Full Text Available Kloning adalah proses duplikat isi harddisk ke harddisk yang lain. Jadi isi kedua harddisk adalah sama persis. Kloning harddisk dilakukan untuk mempercepat proses instalasi perangkat lunak dengan spesifikasi hardware yang sama. Kloning harddisk melalui jaringan komputer dapat dilakukan dari harddisk master ke harddisk slave atau harddisk tujuan. Pada proses kloning harddisk melalui jaringan komputer hardis induk berada di komputer server saja sedangkan slave harddisk berada di komputer klien saja. Harddisk setiap komputer tidak perlu digandeng (diparalel. Dalam melakukan kloning harddisk melalui jaringan komputer diperlukan beberapa program aplikasi antara lain: Ghost Cast Server, Boot Wizard, LAN Boot Floppy Klien, Ghost Explore. Aplikasi yang sering digunakan untuk kloning adalah software Ghost yang dirilis oleh Symantect Coorporation.
Zhang, Chenyi; Hur, Jinhee; Diamond, Karen E.; Powell, Douglas
This study examined the classroom writing environment in 31 Head Start classrooms, and explored the relations between the writing environment, children's (N = 262) name-writing, and children's letter knowledge using pathway analysis. Our analyses showed that Head Start classrooms provided opportunities (i.e., writing materials and teachers'…
Laccourreye, O; Rubin, F; Villeneuve, A; Bonfils, P
Only about ten articles devoted to operative reports have been published in the medical literature, but this document is essential, both medically and legally, to ensure optimal management of operated patients. In this technical note, based on published studies on this subject, the authors describe the key features of operating reports after otorhinolaryngology head & neck surgery and emphasize the need to write this document during the minutes after the end of the operation, the importance of standardization and its teaching role during surgical training. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Kapfer, Sebastian C; Krauth, Werner
The hard-disk problem, the statics and the dynamics of equal two-dimensional hard spheres in a periodic box, has had a profound influence on statistical and computational physics. Markov-chain Monte Carlo and molecular dynamics were first discussed for this model. Here we reformulate hard-disk Monte Carlo algorithms in terms of another classic problem, namely the sampling from a polytope. Local Markov-chain Monte Carlo, as proposed by Metropolis et al. in 1953, appears as a sequence of random walks in high-dimensional polytopes, while the moves of the more powerful event-chain algorithm correspond to molecular dynamics evolution. We determine the convergence properties of Monte Carlo methods in a special invariant polytope associated with hard-disk configurations, and the implications for convergence of hard-disk sampling. Finally, we discuss parallelization strategies for event-chain Monte Carlo and present results for a multicore implementation
Ertl, Othmar; Schrefl, Thomas; Suess, Dieter; Schabes, Manfred E.
Magnetic recording at fast data rates requires write heads with rapid rise times of the magnetic flux during the write process. We present three-dimensional (3D) micromagnetic finite element calculations of an entire ring head including 3D coil geometry during the writing of magnetic bits in granular media. The simulations demonstrate how input current profiles translate into magnetization processes in the head and which in turn generate the write head field. The flux rise time significantly depends on the Gilbert damping constant of the head material. Low damping causes incoherent magnetization processes, leading to long rise times and low head fields. High damping leads to coherent reversal of the magnetization in the head. As a consequence, the gap region can be quickly saturated which causes high head fields with short rise times
Ruksasakchai, P.; Saengkaew, K.; Cheowanish, I.; Damrongsak, B.
We used a phase-contrast magnetic force microscopy (MFM) to observe and analyze the failure of magnetic write heads due to the WATEr problem, which limits the off-track performance. During MFM imaging, the magnetic write head was energized by a DC current. The induced out-of-plane magnetic field was then detected by scanning a MFM probe across the surface of the magnetic write head. MFM images were then mapped with WATEr measured results from a spin stand method. Results showed that WATEr effect can be generated by several factors, i.e. the structure of magnetic domains and walls from material discontinuities and the magnetic field leakage at different locations on magnetic write heads. Understanding WATEr mechanisms is useful for design and process development engineers.
Abe, M.; Tanaka, Y.
We demonstrated the measurement of the high frequency (HF) magnetic field of a write head with the phase detection magnetic force microscope. An amplitude-modulated current was applied to the head coil to detect the force gradient induced by the HF magnetic field. Spatial resolution of this method was higher than that of the deflection detection method previously proposed. By the phase detection method, dynamic HF magnetic fields at the poles of the write heads were clearly imaged. HF magnetic field leakage was observed along the P2 pole shape on the air-bearing surface. The frequency dependence of the write head dynamics up to 350 MHz was also investigated. [copyright] 2001 American Institute of Physics
Valkass, Robert A. J.; Spicer, Timothy M.; Burgos Parra, Erick; Hicken, Robert J.; Bashir, Muhammad A.; Gubbins, Mark A.; Czoschke, Peter J.; Lopusnik, Radek
To meet growing data storage needs, the density of data stored on hard disk drives must increase. In pursuit of this aim, the magnetodynamics of the hard disk write head must be characterized and understood, particularly the process of “flux beaming.” In this study, seven different configurations of perpendicular magnetic recording (PMR) write heads were imaged using time-resolved scanning Kerr microscopy, revealing their detailed dynamic magnetic state during the write process. It was found that the precise position and number of driving coils can significantly alter the formation of flux beams during the write process. These results are applicable to the design and understanding of current PMR and next-generation heat-assisted magnetic recording devices, as well as being relevant to other magnetic devices.
Ono, Takuya; Kuboki, Yoshiyuki; Ajishi, Yoshifumi; Saito, Akira
The magnetic printing method, which can duplicate soft magnetic patterns containing digital information such as servosignals formed on a master disk onto recording media, enables signals to be written to hard-disk media having high coercivities above 6000 Oe. We propose the application of the magnetic printing method to a hard-disk medium having double recording layers, one layer of which has high coercivity and is to be printed with digital information. This double recording layer medium is a hard-disk medium that has a magnetic read-only-memory (MROM) layer. In this study, we demonstrated a method for printing to this medium, which has MROM, and discussed the magnetic properties and recording performances of this medium
Zhou, Y.; Hall, C.K.; Stell, G.
We find that first-order thermodynamic perturbation theory (TPT1) which incorporates the reference monomer fluid used in the generalized Flory--AB (GF--AB) theory yields an equation of state for fused hard-sphere (FHS) chain fluids that has accuracy comparable to the GF--AB and GF--dimer--AC theories. The new TPT1 equation of state is significantly more accurate than other extensions of the TPT1 theory to FHS chain fluids. The TPT1 is also extended to two-dimensional fused hard-disk chain fluids. For the fused hard-disk dimer fluid, the extended TPT1 equation of state is found to be more accurate than the Boublik hard-disk dimer equation of state. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics
Makinwa, K.A.A.; Bergmans, J.W.M.; Voorman, J.O.
Biphase modulation in an embedded-servo format for hard-disk drives is investigated. It is shown that for biphase, at the low linear densities typical of servo information, near-maximum-likelihood performance can be attained by a simple bit detector consisting of a full-response linear equalizer and
Gokemeijer, N.J.; Clinton, T.W.; Crawford, T.M.; Johnson, Mark
At 1 Tbit/in 2 areal density magnetic recording dimensions, reliable magnetic field metrology does not exist. One technique to map the spatial profile of the magnetic field of a write head is to use a contact read/write tester. A magnetic recording head is brought into contact with a Hall sensor, and is subsequently scanned with nm resolution. For a 300 nm track width longitudinal recording head, the magnetic field of the head was mapped. Measurements include the down track field gradient and cross-track field profile and the current-field transfer curve. These results suggest this technique offers a viable write field metrology
Valkass, R. A. J., E-mail: email@example.com; Yu, W.; Shelford, L. R.; Keatley, P. S.; Loughran, T. H. J.; Hicken, R. J. [School of Physics, University of Exeter, Stocker Road, Exeter EX4 4QL (United Kingdom); Cavill, S. A. [Diamond Light Source, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Department of Physics, University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Laan, G. van der; Dhesi, S. S. [Diamond Light Source, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Bashir, M. A.; Gubbins, M. A. [Research and Development, Seagate Technology, 1 Disc Drive, Springtown Industrial Estate, Derry BT48 0BF (United Kingdom); Czoschke, P. J.; Lopusnik, R. [Recording Heads Operation, Seagate Technology, 7801 Computer Avenue South, Bloomington, Minnesota 55435 (United States)
Four different designs of partially built hard disk write heads with a yoke comprising four repeats of NiFe (1 nm)/CoFe (50 nm) were studied by both x-ray photoemission electron microscopy (XPEEM) and time-resolved scanning Kerr microscopy (TRSKM). These techniques were used to investigate the static equilibrium domain configuration and the magnetodynamic response across the entire structure, respectively. Simulations and previous TRSKM studies have made proposals for the equilibrium domain configuration of similar structures, but no direct observation of the equilibrium state of the writers has yet been made. In this study, static XPEEM images of the equilibrium state of writer structures were acquired using x-ray magnetic circular dichroism as the contrast mechanism. These images suggest that the crystalline anisotropy dominates the equilibrium state domain configuration, but competition with shape anisotropy ultimately determines the stability of the equilibrium state. Dynamic TRSKM images were acquired from nominally identical devices. These images suggest that a longer confluence region may hinder flux conduction from the yoke into the pole tip: the shorter confluence region exhibits clear flux beaming along the symmetry axis, whereas the longer confluence region causes flux to conduct along one edge of the writer. The observed variations in dynamic response agree well with the differences in the equilibrium magnetization configuration visible in the XPEEM images, confirming that minor variations in the geometric design of the writer structure can have significant effects on the process of flux beaming.
Senthil Kumar, V; Kumaran, V
We report the bond-orientational analysis results for the thermodynamic, random, and homogeneously sheared inelastic structures of hard-disks and hard-spheres. The thermodynamic structures show a sharp rise in the order across the freezing transition. The random structures show the absence of crystallization. The homogeneously sheared structures get ordered at a packing fraction higher than the thermodynamic freezing packing fraction, due to the suppression of crystal nucleation. On shear ordering, strings of close-packed hard-disks in two dimensions and close-packed layers of hard-spheres in three dimensions, oriented along the velocity direction, slide past each other. Such a flow creates a considerable amount of fourfold order in two dimensions and body-centered-tetragonal (bct) structure in three dimensions. These transitions are the flow analogs of the martensitic transformations occurring in metals due to the stresses induced by a rapid quench. In hard-disk structures, using the bond-orientational analysis we show the presence of fourfold order. In sheared inelastic hard-sphere structures, even though the global bond-orientational analysis shows that the system is highly ordered, a third-order rotational invariant analysis shows that only about 40% of the spheres have face-centered-cubic (fcc) order, even in the dense and near-elastic limits, clearly indicating the coexistence of multiple crystalline orders. When layers of close-packed spheres slide past each other, in addition to the bct structure, the hexagonal-close-packed (hcp) structure is formed due to the random stacking faults. Using the Honeycutt-Andersen pair analysis and an analysis based on the 14-faceted polyhedra having six quadrilateral and eight hexagonal faces, we show the presence of bct and hcp signatures in shear ordered inelastic hard-spheres. Thus, our analysis shows that the dense sheared inelastic hard-spheres have a mixture of fcc, bct, and hcp structures.
Döge, G.; Mecke, K.; Møller, Jesper
The melting transition of hard disks in two dimensions is still an unsolved problem and improved simulation algorithms may be helpful for its investigation. We suggest the application of simulating tempering for grand canonical hard-disk systems as an efficient alternative to the commonly......-used Monte Carlo algorithms for canonical systems. This approach allows the direct study of the packing fraction as a function of the chemical potential even in the vicinity of the melting transition. Furthermore, estimates of several spatial characteristics including pair correlation function are studied...
Vakis, Antonis I.; Lee, Sung-Chang; Polycarpou, Andreas A.
Recent advances in hard-disk drive technology involve the use of a thermal fly-height control (TFC) pole tip protrusion to bring the read/write recording elements of the slider closer to the disk surface and thus achieve Terabit per square inch recording densities. A dynamic, contact mechanics-based
Vogler, Christoph; Abert, Claas; Bruckner, Florian; Suess, Dieter
Curvatures of bit transitions on granular media are a serious problem for the read-back process. We address this fundamental issue and propose a possibility to efficiently reduce transition curvatures with state-of-the-art heat-assisted magnetic recording heads. We compare footprints of conventional with those of the proposed head design on different media, consisting of exchange coupled and single phase grains. Additionally, we investigate the impact of various recording parameters, such as the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the applied heat pulse and the coercivity gradient near the write temperature of the recording grains. The footprints are calculated with a coarse grained model, based on the Landau-Lifshitz-Bloch equation. The presented simulations show a transition curvature reduction of up to 40%, in the case of a medium with exchange coupled grains and a heat pulse with a FWHM of 40 nm. We further give the reason for the straightening of the bit transitions, by means of basic considerations with regard to the effective recording time window of the write process. Besides the transition curvature reduction, the proposed head design yields an improvement of the transition jitter in both down-track and off-track directions.
Excessive rocking motion of the spindle motor system can cause track misregistration resulting in poor throughput or even drive failure. The chance of excessive disk stack rocking increases as a result of decreasing torsional stiffness of spindle motor bearing system due to the market demand for low profile hard drives. As the track density increases and the vibration specification becomes increasingly stringent, rocking motion of a spindle motor system deserves even more attention and has become a primary challenge for a spindle motor system designer. Lack of understanding of the rocking phenomenon combined with misleading paradox has presented a great difficulty in the effort of avoiding the rocking motion in the hard-disk drive industry. This paper aims to provide fundamental understanding of the rocking phenomenon of a rotating spindle motor system, to clarify the paradox in disk-drive industry and to provide a design guide to an optimized spindle system. This paper, theoretically and experimentally, covers a few important areas of industrial interest including the prediction of rocking natural frequencies and mode shape of a rotating spindle, free vibration, and frequency response under common forcing functions such as rotating and fixed-plane forcing functions. The theory presented here meets with agreeable experimental observation.
Cognitive models of the writing process make a distinction between the functions of planning and translation: the first to generate ideas, the second to represent these ideas in written linguistic conventions. For many writers however, ideas do not always appear to precede the act of writing, rather they appear to be discovered through it. This…
Fraser, Diane P.; Zuckermann, Martin J.; Mouritsen, Ole G.
A two-dimensional Monte Carlo simulation method based on the NpT ensemble and the Voronoi tesselation, which was previously developed for single-species hard-disk systems, is extended, along with a version of scaled-particle theory, to many-component mixtures. These systems are unusual in the sense...... and internal degrees of freedom leads to a rich phase structure that includes solid-liquid transitions (governed by the translational variables) as well as transitions involving changes in average disk size (governed by the internal variables). The relationship between these two types of transitions is studied...... by the method in the case of a binary mixture, and results are presented for varying disk-size ratios and degeneracies. The results are also compared with the predictions of the extended scaled-particle theory. Applications of the model are discussed in relation to lipid monolayers spread on air...
Goussev, Arseni; Dorfman, J R
We consider the time evolution of a wave packet representing a quantum particle moving in a geometrically open billiard that consists of a number of fixed hard-disk or hard-sphere scatterers. Using the technique of multiple collision expansions we provide a first-principle analytical calculation of the time-dependent autocorrelation function for the wave packet in the high-energy diffraction regime, in which the particle's de Broglie wavelength, while being small compared to the size of the scatterers, is large enough to prevent the formation of geometric shadow over distances of the order of the particle's free flight path. The hard-disk or hard-sphere scattering system must be sufficiently dilute in order for this high-energy diffraction regime to be achievable. Apart from the overall exponential decay, the autocorrelation function exhibits a generally complicated sequence of relatively strong peaks corresponding to partial revivals of the wave packet. Both the exponential decay (or escape) rate and the revival peak structure are predominantly determined by the underlying classical dynamics. A relation between the escape rate, and the Lyapunov exponents and Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy of the counterpart classical system, previously known for hard-disk billiards, is strengthened by generalization to three spatial dimensions. The results of the quantum mechanical calculation of the time-dependent autocorrelation function agree with predictions of the semiclassical periodic orbit theory.
Buttery, Thomas J.
In the first edition of Writing for Publication: An Organizational Paradigm (Buttery, 2010), I recommend a model for organizing theoretical articles. The process includes seven components: title, introduction, outline/advanced organizer, headings, transitions, summary and references. This article will focus on the writing process. The strands of…
With care of writing as a method of inquiry, this paper engages in academic writing such as responsible knowledge development drawing on emotion, thought and reason. The aim of the paper is to better understand emancipatory knowledge development. Bodily experiences and responses shape academic...... writing and there are possibilities for responsible academic writing in that iterative process. I propose that academic writing can be seen as possibilities of passionate as well as passive writing....
Students need inspiration to write. Assigning is not teaching. In order to inspire students to write fiction worth reading, teachers must take them through the process of writing. Physical objects inspire good writing with depth. In this article, the reader will be taken through the process of inspiring young writers through the use of boxes.…
Six ideas for writing autobiographies with elementary school students include: model the writing process to get students started; read examples of autobiographies; brainstorm writing ideas; free-write the first draft; edit and revise; and publish the stories. Suggestions for mini-lessons are included. A student reproducible offers an editing…
Miguel Zabalza Beraza
Full Text Available Writing in the University is a basic necessity and a long-range educational purpose. One of the basic characteristics of the university context is that it requires writing both as a tool of communication and as a source of intellectual stimulation. After establishing the basic features of academic writing, this article analyzes the role of writing for students (writing to learn and for teachers (write to plan, to reflect, to document what has been done. The article also discusses the contributions of writing for both students and teachers together: writing to investigate. Finally, going beyond what writing is as academic tool, we conclude with a more playful and creative position: writing for pleasure and enjoyment.
Eremina, Svetlana V.
The series of workshops on academic writing have been developed by academic writing instructors from Language Teaching Centre, Central European University and presented at the Samara Academic Writing Workshops in November 2001. This paper presents only the part dealing with strucutre of an argumentative essay.
Pappas, Marjorie L.
Presents a thematic unit for middle schools on editorial writing, or persuasive writing, based on the Pathways Model for information skills lessons. Includes assessing other editorials; student research process journals; information literacy and process skills; and two lesson plans that involve library media specialists as well as teachers. (LRW)
Burt, Lorna; Lewandowski, Carol
This workbook, designed for workplace literacy courses, contains materials for a business writing course. The course presents the fundamentals of effective business letter writing, focusing on logical organization, word choice, style, tone, and clarity. The course uses students' own examples as well as practice exercises for reinforcement.…
Rasinski, Timothy; Padak, Nancy
This article explores the possibilities of using natural writing opportunities that occur in family life to nurture children's literacy development. From notes to lists to journals to parodies, families can use writing to nurture personal relationships and simultaneously improve literacy. Specific tips for teachers to share with parents in making…
This book teaches the art of writing mathematics, an essential -and difficult- skill for any mathematics student. The book begins with an informal introduction on basic writing principles and a review of the essential dictionary for mathematics. Writing techniques are developed gradually, from the small to the large: words, phrases, sentences, paragraphs, to end with short compositions. These may represent the introduction of a concept, the abstract of a presentation or the proof of a theorem. Along the way the student will learn how to establish a coherent notation, mix words and symbols effectively, write neat formulae, and structure a definition. Some elements of logic and all common methods of proofs are featured, including various versions of induction and existence proofs. The book concludes with advice on specific aspects of thesis writing (choosing of a title, composing an abstract, compiling a bibliography) illustrated by large number of real-life examples. Many exercises are included; over 150...
Full Text Available This special issue of the Nordic Journal of Science and Technology Studies is interested in how nature, in different versions and forms, is invited into our studies, analyses, and stories. How is it that we “write nature”? How is it that we provide space for, and actually describe the actors, agents, or surroundings, in our stories and analyses? The articles in the issue each deal with different understandings of both the practices of writing and the introduction of various natures into these. In this introduction to the issue the editors engage with actor-network theory as a material semiotic resource for writing nature. We propose to foreground actor-network theory as a writing tool, at the expense of actor-network theory as a distinct vocabulary. In doing this and pointing out the semiotic origins to material-semiotics we also want to problematize a clear-cut material approach to writing nature.
Barney G. Glaser, PhD, Hon. PhD
Full Text Available The message in this book, the dictum in this book, is to stop and write when the Grounded Theory (GT methodology puts you in that ready position. Stop unending conceptualization, unending data coverage, and unending listening to others who would egg you on with additional data, ideas and/or requirements or simply wait too long. I will discuss these ideas in detail. My experience with PhD candidates is that for the few who write when ready, many do not and SHOULD. Simply put, many write-up, but many more should.
Dillingham, J. W.
Two terms, two job categories, 'technical writer' and 'technical author' are discussed in terms of industrial and business requirements and standards. A distinction between 'technical writing' and technical 'writing' is made. The term 'technical editor' is also considered. Problems inherent in the design of programs to prepare and train students for these jobs are discussed. A closer alliance between industry and academia is suggested as a means of preparing students with competent technical communication skills (especially writing and editing skills) and good technical skills.
In a short and precise way this compendium guides how to write an Engineering Report. The compendium is primarily targeting Engineering Students in thier first and second semester but it might as well be used by students at other technical bachelor educations......In a short and precise way this compendium guides how to write an Engineering Report. The compendium is primarily targeting Engineering Students in thier first and second semester but it might as well be used by students at other technical bachelor educations...
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M. Zaini Miftah
The study is aimed at developing the implementation of Writing Process Approach (WPA) to enhance the students’ skill in writing essay. The study employed Classroom Action Research. The subjects of the study were 15 university students enrolled in the writing class. The data were gained from writing task, observation and field notes. The findings show that the implementation of WPA with the proper model procedures developed can enhance the students’ skill in writing essay. Before the strategy ...
Sheridan-Rabideau, Mary P.; Brossell, Gordon
Posits that basic writing serves a vital function by providing writing support for at-risk students and serves the needs of a growing student population that universities accept yet feel needs additional writing instruction. Concludes that the basic writing classroom is the most effective educational support for at-risk students and their writing.…
'Philosophy is written in this great book which is continually open before our eyes - I mean the universe...' Galileo's astronomical discoveries changed the way we look at the world, and our place in the universe. Threatened by the Inquisition for daring to contradict the literal truth of the Bible, Galileo ignited a scientific revolution when he asserted that the Earth moves. This generous selection from his writings contains all the essential texts for a reader to appreciate his lasting significance. Mark Davie's new translation renders Galileo's vigorous Italian prose into clear modern English, while William R. Shea's version of the Latin Sidereal Message makes accessible the book that created a sensation in 1610 with its account of Galileo's observations using the newly invented telescope. All Galileo's contributions to the debate on science and religion are included, as well as key documents from his trial before the Inquisition in 1633. A lively introduction and clear notes give an overview of Galileo's...
This paper considers idea generation during the mathematical writing process. Two contrasting explanations of the creative potential in connection to writing is presented; writing as a process of setting and obtaining rhetorical goals and writing as a process of discovery. These views...... are then related to two empirically found categories of functions that writing serves researchers in the field of mathematics, concluding that both views contributes to understanding the creative potential in relation to mathematical writing....
Professionals in the workplace are rarely asked to write autobiographical essays. Such essays, however, are an excellent tool for helping students explore their growth as professionals. This article explores the use of such essays in a technical writing class.
Interactive writing is a process-oriented instructional approach designed to make the composing and encoding processes of writing overt and explicit for young students who are learning to write. It is particularly suitable for students who struggle with literacy learning. This article describes one first-grade teacher's use of interactive writing…
Explains a reading and writing assignment called "Writing a Movie" in which students view a short film segment and write a script in which they describe the scene. Notes that this assignment uses films to develop fluency and helps students understand the reading and writing connections. Concludes that students learn to summarize a scene from film,…
Full Text Available This paper reviews the state of the head-disk interface (HDI technology, and more particularly the head-medium spacing (HMS, for today’s and future hard-disk drives. Current storage areal density on a disk surface is fast approaching the one terabit per square inch mark, although the compound annual growth rate has reduced considerably from ~100%/annum in the late 1990s to 20–30% today. This rate is now lower than the historical, Moore’s law equivalent of ~40%/annum. A necessary enabler to a high areal density is the HMS, or the distance from the bottom of the read sensor on the flying head to the top of the magnetic medium on the rotating disk. This paper describes the various components of the HMS and various scenarios and challenges on how to achieve a goal of 4.0–4.5 nm for the 4 Tbit/in2 density point. Special considerations will also be given to the implication of disruptive technologies such as sealing the drive in an inert atmosphere and novel recording schemes such as bit patterned media and heat assisted magnetic recording.
Kraft, Richard F.
The intent of this guide is to encourage teachers to have students write, both formally and informally, on a systematic basis. Three types of writing are emphasized: (1) journal writing; (2) research paper writing; and (3) essay writing. The section on journal writing includes a handout for the class explaining the purpose for journal writing and…
M. Zaini Miftah
Full Text Available The study is aimed at developing the implementation of Writing Process Approach (WPA to enhance the students’ skill in writing essay. The study employed Classroom Action Research. The subjects of the study were 15 university students enrolled in the writing class. The data were gained from writing task, observation and field notes. The findings show that the implementation of WPA with the proper model procedures developed can enhance the students’ skill in writing essay. Before the strategy was implemented, the percentage of the students achieving the score greater than or equal to C (56-70 was 40.00% (6 students of the class. However, after the strategy was implemented in Cycle I, it enhanced enough to 60.00% (9 students of the class, but this result did not meet the criteria of success set up in the study. Next, in Cycle II it increased slightly to 86.67% (13 students of the class. Thus, the enhancement of the students’ skill in writing essay can be reached but it should follow the proper model procedures of the implementation of WPA developed. Keywords: writing process approach, writing skill, essay writing
Ever wished you could learn Python from a book? Head First Python is a complete learning experience for Python that helps you learn the language through a unique method that goes beyond syntax and how-to manuals, helping you understand how to be a great Python programmer. You'll quickly learn the language's fundamentals, then move onto persistence, exception handling, web development, SQLite, data wrangling, and Google App Engine. You'll also learn how to write mobile apps for Android, all thanks to the power that Python gives you. We think your time is too valuable to waste struggling with
Bower, Paula Rogovin
Article presents suggestions for motivating elementary students to learn by combining science and writing. The strategies include planning the right environment; teaching the scientific method; establishing a link to literature; and making time for students to observe, experiment, and write. (SM)
Vidoli, Carol A.
This manual covers the fundamentals of organizing, writing, and reviewing NASA technical reports. It was written to improve the writing skills of LeRC technical authors and the overall quality of their reports.
Sessler, Daniel I; Shafer, Steven
Clear writing makes manuscripts easier to understand. Clear writing enhances research reports, increasing clinical adoption and scientific impact. We discuss styles and organization to help junior investigators present their findings and avoid common errors.
O'Connor, M; Gretton, J
... - from planning the initial framework of an article, preparing references and illustrative material and writing a first draft, to choosing suitable journals, writing to the editor and dealing with proofs of the final draft...
Yagelski, Robert P.
In 2003, the National Commission on Writing released "The Neglected "R,"" its report on the state of writing instruction in the nation's schools. The report identified an apparent paradox: writing, which the Commission defines as an essential skill for the many that has helped transform the world, is nevertheless increasingly…
Writing activities are a sure way to assess and enhance students' science literacy. Sometimes the author's students use technical writing to communicate their lab experiences, just as practicing scientists do. Other times, they use creative writing to make connections to the topics they're learning. This article describes both types of writing…
Popular culture casts mathematics and writing as opposites--a false dichotomy, which can be harmful for our discipline of mathematics education. Positioning writing outside the domain of the mathematician's abilities and cultivated skill set can create doubt in the mathematician wishing to write--not that one cannot be both writer and…
Tinker, John R., Jr.
A project for Writing Across the Curriculum at the University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire is described as a method to relate the process of writing to the process of learning hydrology. The project focuses on an actual groundwater contamination case and is designed to improve the technical writing skills of students. (JN)
Rivera Barreto, Adriana Maritza
Writing as a means of communication is one of the basic skills students must master at the university level. Although it is not an easy task because students are usually reluctant to correct, teachers have great responsibility at the time of guiding a writing process. For that reason, this study aimed at improving the writing process in fourth…
This article outlines some cognitive process models of writing composition. Possible reasons why students' writing capabilities do not match their abilities in some other school subjects are explored. Research findings on the efficacy of process approaches to teaching writing are presented and potential shortcomings are discussed. Product-based…
Lee, Jehyun; Fuger, Markus; Fidler, Josef; Suess, Dieter; Schrefl, Thomas; Shimizu, Osamu
In this study, the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) performances of longitudinally, randomly, and perpendicularly oriented particles, based on hexagonal barium ferrite (h-BaFe) platelets with an average volume of 2400 nm 3 have been studied as a function of the recording head to media distance by numerical micromagnetic simulations. The distances from the write head to media and from the read head to media were varied independently. For a fixed read distance and varied writing distances, the SNR was decreasing in larger write distance. An optimum write distance of 40 and 50 nm was found for the longitudinally oriented media and the perpendicularly oriented media, respectively. The optimum write distance for longitudinally oriented media, 40 nm, resulted in the local minimum SNR for the perpendicularly oriented media. In most write distances the perpendicularly oriented media show the outstanding best performance, but near the write distance of 40 nm the longitudinally oriented media work as good as the perpendicularly oriented media. In a fixed write distance with various read distances, the SNR was almost constant in each media whereas the average signal amplitude was exponentially decayed in larger read head to media distance. The best SNR was found in the perpendicularly oriented media at write head to media distance d write =20 nm and read head to media distance d read =40 nm. The best SNR value is 11.9 and 24.4 dB in time domain and frequency domain, respectively.
Full Text Available This paper explores the ways in which the transfer of assumptions from first language (L1 writing can help the process of writing in second language (L2. In learning second language writing skills, learners have two primary sources from which they construct a second language system: knowledge and skills from first language and input from second language. To investigate the relative impact of first language literacy skills on second language writing ability, 60 EFL students from Tabriz Islamic Azad University were chosen as participants of this study, based on their language proficiency scores. The subjects were given two topics to write about: the experimental group subjects were asked to write in Persian and then translate their writing into English. The control group wrote in English. The results obtained in this study indicate that the content and vocabulary components of the compositions were mostly affected by the use of first language.
... nits. You should also use hot water to wash any bed linens, towels, and clothing recently worn by the person who had head lice. Vacuum anything that can’t be washed, such as the couch, carpets, your child’s car seat, and any stuffed animals. Because head lice ...
Nobuhara, Hirofumi; Okamoto, Yoshihiro; Yamashita, Masato; Nakamura, Yasuaki; Osawa, Hisashi; Muraoka, Hiroaki
In this paper, we investigate the influence of the writing and reading intertrack interferences (ITIs) in terms of bit aspect ratio (BAR) in shingled magnetic recording by computer simulation using a read/write model which consists of a writing process based on Stoner-Wohlfarth switching asteroid by a one-side shielded isosceles triangular write head and a reading process by an around shielded read head for a discrete Voronoi medium model. The results show that BAR should be 3 to reduce the influence of writing and reading ITIs, media noise, and additive white Gaussian noise in an assumed areal density of 4.61Tbpsi.
Dilekrojanavuti, P.; Saengkaew, K.; Cheowanish, I.; Damrongsak, B.
In this work, magnetic force microscopy (MFM) was utilized to observe the magnetic write head remanence, which is the remaining out-of-plane magnetic field on magnetic write heads after a write current is turned off. This remnant field can write unwanted tracks or erase written tracks on a magnetic media. The write head remanence can also occur from device and slider fabrication, either by applying current to the write coil during the inspection or biasing the external magnetic field to magnetic recording heads. This remanence can attract magnetic nanoparticles, which is suspended in cleaning water or surrounding air, and cause device contamination. MFM images were used to examine locations of the remnant field on the surface of magnetic recording heads. Experimental results revealed that the remanence occurred mostly on the shield and is dependent on the initial direction of magnetic moments. In addition, we demonstrated a potential use of MFM imaging to investigate effects of different etching gases on the head remanence.
Full Text Available Developing learners’ writing skills has been of concern for a long time in education. Students studying English in our educational institutions have been found to face problems mainly in writing, making them unable to cope with the institution’s literacy expectations. However, these students may be able to develop writing skills significantly with positive instructional attitudes towards the errors they make and awareness on the teachers’ part of learner problems. That is why they should improve classroom writing instruction to address the serious problem of students writing difficult. Teaching strategies has shown a dramatic effect on the quality of students’ writing. Strategy instruction involves explicitly and systematically teaching steps necessary to use strategies independently. The following table will explain the above ideas.
Christensen, Mette Krogh
dealing with anonymous individuals, whose anonymity results from the confidentiality requirements of a social scientific research methodology, to those leaning more towards the literary-historical traditions of 'conventional' biographical writing. However, these examples are polar extremes and none...... in the academis world of sport studies. It does not set out to be a methodological treatise but through the writing of lives in sports does raise questions of method. Each essay in this collection deals with problems of writing sports-people's lives. These essays could be said to fall along a spectrum from those......Writing lives in sport is a book of stories about sports-persons. The people concerned include sports stars, sports people who are not quite so famous, and relatively unknown physical education teachers and sports scientists.Writing lives in sport raises questions about writing biographies...
Full Text Available This book on writing grounded theory is intended for the empirical GT researcher who wants to pursue his/her research until publication. It is the first book devoted entirely to such a crucial issue as writing grounded theory. Thus, Stop, Write: Writing Grounded Theory, is a practical book that fills a gap in GT methodology. In the first chapter of the book, Dr. Glaser says, “Stop unending conceptualization, unending data coverage, and unending listening to others who would egg you on with additional data, ideas and/or requirements or simply wait too long”. The book teaches the reader how to actually write a grounded theory by “simply” writing up the sorted memos. This requires efficient sorting that is dealt with in chapter two on Sorting Memos, which includes precious repetition from Theoretical Sensitivity (1978. How writing can be done effectively is outlined in chapter three The Working Paper. Then follows chapter four on how to rework the first draft with the different tasks of editing for language and professionalism. Thereafter Dr. Glaser discusses Writing Problems in chapter five where he gives useful guidance on how to overcome writing blocks and problems with supervisors and dissertation committees. The book also deals with publishing and with collaboration as experienced between Barney Glaser and the cofounder of grounded theory, Anselm Strauss.
Rich, Susan J.
Discusses one teacher's method for encouraging young children's literacy developemnt. Offers practical suggestions for involving parents in stimulating their child's early reading and writing skills. (DT)
... a severe blow to the head can still knock the brain into the side of the skull ... following certain precautions and taking a break from sports and other activities that make symptoms worse. Playing ...
In Writing for Change, you will learn the core skills of effective writing, how to write ... It is full of practical exercises and examples from the field of international development. ... Climate Change, Vulnerability, and Health in Colombia and Bolivia.
Full Text Available This paper discusses some major issues concerning teaching writing to future teachers. There are a lot of EFL/ESL textbooks focused on teaching writing. However, those that are intended for trainee teachers are rare on the market. The goal of this paper is to share the result of several years of work on the writing syllabus and materials that is effective in the process of teaching future teachers. It contains sample of tasks based on certain principles that may promote teachers to become effective writers for themselves and, at the same time, to acquire initial professional skills necessary in their future career. A course book can not address any audience in general. It must focus on a particular learner, the objectives, and content of the process of learning. In the situation when no textbook meets these requirements, the problem of providing students with an appropriate textbook must be solved by creating new textbooks.
Al Asmari, AbdulRahman
The tenet of this study is to investigate the use of writing strategies in reducing writing apprehension and uncovering its effect on EFL students' writing achievement. It also attempts to explore associations between foreign language apprehension, writing achievement and writing strategies. The primary aims of the study were to explore the…
This paper discusses the rationale and teaching methods for a six-week unit, for a high school freshman English Class, on perception, semantics, and writing, which places special focus on developing tension in student writing. The first four objectives of the course focus on perception and the next two focus on semantics. The seventh…
In this article, the author provides motivation and a template for integrating and teaching writing in a variety of economics courses: core theory or introductory courses, topic courses, and economic writing/research courses. For each assignment, pedagogical reasoning and syllabus integration are discussed. Additionally, the author shows that…
Roman, Kenneth; Raphaelson, Joel
Intended for use by nonprofessional writers who must use the written word to communicate and get results, this book offers practical suggestions on how to write business letters, memos, sales and fund raising letters, plans, and reports. The book covers general principles of good writing and emphasizes the importance of editing. In addition, it…
Burrell, Andrew; Beard, Roger
This paper explores primary school children's ability to engage with "the power of the text" by tackling persuasive writing in the form of an advertisement. It is eclectically framed within genre theory and rhetorical studies and makes use of linguistic tools and concepts. The paper argues that writing research has not built upon earlier…
Lowe, Kelly Fisher
This paper looks at the role of a Writing Program Administrator, and applies the idea of a cybernetic system to the administration of the program. In this cybernetic model, the Writing Program Administrator (WPA) works as both a problem solver and problem causer, with the responsibility of keeping the program in proper balance. A cybernetic…
Freud asserts that the unconscious will express its suppressed wishes and desires. The unconscious will then redirect andreshape these concealed wishes into acceptable social activities, presenting them in the form of images or symbols in our dreams and/or our writings. Dream is the unconscious which promotes the creative writing.
Schwartz, Helen J.; van der Geest, Thea; Smit-Kreuzen, Marlies
For computers to be useful in writing instruction, innovations should be valuable for students and feasible for teachers to implement. Research findings yield contradictory results in measuring the effects of different uses of computers in writing, in part because of the methodological complexity of
This article describes a collaborative writing strategy when you are alone. It is the story of how I came to bring Phineas, the protagonist in A. S. Byatt’s The Biographer’s Tale, into my writing process as a third voice in my dialogue with my data. It is a self-reflective text that shows how co...
de Baets, Antoon
In this essay, we try to clarify the relationship between democracy and historical writing. The strategy is first exploring the general relationship between democracy and historical awareness, and then, studying the relationship between democracy and historical writing itself to find out whether
Kennedy, Patrick M.
The main reason engineers, technicians, and programmers write poor technical documents is because they have had little training or experience in that area. This article addresses some of the basics that students can use to master technical writing tasks. The article covers the most common problems writers make and offers suggestions for improving…
Shaughnessy, Michael F.; Eastham, Nicholas
The problem of college students' writing skills or lack thereof is generally agreed upon in academia. One cause is the inordinate amount of multiple choice/true false/fill in the blank type of tests that students take in high school and college. Not only is there is a dearth of actual classes in writing available, few students recognize the need…
Harding, T. E.
Some problems of writing scripts for radio and/or television are discussed, with examples provided to illustrate the rules. Writing both fictional scripts and documentaries are considered. Notes are also included to help the freelance writer who wishes to sell his work. (RH)
de Baets, Antoon; Berger, Stefan
WRITING HISTORY IN EXILE * Stefan Berger and Antoon De Baets, Reflections on Exile Historiography 11 * Antoon De Baets, Plutarch’s Thesis : the Contribution of Refugee Historians to Historical Writing (1945-2015) 27 * Peter Burke, Silver Lining : on Some Intellectual Benefits of Exile 39 * Ragnar
Gombert, Jean Emile; Fayol, Michel
Dictated words and pictures by 48 young French children, aged 3 to 6 years, demonstrated that young children have the capacity to produce graphics that exhibit some of the characteristics of writing. Developmental stages in children's recognition that their own efforts were not true writing were identified. (SLD)
Riordan, Daniel G
"Technical Report Writing Today" provides thorough coverage of technical writing basics, techniques, and applications. Through a practical focus with varied examples and exercises, students internalize the skills necessary to produce clear and effective documents and reports. Project worksheets help students organize their thoughts and prepare for assignments, and focus boxes highlight key information and recent developments in technical communication. Extensive individual and collaborative exercises expose students to different kinds of technical writing problems and solutions. Annotated student examples - more than 100 in all - illustrate different writing styles and approaches to problems. Numerous short and long examples throughout the text demonstrate solutions for handling writing assignments in current career situations. The four-color artwork in the chapter on creating visuals keeps pace with contemporary workplace capabilities. The Tenth Edition offers the latest information on using electronic resum...
Full Text Available This article addresses a collaborative writing experiment that explores spaces of diverse encounters that began at a research conference held in the Flamingo hotel in Las Vegas; spaces where knowings emerge in the (shared moment, in-between (ourselves, prompted by different (research questions and entanglements of matter and meaning. Through these multiple and emergent writing encounters we explore ways towards collaborative scholarly writing and accessible ways of working and knowing beyond the immediately known or sensed. In addition, this collaborative writing experiment serves to inspire and engage participants (qualitative researchers and ethnographers alike to explore, share, and disseminate knowledge across contexts differently. We call for writing in qualitative research that senses, figures out, and “reveals” via moving and sensuous bodies, and emerging embodied encounters within particular spaces.
Jameson, Daphne A.
In working with business executives, engineers, and government officials to improve their writing, the author learned that it is much easier to teach clarity than tone. To achieve clarity, writers can follow concrete action steps: (1) organize the ideas; (2) write previews and summaries; (3) insert substantive headings; (4) use active verbs; and…
Balachandran, Shreedevi; Venkatesaperumal, Ramesh; Clara, Jothi; Shukri, Raghda K.
Objectives: The objectives of this study were to assess the attitude of Omani nursing students towards writing-to-learn (WTL) and its relationship to demographic variables, self-efficacy and the writing process Methods: A cross-sectional design was used to evaluate attitudes towards WTL by Sultan Qaboos University nursing students. A convenience sample of 106 students was used and data collected between October 2009 and March 2010. A modified version of the WTL attitude scale developed by Dobie and Poirrier was used to collect the data. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used for analysis. Results: Senior and junior students had more positive attitudes to WTL than mid-level students who tended to have negative attitudes towards writing. Although 52.8% students had negative attitudes towards the writing process, the median was higher for attitudes to the writing process compared to the median for self-efficacy. There was a positive correlation between self-efficacy and writing process scores. Conclusion: Overall, students had negative attitudes towards WTL. Attitudes are learnt or formed through previous experiences. The incorporation of WTL strategies into teaching can transform students’ negative attitudes towards writing into positive ones. PMID:24516740
A watershed moment of the twentieth century, the end of empire saw upheavals to global power structures and national identities. However, decolonisation profoundly affected individual subjectivities too. Life Writing After Empire examines how people around the globe have made sense of the post...... in order to understand how individual life writing reflects broader societal changes. From far-flung corners of the former British Empire, people have turned to life writing to manage painful or nostalgic memories, as well as to think about the past and future of the nation anew through the personal...
Academic work may have impact in a variety of ways, depending on purpose, audience and field, but this is most likely to happen when your work resonates in meaningful ways with people. Ninna Meier encourages a more systematic investigation of the role of writing in achieving impact. Impact through...... writing means getting your readers to understand and remember your message and leave the reading experience changed. The challenge is to make what you write resonate with an audience’s reservoir of experiential knowledge. If the words do not connect to anything tangible, interest can be quickly lost....
This study which adopted the descriptive research design investigated the relationship between writing anxiety and students' achievement in essay writing. SS2 Students from six schools in Ibadan Metropolis were used for the study. The instruments used were Essay Writing Achievement Test(r=0.81) and Writing Anxiety ...
Writing has become more visible in academia through writing advice manuals and the faculty development activities they inspire. In this article, I examine writing advice manuals and argue they are epistemologically current traditional, which limits how well and how far they can support scholarly writers. Writing advice manuals and composition…
Powell, Sarah R.; Hebert, Michael A.
Mathematics standards expect students to communicate about mathematics using oral and written methods, and some high-stakes assessments ask students to answer mathematics questions by writing. Assumptions about mathematics communication via writing include (a) students possess writing skill, (b) students can transfer this writing skill to…
Copp, Stefanie B.; Cabell, Sonia Q.; Tortorelli, Laura S.
See, Say, Write is an adaptable classroom writing routine that teachers can use across a range of activities in the preschool classroom. This preschool writing routine offers an opportunity for teachers to build on a shared experience through engagement in rich conversation and writing. After a shared experience, teachers will provide a visual…
Discusses an art project in which students created drawings of mop heads. Explains that the approach of drawing was more important than the subject. States that the students used the chiaroscuro technique, used by Rembrandt and Caravaggio, in which light appears out of the darkness. (CMK)
1. I present a combination of semi-objective and subjective evidence that the quality of English prose in biomedical scientific writing is deteriorating. 2. I consider seven possible strategies for reversing this apparent trend. These refer to a greater emphasis on good writing by students in schools and by university students, consulting books on science writing, one-on-one mentoring, using 'scientific' measures to reveal lexical poverty, making use of freelance science editors and encouraging the editors of biomedical journals to pay more attention to the problem. 3. I conclude that a fruitful, long-term, strategy would be to encourage more biomedical scientists to embark on a career in science editing. This strategy requires a complementary initiative on the part of biomedical research institutions and universities to employ qualified science editors. 4. An immediately realisable strategy is to encourage postgraduate students in the biomedical sciences to undertake the service courses provided by many universities on writing English prose in general and scientific prose in particular. This strategy would require that heads of departments and supervisors urge their postgraduate students to attend such courses. 5. Two major publishers of biomedical journals, Blackwell Publications and Elsevier Science, now provide lists of commercial editing services on their web sites. I strongly recommend that authors intending to submit manuscripts to their journals (including Blackwell's Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology) make use of these services. This recommendation applies especially to those for whom English is a second language.
... to write in a journal or post on social media, it is important to express the way you ... far you've come. Tags: communication coping emotions social media tips Related Resources: Managing Emotions Guest Posting Policies ...
Farrell, Martin Peter
A study of the examination scripts of A-level students in Malta reveals that a significant number of students lose marks because they fail to express themselves clearly. Practice in writing science is suggested.
Describes how a teacher finds value in popular culture and violent writing by closely examining the writing of a student who laces his stories with explosions and battles. Finds that once he began to see the similarities between the media his student experiences, the writing the student prefers, and his own favorite media and writing, the teacher…
A review of the literature on writing block looks at two kinds: inability to write in a timely, fluent fashion, and reluctance by academicians to assist others in writing. Obstacles to fluent writing are outlined, four historical trends in treating blocks are discussed, and implications are examined. (MSE)
Schools are scrambling to prepare their students for the writing assessments in correlation with the Common Core tests. In some states, writing has not been assessed for more than a decade. Yet, with the use of computerized grading of the students' writing, many teachers are wondering how to best prepare students for the writing assessments,…
Olson, David R.; Oatley, Keith
Learning to read and write is seen as both the acquisition of skills useful in a modern society and an introduction to a world increasingly organized around the reading and writing of authoritative texts. While most agree on the importance of writing, insufficient attention has been given to the more basic question of just what writing is, that…
Schuhart, Arthur L.
This is a two-part dissertation. The primary part is the text of a science-based composition rhetoric and reader called The Science Writing Tool. This textbook has seven chapters dealing with topics in Science Rhetoric. Each chapter includes a variety of examples of science writing, discussion questions, writing assignments, and instructional resources. The purpose of this text is to introduce lower-division college science majors to the role that rhetoric and communication plays in the conduct of Science, and how these skills contribute to a successful career in Science. The text is designed as a "tool kit," for use by an instructor constructing a science-based composition course or a writing-intensive Science course. The second part of this part of this dissertation reports on student reactions to draft portions of The Science Writing Tool text. In this report, students of English Composition II at Northern Virginia Community College-Annandale were surveyed about their attitudes toward course materials and topics included. The findings were used to revise and expand The Science Writing Tool.
Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to share lessons learned in setting up three different peer online writing centers in three different contexts (EFL, Generation 1.5, and ESL. In each center the focus was on the language learner as a peer online writing advisor and their needs in maintaining centers “for and by” learners. Technology affordances and constraints for local contexts, which promote learner autonomy, are analyzed. The open-source platforms (Moodle, Drupal, and Google Apps are compared in terms of usability for peer writing center work, particularly centers where groups co-construct feedback for writers, asynchronously. This paper is useful for readers who would like a head start or deeper understanding of potential logistics and decision-making involved in establishing a peer online writing center within coursework and/or a self-access learning center.
Chamberlin, Shannon Marie
Scientific literacy is the foundation on which both California's currently adopted science standards and the recommended new standards for science are based (CDE, 2000; NRC, 2011). The Writing for Science Literacy (WSL) curriculum focuses on a series of writing and discussion tasks aimed at increasing students' scientific literacy. These tasks are based on three teaching and learning constructs: thought and language, scaffolding, and meta-cognition. To this end, WSL is focused on incorporating several strategies from the Rhetorical Approach to Reading, Writing, Listening and Speaking to engage students in activities designed to increase their scientific literacy; their ability to both identify an author's claim and evidence and to develop their own arguments based on a claim and evidence. Students participated in scaffolded activities designed to strengthen their written and oral discourse, hone their rhetorical skills and improve their meta-cognition. These activities required students to participate in both writing and discussion tasks to create meaning and build their science content knowledge. Students who participated in the WSL curriculum increased their written and oral fluency and were able to accurately write an evidence-based conclusion all while increasing their conceptual knowledge. This finding implies that a discourse rich curriculum can lead to an increase in scientific knowledge.
Full Text Available This paper proposes a general method for robots to learn motions and corresponding semantic knowledge simultaneously. A modified ISOMAP algorithm is used to convert the sampled 6D vectors of joint angles into 2D trajectories, and the required movements for writing numbers are learned from this modified ISOMAP-based model. Using this algorithm, the knowledge models are established. Learned motion and knowledge models are stored in a 2D latent space. Gaussian Process (GP method is used to model and represent these models. Practical experiments are carried out on a humanoid robot, named ISAC, to learn the semantic representations of numbers and the movements of writing numbers through imitation and to verify the effectiveness of this framework. This framework is applied into training a humanoid robot, named ISAC. At the learning stage, ISAC not only learns the dynamics of the movement required to write the numbers, but also learns the semantic meaning of the numbers which are related to the writing movements from the same data set. Given speech commands, ISAC recognizes the words and generated corresponding motion trajectories to write the numbers. This imitation learning method is implemented on a cognitive architecture to provide robust cognitive information processing.
A new integrated magnetic head is described. The head was made by vacuum deposition using a mask. A magnetically coupled multilayer construction led to high performance. The results obtained indicate that the device functions equally well, for reading and writing. A set of calculations was developed which could simulate and optimize the behavior of the recording head. The results obtained with the writing were in good agreement with those obtained from experiments and quite different from results which have been several times previously published. In addition a new method was developed for measuring high fields in confined spaces; a 1000 A diameter probe was used in conjunction with a low angle diffraction procedure. The measurements give results which are very different from those obtained by current theories based on the magnetic potentials at the surface. (author) [fr
This paper discusses flued head replacement options. Section 2 discusses complete flued head replacement with a design that eliminates the inaccessible welds. Section 3 discusses alternate flued head support designs that can drastically reduce flued head installation costs. Section 4 describes partial flued head replacement designs. Finally, Section 5 discusses flued head analysis methods. (orig./GL)
Dzhazairov-Kakhramanov, V.; Berger, V.D.; Kadyrzhanov, K.K.; Zarifov, R.A.
The goniometer head is an electromechanical instrument that performs the independent transfer of a testing sample on three coordinate axes (X, Y, Z) within limits of ±8 mm and independent rotation relative of these directions. The instrument comprises a sample holder, bellows component and three electrometer drives. The sample holder rotates around the axes X and Y, and is installed on the central arm which rotates around axis Z. One characteristic of this instrument is its independence which allows its use in any camera for researches in the field of radiation physics. 2 figs
Vakis, Antonis I.; Polycarpou, Andreas A.
In the effort to achieve Tbit/inch2 recording densities, thermal fly-height control (TFC) nanotechnology was developed to effectively reduce the clearance (which is of the order of a few nanometres) at the head-disk interface (HDI) of hard-disk drives. In this work, we present a model of the HDI that can predict the dynamic flying and nanotribological contacting behaviour, allowing for accurate predictions and characterization of the operating regime as a function of TFC actuation. A geometric model for TFC is presented and an improved definition of contact at the interface is developed in the presence of nanoscale topographical roughness and dynamic microwaviness. A new methodology is proposed for the calculation of the nominal area of contact, which affects both near- and at-contact behaviour, while the stiffening of the air bearing force with TFC actuation is also accounted for. Slider behaviour is analysed by quantifying the approach, jump-to-contact, lubricant and solid contact regimes of operation and identifying the critical and optimum TFC actuations. The feasibility of near-contact, light molecularly thin lubricant contact versus solid contact recording is explored under the effect of the interfacial forces and stresses present at the HDI. The clearance and the state of vibrations are analysed and design guidelines are proposed for improved performance.
Vakis, Antonis I; Polycarpou, Andreas A
In the effort to achieve Tbit/inch 2 recording densities, thermal fly-height control (TFC) nanotechnology was developed to effectively reduce the clearance (which is of the order of a few nanometres) at the head-disk interface (HDI) of hard-disk drives. In this work, we present a model of the HDI that can predict the dynamic flying and nanotribological contacting behaviour, allowing for accurate predictions and characterization of the operating regime as a function of TFC actuation. A geometric model for TFC is presented and an improved definition of contact at the interface is developed in the presence of nanoscale topographical roughness and dynamic microwaviness. A new methodology is proposed for the calculation of the nominal area of contact, which affects both near- and at-contact behaviour, while the stiffening of the air bearing force with TFC actuation is also accounted for. Slider behaviour is analysed by quantifying the approach, jump-to-contact, lubricant and solid contact regimes of operation and identifying the critical and optimum TFC actuations. The feasibility of near-contact, light molecularly thin lubricant contact versus solid contact recording is explored under the effect of the interfacial forces and stresses present at the HDI. The clearance and the state of vibrations are analysed and design guidelines are proposed for improved performance.
Ratna Sari Dewi
Full Text Available The objective of this study is to help students in developing their ideas in writing due to their difficulties to arrange ideas. Although they do have ideas, they cannot structure their ideas well in their papers. Several factors could cause this problem such as lack of vocabulary and knowledge or strategies in arranging ideas in papers. Another factor is unclear explanation and insufficient guidance from the teachers. Based on literature review, dictoglos can be a guide for students to develop their ideas in writing. It is a teaching technique which incorporates various activities such listening, taking notes, discussing, and reconstructing which have some standard procedures and variations.
Hey, "writing", are you kidding? Such an abstract, high-sounding, and completely academic title! Who do you think I am, Francis Bacon or William Shakespeare? If I really could elaborate on such a topic easily and clearly, why should I pay so much to sit here and study? I'd have gone and taught at Beijing University or Harvard University (if they accepted me). But, I believe that blue-eyed, big-nosed, blond American writing teacher must have his own reason for hurling such a topic upon me, so I'll try my bes...
/page. It is, moreover, an index pointing to the painting/writing subject; it is a special deictic mode of painting/writing. The handwriting of the Russian avant-garde books, the poetics of handwriting, and the way handwriting is represented in poetry emphasize the way the subject (the speaking and the viewing...... in the early as well as the contemporary avant-garde, it becomes clear that the ‘subject’ is an unstable category that can be exposed to manipulation and play. Handwriting is performing as a signature (as an index), but is at the same time similar to the signature of a subject (an icon) and a verbal construct...
Meier, Ninna; Wegener, Charlotte
In this article, we explore what organization and management scholars can do to write with resonance and to facilitate an emotional, bodily, or in other ways sensory connection between the text and the reader. We propose that resonance can be relevant for organization and management scholars in two......, and thus bring forward the field of research in question. We propose that writing with resonance may be a way to further the impact of academic work by extending the modalities with which our readers can relate to and experience our work....
Robbins, Sarah; Pullen, Ann Ellis
In their beautifully researched study and critical edition, Nellie Arnott’s Writings on Angola, 1905–1913: Missionary Narratives Linking Africa and America (Parlor Press), authors Sarah Robbins and Ann Ellis Pullen examine in fine detail the historical record of the transnational network of literary work produced by Arnott. Tracing her legacy in the study’s third chapter, “Writing on Multiple Journeys,” the authors argue on behalf of Arnott’s capacity to create authority and celebrity as well...
Pearce, R. Charles
Suggests techniques from Peter Elbow's book, "Writing with Power," for an advertising copywriting class. Describes in detail an eight-step procedure: warm-up, loop writing, sharing, revision, sharing, revision, editing group sharing, and revision. (MS)
King, Cynthia M.
Outlines an introductory public relations writing course. Presents course topics and objectives, and assignments designed to meet them. Provides a sample grading rubric and evaluates major public relations writing textbooks. Discusses learning and assessment strategies. (SR)
Full Text Available This study investigated how struggling adult writers solve a writing task and what they know about writing and themselves as writers. The writing process of the adult writers was examined by combining three elements: the observation of collaborative writing tasks, analyses of their written texts, and structured individual interviews that included both retrospective and prospective parts. This methodical approach provides productive tools to assess writing processes and writing knowledge of struggling adult writers. The triangulation of data from the different sources is visualized in a case study. Findings from the case study suggest both similarities and differences between struggling adult and younger writers. Concerning the writing process of both groups, planning and revision play a limited role. However, alongside these similar limitations in their writing process, struggling adult writers distinguish themselves from their young counterparts through their relatively extensive knowledge about themselves as writers.
Robayo Lun, Alma Milena; Hernandez Ortiz, Luz Stella
Advanced students at university level struggle with many aspects of academic writing in English as a foreign language. The purpose of this article is to report on an investigation aimed at analyzing what collaborative writing through project work tells us about students' academic writing development at the tertiary level. The compositions written…
Perfetti, Charles A; Tan, Li-Hai
Do differences in writing systems translate into differences in the brain's reading network? Or is this network universal, relatively impervious to variation in writing systems? A new study adds intriguing evidence to these questions by showing that reading handwritten words activates a pre-motor area across writing systems. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Faraj, Avan Kamal Aziz
This research reports a study conducted at Koya University/English Language Department, and it aims at presenting the effect of scaffolding on EFL students' writing ability through the writing process. In this study, the students have taken the role of writers, so they need to follow the same steps that writers apply during their writing process.…
Clarke, L K
You have selected a topic, gathered resources, and identified your target audience. The next step is to begin to write and organize your ideas. Initiating the actual writing process can be intimidating, especially for a novice author. This portion of the writing for publication series focuses on helping the writer to organize ideas and get started.
Arnold, Vanessa D.; Roach, Terry D.
Writing letters to elected officials and letters to the editor helps students articulate their thoughts based on sound evidence and valid reasoning, avoiding "sounding off" and emotional appeals. Writing skills, critical thinking, and civic values are reinforced. (SK)
Rico, Gabriele Lusser
Clustering is a nonlinear brainstorming technique that can encourage children's natural writing ability by helping them draw on their need to make patterns out of their experience. Tips for introducing cluster writing into the classroom are offered. (MT)
Larmouth, Donald W.
Suggests incorporating business writing into a freshman English course. Outlines three writing and research assignments: a financial status memorandum, a management analysis report, and an evaluation of applicants for a position at a university. (TJ)
In this Teaching Tips article, the author argues for a dialogic conception of voice, based in the work of Mikhail Bakhtin. He demonstrates a dialogic view of voice in action, using two writing examples about the same topic from his daughter, a fifth-grade student. He then provides five practical tips for teaching a dialogic conception of voice in…
VARIOUS ASPECTS OF WRITING LIGHT VERSE, EITHER FOR FUN OR FOR PUBLICATION, ARE DISCUSSED IN THIS BOOK--(1) THE NATURE AND APPEAL OF LIGHT VERSE AND ITS MANY VARIETIES, (2) SUBJECTS WHICH LEND THEMSELVES BEST TO THE LIGHT-VERSE TREATMENT, (3) THE APPLICATION OF WHAT ONE HAS LEARNED FROM READING, THINKING, AND CLOSELY OBSERVING HUMAN FOIBLES, (4)…
Horner, Bruce; Tetreault, Laura
This article explores translation as a useful point of departure and framework for taking a translingual approach to writing engaging globalization. Globalization and the knowledge economy are putting renewed emphasis on translation as a key site of contest between a dominant language ideology of monolingualism aligned with fast capitalist…
Calderonello, Alice; Shaller, Deborah
In an extended conversation two female writing instructors discuss the kind of discourse available in the academy, the way educators are trained to deploy its conventions, and the different ways that voices are authorized. They cite Harraway as an academic writer who bridges the various post-structuralist discourses without ever losing sight of…
Parker, Norton S.
In audiovisual writing the writer must first learn to think in terms of moving visual presentation. The writer must research his script, organize it, and adapt it to a limited running time. By use of a pleasant-sounding narrator and well-written narration, the visual and narrative can be successfully integrated. There are two types of script…
Honan, Eileen; Bright, David
In this paper we explore the contributions that Deleuze and Guattari have made to thinking/writing language and how these ideas can be put to work in producing a doctoral thesis. We contribute to the field of work within what Patti Lather and Elizabeth St Pierre have called the "post-qualitative" movement, where researchers attempt to…
This book is a collection of Frost's letters, reviews, introductions, lectures, and interviews on writing dating back to 1913. It provides Frost's view of literature, and its relation to language and social order. Part one, "Frost as a Literary Critic," discusses the scope of Frost's criticism and Frost as both critical theorist and…
Discusses the Russian master, Leo Tolstoy, and the fact that he wrote pedagogical treatises besides novels. Talks about his free school for children on his estate and his research on education. Discusses two of Tolstoy's essays which recount interactions with the peasant children. Links this to teaching an adult writing workshop at a soup kitchen.…
Balle, Søren Hattesen
materialization. At the same time as O’Hara and Rivers investigate the often conflicting powers of both genres to incarnate the reality of the material world (especially the human body) in their respective media, they also playfully foreground the materiality of painterly/poetic text as paint and writing...
Weber, Stephen W.
A study examined the effectiveness of incorporating writing as a tool to master the concepts of physics. Subjects were students in the three traditional physics classes and one non-math or conceptual physics class at East High School in Rockford, Illinois. The instructor tried a variety of methods--students wrote criticisms of Carl Sagan videos,…
Lougheed, Dr Lin
This book guides test takers step-by-step through the process of writing an essay in response to a task. Learn how to apply what youâve learned, familiarize yourself with the types of questions youâll have to respond to on the test, complete your responses within the time limits, and more.
Hyde, Hartley; Spencer, Toby
Some people became mathematics or science teachers by default. There was once such a limited range of subjects that students who could not write essays did mathematics and science. Computers changed that. Word processor software helped some people overcome huge spelling and grammar hurdles and made it easy to edit and manipulate text. Would-be…
Composition classrooms and writing centers are spaces where negotiation of academic, social, cultural, and political identities are ubiquitous, yet research has not produced adequate theory and practice to help tutors and writers navigate identity production and its politics. This article seeks to begin conversations that might lead to better…
I compiled this guide primarily for students of practical design or architecture at the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts. Nevertheless, the guide may also be of use to (potential) design researchers, e.g. doctoral students. In the guide, I offer advice on how to write well, based on my personal ...
Rooks, Clay; Boyd, Robert
Induction, properly understood, is not merely a game, nor is it a gimmick, nor is it an artificial way of explaining an element of reasoning. Proper understanding of inductive reasoning--and the various types of reasoning that the authors term inductive--enables the student to evaluate critically other people's writing and enhances the composition…
The author began her public school English teaching career shortly after Dylan Klebold and Eric Harris shot and killed 15 people, including themselves, and wounded 34 others at Columbine High School. Shortly after the shootings, she ran across a "New York Times" article discussing the Columbine shooters and, in particular, their writing for…
Kane, Jonathan M
This is a textbook on proof writing in the area of analysis, balancing a survey of the core concepts of mathematical proof with a tight, rigorous examination of the specific tools needed for an understanding of analysis. Instead of the standard "transition" approach to teaching proofs, wherein students are taught fundamentals of logic, given some common proof strategies such as mathematical induction, and presented with a series of well-written proofs to mimic, this textbook teaches what a student needs to be thinking about when trying to construct a proof. Covering the fundamentals of analysis sufficient for a typical beginning Real Analysis course, it never loses sight of the fact that its primary focus is about proof writing skills. This book aims to give the student precise training in the writing of proofs by explaining exactly what elements make up a correct proof, how one goes about constructing an acceptable proof, and, by learning to recognize a correct proof, how to avoid writing incorrect proofs. T...
Kelley, Jerome E.
Intended as a practical guide for persons interested in the field of free lance writing, this book provides information on the following topics: the individual's response to the magazine publishing market; magazines and the types of articles that are marketable; methods for locating story material; ways of questioning and interpreting an editor's…
In this paper I will present key aspects of the curriculum for the university degree in technical translation that I have designed for and subsequently implemented at the German Department of the Aarhus School of Business, Denmark. My starting point will be a critical discussion of the norm that ...... of technical writing.......In this paper I will present key aspects of the curriculum for the university degree in technical translation that I have designed for and subsequently implemented at the German Department of the Aarhus School of Business, Denmark. My starting point will be a critical discussion of the norm...... that used to govern what the quality of an LSP text should be as opposed to the standpoint, which I advocate. By way of summing up, I will show how a university curriculum is designed so that - upon graduation - the technical translator could also be methodological quite well suited to take on the challenge...
Full Text Available Writing is often assumed as uneasy skill to either learn or teach. For students, they find it difficult to develop ideas in writing. On the other hand, teachers, many of them, only ready with the materials but confuse with the appropriate ways to teach. This paper intends to describe and discuss a method of teaching writing namely writing workshop to improve students’ writing skill through travel writing. Writing workshop proposed by Calkins that consists of mini lesson, work time, peer conferring and/or response groups, share sessions, and publication celebration is applied in writing class for methodological purposes. In mini lesson, teacher offers something to the class that is meant to introduce a writing strategy done at the beginning of the workshop. During work time point, students start their new piece of writing. Teacher moves among students conferring with them while checking their works. Peer conferences or response groups provide a forum for students to talk about works in progress. When students work in group, one of them could arrange his/ her group needs during the work time. A share session may be varied, one possible way is each group shares their process of writing to other students. At the end of writing class, student writers come together to publish and/ or celebrate their final work. The publication could be in the form of portfolio, students’ diary, blog, or others. Travel writing genre is chosen as it could develop students’ creativity in describing/ narrating their own stories during, let say holiday or things they used to see on the way home weekly or monthly. Furthermore, travel writing as the product of creative writing teaches the readers of values, characteristics, and way of life. Last but not least, a professional writing teacher should set the writing workshop components in variety ways to achieve effective running-class.
A teacher recounts her experiences with students who were successful telling their stories through writing and using their writing as a vehicle for expressing their emotions. Explains how helping students "find their voices" through writing can crack tough exteriors and help youth reconnect to school and themselves. (Author/MKA)
Lott, Kimberly; Read, Sylvia
All writing begins with ideas, but young students often need visual cues to help them organize their thoughts before beginning to write. For this reason, many elementary teachers use graphic organizers or thinking maps to help students visualize patterns and organize their ideas within the different genres of writing. Graphic organizers such as…
Connnor, Ulla; Mbaye, Aymerou
Discusses assessment of English-as-a-Foreign/Second-Language (EFL/ESL) writing. Suggests there is a considerable gap between current practices in writing assessment and criteria suggested by advances in knowledge of discourse structure. Illustrates this by contrasting current practices in the scoring of two major EFL/ESL writing tests with…
The "Literacy Cafe," a celebration of genre study and student writing, offers students (and visitors!) a positive environment in which to engage in reading and discussion of writing without self-consciousness or fear of criticism. It works because students learn to recognize writing as a learning tool and a relevant, authentic skill in the real…
Boisen, Kirsten A; Hertz, Pernille Grarup; Blix, Charlotte
contraception], Safety, Self-harm) interview is a feasible way of exploring health risk behaviors and resilience. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate how often HEADS topics were addressed according to young patients and staff in pediatric and adult outpatient clinics. METHODS: We conducted...... care professionals participated. We found only small reported differences between staff and young patients regarding whether home, education, and activity were addressed. However, staff reported twice the rate of addressing smoking, alcohol, illegal drugs, sexuality, and contraception compared to young...... patients. Young patients reported that smoking, alcohol, illegal drugs, sexuality, and contraception were addressed significantly more at adult clinics in comparison to pediatric clinics. After controlling for age, gender and duration of illness, according to young patients, adjusted odds ratios...
De Smet, Milou; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Leijten, Mariëlle; Kirschner, Paul A.
This study addresses to what extent and how electronic outlining enhances students' writing performance. To this end, the focus of this study is not only on students' final writing products but also on the organisation of the writing process (i.e., planning, translating, and reviewing) and perceived
Ellis, Robert A.; Taylor, Charlotte E.; Drury, Helen
Students in a large undergraduate biology course were expected to write a scientific report as a key part of their course design. This study investigates the quality of learning arising from the writing experience and how it relates to the quality of students' preconceptions of learning through writing and their perceptions of their writing…
Sim Monica Ariana
Full Text Available Writing is one of the central pillars of language learning and should be of major interest and concern to teachers, students and researchers. This paper is intended to be a plea for writing and explores issues regarding instruction and evaluation of writing skills of nonnative speaker students. It examines expectations of nonnative speakers writing quality and performance on writing proficiency exams, as well. Finally, it is trying to ring a bell about this skill that has been neglected in spite of its importance when it comes to foreign language acquisition
Transition waveforms of a magnetic recording head have been analyzed using finite difference time domain (FDTD). The distributed inductance and capacitance of the head effect the rising time of the magnetic fields in the recording process. FDTD electromagnetic analysis is easy to combine with SPICE circuit analysis. Using this combined program, a transition analysis of the recording process including a write amplifier has become possible
Tanabe, Shinji E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Transition waveforms of a magnetic recording head have been analyzed using finite difference time domain (FDTD). The distributed inductance and capacitance of the head effect the rising time of the magnetic fields in the recording process. FDTD electromagnetic analysis is easy to combine with SPICE circuit analysis. Using this combined program, a transition analysis of the recording process including a write amplifier has become possible.
The article addresses some of the problems related to the concept of integration, which has been used (and abused) in Denmark since the 1980s to discuss socio-economic, cultural and religious challenges related to the everyday life of ethnic minorities. The concept of integration is not innocent...... three scenarios: ‘welfare reciprocity’, ‘host and guests’ and ‘the Danes as an indigenous people’. These scenarios consolidate an asymmetrical relationship between majorities and minorities because they simultaneously cast integration as desirable and impossible. Finally, inspired by Lila Abu......-Lughod’s seminal article “writing against culture”, the article suggests strategies of “writing against integration” in order to regain the critical potential of academic analysis....
Frølunde, Lisbeth; Pedersen, Christina Hee; Novak, Martin
involved in collaborative knowledge production across difference (including age, professional position, life situation, nation). We tell about our experiences with how collaboration can lead toward re-invention of our research practices and methods, as well as our own subjectivities, through involvement......In our presentation we strive to disturb and unravel the romantic discourses of collaboration, dialogue and empowerment in relation to qualitative inquiry. For more than two years we (five Danish and Czech researchers) have been exploring the complex obstructions, difficulties and potentials...... in the not-yet-known. Over the years, we have shared and analyzed personal stories about our collaborative experiences in an on-going reflective learning process. We draw on writing methodologies, including memory-work (Haug, Davies) and collaborative writing such as by Wyatt, Gale, Gannon & Davies. Our...
In the following, I will take a critical look at the concept of virtual reality, and following literary experiments with the computer, I will argue for - and develop - an alternative concept of scripted space.1 Furthermore, I will give an idea of what is currently happening to the concept and pra...... and practice of writing and how it is interacting with our mediated environments on and off the Internet....
All researchers need to write or speak about their work, and to have research that is worth presenting. Based on the author's decades of experience as a researcher and advisor, this third edition provides detailed guidance on writing and presentations and a comprehensive introduction to research methods, the how-to of being a successful scientist. Topics include: · Development of ideas into research questions; · How to find, read, evaluate and referee other research; · Design and evaluation of experiments and appropriate use of statistics; · Ethics, the principles of science and examples of science gone wrong. Much of the book is a step-by-step guide to effective communication, with advice on: · Writing style and editing; · Figures, graphs and tables; · Mathematics and algorithms; · Literature reviews and referees' reports; · Structuring of arguments an...
Bominaar, Jeroen; Pashtrapanska, Mira; Elenbaas, Thijs; Dam, Nico; ter Meulen, Hans; van de Water, Willem
We describe a scheme of molecular tagging velocimetry in air in which nitric oxide (NO) molecules are created out of O2 and N2 molecules in the focus of a strong laser beam. The NO molecules are visualized a while later by laser-induced fluorescence. The precision of the molecular tagging velocimetry of gas flows is affected by the gradual blurring of the written patterns through molecular diffusion. In the case of turbulent flows, molecular diffusion poses a fundamental limit on the resolution of the smallest scales in the flow. We study the diffusion of written patterns in detail for our tagging scheme which, at short (micros) delay times is slightly anomalous due to local heating by absorption of laser radiation. We show that our experiments agree with a simple convection-diffusion model that allows us to estimate the temperature rise upon writing. Molecular tagging can be a highly nonlinear process, which affects the art of writing. We find that our tagging scheme is (only) quadratic in the intensity of the writing laser.
Federal Laboratory Consortium — The HIL uses testing devices to evaluate vehicle interior energy attenuating (EA) technologies for mitigating head injuries resulting from head impacts during mine/...
Kirkendall, D T; Jordan, S E; Garrett, W E
In the world of sports, soccer is unique because of the purposeful use of the unprotected head for controlling and advancing the ball. This skill obviously places the player at risk of head injury and the game does carry some risk. Head injury can be a result of contact of the head with another head (or other body parts), ground, goal post, other unknown objects or even the ball. Such impacts can lead to contusions, fractures, eye injuries, concussions or even, in rare cases, death. Coaches, players, parents and physicians are rightly concerned about the risk of head injury in soccer. Current research shows that selected soccer players have some degree of cognitive dysfunction. It is important to determine the reasons behind such deficits. Purposeful heading has been blamed, but a closer look at the studies that focus on heading has revealed methodological concerns that question the validity of blaming purposeful heading of the ball. The player's history and age (did they play when the ball was leather and could absorb significant amounts of water), alcohol intake, drug intake, learning disabilities, concussion definition and control group use/composition are all factors that cloud the ability to blame purposeful heading. What does seem clear is that a player's history of concussive episodes is a more likely explanation for cognitive deficits. While it is likely that the subconcussive impact of purposeful heading is a doubtful factor in the noted deficits, it is unknown whether multiple subconcussive impacts might have some lingering effects. In addition, it is unknown whether the noted deficits have any affect on daily life. Proper instruction in the technique is critical because if the ball contacts an unprepared head (as in accidental head-ball contacts), the potential for serious injury is possible. To further our understanding of the relationship of heading, head injury and cognitive deficits, we need to: learn more about the actual impact of a ball on the
Florio, Susan; Clark, Christopher M.
Describes an ethnographic study of writing in one elementary classroom that identified four functions of writing: writing to participate in community, writing to know oneself and others, writing to occupy free time, and writing to demonstrate academic competence. (HOD)
Yancey, Kathleen Blake
People are writing as never before--in blogs and text messages and on MySpace and Facebook and Twitter. Teenagers do a good deal of this writing, and in some composing environments--for example, the text-messaging space of a cell phone--they are ahead of adults in their invention of new writing practices and new genres. At the same time, teenagers…
This guide is an introduction to academic writing that describes features of scientific writing that are recommended for students in Teacher Education Programmes and in Child and Youth Studies. It includes a style guide, how to structure your text, and an APA Publication Manual for referencing, as well as guides for writing an outline for a study, advice for serving as opponent(s) and respondent(s) and an agenda for a thesis/examining seminar.
Whether you're promoting your business or writing about your travel adventures, Head First WordPress will teach you not only how to make your blog look unique and attention-grabbing, but also how to dig into the more complex features of WordPress 3.0 to make your website work well, too. You'll learn how to move beyond the standard WordPress look and feel by customizing your blog with your own URL, templates, plugin functionality, and more. As you learn, you'll be working with real WordPress files: The book's website provides pre-fab WordPress themes to download and work with as you follow al
First aid Head trauma: First aid Head trauma: First aid By Mayo Clinic Staff Most head trauma involves injuries that are minor and don't require ... 21, 2015 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/first-aid/first-aid-head-trauma/basics/ART-20056626 . Mayo ...
This paper looks at the relationship between fiction and psychiatry. Specifically, the idea of psychiatrists as fiction writers is explored, and reference is made to various fictional texts to illustrate the problems of stigma and negative imagery. These two main areas of focus are highlighted as ones that the practice of writing fiction might address, and some potential pitfalls are discussed. The paper suggests how psychiatrists might ameliorate the present problems by incorporating their unique clinical skills and knowledge into fictional narratives. Declaration of interest None.
Bashir, M.A.; Schrefl, T.; Dean, J.; Goncharov, A.; Hrkac, G.; Allwood, D.A.; Suess, D.
Global optimization of writing head is performed using micromagnetics and surrogate optimization. The shape of the pole tip is optimized for bit patterned, exchange spring recording media. The media characteristics define the effective write field and the threshold values for the head field that acts at islands in the adjacent track. Once the required head field characteristics are defined, the pole tip geometry is optimized in order to achieve a high gradient of the effective write field while keeping the write field at the adjacent track below a given value. We computed the write error rate and the adjacent track erasure for different maximum anisotropy in the multilayer, graded media. The results show a linear trade off between the error rate and the number of passes before erasure. For optimal head media combinations we found a bit error rate of 10 -6 with 10 8 pass lines before erasure at 2.5 Tbit/in 2 . - Research Highlights: → Global optimization of writing head is performed using micromagnetics and surrogate optimization. → A method is provided to optimize the pole tip shape while maintaining the head field that acts in the adjacent tracks. → Patterned media structures providing an area density of 2.5 Tbit/in 2 are discussed as a case study. → Media reliability is studied, while taking into account, the magnetostatic field interactions from neighbouring islands and adjacent track erasure under the influence of head field.
Moore, Sharon Arthur; Moore, David W.
Recommends 14 recently published books on writing. Groups the books in 6 categories: assessment, classroom publishing, foundations, insights from writers, classroom descriptions, and general information. (MG)
Shirley Peganoff O'Brien
Full Text Available Learning the process of scholarly writing, including the significance of peer review, is an essential element in the preparation of students for professional practice. This descriptive research study, using Scholarship of Teaching and Learning methodology, explores one approach to teaching scholarly writing in an occupational science/occupational therapy curriculum. The writing assignment was designed to offer multiple points for feedback and revision and instructional features to reinforce learning. A survey of students [n = 169] participating in this scholarly writing project was conducted yearly to gather their perceptions of learning. The results revealed four key elements: instructional strategies are needed to support scholarly writing, students value explicit instructor feedback, a successful writing experience opens the possibility for students to write in their professional future, and students will develop the habits of a writer given structure and pedagogical considerations in the assignment construction. This experience shows students will work to achieve the expected standard for scholarship once writing is made an essential part of the course and their efforts are supported by scaffolding the assignment. Through this experience, it was also learned students need opportunities for repetition and practice to refine scholarly writing. Suggestions for future research are proposed.
This book contains 10 chapters. Some of the titles are: Combined Surgical Resection and Irradiation for Head and Neck Cancers; Analysis of Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Head and Neck Database: Identification of Prognostic Factors and the Re-evaluation of American Joint Committee Stages; Combined Modality Approach to Head and Neck Cancer; Induction Combination Chemotherapy of Regionally Advanced Head and Neck Cancer; and Outcome after Complete Remission to Induction Chemotherapy in Head and Neck Cancer
Carlisle, Vicky; Smith, Harriet; Baker, Fred; Ellegood, George; Kopay, Carol; Tanzer, Ward; Young, Diana; Dujordan, Jerome; Webster, Ron; Lewis, Sara Drew
This self-paced text/workbook is designed for the adult learner who needs a review of grammar and writing skills in order to write clearly and concisely on the job. It offers career-minded students 14 individualized instructional modules on grammar, paragraph writing, report writing, letter writing, and spelling. It is designed for both self-paced…
The roles of dialogue, collaborative writing, and authentic communication have been explored as effective strategies in second language writing classrooms. In this article, the stages of an innovative, multi-skill writing method, which embeds students' personal voices into the writing process, are explored. A 10-step ESL Audio Script Writing Model…
Explores basic writing students' current writing processes, their thoughts on their writing, and their introduction to a structured writing process model. Suggests that educators can assist basic writers in becoming successful college writers by introducing them to a structured writing process model while also helping them to become reflective…
Morgan, Denise N.
Students need regular opportunities to write expository text. However, focusing on report writing often leaves students without strong examples to study or analyze to guide and grow their own writing. Writing and studying feature articles, meant to inform and explain, can become an alternative to report writing, as they can easily be located in…
This is a case study of social work students' initial experiences with professional writing. The paper addresses the issue of academic writing with special attention to the types of documents written by social work students on their fieldwork placements using twelve students who volunteered to be interviewed. Their views are ...
Olson, Gary A.
Presents an interview with feminist social critic Donna Haraway about her call for "cyborg writing," writing that replaces the idea of an authoritative or dominant story with an acknowledgment of the wide range of narratives to be told in science, technology, and other areas. Also questions Haraway about activism for academics, particularly as it…
Balta, Elif Emine
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships among students' argumentative text writing skills, writing anxiety, and metacognitive awareness. The participants were composed of 375 8th graders in six middle schools in Sivas. Metacognitive Awareness Inventory (B Form) which was adapted in to Turkish by Karakelle & Saraç (2007)…
Balgopal, Meena; Wallace, Alison
Writing-to-learn (WTL) is an effective instructional and learning strategy that centers on the process of organizing and articulating ideas, as opposed to writing-to-communicate, which centers on the finished written product. We describe a WTL model that we have developed and tested with various student groups over several years. With effective…
Ankara : Faculty of Letters and the Institute of Economics and Social Science of Bilkent Univ., 1990. Thesis (Master's) -- Bilkent University, 1990. Includes bibliographical references. The purpose of this study is to investigate the suggestions that experts in the field of teaching composition have for motivating students to write, teaching writing and assessing writing and the ways that these suggestions could be used in Turkish EFL Hazirlik classes for elementary level students. ...
Bakker, Mark; Kelson, Victor A
The analytic element method is a mesh-free approach for modeling ground water flow at both the local and the regional scale. With the advent of the Python object-oriented programming language, it has become relatively easy to write analytic element programs. In this article, an introduction is given of the basic principles of the analytic element method and of the Python programming language. A simple, yet flexible, object-oriented design is presented for analytic element codes using multiple inheritance. New types of analytic elements may be added without the need for any changes in the existing part of the code. The presented code may be used to model flow to wells (with either a specified discharge or drawdown) and streams (with a specified head). The code may be extended by any hydrogeologist with a healthy appetite for writing computer code to solve more complicated ground water flow problems. Copyright © 2009 The Author(s). Journal Compilation © 2009 National Ground Water Association.
Villalón Molina, Ruth; Mateos, Mar; Cuevas, Isabel
ABSTRACT: This study investigated the conceptions about writing and writing self-efficacy beliefs held by high school students in relation to the students’ gender as well as their associations with writing achievement. The results show that female students have more sophisticated writing conceptions than their male counterparts but no gender differences were found in writing self-efficacy beliefs. In addition, results reveal that writing self-efficacy beliefs and gender play an important role...
This article discusses a simulation wherein learners of Japanese as a Foreign Language (JFL) in a business writing course at an American university are assigned tasks to write a series of business letters based on situations that are likely to occur in actual business settings. After an overview of the theoretical background, this article…
Intended for use by students, this illustrated Australian classroom unit was designed to encourage young people to develop a lifelong habit of letter writing. The booklet begins with a letter to children from the Australian "Post," and excerpts from two poems about letter writing. A section on how letters can link the world emphasizes…
This article provides an introduction to the kind of computer software that is used to score student writing in some high stakes testing programs, and that is being promoted as a teaching and learning tool to schools. It sketches the state of play with machines for the scoring of writing, and describes how these machines work and what they do.…
Firch, Tim; Campbell, Annhenrie; Filling, Steven; Lindsay, David H.
Although there has been much discussion about improving college student writing with college-level courses, little is known about how accounting programs, in particular, are addressing the writing proficiency challenge. This study surveys the 852 accounting programs in the United States to identify the frequency and types of accounting writing…
2016 Major Automated Information System Annual Report Army Contract Writing System (ACWS) Defense Acquisition Management Information Retrieval...Information 4 Responsible Office 4 References 4 Program Description 5 Business Case 5 Program Status 6 Schedule 7 Performance...Program Information Program Name Army Contract Writing System (ACWS) DoD Component Army Responsible Office Program Manager References MAIS
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Lee, Eunbae; Maerz, John C.
Writing stories is advocated as an excellent means of learning the process of science; however, little is understood about students' experiences of engaging in story writing in postsecondary science courses. The study described in this article was designed to improve the practice of using stories in science by examining students' lived experience…
Provides an overview of the conversational roles taken on by students and teachers during college-level writing conferences. Uses the performative theory of Erving Goffman to analyze these role patterns. Illuminates the specific performative demands presented by writing conferences on both students and teachers. (HB)
In this article, the author relates her experiences as creative writing teacher and her views as a teacher in the aftermath of Virginia Tech shooting. As a teacher who had taught writing and literature for twenty years, the author had received a great deal of submissions from her students about serial killers, rapists, slashers, and murderers and…
Torrance, Mark; Jeffery, Gaynor
Writing is a complex activity that places demands on cognitive resources. This volume presents original theory and research exploring the ways in which the sub-components of the writing process (generating and organizing content, producing grammatical sentences, etc.) differ in their cognitive
The guidelines below are intended for teachers, professors, students, and the public at large who are interested in the issues of English writing culture. They provide a detailed plan for completing the writing task–writing an argumentative essay.
Medimorec, Srdan; Risko, Evan F
While much previous research has suggested that decreased transcription fluency has a detrimental effect on writing, there is recent evidence that decreased fluency can actually benefit cognitive processing. Across a series of experiments, we manipulated transcription fluency of ostensibly skilled typewriters by asking them to type essays in two conditions: both-handed and one-handed typewriting. We used the Coh-Metrix text analyser to investigate the effects of decreased transcription fluency on various aspects of essay writing, such as lexical sophistication, sentence complexity, and cohesion of essays (important indicators of successful writing). We demonstrate that decreased fluency can benefit certain aspects of writing and discuss potential mechanisms underlying disfluency effects in essay writing. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.
What is reading? What is writing? What connects the two? These questions have been the fertile ground for many literary and philosophical theories, from New Criticism to Deconstruction. This essay does not pretend answering to these two questions, but rather to question the question themselves...... and try to shed a different light of this essential problematic. Choosing not to consider literature as a stable concept, but rather as an ontologically impermanent one, I try to reflect upon the terms that condition our approach of works and of the creation of these works. In a large perspective......, the notions of “reading” and “writing” are examined through the prism of their incarnations as “works”, and the consequences of this identity have on our critical discourse. In order to read critically, one must thus recognize this immanent instability of our notions and definitions, and begin from...
Full Text Available This essay exists as a segment in a line of study and writing practice that moves between a critical theory analysis of translation studies conceptions of language, and the practical questions of what those ideas might mean for contemporary translation and writing practice. Although the underlying preoccupation of this essay, and my more general line of inquiry, is translation studies and practice, in many ways translation is merely a way into a discussion on language. For this essay, translation is the threshold of language. But the two trails of the discussion never manage to elude each other, and these concatenations have informed two experimental translation methods, referred to here as Live Translations and Series Translations. Following the essay are a number of poems in translation, all of which come from Blanco Nuclear by the contemporary Spanish poet, Esteban Pujals Gesalí. The first group, the Live Translations consist of transcriptions I made from audio recordings read in a public setting, in which the texts were translated in situ, either off the page of original Spanish-language poems, or through a process very much like that carried out by simultaneous translators, for which readings of the poems were played back to me through headphones at varying speeds to be translated before the audience. The translations collected are imperfect renderings, attesting to a moment in language practice rather than language objects. The second method involves an iterative translation process, by which three versions of any one poem are rendered, with varying levels of fluency, fidelity and servility. All three translations are presented one after the other as a series, with no version asserting itself as the primary translation. These examples, as well as the translation methods themselves, are intended as preliminary experiments within an endlessly divergent continuum of potential methods and translations, and not as a complete representation of
Full Text Available My goal in this paper is to make Iwo points: Writing style does not come from writing or from direct instruction, but from reading. Actual writing can help us solve problems and can make us smarter. Writing Style Comes from Readino, A substantial amount of research strongly suggests that we learn to write by reading. To be more precise, we acquire writing style, the special language of writing, by reading. Hypothesizing that writing style comes from reading, not from writing or instniction, is consistent with what is known about language acquisition: Most of language acquisition lakes place subconsciously, not through deliberate study, and it is a result of input (comprehension, not output (production (Krashen, 1982. My goal in this paper is to make Iwo points: Writing style does not come from writing or from direct instruction, but from reading. Actual writing can help us solve problems and can make us smarter. Writing Style Comes from Readino, A substantial amount of research strongly suggests that we learn to write by reading. To be more precise, we acquire writing style, the special language of writing, by reading. Hypothesizing that writing style comes from reading, not from writing or instniction, is consistent with what is known about language acquisition: Most of language acquisition lakes place subconsciously, not through deliberate study, and it is a result of input (comprehension, not output (production (Krashen, 1982.
Merging science and writing to enhance both subjects was the objective of a venture known as "Plant Notes." At first, teacher-written notes served as the inspiration for this writing assignment. Later, eclectic student-written novellas, poems, song lyrics, mnemonic devices, and field trip recollections made their way into "Plant Notes" and stole…
Hales, Patrick D.
Student voice is a difficult concept to capture in research. This study attempts to provide a vehicle for understanding student perceptions about writing and writing instruction through a case study supported by discourse analysis of student talk. The high school students in this study participated in interviews and focus groups about their…
... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000028.htm Head injury - first aid To use the sharing features on this page, ... a concussion can range from mild to severe. First Aid Learning to recognize a serious head injury and ...
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Rajta, I.; Szilasi, S.Z.; Csige, I.; Baradacs, E.
Complete text of publication follows. Refractive index depth profile in PMMA due to proton irradiation Proton Beam Writing has been successfully used to create buried channel waveguides in PMMA, which suggested that proton irradiation increases the refractive index. To investigate this effect, PMMA samples were irradiated by 1.7-2.1 MeV proton beam. Spectroscopic Ellipsometry has been used to investigate the depth profile of the refractive index. An increase of the refractive index was observed in the order of 0.01, which is approximately one order of magnitude higher than the detection limit. The highest increase of the refractive index occurs at the end of range, i.e. we found a good correlation with the Bragg curve of the energy loss. Hardness changes in PMMA due to proton beam micromachining As protons penetrate a target material and lose their energy according to the Bragg curve, the energy loss is different at different depths. This causes depth-dependent changes of some physical properties in the target material (e.g. refractive index, hardness). In order to characterize the changes of hardness and other mechanical properties as a function of beam penetration depth, systematic investigations have been performed on PMMA, the most common resist material used in proton beam micromachining. Silicon check valve made by proton beam micromachining The possible application of Proton Beam Micromachining (PBM) has been demonstrated by a few authors for creating 3D Si microstructures. In this work we present alternative methods for the formation of a simple a non-return valve for microfluidic applications. Two different approaches have been applied, in both cases we exploited characteristic features of the PBM technique and the selective formation and dissolution of porous Si over the implantation damaged areas. In the first case we implanted 10 μm thick cantilever-type membrane of the valve normally to the crystal surface and at 30-60 degrees to the sidewalls of the
Full Text Available ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Computed Tomography (CT) - Head Computed tomography (CT) of the head uses special x-ray ... What is CT Scanning of the Head? Computed tomography, more commonly known as a CT or CAT ...
Designed to help both professional and student scientists and engineers write clearly and effectively, this text approaches the subject in a fresh way. Using scores of examples from a wide variety of authors and disciplines, the author - himself a writer and physicist -- demonstrates the difference between strong and weak scientific writing, and how to convey ideas to the intended audience. In addition, he gives advice on how to start writing, and how to revise drafts, including many suggestions about approaching a wide variety of tasks - from laboratory reports to grant proposals, from internal communications to press releases - as well as a concise guide to appropriate style and usage.
Munoz Page, Mary Ellen; Jaskiewicz, Mary
Master ESL (English as a Second Language) Writing with the study guide designed for non-native speakers of English. Skill-building lessons relevant to today's topics help ESL students write complete sentences, paragraphs, and even multi-paragraph essays. It's perfect for classroom use or self-guided writing preparation.DETAILS- Intermediate drills for improving skills with parallel structure, mood, correct shifting errors & dangling participles- Advanced essay drills focusing on narrative, descriptive, process, reaction, comparison and contrast- Superb preparation for students taking the TOEFL
The Craft of Scientific Writing uses scores of examples to show the differences between scientific writing that informs and persuades and scientific writing that does not. Focusing on technical papers, dissertations, and reports, this text shows engineers, scientists, and technical professionals the five keys of style that distinguish the best scientific documents: (1) having the details presented in a methodical fashion, (2) having the important details emphasized, (3) having ideas cast into clear and precise sentences, (4) having clear connections between those ideas, and (5) having illustrations that persuade.
Employment in geology provides excellent preparation for writing mystery novels that teach geoscience. While doing pure research at the USGS under the mentorship of Edwin D. McKee, I learned that the rigors of the scientific method could be applied not only to scientific inquiry but to any search for what is true, including the art of storytelling (the oldest and still most potent form of communication), which in turn supports science. Geoscience constructs narratives of what has happened or what might happen; hence, to communicate my findings, I must present a story. Having developed my writing skills while preparing colleague-reviewed papers (which required that I learn to set my ego aside and survive brutal critiques), the many rounds of edits required to push a novel through a publishing house were a snap. My geoscience training for becoming a novelist continued through private industry, consultancy, and academia. Employment as a petroleum geologist added the pragmatism of bottom-line economics and working to deadlines to my skill set, and nothing could have prepared me for surviving publishers' rejections and mixed reviews better than having to pitch drilling projects to jaded oil patch managers, especially just before lunchtime, when I was all that stood between them and their first martinis of the day. Environmental consulting was an education in ignorant human tricks and the politics of resource consumption gone astray. When teaching at the college level and guest lecturing at primary and secondary schools, my students taught me that nothing was going to stick unless I related the story of geoscience to their lives. When choosing a story form for my novels, I found the mystery apropos because geoscientists are detectives. Like police detectives, we work with fragmentary and often hidden evidence using deductive logic, though our corpses tend to be much, much older or not dead yet. Throughout my career, I learned that negative stereotypes about scientists
International audience; By nature, school drafts of Mesopotamia were meant to destruction. But, thanks to clay support of writing and ancient recycling practices, they reached us in vast amount. These school tablets were mainly produced along a quite short period, between 18th and 17th century B.C. They contain principally exercises for learning writing, Sumerian language and mathematics. These sources bear witness of phenomena linked with those which are examined in this book: change of know...
Full Text Available My goal in this paper is to make two points: 1. Writing style does not come from writing or from direct instruction, but from reading. 2. Actual writing can help us solve problems and can make us smarter. Writing Style Comes from Reading A substantial amount of research slrongly suggests that wc learn to write by reading. To be more precise, wc acquire writing style, the special language of writing, by reading. Hypothesizing that writing style comes from reading, not from writing or instruction, is consistent with what is known about language acquisition: Most of language acquisition takes place subconsciously, not through deliberate study, and it is a result of input (comprehension, not output (production (Krashen, 1982. Thus, if you wrile a page a day, your writing style or your command of mechanics will not improve. On Ihe other hand, other good things may result from your writing, as we shall see in the second section of this paper. My goal in this paper is to make two points: 1. Writing style does not come from writing or from direct instruction, but from reading. 2. Actual writing can help us solve problems and can make us smarter. Writing Style Comes from Reading A substantial amount of research slrongly suggests that wc learn to write by reading. To be more precise, wc acquire writing style, the special language of writing, by reading. Hypothesizing that writing style comes from reading, not from writing or instruction, is consistent with what is known about language acquisition: Most of language acquisition takes place subconsciously, not through deliberate study, and it is a result of input (comprehension, not output (production (Krashen, 1982. Thus, if you wrile a page a day, your writing style or your command of mechanics will not improve. On Ihe other hand, other good things may result from your writing, as we shall see in the second section of this paper.
Villalón, Ruth; Mateos, Mar; Cuevas, Isabel
This study investigated the conceptions about writing and writing self-efficacy beliefs held by high school students in relation to the students' gender as well as their associations with writing achievement. The results show that female students have more sophisticated writing conceptions than their male counterparts but no gender differences…
Full Text Available Successful and unsuccessful strategies practically complied with in the act of writing have been so far experimentally tapped and scholastically rehearsed by several authors. In this study, a complementary task using a questionnaire worked out to comprehensively specify and cover almost all types of writing behaviours has been inquisitively manipulated. By analysing and inspecting the findings elicited from student-writers’ response sheets, successful and unsuccessful writing strategies are then contrastively identified, categorised and demonstrated. Based on the awareness accomplished, writing teachers’ consciousness will be raised and boosted, thus, helping their poor student-writers justifiably quit their debilitative habits and adopt instead, facilitative ones, those competent writers implement while writing. In the questionnaire, the student-writers would reflect upon their creeping experience and pass informative judgements about their own strategies. Student-writers will respond to fact-finding statements regarding five writing components delineated as rehearsing, drafting, revising, student-writers’ role and the role of instructional materials
An article primarily includes the following sections: introduction, materials and methods, results, discussion, and conclusion. Before writing the introduction, the main steps, the heading and the familiarity level of the readers should be considered. Writing should begin when the experimental system and the equipment are available. The introduction section comprises the first portion of the manuscript, and it should be written using the simple present tense. Additionally, abbreviations and explanations are included in this section. The main goal of the introduction is to convey basic information to the readers without obligating them to investigate previous publications and to provide clues as to the results of the present study. To do this, the subject of the article should be thoroughly reviewed, and the aim of the study should be clearly stated immediately after discussing the basic references. In this review, we aim to convey the principles of writing the introduction section of a manuscript to residents and young investigators who have just begun to write a manuscript.
Did you know that Python preallocates integers from -5 to 257 ? Reusing them 1000 times, instead of allocating memory for a bigger integer, can save you a couple of milliseconds of code’s execution time. If you want to learn more about this kind of optimizations then, … well, probably this presentation is not for you :) Instead of going into such small details, I will talk about more "sane" ideas for writing faster code. After a very brief overview of how to optimize Python code (rule 1: don’t do this; rule 2: don’t do this yet; rule 3: ok, but what if I really want to do this ?), I will show simple and fast ways of measuring the execution time and finally, discuss examples of how some code structures could be improved. You will see: - What is the fastest way of removing duplicates from a list - How much faster your code is when you reuse the built-in functions instead of trying to reinvent the wheel - What is faster than the good ol’ for loop - If the lookup is faster in a list or a set (and w...
Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7917.2016v21n2p118 In this paper I’ll offer a personal reading of the short novel Água viva (medusa, or “living water”, in Portuguese from Clarice Lispector, through Helène Cixous statements about the creative process which she explains in her book Three steps in the ladder or writing. Cixous creates the image of a descendent ladder that has three steps: death, dreams and roots. Lispector does the same movement searching her “it”, and composes a radical practice with language that is also an investigation. In order to follow this path of the descendent ladder and analyze the “it” through comparative reading, I’ll bring some of Hilda Hilst’s poems, from her book Poemas malditos, gozozos e devotos and also Sylvia Plath’s, from Ariel, namely “Lady Lazarus”. Hilst constructs a game between obedience and subversion, faith and poetic creation, proposing a complexity of images from the idea of God, transfigured. Plath already brings to the reflection the cyclic recurrence, which is also a kind of all fear letting go. The readings of Hilst and Plath give light, in its own way, to the route undertaken in Cixous trail and enrich the search of the Lispector`s "it".
For the most part, EPA follows the Associated Press (AP) Stylebook. Other requirements of basic punctuation and grammar and usage in EPA writing modify, supplement, or in some cases reiterate AP style.
Full Text Available ... Head and Neck Pathology Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Close to 49,750 Americans will be diagnosed ... Head and Neck Pathology Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Close to 49,750 Americans will be diagnosed ...
Full Text Available In the introduction to this collection of 22 essays on gender and writing the editor confesses: I was never interested in including articles which would attack the idea of whether gender and the writing process had anything in common. I wasn't interested in anyone who held an 'androgyny' view of the writing process or in anyone who had anti-feminist views. The people I asked were all people who had something positive to say about how they saw gender and the writing process coming together in their work. (p.9 Consequently one finishes this book with the impression that almost all these writers know one another and share views on politics, literature and sex. The largest group of essays is from single mothers or gay women who write fiction, theater or poetry. Of the 22 writers almost all are British, all but 3 1/2 are female (the half because he "shares" a doubled personality with his wife, all but a few speak of being formed by the turbulent 1960's. In the introduction to this collection of 22 essays on gender and writing the editor confesses: I was never interested in including articles which would attack the idea of whether gender and the writing process had anything in common. I wasn't interested in anyone who held an 'androgyny' view of the writing process or in anyone who had anti-feminist views. The people I asked were all people who had something positive to say about how they saw gender and the writing process coming together in their work. (p.9 Consequently one finishes this book with the impression that almost all these writers know one another and share views on politics, literature and sex. The largest group of essays is from single mothers or gay women who write fiction, theater or poetry. Of the 22 writers almost all are British, all but 3 1/2 are female (the half because he "shares" a doubled personality with his wife, all but a few speak of being formed by the turbulent 1960's.
Carolan, Fergal; Kyppö, Anna
This reflective practice paper offers some insights into teaching an interdisciplinary academic writing course aimed at promoting process writing. The study reflects on students' acquisition of writing skills and the teacher's support practices in a digital writing environment. It presents writers' experiences related to various stages of process…
Zurcher, Melinda A.
Writing is a complex act that requires students' concentrated time and effort to master--time and effort that teachers strain to find in a crowded curriculum. Despite this struggle to prioritize writing, students in the 21st century need writing skills to participate in the workplace, academia, economy, and democracy. If writing skills really are…
Hail, Cindy; George, Sue; Hail, John
The last two decades have produced theoretical-based methodology models emphasizing student-centered and learner-controlled writing experiences. During the 1990s, writing evolved into a function of learning. As more was learned about the writing process, it became evident that writing led to clarifying thinking and served as a forum for revealing…
Dorenkamp, Angela G.
Misconceptions about the teaching of writing prevail on many college campuses, partially because writing teachers fail to communicate with their colleagues. It is especially important for writing teachers to let their colleagues know that learning to write is a long term developmental process that needs support and reinforcement from the entire…
Perreault, George; And Others
Describes ideas for writing prompts and assignments proposed by three different teachers: (1) writing poems inspired by smells of herbs and spices; (2) writing about past perceptions and feelings after looking at a photograph; and (3) writing a "self-portrait." (TB)
Cardell, Kylie; Douglas, Kate
This article considers our experiences teaching a hybrid literature/creative writing subject called "Life Writing." We consider the value of literature students engaging in creative writing practice--in this instance, the nonfiction subgenre of life writing--as part of their critical literary studies. We argue that in practicing life…
Although courses on auto/biography and life writing are taught at different universities in Europe, and elements of contemporary life writing issues are addressed in different disciplines like sociology and history, life writing courses, as described in Teaching Life Writing Texts, are certainly not
To achieve the maximum control and flexibility from Microsoft® Excel often requires careful custom programming using the VBA (Visual Basic for Applications) language. Writing Excel Macros with VBA, 2nd Edition offers a solid introduction to writing VBA macros and programs, and will show you how to get more power at the programming level: focusing on programming languages, the Visual Basic Editor, handling code, and the Excel object model.
The three greatest obstacles to clear technical-report writing are probably (1) imprecise words, (2) wordiness, and (3) poorly constructed sentences. Examples of category 1 include abstract words, jargon, and vogue words; of category 2, sentences containing impersonal construction superfluous words; and of category 3, sentences lacking parallel construction and proper order of related words and phrases. These examples and other writing-related subjects are discussed in the report, which contains a cross-referenced index and 24 references.
White, Bonnie J; Lamson, Karen S
Scholarly writing is required in nursing, and some students are unable to communicate effectively through writing. Faculty members may struggle with the grading of written assignments. A writing team, consisting of a nursing faculty member, the school of nursing library liaison, and members from academic support services, implemented strategies including workshops, handouts, and use of exemplars to improve student writing and to provide support to faculty. Few students sought help from the writing team. An online writing center within the existing learning management system was developed to address nursing students' and faculty's scholarly writing needs. The writing center includes guides, tutorials, and exemplars. Anecdotal evidence indicates the use of the writing center during afternoons and evenings and prior to due dates of written assignments. Online writing resources were used more frequently than face-to-face support. Further research is needed to evaluate the effectiveness of the program. [J Nurs Educ. 2017;56(7):443-445.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.
Warnock, Scott; Kahn, Michael
While the importance of "expressive writing," or informal, self-directed writing, has been well established, teachers underutilize it, particularly in technical writing courses. We introduce the term expressive/exploratory technical writing (XTW), which is the use of informal, self-directed writing to problem-solve in technical fields. We describe…
Napoli, Philip M.; Taylor, Maureen; Powers, Gerald
Surveys 200 public relations practitioners and investigates whether the type of writing and over-all time spent writing vary with years of experience. Finds that higher levels of writing efficiency come with writing experience, and shows that female practitioners spend a higher percentage of their workday on writing tasks than do their male…
The study examined the connection between writing competency and writing feedback experiences through academic writing course for student-teachers across the curriculum. The aims of the course were to prepare student-teachers to their role as writing facilitators and to improve their writing. Experimental and control group differed in course plan…
Jones, Cindy D'On
This full-year experimental study examined how methods of writing instruction contribute to kindergarten students' acquisition of foundational and compositional early writing skills. Multiple regression with cluster analysis was used to compare 3 writing instructional groups: an interactive writing group, a writing workshop group, and a…
Approaches to forensic report writing in psychiatry, psychology, and related mental health disciplines have moved from an organization, content, and stylistic framework to considering ethical and other codes, evidentiary standards, and practice considerations. The first part of the article surveys different approaches to forensic report writing, including that of forensic mental health assessment and psychiatric ethics. The second part deals especially with psychological ethical approaches. The American Psychological Association's Ethical Principles and Code of Conduct (2002) provide one set of principles on which to base forensic report writing. The U.S. Federal Rules of Evidence (2014) and related state rules provide another basis. The American Psychological Association's Specialty Guidelines for Forensic Psychology (2013) provide a third source. Some work has expanded the principles in ethics codes; and, in the third part of this article, these additions are applied to forensic report writing. Other work that could help with the question of forensic report writing concerns the 4 Ds in psychological injury assessments (e.g., conduct oneself with Dignity, avoid the adversary Divide, get the needed reliable Data, Determine interpretations and conclusions judiciously). One overarching ethical principle that is especially applicable in forensic report writing is to be comprehensive, scientific, and impartial. As applied to forensic report writing, the overall principle that applies is that the work process and product should reflect integrity in its ethics, law, and science. Four principles that derive from this meta-principle concern: Competency and Communication; Procedure and Protection; Dignity and Distance; and Data Collection and Determination. The standards or rules associated with each of these principles are reviewed. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Engdahl, Ingrid; Sandqvist, Karin
This guide is an introduction to one way to write scientific reports, the way we have been using and taught to our students in Teacher Education Programmes and Child and Youth Studies. It includes how to structure the text, suggested content to go under each heading, some rules about quotes and references, cooperation with the advisor and with fellow students and, finally, guides for the thesis seminar, an agenda for the seminar and advice for the opponent(s) and respondent(s). The references...
Technical writing is an essential part of professional communication and in recent years it has shifted from a genre-based approach. Formerly, technical writing primarily focused on generating templates of documents and sometimes it was creating or reproducing traditional forms with minor modifications and updates. Now, technical writing looks at the situations surrounding the need to write. This involves deep thinking about the goals and objectives of the project on hand. Furthermore, one observes that it is very important for any participatory process to have the full support of management. This support needs to be well understood and believed by employees. Professional writing may be very persuasive in some cases. When presented in the appropriate context, technical writing can persuade a company to improve work conditions ensuring employee safety and timely production. However, one must recognize that lot of professional writing still continues to make use of reports and instruction manuals. Normally, technical and professional writing addresses four aspects. Objective: The need for generating a given professionally written technical document and the goals the document is expected to achieve and accomplish. Clientele: The clientele who will utilize the technical document. This may include the people in the organization. This may also include "unintended readers." Customers: The population that may be affected by the content of the technical document generated. This includes the stakeholders who will be influenced. Environment: The background in which the document is created. Also, the nature of the situation that warranted the generation of the document. Swiss Psychologist Jean Piaget's view of Learning focuses on three aspects. The author likes to extend Jean Piaget's ideas to students, who are asked to prepare and submit Reader-Centered Technical Writing reports and exercises. Assimilation: Writers may benefit specifically, by assimilating a new object into
... scan - orbits; CT scan - sinuses; Computed tomography - cranial; CAT scan - brain ... head size in children Changes in thinking or behavior Fainting Headache, when you have certain other signs ...
A bottom head dome assembly is described which includes, in one embodiment, a bottom head dome and a liner configured to be positioned proximate the bottom head dome. The bottom head dome has a plurality of openings extending there through. The liner also has a plurality of openings extending there through, and each liner opening aligns with a respective bottom head dome opening. A seal is formed, such as by welding, between the liner and the bottom head dome to resist entry of water between the liner and the bottom head dome at the edge of the liner. In the one embodiment, a plurality of stub tubes are secured to the liner. Each stub tube has a bore extending there through, and each stub tube bore is coaxially aligned with a respective liner opening. A seat portion is formed by each liner opening for receiving a portion of the respective stub tube. The assembly also includes a plurality of support shims positioned between the bottom head dome and the liner for supporting the liner. In one embodiment, each support shim includes a support stub having a bore there through, and each support stub bore aligns with a respective bottom head dome opening. 2 figs
Kim, Young-Suk; Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Wanzek, Jeanne
The primary goal of the present study was to examine the relations of kindergarten transcription, oral language, word reading, and attention skills to writing skills in third grade. Children (N = 157) were assessed on their letter writing automaticity, spelling, oral language, word reading, and attention in kindergarten. Then, they were assessed on writing in third grade using three writing tasks – one narrative and two expository prompts. Children’s written compositions were evaluated in terms of writing quality (the extent to which ideas were developed and presented in an organized manner). Structural equation modeling showed that kindergarten oral language and lexical literacy skills (i.e., word reading and spelling) were independently predicted third grade narrative writing quality, and kindergarten literacy skill uniquely predicted third grade expository writing quality. In contrast, attention and letter writing automaticity were not directly related to writing quality in either narrative or expository genre. These results are discussed in light of theoretical and practical implications. PMID:25642118
Full Text Available According to the “extended mind” thesis, a significant portion of human cog-nition does not occur solely inside the head, but literally extends beyond the brain into the body and the world around us (Clark & Chalmers 1998; Clark 2003, 2008; Wilson 1995, 2004; Rowlands 1999, 2010; Menary 2007, 2012; Sutton 2010; Theiner 2011. One way to understand this thesis is that as human beings, we are particularly adept at creating and recruiting environmental props and scaffolds (media, tools, artifacts, symbol systems for the purpose of solving problems that would otherwise lie beyond our cognitive reach. We manipulate, scaffold, and re-design our environments in ways that transform the nature of difficult tasks that would baffle our unaided biological brains (e.g., math, logic, sequential problem-solving into simpler types of problems that we are naturally much better equipped to solve. A central tenet of the “extended mind” thesis, then, is that “much of what matters for human-level intelligence is hidden not in the brain, nor in the technology, but in the complex and iterated interactions and collaborations between the two” (Clark 2001: 154. Over the past fifteen years or so, the “extended mind” thesis has become a hot ticket in the philosophy of mind. As with all great ideas, the thesis was hardly conceived ex nihilo, but builds on, and re-articulates many earlier strands of thought. Unfortunately, many of those cognate strands have become marginalized in contemporary philosophy of mind and psychology, and do not receive the amount of attention they deserve. Part of what we hope to accomplish with this special issue is to reverse this trend, and to rekindle the dialogue between the “extended mind” thesis and its historical predecessors.
Coleman, Dawn; Willis, Diane S
Reflective writing is a mandatory part of nurse education but how students develop their skills and use reflection as part of their experiential learning remains relatively unknown. Understanding reflective writing in all forms from the perspective of a student nurse is therefore important. To explore the use of reflective writing and the use of poetry in pre-registered nursing students. A qualitative design was employed to explore reflective writing in pre-registered nursing students. A small university in Scotland. BSc (Hons) Adult and Mental Health Pre-registration Student Nurses. Two focus groups were conducted with 10 student nurses during March 2012. Data was analysed thematically using the framework of McCarthy (1999). Students found the process of reflective writing daunting but valued it over time. Current educational methods, such as assessing reflective accounts, often lead to the 'narrative' being watered down and the student feeling judged. Despite this, reflection made students feel responsible for their own learning and research on the topic. Some students felt the use of models of reflection constricting, whilst poetry freed up their expression allowing them to demonstrate the compassion for their patient under their care. Poetry writing gives students the opportunity for freedom of expression, personal satisfaction and a closer connection with their patients, which the more formal approach to reflective writing did not offer. There is a need for students to have a safe and supportive forum in which to express and have their experiences acknowledged without the fear of being judged. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Li, Shaoping, E-mail: email@example.com; Lin, Ed; George, Zach; Terrill, Dave; Mendez, H.; Santucci, J.; Yie, Derek [Western Digital Corp., 44100 Osgood Road, Fremont, California 94539 (United States)
In this work, the magnetic footprints, along with some of its dynamic features in recording process, of perpendicular magnetic recording writer heads have been characterized by using three different techniques. Those techniques are the spin-stand stationary footprint technique, the spin-stand dynamic footprint technique, and the coherent writing technique combined with magnetic force microscope imaging method. The characteristics of those techniques have been compared to one another. It was found experimentally that the spin-stand stationary method could not precisely catch some peculiar recording dynamics of the write heads in certain conditions. The advantages and disadvantages among all those techniques are also examined and discussed in detail.
Li, Shaoping; Lin, Ed; George, Zach; Terrill, Dave; Mendez, H.; Santucci, J.; Yie, Derek
In this work, the magnetic footprints, along with some of its dynamic features in recording process, of perpendicular magnetic recording writer heads have been characterized by using three different techniques. Those techniques are the spin-stand stationary footprint technique, the spin-stand dynamic footprint technique, and the coherent writing technique combined with magnetic force microscope imaging method. The characteristics of those techniques have been compared to one another. It was found experimentally that the spin-stand stationary method could not precisely catch some peculiar recording dynamics of the write heads in certain conditions. The advantages and disadvantages among all those techniques are also examined and discussed in detail
Li, Shaoping; Lin, Ed; George, Zach; Terrill, Dave; Mendez, H.; Santucci, J.; Yie, Derek
In this work, the magnetic footprints, along with some of its dynamic features in recording process, of perpendicular magnetic recording writer heads have been characterized by using three different techniques. Those techniques are the spin-stand stationary footprint technique, the spin-stand dynamic footprint technique, and the coherent writing technique combined with magnetic force microscope imaging method. The characteristics of those techniques have been compared to one another. It was found experimentally that the spin-stand stationary method could not precisely catch some peculiar recording dynamics of the write heads in certain conditions. The advantages and disadvantages among all those techniques are also examined and discussed in detail. PMID:24753633
Tèmítọ́pẹ́ Olúmúyìwá Ph.D.
Full Text Available This paper presents the state of Yorùbá orthography. The first effort at standardizing Yorùbá writing system came in 1875, and there has been a great deal of refinements and orthographies since. Specifically, a great rush of activity in standardizing written Yorùbá came in the years after independence when effort to introduce the teaching of Nigerian languages in schools and the application of those languages to official activities. The present standards were established in 1974, however, there remains a great deal of contention over writing conventions-spelling, grammar, the use of tone marks. The paper explores examples from journalism, religious writing, education and literature, and advertising to demonstrate ongoing deviations from the approved orthography.
Kim, Nam-Soo; Han, Kenneth N.
Direct write technology using special inks consisting of finely dispersed metal nanoparticles in liquid is receiving an undivided attention in recent years for its wide range of applicability in modern electronic industry. The application of this technology covers radio frequency identification-tag (RFID-tag), flexible-electronics, organic light emitting diodes (OLED) display, e-paper, antenna, bumpers used in flip-chip, underfilling, frit, miniresistance applications and biological uses, artificial dental applications and many more. In this paper, the authors have reviewed various direct write technologies on the market and discussed their advantages and shortfalls. Emphasis has given on microdispensing deposition write (MDDW), maskless mesoscale materials deposition (M3D), and ink-jet technologies. All of these technologies allow printing various patterns without employing a mask or a resist with an enhanced speed with the aid of computer. MDDW and M3D are capable of drawing patterns in three-dimension and MDDW, in particular, is capable of writing nanoinks with high viscosity. However, it is still far away for direct write to be fully implemented in the commercial arena. One of the hurdles to overcome is in manufacturing conductive inks which are chemically and physically stable, capable of drawing patterns with acceptable conductivity, and also capable of drawing patterns with acceptable adhesiveness with the substrates. The authors have briefly discussed problems involved in manufacturing nanometal inks to be used in various writing devices. There are numerous factors to be considered in manufacturing such inks. They are reducing agents, concentrations, oxidation, compact ability allowing good conductivity, and stability in suspension.
Full Text Available Majority of technical writing is done by groups of experts and various web based applications have made this collaboration easy. Email exchange of word processor documents with tracked changes used to be the standard technique for collaborative writing. However web based tools like Google docs and Spreadsheets have made the process fast and efficient. Various versioning tools and synchronous editors are available for those who need additional functionality. Having a group leader who decides the scheduling, communication and conflict resolving protocols is important for successful collaboration.
Blackwell, Alan; Cox, Geoff; Lee, Sang Wong
This paper is a speculation on the relationship between coding and writing, and the ways in which technical innovations and capabilities enable us to rethink each in terms of the other. As a case study, we draw on recent experiences of preparing a book on live coding, which integrates a wide range...... of personal, historical, technical and critical perspectives. This book project has been both experimental and reflective, in a manner that allows us to draw on critical understanding of both code and writing, and point to the potential for new practices in the future....
Fitzgerald, Jill; MacArthur, Charles A
An indispensable teacher resource and course text, this book presents evidence-based practices for helping all K-12 students develop their skills as writers. Every chapter draws clear connections to the Common Core State Standards (CCSS). Leading authorities describe how to teach the skills and strategies that students need to plan, draft, evaluate, and revise multiple types of texts. Also addressed are ways for teachers to integrate technology into the writing program, use assessment to inform instruction, teach writing in the content areas, and tailor instruction for English language learner
Eapen, Bell Raj
Majority of technical writing is done by groups of experts and various web based applications have made this collaboration easy. Email exchange of word processor documents with tracked changes used to be the standard technique for collaborative writing. However web based tools like Google docs and Spreadsheets have made the process fast and efficient. Various versioning tools and synchronous editors are available for those who need additional functionality. Having a group leader who decides the scheduling, communication and conflict resolving protocols is important for successful collaboration.
This article challenges faculty members and administrators to rethink current definitions of remediation. First year college students are increasingly placed into basic writing courses due to a perceived inability to use English grammar correctly, but it must be acknowledged that all students will encounter the need for remediation as they attempt…
Full Text Available ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Computed Tomography (CT) - Head Computed tomography (CT) of the head uses special x-ray equipment ... story here Images × Image Gallery Patient undergoing computed tomography (CT) scan. View full size with caption Pediatric Content ...
Full Text Available ... Computed tomography (CT) of the head uses special x-ray equipment to help assess head injuries, severe headaches, ... is a diagnostic medical test that, like traditional x-rays, produces multiple images or pictures of the inside ...
Schukei, G.E.; Roebelen, G.J.
This patent describes a nuclear reactor head shielding apparatus for mounting on spaced reactor head lifting members radially inwardly of the head bolts. It comprises a frame of sections for mounting on the lifting members and extending around the top central area of the head, mounting means for so mounting the frame sections, including downwardly projecting members on the frame sections and complementary upwardly open recessed members for fastening to the lifting members for receiving the downwardly projecting members when the frame sections are lowered thereto with lead shielding supported thereby on means for hanging lead shielding on the frame to minimize radiation exposure or personnel working with the head bolts or in the vicinity thereof
Puranik, Cynthia S.; Lonigan, Christopher J.; Kim, Young-Suk
The purpose of this study was to examine which emergent literacy skills contribute to preschool children’s emergent writing (name-writing, letter-writing, and spelling) skills. Emergent reading and writing tasks were administered to 296 preschool children aged 4–5 years. Print knowledge and letter-writing skills made positive contributions to name writing; whereas alphabet knowledge, print knowledge, and name writing made positive contributions to letter writing. Both name-writing and letter-writing skills made significant contributions to the prediction of spelling after controlling for age, parental education, print knowledge, phonological awareness, and letter-name and letter-sound knowledge; however, only letter-writing abilities made a significant unique contribution to the prediction of spelling when both letter-writing and name-writing skills were considered together. Name writing reflects knowledge of some letters rather than a broader knowledge of letters that may be needed to support early spelling. Children’s letter-writing skills may be a better indicator of children’s emergent literacy and developing spelling skills than are their name-writing skills at the end of the preschool year. Spelling is a developmentally complex skill beginning in preschool and includes letter writing and blending skills, print knowledge, and letter-name and letter-sound knowledge. PMID:21927537
Jannatul Husna bin Ali Nuar
Full Text Available As one of the barns in the Islamic scholars throughout Indonesian archipelago, many Minangkabau scientists in the field of hadith had born figures spelled out with no exception. Trend of works by scholars of Minang in the field of hadith had also shown its own special evidences. Not only the work of translation and Sharh were generated, but also the original works in the field of hadith even drafted in Arabic. The main purpose of this article is to introduce a number of works on hadith and the science of hadith generated by the egg heads of Minangkabau, typically in the 20th century. As for example, Professor Mahmud Yunus, Engku Mudo Zainuddin Hamidy, Ustaz Fachruddin Husain Datuk Majo Indo, Professor Zainal Abidin Ahmad, Buya Mawardi and Ustaz Muhammad Oemar Bakry Besar Datuk Tan. This study inspired cutting-edge scholars, even if they were graduates of local Surau and Madrasah, glorious hadith’s books of high-value compilation were published similar to the context of riwayah-dirayah hadith, fiqh al-hadith or mushthalah hadith. The works were worthy triggers the spirit and inspiration of Muslim intellectuals today for innovation and transformation. In addition, the recent Muslim intellectual were exposed to a lot of formal higher education and academic degree holders, to be more productive in the delivering of similar treasury with the supports of sophisticated modern technology. Above all, the triggers should have been for the sake of preserving the writings of hadith in this beloved country
Outlines the technical writing tutorial (TWT) that precedes an advanced English as a second language (ESL) writing course for students of English Philology at the Jagiellonian University, Poland. Finds a statistically significant increase in the performance of the students who had taken the TWT. Indicates that technical writing books and journals…
Graham, Steve; Hebert, Michael
Reading is critical to students' success in and out of school. One potential means for improving students' reading is writing. In this meta-analysis of true and quasi-experiments, Graham and Herbert present evidence that writing about material read improves students' comprehension of it; that teaching students how to write improves their reading…
Smith, F. R.
It is suggested that engineers and other technical students be taught three classes of skills in technical writing. First, "Big Picture Things", which includes: the importance of clear writing, the wide scope of writing, the wide scope of writing tasks that will be faced in industry, and the principles of organization of technical materials such as; how to analyze, classify, partition, and interpret. Second, "Writing Procedures", which encompasses: how to get words on paper efficiently and team-write. Third, "Writing Details", in which two considerations are important: how to achieve precision in the use of language and the aspects of style. Three problems in style are cited: the problem of sentence transition, overuse of attributive adjectives, and verbosity in paragraph structure. The most important thing in technical writing is considered to be functionality, economy and clarity.
In the first instalment of the Words of Advice series, we feature the essentials of good manuscript writing with practical tips on how to plan, organise and write a standout scientific paper. © 2016 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.
Writing workshops are held for gifted students (7 to 15 years old) and include journalism, guidebook, and fiction work with critical analysis of each other's writing. Sample exercises and brainstorming techniques are discussed. (CL)
Lammers, J.; Proulx, T.
Two experiments show that writing chronological autobiographical narratives increases political conservatism, defined as an ideology of resistance to social change. When writing chronological autobiographical narratives, we hypothesized that people would re-experience the events of their life in a
Language and culture have an intimate relationship,and cultural awareness plays an important role in language learning,involving aural comprehension,speaking,reading,writing and translation.This paper mainly discusses cultural awareness in English writing.
Kazansky, Peter G.; Yang, Weijia; Shimotsuma, Yasuhiko; Hirao, Kazuyuki; Arai, Alan; Svirko, Yuri P.
Common beliefs that laser writing does not change when reversing beam scan or propagation direction are challenged. Recently discovered phenomena of quill and non-reciprocal femtosecond laser writing in glasses and crystals are reviewed
Kazansky, Peter G.; Beresna, Martynas; Shimotsuma, Yasuhiko; Hirao, Kazuyuki; Svirko, Yuri P.; Aktürk, Selcuk
Recently discovered phenomena of quill and non-reciprocal femtosecond laser writing in glasses and crystals are reviewed. Common beliefs that laser writing does not change when reversing beam scan or propagation direction are challenged.
Scorzelli, James F.; Gold, Julie
Because of differences in cultural backgrounds and learning styles, some children have a difficult time verbalizing their emotions or appear resistant to talking about themselves. Describes a technique, referred to as the mutual storytelling writing game, that has been found to be useful for children who have difficulty in engaging in traditional…
The humanities teach students how to learn and communicate. Science teaches why everything works. Engineering teaches how to make things work. But scientists and engineers need to communicate their ideas amongst themselves as well as to everyone else. A newly developed technical writing course is outlined. In the class, offered to senior undergraduate and beginning graduate students, we read numerous short novels, essays, and op-eds. Some of the reading materials are technical but many are not. The students also have weekly writing assignments. When the first assignment is returned to the students with a grade of 20-30%, their first reaction is, ``how come I did not receive my usual 80-90%?'' I retort, ``you reach that level only when your essay is ready to be published in The New York Times.'' What is emphasized in the class is the process of creating something to write about, researching that something, expressing ideas coherently and comprehensibly, then endlessly editing the essay. The elective class has been offered three times thus far, all of its available seats are always filled, the students' evaluations have been outstanding, and the improvements in the students' ability to write by the end of the semester is quite impressive.
deGravelles, Karin H.; Bach, Jacqueline; Hyde, Yvette; Hebert, Angelle
How might team teaching, young adult novels, and zines work together to engage students in thinking about, writing about, and building community? Four researchers worked with three eighth-grade English teachers and one student teacher to find out. The four eighth-grade English teachers teach as a team, meeting formally at least once a week to plan…
This three-part workshop introduces strategies, tools, and techniques for sound scientific output. It discusses success and failure factors relevant to the publication process (writing included). The first part aims to understand the entire publication process. It presents an overview of standard
Discusses writing and literacy in the domain of applied linguistics. Focus is on needs analysis for literacy acquisition; second language learner identity; longitudinal studies as extensions of identity work; and applied linguistics contributions to second language literacy research. (Author/VWL)
An integrated topic approach (on Theseus and the Minotaur) was used to develop creative writing skills of children (ages 12 and 13) with health- and stress-related disorders at a special school in England. Three elements of the topic (presentation, action, and interaction) were developed through which individual assessment, collaboration, and…
Iowa State Dept. of Public Instruction, Des Moines. Div. of Pupil Personnel Services.
The guide describes approaches and considerations involved in school psychologists' communication of information in reports. Following an initial tongue in cheek discussion ("On Skinning Cats, Choking Dogs, and Leaving Lovers") of principles of report writing (such as avoiding using the language of logic and not contaminating interpretations with…
Ensuring that research results are reported accurately and effectively is an eternal challenge for scientists. The book Science Writing = Thinking in Words (David Lindsay, 2011. CSIRO Publishing) is a primer for researchers who seek to improve their impact through better written (and oral) presentat...
Cohn, Kenneth H; Schwartz, Richard W
Physicians are practicing in an era in which they are often expected to write business plans in order to acquire, develop, and implement new technology or programs. This task is yet another reminder of the importance of business principles in providing quality patient care amid allocation of increasingly scarce resources. Unfortunately, few physicians receive training during medical school, residencies, or fellowships in performing such tasks. The process of writing business plans follows an established format similar to writing a consultation, in which the risks, benefits, and alternatives to a treatment option are presented. Although administrative assistance may be available in compiling business plans, it is important for physicians to understand the rationale, process, and pitfalls of business planning. Writing a business plan will serve to focus, clarify, and justify a request for scarce resources, and thus, increase its chance of success, both in terms of funding and implementation. A well-written business plan offers a plausible, coherent story of an uncertain future. Therefore, a business plan is not merely an exercise to obtain funding but also a rationale for investment that can help physicians reestablish leadership in health care.
Lavelle, Ellen; Smith, Jennifer; O'Ryan, Leslie
Research with college students has supported a model of writing approaches that defines the relationship between a writer and writing task along a deep and surface process continuum (Biggs, 1988). Based on that model, Lavelle (1993) developed the Inventory of Processes in College Composition which reflects students' motives and strategies as related to writing outcomes. It is also important to define the approaches of secondary students to better understand writing processes at that level, and development in written composition. This study was designed to define the writing approaches of secondary students by factor analysing students' responses to items regarding writing beliefs and writing strategies, and to compare the secondary approaches to those of college students. A related goal was to explore the relationships of the secondary writing approaches to perceived self-regulatory efficacy for writing (Zimmerman & Bandura, 1994), writing preferences, and writing outcomes. The initial, factor analytic phase involved 398 junior level high school students (11th grade) enrolled in a mandatory language arts class at each of three large Midwestern high schools (USA). Then, 49 junior level students enrolled in two language arts classes participated as subjects in the second phase. Classroom teachers administered the Inventory of Processes in College Composition (Lavelle, 1993), which contained 72 true-or-false items regarding writing beliefs and strategies, during regular class periods. Data were factor analysed and the structure compared to that of college students. In the second phase, the new inventory, Inventory of Processes in Secondary Composition, was administered in conjunction with the Perceived Self-Regulatory Efficacy for Writing Inventory (Zimmerman & Bandura, 1994), and a writing preferences survey. A writing sample and grade in Language Arts classes were obtained and served as outcome variables. The factor structure of secondary writing reflected three
In my Master´s thesis I have researched teaching of creative writing for high school students. I have also created the concept called the Essential Understanding of Creative Writing, which I think is the base and the starting point of teaching creative writing. The term is hypothesis and it roughly means the subjectively understood essence of creative work and writing process, as well as the strengthening the inner motivation and author identity by writer. Collaboration seems to support the E...
Al-Maadadi, Fatima; Ihmeideh, Fathi
Writing often begins during the very early years of childhood; however, some children first learn writing when they begin attending school. Teachers' beliefs about early writing development can influence when and how children learn to write. The purpose of this study was to determine kindergarten teachers' beliefs about the development of…
Badrasawi, Kamal J. I.; Zubairi, Ainol; Idrus, Faizah
Writing skill is seen as a cornerstone of university students' success in both academic and career life. This qualitative study was conducted to further explore the teachers' and students' perceptions on the relationship between writing apprehension and writing performance, contributing factors of writing apprehension, and strategies to reduce…
Bush, Jonathan; Zuidema, Leah
This article presents the first installment of "Professional Writing in the English Classroom." The authors begin by answering the obvious question: What is professional writing? It isn't remedial writing, and it involves much more than writing memos, business letters, and resumes (although it certainly includes those genres). Professional writing…
Kempenaar, Larissa Elisabeth; Murray, Rowena
The literature on academic writing in higher education contains a wealth of research and theory on students' writing, but much less on academics' writing. In performative higher education cultures, discussions of academics' writing mainly concern outputs, rather than the process of producing them. This key component of academic work remains…
Rosário, Pedro; Högemann, Julia; Núñez, José Carlos; Vallejo, Guillermo; Cunha, Jennifer; Oliveira, Vera; Fuentes, Sonia; Rodrigues, Celestino
Students' writing problems are a global educational concern and is in need of particular attention. This study aims to examine the impact of providing extra writing opportunities (i.e., writing journals) on the quality of writing compositions. A longitudinal cluster-randomized controlled design using a multilevel modeling analysis with 182 fourth…
Wang, Elaine; Matsumura, Lindsay Clare; Correnti, Richard
Literacy standards increasingly emphasize the importance of analytic text-based writing. Little consensus exists, however, around what high-quality student responses should look like in this genre. In this study, we investigated fifth-grade students' writing in response to analytic text-based writing tasks (15 teachers, 44 writing tasks, 88 pieces…
Sharp, Laurie A.
Writing is a developmental and flexible process. Using a prescribed process for acts of writing during instruction does not take into account individual differences of writers and generates writing instruction that is narrow, rigid, and inflexible. Preservice teachers receive limited training with theory and pedagogy for writing, which potentially…
Snyder, Delys Waite; Nielson, Rex P.; Kurzer, Kendon
Within the growing field of scholarly literature on foreign language (FL) writing pedagogy, few studies have addressed pedagogical questions regarding the teaching of writing to advanced language learners. Writing fellows peer tutoring programs, although typically associated with first language writing instruction, likely can benefit and support…
del Pilar Gallego Castaño, Liliana; Castelló Badia, Montserrat; Badia Garganté, Antoni
This study attempts to relate faculty feelings towards writing with writing genres, perceived competences and values associated to writing. 67 foreign languages faculty in Colombia and Spain voluntarily filled in a four-section on-line questionnaire entitled "The Writing Feelings Questionnaire." All the sections were Likert Scale type.…
Watanabe, Lynne M.; Hall-Kenyon, Kendra M.
This study examined the change in complexity of kindergarteners' writing after implementing writing instruction based on story elements. Writing samples from six students of three ability levels were collected over a 6-week period. Writing samples included students' oral language, pictures, and written text and were analyzed using two rubrics…
Zumbrunn, Sharon; Carter, Yvette M.; Conklin, Sarah
This study explored college students' beliefs about the value of writing, their past experiences with writing, and the relationship between students' prior experiences with writing and writing value beliefs. One hundred fourteen undergraduates from a public Southeastern university participated in the study. Using expectancy-value theory as a…
Li, Linda Y.; Vandermensbrugghe, Joelle
Evidence from research suggests writing support is particularly needed for international research students who have to tackle the challenges of thesis writing in English as their second language in Western academic settings. This article reports the development of an ongoing writing group to support the thesis writing process of international…
Prepared to accompany an Australian letter writing guide for students, this teachers' guide provides suggestions for integrating letter writing into the school curriculum, either through regularly scheduled activities during the school year, or through special letter writing units of a few weeks. Topics covered in the guide include: (1) the craft…
Mercer County Community Coll., Trenton, NJ.
This document offers brief lesson plans for four courses: (1) an 8-hour refresher course for employees who write memos, short reports, and letters; (2) an 8-hour refresher course on creating a short document; (3) a 16-hour course on technical manual writing; and (4) an 8-hour course on technical manual writing. The courses were part of a workplace…
De La Paz, Susan
Rubrics are an integral part of many writing programs, and they represent elements of good writing in essays, stories, poems, as well as other genres and forms of text. Although it is possible to use rubrics to teach students about the processes underlying effective writing, a more common practice is to use rubrics as a means of assessment, after…
National Writing Project (NJ1), 2012
This National Writing Project 2011-2012 Report describes how Writing Project teacher-leaders study and share effective practices that enhance student writing and learning, work collaboratively with other educators, design resources, and take on new roles in effecting positive change. It includes a financial summary for years ended September 30 for…
Although courses in technical writing are no longer suggested in the Curriculum Guide for Programs in Radiologic Technology, the writer believes that writing is essential to the growth of the profession and development of the professional. Emphasis is placed on some of the benefits that accrue to students who are exposed to technical writing as part of their technology curriculum.
Technical writing teachers at the U.S. Air Force Academy enhance student motivation by bringing real Air Force writing situations into the classroom through short videotapes which allow students to see how scientists and engineers cope with report writing in their daily work. Also, a special English honors course, which is part of the "Blue…
Utah Univ., Salt Lake City. Bureau of Educational Research.
The general design of this book is that of a step-by-step self-instructional program leading toward the writing of poetry. It consists of 156 exercises which lead the student from writing about a picture and poems to kinds of poetry and techniques for writing poetry (alliteration, assonance, consonance, onomatopoeia, metaphor, simile, rhyme, meter…
van der Blonk, H.C.
Case study research can be reported in different ways. This paper explores the various ways in which researchers may choose to write down their case studies and then introduces a subsequent typology of writing case studies. The typology is based on a 2 x 2 matrix, resulting in four forms of writing
National Writing Project (NJ1), 2009
Writing as a tool for thinking, learning, and communicating is crucial to academic and career success as well as to active citizenship in a democracy. This annual report of the National Writing Project features teachers of math, chemistry, art, history, and business who develop their students as writers. These educators employ writing to engage…
Ulmer, Jasmine B.
This paper seeks to examine how embodied methodological approaches might inform dance education practice and research. Through a series of examples, this paper explores how choreographic writing might function as an embodied writing methodology. Here, choreographic writing is envisioned as a form of visual word choreography in which words move,…
Office of Educational Research and Improvement (ED), Washington, DC.
Addressing parents, this pamphlet describes ways to help children learn to write well and thereby excel in school, enjoy self-expression, and become more self-reliant. Writing is discussed as a practical, job-related, stimulating, social, and therapeutic activity that receives inadequate attention in many schools. It is emphasized that writing is…
Bettis, Jerry L., Sr.
This article provides guidelines for reviewing and writing scholarly articles for the professional who reads and writes them for his/her own work and/or for publication in scientific journals. It outlines the purpose and contents of each section of a research article and provides a checklist for reviewing and writing a research article. This…
This paper reviews the issues of concern in writing scale development in English as Second Language (ESL) settings with an intention to provide a useful guide for researchers or writing teachers who wish to develop or adapt valid, reliable and efficient writing scales considering their present assessment situations. With a brief discussion on the…
Perrault, S. T.
The author integrates work from cognitive and developmental psychology with studies in writing in order to explain why the quality of student writing sometimes appears to regress to earlier or less proficient levels. Insights from this combined analysis are applied to explain how and why to use specific Writing Across the Curriculum strategies to…
Suggests that writing is a rhythmic activity. Claims that the combined effect of rapidly switching between composing and revising is to set up complex cycles of engagement and reflection that may disrupt the flow of composition. Describes "Writer's Assistant," a writing environment designed to study computer support for writing processes. Proposes…
There is an ongoing paradigm shift in librarianship that prompts the application of pedagogy throughout our professional practice. In light of the special attention to basic writing development in community college curricula, this article provides an overview of basic writing pedagogy. It discusses the overall college-level writing and research…
Proske, Antje; Kapp, Felix
Several researchers emphasize the role of the writer's topic knowledge for writing. In academic writing topic knowledge is often constructed by studying source texts. One possibility to support that essential phase of the writing process is to provide interactive learning questions which facilitate the construction of an adequate situation…
Chrysikopoulos, H.; Sartoris, D.J.; Resnick, D.L.; Ashburn, W.; Pretorius, T.
MR imaging has been shown to be more sensitive and specific than planar scintigraphy for avascular necrosis (AVN) of the femoral head. However, experience with single photon emission CT (SPECT) is limited. The authors retrospectively compared 1.5-T MR imaging with SPECT in 14 patients with suspected femoral head AVN. Agreement between MR imaging and SPECT was present in 24 femurs, 14 normal and ten with AVN. MR imaging showed changes of AVN in the remaining four femoral heads. Of these, one was normal and the other three inconclusive for AVN by SPECT. The authors conclude that MR imaging is superior to SPECT for the evaluation of AVN of the hip
Liska, K.; Anton, P.
The discovery concerns the protective heads of diagnostic assemblies of nuclear power plants for conductors of the sensors from the fuel and control parts of the said assemblies. A detailed description is presented of the design of the protective head which, as compared with the previous design, allows quick and simple assembly with reduced risk of damaging the sensors. The protective head may be used for diagnostic assemblies both in power and in research reactors and it will be used for WWER reactor assemblies. (A.K.). 3 figs
von Hippel, Ted; von Hippel, Courtney
We surveyed 113 astronomers and 82 psychologists active in applying for federally funded research on their grant-writing history between January, 2009 and November, 2012. We collected demographic data, effort levels, success rates, and perceived non-financial benefits from writing grant proposals. We find that the average proposal takes 116 PI hours and 55 CI hours to write; although time spent writing was not related to whether the grant was funded. Effort did translate into success, however, as academics who wrote more grants received more funding. Participants indicated modest non-monetary benefits from grant writing, with psychologists reporting a somewhat greater benefit overall than astronomers. These perceptions of non-financial benefits were unrelated to how many grants investigators applied for, the number of grants they received, or the amount of time they devoted to writing their proposals. We also explored the number of years an investigator can afford to apply unsuccessfully for research grants and our analyses suggest that funding rates below approximately 20%, commensurate with current NIH and NSF funding, are likely to drive at least half of the active researchers away from federally funded research. We conclude with recommendations and suggestions for individual investigators and for department heads.
Ted von Hippel
Full Text Available We surveyed 113 astronomers and 82 psychologists active in applying for federally funded research on their grant-writing history between January, 2009 and November, 2012. We collected demographic data, effort levels, success rates, and perceived non-financial benefits from writing grant proposals. We find that the average proposal takes 116 PI hours and 55 CI hours to write; although time spent writing was not related to whether the grant was funded. Effort did translate into success, however, as academics who wrote more grants received more funding. Participants indicated modest non-monetary benefits from grant writing, with psychologists reporting a somewhat greater benefit overall than astronomers. These perceptions of non-financial benefits were unrelated to how many grants investigators applied for, the number of grants they received, or the amount of time they devoted to writing their proposals. We also explored the number of years an investigator can afford to apply unsuccessfully for research grants and our analyses suggest that funding rates below approximately 20%, commensurate with current NIH and NSF funding, are likely to drive at least half of the active researchers away from federally funded research. We conclude with recommendations and suggestions for individual investigators and for department heads.
Full Text Available Paraphrase is one of the techniques of incorporating sources in which every writer is allowed to borrow the author’s ideas and restate them into their own words. Based on the previous study, it was found that English Language Education Study Program (ELESP students, Sanata Dharma University, were unable to paraphrase properly since they tended to copy the author’s words directly. If this problem was continuously ignored, it would be dangerous for the students because they could be charged with inadvertent plagiarism. This study was intended to investigate ELESP students’ problems in writing paraphrases and the reasons why they produce unacceptable paraphrases by conducting document analysis and interview in Research Paper Writing class. From the findings, it could be identified that the most frequent type of problem encountered by the students was word-for-word plagiarism. DOI: https://doi.org/10.24071/llt.2012.150101
Full Text Available Service-learning classes, because they emphasize the creation of product that has value outside the confines of the college classroom, offer students an experience in professional formation, a practice that may prove anathema to the ethos of “service.” The desire to counteract this individualistic attitude has led instructors to promulgate an activist agenda within their classrooms, teaching students to critique hierarchical power structures, redress social inequities, or challenge lines of societal exclusion. And yet, such practitioners repeatedly acknowledge the difficulty of this instructional aim and attest to the students’ inability to envision themselves as advocates for societal change. I hold that this objective of transforming students into activists based on the experience of service-learning classes may not be feasible due the economic dynamic of a college classroom, where students pay tuition for their education and engage in work that is assessed and evaluated. Consequently, rather than create service-learning projects around theoretical positions of dissent and critique, I have designed a service-learning class on the topic of urban revitalization that involves students in promotional and collaborative partnerships with non-profit organizations in town. In other words, by tapping into a pragmatic, national movement such as urban renewal, I have aimed to raise the students’ awareness of how they might become agents of change and how their particular skill set of writing could be of service to the community. Drawing upon my experiences with students in a Business and Professional Writing class, I discuss specific readings and writing assignments in this article, chiefly the writing products that were commissioned by different non-profit groups in town. The discussion examines some of the theoretical implications behind reinforcing college students’ awareness of civic commitment while developing their written and rhetorical
Okari, Florence Mokeira
This paper is an overview of the writing skill in the lower levels of learning in the contemporary society. The following areas of writing are highlighted: the writing programme and its goals, the basic methodology for writing tasks, broad groups of writing skills, the teaching of the writing skills in pre-primary and primary schools where…
Intended for elementary level students, this book presents 12 writing ideas and several suggestions on how students can make a book using their writing. Each writing idea is presented with a brief description (addressed to the student), several examples of student writing, and a blank page on which to write. Writing ideas include freewriting,…
Çelik, Tugba; Demirgünes, Sercan
Weblogs offer a new writing and reading environment. Most people in the education process may improve their writing skills and achieve new perspectives related to writing via weblogs. In this study the changes that weblog writing process created in undergraduates'/candidate teachers' minds regarding writing are revealed. The weblog writing process…
Full Text Available ... you! Do you have a personal story about radiology? Share your patient story here Images × Image Gallery ... Pregnancy Head and Neck Cancer X-ray, Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine Radiation Safety Images related to ...
Sharpless, Brian A
Exploding head syndrome is characterized by the perception of abrupt, loud noises when going to sleep or waking up. They are usually painless, but associated with fear and distress. In spite of the fact that its characteristic symptomatology was first described approximately 150 y ago, exploding head syndrome has received relatively little empirical and clinical attention. Therefore, a comprehensive review of the scientific literature using Medline, PsycINFO, Google Scholar, and PubMed was undertaken. After first discussing the history, prevalence, and associated features, the available polysomnography data and five main etiological theories for exploding head syndrome are summarized. None of these theories has yet reached dominance in the field. Next, the various methods used to assess and treat exploding head syndrome are discussed, as well as the limited outcome data. Finally, recommendations for future measure construction, treatment options, and differential diagnosis are provided. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available ... medically necessary because of potential risk to the baby. This risk is, however, minimal with head CT ... intravenous contrast indicate mothers should not breastfeed their babies for 24-48 hours after contrast medium is ...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Longitudinal information from an evaluation where children were randomly assigned to Early Head Start or community services as usual;direct assessments and...
Full Text Available ... top of page Additional Information and Resources RTAnswers.org Radiation Therapy for Brain Tumors Radiation Therapy for ... Tomography (CT) - Head Sponsored by Please note RadiologyInfo.org is not a medical facility. Please contact your ...
Full Text Available ... of the Head? Computed tomography, more commonly known as a CT or CAT scan, is a diagnostic ... white on the x-ray; soft tissue, such as organs like the heart or liver, shows up ...
Full Text Available ... microphone. top of page How does the procedure work? In many ways CT scanning works very much ... head CT scanning. Manufacturers of intravenous contrast indicate mothers should not breastfeed their babies for 24-48 ...
Full Text Available ... rays). top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? CT scanning of the head ... is done because a potential abnormality needs further evaluation with additional views or a special imaging technique. ...
Full Text Available ... rays). top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? CT scanning of the head ... community, you can search the ACR-accredited facilities database . This website does not provide cost information. The ...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Nationally representative, longitudinal information from an evaluation where children were randomly assigned to Head Start or community services as usual;direct...
Full Text Available ... Stroke Brain Tumors Computer Tomography (CT) Safety During Pregnancy Head and Neck Cancer X-ray, Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine Radiation Safety Images related to Computed Tomography (CT) - ...
Investigators with The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Research Network have discovered genomic differences – with potentially important clinical implications – in head and neck cancers caused by infection with the human papillomavirus (HPV).
Full Text Available ... your doctor to evaluate your face, sinuses, and skull or to plan radiation therapy for brain cancer. ... typically used to detect: bleeding, brain injury and skull fractures in patients with head injuries. bleeding caused ...
Couture, B.; Goldstein, J.
Case of different sizes and shapes for teaching technical writing to engineers at Wayne State University have been developed. The case approach was adopted for some assignments because sophomores and juniors lacked technical expertise and professional knowledge of the engineering world. Cases were found to be good exercises, providing realistic practice in specific writing tasks or isolating particular skills in the composing process. A special kind of case which narrates the experiences of one technical person engaged in the problem-solving process in a professional rhetorical situation was developed. This type of long, realistic fiction is called a an "holistic" case. Rather than asking students to role-play a character, an holistic case realistically encompasses the whole of the technical writing process. It allows students to experience the total communication act in which the technical task and data are fully integrated into the rhetorical situation and gives an opportunity to perform in a realistic context, using skills and knowledge required in communication on the job. It is believed that the holistic case most fully exploits the advantages of the case method for students of professional communication.
Briñol, Pablo; Petty, Richard E
The authors report 3 experiments that examine a new mechanism by which overt head movements can affect attitude change. In each experiment, participants were induced to either nod or to shake their heads while listening to a persuasive message. When the message arguments were strong, nodding produced more persuasion than shaking. When the arguments were weak, the reverse occurred. These effects were most pronounced when elaboration was high. These findings are consistent with the "self-validation" hypothesis that postulates that head movements either enhance (nodding) or undermine (shaking) confidence in one's thoughts about the message. In a 4th experiment, the authors extended this result to another overt behavior (writing with the dominant or nondominant hand) and a different attitude domain (self-esteem).
Park, Dong Gyu
This book deals with requirements of good writings, comprehension toward characters of language, understanding of subjects and materials, grasp of structure of writings, and reality of writing. It contains theoretical requirements of good writing such as creativity, clearness, probity, how to understand the right meanings of language by showing standard languages, dialects, foreign languages, loan words, newly coined words, in-words, slangs, jargon. It also introduces subjects, topics, materials, sentences, meaning, structure, type, requirement, length of paragraphs, diaries, letter writings, travel essays, descriptions, and essays.
Writing is as much a communicative as it is a cognitive process an active individual is involved in. In this paper some characteristics of writing as a communicative process and some characteristics of writing as a cognitive process are stated. Further a model engaging both communicative and cognitive elements of writing is added, these elements being connected with linguistic resources. The author considers some prejudices, myths or emotional blocks to be destroyed as not to hinder the write...
Muhr, Sara Louise; Rehn, Alf
Since Hélène Cixous introduced it in 1975, the notion of a specifically feminine writing — écriture féminine — has been discussed as a provocative and potentially disruptive form of representation that breaks with masculine and authoritarian modes thereof. However, in this paper we will discuss how......, as the writer — when writing/publishing — is always already embedded in the technologies of the publishing machine, turning (academic) writing into something akin to cyborg writing. We further suggest that an understanding of the cyborg nature of writing can introduce a parallel mode of inquiry, which holds...
Green, M W
This article reviews the features of an uncommon malady termed "the exploding head syndrome." Sufferers describe terrorizing attacks of a painless explosion within their head. Attacks tend to occur at the onset of sleep. The etiology of attacks is unknown, although they are considered to be benign. Treatment with clomipramine has been suggested, although most sufferers require only reassurance that the spells are benign in nature.
Krmasek, J.; Novosad, K.
This article evaluates performance tests of the Soviet made GPK heading machine carried out in 4 coal mines in Czechoslovakia (Ostrava-Karvina region and Kladno mines). GPK works in coal seams and rocks with compression strength of 40 to 50 MPa. Dimensions of the tunnel are height 1.8 to 3.8 m and width 2.6 to 4.7 m, tunnel gradient plus to minus 10 degrees. GPK weighs 16 t, its conical shaped cutting head equipped with RKS-1 cutting tools is driven by an electric motor with 55 kW capacity. Undercarriage of the GPK, gathering-arm loader, hydraulic system, electric system and dust supression system (water spraying or pneumatic section) are characterized. Specifications of GPK heading machines are compared with PK-3r and F8 heading machines. Reliability, number of failures, dust level, noise, productivity depending on compression strength of rocks, heading rate in coal and in rocks, energy consumption, performance in inclined tunnels, and cutting tool wear are evaluated. Tests show that GPK can be used to drive tunnels in coal with rock constituting up to 50% of the tunnel crosscut, as long as rock compression strength does not exceed 50 MPa. In rocks characterized by higher compression strength cutting tool wear sharply increases. GPK is characterized by higher productivity than that of the PK-3r heading machine. Among the weak points of the GPK are: unsatisfactory reliability and excessive wear of its elements. (4 refs.) (In Czech)
Zhang, Lan; Yin, Li; Treiman, Rebecca
Much research on literacy development has focused on learners of alphabetic writing systems. Researchers have hypothesized that children learn about the formal characteristics of writing before they learn about the relations between units of writing and units of speech. We tested this hypothesis by examining young Chinese children's understanding of writing. Mandarin-speaking 2- to 5-year-olds completed a graphic task, which tapped their knowledge about the formal characteristics of writing, and a phonological task, which tapped their knowledge about the correspondence between Chinese characters and syllables. The 3- to 5-year-olds performed better on the graphic task than the phonological task, indicating that learning how writing appears visually begins earlier than learning that writing corresponds to linguistic units, even in a writing system in which written units correspond to syllables. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Learning about writing's visual form, how it looks, is an important part of emergent literacy. Knowledge of how writing symbolizes linguistic units may emerge later. What does this study add? We test the hypothesis that Chinese children learn about writing's visual form earlier than its symbolic nature. Chinese 3- to 5- year-olds know more about visual features than character-syllable links. Results show learning of the visual appearance of a notation system is developmentally precocious. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.
Full Text Available Literacy brings students to current and future learning, and for participation in the communication, society and workforce. As well as providing access to personal enrichment through literature, culture and social interaction. It provides access to material enrichment through further education, training and skilled employment. One of parts of literacy based teaching is writing. Writing is a principal form of communication, necessary in everyday life, in business, in creativity, in scholarly pursuits; in short, it is not a just tool of living, it is a tool of survival. It is the key activity in fostering language learners` awareness of how purpose audience and context affect the design of texts. In order to help the students to write effectively, the teacher should provide some interesting and useful activities. This paper aims at explaining what the literacy based teaching is and writing activities that can be used a literacy based teaching such as letter writing, journal writing, and creative writing
How to Write Reports and Proposals is essential reading for achieving effective writing techniques. Getting a message across on paper and presenting a proposal in a clear and persuasive form are vital skills for anyone in business. How to Write Reports and Proposals provides practical advice on how to impress, convince and persuade your colleagues or clients. It will help you: improve your writing skills; think constructively before writing; create a good report; produce persuasive proposals; use clear and distinctive language; present numbers, graphs and charts effectively. Full of checklists, exercises and real life examples, this new edition also contains content on how to write succinctly and with impact across different mediums. How to Write Reports and Proposals will help you to put over a good case with style.
the Anthropocene - which is to say an age in which nowhere, not the furthest reachest of the stratosphere nor the lowest point in the marine abyss, are untouched by the activities and detritus of humankind. The essay will give a short overview of the manner in which the notion of 'travel' has been contested......Travel writing critics have proclaimed the end of travel since at least the beginning of the 20th Century. Yet the global age of the 21st century presents us with a range a problems that challenge the notion of travel in manners that neither travellers, travel writers, nor travel writing critics...... could have imagined just a century ago. Globalisation and increased mobility, whether it is that of the privileged few who can travel on holiday on jet airplanes, or that of the immigrant labourer seeking employment by crossing borders on foot, have meant millions (if not indeed billions) are constantly...
Kim, Jungchul; Moon, Myoung-Woon; Lee, Kwang-Ryeol; Mahadevan, L; Kim, Ho-Young
Writing with ink involves the supply of liquid from a pen onto a porous hydrophilic solid surface, paper. The resulting linewidth depends on the pen speed and the physicochemical properties of the ink and paper. Here we quantify the dynamics of this process using a combination of experiment and theory. Our experiments are carried out using a minimal pen, a long narrow tube that serves as a reservoir of liquid, which can write on a model of paper, a hydrophilic micropillar array. A minimal theory for the rate of wicking or spreading of the liquid is given by balancing the capillary force that drives the liquid flow and the resistance associated with flow through the porous substrate. This allows us to predict the shape of the front and the width of the line laid out by the pen, with results that are corroborated by our experiments.
Fraser, Diane P.; Zuckermann, Martin J.; Mouritsen, Ole G.
that is extremely sensitive to structural changes in the system. This quantity, which is derived from the edge-length distribution function of the Voronoi polygons, displays a dramatic change at the solid-liquid transition. This is found to be more useful for locating the transition than either the defect density...
García-Rojo, Ramón; Luding, Stefan; Brey, J Javier
A study of the transport coefficients of a system of elastic hard disks based on the use of Helfand-Einstein expressions is reported. The self-diffusion, the viscosity, and the heat conductivity are examined with averaging techniques especially appropriate for event-driven molecular dynamics algorithms with periodic boundary conditions. The density and size dependence of the results are analyzed, and comparison with the predictions from Enskog's theory is carried out. In particular, the behavior of the transport coefficients in the vicinity of the fluid-solid transition is investigated and a striking power law divergence of the viscosity with density is obtained in this region, while all other examined transport coefficients show a drop in that density range in relation to the Enskog's prediction. Finally, the deviations are related to shear band instabilities and the concept of dilatancy.
Garcia-Rojo, R.; Luding, Stefan; Brey, J. Javier; Ooms, G.; Hoogendoorn, C.J.
A study of the transport coefficients of a system of elastic hard disks, based on the use of Helfand-Einstein expressions is reported. The pressure, the viscosity, and the heat conductivity are examined for different density and system-size. While most transport coefficients agree with Enskog theory
García-Rojo, R.; Luding, S.; Brey, J.J.
A study of the transport coefficients of a system of elastic hard disks based on the use of Helfand-Einstein expressions is reported. The self-diffusion, the viscosity, and the heat conductivity are examined with averaging techniques especially appropriate for event-driven molecular dynamics
Full Text Available Writing for Professional Purposes is considered as a means of communication between professionals who belong to two communities that have different languages, but share the same knowledge or expertise. The article gives a hint on how writing for specific purposes evolved to give rise to the creation of Writing for Professional Purposes. The social, cultural and cognitive aspects are an essential part of Writing for Professional Purposes since the physical act of writing cannot be considered only a result or product of the knowledge the individual possesses but also a social and cultural act. Therefore, the social and cultural aspects of writing explains the specificities and the intricacies of the effects these aspects have on writing for it is considered as an inseparable part of social and cultural groups. On the other hand, the cognitive aspect of writing explains and emphasizes the mental activities of the individual during the decision-making process while he/she is writing planning and editing their material having in mind the audience. On the same line of reasoning, writing for professional purposes in a second language means that the writer has to consider the audience twice; first, there is an audience who shares the same knowledge or expertise and second, the audience does not have the same language. Consequently, writing in another language that is not the first language with a specific jargon as well as a specific grammatical structure brings about a lot of difficulties. Hence, writing in professional contexts in the mother tongue implies only writing in a specialized version of a language already known to the writer, but writing in a target language means that the writer has to learn the target language and the specialized version of that language.
Full Text Available In list learning paradigms with free recall, written recall has been found to be less susceptible to intrusions of related concepts than spoken recall when the list items had been visually presented. This effect has been ascribed to the use of stored orthographic representations from the study phase during written recall (Kellogg, 2001. In other memory retrieval paradigms, either better recall for modality-congruent items or an input-independent writing superiority effect have been found (Grabowski, 2005. In a series of four experiments using a paired associate (PA learning paradigm we tested (a whether output modality effects on verbal recall can be replicated in a paradigm that does not involve the rejection of semantically related intrusion words, (b whether a possible superiority for written recall was due to a slower response onset for writing as compared to speaking in immediate recall, and (c whether the performance in PA word recall was correlated with performance in an additional episodic memory task. We found better written recall in the first half of the recall phase, irrespective of the modality in which the material was presented upon encoding. An explanation based on longer response latencies for writing and hence more time for retrieval could be ruled out by showing that the effect persisted in delayed response versions of the task. Although there was some evidence that stored additional episodic information may contribute to the successful retrieval of associate words, this evidence was only found in the immediate response experiments and hence is most likely independent from the observed output modality effect. In sum, our results from a PA learning paradigm suggest that superior performance for written versus spoken recall cannot be (solely explained in terms of additional access to stored orthographic representations from the encoding phase. Our findings rather suggest a general writing-superiority effect at the time of memory
Kim, Si Jung
This book introduces the essence of scientific paper, contents of paper, writing of manuscript, as well as research and analysis and arrangement of reference. It shows conditions of paper, kinds of paper, division and arrangement of content, title, author name, table of contents, abstracts, introduction, experimental materials and methods, results, consideration, conclusion, summary, acknowledgements, references. It also covers draft, quotation, footnotes and references, graphs and pictures, importance of literature research, how to find special literature, and analysis and arrangement of literature.
... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) - Head Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the head uses a powerful ... the Head? What is MRI of the Head? Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a noninvasive medical test that ...
Full Text Available ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) - Head Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the head uses a powerful ... the Head? What is MRI of the Head? Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a noninvasive medical test that ...
Full Text Available ... find out more. Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Close to 49,750 Americans will be diagnosed ... find out more. Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Close to 49,750 Americans will be diagnosed ...
... find out more. Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Close to 49,750 Americans will be diagnosed ... find out more. Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Close to 49,750 Americans will be diagnosed ...
Full Text Available Learning as a retrospective phenomenon can make learners transmit their past as an ingredient while they are (restructuring their present and future. Previous and present experiences can form a basis for cognitive, behavioral and motivational factors which can create a cognitive load for learners and affect their learning process. In this regard, current study aims to investigate first-year undergraduates’ beliefs about writing and relation of these beliefs to writing performance in essay writing. A total of 147 students studying in ELT department of a Turkish university participated in the research. Their domain-specific beliefs about writing were determined through the Beliefs about Writing Survey (BAWS. Writing performance was measured on an essay writing task by calculating both overall grade and six component grades. As a result, multiple regression analysis affirmed that beliefs about writing accounted for writing performance independently. Pearson correlation values showed that some beliefs about writing were adaptive and associated with higher writing scores (e.g. “Adapt to the Audience”. Also, some belief subcategories were associated with each other. The results of the present study have been discussed along with the related literature on beliefs about writing and writing performance. Implications/suggestions related to the coursework, writing practices and future research have been presented.
Full Text Available The objective of conducting this research was to find out : (1 whether or not the use of thematic progression pattern is more effective than direct instruction in teaching writing to the second semester students at English Education Department; (2 the students who have a low writing apprehension have better writing skill than those who have a high writng apprehension; and (3 there is an interaction between teaching technique and writing apprehension in teaching writing skill. This reasearch was an experimental research design. The population of this research was the second semester students at English Education Department of IKIP PGRI Bojonegoro. Meanwhile the sample of this research was selected by using cluster random sampling. The instruments of data collection were witing test and writing apprehension questionnaire. The findings of this study are: (1 thematic progression pattern is more effective than direct instruction in teaching writing; (2 the students who have low writing apprehension have better writing skill than those who have high writing apprehension; and (3 there is an interaction between teaching technique and writing apprehension in teaching writing skill. It can be summarized that thematic progression pattern is an effective technique in teaching writing skill at the second semester students of English Education Department in IKIP PGRI Bojonegoro. The effectiveness of the technique is affected by writing apprehension.
Full Text Available Writing is one of the most important aspects in English language acquisition. Teaching writing has its own challenges since there are some steps and requirements that teachers should prepare to undertake in the classroom. This article is aimed to discuss teaching and learning writing in the classroom based on theoretical conceptualisation. In addition, curriculum of teaching writing will be another important factor to consider as well as research and practice in teaching writing. Based on comparison to many theoretical concepts from various researchers, it shows that most of Indonesian students still struggle to figure out their problems of grammatical area. The biggest challenge is derived from the difference in cultural backgrounds between the students’ mother tongue and English, so it is possible to know the production of their writing does not ‘sound’ well in appropriate culture of English. Several problems also occur when the teachers have big classes to teach and the result of teaching writing to the students may be defeated. In this case, time also being a big challenge for the teachers to have the students’ writing improve because to accomplish a good composition in English, it needs complex steps such as brainstorming, prewriting, drafting, and editing. However, new techniques in teaching writing are needed to develop the students’ writing outcomes.
Full Text Available ESL students who write in English may present written material in a rhetorical and organizational mode that reflects the pattern which is valued in their native culture and rhetoric. Considering the violation of English code of writing in the writings of Iranian students, we will notice one common characteristic: They are reluctant (or ignorant of to write a unified paragraph. Their writing consists of one whole page or two. They do not divide their writing into separate paragraphs. The knowledge of the writer on any subject begins and ends as much as the time or space for writing allows with no paragraph separation. The length of sentences is extraordinary, and the position of modifiers does not seem natural according to the code of English sentence pattern. This means that elements transferred from L1 rhetoric result in a production which does not match the English language style and rhetoric, despite the fact that some students lack grammatical competence. As a result, this type of writing is labeled unacceptable, vague or erroneous by English language standards. The focus of this study is to use English major students' writings to identify the elements which violate English language pattern of writing. The sources of errors responsible for non-English language rhetoric will be classified after a short theoretical review in the literature and finally suggestions for the elimination of errors will be presented.
Full Text Available Writing is a skill derived from a long way of learning and exercises. Different from other language skills, writing is considered the difficult language skill to acquire since it involves many aspects of linguistics, social, and writing knowledge and conventions. There are at least three important elements of writing useful to produce a good piece of composition, language competence, writing competence and cultural competence. This paper shows the influence of these three elements in order to produce good, readable, communicative, and successful writing
Riordan, Rebecca M
Ajax is no longer an experimental approach to website development, but the key to building browser-based applications that form the cornerstone of Web 2.0. Head First Ajax gives you an up-to-date perspective that lets you see exactly what you can do -- and has been done -- with Ajax. With it, you get a highly practical, in-depth, and mature view of what is now a mature development approach. Using the unique and highly effective visual format that has turned Head First titles into runaway bestsellers, this book offers a big picture overview to introduce Ajax, and then explores the use of ind
Wouldn't it be great if there were a statistics book that made histograms, probability distributions, and chi square analysis more enjoyable than going to the dentist? Head First Statistics brings this typically dry subject to life, teaching you everything you want and need to know about statistics through engaging, interactive, and thought-provoking material, full of puzzles, stories, quizzes, visual aids, and real-world examples. Whether you're a student, a professional, or just curious about statistical analysis, Head First's brain-friendly formula helps you get a firm grasp of statistics
Daniel Cassany Comas
Full Text Available Following the distinction between intensive and extensive reading, we introduce the extensive written tasks to promote the following learning objectives: 1 bringing writing closer to the learner’s personal life; 2 practicing the epistemic and communicative language functions; 3 giving the learner full responsibility for the creative act; 4 facilitating the development of cognitive processes, and 5 developing habits of written production in a variety of situations. As a consequence, extensive writing assignments produce longer texts, last longer, are self-directed by the learner-author, treat interdisciplinary topics and are not in the textbook. These tasks markedly differ from the more frequent written exercises in the classroom, which are teacher-led, contain shorter texts, work on executive or instrumental functions, and their correction is focused on spelling and grammar. We propose several educational tools in order to develop this type of tasks: portfolios (to save drafts, corrections and final versions of each text, formats (such as reading logs, lecture notes and laboratory protocols and contexts (common communicative tasks. We also discuss some basic parameters of extensive tasks, such as the length of the text, the use of several working sessions for text production, the practice of composition processes and the use of peer review, in pairs or teams.
Full Text Available The INL-DWS is a Dictionary Writing System (DWS for compiling monolingual and bilingual dictionaries. It has been developed at the Institute of Dutch Lexicology (INL since 2007 and is now being used for the production of a monolingual dictionary at INL and a bilingual dictionary at the Fryske Akademy. This paper describes the functionalities of the system, on the one hand, from a lexicographical point of view, and on the other hand, from a more technical perspective. The paper concludes with a short evaluation of the advantages and disadvantages of in-house systems versus off-the-shelf systems.
... points when you write more papers in the future. The useful phrases in Chap. 19 will help you to structure your paper and give you an indication of the typical coverage of each section. I have written many papers before. Will I still learn something from this book? If you have ever had a paper rejected due to poor English, poor structure or poor readability, then this book will certainly help you. What are the three most important things I will learn from this book? This book is based on three fund...
A ""bush telegraph"" is an antipodean slang noun phrase for a ""grapevine"" or an informal network of communication. The title of this book on English language use comes from the fact that the book is written from the southern hemisphere (where the idea of a ""bush telegraph"" is more widely-known) and because the concept of a ""bush telegraph"" describes what the book provides - a discussion of salient points in English language use and tertiary teaching across branches of interrelated interests. Each chapter of Bush Telegraph describes aspects of English writing culture. Separately and toget
Bierhenke, H.; Kutzer, E.; Pascher, A.; Plitzner, H.; Rummel, P.; Siemens A.G., Muenchen; Siemens A.G., Muenchen
Reported are the results of the 3 1/2 year research project 'Electron beam Writing on Semiconductors'. Work has been done in the field of direct wafer exposure techniques, and of mask making. Described are resist technology, setting up of a research device, exploration of alignment procedures, manufacturing of devices and their radiation influence. Furthermore, investigations and measurements of an electron beam machine bought for mask making purposes, the development of LSI-circuits with this machine, the software necessary and important developments of digital subsystems are reported. (orig.) [de
The globalization of science makes medical writing, editing and revision a rapidly growing field of linguistic study and practice. Medical science texts are written according to uniform, general guidelines and medical genres have become highly conventionalized in terms of structure and linguistic...... form. Medical editing often takes the form of peer review and mainly addresses issues of contents and overall validity. Medical revision incorporates the checking of the macrostructure and the microstructure of the text, its language and style and its suitability for the target reader or client...
De Smet, Milou; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Leijten, Mariëlle; Kirschner, Paul A.
De Smet, M. J. R., Brand-Gruwel, S., Leijten, M., & Kirschner, P. A. (2012, November). Writing argumentative texts: The effects of electronic outlining on students’ writing product and process. Paper presentation at ICO Fall School 2012, Girona, Spain.
Glen, Nicole J.; Dotger, Sharon
This qualitative study examined the connections between elementary teachers’ conceptions of how scientists use writing and how the teachers used writing during science lessons. Data collected included lesson observations, interviews, handouts to students, and curriculum resources. The findings revealed that teachers in this study thought scientists write for several purposes: the presentation of data, observations, experiences, procedures, and facts. The teachers used writing tasks that mirrored this with their students. The teachers also had a limited definition of creativity in writing, and when they had students write creatively in science it was to add in fictional elements. Implications of this study include providing teachers with better models for how and why scientists write, including these models in more inquiry-based science lessons, and directly relating concepts of nature of science to elementary science writing.
Aberger, Christopher R; Tu, Susan; Olukotun, Kunle; Ré, Christopher
There are two types of high-performance graph processing engines: low- and high-level engines. Low-level engines (Galois, PowerGraph, Snap) provide optimized data structures and computation models but require users to write low-level imperative code, hence ensuring that efficiency is the burden of the user. In high-level engines, users write in query languages like datalog (SociaLite) or SQL (Grail). High-level engines are easier to use but are orders of magnitude slower than the low-level graph engines. We present EmptyHeaded, a high-level engine that supports a rich datalog-like query language and achieves performance comparable to that of low-level engines. At the core of EmptyHeaded's design is a new class of join algorithms that satisfy strong theoretical guarantees but have thus far not achieved performance comparable to that of specialized graph processing engines. To achieve high performance, EmptyHeaded introduces a new join engine architecture, including a novel query optimizer and data layouts that leverage single-instruction multiple data (SIMD) parallelism. With this architecture, EmptyHeaded outperforms high-level approaches by up to three orders of magnitude on graph pattern queries, PageRank, and Single-Source Shortest Paths (SSSP) and is an order of magnitude faster than many low-level baselines. We validate that EmptyHeaded competes with the best-of-breed low-level engine (Galois), achieving comparable performance on PageRank and at most 3× worse performance on SSSP.
Mack, Chris A
Many scientists and engineers consider themselves poor writers or find the writing process difficult. The good news is that you do not have to be a talented writer to produce a good scientific paper, but you do have to be a careful writer. In particular, writing for a peer-reviewed scientific or engineering journal requires learning and executing a specific formula for presenting scientific work. This book is all about teaching the style and conventions of writing for a peer-reviewed scientific journal. From structure to style, titles to tables, abstracts to author lists, this book gives practical advice about the process of writing a paper and getting it published.
The production of mathematical formalism on state of the art computers is quite different than by pen and paper. In this paper I examine the question of how different media influence the writing of mathematical signs. The examination is based on an investigation of professional mathematicians' use...... of various media for their writing. A model for describing mathematical writing through turntakings is proposed. The model is applied to the ways mathematicians use computers for writing, and especially it is used to understand how interaction with the computer system LaTeX is different in the case...
Carter, John Marshall
Offers writing activities based on the Bayeux Tapestry for use in art, communications, home economics, physical education, psychology, history and social studies, and science and mathematics classes. (EL)
Russell Jay Hendel
Full Text Available We explore aspects of essay writing requiring high-level organizational capacity and executive function. The literature supports the approach that specific and focused writing-skill mastery leads to reduced anxiety and increased self-efficacy which correlates with improved writing skills. Although essay writing is a complex multi-dimensional task, two particular strategies, tree-diagram and reference methods, specifically address the organizational skills characteristic of executive function. The tree and reference methods presented in this paper address the flow of information, not content, and consequently, the methods presented in this paper apply to mathematics and English as well as to K-12 and college level.
Professional nurses, and certainly those in academia and nursing service leadership positions, are experiencing an increasing need for writing skills. Among the most important skills required for scholarly writing are those relating to critical thinking. With this in mind, suggestions for scholarly writing in nursing are presented in this article, organized according to Paul's criteria for critical thinking: clarity, precision, specificity, accuracy, relevance, consistency, logicalness, depth, completeness, significance, fairness, and adequacy for purpose. Although becoming proficient in scholarly writing takes time and effort, the rewards in terms of career advancement, professional contributions, and personal satisfaction and enjoyment are considerable.
Han, Bang Geun
This book introduces reference while writing English paper, how to use letters, punctuation, how to use articles, similar word phrases and verbs used in scientific writings, auxiliary verbs, nouns deeply related to scientific writings, expressions about experiment tools and equipment, expressions of chemicals, how to mark numbers, adjectives and pronouns relevant to numbers, how to make plural form, expressions about multiple, surface area, depth, width, time, period, temperature, humidity. It also adds expressions about sensible assessment, statistics, deviation, signs, abbreviations, and how to write letters in English.
The purpose of the present study was twofold. First, the present study set out to investigate the learners‟ attitudes towards academic writing courses that they have to take as part of their curriculum, whether they experience second language writing anxiety and what reasons they report for their anxiety and failure in academic writing courses. Second, the study aimed to develop a selfreport measure of second language writing anxiety reasons
The head of the performance design programme is substituted by a sister's academy delegate. this performance situation formed part of a week of semesterstart where the students and professors visited Sister's Academy, Malmø. I participated in the Sister's Academy as visiting researcher and here i...
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Reilink, Rob; Visser, L.C.; Bennik, J.; Carloni, Raffaella; Brouwer, Dannis Michel; Stramigioli, Stefano
This video shows the results of the project on the mechatronic development of the Twente humanoid head. The mechanical structure consists of a neck with four degrees of freedom (DOFs) and two eyes (a stereo pair system) which tilt on a common axis and rotate sideways freely providing a three more
Fallahi, Carolyn R.; Wood, Rebecca M.; Austad, Carol Shaw; Fallahi, Hamid
We examined the effects of in-class writing instruction, practice, peer review, and feedback on writing skills of undergraduates enrolled in a general psychology course. We rated writing for grammar, writing style, mechanics, and American Psychological Association referencing style. Significant differences emerged on the 4 writing skill domains (p…
Bruning, Roger; Dempsey, Michael; Kauffman, Douglas F.; McKim, Courtney; Zumbrunn, Sharon
A multifactor perspective on writing self-efficacy was examined in 2 studies. Three factors were proposed--self-efficacy for writing ideation, writing conventions, and writing self-regulation--and a scale constructed to reflect these factors. In Study 1, middle school students (N = 697) completed the Self-Efficacy for Writing Scale (SEWS), along…
Full Text Available The optical lithography system researched in this study adopted the laser direct-write lithography technology with nano-positioning stage by using retailing blue ray optical pickup head contained 405nm wavelength and 0.85 numerical aperture of focus lens as the system lighting source. The system employed a photodiode received the focusing error signal reflected by the glass substrate to identify specimen position and automatic focused control with voice coil motor. The pattern substrate was loaded on a nano-positioning stage; input pattern path automatically and collocate with inner program at the same time. This research has successfully developed a blue laser lithography process system. The single spot size can be narrowed down to 3.07 μm and the linewidth is 3.3μm, time of laser control can reach to 450 ns and the exposure pattern can be controlled by program as well.
Lan, Yu-Feng; Hung, Chun-Ling; Hsu, Hung-Ju
The purpose of this paper is to develop different guided writing strategies based on media richness theory and further evaluate the effects of these writing strategies on younger students' writing attitudes in terms of motivation, enjoyment and anxiety. A total of 66 sixth-grade elementary students with an average age of twelve were invited to…
De Smet, Milou; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Leijten, Mariëlle; Kirschner, Paul A.
De Smet, M. J. R., Brand-Gruwel, S., Leijten, M., & Kirschner, P. A. (2012, July). Writing argumentative texts: The effects of electronic outlining on students’ writing product and process. Paper presented at the meeting of EARLI SIG Writing, Porto, Portugal.
"Online Writing Tutorial" (OWI) was designed and piloted in the summer of 2000 as a one to two credit writing course intended for Rensselaer Polytechnic students on co-op assignment in New York and across the country. Similar to its ancestor course, "Writing Workshop" (WW), which was a one-credit course designed to fit the…
Cooper, David D.; Julier, Laura
The Service Learning Writing Project at Michigan State University links service-learning and writing instruction. Students read and discuss American literary and historical texts, write academic analyses of ideas, and practice peer editing and revision in small workshops, while working in service placements in community and nonprofit…
Purcell, Kristen; Buchanan, Judy; Friedrich, Linda
A survey of 2,462 Advanced Placement (AP) and National Writing Project (NWP) teachers finds that digital technologies are shaping student writing in myriad ways and have also become helpful tools for teaching writing to middle and high school students. These teachers see the internet and digital technologies such as social networking sites, cell…
Roberts, Sherron Killingsworth; Blanch, Norine; Gurjar, Nandita
Writing circles are "small groups... meeting regularly to share drafts, choose common writing topics, practice positive response, and in general, help each other become better writers" (Vopat, 2009, p. 6). In this exploratory study, writing circles were employed with elementary teacher candidates in hopes of enhancing their perceptions…
To teach students how to write for the workplace and other professional contexts, technical writing teachers often assign writing tasks that reflect real-life communication contexts, a teaching approach that is grounded in the field's contextualized understanding of genre. This article argues to fully embrace contextualized literacy and better…
van Drie, J.; Braaksma, M.; van Boxtel, C.
This study aims at gaining more insight in effective writing instruction to promote historical reasoning. In an experimental study, two types of instructions were compared; a general writing instruction and a discipline-based writing instruction. In addition, the effects of these instructions for
Rifat Ramazan Berk
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to determine sixth, seventh and eighth grade students’ writing anxiety and dispositions and to examine to what extent they predict each other. The basis of this study is to determine whether writing disposition is the significant predictor of writing anxiety or not and whether students’ grade levels and genders are significant predictor of writing anxiety and dispositions or not. The research was designed according to survey model. The study group, selected through simple sampling method, is made up of 860 students studying at 6th, 7th and 8th grades in elementary schools of Şarkışla District, Sivas. While “Writing Anxiety Scale”, adapted into Turkish by Özbay and Zorbay (2011, was administered to determine the study group’s writing anxiety level, “Writing Disposition Scale”, adapted into Turkish by İşeri and Ünal (2010, was used to determine the writing disposition level. At the end of the study, it was found that writing disposition is a significant predictor of writing anxiety and students’ grade levels and genders are significant predictors of writing anxiety and dispositions. An education environment to create a strong writing disposition for students is recommended. Also, similar studies on different dimensions of the issue can be conducted.
Berk, Rifat Ramazan; Ünal, Emre
The purpose of this study is to determine sixth, seventh and eighth grade students' writing anxiety and dispositions and to examine to what extent they predict each other. The basis of this study is to determine whether writing disposition is the significant predictor of writing anxiety or not and whether students' grade levels and genders are…
This study investigated cognitive factors that might influence Chinese EFL learners' argumentative essay writing in English. The factors that were explored included English (L2) language proficiency, Chinese (L1) writing ability, genre knowledge, use of writing strategies, and working memory capacity in L1 and L2. Data were collected from 136…
Cocuk, Halil Erdem; Yanpar Yelken, Tugba; Ozer, Omer
Problem Statement: Writing is important in secondary schools because it underpins the performance of students in most examinations. Writing disposition, which specifically deals with the aspects of students' attitudes toward writing, has also been studied by some researchers. Purpose of the Study: This study reports on the result of a study on the…
Sacher, Cassandra L. O.
Since high school students are failing to master writing proficiency, developmental writing programs at the college level have become increasingly necessary. This article explains the lack of readiness with which students are entering college and the workplace, examines the reasons students are having trouble writing, and describes elements of…
This article analyzes literature on university-workplace partnerships and professional writing pedagogy to suggest best practices for workplace mentors to mentor new employees and their writing. The article suggests that new employees often experience cultural confusion due to (a) the transfer of education-based writing strategies and (b) the…
Employers frequently complain about the state of their employees' writing skills. Much of the current research on this subject explores workplace writing skills from the employer's perspective. However, this article examines workplace writing from the employees' perspective. Specifically, it analyzes MBA students' responses to a course assignment…
Purpose: Given that there exists in the literature relatively little research into the effectiveness of writing centers at universities, the purpose of this paper is to show the impact of university writing centers on first-year business seminar student writing. Design/methodology/approach: This quantitative study involved 315 first-year…
Ortiz, Lorelei A.
To teach effective business communication, instructors must target students’ current weaknesses in writing. One method for doing so is by assigning writing exercises. When used heuristically, writing exercises encourage students to practice self-assessment, self-evaluation, active learning, and knowledge transfer, all while reinforcing the basics…
Koster, M.; Tribushinina, E.; de Jong, P.F.; van den Bergh, H.
It has been established that in the Netherlands, as in other countries, a majority of students do not attain the desired level of writing skills at the end of elementary school. Time devoted to writing is limited, and only a minority of schools succeed in effectively teaching writing. An improvement
Koster, M.P.; Tribushinina, E.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/31511780X; De Jong, Peter; van den Bergh, H.H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074044400
It has been established that in the Netherlands, as in other countries, a majority of students do not attain the desired level of writing skills at the end of elementary school. Time devoted to writing is limited, and only a minority of schools succeed in effectively teaching writing. An improvement
Ellis, Robert A.; Taylor, Charlotte E.; Drury, Helen
Learning through writing is a way of learning not only the appropriate written expression of disciplinary knowledge, but also the knowledge itself through reflection and revision. This study investigates the quality of a writing experience provided to university students in a first-year biology subject. The writing instruction methodology used is…
Lee, Susan E.; Woods, Kyra J.; Tonissen, Kathryn F.
We introduced writing activities into a project style third year undergraduate biomolecular science laboratory to assist the students to produce a final report in the form of a journal article. To encourage writing while the experimental work was proceeding, the embedded writing activities required ongoing analysis of experimental data. After…
Tillotson, Kenyon; Osborn, Debra
What is the best way to teach someone how to write an effective resume? A workshop format was used to teach college students the skills needed to write a successful resume. Archival data consisting of student resumes and rubric score sheets were used to determine the effectiveness of a resume-writing workshop by using a pre-post design evaluating…
Full Text Available With the international growth of English-medium education, tertiary institutions are increasingly providing academic support services to L2 students, and thus, the number of writing centers working with L2 student writers has also increased. Writing center practices originated in L1 English educational contexts and their appropriateness for L2 English writers requires examination. This study investigated the effect of writing center consultations on the essay writing skills of L1 Arabic foundation level students at an English-medium university in the Gulf region. Analysis was based on quantitative measures of writing ability of two distinct groups of students: an experimental group who participated in tutoring sessions at the university’s writing center and a control group who did not. Findings indicated that students who participated in writing center consultations scored significantly higher in overall essay writing scores, as well as in two aspects of writing: task fulfilment (that is ideas and text organization/coherence. These findings contribute to a limited bank of similar empirical studies on effectiveness of writing center sessions on students’ essay writing ability. They also support the case for the expansion of writing center work beyond the domains of predominantly L1 English academic communities.
Sugiura, Makoto; Mori, Nobuhiko; Yokosuka, Reiko; Yamamoto, Masaaki; Imanaga, Hirohisa
Findings of computerized tomography (CT) in 183 cases of head injury in children were investigated with special reference to CT findings of mild head injury. As was expected, CT findings of mild head injury fell within the normal range, in almost all cases. However, abnormal findings were noticed in 4 out of 34 cases (12%) in acute stage and 7 out of 76 cases (9%) in chronic stage. They were 3 cases of localized low density area in acute stage and 6 cases of mild cerebral atrophy in chronic stage, etc. There were some cases of mild head injury in which CT findings were normal while EEG examination revealed abnormality. Also in some cases, x-ray study demonstrated linear skull fracture which CT failed to show. These conventional techniques could be still remained as useful adjunct aid in diagnosis of head injury. CT findings of cases of cerebral contusion in their acute stage were divided as follows; normal, low density, small ventricle and ventricular and/or cisternal hemorrhage, frequency of incidence being 38, 17, 22, 11% respectively. These findings were invariably converted to cerebral atrophy from 10 days to 2 months after the impacts. In the cases with intracranial hematoma revealed by CT, only 32% of them showed clinical signs of Araki's type IV in their acute stage and 63% of them showed no neurological defects, that is Araki's type I and II. A case of extreme diffuse cerebral atrophy which followed acute subdural hematoma caused by tear of bridging veins without cortical contusion was presented. (author)
Rowe, L.J.; Yochum, T.R.
The formulation of reports in clinical practice is a standard method of documentation of a patient's history, examination findings, therapeutic regime, and prognosis, as well as other important features. In the practice of producing and interpreting diagnostic radiographs, report writing also serves a number of important roles, which include providing an accurate means of recording findings in instances of 1) medicolegal circumstances; 2) a standard for comparison with previous or later examinations; 3) a permanent record if the radiographs are lost or not immediately available for perusal; 4) communication with other practitioners and health professionals; and 5) expediating the treatment regime by providing a resume of important indications and contraindictions for therapy. In the radiological literature there is a distinct lack of material on report writing and very little as to what would be considered a standard style. Consequently, radiological reporting has increasingly become a subjective, personalized procedure, with each individual modifying the report according to previous training, experience, and needs. It is the purpose of this chapter to provide basic guidelines on the mechanisms of formulating adequate standardized reports in radiological examinations of the skeletal system
A guest editorial is presented on the question of accuracy in the writing of radiation protection history. The author has written several books and articles dealing with various aspects of the development of radiation protection standards and philosophy; some of his own minor errors which have been picked up and frequently repeated are confessed. The author also outlines some of the general faults he has encountered in other articles on the subject. A common complaint is that many writers give source references without checking back to the original sources which leads to much carelessness and misunderstanding in technical writing. In addition, some writers all too frequently refer mainly to review articles which can be especially troublesome if the review is of the interpretative type. The limited outlook of some writers is also deplored in that the scope of the literature referred to is often limited to the author's country. A few glaring examples of factual errors encountered in various radiation protection articles are highlighted; these errors have since been repeated in subsequent review articles. (U.K.)
Jenkins, Jade Marcus; Farkas, George; Duncan, Greg J.; Burchinal, Margaret; Vandell, Deborah Lowe
As policy-makers contemplate expanding preschool opportunities for low-income children, one possibility is to fund two, rather than one year of Head Start for children at ages 3 and 4. Another option is to offer one year of Head Start followed by one year of pre-k. We ask which of these options is more effective. We use data from the Oklahoma pre-k study to examine these two ‘pathways’ into kindergarten using regression discontinuity to estimate the effects of each age-4 program, and propensity score weighting to address selection. We find that children attending Head Start at age 3 develop stronger pre-reading skills in a high quality pre-kindergarten at age 4 compared with attending Head Start at age 4. Pre-k and Head Start were not differentially linked to improvements in children’s pre-writing skills or pre-math skills. This suggests that some impacts of early learning programs may be related to the sequencing of learning experiences to more academic programming. PMID:27076692
Writing is so important. It is important in school and in our careers; writing is found to be helpful physiologically and psychologically. Experts wonder, with writing so important, why is writing not being adequately taught in the schools. The answer may be that writing is complex and teaching it is even more complex. The Read-to-Write Strategy is a writing model based on the study of exemplary models of text and children are explicitly taught how to write the way an author writes through a ...
The aim of this paper is to stimulate debate about criteria for assessing the scientific contribution of a piece of management research and to guide and encourage researchers in writing papers for publication. The paper also seeks to reduce the number of papers submitted to journals and reviewers which are really unfinished early drafts or which do provide knowledge which could contribute to reducing suffering. The paper draws on and discusses the difference between practical research for a manager and scientific research, as well as the author's experience as researcher, writer, reviewer, editor, research methods course leader and director of research. The discussion highlights that the author should draft the paper under the suggested headings and fulfil criteria of validity, reliability, supported conclusions, generalisability, ensuring that each section follows on from the other, and that the findings are related to previous research. This is the author's personal view about how to carry out and write research to get published, without discussions of other views. The findings in this paper may provoke more debate about management science and the role of this journal. The guidance may help many researchers publish their management research. The paper links practical guidance with discussion of criteria for scientific contribution in a readable way.
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This article presents a course design of English 4090: Collaborative Writing at Work. The course is a senior-level elective designed to reinforce students' existing knowledge of professional writing and to teach students how to apply that knowledge effectively in collaborative contexts. Here, the author focuses on the Spring 2006 class and…
Full Text Available Writing contains a compound process to be expressed that entails the writer to pay more attention on linking appropriate words together. Most linguists agree that a writer should attain high level of understanding to pursue the lifelong learning of academic writing pedagogy. This study aimed to analyze the students’ free writing by identifying the category of mistakes that often appear on their writing assignment. 28 free writings were collected, as the main data, from 28 students as the samples for this study. They were then analyzed by using the guidelines of correction symbols from Hogue (1996 and Oshima & Hogue (1999. The results revealed that 11 categories of grammar that often applied incorrectly on the students’ free writing. The misused of verb-agreement (V/A was the most frequent category occurred, followed by word form (Wf and Spelling (Sp. The least category of errors identified on the students’ free writing was conjunction (Conj and wrong word (Ww categories. Overall, 175 errors from different grammatical conventions were repeated in the students’ free writing.
Megel, Mary Erickson
A study to describe cognitive, affective, and behavioral dimensions associated with writing among doctorally prepared nurses and to determine relationships between writing dimensions and journal article publication is discussed. Multiple regression analysis showed that five variables accounted for 18 percent of the variance in research article…
Since it was first introduced in 2008, Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) have been attracting a lot of interest. Since then, MOOCs have emerged as powerful platforms for teaching and learning academic writing. However, there has been no detailed investigation of academic writing MOOCs. As a result, much uncertainty still exists about the…
Current literature on writing instruction focuses on the writing conference, which accompanies a shift in emphasis from product to process and potentially transforms the teacher's role from task master and evaluator to respondent, opening the door to greater peer interaction in literacy learning. However desirable this ideal may be, extant…
Wilson, Joshua; Olinghouse, Natalie G.; Andrada, Gilbert N.
The current study examines data from students in grades 4-8 who participated in a statewide computer-based benchmark writing assessment that featured automated essay scoring and automated feedback. We examined whether the use of automated feedback was associated with gains in writing quality across revisions to an essay, and with transfer effects…
This article aims to extend an earlier review of some of the research into writing therapy and to indicate how it could be applied to online counseling. It also refers to some of the literature on online counseling, which, together with the writing therapy research, informed the decision to offer an online service to staff in a university setting.…
Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to improve the students writing ability for paragraph writing class. The subjects of the study were 37 students of English Education Study Program who joined the paragraph writing class. The design of the study was Classroom Action Research with two cycles. Cycle 1 consisted of three meetings, and cycle 2 consisted of two meetings. The types of explicit planning used in the action research were word listing and word mapping with phrases and sentence for detail. The instruments used were direct writing test, observation, and documentation of students’ reflective essay. To score the students’ writing, two raters were asked to rate the composition by using Jacobs ESL Composition profile scoring rubric. The finding shows that the use of explicit planning was able to improve the students’ paragraph writing performance, indicated with the achievement of the criteria of success. The students’ mean improved from cycle 1 (74.62 to cycle2 (76.78. Although explicit planning instruction was able to help the students to write better, data from their self-reflection essay showed that many of the students preferred to use free writing instead of explicit planning instruction.
Hall, Anna H.
Interactive writing is a developmentally appropriate activity used to enhance children's literacy development in the preschool setting. This article describes the unique needs of preschoolers as emerging writers, including their developing fine motor skills, early literacy skills, and social skills related to group writing. Strategies are provided…
Middlesex Community Coll., Bedford, MA.
This document describes the Software Technical Writing Program at Middlesex Community College (Massachusetts). The program is a "hands-on" course designed to develop job-related skills in three major areas: technical writing, software, and professional skills. The program was originally designed in cooperation with the Massachusetts High…
Ewald, H. R.
Clinical report writing in psychology and psychiatry is addressed. Audience/use analysis and the basic procedures of information gathering, diagnosis, and prognosis are described. Two interlinking processes are involved: the process of creation and the process of communication. Techniques for good report writing are presented.
Discusses the Harry Potter series by J.K. Rowling, explaining how to use it to enhance reading and writing instruction. The article presents a brief interview with J.K. Rowling, a Harry Potter time line, and ideas for working on writing and editing paragraphs, creating dynamic dialogue, and fixing grammar and punctuation. Other fantasy books are…
Jansen, C.J.M.; Steehouder, M.; Jansen, C.; Poort, van der P.; Verheijen, R.
At present, more and more software is being launched which is intended to assist authors in solving all kinds of writing problems. However, most studies into Ihe effects of using these new writing aids show disappointing results, especially when grammar and style checkers are concemed. The main
Svalgaard, Mikael; Harpøth, Anders; Andersen, Marc
UV writing of waveguides can be hampered by discontinuities where the index change process suddenly shuts down. We show that thermal effects may account for this behaviour.......UV writing of waveguides can be hampered by discontinuities where the index change process suddenly shuts down. We show that thermal effects may account for this behaviour....
Rosner, M.; Paul, T.
Sentence combining exercises are advanced as a way to teach technical writing style without reliance upon abstractions, from which students do not learn. Such exercises: (1) give students regular writing practice; (2) teach the logic of sentence structure, sentence editing, and punctuation; (3) paragraph development and organization; and (4) rhetorical stance. Typical sentence, paragraph, and discourse level sentence combining exercises are described.
This article asks us to consider what the process of healing and composition pedagogy have to learn from each other. More specifically, it identifies how the therapeutic potential of writing, which has been largely neglected in the academy in recent years, can influence the ways we teach transferable writing skills. The article considers how…
Mitchell, John H.
Notes the differences between poetry and technical communication. Charges English teacher/humanists with confusing students about emotional writing, style, and effective technical communication. Offers five concepts that technical writing teachers can use to place "style" on a rational basis and to make students understand the true purposes of…
Meel, David E.
Examines the various issues surrounding the implementation of journal writing in an undergraduate linear algebra course. Identifies the benefits of incorporating journal writing into an undergraduate mathematics course, which are supported with students' comments from their journals and their reflections on the process. Contains 14 references.…
Douglas, George H., Ed.; Hildebrandt, Herbert W., Ed.
Because written communication has nearly always been the medium for transmitting information in the business world, these essays are a step toward providing a seminal statement on the history and practice of business writing. The essays in this volume are: "Business Writing and the Spread of Literacy in Late Medieval England" (Malcolm Richardson);…
Stig R. Johansson
Full Text Available The frequently used concept of “global reaction” is discussed and the reason for the confusion behind explained. The misconception is cleared by formula writing based on the donor–acceptor (donac reaction concept and by applying the Grand Rule of Formula Writing that is based on it.
This article provides an update to the author's overview of developments in second language (L2) online writing that he wrote in 2008. There has been renewed interest in L2 writing through the wide use of social media, along with the rising popularity of computer-mediated communication (CMC) and telecollaboration (class-based online exchanges).…
... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Writing. 1502.8 Section 1502.8 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT STATEMENT § 1502.8 Writing. Environmental impact statements shall be written in plain language and may use appropriate graphics so that...
Johnson, Robert R.
This article argues that craft knowledge can provide a disciplinary rationale for writing studies. It draws from the ancient concepts of teche, phronesis, and the four causes of making and makes the case for a definition of disciplinary knowledge fitting for writing studies. The article concludes with a conceptual framework that can serve as a…
Grimm, Nancy M.
This article presents the author's address for the International Writing Centers Association Conference in Las Vegas. The author's argument in this talk stresses the importance of paying attention to the conceptual frames writing tutors use to understand the world, their work, and the impact of their work on the world, and this attentiveness to…
Full Text Available This paper explores the problem “thinking in the first language then translating into the target language” by examining the process of writing. It is suggested that it is natural to think in the first language and/or to translate and the first language to foreign language translation indirectly enhances the writing ability.
This paper explores the problem “thinking in the first language then translating into the target language” by examining the process of writing. It is suggested that it is natural to think in the first language and/or to translate and the first language to foreign language translation indirectly enhances the writing ability.
Pecorari, Diane; Petric, Bojana
Plagiarism is a broad and multidisciplinary field of study, and within second-language (L2) writing, research on the topic goes back to the mid-1980s. In this review article we first discuss the received view of plagiarism as a transgressive act and alternative understandings which have been presented in the L1 and L2 writing literature. We then…
Olthouse, Jill M.
Through a qualitative research design, I explored how eight talented masters in fine arts (MFA) writers related to their craft. The phenomenon "relationship with writing" includes writers' goals, values, identity, and emotions as these relate to writing. I found that that these MFA writers experience compatibilities and conflicts…
Boone, Randy, Ed.
Focusing on the use of word processing software programs as instructional tools for students learning writing composition, this collection includes 14 research articles and position papers, 16 reports on lesson ideas and projects, 5 articles on keyboarding, and 18 product reviews. These materials relate to teaching writing through the process…
This paper asks whether there is a relationship between reading, writing, and spelling, whether these subjects should be taught together or separately. A review of the literature found that many theorists saw a strong relationship between just reading and writing, while others believed spelling belonged with these. The consensus of researchers was…
Glasgow, Jacqueline N.
Describes a developmental writing course taught in prison. Describes how the teaching styles took into account the presumed learning preferences of the African Americans in this group of inmates and resulted in a boost of both their self-confidence and the level of their writing. (SR)
Rijlaarsdam, Gert; Bergh, van den Huub; Couzijn, Michel
Theories, Models and Methodology in Writing Research describes the current state of the art in research on written text production. The chapters in the first part offer contributions to the creation of new theories and models for writing processes. The second part examines specific elements of the
Velasco, Patricia; García, Ofelia
This article makes the case for using translanguaging in developing the academic writing of bilinguals. It reviews the emerging literature on learning and teaching theories of translanguaging and presents theoretical understandings of biliteracy development and specifically on the teaching of writing to bilingual learners. The article analyzes…
The radical feminists of the late 1960s and early 1970s, as well as their online counterparts today, offer provocative examples of networked textuality, a discourse dependent on the constant and visible contextualization of self and writing within the discourses of hegemony. Given its potential use for liberatory writing pedagogies, it seems…
Analyzes the behaviors of over 60 student groups in professional writing classes. Finds gender-related effects on collaboration: tendencies to stereotype men as technical experts and to self-segregate into gendered working teams. Suggests new perspectives on the role of gender for collaborative groups in professional writing classrooms. (PA)
Grigorenko, Elena L., Ed.; Mambrino, Elisa, Ed.; Preiss, David D., Ed.
This book captures the diversity and richness of writing as it relates to different forms of abilities, skills, competencies, and expertise. Psychologists, educators, researchers, and practitioners in neighboring areas are interested in exploring how writing develops and in what manner this development can be fostered, but they lack a handy,…
Most college professors are looking for ways to make writing a positive experience for students. This is increasingly a challenge in our contemporary world, which tends to be very image-oriented. This short paper outlines ways in which student writing-projects can be designed encourage critical and innovative thinking in students. Inclusive…
In this paper I consider one aspect of how student writing is supported in the university. I focus on the use of the "writing frame", questioning its status as a vehicle for facilitating student voice, and in the process questioning how that notion is itself understood. I illustrate this by using examples from the story of the 1944 Hollywood film…
This essay considers the long-standing challenges, in both practice and theory, to collaborative writing in the first-year classroom. I argue that Hannah Arendt's concepts of plurality and natality are useful frameworks for thinking constructively and practically about teaching argumentative writing through collaboration. I explore these…
Raiser, Lynne; Hinson, Shirley
This article describes a project which involved inner city elementary grade children with disabilities in writing and performing their own plays. A four-step playwriting process focuses on theme and character development, problem finding, and writing dialogue. The project has led to improved reading skills, attention, memory skills,…
This book describes the special way one teacher, Jeanette Amidon, approaches children's thinking, with a particular focus on reading and writing instruction. The root value of her first-grade classroom in Massachusetts is respect for children's ideas, with the children's art and writing as visible signs of the teacher's respect for their thinking.…
Marrs, Sarah; Zumbrunn, Sharon; McBride, Caitlin; Stringer, J. K.
The purpose of this descriptive qualitative investigation was to explore elementary students' (N = 867) perceptions of the feedback they receive on their writing. After responding to the closed-ended question, "Do you like to receive feedback about your writing?" students were branched to the appropriate follow-up open-ended question,…
Yost, Deborah S.; Vogel, Robert
This article provides an overview of the Writers Matter program, which allows adolescents to use their life stories as a vehicle for self-expression and writing skill development. Evaluations of the program have show increased writing skills among participating students in the areas of focus, content, organization, and grammar. Additional benefits…
Yagi, Sane M.; Al-Salman, Saleh
Writing is a complex skill that is hard to teach. Although the written product is what is often evaluated in the context of language teaching, the process of giving thought to linguistic form is fascinating. For almost forty years, language teachers have found it more effective to help learners in the writing process than in the written product;…
King, Kathleen P.
This article provides essential strategies to be more successful in one of the major roles in academia: writing. Most academics struggle with roadblocks in their writing process. We are forever battling to complete research articles, manuscripts, grant proposals or other documents. The strategies and perspective shared here help overcome several…
Lacina, Jan; Griffith, Robin
The purpose of this article is to explore ways in which blogs can support literacy communities while developing a writing community. Examples of how a classroom teacher uses blogs to strengthen the writing process is described. (Contains 2 figures and 1 table.)
McLaughlin, Brett D; West, David
"Head First Object Oriented Analysis and Design is a refreshing look at subject of OOAD. What sets this book apart is its focus on learning. The authors have made the content of OOAD accessible, usable for the practitioner." Ivar Jacobson, Ivar Jacobson Consulting "I just finished reading HF OOA&D and I loved it! The thing I liked most about this book was its focus on why we do OOA&D-to write great software!" Kyle Brown, Distinguished Engineer, IBM "Hidden behind the funny pictures and crazy fonts is a serious, intelligent, extremely well-crafted presentation of OO Analysis and Design
Argues that technical writing teachers must understand desktop publishing. Discusses the strengths that technical writing teachers bring to desktop publishing, and the impact desktop publishing will have on technical writing courses and programs. (ARH)
Full Text Available This paper reviews the issues of concern in writing scale development in English as Second Language (ESL settings with an intention to provide a useful guide for researchers or writing teachers who wish to develop or adapt valid, reliable and efficient writing scales considering their present assessment situations. With a brief discussion on the rationale behind writing scales, the author considers the process of scale development by breaking it into three phases of design, operationalization and administration. The issues discussed in the first phase include analyzing the samples, deciding on the type of scale and ensuring the validity of its design. Phase two encompasses setting the scale criteria, operationalization of definitions, setting a numerical value, assigning an appropriate weight for each trait, accounting for validity and reliability. The final phase comprises recommendations on how a writing scale should be used.
This chapter examines the different writing cultures in secondary and upper secondary Danish schools and investigates the issue of transitioning between these two writing cultures by focussing on the experiences of one adolescent student writer, Sofia. The study elucidates the writing cultures...... and the “possibilities of selfhood” (Ivanič, 1998) experienced by Sofia, and examines her responses to these shifts in her written papers as well as in interviews. A focal point in the shift in subject writing culture is the use of texts in assignments; in the study of Danish as a subject at lower secondary texts...... of two selected “constellations of writing” comprising prompt, student paper and teacher response, combined with interviews, Sofia’s transition between the two writing cultures is explored. The analyses document that Sofia is a proficient writer with extraordinary textual resources who identifies...
Parastou Gholami Pasand
Full Text Available Writing is one the most important skills in learning a foreign language. The significance of being able to write in a second or foreign language has become clearer nowadays. Accordingly, different approaches to writing such as product approach, process approach and more recently process-product approach came into existence and they have been the concern of SL/FL researchers. The aim of this study is to answer the question that whether the use of an incomplete model text in process-product approach to writing and asking the learners to complete the text rather than copying it can have a positive impact on EFL learners’ accuracy in writing. After training a number of EFL learners on using process approach, we held a two-session writing class. In the first session students wrote in the process approach, and in the second one they were given a model text to continue in the process-product approach. The writing performance of the students in these two sessions was compared in term of accuracy. Based on the students’ writing performance, we came to the conclusion that completing the model text in process-product writing can have a rather positive influence in some aspects of their writing accuracy such as punctuation, capitalization, spelling, subject-verb agreement, tense, the use of connectors, using correct pronouns and possessives. Also the results of the paired t-test indicate that using a model text to continue increased students’ writing accuracy.
Hong, Jin Kyo [Shin Wha Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
In the diagnosis of head injury, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), like CT, is an effective method of distinguishing between intracerebral and extracerebral lesions. In our experience of MRI, early hematomas are almost isointense by Saturation Recovery (SR) method, so these must be performed with Spin Echo (SE) method for better visualization of hematomas. Isodense subdural hematomas, which is a diagnostic dilemma on CT images, are clearly seen on MRI. Delayed hematomas or residual parenchymal lesions are better demonstrated on MRI than on CT. Direct cornal, sagittal images and multiplanar facility of MRI provides excellent visualization of the the location and shape of extracerebral collection of hematoma. For the screening of head traumas, SE method is a technique of choice because of its excellent sensitivity within limited time.
Full Text Available The author examines the proceedings from the collection Where is Russia Heading? (= Куда идёт Россия?, published between 1994 and 1998 in connection with the international symposium held under this name each year in Moscow. The symposia and their proceeding, involving leading Russian and foreign experts, were significant in that they encompassed a wide range of themes – social, economic, political, legislative, cultural and other transformations that have been occurring in Russia during the past decades. The author, however, limits her review to contributions dealing with ethno-political and socio-cultural transformations in Russia. She concludes that the question – “Where is Russia heading?” – still remains open to answers.
Hong, Jin Kyo
In the diagnosis of head injury, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), like CT, is an effective method of distinguishing between intracerebral and extracerebral lesions. In our experience of MRI, early hematomas are almost isointense by Saturation Recovery (SR) method, so these must be performed with Spin Echo (SE) method for better visualization of hematomas. Isodense subdural hematomas, which is a diagnostic dilemma on CT images, are clearly seen on MRI. Delayed hematomas or residual parenchymal lesions are better demonstrated on MRI than on CT. Direct cornal, sagittal images and multiplanar facility of MRI provides excellent visualization of the the location and shape of extracerebral collection of hematoma. For the screening of head traumas, SE method is a technique of choice because of its excellent sensitivity within limited time.
Full Text Available Most American respondents give ``irrational,'' magical responses in a variety of situations that exemplify the sympathetic magical laws of similarity and contagion. In most of these cases, respondents are aware that their responses (usually rejections, as of fudge crafted to look like dog feces, or a food touched by a sterilized, dead cockroach are not ``scientifically'' justified, but they are willing to avow them. We interpret this, in some sense, as ``heart over head.'' We report in this study that American adults and undergraduates are substantially less likely to acknowledge magical effects when the judgments involve money (amount willing to pay to avoid an ``unpleasant'' magical contact than they are when using preference or rating measures. We conclude that in ``head-heart'' conflicts of this type, money tips the balance towards the former, or, in other words, that money makes the mind less magical.
Bongers, K M; ter Bruggen, J P; Franke, C L
The case is reported of a 47-year old female suffering from the exploding head syndrome. This syndrome consists of a sudden awakening due to a loud noise shortly after falling asleep, sometimes accompanied by a flash of light. The patient is anxious and experiences palpitations and excessive sweating. Most patients are more than fifty years of age. Further investigations do not reveal any abnormality. The pathogenesis is unknown, and no therapy other than reassurance is necessary.
The present paper deals with different aspects connected to the global petroleum industry by discussing the way of heading. The aspects cover themes like new frontiers, new relationships, sanctions, global climate change, new alliances and new technology. New frontiers and relationships concern domestic policy affecting the industry, and sanctions are discussed in connection with trade. The author discusses the industry's participation in the global environmental policy and new alliances to provide greater opportunity for developing new technology
Paul Rozin; Heidi Grant; Stephanie Weinberg; Scott Parker
Most American respondents give ``irrational,'' magical responses in a variety of situations that exemplify the sympathetic magical laws of similarity and contagion. In most of these cases, respondents are aware that their responses (usually rejections, as of fudge crafted to look like dog feces, or a food touched by a sterilized, dead cockroach) are not ``scientifically'' justified, but they are willing to avow them. We interpret this, in some sense, as ``heart over head.'' We report in this ...
Kuratani, Shigeru; Schilling, Thomas
Classic theories of vertebrate head segmentation clearly exemplify the idealistic nature of comparative embryology prior to the 20th century. Comparative embryology aimed at recognizing the basic, primary structure that is shared by all vertebrates, either as an archetype or an ancestral developmental pattern. Modern evolutionary developmental (Evo-Devo) studies are also based on comparison, and therefore have a tendency to reduce complex embryonic anatomy into overly simplified patterns. Her...
This paper reconstructs, and distinguishes between, Feyerabend's different forms of relativism in his later writings. Science in a Free Society remains close to familiar forms of relativism, while, at the same time, developing an original but under-argued form of political relativism, and rejecting "conversion" models of cultural exchange. Farewell to Reason moves away from common renderings of relativism, and develops a range of different new forms. Central here are links between relativism, skepticism and infallibilism. In the last six years of his life, Feyerabend often criticizes a peculiar radical form of relativism that arguably no-one has ever proposed or defended. In the same context, Feyerabend sketches an "ontological" form of relativism. It combines "Kantian humility", metaphysical pluralism and constructivism. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
A research project in nursing or nursing education is probably only complete once the findings have been published. This paper offers a format for writing a qualitative research report for publication. It suggests, at least, the following sections: introduction, aims of the study, review of the literature, sample, data collection methods, data analysis methods, findings, discussion, conclusion, abstract. Each of these sections is addressed along with many written-out examples. In some sections, alternative approaches are suggested. The aim of the paper is to help the neophyte researcher to structure his or her report and for the experienced researcher to reflect on his or her current practice. References to other source material on qualitative research are given.
This course is designed for people with a good level of spoken English who need to improve their professional writing (administrative, scientific, technical). Duration: 20 hours (2 hours a week) Price: 440 CHF (for 8 students) Date and timetable will be fixed when there are sufficient participants enrolled. Oral Expression This course is intended for people with a good knowledge of English who want to practise and maintain their speaking skills while extending their vocabulary. There will be approximately 8 participants in a class. Speaking activities will include discussions, meeting simulations, role-plays etc. depending on the needs of the students. Duration: 20 hours (2 hours a week) Timetable: Thursdays from 12.00 to 14.00 Price: 440 CHF (for 8 students) For registration and further information on these two courses, please contact Mr. Liptow: tel. 72957.
Sane M. Yagi
Full Text Available Writing is a complex skill that is hard to teach. Although the written product is what is often evaluated in the context of language teaching, the process of giving thought to linguistic form is fascinating. For almost forty years, language teachers have found it more effective to help learners in the writing process than in the written product; it is there that they could find sources of writing problems. Despite all controversy evoked by post-process approaches with respect to process writing, information technology has lately offered tools that can shed new light on how writing takes place. Software that can record keyboard, mouse, and screen activities is capable of unraveling mysteries of the writing process. Technology has given teachers and learners the option of examining the writing process as it unfolds, enabling them to diagnose strategy as well as wording problems, thus empowering teachers to guide learners individually in how to think about each of their trouble spots in the context of a specific product of writing. With these advances in information technology, metacognitive awareness and strategy training begin to acquire new dimensions of meaning. Technology lays open aspects of the writing process, offering unprecedented insight into creative text production as well. This paper attempts to explain how tracking software can influence writing instruction. It briefly examines the process and post-process approaches to assess their viability, explains the concept of tracking software, proposes methodology needed for the adoption of this technology, and then discusses the pedagogical implications of these issues.
Looking for a reliable way to learn how to program on your own, without being overwhelmed by confusing concepts? Head First Programming introduces the core concepts of writing computer programs -- variables, decisions, loops, functions, and objects -- which apply regardless of the programming language. This book offers concrete examples and exercises in the dynamic and versatile Python language to demonstrate and reinforce these concepts. Learn the basic tools to start writing the programs that interest you, and get a better understanding of what software can (and cannot) do. When you're fi
This paper examines definitions and uses of reflective and creative writing in health care education classrooms and professional development settings. A review of articles related to writing in health care reveals that when teaching narrative competence is the goal, creative writing may produce the best outcomes. Ultimately, the paper describes the importance of defining literary creative writing as a distinct form of writing and recommends scholars interested in using literary creative writing to teach narrative competence study pedagogy of the field.
Krogh, Ellen; Piekut, Anke
This paper investigates issues of voice and narrative in L1 writing. Three branches of research are initial-ly discussed: research on narratives as resources for identity work, research on writer identity and voice as an essential aspect of identity, and research on Bildung in L1 writing. Subsequ...... training of voice and narratives as a resource for academic writing, and that the Bildung potential of L1 writing may be tied to this issue.......This paper investigates issues of voice and narrative in L1 writing. Three branches of research are initial-ly discussed: research on narratives as resources for identity work, research on writer identity and voice as an essential aspect of identity, and research on Bildung in L1 writing...... in lower secondary L1, she found that her previous writing strategies were not rewarded in upper secondary school. In the second empiri-cal study, two upper-secondary exam papers are investigated, with a focus on their approaches to exam genres and their use of narrative resources to address issues...
Mohana Ram Murugiah
Full Text Available Writing is a complex task. The development of students’ writing skill depends on the teacher’s teaching strategy and also the materials used in the writing lesson. In the present study, the effectiveness of a creative writing module was examined that was designed to improve the writing skill of a group of excellent students. It was added with explicit teaching strategies. The selected group of students were students who were in the excellent group but lacked creativity and vocabulary in their writing. The creative writing module was designed to help these students. Students’ improvement was observed through observation in the classrooms during the lessons and through writing task as well as interviews. Two observations were made. One was before the creative writing project was started and another after the completion of the entire task of the module. The interview was carried out to learn about the students’ perception of the module and how do they find the module has helped them. The result of the research showed that students have shown a great level of improvement in their writing skills. The outcome of this present study could be useful to assist language instructors in helping proficient learners to undergo a more effective second language learning experience.
Hozoi, A.; Groenland, J.P.J.; Lodder, J.C.; Albertini, J.B.
Track and μtrack scans are common techniques in hard disk systems for investigating side writing and side reading, and for characterizing the response of MR read heads. These methods are implemented less in tape systems, where the contact recording mode and flexible medium make it difficult to
This annual anthology brings together the year's finest mathematics writing from around the world. Featuring promising new voices alongside some of the foremost names in the field, The Best Writing on Mathematics 2013 makes available to a wide audience many articles not easily found anywhere else--and you don't need to be a mathematician to enjoy them. These writings offer surprising insights into the nature, meaning, and practice of mathematics today. They delve into the history, philosophy, teaching, and everyday occurrences of math, and take readers behind the scenes of today's hottest mat
Hamilton, Cindy W; Gertel, Art; Jacobs, Adam; Marchington, Jackie; Weaver, Shelley; Woolley, Karen
To meet ethical and scientific obligations, authors should submit timely, high-quality manuscripts. Authors, however, can encounter ethical (e.g., authorship designation) and practical (e.g., time and resource limitations) challenges during manuscript preparation. Could professional medical writers-not ghostwriters-help authors address these challenges? This essay summarizes evidence countering three myths that may have hindered authors from considering the use of professional medical writers. Authors with sufficient time, writing expertise, and reporting guideline knowledge may meet their obligations without writing assistance. Unfortunately, not all authors are in this position. Decisions about writing support should be based on evidence, not myths.
This anthology brings together the year's finest mathematics writing from around the world. Featuring promising new voices alongside some of the foremost names in the field, The Best Writing on Mathematics 2011 makes available to a wide audience many articles not easily found anywhere else--and you don't need to be a mathematician to enjoy them. These writings offer surprising insights into the nature, meaning, and practice of mathematics today. They delve into the history, philosophy, teaching, and everyday occurrences of math, and take readers behind the scenes of today's hottest mathematica
Full Text Available A well-written case report is a clear, concise and informative paper, aimed at professionals from different fields of medicine, with the clear purpose to explain what lesson is to be learnt from the experience. The aim of this paper is to suggest useful guidelines for writing a good case report. It briefly reflects different “moves” in this piece of academic writing, thus outlining the required form, as well as the four principles of good writing: clarity, honesty, reality and relevance.
Houston, L. S.
General background details in the development of a university level technical writing program, based upon the writing tasks of the student's occupations, are summarized. Objectives and methods for unifying the courses of study with the needs of industry are discussed. Four academic course divisions, Industries Technologies, in which preparation and training are offered are: Animal, Horticulture, Agriculture, and Agricultural Business. Occupational competence is cited as the main goal for these programs in which technical writing is to be practically unified through industry. Course descriptions are also provided.
This annual anthology brings together the year's finest mathematics writing from around the world. Featuring promising new voices alongside some of the foremost names in the field, The Best Writing on Mathematics 2014 makes available to a wide audience many articles not easily found anywhere else-and you don't need to be a mathematician to enjoy them. These writings offer surprising insights into the nature, meaning, and practice of mathematics today. They delve into the history, philosophy, teaching, and everyday occurrences of math, and take readers behind the scenes of today's hottest math
Park, Yeon Ho; Shin, Dae Sun; Lee, Gyeong Ja
This book introduces meanings and kinds of paper, structures and characteristics of paper, preparation of writing paper, writing paper, comments and footnotes, how to collect materials, and list of reference and appendix. It explains composition of chapters and paragraphs and development of contents, how to use library materials, writing draft, usage of quotations and comments, mathematical tables and charts, completing draft, basic principle of footnotes and how to fill up them, survey method, survey design, experimental methods, and real examples of comments and references.
Sikora, W; Bak, K; Klich, R [Politechnika Slaska, Gliwice (Poland). Instytut Mechanizacji Gornictwa
Analyzes motion of the cutter head of the AM-50 heading machine. Two types of head motion are comparatively evaluated: planar motion and spatial motion. The spatial motion consists of the head rotational motion and horizontal or vertical feed motion, while planar motion consists of rotational motion and vertical feed motion. Equations that describe head motion under conditions of cutter vertical or horizontal feed motion are derived. The angle between the cutting speed direction and working speed direction is defined. On the basis of these formulae variations of cutting speed depending on the cutting tool position on a cutter head are calculated. Calculations made for 2 extreme cutting tools show that the cutting speed ranges from 1,205 m/s to 3,512 m/s. 4 refs.
Want to know how to make your pages look beautiful, communicate your message effectively, guide visitors through your website with ease, and get everything approved by the accessibility and usability police at the same time? Head First Web Design is your ticket to mastering all of these complex topics, and understanding what's really going on in the world of web design. Whether you're building a personal blog or a corporate website, there's a lot more to web design than div's and CSS selectors, but what do you really need to know? With this book, you'll learn the secrets of designing effecti
Head First C# is a complete learning experience for object-oriented programming, C#, and the Visual Studio IDE. Built for your brain, this book covers C# 3.0 and Visual Studio 2008, and teaches everything from language fundamentals to advanced topics including garbage collection, extension methods, and double-buffered animation. You'll also master C#'s hottest and newest syntax, LINQ, for querying SQL databases, .NET collections, and XML documents. By the time you're through, you'll be a proficient C# programmer, designing and coding large-scale applications. Every few chapters you will come
You want to learn C# programming, but you're not sure you want to suffer through another tedious technical book. You're in luck: Head First C# introduces this language in a fun, visual way. You'll quickly learn everything from creating your first program to learning sophisticated coding skills with C# 4.0, Visual Studio 2010 and .NET 4, while avoiding common errors that frustrate many students. The second edition offers several hands-on labs along the way to help you build and test programs using skills you've learned up to that point. In the final lab, you'll put everything together. From o
Gardner, Lyza; Grigsby, Jason
Hankinson, M.F.; Leduc, R.J.; Richard, J.W.; Malandra, L.J.
A nuclear reactor is described comprising: a nuclear reactor pressure vessel closure head; control rod drive mechanisms (CRDMs) disposed within the closure head so as to project vertically above the closure head; cooling air baffle means surrounding the control rod drive mechanisms for defining cooling air paths relative to the control rod drive mechanisms; means defined within the periphery of the closure head for accommodating fastening means for securing the closure head to its associated pressure vessel; lifting lugs fixedly secured to the closure head for facilitating lifting and lowering movements of the closure head relative to the pressure vessel; lift rods respectively operatively associated with the plurality of lifting lugs for transmitting load forces, developed during the lifting and lowering movements of the closure head, to the lifting lugs; upstanding radiation shield means interposed between the cooling air baffle means and the periphery of the enclosure head of shielding maintenance personnel operatively working upon the closure head fastening means from the effects of radiation which may emanate from the control rod drive mechanisms and the cooling air baffle means; and connecting systems respectively associated with each one of the lifting lugs and each one of the lifting rods for connecting each one of the lifting rods to a respective one of each one of the lifting lugs, and for simultaneously connecting a lower end portion of the upstanding radiation shield means to each one of the respective lifting lugs
B. Samrajya LAKSHMI
Full Text Available Journal writing and Peer Observation in an educational context have become popular techniques, with several different types of applications. They have now been used quite widely in both language teaching and in teacher training. However, despite its reported advantages in both teaching and research, there are not many Peer Observation and Diary studies available based on the writing of experienced language teachers. The Teacher participants maintain Journal writing and Peer Observation as a means of reflective practice. They consider these practices as a mirror, which reflects the teacher’s own image as a practioner. The post-reflection discussion reveals that the teacher participants believe in reflective practice as an effective means of self-evaluation and of developing sensitivity to students’ learning. This paper examines Peer Observation and journal writing of two teachers working on the same language programme in terms of a variety of topic headings, and suggests that reflective practice can be a useful tool for both classroom research and teachers’ professional development.