical to obtaining well-defined maps. Map-derived, raw-material-characterization parameters such as iodine value are compared with wet-chemical results and show reasonable agreement for our purposes. The methodology appears applicable to raw material control and eliminates wet chemical methods. Copyright (c) 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Using catalytic methods for producing basic oil from domestic raw material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selakovic, O.; Cavcic, E.; Jovanovic, M.

    1980-01-01

    A review is given of catalysts and catalytic methods for producing high quality lubricating oils. The results of studies in laboratory and semiindustrial scales, conducted to explain the capability of producing basic lubricating oils from domestic raw material with the use of various catalytic methods, are cited. Serving as the raw material was a vacuum distillate of oil from the Velebit deposit (a 343 to 540 degree fraction) with the following properties: density of 0.9187 per 15 degrees, a viscosity of 83.8 centistokes per 38 degrees and 8.12 centistokes at 99 degrees; a viscosity index of 61, an inflamation point of 200 degrees; a stagnation point of -24 degrees; a sulfur content of 0.32 percent and an anylin point (AT) of 88.2 degrees. The fraction was hydrated: in laboratory conditions in an aluminum, nickel and molybdenum catalyst at 8 to 11 megapascals, 340 to 380 degrees, a cubic feeding speed of 0.5 to 1 per hour, a supply of H/sub 2/ of 1,000 liters per liter of raw material. It was also hydrated in semiindustrial conditions, which are cited.

  5. Optimizing Pretreatment of Medicinal Raw Materials by RFC Plasma before Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.Yu. Kuznetsova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Optimization of the RF-plasma treatment modes of chaga raw materials using the Statistica 6.0 software package has been performed. Mathematical design has been carried out to calculate the optimum parameters of RF-plasma treatment using three plasma-forming gases – argon, air, and nitrogen. Plasma treatment of chaga raw materials has been undertaken at the constant parameters: pressure P = 30.0 Pa, anodic current J = 0.7 A, gas consumption G = 0.04 g/s; the variable parameters were power U = 5.0÷7.0 kV and treatment duration at the high-frequency capacitor category of the lowered pressure t = 30÷60 min. Optimization of four key parameters for extraction of chaga raw materials (solid residue, melanin yield, antioxidant activity of both extract and chaga melanin depending on the chosen plasma-forming gas (argon, air, or nitrogen has been achieved. The optimum modes of RF-plasma treatment allowing to obtain the extracts and melanin of chaga mushroom with the improved physicochemical and antioxidant characteristics have been calculated.

  6. Characterization of mammalian cell culture raw materials by combining spectroscopy and chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trunfio, Nicholas; Lee, Haewoo; Starkey, Jason; Agarabi, Cyrus; Liu, Jay; Yoon, Seongkyu

    2017-07-01

    Two of the primary issues with characterizing the variability of raw materials used in mammalian cell culture, such as wheat hydrolysate, is that the analyses of these materials can be time consuming, and the results of the analyses are not straightforward to interpret. To solve these issues, spectroscopy can be combined with chemometrics to provide a quick, robust and easy to understand methodology for the characterization of raw materials; which will improve cell culture performance by providing an assessment of the impact that a given raw material will have on final product quality. In this study, four spectroscopic technologies: near infrared spectroscopy, middle infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and fluorescence spectroscopy were used in conjunction with principal component analysis to characterize the variability of wheat hydrolysates, and to provide evidence that the classification of good and bad lots of raw material is possible. Then, the same spectroscopic platforms are combined with partial least squares regressions to quantitatively predict two cell culture critical quality attributes (CQA): integrated viable cell density and IgG titer. The results showed that near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy and fluorescence spectroscopy are capable of characterizing the wheat hydrolysate's chemical structure, with NIR performing slightly better; and that they can be used to estimate the raw materials' impact on the CQAs. These results were justified by demonstrating that of all the components present in the wheat hydrolysates, six amino acids: arginine, glycine, phenylalanine, tyrosine, isoleucine and threonine; and five trace elements: copper, phosphorus, molybdenum, arsenic and aluminum, had a large, statistically significant effect on the CQAs, and that NIR and fluorescence spectroscopy performed the best for characterizing the important amino acids. It was also found that the trace elements of interest were not characterized well by any of the spectral

  7. Analysis of waste coal from the enterprises of Kemerovo region as raw materials for production of ceramic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolboushkin, A. Yu; Akst, D. V.; Fomina, O. A.; Ivanov, A. I.; Syromyasov, V. A.

    2017-09-01

    The analysis of waste coal from mining enterprises of Kemerovo region as raw materials for production of building ceramics is given. The results of studies of material, chemical and mineralogical compositions of waste coal from Abashevskaya processing plant (Novokuznetsk) are presented. It was established that the chemical composition of waste coal refers to aluminosilicate raw materials with a high content of alumina and coloring oxides, the residual carbon content in the wastes is 12-25 %. According to the granulometric composition the waste coal is basically a sandy-dusty fraction with a small amount of clay particles (1-3 %). Additional grinding of coal waste and the introduction of a clay additive in an amount of up to 30 % are recommended. The results of the study of the mineral composition of waste coal are presented. Clay minerals are represented in the descending order by hydromuscovite, montmorillonite and kaolinite, minerals-impurities consist of quartz, feldspar fine-dispersed carbonates. The results of the investigation of ceramic-technological properties of waste coal, which belong to the group of moderately plastic low-melting raw materials, are given. As a result of a comprehensive study it was been established that with chemical, granulometric and mineralogical compositions waste coal with the reduced residual carbon can be used in the production of ceramic bricks.

  8. MACRO DEFECT FREE MATERIALS; MECHANOCHEMICAL ACTIVATION OF RAW MIXES AS THE INTENSIFYING TOOL OF THE ENTIRE MDF SYNTHESIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drábik M.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A challenge in the field of MDF materials, which has not been followed or indicated by now, are the options of improvement of cross-linking through intensified mixing of dry MDF raw mixes of cement and polymer. The potential of mechanochemical treatment to intensify the atomic level of cross-linking already in the raw mixes and, thus, the activation of raw mixes has been critically verified earlier. Processes of the mutual MDF syntheses of both standard and activated raw mixes are presented and discussed in this paper. The scope of cross-linking as a key item of the successful MDF synthesis has been studied by two independent experimental methods – thermal analysis and IR spectroscopy. The knowledge has been achieved about (i phenomenon of internal pressure during MDF synthesis from mechanochemically activated raw mixtures and (ii increase of the content of cross-links by one third in MDF materials synthesized from mechanochemically activated raw mixtures in comparison with these synthesized from standard raw mixtures. Mechanochemical activation of raw mixtures undoubtedly leads to the intensification of cross-linking in MDF materials; if applied (prior to water addition and pressure application it increases the rate of cross-links formation in the system through the effect of internal pressure. The reported approach and results represent besides the contribution to the knowledge about MDF materials themselves also the challenge for the development of a variety of new and innovative materials strategies.

  9. Hook tool manufacture in New Caledonian crows: behavioural variation and the influence of raw materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klump, Barbara C; Sugasawa, Shoko; St Clair, James J H; Rutz, Christian

    2015-11-18

    New Caledonian crows use a range of foraging tools, and are the only non-human species known to craft hooks. Based on a small number of observations, their manufacture of hooked stick tools has previously been described as a complex, multi-stage process. Tool behaviour is shaped by genetic predispositions, individual and social learning, and/or ecological influences, but disentangling the relative contributions of these factors remains a major research challenge. The properties of raw materials are an obvious, but largely overlooked, source of variation in tool-manufacture behaviour. We conducted experiments with wild-caught New Caledonian crows, to assess variation in their hooked stick tool making, and to investigate how raw-material properties affect the manufacture process. In Experiment 1, we showed that New Caledonian crows' manufacture of hooked stick tools can be much more variable than previously thought (85 tools by 18 subjects), and can involve two newly-discovered behaviours: 'pulling' for detaching stems and bending of the tool shaft. Crows' tool manufactures varied significantly: in the number of different action types employed; in the time spent processing the hook and bending the tool shaft; and in the structure of processing sequences. In Experiment 2, we examined the interaction of crows with raw materials of different properties, using a novel paradigm that enabled us to determine subjects' rank-ordered preferences (42 tools by 7 subjects). Plant properties influenced: the order in which crows selected stems; whether a hooked tool was manufactured; the time required to release a basic tool; and, possibly, the release technique, the number of behavioural actions, and aspects of processing behaviour. Results from Experiment 2 suggested that at least part of the natural behavioural variation observed in Experiment 1 is due to the effect of raw-material properties. Our discovery of novel manufacture behaviours indicates a plausible scenario for the

  10. Characterization of mammalian cell culture raw materials by combining spectroscopy and chemometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trunfio, Nicholas; Lee, Haewoo; Starkey, Jason; Agarabi, Cyrus; Liu, Jay

    2017-01-01

    Two of the primary issues with characterizing the variability of raw materials used in mammalian cell culture, such as wheat hydrolysate, is that the analyses of these materials can be time consuming, and the results of the analyses are not straightforward to interpret. To solve these issues, spectroscopy can be combined with chemometrics to provide a quick, robust and easy to understand methodology for the characterization of raw materials; which will improve cell culture performance by providing an assessment of the impact that a given raw material will have on final product quality. In this study, four spectroscopic technologies: near infrared spectroscopy, middle infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and fluorescence spectroscopy were used in conjunction with principal component analysis to characterize the variability of wheat hydrolysates, and to provide evidence that the classification of good and bad lots of raw material is possible. Then, the same spectroscopic platforms are combined with partial least squares regressions to quantitatively predict two cell culture critical quality attributes (CQA): integrated viable cell density and IgG titer. The results showed that near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy and fluorescence spectroscopy are capable of characterizing the wheat hydrolysate's chemical structure, with NIR performing slightly better; and that they can be used to estimate the raw materials’ impact on the CQAs. These results were justified by demonstrating that of all the components present in the wheat hydrolysates, six amino acids: arginine, glycine, phenylalanine, tyrosine, isoleucine and threonine; and five trace elements: copper, phosphorus, molybdenum, arsenic and aluminum, had a large, statistically significant effect on the CQAs, and that NIR and fluorescence spectroscopy performed the best for characterizing the important amino acids. It was also found that the trace elements of interest were not characterized well by any of the spectral

  11. The Feedback Control Cycle of Mineral Supply, Increase of Raw Material Efficiency, and Sustainable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friedrich-W. Wellmer

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable development with regard to non-renewable resources can best be defined in terms of the inter-generational challenge of the Brundtland commission and the intra-generational challenge worked out in Agenda 21 of the 1992 Rio de Janeiro conference of United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED. In meeting these challenges, the trilemma of security of supply under conditions of economic viability and environmental sustainability also needs to be addressed in order to achieve sustainable development. To fulfil the natural resources needs of future generations we have three resources at our disposal: (1 the geosphere or primary resources; (2 the technosphere or secondary resources and (3 human ingenuity and creativity driving innovation. Man does not need natural resources as such, only the intrinsic property of a material that enables the fulfilment of a function is required. Any material that can perform the same function more efficiently or cheaply can replace any other material. In our constant drive to secure the supply of efficient raw materials, the feedback control cycle plays an indispensable role by virtue of it reacting to price signals on both the supply and demand sides. The feedback cycle of course goes hand in hand with a continuous learning process. On the supply side, the learning effects are in technology development around primary resources and the increased use of secondary resources; on the demand side with thriftier use of raw materials.

  12. Beyond waste: new sustainable fillers from fly ashes stabilization, obtained by low cost raw materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Rodella

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A sustainable economy can be achieved only by assessing processes finalized to optimize the use of resources. Waste can be a relevant source of energy thanks to energy-from-waste processes. Concerns regarding the toxic fly ashes can be solved by transforming them into resource as recycled materials. The commitment to recycle is driven by the need to conserve natural resources, reduce imports of raw materials, save landfill space and reduce pollution. A new method to stabilize fly ash from Municipal Solid Waste Incinerator (MSWI at room temperature has been developed thanks to COSMOS-RICE LIFE+ project (www.cosmos-rice.csmt.eu. This process is based on a chemical reaction that occurs properly mixing three waste fly ashes with rice husk ash, an agricultural by-product. COSMOS inert can replace critical raw materials (i.e. silica, fluorspar, clays, bentonite, antimony and alumina as filler. Moreover the materials employed in the stabilization procedure may be not available in all areas. This paper investigates the possibility of substituting silica fume with corresponding condensed silica fume and to substitute flue-gas desulfurization (FGD residues with low-cost calcium hydroxide powder. The removal of coal fly ash was also considered. The results will be presented and a possible substitution of the materials to stabilize fly ash will be discussed.

  13. Phosphoric acid purification through different raw and activated clay materials (Southern Tunisia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trabelsi, Wafa; Tlili, Ali

    2017-05-01

    This study concerns the purification of Tunisian phosphoric acid produced by the Tunisian Chemical Group (TCG), using raw and activated clays materials from Southern Tunisia. The Gafsa basin clays samples (Jebel Hamadi (JHM); Jebel Stah (JS) and the El Hamma sample (Jebel Aïdoudi (JAD)) were activated with 3 M, HCl solution. Phosphoric acid purification was performed on raw and activated clays. Mineralogical characterisation was carried out using the X-ray powder diffraction method and infrared absorption spectroscopy. Textural changes between raw and activated clays were identified using SEM observations and specific surface analysis. Jebel Hamadi clays were almost dominated by smectite associated with kaolinite and illite traces, while Jebel Stah and Jebel Aïdoudi clays were composed of the association of smectite, illite and kaolinite. It is worth noting that the position of the smectite (001) reflection increased after the acidic activation in all studied samples, indicating the relaxation of the smectite structure along the c-axis. This was corroborated by the increasing specific surface area of the clay particles with the activation process. The specific surface area was close to 50 m2/g and 200 m2/g, for raw and activated materials, respectively. The maximum phosphoric acid purification was obtained by using activated clays with 3 N HCl for 4 h. This performance correlated with the maximum of the external specific surface area which generated strong acid sites. Furthermore, the best results of phosphoric acids purification from TCG were obtained at a specific consumption equivalent to 30 Kg of clay/ton of P2O5. These results showed that the best phosphoric acid purification was yielded by Jebel Aïdoudi clay. In all cases, the highest organic carbon reduction rates in the phosphoric acid after filtration were obtained at 90°C.

  14. BACKORDER AND LOST SALES CONTINUOUS REVIEW RAW MATERIAL INVENTORY CONTROL SYSTEM WITH LEAD TIME AND ORDERING COST REDUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiena Gustina Amran

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to suggest the optimal raw material inventory system alternatives synchronized with the stock out characteristics and the condition can be occurred, the backorder raw material inventory control, beside that it also can reduce lead time and raw material ordering cost. In this case, the inventory models also extent (Q, R Inventory Model Under lead Time and Ordering Cost Reduction with lead time and ordering cost can be reduced. After the calculation, the optimal solution of inventory models can be obtained; those are with backorder condition which produced the annual inventory total cost for the company.

  15. Method for selecting raw materials to preparing ceramic masses: application to raw material for red ceramic; Proposta metodologica de selecao de materias primas para compor massas ceramicas: aplicacao a ceramica vermelha

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno, Maria Margarita Torres; Rocha, Rogers Raphael da; Zanard, Antenor, E-mail: mmoreno@rc.unesp.br [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (DPM/IGCE/UNESP), Rio Claro, SP (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    We studied the raw materials used in a factory building blocks, located in Cesario Lange city (SP). It extracts raw materials from various sources in the region to make the dough. The mixtures were prepared from dry milled powders based on data related to the plasticity of the raw materials. It was obtained with the apparatus Vicat-cone in order to obtain similar levels of water absorption of the samples burned at 900 deg C for all compositions. To quantify the proportion of each clay was used the Lever Rule. In this firing temperature, where sintering is mainly by diffusion from a solid state, different compositions of the same set of four raw materials resulted in similar values. (author)

  16. Can hazardous waste become a raw material? The case study of an aluminium residue: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Delgado, Aurora; Tayibi, Hanan

    2012-05-01

    The huge number of research studies carried out during recent decades focused on finding an effective solution for the waste treatment, have allowed some of these residues to become new raw materials for many industries. Achieving this ensures a reduction in energy and natural resources consumption, diminishing of the negative environmental impacts and creating secondary and tertiary industries. A good example is provided by the metallurgical industry, in general, and the aluminium industry in this particular case. The aluminium recycling industry is a beneficial activity for the environment, since it recovers resources from primary industry, manufacturing and post-consumer waste. Slag and scrap which were previously considered as waste, are nowadays the raw material for some highly profitable secondary and tertiary industries. The most recent European Directive on waste establishes that if waste is used as a common product and fulfils the existing legislation for this product, then this waste can be defined as 'end-of-waste'. The review presented here, attempts to show several proposals for making added-value materials using an aluminium residue which is still considered as a hazardous waste, and accordingly, disposed of in secure storage. The present proposal includes the use of this waste to manufacture glass, glass-ceramic, boehmite and calcium aluminate. Thus the waste might effectively be recovered as a secondary source material for various industries.

  17. THE DEVELOPMENT OF PLANTS FOR THE PRODUCTION OF CONCENTRATED PASTES OF FRUIT AND VEGETABLE RAW MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. O. Magomedov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Developed a new system for producing concentrated semi-finished products in the form of pastes for the food industry. Currently, an important task of the food industry is the creation of new products with the aim of improving the structure of the range, saving scarce raw materials, as well as reduce sugar intake; development of product functionality and products with extended shelf life. The use of local non-traditional types of plant materials can contribute to solving existing problems. Fruit and vegetable pastes are a valuable food products which can be used as a semifinished product in the confectionery, bakery, food concentrates industry. Fruit and vegetable purees have a distinct structurally viscous or pseudo-plastic properties and concentration form a very viscous mass. Already in the beginning of the process of concentration, i.e. at a relatively low degree of evaporation that leads to a rapid increase in the viscosity of the concentrate mass and reduce evaporation. With increasing temperature is the burning mass, and also change its color and flavor. Therefore, for the concentration of fruit and vegetable purees, you must use equipment whose design takes into account the possible rheological and thermal problems. The analysis of literary data structures evaporators and studies, we developed a system for producing concentrated pastes of fruit and vegetable raw materials. Developed installation can increase the quality of the finished product due to the intensification of the process of concentration, to reduce material and energy resources, increase productivity.

  18. Towards a dynamic assessment of raw materials criticality: linking agent-based demand--with material flow supply modelling approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoeri, Christof; Wäger, Patrick A; Stamp, Anna; Althaus, Hans-Joerg; Weil, Marcel

    2013-09-01

    Emerging technologies such as information and communication-, photovoltaic- or battery technologies are expected to increase significantly the demand for scarce metals in the near future. The recently developed methods to evaluate the criticality of mineral raw materials typically provide a 'snapshot' of the criticality of a certain material at one point in time by using static indicators both for supply risk and for the impacts of supply restrictions. While allowing for insights into the mechanisms behind the criticality of raw materials, these methods cannot account for dynamic changes in products and/or activities over time. In this paper we propose a conceptual framework intended to overcome these limitations by including the dynamic interactions between different possible demand and supply configurations. The framework integrates an agent-based behaviour model, where demand emerges from individual agent decisions and interaction, into a dynamic material flow model, representing the materials' stocks and flows. Within the framework, the environmental implications of substitution decisions are evaluated by applying life-cycle assessment methodology. The approach makes a first step towards a dynamic criticality assessment and will enhance the understanding of industrial substitution decisions and environmental implications related to critical metals. We discuss the potential and limitation of such an approach in contrast to state-of-the-art methods and how it might lead to criticality assessments tailored to the specific circumstances of single industrial sectors or individual companies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. [Determination of residual organic solvents in flunixin meglumine raw material by headspace gas chromatography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Huilian

    2012-01-01

    A method for the determination of five kinds of residual organic solvents in flunixin meglumine raw material was developed by headspace gas chromatography. An HP-FFAP capillary column (30 m x 0.32 mm x 1.0 microm), a flame ionization detector and the external standard method were used for the separation and quantitative analysis. The effects of equilibrium temperature and equilibrium time on the determination of residual organic solvents were investigated. The good results were obtained in the equilibrium temperature of 90 degrees C and equilibrium time of 30 min. The standard curves were linear in the range of 0.40-7.93 mg/L (r = 0.999 8) for ethyl acetate, 7.32-146.48 mg/L (r = 0.999 6) for methanol, 4.53-90.61 mg/L (r = 0.999 9) for isopropanol, 3.62-72.32 mg/L (r = 0.999 8) for ethanol and 2.31-46.24 mg/L (r = 0.999 6) for acetonitrile. The recoveries for the five residual organic solvents were between 95.96% and 100.31% with relative standard deviations (RSDs) (n = 6) of 1.97%-3.28%. The detection limits of ethyl acetate, methanol, isopropanol, ethanol and acetonitrile were 0.08, 0.9, 0.2, 0.4 and 0.3 mg/L, respectively. The proposed method was successfully applied to analyze the residual organic solvents in the real sample of flunixin meglumine raw material. The results showed that only isopropanol and ethanol were found in the sample with the contents of 177.44 microg/g and 69.32 microg/g, respectively. The method is rapid, sensitive and accurate for the content determination of residual solvents in flunixin meglumine raw material.

  20. The role of transport corridors in Timan-North Ural Region mineral-raw-material base development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Grigor'evna Burtseva

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The development of mineral-raw-material base on underdeveloped territories of the Urals North and Timan is determined by the capabilities of inter-regionalcooperation on the basis of the new transportcorridorscreation. Thefailure of the «Industrial Ural — Polar Ural» project substantially defined the attitudeto the mineral-raw material base of the Ural North; but the actual analysis of the project failure causes does not allow to blame the mineral-raw-material base in that fact. This paper considers the prospects of Timan — North Ural region mineral-raw-material base development and the existing problems of nowadays, The question of revaluation necessity as of the regions existing mineral resource base, as well as the possible variants of its transport development is raised.

  1. Energies and raw materials. Letter n.28; Energies matieres premieres. Lettre n. 28

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-01-15

    This letter of the DGEMP (General Direction of the Energy and the Raw Materials) deals with the following four main topics: the main recommendations of the final report of the working Group ''Factor 4'' concerning the energy policy; the energy conservation certificates as a tool of the energy control with their implication in the residential and ternary sector; the increase of the solar water heaters and heat pumps sales thanks to the tax credits; the California example facing the climatic change and the energy policy. (A.L.B.)

  2. Consumer acceptability of differently processed bacons using raw materials from entire males

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunde, Kathrine; Skuterud, Ellen; Lindahl, Gunilla Karin

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to investigate consumers' acceptability of bacons produced from entire males. Three different processing technologies (brine injection, dry salting with and without fermentation) were used. The raw materials had skatole levels from 0.04 to 0.43 mg/kg. The consumers...... showed little variation in liking scores for bacon produced with the different technologies. Assessors trained for recognizing skatole flavour, nevertheless identified the odour and flavour of skatole for more samples and technologies than the consumers did. However, trained sensory panellists could...

  3. Raw material utilization in slaughterhouses – optimizing expected profit using mixed-integer programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Toke Koldborg; Kjærsgaard, Niels Christian

    Slaughterhouses are major players in the pork supply chain, and supply and demand must be matched in order to generate the highest profit. In particular, carcasses must be sorted in order to produce the “right” final products from the “right” carcasses. We develop a mixed-integer programming (MIP...... at slaughterhouses. Finally, we comment on the expected effect of variations in the raw material supply and the demand as well as future research concerning joint modelling of supply chain aspects....

  4. Whey as a raw material for the production of functional beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulatović Maja Lj.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the least utilized by-products of food industry, despite the great potential that is described, is the whey, which is obtained as a by-product of the technological process production of cheese and casein. The excess whey, which occurs in this process in very high yields, with failure to processing is becoming a very big polluter, what is completely at odds with the potential that such materials possess. On the other hand, the modern tempo and way of life, and increasingly polluted environmental also, impose the need to produce food products that would help the human body in the fight against harmful agents which are exposed to daily. One of the more effective solution is the production of fermented functional beverages based on whey, which achieved this intention in the most natural and most comfortable way. Considering the rather untapped potential of whey as a raw material and growing food shortages in the world market, the aim of this study was to analyze the possibilities of production of functional beverages based on whey, with satisfactory sensory characteristics, in order to demonstrate the attractiveness of whey as raw material in the food industry. This paper presents an overview of the wide possibilities for the use of whey with a special emphasis on its attractiveness and the necessity of its utilizing.

  5. The Feasibility of Sugar Palm (Arenga pinnata) Trunk for Raw Material of Parquet (Wood Flooring)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuryawan, A.; Tarigan, A.; Hakim, L.

    2017-03-01

    In the market, parquet was made from high density wood such as teak, merbau, kempas, ulin, oak, lime, maple, or other high density wood. Parquet has been used for flooring in specific buildings, for instance sport hall, library, commercial building (i.e hotel lobby, hypermarket), and office building. Because of the scarcity of high density wood nowadays and in order to find out the alternative material for wood flooring, the utilization of sugar palm trunk was considered. In this contribution, unproductive sugar palm tree was cut down and divided into three sections using chain saw, namely bottom, middle, and tip. For each section, physical and mechanical samples testing were made according to British Standard 373:1957 for small clear specimen. Investigation of both properties was done in ambient temperature with at least three replications. Instron UTM (Universal Testing Machine) was used to evaluate the mechanical properties. Results of the physical testing (density, moisture content and tangential shrinkage) showed the entire trunk was suitable for raw material of parquet. However, the results of mechanical testing (hardness, MOE/modulus of elasticity, MOR/modulus of rupture, and compression perpendicular to grain) showed only bottom and middle parts were suitable for raw material of parquet while the upper part was vice versa.

  6. Cutin from agro-waste as a raw material for the production of bioplastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heredia-Guerrero, José A; Heredia, Antonio; Domínguez, Eva; Cingolani, Roberto; Bayer, Ilker S; Athanassiou, Athanassia; Benítez, José J

    2017-11-09

    Cutin is the main component of plant cuticles constituting the framework that supports the rest of the cuticle components. This biopolymer is composed of esterified bi- and trifunctional fatty acids. Despite its ubiquity in terrestrial plants, it has been underutilized as raw material due to its insolubility and lack of melting point. However, in recent years, a few technologies have been developed to obtain cutin monomers from several agro-wastes at an industrial scale. This review is focused on the description of cutin properties, biodegradability, chemical composition, processability, abundance, and the state of art of the fabrication of cutin-based materials in order to evaluate whether this biopolymer can be considered a source for the production of renewable materials. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Opportunities offered by the raw material boom to German mining machinery manufacturers; Chancen des Rohstoffbooms fuer die deutschen Bergbaumaschinenhersteller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoeckmann, K. [Verband Deutscher Maschinen- und Anlagenbau e.V. (VDMA), Frankfurt am Main (Germany). Fachverband Bergbaumaschinen

    2008-05-13

    Since the beginning of the raw material boom four years ago the positive trend in the mining machinery branch in Germany has accelerated. The globalisation of the branch was assisted by the good national and international network between manufacturers of mining equipment, associations, consultants, financial institutions and politicians. The branch is currently well established internationally with an export share of 86%. This puts it into a position to continue to utilise the opportunities offered by the raw material boom. (orig.)

  8. Considering adaptation of electrical ovens with unit-type releasing to peculiarities of thermal energization of mineral raw materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvezdin, A. V.; Bryanskikh, T. B.

    2017-01-01

    The paper gives a short overview of technologies of mineral raw material thermal treatment where application of electrical ovens with unit-type releasing is possible. Efficiency of such ovens for vermiculite concentrate and conglomerate roasting is proved by more than 13-years experience of their industrial operation. The paper furthermore considers alternative connections of energotechnological blocks of an oven in order to determine its efficient design for specific technology related to one or another mineral raw material.

  9. BISULFITE METHOD FOR OBTAINING FIBROUS SEMI-PRODUCTS FROM CELLULOSE-CONTAINING RAW MATERIAL FOR PACKING PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Karpunin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper reveals that while using magnesium bisulfite pulp cooking of raw material which serves for obtaining a desired product with its further application for packing making it is rather important that the raw material should contain hemicellulose and lignin. In the case when the content of hemicellulose  and lignin is rather high in the desired product its qualitative (physical and mechanical indices are deteriorating that negatively affects the qualitative values of the obtained packing.

  10. Evaluation of the biodiesel production using three sources of raw material and ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radecki, Angela Patricia; Fracaro, Cristiane; Gnoatto, Estor; Kavanagh, Edward; Anami, Marcelo Hidemassa; Fischborn, Marcos; Lobo, Viviane da Silva [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Medianeira, PR (Brazil)], E-mail: mhanami@utfpr.edu.br; Zara, Ricardo Fiori [Prati Donaduzzi e Cia. Ltda., Toledo, PR (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The conversion of different oils in ethyl ester (biodiesel) through the transesterification with anhydrous ethanol, together with its quality and its consumption in mixture with diesel of petroleum in different ratios, they were evaluated using a stationary diesel engine connected to an electric energy generator. The raw materials used in this transformation were oil of refined soybean, oil of refined sunflower and animal fat (swine). In the transesterification reaction it was used an alkaline catalyst (sodium hydroxide), because of its proven effectiveness and the high speed facing other catalyst, beyond being less corrosive and demands less molar' reasons between the alcohol and the vegetal oil. The tests in stationary diesel engine were carried through the dilutions of 0%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% of biodiesel produced in mixture with diesel of petroleum. The results showed that the yield of biodiesel gotten by different sources is satisfactory. It was also observed that the basic catalysis is adjusted to the production of biodiesel from raw materials with low acidity. The tests in diesel engine appeared to be sufficiently satisfactory once it was not observed any alteration in the functioning of the engine. The consumption was also not modified by the studied dilutions, demonstrating that the biodiesel can be added to the pure diesel reducing the use of the fuel derived from petroleum. (author)

  11. Waste glass from end-of-life fluorescent lamps as raw material in geopolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novais, Rui M; Ascensão, G; Seabra, M P; Labrincha, J A

    2016-06-01

    Nowadays the stunning volume of generated wastes, the exhaustion of raw materials, and the disturbing greenhouse gases emission levels show that a paradigm shift is mandatory. In this context, the possibility of using wastes instead of virgin raw materials can mitigate the environmental problems related to wastes, while reducing the consumption of the Earth's natural resources. This innovative work reports the incorporation of unexplored waste glass coming from end-of-life fluorescent lamps into geopolymers. The influence of the waste glass incorporation level, NaOH molarity and curing conditions on the microstructure, physical and mechanical properties of the geopolymers was evaluated. Results demonstrate that curing conditions are the most influential factor on the geopolymer characteristics, while the NaOH molarity is less important. Geopolymers containing 37.5% (wt) waste glass were successfully produced, showing compressive strength of 14MPa (after 28days of curing), suggesting the possibility of their use in non-structural applications. Porous waste-based geopolymers for novel applications were also fabricated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The procurement of lithic raw materials: towards a paleocultural characterisation of palaeoeconomic behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mangado, Javier

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of paper is to analyse the character of the lithic industries, and especially raw materials, as one of the spatial and cultural indicators of the exploitation territories of prehistoric communities of hunter gratherers.
    We propose the use of archaeopetrological studies, in relation to geographical context studies and lithic technological analysis to define the palaeocultural characteristics of palaeoeconomic behaviour (mobility patterns in relation to the procurement and exchange processes of lithic raw materials in the subsistence economies.

    El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar el carácter de la industria lítica, y más concretamente del análisis de materias primas, como uno de los marcadores espaciales y culturales en el seno de los territorios de explotación de las comunidades prehistóricas de cazadores-recolectores.
    Proponemos una aproximación basada en la arqueopetrología como elemento que, junto con la contextualización geográfica y los análisis tecnológicos, ayuda a la definición de las pautas paleoculturales de aprovisionamiento directo e intercambios de dichos grupos en relación con la explotación de los recursos abióticos.

  13. Comparative study of the UV spectra of various raw materials OF Urtica dioica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Balagozyan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica L. is one of the famous and popular medicinal plants. In Russia the herbal materials are nettle’s leaves which have haemostatic effect. At the same time abroad the rhizomes and roots of nettle are the source of drugs with antitumor activity. The chemical composition of the rhizomes and roots of nettle is quite complicated and is represented by substances such as polysaccharides, lectins, sterols etc. The aim of the present study is the comparative phytochemical research of various parts of raw nettle by spectrophotometry. The study of extracts from various raw materials of nettle has shown, that the presence of flavonoids is peculiar for leaves, flowers and fruits. Sterols dominate in the rhizomes and roots of nettle. It was also noted that the UV-spectra of extracts of female inflorescences and fruits nettle have the same absorption maxima.

  14. Free fatty acid particles in protein formulations, part 2: contribution of polysorbate raw material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siska, Christine C; Pierini, Christopher J; Lau, Hollis R; Latypov, Ramil F; Fesinmeyer, R Matthew; Litowski, Jennifer R

    2015-02-01

    Polysorbate 20 (PS20) is a nonionic surfactant frequently used to stabilize protein biopharmaceuticals. During the development of mAb formulations containing PS20, small clouds of particles were observed in solutions stored in vials. The degree of particle formation was dependent on PS20 concentration. The particles were characterized by reversed-phase HPLC after dissolution and labeling with the fluorescent dye 1-pyrenyldiazomethane. The analysis showed that the particles consisted of free fatty acids (FFAs), with the distribution of types consistent with those found in the PS20 raw material. Protein solutions formulated with polysorbate 80, a chemically similar nonionic surfactant, showed a substantial delay in particle formation over time compared with PS20. Multiple lots of polysorbates were evaluated for FFA levels, each exhibiting differences based on polysorbate type and lot. Polysorbates purchased in more recent years show a greater distribution and quantity of FFA and also a greater propensity to form particles. This work shows that the quality control of polysorbate raw materials could play an important role in biopharmaceutical product quality. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  15. Adaptogenic activity of a complex biomedication based on a northern renewable raw material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anshakova, Vera V; Stepanova, Albina V; Uvarov, Dimitrii M; Smagulova, Aigerim Sh; Naumova, Ksenia N; Vasiliev, Petr P

    2016-01-01

    One of the methods of increasing bioavailability, and thus the therapeutic effectiveness of an active substances, along with decreasing its required dosage, is to generate highly effective "carrier: active substances" complexes where the active carrier both increases the bioavailability of the active substance at lower doses and has a detoxifying activity. the aim of this work was study the properties of the carrier from the lichen thallome in both its solid pharmaceutical form and in combination with Rhodiola rosea. the physiologically active plant extracts with enhanced adaptogenic pharmacological activity based on plant substances growing in Yakutia: Cladonia lichen thalli and Rhodiola rosea (Rhodiolarosea, fam.Crassulaceae) rhizomes, combined in a raw material dry-weight ratio of 10:1 We used a one step, solvent-free process, involving the use of mechanochemical ball mills relying on centrifugal acceleration of the 10-30 g grinding bodies. A single-stage mechanochemical technology has been developed for obtaining highly effective solid-phase biocomplexes based on a"multipurpose active filler" - a polymer matrix of lichen β-oligosaccharides. It has been shown that lichen, is a raw material from which can be sourced a filler with a strong adsorption activity for solid pharmaceutical forms. It is considered statistically significant that a bicomponent plant mechanocomplex based on this filler - lichen β-oligosaccharides and small amounts of Rhodiola rosea has a wide spectrum of adaptogenic action, increasing the resistance of laboratory animals to the effects of physical exercise and a variety of extreme factors.

  16. Hunter-gatherer mobility and embedded raw-material procurement strategies in the mediterranean upper paleolithic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasso, Antonin; Porraz, Guillaume

    2016-05-06

    Since the early 1980s, the sourcing of lithic raw materials has become central to studies of the territorial range and mobility strategies of Pleistocene foraging societies. Results have been fruitful but somehow repetitive. We will discuss the embedded procurement strategy, which presumes that raw material acquisition was part of other subsistence activities rather than an autonomous technological task. We argue that this theoretical assumption, when taken as dogma, restricts the role of technology in human history and also underestimates the way some lithic resources may have affected the organization of past hunter-gatherers. We base our discussion on the Upper Paleolithic (UP) from the Liguro-Provençal arc, with examples from the Proto-Aurignacian and the Epigravettian. Our regional record shows that in this context the movement of rocks over distances greater than 100 km was the norm rather than the exception. We argue that these long-distance procurements mirror technical needs that were oriented toward the selection of high-quality flints. We support the hypothesis that indirect procurement was an important component of regional socio-economic networks. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Evaluation of Apple Pomace as a Raw Material for Alternative Applications in Food Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Falqué

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to measure the potential of apple pomace as a raw material for manufacturing food-related products (such as lactic acid, fiber-rich concentrates and pectin, samples from cider industry were assayed for composition and enzymatic digestibility. Alcohol-soluble compounds (monosaccharides, oligosaccharides and malic acid accounted for 32–45 mass percent of oven-dry pomace. Glucose and fructose were the major components of this fraction. The alcohol-insoluble fraction accounted for 55–68 mass percent of oven-dry pomace and was mainly made up of neutral detergent fiber (62–69 percent of the mass fraction and pectin (16.2–19.7 percent of the mass fraction. The feedstock content of N, P and metal ions (K, Mg, Fe and Mn was favourable for further manufacture of lactic acid fermentation media. Apple pomace showed a high susceptibility to enzymatic hydrolysis: in media with a cellulase loading of 8.5 FPU/g of apple pomace and a cellobiase loading of 5 IU/FPU, about 80 % of the total glucan was converted into glucose after 15 h. Considering the low enzyme charge, liquor to solid ratio employed, reaction time needed to achieve the maximal sugars concentration and N, P and metal ion (K, Mg, Fe and Mn content of samples, it can be concluded that apple pomace is a promising raw material for lactic acid production.

  18. Mycobiota and aflatoxins in raw materials and pet food in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, S G; Cavaglieri, L R; Fernández Juri, M G; Dalcero, A M; Krüger, C; Keller, L A M; Magnoli, C E; Rosa, C A R

    2008-06-01

    Commercial feedstuffs are a basic element in modern pet husbandry in the world. In dogs, the effect of mycotoxins is severe and can lead to death. Few reports on the influence of dietary mycotoxins were found in the scientific literature. The aims of this work were to isolate and identify the mycoflora and to determine the aflatoxins (AFs) natural occurrence in raw materials and ready dry pet food. Therefore, the aflatoxigenic capacity of Aspergillus flavus species was investigated. Aspergillus was the prevalent genera (65-89%) followed by Penicillium and Fusarium spp. Aspergillus flavus was the most prevalent species, followed by Aspergillus sydowii, Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus versicolor. Aspergillus flavus frequencies ranged from 58% to 86% except in sorghum meal. All samples assayed (except corn grains and ready pet food) showed Fusarium spp. contamination. Corn meal and corn meal and gluten samples had 100% Fusarium verticillioides. Fusarium graminearum was isolated from sorghum meal. Aspergillus flavus strains (75%) isolated from raw materials and 57% from pet food were able to produce AFs. All samples showed AFs contamination percentages over 70%; corn and sorghum meal obtained the highest AFs levels. Ready pet food did not show quantitative levels of the tested toxins. This is the first report of the aflatoxigenic capacity by A. flavus from Brazilian pet food.

  19. Stone Tool Manufacture Strategies and Lithic Raw Material Exploitation in Coastal Patagonia, Argentina: A Multivariate Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Cardillo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to characterize strategies of artifact manufacture and lithic raw material exploitation along San Matías Gulf coast, Argentina, using multifactorial and cluster analysis. Multifactorial analysis is a relatively new method that has yet to be used for archaeological analysis; it has the advantage that it allows us to describe data using different groups of qualitative or quantitative variables at the same time. Additionally, cluster analysis was conducted on multifactorial axis in a bid to identify grouping patterns. The results obtained from the combination of these two methods suggest that they may be useful in characterizing technological strategies in the study area. Furthermore, they may also be a powerful exploratory and characterization tool able to generate explanations at low spatial scales. The application of these methods on San Matías Gulf study case suggests that along the western and northern coasts of this Gulf the most important variables in determining differences in resource use were the fragmentation ratio and lithic raw materials used in artifact manufacture.

  20. Effects of raw materials, ingredients, and production lines on arsenic and copper concentrations in confectionery products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonell-Barrachina, A A; García, E; Sánchez Soriano, J; Aracil, P; Burló, F

    2002-06-19

    The Spaniard legislation sets up maximum levels for total arsenic (As) and copper (Cu) in confectionery products at 0.1 and 5.0 microg g(-)(1), respectively. Concentrations of these two trace elements were determined in four confectionery products: chewing gum, two licorice items, and soft candy. The effects of raw materials quality and production lines were studied. Arsenic and copper were quantified by atomic absorption spectrometry with hydride generation and slotted-tube atom trap tubes, respectively. Their levels were, in general, below the maximum limits establish by the Spaniard legislation; however, the As concentration in the licorice sticks was above this maximum limit (0.11 +/- 0.01 microg g(-)(1)). Statistics proved that quality of raw materials and the production lines both significantly affected As and Cu concentrations in the final products. The licorice extract and molasses were found as the common source for As and Cu pollution. The As concentration in the licorice extract was 0.503 +/- 0.01 microg g(-)(1), and could represent a serious hazard to human health if it is used in high proportions.

  1. Application of results of geological exploration of deposits of solid mineral raw materials in mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilić Miloje M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Important application in mining have the results of geological exploration of the deposits of solid mineral raw materials, before all geological data obtained (including their interpretations regarding basic properties of the deposts and their changeability, and regarding quantity and quality (i.e. resources and reserves of the belonging mineral raw material which have an essential significance for mineral projects. The geological data, together with the other relevant data (in the first place technical and economic ones are applied as basic parameters in documentation of mineral projects. Since the successfulness of the projects is dependent upon the confidence of the data, a special attention is dedicated to the acts that contribute to attaining of an adequate level of confidence of the data, as follows: a a gradual realization of the projects through two phases (geological and mining ones having seven development stages (reconnaissance, prospecting, preliminary exploration and detailed exploration stages of the geological phase and mine design, mine construction and mine production stages of the mining phase; b finding out optimal solutions in drawing up a plan of exploratory workings and its carrying out in accordance with basic properties of a deposit and their changeability; c a realistic estimation of mineral resources/reserves as a predominantly geological task (not 'calculation' of the resources/reserves as a mathematical task; d an objective evaluation of the successfulness of a project at the end of every geological stage ‒ presented in corresponding geological analyses and technical-economic studies.

  2. Towards a dynamic assessment of raw materials criticality: Linking agent-based demand — With material flow supply modelling approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knoeri, Christof, E-mail: c.knoeri@leeds.ac.uk [Sustainability Research Institute, School of Earth and Environment, University of Leeds, LS5 9JT Leeds (United Kingdom); Wäger, Patrick A.; Stamp, Anna; Althaus, Hans-Joerg [Technology and Society Laboratory, Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, CH-8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); Weil, Marcel [Institute for Technology Assessment and Systems Analysis, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Helmholtz-Institute Ulm for Electrochemical Energy Storage, Albert-Einstein-Allee 11, 89081 Ulm (Germany)

    2013-09-01

    Emerging technologies such as information and communication-, photovoltaic- or battery technologies are expected to increase significantly the demand for scarce metals in the near future. The recently developed methods to evaluate the criticality of mineral raw materials typically provide a ‘snapshot’ of the criticality of a certain material at one point in time by using static indicators both for supply risk and for the impacts of supply restrictions. While allowing for insights into the mechanisms behind the criticality of raw materials, these methods cannot account for dynamic changes in products and/or activities over time. In this paper we propose a conceptual framework intended to overcome these limitations by including the dynamic interactions between different possible demand and supply configurations. The framework integrates an agent-based behaviour model, where demand emerges from individual agent decisions and interaction, into a dynamic material flow model, representing the materials' stocks and flows. Within the framework, the environmental implications of substitution decisions are evaluated by applying life-cycle assessment methodology. The approach makes a first step towards a dynamic criticality assessment and will enhance the understanding of industrial substitution decisions and environmental implications related to critical metals. We discuss the potential and limitation of such an approach in contrast to state-of-the-art methods and how it might lead to criticality assessments tailored to the specific circumstances of single industrial sectors or individual companies. - Highlights: ► Current criticality assessment methods provide a ‘snapshot’ at one point in time. ► They do not account for dynamic interactions between demand and supply. ► We propose a conceptual framework to overcomes these limitations. ► The framework integrates an agent-based behaviour model with a dynamic material flow model. ► The approach proposed

  3. Raw Material Equivalents: The Challenges of Accounting for Sustainability in a Globalized World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anke Schaffartzik

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The indicator domestic material consumption (domestic extraction + imports – exports is widely used to track the scale, composition, and dynamics of material use. As production increasingly occurs at a spatial distance from the demand it ultimately satisfies, new accounting challenges arise that this indicator may not be able to meet. In response, indicators in raw material equivalents (RME have been developed to account for material use, no matter where it occurs, associated with final demand. RME indicators are most commonly calculated based on monetary input-output tables with material extensions. The resulting indicators, which are rapidly gaining scientific and political importance, must be interpreted as stemming from a mixed monetary and physical accounting approach. How such an approach differs from a physical accounting approach is shown in this article using an input-output model with a material extension. Neither the physical nor the mixed monetary and physical approach is found to generate results which are incorrect. Instead, the results must be interpreted in light of the assumptions entailed in the approach on which they are based. In making possibilities and limits of interpretation in both cases transparent, RME indicators can more readily be discussed and used by sustainability scientists and practitioners.

  4. Natural stone muds as secondary raw materials: towards a new sustainable recovery process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zichella, Lorena; Tori, Alice; Bellopede, Rossana; Marini, Paola

    2016-04-01

    The production of residual sludge is a topical issue, and has become essential to recover and reuse the materials, both for the economics and the environmental aspect. According to environmental EU Directives, in fact ,the stone cutting and processing should characterized by following objectives, targets and actions: the reduction of waste generated, the decreasing of use of critical raw material, the zero landfilling of sludge and decreasing in potential soil contamination, the prevention of transport of dangerous waste, the reduction of energy consumption, the zero impact on air pollution and the cost reduction . There are many industrial sector in which residual sludge have high concentrations of metals and/or elements deemed harmful and therefore hazardous waste. An important goal, for all industrial sectors, is an increase in productivity and a parallel reduction in costs. The research leads to the development of solutions with an always reduced environmental impact. The possibility to decrease the amount of required raw materials and at the same time the reduction in the amount of waste has become the aim for any industrial reality. From literature there are different approaches for the recovery of raw and secondary materials, and are often used for the purpose chemical products that separate the elements constituting the mud but at the same time make additional pollutants. The aim of the study is to find solutions that are environmentally sustainable for both industries and citizens. The present study is focused on three different Piedmont rocks: Luserna, Diorite from Traversella and Diorite from Vico, processed with three different stone machining technologies: cutting with diamond wire in quarry (blocks), in sawmill (slabs) and surface polishing. The steps are: chemical analysis, particle size analysis and mineralogical composition and characterization of the sludge obtained from the various machining operations for the recovery of the metal material by

  5. Life cycle assessment of sustainable raw material acquisition for functional magnetite bionanoparticle production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadhukhan, Jhuma; Joshi, Nimisha; Shemfe, Mobolaji; Lloyd, Jonathan R

    2017-09-01

    Magnetite nanoparticles (MNPs) have several applications, including use in medical diagnostics, renewable energy production and waste remediation. However, the processes for MNP production from analytical-grade materials are resource intensive and can be environmentally damaging. This work for the first time examines the life cycle assessment (LCA) of four MNP production cases: (i) industrial MNP production system; (ii) a state-of-the-art MNP biosynthesis system; (iii) an optimal MNP biosynthesis system and (iv) an MNP biosynthesis system using raw materials sourced from wastewaters, in order to recommend a sustainable raw material acquisition pathway for MNP synthesis. The industrial production system was used as a benchmark to compare the LCA performances of the bio-based systems (cases ii-iv). A combination of appropriate life cycle impact assessment methods was employed to analyse environmental costs and benefits of the systems comprehensively. The LCA results revealed that the state-of-the-art MNP biosynthesis system, which utilises analytical grade ferric chloride and sodium hydroxide as raw materials, generated environmental costs rather than benefits compared to the industrial MNP production system. Nevertheless, decreases in environmental impacts by six-fold were achieved by reducing sodium hydroxide input from 11.28 to 1.55 in a mass ratio to MNPs and replacing ferric chloride with ferric sulphate (3.02 and 2.59, respectively, in a mass ratio to MNPs) in the optimal biosynthesis system. Thus, the potential adverse environmental impacts of MNP production via the biosynthesis system can be reduced by minimising sodium hydroxide and substituting ferric sulphate for ferric chloride. Moreover, considerable environmental benefits were exhibited in case (iv), where Fe(III) ions were sourced from metal-containing wastewaters and reduced to MNPs by electrons harvested from organic substrates. It was revealed that 14.4 kJ and 3.9 kJ of primary fossil resource

  6. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF THE SUBSTANCES RECEIVED FROM RAW MATERIALS OF LAMIACEAE AND CUCURBITACEAE FAMILY PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedchenkova Iu.A

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The search of new sources of raw materials for medicine creation is one of the pharmacy priorities. In this, our attention was drawn by the plants which are widely cultivated in Ukraine and have a sufficient source of raw materials. It is summer squash (Cucurbita pepo L. and sowing cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. of Cucurbitaceae family and also peppermint (Mentha piperita L. of two sorts “Chernolistaya” and “Zgadka” of Lamiaceae family. However the drugs with antimicrobial action derived from the leaves of these plants in the market of Ukraine are absent. Spirit, lipophilic and polysaccharidic fractions were received from the leaves of sowing cucumber, summer squash and two sorts of peppermint by us. Antimicrobial activity studying of the received substances derived from the studied raw materials for expansion of the medicine range is promising. The relevance of researches is that getting for the first time due to complex raw material processing the lipophilic, spirit and polysaccharidic fractions of leaves of a sowing cucumber, summer squash and two sorts of peppermint “Chernolistnaya” and “Zgadka” are systemically studied on existence of antimicrobic activity. The purpose of our research is the studying of antimicrobial activity of getting substances derived from the leaves of sowing cucumber, summer squash and two sorts of peppermint “Chernolistnaya” and “Zgadka”. Materials and methods. Raw materials for substances are the leaves of a sowing cucumber prepared in June, 2015 in the Kharkiv region, the village Selection, in the conditions of industrial cultivation (the selection station of Institute of vegetable-growing and melon-growing of UAAN. The leaves of summer squash were being prepared also in June, 2015 in Valkovsky district of the Kharkiv region, the settlement Dobropolye. The leaves of peppermint of “Chernolistnaya” and “Zgadka” sort were prepared on the industrial squares of Dnipropetrovsk

  7. Use of precalciners to remove alkali from raw materials in the cement industry. Final report, July 1978-July 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gartner, E.M.

    1980-07-01

    The objective of this work was to develop an efficient means of removing alkali metal compounds (alkalies) from high-alkali aluminosilicate raw materials of the type commonly used as part of cement raw mixes in order to increase the energy efficiency of cement manufacture. The intention of this project was to determine whether the high-alkali raw materials could be pyroprocessed separately to remove the alkalies before they entered the rotary kiln, where they would be mixed with the other raw feed components. If this could be achieved, considerable savings could be made in the energy required to remove alkalies, compared to conventional methods in which the cement raw mix must be treated as a whole. Two different methods of alkali removal were examined, namely, vaporization of alkalies at relatively low temperatures; and alkali-rich melt separation at relativey high temperatures. The results showed that the removal of alkalies by pyroprocessing of high-alkali raw feed components separate from the other cement raw mix components is not likely to be a practical alternative to the best available conventional precalciner technology. (LCL)

  8. Change in raw material selection and subsistence behaviour through time at a Middle Palaeolithic site in southern France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Lucy; Browne, Constance L

    2014-10-01

    We apply a resource selection model to the lithic assemblages from 11 archaeological layers at a Middle Palaeolithic site in southern France, the Bau de l'Aubesier. The model calculates how to weight each of 10 variables in order to best match the proportions of raw materials from various potential sources in the lithic assemblages. We then combine the variables into two sets of five each, those related to the characteristics of the raw materials themselves, and those related to the sources and the terrain around them. Running the model with each subset shows that the terrain variables always provide a better match to raw material use than do the raw material variables taken by themselves, but the best model is always the overall (10-variable) model. This means that terrain is most important in every case, but raw material properties also matter. Comparing the percentage contributions of each subset within the overall model, however, shows a clear change in emphasis in the upper layers versus the lower layers of the site. In the lower six layers, the percent contribution of the terrain variables is always greater than that of the raw material variables, but in the upper five layers the reverse is true: terrain still matters, but raw material becomes more important. We also look at faunal and basic tool typological data, which show a progressive change through time, as smaller prey become more important (and large prey less so), and tools and cores proportionally less abundant in the assemblages in the upper layers. We suggest that these results reflect a change in subsistence strategies at the time of a particularly harsh climate near the end of the Middle Pleistocene, and that hominin groups using this site continued to use this new approach throughout the rest of the Pleistocene. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. From basic raw material goods to cultural and environmental services: the Chinese bamboo sophistication path

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Ruiz Pérez

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Bamboo has deep cultural and economic roots in China, the country with the largest bamboo resources in the world. Over the last three decades bamboo has evolved from a supply of raw material for basic goods into the material base of an increasingly diversified array of products and, more recently, into a potentially important source of cultural and environmental services. Based on a general literature review and the lessons learned from detailed case studies in different regions of China, we explored the changing roles of bamboo, and its effects on local economies and farmers' livelihood strategies. As the country develops and new economic activities continue to appear, bamboo production has shifted from a superior income-generating opportunity that largely benefited the better-off to a less attractive option left for those who have no other choice. The nature of the work has also changed, from families working directly on their bamboo plots to an emphasis on hired labor, with prosperous bamboo owners devoting most of their time to more lucrative activities. A similar process can be observed in bamboo processing in counties where previous industrial structures hinged around raw material harvests, but which have now entered into other secondary and tertiary industry activities. At the same time, bamboo has attracted new opportunities as a source of cultural, aesthetic, and leisure-related activities, as well as some potentially important climatic, watershed, and biodiversity functions. We analyze the complementarity between goods and services provided by bamboo and discuss some research issues and future trends that may help in overcoming these conflicts.

  10. Utilization of Savannah Harbor river sediment as the primary raw material in production of fired brick.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezencevova, Andrea; Yeboah, Nortey N; Burns, Susan E; Kahn, Lawrence F; Kurtis, Kimberly E

    2012-12-30

    A laboratory-scale study was conducted to assess the feasibility of the production of fired bricks from sediments dredged from the Savannah Harbor (Savannah, GA, USA). The dredged sediment was used as the sole raw material, or as a 50% replacement for natural brick-making clay. Sediment bricks were prepared using the stiff mud extrusion process from raw mixes consisted of 100% dredged sediment, or 50% dredged sediment and 50% brick clay. The bricks were fired at temperatures between 900 and 1000 °C. Physical and mechanical properties of the dredged sediment brick were found to generally comply with ASTM criteria for building brick. Water absorption of the dredged sediment bricks was in compliance with the criteria for brick graded for severe (SW) or moderate (MW) weathering. Compressive strength of 100% dredged sediment bricks ranged from 8.3 to 11.7 MPa; the bricks sintered at 1000 °C met the requirements for negligible weathering (NW) building brick. Mixing the dredged sediment with natural clay resulted in an increase of the compressive strength. The compressive strength of the sediment-clay bricks fired at 1000 °C was 29.4 MPa, thus meeting the ASTM requirements for the SW grade building brick. Results of this study demonstrate that production of fired bricks is a promising and achievable productive reuse alternative for Savannah Harbor dredged sediments. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Hyperdry amniotic membrane as a suitable biological dressing material for raw wounds in the oral cavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoto Noguchi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Raw wounds in the oral cavity are prone not only to infection but also contraction by scaring and often need a proper dressing to prevent these complications. Autografts using free mucosal and split-skin grafts, which seem biologically ideal, have been used to cover raw wounds in the oral cavity. Those grafts, however, require a separate surgical procedure at donor sites and often cause morbidity associated with delayed healing of the donor site. The amnion has been considered a suitable tissue for allografts, based on its low immunogenicity. It also possesses anti-inflammatory, would –protecting, and scar-reducing properties. Preserved amnions have been used for decades in various clinical fields.  However, there have been some problems in the storage and sterilization of the material. To resolve these problems, we developed hyperdry amniotic membrane (HAM, which can be stored at room temperature for a long period. In my lecture, I will share our clinical experiences of applying HAM into oral surgery, including results of experimental studies on would healing of the oral cavity.

  12. From hazardous waste to valuable raw material: hydrolysis of CCA-treated wood for the production of chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakola, Maija; Kallioinen, Anne; Leskelä, Markku; Repo, Timo

    2013-05-01

    Solid wood, metal finnish: Instead of burning waste wood treated with chromated copper arsenite (CCA) or disposing of it in landfills, the CCA-treated wood can be used as a raw material for the production of chemicals. Catalytic or alkaline oxidation together with very mild sulfuric acid extraction produces an easily enzymatically hydrolyzable material. Usage as a raw material for the chemical industry in this manner demonstrates a sustainable and value-added waste management process. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Radiation decontamination of pharmaceutical raw materials as an integral part of the good pharmaceutical manufacturing practice (GPMP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Razem, D.; Katusin-Razem, B. (Institut Rudjer Boskovic, Zagreb (Yugoslavia)); Starcevic, M.; Galekovic, B. (PLIVA Pharmaceutical Works, Zagreb (Yugoslavia))

    1990-01-01

    The microbiological quality of many raw materials used in the manufacture of pharmaceuticals and adjuvants often fails to meet the standards set by the pharmaceutical industry. Raw materials of biological provenience are particularly susceptible to contamination. This work describes the present situation regarding the microbial load of corn starch. Given the accepted microbiological criteria, irradiation treatment is proposed as integral to Good Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Practice (GPMP). The use of total viable count as a guide for specifying microbial limits for non-sterile materials is supported. Criteria for the choice of dose are discussed. (author).

  14. Impact of processing on the taurine content in processed seafood and their corresponding unprocessed raw materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragnes, Bjørn T; Larsen, Rune; Ernstsen, Marita Holm; Mæhre, Hanne; Elvevoll, Edel O

    2009-03-01

    Processing of foods can lead to losses of water-soluble components, and some of these may have beneficial health effects. Taurine has lately attracted attention due to its suggested strong contribution to the health-promoting effects of seafood. The lack of systematic information on the content of conditionally essential nutrients, such as taurine, has led to this study. The taurine concentrations in a variety of common marine dinners and spreads, and their corresponding raw materials, have been determined. Losses of taurine in processed products ranged up to 100% when compared with the taurine content of freshly caught specimens. Products soaked in brines or products subjected to rough processing conditions such as mincing and washing had greater loss compared with products with more intact muscle. Levels of taurine in processed seafood vary according to product type and brand, showing a potential for the industry to take measures in preventing losses of taurine and other water-soluble components.

  15. Polish turpentine as source of raw material for synthesis of aromatic substances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wizner, I.

    1980-01-01

    This paper provides data on the volume of world-wide use of turpentine (Sk), essential directions of Sk utilization and trends in this area. The significant interest toward turpentine as a raw material for deriving aromatic substances, including linalool, geraniol, citronellol, verbenol, isoborneol, ionones, citrals, irone and menthol. Reaction schemes are provided for deriving from Poland's production of turpentine and its basic components the following: ..cap alpha..-pinene ( about54%), ..beta..-pinene ( about2.2%), and 3-carene ( about-40%) which are at the present time imported. Such use of turpentine, by providing the most valuable and high-demand production of its derivatives will be extremely efficient for Poland.

  16. Valorisation of food waste to produce new raw materials for animal feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Martin, D; Ramos, S; Zufía, J

    2016-05-01

    This study assesses the suitability of vegetable waste produced by food industry for use as a raw material for animal feed. It includes safety and nutritional viability, technical feasibility and environmental evaluation. Vegetable by-products were found to be nutritionally and sanitarily appropriate for use in animal feed. The drying technologies tested for making vegetable waste suitable for use in the animal feed market were pulse combustion drying, oven and microwave. The different meal prototypes obtained were found to comply with all the requirements of the animal feed market. An action plan that takes into account all the stages of the valorisation process was subsequently defined in agreement with local stakeholders. This plan was validated in a pilot-scale demonstration trial. Finally, the technical feasibility was studied and environmental improvement was performed. This project was funded by the European LIFE+ program (LIFE09 ENV/ES/000473). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Steam Pyrolysis of Polyimides: Effects of Steam on Raw Material Recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumagai, Shogo; Hosaka, Tomoyuki; Kameda, Tomohito; Yoshioka, Toshiaki

    2015-11-17

    Aromatic polyimides (PIs) have excellent thermal stability, which makes them difficult to recycle, and an effective way to recycle PIs has not yet been established. In this work, steam pyrolysis of the aromatic PI Kapton was performed to investigate the recovery of useful raw materials. Steam pyrolysis significantly enhanced the gasification of Kapton at 900 °C, resulting in 1963.1 mL g(-1) of a H2 and CO rich gas. Simultaneously, highly porous activated carbon with a high BET surface area was recovered. Steam pyrolysis increased the presence of polar functional groups on the carbon surface. Thus, it was concluded that steam pyrolysis shows great promise as a recycling technique for the recovery of useful synthetic gases and activated carbon from PIs without the need for catalysts and organic solvents.

  18. Interaction between pollutants produced in sewage sludge combustion and cement raw material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gálvez, Araceli; Conesa, Juan A; Martín-Gullón, Ignacio; Font, Rafael

    2007-09-01

    Nowadays the use of waste as secondary fuel in clinker kilns is an extensive practice, but the interaction between cement raw material (CRM) and the combustion gases of the fuels has not been extensively studied. Because of that, in this work the effect of the interaction of exhaust from the combustion of sewage sludge and CRM has been studied in a laboratory furnace. The experiments were performed at 300 degrees C, close to the temperature at the cyclones in a cement industry. The behavior of volatile compounds, polycyclic aromatic compounds (PAH) and polychloro dibenzo-p-dioxin and polychloro dibenzofurans (PCCD/F) were analysed in the presence or absence of CRM. The results obtained show that the presence of CRM at the outlet of the combustion gases is beneficial for the decrease of pollutant emissions.

  19. The Influence of 5% KOH Immersion for Seaweed as Raw Materials for Air Freshener Gel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riardi Pratista Dewa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of submersion KOH 5% for seaweed as raw materials products air freshener gel has been studied. Seaweed in Indonesia has a big potentially and it is commonly used in food products, beverages, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics. This research aims to use seaweed as a feedstock gel air freshener. Soaking seaweed with KOH was conducted to determine the nature of the water content and gel strength of the gel air freshener products generated given the scent of oranges and cloves. KOH concentration used was 5%. The results showed the water content of seaweed with KOH soaked lower than without KOH, whereas the gel strength with marinated seaweed KOH higher than without KOH. The results of organoleptic test, in this case the sense of smell, the air freshener gel product indicates that the product that uses citrus scent perfuming/lemon, panelists preferred more than the product is scented gel air freshener clove oil.

  20. Sweet whey as a raw material for the dietary supplements obtaining with immunomodulatory effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Didukh

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of the study of literary sources to prove the viability of the idea of using sweet whey to deep its fractionation, and to obtain biologically active proteins with immunomodulatory effect. We demonstrated methods for fractionation of milk whey (membrane and chromatographic, as well as the technological scheme of concentration of sweet whey. We introduced the composition of sweet whey and protein content of immunomodulatory action. Modern methods of processing whey, which include, basically, only the process of dehydration and concentration of whey and its use in the complete component composition, which limits its use for food purposes are shown. The necessity of processing of secondary resources in a catastrophic ecological situation on the planet and full use of the composite processing of raw materials for food purposes, and also shows properties of proteins immunomodulating actions which are part of the whey are grounded.

  1. Evaluation of dried sweet sorghum stalks as raw material for methane production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsakas, Leonidas; Rova, Ulrika; Christakopoulos, Paul

    2014-01-01

    The potential of utilizing dried sweet sorghum stalks as raw material for anaerobic digestion has been evaluated. Two different treatments were tested, a mild thermal and an enzymatic, alone or in combination. Thermal pretreatment was found to decrease the methane yields, whereas one-step enzymatic treatment resulted in a significant increase of 15.1% comparing to the untreated sweet sorghum. Subsequently, in order to increase the total methane production, the combined effect of enzyme load and I/S on methane yields from sweet sorghum was evaluated by employing response surface methodology. The obtained model showed that the maximum methane yield that could be achieved is 296 mL CH4/g VS at I/S ratio of 0.35 with the addition of 11.12 FPU/g sweet sorghum.

  2. Isolation and identification of two unknown impurities from the raw material of clindamycin hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qiushi; Li, Yue; Qin, Li

    2014-10-01

    Clindamycin hydrochloride belongs to the antibiotic family of lincomycin. It has the same antibacterial spectrum as lincomycin, but the antibacterial activity is four to eight times stronger than that of lincomycin. There have been some adverse reactions in clinical use of clindamycin hydrochloride and its finished drug products. The impurities in drugs are directly related to their safety. In this study, two unknown impurities were isolated from the raw material of clindamycin hydrochloride through various chromatographic methods. Their structures were identified as clindamycin isomer (impurity 1) and dehydroclindamycin (impurity 2) by mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopy. Both of them were found for the first time. The two impurities exhibit a similar but lower antibacterial activity compared with clindamycin hydrochloride. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Using Residence Time Distributions (RTDs) to Address the Traceability of Raw Materials in Continuous Pharmaceutical Manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engisch, William; Muzzio, Fernando

    Continuous processing in pharmaceutical manufacturing is a relatively new approach that has generated significant attention. While it has been used for decades in other industries, showing significant advantages, the pharmaceutical industry has been slow in its adoption of continuous processing, primarily due to regulatory uncertainty. This paper aims to help address these concerns by introducing methods for batch definition, raw material traceability, and sensor frequency determination. All of the methods are based on established engineering and mathematical principles, especially the residence time distribution (RTD). This paper introduces a risk-based approach to address content uniformity challenges of continuous manufacturing. All of the detailed methods are discussed using a direct compaction manufacturing line as the main example, but the techniques can easily be applied to other continuous manufacturing methods such as wet and dry granulation, hot melt extrusion, capsule filling, etc.

  4. Chemistry based on renewable raw materials: perspectives for a sugar cane-based biorefinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villela Filho, Murillo; Araujo, Carlos; Bonfá, Alfredo; Porto, Weber

    2011-01-01

    Carbohydrates are nowadays a very competitive feedstock for the chemical industry because their availability is compatible with world-scale chemical production and their price, based on the carbon content, is comparable to that of petrochemicals. At the same time, demand is rising for biobased products. Brazilian sugar cane is a competitive feedstock source that is opening the door to a wide range of bio-based products. This essay begins with the importance of the feedstock for the chemical industry and discusses developments in sugar cane processing that lead to low cost feedstocks. Thus, sugar cane enables a new chemical industry, as it delivers a competitive raw material and a source of energy. As a result, sugar mills are being transformed into sustainable biorefineries that fully exploit the potential of sugar cane.

  5. Cassava and turmeric flour blends as new raw materials to extruded snacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Mussato Spinello

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Short cooking time and ability to blend varieties of food ingredients have made extrusion cooking a medium for low-cost and nutritionally improved food products. The effect of moisture, extrusion temperature and amount of turmeric flour mixed with cassava flour on physical characteristic of puffed snacks was evaluated in this work. Extrusion process was carried out using a single-screw extruder in a factorial central composite design with four factors. Results showed effect of extrusion parameters on dependents variables. High expansion, low browning, low water solubility index, intermediate water absorption index and high crispness desirable characteristics to puffed snacks are obtained in conditions of 12% moisture, 5% turmeric flour, 105º C of temperature and 250 rpm of screw speed. These paper point to the potential still unexplored of the use of flours of cassava and turmeric as raw materials in the development of extruded puffed snacks.

  6. Evaluation of Dried Sweet Sorghum Stalks as Raw Material for Methane Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonidas Matsakas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential of utilizing dried sweet sorghum stalks as raw material for anaerobic digestion has been evaluated. Two different treatments were tested, a mild thermal and an enzymatic, alone or in combination. Thermal pretreatment was found to decrease the methane yields, whereas one-step enzymatic treatment resulted in a significant increase of 15.1% comparing to the untreated sweet sorghum. Subsequently, in order to increase the total methane production, the combined effect of enzyme load and I/S on methane yields from sweet sorghum was evaluated by employing response surface methodology. The obtained model showed that the maximum methane yield that could be achieved is 296 mL CH4/g VS at I/S ratio of 0.35 with the addition of 11.12 FPU/g sweet sorghum.

  7. Solubility of fragrance raw materials in water: Experimental study, correlations, and Mod. UNIFAC (Do) predictions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domanska, Urszula, E-mail: ula@ch.pw.edu.p [Department of Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Warsaw University of Technology, Noakowskiego 3, 00-664 Warsaw (Poland); Paduszynski, Kamil; Niszczota, Zaneta K. [Department of Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Warsaw University of Technology, Noakowskiego 3, 00-664 Warsaw (Poland)

    2011-01-15

    The (liquid + liquid) and (solid + liquid) phase equilibria of nine binary mixtures containing fragrance raw materials (FRM) such as aliphatic ketones and compounds based on cyclohexane with water were investigated. The systems {l_brace}2-heptanone, or 2-nonanone, or 2-undecanone, or 2-tridecanone, or cyclohexyl carboxylic acid (CCA), or cyclohexyl acetic acid (CAA), or 2-cyclohexyl ethanol (2CE) or cyclohexyl acetate (CA), or 2-cyclohexyl ethyl acetate (2CEA) + water (2){r_brace} have been measured by a dynamic method in wide range of temperatures from (290 to 360) K and ambient pressure. For all systems immiscibility in the liquid phase was detected. The experimental data was correlated by means of the NRTL equation, utilizing parameters derived from the (liquid + liquid) equilibrium. Additionally, the binary mixtures were predicted with the Mod. UNIFAC (Do) model, with known from literature parameters, with very good results.

  8. Microbial decontamination of cosmetic raw materials and personal care products by irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katusin-Razem, Branka; Mihaljevic, Branka; Razem, D. E-mail: razem@rudjer.irb.hr

    2003-03-01

    Typical levels of sporadically occurring (dynamic) microbial contamination of cosmetic raw materials: pigments, abrasives and liposomes, as well as of final products for personal care: toothpaste, crayons, shampoos, cleansers and creams, were evaluated. In most cases the contamination was dominated by a single population of microorganisms, either Gram-negative bacteria or molds. The feasibility of microbial decontamination by irradiation was studied by determining the resistance to gamma radiation of contaminating microflora in situ. It was expressed as a dose required for the first 90% reduction, D{sub first{sub 90%}{sub red}}. The values in the range 1-2 kGy for molds and 0.1-0.6 kGy for Gram-negative bacteria were obtained. This relatively high susceptibility to irradiation allowed inactivation factors close to 6 to be achieved with doses generally not exceeding 3 kGy, and yielding endpoint contamination less than 10/g.

  9. Glances on the year 1998. Energies and raw materials; Regards sur 1998. Energies et matieres premieres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-11-01

    This report summarizes 14 key-topics of the year 1998 in relation with the French energy and economic policy: the new start-up of energy mastery; the nuclear industry between passion and reason; the labour inspection in nuclear power plants; the law project for the modernizing and development of the electric power public utility; the main gas transportation systems; the future of Gardanne`s mining basin; the raw materials in the upheaval; the French refining activity after the Auto-Oil directive; the oil company fusions; the priorities in petroleum technology research; the policy of automotive fuels distribution; the energy in regions; the mining activity in New Caledonia; the end of the BRGM-Normandy partnership. A calendar of remarkable facts is given at the end. (J.S.)

  10. Branding Raw Material to Improve Human Rights: Intel’s Ban on Conflict Minerals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osburg Thomas

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Many companies seek to take over more responsibility for their supply chain and their raw materials. Intel was one of the first companies investigating the origin of conflict minerals like tin, tantalum, gold or tungsten, which are used in many electronic products. Their path to ultimately offering conflict-free microprocessors took more than five years of consistent preparation and intensive reengineering of the business process. They identified smelters as a bottleneck in the supply chain and started cooperating closely with them to trace their minerals’ supply. By developing a bag-and-tag system the company is now able to ensure that their minerals are not sourced from illegal mines, which often finance illegal warlords, for example, in the eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. The cooperation with the smelters brings about higher demand and in consequence higher prices for the legally sourced minerals. Many small miners and their families in the region directly benefit from the higher earnings.

  11. Antiradical activity and amount of phenolic compounds in extracts obtained from some plant raw materials containing methylxanthine alkaloids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sroka Zbigniew

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Raw materials containing methylxanthine alkaloids such as yerba mate, guaraná, white and green tea, coffee seeds, chocolate and cacao seed powder and extracts obtained from these raw materials were investigated for their antioxidant features and the amount of phenolic compounds. The level of phenolic compounds was measured with the colorimetric method using Folin-Ciocalteu’s phenol reagent and antioxidant features was determined with the use of DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical. Amounts of phenolic compounds were presented in percentages per mass of extracts and mass of raw materials. Antiradical potential was shown as the number of TAUDPPH units per mg of extracts and g of raw materials. The highest number of antiradical units TAUDPPH as well as the amount of phenolic compounds was calculated for white tea and its extracts and lowest for chocolate. The correlation coefficient between the content of phenolics and antiradical features of raw materials is equal to r=0.994.

  12. The use of plasticizing additives based on recycled raw materials in the petrochemical rubber mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. S. Shashok

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available At present, the development of alternative products for elastomers based on recycling petrochemical raw materials is a new trend of the rubber industry progress. Petrochemical raw materials include spent lubricants and motor oils are among such recycling products. In this context, the influence of the products of recycling waste engine oil (DVCH and RA in comparison with industrial oil (I-20 on the technological properties of filled elastomeric compositions was investigated. The elastomeric compositions were based on poly isoprene and divinyl rubbers. The plasticizing components were manufactured by IOOO “DVCH-Menedzhment”. They are mixture of hydro-carbons, C16–C20 and differ from each other in the content of linear and branched paraffin. Plastic-elastic properties of rubber compounds on the shear disk viscometer MV2000 in accordance with GOST 10722–76 was carried out. Kinetics of vulcanization on the rheometer ODR2000 according to GOST 12535–84 was defined. It is shown that the introduction of RA test plasticizing component provides a significant effect on Mooney viscosity, as compared to elastomeric compositions containing a plasticizer and I-20 and plasticizing additive DVCH. It revealed that the administration of all components in the studied plasticizing elastomer compositions based on a combination poly isoprene and divinyl rubbers has no significant effect on the rate of relaxation of stress of rubber compounds. It is found that elastomeric compositions containing as additives investigated processing waste oil products (DVCH and RA are characterized by a slightly smaller value of time to reach an optimal degree of vulcanization.

  13. DETERMINATION OF ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACTS FROM SOME KINDS OF RAW MATERIALS WITH TANNINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyko NN

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents data about determination of antimicrobial activity of extracts from some kinds of raw materials (13 plants with tannins. It was determined some kinds of technological parameters of extracts (concentration of total solids and density. A simple to use valuation method of antimicrobial properties of extracts – well method has been suggested and applied; for quantitative estimation of antimicrobial activity of extracts and compare them with each other, special mathematic method (vector algebra theory has been applied. It was determined parameters of antimicrobial properties of extracts: a complex indicator of medication antimicrobial activity for quantitative estimation of antimicrobial effect - A, and correlation coefficient - r (degree of similarity to the standard, which demonstrate the spectrum of antimicrobial activity of medication. It has been selected the most promising extracts that have the medium antimicrobial activity, which obtained from the root of bergenia crassifolia А=1.89; the root of potentilla erecta А=1.92; the bark of corylus avellana А=1.76; the leaf of cotinus coggygria А=2.21. Low level of antimicrobial activity has been demonstrated by the extract obtained from the cone of alnus incana А=0.78, r=0.58. It is noted antimicrobial properties of the solutions of tannin and gallic acids 0.5% m / m in 70% vol. ethanol, that showed respectively moderate and low strength antimicrobial properties: А=1.65, r=0.99 and А=1.26, r=0.91. This potentially allows to predict the antimicrobial properties of extracts from plants containing derivatives of tannin and gallic acids on their concentration in them. It has been shown in general that raw materials that contain different kinds of tannins have possibility to use in complex phytochemical medications as antimicrobial component.

  14. Raw materials influence the alpha-particle emission rate of AlN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fawcett, T.G.; Knudsen, A.K.; Guiton, T.A.; Quinn, T.J. III; Mills, L.K.; Dunmead, S.D.; Rigot, W.L.; Wijeyesekera, S.D. [Dow Chemical Co., Midland, MI (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Most electronic devices are packaged in plastic, generally epoxy-based molding compounds. Organic compounds serve as effective barriers for alpha particles. However, sensitive or thermally stressed devices often must be packaged in ceramic packages, including Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, glass ceramics, BeO and AlN. Therefore, the concentration of alpha-particle-generating elements and the tendency of the material to induce soft errors in the device must be considered when selecting a ceramic package option. AlN is a relatively new packaging material. It offers high thermal conductivity ({ge}170 W/(m{center_dot}K)), dielectric and mechanical properties comparable to Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and a coefficient of thermal expansion similar to silicon. AlN substrates and packages are produced via pressureless sintering or hot pressing, using high-purity powders and sintering aids, generally alkaline- and/or rare-earth oxides. The concentration of alpha-particle-emitting elements in AlN ceramics depends on the concentration of these elements in the AlN and additive powders. In the present work, the concentration of alpha-particle-generating elements uranium and thorium in AlN powders is shown to be related to the levels of these elements in the raw materials used in AlN powder synthesis.

  15. Comparison of biogas sludge and raw crop material as source of hydrolytic cultures for anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiß, Stefan; Somitsch, Walter; Klymiuk, Ingeborg; Trajanoski, Slave; Guebitz, Georg M

    2016-05-01

    Mixed fermentative/hydrolytic bacteria were enriched on lignocellulose substrates in minimal medium under semi-anaerobic mesophilic conditions in the presence or absence of natural zeolite as growth supporter to ultimately bioaugment non-adapted sludge and thereby enhance the overall anaerobic digestion (AD) of recalcitrant plant material. Desired enzyme activities, i.e. xylanases and cellulase were monitored during subsequent cultivation cycles. Furthermore, enriched microbial communities were characterized by 16S rRNA-based 454-Pyrosequencing, revealing Firmicutes, Bacteriodetes, Proteobacteria and Spirochaetes to be the predominant bacterial groups in cultures derived from anaerobic sludge and raw crop material, i.e. maple green cut and wheat straw as well. Enriched populations relevant for biopolymer hydrolysis were then compared in biological methane potential tests to demonstrate positive effects on the biogasification of renewable plant substrate material. A significant impact on methane productivity was observed with adapted mixed cultures when used in combination with clinoptilolite to augment and supplement non-adapted bioreactor sludge. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Quality assessment of baby food made of different pre-processed organic raw materials under industrial processing conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidel, Kathrin; Kahl, Johannes; Paoletti, Flavio; Birlouez, Ines; Busscher, Nicolaas; Kretzschmar, Ursula; Särkkä-Tirkkonen, Marjo; Seljåsen, Randi; Sinesio, Fiorella; Torp, Torfinn; Baiamonte, Irene

    2015-02-01

    The market for processed food is rapidly growing. The industry needs methods for "processing with care" leading to high quality products in order to meet consumers' expectations. Processing influences the quality of the finished product through various factors. In carrot baby food, these are the raw material, the pre-processing and storage treatments as well as the processing conditions. In this study, a quality assessment was performed on baby food made from different pre-processed raw materials. The experiments were carried out under industrial conditions using fresh, frozen and stored organic carrots as raw material. Statistically significant differences were found for sensory attributes among the three autoclaved puree samples (e.g. overall odour F = 90.72, p baby food.

  17. 1996 Progress report on energies and raw materials; 1996 rapport d`activite energies et matieres premieres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    The 1996 annual progress report, from the French Department of Energy, reviews the key points of the French policy for energy and raw materials: competitiveness, environmental protection, long term supply safety, and public service. 1996 was marked by positive results for the French energy industry, difficulties for the oil refining industry, and a new impetus for renewable energies. Five surveys are presented: nuclear safety in Eastern Europe, the european directive on electric power domestic market, evolution of the oil market, conditions of refining in France, and restructuring of the Mine bureau (BRGM). 40 prominent facts are briefly reviewed, concerning sustainable energy development, nuclear energy, electric power and gas, coal, oil products, raw materials. Diagrams on energy and raw materials are also included

  18. Aluminium content of some processed foods, raw materials and food additives in China by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Gui-Fang; Li, Ke; Ma, Jing; Liu, Fen; Dai, Jing-Jing; Li, Hua-Bin

    2011-01-01

    The level of aluminium in 178 processed food samples from Shenzhen city in China was evaluated using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Some processed foods contained a concentration of up to 1226 mg/kg, which is about 12 times the Chinese food standard. To establish the main source in these foods, Al levels in the raw materials were determined. However, aluminium concentrations in raw materials were low (0.10-451.5 mg/kg). Therefore, aluminium levels in food additives used in these foods was determined and it was found that some food additives contained a high concentration of aluminium (0.005-57.4 g/kg). The results suggested that, in the interest of public health, food additives containing high concentrations of aluminium should be replaced by those containing less. This study has provided new information on aluminium levels in Chinese processed foods, raw materials and a selection of food additives.

  19. Properties of Residue from Olive Oil Extraction as a Raw Material for Sustainable Construction Materials. Part I: Physical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almudena Díaz-García

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Action on climate, the environment, and the efficient use of raw materials and resources are important challenges facing our society. Against this backdrop, the construction industry must adapt to new trends and environmentally sustainable construction systems, thus requiring lines of research aimed at keeping energy consumption in new buildings as low as possible. One of the main goals of this research is to efficiently contribute to reducing the amount of residue from olive oil extraction using a two-phase method. This can be achieved by producing alternative structural materials to be used in the construction industry by means of a circular economy. The technical feasibility of adding said residue to ceramic paste was proven by analyzing the changes produced in the physical properties of the paste, which were then compared to the properties of the reference materials manufactured with clay without residue. Results obtained show that the heating value of wet pomace can contribute to the thermal needs of the sintering process, contributing 30% of energy in pieces containing 3% of said material. Likewise, adding larger amounts of wet pomace to the clay body causes a significant decrease in bulk density values.

  20. Properties of Residue from Olive Oil Extraction as a Raw Material for Sustainable Construction Materials. Part I: Physical Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-García, Almudena; Martínez-García, Carmen; Cotes-Palomino, Teresa

    2017-01-25

    Action on climate, the environment, and the efficient use of raw materials and resources are important challenges facing our society. Against this backdrop, the construction industry must adapt to new trends and environmentally sustainable construction systems, thus requiring lines of research aimed at keeping energy consumption in new buildings as low as possible. One of the main goals of this research is to efficiently contribute to reducing the amount of residue from olive oil extraction using a two-phase method. This can be achieved by producing alternative structural materials to be used in the construction industry by means of a circular economy. The technical feasibility of adding said residue to ceramic paste was proven by analyzing the changes produced in the physical properties of the paste, which were then compared to the properties of the reference materials manufactured with clay without residue. Results obtained show that the heating value of wet pomace can contribute to the thermal needs of the sintering process, contributing 30% of energy in pieces containing 3% of said material. Likewise, adding larger amounts of wet pomace to the clay body causes a significant decrease in bulk density values.

  1. Occurrence of Escherichia coli O157 in raw material and food in Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukásová, J; Abraham, B; Cupáková, S

    2004-03-01

    The study was carried out to investigate the incidence of Escherichia coli O157 in raw materials, foodstuffs and the agricultural environment. Of a total of 987 samples examined, 22 strains (2.2%) were identified as E. coli O157 and 10 of them as E. coli O157:H7. Cefixime-Tellurite MacConkey sorbitol agar (CT-SMAC) agar and Biosynth culture medium (BCM) E. coli O157:7 medium were used for the isolation. The virulence factors (stx1, stx2, eae, and ehxA genes) were identified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Most strains were isolated from the mechanically deboned poultry meat (nine), minced meat (six) and raw milk (four). One strain was isolated from beef carcass and two strains from waste water. No strains were were found in mass for sausages, refreshment salads, swabs of pork and poultry carcasses and faeces of cattle and pigs. Ten strains from the 22 identified proved to be positive for all factors of virulence. They were isolated from minced meat (four), raw milk (four), waste water (one) and swab from beef carcass (one). Sensitivity to the antimicrobial drugs ampicillin (AMS), ampicillin-sublactam (SAM), tetracycline (TET), ofloxacine (OFL), cefuroxime (CRX), chloramphenicol (CPM), gentamicine (GEN), colistin (COL), cephalozine (CLZ), cefoxitin (CXT), aztreonam (AZT), and sulphamethoxazole + trimethoprim (COT) was tested using the standard dilution technique and disc diffusion test. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) characteristics (MIC(50), MIC(90), MIC range) and inhibitory zone diameter were determined for each strain. As determined by MICs, the resistance to tested antibiotics in E. coli O157 isolates was found to AMS (90.9%), CLZ (81.8%), CRX (63.6%), CXT (72.7%), CPM (72.7%), TET (81.8%), SAM (59.1%), COT (9.1%), COL (63.61%), AZT (9%) and GEN (4.5%). The similar results were obtained using the disc diffusion method. The differences were found relating to SAM, CXT, CMO and TET. Resistance against one or more antibiotics was found in 95.4% of E

  2. Visual and colorimetric methods for rapid determination of total tannins in vegetable raw materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. Kalinkina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to the development of rapid colorimetric method for determining the amount of tannins in aqueous extracts of vegetable raw materials. The sorption-based colorimetric test is determining sorption tannins polyurethane foam, impregnated of FeCl3, receiving on its surface painted in black and green color of the reaction products and the determination of their in sorbent matrix. Selectivity is achieved by determining the tannins specific interaction of polyphenols with iron ions (III. The conditions of sorption-colorimetric method: the concentration of ferric chloride (III, impregnated in the polyurethane foam; sorbent mass in the analytical cartridge; degree of loading his agent; the contact time of the phases. color scales have been developed for the visual determination of the amount of tannins in terms of gallic acid. Spend a digitized image obtained scales using computer program “Sorbfil TLC”, excluding a subjective assessment of the intensity of the color scale of the test. The results obtained determine the amount of tannins in aqueous extracts of vegetable raw rapid method using tablets and analytical cartridges. The results of the test determination of tannins with visual and densitometric analytical signal registration are compared to known methods. Spend a metrological evaluation of the results of determining the amount of tannins sorption rapid colorimetric methods. Time visual and densitometric rapid determination of tannins, taking into account the sample preparation is 25–30 minutes, the relative error does not exceed 28 %. The developed test methods for quantifying the content of tannins allow to exclude the use of sophisticated analytical equipment, carry out the analysis in non-laboratory conditions do not require highly skilled personnel.

  3. Use of pig by-products (bristles and hooves) as alternative protein raw material in fish feed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gachango, Florence Gathoni; Ekmann, K.S.; Frørup, J.

    2017-01-01

    Increasing growth in the aquaculture industry calls for employment of innovative technologies that will ensure sustainability in the sector, given the rising competition for feed raw material. A technology that can convert low quality biological waste resources such as pig bristles and hooves...... produced from this raw material among fish farmers. The study applies a contingent valuation analysis to investigate the potential market. The study finds a general acceptability of these resources by the sampled fish feed producers, and fish farmers. A willingness to buy the resources at existing market...

  4. Assessment of performance of new working bodies of shell type for food raw materials cleaning and grinding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alekseev G. V.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The analytical evaluation of effectiveness of new working bodies for improving equipment has been given. The equipment should provide the most complete preservation of useful nutrients in the manufacture of various kinds of food products. The ever-dwindling resources of food raw materials give relevance of the issues under review. In such circumstances the loss of nutrients while processing food production, especially in the stages of its cleaning and grinding becomes completely unacceptable. This is even more important as often in near-surface zones directly adjacent to the shells or the skin of the raw materials supplied for processing a significant portion of such substances is contained. The same pattern is observed in some types of unconventional raw materials increasingly involved in the production process of food products, they are for example lupine and amaranth. The problem forced the developers of technological equipment to seek ways of reducing the thickness removed from the surface of the raw material layer. This became available when using an abrasive tool in which the elastic materials are the substrate for attaching abrasive grain, these materials allow accurately reproducing the shape of the treated surface. The development and implementation of such working bodies is difficult because of lack of their production basis.

  5. A hazardous waste from secondary aluminium metallurgy as a new raw material for calcium aluminate glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Delgado, Aurora; Tayibi, Hanan; Pérez, Carlos; Alguacil, Francisco José; López, Félix Antonio

    2009-06-15

    A solid waste coming from the secondary aluminium industry was successfully vitrified in the ternary CaO-Al(2)O(3)-SiO(2) system at 1500 degrees C. This waste is a complex material which is considered hazardous because of its behaviour in the presence of water or moisture. In these conditions, the dust can generate gases such as H(2), NH(3), CH(4), H(2)S, along with heat and potential aluminothermy. Only silica sand and calcium carbonate were added as external raw materials to complete the glasses formula. Different nominal compositions of glasses, with Al(2)O(3) ranging between 20% and 54%, were studied to determine the glass forming area. The glasses obtained allow the immobilisation of up to 75% of waste in a multicomponent oxide system in which all the components of the waste are incorporated. The microhardness Hv values varied between 6.05 and 6.62GPa and the linear thermal expansion coefficient, alpha, varied between (62 and 139)x10(-7)K(-1). Several glasses showed a high hydrolytic resistance in deionised water at 98 degrees C.

  6. Introducing LIR (Lithotheque Ireland, a reference collection of flaked stone tool raw materials from Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Killian Driscoll

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The LIR (Lithotheque Ireland reference collection of flaked stone tool raw materials from Ireland began in 2013, and is based on the geological prospection from two projects. The first (2013-2015 focused attention primarily on Carboniferous cherts from the northwest of Ireland, collecting 405 samples. The second (2015-2017 is currently collecting samples of the Cretaceous flint primarily from in situ contexts in the northeast of Ireland, but also includes beach surveys of Cretaceous flint from around the island; the first phase of geological prospection in Autumn 2015 collected 239 samples, with the geological prospection continuing in 2016. Therefore, to date the collection contains over 600 hand samples of chert and flint, along with a small number of other materials (siliceous limestone, tuff, mudstone. The physical reference collection is housed at the UCD School of Archaeology, University College Dublin and contains the geological hand samples along with the various thin sections of the samples that are used for petrographic analysis. The physical collection is complemented by an online database that is to be used alongside the physical collection, or can be used as a stand-alone resource. This paper provides an overview of the database’s metadata and the processes of data entry and editing, to serve as a reference point for the database and the fieldwork undertaken to date, and to serve as a template for other researchers undertaking similar work on lithic reference collections.

  7. Development of antiferromagnetic Heusler alloys for the replacement of iridium as a critically raw material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirohata, Atsufumi; Huminiuc, Teodor; Sinclair, John; Wu, Haokaifeng; Samiepour, Marjan; Vallejo-Fernandez, Gonzalo; O'Grady, Kevin; Balluf, Jan; Meinert, Markus; Reiss, Günter; Simon, Eszter; Khmelevskyi, Sergii; Szunyogh, Laszlo; Yanes Díaz, Rocio; Nowak, Ulrich; Tsuchiya, Tomoki; Sugiyama, Tomoko; Kubota, Takahide; Takanashi, Koki; Inami, Nobuhito; Ono, Kanta

    2017-11-01

    As a platinum group metal, iridium (Ir) is the scarcest element on the earth but it has been widely used as an antiferromagnetic layer in magnetic recording, crucibles and spark plugs due to its high melting point. In magnetic recording, antiferromagnetic layers have been used to pin its neighbouring ferromagnetic layer in a spin-valve read head in a hard disk drive for example. Recently, antiferromagnetic layers have also been found to induce a spin-polarised electrical current. In these devices, the most commonly used antiferromagnet is an Ir-Mn alloy because of its corrosion resistance and the reliable magnetic pinning of adjacent ferromagnetic layers. It is therefore crucial to explore new antiferromagnetic materials without critical raw materials. In this review, recent research on new antiferromagnetic Heusler alloys and their exchange interactions along the plane normal is discussed. These new antiferromagnets are characterised by very sensitive magnetic and electrical measurement techniques recently developed to determine their characteristic temperatures together with atomic structural analysis. Mn-based alloys and compounds are found to be most promising based on their robustness against atomic disordering and large pinning strength up to 1.4 kOe, which is comparable with that for Ir-Mn. The search for new antiferromagnetic films and their characterisation are useful for further miniaturisation and development of spintronic devices in a sustainable manner.

  8. Assessment of the natural radioactivity and radiological hazards in Turkish cement and its raw materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turhan, S

    2008-02-01

    The natural radioactivity due to presence of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K radionuclides in raw materials, intermediate products (clinker) and end products (22 different cement types) was measured using a gamma-ray spectrometry with HPGe detector. The specific radioactivity of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in the analyzed cement samples ranged from 12.5+/-0.3 to 162.5+/-1.7Bqkg(-1) with a mean of 40.5+/-26.7Bqkg(-1), 6.7+/-0.3 to 124.9+/-2.5Bqkg(-1) with a mean of 26.1+/-18.9Bqkg(-1) and 64.4+/-2.3 to 679.3+/-18.2Bqkg(-1) with a mean of 267.1+/-102.4Bqkg(-1), respectively. The radium equivalent activity (Ra(eq)), the gamma-index, the emanation coefficient, the (222)Rn mass exhalation rate and the indoor absorbed dose rate were estimated for the radiation hazard of the natural radioactivity in all samples. The calculated Ra(eq) values of cement samples (37.2+/-8.7-331.1+/-15.5Bqkg(-1) with a mean of 98.3+/-53.8) are lower than the limit of 370Bqkg(-1) set for building materials. The Ra(eq) values were compared with the corresponding values for cement of different countries. The mean indoor absorbed dose rate is slightly higher than the population-weighted average of 84nGyh(-1).

  9. Meteorite as raw material for Direct Metal Printing: A proof of concept study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lietaert, Karel; Thijs, Lore; Neirinck, Bram; Lapauw, Thomas; Morrison, Brian; Lewicki, Chris; Van Vaerenbergh, Jonas

    2018-02-01

    Asteroid mining as such is not a new concept, as it has been described in science fiction for more than a century and some of its aspects have been studied by academia for more than 30 years. Recently, there is a renewed interest in this subject due the more and more concrete plans for long-duration space missions and the need for resources to support industrial activity in space. The use of locally available resources would greatly improve the economics and sustainability of such missions. Due to its economy in material, use of additive manufacturing (AM) provides an interesting route to valorize these resources for the production of spare parts, tools and large-scale structures optimized for their local microgravity environment. Proof of concept has already been provided for AM of moon regolith. In this paper the concept of In-Situ Resource Utilization is extended towards the production of metallic objects using powdered iron meteorite as raw material. The meteorite-based powder was used to produce a structural part but further research is needed to obtain a high density part without microcracks.

  10. SCREENING OF ANTIMICROBIAL PROPERTIES OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACTS FROM SOME KINDS OF RAW MATERIALS WITH QUINONEDERIVATIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyko N.N.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents data on screening of antimicrobial properties of extracts from some kinds of raw materials (18 plants with hydroquinone, naphtoquinone or anthraquinone derivatives. Some technological parameters of extracts (density and concentration of extraneous substances have been determined. The most appropriate microbiological method of studying antimicrobial properties of extracts, diffusion method of “well”, has been applied; special mathematic method of comparison of antimicrobial properties of extracts vector analysis has been applied in order to study and to compare antimicrobial properties of extracts. Indexes of antimicrobial properties of extracts have been determined: a complex index of medicinal product antimicrobial activity for quantitative estimation of antimicrobial effect - A, and square of correlation coefficient - r², which demonstrates the spectrum of antimicrobial activity of the extracts (degree of similarity to the standard. The most active extracts have been selected; they have antimicrobial properties of medium strength: from the herb of chimaphila umbellata А=2.20; the fruits of rhamnus cathartica А=2.12; the root of rubia tinctorum А=2.11; the bark of frangula alnus А=2.05; the root of rumex confertus А=2.04; the leaf of pyrola rotundifolia А=2.00; and leaf of arctostaphylos uva-ursi А=2.08 (but extract from uva-ursi did not affected on 2 strains of microorganisms r²=0.64. Low levels of antimicrobial activity have been demonstrated by the extract obtained from the leaf of urtica dioica А=0.72, r²=0.34. The mean result of the complex index of antimicrobial activity for the most of extracts from plants containing quinonederivatives is A = 1.77 (on 70% vol. ethanol at a ratio of raw material : extracting agent – 1:7 wt. : vol. and may range from 0.68 to 2.85. The mean result of the correlation coefficient is r = 0.93 and may range from 0.59 to 0.99. The mean result of the concentration of

  11. Impact of balanced tetrastarch raw material on perioperative blood loss: a randomized double blind controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joosten, A; Tircoveanu, R; Arend, S; Wauthy, P; Gottignies, P; Van der Linden, P

    2016-10-01

    As 6% hydroxyethyl starch (HES) 130/0.40 or 130/0.42 can originate from different vegetable sources, they might have different clinical effects. The purpose of this prospective, randomized, double-blind controlled trial was to compare two balanced tetrastarch solutions, one maize-derived and one potato-derived, on perioperative blood loss in patients undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). We randomly assigned 118 patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery into two groups, to receive either a maize- or a potato-derived HES solution. Study fluids were administered perioperatively (including priming of CPB) until the second postoperative day (POD#2) using a goal directed algorithm. The primary outcome was calculated postoperative blood loss up to POD#2. Secondary outcomes included short-term incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI), and long-term effect (up to one yr) on renal function. Preoperative and intraoperative characteristics of the subjects were similar between groups. Similar volumes of HES were administered (1950 ml [1250-2325] for maize-HES and 2000 ml [1500-2700] for potato-HES; P=0.204). Calculated blood loss (504 ml [413-672] for maize-HES vs 530 ml [468-705] for potato-HES; P=0.107) and the need for blood components were not different between groups. The incidence of AKI was similar in both groups (P=0.111). Plasma creatinine concentration and glomerular filtration rates did vary over time, although changes were minimal. Under our study conditions, HES 130/0.4 or 130/0.42 raw material did not have a significant influence on perioperative blood loss. Moreover, we did not find any effect of tetrastarch raw material composition on short and long-term renal function. EudraCT number: 2011-005920-16. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Journal of Anaesthesia. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. The effect of raw material contamination with mycotoxins on the composition of alcoholic fermentation volatile by-products in raw spirits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kłosowski, Grzegorz; Mikulski, Dawid

    2010-12-01

    The effects of the mycotoxins, aflatoxin B(1), B(2), G(1), G(2) (AF), ochratoxin A, (OTA), zearalenone (ZEA), deoxynivalenol (DON), and fumonisin B(1) (FB(1)) added to corn grain mashes on the composition of fermentation volatile by-products in raw spirits were determined. Except for FB(1), the mycotoxins increased acetaldehyde concentration in the obtained spirits from about 30% to 100% in relation to the control set (30.9+/-1.0mg of acetaldehyde/L EtOH). The largest effect was observed for OTA and AF contaminations (65.9+/-5.9 and 62.4+/-5.0mg/L EtOH, respectively). At the concentrations used (ppb): FB(1), 1875; FB(2), 609; FB(3), 195; DON, 2274; ZEA, 352; AFB(1), 11.65; AFB(2), 12.6; AFG(1), 12.34; AFG(2), 12.04; OTA, 177.5, the mycotoxins did not have a significant effect on the total level of higher alcohols in distillates. As compared to the control, contamination with OTA and FB(1) decreased the 3-methyl-1-butanol concentration by 11.2% and 12.6% respectively, whereas AF decreased the 2-methyl-1-butanol concentration by 14.9%. The mycotoxins AF, ZEA, FB(1), had no significant effect on the concentration of total esters. Whereas OTA caused twofold higher esters concentration in the distillates, DON lowered esters concentration by 32% as compared to control. Presented results show that quantitative changes in composition of volatile fermentation by-products in raw spirits can be related to the presence of increased level of mycotoxins in raw material, especially in the absence of other identifiable factors disturbing the normal course of process. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Primary Copper Smelter and Refinery as a Recycling Plant—A System Integrated Approach to Estimate Secondary Raw Material Tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olof Forsén

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The primary production of sulfide concentrates includes smelting to copper matte or blister copper, conversion of matte to blister copper, and refining to copper. Smelting, converting, and fire-refining can use a limited amount of secondary materials. Molten copper can effectively dissolve many metals, from valuable noble metals to harmful impurities such as bismuth. However, some of the impurity metals in copper are valuable in other applications. In this paper, we outline the main material flows in copper smelting and electrorefining and describe how minor metals can be recovered from secondary raw materials using copper as a carrier material. We will use a system integrated approach to define the factors that affect the recovery of different metals and copper quality. Metals typical in copper production are used as examples, like noble metals, As, Bi, Se, and Te, including metals in the EU critical raw materials list like PGM and Sb.

  14. The Energy & Raw Materials Factory: Role and Potential Contribution to the Circular Economy of the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leeuwen, Kees; de Vries, Eli; Koop, Stef; Roest, Kees

    2018-01-30

    Water is an abundant resource worldwide, but fresh and clean water is scarce in many areas of the world. Increases in water consumption and climate change will affect global water security even further in the near future. With increasing numbers of people living in metropolitan areas, water, energy, and materials need to be used carefully, reused and renewed. Resource scarcity is the driver behind the circular economy. The recovery of materials and energy can add significant new value streams and improve cost recovery and water quality. In this paper, we present the creation of the Energy & Raw Materials Factory (ERMF) of the Dutch Water Authorities, also known as the Resource Factory, as one of the solutions to this global challenge of water in the circular economy. Resources like cellulose, bioplastics, phosphate, alginate-like exopolymers from aerobic granular sludge (bio-ALE), and biomass can be recovered. Bio-ALE is an alginate-like polymer of sugars and proteins and can be used in agriculture and horticulture, the paper industry, medical, and construction industries. The ERMF demands significant investments but the return on investment is high both from a financial and environmental perspective, provided that markets can be realized. Experiences in the Netherlands show that the concept of the ERMF is viable and adds to the creation of a circular economy. Achieving climate neutrality and production of new and promising resources like bio-ALE are possible. The ERMF can contribute to the sustainable development goals (SDGs) of the United Nations on water and sanitation, once fully operational.

  15. Red mud as secondary source for critical raw materials - purification of rare earth elements by liquid/liquid extraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ujaczki, Éva; Zimmermann, Yannick; Gasser, Christoph; Molnár, Mónika; Feigl, Viktória; Lenz, Markus

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Critical raw materials (CRM) are crucial to Europe's economy and essential to maintaining and improving our quality of life due to their usage for production of many devices. Red mud is generated from alumina production where bauxite is digested in hot sodium hydroxide solution during

  16. Upper Palaeolithic lithic raw material sourcing in Central and Northern Portugal as an aid to reconstructing hunter-gatherer societies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry Aubry

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We present the results of the study of lithic raw materials used in Upper Palaeolithic occupations preserved in caves, rockshelters and open-air sites from two different geological environments in Portugal. For the sites located in the Lusitanian Basin, flint or silcrete sources are easily available in close vicinity. The Côa Valley sites, located in the Iberian Massif, are within a geological environment where restricted fine-grained vein quartz and siliceous metamorphic rocks are available, but no flint or silcrete, even though both are present in the archaeological assemblages. Data from the two clusters of sites are compared with a third newly located site in the Lower Vouga valley, at the limit of the Iberian Massif with the Lusitanian Basin, where quartz vein raw material types are locally available and flint is about 40 kilometres distant. This study reveals prehistoric adaptations to these different geological contexts, with shorter networks for the Lusitanian basin sites contrasting with the long distance ones for the Côa Valley, and the Vouga site at an intermediary position. Finally, we propose that lithic raw material supply networks, defined by a GIS least-cost algorithm, could be used as a proxy not only for territoriality in the case of local and regional lithic raw material sources, but also to infer long-distance social networks between different Palaeolithic human groups, created and maintained to promote the access to asymmetrically distributed resources.

  17. Effects and detection of raw material variability on the performance of near-infrared calibration models for pharmaceutical products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igne, Benoit; Shi, Zhenqi; Drennen, James K; Anderson, Carl A

    2014-02-01

    The impact of raw material variability on the prediction ability of a near-infrared calibration model was studied. Calibrations, developed from a quaternary mixture design comprising theophylline anhydrous, lactose monohydrate, microcrystalline cellulose, and soluble starch, were challenged by intentional variation of raw material properties. A design with two theophylline physical forms, three lactose particle sizes, and two starch manufacturers was created to test model robustness. Further challenges to the models were accomplished through environmental conditions. Along with full-spectrum partial least squares (PLS) modeling, variable selection by dynamic backward PLS and genetic algorithms was utilized in an effort to mitigate the effects of raw material variability. In addition to evaluating models based on their prediction statistics, prediction residuals were analyzed by analyses of variance and model diagnostics (Hotelling's T(2) and Q residuals). Full-spectrum models were significantly affected by lactose particle size. Models developed by selecting variables gave lower prediction errors and proved to be a good approach to limit the effect of changing raw material characteristics. Hotelling's T(2) and Q residuals provided valuable information that was not detectable when studying only prediction trends. Diagnostic statistics were demonstrated to be critical in the appropriate interpretation of the prediction of quality parameters. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  18. Environmental assessment of sewage sludge as secondary raw material in cement production--a case study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jinglan; Li, Xiangzhi

    2011-06-01

    A life cycle assessment was carried out to estimate the environmental impact of sewage sludge as secondary raw material in cement production. To confirm and add credibility to the study, uncertainty analysis was conducted. Results showed the impact generated from respiratory inorganics, terrestrial ecotoxicity, global warming, and non-renewable energy categories had an important contribution to overall environmental impact, due to energy, clinker, and limestone production stages. Also, uncertainty analysis results showed the technology of sewage sludge as secondary raw material in cement production had little or no effect on changing the overall environmental potential impact generated from general cement production. Accordingly, using the technology of sewage sludge as secondary raw material in cement production is a good choice for reducing the pressure on the environment from dramatically increased sludge disposal. In addition, increasing electricity recovery rate, choosing natural gas fired electricity generation technology, and optimizing the raw material consumption in clinker production are highly recommended to reduce the adverse effects on the environment. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. NUTRITIONAL VALUE OF LOW IN GLUTEN PUREE OBTAINED FROM RAW MATERIAL – CHESTNUT AND FLOUR – CHESTNUT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dida Iserliyska

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the results about the nutritional value of puree made from raw material chestnut demonstrated considerably low gluten content (0,01 g/100 g, relatively high energy value (300 to 330 kcal/kg and low content of lipids (about 1 %.

  20. Neutron activation determination of rhenium in mineral raw materials of complex composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiryaeva, M.B.; Lyubimova, L.N.; Salmin, Yu.P.; Ryumina, K.N.; Tatarkin, M.A.

    1984-01-01

    The method of neutron-activation rhenium determination in mineral raw material of complex composition is developed, according to which easily hydrolized elements: scandium, iron, lanthanum, ytterbium, protactinium, hafnium and partially ruthenium and osmium are isolated in the form of hydroxides after smelting of a sample, which has been previously irradiated in nuclear reactor (thermal neutron flux 1.2 x 10 T n/cmSxs for 22 hr) with sodium peroxide and leaching of the melt by water. To separate Re from other interfering elements extraction of perrhenate-ion by methylethylketone from alkali solution is used. Interfering effect of gold is eliminated by its extraction with TBP 30% solution in toluene or benzene from 1 M HNO3. Activity of rhenium preparations, singled out from samples of comparison, is measured, using multichannel el-spectrometer with Ge(Li)-coaxial detector of high resolution (approximately 2.0-2.2 keV over the line 122 keVV Co). Relative standard deviation in Re content range 5 x 10 X - 5 x 10 S% does not exceed 0.3.

  1. Effect of calcium phosphate addition on sintering of El-Oued sand quartz raw materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Foughali

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This work addresses the development of an eventual low cost ceramic insulating or microfiltration membrane supports from inexpensive raw materials such Eloued quartz sand (EQS and calcium phosphate (CP using uniaxially dry compaction method. The prepared samples were sintered at different temperatures ranging between 1200 and 1550 ºC. Subsequently, the effects of sintering temperature and amount of CP on samples proprieties were investigated. It is observed that X-ray diffracion measurements confirmed that EQS was transformed into cristobalite and tridymite phases when both sintering temperature and holding time were increased. This transformation is favored with increasing amount of CP, it is observed also formation of CaSiO3 and Ca(Fe(AlPO4. The SEM images of the samples sintered at different temperatures illustrate that silica grains, CP grains, intergranular phase contents (Si, Ca, P, and O and an important open porosity depend on the sintering temperature. The porosity ratio changes in the range between 37% and 34% according to sintering temperature and to CP content; these values are in good agreement with SEM images. The thermal expansion behavior shows a weak expansion in the range of temperature between 600 and 1000 ºC which is situated between 1.27% and 1.33% (variation of 0.05% at 400 ºC.

  2. Sintering and dielectric properties of a technical porcelain prepared from economical natural raw materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasrani, S.; Harabi, A.; Barama, S.-E.; Foughali, L.; Benhassine, M. T., E-mail: souad478@yahoo.fr, E-mail: harabi52@gmail.com, E-mail: sebarama@usa.com, E-mail: foughali_lazhar@yahoo.fr, E-mail: mtb25dz@gmail.com [Ceramics Lab. Mentouri University of Constantine (Algeria); Aldhayan, D.M., E-mail: aldhayan@ksu.edu.sa [Chemistry Department, Riyadh, King Saud University (Saudi Arabia)

    2016-10-15

    In this study, the production of a technical porcelain, for the ceramic dielectric applications by using economical natural raw materials, was investigated. The basic porcelain composition was selected consisting of 30 wt% kaolin, 45 wt% potash-feldspar and 25 wt% quartz. The obtained phases in the sintered samples were investigated by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis, and scanning electron microscopy images. It has been confirmed by these techniques that the main crystalline phases were quartz and mullite. Dielectric measurements of technical porcelains have been carried out at 1 kHz from room temperature to 200 °C. The dielectric constant, loss factor, dielectric loss tangent, and resistivity of the porcelain sample sintered at 1160 °C were 22-25, 0.32-1.80, 0.006-0.07, and 0.2-9 x 10{sup 13} Ω.cm, respectively. The value of dielectric constant was significantly high when compared to that of conventional porcelains which did not exceed generally 9. (author)

  3. Emergy efficiency analysis of sugarcane as a raw material for ethanol production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edney Leandro da Vitória

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In recent years, the expansion of sugarcane cultivation in Brazil and its growing importance in the Brazilian economy have been driven by a sharp increase in fuel alcohol production. This increase in fuel alcohol production was accompanied by increasing interest regarding the impacts of fuel crops in Brazil. In this study, regions of sugarcane expansion into deforested areas in the Atlantic Forest were studied by applying the emergy theory and indices. Environmental and economic inputs and the sustainability of the sugarcane production system were evaluated with the emergy method. The transformity (TR was equal to 1.78E+11 seJ kg-1, the yield rate (EYR was equal to 1.30, the investment rate was equal to 3.29, the environmental load rate was equal to 4.33, the renewability rate was equal to 18.77, and the exchange rate was equal to 1.09. The emergy indices of corn, cassava, wheat, and sugarcane (as raw materials for ethanol production were used. In Brazil, sugarcane production for ethanol production was more emergetically sustainable based on the analysed emergy indices.

  4. Isolation of Methyl Laurate from Coconut Oil as Raw Material for Fatty Alcohol Sulfate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Arbianti

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Methyl laurate is a raw or base material for many industries, including surfactant industries. In this research, coconut oil (VCO is transesterified with methanol to produce methyl ester, using NaOH as the catalyst. Methyl laurate is then separated by method based on the difference in melting point. This research focuses at determining the effects of some variables in transesterification on the concentration of produced methyl laurate. The variables are temperature (40 oC, 50 oC, 60 oC, 80 oC, time of transesterification reaction (0,5 hour, 1 hour, 1,5 hours, 2 hours, 3 hours, and the percent weight of the catalyst NaOH (0,5 %, 1 %, 1,5 %, 2 %, 3 %. Research showed the concentration of methyl laurate increased, following the increased temperature, time, and percent weight of catalysts. Optimal conditions were acquired at reaction temperature of 60oC, reaction time of 2 hours, and percent weight of the catalyst NaOH of 2 %. Laurate acid conversionto methyl laurate that yielded from optimal conditions, after the separation based on melting point, was 55,61 %.

  5. Study of Raw Materials Treatment by Melting and Gasification Process in Plasma Arc Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter KURILLA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The world consumption of metals and energy has increased in last few decades and it is still increasing. Total volume production results to higher waste production. Raw material basis of majority metals and fossil fuels for energy production is more complex and current waste treatment has long term tendency. Spent power cells of different types have been unneeded and usually they are classified as dangerous waste. This important issue is the main topic of the thesis, in which author describes pyrometallurgical method for storage batteries – power cells and catalysts treatment. During the process there were tested a trial of spent NiMH, Li – ion power cells and spent copper catalysts with metal content treatment by melting and gasification process in plasma arc reactor. The synthetic gas produced from gasification process has been treated by cogenerations micro turbines units for energy recovery. The metal and slag from treatment process are produced into two separately phases and they were analyzing continually.

  6. VEGETATIVE RAW MATERIAL FOR RECEPTION OF THE PETROLEUM PRODUCTS AND ENERGY SECURITY OF REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duca G.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The problem of increase of energy security of Republic Moldova is examined due to use of own power resources. Application of a biodiesel engine, bioethanol in mixes with traditional kinds of fuel (diesel fuel and gasoline is possible without updating a design of existing engines of internal combustion and can be economic for agriculture and on transport. Results of experiments on definition износоустойчивости lubricants received of vegetative raw material of local manufacture are resulted. Use of bioethanol as the additive to gasoline will lower his{its} cost, will reduce consumption of gasoline to 15-20 % and will allow to reduce considerably harmful emissions in an atmosphere, ecological safety that will favorably be reflected on health of the population will be raised. Manufacture of lubricants with use рапсового oils also will allow to receive serious economic benefit.

  7. Utilization of Sandy Soil as the Primary Raw Material in Production of Unfired Bricks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilan Tao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, attempts were made to use sandy soil as the main raw material in making unfired bricks. The sprayed-cured brick specimens were tested for compressive and flexural strength, rate of water absorption, percentage of voids, bulk density, freezing/thawing, and water immersion resistance. In addition, the microstructures of the specimens were also studied using scanning electron microscope (SEM and X-ray diffraction (XRD technique. The test results show that unfired brick specimens with the addition of ground-granulated blast-furnace slag (GGBS tend to achieve better mechanical properties when compared with the specimens that added cement alone, with GGBS correcting particle size distribution and contributing to the pozzolanic reactions and the pore-filling effects. The test specimens with the appropriate addition of cement, GGBS, quicklime, and gypsum are dense and show a low water absorption rate, a low percentage of voids, and an excellent freezing/thawing and water immersion resistance. The SEM observation and XRD analysis verify the formation of hydrate products C–S–H and ettringite, providing a better explanation of the mechanical and physical behavior and durability of the derived unfired bricks. The results obtained suggest that there is a technical approach for the high-efficient comprehensive utilization of sandy soil and provide increased economic and environmental benefits.

  8. Staphylococcus xylosus fermentation of pork fatty waste: raw material for biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Roger Vasques; Paz, Matheus Francisco da; Duval, Eduarda Hallal; Corrêa, Luciara Bilhalva; Corrêa, Érico Kunde

    2016-01-01

    The need for cleaner sources of energy has stirred research into utilising alternate fuel sources with favourable emission and sustainability such as biodiesel. However, there are technical constraints that hinder the widespread use of some of the low cost raw materials such as pork fatty wastes. Currently available technology permits the use of lipolytic microorganisms to sustainably produce energy from fat sources; and several microorganisms and their metabolites are being investigated as potential energy sources. Thus, the aim of this study was to characterise the process of Staphylococcus xylosus mediated fermentation of pork fatty waste. We also wanted to explore the possibility of fermentation effecting a modification in the lipid carbon chain to reduce its melting point and thereby act directly on one of the main technical barriers to obtaining biodiesel from this abundant source of lipids. Pork fatty waste was obtained from slaughterhouses in southern Brazil during evisceration of the carcasses and the kidney casing of slaughtered animals was used as feedstock. Fermentation was performed in BHI broth with different concentrations of fatty waste and for different time periods which enabled evaluation of the effect of fermentation time on the melting point of swine fat. The lowest melting point was observed around 46°C, indicating that these chemical and biological reactions can occur under milder conditions, and that such pre-treatment may further facilitate production of biodiesel from fatty animal waste. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  9. The raw material and waste activity balance in the projected nuclear power of Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamov, E.O.; Ganev, I.Kh.; Lopatkin, A.V.; Muratov, V.G.; Orlov, V.V. [Research and Development Inst. of Power Engineering, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1997-10-01

    Under discussion is the management of long-lived high-level wastes in the nuclear energy sector of Russia, the development of which on a large scale in the next century is motivated by the need for arresting the increasing consumption of fossil fuels. The prerequisites for the nuclear power growth consists in the design of naturally safe reactors and development of a transmutational nuclear fuel cycle (NFC) technology. The choice of operations in such a cycle and of their quantitative characteristics, is aimed at minimizing the wastes to approach the radiation balance with the natural uranium extracted and put to use. The paper discusses the way the approximation to the balance between the raw material and waste activity is influenced by introduction of the transmutational NFC (in case 2), inclusion of transmutation reactors into the energy mix (case 1), partial disposal of actinide wastes into outer space, and by recycling of protactinium (case 3). It is shown that such a balance can be sustained for a considerable time in cases 2 and 3 or throughout the operation stage of the future nuclear power (case 1). (orig.) 17 refs.

  10. Use of weathered diesel oil as a low-cost raw material for biosurfactant production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Mariano

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to investigate the capability of biosurfactant production by Staphylococcus hominis, Kocuria palustris and Pseudomonas aeruginosa LBI, using weathered diesel oil from a long-standing spillage as raw material. The effect of the culture media (Robert or Bushnell-Haas and of the carbon source (spilled diesel oil or commercial diesel oil on biosurfactant production was evaluated. Erlenmeyer flasks (250 mL containing the cell broth were agitated (240 rpm for 144 h at 27±2ºC. Biosurfactant production was monitored according to the De Nöuy ring method using a Krüss K6 tensiometer. Considering the possibility of intracellular storage of biosurfactant in the cell wall of the cultures S. hominis and K. palustris, experiments were also done applying ultrasound as a way to rupture the cells. For the conditions studied, the cultures did not indicate production of biosurfactants. Results obtained with a hydrocarbon biodegradability test based on the redox indicator 2,6-dichlorophenol indophenol showed that only the commercial diesel was biodegraded by the cultures.

  11. Stability-indicating spectrofluorimetric method for determination of itopride hydrochloride in raw material and pharmaceutical formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walash, Mohamed I; Ibrahim, Fawzia; Eid, Manal I; El Abass, Samah Abo

    2013-11-01

    A simple, sensitive and rapid spectrofluorimetric method for determination of itopride hydrochloride in raw material and tablets has been developed. The proposed method is based on the measurement of the native fluorescence of the drug in water at 363 nm after excitation at 255 nm. The relative fluorescence intensity-concentration plot was rectilinear over the range of 0.1-2 μg/mL (2.5 × 10(-7)-5.06 × 10(-6) mole/L), with good correlation (r = 0.9999), limit of detection of 0.015 μg/mL and a lower limit of quantification of 0.045 μg/mL. The described method was successfully applied for the determination of itopride hydrochloride in its commercial tablets with average percentage recovery of 100.11 ± 0.32 without interference from common excipients. Additionally, the proposed method can be applied for determination of itopride in combined tablets with rabeprazole or pantoprazole without prior separation. The method was extended to stability study of itopride. The drug was exposed to acidic, alkaline, oxidative and photolytic degradation according to ICH guidelines. Moreover, the method was utilized to investigate the kinetics of the alkaline, acidic and oxidative degradation of the drug. A proposal for the degradation pathways was postulated.

  12. Effect of temperature on acid hydrolysis of Jerusalem artichoke as raw material for ethanol production

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    Razmovski Radojka N.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Jerusalem artichoke (JA is a low-requirement crop, which does not interfere with food chain, and is a promising carbon source for industrial fermentation. Microbial conversion of such a renewable raw material to useful products, such as ethanol, is an important objective in industrial biotechnology. In this study, ethanol was efficiently produced from the hydrolyzates of JA obtained at different pH values (pH 2.5, pH 3.0 and pH 3.5, temperature (120, 130, 132 and 134°C and hold time (30 and 60 min by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The efficient degradation of JA by HCl under certain experimental conditions was confirmed by thin-layer chromatography. Ethanol concentration of 7.52% (w/w, which corresponds to 93.89 % of the theoretical yield is achieved by ethanol fermentation of JA hydrolyzate obtained at pH 2.5. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR-31002

  13. The key numbers of the mineral raw materials; Les chiffres cles des matieres premieres minerales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandil, C. [Directeur General de l`Energie et des Matieres Premieres, France (France)]|[Ministere de l`Industrie, des Postes et Telecommunications et du Commerce Exterieur, 75 - Paris (France)

    1996-12-31

    Mineral raw materials come from fossil reserves or ores resulting from the geologic and climatic history of the Earth. The access to economic development for 80% of the worldwide population and the high rate of demographic growth (probably 8 billions of inhabitants in 2025) are important factors that can greatly multiply the worldwide consumption of ores. In parallel, environmental concerns and the increasing need for a better equilibrium between wildlife preservation and the supply of economic needs, lead to a more reasonable and mastered use of natural resources. The aim of this book is to shade light and give global elements of thoughts on mineral resources, and for the main of those (about 30 metals and mineral substances), to review the most useful data and references about their production and consumption. For each question, chapters are devoted to the situation of France in its worldwide context. One chapter concerns the uranium ores (reserves, production, prices evolution, consumption, economic flux and companies involved). (J.S.).

  14. FORMULATION OF SELF-COMPACTING CONCRETE USING RAW MATERIALS OF THE NORTH CAUCASUS

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    S.-A. Y. Murtazaev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The paper considers the issues associated with the development of formulations of self-compacting concrete.Methods. The basis of the preparation of such concrete is necessary to use effective modern modifiers that improve the rheological properties of the concrete mix and promote enhancement of its physical - mechanical parameters, and fine mineral powders of natural origin. Particular attention is paid to aggregate the results of obtaining graded aggregate obtained by mixing large and small Alagir Chervlensk sand.Results. Cements studied various manufacturers have been allocated the most appropriate of them, it is Portland cement CEM I 42,5N «Chechensemen» and «Novoroscement». Crushed granite was used from diabase rock fractions of 5-20 mm, which was purchased for testing of the RNO-Alaniya. Developed formulations self-compacting concrete, characterized by an intensive set of concrete strength in the early days of its hardening: at the age of 7 days RSZH concrete reaches up to 80% of project strength.Conclusion. The results of the research in this area showed that the raw material potential of North Caucasus Federal District produces selfcompacting concrete class B 25 and B90 and later for monolithic construction, including high-rise.

  15. IDENTIFICATION OF LECTINS OF ZEA MAYS RAW MATERIAL AND THE STUDY OF LECTIN ACTIVITY

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    Karpiuk UV

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aime of the study was to identify lectins in the Zea mays raw material: roots, stems, heads, leaves and corn silk and study their activity. Lectins activity has been studied using the biological method of ratuserytroagglutination. This method is based on formation of aggregates of lectins and rats erythrocytes. The activity unit was the floor amount of lectins that agglutinate erythrocytes. The protein nature of extracts that agglutinate has been determined using Bradford method. The lectins activity of Zea mays roots was 6,21±0,11 unit/mg of protein; of heads – 2,61±0,17 unit/mg of protein; of leaves – 0,62 ±0,05 unit/mg of protein; of corn silk – 1,06±0,08 unit/mg of protein; of stems – 0,97±0,09 unit/mg of protein. The greatest lectins activity was in leaves, stems and corn silk.

  16. A new RP-HPLC method for analysis of mebeverine hydrochloride in raw materials and tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arayne, M Saeed; Sultana, Najma; Siddiqui, Farhan Ahmed

    2005-04-01

    A simple, sensitive, selective, reliable, least time consuming and rapid high-performance liquid chromatographic method for the determination and quantification of mebeverine hydrochloride using hyoscine butylbromide as internal standard has been developed. The chromatographic system consisted of a Shimadzu LC-10 AT VP pump, SPD-10 AV VP UV visible detector, and a CBM-102 Bus Module integrator. Separation was achieved on the micro Bondapak 125 a C18 10microm column at room temperature. The samples were introduced through an injector valve with a 10 microl sample loop. Acetonitrile-water (1:1 v/v) was used as mobile phase, with flow rate 1.7 ml/minutes. pH was adjusted to 2.9 with phosphoric acid. U.V detection was performed at 205 nm. The results obtained showed a good agreement with the declared content. Recovery values of mebeverine hydrochloride were from 99.80% to 100.13%. The proposed method is rapid, accurate, and selective and may be used for the quantitative analysis of mebeverine hydrochloride. The method was found to be specific, accurate, precise and reliable for the determination and quantification of mebeverine hydrochloride in form of raw materials, in bulk drugs and formulation. It was possible to determine all of them in the concentration range of 5-30 nano grams. The detection limit of mebeverine hydrochloride was 0.4-nano gram.

  17. Determination of tungsten in mineral raw materials using alternating current polarography method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belova, T.Ya.; Volkova, L.P.

    1984-01-01

    Determination method of tungsten low contents in mineral raw material using catalytic currents, appearing in sulfuric acid solutions of tungsten (6), mandelic acid and chlorate-ions, has been developed. The analysis is carried out, using the PPT-1 alternating current polarograph with mercury dropping electrode and saturated calomel electrode of comparison. In solutions 0.1 M in terms of H2SO4, 0.14 M in terms of Na2SO4 and 2.6 x 10 T M in terms of mandelic acid W(6) is reduced on mercury electrode in a stepped way. The first step corresponds to reduction up to W(5), and second one - to the reduction of W(5) to W(3). The second peak is used for analytic purposes. Direct proportionality between the W(6) peak height and W concentration is preserved in the range 5 x 10 Y - 1.5 x 10 W mol/l. The presence of As(3), Cd(2) and Ge(4) leads to overestimation of W determination results, but their effect can be eliminated by the addition of HCl. The method suggested permits to determine W in natural objects of various compositions at the contents 1 x 10 U-n x 10 %.

  18. Heating supply of residential areas using renewable raw materials; Waermeversorgung von Wohngebieten auf Basis nachwachsender Rohstoffe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moellers, Wolfgang [Ingenieurbuero Wolfgang Moellers, Gelsenkirchen (Germany)

    2009-04-15

    A world-wide restriction of the greenhouse gas emissions is fixed in the Kyoto protocol. The limited availability of fossil sources of energy as well as the enrichment of the atmosphere with carbon dioxide directed the attention on renewable energies in Europe. In Germany, the portion of the renewable energy at the entire power consumption should be redoubled up to the year 2010, at least. In the year 2008, this portion amounts to 8.6 %. Herein, the portion of the biomass (solid, liquid, gaseous, dump and sewer gas as well as from biogenous waste) amounts altogether 5.9 %. Regenerating raw materials constitute a majority. In the year 2007, the portion of utilizing biomass in the power supply could be redoubled not completely in comparison to 1997. However, 19.5 million tons of carbon dioxide could be avoided by the energetic use of the biomass. In absolute values: In the year 2007, 57.82 TWh energy could be supplied while 13.4 million tons of carbon dioxide could be saved.

  19. Staphylococcus xylosus fermentation of pork fatty waste: raw material for biodiesel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Vasques Marques

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The need for cleaner sources of energy has stirred research into utilising alternate fuel sources with favourable emission and sustainability such as biodiesel. However, there are technical constraints that hinder the widespread use of some of the low cost raw materials such as pork fatty wastes. Currently available technology permits the use of lipolytic microorganisms to sustainably produce energy from fat sources; and several microorganisms and their metabolites are being investigated as potential energy sources. Thus, the aim of this study was to characterise the process of Staphylococcus xylosus mediated fermentation of pork fatty waste. We also wanted to explore the possibility of fermentation effecting a modification in the lipid carbon chain to reduce its melting point and thereby act directly on one of the main technical barriers to obtaining biodiesel from this abundant source of lipids. Pork fatty waste was obtained from slaughterhouses in southern Brazil during evisceration of the carcasses and the kidney casing of slaughtered animals was used as feedstock. Fermentation was performed in BHI broth with different concentrations of fatty waste and for different time periods which enabled evaluation of the effect of fermentation time on the melting point of swine fat. The lowest melting point was observed around 46 °C, indicating that these chemical and biological reactions can occur under milder conditions, and that such pre-treatment may further facilitate production of biodiesel from fatty animal waste.

  20. Synthesis of steel slag ceramics: chemical composition and crystalline phases of raw materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Li-hua; Wei, Wei; Bai, Hao; Zhang, Xu; Cang, Da-qiang

    2015-03-01

    Two types of porcelain tiles with steel slag as the main raw material (steel slag ceramics) were synthesized based on the CaO-Al2O3-SiO2 and CaO-MgO-SiO2 systems, and their bending strengths up to 53.47 MPa and 99.84 MPa, respectively, were obtained. The presence of anorthite, α-quartz, magnetite, and pyroxene crystals (augite and diopside) in the steel slag ceramics were very different from the composition of traditional ceramics. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and electron probe X-ray microanalysis (EPMA) results illustrated that the addition of steel slag reduced the temperature of extensive liquid generation and further decreased the firing temperature. The considerable contents of glass-modifying oxide liquids with rather low viscosities at high temperature in the steel slag ceramic adobes promoted element diffusion and crystallization. The results of this study demonstrated a new approach for extensive and effective recycling of steel slag.

  1. Dense poplar plantations as the raw material for the production of energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klašnja Bojana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The higher heating value of wood and bark was determined for several poplar (Populus spp clones. The study included the juvenile one year old plants of the following clones: P.×euramericana cl. ostia, P. nigra cl.53/86, P. deltoides cl. PE 19/66, P.×euramericana cl. I-214, P. deltoides cl. S6-7 and P.×euramericana cv. robusta. By using FVI which takes into account ash content, wood bulk density, and moisture content, it was determined that poplar wood can be a significant energy raw material, primarily thanks to its short rotation cycle and a very high wood volume increment. Significant differences were determined in the values of wood basic density which affect the higher heating value of the study poplar clones, and consequently the yield (weight of biomass produced per unit area of dense plantations. This is reflected also on the estimated amount of energy that can be produced by the combustion of biomass of the whole one year old plants.

  2. TECHNOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF PRODUCTION OF THE CANDIED FRUITS FROM NON-TRADITIONAL RAW MATERIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. R. Belenkaya

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the candied fruit market in Ukraine and describes the main technological operations pertainingto processing of non-traditional candied products – celery and parsnip roots. Darkening of the roots surface caused bythe enzyme oxidation is one of the problems arising when processing white roots, which leads to worse marketable conditionof the product. To prevent darkening, the developed technology provides for soaking raw material in 1% citric acid solutionimmediately after peeling. To improve the diffusion and osmotic processes and to soften roots before boiling in sugar syrup,the steam blanching has been applied. The constructed Gantt diagram proves that the developed technology can shorten thecandied fruit cooking period. The biochemical indicators of the obtained new products have been studied. It was establishedthat the candied fruit possess the appropriate physical and chemical indicators and original organoleptic properties resulting ina demand by consumers. The results of the taste evaluation of the experimental specimen confirmed a high quality of the products.

  3. Industrial wastes as alternative raw materials to produce eco-friendly fired bricks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Quero, V.; Maza-Ignacio, O. T.; Guerrero-Paz, J.; Campos-Venegas, K.

    2017-01-01

    This work focuses on the incorporation of sugarcane bagasse ash (SCBA) and silica fume (SF) wastes as an alternative raw material into clay bricks, replacing clay by up to 40 wt.%. Fly ash (FA) was used as reference. The plasticity of the batches was determined by Atterberg’s consistency limits. Bricks were produced by uniaxial pressing and fired a 900 and 1000°C. Physical properties (fired shrinkage, water absorption, apparent porosity and Initial water absorption rate) and mechanical properties (compressive strength and flexural strength) as function of the firing temperature and type waste were investigated. The results showed that wastes into clay body increase its global plasticity. 80%Clay-20%SCBA mixture has the lower linear shrinkage. After firing process, the brick produced with clay-SCBA show the higher water absorption and apparent porosity, regardless of the firing temperature. The brick produced with 60%clay-40%SF show the water absorption and apparent porosity similar to control bricks. The SCBA waste additions tend to decrease the mechanical strength of the clay bricks, therefore amounts of 40% SCBA waste should be avoided because it reduce the mechanical strength of the red fired bricks. The fired bricks with 40% SF, firing a 900°C show mechanical properties similar control bricks.

  4. Effect of raw materials and hardening process on hardness of manually forged knife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balkhaya, Suwarno

    2017-06-01

    Knives are normally made by forging process either using a machine or traditional method by means of hammering process. This present work was conducted to study the effects of steel raw materials and hardening process on the hardness of manually forged knives. The knife samples were made by traditional hammering (forging) process done by local blacksmith. Afterward, the samples were heat treated with two different hardening procedures, the first was based on the blacksmith procedure and the second was systematically done at the laboratory. The forging was done in the temperature ranged between 900-950°C, while the final temperature ranged between 650-675°C. The results showed that knives made of spring steel and heat treated in simulated condition at the laboratory obtained higher level of hardness, i.e. 62 HRC. In general, knives heat treated by local blacksmith had lower level of hardness that those obtained from simulated condition. Therefore, we concluded that the traditional knife quality in term of hardness can be improved by optimizing the heat treatment schedule.

  5. The Mousterian lithic assemblage of the Ciota Ciara cave (Piedmont, Northern Italy: Exploitation and conditioning of raw materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Daffara

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Ciota Ciara cave is situated in Monte Fenera’s karst (Borgosesia – Vercelli, at 670 metres above sea level. It is the most important evidence of a Middle Palaeolithic settlement in Piedmont: the cave was used by Homo neanderthalensis during the OIS 5, in a mild-humid period, as proven by faunal remains. The environment was characterized by deciduous woodland and glades. The intersection between different habitats, the presence of lithic raw materials, the karst morphology and water sources were certainly the main factors that encouraged human settlement during the Upper Pleistocene period, between 80.000 and 70.000 BP.In 2009 systematic excavations began in the cave by the University of Ferrara, in partnership with the Soprintendenza per i Beni Archeologici del Piemonte e del Museo di Antichità Egizie. Research focused on the cave’s atrium where three stratigraphic units were investigated: 13, 103 and 14.The exploited raw materials’ characterization were made by the stereo-microscope observations and through the SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope. Several lithologies are represented in different proportion: quartz is the predominant exploited raw material, followed by spongolite, sandstone, mylonite and opal. The archaeological record consists of various typologies of quartz: macro-crystalline pegmatite quartz, micro-crystalline pegmatite quartz and hyaline quartz. All these types of raw materials have been found in the proximity of the archaeological site, within 5 km range.The lithic assemblage is made of flakes, retouched tools, cores and debris. The raw materials exploitation was achieved through the direct percussion technique with various methods: S.S.D.A., discoid and Levallois. The reduction sequences on quartz are complete, although no refitting was found. The reduction sequence is not complete for most part of the other raw materials. The débitage products are small-medium size (1-4 cm and have different morphologies

  6. Nutritional Evaluation of Raw Materials Entering the Structure to Mixed Fodder for the Specie Poecilia reticulata (Guppy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Gruber

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In the ornamental pisciculture is a especial emphasis on the exterior shape and color to the fishes, issues that are dependent directly to the structure of compound feeds in relation to the nutritional characteristics of the raw materials.Own research or focused on analyzing the crude chemical composition with Weende scheme (water content and dry matter, crude ash, crude protein, crude fat, crude fiber, SEN of raw materials can be used in the structure of a compound feeds for the Poecilia reticulata (guppy species, for most of these materials there are no current data in the literature.These materials were analyzed: gelatin, wheat flour, sunflower meal, soybean meal, meal Spirulina platensis, carrot (Daucus carota, Pangasius fillet, Daphnia pulex, grount dandelion (Taraxacum officinale, grount nettle (Urtica dioica and yeast.

  7. Novel Catalysts and Processing Technologies for Production of Aerospace Fuels from Non-Petroleum Raw Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepp, Aloysius F.; Kulis, Michael J.; Psarras, Peter C.; Ball, David W.; Timko, Michael T.; Wong, Hsi-Wu; Peck, Jay; Chianelli, Russell R.

    2014-01-01

    Transportation fuels production (including aerospace propellants) from non-traditional sources (gases, waste materials, and biomass) has been an active area of research and development for decades. Reducing terrestrial waste streams simultaneous with energy conversion, plentiful biomass, new low-cost methane sources, and/or extra-terrestrial resource harvesting and utilization present significant technological and business opportunities being realized by a new generation of visionary entrepreneurs. We examine several new approaches to catalyst fabrication and new processing technologies to enable utilization of these nontraditional raw materials. Two basic processing architectures are considered: a single-stage pyrolysis approach that seeks to basically re-cycle hydrocarbons with minimal net chemistry or a two-step paradigm that involves production of supply or synthesis gas (mainly carbon oxides and H2) followed by production of fuel(s) via Sabatier or methanation reactions and/or Fischer-Tröpsch synthesis. Optimizing the fraction of product stream relevant to targeted aerospace (and other transportation) fuels via modeling, catalyst fabrication and novel reactor design are described. Energy utilization is a concern for production of fuels for either terrestrial or space operations; renewable sources based on solar energy and/or energy efficient processes may be mission enabling. Another important issue is minimizing impurities in the product stream(s), especially those potentially posing risks to personnel or operations through (catalyst) poisoning or (equipment) damage. Technologies being developed to remove (and/or recycle) heteroatom impurities are briefly discussed as well as the development of chemically robust catalysts whose activities are not diminished during operation. The potential impacts on future missions by such new approaches as well as balance of system issues are addressed.

  8. EFFECT OF NON-TRADITIONAL VEGETABLE RAW MATERIALS ON THE PROPERTIES AND BIOTECHNOLOGICAL STRUCTURE PASTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. P. Kolomnikova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. An important task is the use of catering in the preparation of food products of new types of raw materials, which can solve the problem of nutrition. One way to improve the quality and range of flour culinary products is the use of technology in their enriching additives plant. Among them are a subgroup of additives derived from cereals, pulses, oilseeds, vegetables, fruit and other plant materials. As a result of researches the technology buns bakery products with the addition of oil and meal of wheat germ, pumpkin seed oil cake. Wheat germ oil cake is a source of complete protein and biologically active substances, is rich in essential amino acids, unsaturated ω-3, ω-6 fatty acids, vitamin E, D, B1, B2, B6, PP, pantothenic and folic acid, carotenoids. The composition of pumpkin seed oil cake include essential oils, phytosterols, resinous substances, organic acids, vitamins C and B, carotenoids, carbohydrate melen. In the composition of wheat germ oil contains: all essential, not synthesized by the human amino acid (tryptophan, methionine, leucine, valine, isoleucine, polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3, ω-6 and ω-9 acid, a large amount of vitamins, micro - and macronutrients. In the development of the experimental basis for the formulation chosen butter bakery products, in which part of the wheat flour (20 % was replaced by wheat germ oil cake (10 % and pumpkin seed oil cake (10 %. Margarine in the classical formulation was replaced by wheat germ oil, sugar - on natural honey. Insertion additives significantly improve the properties of biotech pastry. The proposed method of production of buns bakery products can reduce the duration of the production process, to intensify the process of gas formation in the test to increase gas-retaining capacity and lift test.

  9. UTILIZATION OF RICE HUSK AS RAW MATERIAL IN SYNTHESIS OF MESOPOROUS SILICATES MCM-41

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suyanta Suyanta

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The research about synthesis and characterization of MCM-41 from rice husk has been done. Silica (SiO2 was extracted from rice husk by refluxing with 3M hydrochloric solution at 80 °C for 3 h. The acid-leached rice husk was filtered, washed, dried and calcined at 650 °C for 6 h lead the rough powder of rice husk silica with light brown in color. Characterization was carried out by X-ray diffraction (XRD and FTIR spectroscopy method. Rice husk silica was dissolved into the sodium hydroxide solution leading to the solution of sodium silicate, and used as silica source for the synthesis of MCM-41. MCM-41 was synthesized by hydrothermal process to the mixture prepared from 29 g of distilled water, 8.67 g of cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTMAB, 9.31 g of sodium silicate solution, and amount mL of 1 M H2SO4. Hydrothermal process was carried out at 100 °C in a teflon-lined stainless steel autoclave heated in the oven for 36 h. The solid phase was filtered, then washed with deionised water, and dried in the oven at 100 °C for 2 h. The surfactant CTMAB was removed by calcination at 550 °C for 10 h with heating rate 2 °C/min. The as-synthesized and calcined crystals were characterized by using FTIR spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and N2 physisorption methods. In order to investigate the effect of silica source, the same procedure was carried out by using pure sodium silicate as silica source. It was concluded that silica extracted from rice husk can be used as raw materials in the synthesis of MCM-41, there is no significant difference in crystallinity and pore properties when was compared to material produced from commercial sodium silicate.

  10. Feasibility of Solid Waste Tuna Loin of Yellowfin Thunnus albacares Raw Materials for The Product Diversification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayan Kantun Kantun

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia is one country in the world exporters of tuna in the form of fresh, frozen andprocessed. Tuna exported in processed form large enough to leave waste for exporting companies.The purpose of this study was to determine a feasibility study on solid waste exported tuna loin forraw material diversification. This research was conducted in Majene Makassar Strait. The study wasconducted using descriptive exploratory method by taking a sample of 3 times and each samplewas tested 3 times resulting in 9 times of testing for each of the observed variables. Chemical testwhich includes moisture, protein, fat, ash, carbohydrates, and histamine. Microbiological test thatis E. coli, Salmonella and the total number of bacteria. Data were analyzed by descriptive qualitativeand quantitative display via Tables, Graphics and Image in the form of average value. The resultsshowed that the chemical solid waste tuna loin has a water content ranged from 78.34 to 78.78%,protein content ranged from 14.32 to 16.41%, fat ranged from 1.56 to 1.66%, ash content rangedfrom 5.18 to 5. 58%, carbohydrate content ranged from 1.29 to 1.34%, and histamine ranged from2.08 to 3.21 mg / kg. Solid waste microbiologically tuna loin contains E.coli range from 1.2 to 1.9(<2, Salmonella negative and TPC ranged from 1.4 to 1.8 x 105 kol/g. The results of chemical andmicrobiological testing showed solid waste tuna loin still suitable as raw material diversificationproducts.

  11. Changes and Trends in the Pallet Industry: The Use of New Wood Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert J. Bush; Philip A. Araman

    1998-01-01

    Wood has dominated the pallet industry as its principal raw material since palletized material handling began. Pallet production and use grew dramatically after World War II and wood remained the material of choice. Throughout this period the pallet industry has been an important market for lower grades of hardwood lumber and cants. Today, the demand for pallet grade...

  12. Influence of mechanical and thermal treatments on raw materials containing pyrophyllite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez Soto, P. J.

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available In the present work results obtained in a study on the influence of thermal, mechanical by dry grinding, and their combination, in raw materials containing pyrophyllite, are discussed. First of all, it is studied the influence of thermal treatment concerning the development and evolution of crystalline phases (mullite and cristobalite from dehydroxylated pyrophyllite. On the basis of these results, it is analyzed what happens in a natural raw mixture of pyrophyllite with kaolinite and mica (sericite submitted to thermal treatments. The raw pyrophyllite materials are altered under laboratory conditions using mechanical treatments by dry grinding. It is noted that the increase of surface area and particle size reduction is produced by grinding, but other effects are produced on the structure and properties of the solid submitted to grinding. In general, grinding leads to a progressive destruction of the original crystal structure of the present layered silicates, but it is preferentially produced along the “c” axis. In other words, mechanochemical reactions are induced by dry grinding due to the increase of reactivity of the system. Between these reactions, it is enhanced the reagglomeration process that occurs above a determinate limit of grinding time. The grinding treatment can be combined with a subsequent thermal treatment that enhances the increase of reactivity, producing the formation of crystalline phases (mullite and cristobalite at lower temperatures that in unground samples with energy saving. The results are compared taking into account the crystal structures of both kaolinite and pyrophyllite, the thermal transformation of kaolinite to mullite, and the process of grinding kaolinite because this layer silicate is present in the raw materials containing pyrophyllite.

    En el presente trabajo se exponen y discuten resultados obtenidos en el estudio de la influencia de tratamientos térmicos, tratamientos mecánicos por molienda

  13. DEVELOPMENT OF ANIMAL SECONDARY RAW MATERIAL MARKET AS A FACTOR OF DIVERSIFICATION OF KAZAKHSTAN’S EXPORT POTENTIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Konurbaeva

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Products of the recycling of livestock should become the most important part of the Kazakhstani export potential. Using recycled materials in the finished production cycle would significantly diversify the export component of national agro-industrial sector of the Republic.The article proposes an approach to the placement of industries, processing secondary raw materials in order to obtain market product with high added value, which will result in implementing the existing potential of the agricultural sector of the state.

  14. Biotechnologies for critical raw material recovery from primary and secondary sources: R&D priorities and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennebel, Tom; Boon, Nico; Maes, Synthia; Lenz, Markus

    2015-01-25

    Europe is confronted with an increasing supply risk of critical raw materials. These can be defined as materials of which the risks of supply shortage and their impacts on the economy are higher compared to most of other raw materials. Within the framework of the EU Innovation Partnership on raw materials Initiative, a list of 14 critical materials was defined, including some bulk metals, industrial minerals, the platinum group metals and rare earth elements. To tackle the supply risk challenge, innovation is required with respect to sustainable primary mining, substitution of critical metals, and urban mining. In these three categories, biometallurgy can play a crucial role. Indeed, microbe-metal interactions have been successfully applied on full scale to win materials from primary sources, but are not sufficiently explored for metal recovery or recycling. On the one hand, this article gives an overview of the microbial strategies that are currently applied on full scale for biomining; on the other hand it identifies technologies, currently developed in the laboratory, which have a perspective for large scale metal recovery and the needs and challenges on which bio-metallurgical research should focus to achieve this ambitious goal. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Reduction of CO2 diffuse emissions from the traditional ceramic industry by the addition of Si-Al raw material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, I; Barba-Brioso, C; Campos, P; Romero, A; Galán, E

    2016-09-15

    The fabrication of ceramics can produce the emission of several gases, denominated exhaust gases, and also vapours resulting from firing processes, which usually contain metals and toxic substances affecting the environment and the health of workers. Especially harmful are the diffuse emissions of CO2, fluorine, chlorine and sulphur from the ceramics industry, which, in highly industrialized areas, can suppose an important emission focus of dangerous effects. Concerning CO2, factories that use carbonate-rich raw materials (>30% carbonates) can emit high concentrations of CO2 to the atmosphere. Thus, carbonate reduction or substitution with other raw materials would reduce the emissions. In this contribution, we propose the addition of Al-shales to the carbonated ceramic materials (marls) for CO2 emission reduction, also improving the quality of the products. The employed shales are inexpensive materials of large reserves in SW-Spain. The ceramic bodies prepared with the addition of selected Al-shale to marls in variable proportions resulted in a 40%-65% CO2 emission reduction. In addition, this research underlines at the same time that the use of a low-price raw material can also contribute to obtaining products with higher added value. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The profile of Brazilian agriculture as source of raw material to obtain organic cosmetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neila de Paula Pereira

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available With one of the most notable floras in the world for sustainable research, the Brazilian Amazon region currently counts on financial incentives from the Brazilian Government for private national and foreign businesses. The ongoing implantation of a Biocosmetics Research and Development Network (REDEBIO aims to stimulate research involving natural resources from the Brazilian states that make up the zone defined as “Amazônia Legal”. The objective of this region, still under development in Brazil, is principally to aggregate value to products manufactured in small local industries through the use of sustainable technology currently being established. Certain certified raw materials already included in the country’s sustainability program, have also begun to be cultivated according to the requirements of organic cultivation (Neves, 2009. The majority are species of Amazonian vegetation: Euterpe oleracea (Açai, Orbignya martiana (Babaçu, Theobroma grandi-florum (Cupuaçu, Carapas guianensis (Andiroba, Pentaclethra macroloba (Pracaxi, Copaifera landesdorffi (Copaiba, Platonia insignis (Bacuri, Theobroma cacao (Cacao, Virola surinamensis (Ucuuba and Bertholletia excelsa (Brazil nut. These generate phytopreparations, such as oils, extracts, and dyes that are widely used in the manufacture of Brazilian organic cosmetics with scientifically proven topical and capillary benefits. In the final balance, Brazilian organic cosmetics should continue to gain force over the next few years, especially with the regulation of the organic cosmetics market that is being drafted by the Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture. Moreover, lines of ecologically aware products that provide quality of life for both for rural and metropolitan communities show a tendency to occupy greater space in the market.

  17. Synthesis of Chalcone and Flavanone Compound Using Raw Material of Acetophenone and Benzaldehyde Derivative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismiyarto Ismiyarto

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Synthesis of flavanoid compounds of chalcone and flavanone groups have been conducted. Flavanoid Is one of the group natural products which is mostly found in plants and have been proved to have physiological activity as drug. In this research, chalcone proup compounds that being synthesized are: chalcone, 3,4-dimethoxychalcone, 2'-hidroxy-3,4-dimethoxychalcone where as compound of flavanone group that being synthesized is 3',4'-dimethoxyflavanone. The synthesis of chalcone group are carried out based on Claisen-Schmidt reaction by using raw material of aromatic aldehydes and aromatic ketones. The synthesis in carried out by stirring at the room temperature using alkali solution as catalyst and ethanol as solvent. The synthesis of 3',4'-dimethoxyflanone is made based on the nucleophilic 1,4 addition of the unsaturated α,β ketone. The synthesis is made by refluxing 2'-hydroxy-3,4-dimethoxychalcone in alkali condition for 12 hours. The identification of flavanoid compound is carried out by using spectroscopic IR, GC-MS and 1H-NMR methods. The result of each synthesis chalcone group are follows: chalcone as yellowish solid with m.p= 50 °C and the yield is 83.39%; 3,4-dimethoxychalcone as yellow solid with m.p= 57°C and the yield is 76.00% ; 2'-hydroxy-3,4-dimethoxychalcone as orange solid with m.p= 90 °C and the yield is 74.29%, for 3',4'-dimethoxyflavanone as pale yellow solid with m.p= 80 °C and the yield is 72.00%.

  18. Energy and Raw Materials in the Selection of Technologies for Iron and Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortini, Otavio Macedo

    2016-09-01

    This paper discusses the selection of metal extraction technologies according to the regional availability of energy resources. The most important energy sources in iron and steel production are determined from a review of current technologies to inform possible future scenarios of capacity replacement or expansion according to geography. Alternative technologies are not discussed, considering that actual investment in capacity is most often dominated by high degrees of risk aversion. As such, only technologies proven at a reasonable scale are included in the selection matrix. Scenarios of capacity choice are defined in terms of actions from external agents, those which are not directly involved in the industry but have the capacity to regulate actions by metal producing players. Two extreme scenarios corresponding to closed and open economies are used to set bounds for future expectations. Among steelmaking processes under fully open trade conditions, it is found that EAF steelmaking with charge pre-heat should be the technology of choice in all regions of the world except for South America and Europe, where Integrated Steel Mills have a cost advantage. In fully closed exchange scenarios, Integrated Steel Mills would be the prevalent technology in South America, Sub-Saharan Africa, India, and the former USSR, EAF with scrap pre-heating prevailing in all other regions. On the other hand, HYL-ZR would be the iron making technology of choice in all regions under full exchange scenarios. Under fully closed exchange conditions, Mini-Blast Furnaces, COREX, and HYL-ZR would find regional applications. Increases in raw materials and energy costs of 38 pct in steelmaking and 63 pct in ironmaking are found in going from fully open to fully closed exchange regimes. It is also found that Southeast Asia is the most suitable region for deploying new steelmaking capacity, while Australia and Russia are the best selection for new iron making capacity.

  19. Mechanism investigation for poloxamer 188 raw material variation in cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Haofan; Ali, Amr; Lanan, Maureen; Hughes, Erik; Wiltberger, Kelly; Guan, Bing; Prajapati, Shashi; Hu, Weiwei

    2016-05-01

    Variability in poloxamer 188 (P188) raw material, which is routinely used in cell culture media to protect cells from hydrodynamic forces, plays an important role in the process performance. Even though tremendous efforts have been spent to understand the mechanism of poloxamer's protection, the root cause for lot-to-lot variation was not clear. A recent study reported that the low performance was not due to toxicity but inefficiency to protect cells (Peng et al., Biotechnol Prog. 2014;30:1411-1418). In this study, it was demonstrated for the first time that the addition of other surfactants even at a very low level can interfere with P188 resulting in a loss of efficiency. It was also found that the performance of P188 lots correlated well with its foam stability. Foam generated from low performing lots in baffled shaker flask lasts longer, which suggests that the components in the foam layers are different. The spiking of foam generated from a low performing lot into the media containing a high performance lot resulted in cell damage and low growth. Analytical studies using size exclusion chromatography (SEC) identified differences in high molecular weight (HMW) species present in the P188 lots. These differences are much clearer when comparing the HMW region of the SEC chromatogram of foam vs. bulk liquid samples. This study shows that low performing lots have enriched HMW species in foam samples due to high hydrophobicity, which can be potentially used as a screening assay. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:767-775, 2016. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  20. Utilization of Shrimp Skin Waste (Sea Lobster) As Raw Material for the Membrane Filtration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyoman Rupiasih, Ni; Sumadiyasa, Made; Suyanto, Hery; Windari, Putri

    2017-05-01

    In view of the increasing littering of the sea banks by shells of crustaceans, a study was carried out to investigate the extraction and characterization of chitosan from skin waste of sea lobster i.e. ‘Bamboo Lobster’ (Panulirus versicolor). Chitosan was extracted using conventional methods such as pretreatment, demineralization, deprotienization, and deacetylation. The result showed that the degree of deacetylation of chitosan obtained is 70.02%. The FTIR spectra of the chitosan gave a characteristic of -NH2 band at 3447 cm-1 and carbonyl group band at 1655 cm-1. This chitosan has been used to prepare membrane. The chitosan membrane 2% has been prepared using phase inversion method with precipitation by solvent evaporation. The membranes were characterized by FTIR spectrophotometer, Nova 1200e using BJH method, and filtration method. The results show that thickness of the membrane is about 134 μm. The FTIR spectra show that functional groups present in the membrane are -NH, -CH, C=O, and -OH. Using BJH method obtained that the pore diameter is 3.382 nm with pore density is 8.95 x 105 pores/m3. By filtration method obtained that pure water flux (PWF) of the membrane are 386.662 and 489.627 1/m2.h at pressure 80-85 kPa and 90-100 kPa, respectively. These results show that skin waste of sea lobster was discovered as a raw material to prepare chitosan membrane. The membrane obtained is belonged to mesoporous group which may use in microfiltration process.

  1. Raw material balance and yield of biomass from early thinnings; Biomassatase ja energiapuun kertymae ensiharvennuksissa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakkila, P. [Finnish Forest Research Inst., Vantaa (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    Utilization of small-sized wood from early thinnings is a serious problem in the Finnish forestry. The cost of harvesting is high, loss of potential pulpwood in logging and debarking is excessive, and the technical properties of wood are not well known. Project 105 of the Finnish Bioenergy Research Program is aimed to promote the utilization of biomass from early thinnings for pulp and energy. The variation of technical properties of wood (percentage of bark, basic density of wood and bark, amount of acetone extractive and ash, fiber length, moisture content, and fuel value) within the tree, between trees and between sites is studied. Distribution of the above-ground biomass of trees into potential pulpwood and energy wood is determined, and efficient delimbing-debarking methods for segregation of the fiber component from the fuel component are developed. The methods studied include single-log debarking with ring debarkers, and multiple-treatment of logs or tree-sections with drum debarkers and flail delimber-debarkers. A new method, combination of flail debarking-delimbing and dry-drum debarking, is introduced. Biomass balance, showing the recovery and loss of fiber and fuel in the process, is calculated for the options studied. The new method has great development potential for segregation of the fiber and energy components in small-diameter tree-sections. It is shown that high-quality chips can be produced from tree-sections, and it is suggested that special pulps are produced from the raw material under consideration

  2. Life cycle environmental performance of renewable building materials in the context of residential construction : phase II research report: an extension to the 2005 phase I research report. Module L, Life-cycle inventory of hardwood lumber manufacturing in the Southeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard D. Bergman; Scott A. Bowe

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this study was to gain an understanding of the environmental impact of hardwood lumber production through a gate-to-gate life-cycle inventory (LCI) of hardwood sawmills in the Southeastern United States (SE). Primary mill data were collected per Consortium on Research for Renewable Industrial Materials (CORRIM) Research Guidelines. Life-cycle impact...

  3. Flavor of roasted peanuts (Arachis hypogaea) - Part I: Effect of raw material and processing technology on flavor, color and fatty acid composition of peanuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lykomitros, Dimitrios; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Capuano, Edoardo

    2016-11-01

    Flavor and color of roasted peanuts have a strong impact on consumer acceptability. They can be influenced by raw material and processing technology. Raw peanuts of various market types, origins and grades were processed by different technologies to produce 134 unique samples, which were profiled by a sensory panel and analyzed for color and fatty acid composition. Principal Component Analysis, Canonical Variate Analysis and General Linear Model regression were used to identify differences in flavor, color and fatty acid profiles, and to relate them to raw materials or process conditions. Data showed that raw material selection is key for flavor, but processing is also significant. Specifically, maceration significantly increased "roasted peanut" and "dark roast" aromas, reducing "sweet", "raw bean" aromas, and sweetness. It also influenced color and the fatty acid profile. Baking reduced "roasted peanut" and "dark roast" and increased "raw bean" aromas compared to frying, and impacted color development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Raw materials and energy - effects of globalization on the safety of German's supply sufficiency; Rohstoffe und Energie. Auswirkungen der Globalisierung auf die Versorgungssicherheit Deutschlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wellmer, F.W. [Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    Raw material deposits are not mobile, so globalisation has always been an important element of raw materials production and trade. Raw materials production and transport should be regarded as a large-scale system. Lower freight rates have made overseas transport possible even for bulk raw materials. If we look at Germany's raw materials supply, we find that we are customers buying from the whole world. [German] Da Lagerstaetten ortsgebunden sind, ist Globalisierung seit jeher ein wesentliches Element von Rohstoffgewinnung und handel. Rohstoffgewinnung und Transportmoeglichkeiten muessen als Grosssystem betrachtet werden. Nicht zuletzt wegen der gesunkenen Frachtraten ist der ueberseeische Transport heute selbst fuer Massenrohstoffe moeglich geworden. Betrachtet man die Rohstoffversorgung Deutschlands, wird deutlich, dass wir Kunde der ganzen Welt sind. (orig.)

  5. Comparative studies on physico-mechanical properties of composite materials of low density polyethylene and raw/calcined kaolin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Mallik

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the preparation of the composite materials of low density polyethylene (LDPE as the base mixed separately with raw kaolin and the same calcined at 800 °C under the same variation in weight percentage using single-screw extruder and a mixing machine operated at a temperature between 190 and 200 °C. Some of the mechanical and physical properties such as Young's modulus, elongation at break, shore hardness and water absorption were determined at different weight fractions of filler (0, 2, 7, 10 and 15%. It was found that the addition of filler increases the mechanical properties. Absorption test was done in water at different immersion times for different composites. The degree of water absorption of composite materials was found to decrease with increasing wt% of kaolin filler (0–15% according to Fick's law. Calcined kaolin produces better mechanical properties than raw kaolin.

  6. Mitigating the risk of Zika virus contamination of raw materials and cell lines in the manufacture of biologicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zmurko, Joanna; Vasey, Douglas B; Donald, Claire L; Armstrong, Alison A; McKee, Marian L; Kohl, Alain; Clayton, Reginald F

    2018-02-01

    Ensuring the virological safety of biologicals is challenging due to the risk of viral contamination of raw materials and cell banks, and exposure during in-process handling to known and/or emerging viral pathogens. Viruses may contaminate raw materials and biologicals intended for human or veterinary use and remain undetected until appropriate testing measures are employed. The outbreak and expansive spread of the mosquito-borne flavivirus Zika virus (ZIKV) poses challenges to screening human- and animal -derived products used in the manufacture of biologicals. Here, we report the results of an in vitro study where detector cell lines were challenged with African and Asian lineages of ZIKV. We demonstrate that this pathogen is robustly detectable by in vitro assay, thereby providing assurance of detection of ZIKV, and in turn underpinning the robustness of in vitro virology assays in safety testing of biologicals.

  7. Formation, Crystallization Behavior, and Soft Magnetic Properties of FeCSiBP Bulk Metallic Glass Fabricated Using Industrial Raw Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H. X.; Gao, J. E.; Wang, S. L.; Yi, S.; Lu, Z. P.

    2012-08-01

    Formation of pseudo-binary Fe-C-Si-B-P bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) with good glass-forming ability (GFA) and soft magnetic properties prepared using industrial pig-iron and P-Fe alloys as raw materials was investigated. It was found that the GFA could be enhanced by tuning the content of carbon, and fully glassy rods with a maximum diameter of 2 mm were obtained in the Fe77.3C5.9Si3.3B4.8P8.7 alloy. The crystallization behavior and its effects on the soft magnetic properties of the Fe77.3C5.9Si3.3B4.8P8.7 alloy were analyzed. The superior magnetic properties, coupled with large GFA and low cost of raw materials, make the current Fe-based BMGs promising for potential applications in electric industries.

  8. Renewable resources in industry. Industrial use of agricultural and wood raw materials in Germany. 3. compl. rev. ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, Dietmar

    2010-11-17

    The ''Action Plan for the Industrial Use of Renewable Resources'' that was adopted by the German Federal Government in 2009 is an important impulse for promoting the industrial use of renewable resources parallel to their use for energy generation. The Action Plan sets forth a broad vision, not only for a significant and sustainable increase in the proportion of biomass used in industry but also for an improvement in the efficiency of biomass use in ensuring Germany's raw material supplies while taking into account the objectives and requirements of sustainability strategies. It also aims to secure and advance Germany's role as an international leader in the industrial use of renewable resources. This brochure provides an overview of the possible industrial uses of renewable resources in Germany and illustrates the important role that agricultural raw materials and wood already play in today's industry. (orig.)

  9. Effect of Raw Material, Pressing and Glycosidase on the Volatile Compound Composition of Wine Made From Goji Berries

    OpenAIRE

    Guanshen Yuan; Jie Ren; Xiaoyu Ouyang; Liying Wang; Mengze Wang; Xiaodong Shen; Bolin Zhang; Baoqing Zhu

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of raw material, pressing, and glycosidase on the aromatic profile of goji berry wine. The free-run and the pressed juice of dried and fresh goji berries were used for wine production, whereas glycosidase was applied to wine after fermentation. Dried goji berry fermented wine exhibited much stronger fruity, floral, caramel, and herbaceous odors due to higher levels of esters, β-ionone and methionol. However, fresh berry fermented wine possessed stronger chem...

  10. The influence of raw material, added emulsifying salt and spray drying on cheese powder structure and hydration properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Felix da Silva, Denise; Larsen, Flemming Hofmann; Hougaard, Anni Bygvrå

    2017-01-01

    The present work has evaluated how raw material, addition of emulsifying salts (ES) and drying technology affect particle characteristics, structure, and hydration of cheese powders. In this context the spray drying technology induced the strongest effect on morphology and swelling of cheese powder...... particles showed enhanced swelling but unchanged hydration properties compared with non-aggregated powder. Rheological measurements indicated the presence of a stable and elastic network after hydration....

  11. Dry cured ham quality as related to lipid quality of raw material and lipid changes during processing: a review.

    OpenAIRE

    Gilles, Gandemer

    2009-01-01

    Lipids play a key role in sensory traits of dry cured hams. Both the quantity and the composition of lipids in raw material affect dry-cured hams quality. The lipid characteristics strongly depend on rearing systems developed in different area in Europe. During processing, lipids undergo lipolysis and oxidation. Phospholipids are the main substrates of both lipolysis and oxidation. Lipolysis forms free fatty acids rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids all along the process. Lipids are also subj...

  12. Detection of the presence of used frying oil as raw material in biodiesel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobarganes, M. C.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The detection of compounds giving information on the use of used frying oils as raw material in the production of biodiesel is of interest to guarantee the quality of the product. In this study, the most characteristic groups of compounds formed after used frying oil transesterification were analyzed by means of the standard technique using gas chromatography at a high temperature (EN 14105. Dimeric fatty acid methyl esters (dimeric FAME is the most important group to be considered as they are present in significant amounts after used frying oil transesterification. On the other hand, they are absent in the bleached oils used for biodiesel production. The concentration of the dimeric FAME in the polar fraction of biodiesel, easily obtained by adsorption chromatography, allowed detection of this group of compounds even in very low concentrations.La detección de compuestos característicos de los aceites de fritura usados como materia prima de bajo coste en la obtención de biodiesel, es de interés para garantizar su calidad. En este estudio, se analizan los grupos de compuestos más característicos obtenidos tras la transesterificación de los aceites de fritura mediante la técnica estándar que utiliza cromatografía de gases a temperatura elevada (European Standard EN 14105. Los dímeros de ésteres metílicos son los compuestos más importantes para detectar el aceite de fritura como materia prima, debido a su presencia en cantidades significativas después de la transesterificación de los aceites de fritura y a su ausencia en los aceites decolorados que se utilizan en la obtención de biodiesel. La concentración de los dímeros en la fracción polar del biodiesel, fácilmente obtenida mediante cromatografía de adsorción, permite detectar los citados compuestos incluso a concentraciones muy bajas.

  13. Enzymatic production of DFA III from fresh dahlia tubers as raw material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budiwati, Thelma A.; Ratnaningrum, D.; Pudjiraharti, S.

    2017-01-01

    Dahlia is an annual ornamental plants and tubers that have not been widely used in Indonesia. Dahlia tubers contain nearly 70 per cent of the starch in the form of inulin. Inulin addition can be used as a food ingredient can also be used as a raw material for making DFA III (ie functional oligosaccharides), using inulin fructotransferase (IFTase) Nonomuraea sp. In this study conducted production of DFA III through enzymatic reactions and yeast fermentation, using inulin from fresh dahlia tubers and fresh dahlia tuber extract. Dahlia tubers which is one source of inulin, do blanching before extracted. Most dahlia tuber extract used directly for enzymatic reactions in the production of DFA III and some extracts are processed to produce inulin by precipitation using ethanol and then inulin is used for the enzymatic reaction. Syrup DFA III was measured volume and viscosity, and then do decolorization and then crystallization. The analysis was done of Thin Layer Chromatography (to see DFA III formed) and HPLC to see the purity of the product. The results showed that the average of inulin from precipitation with ethanol in the two batch of 113,5 g with an average water content of 7.41%, average whiteness degree 62.29% and an average yield 7.345% (w/w, wb dahlia tuber). From the average of DFA III liquid of 480 mL with density of 14.15%, the result of the average of DFA III crystal from enzyme reaction in the two reactor using inulin dahlia tubers as a substrate, was obtained of 55.4 g with an average whiteness degree of 93.8%, and the average of yield 3.56% w/w (wb dahlia tuber) or 48.89% w/w (db inulin). And then from the average of 475 mL with density of 16.85% was obtained an average DFA III crystals of 29 g from the enzyme reaction in the two reactor using fresh dahlia tuber extract as a substrate, with an average whiteness degree o 80.75% and the average of the yield of 1.86% w/w (wb dahlia tuber).

  14. Quantitation of artemether in pharmaceutical raw material and injections by high performance liquid chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabela da Costa César

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The quantitation of artemether in both pharmaceutical raw material and injections was carried out by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC with ultraviolet detection. A Zorbax C18 column (150 x 4.6 mm; 5 μm, at 30 °C, and a mobile phase composed of acetonitrile and water (70:30, at a flow rate of 1ml/min, were used. The detection wavelength was 216 nm and the injection volume was 20 μL. The method proved to be linear (r²=0.9999, precise (RSD A quantificação de artemeter em matéria-prima farmacêutica e solução injetável foi realizada por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (CLAE com detecção na região do ultravioleta. Empregou-se coluna Zorbax C18 (150 x 4.6 mm; 5 μm, mantida a 30 °C, e fase móvel composta por acetonitrila e água (70:30, com fluxo de 1 ml/min. A detecção foi realizada a 216 nm, e o volume de injeção foi 20 μl. O método se mostrou linear (r²=0,9999, preciso (DPR < 2,0% para precisão intra-dia e inter-dias e seletivo em relação a possíveis impurezas e excipientes das amostras. Os limites de detecção e quantificação obtidos foram 8 μg/mL e 25 μg/mL, respectivamente. O teor médio de artemeter obtido na análise da matéria-prima farmacêutica foi 99,26% e na solução injetável, 102,08%. O método otimizado e validado pode ser utilizado com sucesso para análises rotineiras em controle de qualidade.

  15. Solid residues from Italian municipal solid waste incinerators: A source for "critical" raw materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funari, Valerio; Braga, Roberto; Bokhari, Syed Nadeem Hussain; Dinelli, Enrico; Meisel, Thomas

    2015-11-01

    The incineration of municipal solid wastes is an important part of the waste management system along with recycling and waste disposal, and the solid residues produced after the thermal process have received attention for environmental concerns and the recovery of valuable metals. This study focuses on the Critical Raw Materials (CRM) content in solid residues from two Italian municipal waste incinerator (MSWI) plants. We sampled untreated bottom ash and fly ash residues, i.e. the two main outputs of common grate-furnace incinerators, and determined their total elemental composition with sensitive analytical techniques such as XRF and ICP-MS. After the removal of a few coarse metallic objects from bottom ashes, the corresponding ICP solutions were obtained using strong digestion methods, to ensure the dissolution of the most refractory components that could host significant amounts of precious metals and CRM. The integration of accurate chemical data with a substance flow analysis, which takes into account the mass balance and uncertainties assessment, indicates that bottom and fly ashes can be considered as a low concentration stream of precious and high-tech metals. The magnesium, copper, antimony and zinc contents are close to the corresponding values of a low-grade ore. The distribution of the elements flow between bottom and fly ash, and within different grain size fractions of bottom ash, is appraised. Most elements are enriched in the bottom ash flow, especially in the fine grained fractions. However, the calculated transfer coefficients indicate that Sb and Zn strongly partition into the fly ashes. The comparison with available studies indicates that the CRM concentrations in the untreated solid residues are comparable with those residues that undergo post-treatment beneficiations, e.g. separation between ferrous and non-ferrous fractions. The suggested separate collection of "fresh" bottom ash, which could be processed for further mineral upgrading, can

  16. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF THE SUBSTANCES RECEIVED FROM RAW MATERIALS OF BIRCH FAMILY PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedchenkova Yu.A

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. In accordance with the last events in Ukraine (considering military operations in anti-terrorist operation in the Luhansk and Donetsk regions the domestic medicine is in great need in preparations with antimicrobial activity. Our attention as the sources of receiving biologically active substances with antimicrobial activity was drawn with birch Betulaceae family plants – hazel ordinary Corylus avellana L. and black alder Alnus glutinosa (L. Gaertn. It is known that in medicine the leaves of hazel ordinary are used as antiseptic, anti-inflammatory, vesselrestorative drug, and the leaves of black alder reveal the antiinflammatory, astringent, wound healing, spasmolytic and choleretic action. However, the drugs with antimicrobial action received from the leaves of these plants are absent on the market of Ukraine. Therefore the studying of antimicrobial activity of this type of raw materials received from hazel ordinary and black alder, for creation of new medicines, is now one of the main directions in pharmacy. For this purpose we have revealed tinctures, spirit, lipophilic and polysacharid fractions received from the leaves of hazel ordinary and black alder. The purpose of our research is studying of antimicrobial activity of revealed substance received from the leaves of black alder and hazel ordinary. Materials and methods. There were being examined tinctures, lipophilic, spirit and polysacharid fractions received from the leaves of hazel ordinary and black alder. The test of antimicrobial effect of substances was carried out by means of serial dilution concerning the following six reference cultures: Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538-P, Candida albicans ATCC 885-653, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6833, Bacillus cereus ATCC 10702, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 9027, according to the State Pharmacopoeia of Ukraine, in the Department of Microbiology and Immunology of KMAPE. For the experiment there was prepared

  17. Chemometric analysis for identification of botanical raw materials for pharmaceutical use: a case study using Panax notoginseng.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jieqiang Zhu

    Full Text Available The overall control of the quality of botanical drugs starts from the botanical raw material, continues through preparation of the botanical drug substance and culminates with the botanical drug product. Chromatographic and spectroscopic fingerprinting has been widely used as a tool for the quality control of herbal/botanical medicines. However, discussions are still on-going on whether a single technique provides adequate information to control the quality of botanical drugs. In this study, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC, capillary electrophoresis (CE and near infrared spectroscopy (NIR were used to generate fingerprints of different plant parts of Panax notoginseng. The power of these chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques to evaluate the identity of botanical raw materials were further compared and investigated in light of the capability to distinguishing different parts of Panax notoginseng. Principal component analysis (PCA and clustering results showed that samples were classified better when UPLC- and HPLC-based fingerprints were employed, which suggested that UPLC- and HPLC-based fingerprinting are superior to CE- and NIR-based fingerprinting. The UPLC- and HPLC- based fingerprinting with PCA were able to correctly distinguish between samples sourced from rhizomes and main root. Using chemometrics and its ability to distinguish between different plant parts could be a powerful tool to help assure the identity and quality of the botanical raw materials and to support the safety and efficacy of the botanical drug products.

  18. Mechanical properties of mortar specimens prepared from experimentally burnt impure limestones: effect of raw material characteristics and burning conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlovcev, Petr; Triantafyllou, George; Prikryl, Richard; Soultana, Anthansia; Prikrylova, Jirina

    2017-04-01

    Recent study focused on the effect of raw material characteristics of impure carbonate rocks and of their burning conditions on physical / mechanical properties of experimentally burnt natural hydraulic lime / natural cement. Four types of limestone that were historically employed for production of inorganic binders were burnt at 1000, 1100, and/or 1200°C, keeping the peak temperature for 6 hours. Mortar specimens prepared from the experimentally prepared binders were cured in a climatic chamber for 7, 28, 90, and/or 180 days. Then, their mechanical properties (flexural and compressive strengths) were determined. In contrast to our expectations, no direct relationship between increasing content of non-carbonate fraction and burning conditions on improvement of mechanical properties was observed. This fact might be explained by additional effects such as differing microfabrics of the raw material, specifically of spatial distribution of carbonate and non-carbonate mineral phases, which controls formation of new phases during burning below sintering point and therefore influences overall hydraulic character of prepared binders. The study thus shows importance of detailed knowledge not only of chemistry, but also of mineralogy / rock microfabric of raw materials used for burning of inorganic binders below sintering point, and of physical / mechanical properties of experimental mortars for the final evaluation of specific types of limestones suitable for natural hydraulic lime and/or natural cement.

  19. Sewage sludge as a fuel and raw material for phosphorus recovery: Combined process of gasification and P extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorazda, K; Tarko, B; Werle, S; Wzorek, Z

    2018-03-01

    Increasing problems associated with sewage sludge disposal are observed nowadays. As the thermal conversion of sewage sludge (combustion, co-combustion, gasification and pyrolysis) appears to be the most promising alternative for its management, the solid residues left after gasification were examined. The present study evaluates the potential of this waste as an alternative phosphorus source in the context of phosphorus recovery. The obtained solid gasification residues were characterised (chemical and phase composition, thermal properties, surface properties and technological parameters used for phosphorus raw materials) and compared to commercial phosphate raw materials. It was revealed that gasification residue is a valuable source of phosphorus and microelements, comparable to sewage sludge ash (SSA) considered nowadays as secondary phosphorus raw materials. Chemical properties as well as technological parameters characteristic for natural phosphate ores are different. Solid gasification residue was leached with mineral acids (phosphoric and nitric) according to the patented method of phosphorus recovery - PolFerAsh, developed by Cracow University of Technology. It was revealed that phosphorus can be selectively leached from solid gasification residue with high efficiency (73-82%); moreover, most of the iron and heavy metals stay in the solid phase due to the low concentration of acids and proper solid to liquid phase ratio. The obtained leachates are valuable products that can be considered for the production of fertilisers. Combining the gasification process with nutrient recovery provides the opportunity for more environmentally efficient technologies driven by sustainable development rules. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The effect of different nitrogen fertilization rates on yield and quality of marigold (Calendula officinalis L. 'Tokaj' raw material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Król

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Pot marigold (Calendula officinalis L. is an annual ornamental plant which is also grown for herbal raw material (flower heads used in the pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. A field experiment was carried out in the years 2006-2008 in the Experimental Farm of the University of Life Sciences in Lublin. The study was conducted on loess soil with the granulometric composition of silt loam. The aim of the experiment was to determine the effect of different nitrogen rates (0, 40, 80, 120, 160 kg N × ha-1 on some morphological features of flower heads as well as on yield and quality of pot marigold raw material. Flowering of pot marigold was shortest in the control treatment (32 days and longest (43 days in the plot where nitrogen fertilization had been applied at the highest rate (160 kg N × ha-1. Nitrogen fertilization had a significant influence on the number of flower heads per plant, but no significant difference was found in diameter as well as in ligulate flowers and tubular flowers in the flower head. It was found to increase significantly raw material yield after the application of 80 kg N × ha-1, compared to the control treatment. Yield of flower heads did not differ markedly for fertilization rates from 80 to 160 kg N × ha-1. Nitrogen fertilization modified slightly essential oil content (this content increased with increasing nitrogen rates, but at the same time it decreased the percentage of flavonoid compounds.

  1. Composition and properties of ceramic heat insulating building materials made ofthe masses of low temperature foaming on the basis of clay raw material

    OpenAIRE

    Selivanov Y.V.; Shiltsina A.D.; Selivanov V.M.; Loginova Y.V.; Korolkova N.N.

    2012-01-01

    Ceramic heat-insulating building materials are the most promising for modern construction. Longlived, bio-resistant and corrosion-resistant, nonhygroscopic and noncombustible, they have the greatest stability of heat engineering properties through time. The combination of these properties is especially important in construction in seismic areas.The article contains the study results of compositions and properties of ceramic heat-insulting building materials of masses on the basis of clay raw ...

  2. Challenges for critical raw material recovery from WEEE - The case study of gallium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueberschaar, Maximilian; Otto, Sarah Julie; Rotter, Vera Susanne

    2017-02-01

    Gallium and gallium compounds are more frequently used in future oriented technologies such as photovoltaics, light diodes and semiconductor technology. In the long term the supply risk is estimated to be critical. Germany is one of the major primary gallium producer, recycler of gallium from new scrap and GaAs wafer producer. Therefore, new concepts for a resource saving handling of gallium and appropriate recycling strategies have to be designed. This study focus on options for a possible recycling of gallium from waste electric and electronic equipment. To identify first starting points, a substance flow analysis was carried out for gallium applied in integrated circuits applied on printed circuit boards and for LEDs used for background lighting in Germany in 2012. Moreover, integrated circuits (radio amplifier chips) were investigated in detail to deduce first approaches for a recycling of such components. An analysis of recycling barriers was carried out in order to investigate general opportunities and risks for the recycling of gallium from chips and LEDs. Results show, that significant gallium losses arose in primary production and in waste management. 93±11%, equivalent to 43,000±4700kg of the total gallium potential was lost over the whole primary production process until applied in electronic goods. The largest share of 14,000±2300kggallium was lost in the production process of primary raw materials. The subsequent refining process was related to additional 6900±3700kg and the chip and wafer production to 21,700±3200kg lost gallium. Results for the waste management revealed only low collection rates for related end-of-life devices. Not collected devices held 300 ± 200 kg gallium. Due to the fact, that current waste management processes do not recover gallium, further 80 ± 10 kg gallium were lost. A thermal pre-treatment of the chips, followed by a manual separation allowed an isolation of gallium rich fractions, with gallium mass fractions up to

  3. Winning and utilisation of raw materials in the field of tension between economy and ecology; Gewinnung und Nutzung von Rohstoffen im Spannungsfeld zwischen Oekonomie und Oekologie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wellmer, F.W. [Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe, Hannover (Germany)

    1996-02-01

    The public awareness of raw materials in Germany is low, although by volume still 80% of all raw materials consumed in Germany are produced within the country. Not only the concept of sustainable development but also `good miner`s practice` requires to minimise the environmental impact of mining. The historic consumption of raw materials being larger since World War II than in man`s history before requires an increased efficiency in the consumption of raw materials. This can be obtained by improving the intensity of use of materials (e.g. recycling, improving processes and the quality of materials, making optimal use of residues etc.). To achieve sustainable development for nonrenewable resources, also the resource `human ingenuity` has to be taken into account. An analysis of the historic development of natural resources discovered and exploited shows that a dynamic equilibrium still exists. Till now there is no indication that nonrenewable resources have been overexploited. (orig.)

  4. [Which one is more important, raw materials or productive technology?--a case study for quality consistency control of Gegen Qinlian decoction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Wen; Chen, Sha; Zhang, Jun; Wang, Yu-Sheng; Liu, An

    2016-03-01

    To investigate the effect of Chinese medicine raw materials and production technology on quality consistency of Chinese patent medicines with Gegen Qinlian decoction as an example, and establish a suitable method for the quality consistency control of Chinese patent medicines. The results showed that the effect of production technology on the quality consistency was generally not more than 5%, while the effect of raw materials was even more than 30%, indicating that the effect of raw materials was much greater than that of the production technology. In this study, blend technology was used to improve the quality consistency of raw materials. As a result, the difference between the product produced by raw materials and reference groups was less than 5%, thus increasing the quality consistence of finished products. The results showed that under the current circumstances, the main factor affecting the quality consistency of Chinese patent medicines was raw materials, so we shall pay more attention to the quality of Chinese medicine's raw materials. Finally, a blend technology can improve the quality consistency of Chinese patent medicines. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  5. Small Hardwoods Reduce Growth of Pine Overstory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles X. Grano

    1970-01-01

    Dense understory hardwoods materially decreased the growth of a 53-year-old and a 47-year-old stand of loblolly and shortleaf pines. Over a 14-year period, hardwood eradication with chemicals increased average annual yield from the 53-year-old stand by 14.3 cubic feet, or 123 board-feet per acre. In the 47-year-old stand the average annual treatment advantage was...

  6. Clay raw materials from the Triassic Red Beds (Northern JaéUy Spain for making ceramic construction materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vázquez, M.

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The suitability of Triassic Red Beds from northern Jaén in the production of structural clay products has been evaluated. These materials have high phyllosilicate contents (36-69%, although some samples are enriched in quartz (<8-54% and feldspars (<5-2I%. Dolomite (<5-20% and calcite (< 7% are present. Illite is the main phyllosilicate (96-74%, kaolinite values are rather low (<17% and chlorite is present in low content (<14%. The studied samples have high silica (39.2-74.8% and alumina (6.9-18.3% content. K4ost of the samples have low CaO and MgO concentrations (<6%. <2 pm (64-36% and 2-20 pm (68-36% are the predominant grain size fraction of the studied samples. Low plasticity for extrusion process of the Triassic Red Beds is not appropriated for making bricks and roofing tiles by themselves. However, water absorption and linear shrinkage values are often suitable for manufacturing bricks. A small number of samples are appropriated for making roofing tiles, due to the its high firing shrinkage. Mixing of these materials with different proportions of complementary raw materials would allow to make porous bodies.

    En este trabajo se ha evaluado el uso de las Capas Rojas Triásicas de la Cobertera Tabular del Macizo Ibérico del norte de la provincia de Jaén para elaborar materiales cerámicos. Estos materiales tienen altos contenidos en filosilicatos (36-69%, aunque algunas muestras son ricas en cuarzo (hasta 54% y feldespatos (hasta 21%. Los carbonatos presentes en las muestras son dolomita (<5-20% y calcita (<7%. La illita es el principal filosilicato (96-74%, mientras que la caolinita y la clorita están presentes en bajos contenidos (< 17%. Las muestras estudiadas tienen altos contenidos en sílice (39,2-74,8% y alúmina (6,9-18,3%. La mayoría de estas arcillas tienen bajas concentraciones de CaO y MgO (<6%. Las fracciones granulométricas predominantes son la< 2 pm (64-36% y la situada entre 2 y 20 pm (68-36%. La baja plasticidad

  7. Effect of Industrial Raw Materials on the Glass-Forming Ability, Magnetic and Mechanical Properties of Fe-Based Bulk Metallic Glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yongqian; Ling, Haibo; Jiang, Tao

    2015-12-01

    Pseudo-ternary Fe78P13C9 (the real composition is Fe77.6Si1.4P12.7C8.3) bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) with the maximum diameter of 1.5 mm based on industrial raw materials has been prepared by J-quenching technique using the master alloys with fluxing treatment, whereas fully amorphous alloy rod with the diameter of 1.0 mm cannot be obtained by the same preparation method using the master alloy without fluxing treatment. It is indicated that the glass formation ability (GFA) of the present Fe-based alloys based on industrial raw materials can be greatly enhanced through fluxing treatment. For comparison, the amorphous alloy rod with the same composition based on the pure raw materials has also been prepared by the same preparation technique and the critical diameter for fully glass formation gets to 2.0 mm. The DSC result indicates that the present Fe-based BMG based on industrial raw materials reveals higher thermal stability compared with the BMG based on pure raw materials. The magnetic tests show that the saturation magnetizations of the present Fe-based BMGs prepared by pure raw materials and industrial raw material are around 1.40 T, and have no significant difference. Compressive tests show that the present Fe-based BMG based on industrial raw materials exhibits higher compressive fracture strength (3.11 GPa) and slightly less plastic strain (0.8 pct) compared with the BMG based on pure raw materials with the same composition.

  8. Flavor of roasted peanuts (Arachis hypogaea) - Part I: Effect of raw material and processing technology on flavor, color and fatty acid composition of peanuts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lykomitros, Dimitrios; Fogliano, V.; Capuano, E.

    2016-01-01

    Flavor and color of roasted peanuts have a strong impact on consumer acceptability. They can be influenced by
    raw material and processing technology. Raw peanuts of various market types, origins and grades were processed
    by different technologies to produce 134 unique samples, which were

  9. Annual report 2005 General Direction of the Energy and raw materials; Rapport annuel 2005 Direction Generale de L'Energie et des Matieres Premieres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This 2005 annual report of the DGEMP (General Direction of the Energy and the raw Materials), takes stock on the energy bill and accounting of the France. The first part presents the electric power, natural gas and raw materials market in France. The second part is devoted to the diversification of the energy resources with a special attention to the renewable energies and the nuclear energy. The third part discusses the energy and raw materials prices and the last part presents the international cooperation in the energy domain. (A.L.B.)

  10. Sludge from paper mill effluent treatment as raw material to produce carbon adsorbents: An alternative waste management strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaria, Guilaine; Silva, Carla Patrícia; Ferreira, Catarina I A; Otero, Marta; Calisto, Vânia

    2017-03-01

    Pulp and paper industry produces massive amounts of sludge from wastewater treatment, which constitute an enormous environmental challenge. A possible management option is the conversion of sludge into carbon-based adsorbents to be applied in water remediation. For such utilization it is important to investigate if sludge is a consistent raw material originating reproducible final materials (either over time or from different manufacturing processes), which is the main goal of this work. For that purpose, different primary (PS) and biological sludge (BS) batches from two factories with different operation modes were sampled and subjected to pyrolysis (P materials) and to pyrolysis followed by acid washing (PW materials). All the materials were characterized by proximate analysis, total organic carbon (TOC) and inorganic carbon (IC), attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) and N2 adsorption isotherms (specific surface area (SBET)and porosity determination). Sludge from the two factories proved to have distinct physicochemical properties, mainly in what concerns IC. After pyrolysis, the washing step was essential to reduce IC and to considerably increase SBET, yet with high impact in the final production yield. Among the materials here produced, PW materials from PS were those having the highest SBET values (387-488 m2 g-1). Overall, it was found that precursors from different factories might originate final materials with distinct characteristics, being essential to take into account this source of variability when considering paper mill sludge as a raw material. Nevertheless, for PS, low variability was found between batches, which points out to the reliability of such residues to be used as precursors of carbon adsorbents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Indicators for the use of raw materials in the context of sustainable development in Germany; Indikatoren/Kennzahlen fuer den Rohstoffverbrauch im Rahmen der Nachhaltigkeitsdiskussion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giegrich, Juergen; Liebich, Axel; Lauwigi, Christoph; Reinhardt, Joachim [ifeu-Institut fuer Energie- und Umweltforschung GmbH, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2012-01-15

    Raw material productivity is a key indicator in the German strategy for sustainable development located in the chapter about ''conservation of resources''. Raw material productivity relates the gross domestic product (GDP) to the sum of domestically extracted abiotic raw materials and imported abiotic raw materials, semi-finished products and finished products. The main objective of this research project was to further develop or supplement this existing indicator. First of all the basic concepts of ''natural resource'' and ''raw material'' was clearly defined and put into the context of existing resource strategies. The broad concept of natural resource was adopted and six types of natural resources were identified (raw material, energy, water, land, biodiversity and the sink function of environmental media) Headline indicators were suggested for each of them. An aggregated indicator was developed and discussed which was called Environmental Impact Load (EVIL). The pressures represented by four resource indicators and four environmental indicators for the sink function were calculated for all imported goods with the help of 130 resource and environmental profiles and the German import statistics of the year 2005. This step was necessary to resolve the asymmetric approach of calculating the pressures caused by imports and domestic production and consumption. The ''rucksacks'' of the imports were accounted with domestic figures and the export ''rucksacks''. The raw material demand of imported goods expressed in raw material equivalent was derived to be twice as high as the domestic material extraction. Finally the function of the different resource indicators to represent each other was tested with the help of correlations. As a first approximation a certain correlation exists between some indicators. But it is recommended that each resource indicator should be kept

  12. Raw material availability - with a focus on fossil energy resources; Die Verfuegbarkeit von Rohstoffen - insbesondere von fossilen Energietraegern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerling, J.P.; Wellmer, F.W. [Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe, Hannover (Germany)

    2004-08-01

    As we speak, the availability of oil has re-emerged in the public debate, driven, among other things, by the barrel price, which peaked at over US dollar 42 in new York last May, for example. Although it does appear that Europe has been able to benefit from a relatively wide spectrum of energies since the 1980s, with domestic oil and coal, nuclear energy programmes in certain countries, and the advances made by natural gas on the heating and electricity markets, the future certainly looks less rosy. In its Green Paper, the EU describes, e.g., future changes on the oil market in a Europe of 30: The decline in domestic production - specifically in the North Sea - must be juxtaposed with a continuously growing demand to more than 900 million tonnes (mt), so that dependence on imports will increase to nearly 80% in 2030. Quite apart from this specific scarcity of domestic raw materials, we also have to consider the phase-out of nuclear energy in some EU states and the extra consumption of fossil energy sources due to climate policy (keyword: lower efficiency as a result of emission-free power generation). Comparable scenarios can be produced both for other raw materials and for other regions on the world market. The resulting question of the availability of raw materials can be broken down - with account taken of an uneven global distribution - to an availability chain with the following elements: - geological availability, - technical availability, - availability of transportation. These specific links in the chain are discussed in the following remarks - in reverse order - focusing on selected aspects. (orig.)

  13. Presence of central nervous system tissues as bovine spongiform encephalopathy specified risk material in Turkish raw meat ball (cig kofte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Hulusi DİNÇOĞLU

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE is a virulent disease which may infect by affecting the central nervous system (CNS tissues in cattle and causes degeneration in nerves. Central nervous system tissues such as brain and spinal cord which are classified as specified risk materials (SRMs are regarded to be main source of infection. The contamination of the meat with the specific risk materials (SRMs can occur in phases of slaughter, fragmentation of carcass and processing. This study was conducted in order to investigate the existence of CNS tissues in raw meat ball (cig kofte which is commonly consumed in the Southeastern Region of Turkey, particularly in Şanlıurfa. For this purpose, 145 samples of raw meat ball were tested. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA kits (Ridascreen risk material 10/5, R-biofarm GmbH which determine glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP as determinant were used. As a result of the analyses, positivity was detected in 21 of totally 145 samples of raw meat ball (14.48%. 6 (4.14% of the samples gave low level of positivity (≥ 0.1 standard absorbance, 10 (6.90% gave medium level of positivity (>0.2 standard absorbance and 5 (3.45% gave high level of positivity (≥0.5 standard absorbance. As a consequence, meats are contaminated in any phase of both slaughter and meat production even if accidentally. Regarding this matter, necessary measures should be taken and hygiene rules should be applied.

  14. Utilisation of biological and secondary raw materials IX. Recycling - conversion to energy; Bio- und Sekundaerrohstoffverwertung IX. Stofflich - energetisch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiemer, Klaus; Kern, Michael; Raussen, Thomas (eds.)

    2014-07-01

    The book on the utilization of biological and secondary raw materials covers the following issues: Perspectives of the circular flow and resource economy, waste avoidance, closed substance cycle waste management law and biowaste assessment, economic evaluation and usage alternatives for biogas, consequences of the 4th BlmschV, the BioAbfV and the DueV for the biowaste treatment, alternative techniques of the Biowaste collection, alternative models of the recyclable substance assessment, future of the packaging and recyclable substance utilization, ElectroG and E-scrape recycling, innovative concepts for the municipal waste management, future of the MBA, MVA and EBS management.

  15. Development of a technology for obtaining flotation reagent oxane-3 for carbon mineral raw materials of Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Kalugin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper represents the results of development of a technology for obtaining oxane-3 and its application for enrichment of carbon mineral raw materials. Studies on enrichment of a shungite rock showed that the increase of a pulp temperature to 30°C significantly improves the characteristics and rate of the flotation process. Measured indicators of a shungite rock enrichment using Flotol B were lower in comparison with an enrichment by oxane-3. For schungite mineral, it was established that the obtained heterocyclic compound can replace existing industrial flotation reagents in enrichment processes.

  16. Logistics simulation of in-bound raw materials to steel works for 2.4 mt expansion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baijal, A.D.; Misbhra, O.P.; Das, S.; Banerjee, R.S.; Dash, S. [Tata Iron and Steel Company Ltd. (India)

    2005-07-01

    A logistics simulation was carried out to capture the possible scenarios of in-bound raw material traffic in light of Tata's Steel works 2.4 Mt expansion plan. Results from the simulation show that the number of tracks, track hoppers/tipplers and stockyard capacities are sufficient to handle the increased volumes of in-coming rakes. It also suggests that the number of locos can be rationalised without any adverse affect on the rake circuit times. 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. Evaluation of carbohydrates and lignocellulosic biomass from different wood species as raw material for the synthesis of 5-bromomethyfurfural.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredihhin, Aleksei; Mäeorg, Uno; Vares, Lauri

    2013-06-28

    The influence of different parameters on the conversion of carbohydrates and biomass into the potential biofuel intermediate 5-bromomethylfurfural (BMF) has been studied. Our optimized conditions avoid the use of lithium salt additives, making this method cheaper and environmentally more benign compared to previously reported methods. Different wood species and their potential as a raw material in BMF and furfural production have also been evaluated. In addition, we report a very simple and efficient procedure for conversion of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) into BMF or 5-chloromethylfurfural (CMF). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of the Ratio of Raw Material Components on the Physico-chemical Characteristics of Emulsion-type Pork Sausages

    OpenAIRE

    Sang-Keun Jin; So-Ra Ha; Sun-Jin Hur; Jung-Seok Choi

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of raw material ratio on the physicochemical characteristics of emulsion-type pork sausages. Experiment design was divided into 12 treatments, based on protein level (P), fat level (3P, 3.5P, and 4P), and water level (4P+10, 4P+15, 4P+20, and 4P+25). The pH and shear force values were significantly higher in T7 (3.5P fat and 4P+20 water) than those of other treatments. The lightness and redness were greatly reduced by increasing the quantity...

  19. Morpho-anatomical characteristics of the raw material of the herbal drug Olivae folium and its counterfeits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakušić Branislava

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The olive tree leaf is a very significant plant raw material from the medical and economic points of view (Ph. Eur. 5, PDR. In the region of Southeast Europe, olive leaves are most commonly adulterated with oleander leaves and the leaves of Pittosporum tobira. This paper deals with the morphological and anatomical features of leaves of the following species: Olea europaea, Nerium oleander and Pittosporum tobira. The aim of this research was to define concrete diagnostic parameters permitting detection of adulterants in commercial samples of the herbal drug Olivae folium.

  20. Microwave Absorption of Barium Borosilicate, Zinc Borate, Fe-Doped Alumino-Phosphate Glasses and Its Raw Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashis Kumar Mandal

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study presents microwave absorption of raw materials used in barium borosilicate, Fe-doped alumina phosphate and zinc borate glass. Microwave absorption was investigated for the raw materials SiO2, Na2CO3, BaCO3, BPO4, Al(PO33, Mg(PO32, Al(OH3, TiO2. The study shows that SiO2 could be heated directly above 1000 °C within 30 min at 1.5 kW microwave output (MW power and 0.8 kW MW power is necessary to initiate heating (from 260 °C. Microwave heating of material with low dielectric loss has been investigated by increasing MW power. Microwave absorption of above glass systems has also been investigated. Dielectric properties such as loss tangent of glass as a function of temperature are presented. Glass melting under direct microwave heating was demonstrated for the studied glass systems. Temperature-Microwave power-Time (T-P-t profiles for the three glasses indicate maximum MW output power ~1 kW, 0.65 kW and ~1 kW for barium borosilicate, zinc borate glass and alumino-phosphate glass for 60 g glass melting.

  1. New phosphorus biofertilizers from renewable raw materials in the aspect of cadmium and lead contents in soil and plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jastrzębska Magdalena

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Recycling phosphorus from waste for fertilization purposes appears to be an alternative for non-renewable sources and a solution for managing harmful products of civilisation. Fertilizers from secondary raw materials are considered to be safe to the environment. This study presents an assessment of the effects of five new biofertilizers made from sewage sludge ash and/or animal bones on the content of cadmium and lead in the soil, in wheat grains and straw (test plant, in the mass of the the accompanying weeds and in the post-harvest residues. Biofertilizers were produced in the form of suspension or granules and activated using Bacillus megaterium or Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans bacteria. They were tested in four field experiments. The Cd and Pb contents of the soil and plant material were determined using the ICP-MS technique. Similar to superphosphate, new biofertilizers showed no change in the Cd and Pb contents of the soil and plants biomass when applied at amounts up to 80 kg; P2O5 ha−1. Both Cd and Pb in the soil and plants occurred naturally, and the amounts were within the acceptable standards. Biofertilizers from renewable raw materials, with low toxic element contents, are not thought to pose a hazard to the soil and plants when applied in reasonable amounts. They can be a substitute for conventional phosphorus fertilizers.

  2. INFLUENCE OF VARIOUS RAW MATERIAL AND TECHNOLOGICAL REGIMES OF ITS RECYCLING ON QUALITATIVE INDICES OF SEMI-FINISHED PRODUCT USED FOR PACKAGE PRINTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Kuzmich

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper has investigated influence of various technologies on recycling of vegetal raw material with the purpose to obtain the desired product used for package printing. Influence of various technological regimes and introduction of fresh polyethylene additives for recycled raw material on qualitative indices of the desired product has been studied in the paper. Investigations of preliminary aquatic hydrolysis of vegetal raw material have shown that in order to obtain high quality cellulose from vegetal raw material it is necessary that this cellulose has not less than 2-3 % of hemicellulose otherwise its qualitative indices are significantly deteriorated that is important for packaging printing. Usage of carbon dioxide aqueous solution for preliminary vegetal raw material hydrolysis contributes to reduction in destruction of cellulose carbo-hydrate. This improves qualitative indices of the obtained desired product that is cellulose which is used for package printing.Recommendations for sulphate pulping of vegetal raw material with preliminary hydrolysis have been prepared with the purpose to improve physical and mechanical characteristics of the obtained desired product - cellulose on the basis of the obtained data on content of hemicellulose in cellulose.While investigating recycled polymers the obtained results have demonstrated that increase of low- molecular product content in them looks rather typical. This suggests that packaging will have lower qualitative indices while using polymers being kept in waste deposits. In order to avoid this phenomena it is necessary to add 20-30 % of fresh polymers during their recycling.

  3. Reactivity and burnability of cement raw materials witt high manganese content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puertas, F.

    1988-06-01

    Full Text Available It has been verified that high manganese content in raw mixes causes alters the mineralogical composition of clinkers. New phases like 2 CaO.Mn02 and Ca2AIMnO5 are developed and C3A formation can be inhibited. Manganese is a flux similar to iron in the traditional raw mixes. The presence of manganese will modify the expressions of the lime saturation factor (LSF, silica modulus (Ms and aluminum modulus (Mf. This has as consequence an increase of the proportion of interstitial phase in the obtained clinkers.

    Se ha comprobado que contenidos elevados de manganeso en el crudo provoca una modificación significativa en la composición mineralógica del clinker. Se desarrollan las fases no tradicionales 2 CaO.Mn02 y Ca2AIMnO5 , y se puede llegar, incluso, a inhibir la formación de alumínate tricálcico. El manganeso tiene un comportamiento fundente muy similar al jugado por el hierro en los crudos tradicionales, por lo que la incorporación de óxidos de manganeso al crudo produce una alteración significativa en los módulos tradicionales (LSF, Ms y Mf. Esto tiene como consecuencia inmediata un gran incremento en la proporción de fase intersticial en los clínkeres producidos.

  4. Development and Validation of a Green Analytical Method for the Determination of Norfloxacin in Raw Material by FTIR Spectrophotometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natori, Jéssica Sayuri Hisano; Tótoli, Eliane Gandolpho; Salgado, Hérida Regina Nunes

    2016-11-01

    Norfloxacin is a broad-spectrum antimicrobial agent, widely used in humans and animals for the treatment of urinary tract infections. It is a second-generation fluoroquinolone. Several analytical methods to analyze norfloxacin have been described in the literature. However, most of them are complex and require the use of large amounts of organic solvents. This paper describes the development and validation of a green analytical method for the determination of norfloxacin in raw material by FTIR spectrophotometry. This method does not require the use of organic solvents, minimizing waste generation in the process and its environmental impacts. The development of methods that promote the reduction, prevention, or elimination of waste generation has become highly attractive to the pharmaceutical industry because of the growing demand from civil society and government authorities for environmentally friendly products and services. The FTIR spectrophotometry method was validated according to International Conference on Harmonization guidelines, showing adequate linearity (r = 0.9936), precision, accuracy, and robustness. This validated method can be used as an environmentally friendly alternative for the quantification of norfloxacin in raw material in QC routine analysis.

  5. Effect of Raw Material, Pressing and Glycosidase on the Volatile Compound Composition of Wine Made From Goji Berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Guanshen; Ren, Jie; Ouyang, Xiaoyu; Wang, Liying; Wang, Mengze; Shen, Xiaodong; Zhang, Bolin; Zhu, Baoqing

    2016-10-02

    This study investigated the effect of raw material, pressing, and glycosidase on the aromatic profile of goji berry wine. The free-run and the pressed juice of dried and fresh goji berries were used for wine production, whereas glycosidase was applied to wine after fermentation. Dried goji berry fermented wine exhibited much stronger fruity, floral, caramel, and herbaceous odors due to higher levels of esters, β-ionone and methionol. However, fresh berry fermented wine possessed stronger chemical notes due to higher levels of 4-ethylphenol. Pressing treatment reduced the fruity and caramel odors in these fermented wines, and fresh berry free-run juice fermented wine exhibited the least floral aroma. Glycosidase addition did not alter the aromatic composition of wines. The principal component analysis indicated that goji raw material played a primary role in differentiating the aromatic profiles of the wines due to the difference on the content of 20 esters, nine benzenes, eight aldehydes/ketones, three acids, two alcohols and six other volatiles. The content differences on isopentyl alcohol, styrene, benzyl alcohol, 1-octanol, ( E )-5-decen-1-ol, 1-hexanol, and β-cyclocitral resulted in the segregation of the wines with and without the pressing treatment, especially for fresh berry fermented wine.

  6. Effect of Raw Material, Pressing and Glycosidase on the Volatile Compound Composition of Wine Made From Goji Berries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanshen Yuan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of raw material, pressing, and glycosidase on the aromatic profile of goji berry wine. The free-run and the pressed juice of dried and fresh goji berries were used for wine production, whereas glycosidase was applied to wine after fermentation. Dried goji berry fermented wine exhibited much stronger fruity, floral, caramel, and herbaceous odors due to higher levels of esters, β-ionone and methionol. However, fresh berry fermented wine possessed stronger chemical notes due to higher levels of 4-ethylphenol. Pressing treatment reduced the fruity and caramel odors in these fermented wines, and fresh berry free-run juice fermented wine exhibited the least floral aroma. Glycosidase addition did not alter the aromatic composition of wines. The principal component analysis indicated that goji raw material played a primary role in differentiating the aromatic profiles of the wines due to the difference on the content of 20 esters, nine benzenes, eight aldehydes/ketones, three acids, two alcohols and six other volatiles. The content differences on isopentyl alcohol, styrene, benzyl alcohol, 1-octanol, (E-5-decen-1-ol, 1-hexanol, and β-cyclocitral resulted in the segregation of the wines with and without the pressing treatment, especially for fresh berry fermented wine.

  7. Near infrared spectroscopy based monitoring of extraction processes of raw material with the help of dynamic predictive modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haixia; Suo, Tongchuan; Wu, Xiaolin; Zhang, Yue; Wang, Chunhua; Yu, Heshui; Li, Zheng

    2018-03-01

    The control of batch-to-batch quality variations remains a challenging task for pharmaceutical industries, e.g., traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) manufacturing. One difficult problem is to produce pharmaceutical products with consistent quality from raw material of large quality variations. In this paper, an integrated methodology combining the near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and dynamic predictive modeling is developed for the monitoring and control of the batch extraction process of licorice. With the spectra data in hand, the initial state of the process is firstly estimated with a state-space model to construct a process monitoring strategy for the early detection of variations induced by the initial process inputs such as raw materials. Secondly, the quality property of the end product is predicted at the mid-course during the extraction process with a partial least squares (PLS) model. The batch-end-time (BET) is then adjusted accordingly to minimize the quality variations. In conclusion, our study shows that with the help of the dynamic predictive modeling, NIRS can offer the past and future information of the process, which enables more accurate monitoring and control of process performance and product quality.

  8. Did Raw Material Shortages Decide World War Two? New Data for the Example of Nazi Rubber Supplies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Ferdinand Schmelzing

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite a well-established literature on the economics of World War Two, to this day reliable statistics on overall raw material supplies for Nazi Germany are lacking. The operations of shell companies, the special de jure status of occupied areas, and the Wehrmacht practice to “live off the land” have led to a significant underestimation of de facto resource endowments of the Third Reich. For the example of rubber—one of the prime “scarce war commodities”—this article demonstrates the extent and sources of deficiencies, and offers new data. On this basis, and in contrast to recent arguments that view raw materials as a “basic constraint” of the German economy, it is shown that surprisingly comfortable supplies existed between December 1941 and May 1944, during which Nazi-controlled Europe seemed ready to allow a realization of Hitler’s ‘Lebensraum’ designs. The failure to realize those designs originated in military setbacks—which subsequently impacted economic performance as a secondary effect.

  9. Pilot-scale biopesticide production by Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki using starch industry wastewater as raw material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndao, Adama; Sellamuthu, Balasubramanian; Gnepe, Jean R; Tyagi, Rajeshwar D; Valero, Jose R

    2017-09-02

    Pilot-scale Bacillus thuringiensis based biopesticide production (2000 L bioreactor) was conducted using starch industry wastewater (SIW) as a raw material using optimized operational parameters obtained in 15 L and 150 L fermenters. In pilot scale fermentation process the oxygen transfer rate is a major limiting factor for high product yield. Thus, the volumetric mass transfer coefficient (KLa) remains a tool to determine the oxygen transfer capacity [oxygen utilization rate (OUR) and oxygen transfer rate (OTR)] to obtain better bacterial growth rate and entomotoxicity in new bioreactor process optimization and scale-up. This study results demonstrated that the oxygen transfer rate in 2000 L bioreactor was better than 15 L and 150 L fermenters. The better oxygen transfer in 2000 L bioreactor augmented the bacterial growth [total cell (TC) and viable spore count (SC)] and delta-endotoxin yield. Prepared a stable biopesticide formulation for field use and its entomotoxicity was also evaluated. This study result corroborates the feasibility of industrial scale operation of biopesticide production using starch industry wastewater as raw material.

  10. Bacterial polymer production using pre-treated sludge as raw material and its flocculation and dewatering potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    More, T T; Yan, S; Hoang, N V; Tyagi, R D; Surampalli, R Y

    2012-10-01

    Sterilization, alkaline-thermal and acid-thermal treatments were applied to different sludge solids concentrations (17.0; 22.4; 29.8; 37.3; 44.8 g/L, respectively) and the pre-treated sludge was used as raw material for Serratia sp.1 to produce extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). After 72 h of fermentation, total EPS of 2.3 and 3.4 g/L were produced in sterilized and alkaline-thermal treated sludge as compared to that of 1.5 g/L in acid-thermal treated sludge. Lower EPS were produced at relatively higher solids concentrations (37.3; 44.8 g/L). Broth, crude forms of capsular and slime EPS were extracted from fermented broths and used as conditioning agents by combining with 150 mg of Ca(2+)/L of kaolin suspensions. Maximum flocculation activity of 79.1% and increased dewatering by 52.2% was achieved using broth and crude capsular EPS, respectively. The results demonstrated that EPS having high flocculating capability could be produced using wastewater sludge as sole raw material. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Near infrared spectroscopy based monitoring of extraction processes of raw material with the help of dynamic predictive modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haixia; Suo, Tongchuan; Wu, Xiaolin; Zhang, Yue; Wang, Chunhua; Yu, Heshui; Li, Zheng

    2017-11-10

    The control of batch-to-batch quality variations remains a challenging task for pharmaceutical industries, e.g., traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) manufacturing. One difficult problem is to produce pharmaceutical products with consistent quality from raw material of large quality variations. In this paper, an integrated methodology combining the near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and dynamic predictive modeling is developed for the monitoring and control of the batch extraction process of licorice. With the spectra data in hand, the initial state of the process is firstly estimated with a state-space model to construct a process monitoring strategy for the early detection of variations induced by the initial process inputs such as raw materials. Secondly, the quality property of the end product is predicted at the mid-course during the extraction process with a partial least squares (PLS) model. The batch-end-time (BET) is then adjusted accordingly to minimize the quality variations. In conclusion, our study shows that with the help of the dynamic predictive modeling, NIRS can offer the past and future information of the process, which enables more accurate monitoring and control of process performance and product quality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. DETERMINATION OF THERMOPHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF FERMENTED WHEAT RAW MATERIALS IN THE STUDY OF PROCESSES OF HEAT- AND MASS TRANSFER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Pribytkov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. The article presents the results of a study of thermophysical properties of fermented wheat raw materials used are described in this experimental method, explained the behavior of graphic curves under different external conditions, given the opportunity to use the results. Possibilities of application of physical characteristics in the design of various designs dryers. Introduced the concept of the fermented wheat feedstock described the appearance of the product and the conditions for its receipt, showing the influence of temperature and moisture on the investigational product. Shows the design of the stand to determine the thermal characteristics of the fermented wheat raw materials using the method of transient thermal regime and describes how it works. Introduced empirical regression equation adequately describe thermal characteristics. Depending on the results of the study are the coefficients of thermal conductivity, specific heat, thermal diffusivity on the moisture content and temperature. The linear dependence shows that with increasing temperature and moisture content of the physical characteristics increase.

  13. Evaluation of the kinetic and thermodynamic parameters of oxidation reaction in biodiesel from a quaternary mixture of raw material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Gomes Angilelli

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A mixture of vegetable oil and animal fat as raw materials was optimized by simplex-centroid mixture design to produce a type of biodiesel with good oxidative stability, flow properties and reaction yield. Further, kinetic and thermodynamic parameters of oxidation reaction were determined by the accelerated method at different temperatures. Biodiesel produced with sodium methoxide as catalyst presented 6.5°C of cloud point, 2.0°C of pour point, and oxidative stability at 110°C equal to 8.98h, with a reaction yield of 96.04%. Activation energy of the oxidation reaction was 81.03 kJ mol-1 for biodiesel produced with sodium hydroxide and 90.51 kJ mol-1 for sodium methoxide. The positive values for DH‡ and DG‡ indicate that the oxidation process is endothermic and endergonic. The less negative DS‡ for biodiesel produced with sodium methoxide (-28.87 JK-1 mol-1 showed that the process of degradation of this biofuel was slower than that produced with NaOH. The mixture of raw materials proposed, transesterified with the methoxide catalyst, resulted in a biofuel that resisted oxidation for longer periods, making unnecessary the addition of antioxidant

  14. Establishment of the physicochemical and radiological database of raw materials and by-products in domestic distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Chung Sup; Lim, Jong Myoung; Park, Ji Young; Kim, Chang Jong; Ji, Young Yong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Byung Uck [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    To evaluate the physicochemical and radiological properties of raw materials and by-products in domestic distribution, about 220 samples with 16 species were prepared. We measured the energy spectrum and the chemical content, such as U, Th, and K, using a LaBr{sub 3} scintillation detector and ED-XRF. In addition, HPGe detector was used to analyze the radioactivity of {sup 234}Th, {sup 234}mPa, and {sup 214}Bi in uranium decay series and {sup 228}Ac, {sup 212}Pb, and {sup 208}Tl in thorium decay series, and {sup 40}K. The correlation between characteristic variables, such as the count rate in several ROIs, chemical content, and radioactivity, was assessed to infer the radioactivity of natural radionuclides through a rapid screening method. Based on the results, a characteristic database for raw material and by-product in domestic distribution was established and it will provide useful information in the analysis procedure and improve the accuracy and reproducibility in the analysis of natural radionuclides.

  15. Effects of raw material extrusion and steam conditioning on feed pellet quality and nutrient digestibility of growing meat rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuoyao Liao

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the effects of raw material extrusion and steam conditioning on feed pellet quality and nutrient digestibility of growing meat rabbits, in order to determine appropriate rabbit feed processing methods and processing parameters. In Exp. 1, an orthogonal design was adopted. Barrel temperature, material moisture content and feed rate were selected as test factors, and acid detergent fiber (ADF content was selected as an evaluation index to research the optimum extrusion parameters. In Exp. 2, a two-factor design was adopted. Four kinds of rabbit feeds were processed and raw material extrusion adopted optimum extrusion parameters of Exp. 1. A total of 40 healthy and 42-day-old rabbits with similar weight were used in a randomized design, which consisted of 4 groups and 10 replicates in each group (1 rabbits in each replicate. The adaptation period lasted for 7 d, and the digestion trial lasted for 4 d. The results showed as follows: 1 ADF was significantly affected by barrel temperature (P < 0.05; the optimum extrusion parameters were barrel temperature 125 °C, moisture content 16% and feed rate 9 Hz. 2 Raw material extrusion and steam conditioning both significantly decreased powder percentage, pulverization ratio and protein solubility (P < 0.05, significantly improved hardness and starch gelatinization degree of rabbit feed (P < 0.05. They both had significant interaction effects on the processing quality of rabbit feed (P < 0.05. 3 Extrusion significantly improved the apparent digestibility of dry matter and total energy (P < 0.05. Extrusion and steam conditioning both significantly improved the apparent digestibility of crude fiber (CF, ADF and NDF (P < 0.05, but they had no interaction effects on the apparent digestibility of rabbit feed. Thus, using extrusion and steam conditioning technology at the same time in the weaning rabbits feed processing can improve the pellet quality and

  16. Grading hardwood trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert L. Brisbin

    1989-01-01

    Tree grading provides a way to evaluate the quality characteristics and value of standing hardwood trees. This is important because the differences in price between high-quality and low-quality end products can be very large. Since hardwood timber varies greatly in quality and value among species, within species, and even within specific geographic areas, timber...

  17. Pruning Allegheny hardwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. D. Zeedyk; A. F. Hough

    1958-01-01

    The continuing heavy demand for high-quality Allegheny hardwoods, particularly black cherry and sugar maple, impresses on us the need for more information responses of hardwoods to pruning. Pruning may have beneficial effects: it may increase quality without sacrificing growth. Or it may have detrimental effects: it may cause dieback of cambium, decay, staining and...

  18. Measurement of the intrinsic attenuation of longitudinal waves in anisotropic material from uncorrected raw data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seldis, Thomas

    2013-09-01

    Among the physical parameters characterising the interaction of the ultrasonic beam with its supporting medium, ultrasonic attenuation is an important input parameter to simulate wave propagation and defect-beam phenomena. The measurement of the intrinsic attenuation in anisotropic material however is a difficult task. The paper presents an approach to determine intrinsic attenuation in anisotropic materials such as austenitic stainless steel welds and cladding. It deals with improvements on the initial device, based on measurements on two samples with different thicknesses (10mm and 20mm). A previous paper presented preliminary results with this new approach for isotropic materials. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Sensory based quality control utilising an electronic nose and GC-MS analyses to predict end-product quality from raw materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Thomas; Petersen, Mikael Agerlin; Byrne, Derek V

    2005-04-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate if an electronic nose, comprising six metal oxide sensors (MOS) could predict the sensory quality of porcine meat loaf, based on measuring the volatiles in either the raw materials or the meat loaf produced from those raw materials. A multivariate data analysis strategy involving analysis of variance partial least squares regression (APLSR) and principal component analysis (PCA) was used to determine causal and predictive relationships between the raw material and meat loaf samples, sensory analysis, electronic nose, and GC-MS measurements. The results showed that the six MOS sensors in the Danish odour sensor system (DOSS) could detect the raw materials that led to unacceptable products, as determined by sensory profiling and in-house sensory quality control (QC), and separate those raw materials from each other, based on the volatile composition, as determined by GC-MS. However, the electronic nose was unable to detect all the sensory unacceptable meat loaf samples themselves due to changes in the volatile composition after cooking. Analysis of the GC-MS compounds identified from raw materials and meat loaf samples indicate that two MOS sensors mainly responded to alcohols and to a lesser degree to aldehydes and alkanes, whereas two other sensors most likely responded to low molecular weight sulphur compounds. Thus, the results indicate that measuring volatiles with the MOS sensors in the DOSS system, on raw materials for processed meat products, may be a feasible strategy in sensory based quality control, and may also have potential in predicting the sensory quality of the end product.

  20. USE OF LOCAL NATURAL SILICEOUS RAW MATERIAL AND WASTES FOR PRODUCTION OF HEAT-INSULATING FOAMCONCRETE

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    V. U. Matsapulin; A. B. Toturbiev; V. I. Toturbiev; B. D. Toturbieva; V. I. Cherkashin

    2015-01-01

    The article analyzes the resource base, reserves and the use of siliceous rocks, their economic feasibility of the use for production of building materials of new generation with low-energy and other costs...

  1. A rapid analysis of {sup 226}Ra in raw materials and by-products using gamma-ray spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Chung Sup; Chung, Kun Ho; Kim, Chang Jong; Ji, Young Yong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    A gamma-ray peak of {sup 226}Ra (186.2 keV) overlaps with one of {sup 235}U (185.7 keV) in a gamma-ray spectrometry system. Though reference peaks of {sup 235}U can be used to correct the peak interference of {sup 235}U in the analysis of {sup 226}Ra, this requires a complicated calculation process and a high limit of quantitation. On the other hand, evaluating {sup 226}Ra using the correction constant in the overlapped peak can make a rapid measurement of {sup 226}Ra without the complicated calculation process as well as overcome the disadvantage in the indirect measurement of {sup 214}Bi, which means the confinement of {sup 222}Rn gas in a sample container and a time period to recover the secular equilibrium. About 93 samples with 6 species for raw-materials and by-products were prepared to evaluate the activity of {sup 226}Ra using the correction constant. The results were compared with the activity of {sup 214}Bi, which means the indirect measurement of {sup 226}Ra, to validate the method of the direct measurement of {sup 226}Ra using the correction constant. The difference between the direct and indirect measurement of {sup 226}Ra was generally below about ± 20%. However, in the case of the phospho gypsum, a large error of about 50% was found in the comparison results, which indicates the disequilibrium between {sup 238}U and {sup 226}Ra in the materials. Application results of the contribution ratio of {sup 226}Ra were below about ± 10% . The direct measurement of {sup 226}Ra using the correction constant can be an effective method for its rapid measurement of raw materials and by-products because the activity of {sup 226}Ra can be produced with a simple calculation without the consideration of the integrity of a sample container and the time period to recover the secular equilibrium.

  2. Temperature dependent embryonic development of Trichuris suis eggs in a medicinal raw material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vejzagić, Nermina; Kringel, Helene; Bruun, Johan Musaeus; Roepstorff, Allan; Thamsborg, Stig Milan; Grossi, Anette Blak; Kapel, Christian M O

    2016-01-15

    The therapeutic potential of infective pig whipworm eggs, Trichuris suis ova (TSO), is currently tested in several clinical trials on immune-mediated diseases. This paper studied the embryonic development of TSO in a medicinal raw product, where the parasite eggs were suspended in sulphuric acid (pH1). Unembryonated T. suis egg batches were stored at 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, and 40°C (±1°C) and examined at 2, 4, 8, and 14 weeks. Subsequently, sub-batches from each temperature were allowed to embryonate for additional 14 weeks at 25°C, and selected samples were tested for infectivity in Göttingen minipigs. Both male and female pigs were used to evaluate eventual gender specific infectivity. Storage at 30°C up to 14 weeks and subsequent embryonation for 14 weeks at 25°C did not significantly reduce the overall larval establishment in minipigs, as compared to storage at 5°C and subsequent embryonation at 25°C. As marked impairment of egg development was observed during storage at 40°C, a second set of unembryonated egg batches were incubated at 30, 32, 34, 36, 38, and 40°C (±1°C) for 1-8 weeks. The development of the eggs was repeatedly examined by manual light microscopy, multispectral analysis (OvaSpec), and an egg hatching assay prior to the final testing in minipigs (Trial 1). These methods showed that the development started earlier at higher temperatures, but the long-term storage at higher temperature affected the egg development. The present study further documents tolerance of the TSO to storage at temperature 5-15°C, at which temperature development of larvae is not initiated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Characterization of traditional raw materials used in housing construction in Huambo region - Angola

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedro, Elsa; Duarte, Isabel; Varum, Humberto; Pinho, António; Norman, Antónia

    2016-04-01

    The sustainability of buildings associated to the use of raw earth has motivated the studies and the development of techniques and methods in the context of this type of construction. In the region of Huambo, Angola, these construction techniques are widely used, especially for low-income families who represent the majority of the population. Much of the buildings in Huambo province are built with adobe. Due to the climate in this region, subtropical, hot and humid, with altitudes above 1000 meters and extensive river system, these buildings are particularly vulnerable to the action of water and develop, in many situations, early degradation. The Huambo Province is located in central Angola, has 36 km2 area and approximately 2 million inhabitants. This work aims to evaluate, by conducting in-situ tests, physical and mechanical properties of adobe blocks typically used in the construction of those buildings. The methodology is based on field campaigns where in-situ expeditious tests were performed in soils (smell test, color, touch, brightness, sedimentation, ball, hardness, etc.) and tests on adobes blocks made with traditional procedures, particularly in terms of durability and erodibility (erosion test at Geelong method; evaluation test of wet / dry cycle, applying the New Zealand standards 4297: 1998; 4297: 1998 and 4297: 1999). The results will contribute to the characterization of the geomaterials and methods used in construction with earth in Huambo Province, contributing to the improvement of these sustainable solutions, with a strong presence in this region. The results of this study will also contribute to the proposal of constructive solutions with improved performance characteristics, comfort, safety and durability.

  4. High-frequency electro-thermal processing of secondary nonmetallic raw materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Livshits

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite a large number of studies in industrial waste processing, this field is still a challenge. In this regard, new processing capabilities emerging from the use of high frequency (RF and microwave (MW heat equipment are a positive factor to be researched.In HF and MW processing the heating process is determined by absorption of electromagnetic wave power through the processed material. This electromagnetic wave power is transmitted by the substance atoms and spent for heating a sample, polarization, and initiation of chemical reactions. The non-conductor (dielectric and semiconductor material heat is explained by the existing effect of dielectric losses due to losses caused by the through electrical conductivity and slow processes of polarization. The dielectric losses due to electrical conductivity result from the Joule heat released when through-current flows through the dielectric.The differences in frequency radiation of HF and microwave equipment define their different technological capabilities. HF-radiation represents almost homogeneous field between the plates of a running capacitor. With multiple reflection from the chamber walls MW-radiation is randomly distributed within the chamber. Thus, radiation partly returns to the generator, thereby affecting the equipment performance capability and life time. Microwave heating is uneven. The depth of penetration into the material is much less to HF-processing. HF heating features are high penetration of radiation and uniform heating of the material. Together with pre-pressing it can afford an opportunity to join the non-standard pieces of plastic to have the larger insulating items.The fact of the selective effect on the material is positive when processing the waste. Since the tangent of angle of dielectric losses of materials such as wood is directly proportional to humidity, the heating automatically stops as wood dries. This fact was used to produce for the fuel briquettes, which were

  5. Evaluation of lunar rocks and soils for resource utilization: Detailed image analysis of raw materials and beneficiated products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Lawrence A.; Chambers, John G.; Patchen, Allan; Jerde, Eric A.; Mckay, David S.; Graf, John; Oder, Robin R.

    1993-01-01

    The rocks and soils of the Moon will be the raw materials for fuels and construction needs at a lunar base. This includes sources of materials for the generation of hydrogen, oxygen, metals, and other potential construction materials. For most of the bulk material needs, the regolith, and its less than 1 cm fraction, the soil, will suffice. But for specific mineral resources, it may be necessary to concentrate minerals from rocks or soils, and it is not always obvious which is the more appropriate feedstock. Besides an appreciation of site geology, the mineralogy and petrography of local rocks and soils is important for consideration of the resources which can provide feedstocks of ilmenite, glass, agglutinates, anorthite, etc. In such studies, it is very time-consuming and practically impossible to correlate particle counts (the traditional method of characterizing lunar soil petrography) with accurate modal analyses and with mineral associations in multi-mineralic grains. But x ray digital imaging, using x rays characteristic of each element, makes all this possible and much more (e.g., size and shape analysis). An application of beneficiation image analysis, in use in our lab (Oxford Instr. EDS and Cameca SX-50 EMP), was demonstrated to study mineral liberation from lunar rocks and soils. Results of x ray image analysis are presented.

  6. Characterization of a wollastonite glass-ceramic material prepared using sugar cane bagasse ash (SCBA) as one of the raw materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, Silvio R., E-mail: rainho@fct.unesp.br [Universidade Estadual Paulista — UNESP, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia — FCT, 19060-900 Presidente Prudente — SP (Brazil); Souza, Agda E. [Universidade Estadual Paulista — UNESP, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia — FCT, 19060-900 Presidente Prudente — SP (Brazil); Carvalho, Claudio L.; Reynoso, Victor C.S. [Universidade Estadual Paulista — UNESP, Faculdade de Engenharia de Ilha Solteira — FEIS, 15385-000 Ilha Solteira – SP (Brazil); Romero, Maximina; Rincón, Jesús Ma. [Instituto de Ciencias de la Construccion Eduardo Torroja — IETCC, CSIC, 28033 Madrid (Spain)

    2014-12-15

    Glass-ceramic material prepared with sugar cane bagasse ash as one of the raw materials was characterized to determine some important properties for its application as a coating material. X-ray diffraction patterns showed that wollastonite-2M (CaSiO{sub 3}) was the major glass-ceramic phase. The Rietveld method was used to quantify the crystalline (60 wt.%) and vitreous (40 wt.%) phases in the glass-ceramic. The microstructure (determined by scanning electron microscopy) of this material had a marble appearance, showing a microporous network of elongated crystals with some areas with dendritic, feather-like ordering. Microhardness data gave a mean hardness value of 564.4 HV (Vickers-hardness), and light microscopy disclosed a greenish brown colored material with a vitreous luster. - Highlights: • We studied the properties of a glass-ceramic material obtained from sugarcane ash. • This material has the appearance and hardness of natural stones. • A refining method gave information about its amorphous and crystalline phases. • This material has potential to be used as coating plates for buildings.

  7. Mechanical characterization of raw material quality and its implication for Early Upper Palaeolithic Moravia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Monik, M.; Hadraba, Hynek

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 425, DEC (2016), s. 425-436 ISSN 1040-6182 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0068 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : Charpy impact test * Microhardness * Early Upper Palaeolithic * Moravia * Lithics Subject RIV: JH - Ceramics, Fire-Resistant Materials and Glass Impact factor: 2.199, year: 2016

  8. Paper pulp waste—A new source of raw material for the synthesis of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Abstract. A synthetic porous ceramic composite material consisting of the mullite, cordierite and cristobalite phases is produced from a mixture of paper pulp waste and clay by reaction sintering at 1400°C. Physico- mechanical properties such as bulk density, porosity, cold crushing strength and cold modulus of rupture.

  9. manufacturing of emery cloth (sand paper)from local raw materials

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper identifies surface finishing (grinding) as a major engineering process in production industries and that emery cloth otherwise know as ";sand paper"; is used for this purpose. The grinding process is discussed in details. The materials and their sources requires for the production of the emery cloth are discussed ...

  10. A Module For Thermal Pest Control In Stored Raw Materials Used In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The module is an engineering contraption, which uses steam to raise temperature within it to insecticidal levels (above 45 °C). This causes halt in development and proein denaturing (leading to mortality) of the pests (eggs, larvae and adults). This applied heat also toasts the material inside the module thereby improving ...

  11. A proposal of Transport System Improvement in exploiting and processing of raw materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ján Sciranko

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available In handling earth, aggregate rock, ore, coal and other materials, trucks serve one purpose. They are hauling units which, because of their high speed when operating on suitable roads, have high capacities and provide relatively low hauling costs.They provide a high degree of flexibility as their number may be decreased or increased easily to permit modifications in the total hauling capacity of a fleet.In cyclic operations, the two principal operations are loading and haulage with hoisting as a third optional. In continuous operations, where machines combine the breakage and handling functions, cutting, drilling and blasting are eliminated and extraction and loading are performed in a single operation or function (excavation, e.g. the bucket wheel excavator, auger, highwall mines, continuous miner or the boring machine.Materials handling in modern mechanized mining is equipment oriented. Unit operations are characterized by, and sometimes identified with, an equipment that performs them. Thus the field terminology refers to a mining shovel, stripping dragline or the coal loader. From time to time the mining engineer is faced with the necessity to make a haulage study to determine not only the most suitable method of hauling materials, but also the most effective and economical type of equipment used for the operation. Key words: truck haulage, material handling, mining shovel

  12. Cotton: a sustainable raw material for value-added nonwoven textiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sustainability of the materials and services we use today and protection of our environment are very strong initiatives, worldwide. Cotton is an annually renewable cash crop that is critically important to national economies of many countries, including the United States which is the 3rd largest pr...

  13. Reed canary grass as energy and fiber raw material; Roerflen som energi- och fiberraavara. En system- och ekonomistudie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsson, Rolf; Rosenqvist, H.; Vinterbaeck, J.; Burvall, J.; Finell, M.

    2001-12-01

    In this report, a system and economic analysis is reported for cultivation of RCG for energy purpose and as a raw material for the paper industry. The interest in cultivation of Reed Canary Grass (RCG) is growing in Sweden due to the new tax on waste disposal, since sewage sludge could be recycled in RCG cultivation. Increased carbon sinks in soil is another positive factor. Plant selection work in Finland and Sweden have resulted in 20% higher harvests than the feed varieties of RCG. Silty/sandy soils give highest yields. Before investments could be made in paper industry, a production volume of about 100,000 tons/year would have to be reached, demand a cultivation area of about 40,000 ha. The initial market before this level is reached should be the energy sector, specially smaller district heating systems. Processed to pellets, briquettes or powder, RCG can substitute fuel oil.

  14. THE DIGESTIVE UTILIZATION OF LYSINE FROM PROTEIC RAW MATERIALS WITH SUPPLEMENTARY ADDITION OF LLYSINE MARKED WITH RADIOACTIVE ISOTOPE 3H

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MONICA MARIN

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of that study was to evaluate the influence of supplementary addition with Llysine to protein raw materials used in the compound feed on the retention rate and apparent digestibility of lysine, as well as the utilization in the organism of their amino acid. The results indicate that the lysine utilization in the organism is negatively influenced when the ratio between methionine and lysine is reduced (0,19%, indicating that in the compound feed the ratio between the two essential amino acids must be equilibrated (0.34-0.37%, which determines a lysine deposit in higher quantities in muscles and liver. The apparent digestibility of lysine from the sunflower meal (80.46% was improved by supplementation with L-lysine, analogous to soybean meal (81.82%.

  15. Effect of the Ratio of Raw Material Components on the Physico-chemical Characteristics of Emulsion-type Pork Sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Sang-Keun; Ha, So-Ra; Hur, Sun-Jin; Choi, Jung-Seok

    2016-02-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of raw material ratio on the physicochemical characteristics of emulsion-type pork sausages. Experiment design was divided into 12 treatments, based on protein level (P), fat level (3P, 3.5P, and 4P), and water level (4P+10, 4P+15, 4P+20, and 4P+25). The pH and shear force values were significantly higher in T7 (3.5P fat and 4P+20 water) than those of other treatments. The lightness and redness were greatly reduced by increasing the quantity of water. The treatments containing 3P fat and 4P+20 water had the highest values of cohesiveness, springiness, gumminess, and chewiness. On the whole, when the protein (P) and fat (3P, 3.5P, 4P) levels were fixed, an increase over the appropriate moisture level deteriorated many physicochemical characteristics.

  16. Proposed program for and present status of the Geological Survey's investigation of domestic resources of radioactive raw materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulter, A.P.; Killeen, P.L.; Page, G.B.; Rubey, W.W.

    1983-01-01

    This interim report is designed to show the present status of the Geological Survey's information and the parts of a comprehensive program necessary to improve our information about the raw material resources of uranium and thorium. Rarely in geologic work has it been necessary. to determine so completely a nation's resources of useful minerals in so brief a span of time. Ordinarily, information on mineral resources Is accumulated during a long period of years. However, uranium and thorium were suddenly thrust from a position of subsidiary economic interest into one of great strategic importance. Information concerning their occurrence must, therefore, be obtained as rapidly as reliable methods of investigation will permit. Accordingly the program must be at once comprehensive and carried out over an area more extensive than is usual in the search for and appraisal of most other mineral resources.

  17. Use of sugarcane bagasse ashes as raw material in the replacement of fluxes for applications on porcelain tile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paranhos, R.J.S.; Silva, V.M. da; Acchar, W. [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia da Bahia (IFBA), BA (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Full text: This study evaluated the potential use of Sugarcane Bagasse Ashes (SBA) as a flux, replacing phyllite for the production of enamelled porcelain tile. The raw materials of the standard mass components and the SBA residue were characterized by testing by XRF, XRD, AG, DTA and TGA. Test samples were fabricated, assembled in lots of 3 units and sintered at temperatures of 1150 ° C to 1210 ° C. The results of the physical properties, mechanical properties and SEM of the sintered samples, showed that the formulation, G4 - in which applied 10% of SBA replacing phyllite, sintering temperature 1210 ° C showed better performance as the previously mentioned properties due to the formation of mullite crystals, meeting the prerequisites of standards for enamelled porcelain tile, while reducing the environmental impact and the cost of production. (author)

  18. Inoculation of Pichia kudriavzevii RB1 degrades the organic acids present in raw compost material and accelerates composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakasaki, Kiyohiko; Araya, Shogo; Mimoto, Hiroshi

    2013-09-01

    In this study, the yeast strain Pichia kudriavzevii RB1 was used as an inoculum to accelerate organic matter degradation of rabbit food with added organic acids, which was used as a model food waste for composting. The RB1 strain rapidly degraded the organic acids present in the raw compost material, leading to an increase in pH beyond the neutral level, within 2 days. Both mesophilic and thermophilic bacteria proliferated faster in the compost with RB1 inoculation than in that without inoculation. Although the yeast died with the increase in compost temperature, it affected the early stages of composting prior to the thermophilic stage and accelerated the composting process by 2 days by eliminating the initial lag phase seen in the growth of other microorganisms. Moreover, populations of Bacillus thermoamylovorans, Bacillus foraminis, and Bacillus coagulans became dominant during the thermophilic stages of both composting with and without RB1 inoculation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Biomass based energy. A review on raw materials and processing methods; Energie aus Biomasse. Eine Uebersicht ueber Rohstoffe und Verfahren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woellauer, P.

    2007-07-01

    The book reviews the variety of biogenic raw materials and the technologically important biomass conversion techniques. The chapter on the different kinds of biomass includes a) wood from forestry, landscape culturing and saw mills, bark and old wood; b) plants (corn, miscanthus, cannabis, wheat, rye, sugar beets, grass, rape, etc.), residuals and wastes (straw, liquid manure, slaughthouse wastes, kitchen wastes, sewage sludge, others). The chapter on biomass conversion processing discusses combustion, oxidation in spercritical water, gasification and reforming, fermentation, extrusion or extraction, and downstream processes. The chapter on biomass based electricity and mechanical energy includes refrigeration engineering, direct utilization: Otto engines, Diesel engines, microgas turbine fuel cells, and heat processing: Striling engine, vapour turbine, ORC turbine, externally fired gas turbine, and the Kalina process.

  20. Effect of the Ratio of Raw Material Components on the Physico-chemical Characteristics of Emulsion-type Pork Sausages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Keun Jin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the effects of raw material ratio on the physicochemical characteristics of emulsion-type pork sausages. Experiment design was divided into 12 treatments, based on protein level (P, fat level (3P, 3.5P, and 4P, and water level (4P+10, 4P+15, 4P+20, and 4P+25. The pH and shear force values were significantly higher in T7 (3.5P fat and 4P+20 water than those of other treatments. The lightness and redness were greatly reduced by increasing the quantity of water. The treatments containing 3P fat and 4P+20 water had the highest values of cohesiveness, springiness, gumminess, and chewiness. On the whole, when the protein (P and fat (3P, 3.5P, 4P levels were fixed, an increase over the appropriate moisture level deteriorated many physicochemical characteristics.

  1. Cooking properties and heat damage of dried pasta as influenced by raw material characteristics and processing conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Noni, Ivano; Pagani, Maria A

    2010-05-01

    Dried pasta represents a primary food in the diet of many populations who mainly perceive its quality in terms of cooking performances. Indeed, this and other aspects of pasta quality arise from several technological parameters starting from the usage of durum wheat semolina as raw material. In this paper, the chemical and physical characteristics of semolina directly related to dried pasta quality are discussed, taking into account the biochemical phenomena involving semolina components and occurring during the whole pasta-making chain. The quality of pasta is also discussed with relation to drying conditions which account for both the ultrastructural changes in protein and starch organization and the occurrence of unnatural molecules arising from the Maillard reaction. The information provided here suggests that a comprehensive evaluation of pasta quality should include heat-damage induced by processing conditions.

  2. Effectiveness of a Lactobacillus sakei starter culture in the reduction of biogenic amine accumulation as a function of the raw material quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bover-Cid, S; Izquierdo-Pulido, M; Vidal-Carou, M C

    2001-03-01

    The effectiveness of an amine-negative starter culture (Lactobacillus sakei CTC494) in the reduction of biogenic amine production during the ripening of fermented sausages was examined. Four batches were manufactured in parallel: spontaneously fermented and starter-mediated sausages were manufactured from two lots of raw materials of different hygienic quality. Besides the biogenic amine contents, changes in the microbial counts, nitrogenous fractions, pH, and water content were measured at several sampling points during the ripening process. In sausages manufactured from good quality meat, the starter strain of L. sakei reduced and even inhibited biogenic amine accumulation during sausage fermentation, the end products showing extremely low biogenic amine contents (tyramine levels less than 15 mg/kg of dry matter and putrescine and cadaverine levels less than 5 mg/kg of dry matter). Nevertheless, starter-mediated sausages made from poorer-quality raw materials showed much higher amine contents (308, 223, and 36 mg/kg of dry matter of cadaverine, tyramine, and putrescine, respectively), which were only slightly lower than those of the spontaneously fermented sausages made from the same raw materials. The relatively high bacterial numbers of raw materials of poorer-hygienic quality diminished the beneficial effect of the starter strain. Therefore, the effectiveness of the starter was strongly dependent on the hygienic quality of the raw materials used.

  3. PRACTICAL PROPOSALS AS A RESULT OF THEORETICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES OF THE PROCESS OF EXTRACTION FROM RAW MATERIALS OF PLANT ORIGIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. I. Shishatskii

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Theoretical and experimental researches of extraction processes from plant origin raw materials: barley, acorns and chicory with liquid carbon dioxide, as well as lupin with cheese whey were carried out. Quality indicators of extracts and secondary raw materials are defined. It is established that they are perspective raw sources for the enriched and functional products as they contain amino acids, vitamins and microelements. The dairy-vegetative lupine extract, for example, contains 17 amino acids, including the essential as well as vitamins and minerals. The studies of secondary raw materials, barley, acorns, chicory and lupine quality showed the expediency of their use for foods enrichment. Quality indicators of secondary raw materials are presented in the tables form in the given work. It formed the basis for the development of hardware-technological schemes of obtaining СО2-extracts and their use. The hardware-technological scheme of obtaining СО2-extracts from barley, acorns and chicory includes a number of equipment units: motor transport for raw materials delivery to the enterprise, the scraper hydroconveyor, the jet washer, a photoseparator for of poor-quality raw materials and impurities removal, a blowing machine for removing surface moisture from the raw materials, a jet washer for peeling, a cutter, drying and frying device, a crusher, a roller machine tool and an extracting unit. Hardware providing for yoghurt technology enriched with amino acids, microelements and vitamins which are present in a dairy-plant extract differs from the mentioned above one in the following. The extract used is a cheese whey, and the extraction of a target component is carried out in a vibrating extractor. The hardwaretechnological scheme is made according to Russian technology of yoghurt and furnished with the equipment for dairy-vegetative extract feeding into a product. It includes the following: a vibrating extractor (not shown in fig

  4. Cellulose-wheat gluten bulk plastic materials produced from processing raw powders by severe shear deformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoqing; Wu, Xiaolin; Xia, Kenong

    2013-02-15

    Cellulose-based renewable bulk plastics with significantly improved mechanical properties were produced by using a small proportion of wheat gluten (WG) as an additive to enhance the material processing capability. The strong shear-deformation during equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) generated effective chain penetration and strong intermolecular interactions between the amorphous cellulose and WG components. The micro-cracking of the obtained materials was minimized, and the processing temperature was reduced. The crystallinity of the cellulose component was also decreased, whereas the crystalline size and regularity was less modified. The present study has further demonstrated that ECAP is a promising methodology to produce renewable and biodegradable "wood plastics" from cellulose-based agricultural waste. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Factors Affecting the Supply of Strategic Raw Materials with Particular Reference to the Aerospace Manufacturing Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-04-01

    Corrosion Protection of Superalloy» in Gas Turbines. Coatings for Fuel Economy or Materials Substitution. The Navy Program to Develop Replacements for...of it being used in the metallurgical industry. Its properties are tc strengthen the steel in its own right and to desulphurise it. Nickel would...provide some substitute but is expensive, while effective desulphurising agents are available but are themselves scarce. Sources Production at about

  6. Consumption and Use of Non-Renewable Mineral and Energy Raw Materials from an Economic Geology Point of View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volker Steinbach

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available We outline a path to sustainable development that would give future generations the chance to be as well-off as their predecessors without running out of natural resources, especially metals. To this end, we have to consider three key resources: (1 the geosphere or primary resources, (2 the technosphere or secondary resources, which can be recycled and (3 human ingenuity and creativity. We have two resource extremes: natural resources which are completely consumed (fossil fuels versus natural resources (metals which are wholly recyclable and can be used again. Metals survive use and are merely transferred from the geosphere to the technosphere. There will, however, always be a need for contributions from the geosphere to offset inevitable metal losses in the technosphere. But we do have a choice. We do not need raw materials as such, only the intrinsic property of a material that enables it to fulfil a function. At the time when consumption starts to level off, chances improve of obtaining most of the material for our industrial requirements from the technosphere. Then a favorable supply equilibrium can emerge. Essential conditions for taking advantage of this opportunity: affordable energy and ingenuity to find new solutions for functions, to optimize processes and to minimize losses in the technosphere.

  7. THE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF THE DELIVERY OF MINERAL RAW MATERIALS USED FOR BUILDING MATERIALS PRODUCTION TO THE CITY OF ZAGREB AND THE ZAGREB COUNTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Novak

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Mineral raw material transport directly affects a product’s unit price and exhaust gases amounts. Transportation length is proportional to raw material price; its low price enables short transportation distances only. Taking into account stone aggregates delivered to Zagreb, the consequence of exploitation fields closure in the Zagreb area, particularly within the Medvednica Nature Park, we tried to answer the question of the impact of transport distances on the greenhouse gas emissions. Certain models will present environmental impact of the stone aggregate transportation and of nearby city quarries. The generally accepted public opinion on the closure of nearby city quarries as the best solution to environmental pollution will have to be reviewed. Mining works are predestined by mineral resources sites and limited by real possibilities and intentions of the community, therefore the experts, i.e. miners, geologists and other geoscientists, should be actively involved in spatial planning. During the years of intensive construction, millions of tons have been delivered from distances up to 100 km. The question arises whether some more rational solutions could be generated by more appropriate spatial planning? (the paper is published in Croatian

  8. Willow wood (Salix alba as a raw material for pulp production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klašnja Bojana

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The properties of willow wood (structural-physical and mechanical properties and chemical composition were investigated to determine the parameters of the technological process of semichemical and sulphate pulp manufacture. The experimental material was willow wood Salix alba cl. 107/65/7. Semichemical and sulphate pulp were obtained in the laboratory. The yield, chemical properties and physical-mechanical properties of the obtained intermediate products intended for paper manufacture, were determined. The properties of poplar wood Populus deltoides Bartr. cl.725, were studied and its pulp production performed with the aim of comparison.

  9. Innovative solutions for the extraction of technology metals from complex primary and secondary raw materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamberović Željko J.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Presented compilation of scientific, theoretical and experimental results, promotes an innovative synergy of various metals and industrial activities in metallurgy, resulting in profitable transformation of by­products and waste materials into resources. Focusing on treatment of specific by-products from zinc and copper primary production, as well on specific waste streams like WEEE and waste automotive catalysts, group is actively contribute to the Serbia, region and EU sustainability policies. In terms of sustainable development, metallurgy is a traditional part of the solution rather than part of the problem, so it is necessary to take the chance and centuries-old tradition.

  10. USE OF LOCAL NATURAL SILICEOUS RAW MATERIAL AND WASTES FOR PRODUCTION OF HEAT-INSULATING FOAMCONCRETE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. U. Matsapulin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the resource base, reserves and the use of siliceous rocks, their economic feasibility of the use for production of building materials of new generation with low-energy and other costs. Presented are the results of laboratory research and testing technology of production of insulating foam from a composition based on an aqueous solution of sodium silicate obtained from the local siliceous rocks (diatomite and the liquid alkali component - soapstock, hardener from ferrochrome slag and waste carbonate rock able to harden at a low temperature processing ( 100-110 ° C.

  11. Mineralogical composition and phase-to-phase relationships in natural hydraulic lime and/or natural cement - raw materials and burnt products revealed by scanning electron microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlovcev, Petr; Přikryl, Richard; Racek, Martin; Přikrylová, Jiřina

    2016-04-01

    In contrast to modern process of production of cement clinker, traditional burning of natural hydraulic lime below sintering temperature relied on the formation of new phases from ion migration between neighbouring mineral grains composing raw material. The importance of the mineralogical composition and spatial distribution of rock-forming minerals in impure limestones used as a raw material for natural hydraulic lime presents not well explored issue in the scientific literature. To fill this gap, the recent study focuses in detailed analysis of experimentally burnt impure limestones (mostly from Barrandian area, Bohemian Massif). The phase changes were documented by optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy with an energy dispersive spectrometer (SEM-EDS) coupled with x-ray elemental mapping. The latest allowed for visualization of distribution of elements within raw materials and burnt products. SEM/EDS study brought valuable data on the presence of transitional and/or minor phases, which were poorly detectable by other methods.

  12. RELATION BETWEEN PARTICLES SIZE OF RAW MATERIALS AND PROPERTIES OF MULLITE–ZrO2 COMPOSITES PREPARED BY REACTION-SINTERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. RAHMANI

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this investigation, the mullite–zirconia composites were prepared by reaction-sintering of alumina and zircon powder. Besides, the slip casting method was employed for fabrication of these composites and different times of milling process were used for reducing the particles size of raw materials. Then, the effect of raw materials particles size on the properties of these composites was investigated. The physical properties, fracture toughness, flexural strength, phase composition and microstructure of these composites after firing at 1600°C were studied. The results showed that the milling time and then, particles size of raw materials have a great effect on the phase composition and properties of mullite–zirconia composites. The formation of tetragonal-zirconia is favored by reducing of particle size which, leads to increasing of the fracture toughness and flexural strength of these composites.

  13. Enzyme-based lignocellulose hydrolyzation - Brief data survey for cellulase performance characterization on behalf of the Sauter mean diameter of raw material particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, Robert

    2015-12-01

    The data presented here supports the informational background of enzyme-based lignocellulose hydrolyzation, cellulase characterization, and sugar yield prediction for the work "Enzyme-based lignocellulose hydrolyzation - Sauter mean diameter of raw materials as a basis for cellulase performance characterization and yield prediction" by Glaser [1]. Glucose yields from the enzymatic hydrolysis of the raw materials were shown as a function of cellulase enzyme loading as well as of particle size with different solid loading. The data for the proposed methods of the determination of enzyme activity in inhomogeneous samples of lignocellulosic raw materials are presented. The data of the empirical model that was developed for the prediction of hydrolysis yields for different enzyme concentrations, substrate specific particle size, and solid loadings, are given. Data are also given in relation of terms of scale-up opportunities.

  14. Enzyme-based lignocellulose hydrolyzation – Brief data survey for cellulase performance characterization on behalf of the Sauter mean diameter of raw material particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Glaser

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The data presented here supports the informational background of enzyme-based lignocellulose hydrolyzation, cellulase characterization, and sugar yield prediction for the work “Enzyme-based lignocellulose hydrolyzation – Sauter mean diameter of raw materials as a basis for cellulase performance characterization and yield prediction” by Glaser [1]. Glucose yields from the enzymatic hydrolysis of the raw materials were shown as a function of cellulase enzyme loading as well as of particle size with different solid loading. The data for the proposed methods of the determination of enzyme activity in inhomogeneous samples of lignocellulosic raw materials are presented. The data of the empirical model that was developed for the prediction of hydrolysis yields for different enzyme concentrations, substrate specific particle size, and solid loadings, are given. Data are also given in relation of terms of scale-up opportunities.

  15. Utilization Of Laban Wood Vitex Pubescens Vahl As Raw Materials Traditional Charcoal By Communitis A Case Study At Jembayan Village East Kalimantan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setiawati

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to find out about the activities of society in decision-wood Laban as well as perceptions and participation concerning the preservation of raw material resources for sustaining livelihoods. The results showed Laban wood Vitex pubescens Vahl is one type that is widely used as a raw material in the manufacture of traditional charcoal and charcoal high-value results. The public aware of their dependence on forest landlaban but people still do not realize when they changed the place of business of land allocation will be a negative impact on livelihoods. Public participation to the preservation of forest resources and sources of raw materials charcoal as a source of livelihood is quite high although in public settings still choose no interference from other parties.

  16. Sustainable prevention of resource conflicts. Raw materials supply and demand (Report 2); Rohstoffkonflikte nachhaltig vermeiden. Rohstoffe zwischen Angebot und Nachfrage (Teilbericht 2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taenzler, Dennis; Westerkamp, Meike [Adelphi Research, Berlin (Germany); Supersberger, Nikolaus; Ritthoff, Michael; Bleischwitz, Raimund [Wuppertal Institut (Germany)

    2011-04-15

    The demand for both energetic and non-energetic raw materials has been increasing continuously during the past few decades. Especially during the last few years, the threat of structural shortages of supply or availability came into focus. The discussion is highly controversial, especially in the case of petroleum. This sub-report presents an analysis of the supply situation of energetic and non-energetic raw materials, i.e. petroleum, coal and nuclear fuels on the one hand as well as iron and steel, chromium, nickel, cobalt, aluminium, magnesium, copper, platinum and platinum metals, industrial minerals, boron salts, phosphate, zirconium and zirconium oxide on the other hand. It is important to discuss also regional availability patterns in order to arrive at a regional picture of potential supply risks and resulting conflicts over raw materials as this is the best way to assess the danger of impending conflicts. (orig.)

  17. Raw materials for the ceramics industry from norte de santander. I. Mineralogical, chemical and physical characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Cely-Illera

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo estudia las principales características de una arcilla utilizada para la fabricación de piezas cerámicas de construcción del área metropolitana de San José de Cúcuta. La investigación se llevó a cabo utilizando una muestra arcillosa de tipología rojiza de la formación Guayabo de la región del Zulia en Norte de Santander. El material se molió por vía seca y se realizó el procedimiento de preparación adecuado para el desarrollo de los análisis de caracterización como fueron difracción de rayos X (DRX, fluorescencia de rayos X (FRX, granulometrías por tamizado en seco y por la técnica del hidrómetro 152 H. Se determinó su relación arcilla/cuarzo, su plasticidad y su comportamiento en el proceso de secado y cocción. El proceso de conformado utilizado fue el de extrusión. Los resultados de la investigación mostraron que el material es apto para fabricar productos estructurales y de revestimiento para pisos y paredes, además de arrojar excelentes propiedades para fabricar productos refractarios.

  18. Niob - investigations into the supply of and demand for mineral raw materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eggert, P.; Kippenberger, C.; Krauss, U.; Priem, J.; Schmidt, H.; Wettig, E.

    1982-05-01

    About 85 to 90% of niobium is consumed as an alloying element in the steel industry, mainly for the production of structural steels, but also for stainless and heat resisting steels and materials. World niobium consumption rose from 6.500 t (1969) to 12,140 t (1980). Main consuming countries were the United States (28%), Japan the Federal Republic of Germany, and Italy (10 to 15% each). World niobium consumption in 1995 is expected to reach 19.400 t, representing an annual growth rate of 3.2% for the period 1980 to 1995. The United States will remain the leading consumer (28%), followed by Italy (14%), the Federal Republic of Germany, and Japan (12% each). Niobium reserves will not be exhausted within the foreseeable future. About 95% of world niobium mine production and ore reserves base upon pyrochlore deposits in alkaline rocks and carbonatites and their residual materials. More than 82% of world measured and indicated reserves (7.94 Mio t) are concentrated in Brazil and further 9% in the USSR. Of 1980 world mine production (15,399 t) 82% originated from Brazil, 11% from Canada, and 5% from the USSR. Taking into account this strong concentration of niobium reserves and production temporary supply bottlenecks in the future cannot fully be excluded. These are the main conclusions of a new study on the alloying element niobium, which has been prepared jointly by the Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources, Hanover, and the German Institute for Economic Research, Berlin.

  19. Contribution to the determination of the expanding properties of ceramic raw materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lehmann, Hans

    1972-06-01

    Full Text Available Not availableLa creciente necesidad de áridos de poco peso ha conducido a la búsqueda de materias primas adecuadas y a métodos de enjuiciamiento de su idoneidad. En este trabajo se describen métodos de investigación y procedimientos de laboratorio que permiten hacer una investigación sistemática del comportamiento a la fusión y expansión de las materias primas cerámicas. Mediciones de acuerdo con estos procedimientos han dado como resultado que, sin modificar la composición material, las medidas de preparación y la técnica de procedimientos solas influyen notoriamente sobre la capacidad de expansión.

  20. Brazilian natural fiber (jute as raw material for activated carbon production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARLA F.S. ROMBALDO

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Jute fiber is the second most common natural cellulose fiber worldwide, especially in recent years, due to its excellent physical, chemical and structural properties. The objective of this paper was to investigate: the thermal degradation of in natura jute fiber, and the production and characterization of the generated activated carbon. The production consisted of carbonization of the jute fiber and activation with steam. During the activation step the amorphous carbon produced in the initial carbonization step reacted with oxidizing gas, forming new pores and opening closed pores, which enhanced the adsorptive capacity of the activated carbon. N2 gas adsorption at 77K was used in order to evaluate the effect of the carbonization and activation steps. The results of the adsorption indicate the possibility of producing a porous material with a combination of microporous and mesoporous structure, depending on the parameters used in the processes, with resulting specific surface area around 470 m2.g–1. The thermal analysis indicates that above 600°C there is no significant mass loss.

  1. Alkaline and ultrasound assisted alkaline pretreatment for intensification of delignification process from sustainable raw-material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subhedar, Preeti B; Gogate, Parag R

    2014-01-01

    Alkaline and ultrasound-assisted alkaline pretreatment under mild operating conditions have been investigated for intensification of delignification. The effect of NaOH concentration, biomass loading, temperature, ultrasonic power and duty cycle on the delignification has been studied. Most favorable conditions for only alkaline pretreatment were alkali concentration of 1.75 N, solid loading of 0.8% (w/v), temperature of 353 K and pretreatment time of 6 h and under these conditions, 40.2% delignification was obtained. In case of ultrasound-assisted alkaline approach, most favorable conditions obtained were alkali concentration of 1N, paper loading of 0.5% (w/v), sonication power of 100 W, duty cycle of 80% and pretreatment time of 70 min and the delignification obtained in ultrasound-assisted alkaline approach under these conditions was 80%. The material samples were characterized by FTIR, SEM, XRD and TGA technique. The lignin was recovered from solution by precipitation method and was characterized by FTIR, GPC and TGA technique. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Leaching of the potentially toxic pollutants from composites based on waste raw material

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    Terzić Anja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The disposal of the fly ash generated in coal based power-plants may pose a significant risk to the environment due to the possible leaching of hazardous pollutants, such as toxic metals. Also, there is a risk of leaching even when fly ash is built-in the construction composites. Fly ashes from various landfills were applied in several composite samples (mortar, concrete and brick without any physical or thermal pre-treatment. The leachability of the potentially toxic pollutants from the fly ash based products was investigated. The leaching behavior and potential environmental impact of the 11 potentially hazardous elements was tracked: Pb, Cd, Zn, Cu, Ni, Cr, Hg, As, Ba, Sb and Se. A detailed study of physico-chemical characteristics of the fly ash, with accent on trace elements and the chemical composition investigation is included. Physico/chemical properties of fly ash were investigated by means of X-ray fluorescence, differential thermal analysis and X-ray diffraction methods. Scanning electron microscope was used in microstructural analysis. The results show that most of the elements are more easily leachable from the fly ash in comparison with the fly ash based composites. The leaching of investigated pollutants is within allowed range thus investigated fly ashes can be reused in construction materials production.

  3. Influence of carbon-bearing raw material on microfungus Blakeslea Trispora biomass producing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Myronenko

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. This paper investigates influence of hydrated fullerenes on degree of accumulation bioactive substances of microfungus Blakeslea trispora. Materials and methods. In this research effort detection of fatty-acid composition in amino acids, carotenoids and sterols biomass by means of using methods of high-performance liquid chromatography, adsorption and disjunctive chromatography in thin-layer sorbent and spectrophotometric; gravimetric method; method of direct spectrophotometration in benzene took place. Results and discussion. It has been induced that application of hydrated fullerenes in microfungus Blakeslea trispora nutrient medium promotes increasing accumulation in biomass quantity of carotene on 32,3 %; asparaginic, glutamic acids and leucine. Reproportion carbon to nitrogen by means of adding to microfungus Blakeslea trispora nutrient culture medium hydrated fullerenes did not influence on the biomass amino acid structure any. Obtained data of fatty-acid composition in microfungus Blakeslea trispora lipoid fraction indicate about significant predominance unsaturated fatty acids and, as a result of this, we have advance of use microfungus Blakeslea trispora biomass as a source of biologically active substances for establishing a new kind of prophylactic action goods.

  4. Raw Material for Azotosomes: ALMA Detection, Mapping, and Modeling of Vinyl Cyanide on Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, M. Y.; Cordiner, M. A.; Lai, J.; Nixon, C. A.; Charnley, S. B.; Teanby, N. A.; Kisiel, Z.; Irwin, P. G.; Molter, E.; Mumma, M. J.

    2016-12-01

    Titan, like Earth, features extensive organic chemistry and bodies of surface liquid. The coupling of Titan's atmosphere and surface delivers a large supply of potentially pre-biotic organics from the atmosphere, where they form, to the hydrocarbon lakes. One crucial factor in the development of life from a prebiotic solution is the existence of a cell membrane-like structure which could concentrate reactants, allowing (pre)biotic reactions to occur with higher frequency. Recent simulations indicate that vinyl cyanide (C2H3CN), as opposed to other small organic molecules, would form membranes (known as "azotosomes") with properties most similar to the lipid membranes of Earth's cells (Stevenson et al. 2015). Here we present the first spectroscopic detection and mapping of vinyl cyanide in Titan's atmosphere, using ALMA. Maps show emission concentrated at the southern (winter) pole. Radiative transfer modeling indicates the presence of C2H3CN primarily at altitudes ≳ 200 km, in agreement with the photochemical model of Dobrijevic et al. (2016). The production rate of vinyl cyanide in their model suggests an upper limit of sufficient material to form 1028 azotosomes in Ligeia Mare, which corresponds to a concentration of 109 azotosomes/cm3. This compares favorably with the concentration of bacteria in Earth's oceans (Wommack & Colwell 2000).

  5. What Else Is in Salviae officinalis folium? Comprehensive Species Identification of Plant Raw Material by DNA Metabarcoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmiderer, Corinna; Lukas, Brigitte; Ruzicka, Joana; Novak, Johannes

    2017-11-17

    Quality control of drugs consists of identifying the raw material to avoid unwanted admixtures or exchange of material as well as looking for abiotic and biotic contaminations. So far, identity and microbial contamination are analyzed by separate processes and separate methods. Species identification by their DNA ("DNA barcoding") has the potential to supplement existing methods of identification. The introduction of next-generation sequencing methods offers completely new approaches like the identification of whole communities in one analysis, termed "DNA metabarcoding". Here we present a next-generation sequencing assessment to identify plants and fungi of two commercial sage samples (Salvia officinalis) using the standard DNA barcoding region "internal transcribed spacer" consisting of internal transcribed spacer 1 and internal transcribed spacer 2, respectively. The main species in both samples was identified as S. officinalis. The spectrum of accompanying plant and fungal species, however, was completely different between the samples. Additionally, the composition between internal transcribed spacer 1 and internal transcribed spacer 2 within the samples was different and demonstrated the influence of primer selection and therefore the need for harmonization. This next-generation sequencing approach does not result in quantitative species composition but gives deeper insight into the composition of additional species. Therefore, it would allow for a better knowledge-based risk assessment than any other method available. However, the method is only economically feasible in routine analysis if a high sample throughput can be guaranteed. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  6. Raw Materials Synthesis from Heavy Metal Industry Effluents with Bioremediation and Phytomining: A Biomimetic Resource Management Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salmah B. Karman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metal wastewater poses a threat to human life and causes significant environmental problems. Bioremediation provides a sustainable waste management technique that uses organisms to remove heavy metals from contaminated water through a variety of different processes. Biosorption involves the use of biomass, such as plant extracts and microorganisms (bacteria, fungi, algae, yeast, and represents a low-cost and environmentally friendly method of bioremediation and resource management. Biosorption-based biosynthesis is proposed as a means of removing heavy metals from wastewaters and soils as it aids the development of heavy metal nanoparticles that may have an application within the technology industry. Phytomining provides a further green method of managing the metal content of wastewater. These approaches represent a viable means of removing toxic chemicals from the effluent produced during the process of manufacturing, and the bioremediation process, furthermore, has the potential to save metal resources from depletion. Biomimetic resource management comprises bioremediation, biosorption, biosynthesis, phytomining, and further methods that provide innovative ways of interpreting waste and pollutants as raw materials for research and industry, inspired by materials, structures, and processes in living nature.

  7. Moessbauer studies of raw materials from Misti volcano of Arequipa (Peru) for its potential application in the ceramic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bustamante, Angel, E-mail: angelbd1@gmail.com [Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos (Peru); Capel, Francisco; Barba, Flora, E-mail: flora@icv.csic.es; Callejas, Pio [Consejo Superior de investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC), Instituto de Ceramica y Vidrio (Spain); Guzman, Rivalino [Universidad Nacional de San Agustin de Arequipa (Peru); Trujillo, Alejandro [Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos (Peru)

    2009-04-15

    We would like to introduce, the study of two different colour 'sillar' samples: white and pink, belonging to the Anashuayco quarry in the Arequipa Region (Peru). The X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis indicates the presence of several mineralogical phases, such as feldpars and biotite for the both white and pink 'sillar' whereas cristobalite and quartz are detected only in the first sample and amorphous phase in the second one. In room temperature, Moessbauer spectroscopy, the presence of hematite ({alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) was detected as the main phase for both samples, this was not detected in the XRD measurements. Moreover, corresponding doublets in the Moessbauer spectra indicate the presence of iron in the aluminium-silicate minerals. The rates Fe{sup 2+}/Fe{sup 3+} are 0.0752 and 0.0526 to the white and pink samples respectively. The minerals composing the white tuff form a heterogeneous aggregate of uniform aspect. Mining of these materials generates a great amount of waste in the form of lumps of varying size and which are raw materials studied in the present work for potential application in the ceramic field.

  8. Temperature control strategy to enhance the activity of yeast inoculated into compost raw material for accelerated composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakasaki, Kiyohiko; Hirai, Hidehira

    2017-07-01

    The effects of inoculating the mesophilic yeast Pichia kudriavzevii RB1, which is able to degrade organic acids, on organic matter degradation in composting were elucidated. When model food waste with high carbohydrate content (C/N=22.3) was used, fluctuation in the inoculated yeast cell density was observed, as well as fluctuation in the composting temperature until day 5 when the temperature rose to 60°C, which is lethal for the yeast. After the decrease in yeast, acetic acid accumulated to levels as high as 20mg/g-ds in the composting material and vigorous organic matter degradation was inhibited. However, by maintaining the temperature at 40°C for 2days during the heating phase in the early stage of composting, both the organic acids originally contained in the raw material and acetic acid produced during the heating phase were degraded by the yeast. The concentration of acetic acid was kept at a relatively low level (10.1mg/g-ds at the highest), thereby promoting the degradation of organic matter by other microorganisms and accelerating the composting process. These results indicate that temperature control enhances the effects of microbial inoculation into composts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Impact of Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus mite body raw material on house dust mite allergy diagnosis in a Serbian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burazer, L; Milovanovic, K; Milovanovic, M; Vuckovic, O; Velickovic, T C; Gavrovic-Jankulovic, M

    2011-03-01

    House dust mite (HDM) allergy has different clinical and immunological patterns in different geographic regions. The impact of raw material of commercial Dermatophadoides pteronyssinus (Acari: Pyroglyphidae) mite bodies on the quality of allergen extracts for allergy diagnosis in the Serbian population has not been previously evaluated. House dust mite bodies obtained from manufacturers in Europe, South America and Australia were used in the preparation of allergen extracts for in vivo diagnosis and serological analysis in a group of 14 HDM-allergic adults. In the group of mite-allergic patients, there was no statistically significant difference in skin test reactivity (Wilcoxon matched pairs test) among the three HDM body extract preparations. In a CAP inhibition assay, two extracts (A and C) achieved maximum inhibition of >90%, whereas extract B demonstrated a different inhibition slope and lower inhibition potential (80%). However, a remarkable difference in immunoglobulin E reactivity using Western blot analysis with individual patients' sera was observed in one of the preparations (extract B). These findings emphasize the need for the careful selection of starting material for the preparation of HDM diagnostic reagents intended for use in patients from geographically distinct regions as these preparations can have implications on the selection criteria for patient-tailored immunotherapy of HDM allergy. © 2010 The Authors. Medical and Veterinary Entomology © 2010 The Royal Entomological Society.

  10. Environmentally-Friendly Dense and Porous Geopolymers Using Fly Ash and Rice Husk Ash as Raw Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Ziegler

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper assesses the feasibility of two industrial wastes, fly ash (FA and rice husk ash (RHA, as raw materials for the production of geopolymeric pastes. Three typologies of samples were thus produced: (i halloysite activated with potassium hydroxide and nanosilica, used as the reference sample (HL-S; (ii halloysite activated with rice husk ash dissolved into KOH solution (HL-R; (iii FA activated with the alkaline solution realized with the rice husk ash (FA-R. Dense and porous samples were produced and characterized in terms of mechanical properties and environmental impact. The flexural and compressive strength of HL-R reached about 9 and 43 MPa, respectively. On the contrary, the compressive strength of FA-R is significantly lower than the HL-R one, in spite of a comparable flexural strength being reached. However, when porous samples are concerned, FA-R shows comparable or even higher strength than HL-R. Thus, the current results show that RHA is a valuable alternative to silica nanopowder to prepare the activator solution, to be used either with calcined clay and fly ash feedstock materials. Finally, a preliminary evaluation of the global warming potential (GWP was performed for the three investigated formulations. With the mix containing FA and RHA-based silica solution, a reduction of about 90% of GWP was achieved with respect to the values obtained for the reference formulation.

  11. Prospecting for Energy-Rich Renewable Raw Materials: Agave Leaf Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbin, Kendall R; Byrt, Caitlin S; Bauer, Stefan; DeBolt, Seth; Chambers, Don; Holtum, Joseph A M; Karem, Ghazwan; Henderson, Marilyn; Lahnstein, Jelle; Beahan, Cherie T; Bacic, Antony; Fincher, Geoffrey B; Betts, Natalie S; Burton, Rachel A

    2015-01-01

    Plant biomass from different species is heterogeneous, and this diversity in composition can be mined to identify materials of value to fuel and chemical industries. Agave produces high yields of energy-rich biomass, and the sugar-rich stem tissue has traditionally been used to make alcoholic beverages. Here, the compositions of Agave americana and Agave tequilana leaves are determined, particularly in the context of bioethanol production. Agave leaf cell wall polysaccharide content was characterized by linkage analysis, non-cellulosic polysaccharides such as pectins were observed by immuno-microscopy, and leaf juice composition was determined by liquid chromatography. Agave leaves are fruit-like--rich in moisture, soluble sugars and pectin. The dry leaf fiber was composed of crystalline cellulose (47-50% w/w) and non-cellulosic polysaccharides (16-22% w/w), and whole leaves were low in lignin (9-13% w/w). Of the dry mass of whole Agave leaves, 85-95% consisted of soluble sugars, cellulose, non-cellulosic polysaccharides, lignin, acetate, protein and minerals. Juice pressed from the Agave leaves accounted for 69% of the fresh weight and was rich in glucose and fructose. Hydrolysis of the fructan oligosaccharides doubled the amount of fermentable fructose in A. tequilana leaf juice samples and the concentration of fermentable hexose sugars was 41-48 g/L. In agricultural production systems such as the tequila making, Agave leaves are discarded as waste. Theoretically, up to 4000 L/ha/yr of bioethanol could be produced from juice extracted from waste Agave leaves. Using standard Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains to ferment Agave juice, we observed ethanol yields that were 66% of the theoretical yields. These data indicate that Agave could rival currently used bioethanol feedstocks, particularly if the fermentation organisms and conditions were adapted to suit Agave leaf composition.

  12. Prospecting for Energy-Rich Renewable Raw Materials: Agave Leaf Case Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kendall R Corbin

    Full Text Available Plant biomass from different species is heterogeneous, and this diversity in composition can be mined to identify materials of value to fuel and chemical industries. Agave produces high yields of energy-rich biomass, and the sugar-rich stem tissue has traditionally been used to make alcoholic beverages. Here, the compositions of Agave americana and Agave tequilana leaves are determined, particularly in the context of bioethanol production. Agave leaf cell wall polysaccharide content was characterized by linkage analysis, non-cellulosic polysaccharides such as pectins were observed by immuno-microscopy, and leaf juice composition was determined by liquid chromatography. Agave leaves are fruit-like--rich in moisture, soluble sugars and pectin. The dry leaf fiber was composed of crystalline cellulose (47-50% w/w and non-cellulosic polysaccharides (16-22% w/w, and whole leaves were low in lignin (9-13% w/w. Of the dry mass of whole Agave leaves, 85-95% consisted of soluble sugars, cellulose, non-cellulosic polysaccharides, lignin, acetate, protein and minerals. Juice pressed from the Agave leaves accounted for 69% of the fresh weight and was rich in glucose and fructose. Hydrolysis of the fructan oligosaccharides doubled the amount of fermentable fructose in A. tequilana leaf juice samples and the concentration of fermentable hexose sugars was 41-48 g/L. In agricultural production systems such as the tequila making, Agave leaves are discarded as waste. Theoretically, up to 4000 L/ha/yr of bioethanol could be produced from juice extracted from waste Agave leaves. Using standard Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains to ferment Agave juice, we observed ethanol yields that were 66% of the theoretical yields. These data indicate that Agave could rival currently used bioethanol feedstocks, particularly if the fermentation organisms and conditions were adapted to suit Agave leaf composition.

  13. Open problems in traceability: from raw materials to finished food products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Comba

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Even though the main EU regulations concerning food traceability have already entered to force since many years, we still remark very wide and impacting product recalls, which often involve simultaneously large territories and many countries. This is a clear sign that current traceability procedures and systems, when implemented with the only aim of respecting mandatory policies, are not effective, and that there are some aspects that are at present underestimated, and therefore should be attentively reconsidered. In particular, the sole adoption of the so-called “one step back-one step forward traceability” to comply the EC Regulation 178/2002, where every actor in the chain handles merely the data coming from his supplier and those sent to his client, is in fact not sufficient to control and to limit the impact of a recall action after a risk notification. Recent studies on lots dispersion and routing demonstrate that each stakeholder has to plan his activities (production, transformation or distribution according to specific criteria that allow pre-emptively estimating and limiting the range action of a possible recall. Moreover, these new and very recently proposed techniques still present some limits; first of all the problem of traceability of bulk products (e.g. liquids, powders, grains, crystals during production phases that involve mixing operations of several lots of different/same materials. In fact, current traceability practices are in most cases unable to deal efficiently with this kind of products, and, in order to compensate the lack of knowledge about lot composition, typically resort to the adoption of very large lots, based for instance on a considered production period. Aim of this paper is to present recent advances in the design of supply chain traceability systems, discussing problems that are still open and are nowadays subject of research.

  14. Use of new raw materials and industrial wastes to improve the possibilities of using ceramic materials from Bailén (Jaén, southern Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galán-Arboledas, R. J.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Raw materials used by the ceramic industry in Jaén (southern Spain consist of mixtures of carbonated clays from the Guadalquivir Basin and red clays from the Iberian Massif. The mixtures formulation usually obeys empirical experience developed by this industry for many generations. This work evaluates different possibilities of using these raw materials to manufacture new ceramic products on the basis of clay physical-chemical properties and analyzes limitations to produce high added value products. As an alternative to overcome these limitations, the mixture of these clays with raw materials from near regions (pyrophyllite clay and with different industrial wastes is proposed. These wastes are screen glass from monitors and oil impregnated diatomaceous earth. The study of the technological properties shows that the new mixtures are suitable for the processing of ceramic products in which structural and thermal insulating properties are improved or kept.La materia prima empleada por la industria cerámica de Jaén consiste en mezclas de margas de la Depresión del Guadalquivir con arcillas rojas del Macizo Ibérico. La formulación de estas mezclas responde generalmente a la experiencia empírica desarrollada por esta industria durante generaciones. El presente trabajo evalúa las posibilidades de utilización de estas materias primas para fabricar nuevos productos cerámicos de construcción basándose en sus propiedades físico-químicas y analiza las limitaciones que presentan para la fabricación de productos de mayor valor añadido. Como alternativa para superar estas limitaciones se propone la mezcla con arcillas pirofilíticas de áreas geográficamente cercanas y con diferentes residuos industriales. Estos residuos son vidrio de pantalla descontaminado y tierras diatomeas impregnadas con aceites vegetales. El estudio de caracterización tecnológica muestra que las nuevas mezclas permiten el procesamiento de piezas cerámicas y que en

  15. A Development Strategy for Creating a Suite of Reference Materials for the in-situ Microanalysis of Non-conventional Raw Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renno, A. D.; Merchel, S.; Michalak, P. P.; Munnik, F.; Wiedenbeck, M.

    2010-12-01

    Recent economic trends regarding the supply of rare metals readily justify scientific research into non-conventional raw materials, where a particular need is a better understanding of the relationship between mineralogy, microstructure and the distribution of key metals within ore deposits (geometallurgy). Achieving these goals will require an extensive usage of in-situ microanalytical techniques capable of spatially resolving material heterogeneities which can be key for understanding better resource utilization. The availability of certified reference materials (CRMs) is an essential prerequisite for (1) validating new analytical methods, (2) demonstrating data quality to the contracting authorities, (3) supporting method development and instrument calibration, and (4) establishing traceability between new analytical approaches and existing data sets. This need has led to the granting of funding by the European Union and the German Free State of Saxony for a program to develop such reference materials . This effort will apply the following strategies during the selection of the phases: (1) will use exclusively synthetic minerals, thereby providing large volumes of homogeneous starting material. (2) will focus on matrices which are capable of incorporating many ‘important’ elements while avoid exotic compositions which would not be optimal matrix matches. (3) will emphasise those phases which remain stable during the various microanalytical procedure. This initiative will assess the homogeneity of the reference materials at sampling sizes ranging between 50 and 1 µm; it is also intended to document crystal structural homogeneity too, as this too may potentially impact specific analytical methods. As far as possible both definitive methods as well as methods involving matrix corrections will be used for determining the compositions of the of the individual materials. A critical challenge will be the validation of the determination of analytes concentrations

  16. A membrane-integrated fermentation reactor system: its effects in reducing the amount of sub-raw materials for D-lactic acid continuous fermentation by Sporolactobacillus laevolacticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimitsuka, Takashi; Na, Kyungsu; Morita, Ken; Sawai, Hideki; Minegishi, Shinichi; Henmi, Masahiro; Yamada, Katsushige; Shimizu, Sakayu; Yonehara, Tetsu

    2012-01-01

    Continuous fermentation by retaining cells with a membrane-integrated fermentation reactor (MFR) system was found to reduce the amount of supplied sub-raw material. If the amount of sub-raw material can be reduced, continuous fermentation with the MFR system should become a more attractive process for industrialization, due to decreased material costs and loads during the refinement process. Our findings indicate that the production rate decreased when the amount of the sub-raw material was reduced in batch fermentation, but did not decrease during continuous fermentation with Sporolactobacillus laevolacticus. Moreover, continuous fermentation with a reduced amount of sub-raw material resulted in a productivity of 11.2 g/L/h over 800 h. In addition, the index of industrial process applicability used in the MFR system increased by 6.3-fold as compared with the conventional membrane-based fermentation reactor previously reported, suggesting a potential for the industrialization of this D-lactic acid continuous fermentation process.

  17. Studies of wood fuel systems with raw material from young forest stands. Final report; Systemstudier ungskogsbraensle. Slutrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liss, J.E. [Dalarna Univ., Falun (Sweden)

    2001-12-01

    The three-year project 'Studies of wood fuel systems with raw material from young forest stands' has been carried out during the period March 1998 to February 2001. New technology for harvesting small trees has created a possibility to develop efficient wood fuel systems using raw material from young forest stands. This possibility coincides with a great demand for tending of young stands from a silvicultural point of view. The main aim of the project has been to analyse and assess wood fuel systems based on this concept. The spectrum of criteria for assessment has been broad, including productivity, profitability, safety and health aspects, employment and environmental impact. As an example of a new technology which has been developed and studied during the project period can be mentioned a new felling head which can be used for cutting and handling several trees at the same time. The weight of the felling head is only about 270 kg, which has done it possible to use it on smaller base-machines as well as larger machines. The productivity has shown to be about 150-250 trees/hour in stands with a diameter of 5-10 cm. The productivity, expressed as biomass, is about 2-3 tonnes dry substance/hour. In the design of production system, bundling of trees early in the process is considered to be especially promising. The development of such a system is ongoing, but is not at the market yet. Some experimental studies have been done on transportation, storing and chipping of such bundles with varying size and varying tree-species. The calculated cost of this system will be lower then for traditional chipping-systems, because of the higher density for the handle units. It is much easier to handle bundles than small non-bundled trees, the chipping-productivity will be high and the transportation can be done with regular timber trucks. The calculation cost for the bundle-system will be about 120-130 SEK/MWh in stands with a diameter of some 7-10 cm, which can be

  18. Truly Absorbed Microbial Protein Synthesis, Rumen Bypass Protein, Endogenous Protein, and Total Metabolizable Protein from Starchy and Protein-Rich Raw Materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parand, Ehsan; Vakili, Alireza; Mesgaran, Mohsen Danesh; Duinkerken, Van Gert; Yu, Peiqiang

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out to measure truly absorbed microbial protein synthesis, rumen bypass protein, and endogenous protein loss, as well as total metabolizable protein, from starchy and protein-rich raw feed materials with model comparisons. Predictions by the DVE2010 system as a more

  19. A joint European and African research & innovation agenda on waste management. Waste as a resource: Recycling & recovery of raw materials (2014-2020)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Godfrey, Linda K

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available -1 A joint European and African research & innovation agenda on waste management. Waste as a resource: Recycling & recovery of raw materials (2014-2020) Edited by Godfrey, L. and Mena-Abela, C. Abstract Europe has the know-how, technology...

  20. Verteerbaarheid (ileaal en faecaal) van biologisch geteelde eiwitrijke voedergrondstoffen bij varkens = Digestibility (ileal and faecal) of organically-grown protein-rich raw materials in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongbloed, A.W.; Diepen, van J.T.M.

    2007-01-01

    In this research the ileal digestibility of nitrogen and amino acids and the faecal digestibility of organic matter, nitrogen, fat, non-starch polysaccharides, energy and phosphorus of protein-rich organicallygrown feed raw materials were evaluated in pigs. The products were rapeseed meal expeller,

  1. Sustainable prevention of resource conflicts. Conflict risks for access and use of raw materials (report 1); Rohstoffkonflikte nachhaltig vermeiden. Konfliktrisiken bei Zugang und Nutzung von Rohstoffen (Teilbericht 1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taenzler, Dennis; Westerkamp, Meike [Adelphi Research, Berlin (Germany); Supersberger, Nikolaus; Ritthoff, Michael; Bleischwitz, Raimund [Wuppertal Institut fuer Klima, Umwelt, Energie GmbH, Wuppertal (Germany)

    2011-04-15

    Inequalities of resources ownership and the consequences of the exploitation of non-renewable resources have always caused violent conflicts of varying intensity. The resulting interdependence between conflicts on the one hand and resources on the other hand - discussed here under the term of conflict-resources nexus - is complex and requires a detailed theoretical and conceptional assessment. The risks of conflict vary as a function of the constellations of actors and the existing political, economic and social boundary conditions. These risks are often globally linked and reflect the flow of resources between consumer countries, transit countries, and producer countries. Conflicts in producer countries may endanger the supply of raw materials to consumer countries. Whether the raw material is an energetic resource like natural gas, petroleum, or coal, or a non-energetic resource like coltane or copper: There are many who demand that Germany should adapt to stronger competition and shorter supply and should also be aware of the possibility of conflicts about raw materials. This part-report of the project 'Sustainable Prevention of Resource Conflicts' presents important theoretical and conceptional considerations on the risk of conflict in the raw materials sector. On this basis, further reports will present case studies, scenarios, and preventive strategies. (orig./RHM)

  2. Metabolic Noise, Vestigial Metabolites or the Raw Material of Ecological Adaptation? Opportunitistic Enzymes, Catalytic Promiscuity and the Evolution of chemodiversity in Nature (2010 JGI User Meeting)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noel, Joseph

    2010-03-26

    Joseph Noel from the Salk Institute on "Metabolic Noise, Vestigial Metabolites or the Raw Material of Ecological Adaptation? Enzymes, Catalytic Promiscuity and the Evolution of Chemodiversity in Nature" on March 26, 2010 at the 5th Annual DOE JGI User Meeting

  3. Mathematical models of functioning and allocation indicators of road-transport complex resources in the fuel and raw materials region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buyvis, V. A.; Novichikhin, A. V.; Temlyantsev, M. V.

    2017-09-01

    A number of features of coal industry functioning was determined for the conditions of Kemerovo region, and the specifics of planning and organization of coal transportation were revealed. The analysis of indicators of motor and railway types of transport in the process of coal transportation was executed. The necessity of improving the tools of coal products transportation in the modern conditions is substantiated. Specific features of functioning of a road-transport complex in the fuel and raw material region (on the example of Kemerovo region) are determined. The modern scientific and applied problems of functioning and allocation of the road-transport complex resources are identified. To justify the management decisions on the development and improvement of road-transport complex a set of indicators are proposed: infrastructural, transportation performance, operating, social and economic. Mathematical models of indicators are recommended for formulation and justification of decisions made during operational and strategic planning of development, evaluation and development of algorithms of functioning and allocation of road-transport sector in Kemerovo region in the future.

  4. Hemp raw materials: The effect of cultivar, growth conditions and pretreatment on the chemical composition of the fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, A.B.; Rasmussen, S.K.; Bohn, V.

    2005-01-01

    Hemp raw materials were analyzed chemically to determine their content of cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin and ashes. Correction for ashes was only necessary in the first step of the chemical analysis: the Neutral Detergent Fibre step. The hemp fiberscontained 73-77% w/w cellulose, 7-9% w....../w hemicellulose and 4-6% w/w lignin, while the hemp shives contained 48% w/w cellulose, 21-25% w/w hemicellulose and 17-19% w/w lignin. Among the four investigated cultivars, Felina contained least lignin, whileFutura and Fasamo contained least cellulose. Hemp yarn had the same color as retted hemp fibers...... but was more cellulose rich. Steam explosion, wet oxidation and hydrothermal treatment were used for defibration of retted hemp fibers. These pretreatmentsremoved lignin and hemicellulose resulting in loss of dry matter of 15-73% w/w and in loss of cellulose of 0-69% w/w. Steam explosion treatment generally...

  5. Laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry for direct profiling and imaging of small molecules from raw biological materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Sangwon [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization(MALDI) mass spectrometry(MS) has been widely used for analysis of biological molecules, especially macromolecules such as proteins. However, MALDI MS has a problem in small molecule (less than 1 kDa) analysis because of the signal saturation by organic matrixes in the low mass region. In imaging MS (IMS), inhomogeneous surface formation due to the co-crystallization process by organic MALDI matrixes limits the spatial resolution of the mass spectral image. Therefore, to make laser desorption/ionization (LDI) MS more suitable for mass spectral profiling and imaging of small molecules directly from raw biological tissues, LDI MS protocols with various alternative assisting materials were developed and applied to many biological systems of interest. Colloidal graphite was used as a matrix for IMS of small molecules for the first time and methodologies for analyses of small metabolites in rat brain tissues, fruits, and plant tissues were developed. With rat brain tissues, the signal enhancement for cerebroside species by colloidal graphite was observed and images of cerebrosides were successfully generated by IMS. In addition, separation of isobaric lipid ions was performed by imaging tandem MS. Directly from Arabidopsis flowers, flavonoids were successfully profiled and heterogeneous distribution of flavonoids in petals was observed for the first time by graphite-assisted LDI(GALDI) IMS.

  6. Influence of malting conditions on sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) as a raw material for fermented beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassani, Ahmed; Zarnkow, Martin; Becker, Thomas

    2014-09-01

    There has been recently increased interest in sorghum to substitute the gluten containing cereals in the diet of people suffering from celiac disease. The response surface methodology was used to determine the influence of malting parameters (degree of steeping, germination temperature and time) on sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench). Each parameter was varied at three levels. Malting attributes, considered important to produce high quality malt for the production of lactic acid fermented beverages, were analyzed. The optimized conditions were: degree of steeping 41%, germination temperature 27℃ after 7 days of germination. Under these conditions, the following values of the studied attributes can be obtained: α-amylase 139 U/g, β-amylase 60 U/g, extract 83.8%, free amino nitrogen 117.8 mg/100 g, Kolbach index 26.6%, water-extractable arabinoxylan 0.3 g/L and vitamin B2 114.9 µg/L. Among the tested parameters, the germination time had the highest effect on malting attributes. Although the activity of amylolytic enzymes α- and β-amylase were low, the value of extract was high and comparable to that of barley malt. The obtained results showed that sorghum malt is a promising raw material for the production of lactic acid fermented beverages. © The Author(s) 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  7. Proteomics method to quantify the percentage of cow, goat, and sheep milks in raw materials for dairy products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Q; Ke, X; Zhang, J S; Lai, S Y; Fang, F; Mo, W M; Ren, Y P

    2016-12-01

    Fraud in milk and dairy products occurs when cow milk is added to sheep and goat milk for economic reasons. No reliable, selective, and sensitive method exists for quantifying the milk percentage of different species. This work reports the development and validation of a proteomics-based method for the qualitative detection and quantitative determination of cow, sheep, and goat milks in the raw materials used for dairy products. β-Lactoglobulin was selected as the protein marker because it is a major protein in milk and whey powder. The tryptic peptides LSFNPTQLEEQCHI and LAFNPTQLEGQCHV were used as signature peptides for cow milk and for sheep and goat milks, respectively. The winged peptides LKALPMHIRLSFNPTQL*EEQCHI* and LKALPMHIRLAFNPTQL*EGQCHV* were designed and synthesized as internal standards. Validation of the method showed that it has good sensitivity, specificity, reproducibility, precision, and accuracy. This method is easily applicable in routine laboratory analysis without intensive proteomics background. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Recycling of spent catalyst and waste sludge from industry to substitute raw materials in the preparation of Portland cement clinker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kae-Long Lin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the feasibility of using waste limestone sludge, waste stone sludge, iron oxide sludge, and spent catalyst as raw materials in the production of eco-cement. The compressive strength development of the Eco Cement-A (ECO-A paste was similar to that of ordinary Portland cement (OPC pastes. The compressive strength development of the ECO-B paste was higher than that of OPC pastes. In addition, the C2S (Ca2SiO4, C2S and C3S (Ca3SiO5 minerals in the eco-cement paste were continuously utilized to hydrate the Ca(OH2 and calcium silicate hydrates gel (Ca6Si3O12·H2O, C–S–H throughout the curing time. When ECO-C clinker contained 8% spent catalyst, the C3S mineral content decreased and C3A (3 CaO·Al2O3 content increased, thereby causing the structure to weaken and compressive strength to decrease. The results showed that the developed eco-cement with 4% spent catalyst possessed compressive strength properties similar to those of OPC pastes.

  9. HYDRAULIC AND LEACHING BEHAVIOUR OF BELITE CEMENTS PRODUCED WITH ELECTRIC ARC FURNACE STEEL SLAG AS RAW MATERIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iacobescu R. I.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Three belite-rich cements consisting of a clinker made with 0 (BC, 5 (BC5 and 10 wt. % (BC10 electric arc furnace steel slag (EAFS as raw material, were studied for their hydraulic and leaching behaviour. Hydration behaviour was studied by FTIR, TG/DTG and SEM analyses. The cements with EAFS resulted in a higher C2S/C3S and C4AF/C3A ratio compared to the reference body. As a result, the rate of hydration was low at early days whereas the structure was porous with scattered AFm and C–S–H crystals. At 28 days, a comparable dense microstructure consisting largely of C–S–H is observed in all mortars. Leaching was studied for V and Cr by means of tank test according to standard NEN 7345. The results showed V release below 2 μg/l. Chromium release calculated per 24 h was 1.4 μg/l in BC5 and 2.4 μg/l in BC10, which is much lower than the parametric value of 50 μg/l specified by the European Directive for drinking water (98/83/EC.

  10. Nitrogen-Phosphorous Fertilizers on the Base of Concentrated Ammonium Nitrate Solution and Central Kyzylkum Phosphate Raw Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhmed Reymov

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article presents obtaining of nitrogen-phosphate fertilizers by reacting ordinary phosphate powder from Central Kyzylkum (Uzbekistan with 70-90% ammonium nitrate solution at 100ºС. Chemical composition of the fertilizers was determined fully. Relevant consistence of acceptable forms of Р2О5 and СаО in the product extremely decreased by the increase of amount of phosphate raw material (PRM in reaction mixture. The addition of phosphate additive into ammonium nitrate solution significantly increases toughness of ammonium nitrate granules and their growth velocity proportionally by phosphate powder added. Herewith, initial concentration of ammonium nitrate did not effect practically on the granule’s toughness. It is described that, phosphate additive decreases the speed of solubility of ammonium nitrate granules almost up to 1.83 times. On our opinion, decrease of fertilizer solubility is the result of growing phosphorite share in the products. The more is the phosphorite share, the more slowly dissolution process of the fertilizer granule does occur.

  11. Process Optimization of Pontianak Aloe vera Powder (Aloe chinensis Beakker as Raw Material for Hand body lotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nana Supriyatna

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Process optimization of Pontianak aloe vera powder (Aloe chinensis Beaker  as raw material for hand body lotion have been conducted on laboratory scale with the aim of obtaining the optimum conditions of processing technologies through the addition of maltodextrin and Carboxy Methyl Cellulase. The optimum results achieved at the ratio of maltodextrin to the CMC by 90%: 10%. Characteristics of aloe vera powder produced showing yellowish white color, water content of 8:56%, 5:50 pH, total solid Aloe 25.5%, weight flour ratio and fresh aloe vera leaves 1.5: 100, aloin content of 164.40 ppm, 257.08 ppm malic acid content, 10.32 ppm vitamin E and 1.4 x 105 colonies/g total bacteria. Making hand body lotion of aloe vera powder optimization results show the characteristic white color with a fragrant aroma, acidity (pH 7:07, 10.34 ppm of malic acid, 1.1 x 104 colony/g total bacteria, and quite stable while storage.

  12. Criteria definition and approaches in green supplier selection – a case study for raw material and packaging of food industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narges Banaeian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper formulates an integrated framework for deciding about the green supplier selection criteria in food supply chain and also proposes different methods that account for single and multiple sourcing of supplier selection. Green supplier selection relies on green criteria, so determination of suitable set of criteria will affect decision-maker results directly. In this research, an operational model including combination of general and environmental criteria is introduced for green supplier selection criteria in raw material and packaging of food industry. This model reviewed a literature on general and environmental criteria that help us to know and make a set of common green criteria. Afterward, weighting criteria and collecting of sub-criteria are done by an expert team using the Analytic Hierarchy Process and Delphi method. The expert team tried to propose important and practical sub-criteria which are well fitted to food industry. Finally, in the section of supplier selection, two kinds of qualitative and quantitative data are discussed when single and multiple sourcing are required, respectively. Fuzzy Grey Relational Analysis is proposed to ranking suppliers in presence of qualitative and imprecise data. Also linear programming is used to present a model which can select the best suppliers and allocate the orders among them optimally.

  13. Treatment of dispersed iron-bearing raw materials and modeling of the protection systems against air-pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Anđić

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on the analysis of the non-standard iron-bearing raw materials treatment process and the results of real composition measurements of the flue gas, the study of hazards by identification of harmful substances that occur in the accident, as well as the modeling of the system of protection against air-pollution due to the cancellation of work the bag filter was carried out. Applying the model (Aloha software package provides an overview of possible developments of events and zones of propagation of the precipitated particulate matter through the share of cadmium (Cd in them. In the case of malfunction of filter system, emissions of particulate matter enormously exceed the permitted values. In the conditions of the simulated accident, particle velocity of flue gases was amounted E≈738mg/s or 2657g/h of dust. The propagation of the precipitated particulate matter in the lower layer of the atmosphere, downwind, given trough the share of Cd in them, is 100m from the source of pollution for the characteristic density of 5mg/m2×day and 140m for the characteristic density of 2mg/m2×day, in the stable state of the atmosphere, i.e. 870m and 1100m, respectively, in the neutral state of the atmosphere.

  14. Pelletizing using forest fuels and Salix as raw materials. A study of the pelletizing properties; Pelletering med skogsbraensle och Salix som raavara. En undersoekning av pelleterbarheten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinsson, Lars; Oesterberg, Stefan [Swedish National Testing and Research Inst., Boraas (Sweden)

    2004-08-01

    Three common forest fuels: light thinning material, cull tree and logging residues as well as energy forest fuel (Salix) has been used as fuel pellet materials. Logging residues and Salix were stacked for approximately 6 and 10 months respectively. Parameters varied for each raw material have been the moisture content and the press length of the die. These parameters have been changed to obtain best possible quality, mainly concerning mechanical durability. Pellets were also produced from bark free shavings in order to use as a reference in this study. Physical as well as chemical properties have been compared. It was comparatively easy to press logging residues and Salix into durable pellets and, even with larger press length, the production of pellets was higher than it was for the other raw materials. The density was equal for all pellets while the mechanical durability was better for all tested raw materials compared with the reference material. The fact that all raw materials besides the reference material contains bark which has an improving effect on the degree of hardness. The quality properties were mainly about the same or better for pellets made of light thinning material and cull tree respectively, compared with the reference pellets. However, the ash content was approximately twice as high compared with the reference pellets. The pellets made of logging residues and Salix respectively were of very good quality concerning duration and density but the ash content was approximately 10 times higher than in the reference pellets. Additionally, the nitrogen content was 6-9 times higher compared with the reference pellets.

  15. The Effect of Micro/Nano-metrics Size on the Interaction of Jordanian Aluminosilicate Raw Materials with High pH Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldabsheh, Islam; Garcia-Valles, Maite; Martinez, Salvador

    2014-05-01

    Environmental preservation has become a driving force behind the search for new sustainable and environmentally friendly composites to replace conventional concrete produced from ordinary Portland cement (OPC). Current researches concentrate on developing building products (geopolymers) through geopolymerization. The goal is to produce low cost construction materials for green housing. Geopolymerization is the process of polymerizing minerals with high silica and alumina at low temperature by the use of alkali solutions. Dissolution is the most important process for supplying the high initial Al and Si concentrations to produce the gel phase that is responsible for geopolymerization. This study has been focused on the influence of different micrometric particle sizes of three Jordanian raw materials on their dissolution behavior in sodium hydroxide solution. The samples are kaolinite, volcanic tuff and silica sand. The dissolution properties of each material, alone and mixed with the other two materials were studied in different concentrations (5 and 10 M) using (NaOH) at 25ºC, and shaking time for 24 and 168 h. To better understand the dissolution process, the alkaline solution was renewed after the desired time in order to know if the Al-Si raw material is completely dissolved or not. Different analytical techniques were used to characterize raw materials physically, mineralogically, chemically and thermally. All processed samples either centrifuged solutions or solid residues were fully characterized. The leached concentrations of Al and Si were determined by inductively coupled plasma (ICP). X-ray Diffraction Technique (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and Thermo Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) were used to evaluate the solid residue characterization compared with the original ones. The three aluminosilicate raw materials have indicated variable degrees of solubility under highly alkaline conditions. The method for the size reduction of the used raw

  16. Analysis of the Toxic Element Concentrations in the Mesozoic Siliceous Rocks in Terms of the Raw Material Importance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pękala, Agnieszka

    2017-10-01

    As part of an integrated system of environmental protection at every stage of the product life cycle such as: raw material extraction, its transportation and processing as well the subsequent use and development is required to carry out actions towards reducing or completely eliminating products that contain harmful substances to the environment. The purpose of the presented paper is an analysis of the toxic element concentrations in the extracted siliceous minerals at the initial stage of the raw material recognition. The research material is constituted by rocks collected from the Mesozoic bedrock from the Bełchatów lignite deposit. A group of the studied rocks is represented by diatomites, gaizes, opoka-rocks and light opoka-rocks, enriched with minerals from the group of SiO2. Most of the recognized petrographic sediments have a real possibility of potential applications in the building material industry, but it needs to carry out a detailed and thorough research. The studies of the chemical composition were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) using Philips PU 9100Xi Camera SX-100 spectrometer and an atomic emission spectroscopy with inductively coupled plasma (ICP AES) using PLASMA 40 spectrometer. There were carried out a chemical analyses and determined the content of some toxic elements: Pb, Cr, Cd, Ni, Zn, Cu, Co, As, Sr, Ba, Zr. in the studied sedimentary rocks. The analysis of the results draws attention to the high content of cadmium in the case of the studied sediments. The concentration of this element in the described rocks is an average of 0.22 mg/kg –the diatomites, 0.05 mg/kg –the gaizes, 0.4 mg/kg –the opoka-rocks, 2.23 mg/kg –the light opoka-rocks. It was moreover registered varied concentration of arsenic in diatomites, that is formed in the range of 0.05 - 9.6 mg/kg, an average of 6.3 mg/kg. The content of the other designated elements with toxic properties in the analysed groups of rocks does not exceed the limit

  17. Non-Conformitity in raw material: Quality problems and environmental impacts in a dairy processor in Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Ruelis Fabbro

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Environmental management has been discussed by researchers and practitioners along recent years. Relations between quality and environmental issues have been treated, since quality problems interfere on environmental impacts. In dairy system, according to a report on dairy cleaner production by FIESP (2008, processors are concerned especially with rational use of water, energy saving techniques and equipment, use of less toxic raw materials, recycling, water and effluent treatment. Some studies have highlighted the importance of agriculture (milk producers when it comes to environmental problems along the chain, giving less relevance to dairy processing, packaging, consume phase and waste management. Thus, milk reception control in dairy companies is an important stage for environmental management. Considering the importance of coordination among agents, the aim of this paper was to analyze processor conduct concerning raw material non-conformity, linking quality and environmental issues. This qualitative research was accomplished through a study in a dairy plant in Paraná, which processes200,000 liters of milk per day and sells products nationally. The company works with 1,500 milk suppliers on average. Legal requirements are followed along the process, and ISO 1400 implementation in the company is in progress. According to interviews with quality supervisor and industrial manager, one of the most important critical point is milk reception, and a number of non-conformities are controlled. The presence of antibiotics is the most relevant of them, since it results in material rejection. Other problems, such as acidity and cryoscopy, are less critical, since it is possible to direct input to co-products. Interviewees informed that a low amount of milk is contaminated with antibiotics (about 1% of total input. Concerning antibiotic contamination, intensive training and constant visits have been developed with producers, especially to inform them

  18. Herbicide options for hardwood management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew W. Ezell; A. Brady Self

    2016-01-01

    The use of herbicides in hardwood management presents special problems in that many of the most effective herbicides are either designed to control hardwoods or the product is not labeled for such applications. Numerous studies involving herbicide application in hardwoods have been completed at Mississippi State University. This paper is a compilation of results from...

  19. Analysis of material flow of MECOM, a. s. Humenné, with reference to time, quality and quantity of processed raw material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaceľ Rastislav

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available If we want that our companies meet criteria of future develepment trends of world economy, we must radically change, we can say, leave old principles of operating and management and acquire absolutely new models. Models BPR (Business Process Reengineering, that is a part of ITQM (Integrated Total Quality Management,in these tendencies are appearing to be very positive. So as to put these changes into practice, we need fully to know structure of organisation and internal progresses in organisation and management in context with external enviroment.Preparation for realization of reengineering processes requires detailed analysis of micrologistics of material flow in food processing company MECOM, a. s., Humenné too. This analysis in primary stage follows movement of basic raw material through particular departmetns of purchase, production and distribution, where it specificaly deals with these processes in looking at time, quality and quantity, based on a need to keep priority order.Logistic coordination and synchronisation of material flow, information flow and flow of finances,have an impact on company and can resolve conflict of partial targets of individual divisions which are very varied and often opposite.Entire synchronisation of these single aims isn´t possible, partial accommodation is achieveable only. The task of logistics in this company is to amend opposite partial aims, in priority order to achieve the one mutual target for all departments of company. This target presents total satisfaction of wants of consumers, achieveable by common fulfilment of performance and economical destination.

  20. The study of the kinetics of drying food raw material of plant origin in the active hydrodynamic regimes and development of dryer engineering calculation methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Ostrikov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Consumer properties of food raw material formed during the heat treatment. New physical, flavoring and aromatic properties of the products of plant origin, formed during drying due to substantial changes in the composition of the raw materia l occurring as a result of biochemical reactions. In the production of dried and roasted products is very important to follow the parameters that contribute to the passage of biochemical processes aimed at creating a product with high nutritional qualities, strong aroma and pleasant taste. We studied the basic kinetics of the drying process of food raw material (in terms of artichoke in a dense interspersed layer, which formed the basis for the rational choice of the drying regime with due consideration of changes in the moisture content of the product are studied. The nature of the effect of the dried product movement hydrodynamic conditions on a layer height and intensity of drying is established. As a result of food raw material drying process kinetics analysis (in terms of artichoke multistep drying regimes were chosen. Analysis of the artichoke particles drying by air, air-steam mixture and superheated steam intensity showed the presence of two parts: the horizontal one and gradually diminishing one. Kinetic laws of the artichoke drying process in a dense interspersed layer were the basis of engineering calculation of dryer with a transporting body in the form of a "traveling wave". Application of the dryer with the transporting body in the form of a "traveling wave" for food raw material drying allow to achieve uniform drying of the product due to the use of soft, gentle regimes of oversleeping while preserving to the utmost particles of the product; to improve the quality of the finished product through the use of interspersed layer that reduces clumping of product to be dried.